Sample records for erbium 152

  1. Real-time synchrotoron radiation X-ray diffraction and abnormal temperature dependence of photoluminescence from erbium silicates on SiO{sub 2}/Si substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Omi, H.; Tawara, T.; Tateishi, M. [NTT Basic Research Laboratories, NTT Corporation, 3-1 Morinosato- Wakamiya, Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-0198 (Japan)

    2012-03-15

    The erbium silicate formation processes during annealing in Ar gas were monitored by synchrotron radiation grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD) in real time and the optical properties of the silicates were investigated by photoluminescence measurements in spectral and time-resolved domains. The GIXD measurements show that erbium silicates and erbium oxide are formed by interface reactions between silicon oxide and erbium oxides deposited on silicon oxide by reactive sputtering in Ar gas and O{sub 2}/Ar mixture gas ambiences. The erbium silicates are formed above 1060 degree sign C in Ar gas ambience and above 1010 degree sign C in O{sub 2}/Ar gas ambience, and erbium silicides are dominantly formed above 1250 degree sign C. The I{sub 15/2}-I{sub 13/2} Er{sup 3+} photoluminescence from the erbium oxide and erbium silicate exhibits abnormal temperature dependence, which can be explained by the phonon-assisted resonant absorption of the 532-nm excitation photons into the {sup 2}H{sub 11/2} levels of Er{sup 3+} ions of the erbium compounds.

  2. Efficiency and tuning of the erbium-doped glass lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fromzel, Victor A.; Kuchma, Igor G.; Lunter, Sergei G.; Mak, Artur A.; Petrov, Aleksey A.

    1992-11-01

    Erbium-doped glass lasers operated near by 1 5 mm wavelength are helpful for medicine and biology optical communication and eye-safe range finder systems. Advances in erbium-doped glass especially phosphate glass and lasers based on it have been extensive in recent years. Nowadays we can approve that erbium glass lasers are not worse compared with the neodymium ones by many spectroscopic and laser properties. Developments of the energy spectral and temporal characteristics and tuning near the 1500 nm wavelength of the erbium - doped phosphate glass lasers are reported. 2. SPECTROSCOPIC PECULIARITIES OF THE ERBIUM DOPED GLASS Phosphate erbium-doped glass possess a number of spectroscopic peculiarities as a laser active medium. Energy level diagrams of Er3 ions and two other its co-doped ions -Yb3 and Cr3 and the actual transitions (radiate and nonradiate) between them are shown in Fig. 1 (a). Absorption spectrum of that phosphate glass is also shown in Fig. 1 (b) . One can see that the whole pum energy is absorbed only by coactivators - Yb Cr - Yb E r and Cr3 - and then quickly and efficiently transferred from them to Er3 ions. Thus ''7 lasing and pumping of the erbium glass are ''4 realized by means of quite different ions. 4 Thanks to that one can get a low laser threshold t1/2 usin a small doping of Er3 ions (about 1019 I3/2 cm ) and the same time have a high efficient 4T pumoing by using the big concentration of ions 15/2 Yb3 and Cr3 in them (1021 cm3 and 1020 b cm3 accordingly). Obstacles for high efficiency of the lasers may be connected with either increase of the back pump energy transfer from Yb3 ions to Cr3 ones by too large concentration of Cr3 ions or thermal distortions of the active medium. Optimal pumping conditions for lamp pumped Er - doped glass laser differ from neodymium ones. It is explained by the important role of pump energy transfer processes in Er - doped glass. In order to have of high efficient pumping it is necessary that energy transfer rates from Yb3 to Er3 - 3+ 3+ WybEr and from Cr to Yb - WCrYb would be a lot of more then pumping rate W p (mainly object to WYbEr W1). It means the need to use pump pulse durations of about 1O - 102 s and more in that lasers. 3. EFFICIENCY AND THERMAL DISTORTIONS IN THE LASERS Efficiency of the lamp pumped Cr - Yb - Er doped phosphate glass oscillator can be up to 3 or some more (slope efficiency is up to 3. 5 ) /1 at free - running operation and storage efficiency of amplifiers based on the glass can be up to 1. 2 / 3 /. It was achieved

  3. The 3 ?m Erbium laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lüthy, W.; Weber, H. P.

    The characteristic properties of flashlamp- and laser excited erbium doped crystal or glass lasers are reviewed. The excitation mechanisms are discussed in detail. In particular it is shown that with moderate pumping inversion in a heavily doped flashlamp-pumped YAG:Er or YAlO 3:Er crystal laser can only be achieved between suitable Stark-sublevels of the 3 ?m laser transition but not between the entire 4I{11}/{2} and 4I{13}/{2} bands.

  4. Erbium doped glasses for optical fiber amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wójcik, Joanna; Dorosz, Dominik

    2008-01-01

    The optical and physical properties of three different glass systems were presented. The obtained glasses were doped with 1,75wt% erbium oxide (Er IIO 3). Transmission and luminescence spectra were measured. Absorption spectra were calculated on the basis of transmission spectra. Classic active optical fiber doped with 1,75wt% erbium oxide was fabricated. Attenuation of fabricated optical fiber was measured.

  5. Spectral gain hole-burning at 1.53 ?m in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Desurvire; J. L. Zyskind; J. R. Simpson

    1990-01-01

    Spectral gain hole-burning at ?0=1.53 ?m was observed in an erbium-doped fiber amplifier at temperatures between 4.2 and 77 K. The hole width was found to broaden with temperature for T ⩾20 K according to a T1.73 law. From the data, the room-temperature homogeneous linewidth associated with the 1.531-?m transition in the 4I13\\/2-4I15\\/2 laser system was determined to be ??h=11.5

  6. Eyesafe diode-pumped erbium lasers

    SciTech Connect

    DeShazer, L.G. [McDonnell Douglas Aerospace, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    1994-12-31

    A pulsed erbium glass laser operated at 1,533 nm using transverse pumping by four 12-bar laser diode subarrays at 932 nm. The laser ran in free-running and Q-switched modes, using both electro-optical and mechanical switches. With a LiNbO{sub 3} Pockels cell Q-switch, the erbium laser achieved 57 mJ energy per pulse, 26 ns pulsewidth and 3 Hz repetition rate.

  7. 20 CFR 655.152 - Advertising requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Advertising requirements. 655.152 Section 655.152 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING...H-2A Workers) Post-Acceptance Requirements § 655.152 Advertising requirements. All...

  8. 7 CFR 58.152 - General identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false General identification. 58.152 Section 58.152 Agriculture...Grading Service 1 Packaging and General Identification § 58.152 General identification. All commercial bulk packages...

  9. 1 CFR 15.2 - Information services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Information services. 15.2 Section 15.2 General...TRANSMITTAL, AND PROCESSING OF DOCUMENTS SERVICES TO FEDERAL AGENCIES General § 15.2 Information services. The Director of the...

  10. Erbium-doped aluminophosphosilicate optical fibres

    SciTech Connect

    Likhachev, M E; Bubnov, M M; Zotov, K V; Medvedkov, O I [Fiber Optics Research Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Lipatov, D S; Yashkov, M V; Gur'yanov, Aleksei N [Institute of Chemistry of High-Purity Substances, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhnii Novgorod (Russian Federation)

    2010-09-10

    We have studied the active properties of erbium-doped aluminophosphosilicate (APS) core fibres in wide ranges of erbia, alumina and phosphorus pentoxide concentrations. The absorption and luminescence spectra of the P{sub 2}O{sub 5}- or Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-enriched erbium-doped APS fibres are shown to be similar to those of the erbium-doped fibres singly doped with phosphorus pentoxide or alumina, respectively. The formation of AlPO{sub 4} in APS fibres leads not only to a reduction in the refractive index of the glass but also to a marked increase in Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} solubility in silica. (optical fibres)

  11. 2010. 1. 28 152 Addressing

    E-print Network

    2010. 1. 28 152 Addressing Routing *** 1. 1) , Internet 1 (ICT-Information and Communication Tech- nology) . Internet (core protocol), addressing routing [18]. addressing routing . core protocol ARPAnet addressing (transport) Network Control Program

  12. Infrared spectroscopy and upconversion luminescence behaviour of erbium doped yttrium (III) oxide phosphor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubey, Vikas; Tiwari, Ratnesh; Tamrakar, Raunak Kumar; Rathore, Gajendra Singh; Sharma, Chitrakant; Tiwari, Neha

    2014-11-01

    The paper reports upconversion luminescence behaviour and infra-red spectroscopic pattern of erbium doped yttrium (III) oxide phosphor. Sample was synthesized by solid state reaction method with variable concentration or erbium (0.5-2.5 mol%). The conventional solid state method is suitable for large scale production and eco-friendly method. The prepared sample was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. From structural analysis by XRD technique shows cubic structure of prepared sample with variable concentration of erbium and no impurity phase were found when increase the concentration of Er3+. Particle size was calculated by Scherer's formula and it varies from 67 nm to 120 nm. The surface morphology of prepared phosphor was determined by field emission gun scanning electron microscopy (FEGSEM) technique. The surface morphology of the sample shows good connectivity with grains as well as some agglomerates formation occurs in sample. The functional group analysis was done by Fourier transform infra-red technique (FTIR) analysis which confirm the formation of Y2O3:Er3+ phosphor was prepared. The results indicated that the Y2O3:Er3+ phosphors might have high upconversion efficiency because of their low vibrational energy. Under 980 nm laser excitation sample shows intense green emission at 555 nm and orange emission at 590 nm wavelength. For green emission transition occurs 2H11/2 ? 4I15/2, 4S3/2 ? 4I15/2 for upconversion emissions. Excited state absorption and energy transfer process were discussed as possible upconversion mechanisms. The near infrared luminescence spectra was recorded. The upconversion luminescence intensity increase with increasing the concentration or erbium up to 2 mol% after that luminescence intensity decreases due to concentration quenching occurs. Spectrophotometric determinations of peaks are evaluated by Commission Internationale de I'Eclairage (CIE) technique. From CIE technique the dominant peak of from PL spectra shows intense green emission so the prepared phosphor is may be useful for green light emitting diode (GLED) application.

  13. On the Electroluminescence of Erbium Doped Silicon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jorg Palm; Fanqui Gan; Jurgen Michel; Lionel C. Kimerling

    1996-01-01

    Recombination processes in rare-earth metals in semiconductors are a special case due to the localized nature of f electrons. Our work explores in detail the radiative and nonradiative mechanisms of energy transfer for erbium in silicon by investigating the temperature dependence of the intensity and the decay time of the photoluminescence of Er-related centers in Si. We show that nonradiative

  14. Anisotropic optical trapping of ultracold erbium atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dulieu, Olivier; Lepers, Maxence; Wyart, Jean-Francois

    2014-05-01

    We calculate the complex dynamic dipole polarizability of ground-state erbium, a rare-earth atom that was recently Bose-condensed. This quantity determines the trapping conditions of cold atoms in an optical trap. The polarizability is calculated with the sum-over-state formula inherent to second-order perturbation theory. The summation is performed on transition energies and transition dipole moments from ground-state erbium, which are computed using the Racah-Slater least-square fitting procedure provided by the Cowan codes. This allows us to predict several yet unobserved energy levels in the range 25000-31000 cm-1 above the ground state. Regarding the trapping potential, we find that ground-state erbium essentially behaves like a spherically-symmetric atom, in spite of its large electronic angular momentum. We find a mostly isotropic van der Waals interaction between two ground-state erbium atoms, with a coefficient C6iso= 1760 a.u.. On the contrary, the photon-scattering rate is strongly anisotropic with respect to the polarization of the trapping light. also at LERMA, UMR8112, Observatoire de Paris-Meudon, Univ. Pierre et Marie Curie, Meudon, France.

  15. Photorefractive bright soliton in erbium doped lithium niobate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pettazzi, Federico; Lehau, Grigore; Alonzo, Massimo; Sada, Cinzia; Bazzan, Marco; Argiolas, Nicola; Mazzoldi, Paolo; Chauvet, Mathieu; Vlad, Valentin I.; Petris, Adrian; Fazio, Eugenio

    2006-04-01

    We present the first investigation of bright screening soliton formation in Erbium doped lithium niobate grown by the Czochrlaski technique (0.7% mol.). We analyse the formation of two-dimensional spatial soliton and study its long term stability. Measurements of photovoltaic current show that presence of erbium in the lattice cause an increase of the current density. Both dynamic of soliton formation and photovoltaic measurements indicates a lower N A content in erbium doped samples compared to undoped samples.

  16. Spectral gain hole-burning at 1. 53. mu. m in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Desurvire, E.; Zyskind, J.L. (AT and T Bell Laboratories, Crawford Hill Lab., Holmdel, NJ (US)); Simpson, J.R. (AT and T Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, NJ (US))

    1990-04-01

    Spectral gain hole-burning at {lambda}{sub 0} = 1.53 {mu}m was observed in an erbium-doped fiber amplifier at temperatures between 4.2 and 77 K. The hole width was found to broaden with temperature for {ital T} {<=} 20 K according to a {ital T}{sup 1.73} law. From the data, the room-temperature homogeneous linewidth, associated with the 1.531 {mu}m transition in the {sup 4}{ital I}{sub 13/2}--{sup 4}{ital I}{sub 15/2} laser system, is evaluated to be {Delta}{lambda}{sub {ital h}} = 11.5 nm for aluminosilicate fibers.

  17. 47 CFR 25.152 - Dismissal and return of applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...applications. 25.152 Section 25.152 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Applications and Licenses Processing of Applications § 25.152...

  18. Third-order elastic constants of erbium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiles, D. C.; Palmer, S. B.

    1981-02-01

    The third-order elastic constants (TOEC) of single-crystal erbium have been determined from measurements of selected uniaxial and hydrostatic pressure derivatives of the second-order elastic constants (SOEC). The changes in SOEC were measured using an ultrasonic sing around system capable of resolution of ±2 parts in 106 for changes in acoustic velocity. Values for the TOEC are in fair agreement with the theoretical calculations of other workers.

  19. Third-order elastic constants of erbium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. C. Jiles; S. B. Palmer

    1981-01-01

    The third-order elastic constants (TOEC) of single-crystal erbium have been determined from measurements of selected uniaxial and hydrostatic pressure derivatives of the second-order elastic constants (SOEC). The changes in SOEC were measured using an ultrasonic sing around system capable of resolution of ±2 parts in 106 for changes in acoustic velocity. Values for the TOEC are in fair agreement with

  20. 14 CFR 152.605 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Definitions. 152.605 Section... AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Energy Conservation in Airport Aid Program § 152.605 Definitions. As used in this subpart...construction cost. Energy assessment means...

  1. 14 CFR 152.605 - Definitions.

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    ...2014-01-01 false Definitions. 152.605 Section... AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Energy Conservation in Airport Aid Program § 152.605 Definitions. As used in this subpart...construction cost. Energy assessment means...

  2. 14 CFR 152.605 - Definitions.

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    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Definitions. 152.605 Section... AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Energy Conservation in Airport Aid Program § 152.605 Definitions. As used in this subpart...construction cost. Energy assessment means...

  3. 14 CFR 152.605 - Definitions.

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    ...2011-01-01 false Definitions. 152.605 Section... AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Energy Conservation in Airport Aid Program § 152.605 Definitions. As used in this subpart...construction cost. Energy assessment means...

  4. 14 CFR 152.605 - Definitions.

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    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Definitions. 152.605 Section... AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Energy Conservation in Airport Aid Program § 152.605 Definitions. As used in this subpart...construction cost. Energy assessment means...

  5. 41 CFR 128-1.152 - Citation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Citation. 128-1.152 Section 128-1.152 Public Contracts...1-INTRODUCTION 1.1-Regulation System § 128-1.152 Citation. The JPMR will be cited in accordance with the Federal...

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    ...Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Citation. 128-1.152 Section 128-1.152 Public Contracts...1-INTRODUCTION 1.1-Regulation System § 128-1.152 Citation. The JPMR will be cited in accordance with the Federal...

  7. 41 CFR 128-1.152 - Citation.

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    2013-07-01

    ...Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Citation. 128-1.152 Section 128-1.152 Public Contracts...1-INTRODUCTION 1.1-Regulation System § 128-1.152 Citation. The JPMR will be cited in accordance with the Federal...

  8. 41 CFR 128-1.152 - Citation.

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    2011-01-01

    ...Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Citation. 128-1.152 Section 128-1.152 Public Contracts...1-INTRODUCTION 1.1-Regulation System § 128-1.152 Citation. The JPMR will be cited in accordance with the Federal...

  9. 41 CFR 128-1.152 - Citation.

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    2010-07-01

    ...Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Citation. 128-1.152 Section 128-1.152 Public Contracts...1-INTRODUCTION 1.1-Regulation System § 128-1.152 Citation. The JPMR will be cited in accordance with the Federal...

  10. Design for a single mode erbium-doped fiber laser 

    E-print Network

    Wang, Jon-En

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this research was to design and fabricate a single-mode, narrow-linewidth linear erbium-doped fiber laser using a solid etalon for mode selection. This thesis describes the design of the linear laser which uses erbium-doped fiber...

  11. Pressure sensing utilizing linear cavity erbium-doped fiber laser

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. M. Idris; F. Abdullah; M. H. Al-Mansoori; M. Z. Jamaludin; N. M. Din

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we report a fiber laser pressure sensor based on linear cavity erbium-doped fiber laser. The fiber laser structure comprises of an erbium-doped fiber amplifier, a circulator, an optical coupler and a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) which acts simultaneously as a lasing wavelength selecting components as well as a pressure sensor. The FBG is fitted to the shock

  12. Effect of AgCl on spectroscopic properties of erbium doped zinc tellurite glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reza Dousti, M.; Sahar, M. R.; Ghoshal, S. K.; Amjad, Raja J.; Samavati, A. R.

    2013-03-01

    The Er3+ doped zinc tellurite glass containing Ag nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized from high purity raw materials by melt quenching method and the influence of Ag NPs on the spectroscopic properties were investigated. The glasses are characterized using DTA, EDX, TEM, FTIR, UV-Vis-NIR and photoluminescence (PL) techniques. The DTA data reveal that the addition of silver chloride increased the thermal stability from 0.52 to 0.67 for samples without and with 2 mol% AgCl respectively. The sharp peaks in EDX spectra show the presence of Ag nanocrystallites. The TEM micrograph shows the distribution of NPs is Gaussian and the average size is estimated ˜10 nm. Seven absorption bands of erbium were evidenced in the UV-Vis-NIR measurements. Optical band gap and density were found to decrease with addition of AgCl concentration, while molar volume increased. The PL spectra exhibit four peaks corresponding to 2H11/2 ? 4I15/2, 4S3/2 ? 4I15/2, 4F9/2 ? 4I15/2 and 4S3/2 ? 4I13/2 transitions. An enhancement in the order of six times for 2 mol% of dopant and a subsequent quench in luminescence spectra of co-doped zinc tellurite glasses were observed. Such enhancements were attributed to silver nanoparticles with average size of 10 nm and absorption band centered at 552 nm. The studied glasses provide enormous scope to achieve the materials suitable for nanophotonics, solid state lasers and color displays.

  13. Microstructural Features in Aged Erbium Tritide Foils

    SciTech Connect

    Gelles, David S.; Brewer, L. N.; Kotula, Paul G.; Cowgill, Donald F.; Busick, C. C.; Snow, C. S.

    2008-01-01

    Aged erbium tritide foil specimens are found to contain five distinctly different microstructural features. The general structure was of large columnar grains of ErT2. But on a fine scale, precipitates believed to be erbium oxy-tritides and helium bubbles could be identified. The precipitate size was in the range of ~10 nm and the bubbles were of an unusual planar shape on {111} planes with an invariant thickness of ~1 nm and a diameter on the order of 10 nm. Also, an outer layer containing no fine precipitate structure and only a few helium bubbles was present on foils. This layer is best described as a denuded zone which probably grew during aging in air. Finally, large embedded Er2O3 particles were found at low density and non-uniformly distributed, but sometimes extending through the thickness of the foil. A failure mechanism allowing the helium to escape is suggested by observed cracking between bubbles closer to end of life.

  14. The photoluminescence mechanism of erbium in silicon: intensity dependence on excitation power and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thao, D. T. X.; Ammerlaan, C. A. J.; Gregorkiewicz, T.

    1999-12-01

    The photoluminescence intensity of erbium in silicon was measured as a function of laser excitation power and temperature. Results of these measurements are described on the basis of a physical model which includes the formation of free excitons, the binding of excitons to erbium ions, excitation of 4f-shell electrons of erbium ions and decay of excited erbium ions by light emission. An Auger energy transfer to free carriers by both erbium-bound excitons and excited erbium ions must be included in the model in order to obtain a quantitative agreement with experiment. From the temperature dependence two activation energies are derived, which are associated with the binding of excitons to erbium centers and with an energy transfer process from excited erbium ions back to erbium-bound excitons, respectively. The luminescence properties of the different types of Er-doped crystalline silicon are remarkably similar.

  15. 14 CFR 152.9 - Forms.

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    2014-01-01

    ...Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM General § 152.9 Forms. ...at any FAA Regional Office or Airports District...

  16. 14 CFR 152.9 - Forms.

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  17. 14 CFR 152.9 - Forms.

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  18. 14 CFR 152.1 - Applicability.

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    2010-01-01

    ...Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM General § 152.1 Applicability. This part applies to airport planning and development...

  19. 14 CFR 152.1 - Applicability.

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  20. 14 CFR 152.9 - Forms.

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  1. 14 CFR 152.9 - Forms.

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    ...Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM General § 152.9 Forms. ...at any FAA Regional Office or Airports District...

  2. 14 CFR 152.1 - Applicability.

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  3. 14 CFR 152.1 - Applicability.

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    ...Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM General § 152.1 Applicability. This part applies to airport planning and development...

  4. 14 CFR 152.1 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM General § 152.1 Applicability. This part applies to airport planning and development...

  5. Hybrid Erbium-Doped Fiber for Gain Flattened Operation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anders Bjarklev

    1997-01-01

    A new hybrid erbium-doped-fiber design is proposed for amplifiers with flattened gain spectra. The design prescribes different parts of the erbium-doped fiber core to be codoped with different materials. Due to specific relations between the codopant material and their emission and absorption spectra, the hybrid-fiber design makes use of opposite gain tilts to cancel out each other. Numerical results indicate

  6. Polarized luminescence of erbium and thulium ions in glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rokhmin, Alexey; Aseev, Vladimir; Nikonorov, Nikolay

    2015-03-01

    The partially polarized luminescence of erbium- and thulium-doped glasses exited by the linearly polarized laser radiation was observed. The dependence of the polarization degree on the RE ions concentration and on the glass matrix composition were investigated. For erbium- and thulium-doped glasses, the maximum polarization degree was shown to reach ?0.1% and ?1%, respectively. The polarized luminescence properties of RE-doped glasses were explained based on the model of an optical oscillator.

  7. Output power characteristics of erbium-doped fiber ring lasers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Pfeiffer; H. Schmuck; H. Bulow

    1992-01-01

    The output power of an erbium-doped fiber ring laser has been measured as a function of pump power, emission wavelength, doped-fiber length, and reflectivity of the output coupler. A theoretical model for the calculation of the output power is introduced that is based on a previously derived gain equation for erbium-doped fiber amplifiers. The calculated values are in good agreement

  8. Erbium luminescence in sol–gel derived oxide glass films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. V Gaponenko; A. V Mudryi; O. V Sergeev; V. E Borisenko; E. A Stepanova; A. S Baran; A. I Rat’ko; J. C Pivin; J. F McGilp

    1998-01-01

    Sol–gel derived Al2O3, SiO2, TiO2 and In2O3 films, containing about 10 wt.% Er2O3 have been fabricated and the erbium PL (photoluminescence) in the region of 1.53 ?m has been investigated. In contrast to erbium implanted films, a strong influence of host matrix local environment on the electronic structure of Er ions was observed in the Er PL. The dependence of

  9. Erbium-doped waveguide amplifier for reconfigurable WDM metro networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Ennser; G. Della Valle; M. Ibsen; J. Shmulovich; S. Taccheo

    2005-01-01

    Transient dynamic due to signal power fluctuations is the main impairment in reconfigurable transparent wavelength-division-multiplexing metro networks design. In this letter, we demonstrate an optical-gain-clamped erbium-doped waveguide amplifier using fiber Bragg grating filters. We show both theoretically and experimentally that it is virtually insensitive to signal transient and that it reduces overshoot by 10 dB compared to standard erbium-doped fiber

  10. Pressure sensing utilizing linear cavity erbium-doped fiber laser

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. M. Idris; F. Abdullah; M. H. Al-Mansoori; M. Z. Jamaludin; N. M. Din

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we report a fiber laser pressure sensor based on linear cavity erbium-doped fiber laser. The fiber laser structure\\u000a comprises of an erbium-doped fiber amplifier, a circulator, an optical coupler and a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) which acts\\u000a simultaneously as a lasing wavelength selecting components as well as a pressure sensor. The FBG is fitted to the shock

  11. OCEAN DRILLING PROGRAM LEG 152 SCIENTIFIC PROSPECTUS

    E-print Network

    OCEAN DRILLING PROGRAM LEG 152 SCIENTIFIC PROSPECTUS EAST GREENLAND MARGIN Dr. Hans Christian Denmark Leicester LE1 7RH United Kingdom Dr. Peter Clift Staff Scientist, Leg 152 Ocean Drilling Program purposes; however, republication of any portion requires the written consent of the Director, Ocean

  12. 14 CFR 152.117 - Public hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Public hearings. 152.117...Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...Procedures § 152.117 Public hearings. ...Order 1050.1C, “Policies and Procedures for Considering...for examination by the public for a minimum of...

  13. 14 CFR 152.117 - Public hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Public hearings. 152.117...Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...Procedures § 152.117 Public hearings. ...Order 1050.1C, “Policies and Procedures for Considering...for examination by the public for a minimum of...

  14. 14 CFR 152.117 - Public hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Public hearings. 152.117...Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...Procedures § 152.117 Public hearings. ...Order 1050.1C, “Policies and Procedures for Considering...for examination by the public for a minimum of...

  15. Luminescence of erbium ions in tellurite glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savikin, Alexander P.; Grishin, Igor A.; Sharkov, Valery V.; Budruev, Andrei V.

    2013-11-01

    Optical characteristics of new generation of tellurite glasses having high stability against crystallization have been studied. As the initial reagents for the glasses synthesis on the base of tellurium oxide (TeO2) there were used such oxides as WO3, MoO3, La2O3, Li2CO3, ZnO—Bi2O2CO3 and active components such as high purity Er2O3, Yb2O3, ErF3 and YbF3. Intensities of luminescence at 1.53 µm of the erbium ions were determined after excitation at 975 nm. Experimental data obtained have shown the possibility to use the studied glasses doped by Er3+ and Yb3+ as active elements for fiber and integrated optics.

  16. Quantifying and controlling the magnetic dipole contribution to 1.5-?m light emission in erbium-doped yttrium oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dongfang; Jiang, Mingming; Cueff, Sébastien; Dodson, Christopher M.; Karaveli, Sinan; Zia, Rashid

    2014-04-01

    We experimentally quantify the contribution of magnetic dipole (MD) transitions to the near-infrared light emission from trivalent erbium-doped yttrium oxide (Er3+:Y2O3). Using energy-momentum spectroscopy, we demonstrate that the 4I13/2?4I15/2 emission near 1.5 ?m originates from nearly equal contributions of electric dipole (ED) and MD transitions that exhibit distinct emission spectra. We then show how these distinct spectra, together with the differing local density of optical states for ED and MD transitions, can be leveraged to control Er3+ emission in structured environments. We demonstrate that far-field emission spectra can be tuned to resemble almost pure emission from either ED or MD transitions and show that the observed spectral modifications can be accurately predicted from the measured ED and MD intrinsic emission rates.

  17. 14 CFR 152.609 - Energy conservation practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Energy conservation practices. 152.609 Section 152...AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Energy Conservation in Airport Aid Program § 152.609 Energy conservation practices. Each sponsor shall...

  18. 14 CFR 152.609 - Energy conservation practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Energy conservation practices. 152.609 Section 152...AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Energy Conservation in Airport Aid Program § 152.609 Energy conservation practices. Each sponsor shall...

  19. 14 CFR 152.609 - Energy conservation practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Energy conservation practices. 152.609 Section 152...AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Energy Conservation in Airport Aid Program § 152.609 Energy conservation practices. Each sponsor shall...

  20. 14 CFR 152.609 - Energy conservation practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Energy conservation practices. 152.609 Section 152...AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Energy Conservation in Airport Aid Program § 152.609 Energy conservation practices. Each sponsor shall...

