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1

Study of the complex atomic susceptibility of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of the complex atomic susceptibility of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers operating near the 1.53-?m transition (4I 13\\/2-4I15\\/2) developed from a semiclassical theoretical description is presented. Expressions for the emission cross section ?e(?) and absorption cross section ?a(?) of erbium:glass as a quasi-three-level laser system with Stark-split sublevel manifolds are derived. The results are used to calculate the cross sections

Emmanuel Desurvire

1990-01-01

2

Erbium diffusion in silicon dioxide  

SciTech Connect

Erbium diffusion in silicon dioxide layers prepared by magnetron sputtering, chemical vapor deposition, and thermal growth has been investigated by secondary ion mass spectrometry, and diffusion coefficients have been extracted from simulations based on Fick's second law of diffusion. Erbium diffusion in magnetron sputtered silicon dioxide from buried erbium distributions has in particular been studied, and in this case a simple Arrhenius law can describe the diffusivity with an activation energy of 5.3{+-}0.1 eV. Within a factor of two, the erbium diffusion coefficients at a given temperature are identical for all investigated matrices.

Lu Yingwei; Julsgaard, B.; Petersen, M. Christian [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Jensen, R. V. Skougaard [Department of Physics and Nanotechnology, Aalborg University, DK-9220 Aalborg O (Denmark); Pedersen, T. Garm; Pedersen, K. [Department of Physics and Nanotechnology, Aalborg University, DK-9220 Aalborg O (Denmark); Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center-iNANO, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Larsen, A. Nylandsted [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center-iNANO, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)

2010-10-04

3

Erbium hydride decomposition kinetics.  

SciTech Connect

Thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) is used to study the decomposition kinetics of erbium hydride thin films. The TDS results presented in this report are analyzed quantitatively using Redhead's method to yield kinetic parameters (E{sub A} {approx} 54.2 kcal/mol), which are then utilized to predict hydrogen outgassing in vacuum for a variety of thermal treatments. Interestingly, it was found that the activation energy for desorption can vary by more than 7 kcal/mol (0.30 eV) for seemingly similar samples. In addition, small amounts of less-stable hydrogen were observed for all erbium dihydride films. A detailed explanation of several approaches for analyzing thermal desorption spectra to obtain kinetic information is included as an appendix.

Ferrizz, Robert Matthew

2006-11-01

4

Erbium-doped potassium bismuth gallate glasses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate potassium bismuth gallate glasses as suitable hosts for rare-earth-ion erbium (Er3+) operating in the 1.55-mum-wavelength region. The absorption and luminescence spectra along with the luminescence decay time were measured. The emission peak of the 4I13/2[right arrow]4I15/2 transition is at the 1.53-mum wavelength, and the spectral bandwidth is 85 nm, which is one of the broadest. The lifetime of the 4I13/2 level is approx2.42 ms, and the quantum efficiency is approx100%. The emission cross section is estimated to be approx12.4 x10-21 cm2, which is one of the highest among different oxide glasses. The gain coefficient is also calculated, and our results show that potassium bismuth gallate glasses are excellent host materials for broadband-amplifier and high-power-laser applications.

Man, S. Q.; Wong, S. F.; Pun, E. Y. B.

2002-08-01

5

Upconversion luminescence in transparent glass ceramics containing ?-PbF 2 nanocrystals doped with erbium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Frequency upconversion luminescence in erbium-doped PbGeO3PbF2CdF2-based transparent glass ceramics (TGC) under 980nm infrared excitation is investigated. Upconversion emission signals around 410, 525, 550, 660, and 850nm were generated and identified as due to the 2H9\\/2, 2H11\\/2, 4S3\\/2, and 4F9\\/2 transitions to the 4I15\\/2 ground-state, and 4S3\\/24I13\\/2, respectively. The erbium ions excited-state emitting levels were populated via a combination of stepwise

A. S Gouveia-Neto; E. B da Costa; L. A Bueno; S. J. L Ribeiro

2004-01-01

6

Optical characterization and crystal field calculations for some erbium based solid state materials for laser refrigeration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The potential of three erbium based solids hosts has been investigated for laser cooling. Absorption and emission spectra have been studied for the low lying IR transitions of erbium that are relevant to recent reports of cooling using the 4I15/2-4I9/2 and4I15/2 -4I13/2 transitions. Experimental studies have been performed for erbium in three hosts; ZBLAN glass and KPb2Cl5 and Cs2NaYCl6 crystals. In order to estimate the efficiencies of cooling, theoretical calculations have been performed for the cubic Elpasolite (Cs2NaYCl6 ) crystal. These calculations also provide a first principle insight into the cooling efficiency for non-cubic and glassy hosts where such calculations are not possible.

Hasan, Z.; Qiu, Z.; Johnson, Jackie; Homerick, Uwe

2009-02-01

7

Demonstration of an erbium-doped microdisk laser on a silicon chip  

SciTech Connect

An erbium-doped microlaser is demonstrated utilizing SiO{sub 2} microdisk resonators on a silicon chip. Passive microdisk resonators exhibit whispering-gallery-type modes (WGM's) with intrinsic optical quality factors of up to 6x10{sup 7} and were doped with trivalent erbium ions (peak concentration {approx}3.8x10{sup 20} cm{sup -3}) using MeV ion implantation. Coupling to the fundamental WGM of the microdisk resonator was achieved by using a tapered optical fiber. Upon pumping of the {sup 4}I{sub 15/2}{yields}{sup 4}I{sub 13/2} erbium transition at 1450 nm, a gradual transition from spontaneous to stimulated emission was observed in the 1550-nm band. Analysis of the pump-output power relation yielded a pump threshold of 43 {mu}W and allowed measuring the spontaneous emission coupling factor: {beta}{approx_equal}1x10{sup -3}.

Kippenberg, T. J.; Kalkman, J.; Polman, A.; Vahala, K. J. [Department of Applied Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Center for Nanophotonics, FOM-Institute AMOLF, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Applied Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)

2006-11-15

8

Interaction of Thin Erbium Films with Aluminum.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Aluminum is a potential substrate to support thin erbium films used for high-temperature, hydrogen isotope storage. Both aluminum and erbium are reactive metals, and the interaction of the two could make for an unstable combination at elevated temperature...

J. M. Harris E. P. Boespflug D. M. Holloway J. L. Provo

1984-01-01

9

Optical emission from erbium-doped silica nanowires  

SciTech Connect

Infrared optical emission from erbium-doped silica nanowires is shown to have property characteristic of the material nanostructure and to provide the basis for the fabrication of integrated photonic devices and biosensors. Silica nanowires of approximately 150 nm diameter were grown on a silicon wafer by metal-induced growth using a thin (20 nm) sputter-deposited palladium layer as a catalyst. The resulting wires were then ion implanted with 110 keV ErO{sup -} ions and annealed at 900 deg. C to optically activate the erbium. These wires exhibited photoluminescence emission at 1.54 {mu}m, characteristic of the {sup 4}I{sub 15/2}-{sup 4}I{sub 13/2} transition in erbium; however, comparison to similarly implanted fused silica layers revealed stronger thermal quenching and longer luminescence lifetimes in the nanowire samples. The former is attributed to an increase in defect-induced quenching partly due to the large surface-volume ratio of the nanowires, while the latter is attributed to a reduction in the optical density of states associated with the nanostructure morphology. Details of this behavior are discussed together with the implications for potential device applications.

Elliman, R. G.; Wilkinson, A. R.; Kim, T.-H. [Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT0200 (Australia); Sekhar, P. K.; Bhansali, S. [Nanomaterials and Nanomanufacturing Research Center, Department of Electrical Engineering, University of South Florida, 4202 E. Fowler Ave., Tampa, Florida 33620 (United States)

2008-05-15

10

Modeling erbium-doped fiber amplifiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers are modeled using the propagation and rate equations of a homogeneous two-level laser medium. Numerical methods are used to analyze the effects of optical modes and erbium confinement on amplifier performance, and to calculate both the gain and amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) spectra. Fibers with confined erbium doping are completely characterized from easily measured parameters: the ratio

C. Randy Giles; Emmanuel Desurvire

1991-01-01

11

Reaction of tantalum pentoxide with erbium oxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation of the reaction of erbium oxide with tantalum pentoxide in a wide range of concentrations and temperatures has revealed the existence of regions of solid solutions based on ErTaO, erbium oxide, and tantalum pentoxide; the lattice constants of ErTaO, E rTaO, and ErTaO have been calculated, the densities and melting points of erbium tantalates have been determined, and

E. N. Isupova; E. P. Savchenko; E. K. Keler

1975-01-01

12

Optical properties of organic semiconductors based on erbium phthalocyanine complexes in the mid- and near-infrared spectral regions  

SciTech Connect

The transmittance spectra of erbium phthalocyanine complexes in the mid- and near-infrared wavelength regions are studied. A detailed identification of the transmittance lines is presented for three types of phthalocyanine complexes. Data on the absorption of electromagnetic radiation at the wavelengths around 1.5 {mu}m due to the {sup 4}I{sub 13/2} {sup {yields}} {sup 4}I{sub 15/2} intracenter transitions between the levels of the erbium ions incorporated into the samples are obtained. It is found that some of the mid-infrared absorption lines shift when the number of organic ligands is increased by a factor of 2 or 3. It is shown that the absorption coefficient at the wavelengths around 1.5 {mu}m is equal to 27.5, 32.5, and 74 cm{sup -1} for erbium monophthalocyanine, bisphthalocyanine, and triphthalocyanine, respectively.

Belogorokhov, I. A., E-mail: jugqwerty@mail.ru; Tikhonov, E. V.; Breusova, M. O.; Pushkarev, V. E.; Tomilova, L. G.; Khokhlov, D. R. [Moscow State University (Russian Federation)

2007-10-15

13

Gain characteristics of erbium doped fiber amplifier  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the design of Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier (EDFA), improving flat-gain has great important significance. The working principle and gain characteristics of EDFA are introduced briefly, the influence of the factors such as Erbium doped fiber (EDF) length and pump power on the gain of EDFA is analyzed in detail, and the simulation experiments were carried out with Optisystem software.

Lihua Zhang; Yungang Du; Ying Xi; Jijun Li; Chunwang Zhao

2008-01-01

14

Erbium emission properties in nanostructured fibers.  

PubMed

A new route was recently proposed to modify some spectroscopic properties of rare-earth ions in silica-based fibers. We had shown the incorporation of erbium ions in amorphous dielectric nanoparticles, grown in fiber preforms. Here we present the achieved stabilization of nanometric erbium-doped dielectric nanoparticles within the core of silica fibers. We present the nanoparticle dimensional characterization in fiber samples. We also show the spectroscopic characterization of erbium in preform samples with similar nanoparticle size and composition. This new route could have important potentials in improving rare-earth-doped fiber amplifiers and laser sources. PMID:19881631

Blanc, Wilfried; Dussardier, Bernard; Monnom, Grard; Peretti, Romain; Jurdyc, Anne-Marie; Jacquier, Bernard; Foret, Marie; Roberts, Ann

2009-11-01

15

Spectral gain hole-burning at 1.53 ?m in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spectral gain hole-burning at ?0=1.53 ?m was observed in an erbium-doped fiber amplifier at temperatures between 4.2 and 77 K. The hole width was found to broaden with temperature for T ⩾20 K according to a T1.73 law. From the data, the room-temperature homogeneous linewidth associated with the 1.531-?m transition in the 4I13\\/2-4I15\\/2 laser system was determined to be ??h=11.5

E. Desurvire; J. L. Zyskind; J. R. Simpson

1990-01-01

16

Fabrication and properties of erbium oxide  

SciTech Connect

Erbium oxide (Er{sub 2}O{sub 3}) is a rare earth oxide of interest because of its chemical and thermal stability and high melting point, 2,430 C. However, there is relatively little information available regarding the relation between the structure and the mechanical properties of this material. A densification study of polycrystalline erbium oxide powders is reported here. Erbium oxide pellets were uniaxially pressed (40--280 MPa) and sintered (1,500--1,800 C) in order to obtain density data for as-received commercial powders. In addition, the particle size and distribution of as-received powders were varied by milling and the effects on densification were studied. The powders were characterized for particle size, phase and impurity content and surface area. The mechanical properties of high density sintered erbium oxide bodies were characterized using indentation hardness and toughness as a function of temperature and microstructure. Relations between the microstructure and mechanical properties are described.

Neuman, A.; Platero, M.; Romero, R.; McClellan, K.J.; Petrovic, J.J.

1997-03-01

17

Erbium:YAG laser-tissue interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present our findings of the effect of the Erbium:YAG laser on cornea, trabecular meshwork, and retinal tissue. We believe the laser is a safe and effective cutting tool with tremendous potential for surgical application.

Snyder, Robert W.; Jani, Mahendra G.; Yarborough, Mike; Marcellino, George R.; Noecker, Robert J.; Kramer, Theresa R.; Vidaurri, Jesus

1998-06-01

18

30 CFR 15.2 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...15.2 Section 15.2 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...number has been added. Minimum product firing temperature. The lowest product temperature at which the explosive or explosive unit...

2013-07-01

19

40 CFR 152.1 - Scope.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

(a) Part 152 sets forth procedures, requirements and criteria concerning the registration of pesticide products under FIFRA section 3, including plant-incorporated protectants (PIPs). Unless specifically superseded by part 174, the regulations in part 152 apply to...