  1. 14 CFR 152.609 - Energy conservation practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Energy conservation practices. 152.609 Section 152...AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Energy Conservation in Airport Aid Program § 152.609 Energy conservation practices. Each sponsor shall...

  2. 28 CFR 115.152-115.153 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...115.152-115.153 Section 115.152-115.153 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Lockups Reporting §§ 115.152-115.153...

  3. 14 CFR 152.203 - Allowable project costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Allowable project costs. 152.203 Section 152.203 Aeronautics...AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Funding of Approved Projects § 152.203 Allowable project costs. (a) Airport development. To...

  4. 14 CFR 152.203 - Allowable project costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Allowable project costs. 152.203 Section 152.203 Aeronautics...AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Funding of Approved Projects § 152.203 Allowable project costs. (a) Airport development. To...

  5. 14 CFR 152.203 - Allowable project costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Allowable project costs. 152.203 Section 152.203 Aeronautics...AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Funding of Approved Projects § 152.203 Allowable project costs. (a) Airport development. To...

  6. 7 CFR 4280.152 - Servicing guaranteed loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Servicing guaranteed loans. 4280.152 Section 4280.152 Agriculture...UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS AND GRANTS Renewable Energy Systems...Improvements Program Section B. Guaranteed Loans § 4280.152 Servicing guaranteed...

  7. 30 CFR 1206.152 - Valuation standards-unprocessed gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Valuation standards-unprocessed gas. 1206.152 Section 1206.152 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE...REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Gas § 1206.152 Valuation...

  8. 30 CFR 1206.152 - Valuation standards-unprocessed gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Valuation standards-unprocessed gas. 1206.152 Section 1206.152 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE...REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Gas § 1206.152 Valuation...

  9. 30 CFR 1206.152 - Valuation standards-unprocessed gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Valuation standards-unprocessed gas. 1206.152 Section 1206.152 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE...REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Gas § 1206.152 Valuation...

  10. 40 CFR 152.96 - Documentation of a data gap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Documentation of a data gap. 152.96 Section 152.96 Protection...PROCEDURES Procedures To Ensure Protection of Data Submitters' Rights § 152.96 Documentation of a data gap. Except as provided in...

  11. 40 CFR 152.96 - Documentation of a data gap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Documentation of a data gap. 152.96 Section 152.96 Protection...PROCEDURES Procedures To Ensure Protection of Data Submitters' Rights § 152.96 Documentation of a data gap. Except as provided in...

  12. 40 CFR 152.96 - Claim of data gap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Claim of data gap. 152.96 Section 152.96 Protection...AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Satisfaction of Data Requirements and Protection of Data Submitters' Rights § 152.96 Claim of...

  13. 40 CFR 152.96 - Documentation of a data gap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Documentation of a data gap. 152.96 Section 152.96 Protection...PROCEDURES Procedures To Ensure Protection of Data Submitters' Rights § 152.96 Documentation of a data gap. Except as provided in...

  14. 14 CFR 152.203 - Allowable project costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Allowable project costs. 152.203 Section 152.203 Aeronautics...AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Funding of Approved Projects § 152.203 Allowable project costs. (a) Airport development. To...

  15. 14 CFR 152.203 - Allowable project costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allowable project costs. 152.203 Section 152.203 Aeronautics...AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Funding of Approved Projects § 152.203 Allowable project costs. (a) Airport development. To...

  16. 14 CFR 152.407 - Affirmative action plan: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...action plan: General. 152... FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Nondiscrimination in Airport Aid Program § 152...action plan: General. ...employees in its aviation...

  17. 14 CFR 152.407 - Affirmative action plan: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...action plan: General. 152... FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Nondiscrimination in Airport Aid Program § 152...action plan: General. ...employees in its aviation...

  18. 14 CFR 152.407 - Affirmative action plan: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...action plan: General. 152... FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Nondiscrimination in Airport Aid Program § 152...action plan: General. ...employees in its aviation...

  19. 14 CFR 152.407 - Affirmative action plan: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...action plan: General. 152... FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Nondiscrimination in Airport Aid Program § 152...action plan: General. ...employees in its aviation...

  20. 14 CFR 152.407 - Affirmative action plan: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...action plan: General. 152... FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Nondiscrimination in Airport Aid Program § 152...action plan: General. ...employees in its aviation...

  1. Near-infrared thermal lens spectrometer based on an erbium-doped fiber amplifier and

    E-print Network

    Reid, Scott A.

    Near-infrared thermal lens spectrometer based on an erbium-doped fiber amplifier and an acousto light from 1515 to 1590 nm was provided by an erbium-doped fiber amplifier EDFA . An acousto lens, acousto-optic tunable filter, erbium doped fiber amplifier, nucleotides. 1. Introduction Tran

  2. Negative nonlinear absorption effect in glasses containing a large amount of erbium oxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hidekazu Hashima; Akio Konishi; Hajimu Wakabayashi; Toshikazu Yamada; Yoshinobu Maeda

    1999-01-01

    Compositions which vitrify by means of a conventional glass melting method, containing a large amount of erbium ion were investigated in aluminosilicate, phosphate, borate, borosilicate, telluride and fluoride systems. As a result of melting test, we obtain some glasses which contain higher than 20 mol% erbium. In transparent materials containing erbium an anomalous optical absorption phenomena have been reported by

  3. Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 152

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, M.J.

    2013-11-15

    Detailed level schemes, decay schemes, and the experimental data on which they are based are presented for all nuclei with mass number A=152. The experimental data are evaluated; inconsistencies and discrepancies are noted; and adopted values for level and ?–ray energies, ? intensities, as well as for other nuclear properties are given. This evaluation replaces the A=152 evaluation published by Agda Artna–Cohen in Nuclear Data Sheets 79, 1 (1996) and the evaluation for 152Dy prepared by Balraj Singh and published in Nuclear Data Sheets 95, 995 (2002)

  4. 10 CFR 600.152 - Financial reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Requirements § 600.152 Financial reporting. (a) The...are authorized for obtaining financial information from recipients...SF-269 or SF-269A, Financial Status Report. (i...except that DOE has the option of not requiring...

  5. 10 CFR 600.152 - Financial reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Requirements § 600.152 Financial reporting. (a) The...are authorized for obtaining financial information from recipients...SF-269 or SF-269A, Financial Status Report. (i...except that DOE has the option of not requiring...

  6. 10 CFR 600.152 - Financial reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Requirements § 600.152 Financial reporting. (a) The...are authorized for obtaining financial information from recipients...SF-269 or SF-269A, Financial Status Report. (i...except that DOE has the option of not requiring...

  7. 10 CFR 600.152 - Financial reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Requirements § 600.152 Financial reporting. (a) The...are authorized for obtaining financial information from recipients...SF-269 or SF-269A, Financial Status Report. (i...except that DOE has the option of not requiring...

  8. 10 CFR 600.152 - Financial reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Requirements § 600.152 Financial reporting. (a) The...are authorized for obtaining financial information from recipients...SF-269 or SF-269A, Financial Status Report. (i...except that DOE has the option of not requiring...

  9. 15 CFR 930.152 - Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT FEDERAL CONSISTENCY WITH APPROVED COASTAL MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS Consistency...Having Interstate Coastal Effects § 930.152 Application...having interstate coastal effects. (b) Federal consistency...federally-approved management program,...

  10. 7 CFR 58.152 - General identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General identification. 58.152 Section...CONTINUED) GRADING AND INSPECTION, GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS FOR APPROVED PLANTS AND STANDARDS FOR GRADES OF DAIRY PRODUCTS 1 General Specifications for Dairy Plants...

  11. 44 CFR 152.9 - Reconsideration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...HOMELAND SECURITY FIRE PREVENTION AND CONTROL ASSISTANCE TO FIREFIGHTERS GRANT PROGRAM § 152.9 Reconsideration. (a) Reconsideration...Administrator, Grant Programs Directorate, Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program, FEMA, 800 K Street, NW., South...

  12. 44 CFR 152.9 - Reconsideration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...HOMELAND SECURITY FIRE PREVENTION AND CONTROL ASSISTANCE TO FIREFIGHTERS GRANT PROGRAM § 152.9 Reconsideration. (a) Reconsideration...Administrator, Grant Programs Directorate, Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program, FEMA, 800 K Street, NW., South...

  13. 44 CFR 152.9 - Reconsideration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...HOMELAND SECURITY FIRE PREVENTION AND CONTROL ASSISTANCE TO FIREFIGHTERS GRANT PROGRAM § 152.9 Reconsideration. (a) Reconsideration...Administrator, Grant Programs Directorate, Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program, FEMA, 800 K Street, NW., South...

  14. 50 CFR 20.152 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Special Procedures for Issuance of Annual Hunting Regulations § 20.152 Definitions. As used in this subpart N: (a) Flyway...

  15. 14 CFR 152.5 - Exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM General § 152.5 Exemptions...Regional Office or Airports District Office having...1104 of the Federal Aviation Act of 1958...

  16. 14 CFR 152.5 - Exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM General § 152.5 Exemptions...Regional Office or Airports District Office having...1104 of the Federal Aviation Act of 1958...

  17. 14 CFR 152.5 - Exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM General § 152.5 Exemptions...Regional Office or Airports District Office having...1104 of the Federal Aviation Act of 1958...

  18. 14 CFR 152.5 - Exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM General § 152.5 Exemptions...Regional Office or Airports District Office having...1104 of the Federal Aviation Act of 1958...

  19. 14 CFR 152.5 - Exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM General § 152.5 Exemptions...Regional Office or Airports District Office having...1104 of the Federal Aviation Act of 1958...

  20. 24 CFR 982.152 - Administrative fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...PROGRAM Annual Contributions Contract and PHA Administration of Program § 982.152...HUD may approve administrative fees to the PHA for any of the following purposes: ...necessary additional expenses incurred by the PHA to provide reasonable accommodation...

  1. 24 CFR 982.152 - Administrative fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...PROGRAM Annual Contributions Contract and PHA Administration of Program § 982.152...HUD may approve administrative fees to the PHA for any of the following purposes: ...necessary additional expenses incurred by the PHA to provide reasonable accommodation...

  2. 24 CFR 982.152 - Administrative fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...PROGRAM Annual Contributions Contract and PHA Administration of Program § 982.152...HUD may approve administrative fees to the PHA for any of the following purposes: ...necessary additional expenses incurred by the PHA to provide reasonable accommodation...

  3. 24 CFR 982.152 - Administrative fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...PROGRAM Annual Contributions Contract and PHA Administration of Program § 982.152...HUD may approve administrative fees to the PHA for any of the following purposes: ...necessary additional expenses incurred by the PHA to provide reasonable accommodation...

  4. 24 CFR 982.152 - Administrative fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...PROGRAM Annual Contributions Contract and PHA Administration of Program § 982.152...HUD may approve administrative fees to the PHA for any of the following purposes: ...necessary additional expenses incurred by the PHA to provide reasonable accommodation...

  5. Erbium concentration dependent absorbance in tellurite glass

    SciTech Connect

    Sazali, E. S., E-mail: mdsupar@utm; Rohani, M. S., E-mail: mdsupar@utm; Sahar, M. R., E-mail: mdsupar@utm; Arifin, R., E-mail: mdsupar@utm; Ghoshal, S. K., E-mail: mdsupar@utm; Hamzah, K., E-mail: mdsupar@utm [Advanced Optical Material Research Group, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310, Skudai, Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia)

    2014-09-25

    Enhancing the optical absorption cross-section in topically important rare earth doped tellurite glasses is challenging for photonic devices. Controlled synthesis and detailed characterizations of the optical properties of these glasses are important for the optimization. The influence of varying concentration of Er{sup 3+} ions on the absorbance characteristics of lead tellurite glasses synthesized via melt-quenching technique are investigated. The UV-Vis absorption spectra exhibits six prominent peaks centered at 490, 526, 652, 800, 982 and 1520 nm ascribed to the transitions in erbium ion from the ground state to the excited states {sup 4}F{sub 7/2}, {sup 2}H{sub 11/2}, {sup 4}F{sub 9/2}, {sup 4}I{sub 9/2}, {sup 2}H{sub 11/2} and {sup 4}I{sub 13/2}, respectively. The results are analyzed by means of optical band gap E{sub g} and Urbach energy E{sub u}. The values of the energy band gap are found decreased from 2.82 to 2.51 eV and the Urbach energy increased from 0.15 to 0.24 eV with the increase of the Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentration from 0 to 1.5 mol%. The excellent absorbance of the prepared tellurite glasses makes them suitable for fabricating solid state lasers.

  6. Activation of erbium films for hydrogen storage

    SciTech Connect

    Brumbach, Michael T.; Ohlhausen, James A. [Materials Characterization Department, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Zavadil, Kevin R. [Materials Reliability Department, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Snow, Clark S. [Applied Science and Technology Maturation Department, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Woicik, Joseph C. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States)

    2011-06-01

    Hydriding of metals can be routinely performed at high temperature in a rich hydrogen atmosphere. Prior to the hydrogen loading process, a thermal activation procedure is required to promote facile hydrogen sorption into the metal. Despite the wide spread utilization of this activation procedure, little is known about the chemical and electronic changes that occur during activation and how this thermal pretreatment leads to increased rates of hydrogen uptake. This study utilized variable kinetic energy X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to interrogate the changes during in situ thermal annealing of erbium films, with results confirmed by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and low energy ion scattering. Activation can be identified by a large increase in photoemission between the valence band edge and the Fermi level and appears to occur over a two stage process. The first stage involves desorption of contaminants and recrystallization of the oxide, initially impeding hydrogen loading. Further heating overcomes the first stage and leads to degradation of the passive surface oxide leading to a bulk film more accessible for hydrogen loading.

  7. Self-confined beams in erbium-doped lithium niobate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonzo, M.; Pettazzi, F.; Bazzan, M.; Argiolas, N.; Ciampolillo, M. V.; Heidari Batheni, S.; Sada, C.; Wolfersberger, D.; Petris, A.; Vlad, V. I.; Fazio, E.

    2010-01-01

    We experimentally investigate the formation of self-confined beams in lithium niobate crystals which are doped in the bulk with erbium. Samples have been grown by the Czochralski method with erbium nominal concentrations varying in the range 0.0-0.7 mol% in the melt. The speeds of beam confinement depend on the applied bias and on the beam intensity, as expected, but on the doping level as well. The erbium incorporation influences both the electro-optic coefficient and the photovoltaic field. A very general dependence of the confined beam waist on the refractive index change was experimentally derived, valid now for every lithium niobate crystal, independent on its growing procedure or doping.

  8. Correlating structure and photophysics in erbium-doped silicon nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffer, Jeffrey L.; Senter, Robert A.; Ji, Junmin

    2002-11-01

    Silicon's position as the semiconductor of choice in micro/nanoelectronics hinges on its ability to shift to new design paradigms such as opto-electronics. Strategies to produce silicon-based light emitters remain limited, however, relying either on quantum confinement effects or optically-active dopants. We are actively studying the effects of incorporating optically-active Erbium centers into discrete crystalline Si nanocrystals. Such nanocrystals have been prepared via the pyrolysis of disilanein the presence of a suitable Er source. Two rather different types of doped materials have been synthesized to date: one involving a random distribution of erbium centers throughout the nanocrystal; the other forces erbium into a location preferentially-enriched near the surface. This work entails the structural characterization of such materials and their photophysical properties, including spectroscopic measurements under the conditions of high pressure.

  9. Photoluminescence and polariton dispersion in erbium nitrate hydrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorelik, V. S.; Burdanova, M. G.

    2014-12-01

    The photoluminescence spectrum of erbium nitrate hydrate is analyzed. The dispersion dependencies of polaritonic waves in erbium nitrate hydrate are established by means of a model of the interaction between electromagnetic waves and resonance electronic states of Er3+ ions. The positions of unitary polaritons, for which the refraction index is unity, are established. Velocity and effective mass of unitary polaritons are calculated. Our research allows construction of a liquid-core laser. The calculations show an increase of pump efficiency in such a laser.

  10. Discovery of dysprosium, holmium, erbium, thulium and ytterbium isotopes

    E-print Network

    C. Fry; M. Thoennessen

    2012-05-26

    Currently, 31 dysprosium, 32 holmium, 32 erbium, 33 thulium and 31 ytterbium isotopes have been observed and the discovery of these isotopes is discussed here. For each isotope a brief synopsis of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  11. Discovery of dysprosium, holmium, erbium, thulium and ytterbium isotopes

    E-print Network

    Fry, C

    2012-01-01

    Currently, 31 dysprosium, 32 holmium, 32 erbium, 33 thulium and 31 ytterbium isotopes have been observed and the discovery of these isotopes is discussed here. For each isotope a brief synopsis of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  12. Discovery of dysprosium, holmium, erbium, thulium, and ytterbium isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, C.; Thoennessen, M., E-mail: thoennessen@nscl.msu.edu

    2013-09-15

    Currently, thirty-one dysprosium, thirty-two holmium, thirty-two erbium, thirty-three thulium, and thirty-one ytterbium isotopes have been observed and the discovery of these isotopes is described here. For each isotope a brief synopsis of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  13. Spectral hole burning in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maxim Bolshtyansky

    2003-01-01

    A new theoretical\\/numerical model of the spectral hole burning (SHB) effect in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFAs) is suggested. A new measurement technique for SHB measurement is developed. Experiments are conducted to identify the particular mechanism of SHB. A computer simulation program is developed using this approach. The shape and depth of the spectral hole are in accordance with the suggested

  14. Controlled modification of erbium lifetime by near-field coupling to metallic films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Nanfang; Belyanin, Alexey; Bao, Jiming; Capasso, Federico

    2009-01-01

    Systematic measurements of the photoluminescence lifetime of the 1.54 ?m transition of erbium implanted at different energies in SiO2 films with different metallic overlayers are reported. The lifetime shows a strong reduction up to a factor of 20 with decreasing distance between the erbium and the metal overlayer. The reduction of lifetime is mainly due to a near-field interaction between the erbium ions and the metal overlayers through generation of surface plasmon polaritons at the metal/SiO2 interface and direct generation of heat in the metal. These experiments combined with rigorous theoretical modeling demonstrate that a high degree of control over the radiative properties of erbium can be achieved in erbium-implanted materials in a wide range of implantation energies. The experiments also allow us to determine the radiative efficiency of erbium in bulk SiO2.

  15. 19 CFR 152.102 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...one or more foreign countries, the value of the assist is the value added outside the United States. (iii...d) as profit or general expenses or value from further processing, or (iii) Added under § 152.106(b) as profit...

  16. Cell 152, February 28, 2013 Supplemental Information

    E-print Network

    Lim, Wendell

    . Doudna, Jonathan S. Weissman, Adam P. Arkin, and Wendell A. Lim The dCas9 Protein Peptide SequenceCell 152, February 28, 2013 Supplemental Information Repurposing CRISPR as an RNA-Guided Platform'-UUGACAGCUAGCUCAGUCCU-3' R8 5'-AACCGGUUUUUUAGCCAUGU-3' R9 5'-AAAAAACCGGUUCAGCUGCC-3' The lac Operon-Targeting sg

  17. Physics 152 Laboratory Manual, 8th Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacIssac, Dan; And Others

    This document is the laboratory manual for the Physics 152 course at Purdue University. It includes a laboratory introduction, hardware and software guide, and laboratory report guide. Labs include: (1) "Measurement Uncertainty and Propagation"; (2) "Introduction to Computer Data Acquisition and Relationships between Position, Velocity, and…

  18. N=90 region: The decays of $^{152m,g}$Eu to $^{152}$Sm

    E-print Network

    Kulp, W D; Eimer, J; Furse, D; Krane, Kenneth S; Larimer, R M; Loats, J; Norman, E B; Piechaczek, A; Schmelzenbach, P; Stapels, C J; Wood, J L

    2006-01-01

    The decays of $^{152m,g}$Eu $\\to ^{152}$Sm have been studied by $\\gamma$-ray spectroscopy using the $8\\pi$ Spectrometer, an array of 20 Compton-suppressed Ge detectors. Very weak $\\gamma$-decay branches in $^{152}$Sm were investigated through $\\gamma - \\gamma$ coincidence spectroscopy. All possible $E2$ transitions between states below 1550 keV with transition energies $> 130$ keV are observed, including the previously unobserved $2^+_3 \\to 0^+_2$ 401 keV transition. The results, combined with existing lifetime data, provide a number of new or revised $E2$ transition strengths which are critical for clarifying the collective structure of $^{152}$Sm and the N=90 isotones.

  19. 40 CFR 98.152 - GHGs to report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...152 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING HCFC-22 Production and HFC-23 Destruction § 98.152 GHGs to report. (a) You must report...

  20. 22 CFR 1701.152-1701.159 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...152-1701.159 Foreign Relations UNITED STATES INSTITUTE OF PEACE ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP...PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE UNITED STATES INSTITUTE OF PEACE §§ 1701.152-1701.159...

  1. 22 CFR 1701.152-1701.159 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...152-1701.159 Foreign Relations UNITED STATES INSTITUTE OF PEACE ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP...PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE UNITED STATES INSTITUTE OF PEACE §§ 1701.152-1701.159...

  2. 22 CFR 1701.152-1701.159 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...152-1701.159 Foreign Relations UNITED STATES INSTITUTE OF PEACE ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP...PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE UNITED STATES INSTITUTE OF PEACE §§ 1701.152-1701.159...

  3. 22 CFR 1701.152-1701.159 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...152-1701.159 Foreign Relations UNITED STATES INSTITUTE OF PEACE ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP...PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE UNITED STATES INSTITUTE OF PEACE §§ 1701.152-1701.159...

  4. 22 CFR 1701.152-1701.159 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...152-1701.159 Foreign Relations UNITED STATES INSTITUTE OF PEACE ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP...PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE UNITED STATES INSTITUTE OF PEACE §§ 1701.152-1701.159...

  5. 40 CFR 147.152 - Aquifer exemptions. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aquifer exemptions. [Reserved] 147.152...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL...CONTROL PROGRAMS Arizona § 147.152 Aquifer exemptions....

  6. 40 CFR 147.152 - Aquifer exemptions. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aquifer exemptions. [Reserved] 147.152...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL...CONTROL PROGRAMS Arizona § 147.152 Aquifer exemptions....

  7. 40 CFR 147.152 - Aquifer exemptions. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aquifer exemptions. [Reserved] 147.152...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL...CONTROL PROGRAMS Arizona § 147.152 Aquifer exemptions....

  8. 40 CFR 147.152 - Aquifer exemptions. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aquifer exemptions. [Reserved] 147.152...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL...CONTROL PROGRAMS Arizona § 147.152 Aquifer exemptions....

  9. 40 CFR 147.152 - Aquifer exemptions. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aquifer exemptions. [Reserved] 147.152...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL...CONTROL PROGRAMS Arizona § 147.152 Aquifer exemptions....

  10. 17 CFR 38.152 - Abusive trading practices prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Abusive trading practices prohibited. 38.152 Section...Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION DESIGNATED CONTRACT MARKETS...Compliance With Rules § 38.152 Abusive trading practices prohibited. A...

  11. 17 CFR 38.152 - Abusive trading practices prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Abusive trading practices prohibited. 38.152 Section...Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION DESIGNATED CONTRACT MARKETS...Compliance With Rules § 38.152 Abusive trading practices prohibited. A...

  12. 44 CFR 152.6 - Application review and award process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY FIRE PREVENTION AND CONTROL ASSISTANCE TO FIREFIGHTERS GRANT PROGRAM § 152.6 Application review and award process. (a) As stated in § 152.5, we...

  13. 44 CFR 152.6 - Application review and award process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY FIRE PREVENTION AND CONTROL ASSISTANCE TO FIREFIGHTERS GRANT PROGRAM § 152.6 Application review and award process. (a) As stated in § 152.5, we...

  14. 44 CFR 152.6 - Application review and award process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY FIRE PREVENTION AND CONTROL ASSISTANCE TO FIREFIGHTERS GRANT PROGRAM § 152.6 Application review and award process. (a) As stated in § 152.5, we...

  15. 19 CFR 201.152-201.159 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...152-201.159 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION GENERAL RULES OF GENERAL APPLICATION...Programs or Activities Conducted by the U.S. International Trade Commission §§ 201.152-201.159...

  16. 21 CFR 146.152 - Orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Orange juice with preservative. 146.152 Section...Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.152 Orange juice with preservative. (a) Orange juice with preservative is the food prepared...

  17. 21 CFR 146.152 - Orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Orange juice with preservative. 146.152 Section...Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.152 Orange juice with preservative. (a) Orange juice with preservative is the food prepared...

  18. 36 CFR 1208.152-1208.159 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...152-1208.159 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION GENERAL RULES ENFORCEMENT...HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION §§ 1208.152-1208.159...

  19. 12 CFR 152.13 - Combinations involving Federal stock associations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...stock associations. 152.13 Section 152.13 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT...4) Depository institution means any commercial bank (including a private bank), a savings bank, a trust company, a...

  20. 12 CFR 152.13 - Combinations involving Federal stock associations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...stock associations. 152.13 Section 152.13 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT...4) Depository institution means any commercial bank (including a private bank), a savings bank, a trust company, a...

  1. 12 CFR 152.13 - Combinations involving Federal stock associations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...stock associations. 152.13 Section 152.13 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT...4) Depository institution means any commercial bank (including a private bank), a savings bank, a trust company, a...

  2. 36 CFR 1208.152-1208.159 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...152-1208.159 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION GENERAL RULES ENFORCEMENT...HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION §§ 1208.152-1208.159...

  3. 36 CFR 1208.152-1208.159 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...152-1208.159 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION GENERAL RULES ENFORCEMENT...HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION §§ 1208.152-1208.159...

  4. 18 CFR 152.4 - Certificate from State Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Certificate from State Commission. 152.4 Section 152.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS...

  5. 18 CFR 152.4 - Certificate from State Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Certificate from State Commission. 152.4 Section 152.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS...

  6. 18 CFR 152.4 - Certificate from State Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Certificate from State Commission. 152.4 Section 152.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS...

  7. 18 CFR 152.4 - Certificate from State Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Certificate from State Commission. 152.4 Section 152.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS...

  8. 18 CFR 152.4 - Certificate from State Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Certificate from State Commission. 152.4 Section 152.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS...

  9. 14 CFR 152.303 - Financial management system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2012-01-01 false Financial management system. 152...CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Accounting and Reporting...Requirements § 152.303 Financial management system. Each...shall establish and maintain a financial management system that...

  10. 14 CFR 152.303 - Financial management system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2014-01-01 false Financial management system. 152...CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Accounting and Reporting...Requirements § 152.303 Financial management system. Each...shall establish and maintain a financial management system that...

  11. 14 CFR 152.303 - Financial management system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2013-01-01 false Financial management system. 152...CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Accounting and Reporting...Requirements § 152.303 Financial management system. Each...shall establish and maintain a financial management system that...

  12. 14 CFR 152.303 - Financial management system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2011-01-01 false Financial management system. 152...CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Accounting and Reporting...Requirements § 152.303 Financial management system. Each...shall establish and maintain a financial management system that...

  13. 40 CFR 152.168 - Advertising of restricted use products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Advertising of restricted use products. 152...Classification of Pesticides § 152.168 Advertising of restricted use products. ...radio and television. (4) Telephone advertising. (5) Billboards and...

  14. 40 CFR 152.168 - Advertising of restricted use products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Advertising of restricted use products. 152...Classification of Pesticides § 152.168 Advertising of restricted use products. ...radio and television. (4) Telephone advertising. (5) Billboards and...

  15. 14 CFR 152.325 - Financial status report: Airport planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2013-01-01 false Financial status report: Airport planning. 152...Requirements § 152.325 Financial status report: Airport planning...system planning shall submit a financial status report on a form prescribed by...

  16. 14 CFR 152.325 - Financial status report: Airport planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 false Financial status report: Airport planning. 152...Requirements § 152.325 Financial status report: Airport planning...system planning shall submit a financial status report on a form prescribed by...

  17. 14 CFR 152.325 - Financial status report: Airport planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2014-01-01 false Financial status report: Airport planning. 152...Requirements § 152.325 Financial status report: Airport planning...system planning shall submit a financial status report on a form prescribed by...

  18. 14 CFR 152.325 - Financial status report: Airport planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2011-01-01 false Financial status report: Airport planning. 152...Requirements § 152.325 Financial status report: Airport planning...system planning shall submit a financial status report on a form prescribed by...

  19. 14 CFR 152.325 - Financial status report: Airport planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2012-01-01 false Financial status report: Airport planning. 152...Requirements § 152.325 Financial status report: Airport planning...system planning shall submit a financial status report on a form prescribed by...