2012-07-01

20

20 CFR 655.152 - Advertising requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Advertising requirements. 655.152 Section 655...Post-Acceptance Requirements § 655.152 Advertising requirements. All advertising conducted to satisfy the required...

2012-04-01

21

40 CFR 152.102 - Publication.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Publication. 152.102 Section 152.102 Protection of Environment...PROCEDURES Agency Review of Applications § 152.102 Publication. The Agency will issue in the Federal Register...

2011-07-01

22

41 CFR 128-1.152 - Citation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Management 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Citation. 128-1.152 Section 128-1.152 Public Contracts...1-INTRODUCTION 1.1-Regulation System § 128-1.152 Citation. The JPMR will be cited in accordance with the Federal...

2013-01-01

23

25 CFR 152.26 - Advertisement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Advertisement. 152.26 Section 152.26 Indians BUREAU OF...and Conveyances of Trust Or Restricted Lands § 152.26 Advertisement. (a) Upon approval of an application for an...

2013-04-01

24

25 CFR 152.26 - Advertisement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Advertisement. 152.26 Section 152.26 Indians BUREAU OF...and Conveyances of Trust Or Restricted Lands § 152.26 Advertisement. (a) Upon approval of an application for an...

2011-04-01

25

Erbium-doped aluminophosphosilicate optical fibres  

SciTech Connect

We have studied the active properties of erbium-doped aluminophosphosilicate (APS) core fibres in wide ranges of erbia, alumina and phosphorus pentoxide concentrations. The absorption and luminescence spectra of the P{sub 2}O{sub 5}- or Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-enriched erbium-doped APS fibres are shown to be similar to those of the erbium-doped fibres singly doped with phosphorus pentoxide or alumina, respectively. The formation of AlPO{sub 4} in APS fibres leads not only to a reduction in the refractive index of the glass but also to a marked increase in Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} solubility in silica. (optical fibres)

Likhachev, M E; Bubnov, M M; Zotov, K V; Medvedkov, O I [Fiber Optics Research Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Lipatov, D S; Yashkov, M V; Gur'yanov, Aleksei N [Institute of Chemistry of High-Purity Substances, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhnii Novgorod (Russian Federation)

2010-09-10

26

Hybrid Fiber-Bulk Pulsed Erbium Laser.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report results from a contract tasking University of Southampton as follows: The contractor will investigate the development of a novel eye-safe 1.6 micrometer laser source pumped by a high-power fiber laser co-doped with Erbium and Ytterbium to prod...

W. A. Clarkson P. J. Jander M. L. Laroche J. K. Sahu

2004-01-01

27

Erbium:YAG laser for cataract extraction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Erbium:YAG laser may be an effective laser for use in cataract surgery. At 2.94 mm the energy is maximally absorbed by water thereby efficiently disrupting tissue with minimal surrounding thermal damage. The laser may be safer to use in the eye than conventional ultrasonic emulsifiers. Preliminary clinical studies of the safety and efficacy have begun.

Snyder, Robert W.; Jani, Mahendra G.; Yarborough, Mike; Marcellino, George R.; Noecker, Robert J.; Kramer, Theresa R.; Vidaurri, Jesus

1998-06-01

28

Erbium doped tellurite photonic crystal optical fiber  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work we present the fabrication of tellurite glass photonic crystal fiber doped with a very large erbium concentration. Tellurite glasses are important hosts for rare earth ions due to its very high solubility, which allows up to 10,000 ppm Er3+ concentrations. The photonic crystal optical fibers and tellurite glasses can be, therefore, combined in an efficient way to

Sergio P. Osorio; Enver Fernandez; Eugenio Rodriguez; Carlos L. Cesar; Luiz C. Barbosa

2005-01-01

29

Erbium hydride thermal desorption : controlling kinetics.  

SciTech Connect

Thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) is used to study the decomposition kinetics of erbium hydride thin films. The TDS results presented in this report show that hydride film processing parameters directly impact thermal stability. Issues to be addressed include desorption kinetics for dihydrides and trihydrides, and the effect of film growth parameters, loading parameters, and substrate selection on desorption kinetics.

Ferrizz, Robert Matthew

2007-08-01

30

Standing-wave monomode erbium fiber laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

An integrated standing-wave, single frequency, erbium fiber laser having a laser linewidth of less than 47 kHz is reported. The monolithic fiber laser incorporated two highly reflective intracore Bragg reflectors which provide both cavity feedback and adequate longitudinal mode discrimination. The narrow linewidth single-mode operation and monolithic construction may make this a valuable communications\\/sensor source.

G. A. Ball; W. W. Morey; W. H. Glenn

1991-01-01

31

Erbium-based edge-pumped disk lasera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on initial testing of an edge-pumped erbium-based disk laser operating at 1.53 micron. The laser uses a single laser disk having a composite glass construction with erbium-ytterbium co-doped center and undoped perimetral edge designed to channel pump light. Erbium is pumped to a laser transition by 940-nm diode radiation, which is first absorbed by ytterbium with subsequent energy transfer to erbium. This work presents results of initial testing of the laser with resonator optics configured for power extraction with two passes through the disk.

Vetrovec, John; Copeland, Drew A.; Litt, Amardeep S.; Du, Detao

2013-03-01

32

Gain characteristics of erbium doped fiber amplifier  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the design of Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier (EDFA), improving flat-gain has great important significance. The working principle and gain characteristics of EDFA are introduced briefly, the influence of the factors such as Erbium doped fiber (EDF) length and pump power on the gain of EDFA is analyzed in detail, and the simulation experiments were carried out with Optisystem software. The result shows that, when pump power is constant, with EDF length departing the optimal value, the gain of each channel decreases at different degrees; when EDF length is constant, with pump power departing the optimal value, the gain of each channel changes at different degrees. Moreover, Er3+ concentration has significant effect on the gain, and there is an optimal Er3+ concentration to get the largest gain.

Zhang, Lihua; Du, Yungang; Xi, Ying; Li, Jijun; Zhao, Chunwang

2008-12-01

33

Characterization of the surface changes during the activation of erbium/erbium oxide for hydrogen storage.  

SciTech Connect

Erbium is known to effectively load with hydrogen when held at high temperature in a hydrogen atmosphere. To make the storage of hydrogen kinetically feasible, a thermal activation step is required. Activation is a routine practice, but very little is known about the physical, chemical, and/or electronic processes that occur during Activation. This work presents in situ characterization of erbium Activation using variable energy photoelectron spectroscopy at various stages of the Activation process. Modification of the passive surface oxide plays a significant role in Activation. The chemical and electronic changes observed from core-level and valence band spectra will be discussed along with corroborating ion scattering spectroscopy measurements.

Zavadil, Kevin Robert; Snow, Clark Sheldon; Brumbach, Michael Todd

2010-09-01

34

Optical and spectroscopic properties of soda lime alumino-silicate glasses doped with erbium and silver  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spectroscopic properties of Ag/Er co-doped soda lime silicate glasses have been studied with the aim of assessing the effective role of silver as a sensitizer for erbium. Changes in spectroscopic properties of Er3+ as a function of silver addition to the base composition have been measured. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), absorption as well as photoluminescence measurements in the visible and infrared spectral region, particularly 4I13/2 ? 4I15/2 transition of the Er3+ ion were performed; excitation wavelengths in the range from 325 to 808 nm were used. Enhancement of the Er3+ luminescence at 1.54 ?m was observed when Ag was added.

Carmo, A. P.; Bell, M. J. V.; da Costa, Z. M.; Anjos, V.; Barbosa, L. C.; Chillcce, E. F.; Giehl, J. M.; Pontuschka, W. M.

2011-10-01

35

Composition and Structure of Sputter Deposited Erbium Hydride Thin Films.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Erbium hydride thin films are grown onto polished, a-axis (alpha) A1 (sub 2)O(sub 3) (sapphire) substrates by reactive ion beam sputtering and analyzed to determine composition, phase and microstructure. Erbium is sputtered while maintaining a H(sub 2) pa...

D. P. Adams J. A. Romero M. A. Rodriguez J. A. Floro J. C. Banks

2000-01-01

36

Design Optimization for Efficient Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The exact gain shape profile of erbium doped fiber amplifiers (EDFAs) are depends on fiber length and Er 3 ion densities. This paper optimized several of erbium doped fiber parameters to obtain high performance characteristic at pump wavelengths of ?p= 980 nm and ?s= 1550 nm for three different pump powers. The maximum gain obtained for pump powers (10, 30

Parekhan M. Aljaff; Banaz O. Rasheed

2008-01-01

37

Noise figure for erbium-doped optical fibre amplifiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a simple rate equation model is used to make the first prediction of the noise figure for erbium-doped fiber amplifiers for both co- and counterpropagating pumps. It is shown that erbium amplifiers can be operated with noise figures very close to the 3 dB quantum limit. If the application requires both low noise and maximum gain, the

R. Olshansky

1988-01-01

38

Effects of an erbium:YAG laser on ocular structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the effects of the erbium:YAG laser (2.9 m wavelength) on ocular structures. Energy was successfully transmitted through a fiberoptic bundle for intraocular and extraocular applications. The wavelength was strongly absorbed by ocular tissues, producing ablations with minimal thermal damage. Our results indicated that the erbium: YAG laser may have potential uses as a photoablative tool to reshape the

Gholam A. Peyman; Naoko Katoh

1987-01-01

39

Amplifying properties of heavily erbium-doped active fibres  

SciTech Connect

The relative concentration of erbium ions undergoing nonradiative relaxation from the metastable to the ground level is measured in aluminosilicate glass fibres doped with erbium ions at concentration between 3x10{sup 18} and 10{sup 20} cm{sup -3}. The dependence of the fraction of such ions on the Er{sup 3+} concentration is determined for fibres containing different amounts of aluminium oxide in a core. It is shown that the fraction of erbium ions not involved in amplification substantially decreases with increasing the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentration. It is found that clustering leads to a considerable decrease in the gain in heavily Er{sup 3+}-doped active fibres. The dependence of the quantum efficiency of a fibre amplifier on the erbium ion concentration is obtained based on the measurements performed. This dependence can be used for optimising the parameters of erbium-doped fibre amplifiers. (fibres. integrated-optic waveguides)

Plotskii, A Yu; Kurkov, Andrei S; Yashkov, M Yu; Bubnov, M M; Likhachev, M E; Sysolyatin, A A; Dianov, Evgenii M [Fiber Optics Research Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Gur'yanov, A N [Institute of Chemistry of High-Purity Substances, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhnii Novgorod (Russian Federation)

2005-06-30

40

7 CFR 767.152 - Exceptions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS INVENTORY PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Disposal of Inventory Property § 767.152 Exceptions. ...(a) If the Agency leases real estate inventory property to a beginning farmer or...

2013-01-01

41

6 CFR 15.2 - Application.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY ...ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY § 15.2 Application...activities conducted by the Department of Homeland Security (Department), except for...

2012-01-01

42

44 CFR 152.9 - Reconsideration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...HOMELAND SECURITY FIRE PREVENTION AND CONTROL ASSISTANCE TO FIREFIGHTERS GRANT PROGRAM § 152.9 Reconsideration. (a) Reconsideration...Administrator, Grant Programs Directorate, Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program, FEMA, 800 K Street, NW., South...

2011-10-01

43

40 CFR 82.152 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Recycling and Emissions Reduction § 82.152... Certified refrigerant recovery or recycling equipment means equipment manufactured...between hoses, appliances, or recovery or recycling machines and that is designed to...

2013-07-01

44

14 CFR 152.601 - Purpose.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Energy Conservation in Airport Aid Program § 152.601 Purpose...3318; Pub. L. 95-620) in order to encourage conservation of petroleum and natural gas by recipients of...

2013-01-01

45

Theoretical Analysis of Erbium Doped Structures on Gain and Characterization of Erbium Doped Particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main objective of the dissertation is to present work describing theoretical studies of planar structures with erbium doped regions and characterization of erbium doped particles. Numerical models of erbium doped Al2O3 were formulated, taking into account the up-conversion from the metastable Er3+ levels and the cross-relaxation process as a mechanism of energy transfer between Er3+ ions. The influence of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) is also fully considered in the numerical model. The first part of this research investigates the effects of design geometries and nonlinear losses on gain in silicon waveguides with multiple trenched erbium-doped Al2O3 regions. Distributing erbium ions over multi-trench areas improves the gain to nonlinear loss ratio. 0.38 dB/cm higher signal amplification was generated when comparing the multiple and single-trench configurations. In the second part of this work, a dielectric vertical emitter structure consisting of an erbium doped active material layer sandwiched between two metallic layers is studied. In this structure, metal layers are used to guide the plasmonic pump mode that has the role of exciting the active material and act as mirrors in the vertical direction to form a cavity resonating at 1532 nm. We employ the transverse resonance method to compute the modes in the structure, and we focus on even (with respect to the x polarized electric field) TM modes. We show that such structures can be promising candidates for dielectric based vertical emitters. In the last part of this dissertation, characterization of micron sized erbium doped particles is discussed. We demonstrate the feasibility of single-shot, single-detector high-resolution imaging and tracking by a time--space-wavelength mapping technique. We experimentally demonstrate single-shot imaging at 1 line/50 ns capture rate. A correlation method is implemented to obtain the transient movement of an individual particle. This system can be further optimized for real-time imaging, tracking of multiple micro-particles or arbitrary objects.

Qian, Feng

46

30 CFR 1206.152 - Valuation standards-unprocessed gas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Valuation standards-unprocessed gas. 1206.152 Section 1206.152 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE...REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Gas § 1206.152 Valuation...

2013-07-01

47

30 CFR 206.152 - Valuation standards-unprocessed gas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Valuation standards-unprocessed gas. 206.152 Section 206.152 Mineral...REVENUE MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Gas § 206.152 Valuation standardsunprocessed gas. (a)(1) This section applies to...

2009-07-01

48

14 CFR 152.309 - Availability of sponsor's records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Availability of sponsor's records. 152.309 Section 152.309...Requirements § 152.309 Availability of sponsor's records. (a) The sponsor or planning agency shall allow any...

2013-01-01

49

Bose-Einstein condensation of erbium.  

PubMed

We report on the achievement of Bose-Einstein condensation of erbium atoms and on the observation of magnetic Feshbach resonances at low magnetic fields. By means of evaporative cooling in an optical dipole trap, we produce pure condensates of 168Er, containing up to 710(4) atoms. Feshbach spectroscopy reveals an extraordinary rich loss spectrum with six loss resonances already in a narrow magnetic-field range up to 3 G. Finally, we demonstrate the application of a low-field Feshbach resonance to produce a tunable dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate and we observe its characteristic d-wave collapse. PMID:23003221

Aikawa, K; Frisch, A; Mark, M; Baier, S; Rietzler, A; Grimm, R; Ferlaino, F

2012-05-21

50

20 Hz lamp pumped erbium glass laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Q-switched laser behavior of the new IRE RAS developed Yb-Er phosphate glass LGS-KhCh2 was studied using FTIR and water-cooled chamber with lamp pumping. Laser rod near 3 mm in diameter and 80 mm long was investigated. Laser output of 5-10 mJ was achieved at 1535 nm at 20 Hz repetition rate. For the first time, to our best knowledge, the CW operation of the erbium glass laser under lamp pumping is demonstrated.

Alekseev, N. E.; Byshevskaya-Konopko, L. O.; Izyneev, Anatoly A.; Kravchenko, Victor; Sadovski, P. I.

2004-04-01

51

Bose-Einstein Condensation of Erbium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the achievement of Bose-Einstein condensation of erbium atoms and on the observation of magnetic Feshbach resonances at low magnetic fields. By means of evaporative cooling in an optical dipole trap, we produce pure condensates of Er168, containing up to 7104 atoms. Feshbach spectroscopy reveals an extraordinary rich loss spectrum with six loss resonances already in a narrow magnetic-field range up to 3 G. Finally, we demonstrate the application of a low-field Feshbach resonance to produce a tunable dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate and we observe its characteristic d-wave collapse.

Aikawa, K.; Frisch, A.; Mark, M.; Baier, S.; Rietzler, A.; Grimm, R.; Ferlaino, F.

2012-05-01

52

Optical-absorption intensities and intermanifold emission cross sections of trivalent erbium ions in calcium fluorophosphate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A spectroscopic analysis is performed on trivalent erbium ions, Er3+, doped into calcium fluorophosphate (FAP) to assess this material for its potential as a near-infrared laser host. The Judd-Ofelt model is applied to the orientation-averaged, room-temperature absorption intensities of Er3+ in FAP to obtain the phenomenological intensity parameters: ?2=5.8610-20 cm2, ?4=0.3810-20 cm2, and ?6=0.8810-20 cm2. The intensity parameters are used to determine the radiative decay rates (emission probabilities), radiative lifetimes, and branching ratios of the Er3+ transitions from the upper multiplet manifolds to the corresponding lower-lying multiplet manifolds 2S+1LJ of Er3+ in FAP. Using the radiative decay rates for Er3+ transitions between the corresponding excited states and the lower-lying states, the radiative lifetimes of eight excited states are determined in this host. The room temperature fluorescence lifetime and the radiative lifetime of the Er3+ 4I13/2-->4I15/2(1.53 ?m) transition are reported and the quantum efficiency is determined to be 69% for 1.0 wt % Er3+:FAP. In addition, the orientationally resolved emission cross sections for the 4S3/2-->4I15/2 and 4I13/2-->4I15/2 transitions are presented.

Sardar, Dhiraj K.; Coeckelenbergh, Cody H.; Yow, Raylon M.; Gruber, John B.; Allik, Toomas H.

2005-08-01

53

Outcome of erbium:yttrium aluminium garnet laser resurfacing treatments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Erbium:yttrium aluminium garnet (erbium:YAG) laser treatment was used to resurface skin abnormalities in patients suffering\\u000a from conditions that included epidermal naevi, tuberous sclerosis, angiofibromata, neurofibromatosis, and scarring caused\\u000a by acne or other means. Patients completed self-report questionnaires before their first laser test patch session, and again\\u000a approximately 4months after one treatment, so that its success could be evaluated from the

R. P. Cole; D. Widdowson; J. C. Moore

2008-01-01

54

14 CFR 152.405 - Assurances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... The grantee agrees to comply with any affirmative action plan or steps for equal employment opportunity required by...action plans will be used in lieu of any affirmative action plan or steps required by 14 CFR part 152, subpart E,...

2013-01-01

55

Absolute Measurement of exp 152 Eu.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new method of the absolute measurement for exp 152 Eu was established based on the 4 pi beta - gamma spectroscopic anti-coincidence method. It is a coincidence counting method consisting of a 4 pi beta -counter and a Ge(Li) gamma -ray detector, in which...

H. Baba S. Baba S. Ichikawa T. Sekine I. Ishikawa

1981-01-01

56

40 CFR 152.83 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Procedures To Ensure Protection of Data Submitters' Rights § 152.83...following terms shall have the meanings set forth in this section: Data gap means the absence of any...files which would satisfy a specific data requirement for a particular...

2011-07-01

57

40 CFR 152.404 - Fee amounts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...fees in accordance with § 152.412. TableRegistration Fees Type of review Fee New chemical $184,500 New biochemical or microbial 64,000 New use pattern 33,800 Experimental use permit 4,500 Old chemical 4,000...

2013-07-01

58

Physics 152 Laboratory Manual, 8th Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document is the laboratory manual for the Physics 152 course at Purdue University. It includes a laboratory introduction, hardware and software guide, and laboratory report guide. Labs include: (1) "Measurement Uncertainty and Propagation"; (2) "Introduction to Computer Data Acquisition and Relationships between Position, Velocity, and

MacIssac, Dan; And Others

59

Effect of AgCl on spectroscopic properties of erbium doped zinc tellurite glass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Er3+ doped zinc tellurite glass containing Ag nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized from high purity raw materials by melt quenching method and the influence of Ag NPs on the spectroscopic properties were investigated. The glasses are characterized using DTA, EDX, TEM, FTIR, UV-Vis-NIR and photoluminescence (PL) techniques. The DTA data reveal that the addition of silver chloride increased the thermal stability from 0.52 to 0.67 for samples without and with 2 mol% AgCl respectively. The sharp peaks in EDX spectra show the presence of Ag nanocrystallites. The TEM micrograph shows the distribution of NPs is Gaussian and the average size is estimated 10 nm. Seven absorption bands of erbium were evidenced in the UV-Vis-NIR measurements. Optical band gap and density were found to decrease with addition of AgCl concentration, while molar volume increased. The PL spectra exhibit four peaks corresponding to 2H11/2 ? 4I15/2, 4S3/2 ? 4I15/2, 4F9/2 ? 4I15/2 and 4S3/2 ? 4I13/2 transitions. An enhancement in the order of six times for 2 mol% of dopant and a subsequent quench in luminescence spectra of co-doped zinc tellurite glasses were observed. Such enhancements were attributed to silver nanoparticles with average size of 10 nm and absorption band centered at 552 nm. The studied glasses provide enormous scope to achieve the materials suitable for nanophotonics, solid state lasers and color displays.

Reza Dousti, M.; Sahar, M. R.; Ghoshal, S. K.; Amjad, Raja J.; Samavati, A. R.

2013-03-01

60

Erbium concentration control and optimization in erbium yttrium chloride silicate single crystal nanowires as a high gain material  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increasing erbium concentration while minimizing the reduction of photoluminescence is an important task for achieving erbium-based high-gain materials for integrated photonics applications. Here, we demonstrate a strategy of controlled variation of Erbium density in the growth of erbium yttrium chloride silicate (EYCS) ((ErxY1-x)3(SiO4)2Cl)) single crystal nanowires by systematically varying x between 0 and 1. We show that, as a trade-off between high Er density and suppressed upconversion, Er composition x = 0.3 provides the best compromise with the strongest photoluminescence. This optimized Er-composition corresponds to an Er density of 51021 cm-3, five times larger than the optimized Er density demonstrated previously for other thin film materials. We estimate that this optimized EYCS is promising in achieving optical gain exceeding 100 dB/cm.

Yin, Leijun; Shelhammer, David; Zhao, Gejian; Liu, Zhicheng; Ning, C. Z.

2013-09-01

61

Silver as a sensitizer for erbium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The photoluminescence of Er3+ in borosilicate glass is strongly enhanced by the presence of silver. Samples prepared by a combination of erbium ion implantation and Na+[leftright arrow]Ag+ ion exchange show an increase of the Er3+ excitation efficiency of up to a factor 70 when excited at 488 nm. Excitation of Er3+ is possible over a broad wavelength range in the near ultraviolet and visible. Our data suggest that absorption of light occurs at a silver ion/atom pair or similar defect, followed by energy transfer to Er3+. We can exclude that silver nanocrystals are part of the dominant excitation mechanism, neither via local field enhancement effects due to their surface plasmon resonance nor via absorption and subsequent energy transfer to Er3+.

Strohhofer, C.; Polman, A.

2002-08-01

62

Characterisation of Erbium Doped Phosphate Glass  

SciTech Connect

A series of erbium doped phosphate glass has been successfully fabricated, and the determination of their density and luminescence properties has been carried out. It is particularly interesting to study the effect of modifying oxides to the properties of the glass. The glass density reduces with the increasing content of Na{sub 2}O. The emission spectra from luminescence spectroscopy resolved six emission peaks from the excitation wavelength of 336.8 nm (3.69 eV). The emission of {sup 4}F{sub 7/2} gives two emission peaks, where the peak near 482 nm shows a higher intensity and the peak near 491 nm gives a weak emission spectra.

Rasid, A. A.; Rohani, M. S.; Sahar, M. R.; Kasim, A. [Advanced Optical Material Research Group, Physics Dept., Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor (Malaysia)

2010-03-11

63

The incorporation of erbium into molecular beam epitaxy grown gallium arsenide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Erbium-doped gallium arsenide has been grown by molecular beam epitaxy under varying growth conditions and analysed by secondary ion mass spectrometry. The concentration of erbium incorporated into the gallium arsenide lattice for a given effusion cell temperature has been found to vary considerably with the V : III (As : Ga) flux ratio. Higher levels of erbium incorporation occur when

P. Rutter; K. E. Singer; A. R. Peaker

1997-01-01

64

Absorption bleaching by stimulated emission in erbium-doped silicon-rich silicon nitride waveguides.  

PubMed

Stimulated emission from sensitized erbium ions in silicon-rich silicon nitride is demonstrated by pump-probe measurements carried out in waveguides. A decrease in the photoinduced absorption of the probe at the wavelength of erbium emission is observed and is attributed to stimulated emission from erbium excited indirectly via localized states in the silicon nitride matrix. PMID:21209668

Olaosebikan, Debo; Yerci, Seluk; Gondarenko, Alexander; Preston, Kyle; Li, Rui; Dal Negro, Luca; Lipson, Michal

2011-01-01

65

44 CFR 16.152-16.159 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01...152-16.159 Section 16.152-16.159 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY...

2012-10-01

66

45 CFR 152.27 - Fraud, waste, and abuse.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 false Fraud, waste, and abuse. 152... PRE-EXISTING CONDITION INSURANCE PLAN PROGRAM Oversight § 152.27 Fraud, waste, and abuse. (a...to HHS incidences of waste, fraud, and abuse, and to...

2011-10-01

67

45 CFR 152.27 - Fraud, waste, and abuse.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 false Fraud, waste, and abuse. 152... PRE-EXISTING CONDITION INSURANCE PLAN PROGRAM Oversight § 152.27 Fraud, waste, and abuse. (a...to HHS incidences of waste, fraud, and abuse, and to...

2012-10-01

68

45 CFR 152.27 - Fraud, waste, and abuse.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 false Fraud, waste, and abuse. 152... PRE-EXISTING CONDITION INSURANCE PLAN PROGRAM Oversight § 152.27 Fraud, waste, and abuse. (a...to HHS incidences of waste, fraud, and abuse, and to...

2010-10-01

69

14 CFR 152.407 - Affirmative action plan: General.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Affirmative action plan: General. 152.407 Section...Program § 152.407 Affirmative action plan: General. (a) Except as...following shall have an affirmative action plan that meets the requirements...

2013-01-01

70

BAM Media M152: Trypticase (Tryptic) Soy Agar  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... BAM Media M152: Trypticase (Tryptic) Soy Agar. January 2001. Bacteriological Analytical Manual. M152 Trypticase (Tryptic) Soy Agar. ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/foodscienceresearch/laboratorymethods

71

14 CFR 152.313 - Property management standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Property management standards. 152.313 Section...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Accounting and...Requirements § 152.313 Property management standards. (a) The...

2013-01-01

72

14 CFR 152.303 - Financial management system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Financial management system. 152.303 Section...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Accounting and...Requirements § 152.303 Financial management system. Each sponsor...