  20. 14 CFR 152.321 - Notice of delay or acceleration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notice of delay or acceleration. 152.321 Section 152.321 Aeronautics and Space...Reporting Requirements § 152.321 Notice of delay or acceleration. (a) The sponsor or planning agency shall...

  1. 14 CFR 152.321 - Notice of delay or acceleration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Notice of delay or acceleration. 152.321 Section 152.321 Aeronautics and Space...Reporting Requirements § 152.321 Notice of delay or acceleration. (a) The sponsor or planning agency shall...

  2. 14 CFR 152.321 - Notice of delay or acceleration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Notice of delay or acceleration. 152.321 Section 152.321 Aeronautics and Space...Reporting Requirements § 152.321 Notice of delay or acceleration. (a) The sponsor or planning agency shall...

  3. 14 CFR 152.321 - Notice of delay or acceleration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Notice of delay or acceleration. 152.321 Section 152.321 Aeronautics and Space...Reporting Requirements § 152.321 Notice of delay or acceleration. (a) The sponsor or planning agency shall...

  4. 14 CFR 152.321 - Notice of delay or acceleration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Notice of delay or acceleration. 152.321 Section 152.321 Aeronautics and Space...Reporting Requirements § 152.321 Notice of delay or acceleration. (a) The sponsor or planning agency shall...

  5. 45 CFR 152.27 - Fraud, waste, and abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Fraud, waste, and abuse. 152.27 Section 152.27 Public...Oversight § 152.27 Fraud, waste, and abuse. (a) Procedures. The PCIP...to HHS incidences of waste, fraud, and abuse, and to appropriate law...

  6. 45 CFR 152.27 - Fraud, waste, and abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Fraud, waste, and abuse. 152.27 Section 152.27 Public...Oversight § 152.27 Fraud, waste, and abuse. (a) Procedures. The PCIP...to HHS incidences of waste, fraud, and abuse, and to appropriate law...

  7. 45 CFR 152.27 - Fraud, waste, and abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Fraud, waste, and abuse. 152.27 Section 152.27 Public...Oversight § 152.27 Fraud, waste, and abuse. (a) Procedures. The PCIP...to HHS incidences of waste, fraud, and abuse, and to appropriate law...

  8. 45 CFR 152.27 - Fraud, waste, and abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Fraud, waste, and abuse. 152.27 Section 152.27 Public...Oversight § 152.27 Fraud, waste, and abuse. (a) Procedures. The PCIP...to HHS incidences of waste, fraud, and abuse, and to appropriate law...

  9. 7 CFR 4280.152 - Servicing guaranteed loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Servicing guaranteed loans. 4280.152 Section 4280.152 Agriculture...UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS AND GRANTS Rural Energy for America Program...Energy Efficiency Improvement Guaranteed Loans § 4280.152 Servicing guaranteed...

  10. 27 CFR 9.152 - Malibu-Newton Canyon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Malibu-Newton Canyon. 9.152 Section 9.152...Viticultural Areas § 9.152 Malibu-Newton Canyon. (a) Name. The name of...described in this petition is “Malibu-Newton Canyon.” (b) Approved maps....

  11. 27 CFR 9.152 - Malibu-Newton Canyon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Malibu-Newton Canyon. 9.152 Section 9.152...Viticultural Areas § 9.152 Malibu-Newton Canyon. (a) Name. The name of...described in this petition is “Malibu-Newton Canyon.” (b) Approved maps....

  12. 27 CFR 9.152 - Malibu-Newton Canyon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Malibu-Newton Canyon. 9.152 Section 9.152...Viticultural Areas § 9.152 Malibu-Newton Canyon. (a) Name. The name of...described in this petition is “Malibu-Newton Canyon.” (b) Approved maps....

  13. 38 CFR 3.152 - Claims for death benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Claims for death benefits. 3.152 Section 3.152...Compensation Claims § 3.152 Claims for death benefits. (a) A specific claim...3.153) must be filed in order for death benefits to be paid to any...

  14. 38 CFR 3.152 - Claims for death benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Claims for death benefits. 3.152 Section 3.152...Compensation Claims § 3.152 Claims for death benefits. (a) A specific claim...3.153) must be filed in order for death benefits to be paid to any...

  15. 38 CFR 3.152 - Claims for death benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Claims for death benefits. 3.152 Section 3.152...Compensation Claims § 3.152 Claims for death benefits. (a) A specific claim...3.153) must be filed in order for death benefits to be paid to any...

  16. Half-Linear Cavity Multiwavelength Brillouin-Erbium Fiber Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Alimi, A. W.; Yaacob, M. H.; Abas, A. E.

    2014-11-01

    Multiwavelength half-linear cavity Brillouin erbium fiber laser (BEFL) has been demonstrated. The half-linear cavity BEFL is formed by utilizing only two circulators: one circulator acts as input and output ports and the other circulator is used to form a physical mirror. This design exhibits low peak power difference between the adjacent channels, which is about 0.8 dB. At Brillouin pump (BP) power of 5 dBm and erbium doped fiber (EDF) pump power of 90 mW, up to 19 channels over a wide range of 40 nm (1529 nm to 1569 nm) have been obtained. These channels are free from self lasing cavity modes and for the first twelve Stokes lines, the optical signal to noise ratio (OSNR) is approximately higher than 20 dB.

  17. Urbach absorption edge in epitaxial erbium-doped silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shmagin, V. B.; Kudryavtsev, K. E.; Shengurov, D. V.; Krasilnik, Z. F.

    2015-02-01

    We investigate the dependencies of the photocurrent in Si:Er p-n junctions on the energy of the incident photons. The exponential absorption edge (Urbach edge) just below fundamental edge of silicon was observed in the absorption spectra of epitaxial Si:Er layers grown at 400-600 C. It is shown that the introduction of erbium significantly enhances the structural disorder in the silicon crystal which was estimated from the slope of the Urbach edge. We discuss the possible nature of the structural disorder in Si:Er and a new mechanism of erbium excitation, which does not require the presence of deep levels in the band gap of silicon.

  18. Low erosion behavior of polystyrene films under erbium ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, M.; Sanyal, M. K.; Chini, T. K.; Chakraborty, P.

    2006-02-01

    Erbium ion implantation in polystyrene (PS) thin films has been performed with 40 and 60 keV ions to a dose range between 1×1014 and 1×1016ions/cm2. The x-ray reflectivity technique was applied to determine the ion-induced eroded layer thickness and interestingly, the erosion rate is found to decrease with increasing ion doses exhibiting simple power law behavior of the form ˜(dose)-b. We propose the formation of a carbonaceous network at the top surface, which seems to prevent further erosion of the polymer with increasing the duration of implantation time. These findings may open up a possibility of loading a large amount of erbium in a polymer matrix by the implantation technique to make it suitable for various optoelectronic applications.

  19. Dynamics of high-power erbium-ytterbium fiber amplifiers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guillaume Canat; Jean-Claude Mollier; Jean-Pierre Bouzinac; Glenn M. Williams; Brian Cole; Lew Goldberg; Yves Jaouën; Gabor Kulcsar

    2005-01-01

    Dynamic regimes of high-peak-power erbium-ytterbium (Er3+-Yb3+) codoped fiber amplifiers are analyzed for nanosecond-to-microsecond pulses. High-energy pulse generation requires a large-core fiber amplifier to increase energy storage and the threshold of nonlinear effects. A numerical model of large-core Er3+-Yb3+ fiber amplifiers is described. Dynamics of peak powers, amplified spontaneous emission, and population inversion are presented. Influence of radial dependence and reflections

  20. Intrinsically gain-flattened staircase profile erbium doped fiber amplifier

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Thyagarajan; Jagneet Kaur Anand

    2003-01-01

    We propose an intrinsically gain-flattened staircase profile, C-band erbium doped silica-based fiber amplifier (EDFA). This EDFA is shown to exhibit uniform amplification characteristics with a gain excursion of ±1.4 dB over a bandwidth of 34 nm with a 980 nm pump and a gain excursion of ±1 dB over 30 nm bandwidth using 1480 nm pump. The proposed doped fiber

  1. Observation on burst phenomena in erbium nitrate crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawashima, Riki; Fukui, Junji; Isoda, Hiroshi

    2008-03-01

    Non-periodic instabilities (bursts) were observed in time series data of ac conductivities at 2 kHz along three crystalline directions of erbium nitrate crystals. The manifestation of the bursts was dependent on the direction of the crystals. The power spectra for the time series data having the bursts showed a broad peak. The limit cycles were found in the return map constructed from the time series data.

  2. Low erosion behavior of polystyrene films under erbium ion implantation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Bhattacharya; M. K. Sanyal; T. K. Chini; P. Chakraborty

    2006-01-01

    Erbium ion implantation in polystyrene (PS) thin films has been performed with 40 and 60 keV ions to a dose range between 1×1014 and 1×1016 ions?cm2. The x-ray reflectivity technique was applied to determine the ion-induced eroded layer thickness and interestingly, the erosion rate is found to decrease with increasing ion doses exhibiting simple power law behavior of the form

  3. Low erosion behavior of polystyrene films under erbium ion implantation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Bhattacharya; M. K. Sanyal; T. K. Chini; P. Chakraborty

    2006-01-01

    Erbium ion implantation in polystyrene (PS) thin films has been performed with 40 and 60 keV ions to a dose range between 1×1014 and 1×1016 ions\\/cm2. The x-ray reflectivity technique was applied to determine the ion-induced eroded layer thickness and interestingly, the erosion rate is found to decrease with increasing ion doses exhibiting simple power law behavior of the form

  4. Outcome of erbium:yttrium aluminium garnet laser resurfacing treatments.

    PubMed

    Cole, R P; Widdowson, D; Moore, J C

    2008-10-01

    Erbium:yttrium aluminium garnet (erbium:YAG) laser treatment was used to resurface skin abnormalities in patients suffering from conditions that included epidermal naevi, tuberous sclerosis, angiofibromata, neurofibromatosis, and scarring caused by acne or other means. Patients completed self-report questionnaires before their first laser test patch session, and again approximately 4 months after one treatment, so that its success could be evaluated from the patient's perspective. Disability and distress were quantified with the University of York Health Measurement Questionnaire (HMQ). Satisfaction with appearance was measured with a specifically designed Salisbury Appearance Scale (SAS) questionnaire. Pretreatment questionnaires were completed by 108 (HMQ) and 80 (SAS) patients. Thirty-six (HMQ) and 22 (SAS) patients completed a full treatment during the study period. Some patients had a test patch only during the study period. Others decided against further treatment after the test patch. Control SAS questionnaires were completed by 29 subjects on two occasions and showed no change over time. There was a significant improvement in patient satisfaction with appearance (SAS), but there was no significant difference in the disability and distress (HMQ) after erbium:YAG resurfacing. PMID:18074165

  5. Two-wave mixing in an erbium-doped fiber amplifier for modulation depth enhancement

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Two-wave mixing in an erbium-doped fiber amplifier for modulation depth enhancement of optically method based on two-wave mixing in an erbium- doped fiber amplifier for optical carrier reduction in future RF sys- tems require selective optical carrier reduction of weakly modulated microwave signals

  6. Optimum signal wavelength for a distributed erbium-doped fiber amplifier

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Rottwitt; J. H. Povlsen; A. Bjarklev; O. Lumholt; B. Pedersen; T. Rasmussen

    1992-01-01

    Theoretical analysis of a 100-km-long transparent germanosilicate distributed erbium-doped optical fiber has been carried out. It is shown that the optimum signal wavelength is 1.554 ?m both considering the noise performance and the necessary pump power for achieving unity gain when the distributed erbium-doped fibers are pumped at 1.48 ?m

  7. The influence of nonfundamental pump modes in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anders Bjarklev; Jørn Hedegaard Povlsen; Bo Pedersen; Karsten Rottwitt

    1991-01-01

    This work analyzes how the characteristics of an erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) depends on the mode distribution of 800-nm pump light. The analysis is performed by using a large-signal model of an optimally pumped erbium-doped fiber amplifier. Special attention is given to the gain degradation, and noise figures of the amplifier for co- and counterpropagating pump light.

  8. Erbium-doped and Raman microlasers on a silicon chip fabricated by the solgel process

    E-print Network

    Carmon, Tal

    of 100 million.1 By coating these high-Q micro- cavities with erbium-doped sol­gel films2 or by beginning with erbium implanted silica layers,3 low threshold rare- earth-doped microlasers on-a-chip have been. Both of these cases demon- strate the ability to use spin coating of sol­gel films as a processing

  9. Gain characteristics of a 210 km hybrid Raman/erbium-doped fiber amplified loop

    E-print Network

    Maryland, Baltimore County, University of

    Gain characteristics of a 210 km hybrid Raman/erbium-doped fiber amplified loop Gaston E. Tudury a of combining gain from Raman amplifiers and erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFAs) in a fiber recir- culating the variation of the gain tilt as a function of the individual contributions of the Raman and EDFA amplifiers. Ó

  10. Neutron Total Cross-Section Measurements and Resonance Parameter Analysis of Holmium, Thulium, and Erbium

    E-print Network

    Danon, Yaron

    Neutron Total Cross-Section Measurements and Resonance Parameter Analysis of Holmium, Thulium transmission measurements of rare earth metal samples of holmium, erbium, and thulium and isotopically enriched made with the ETT were a series of transmission measurements on the rare earth isotopes thulium, erbium

  11. Multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber ring laser source with a hybrid gain medium

    E-print Network

    Wai, Ping-kong Alexander

    Multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber ring laser source with a hybrid gain medium D.N. Wang a,*, F optical amplifier is incorporated into the cavity of an erbium-doped fiber ring laser to form a hybrid (SNR) can still be maintained. In this paper, a multiwavelength fiber ring laser constructed

  12. Multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber ring laser source with a hybrid gain medium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. N. Wang; F. W. Tong; Xiaohui Fang; W. Jin; P. K. A. Wai; J. M. Gong

    2003-01-01

    Erbium-doped fiber is a gain medium exhibiting homogeneous line broadening at room temperature, while a semiconductor optical amplifier has a dominant feature of inhomogeneous line broadening. In this work, a semiconductor optical amplifier is incorporated into the cavity of an erbium-doped fiber ring laser to form a hybrid gain medium. Theoretical analysis shows that such a gain medium supports stable

  13. Quenching investigation on new erbium doped fibers using MCVD nanoparticle doping process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Boivin; Thomas Föhn; Ekaterina Burov; Alain Pastouret; Cédric Gonnet; Olivier Cavani; Christine Collet; Simon Lempereur

    2010-01-01

    Ever demanding network implementations brought new requirements to be addressed to offer cost effective and power efficient solutions with smaller footprints. This general trend together with the constant need to improve L-band optical amplification efficiency account for the renewed interest on highly doped Erbium fibers. Erbium doped fiber amplifiers (EDFAs) performance degradation with Er3+ concentration increase has extensively been studied1

  14. Generation of high peak power pulse using 2 stage erbium-doped fiber amplifier

    E-print Network

    Lee, Kyung-Woo

    2000-01-01

    This thesis presents the results obtained from generation of high repetition rate, high power output pulse using an erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA). Two stage amplification was employed. The first stage setup used 980nm pump laser to pump erbium-doped...

  15. Generation of high peak power pulse using 2 stage erbium-doped fiber amplifier 

    E-print Network

    Lee, Kyung-Woo

    2000-01-01

    This thesis presents the results obtained from generation of high repetition rate, high power output pulse using an erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA). Two stage amplification was employed. The first stage setup used 980nm pump laser to pump erbium...

  16. Optical gain-clamped erbium-doped waveguide amplifier and its applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Ennser

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we review the research activities on optical gain control techniques of optical amplifier. Several configurations are explored to increase robustness to power transients. Optimized amplifier design with bidirectional operation is achieved. In particular we explore potentialities and limitations of Erbium-doped waveguide amplifier for optical networks. Note that all results are applicable for Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers once the

  17. H Optimal Control Design for Time Dependent Tones within Erbium-doped Fiber Amplifiers

    E-print Network

    Pavel, Lacra

    H Optimal Control Design for Time Dependent Tones within Erbium-doped Fiber Amplifiers Yong Taing effects within Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers owed to pilot tone disturbances used for optical monitoring to mon- itor optical signals may be impaired by the effects of cross- gain modulation, especially

  18. Characterization of an Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifier as a Light Source and Development of a

    E-print Network

    Reid, Scott A.

    Characterization of an Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifier as a Light Source and Development of a Near. The doped ion produces amplified spon- taneous emission (ASE) in the near-IR region (from 1500 to 1600 nm is amplified by the doped fiber. Furthermore, the output intensity of this erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA

  19. Fast intracavity polarization dynamics of an erbium-doped fiber ring laser: Inclusion of stochastic effects

    E-print Network

    Yorke, James

    practical applications, fiber lasers are very interesting from a basic physics perspective. The conjunctionFast intracavity polarization dynamics of an erbium-doped fiber ring laser: Inclusion of stochastic The dynamics of a unidirectional erbium-doped fiber laser is investigated on a time scale short enough

  20. Investigation of low intensity gamma-ray transitions in the 152Sm from 152Eu decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, R. M.; Vanin, V. R.; Pascholati, P. R.; Maidana, N. L.

    2011-08-01

    The intensities of weak gamma-ray transitions in the 152Sm level scheme from 152Eu decay measured in two gamma-ray coincidence experiments are compared; almost 40 new transitions with intensities around 10-5 gamma-rays per decay and 6 new levels were observed. One of the experiments was reanalysed to confirm some findings and this new data were included in this comparison. Despite some discrepancies, the obtained decay data are in general agreement. The measured energies form a consistent data set but the intensities not, suggesting that the uncertainties are underestimated by a factor of 2.

  1. Measurements of $^{152}$Gd(p,$?$)$^{153}$Tb and $^{152}$Gd(p,n)$^{152}$Tb reaction cross sections for the astrophysical $?$ process

    E-print Network

    R. T. Güray; N. Özkan; C. Yalç?n; T. Rauscher; Gy. Gyürky; J. Farkas; Zs. Fülöp; Z. Halász; E. Somorjai

    2015-06-30

    The total cross sections for the $^{152}$Gd(p,$\\gamma$)$^{153}$Tb and $^{152}$Gd(p,n)$^{152}$Tb reactions have been measured by the activation method at effective center-of-mass energies \\mbox{$3.47 \\leq E_\\mathrm{c.m.}^\\mathrm{eff}\\leq 7.94$ MeV} and \\mbox{$4.96 \\leq E_\\mathrm{c.m.}^\\mathrm{eff} \\leq 7.94$ MeV}, respectively. The targets were prepared by evaporation of 30.6\\% isotopically enriched $^{152}$Gd oxide on aluminum backing foils, and bombarded with proton beams provided by a cyclotron accelerator. The cross sections were deduced from the observed $\\gamma$-ray activity, which was detected off-line by a HPGe detector in a low background environment. The results are presented and compared with predictions of statistical model calculations. This comparison supports a modified optical proton+$^{152}$Gd potential suggested earlier.

  2. Measurements of 152Gd(p ,? )153Tb and 152Gd(p ,n )152Tb reaction cross sections for the astrophysical ? process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Güray, R. T.; Özkan, N.; Yalç?n, C.; Rauscher, T.; Gyürky, Gy.; Farkas, J.; Fülöp, Zs.; Halász, Z.; Somorjai, E.

    2015-05-01

    The total cross sections for the 152Gd(p ,? )153Tb and 152Gd(p ,n) 152Tb reactions have been measured by the activation method at effective center-of-mass energies 3.47 ?Ec.m .eff?7.94 MeV and 4.96 ?Ec.m .eff?7.94 MeV, respectively. The targets were prepared by evaporation of 30.6% isotopically enriched 152Gd oxide on aluminum backing foils, and bombarded with proton beams provided by a cyclotron accelerator. The cross sections were deduced from the observed ? -ray activity, which was detected off-line by an HPGe detector in a low background environment. The results are presented and compared with predictions of statistical model calculations. This comparison supports a modified optical proton+152Gd potential suggested earlier.

  3. Erbium-doped fiber amplifier elements for structural analysis sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanna-Hawver, P.; Kamdar, K. D.; Mehta, S.; Nagarajan, S.; Nasta, M. H.; Claus, R. O.

    1992-01-01

    The use of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFA's) in optical fiber sensor systems for structural analysis is described. EDFA's were developed for primary applications as periodic regenerator amplifiers in long-distance fiber-based communication systems. Their in-line amplification performance also makes them attractive for optical fiber sensor systems which require long effective lengths or the synthesis of special length-dependent signal processing functions. Sensor geometries incorporating EDFA's in recirculating and multiple loop sensors are discussed. Noise and polarization birefringence are also considered, and the experimental development of system components is discussed.

  4. Observation of Fluctuation in Erbium Nitrate Crystal at Low Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isoda, Hiroshi; Kawashima, Riki

    2013-06-01

    Time series of ac conductivities are measured along a direction perpendicular to the c-axis of an erbium nitrate crystal at low temperatures of below 50 K. Anomalous decreases in the imaginary part ?'' of the complex conductivity ?* are observed at temperatures near 20 and 32 K. Singularities in the fluctuation ??'' are found at these temperatures. The probability distribution functions with double peaks are derived from the time series at the indicated temperatures. The limit cycles in the fluctuation ??'' are observed in the measurements. The disappearance of the limit cycles is seen near the singular temperatures. The singularities in the structures of the fluctuation ??'' are found near the two singular points.

  5. Structural Influence of Erbium Centers on Silicon Nanocrystal Phase Transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senter, Robert A.; Pantea, Cristian; Wang, Yuejian; Liu, Haozhe; Zerda, T. Waldek; Coffer, Jeffery L.

    2004-10-01

    Two different types of erbium-doped silicon nanocrystals, along with undoped, oxide-capped Si dots, are employed to probe the impact of the impurity center location on phase transition pressure. Using a combination of high pressure optical absorption, micro-Raman, and x-ray diffraction measurements in a diamond anvil cell, it is demonstrated that the magnitude of this phase transition elevation is strongly dictated by the average spatial location of impurity centers introduced into the nanocrystal along with the interfacial quality of the surrounding oxide.

  6. 14 CFR 152.209 - Grant payments: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Grant payments: General. 152.209 Section...and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Funding of Approved... Grant payments: General. (a)...

  7. 14 CFR 152.209 - Grant payments: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Grant payments: General. 152.209 Section...and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Funding of Approved... Grant payments: General. (a)...

  8. 14 CFR 152.209 - Grant payments: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Grant payments: General. 152.209 Section...and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Funding of Approved... Grant payments: General. (a)...

  9. 14 CFR 152.209 - Grant payments: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Grant payments: General. 152.209 Section...and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Funding of Approved... Grant payments: General. (a)...

  10. Math 152: Linear Systems Winter 2004 1: Vectors and Geometry

    E-print Network

    Jellinek, Mark

    Math 152: Linear Systems ­ Winter 2004 1: Vectors and Geometry Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Description of points and the geometry of solutions to systems of equations

  11. Photoluminescence of erbium-doped silicon: Excitation power and temperature dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thao, D. T. X.; Ammerlaan, C. A. J.; Gregorkiewicz, T.

    2000-08-01

    Photoluminescence measurements have been made on float-zone and Czochralski-grown silicon samples which were doped with erbium by ion implantation. The characteristic luminescence spectra in the wavelength range between 1.5 and 1.6 ?m were observed. Differences in the multiple line structure of the spectra indicated that the active luminescent centers have different symmetries and atomic structure. The dependence of the photoluminescence intensity on the laser excitation power and on the temperature was measured. Results are discussed on the basis of a physical model which includes the formation of free excitons, the binding of excitons to erbium ions, the excitation of 4f inner-shell electrons of the erbium ions, and their subsequent decay by light emission. To obtain a quantitative agreement between model analysis and experimental data the consideration of Auger processes by which erbium-bound excitons and erbium ions in excited state can decay by dissipating energy to conduction band electrons appears to be required. From the temperature dependence two activation energies are derived which are associated with the exciton binding energies and with an energy transfer process from excited erbium ions back to erbium-bound excitons, respectively. A good quantitative agreement can be obtained for suitable values of the model parameters. The luminescent properties of the samples of the different types of crystalline silicon are remarkably similar.

  12. Negative nonlinear absorption effect in glasses containing a large amount of erbium oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashima, Hidekazu; Konishi, Akio; Wakabayashi, Hajimu; Yamada, Toshikazu; Maeda, Yoshinobu

    1999-04-01

    Compositions which vitrify by means of a conventional glass melting method, containing a large amount of erbium ion were investigated in aluminosilicate, phosphate, borate, borosilicate, telluride and fluoride systems. As a result of melting test, we obtain some glasses which contain higher than 20 mol% erbium. In transparent materials containing erbium an anomalous optical absorption phenomena have been reported by Maeda et al. With increasing in an incident laser light intensity, the transmitted one through the transparency such as the glass decreases, that is called negative nonlinear absorption (NNA) effect. With a particular modulation degree of an incident laser light, the transmitted waveform were reversed in phase to an incident one. The NNA effect in these glasses was observed over a wide band of the wavelength, while in erbium doped yttrium aluminum garnet and erbium doped lutetium aluminum garnet crystals were observed at a narrow band. The discrepancy of the NNA effect between the glasses and the crystals might be explained in the term of absorption spectrum associated with erbium. Namely, the absorption spectra of erbium doped yttrium aluminum garnet crystal have a narrow absorption band of 788 nm, while that of the glasses have broad absorption band of about 800 nm.

  13. 14 CFR 152.607 - Building design requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Building design requirements. 152.607 Section...in Airport Aid Program § 152.607 Building design requirements. Each sponsor...assessment for each federally-assisted building construction or major building...

  14. 25 CFR 152.32 - Irrigation fee; payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Irrigation fee; payment. 152.32 Section...Trust Or Restricted Lands § 152.32 Irrigation fee; payment. Collection of all...any Indian-owned lands within Indian irrigation projects is deferred as long...

  15. 25 CFR 152.32 - Irrigation fee; payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Irrigation fee; payment. 152.32 Section...Trust Or Restricted Lands § 152.32 Irrigation fee; payment. Collection of all...any Indian-owned lands within Indian irrigation projects is deferred as long...

  16. 25 CFR 152.32 - Irrigation fee; payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Irrigation fee; payment. 152.32 Section...Trust Or Restricted Lands § 152.32 Irrigation fee; payment. Collection of all...any Indian-owned lands within Indian irrigation projects is deferred as long...

  17. 25 CFR 152.32 - Irrigation fee; payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Irrigation fee; payment. 152.32 Section...Trust Or Restricted Lands § 152.32 Irrigation fee; payment. Collection of all...any Indian-owned lands within Indian irrigation projects is deferred as long...

  18. 25 CFR 152.32 - Irrigation fee; payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Irrigation fee; payment. 152.32 Section...Trust Or Restricted Lands § 152.32 Irrigation fee; payment. Collection of all...any Indian-owned lands within Indian irrigation projects is deferred as long...

  19. 42 CFR 84.152 - Breathing tube test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Breathing tube test; minimum requirements. 84.152...Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.152 Breathing tube test; minimum requirements. (a...shall employ one or two flexible breathing tubes of the nonkinking type which extend...

  20. 42 CFR 84.152 - Breathing tube test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Breathing tube test; minimum requirements. 84.152...Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.152 Breathing tube test; minimum requirements. (a...shall employ one or two flexible breathing tubes of the nonkinking type which extend...

  1. 42 CFR 84.152 - Breathing tube test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Breathing tube test; minimum requirements. 84.152...Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.152 Breathing tube test; minimum requirements. (a...shall employ one or two flexible breathing tubes of the nonkinking type which extend...

  2. 42 CFR 84.152 - Breathing tube test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Breathing tube test; minimum requirements. 84.152...Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.152 Breathing tube test; minimum requirements. (a...shall employ one or two flexible breathing tubes of the nonkinking type which extend...

  3. 21 CFR 146.152 - Orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...146.152 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION...HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED...Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.152 Orange juice...juice with preservative is the food prepared for further...

  4. 40 CFR 152.130 - Distribution under approved labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Distribution under approved labeling. 152.130...Rights of Registrants § 152.130 Distribution under approved labeling. (a...provide sufficient time for product in channels of trade to be distributed or sold...

  5. 30 CFR 1206.152 - Valuation standards-unprocessed gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...standards-unprocessed gas. 1206.152 Section...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Natural Resources Revenue PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Gas § 1206.152 Valuation...section shall not apply to gas sold pursuant to a warranty...Director for Office of Natural Resources Revenue...