2013-01-01

73

40 CFR 152.168 - Advertising of restricted use products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Advertising of restricted use products. 152...Classification of Pesticides § 152.168 Advertising of restricted use products. ...radio and television. (4) Telephone advertising. (5) Billboards and...

2011-07-01

74

10 CFR 431.152 - Definitions concerning commercial clothes washers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Definitions concerning commercial clothes washers. 431.152 Section 431...CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Clothers Washers § 431.152...

2013-01-01

75

14 CFR 152.111 - Application requirements: Airport development.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Application requirements: Airport development. 152.111 Section 152.111 Aeronautics...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Eligibility Requirements and...

2009-01-01

76

14 CFR 152.111 - Application requirements: Airport development.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Application requirements: Airport development. 152.111 Section 152.111 Aeronautics...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Eligibility Requirements and...

2010-01-01

77

14 CFR 152.103 - Sponsors: Airport development.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sponsors: Airport development. 152.103...Application Procedures § 152.103 Sponsors: Airport development. (a) To...requirements must be met: (1) Each sponsor must be a public agency authorized...

2013-01-01

78

19 CFR 201.152-201.159 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...152-201.159 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION GENERAL RULES OF GENERAL APPLICATION...in Programs or Activities Conducted by the U.S. International Trade Commission §§ 201.152-201.159...

2013-04-01

79

25 CFR 152.19 - Sale by fiduciaries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sale by fiduciaries. 152.19 Section 152.19...CERTIFICATES OF COMPETENCY, REMOVAL OF RESTRICTIONS, AND SALE OF CERTAIN INDIAN LANDS Sales, Exchanges and Conveyances of Trust Or...

2011-04-01

80

40 CFR 98.152 - GHGs to report.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...152 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING HCFC-22 Production and HFC-23 Destruction § 98.152 GHGs to report. (a) You must report...

2011-07-01

81

40 CFR 152.168 - Advertising of restricted use products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Advertising of restricted use products. 152...Classification of Pesticides § 152.168 Advertising of restricted use products. ...radio and television. (4) Telephone advertising. (5) Billboards and...

2013-07-01

82

40 CFR 152.96 - Documentation of a data gap.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Documentation of a data gap. 152.96 Section 152.96 Protection...PROCEDURES Procedures To Ensure Protection of Data Submitters' Rights § 152.96 Documentation of a data gap. Except as provided in...

2013-07-01

83

40 CFR 152.91 - Waiver of a data requirement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Waiver of a data requirement. 152.91 Section 152.91...PROCEDURES Procedures To Ensure Protection of Data Submitters' Rights § 152.91 Waiver of a data requirement. The applicant may...

2011-07-01

84

40 CFR 152.91 - Waiver of a data requirement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Waiver of a data requirement. 152.91 Section 152.91...PROCEDURES Procedures To Ensure Protection of Data Submitters' Rights § 152.91 Waiver of a data requirement. The applicant may...

2012-07-01

85

17 CFR 201.152 - Filing of papers: Form.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Filing of papers: Form. 201.152 Section 201.152 ...Practice General Rules § 201.152 Filing of papers: Form. (a) Specifications. Papers filed in connection with any proceeding as...

2013-04-01

86

38 CFR 3.152 - Claims for death benefits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Claims for death benefits. 3.152 Section 3.152...Compensation Claims § 3.152 Claims for death benefits. (a) A specific claim...3.153) must be filed in order for death benefits to be paid to any...

2013-07-01

87

25 CFR 152.35 - Deferred payment sales.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Deferred payment sales. 152.35 Section 152.35 Indians...COMPETENCY, REMOVAL OF RESTRICTIONS, AND SALE OF CERTAIN INDIAN LANDS Mortgages and...Indians § 152.35 Deferred payment sales. When the Indian owner and...

2011-04-01

88

25 CFR 152.35 - Deferred payment sales.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Deferred payment sales. 152.35 Section 152.35 Indians...COMPETENCY, REMOVAL OF RESTRICTIONS, AND SALE OF CERTAIN INDIAN LANDS Mortgages and...Indians § 152.35 Deferred payment sales. When the Indian owner and...

2013-04-01

89

14 CFR 152.321 - Notice of delay or acceleration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Notice of delay or acceleration. 152.321 Section 152.321 Aeronautics and Space...Reporting Requirements § 152.321 Notice of delay or acceleration. (a) The sponsor or planning agency shall...

2013-01-01

90

45 CFR 152.40 - Relation to State laws.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 false Relation to State laws. 152.40 Section 152.40 Public Welfare...INSURANCE PLAN PROGRAM Relationship to Existing Laws and Programs § 152.40 Relation to State laws. The standards established under this...

2011-10-01

91

Controllable ultraslow light propagation in highly-doped erbium fiber  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on slow light propagation induced by the coherent population oscillation in an erbium-doped optical fiber (EDOF). The slowdown of group velocity of light is demonstrated in a solid-state material at room temperature. We observe a maximum fractional delay of 0.129 and a maximum delay of 8.75 ms corresponding to a group velocity as low as 228.57 m/s in a sinusoid-like modulated waveform. We study in details the influences of the erbium ion density and the length of fiber on the fractional delay and the slow light propagation. The data show that the fractional delay can be increased using the fiber with high erbium ions density or long interaction length.

Zhang, Yundong; Qiu, Wei; Ye, Jianbo; Wang, Nan; Wang, Jinfang; Tian, He; Yuan, Ping

2008-05-01

92

Composition and structure of sputter deposited erbium hydride thin films  

SciTech Connect

Erbium hydride thin films are grown onto polished, a-axis {alpha} Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (sapphire) substrates by reactive ion beam sputtering and analyzed to determine composition, phase and microstructure. Erbium is sputtered while maintaining a H{sub 2} partial pressure of 1.4 x 10{sup {minus}4} Torr. Growth is conducted at several substrate temperatures between 30 and 500 C. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and elastic recoil detection analyses after deposition show that the H/Er areal density ratio is approximately 3:1 for growth temperatures of 30, 150 and 275 C, while for growth above {approximately}430 C, the ratio of hydrogen to metal is closer to 2:1. However, x-ray diffraction shows that all films have a cubic metal sublattice structure corresponding to that of ErH{sub 2}. RBS and Auger electron that sputtered erbium hydride thin films are relatively free of impurities.

ADAMS,DAVID P.; ROMERO,JUAN A.; RODRIGUEZ,MARK A.; FLORO,JERROLD A.; BANKS,JAMES C.

2000-05-10

93

Radiation-resistant erbium-doped silica fibre  

SciTech Connect

It is shown that the service life of erbium-doped fibres can be increased many times under conditions of an elevated radiation level by loading the fibre glass network with molecular hydrogen. Backdiffusion of hydrogen from the fibre in the process of its operation is virtually excluded for the fibre covered with a hermetic carbon coating. It is shown that this technique of fibre preparation allows one to slow down significantly degradation of the lasing properties of erbium fibres under the conditions characteristic of space applications. (special issue devoted to the 25th anniversary of the a.m. prokhorov general physics institute)

Zotov, K V; Likhachev, M E; Tomashuk, A L; Bubnov, M M [Fiber Optics Research Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Yashkov, M V; Gur'yanov, A N [Institute of Chemistry of High-Purity Substances, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhnii Novgorod (Russian Federation)

2007-10-31

94

Characterization of the surface changes during the activation process of erbium/erbium oxide for hydrogen storage.  

SciTech Connect

Erbium is known to effectively load with hydrogen when held at high temperature in a hydrogen atmosphere. To make the storage of hydrogen kinetically feasible, a thermal activation step is required. Activation is a routine practice, but very little is known about the physical, chemical, and/or electronic processes that occur during Activation. This work presents in situ characterization of erbium Activation using variable energy photoelectron spectroscopy at various stages of the Activation process. Modification of the passive surface oxide plays a significant role in Activation. The chemical and electronic changes observed from core-level and valence band spectra will be discussed along with corroborating ion scattering spectroscopy measurements.

Zavadil, Kevin Robert; Snow, Clark Sheldon; Ohlhausen, James Anthony; Brumbach, Michael Todd

2010-10-01

95

Widely Tunable Actively Modelocked Erbium Fibre Ring Laser.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Erbium fibre lasers offer a large variety of features such as large tuning range /1/, high output power /1/, modelocking at repetition rates beyond 10 GHz /2/, Q-switching /3/ and single longitudinal mode operation /4/. In this paper we present a 980 nm l...

T. Pfeiffer H. Schmuck

1992-01-01

96

Gain analysis of Erbium and Ytterbium Doped Optical Fiber Amplifiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, importance of optical amplifiers which are used in optical communication systems is explained and gains of EDFA, Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier, and YDFA, Ytterbium Doped Fiber Amplifier, which are among the most commonly used optical amplifiers today, are analysed based on their performance parameters. The effects of the power of input signal, the power of pump laser,

Tolga Kucukarslan; N. Ozlem Unverdi

2012-01-01

97

Erbium:YAG Laser Resurfacing for Refractory Melasma  

Microsoft Academic Search

background. Melasma is a facial dyspigmentation which is a common complaint in patients with darker skin tones. Many current therapies used for this condition are ineffective and can cause significant adverse effects. objective. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of erbium:YAG laser resurfacing in the management of refrac- tory melasma. methods. Ten female patients with melasma

Rhesa May P. Manaloto; Tina Alster

1999-01-01

98

Multiple wavelength operation of an erbium-doped fiber laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wavelength-locked, six-channel, colasing operation using a single gain medium is reported for the first time. The system is an all-fiber, erbium-amplifier-based design that uses a grating wavelength division multiplexer with a fixed channel spacing of 4.8 nm for frequency selection. The authors investigate two possible configurations for the laser cavity

J. W. Dawson; K. J. Vahala

1992-01-01

99

The design of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

An accurate model for the erbium-doped fiber amplifier is presented. The model is used to design the index profile of the doped fiber, optimizing with regard to efficiency for inline- and preamplifiers as well as for power booster amplifiers. The predicted pump efficiencies (maximum gain to pump power ratios) are in agreement with experimental results presented in the literature. The

Bo Pedersen; Anders Bjarklev; J. H. Povlsen; Kristen Dybdal; Carl Christian Larsen

1991-01-01

100

Modeling of gain in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analytic method is described for fully characterizing the gain of an erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) that is based on easily measured monochromatic absorption data. The analytic expressions presented, which involve the solution of one transcendental equation, can predict signal gains and pump absorptions in an amplifier containing an arbitrary number of pumps and signals from arbitrary directions. The gain

A. A. M. Saleh; R. M. Jopson; J. D. Evankow; J. Aspell

1990-01-01

101

Multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber lasers exploiting polarization hole burning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simultaneous multiwavelength lasing is demonstrated exploiting intracavity polarization hole burning in an erbium-doped fiber laser. Experimental results indicate that polarization hole burning can be enhanced by the changes of the light polarization states and bias current of optical MQW waveguide which serves as reflector in the laser. Eleven wavelengths with 0.9 nm spacing are generated at room temperature.

Junqiang Sun; Junlin Qiu; Dexiu Huang

2000-01-01

102

40 CFR 147.152 - Aquifer exemptions. [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Arizona § 147.152 Aquifer exemptions....

2012-07-01

103

7 CFR 701.152 - Availability of funding.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGRICULTURAL CONSERVATION PROGRAM EMERGENCY CONSERVATION PROGRAM, EMERGENCY FOREST RESTORATION PROGRAM, AND CERTAIN...ADMINISTERED UNDER THIS PART Emergency Conservation Program § 701.152...

2013-01-01

104

Controlled erbium incorporation and photoluminescence of Er-doped Y2O3  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high concentration of erbium doping was achieved in Y2O3 thin films on Si (100) by depositing Y2O3 alternatively with Er2O3 using radical-enhanced atomic layer deposition (ALD). Specifically, the erbium doping level was controlled by varying the ratio of Y2O3:Er2O3 cycles during deposition, and a 10:5 ratio yielded ~9 at. % erbium incorporation in Y2O3, confirmed by the compositional analysis

Trinh Tu van; Jane P. Chang

2005-01-01

105

Synthesis and Photophysical Properties of Erbium-Included Mesoporous Materials for Optical Amplification  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have synthesized erbium-included mesoporous materials to enhance optical amplification gain in Er3+-doped silica materials. Various mesoporous materials such as MCM-41, MCM-48 or SBA-15 were prepared and then erbium ions were filled into the empty pores in the mesoporous materials via sol-gel process through the external modification of the mesoporous materials. All erbium-included mesoporous materials exhibit the near infrared emission

Yun Hui Cha; Kyong-Soo Hong; Soon Chang Lee; Duck-Lae Joo; Jin Kook Lee; Jong-Sung Yu; Suk Bon Yoon; Hwan Kyu Kim

2004-01-01

106

Long lifetime, high density single-crystal erbium compound nanowires as a high optical gain material  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Erbium-containing materials of long lifetime and high Er density are important for achieving strong luminescence and high optical gain in compact integrated photonics devices. We have systematically studied the lifetime and crystal quality as a function of growth conditions for an erbium compound that we recently reported, erbium chloride silicate (ECS). The lifetime for the best quality ECS nanowires can be as long as 540 ?s, the longest for high-density Er-materials, representing a lifetime-density product as high as 8.7 1018 s cm-3. Such high density, long lifetime erbium materials can find many interesting applications such as compact lasers or amplifiers.

Yin, Leijun; Ning, Hao; Turkdogan, Sunay; Liu, Zhicheng; Nichols, Patricia L.; Ning, C. Z.

2012-06-01

107

Diode-pumped self-Q-switched erbium-doped all-fibre laser  

SciTech Connect

A diode-pumped self-Q-switched erbium-doped fibre laser is developed and studied. The laser has an all-fibre configuration containing a piece of an active heavily erbium-doped fibre and two fibre Bragg grating mirrors and does not require any additional intracavity elements to obtain short pulses. Analysis of the laser operation suggests that the most probable mechanism of passive Q-switching of the laser cavity is absorption from the excited state of erbium resulting in the thermally induced nonlinear change in the refractive index in the erbium-doped fibre. (lasers)

Vicente, S G Cruz; Martinez Gamez, M A; Barmenkov, Yu O [Centro de Investigaciones en Optica A.C. (Spain); Kir'yanov, A V [A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Andres, M V [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada - ICMUV, Universidad de Valencia (Spain)

2004-04-30

108

Up-conversion luminescence analysis in ytterbium-sensitized erbium-doped oxide-halide tellurite and germanate-niobic-lead glasses.  

PubMed

Ytterbium-sensitized erbium-doped oxide-halide tellurite and germanate-niobic-lead glasses have been synthesized by conventional melting method. Intense green and red emissions centered at 525, 546 and 657 nm, corresponding to the transitions 2H11/2-->4I15/2, 4S3/2-->4I15/2 and 4F9/2-->4I15/2, respectively, were simultaneously observed at room temperature in these glasses. The quadratic dependence of the 525, 546 and 657 nm emissions on excitation power indicates that a two-photon absorption process occurs. Tellurite glass showed a weaker up-conversion emission than germanate-niobic-lead glass, which is inconsistent with the prediction from the difference of maximum phonon energy between tellurite and germanate-niobic-lead glasses. In this paper, Raman spectroscopy was employed to investigate the origin of the difference in up-conversion luminescence in the two glasses. Compared with phonon side-band spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy extracts more information including both phonon energy and phonon density. Our results reveal that the phonon density and the maximum phonon energy of host glasses are both important factors in determining the up-conversion efficiency. PMID:15950534

Sun, Hongtao; Yu, Chunlei; Zhou, Gang; Duan, Zhongchao; Liao, Meisong; Zhang, Junjie; Hu, Lili; Jiang, Zhonghong

2005-06-13

109

25 CFR 152.5 - Issuance of patent in fee.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false Issuance of patent in fee. 152.5 Section 152.5...INTERIOR LAND AND WATER ISSUANCE OF PATENTS IN FEE, CERTIFICATES OF COMPETENCY...SALE OF CERTAIN INDIAN LANDS Issuing Patents in Fee, Certificates of Competency...

2013-04-01

110

25 CFR 152.4 - Application for patent in fee.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Application for patent in fee. 152.4 Section 152.4...INTERIOR LAND AND WATER ISSUANCE OF PATENTS IN FEE, CERTIFICATES OF COMPETENCY...SALE OF CERTAIN INDIAN LANDS Issuing Patents in Fee, Certificates of Competency...

2011-04-01

111

25 CFR 152.4 - Application for patent in fee.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Application for patent in fee. 152.4 Section 152.4...INTERIOR LAND AND WATER ISSUANCE OF PATENTS IN FEE, CERTIFICATES OF COMPETENCY...SALE OF CERTAIN INDIAN LANDS Issuing Patents in Fee, Certificates of Competency...

2013-04-01

112

25 CFR 152.5 - Issuance of patent in fee.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 false Issuance of patent in fee. 152.5 Section 152.5...INTERIOR LAND AND WATER ISSUANCE OF PATENTS IN FEE, CERTIFICATES OF COMPETENCY...SALE OF CERTAIN INDIAN LANDS Issuing Patents in Fee, Certificates of Competency...

2011-04-01

113

14 CFR 152.607 - Building design requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Building design requirements. 152.607 Section...in Airport Aid Program § 152.607 Building design requirements. Each sponsor...assessment for each federally-assisted building construction or major building...

2013-01-01

114

25 CFR 152.27 - Procedure of sale.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Procedure of sale. 152.27 Section 152.27 Indians BUREAU...CERTIFICATES OF COMPETENCY, REMOVAL OF RESTRICTIONS, AND SALE OF CERTAIN INDIAN LANDS Sales, Exchanges and Conveyances of Trust Or...

2013-04-01

115

40 CFR 152.90 - The selective method.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...not be satisfied by the submission or citation of data at the time of application...study. Refer to § 152.92. (3) Citation of a specific valid study previously...pay. Refer to § 152.93. (4) Citation of a public literature study. Refer...

2011-07-01

116

40 CFR 152.406 - Submission of supplementary data.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Submission of supplementary data. 152.406... Registration Fees § 152.406 Submission of supplementary data. Applicants...charges if the proper fee was paid with submission of the original application and...

2011-07-01

117

40 CFR 152.406 - Submission of supplementary data.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Submission of supplementary data. 152.406... Registration Fees § 152.406 Submission of supplementary data. Applicants...charges if the proper fee was paid with submission of the original application and...

2012-07-01

118

Erbium Implantation in Silica Studied by Molecular Dynamics Simulations  

SciTech Connect

Defect formation induced by erbium implantation in silica glass and cristobalite was studied using molecular dynamics simulations employing a partial charge model in combination with the ZBL potential. The results show that the number of displaced atoms generated at the same PKA energy is similar in silica and cristobalite but the number of coordination defects created is much lower in the cristobalite than in silica glass. In both cases, the erbium ion is able to create an optimal coordination environment at the end of the collision cascade. Subsequent thermal annealing causes the relaxation of the silicon oxygen network structure along with a reduction of silicon and oxygen defects. This research is supported by the Divisions of Materials Sciences and Engineering and Chemical Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, U.S. Department of Energy. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy.

Du, Jincheng; Corrales, Louis R.

2007-02-01

119

Low erosion behavior of polystyrene films under erbium ion implantation  

SciTech Connect

Erbium ion implantation in polystyrene (PS) thin films has been performed with 40 and 60 keV ions to a dose range between 1x10{sup 14} and 1x10{sup 16} ions/cm{sup 2}. The x-ray reflectivity technique was applied to determine the ion-induced eroded layer thickness and interestingly, the erosion rate is found to decrease with increasing ion doses exhibiting simple power law behavior of the form {approx}(dose){sup -b}. We propose the formation of a carbonaceous network at the top surface, which seems to prevent further erosion of the polymer with increasing the duration of implantation time. These findings may open up a possibility of loading a large amount of erbium in a polymer matrix by the implantation technique to make it suitable for various optoelectronic applications.

Bhattacharya, M.; Sanyal, M.K.; Chini, T.K.; Chakraborty, P. [Surface Physics Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064 (India)

2006-02-13

120

Erbium-doped fiber amplifier with flattened gain spectrum  

Microsoft Academic Search

An optical notch filter was incorporated within the length of all erbium-doped fiber amplifier. Careful choice of the filter characteristics and location made it possible to enhance the amplifier gain at wavelengths around 1550 nm. An amplifier with 27-dB gain and 33-nm bandwidth was demonstrated. The saturation characteristics of the amplifier were uniform across its gain spectrum, making it ideal

M. Tachibana; R. I. Laming; P. R. Morkel; D. N. Payne

1991-01-01

121

Twist-induced birefringence in erbium-doped fibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, the birefringence response of two commercial single-mode erbium-doped fibers to right and left twist is reported. The evolution of the output polarization state for a variable twist (0 to +\\/-8pi) was mapped on the Poincar sphere and analyzed considering the specific variation of each one of the Stokes parameters. These fibers were studied over the wavelength range

Diana Tentori

2010-01-01

122

Heptamethylindenyl lanthanide(III) complexes of lanthanum, neodymium, and erbium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both the steric bulk and the electronic character of this ligand resulting from the seven methyl groups favor the stabilization of the lanthanide-carbon bonds. Alkali metal salts of heptamethylindenide(Hmi) were used as precursors of the lanthanide complexes. Lanthanum, erbium or neodymium chlorides were added to a stoichiometric amount of potassium Hmi, allowing the mixture to stand at 25°C ca 2

Minoru Tsutsui; Li Ban Chen; David E. Bergbreiter; T. Ken Miyamoto

1982-01-01

123

Controllable ultraslow light propagation in highly-doped erbium fiber  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on slow light propagation induced by the coherent population oscillation in an erbium-doped optical fiber (EDOF). The slowdown of group velocity of light is demonstrated in a solid-state material at room temperature. We observe a maximum fractional delay of 0.129 and a maximum delay of 8.75ms corresponding to a group velocity as low as 228.57m\\/s in a sinusoid-like

Yundong Zhang; Wei Qiu; Jianbo Ye; Nan Wang; Jinfang Wang; He Tian; Ping Yuan

2008-01-01

124

Graphene-Assisted Multiwavelength Erbium-Doped Fiber Ring Laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose and experimentally demonstrate a stable multiwavelength erbium-doped fi ber (EDF) ring laser based on four-wave-mixing of atomic few-layer graphene. The compact laser cavity consists of 3-m EDF, an optically deposited ultrathin graphene device, and a polarization-maintaining fiber Sagnac loop filter. The comparison between the ring laser cavity without and with the graphene device shows thatthe highly nonlinear graphene

Zhengqian Luo; Min Zhou; Zhiping Cai; Chenchun Ye; Jian Weng; Guoming Huang; Huiying Xu

2011-01-01

125

Nonplanar magnetic structures and trigonal interactions in erbium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The magnetic structures of erbium metal have been studied using a high-resolution elastic-scattering technique. The results show that the elliptical cycloidal structures between 55 K and 18 K are not planar. A comparison of the experimental intensities with the predictions of a mean-field model shows that these structures are distorted by two-ion interactions of trigonal symmetry, which distinguish between the

J. Jensen; R. A. Cowley

1993-01-01

126

Undersea lightwave communications systems using erbium-doped fiber amplifiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new lightwave technology based on the erbium-doped fiber-amplifier (EDFA) will allow the next generation of undersea cable systems to have eight times the capacity of existing cables. In this paper error-free transmission over 9000 km has been demonstrated using EDFAs both at 5 Gb\\/s and 10 Gb\\/s. The characteristic of optical amplifier systems - more noise on the marks

N. S. Bergano

1993-01-01

127

Method for measuring deuterium in erbium deuteride films  

SciTech Connect

Determining the quantity of deuterium in an erbium deuteride (ErD{sub 2}) film is essential for assessing the quality of the hydriding process but is a challenging measurement to make. First, the ideal gas law cannot be applied directly due to high temperature (950{degrees}C) and low temperature (25{degrees}C) regions in the same manifold. Additionally, the metal hydride does not release all of the deuterium rapidly upon heating and metal evaporation occurs during extended heating periods. Therefore, the method developed must provide a means to compensate for temperature inhomogeneities and the amount of deuterium retained in the metal film while heating for a minimal duration. This paper presents two thermal desorption methods used to evaluate the kinetics and equilibria of the deuterium desorption process at high temperatures (950{degrees}C). Of primary concern is the evaluation of the quantity of deuterium remaining in these films at the high temperature. A multiple volume expansion technique provided insight into the kinetics of the deuterium evolution and metal evaporation from the film. Finally a repeated pump-down approach yielded data that indicated approximately 10% of the deuterium is retained in the metal film at 950{degrees}C and approximately 1 Torr pressure. When the total moles of deuterium determined by this method were divided by the moles of erbium determined by ICP/AES, nearly stochiometric values of 2:1 were obtained for several erbium dideuteride films. Although this work presents data for erbium and deuterium, these methods are applicable to other metal hydrides as well.

Brangan, J.R.; Thornberg, S.M.; Keenan, M.R.