  6. Data provided: Formula Sheet MAS140/151/152

    E-print Network

    Data provided: Formula Sheet MAS140/151/152 SCHOOL OF MATHEMATICS AND STATISTICS Spring Semester 2013­2014 MAS140 Mathematics (Chemical) MAS151 Civil Engineering Mathematics MAS152 Essential + 2x + 3)e-x using l'Hôpital's rule. A5 Find all the complex numbers z for which z3 = -1 + i. MAS140

  7. MATH 152 -SPRING 2004 MATHEMATICS FOR THE LIFE SCIENCES

    E-print Network

    Gross, Louis J.

    MATH 152 - SPRING 2004 MATHEMATICS FOR THE LIFE SCIENCES Time: 10:10 - 11:00 Monday and Wednesday) gipson@math.utk.edu, and Kristin Gooch (Sections #57055, 57097, 57042) gooch@math.utk.edu. Course web page: http://www.tiem.utk.edu/~gross/math152.html This course, a continuation of Math 151, will provide

  8. MATH 152 -SPRING 2005 MATHEMATICS FOR THE LIFE SCIENCES

    E-print Network

    Gross, Louis J.

    MATH 152 - SPRING 2005 MATHEMATICS FOR THE LIFE SCIENCES Time: 10:10 - 11:00 Monday and Wednesday) dilling@math.utk.edu, and Lauren Wagener (Sections #57361, 57374) wagener@math.utk.edu. Course web page: http://www.tiem.utk.edu/~gross/math152.html This course, a continuation of Math 151, will provide

  9. High repetition rate, high average power, femtosecond erbium fiber ring laser

    E-print Network

    Ippen, Erich P.

    A 301 MHz fundamentally mode-locked erbium fiber ring laser generating 108 fs pulses is demonstrated. Novel combination of gain fiber with anomalous group-velocity dispersion and intra-cavity silicon with normal group-velocity ...

  10. Generation of high power, high repetition-rate pulses using erbium-doped fiber ring laser

    E-print Network

    Hinson, Brett Darren

    1998-01-01

    This thesis presents the results obtained from crographics. generation of high repetition rate, high peak power output pulses using an erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA). Two configurations were employed. The first setup used a linear cavity...

  11. Generation of high power, high repetition-rate pulses using erbium-doped fiber ring laser 

    E-print Network

    Hinson, Brett Darren

    1998-01-01

    This thesis presents the results obtained from crographics. generation of high repetition rate, high peak power output pulses using an erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA). Two configurations were employed. The first setup used a linear cavity...

  12. Erbium in crystal silicon: Segregation and trapping during solid phase epitaxy of amorphous silicon

    E-print Network

    Polman, Albert

    Erbium in crystal silicon: Segregation and trapping during solid phase epitaxy of amorphous silicon.Equilibrium segregationis observed in such processesas zone-melt refining." Far from equilibrium, however,kinetic factors

  13. Radiation-resistant erbium-doped-nanoparticles optical fiber for space applications.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Jérémie; Myara, Mikhaël; Troussellier, Laurent; Burov, Ekaterina; Pastouret, Alain; Boivin, David; Mélin, Gilles; Gilard, Olivier; Sotom, Michel; Signoret, Philippe

    2012-01-30

    We demonstrate for the first time a radiation-resistant Erbium-Doped Fiber exhibiting performances that can fill the requirements of Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers for space applications. This is based on an Aluminum co-doping atom reduction enabled by Nanoparticules Doping-Process. For this purpose, we developed several fibers containing very different erbium and aluminum concentrations, and tested them in the same optical amplifier configuration. This work allows to bring to the fore a highly radiation resistant Erbium-doped pure silica optical fiber exhibiting a low quenching level. This result is an important step as the EDFA is increasingly recognized as an enabling technology for the extensive use of photonic sub-systems in future satellites. PMID:22330481

  14. Processing and properties of ytterbium-erbium silicate thin film gain media

    E-print Network

    Kimerling, Lionel C.

    The structural and photoluminescence properties of ytterbium-erbium silicate thin films have been investigated. The films were fabricated by RF-magnetron co-sputtering of Er[subscript 2]O[subscript 3], Yb[subscript ...

  15. 40 CFR 152.97 - Rights and obligations regarding the Data Submitters List.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... false Rights and obligations regarding the Data Submitters List. 152.97 Section 152.97...AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Satisfaction of Data Requirements and Protection of Data Submitters' Rights § 152.97 Rights and...

  16. 40 CFR 152.97 - Rights and obligations of data submitters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Rights and obligations of data submitters. 152.97 Section 152...PROCEDURES Procedures To Ensure Protection of Data Submitters' Rights § 152.97 Rights and obligations of data submitters. (a) Right to be...

  17. 40 CFR 152.97 - Rights and obligations of data submitters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Rights and obligations of data submitters. 152.97 Section 152...PROCEDURES Procedures To Ensure Protection of Data Submitters' Rights § 152.97 Rights and obligations of data submitters. (a) Right to be...

  18. 40 CFR 152.97 - Rights and obligations of data submitters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Rights and obligations of data submitters. 152.97 Section 152...PROCEDURES Procedures To Ensure Protection of Data Submitters' Rights § 152.97 Rights and obligations of data submitters. (a) Right to be...

  19. Proton and Gamma-Induced Effects on Erbium-Doped Optical Fibers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Girard; B. Tortech; E. Regnier; M. Van Uffelen; A. Gusarov; Y. Ouerdane; J. Baggio; P. Paillet; V. Ferlet-Cavrois; A. Boukenter; J.-P. Meunier; F. Berghmans; J. R. Schwank; M. R. Shaneyfelt; J. A. Felix; E. W. Blackmore; H. Thienpont

    2007-01-01

    We characterized the responses of three erbium-doped fibers with slightly different concentrations of rare-earth ions (240-290 ppm) and Al2O3 (7-10 wt.%) during proton and gamma-ray exposures. We have simultaneously measured the radiation-induced attenuation (RIA) around the Er3+ ion pumping wavelength (980 nm) and the associated changes of the Er3+ emission around 1530 nm. The three erbium-doped fibers show similar radiation

  20. Erbium-doped silicon films grown by plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. L. Rogers; P. S. Andry; W. J. Varhue; E. Adams; M. Lavoie; P. B. Klein

    1995-01-01

    Epitaxial growth of erbium-doped silicon films has been performed by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition using an electron-cyclotron-resonance source. The goal was to incorporate erbium as an optically active center (ErO6) through the use of metal-organic dopant sources. The characteristic 1.5 ?m emission was observed by photoluminescence. Chemical analysis of the film revealed, however, that the organic ligands were decomposing and

  1. A broadly tunable erbium-doped fiber ring laser: experimentation and modeling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antoine Bellemare; M. Karbsek; Christophe Riviere; François Babin; Gang He; Vincent Roy; Gregory W. Schinn

    2001-01-01

    Broad-band tunability of erbium-doped silica fiber ring lasers in the 1.48-1.62 ?m wavelength band is demonstrated through modeling and experiment. Tunability over the erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) C- and L-bands is achieved with a simple laser design using a single gain medium working in deep saturation. A comprehensive numerical model based on an iterative solution of propagation rate equations and

  2. Optimization of wavelength tuning of erbium-doped fiber ring lasers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yew Tai Chieng; Gregory J. Cowle; Robert A. Minasian

    1996-01-01

    The dynamics of erbium-doped fiber ring lasers undergoing wavelength tuning is examined. The relaxation oscillations and mode build-up time are characterized. An all-optical damping technique which is capable of complete elimination of relaxation oscillations is analyzed, and measurements on a tunable erbium-doped fiber lasers are reported. An analytical solution is derived for the mode build-up time of tunable fiber lasers.

  3. Molecular Homogeneity in Erbium-Doped Sol-Gel Waveguide Amplifiers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Athanasios Laliotis; E. M. Yeatman; Munir M. Ahmad; Weibin Huang

    2004-01-01

    High net gain levels have recently been reported in silica-on-silicon waveguide amplifiers, using the sol-gel method of glass deposition. Spectroscopic measurements indicate that high inversion levels are achieved at high erbium concentrations, sug- gesting a high uniformity in the erbium distribution. Here we show that high inversion and low scattering losses are only achieved in sol-gel waveguides which have had

  4. Characterization of a multiwavelength Brillouin-erbium fiber laser based on a linear cavity configuration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammed H. Al-Mansoori; Suhairi Saharudin; Hairul Abdul-Rashid; Mohd A. Mahdi; Mohamad K. Abdullah

    2005-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a simple method for generating a multiwavelength Brillouin comb by utilizing a linear cavity of hybrid Brillouin-erbium fiber lasers (BEFLs). The optimization of Brillouin pump wavelength, power, and erbium gain played a significant role in determining the maximum number of Brillouin Stokes signals generated. Simultaneous and stable multiple-wavelength laser output of 22 lines with 10.88-GHz channel spacing

  5. Resonantly photo-pumped nickel-like erbium X-ray laser

    DOEpatents

    Nilsen, Joseph (Livermore, CA)

    1990-01-01

    A resonantly photo-pumped X-ray laser (10) that enhances the gain of seve laser lines that also lase because of collisional excitations and recombination processes, is described. The laser comprises an aluminum (12) and erbium (14) foil combination (16) that is driven by two beams (18, 20) of intense line focused (22, 24) optical laser radiation. Ground state nickel-like erbium ions (34) are resonantly photo-pumped by line emission from hydrogen-like aluminum ions (32).

  6. Twin-core erbium-doped fiber amplifier with channel equalization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haijuan Chen; Xianglin Yang

    1997-01-01

    A twin-core erbium-doped fiber amplifier has been studied. We establish the theoretical model, propose the coupled-propagation\\u000a equations, and then numerically simulate the characteristics of the amplifier. It is found that twin-core erbium-doped fiber\\u000a amplifier can provide different gains for signals with different input powers and self-heal the extra channel loss between\\u000a amplifying stages, thus equalizes the output signal level. The

  7. A higher-order-mode erbium-doped-fiber amplifier.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, J W; Fini, J M; DeSantolo, A M; Monberg, E; DiMarcello, F; Fleming, J; Headley, C; DiGiovanni, D J; Ghalmi, S; Ramachandran, S

    2010-08-16

    We demonstrate the first erbium-doped fiber amplifier operating in a single, large-mode area, higher-order mode. A high-power, fundamental-mode, Raman fiber laser operating at 1480 nm was used as a pump source. Using a UV-written, long-period grating, both pump and 1564 nm signal were converted to the LP(0,10) mode, which had an effective area of 2700 microm(2) at 1550 nm. A maximum output power of 5.8 W at 1564 nm with more than 20 dB of gain in a 2.68 m long amplifier was obtained. The mode profile was undistorted at the highest output power. PMID:20721151

  8. Dual-kind Q-switching of erbium fiber laser

    SciTech Connect

    Barmenkov, Yuri O., E-mail: yuri@cio.mx; Kir'yanov, Alexander V. [Centro de Investigaciones en Optica, Loma del Bosque 115, Col. Lomas del Campestre, 37150 Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico); Cruz, Jose L.; Andres, Miguel V. [Department of Applied Physics and Electromagnetism, University of Valencia, Dr. Moliner 50, Burjassot 46100 (Spain)

    2014-03-03

    Two different regimes of Q-switching in the same implementation of an actively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser are demonstrated. Depending on the active fiber length and repetition rate of an intracavity Q-cell (acousto-optic modulator), the laser operates either in the regime of common, rather long and low-power, pulses composed of several sub-pulses or in the one of very short and powerful stimulated Brillouin scattering-induced pulses. The basic physical reason of the laser system to oscillate in one of these two regimes is the existence or absence of CW narrow-line “bad-cavity” lasing in the intervals when the Q-cell is blocked.

  9. Organo-erbium systems for optical amplification at telecommunications wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, H. Q.; Li, Z.; Peng, Y.; Wang, C. C.; Li, T. Y.; Zheng, Y. X.; Sapelkin, A.; Adamopoulos, G.; Hernández, I.; Wyatt, P. B.; Gillin, W. P.

    2014-04-01

    Modern telecommunications rely on the transmission and manipulation of optical signals. Optical amplification plays a vital part in this technology, as all components in a real telecommunications system produce some loss. The two main issues with present amplifiers, which rely on erbium ions in a glass matrix, are the difficulty in integration onto a single substrate and the need of high pump power densities to produce gain. Here we show a potential organic optical amplifier material that demonstrates population inversion when pumped from above using low-power visible light. This system is integrated into an organic light-emitting diode demonstrating that electrical pumping can be achieved. This opens the possibility of direct electrically driven optical amplifiers and optical circuits. Our results provide an alternative approach to producing low-cost integrated optics that is compatible with existing silicon photonics and a different route to an effective integrated optics technology.

  10. Dual-kind Q-switching of erbium fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barmenkov, Yuri O.; Kir'yanov, Alexander V.; Cruz, Jose L.; Andres, Miguel V.

    2014-03-01

    Two different regimes of Q-switching in the same implementation of an actively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser are demonstrated. Depending on the active fiber length and repetition rate of an intracavity Q-cell (acousto-optic modulator), the laser operates either in the regime of common, rather long and low-power, pulses composed of several sub-pulses or in the one of very short and powerful stimulated Brillouin scattering-induced pulses. The basic physical reason of the laser system to oscillate in one of these two regimes is the existence or absence of CW narrow-line "bad-cavity" lasing in the intervals when the Q-cell is blocked.

  11. High-spin states in {sup 152}Gd

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, S.; Hua, H.; Meng, J.; Li, Z.H.; Zhang, S.Q.; Xu, F.R.; Liu, H.L.; Ye, Y.L.; Jiang, D.X.; Zheng, T.; Wang, Q.J.; Chen, Z.Q.; Wu, C.E.; Zhang, G.L.; Pang, D.Y.; Wang, J.; Lou, J.L.; Guo, B.; Jin, G.; Zhou, S.G. [School of Physics and MOE Key Laboratory of Heavy Ion Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080, China and Center of Theoretical Nuclear Physics, National Laboratory of Heavy Ion Accelerator, Lanzhou 730000 (China); China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing 102413 (China)] [and others

    2005-08-01

    High-spin states of {sup 152}Gd have been studied via the {sup 148}Nd({sup 9}Be,5n){sup 152}Gd fusion-evaporation reaction at a beam energy of 54 MeV. The ground-state band, octupole band, and {beta} band have been extended up to spins 20{sup +}, 21{sup -}, and 16{sup +}, respectively. A possible aligned two quasineutron band, which becomes the yrast band above the spin 16{sup +}, was observed for the first time. The kinematic behaviors of the ground-state bands and yrast bands in {sup 152,154}Gd indicate that the shape of {sup 152}Gd may change with increasing rotational frequency and the difference of quadrupole deformations between {sup 152}Gd and {sup 154}Gd obviously reduces around the first band crossing region. These observations are consistent with the theoretical calculations using cranked Woods-Saxon-Strutinsky methods. The first band crossing observed in {sup 152}Gd can be ascribed to the alignment of a pair of i{sub 13/2} neutrons. The identical ground-state bands in {sup 152}Gd and {sup 154}Dy were extended.

  12. Developing 152Eu into a standard for detector efficiency calibration.

    PubMed

    Castro, Ruy M; Vanin, Vito R; Pascholati, Paulo R; Maidana, Nora L; Dias, Mauro S; Koskinas, Marina F

    2004-01-01

    A gamma-gamma coincidence experiment was performed to check the 152Eu 13-year decay scheme and the placement of the observed gamma-ray transitions. The multi-detector array for residual activity measurement of the Linear Accelerator Laboratory was used. The source activity was 1 MBq, and about 10(9) coincidence events were observed. About 30 gamma's were placed in the decay scheme and four 152Sm levels were added to the previously known set of levels fed in 152Eu 13-year decay. PMID:14987655

  13. 36 CFR 1154.152-1154.159 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...152-1154.159 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD ENFORCEMENT...BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD §§...

  14. 36 CFR 1154.152-1154.159 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...152-1154.159 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD ENFORCEMENT...BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD §§...

  15. 27 CFR 479.152 - Penalties (records and returns).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND CERTAIN OTHER FIREARMS Examination of Books and Records § 479.152 Penalties (records...

  16. 27 CFR 479.152 - Penalties (records and returns).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND CERTAIN OTHER FIREARMS Examination of Books and Records § 479.152 Penalties (records...

  17. 27 CFR 479.152 - Penalties (records and returns).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND CERTAIN OTHER FIREARMS Examination of Books and Records § 479.152 Penalties (records...

  18. 27 CFR 479.152 - Penalties (records and returns).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND CERTAIN OTHER FIREARMS Examination of Books and Records § 479.152 Penalties (records...

  19. 27 CFR 479.152 - Penalties (records and returns).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND CERTAIN OTHER FIREARMS Examination of Books and Records § 479.152 Penalties (records...

  20. 40 CFR 152.86 - The cite-all method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false... Section 152.86 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...Ensure Protection of Data Submitters' Rights...Fungicide and Rodenticide Act. (d)...

  1. 22 CFR 1600.152-1600.159 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...159 Section 1600.152-1600.159 Foreign Relations JAPAN-UNITED STATES FRIENDSHIP COMMISSION ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION...THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE JAPAN-UNITED STATES FRIENDSHIP COMMISSION §§...

  2. 22 CFR 1600.152-1600.159 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...159 Section 1600.152-1600.159 Foreign Relations JAPAN-UNITED STATES FRIENDSHIP COMMISSION ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION...THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE JAPAN-UNITED STATES FRIENDSHIP COMMISSION §§...

  3. 22 CFR 1600.152-1600.159 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...159 Section 1600.152-1600.159 Foreign Relations JAPAN-UNITED STATES FRIENDSHIP COMMISSION ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION...THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE JAPAN-UNITED STATES FRIENDSHIP COMMISSION §§...

  4. 32 CFR 1906.152-1906.159 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE...IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY §§ 1906.152-1906.159...

  5. 32 CFR 1906.152-1906.159 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE...IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY §§ 1906.152-1906.159...

  6. 32 CFR 1906.152-1906.159 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE...IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY §§ 1906.152-1906.159...

  7. 32 CFR 1906.152-1906.159 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE...IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY §§ 1906.152-1906.159...

  8. 32 CFR 1906.152-1906.159 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE...IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY §§ 1906.152-1906.159...

  9. 50 CFR 216.152 - Permissible methods of taking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Taking Of Marine Mammals Incidental To Missile Launch Activities from San Nicolas Island, CA § 216.152 Permissible methods of taking. (a) Under Letters of Authorization issued pursuant to §§...

  10. 45 CFR 1153.152-1153.159 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE...CONDUCTED BY THE NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS §§ 1153.152-1153.159...

  11. 45 CFR 1153.152-1153.159 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE...CONDUCTED BY THE NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS §§ 1153.152-1153.159...

  12. 45 CFR 1153.152-1153.159 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE...CONDUCTED BY THE NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS §§ 1153.152-1153.159...

  13. 45 CFR 1153.152-1153.159 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE...CONDUCTED BY THE NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS §§ 1153.152-1153.159...

  14. 45 CFR 1153.152-1153.159 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE...CONDUCTED BY THE NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS §§ 1153.152-1153.159...

  15. 40 CFR 162.152 - State registration authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false State registration authority. 162.152 ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS STATE REGISTRATION OF PESTICIDE PRODUCTS Regulations Pertaining to State Registration of Pesticides To Meet...

  16. 40 CFR 162.152 - State registration authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false State registration authority. 162.152 ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS STATE REGISTRATION OF PESTICIDE PRODUCTS Regulations Pertaining to State Registration of Pesticides To Meet...

  17. 40 CFR 162.152 - State registration authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false State registration authority. 162.152 ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS STATE REGISTRATION OF PESTICIDE PRODUCTS Regulations Pertaining to State Registration of Pesticides To Meet...

  18. 40 CFR 162.152 - State registration authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State registration authority. 162.152 ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS STATE REGISTRATION OF PESTICIDE PRODUCTS Regulations Pertaining to State Registration of Pesticides To Meet...

  19. 40 CFR 162.152 - State registration authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false State registration authority. 162.152 ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS STATE REGISTRATION OF PESTICIDE PRODUCTS Regulations Pertaining to State Registration of Pesticides To Meet...

  20. 44 CFR 152.5 - Review process and evaluation criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...HOMELAND SECURITY FIRE PREVENTION AND CONTROL ASSISTANCE TO FIREFIGHTERS GRANT PROGRAM § 152.5 Review process and evaluation...applications that are determined to best address the Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program's established priorities during...

  1. 44 CFR 152.8 - Application submission and deadline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY FIRE PREVENTION AND CONTROL ASSISTANCE TO FIREFIGHTERS GRANT PROGRAM § 152.8 Application submission and deadline. In each year that this program is authorized and...

  2. 44 CFR 152.5 - Review process and evaluation criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...HOMELAND SECURITY FIRE PREVENTION AND CONTROL ASSISTANCE TO FIREFIGHTERS GRANT PROGRAM § 152.5 Review process and evaluation...applications that are determined to best address the Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program's established priorities during...

  3. 44 CFR 152.5 - Review process and evaluation criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...HOMELAND SECURITY FIRE PREVENTION AND CONTROL ASSISTANCE TO FIREFIGHTERS GRANT PROGRAM § 152.5 Review process and evaluation...applications that are determined to best address the Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program's established priorities during...

  4. 44 CFR 152.4 - Roles and responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY FIRE PREVENTION AND CONTROL ASSISTANCE TO FIREFIGHTERS GRANT PROGRAM § 152.4 Roles and responsibilities. (a) Applicants must: (1) Complete the application...

  5. 44 CFR 152.3 - Availability of funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...HOMELAND SECURITY FIRE PREVENTION AND CONTROL ASSISTANCE TO FIREFIGHTERS GRANT PROGRAM § 152.3 Availability of funds. ...departments that have received funding under the Assistance to Firefighter Grant Program in previous years are eligible to...

  6. 44 CFR 152.4 - Roles and responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY FIRE PREVENTION AND CONTROL ASSISTANCE TO FIREFIGHTERS GRANT PROGRAM § 152.4 Roles and responsibilities. (a) Applicants must: (1) Complete the application...

  7. 44 CFR 152.3 - Availability of funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...HOMELAND SECURITY FIRE PREVENTION AND CONTROL ASSISTANCE TO FIREFIGHTERS GRANT PROGRAM § 152.3 Availability of funds. ...departments that have received funding under the Assistance to Firefighter Grant Program in previous years are eligible to...

  8. 44 CFR 152.4 - Roles and responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY FIRE PREVENTION AND CONTROL ASSISTANCE TO FIREFIGHTERS GRANT PROGRAM § 152.4 Roles and responsibilities. (a) Applicants must: (1) Complete the application...

  9. 44 CFR 152.8 - Application submission and deadline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY FIRE PREVENTION AND CONTROL ASSISTANCE TO FIREFIGHTERS GRANT PROGRAM § 152.8 Application submission and deadline. In each year that this program is authorized and...

  10. 44 CFR 152.8 - Application submission and deadline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY FIRE PREVENTION AND CONTROL ASSISTANCE TO FIREFIGHTERS GRANT PROGRAM § 152.8 Application submission and deadline. In each year that this program is authorized and...

  11. 44 CFR 152.3 - Availability of funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...HOMELAND SECURITY FIRE PREVENTION AND CONTROL ASSISTANCE TO FIREFIGHTERS GRANT PROGRAM § 152.3 Availability of funds. ...departments that have received funding under the Assistance to Firefighter Grant Program in previous years are eligible to...

  12. 7 CFR 4280.152 - Servicing guaranteed loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS AND GRANTS Rural Energy for America Program General Renewable Energy System and Energy Efficiency Improvement Guaranteed Loans § 4280.152 Servicing...

  13. 36 CFR 812.152-812.159 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property...152-812.159 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ADVISORY COUNCIL ON HISTORIC PRESERVATION ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION...ADVISORY COUNCIL ON HISTORIC PRESERVATION §§...

  14. 36 CFR 812.152-812.159 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property...152-812.159 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ADVISORY COUNCIL ON HISTORIC PRESERVATION ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION...ADVISORY COUNCIL ON HISTORIC PRESERVATION §§...

  15. 22 CFR 1103.152-1103.159 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01...1103.152-1103.159 Foreign Relations INTERNATIONAL BOUNDARY AND WATER COMMISSION...PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY INTERNATIONAL BOUNDARY AND WATER...

  16. 22 CFR 1103.152-1103.159 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01...1103.152-1103.159 Foreign Relations INTERNATIONAL BOUNDARY AND WATER COMMISSION...PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY INTERNATIONAL BOUNDARY AND WATER...

  17. 45 CFR 1181.152-1181.159 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES INSTITUTE OF MUSEUM AND LIBRARY SERVICES ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON...HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE INSTITUTE OF MUSEUM AND LIBRARY SERVICES §§ 1181.152-1181.159...

  18. 27 CFR 19.152 - Types of bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Bonds and Consents of Surety Bonding Requirements for A Dsp § 19.152 Types of bonds. (a) Basic Bonds. There are two basic types of bonds: the operations bond, and the...

  19. 27 CFR 19.152 - Types of bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Bonds and Consents of Surety Bonding Requirements for A Dsp § 19.152 Types of bonds. (a) Basic Bonds. There are two basic types of bonds: the operations bond, and the...

  20. 27 CFR 19.152 - Types of bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Bonds and Consents of Surety Bonding Requirements for A Dsp § 19.152 Types of bonds. (a) Basic Bonds. There are two basic types of bonds: the operations bond, and the...

  1. 27 CFR 19.152 - Types of bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Bonds and Consents of Surety Bonding Requirements for A Dsp § 19.152 Types of bonds. (a) Basic Bonds. There are two basic types of bonds: the operations bond, and the...

  2. 10 CFR 63.152 - Training and certification program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Training and certification program...CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN...YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Training and Certification of Personnel § 63.152 Training and certification...

  3. 10 CFR 63.152 - Training and certification program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Training and certification program...CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN...YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Training and Certification of Personnel § 63.152 Training and certification...

  4. 10 CFR 63.152 - Training and certification program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Training and certification program...CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN...YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Training and Certification of Personnel § 63.152 Training and certification...

  5. 10 CFR 63.152 - Training and certification program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Training and certification program...CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN...YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Training and Certification of Personnel § 63.152 Training and certification...

  6. 45 CFR 1181.152-1181.159 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES INSTITUTE OF MUSEUM AND LIBRARY SERVICES ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON...HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE INSTITUTE OF MUSEUM AND LIBRARY SERVICES §§ 1181.152-1181.159...

  7. 45 CFR 1181.152-1181.159 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES INSTITUTE OF MUSEUM AND LIBRARY SERVICES ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON...HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE INSTITUTE OF MUSEUM AND LIBRARY SERVICES §§ 1181.152-1181.159...

  8. 45 CFR 1181.152-1181.159 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES INSTITUTE OF MUSEUM AND LIBRARY SERVICES ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON...HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE INSTITUTE OF MUSEUM AND LIBRARY SERVICES §§ 1181.152-1181.159...

  9. 45 CFR 1181.152-1181.159 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES INSTITUTE OF MUSEUM AND LIBRARY SERVICES ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON...HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE INSTITUTE OF MUSEUM AND LIBRARY SERVICES §§ 1181.152-1181.159...

  10. 31 CFR 363.149-363.152 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT REGULATIONS GOVERNING SECURITIES HELD IN TREASURYDIRECT Zero-Percent Certificate of Indebtedness Payroll Zero-Percent Certificate of Indebtedness §§ 363.149-363.152...

  11. 31 CFR 363.149-363.152 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...TREASURY BUREAU OF THE FISCAL SERVICE REGULATIONS GOVERNING SECURITIES HELD IN TREASURYDIRECT Zero-Percent Certificate of Indebtedness Payroll Zero-Percent Certificate of Indebtedness §§ 363.149-363.152...

  12. 31 CFR 363.149-363.152 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT REGULATIONS GOVERNING SECURITIES HELD IN TREASURYDIRECT Zero-Percent Certificate of Indebtedness Payroll Zero-Percent Certificate of Indebtedness §§ 363.149-363.152...

  13. 31 CFR 363.149-363.152 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT REGULATIONS GOVERNING SECURITIES HELD IN TREASURYDIRECT Zero-Percent Certificate of Indebtedness Payroll Zero-Percent Certificate of Indebtedness §§ 363.149-363.152...

  14. 14 CFR 152.11 - Incorporation by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM General § 152.11 Incorporation...Director, Office of Airport Standards...development at general aviation airports in the...

  15. 14 CFR 152.11 - Incorporation by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM General § 152.11 Incorporation...Director, Office of Airport Standards...development at general aviation airports in the...