1997-09-01

128

Optimization of erbium-doped fiber MOPA laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

An erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL) constructed in a master oscillator and power amplifier (MOPA) configuration is analyzed. The pump powers for the fiber cavity laser and the booster amplifier stages are managed properly to achieve maximal pump conversion efficiency. Our design achieves a pump conversion efficiency of 91.4%, corresponding to a quantum efficiency of 96.6%, for a 1565.8 nm MOPA

Y. J. Chiang; C. S. Hsiao; Likarn Wang

2010-01-01

129

Design optimization for efficient erbium-doped fiber amplifiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gain and pumping efficiency of aluminosilicate erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFAs) are analyzed as a function of guiding parameters and Er-doping profile for two pump wavelengths of ? p=980 nm and ?p=1.47 ?m. Three designs of fiber-amplifier waveguides are considered: one with the same mode size as standard 1.5-?m communication fibers (type 1); one with the same mode size as

E. Desurvire; J. L. Zyskind; C. R. Giles

1990-01-01

130

Dynamic gain compensation in saturated erbium-doped fiber amplifiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamic compensation of low-frequency gain fluctuations in saturated erbium-doped fiber amplifiers is demonstrated. This compensation, based on a simple feedback-loop scheme makes it possible to reduce transient gain fluctuations efficiently across the whole amplifier bandwidth using only a low-power optical feedback signal. Such an, automatic gain control technique could be applied to suppress data packet interference due to traffic bursts

E. Desurvire; M. Zirngibl; H. M. Presby; D. Digiovanni

1991-01-01

131

Longitudinally diode-pumped ytterbium-erbium glass minilaser  

SciTech Connect

The prototype of a passively Q-switched, longitudinally diode-pumped erbium glass laser is fabricated. A slope efficiency of 38% is achieved in the free-running lasing regime. It is shown that a pump energy of only 42 mJ is required to generate a 9-ns, 1.8-mJ output pulse with efficiency 4.2%. (lasers)

Byshevskaya-Konopko, Lyudmila O; Vorob'ev, Igor' L; Izyneev, A A; Sadovskii, Pavel I [Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Fryazino, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)

2004-09-30

132

Erbium doped ceramic nanofiber synthesis for thermophotovoltaic selective emitter applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis explored the development of isothermal selective emitters for harvesting thermal energy to be used in conjunction with photovoltaic cells. The selective emitters were Erbium doped Titania nanofibers and Erbium and Yttrium doped Titania nanofibers that may be used with a Gallium Antimonide photovoltaic cell. The ultimate aim of this research was to develop Erbium doped Yttrium Titanate nanofibers. This research is of importance in recovering heat from a number of resources including power plant boilers. The thermal energy lost in the boilers can be as high as 20% of the input fuel energy and a recovery of this energy would boost the thermal performance of the power plants. It has been observed that the temperatures of the flue gas reaching the heat recovery region may be higher than 1600K and the radiation and convective losses in the burner occurs at even higher temperatures. Thermophotovoltaics (TPV) offer a solution in terms of converting the thermal energy to electricity without any moving parts. The efficiencies of conventional TPVs are very small (10-20%) and thus not a solution as the primary electric generator. However, in the field of the harvesting of waste energy, TPVs have tremendous potential. In order to improve efficiencies, Erbia (which can absorb thermal energy and convert it to electromagnetic radiation with a narrow wavelength spectrum with mean wavelength of 1500nm) can be used as a selective emitter with GaSb PV cells (which have its maximum efficiency in the same wavelength range) as the collector. In order to further improve its performance, the Erbia was proposed to be supported by Titania, which is transparent to IR in this range. However, past research has shown that the Erbia doped Titania nanofibers essentially have Erbium in the form of pyrochlore Erbium Titanate. Thus the research focused on a way to synthesize ErxY2-xTi 2O7 pyrochlore structure to act as the selective emitter. The self-supporting composite was designed to be nanostructured to ensure isothermal operation and a high surface to volume ratio to minimize re-adsorption and to have a compact design. The nanofiber emitters were prepared by electrospinning. This thesis demonstrated a synthesis procedure of optically selective nano-composites using electrospinning.

Trifon, George Sebastian

133

Efficacy of Erbium:YAG Laser Ablation in Darier Disease and Hailey-Hailey Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Among different surgical approaches, derm- abrasion and carbon dioxide laser vaporization have been used to treat Hailey-Hailey disease (HHD) (familial benign chronic pemphigus) and Darier disease (DD) (keratosis follicularis), with various results. Because of the erbium: YAG laser's unique absorption characteristics in tissue wa- ter, erbium:YAG laser ablation combines the advantages of both techniques, avoiding thermal injury of vaporiza-

Christian Beier; Roland Kaufmann

134

Efficacy of Erbium:YAG Laser Ablation in Darier Disease and Hailey-Hailey Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Among different surgical approaches, derm- abrasion and carbon dioxide laser vaporization have been used to treat Hailey-Hailey disease (HHD) (familial benign chronic pemphigus) and Darier disease (DD) (keratosis follicularis), with various results. Because of the erbium: YAG laser's unique absorption characteristics in tissue wa- ter, erbium:YAG laser ablation combines the advantages of both techniques, avoiding thermal injury of vaporiza-

Christian Beier; Roland Kaufmann

1999-01-01

135

Multi-wavelength Fabry-Perot Brillouin-Erbium fibre laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multi-wavelength Brillouin-Erbium fibre laser utilising fibre Fabry-Perot resonator is presented here. The proposed laser cavity used only a 980 nm laser diode and a coil of Erbium-doped fibre to produce cascaded Brillouin Stokes. The highest number of Stokes up to 43 lines with a spacing of 0.088 nm was obtained experimentally.

Al-Mansoori, M. H.; Adikan, F. R. M.; Naji, A. W.; Abdullah, M. K.; Mahdi, M. A.

2006-03-01

136

High-performace cladding-pumped erbium-doped fibre laser and amplifier  

SciTech Connect

We report cladding-pumped erbium-doped fibre laser and amplifier configurations. Through fibre design optimisation, we have achieved a record-high laser slope efficiency, 40 % with respect to absorbed pump power ({lambda} = 976 nm), and an output power of 7.5 W. The erbium-doped fibre amplifier efficiency reaches 32 %.

Kotov, L V; Likhachev, M E; Bubnov, M M; Medvedkov, O I; Lipatov, D S; Vechkanov, N N; Guryanov, Aleksei N

2012-05-31

137

Developing 152Eu into a standard for detector efficiency calibration.  

PubMed

A gamma-gamma coincidence experiment was performed to check the 152Eu 13-year decay scheme and the placement of the observed gamma-ray transitions. The multi-detector array for residual activity measurement of the Linear Accelerator Laboratory was used. The source activity was 1 MBq, and about 10(9) coincidence events were observed. About 30 gamma's were placed in the decay scheme and four 152Sm levels were added to the previously known set of levels fed in 152Eu 13-year decay. PMID:14987655

Castro, Ruy M; Vanin, Vito R; Pascholati, Paulo R; Maidana, Nora L; Dias, Mauro S; Koskinas, Marina F

138

32 CFR 1906.152-1906.159 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE...IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY §§ 1906.152-1906.159...

2013-07-01

139

45 CFR 1181.152-1181.159 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES INSTITUTE OF MUSEUM AND LIBRARY SERVICES ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS...PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE INSTITUTE OF MUSEUM AND LIBRARY SERVICES §§ 1181.152-1181.159...

2011-10-01

140

47 CFR 1.52 - Subscription and verification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE General Rules of Practice and Procedure Pleadings, Briefs, and Other Papers § 1.52 Subscription and verification. The original of all petitions, motions, pleadings,...

2012-10-01

141

7 CFR 983.152 - Failed lots/rework procedure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA, ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Rules and Regulations § 983.152 Failed lots/rework procedure. (a) Inshell rework...

2013-01-01

142

45 CFR 1706.152-1706.159 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Continued) NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS...CONDUCTED BY NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE §§ 1706.152-1706.159...

2012-10-01

143

44 CFR 152.3 - Availability of funds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1...152.3 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT...and certain types of communities (urban, suburban or rural) as well as an...

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144

44 CFR 152.6 - Application review and award process.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1...152.6 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT...and character of the community it serves (urban, suburban, or rural), and/or the...

2011-10-01

145

44 CFR 152.3 - Availability of funds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1...152.3 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT...and certain types of communities (urban, suburban or rural) as well as an...

2011-10-01

146

44 CFR 152.6 - Application review and award process.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1...152.6 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT...and character of the community it serves (urban, suburban, or rural), and/or the...

2012-10-01

147

45 CFR 152.21 - Premiums and cost-sharing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Premiums and cost-sharing. 152...Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS PRE-EXISTING...21 Premiums and cost-sharing. ...insurers offering health insurance...

2011-10-01

148

45 CFR 152.21 - Premiums and cost-sharing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Premiums and cost-sharing. 152...Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS PRE-EXISTING...21 Premiums and cost-sharing. ...insurers offering health insurance...

2012-10-01

149

36 CFR 909.152-909.159 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...152-909.159 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION...BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION §§...

2012-07-01

150

36 CFR 909.152-909.159 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

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2011-07-01

151

27 CFR 479.152 - Penalties (records and returns).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

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2011-04-01

152

40 CFR 152.500 - Requirements for devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

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2013-07-01

153

44 CFR 152.8 - Application submission and deadline.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY FIRE PREVENTION AND CONTROL ASSISTANCE TO FIREFIGHTERS GRANT PROGRAM § 152.8 Application submission and deadline. In each year that this program is authorized and...

2011-10-01

154

45 CFR 1153.152-1153.159 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

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2012-10-01

155

27 CFR 479.152 - Penalties (records and returns).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

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2013-04-01

156

PDT for malignant tumors: a clinical analysis of 152 cases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hematoporphyrin derivative (HPD) laser photodynamic therapy (PDT) was applied for the patients of 152 cases of malignant tumors, including tumors of the lip, tongue, esophagus, urinary bladder, skin, larynx, vagina, etc. Since early 1981 good results have been obtained.

Zhuang, Shi-Zhang; Wang, Yun-Zhen; Li, Xin; Zhang, Changjun; Wang, Jian-Zhao; Zhang, Da-Ren

1993-03-01

157

40 CFR 152.96 - Documentation of a data gap.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01...Section 152.96 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...unreasonable adverse effects on the environment; (ii) If efficacy data...

2011-07-01

158

45 CFR 1175.152-1175.159 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE HUMANITIES ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE...CONDUCTED BY THE NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE HUMANITIES §§ 1175.152-1175.159...

2011-10-01

159

45 CFR 1175.152-1175.159 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE HUMANITIES ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE...CONDUCTED BY THE NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE HUMANITIES §§ 1175.152-1175.159...

2012-10-01

160

40 CFR 61.152 - Air-cleaning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Asbestos § 61.152 Air-cleaning. ...fabrics is allowed for filtering air from asbestos ore dryers; and (ii) Ensuring...operation generating the particulate asbestos material. (3) For fabric...

2013-07-01

161

45 CFR 2490.152-2490.159 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) JAMES MADISON MEMORIAL FELLOWSHIP FOUNDATION ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS...PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE JAMES MADISON MEMORIAL FELLOWSHIP FOUNDATION §§ 2490.152-2490.159...

2012-10-01

162

152. Copy of Louis Rosenberg Etching (original in the Tower ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

152. Copy of Louis Rosenberg Etching (original in the Tower City Development Office, Cleveland, Ohio) SOUTH ELEVATION FROM ACROSS THE CUYAHOGA RIVER, VIEW TO NORTH - Terminal Tower Building, Cleveland Union Terminal, 50 Public Square, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

163

50 CFR 216.152 - Permissible methods of taking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Taking Of Marine Mammals Incidental To Missile Launch Activities from San Nicolas Island, CA § 216.152 Permissible methods of taking. (a) Under Letters of...

2011-10-01

164

40 CFR 86.152-98 - Vehicle preparation; refueling test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.152-98 Vehicle preparation; refueling...

2011-07-01

165

7 CFR 1710.152 - Primary support documents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Primary support documents. 1710.152...Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...GUARANTEES Basic Requirements for Loan Approval...Primary support documents. The following...directors. The requirements for a long-range...BER). This document is used to...

2013-01-01

166

40 CFR 152.97 - Rights and obligations of data submitters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Rights and obligations of data submitters. 152.97 Section 152...PROCEDURES Procedures To Ensure Protection of Data Submitters' Rights § 152.97 Rights and obligations of data submitters. (a) Right to be...

2013-07-01

167

41 CFR 105-8.152 - Program accessibility: Assignment of space.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Program accessibility: Assignment of space. 105-8.152 Section 105-8.152 ...152 Program accessibility: Assignment of space. (a) When GSA assigns or reassigns space to an agency, it shall consult with...

2013-01-01

168

Controversies in skin resurfacing: the role of erbium.  

PubMed

Carbon dioxide laser resurfacing has been a valuable procedure for facial skin rejuvenation since the early 1990s, largely replacing medium and deep chemical peels and dermabrasion. The introduction of the erbium:YAG laser for resurfacing has caused confusion about its role. Because of its ability to resurface very superficially it has been limited by many laser surgeons to treating only superficial rhytides and sun damage. However, it is the equal of CO2 in improving deep rhytides but with quicker healing and fewer side-effects. PMID:11360419

Fleming, D

1999-01-01

169

A Model of Erbium-doped Fiber Amplifier Gain Dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A spatial-mode model of erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) gain dynamics is presented. The model includes radial distribution of dopant and modal intensity in the optical fiber. The boundary conditions needed for the dynamic model are calculated through a numerical solution of a basic rate equation of a two-level laser system in steady state. The relaxation method is used in the iterative calculation of the propagating equations in order to resolve the forward and backward traveling amplified spontaneous emission. The partial differential equations describing the EDFA dynamic performance are calculated through the finite difference resolution method.

Sderlund, Mikko; Tammela, Simo

170

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Er-221 (Erbium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Brnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Er-221 (Erbium, atomic number Z = 68, mass number A = 221).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

171

Sub-Doppler laser cooling and magnetic trapping of erbium  

SciTech Connect

We investigate cooling mechanisms in magneto-optically and magnetically trapped erbium. We find efficient sub-Doppler cooling in our trap, which can persist even in large magnetic fields due to the near degeneracy of two Lande g factors. Furthermore, a continuously loaded magnetic trap is demonstrated where we observe temperatures below 25 {mu}K. These favorable cooling and trapping properties suggest a number of scientific possibilities for rare-earth-metal atomic physics, including narrow linewidth laser cooling and spectroscopy, unique collision studies, and degenerate bosonic and fermionic gases with long-range magnetic dipole coupling.

Berglund, Andrew J.; McClelland, Jabez J. [Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Lee, Siu Au [Department of Physics, Colorado State University, Ft. Collins, Colorado 80534 (United States)

2007-11-15

172

Photoluminescence of erbium ions in heterostructures with silicon nanocrystals  

SciTech Connect

Photoluminescence properties of erbium-doped silicon dioxide layers containing silicon nanocrystals with 1.5-4.5 nm average size are investigated. It is found that the intensity and mean lifetime of the Er{sup 3+}-ion photoluminescence depend on the nanocrystal size, optical pump intensity, and temperature. The results obtained are explained both by the effect of the local environment on Er{sup 3+} ions and by the manifestation of nonradiative deexcitation of ions caused by the transfer of energy back into the solid-state matrix and the Auger processes.