  16. 14 CFR 152.11 - Incorporation by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM General § 152.11 Incorporation...Director, Office of Airport Standards...development at general aviation airports in the...

  17. 14 CFR 152.11 - Incorporation by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM General § 152.11 Incorporation...Director, Office of Airport Standards...development at general aviation airports in the...

  18. 14 CFR 152.11 - Incorporation by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM General § 152.11 Incorporation...Director, Office of Airport Standards...development at general aviation airports in the...

  19. 10 CFR 431.152 - Definitions concerning commercial clothes washers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...431.152 Definitions concerning commercial clothes washers. Commercial clothes washer means a soft-mounted front-loading or soft-mounted top-loading clothes washer that— (1) Has a clothes container compartment that—...

  20. 22 CFR 219.152-219.159 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01...219.152-219.159 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ENFORCEMENT...PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT COOPERATION...

  1. Combination of fiber-guided pulsed erbium and holmium laser radiation for tissue ablation under water.

    PubMed

    Pratisto, H; Frenz, M; Ith, M; Altermatt, H J; Jansen, E D; Weber, H P

    1996-07-01

    Because of the high absorption of near-infrared laser radiation in biological tissue, erbium lasers and holmium lasers emitting at 3 and 2 µm, respectively, have been proven to have optimal qualities for cutting or welding and coagulating tissue. To combine the advantages of both wavelengths, we realized a multiwavelength laser system by simultaneously guiding erbium and holmium laser radiation by means of a single zirconium fluoride (ZrF(4)) fiber. Laser-induced channel formation in water and poly(acrylamide) gel was investigated by the use of a time-resolved flash-photography setup, while pressure transients were recorded simultaneously with a needle hydrophone. The shapes and depths of vapor channels produced in water and in a submerged gel after single erbium and after combination erbium-holmium radiation delivered by means of a 400-µm ZrF(4) fiber were measured. Transmission measurements were performed to determine the amount of pulse energy available for tissue ablation. The effects of laser wavelength and the delay time between pulses of different wavelengths on the photomechanical and photothermal responses of meniscal tissue were evaluated in vitro by the use of histology. It was observed that the use of a short (200-µs, 100-mJ) holmium laser pulse as a prepulse to generate a vapor bubble through which the ablating erbium laser pulse can be transmitted (delay time, 100 µs) increases the cutting depth in meniscus from 450 to 1120 µm as compared with the depth following a single erbium pulse. The results indicate that a combination of erbium and holmium laser radiation precisely and efficiently cuts tissue under water with 20-50-µm collateral tissue damage. PMID:21102719

  2. Developing 152Eu into a standard for detector efficiency calibration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruy M. Castro; Vito R. Vanin; Paulo R. Pascholati; Nora L. Maidana; Mauro S. Dias; Marina F. Koskinas

    2004-01-01

    A ?–? coincidence experiment was performed to check the 152Eu 13-year decay scheme and the placement of the observed ?-ray transitions. The multi-detector array for residual activity measurement of the Linear Accelerator Laboratory was used. The source activity was 1MBq, and about 109 coincidence events were observed. About 30 ?'s were placed in the decay scheme and four 152Sm levels

  3. N=90 region: The decays of {sup 152}Eu{sup m,g} to {sup 152}Sm

    SciTech Connect

    Kulp, W. D.; Wood, J. L.; Allmond, J. M.; Eimer, J.; Furse, D.; Krane, K. S.; Loats, J.; Schmelzenbach, P.; Stapels, C. J.; Larimer, R.-M.; Norman, E. B.; Piechaczek, A. [School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0430 (United States) and Department of Physics, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon 97331-6507 (United States); Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (United States)

    2007-09-15

    The decays of {sup 152}Eu{sup m,g}{yields}{sup 152}Sm have been studied by {gamma}-ray spectroscopy using the 8{pi} spectrometer, an array of 20 Compton-suppressed Ge detectors. Very weak {gamma}-decay branches in {sup 152}Sm were investigated through {gamma}-{gamma} coincidence spectroscopy. All possible E2 transitions between states below 1550 keV with transition energies >130 keV are observed, including the previously unobserved 2{sub 3}{sup +}{yields}0{sub 2}{sup +} 401 keV transition. The results, combined with existing lifetime data, provide a number of new or revised E2 transition strengths which are critical for clarifying the collective structure of {sup 152}Sm and the N=90 isotones.

  4. C-and L-band erbium-doped waveguide lasers with wafer-scale silicon nitride cavities

    E-print Network

    Reif, Rafael

    C- and L-band erbium-doped waveguide lasers with wafer-scale silicon nitride cavities Purnawirman,1 obtain output powers of up to 5 mW and show lasing at widely spaced wavelengths within both the C and L bands of the erbium gain spectrum (1536, 1561, and 1596 nm). © 2013 Optical Society of America OCIS

  5. Bi2O3-based erbium doped fiber laser with over 110 nm tunable range for fiber sensor sources

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Ohara; T. Hasegawa; Y. Kondo; N. Sugimoto

    2008-01-01

    The advantage of optical fiber grating sensors are easily implemented multiplexing by using broadband light source. Erbium doped fiber (EDF) are important as a gain media, because it affects the performance of light sources. We demonstrated tunable fiber ring laser using Bi2O3-based Erbium doped fiber (BIEDF) and a tunable filter with bandwidth of 1 nm. We show the BIEDF fiber

  6. Fabrication, structural characterization, dielectric and electrical parameters of the synthesized nano-crystalline erbium oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azad, Fahad; Maqsood, Asghari

    2014-05-01

    Nano crystalline erbium oxide (Er2O3) was synthesized in the laboratory through sol-gel method. The effect of different annealing temperatures on the crystal structure has been studied using x-ray diffraction (XRD). The comparison of the specific surface area (s); calculated using Brunauer, Emmett & Teller theory and (XRD) results, was made and found in agreement with an approximate error of 7%. The morphology of the samples has been studied using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and particles are found having a spherical morphology. Elemental analysis of the erbium oxide was also carried using energy dispersive spectrum (EDS) of the synthesized samples. Fourier transform infrared spectrum (FTIR) of the prepared samples showed the characteristic peaks for Er2O3. The dielectric properties of Er2O3 were also studied in the wide range of frequency (100 Hz - 5MHz). The activation energy for erbium oxide was found to be between 0.5-0.8 eV in the temperature range of 373 K-573 K. Hall effect measurements were done on the synthesized erbium oxide and it was found that erbium oxide can have useful applications in the Hall effect sensors (HES).

  7. Erbium doped aluminum nitride nanoparticles for nano-thermometer applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandya, Sneha G.; Kordesch, Martin E.

    2015-06-01

    We have synthesized nanoparticles (NPs) of aluminum nitride (AlN) doped in situ with erbium (Er) using the inert gas condensation technique. These NPs have optical properties that make them good candidates for nanoscale temperature sensors. The photoluminescence (PL) spectrum of Er3+ in these NPs shows two emission peaks in the green region at around 540 and 560 nm. The ratio of the intensities of these luminescence peaks is related to temperature. Using Boltzmann’s distribution, the temperature of the NP and its surrounding can be calculated. The NPs were directly deposited on (111) p-type silicon wafers, transmission electron microscope grids and glass cover slips. XRD and HRTEM study indicates that most of the NPs have crystalline hexagonal AlN structure. An enhancement of the luminescence from these NPs was observed after heating in-air at 770 K for 3 h. The sample was then heated in air using a scanning optical microscope laser. The corresponding change in PL peak intensities of the NPs was recorded for laser powers ranging from 0.2 to 15.1 mW. Temperature calculated using the Boltzmann’s distribution was in the range of 300–470 K. This temperature range is of interest for semiconductor device heating and for thermal treatment of cancerous cells, for example.

  8. Performance analysis of dynamic erbium-doped fiber amplifier simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Sharbani; Priye, Vishnu; Kumar, Santosh

    2013-04-01

    A real time multichannel dynamic erbium doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) Simulink model with flat gain and gain clamping facility has been developed on a MATLAB platform. We model the EDFA simulator with one-dimensional nonlinear differential equation that describes the time dependent population density. For the model to show gain flattening multiplexed channels at different wavelengths, the MATLAB function block is used. Next, to simulate the noise performance of EDFA. New forward amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) noise blocks are designed that add noise dynamically at signal wavelength. The model has been implemented in the study of performance characteristics of an EDFA in both C- and L-band signal amplification by simulation. Based on the designed ASE generator, noise figure for different signal wavelengths are calculated. For 980 nm pump power, the noise figure almost reaches the practical limit of 3 dB whereas for 1480 nm pump power, a variation of about 1.5 dB and 0.8 dB is observed from the practical limit for the C- and L-bands, respectively. The present model can be implemented successfully as a test bed in the study of EDFA gain dynamics over the entire third optical communication bandwidth (1525 to 1690 nm) in signal amplification.

  9. Advanced experiments with an erbium-doped fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, Paulo V. S.; Marques, Manuel B.; Rosa, Carla C.

    2014-07-01

    This communication describes an optical hands-on fiber laser experiment aimed at advanced college courses. Optical amplifiers and laser sources represent very important optical devices in numerous applications ranging from telecommunications to medicine. The study of advanced photonics experiments is particularly relevant at undergraduate and master level. This paper discusses the implementation of an optical fiber laser made with a cavity built with two tunable Bragg gratings. This scheme allows the students to understand the laser working principles as a function of the laser cavity set-up. One or both of the gratings can be finely tuned in wavelength through applied stress; therefore, the degree of spectral mismatch of the two gratings can be adjusted, effectively changing the cavity feedback. The impact of the cavity conditions on the laser threshold, spectrum and efficiency is analyzed. This experiment assumes that in a previous practice, the students should had already characterized the erbium doped fiber in terms of absorption and fluorescent spectra, and the spectral gain as a function of pump power.

  10. Electroluminescence efficiencies of erbium in silicon-based hosts

    SciTech Connect

    Cueff, Sébastien, E-mail: sebastien-cueff@brown.edu, E-mail: christophe.labbe@ensicaen.fr [Centre de Recherche sur les Ions, les Matériaux et la Photonique (CIMAP), UMR 6252 CNRS/CEA/Ensicaen/UCBN, Caen 14050 (France) [Centre de Recherche sur les Ions, les Matériaux et la Photonique (CIMAP), UMR 6252 CNRS/CEA/Ensicaen/UCBN, Caen 14050 (France); School of Engineering, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912 (United States); Manel Ramírez, Joan; Berencén, Yonder; Garrido, Blas [MIND-IN2UB, Department Electrònica, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1, Barcelona 08028 (Spain)] [MIND-IN2UB, Department Electrònica, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1, Barcelona 08028 (Spain); Kurvits, Jonathan A.; Zia, Rashid [School of Engineering, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912 (United States) [School of Engineering, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912 (United States); Department of Physics, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912 (United States); Rizk, Richard; Labbé, Christophe, E-mail: sebastien-cueff@brown.edu, E-mail: christophe.labbe@ensicaen.fr [Centre de Recherche sur les Ions, les Matériaux et la Photonique (CIMAP), UMR 6252 CNRS/CEA/Ensicaen/UCBN, Caen 14050 (France)] [Centre de Recherche sur les Ions, les Matériaux et la Photonique (CIMAP), UMR 6252 CNRS/CEA/Ensicaen/UCBN, Caen 14050 (France)

    2013-11-04

    We report on room-temperature 1.5??m electroluminescence from trivalent erbium (Er{sup 3+}) ions embedded in three different CMOS-compatible silicon-based hosts: SiO{sub 2}, Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, and SiN{sub x}. We show that although the insertion of either nitrogen or excess silicon helps enhance electrical conduction and reduce the onset voltage for electroluminescence, it drastically decreases the external quantum efficiency of Er{sup 3+} ions from 2% in SiO{sub 2} to 0.001% and 0.0004% in SiN{sub x} and Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, respectively. Furthermore, we present strong evidence that hot carrier injection is significantly more efficient than defect-assisted conduction for the electrical excitation of Er{sup 3+} ions. These results suggest strategies to optimize the engineering of on-chip electrically excited silicon-based nanophotonic light sources.

  11. Hydrogen diffusion along grain boundaries in erbium oxide coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Wei; Chikada, Takumi; Suzuki, Akihiro; Terai, Takayuki

    2014-12-01

    Diffusion of interstitial atomic hydrogen in erbium oxide (Er2O3) was investigated using density functional theory (DFT) and molecular dynamics (MD) methods. Hydrogen diffusivity in bulk, on (0 0 1) surface, and along ?13 (4-3-1)/[1 1 1] symmetric tilt grain boundaries (GBs) were evaluated in a temperature range of 673-1073 K, as well as hydrogen diffusion barriers. It was found that H diffusion shows the faster on (0 0 1) surface than along GBs and in bulk. Also, energy barrier of H diffusion in bulk estimated by DFT and MD methods is somewhat higher than that along GBs evaluated in the experiments. This suggests that H diffusion in Er2O3 coatings depends on GBs rather than bulk. In addition, with a correction of GB density, the simulated diffusivity along GBs in MD simulations is in good agreement with the experimental data within one order of magnitude. The discrepancy of H diffusivity between the experiments and the simulations should be reduced by considering H concentration, H diffusion direction, deviations of the initial configuration, vacancy defects, etc.

  12. Femtosecond erbium-doped fiber lasers and a soliton compression technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Eiji; Kimura, Yasuo; Nakazawa, Masataka

    1993-08-01

    The lasing characteristics of an erbium-doped fiber laser with a nonlinear amplifying loop mirror (NALM) were investigated in detail. The NALM was pumped by 1.48 micron InGaAsP laser diodes and an output pulse as short as 123 fs was obtained at 1.56 micron. The 124-fs pulse was shortened to 50 fs by using adiabatic soliton narrowing and high order soliton compression. Soliton narrowing was achieved by amplifying the soliton pulse adiabatically with an erbium-doped fiber amplifier, and a short length of dispersion-flattened fiber was used for soliton compression. Soliton narrowing enabled us to succeed in generating a 98-fs pulse directly from a modified erbium-doped fiber laser.

  13. Femtosecond Erbium-Doped Fiber Lasers and a Soliton Compression Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Eiji; Kimura, Yasuo; Nakazawa, Masataka

    1993-08-01

    The lasing characteristics of an erbium-doped fiber laser with a nonlinear amplifying loop mirror (NALM) were investigated in detail. The NALM was pumped by 1.48 ?m InGaAsP laser diodes and an output pulse as short as 124 fs was obtained at 1.56 ?m. The 124-fs pulse was shortened to 50 fs by using adiabatic soliton narrowing and high order soliton compression. Soliton narrowing was achieved by amplifying the soliton pulse adiabatically with an erbium-doped fiber amplifier, and a short length of dispersion-flattened fiber was used for soliton compression. Soliton narrowing enabled us to succeed in generating a 98-fs pulse directly from a modified erbium-doped fiber laser.

  14. Design and Compact Modeling of Saturated Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers with Nonconfined Doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Movassaghi, M.; Jackson, M. K.

    2001-10-01

    We present a theoretical and experimental study of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers in saturated operation, examining designs in which erbium doping is distributed throughout the core. We show the penalty due to reduced inversion near the core boundary is negligible, while the reduced amplifier length can improve performance. We examine the accuracy of compact models for such nonconfined doping and show that a widely-used compact model exhibits substantial errors, while the Giles-Desurvire (G-D) model (1991, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol.9, 271) is accurate, despite having been derived for confined erbium doping. Furthermore, we simplify the G-D model by eliminating the saturation parameters and argue that this can improve accuracy. Finally, we experimentally validate the simplified G-D model for a moderately confined fiber, comparing amplifier measurements with predictions based on measured fiber parameters; measured and modeled gain and noise figure are in excellent agreement, in the absence of adjustable parameters.

  15. SMU.152 Acts as an Immunity Protein for Mutacin IV

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, Mohammad Shahnoor

    2012-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans, a principal causative agent of dental caries, secretes antimicrobial peptides known as mutacins to suppress the growth of competing species to establish a successful colonization. S. mutans UA159, a sequenced strain, produces at least two major mutacins, mutacins IV and V. Mutacin IV is a two-peptide mutacin encoded by nlmAB genes, which are mapped just upstream of a putative immunity-encoding gene SMU.152. Here we explored the function of SMU.152 as an immunity protein. We observed that overexpression of SMU.152 in two sensitive host strains converted the strains to become immune to mutacin IV. To identify the residues that are important for immunity function, we sequentially deleted residues from the C-terminal region of SMU.152. We observed that deletion of as few as seven amino acids, all of which are highly charged (KRRSKNK), drastically reduced the immunity function of the protein. Furthermore, we identified two other putative immunity proteins, SMU.1909 and SMU.925, which lack the last four charged residues (SKNK) that are present in SMU.152 but contain the KRR residues. Synthetic addition of SKNK residues to either SMU.1909 or SMU.925 to reconstitute the KRRSKNK motif and expressing these constructs in sensitive cells rendered the cells resistant to mutacin IV. We also demonstrated that deletion of Man-PTS system from a sensitive strain made the cells partially resistant to mutacin IV, indicating that the Man-PTS system plays a role in mutacin IV recognition. PMID:22505686

  16. Atomic layer deposition and characterization of zirconium oxide–erbium oxide nanolaminates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aile Tamm; Mikko Heikkilä; Marianna Kemell; Jekaterina Kozlova; Kaupo Kukli; Väino Sammelselg; Mikko Ritala; Markku Leskelä

    2010-01-01

    ZrO2 and Er2O3 thin films and nanolaminates were grown by atomic layer deposition from tris(2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptanedionato)erbium, bis(methylcyclopentadienyl)methoxymethylzirconium and ozone as precursors at 350°C. Nanolaminates consisted of 3–8nm thick ZrO2 and Er2O3 layers alternately deposited on planar substrates and on three-dimensional substrates with aspect ratio 1:20. The erbium content was 5–15at.%. ZrO2–Er2O3 films crystallized already in as-deposited states. Upon annealing at 650°C,

  17. Femtosecond erbium-doped fiber laser with nonlinear polarization rotation and its soliton compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Eiji; Kimura, Yasuo; Nakazawa, Masataka

    1994-10-01

    A continuous wave suppressed, uniformly repetitive pulse train as short as 136-145 fs has been successfully generated at a wavelength of 1.55 micron from a new type of femtosecond erbium-doped fiber laser with nonlinear polarization rotation. The 145 fs pulse was shortened to 52 fs by using soliton narrowing and high order soliton compression. Soliton narrowing was achieved by amplifying the soliton pulse with an erbium-doped fiber amplifier, and a short length of dispersion-flattened fiber was used for further compressing the soliton.

  18. Femtosecond Erbium-Doped Fiber Laser with Nonlinear Polarization Rotation and Its Soliton Compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Eiji; Kimura, Yasuo; Nakazawa, Masataka

    1994-10-01

    A continuous wave suppressed, uniformly repetitive pulse train as short as 136 145 fs has been successfully generated at a wavelength of 1.55 µ m from a new type of femtosecond erbium-doped fiber laser with nonlinear polarization rotation. The 145 fs pulse was shortened to 52 fs by using soliton narrowing and high order soliton compression. Soliton narrowing was achieved by amplifying the soliton pulse with an erbium-doped fiber amplifier, and a short length of dispersion-flattened fiber was used for further compressing the soliton.

  19. Up-conversion luminescence enhancement in erbium-doped porous silicon photonic crystals for photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Craig M.; Reece, Peter J.; Conibeer, Gavin J.

    2011-02-01

    Solar cell efficiency can be increased by adding a rear layer that captures unabsorbed low-energy photons and combines their energy to emit higher-energy photons. This concept has been demonstrated for silicon solar cells using erbium-doped phosphors. Here we investigate the possibility of enhancing intra-4f up-conversion processes within band-edge slow light modes in photonic crystals. We discuss the potential efficiency enhancement realizable one-dimensional erbium-doped porous silicon photonic crystals and present preliminary investigations into these interactions in a real structure.

  20. Erbium:YAG laser incision of urethral strictures: early clinical results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munoz, John A.; Riemer, Jennifer D.; Hayes, Gary B.; Negus, Dan; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2007-02-01

    Two cases involving Erbium:YAG laser incision of proximal bulbar urethral strictures are described. Erbium:YAG laser radiation with a wavelength of 2.94 ?m, pulse energy of 10 mJ, and a pulse repetition rate of 15 Hz, was delivered through a 2-m-long, 250-?m-core sapphire optical fiber in contact with tissue. Total laser irradiation time was 5 min. The first patient suffering from a virgin urethral stricture was treated and is stricture-free. The second patient suffering from a recurrent urethral stricture required further treatment. This case report describes the first clinical application of the Er:YAG laser in urology.

  1. Optical bistability in erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet crystal combined with a laser diode.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Y

    1994-01-10

    Optical bistability was observed in a simple structure of an injection laser diode combined with an erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet crystal. Since a hysteresis characteristic exists in the relationship between the wavelength and the injection current of a laser diode, an optical memory function capable of holding the output status is confirmed. In addition, an optical signal inversion was caused by the decrease of transmission of the erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet crystal against the red shift (principally mode hopping) of the laser diode. It is suggested that the switching time of this phenomenon is the time necessary for a mode hopping by current injection. PMID:20862016

  2. Manufacture and properties of erythromycin beads containing neutron-activated erbium-171

    SciTech Connect

    Parr, A.F.; Digenis, G.A.; Sandefer, E.P.; Ghebre-Sellassie, I.; Iyer, U.; Nesbitt, R.U.; Scheinthal, B.M. (Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington (USA))

    1990-03-01

    To evaluate the effects of a neutron activation radiolabeling technique on an enteric-coated multiparticulate formulation of erythromycin, test quantities were produced under industrial pilot scale conditions. The pellets contained the stable isotope erbium oxide (Er-170), which was later converted by neutron activation into the short-lived gamma ray-emitting radionuclide, erbium-171. In vitro studies indicated that the dissolution profile, acid resistance, and enteric-coated surface of the pellets were minimally affected by the irradiation procedure. Antimicrobial potency was also unaffected, as determined by microbiological assay. Neutron activation thus appears to simplify the radiolabeling of complex pharmaceutical dosage forms for in vivo study by external gamma scintigraphy.

  3. Certification of the Cessna 152 on 100% ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Shauck, M.E.; Zanin, M.G.

    1997-12-31

    In June 1996, the Renewable Aviation Fuels Development Center (RAFDC) at Baylor University in Waco, Texas, received a Supplemental Type Certificate (STC) for the use of 100% ethanol as a fuel for the Cessna 152, the most popular training aircraft in the world. This is the first certification granted by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) for a non-petroleum fuel. Certification of an aircraft on a new fuel requires a certification of the engine followed by a certification of the airframe/engine combination. This paper will describe the FAA airframe certification procedure, the tests required and their outcome using ethanol as an aviation fuel in a Cessna 152.

  4. Optical addressing of an individual erbium ion in silicon.

    PubMed

    Yin, Chunming; Rancic, Milos; de Boo, Gabriele G; Stavrias, Nikolas; McCallum, Jeffrey C; Sellars, Matthew J; Rogge, Sven

    2013-05-01

    The detection of electron spins associated with single defects in solids is a critical operation for a range of quantum information and measurement applications under development. So far, it has been accomplished for only two defect centres in crystalline solids: phosphorus dopants in silicon, for which electrical read-out based on a single-electron transistor is used, and nitrogen-vacancy centres in diamond, for which optical read-out is used. A spin read-out fidelity of about 90 per cent has been demonstrated with both electrical read-out and optical read-out; however, the thermal limitations of the former and the poor photon collection efficiency of the latter make it difficult to achieve the higher fidelities required for quantum information applications. Here we demonstrate a hybrid approach in which optical excitation is used to change the charge state (conditional on its spin state) of an erbium defect centre in a silicon-based single-electron transistor, and this change is then detected electrically. The high spectral resolution of the optical frequency-addressing step overcomes the thermal broadening limitation of the previous electrical read-out scheme, and the charge-sensing step avoids the difficulties of efficient photon collection. This approach could lead to new architectures for quantum information processing devices and could drastically increase the range of defect centres that can be exploited. Furthermore, the efficient electrical detection of the optical excitation of single sites in silicon represents a significant step towards developing interconnects between optical-based quantum computing and silicon technologies. PMID:23636400

  5. Subpicosecond pulse compresssion and Raman generation using a mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser-amplifier

    SciTech Connect

    Schlager, J.B.; Hale, P.D.; Franzen, D.L. (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO (US))

    1990-08-01

    Pulses of 20 ps duration from a 1536 nm erbium-doped fiber laser mode-locked at 10 MHz are soliton-compressed in a 1 km fiber to 1.5 ps. The pulses are then amplified in an erbium-doped fiber amplifier and compressed in a second fiber to less than 300 fs. Pulses give rise to stimulated Raman scattering in fibers; the direct output from the erbium fiber laser-amplifier has sufficient peak power to pump fiber Raman lasers.

  6. Selectively Erbium Doped Titanium Diffused Optical Waveguide Amplifiers in Lithium Niobate 

    E-print Network

    Suh, Jae Woo

    2011-02-22

    Selectively erbium (Er) doped titanium (Ti) in-diffused optical waveguide amplifiers on lithium niobate (LiNbO3) substrate have been fabricated and characterized in the wavelength regime around ? = 1.53?m using counter-directional pumping at ?P = 1...

  7. Performance comparison of Zr-based and Bi-based erbium-doped fiber amplifiers.

    PubMed

    Paul, M C; Harun, S W; Huri, N A D; Hamzah, A; Das, S; Pal, M; Bhadra, S K; Ahmad, H; Yoo, S; Kalita, M P; Boyland, A J; Sahu, J K

    2010-09-01

    In this Letter, we present a comprehensive comparison of the performance of a zirconia-based erbium-doped fiber amplifier (Zr-EDFA) and a bismuth-based erbium-doped fiber amplifier (Bi-EDFA). The experimental results reveal that a Zr-EDFA can achieve comparable performance to the conventional Bi-EDFA for C-band and L-band operations. With a combination of both Zr and Al, we could achieve a high erbium-doping concentration of about 2800 ppm (parts per million) in the glass host without any phase separations of rare earths. The Zr-based erbium-doped fiber (Zr-EDF) was fabricated using in a ternary glass host, zirconia-yttria-aluminum codoped silica fiber through a solution-doping technique along with modified chemical vapor deposition. At a high input signal of 0 dBm, a flat gain at average value of 13 dB is obtained with a gain variation of less than 2 dB within the wavelength region of 1530-1575 nm and using 2 m of Zr-EDF and 120 mW pump power. The noise figures are less than 9.2 at this wavelength region. It was found that a Zr-EDFA can achieve even better flat-gain value and bandwidth as well as lower noise figure than the conventional Bi-EDFA. PMID:20808356

  8. Structural properties and electrical characteristics of electron-beam gun evaporated erbium oxide films

    E-print Network

    Eisenstein, Gadi

    Structural properties and electrical characteristics of electron-beam gun evaporated erbium oxide for publication 3 January 2002 We report properties of Er2O3 films deposited on silicon using electron-beam gun to 700 °C.6 The Er2O3 films we describe were deposited by an electron-beam gun EBG evaporation system

  9. Performance of a High-Concentration Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifier with 100 nm Amplification Bandwidth

    SciTech Connect

    Hajireza, P.; Shahabuddin, N. S.; Abbasi-Zargaleh, S.; Emami, S. D.; Abdul-Rashid, H. A.; Yusoff, Z. [Center for Advanced Devices and Systems, Faculty of Engineering, Multimedia University, 63100 Cyberjaya (Malaysia)

    2010-07-07

    Increasing demand for higher bandwidth has driven the need for higher Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) channels. One of the requirements to achieve this is a broadband amplifier. This paper reports the performance of a broadband, compact, high-concentration and silica-based erbium-doped fiber amplifier. The amplifier optimized to a 2.15 m long erbium-doped fiber with erbium ion concentration of 2000 ppm. The gain spectrum of the amplifier has a measured amplification bandwidth of 100 nm using a 980 nm laser diode with power of 150 mW. This silica-based EDFA shows lower noise figure, higher gain and wider bandwidth in shorter wavelengths compared to Bismuth-based EDFA with higher erbium ion concentration of 3250 ppm at equivalent EDF length. The silica-based EDF shows peak gain at 22 dB and amplification bandwidth between 1520 nm and 1620 nm. The lowest noise figure is 5 dB. The gain is further improved with the implementation of enhanced EDFA configurations.