Zhigunov, D. M., E-mail: zhigunov@vega.phys.msu.ru; Shalygina, O. A.; Teterukov, S. A.; Timoshenko, V. Yu.; Kashkarov, P. K. [Moscow State University, Faculty of Physics (Russian Federation); Zacharias, M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Mikrostrukturphysik (Germany)

2006-10-15

173

Three-transition cascade erbium laser at 1.7, 2.7, and 1.6 microm.  

PubMed

We report on an upconversion cascade laser in an erbium-doped ZBLAN fiber emitting simultaneously on the three transitions (4)S(3/2) ? (4)I(9/2) at 1.7 microm , (4)I(11/2) ? (4)I(13/2) at 2.7 microm , and (4)I(13/2) ? (4)I(15/2) at 1.6 microm . At moderate pump powers, the laser transition at 1.6 microm supports 2.7-microm lasing and permits a slope efficiency at 2.7 microm of 15% versus launched pump power. Above the threshold of upconversion lasing at 1.7 microm , the slope efficiency at 2.7 microm increases to 25.4%. Taking pump excited-state absorption into account, this value represents more than 90% of the theoretical slope efficiency. A transversely single-mode output power of 99mW is achieved at 2.7 microm. PMID:18185607

Pollnau, M; Ghisler, C; Lthy, W; Weber, H P; Schneider, J; Unrau, U B

1997-05-01

174

Spectral studies on erbium doped potassium lithium tantalate niobate single crystal grown by the step-cooling technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An erbium doped K0.603Li0.397Ta0.428Nb0.572O3 single crystal was grown by the step-cooling technique. The crystal has a tetragonal tungsten bronze-type structure at room temperature with a Curie temperature of 303C. There are Er ions characteristic absorption bands around 449, 485, 521, 550, and 652 nm in the visible absorption spectrum. Upconversion fluorescence spectra and power dependence centered at 527 nm, 548 nm, and 660 nm under 975 nm excitation were measured at room temperature. Decay lifetimes of the 548 nm and 660 nm emission bands are 281 ?s and 420 ?s, respectively. The lifetime of the 548 nm emission corresponding to the transition of 4 S 3/2?4 I 15/2 is ten times the lifetime of the same transition of Er3+ in LiNbO3 crystal and twice in KYb(WO4)2 crystal. The crystal might become a promising upconversion laser material. The upconversion mechanism of Er3+ in the sample was discussed based on decay curves and pump power dependence analyses in this work.

Li, L.; Zhou, Z.; Tian, H.; Liang, H.; Zhu, W.; Gong, D.

2010-10-01

175

SMU.152 Acts as an Immunity Protein for Mutacin IV  

PubMed Central

Streptococcus mutans, a principal causative agent of dental caries, secretes antimicrobial peptides known as mutacins to suppress the growth of competing species to establish a successful colonization. S. mutans UA159, a sequenced strain, produces at least two major mutacins, mutacins IV and V. Mutacin IV is a two-peptide mutacin encoded by nlmAB genes, which are mapped just upstream of a putative immunity-encoding gene SMU.152. Here we explored the function of SMU.152 as an immunity protein. We observed that overexpression of SMU.152 in two sensitive host strains converted the strains to become immune to mutacin IV. To identify the residues that are important for immunity function, we sequentially deleted residues from the C-terminal region of SMU.152. We observed that deletion of as few as seven amino acids, all of which are highly charged (KRRSKNK), drastically reduced the immunity function of the protein. Furthermore, we identified two other putative immunity proteins, SMU.1909 and SMU.925, which lack the last four charged residues (SKNK) that are present in SMU.152 but contain the KRR residues. Synthetic addition of SKNK residues to either SMU.1909 or SMU.925 to reconstitute the KRRSKNK motif and expressing these constructs in sensitive cells rendered the cells resistant to mutacin IV. We also demonstrated that deletion of Man-PTS system from a sensitive strain made the cells partially resistant to mutacin IV, indicating that the Man-PTS system plays a role in mutacin IV recognition.

Hossain, Mohammad Shahnoor

2012-01-01

176

Enhanced light emission in photonic crystal nanocavities with Erbium-doped silicon nanocrystals  

SciTech Connect

Photonic crystal nanocavities are fabricated in silicon membranes covered by thermally annealed silicon-rich nitride films with Erbium-doped silicon nanocrystals. Silicon nitride films were deposited by sputtering on top of silicon on insulator wafers. The nanocavities were carefully designed in order to enhance emission from the nanocrystal sensitized Erbium at the 1540 nm wavelength. Experimentally measured quality factors of {approx}6000 were found to be consistent theoretical predictions. The Purcell factor of 1.4 was estimated from the observed 20-fold enhancement of Erbium luminescence.

Makarova, Maria; Sih, Vanessa; Vuckovic, Jelena [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Warga, Joe; Li Rui; Dal Negro, Luca [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States)

2008-04-21

177

Double-blind study of erbium 169 injection (synoviorthesis) in rheumatoid digital joints.  

PubMed Central

A double-blind study of erbium 169 injection into rheumatoid digital joints was carried out with saline as control. 201 joints in 36 patients were studied (137 metacarpophalalangeal, 64 proximal interphalangeal). Erbium 169 was injected into 121 joints and saline water into 80 joints. Local injection of corticosteroids was given to both groups. A definite improvement was observed in 55% to 58% of cases with erbium 169 (+prednisolone acetate) and in 26% to 28% of cases with saline (+prednisolone acetate). The difference was highly significant.

Menkes, C J; Go, A L; Verrier, P; Aignan, M; Delbarre, F

1977-01-01

178

Chaotic dynamics in erbium-doped fiber ring lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chaotically oscillating rare-earth-doped fiber ring lasers (DFRLs) may provide an attractive way to exploit the broad bandwidth available in an optical communications system. Recent theoretical and experimental investigations have successfully shown techniques to modulate information onto the wide-band chaotic oscillations, transmit that signal along an optical fiber, and demodulate the information at the receiver. We develop a theoretical model of a DFRL and discuss an efficient numerical simulation which includes intrinsic linear and nonlinear induced birefringence, both transverse polarizations, group velocity dispersion, and a finite gain bandwidth. We analyze first a configuration with a single loop of optical fiber containing the doped fiber amplifier, and then, as suggested by Roy and VanWiggeren, we investigate a system with two rings of optical fiber-one made of passive fiber alone. The typical round-trip time for the passive optical ring connecting the erbium-doped amplifier to itself is 200 ns, so ~105 round-trips are required to see the slow effects of the population inversion dynamics in this laser system. Over this large number of round-trips, physical effects like GVD and the Kerr nonlinearity, which may appear small at our frequencies and laser powers via conventional estimates, may accumulate and dominate the dynamics. We demonstrate from our model that chaotic oscillations of the ring laser with parameters relevant to erbium-doped fibers arises from the nonlinear Kerr effect and not from interplay between the atomic population inversion and radiation dynamics.

Abarbanel, Henry D. I.; Kennel, Matthew B.; Buhl, Michael; Tureman Lewis, Clifford

1999-09-01

179

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for La-152 (Lanthanum)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Brnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope La-152 (Lanthanum, atomic number Z = 57, mass number A = 152).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

180

Neutron Capture Gamma-Ray Studies of Silicon, Titanium and Erbium Isotopes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper gives reviews of research on neutron capture gamma ray spectroscopy using a Ge(Li) detector in combination with a single flat crystal diffraction spectrometer. The research includes gamma ray spectroscopy of erbium, calcium, titanium, and silico...

K. C. Tripathi

1969-01-01

181

Generalized rate-equation analysis of excitation exchange between silicon nanoclusters and erbium ions  

SciTech Connect

We discuss the use of rate equations to analyze the sensitization of erbium luminescence by silicon nanoclusters. In applying the general form of second-order coupled rate-equations to the Si nanocluster-erbium system, we find that the photoluminescence dynamics cannot be described using a simple rate equation model. Both rise and fall times exhibit a stretched exponential behavior, which we propose arises from a combination of a strongly distance-dependent nanocluster-erbium interaction, along with the finite size distribution and indirect band gap of the silicon nanoclusters. Furthermore, the low fraction of erbium ions that can be excited nonresonantly is a result of the small number of ions coupled to nanoclusters.

Kenyon, A. J.; Wojdak, M.; Ahmad, I.; Loh, W. H.; Oton, C. J. [Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University College London, Torrington Place, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Optoelectronics Research Centre, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

2008-01-15

182

Erbium filtration: a cost-effective, dose-reducing filter which maintains abdominal image quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

. The current study investigated the effect of erbium filtration on an anteroposterior abdominal image. The radiation dose\\u000a reductions achieveable and the costeffectiveness of this filter were also evaluated. An assessment of the radiation dose delivered\\u000a employing either the standard total filtration (3 mm Al equivalent) or 0.1 mm of erbium filtration added to the standard filtration\\u000a was undertaken on

C. A. Doyle; P. C. Brennan

1999-01-01

183

Frequency doublingof femtosecond erbium-fiber soliton lasers in periodicallypoled lithium niobate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diode-pumped passively mode-locked erbium-doped- fiber lasers (EDFL's) are compact and f lexible sources of femtosecond pulses. In contrast to bulk femtosec- ond lasers, erbium-fiber lasers do not require bulk dispersion-compensating elements ( because of the soliton pulses that they support), permit the stable generation of picojoule, femtosecond pulses at low and adjustable repetition rates (,5 MHz -2 GHz), 1 and

M. A. Arbore; M. M. Fejer; M. E. Fermann; A. Hariharan; A. Galvanauskas; D. Harter

1997-01-01

184

Optical gain at 1.54 mum in erbium-doped silicon nanocluster sensitized waveguide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optical gain at 1.54 mum in erbium-doped silicon-rich silicon oxide (SRSO) is demonstrated. Er-doped SRSO thin film was fabricated by electron-cyclotron resonance enhanced chemical vapor deposition of silicon suboxide with concurrent sputtering of erbium followed by a 5 min anneal at 1000 C. Ridge-type single mode waveguides were fabricated by wet chemical etching. Optical gain of 4 dB\\/cm of an

Hak-Seung Han; Se-Young Seo; Jung H. Shin

2001-01-01

185

The study of optical behaviour porous silicon (PSI) doped with Erbium (Er) by photoluminescence technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Porous Silicon (PS) doped Erbium (Er) has been studied where Er on PSi is involved interaction of silicon and silicon dioxide. The Er doping process was carried out by immersion technique with electrolyte composed of Erbium (III) nitrate pentahydrate (Er3NO3OH5) and Ethanol. The photoluminescence (PL) effect on PSi samples have been studied and shows a PL intensity is improves at

N. I Ikhsan; S. Abdullah; M. Rusop

2011-01-01

186

Effect of different gain medium length in Brillouin Erbium-Ytterbium Doped Fiber Laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents properties and characterizations of different Erbium-Ytterbium doped fiber (EYDF) lengths in Brillouin Erbium-Ytterbium Doped Fiber Laser (BEYDFL) system. BEYDFL systems have the potential to become multi-channel source in Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM) system. BEYDFL is a unique laser source that can produces multiple channels simultaneously with dense and constant channel line spacing of about 0.08 nm.

Nurul Shahrizan Shahabuddin; Wee Teng Yeo; Harinderjit Kaur; Azin Adamiat; H. A. A. Rashid; Zulfadzli Yusoff

2010-01-01

187

Modeling of pair-induced quenching in erbium-doped silicate fibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is shown that in low-concentration erbium-doped silicate fibers (below 1000 p.p.m.), a residual absorption at 980 nm cannot be saturated. Usual models for upconversion of Er3+ cannot match this behavior nor explain a fluorescence lifetime independent of pump power and erbium concentration. A phenomenon, the pair induced quenching (PIQ), that is compatible with the previous experimental results is exhibited.

E. Delevaque; T. Georges; M. Monerie; P. Lamouler; J.-F. Bayon

1993-01-01

188

Resonantly photo-pumped nickel-like erbium X-ray laser  

DOEpatents

A resonantly photo-pumped X-ray laser (10) that enhances the gain of seve laser lines that also lase because of collisional excitations and recombination processes, is described. The laser comprises an aluminum (12) and erbium (14) foil combination (16) that is driven by two beams (18, 20) of intense line focused (22, 24) optical laser radiation. Ground state nickel-like erbium ions (34) are resonantly photo-pumped by line emission from hydrogen-like aluminum ions (32).

Nilsen, Joseph (Livermore, CA)

1990-01-01

189

K-Capture Probabilities to the Excited States of 152Sm in the Decay of 152Eu  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intensities of strong and weak gamma radiations emitted in the decay of 152Eu have been measured using a 96.0 cm3 HPGe detector. Summing corrections due to cascading gamma rays have also been applied. Some new weak transitions reported earlier have been confirmed and some of them have been rejected by carefully analysing gamma ray single spectra. The measured gamma ray intensities were used to determine K-capture probabilities to the excited states of 152Sm by KX-ray-gamma-ray sum coincidence methods.

Kawaldeep,; Kumar, Vijay; Dhillon, K. S.; Singh, K.

1993-03-01

190

"Trinitite": Cobalt-60, Cesium-137, and Europium-152.  