  10. VISIBLE AND INFRARED RARE-EARTH ACTIVATED ELECTROLUMINESCENCE FROM ERBIUM DOPED GaN

    E-print Network

    Steckl, Andrew J.

    temperature visible and IR light electroluminescence (EL) has been obtained from Er-doped GaN Schottky barrierVISIBLE AND INFRARED RARE-EARTH ACTIVATED ELECTROLUMINESCENCE FROM ERBIUM DOPED GaN M. Garter*, R-unity power law dependence on bias current. An external quantum efficiency of 0.1% has also been demonstrated

  11. Fundamental design of a distributed erbium-doped fiber amplifier for long-distance transmission

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karsten Rottwitt; Anders Bjarklev; Jorn Hedegaard Povlsen; Ole Lumholt; Thomas P. Rasmussen

    1992-01-01

    Comprehensive theoretical analysis on the design of a distributed erbium-doped fiber amplifier for long-distance transmission has been carried out, using a highly accurate model. The dispersion of the optical fiber as a function of the numerical aperture and the cutoff wavelength is included. Designs based on a bidirectional pumping scheme are evaluated, taking nonlinearities into account. The optimum value of

  12. Dual-Wavelength Erbium Fiber Laser in a Simple Ring Cavity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Ahmad; S. F. Norizan; M. Z. Zulkifli; S. W. Harun

    2009-01-01

    By controlling the cavity loss of the modes using a variable optical attenuator, specific intensities of distributed modes can be fed back into the erbium-doped fiber to produce signals without mode competition, thus resulting in stable lasing as a means to overcome mode competition in a homogenous gain medium. Two lasing signals were obtained with peak powers of approximately ?3.475

  13. Calculated Groundstate Properties of Erbium Isotopes in Comparison with Measured 2+STATES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Cornelius; J. A. Maruhn; W. Greiner; P. Fleischer; P.-G. Reinhard; T. Bürvenich; M. Bender; S. Schramm; J. H. Hamilton

    2003-01-01

    The deformation properties of nuclei in the vicinity of Erbium are calculated within the relativistic mean-field and the Skyrme-Hartree-Fock model and compared to experimentally measured 2+-states. The investigation in this region is of special interest since the lowest 2+-energy of an isotope-chain is not located in the midshell region.

  14. Room-temperature multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber ring laser employing sinusoidal phase-modulation feedback

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kejiang Zhou; Dongyun Zhou; Fengzhong Dong; Nam Quoc Ngo

    2003-01-01

    An effective method for achieving a room-temperature multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber ring laser is presented. Simultaneous multiwavelength lasing with 0.5-nm intervals is achieved both experimentally and theoretically by addition of sinusoidal phase modulation in the ring cavity to prevent single-wavelength oscillation.

  15. Stable and uniform multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber laser using nonlinear polarization

    E-print Network

    Wai, Ping-kong Alexander

    , and E. P. Ippen, "Self-starting additive pulse mode-locked erbium fiber ring laser," Electron. Lett. 28 pulses and suppress supermode noise in actively mode-locked fiber ring laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett study of pulse-amplitude- equalization in a rational harmonic mode-locked fiber ring laser," IEEE J

  16. Room temperature multifrequency erbium-doped fiber lasers anchored on the ITU frequency grid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antoine Bellemare; Miroslav Karasek; Martin Rochette; S. LRochelle; Michel Têtu

    2000-01-01

    Room temperature multifrequency erbium-doped fiber (EDF) lasers anchored on the ITU frequency grid and using frequency periodic filters are presented. The multifrequency operation is demonstrated both theoretically and experimentally by adding a frequency shifter in the ring cavity to prevent steady-state laser operation and single-frequency oscillation

  17. The Effects and Applications of Erbium Doped Fiber Fabry-Perot Interferometers

    E-print Network

    Taylor, Justin K.

    2010-07-14

    medium in the cavity. In order to induce gain, a highly doped Erbium (Er) fiber is incorporated in the FFPI. A pump wavelength of 1480 nm is used with a wavelength near 1550 nm. The pump must be at a significantly higher power level than the signal...

  18. Erbium-doped fiber ring laser tuning using an intra-cavity Fabry-Perot filter

    E-print Network

    Malik, Bilal Hameed

    2009-06-02

    A tunable erbium-doped fiber ring laser using an intra-cavity Fabry-Perot filter as the tuning element is investigated. Tuning is achieved by varying the applied voltage which controls the FP cavity length. The laser's wavelength is monitored using...

  19. Selectively Erbium Doped Titanium Diffused Optical Waveguide Amplifiers in Lithium Niobate

    E-print Network

    Suh, Jae Woo

    2011-02-22

    Selectively erbium (Er) doped titanium (Ti) in-diffused optical waveguide amplifiers on lithium niobate (LiNbO3) substrate have been fabricated and characterized in the wavelength regime around ? = 1.53?m using counter-directional pumping at ?P = 1...

  20. Design and Experimental Characterization of an Erbium Doped GaN Waveguide

    E-print Network

    Wang, Qian

    2012-05-31

    ABSTRACT The goal of this research was to develop an optical amplifier based on Erbium doped GaN waveguides, which can be used in the next-generation of planar integrated optic circuits. This thesis started from the basic concepts of fiber optic...

  1. Fabrication of yttrium oxide and erbium oxide coatings by PVD methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akihiko Sawada; Akihiro Suzuki; Hans Maier; Freimut Koch; Takayuki Terai; Takeo Muroga

    2005-01-01

    The development of insulating coatings is one of the most important subjects in fusion reactor liquid lithium blanket research and development. The compounds aluminum nitride, yttrium oxide and erbium oxide are considered to be candidate materials for ceramic coatings because of their high electrical resistance and their high compatibility with liquid lithium. In the present study, two types of PVD

  2. Nonresonant spectral-hole burning in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Rudkevich; D. M. Baney; J. Stimple; D. Derickson; G. Wang

    1999-01-01

    We report here, for the first time, observations of offset and collaterally burned holes in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFAs). This additional spectral-hole-burning structure in the 1.5-?m region will impact the application of EDFAs in the wavelength-division-multiplexed environment as well as their descriptive models

  3. Spectral-hole burning in erbium-doped silica and fluoride fibers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. W. Sulhoff; A. K. Srivastava; C. Wolf; Y. Sun; J. L. Zyskind

    1997-01-01

    Room-temperature (RT) spectral-hole burning (SHB) in erbium-doped silica and fluoride fibers is investigated and compared. SHB in a fluoride fiber is less strong than in a silica fiber and the hole widths are much wider indicating less inhomogeneity.

  4. Measurement of real-time gain gratings in erbium-doped fiber

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simon A. Boothroyd; Andrei Skirtach; Les Chan; A. Akmaloni

    1999-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical results for nonlinear wave mixing in a pumped erbium-doped fiber are presented where a fast phase transient is applied to one of the beams. The ratio of the imaginary part to the real part of the complex nonlinear refractive index is determined from the initial phase of the beam coupling. The fast phase transient is applied for

  5. Effects of simultaneously fiber transmitted erbium and holmium radiation on the interaction with highly absorbing media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frenz, Martin; Pratisto, Hans S.; Ith, Michael; Koenz, Flurin; Weber, Heinz P.

    1995-05-01

    Erbium and Holmium lasers have both been shown to be suitable for orthopedic surgery performed under water. Erbium lasers emitting in the 3 micrometers wavelength region corresponding to the maximum water absorption peak effectively ablated biological tissues with high precision and minimal thermal damage. Holmium laser radiation at 2 micrometers , due to a lower absorption coefficient, is characterized by a greater extent of thermal damage leading to hemostasis. To combine the special advantages of each system we simultaneously coupled their radiation into a zirconium fluoride fiber (ZrF4) which was protected with a quartz fiber tip. Pressure measurements performed in the liquid using a piezo electrical transducer, transmission measurements and video flash lamp schlieren imaging of the laser induced vapor bubble were used in order to determine optimum laser parameters. The cutting efficiency of the Erbium laser is drastically improved when a low energy Holmium laser pulse is additionally used which is just able to open a vapor channel through which the Erbium laser pulse can be transmitted. The dynamics of the channel formation, geometry and life time are measured as a function of the delay time between the two different laser pulses and the pulse energy applied. The combination of 2 micrometers and 3 micrometers radiation seems to be an ideal instrument for tissue treatment.

  6. Erbium:YAG laser contouring of the nasal dorsum: a preliminary investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truong, Mai T.; Majaron, Boris; Pandoh, Nidhi S.; Wong, Brian J.

    2001-05-01

    In conventional aesthetic rhinoplasty operations, manual or powered rasps are used to reduce the osseo-cartilagenous nasal dorsum. This tactile method requires palpation of the instrument and the dorsum during surgery to estimate the degree of volume reduction, and often requires forceful manipulation of the dorsum which may illicit pain during surgery and contribute to post-operative edema and echymosis. In this preliminary study, we investigated the use of the Erbium:YAG laser ((lambda) equals294 micrometers ) to reduce bone and cartilage using ex-vivo porcine nasal dorsum and human cadaveric tissues. The short pulsed length and high absorption of this laser in biologic tissues results in minimization of thermal injury which are ideal for non- contact optical contouring of osseous and cartilagenous tissues in the face. Two Erbium:YAG lasers were used to ablate fresh porcine nasal bone and compared for their use. One Erbium:YAG laser, the Fidelis Laser, Fontana Medical Lasers, Ljubljana, Slovenija with variable pulse repetition rates (2 to 50 Hz), pulse energy (80 to 1000 mJ), and pulse duration (100, 300, 750 and 1000 microsecond(s) ) was used and compared to the Ultrafine Erbium:YAG laser, Coherent Inc., Santa Clara California, with variable pulse repetition rate (2 to 10 Hz), pulse energy (2-16 J/cm2), and spot diameter (2-6 mm). Only laser parameters approximating the conditions for thermal confinement were evaluated.

  7. Argon laser versus erbium:YAG laser in the treatment of xanthelasma palpebrarum

    PubMed Central

    Abdelkader, Mona; Alashry, Shereen Ezzelregal

    2014-01-01

    Background Xanthelasma palpebrarum is the most common of the xanthomas with asymptomatic, symmetrical, bilateral, soft, yellow, polygonal papules around the eyelids. Though it is a benign lesion causing no functional disturbance, it is esthetically annoying. The surgical laser offers an extremely elegant and powerful solution to this problem. Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of erbium:YAG and argon lasers in the treatment of xanthelasma lesions. Patients and methods Forty patients were included in the study. Twenty patients (15 patients were bilateral with 30 eyes either in the upper or lower lid and 5 patients were unilateral) were treated with erbium:YAG laser. Another 20 patients (10 patients were bilateral with 20 eyes and 10 patients were unilateral) were treated with argon laser. Results In the majority of treated patients (either treated with erbium:YAG or argon laser), xanthelasma lesions were completely disappeared or significantly decreased in size. Two patients showed pigmentary changes in the form of hypopigmentation with erbium:YAG laser (one case), another case showed hyperpigmentation. No intraoperative complication was observed. No significant scar or recurrence was observed. Conclusion Argon laser in xanthelasma is an easy, effective, and safe method of treatment for small lesions and YAG laser is more better for large lesions than argon laser. PMID:25892929

  8. Investigation of coating CLAM steel substrates with erbium oxide by a magnetron sputtering method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shuai Liu; Xin Ju; Yong Xin; Jie Qiu; Tao Li; Jiang Li Cao

    2010-01-01

    The study of tritium permeation barrier (TPB) coating is one of the most important subjects in the development of liquid lithium blankets in ITER and future fusion reactors. Erbium oxide ceramic is a promising candidate material for a TPB coating because of its high electrical resistance and high compatibility with liquid lithium. In this paper, an Er2O3 coating was fabricated

  9. Direct demonstration of sensitization at 980nm optical excitation in erbium-ytterbium silicates

    E-print Network

    Vanhoutte, Michiel

    Sensitization of erbium by ytterbium in Er[subscript x]Yb[subscript 2-x]SiO[subscript 5] thin films at 980nm optical excitation is demonstrated by means of comparison of the 1.54?m photoluminescence intensities excited ...

  10. Role of Aluminum in Ytterbium–Erbium Codoped Phosphoaluminosilicate Optical Fibers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. G. Vienne; W. S. Brocklesby; R. S. Brown; Z. J. Chen; J. D. Minelly; J. E. Roman; D. N. Payne

    1996-01-01

    We report on a series of ytterbium–erbium codoped aluminophosphosilicate fibres fabricated by the modified chemical vapor deposition and solution doping technique where the concentration of aluminum is gradually increased in the region [A1]<[P]. We observe from deflection measurements that with increasing aluminum content the refractive index decreases and the phase separation increases. Laser slope efficiencies decrease when the aluminum concentration

  11. Star couplers with gain using multiple erbium-doped fibers pumped with a single laser

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. E. Willner; A. A. M. Saleh; H. M. Presby; D. J. DiGiovanni; C. A. Edwards

    1991-01-01

    An economical method for combining erbium-doped fiber (EDF) amplifiers and star couplers, is presented. It involves simultaneously pumping EDFs placed at the input or output ports of the coupler with a single laser pump source distributed through the coupler itself. In this way, many amplifiers can share the cost of a single pump laser, and the need for individual pump\\/signal

  12. Polarization dependent gain in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers: computer model and approximate formulas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Wysocki; Vincent Mazurczyk

    1996-01-01

    A computer model for polarization dependent gain (PDG) in Er-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFA) is presented. The model assumes that each erbium ion possesses an ellipsoidal gain surface and that all ion orientations are equally likely. By dividing the ions into subsets based upon orientation and computing the inversion of each subset in the presence of polarized pump and signal waves,

  13. ORNL/CDIAC-152 NDP-088(V2009)

    E-print Network

    ORNL/CDIAC-152 NDP-088(V2009) GLOBAL OCEAN SURFACE WATER PARTIAL PRESSURE OF CO2 DATABASE.......................................................................................................3 5. QUALITY CONTROL .....................................................................................................................................9 #12;#12;v LIST OF FIGURES 1 Location of LDEO V2009 master database of sea surface pCO2

  14. 35Cl NQR of 1,5,2-Diazaphosphorine Derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolgushin, G. V.; Nikitin, P. A.; Sapozhnikov, Yu. E.; Dmitrichenko, M. Yu.; Rozinov, V. G.; Voronkov, M. G.

    1994-02-01

    NQR frequencies and asymmetry parameters (?) of 35Cl chlorine-containing 1,5,2-diazaphosphorine derivatives are reported and discussed. NMDO calculations with total optimization of geometry have been carried out. The ?cal and ?cal values, calculated by means of the Townes and Dailey theory, correlate well with the experimenal data.

  15. Genizah MS T-S AS 152.80

    E-print Network

    Unknown

    2011-02-24

    *k T-S AS 152.80 *t Letter *s 5.5 x 10.3; 5 lines (recto; verso is blank) *m Paper; 1 leaf; torn, holes, rubbed *l Judaeo-Arabic *c Letter, mentioning 40 dirhams, and money and goods transactions between writer and addressee. *e...

  16. Lecture 13: Chain Matrix Multiplication CLRS Section 15.2

    E-print Network

    Golin, Mordecai J.

    Lecture 13: Chain Matrix Multiplication CLRS Section 15.2 Revised April 17, 2003 Outline of this Lecture . Recalling matrix multiplication. . The chain matrix multiplication problem. . A dynamic programming algorithm for chain ma­ trix multiplication. 1 Recalling Matrix Multiplication Matrix: An n � m

  17. Lecture 12: Chain Matrix Multiplication CLRS Section 15.2

    E-print Network

    Wu, Dekai

    Lecture 12: Chain Matrix Multiplication CLRS Section 15.2 Outline of this Lecture Recalling matrix multiplication. The chain matrix multiplication problem. A dynamic programming algorithm for chain ma- trix multiplication. 1 #12;Recalling Matrix Multiplication Matrix: An ¡ ¢ matrix

  18. 152. Photographic copy of original construction drawing dated October 24, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    152. Photographic copy of original construction drawing dated October 24, 1930 (from Record Group 115, Denver Branch of the National Archives, Denver). 60 x 12 RING GATE CONTROL; FLOAT WELL ASSEMBLY AND COVER HOIST STEM-CONNECTION ROD-SLEEVE. - Owyhee Dam, Across Owyhee River, Nyssa, Malheur County, OR

  19. 40 CFR 60.152 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Standards of Performance for Sewage Treatment Plants § 60.152 Standard...completed, no owner or operator of any sewage sludge incinerator subject to the provisions...in excess of 0.65 g/kg dry sludge input (1.30 lb/ton dry...

  20. 17 CFR 256.152 - Fuel stock expenses undistributed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fuel stock expenses undistributed...Accrued Assets § 256.152 Fuel stock expenses undistributed...appropriate, to include the cost of service company labor and...analysis and management of fuel supply contracts or...

  1. 40 CFR 60.152 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Sewage Treatment Plants § 60.152 Standard for particulate matter...conducted by § 60.8 is completed, no owner or operator of any sewage sludge incinerator subject to the provisions of this...

  2. 14 CFR 152.107 - Project eligibility: Airport development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...development in the mandatory standards incorporated into this part by § 152.11; and (3) Be described in an approved airport layout plan. (d) The airport involved in a project for airport development must be included in the current NASP. (e) In...

  3. 14 CFR 152.107 - Project eligibility: Airport development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...development in the mandatory standards incorporated into this part by § 152.11; and (3) Be described in an approved airport layout plan. (d) The airport involved in a project for airport development must be included in the current NASP. (e) In...

  4. 12 CFR 152.19 - Conversion to National banking association or state bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Conversion to National banking association or state bank. 152.19 Section 152.19 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY...

  5. 12 CFR 152.19 - Conversion to National banking association or state bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Conversion to National banking association or state bank. 152.19 Section 152.19 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY...

  6. 12 CFR 152.19 - Conversion to National banking association or state bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Conversion to National banking association or state bank. 152.19 Section 152.19 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY...

  7. 25 CFR 152.9 - Certificates of competency to certain Osage adults.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Certificates of competency to certain Osage adults. 152.9 Section 152.9 Indians...Certificates of competency to certain Osage adults. Applications for certificates of competency by adult members of the Osage Tribe of...

  8. 25 CFR 152.9 - Certificates of competency to certain Osage adults.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Certificates of competency to certain Osage adults. 152.9 Section 152.9 Indians...Certificates of competency to certain Osage adults. Applications for certificates of competency by adult members of the Osage Tribe of...

  9. 25 CFR 152.9 - Certificates of competency to certain Osage adults.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Certificates of competency to certain Osage adults. 152.9 Section 152.9 Indians...Certificates of competency to certain Osage adults. Applications for certificates of competency by adult members of the Osage Tribe of...

  10. 24 CFR 9.152 - Program accessibility: alterations of Property Disposition Program multifamily housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Section 9.152 Housing and Urban Development Office of the...Department of Housing and Urban Development ENFORCEMENT...THE DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT § 9.152 ...accessible for persons with mobility impairments. A unit...

  11. 24 CFR 9.152 - Program accessibility: alterations of Property Disposition Program multifamily housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Section 9.152 Housing and Urban Development Office of the...Department of Housing and Urban Development ENFORCEMENT...THE DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT § 9.152 ...accessible for persons with mobility impairments. A unit...

  12. 24 CFR 9.152 - Program accessibility: alterations of Property Disposition Program multifamily housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Section 9.152 Housing and Urban Development Office of the...Department of Housing and Urban Development ENFORCEMENT...THE DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT § 9.152 ...accessible for persons with mobility impairments. A unit...

  13. 24 CFR 9.152 - Program accessibility: alterations of Property Disposition Program multifamily housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Section 9.152 Housing and Urban Development Office of the...Department of Housing and Urban Development ENFORCEMENT...THE DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT § 9.152 ...accessible for persons with mobility impairments. A unit...

  14. 19 CFR 12.152 - Prohibitions and conditions on the importation and exportation of rough diamonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...on the importation and exportation of rough diamonds. 12.152 Section 12.152 Customs Duties...on the importation and exportation of rough diamonds. (a) General. The Clean Diamond Trade Act (Pub. L. 108-19)...

  15. 33 CFR 167.152 - Off New York: Eastern approach, off Nantucket.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Off New York: Eastern approach, off Nantucket. 167.152 Section...Precautionary Areas Atlantic East Coast § 167.152 Off New York: Eastern approach, off Nantucket. (a) A...

  16. 33 CFR 167.152 - Off New York: Eastern approach, off Nantucket.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Off New York: Eastern approach, off Nantucket. 167.152 Section...Precautionary Areas Atlantic East Coast § 167.152 Off New York: Eastern approach, off Nantucket. (a) A...

  17. 34 CFR 668.152 - Administration of tests by assessment centers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Administration of tests by assessment centers. 668.152 Section... Approval of Independently Administered Tests; Specification of Passing Score; Approval...Process § 668.152 Administration of tests by assessment centers. (a) If...

  18. 16 CFR 6.152 - Program accessibility: Electronic and information technology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...accessibility: Electronic and information technology. 6.152 Section 6.152 Commercial...accessibility: Electronic and information technology. (a) When developing, procuring...or using electronic and information technology, the Commission shall ensure,...

  19. 16 CFR 6.152 - Program accessibility: Electronic and information technology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...accessibility: Electronic and information technology. 6.152 Section 6.152 Commercial...accessibility: Electronic and information technology. (a) When developing, procuring...or using electronic and information technology, the Commission shall ensure,...

  20. 14 CFR 152.205 - United States share of project costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...false United States share of project costs. 152.205 Section 152...205 United States share of project costs. (a) Airport development...States share of the allowable project costs of an airport planning project...

  1. 14 CFR 152.205 - United States share of project costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...false United States share of project costs. 152.205 Section 152...205 United States share of project costs. (a) Airport development...States share of the allowable project costs of an airport planning project...

  2. 14 CFR 152.205 - United States share of project costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...false United States share of project costs. 152.205 Section 152...205 United States share of project costs. (a) Airport development...States share of the allowable project costs of an airport planning project...

  3. 14 CFR 152.205 - United States share of project costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...false United States share of project costs. 152.205 Section 152...205 United States share of project costs. (a) Airport development...States share of the allowable project costs of an airport planning project...

  4. 14 CFR 152.205 - United States share of project costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...false United States share of project costs. 152.205 Section 152...205 United States share of project costs. (a) Airport development...States share of the allowable project costs of an airport planning project...

  5. 14 CFR 221.152 - Method of withdrawing portion of authority conferred by power of attorney.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...withdrawing portion of authority conferred by power of attorney. 221.152 Section 221...REGULATIONS TARIFFS Giving and Revoking Powers of Attorney to Agents § 221.152 ...withdrawing portion of authority conferred by power of attorney. If a carrier desires...

  6. 14 CFR 221.152 - Method of withdrawing portion of authority conferred by power of attorney.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...withdrawing portion of authority conferred by power of attorney. 221.152 Section 221...REGULATIONS TARIFFS Giving and Revoking Powers of Attorney to Agents § 221.152 ...withdrawing portion of authority conferred by power of attorney. If a carrier desires...

  7. 14 CFR 221.152 - Method of withdrawing portion of authority conferred by power of attorney.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...withdrawing portion of authority conferred by power of attorney. 221.152 Section 221...REGULATIONS TARIFFS Giving and Revoking Powers of Attorney to Agents § 221.152 ...withdrawing portion of authority conferred by power of attorney. If a carrier desires...

  8. 40 CFR 152.122 - Currency of address of record and authorized agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 2012-07-01 false Currency of address of record and authorized agent. 152...Registrants § 152.122 Currency of address of record and authorized agent. ...Agency informed of his current name and address of record. If the Agency's good...

  9. 40 CFR 152.122 - Currency of address of record and authorized agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 2014-07-01 false Currency of address of record and authorized agent. 152...Registrants § 152.122 Currency of address of record and authorized agent. ...Agency informed of his current name and address of record. If the Agency's good...

  10. 40 CFR 152.122 - Currency of address of record and authorized agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 2011-07-01 false Currency of address of record and authorized agent. 152...Registrants § 152.122 Currency of address of record and authorized agent. ...Agency informed of his current name and address of record. If the Agency's good...

  11. 25 CFR 152.9 - Certificates of competency to certain Osage adults.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Certificates of competency to certain Osage adults. 152.9 Section 152.9 Indians...Certificates of competency to certain Osage adults. Applications for certificates of competency by adult members of the Osage Tribe of...

  12. 25 CFR 152.9 - Certificates of competency to certain Osage adults.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Certificates of competency to certain Osage adults. 152.9 Section 152.9 Indians...Certificates of competency to certain Osage adults. Applications for certificates of competency by adult members of the Osage Tribe of...

  13. 33 CFR 167.152 - Off New York: Eastern approach, off Nantucket.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Off New York: Eastern approach, off Nantucket. 167.152 Section...Precautionary Areas Atlantic East Coast § 167.152 Off New York: Eastern approach, off Nantucket. (a) A...

  14. 33 CFR 167.152 - Off New York: Eastern approach, off Nantucket.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Off New York: Eastern approach, off Nantucket. 167.152 Section...Precautionary Areas Atlantic East Coast § 167.152 Off New York: Eastern approach, off Nantucket. (a) A...

  15. 33 CFR 167.152 - Off New York: Eastern approach, off Nantucket.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Off New York: Eastern approach, off Nantucket. 167.152 Section...Precautionary Areas Atlantic East Coast § 167.152 Off New York: Eastern approach, off Nantucket. (a) A...

  16. 14 CFR 221.152 - Method of withdrawing portion of authority conferred by power of attorney.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...withdrawing portion of authority conferred by power of attorney. 221.152 Section 221...REGULATIONS TARIFFS Giving and Revoking Powers of Attorney to Agents § 221.152 ...withdrawing portion of authority conferred by power of attorney. If a carrier desires...

  17. 14 CFR 221.152 - Method of withdrawing portion of authority conferred by power of attorney.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...withdrawing portion of authority conferred by power of attorney. 221.152 Section 221...REGULATIONS TARIFFS Giving and Revoking Powers of Attorney to Agents § 221.152 ...withdrawing portion of authority conferred by power of attorney. If a carrier desires...

  18. Optical properties of erbium-doped organic polydentate cage complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slooff, L. H.; Polman, A.; Oude Wolbers, M. P.; van Veggel, F. C. J. M.; Reinhoudt, D. N.; Hofstraat, J. W.

    1998-01-01

    The optical properties of different erbium (Er)-doped polydentate hemispherand organic cage complexes are studied, for use in polymer-based planar optical amplifiers. Room temperature photoluminescence at 1.54 ?m is observed, due to an intra-4f transition in Er3+. The Er is directly excited into one of the 4f manifolds (at 488 nm), or indirectly (at 287 nm) via the aromatic part of the cage. The luminescence spectrum is 70 nm wide (full width at half maximum), the highest known for any Er-doped material, enabling high gain bandwidth for optical amplification. The absorption cross section at 1.54 ?m is 1.1×10-20 cm2, higher than in most other Er-doped materials, which allows the attainment of high gain. Measurements were performed on complexes in KBr tablets, in which the complex is present in the form of small crystallites, or dissolved in the organic solvents dimethylformamide and butanol-OD. In KBr the luminescence lifetime at 1.54 ?m is <0.5 ?s, possibly due to concentration quenching effects. In butanol-OD solution, the lifetime is 0.8 ?s, still well below the radiative lifetime of 4 ms estimated from the measured absorption cross sections. Experiments on the selective deuteration of the near-neighbor C-H bonds around the Er3+-ion indicate that these are not the major quenching sites of the Er3+ luminescence. Temperature dependent luminescence measurements indicate that temperature quenching is very small. It is therefore concluded that an alternative luminescence quenching mechanism takes place, presumably due to the presence of O-H groups on the Er-doped complex (originating either from the synthesis or from the solution). Finally a calculation is made of the gain performance of a planar polymer waveguide amplifier based on these Er complexes, resulting in a threshold pump power of 1.4 mW and a typical gain of 1.7 dB /cm.

  19. 27 CFR 25.152 - Reduced rate of tax for certain brewers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...false Reduced rate of tax for certain brewers. 25.152 Section 25.152 Alcohol...152 Reduced rate of tax for certain brewers. (a) General. Section 5051...beer removed for consumption or sale by a brewer during a calendar year. To be...

  20. 27 CFR 25.152 - Reduced rate of tax for certain brewers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...false Reduced rate of tax for certain brewers. 25.152 Section 25.152 Alcohol...152 Reduced rate of tax for certain brewers. (a) General. Section 5051...beer removed for consumption or sale by a brewer during a calendar year. To be...

  1. 27 CFR 25.152 - Reduced rate of tax for certain brewers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...false Reduced rate of tax for certain brewers. 25.152 Section 25.152 Alcohol...152 Reduced rate of tax for certain brewers. (a) General. Section 5051...beer removed for consumption or sale by a brewer during a calendar year. To be...

  2. 27 CFR 31.152 - Requirements as to wines and beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... false Requirements as to wines and beer. 31.152 Section 31.152 Alcohol...31.152 Requirements as to wines and beer. Every wholesale dealer in liquors who receives wines, or wines and beer, and every wholesale dealer in...

  3. 27 CFR 31.152 - Requirements as to wines and beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... false Requirements as to wines and beer. 31.152 Section 31.152 Alcohol...31.152 Requirements as to wines and beer. Every wholesale dealer in liquors who receives wines, or wines and beer, and every wholesale dealer in...

  4. 40 CFR 721.2580 - C.I. Disperse Red 152 (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false C.I. Disperse Red 152 (generic). 721.2580 Section...Substances § 721.2580 C.I. Disperse Red 152 (generic). (a) Chemical substance...identified generically as C.I. disperse red 152 (PMN P-97-820) is subject...

  5. 40 CFR 721.2580 - C.I. Disperse Red 152 (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false C.I. Disperse Red 152 (generic). 721.2580 Section...Substances § 721.2580 C.I. Disperse Red 152 (generic). (a) Chemical substance...identified generically as C.I. disperse red 152 (PMN P-97-820) is subject...

  6. 40 CFR 721.2580 - C.I. Disperse Red 152 (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false C.I. Disperse Red 152 (generic). 721.2580 Section...Substances § 721.2580 C.I. Disperse Red 152 (generic). (a) Chemical substance...identified generically as C.I. disperse red 152 (PMN P-97-820) is subject...

  7. 40 CFR 721.2580 - C.I. Disperse Red 152 (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false C.I. Disperse Red 152 (generic). 721.2580 Section...Substances § 721.2580 C.I. Disperse Red 152 (generic). (a) Chemical substance...identified generically as C.I. disperse red 152 (PMN P-97-820) is subject...

  8. 40 CFR 721.2580 - C.I. Disperse Red 152 (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false C.I. Disperse Red 152 (generic). 721.2580 Section...Substances § 721.2580 C.I. Disperse Red 152 (generic). (a) Chemical substance...identified generically as C.I. disperse red 152 (PMN P-97-820) is subject...

  9. Synthesis of long-period fiber gratings with the inverted erbium gain spectrum using the multiport lattice filter model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jinho Bae; Joohwan Chun; Sang Bae Lee

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes an accurate modeling technique of concatenated long-period fiber gratings (LPFGs). The proposed technique is then applied to the synthesis of LPFGs for the erbium gain equalization using both the simulated annealing and the steepest descent minimization technique. A piecewise-uniform LPFG is theoretically synthesized according to the inverted gain spectrum of a commercially available erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA)

  10. Reduction of the intensity noise from an erbium-doped fiber laser to the standard quantum limit by intracavity spectral filtering

    E-print Network

    Park, Namkyoo

    Fabry-Perot erbium-doped fiber ring laser is reduced to the standard quantum limit, with a 0.5 d. The tandem tiber Fabry-Perot erbium ring laser in configuration [a) with the narrow-band FFP before the gain for a tandem fiber Fabry-Perot (FFP) erbium-doped ring laser shown in Fig. 1, where the narrow band FFP

  11. N d'ordre : 152 ECOLE CENTRALE DE LILLE

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 N° d'ordre : 152 ECOLE CENTRALE DE LILLE THESE présentée en vue d'obtenir le grade de DOCTEUR en Spécialité : Mécanique par Benoît Dompierre DOCTORAT DELIVRE PAR L'ECOLE CENTRALE DE LILLE Titre de la thèse amonts, Thales CST Directeur de thèse Eric Charkaluk, Chargé de recherche CNRS, Ecole Centrale de Lille

  12. Cross section evaluation in the photodisintegration of152Sm isotope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oprea, C.; Oprea, A.; Mihul, A.

    We have evaluated the cross section of the 152Sm(?, n)151Sm reaction in the frame of the Hauser - Feshbach formalism using the Talys computer codes as well as by using the computer codes written by the authors. The obtained results were compared with experimental data existing in the literature. The named computer codes allowed estimating the necessary penetrability coefficients with no approximations for charged and neutral particles emission in the exit channels.

  13. Cep63 and Cep152 Cooperate to Ensure Centriole Duplication

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Nicola J.; Marjanovi?, Marko; Lüders, Jens; Stracker, Travis H.; Costanzo, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    Centrosomes consist of two centrioles embedded in pericentriolar material and function as the main microtubule organising centres in dividing animal cells. They ensure proper formation and orientation of the mitotic spindle and are therefore essential for the maintenance of genome stability. Centrosome function is crucial during embryonic development, highlighted by the discovery of mutations in genes encoding centrosome or spindle pole proteins that cause autosomal recessive primary microcephaly, including Cep63 and Cep152. In this study we show that Cep63 functions to ensure that centriole duplication occurs reliably in dividing mammalian cells. We show that the interaction between Cep63 and Cep152 can occur independently of centrosome localisation and that the two proteins are dependent on one another for centrosomal localisation. Further, both mouse and human Cep63 and Cep152 cooperate to ensure efficient centriole duplication by promoting the accumulation of essential centriole duplication factors upstream of SAS-6 recruitment and procentriole formation. These observations describe the requirement for Cep63 in maintaining centriole number in dividing mammalian cells and further establish the order of events in centriole formation. PMID:23936128

  14. miR-152 suppresses gastric cancer cell proliferation and motility by targeting CD151.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Ronglin; Kan, Xuefeng; Wang, Bo; Du, Hansong; Long, Yueping; Wu, Heshui; Tao, Kaixiong; Wang, Guobin; Bao, Lihong; Li, Fen; Zhang, Wanli

    2014-11-01

    We aimed to study the post-translational regulation of CD151 by the microRNA miR-152. CD151 is highly expressed in gastric cancer (GC) and has been shown to accelerate GC by enhancing invasion and metastasis; however, its regulation is still unclear. Our results showed decreased expression of miR-152 in GC tissue samples and cell lines. In addition, miR-152 complementation significantly inhibits both the proliferation and motility of GC cells. CD151 was found to be a target of miR-152, and overexpression of CD151 attenuated the suppressive effect of miR-152. Our findings highlight an essential role of miR-152 in the regulation of proliferation and motility of GC cells and suggest a potential application of miR-152 in GC treatment. PMID:25119599

  15. The first excited 0{sup +} state in {sup 152}Sm

    SciTech Connect

    Casten, R.F.; Wilhelm, M.; Zamfir, N.V. [WNSL, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States)] [WNSL, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); Wilhelm, M.; Radermacher, E.; von Brentano, P. [Institut fuer Kernphysik der Universitaet zu Koeln (Germany)] [Institut fuer Kernphysik der Universitaet zu Koeln (Germany); Zamfir, N.V. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States)] [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Zamfir, N.V. [Clark University, Worcester, Massachusetts 01610 (United States)] [Clark University, Worcester, Massachusetts 01610 (United States); Zamfir, N.V. [Institute of Atomic Physics, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania)] [Institute of Atomic Physics, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania)

    1998-04-01

    The properties of K=0{sup +} excitations in deformed and transitional nuclei have recently been of intense interest. We present results of a study of the deexcitations of the lowest excited 0{sup +} state in {sup 152}Sm from the {epsilon}-decay of {sup 152}Eu, yielding one of the few precisely known values of the branching ratio R{sub 0g}{sup {gamma}}=B(E2;2{sub {gamma}}{sup +}{r_arrow}0{sub 2}{sup +})/B(E2;2{sub {gamma}}{sup +}{r_arrow}0{sub 1}{sup +}) =0.048(4), which is extraordinarily small. From T{sub 1/2}(2{sub {gamma}}{sup +}) we also obtain B(E2;2{sub {gamma}}{sup +}{r_arrow}0{sub 2}{sup +})=0.17 W.u. Values of R{sub 0g}{sup {gamma}} calculated in the interacting boson model (IBA) go to zero extremely rapidly, changing by orders of magnitude for a narrow range of parameter values. {sup 152}Sm is a rare case of a transitional nucleus that lands almost at the minimum. {sup 152}Sm and {sup 154}Gd are the only nuclei from 90{le}N{le}114 where the B(E2) values for all four transitions 2{sub {gamma}}{sup +}{r_arrow}0{sub 2}{sup +}, 2{sub {gamma}}{sup +}{r_arrow}0{sub 1}{sup +}, 0{sub 2}{sup +}{r_arrow}2{sub 1}{sup +}, and 2{sub 1}{sup +}{r_arrow}0{sub 1}{sup +} are now known. In {sup 152}Sm these B(E2) values span three orders of magnitude, from 144 to 0.17 W.u. and are reproduced to within a factor of 2{endash}3 by the IBA. The rather strong B(E2;0{sub 2}{sup +}{r_arrow}2{sub 1}{sup +}) value of 33 W.u. suggest that the 0{sub 2}{sup +} level is an example of a good low energy {beta}-vibration. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  16. C-band wavelength-swept single-longitudinalmode erbium-doped fiber ring laser.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kang; Kang, Jin U

    2008-09-01

    A wavelength-swept single-longitudinal-mode erbium-doped fiber ring laser capable of operating at sweeping frequency in the order of a few kHz is designed and demonstrated by using a fiber Fabry-Perot tunable filter and a Sagnac loop incorporated with a 3.5-meter unpumped erbium-doped fiber. The laser operates in continuous-wave (CW) mode and can sweep approximately 45 nm over the entire C-band (1520nm-1570nm) window with linewidth less than 0.7 kHz. The optimum wavelength sweeping frequency in order to achieve the best output power stability was found to be approximately20Hz with sweeping-induced power fluctuation of only 0.1%. PMID:18773026

  17. Cutaneous resurfacing with CO2 and erbium: YAG lasers: preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative considerations.

    PubMed

    Alster, T S

    1999-02-01

    The development and integration of pulsed and scanned CO2 and erbium:YAG laser systems into mainstream surgical practice over the past years has revolutionized cutaneous resurfacing. These lasers are capable of delivering to skin high peak fluences to effect controlled tissue vaporization, while leaving an acceptably narrow zone of residual thermal damage. The inherent technological differences that exist between the two distant laser systems in terms of ablation depths, degree of thermal coagulation, and postoperative side-effects and complications guide patient selection and management. This article reviews the basic principles of CO2 and erbium:YAG laser resurfacing, including preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative patient considerations. Side-effects and complications encountered after laser resurfacing are discussed with specific guidelines provided on their appropriate management. Anticipated future developments and cutting-edge research endeavors in cutaneous laser resurfacing are also briefly outlined. PMID:9950554

  18. Wavelength-dependent transition time of gain saturation in an erbium-doped fiber amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuroda, Keiji; Shibata, Keisuke; Yoshikuni, Yuzo

    2015-07-01

    We report a study of the wavelength dependence of the gain saturation transition time in an erbium-doped fiber amplifier. A self-probe method that enables us to probe the change of population in an amplifier by using a pulse to induce that change was used to evaluate the transition time over a wavelength range from 1528 to 1559 nm. It was found that the transition time changed from 400 ns to 1.65 ?s with increasing wavelength. The wavelength dependence of the transition time was then analyzed using a model to describe the temporal evolution of the erbium population at the input end of a fiber based on McCumber theory.

  19. Passively mode-locked laser using an entirely centred erbium-doped fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, H.; Semangun, Julian M.; Azzuhri, Saaidal R.; Zulkifli, M. Z.; Awang, N. A.; Harun, S. W.

    2015-04-01

    This paper describes the setup and experimental results for an entirely centred erbium-doped fiber laser with passively mode-locked output. The gain medium of the ring laser cavity configuration comprises a 3?m length of two-core optical fiber, wherein an undoped outer core region of 9.38??m diameter surrounds a 4.00??m diameter central core region doped with erbium ions at 400?ppm concentration. The generated stable soliton mode-locking output has a central wavelength of 1533?nm and pulses that yield an average output power of 0.33?mW with a pulse energy of 31.8?pJ. The pulse duration is 0.7?ps and the measured output repetition rate of 10.37?MHz corresponds to a 96.4?ns pulse spacing in the pulse train.

  20. Microstructures in rapidly solidified gamma titanium-aluminum alloys with erbium additions

    SciTech Connect

    Kral, M.V.; Bassler, B.T.; Hofmeister, W.H.; Wittig, J.E. [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States). Materials Science Program

    1995-07-01

    Erbium additions of 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 atomic percent were incorporated into base alloys of 40 at.% titanium-60 at.% aluminum by arc melting. Samples of 0.30g were electromagnetically levitated and melted and then rapidly solidified by double anvil splat quenching with liquid temperatures ranging from the liquidus temperature to near the maximum undercooling temperature for each alloy. Microstructures of TiAl with 0.25 and 0.5 at.% Er showed the presence of small erbium rich particles within {gamma} grains as well as antiphase domain boundaries, while TiAl with 1.0 and 2.0 at.% Er showed no evidence of these features. These observations were correlated with solidification velocity measurements on levitated samples. Evidence for disordered primary solidification and a solid state disorder/order reaction is presented.

  1. Erbium-ytterbium-yttrium compounds for light emission at 1.54microm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanhoutte, Michiel

    Silicon microphotonics? has emerged as the leading technology to overcome the interconnect bottleneck that limits a further increase of computation power following Moore's law. Optical interconnects between different electronic microprocessors in an electronic-photonic integrated circuit (EPIC) can provide a fast, low-loss and highbandwidth alternative to electrical interconnects, which suffer from issues such as resistive heating, RC delays and channel crosstalk at an increasing device density. A crucial device in such an electronic-photonic integrated circuit is a compact, highgain and low power optical amplifier to compensate for signal attenuation due to propagation losses and to recover signal strength after subsequent 3dB splits during fanout of the optical signal to different microprocessors. Erbium ions (Er3+) are an excellent candidate to provide amplification around .. = 1.54pm for optical telecommunications. Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFAs) have already enabled long-haul optical data. transmission through silica optical fibers, but scaling down a fiber amplifier to an on-chip erbium-doped waveguide amplifier (EDWA) brings along significant materials and device design challenges. In this thesis, erbium-ytterbium oxide (Erx Yb2-xO 3) and erbium-ytterbium-yttrium silicate (ErxYhyY 2-x-ySi2O7) compounds are investigated as novel materials systems for the development of EDWAs. The high erbium and ytterbium solubility (>1022 cm-3) and refractive index (1.71 < n < 1.92) make these materials excellent candidates for compact, low-power optical amplifiers. Erx Yb2-xO 3 and ErxYhyY2-x-ySi2O 7 thin films were deposited on SiO2 and analyzed structurally and optically. The role of ytterbium in these compounds is twofold. First, ytterbium can be used as an alternative to yttrium for dilution of the erbium concentration in order to mitigate parasitic concentration quenching effects. Second, ytterbium acts as a sensitizer for erbium during optical pumping at lambda = 980nm. Comparison of the different oxide and silicate thin films reveals that the alpha-disilicate phase is the best candidate for an EDWA gain medium pumped at lambda = 980nm. By means of rate and propagation equations, the composition of an Er xYhyY2-x-ySi2O7 gain medium was optimized for application as a 3dB EDWA. The optimal composition was found to be Er0.025Yb0.200Yb0.200Y1.775Si 2O7, which provides a 1.5dB/cm gain at only 3mW of pump power. In terms of the figure of merit 3dB gain/(device area ? pump power), this material outperforms other EDWA materials reported in literature. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, libraries.mit.edu/docs - docs mit.edu)

  2. Reflection L-band erbium-doped fiber-amplifier-based fiber loop mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Hongyun; Liu, Songhao; Dong, Xiaoyi

    2005-01-01

    We constructed a reflection L-band erbium-doped fiber amplifier based on fiber loop mirror, which reflects the backward ASE to the EDF as a secondary pumping source. A gain of 30 dB increased 6 dB compared to the forward end-pumped EDFA has been achieved in the wavelength region from 1570 to 1603 nm. In order to improve the gain and NF further, we constructed a novel configuration for reflection L-band erbium-doped fiber amplifier via inserting a 980 nm LD in the input part. Adjusting the ratio of power of the two LDs, the gain and NF are greatly improved in different degree in the region from 1565 to 1615 nm. Compared to the configuration pumped by only 1480 nm LD with given power, the gain enhanced 1.5-9.9 dB and the NF decreases 1.3-9.4 dB.

  3. Invariant bandwidth of erbium in ZnO-PbO-tellurite glasses: Local probe/model

    SciTech Connect

    Ramamoorthy, Raj Kumar [School of Engineering Sciences and Technology, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad-500046 (India); Bhatnagar, Anil K., E-mail: anilb42@gmail.com [School of Engineering Sciences and Technology, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad-500046, India and School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabd-500046 (India)

    2014-04-24

    A series of [(70TeO{sub 2}?(30?x)ZnO?xPbO){sub 0.99}?(Er{sub 2}O{sub 3}){sub 0.01}; where x = 5, 10, 15 and 20] tellurite glasses, were prepared using the melt quenching technique. Crucial emission bandwidth of erbium at 1.5 ?m has been derived and found to be the same for all the glasses, irrespective of PbO content. This identical bandwidth in all tellurite glasses is attributed to the presence of erbium in tellurium rich disordered environments. This result has been complemented through XANES spectra and the obtained invariant first shell of 6.5 oxygen atoms, confirm the unchanged environment in these glasses for all PbO content.

  4. Negative parity states and some electromagnetic transition properties of even-odd erbium isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Yazar, Harun Resit; Uluer, Ihsan [Kirikkale University, Faculty of Art and Science, Kirikkale (Turkey)

    2007-03-15

    The negative parity states and some electromagnetic transition properties of even-odd erbium isotopes ({sup 159,161,163,165}Er) were studied within the framework of the interacting boson-fermion model. The single fermion is assumed to be in one of the lh{sub 9/2},3p{sub 3/2},2f{sub 5/2}, and 3p{sub 1/2} single-particle orbits. It was found that the calculated negative parity state energy spectra of the even-odd erbium isotopes agree quite well with the experimental data. The B(E2) values were also calculated and compared with the experimental data.

  5. Dual-function remotely-pumped Erbium-doped fiber amplifier: Loss and dispersion compensator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naji, A. W.; Abidin, M. S. Z.; Al-Mansoori, M. H.; Jamaludin, M. Z.; Abdullah, M. K.; Iqbal, S. J.; Mahdi, M. A.

    2006-09-01

    An efficient Erbium-doped fiber amplifier configured in doublepass amplification scheme with chirped fiber Bragg grating as the reflector is presented in this paper. The proposed amplifier architecture is optimized and designed to work under consideration of low pump powers for remotely-pumped applications. The chirped fiber Bragg grating is used to reflect the amplified signal back to the Erbium-doped fiber and at the same time to compensate the effect of fiber dispersion. The proposed amplifier architecture is able to maintain gain of higher than 20 dB for small signals less than -23 dBm with 10 mW pump power only. The integrated function of loss and dispersion compensator in single black box is an attractive solution to be used as pre-amplifier.

  6. 24-Line multiwavelength operation of erbium-doped fiber-ring laser

    SciTech Connect

    Park, N.; Wysocki, P.F. [Bell Labs., Murray, NJ (United States). Lucent Technologies] [Bell Labs., Murray, NJ (United States). Lucent Technologies

    1996-11-01

    Simultaneous lasing at up to 24 wavelengths is demonstrated in an erbium-doped fiber-ring laser using a simple design. This result is achieved using a low-loss cavity, controlled polarization evolution and liquid nitrogen cooling to enhance spectral hole-burning, polarization hole-burning, and polarization selectivity. The design does not include any wavelength-selective components; instead, it utilizes wavelength selectivity provided by polarization evolution in the cavity. The amplitude variation between emission peaks is less than 3 dB over a 17-nm spectral range. A narrow linewidth of 0.15 nm, dense line spacing of 1.1 nm, and a good signal-to-noise ratio of more than 30 dB are achieved over most of the erbium bandwidth. The comb spectrum location and width are adjustable by changing and adjusting cavity components.

  7. Evaluation of an erbium modulator in x-ray scatter correction using primary modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Hewei; Niu, Tianye; Zhu, Lei; Fahrig, Rebecca

    2011-03-01

    A primary modulator made of erbium is evaluated in X-ray scatter correction using primary modulation. Our early studies have shown that erbium is the optimal modulator material for an X-ray cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) system operated at 120 kVp, exhibiting minimum beam hardening which otherwise weakens the modulator's ability to separate scatter from primary. In this work, the accuracy of scatter correction is compared for two copper modulators (105 and 210 ?m of thickness) and one erbium modulator (25.4 ?m of thickness) with the same modulation frequencies. The variations in the effective transmission factors of these three modulators as functions of object filtrations are first measured to show the magnitudes of beam hardening caused by the modulators themselves. Their scatter correction performances are then tested using a Catphan©600 phantom on our tabletop CBCT system. With and without 300 ?m of copper in the beam, the measured variations for these three modulators are 4.3%, 7.8%, and 0.9%, respectively. Using the 105- and 210-?m copper modulators, our scatter correction method reduces the average CT number error from 327.3 Hounsfield units (HU) to 19.4 and 20.9 HU in the selected regions of interest, and enhances the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) from 10.7 to 16.5 and 15.9, respectively. With the 25.4-?m erbium modulator, the CT number error is markedly reduced to 2.8 HU and the CNR is further increased to 17.4.

  8. Propagation of signal and noise in concatenated erbium-doped fiber optical amplifiers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. R. Giles; Emmanuel Desurvire

    1991-01-01

    Signal propagation and noise accumulation in lightwave systems using saturated optical amplifiers as repeaters are analyzed. Numerical simulations of amplified spontaneous emission in concatenated erbium-doped fiber amplifiers indicate that a reach beyond 10000 km is possible with a 1.55-?m system in the absence of fiber nonlinearities. Distributed optical amplifiers are shown to have low noise, but require higher pump power

  9. Multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber lasers with active overlapping linear cavities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qinghe Mao; John W. Y. Lit

    2003-01-01

    Multiwavelength oscillations in erbium-doped fiber (EDF) lasers with active overlapping linear cavities are investigated in detail. The laser can be designed to produce multiwavelength oscillations in the C-band and in the L-band. With a C-band three-wavelength laser, experiments show that the output powers of the lasing lines increase linearly or piecewise linearly with pump input. Any one lasing wavelength can

  10. Correlation between defect structure and luminescence spectra in monocrystalline erbium-implanted silicon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. A. Sobolev; A. M. Emelyanov; E. I. Shek; V. I. Vdovin; T. G. Yugova; S. Pizzini

    2002-01-01

    The transformation of structural defects and photoluminescence (PL) spectra of n- and p-type Cz-Si after implantation with erbium ions at 1 MeV energy to doses of 1 × 1013 and 1 × 1014 cm-2 followed by annealing at 620-1100°C for 0.25-3.0 h in chlorine-containing atmosphere or oxygen have been studied by transmission electron microscopy, optical microscopy in combination with selective

  11. Optical memory bandwidth and multiplexing capacity in the erbium telecommunication window

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dajczgewand, J.; Ahlefeldt, R.; Böttger, T.; Louchet-Chauvet, A.; Le Gouët, J.-L.; Chanelière, T.

    2015-02-01

    We study the bandwidth and multiplexing capacity of an erbium-doped optical memory for quantum storage purposes. We concentrate on the protocol revival of a silenced echo because it has the largest potential multiplexing capacity. Our analysis is applicable to other protocols that involve strong optical excitation. We show that the memory performance is limited by instantaneous spectral diffusion and we describe how this effect can be minimized to achieve optimal performance.

  12. Second-order harmonic distortion and optimal fiber length in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cheng-Kuang Liu; Jau-Ji Jou; Fu-Shun Lai

    1995-01-01

    The gain of an erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) operating in the kHz regimes and its second-order harmonic distortion (SBD) are studied. Using the rate and beam-propagation equations, we have shown the dependences of the distortion on the pump power, the modulation frequency, and the position along the fiber. Moreover, it is found that the SHD is the smallest when the

  13. ERBIUM-DOPED UP-CONVERTERS ON SILICON SOLAR CELLS: ASSESSMENT OF THE POTENTIAL

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Strümpel; M. McCann; C. del Cañizo; I. Tobias; P. Fath

    Erbium-doped up-converters are expected to lead to an increase in efficiency of silicon solar cells by utilising the low energy region of the solar spectrum. This paper focuses on two host-materials, YF3 and BaCl2 both doped with Er3+ and therefore absorbing at about 1.5µm and BaCl2 co-doped with Er 3+ and Dy3+, and therefore absorbing at about 1.3µm. The number

  14. Monte Carlo simulations of homogeneous upconversion in erbium-doped silica glasses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacob L. Philipsen; Anders Bjarklev

    1997-01-01

    Quenching of Er3+ ions by homogeneous energy-transfer upconversion in high-concentration erbium-doped silica glasses has been theoretically investigated, The results indicate that at Er3+ concentrations of 1.0-2.0·1026 m-3 or below, the kinetic limit of strong migration is not reached, and hence the widely accepted quadratic upconversion model is not generally valid. Nevertheless, the results offer an explanation of the experimental observations

  15. Thermal effects on the quantum efficiency of 3 mum erbium lasers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Georgescu; V. Lupei; T. J. Glynn; R. Sherlock

    1995-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the main energy transfer processes involved in the building of population inversion in 3 mum Erbium lasers, mainly upconversion from 4I13\\/2, 4I11\\/2, and cross-relaxation from 4I9\\/2, is investigated. In the temperature domain 20-100°C, which includes the usual working temperatures of solid-state lasers, the change of the quantum efficiency is mainly due to the modifications of the

  16. Physical properties of erbium implanted tungsten oxide films deposited by reactive dual magnetron sputtering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sodky H. Mohamed; André Anders

    2007-01-01

    Amorphous and partially crystalline WO3 thin films were prepared by reactive dual magnetron sputtering and successively implanted by erbium ions with a fluence in the range from 7.7×1014 to 5×1015 ions\\/cm2. The electrical and optical properties were studied as a function of the film deposition parameters and the ion fluence. Ion implantation caused a strong decrease of the resistivity, a

  17. Schottky barrier heights of n\\/p-type erbium-silicided schottky diodes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Myungsim Jun; Yarkyeon Kim; Cheljong Choi; Taeyoub Kim; Soonyoung Oh; Moongyu Jang

    2008-01-01

    The Schottky barrier heights for electrons and holes of erbium-silicided Schottky diodes were extracted from the current–voltage-temperature characteristics in reverse bias condition. The effective barrier heights increased with temperature. The highest effective barrier heights for electrons and holes were extracted to be 0.38eV and 0.67eV at the high temperatures, respectively. The effective barrier heights may be close to the temperature-independent

  18. High-power erbium-doped fibre amplifier pumped by a phosphosilicate fibre Raman converter

    SciTech Connect

    Kurkov, Andrei S; Paramonov, Vladimir M; Egorova, O N; Medvedkov, O I; Dianov, Evgenii M [A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Yashkov, M V; Gur'yanov, A N [Institute of Chemistry of High-Purity Substances, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhnii Novgorod (Russian Federation); Zalevskii, I D [M.F. Stel'makh Polyus Research and Development Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Goncharov, S E ['Millon' Company, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2001-09-30

    A high power erbium-doped fibre amplifier pumped by single-mode radiation at 1478 nm is fabricated and tested. A Raman converter based on a fibre with a phosphosilicate core was used as the pumping source. The maximum output power achieved in spectral ranges C (1.53 - 1.56 {mu}m) and L (1.56 - 1.60 {mu}m) is 28 dBm. (active media. lasers)

  19. LE JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE TUDE DE LA DSINTGRATION DE L'ERBIUM 169

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    , on a étudié le spectre des photons et celui des électrons de conversion du niveau excité de 8,4 keV du thulium level of thulium 169 is found to be (42 ± 1 ) %. The internal coefficient is found to be 03B1M + 03B1N une période de 9 jours, l'erbium 169 aboutit soit au niveau fondamental du thulium 169, soit au niveau

  20. Wavelength-switchable erbium-doped fiber ring laser using spectral polarization-dependent loss element

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yong Wook Lee; Byoungho Lee

    2003-01-01

    We propose a wavelength-switchable erbium-doped fiber ring laser that uses a spectral polarization-dependent loss element. The element was fabricated by inscribing a long-period grating on a polarization-maintaining fiber. Dual-wavelength switching operation was accomplished by rotating the polarization plane of the fiber laser cavity. The amplitude variation of both laser lines was measured to be less than 1 dB and the

  1. 24-line multiwavelength operation of erbium-doped fiber-ring laser

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul F. Wysocki

    1996-01-01

    Simultaneous lasing at up to 24 wavelengths is demonstrated in an erbium-doped fiber-ring laser using a simple design. This result is achieved using a low-loss cavity, controlled polarization evolution and liquid nitrogen cooling to enhance spectral hole-burning, polarization hole-burning, and polarization selectivity. The design does not include any wavelength-selective components; instead, it utilizes wavelength selectivity provided by polarization evolution in

  2. Wideband multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber ring laser with frequency shifted feedback

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seung Kwan Kim; Moo Jung Chu; Jong Hyun Lee

    2001-01-01

    Wideband multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber ring lasers with frequency shifted feedback are described. The use of an intra-cavity gain flattening filter (GFF) was proposed in order to increase the lasing spectral bandwidth, leading to a demonstration of 34 lasing wavelengths in 28 nm bandwidth in C-band. The GFF induced spectral output power fluctuation is discussed. Multiwavelength operation was also demonstrated for

  3. Highly efficient second, third and fourth harmonic generation from a two- branch femtosecond erbium fiber source

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Konstantinos Moutzouris; Florian Sotier; Florian Adler; Alfred Leitenstorfer

    2006-01-01

    We report on highly efficient second, third and fourth harmonic generation from a femtosecond erbium-doped fiber source operating at 98 MHz repetition rate. By use of quasi-phase-matching in fan-out poled MgO:LiNbO3, we generate pulses at 770 nm, 520 nm and 390 nm, with corresponding average powers of 120 mW, 55 mW and 6 mW, respectively. Our device can be employed

  4. Longitudinal mode control of an erbium ring fibre laser containing an intracavity chirped Bragg grating etalon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forster, R. J.; Langford, N.; Gloag, A.; Zhang, L.; Williams, J. A. R.; Bennion, I.

    1997-02-01

    We present preliminary data which show that it is possible to prevent longitudinal mode hops in a unidirectional erbium ring fibre laser by including an all fibre etalon formed from chirped fibre Bragg reflectors. A reduction in the relative intensity noise of ˜ 10 dB is observed when the laser is frequency stabilised. A resolution limited linewidth of 170 kHz is observed from the laser.

  5. Effect of the erbium dopant architecture on the femtosecond relaxation dynamics of silicon nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samia, A. C. S.; Lou, Y.; Burda, C.; Senter, R. A.; Coffer, J. L.

    2004-05-01

    Femtosecond pump-probe absorption spectroscopy is used to investigate the role of Er3+ dopants in the early relaxation pathways of photoexcited Si nanocrystals. The fate of photoexcited electrons in three different Si nanostructures was studied and correlated with the effect of Er-doping and the nature of the dopant architecture. In Si nanocrystals without Er3+ dopant, a trapping component was identified to be a major electron relaxation mechanism. Addition of Er3+ ions into the core or surface shell of the nanocrystals was found to open up additional nonradiative relaxation pathways, which is attributed to Er-induced trap states in the Si host. Analysis of the photodynamics of the Si nanocrystal samples reveals an electron trapping mechanism involving trap-to-trap hopping in the doped nanocrystals, whereby the density of deep traps seem to increase with the presence of erbium. To gain additional insights on the relative depths of the trapping sites on the investigated nanostructures, benzoquinone was used as a surface adsorbed electron acceptor to facilitate photoinduced electron transfer across the nanocrystal surface and subsequently assist in back electron transfer. The established reduction potential (-0.45 V versus SCE) of the electron acceptor helped reveal that the erbium-doped nanocrystal samples have deeper trapping sites than the undoped Si. Furthermore, the measurements indicate that internally Er-doped Si have relatively deeper trapping sites than the erbium surface-enriched nanocrystals. The electron-shuttling experiment also reveals that the back electron transfer seems not to recover completely to the ground state in the doped Si nanocrystals, which is explained by a mechanism whereby the electrons are captured by deep trapping sites induced by erbium addition in the Si lattice.

  6. Resonant fluorescence line narrowing and gain spectral hole burning in erbium-doped fiber amplifier

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Peretti; A. M. Jurdyc; B. Jacquier; E. Burov; L. Gasca

    2008-01-01

    Gain spectral hole burning and resonant fluorescence line narrowing have been performed at low temperature in standard aluminosilicate erbium-doped fiber amplifier to demonstrate the nature of the line broadening. Comparison of the hole-width measurements with resonant fluorescent line narrowing data shows a good agreement at 77K, working temperature for which both experiments are feasible and have been performed simultaneously. The

  7. Biomimetic synthesis of chiral erbium-doped silver/peptide/silica core-shell nanoparticles (ESPN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantion, Alexandre; Graf, Philipp; Florea, Ileana; Haase, Andrea; Thünemann, Andreas F.; Maši?, Admir; Ersen, Ovidiu; Rabu, Pierre; Meier, Wolfgang; Luch, Andreas; Taubert, Andreas

    2011-12-01

    Peptide-modified silver nanoparticles have been coated with an erbium-doped silica layer using a method inspired by silica biomineralization. Electron microscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering confirm the presence of an Ag/peptide core and silica shell. The erbium is present as small Er2O3 particles in and on the silica shell. Raman, IR, UV-Vis, and circular dichroism spectroscopies show that the peptide is still present after shell formation and the nanoparticles conserve a chiral plasmon resonance. Magnetic measurements find a paramagnetic behavior. In vitro tests using a macrophage cell line model show that the resulting multicomponent nanoparticles have a low toxicity for macrophages, even on partial dissolution of the silica shell.Peptide-modified silver nanoparticles have been coated with an erbium-doped silica layer using a method inspired by silica biomineralization. Electron microscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering confirm the presence of an Ag/peptide core and silica shell. The erbium is present as small Er2O3 particles in and on the silica shell. Raman, IR, UV-Vis, and circular dichroism spectroscopies show that the peptide is still present after shell formation and the nanoparticles conserve a chiral plasmon resonance. Magnetic measurements find a paramagnetic behavior. In vitro tests using a macrophage cell line model show that the resulting multicomponent nanoparticles have a low toxicity for macrophages, even on partial dissolution of the silica shell. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Figures S1 to S12, Tables S1 and S2. See DOI: 10.1039/c1nr10930h

  8. Wavelength-selection erbium fiber laser with single-mode operation using simple ring design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C.-H. Yeh; C.-W. Chow; Y.-C. Chang

    2010-01-01

    In this demonstration, we propose and experimentally investigate a wavelength-selection erbium-doped fiber (EDF) laser in\\u000a single-longitudinal-mode (SLM) by using simple fiber ring scheme design. We use a tunable bandpass filter (TBF) inside the\\u000a gain cavity to restrict the lasing frequency. The proposed ring cavities can also serve as the mode filters for side mode\\u000a suppression. Based on the simple ring

  9. Sub100 kHz repetition rate erbium-doped fiber laser in anomalous dispersion regime

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. L. Dong; Z. C. Luo; W. C. Xu; A. P. Luo; L. Y. Wang; W. J. Cao; H. Y. Wang

    2011-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate a simple but efficient way to generate low repetition rate pulses in an erbium-doped fiber ring laser by using self-pulsing technique. About 2.25 km long single mode fiber is used to elongate in the cavity, providing large anomalous cavity dispersion in the wavelength region around 1550 nm. Self pulses at a repetition rate of 85.3 kHz

  10. Multiwavelength Brillouin-erbium fiber laser incorporating a fiber Bragg grating filter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. N. Mohd Nasir; M. H. Al-Mansoori; H. A. Abdul Rashid; P. K. Choudhury; Z. Yusoff

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate a multiwavelength Brillouin erbium fiber laser in a Fabry-Perot cavity. The design utilized\\u000a a bidirectional oscillation provided by a fiber Bragg grating filter and a fiber loop mirror at each end of the laser cavity.\\u000a A stable operation of 25 Brillouin-Stokes lines was obtained at around a 1559-nm band.

  11. Hybrid erbium-doped fiber laser-pressure sensor utilizing ring cavity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Abdullah; S. M. Idris; M. Z. Jamaludin; M. H. Al-Mansoori

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a hybrid erbium-doped fiber laser-pressure sensor system (HEDFL-PS) in a ring cavity configuration. The fiber laser sensor utilized an intracavity Bragg grating as pressure transducer and reflector. The HEDFL-PS can be used as a single wavelength high power laser or a high pressure sensor. The HEDFL-PS was tested using a shock tube facility and was able to

  12. Sub100 kHz repetition rate erbium-doped fiber laser in anomalous dispersion regime

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. L. Dong; Z. C. Luo; W. C. Xu; A. P. Luo; L. Y. Wang; W. J. Cao; H. Y. Wang

    2011-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate a simple but efficient way to generate low repetition rate pulses in an erbium-doped fiber ring\\u000a laser by using self-pulsing technique. About 2.25 km long single mode fiber is used to elongate in the cavity, providing large\\u000a anomalous cavity dispersion in the wavelength region around 1550 nm. Self pulses at a repetition rate of 85.3 kHz

  13. Hybrid erbium-doped fiber laser-pressure sensor utilizing ring cavity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Abdullah; S. M. Idris; M. Z. Jamaludin; M. H. Al-Mansoori

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a hybrid erbium-doped fiber laser-pressure sensor system (HEDFL-PS) in a ring cavity configuration. The\\u000a fiber laser sensor utilized an intracavity Bragg grating as pressure transducer and reflector. The HEDFL-PS can be used as\\u000a a single wavelength high power laser or a high pressure sensor. The HEDFL-PS was tested using a shock tube facility and was\\u000a able to

  14. Wavelength-selection erbium fiber laser with single-mode operation using simple ring design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C.-H. Yeh; C.-W. Chow; Y.-C. Chang

    2010-01-01

    In this demonstration, we propose and experimentally investigate a wavelength-selection erbium-doped fiber (EDF) laser in single-longitudinal-mode (SLM) by using simple fiber ring scheme design. We use a tunable bandpass filter (TBF) inside the gain cavity to restrict the lasing frequency. The proposed ring cavities can also serve as the mode filters for side mode suppression. Based on the simple ring

  15. Nonlinear-polarization-rotation based multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber lasers with highly nonlinear fiber

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. X. Zhang; Z. Q. Ye; M. H. Sang; Y. Y. Nie

    2011-01-01

    A multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber laser based on nonlinear polarization rotation with incorporation of a highly nonlinear fiber has been demonstrated. Stable multi-wavelength operation at room temperature is realized owing to the intensity-dependent transmission in fiber laser with nonlinear-polarization-rotation effect. And benefiting from the four-wave mixing in the highly nonlinear fiber, the uniformity and stabilization of the output multi-wavelength lasing have

  16. Self-similar erbium-doped fiber laser with large normal dispersion.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui; Liu, Zhanwei; Lamb, Erin S; Wise, Frank

    2014-02-15

    We report a large normal dispersion erbium-doped fiber laser with self-similar pulse evolution in the gain fiber. The cavity is stabilized by the local nonlinear attractor in the gain fiber through the use of a narrow filter. Experimental results are accounted for by numerical simulations. This laser produces 3.5 nJ pulses, which can be dechirped to 70 fs with an external grating pair. PMID:24562267

  17. Pairing mechanism in interaction of atomic hydrogen with epitaxial erbium silicide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louis, P.; Angot, T.; Bolmont, D.; Gewinner, G.

    1999-02-01

    Hydrogen desorption from two-dimensional (2D) and bulk-like (3D) erbium silicides on Si(111) has been investigated by means of thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) and high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS). By TDS, hydrogen is found to desorb as a single feature with a maximum in temperature located at 620 K on 2D silicide, whereas two desorption peaks at 460 K and 615 K, respectively, are measured on 3D silicide. These spectra are analyzed in the frame of the formulation developed by Redhead, and compared with hydrogen desorption from a monohydride Si(111) surface. On erbium silicide films, first-order kinetics is always observed in sharp contrast with the second-order kinetics measured for hydrogen desorption from the Si(111) surface. This remarkable behavior can be understood in terms of a pairing mechanism in which, for stability reasons, the H chemisorption sites appear in the form of pairs that contain either 0 (empty pair) or 2 (filled pair) H atoms. Using HREELS, two kinds of hydrogen chemisorption sites were identified prior to desorption. It is deduced that the features at 460 K on 3D and at 620 K on 2D erbium silicides are clearly related to concomitant hydrogen chemisorbed on the top layer silicon dangling bonds and in an interstitial site of the Er layer beneath. In contrast, the desorption peak at 615 K on bulk-like silicide is assigned to hydrogen absorption in bulk sites of the subsurface region.

  18. Line Shape Effects in the Operation of Thulium and Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahran, O.; Roston, G. D.

    2014-11-01

    This work describes the effect of Gaussian line shape on the comparison of the amplification characteristics (gain) and the Noise figure (NF) of the Thulium and Erbium in the host materials which the Yttria Alumina-Silica glass. The gain using this host material covers the range 1.45-1.65 ?m. Thulium-doped fiber amplifiers operated in the region of wavelength (14801510 nm) which is called S-band. The main pump source is 1.04 and 1.55 pm which creates population inversion between 3F4 (upper laser level) and 3H4 (lower laser level), and Erbium- doped fiber amplifiers operated in the region (1510-1650 nm) which is called L -band with the pump wavelength 980 nm. It is found that the erbium doped yttria-alumina silicate fiber amplifier exhibits a maximum gain of 40.3 dB at the central wavelength 1540 nm and minimum noise figure 14 dB, but the broadening in the gain curve is 20 nm. Also it is found that the thulium doped yttria-alumina silicate fiber amplifier exhibits a maximum gain of 27.5 dB at the central wavelength 1467 nm and minimum noise figure 2.5 dB, with the broadening in the gain curve is 41 nm. Gain flatness was investigated and the results strongly confirm the feasibility of using this hosts' glass doped with Thulium in practical ultra large capacity wavelength division multiplexing networks.

  19. Optical properties of ion beam modified waveguide materials doped with erbium and silver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strohhöfer, Christof

    2001-12-01

    In the first part of this thesis we investigate codoping of erbium-doped waveguide materials with different ions in order to increase the efficiency of erbium-doped optical amplifiers. Codoping with ytterbium can overcome the limitations due to the small absorption cross section of Er3+ in Al2O3 at 980nm. Yb3+ absorbs radiation of that wavelength efficiently and transfers energy to Er3+. In Al2O3 we have measured energy transfer rates of up to 2500s-1. However, in designing erbium/ytterbium codoped amplifiers care has to be taken to optimise the Yb3+ concentration, since its large absorption cross section strongly depletes the 980nm pump in a waveguide. Codoping with europium or cerium increases the transition rate between the second and first excited state of Er3+ in Y2O3. This provides a higher population in the first excited state of erbium in optical amplifiers pumped at 980nm. Due to the specific energy level structure of the ions, the increase of the transition rate is twice as large for europium codoping than for cerium codoping. Codoping Er-doped glass with silver ions largely increases the excitation probability of erbium when excited in the ultraviolet and visible. The excitation spectrum shows that the pump absorption takes place at Ag-related centres. From there the energy is transferred to Er3+. The second part of this thesis is devoted to the study of metallodielectric composites consisting of silver nanocrystals in glass. These composites are fabricated by ion implantation of inert gas ions into Na+?Ag+ ion-exchanged glass. We demonstrate two applications of the optical properties of these materials: (a) integration of the silver nanocrystals in optical waveguides provides long wavelength pass filters, whose cut-off depends on the length of the region containing Ag nanocrystals. (b) The strong variation of the index of refraction of the metallodielectric in the visible region can be used for the formation of diffraction gratings, written directly into the glass by ion irradiation through a suitable mask. We demonstrate diffraction on a sample irradiated through a self-assembled mask of colloidal silica particles.

  20. 40 GHz actively mode-locked erbium-doped fiber ring laser using an electro-absorption modulator and a linear optical amplifier

    E-print Network

    Wai, Ping-kong Alexander

    40 GHz actively mode-locked erbium-doped fiber ring laser using an electro-absorption modulator. The experimental setup of the mode-locked fiber ring laser; PC: polarization controller; TF: tunable bandpass the amplitude jitter of the mode-locked fiber ring laser output. The 12-m long erbium-doped fiber was pumped

  1. Measurements of the intensity noise of a broadly tunable, erbium-do fiber ring laser, relative to the standard quantum limit

    E-print Network

    Park, Namkyoo

    Measurements of the intensity noise of a broadly tunable, erbium-do fiber ring laser, relative February 1992; accepted for publication 16 March 1992) The intensity noise of an erbium-doped fiber ring laser is measured relative to the standard quantum limit. Over a tuning range of 24 nm, the noise power

  2. 10 GHz actively mode-locked erbium-doped fiber ring laser using an electro-absorption modulator and a linear optical amplifier

    E-print Network

    Wai, Ping-kong Alexander

    10 GHz actively mode-locked erbium-doped fiber ring laser using an electro-absorption modulator-locked ring laser with pulsewidth of 3 picoseconds using an EAM and a semiconductor laser amplifier (SLA of the mode-locked fiber ring laser output. The 12 m long erbium-doped fiber was pumped at 980

  3. Experimental Optimization in Terms of Power Stability and Output Power of Highly Erbium-Doped Fiber Lasers with Single and Hybrid Cavities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rosa Ana Perez-Herrera; Shuying Chen; Weizhong Zhao; Tong Sun; Kenneth T. V. Grattan; Manuel López-Amo

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the output power stability of several different highly erbium-doped fiber ring lasers, as a function of the laser parameters, is experimentally investigated. The study is focused on the optimization of several key parameters (erbium-doped fiber length, pump power, and different laser configurations) without changing the basic scheme. The results obtained show that the laser configuration plays an

  4. Compact graphene mode-locked wavelength-tunable erbium-doped fiber lasers: from all anomalous dispersion to all normal dispersion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Zhang; D. Y. Tang; L. M. Zhao; Q. L. Bao; K. P. Loh; B. Lin; S. C. Tjin

    2010-01-01

    Soliton operation and soliton wavelength tuning of erbium-doped fiber lasers mode locked with atomic layer graphene was experimentally investigated under various cavity dispersion conditions. It was shown that not only wide range soliton wavelength tuning but also soltion pulse width variation could be obtained in the fiber lasers. Our results show that the graphene mode locked erbium-doped fiber lasers provide

  5. Yrast Isomers and Possible Oblate Shape in 152Dy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. Merdinger; F. A. Beck; T. Byrski; C. Gehringer; J. P. Vivien; E. Bozek; J. Styczen

    1979-01-01

    Excitation energies, spins, and parities have been determined for 152Dy in (HI, xn) reactions up to Ipi=27+. Three isomers with T12=49.5 ns (Ex=5035 keV, Ipi=16+), 9.9 ns (Ex=6076 keV, Ipi=20-), and 1.6 ns (Ex=7828 keV, Ipi=26-) have been found. The g factor of the second isomeric state was measured to be g=0.55+\\/-0.06.. The present experimental data compares well with microscopic

  6. Q? Measurements of Neutron-Rich Isotopes in the Mass Region 147?A?152

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikuta, Tomohiko; Taniguchi, Akihiro; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Kawade, Kiyoshi; Kawase, Yoichi

    1995-09-01

    The systematic Q? measurements of 14 neutron-rich nuclei in the mass region from A=147 to A=152 have been performed with an HPGe detector. Neutron rich nuclei were mass separated from the thermal neutron induced fission of 235U using a He-jet type on-line isotope separator which has been developed at the Kyoto University Reactor (KUR). From ?-ray singles and ?-? coincidence measurements, the Q? values of 147La, 147-150Ce, 147-152Pr, 152Nd and 152Pm have been determined. The Q? values of 152Pr and 152Nd have been measured for the first time. The atomic masses derived from the Q? values are compared with the predictions of theoretical mass calculations.

  7. Surface segregation effects of erbium in GaAs growth and their implications for optical devices containing ErAs nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Crook, Adam M.; Nair, Hari P.; Bank, Seth R. [University of Texas at Austin, Microelectronics Research Center, 10100 Burnet Rd. Bldg. 160, Austin, Texas 78758 (United States)

    2011-03-21

    We report on the integration of semimetallic ErAs nanoparticles with high optical quality GaAs-based semiconductors, grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Secondary ion mass spectrometry and photoluminescence measurements provide evidence of surface segregation and incorporation of erbium into layers grown with the erbium cell hot, despite the closed erbium source shutter. We establish the existence of a critical areal density of the surface erbium layer, below which the formation of ErAs precipitates is suppressed. Based upon these findings, we demonstrate a method for overgrowing ErAs nanoparticles with III-V layers of high optical quality, using subsurface ErAs nanoparticles as a sink to deplete the surface erbium concentration. This approach provides a path toward realizing optical devices based on plasmonic effects in an epitaxially-compatible semimetal/semiconductor system.

  8. 16 CFR 6.152 - Program accessibility: Electronic and information technology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...accessibility: Electronic and information technology. 6.152 Section 6...accessibility: Electronic and information technology. (a) When developing...or using electronic and information technology, the Commission...

  9. 16 CFR 6.152 - Program accessibility: Electronic and information technology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...accessibility: Electronic and information technology. 6.152 Section 6...accessibility: Electronic and information technology. (a) When developing...or using electronic and information technology, the Commission...

  10. 16 CFR 6.152 - Program accessibility: Electronic and information technology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...accessibility: Electronic and information technology. 6.152 Section 6...accessibility: Electronic and information technology. (a) When developing...or using electronic and information technology, the Commission...

  11. 40 CFR 68.152 - Substantiating claims of confidential business information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Risk Management Plan § 68.152 Substantiating claims of confidential business information. (a)...

  12. Continuous-wave supercontinuum laser based on an erbium-doped fiber ring cavity incorporating a highly nonlinear optical fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ju Han; Takushima, Yuichi; Kikuchi, Kazuro

    2005-10-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a novel erbium-doped fiber based continuous-wave (cw) supercontinuum laser. The laser has a simple ring-cavity structure incorporating an erbium-doped fiber and a highly nonlinear dispersion-shifted fiber (HNL-DSF). Differently from previously demonstrated cw supercontinuum sources based on single propagation of a strong Raman pump laser beam through a highly nonlinear fiber, erbium gain inside the cavity generates a seed light oscillation, and the oscillated light subsequently evolves into a supercontinuum by nonlinear effects such as modulation instability and stimulated Raman scattering in the HNL-DSF. High quality of the depolarized supercontinuum laser output with a spectral bandwidth larger than 250 nm is readily achieved.

  13. Switchable quadruple-wavelength erbium-doped fiber ring laser based on two-segment Lyot-Sagnac filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Baosan; Cao, Zhigang; Ai, Fei; Chen, Bo; Zhen, Shenglai; Shi, Xiaoyan; Yu, Benli

    2010-03-01

    We propose and demonstrate a novel switchable quadruple-wavelength erbium-doped fiber ring laser (EDFL) based on two-segment Lyot-Sagnac filter which is used as the wavelength-selective filter. Due to the deeply saturated spectral hole-burning (SHB) effect in an ordinary erbium-doped fiber, the laser realizes stable single-wavelength, dual-wavelength, triple-wavelength, and quadruple-wavelength output by controlling two polarization controllers (PCs) appropriately. The optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) is over 30 dB. The peak fluctuation is less than ~2 dB over 1.5 h at room temperature.

  14. Effect of humidity and UV-assistance on the preparation of erbium doped alumina by aerosol MOCVD process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rached Salhi; Carmen Jimenez; Patrick Chaudouët; Ramzi Maalej; Mohieddine Fourati; Jean-Luc Deschanvres

    The effect of deposition temperature, relative humidity of carrier gas and UV-assistance on the growth of Erbium-doped aluminium oxide films has been studied. The films were prepared from aluminium acetylacetonate (Al(C5H7O2)3) and erbium (III) Tris(2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptanedionate) (Er(TMHD)3) by UV and aerosol-assisted metal-organic chemical vapour deposition, using air with controlled humidity as carrier gas. Amorphous transparent films were deposited between 350 and

  15. Crystal structure of the basic erbium tetramethyl-heptanedionate, Er 8 O(thd) 10 (OH) 12

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. A. Boeyens; J. P. R. de Villiers

    1972-01-01

    The crystal structure of the basic erbium diketonate, Er8O(thd)10(OH)12, which occurs as a minor by-product in the synthesis of tris(2,2,6,6-tetramethylheptane-2, 5-dionato)erbium(III), Er(thd)3, has been studied at room temperature by X-ray diffraction. The space group isPbcn and the crystal data area = 18·376(19),b = 31·625(35),c = 27·914(28) Å,Z = 4,Dc = 1·38 gcm-3,Dm = 1·37 gcm-3. Full-matrix least-squares refinement of atomic

  16. Tunable erbium-doped fiber ring laser with signal-averaging function for fiber-optic sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, S. T.; Peng, P. C.; Kao, M. S.; Lu, H. H.; Chen, J. F.

    2011-01-01

    This work proposes a novel erbium-doped fiber ring laser as a sensing control center (CC) for long-haul fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor systems. The tunable erbium-doped fiber laser with signal averaging functionality not only provides intense and stable laser light, but also suppresses the effect of noise on the system performance. A sample 30/60 km FBG sensor array is connected to the fiber ring laser to demonstrate experimentally the feasibility and effectiveness of the laser as a CC. The experimental results indicate that the signal averaging operation inside the proposed setup increases the system signal-to-noise ratio (SNR).

  17. Silicon nanocluster-sensitized emission from erbium: The role of stress in the formation of silicon nanoclusters

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, I.; Kallis, A.; Wojdak, M.; Saleh, H.; Kenyon, A. J. [Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University College London, WC1E 7JE London (United Kingdom); Temple, M. P.; Oton, C. J.; Loh, W. H. [Optoelectronics Research Centre, University of Southampton, SO17 1BJ Southampton (United Kingdom); Barbier, D. [Teem Photonics, 61, Chemin du Vieux Chene 38246 Meylan (France)

    2008-12-15

    Erbium-doped silicon-rich silicon oxide films deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition suffer from compressive stress as deposited, which converts to a large tensile stress on annealing due to the release of hydrogen. Although the cracking that results from this stress can be avoided by patterning the films into ridges, significant stress remains along the ridge axis. Measurements of erbium photoluminescence sensitized by silicon nanoclusters in stressed and relaxed films suggest an important role for internal film stresses in promoting the phase separation of excess silicon into nanoclusters, which has previously been thought of as a thermally driven process.

  18. 10-GHz, 1.3-ps erbium fiber laser employing soliton pulse shortening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carruthers, Thomas F.; Duling, Irl N., III

    1996-12-01

    An actively mode-locked single-polarization erbium fiber laser modulated at 10 GHz utilizes intracavity soliton formation to produce 1.3-ps pulses, well below the Kuizenga-Siegman limit, without passive mode locking. The observed degree of pulse shortening agrees with the predictions of recently developed soliton laser models. The pulse dropout ratio was measured to be less than 10-12 , and the rms amplitude and phase jitter are less than 1.1% and 0.16 ps, respectively.

  19. Two simultaneous operating regimes in an Erbium doped-fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demori, C. B. S.; Thoroh de Souza, E. A.

    2015-06-01

    This work presents an Erbium doped fiber laser operating simultaneously in two distinct regimes, active mode-locking and continuous wave (CW), by introducing two arrayed waveguide gratings (AWG) paired inside ring cavity. Active phase modulator operating at 10 GHz and a single mode fiber were introduced between the two AWGs to allow the two operating regimes. The mode-locking was able to generated pulses with 30 ps simultaneous with the CW line. Both lasers could be tunable independent and simultaneously from 1530 nm to 1565 nm.

  20. High-power erbium-doped fiber laser mode locked by a semiconductor saturable absorber

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, B.C.; Rahman, L.; Islam, M.N.; Chen, Y.C.; Bhattacharya, P. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Riha, W.; Reddy, K.V.; Howe, A.T.; Stair, K.A. [ALC Telecom, Naperville, Illinois 60566-7011 (United States); Iwamura, H. [NTT Optoelectronics Laboratories, Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-01 (Japan); Friberg, S.R.; Mukai, T. [NTT Basic Research Laboratories, Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-01 (Japan)

    1995-03-01

    Using an erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL) passively mode locked by a semiconductor saturable absorber, we generate 5.5-ps pulses of a 2.3-nJ/pulse, which are more than three times higher in energy than for other reported EDFL`s. We show that, by introduction of a linear loss element within the cavity, multiple pulsing behavior at high pump powers can be suppressed. We also determine the saturable-absorber characteristics---absorbance versus wavelength near band gap---that are necessary to produce short mode-locked pulses.