PubMed

Cobalt-60, cesium-137, and europium-152 have been identified in "trinitite," an artifical mineral produced in the first nuclear explosion at Alamagordo, New Mexico, in 1945. Cesium-137 is an expected fission product, but the origin of the other two radionuclides is not certain. PMID:17751047

Salter, L P; Harley, J H

1965-05-14

191

35. INTERIOR VIEW TO THE NORTHWEST OF ROOM 152, A ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

35. INTERIOR VIEW TO THE NORTHWEST OF ROOM 152, A FIRST FLOOR CORRIDOR AND VIEWING GALLERY ON THE WEST SIDE OF THE POST-MORTEM CELLS. VIEWING AND WORK STATIONS ARE IN THE EAST WALL. - Nevada Test Site, Reactor Maintenance Assembly & Dissassembly Facility, Area 25, Jackass Flats, Junction of Roads F & G, Mercury, Nye County, NV

192

152. Photographic copy of original construction drawing dated October 24, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

152. Photographic copy of original construction drawing dated October 24, 1930 (from Record Group 115, Denver Branch of the National Archives, Denver). 60 x 12 RING GATE CONTROL; FLOAT WELL ASSEMBLY AND COVER HOIST STEM-CONNECTION ROD-SLEEVE. - Owyhee Dam, Across Owyhee River, Nyssa, Malheur County, OR

193

152. VIEW FROM ROOF OF PARISH HOUSE OF ST. PATRICK'S ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

152. VIEW FROM ROOF OF PARISH HOUSE OF ST. PATRICK'S CATHEDRAL Copy photograph of photogrammetric plate LC-HABS-GS13-B-1977-419R. - Villard Houses, 451-457 Madison Avenue & 24 East Fifty-first Street, New York, New York County, NY

194

45 CFR 1181.152-1181.159 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES INSTITUTE OF MUSEUM AND LIBRARY SERVICES ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON...HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE INSTITUTE OF MUSEUM AND LIBRARY SERVICES §§ 1181.152-1181.159...

2012-10-01

195

Towards Bose-Einstein condensation of Erbium atoms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultracold dipolar gases offer a promising playground for exploring a wide variety of novel quantum phases as well as quantum magnetism. Recent advances in laser cooling technique have opened up a possibility to reach ultracold temperature with highly magnetic rare-earth atoms. Here, we present our results towards Bose-Einstein condensation of Erbium atoms. By using a broad transition at 401 nm for Zeeman slowing and a narrow transition at 583 nm for a magneto-optical trap (MOT), we obtained up to 3x10^8 atoms at a temperature of 15 ?K. Typically 1x10^7 atoms are directly loaded from a MOT into an optical dipole trap operating at 1064 nm. The results show that our approach gives a good starting condition for evaporative cooling.

Aikawa, Kiyotaka; Frisch, Albert; Mark, Michael; Rietzler, Alexander; Schindler, Johannes; Zupanic, Erik; Baier, Simon; Grimm, Rudolf; Ferlaino, Francesca

2012-06-01

196

Passively cascade-pulsed erbium ZBLAN all-fiber laser.  

PubMed

We propose and numerically demonstrate a cascade pulsing mechanism in a CW-pumped Er?:ZBLAN all-fiber laser system. In the design, the laser was pumped at 980 nm and passively Q-switched at 1.6 ?m. The Q-switched resonance reduced the population on ?/13/2 of the erbium gain fiber, thereby creating a population inversion between the levels of 4/11/2 and ?/13/2, and instantly inducing an intense gain-switched pulse at 2.7 ?m. Sequential 2.7-?m single-mode pulsing with a pulse energy of 170 ?J and a peak power of 6 kW was achieved with an absorbed pump power of 0.65 W. PMID:22714307

Tsai, Tzong-Yow; Fang, Yen-Cheng; Tsao, Hong-Xi; Lin, Shih-Ting; Hu, Chieh

2012-06-01

197

Narrow-line magneto-optical trap for erbium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the experimental realization of a robust and efficient magneto-optical trap for erbium atoms, based on a narrow cooling transition at 583 nm. We observe up to N=2108 atoms at a temperature of about T=15 ?K. This simple scheme provides better starting conditions for direct loading of dipole traps as compared to approaches based on the strong cooling transition alone, or on a combination of a strong and a narrow kHz transition. Our results on Er point to a general, simple, and efficient approach to laser cool samples of other lanthanide atoms (Ho, Dy, and Tm) for the production of quantum-degenerate samples.

Frisch, A.; Aikawa, K.; Mark, M.; Rietzler, A.; Schindler, J.; Zupani?, E.; Grimm, R.; Ferlaino, F.

2012-05-01

198

Extraordinary optical gain from silicon implanted with erbium  

SciTech Connect

Here we report on measurements of optical gain at 1.5 {mu}m in crystalline silicon. Gain is achieved by the incorporation of the rare earth erbium in silicon. A method was developed to enable the gain measurement in short silicon waveguides. Crucially, gain values obtained are significantly greater than previously supposed. We have measured a lower limit for the optical cross section for Er{sup 3+} of 5x10{sup -19} cm{sup 2}, 30 times higher than previously anticipated. Given these higher values, this system now offers a realistic route to the production of electrically pumped silicon optical amplifier and laser devices using standard silicon process technology.

Lourenco, M. A.; Gwilliam, R. M.; Homewood, K. P. [Advanced Technology Institute, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

2007-10-01

199

Structural and electrical characteristics of thin erbium oxide gate dielectrics  

SciTech Connect

A high-k erbium oxide thin film was grown on silicon substrate by reactive rf sputtering. It is found that the capacitance value of Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} gate dielectric with TaN metal gate annealed at 700 deg. C is higher compared to other annealing temperature and exhibits a lower hysteresis voltage as well as interface trap density in C-V curves. They also show negligible charge trapping under high constant voltage stress. This phenomenon is attributed to a rather well-crystallized Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} and the decrease of the interfacial layer and Er silicate thickness observed by x-ray diffraction and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively.

Pan, T.-M.; Chen, C.-L.; Yeh, W.W.; Hou, S.-J. [Department of Electronics Engineering, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan (China)

2006-11-27

200

Synthesis and properties of erbium oxide single crystals  

SciTech Connect

Erbium oxide (Er{sub 2}O{sub 3}, erbia) is a highly stable cubic rare earth oxide with a high melting point of 2,430 C. Because of this, it may have potential applications where high temperature stability and corrosion resistance are required. However, relatively little is known about the properties of this oxide ceramic. The authors have employed a xenon optical floating zone unit with a temperature capability of 3,000 C to grow high quality single crystals of erbia. The conditions for single crystal growth of erbia have been established. The mechanical properties of erbia single crystals have been initially examined using microhardness indentation as a function of temperature.

Petrovic, J.J.; Romero, R.S.; Mendoza, D.; Kukla, A.M.; Hoover, R.C.; McClellan, K.J.

1999-04-01

201

Deep sclerectomy using erbium:YAG laser in pigs eyes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The potential benefits of using pulsed Erbium: YAG laser in removing the deep lamella of the sclera during the procedure of deep sclerectomy was studied. Thirty porcine eyes were divided into 3 groups. A superficial lamellar scleral flap with an area of 5x5 mm as for trabeculectomy was surgically prepared. Using an Erbium: YAG laser (2.94 micron), the deep lamella with an area of 3x1.8 mm was removed. Group I was subjected to an energy level of 40-60 m.J, Descemet's membrane was preserved and trabecular meshwork was left intact and no thermal damage on the contiguous structures in all eyes, group II to 60-80 m.J Descemet's membrane was ruptured in 30% (3 eyes), thermal damage was 20% (2 eyes) on superficial structures, while group III to 80-100m.J there was a high risk of rupture of Descemet's membrane 50% (5 eyes), thermal damage was 30%(3 eyes) on superficial structures & 20%(2 eyes) on deep & superficial structures. Eyes were analyzed histologically by electron microscopy to study Descemet's membrane & the trabecular meshwork & the thermal damage on contiguous structures. Eyes with rupture of Descemet's membrane had total energy power of 11.75 J +/- 6.39, average power was 0.58W +/- 0.07 & power density 1155W/cm2 +/- 144, compared to eyes with no rupture 24.23J +/- 11.77 total energy power, 0.46W average power & 916.4W/cm2 +/- 227 power density. Thermal damage changes occurred at total energy power of 10.14 J, average power was 0.59W & power density 1180W/cm2, compared to eyes with no rupture 24.17J total energy power, 0.46W average power & 919.1W/cm2 power density.

Badr, Yehia A.; Taher, Ibrahim M.; Bahgat, Mostafa M.; Ghoneim, Dina F.

2004-07-01

202

Search for intrinsic collective excitations in {sup 152}Sm  

SciTech Connect

The 685 keV excitation energy of the first excited 0{sup +} state in {sup 152}Sm makes it an attractive candidate to explore expected two-phonon excitations at low energy. Multiple-step Coulomb excitation and inelastic neutron scattering studies of {sup 152}Sm are used to probe the E2 collectivity of excited 0{sup +} states in this 'soft' nucleus and the results are compared with model predictions. No candidates for two-phonon K{sup {pi}}=0{sup +}quadrupole vibrational states are found. A 2{sup +},K=2 state with strong E2 decay to the first excited K{sup {pi}}=0{sup +} band and a probable 3{sup +} band member are established.

Kulp, W. D.; Wood, J. L.; Allmond, J. M. [School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0430 (United States); Garrett, P. E. [Department of Physics, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario N0B 1S0 (Canada); TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 2A3 (Canada); Wu, C. Y.; Cline, D.; Hayes, A. B.; Hua, H.; Teng, R. [Nuclear Structure Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States); Bandyopadhyay, D.; Choudry, S. N.; McEllistrem, M. T.; McKay, C. J.; Orce, J. N. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40506-0055 (United States); Dashdorj, D. [Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695-8202 (United States); Mynk, M. G. [Department of Chemistry, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40506-0055 (United States); Yates, S. W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40506-0055 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40506-0055 (United States)

2008-06-15

203

Linking Of Yrast And Excited Superdeformed Bands In 152Dy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The excitation energy, spin and parity of the yrast superdeformed band 1 in 152Dy have been established. The evidence comes mainly from the measured properties of a 4011 keV single-step transition connecting the yrast superdeformed level fed by the 693 keV transition to the 27- yrast state. Four additional, weaker, linking gamma rays have been placed as well. The excitation

T. Lauritsen; M. P. Carpenter; R. V. F. Janssens; T. L. Khoo; P. Fallon; B. Herskind; D. G. Jenkins; F. G. Kondev; A. Lopez-Martens; A. O. Macchiavelli; D. Ward; K. S. Abu Saleem; I. Ahmad; R. Clark; M. Cromaz; T. Dssing; J. P. Greene; F. Hannachi; A. M. Heinz; A. Korichi; C. J. Lister; P. Reiter; D. Seweryniak; S. Siem; R. C. Vondrasek; I. Wiedenhver

2003-01-01

204

Tribocorrosion damage of a Jethete M152 type stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

An insert made from Jethete M152 type stainless steel (Fe12Cr) was used for moulding a polymer product, but failed in-service due to the formation of oxidation\\/corrosion products. The investigation of the failure mechanism has been carried out using scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM). A high density of fine precipitates, 50200nm in size, were observed in the etched

S. C. Wang; S. Quinn; M. J. Starink; R. J. K. Wood; J. A. Wharton

2008-01-01

205

Fibre Bragg grating interrogation technique based on a chirped grating written in an erbium-doped fibre  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fibre Bragg grating interrogation technique with tunable sensitivity is reported. It relies on the utilization of the edge filtering concept applied to a chirped fibre Bragg grating (CFBG) written in an erbium-doped fibre as the processing element. Through the combination of the optical gain properties of the erbium-doped fibre and of the distributed wavelength reflection characteristics of the CFBG,

R. Romero; O. Frazo; P. V. S. Marques; H. M. Salgado; J. L. Santos

2003-01-01

206

Erbium ion implantation into different crystallographic cuts of lithium niobate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single crystals like lithium niobate are frequently doped with optically active rare-earth or transition-metal ions for a variety of applications in optical devices such as solid-state lasers, amplifiers or sensors. To exploit the potential of the Er:LiNbO3, one must ensure high intensity of the 1.5 ?m luminescence as an inevitable prerequisite. One of the important factors influencing the luminescence properties of a lasing ion is the crystal field of the surrounding, which is inevitably determined by the crystal structure of the pertinent material. From that point it is clear that it cannot be easy to affect the resulting luminescence properties - intensity or position of the luminescence band - without changing the structure of the substrate. However, there is a possibility to utilise a potential of the ion implantation of the lasing ions, optionally accompanied with a sensitising one, that can, besides the doping, also modify the structure of the treated area od the crystal. This effect can be eventually enhanced by a post-implantation annealing that may help to recover the damaged structure and hence to improve the desired luminescence.In this paper we are going to report on our experiments with ion-implantation technique followed with subsequent annealing could be a useful way to influence the crystal field of LN. Optically active Er:LiNbO3 layers were fabricated by medium energy implantation under various experimental conditions. The Er+ ions were implanted at energies of 330 and 500 keV with fluences ranging from 1.0 1015 to 1.0 1016 ion cm-2 into LiNbO3 single-crystal cuts of both common and special orientations. The as-implanted samples were annealed in air and oxygen at two different temperatures (350 and 600 C) for 5 h. The depth concentration profiles of the implanted erbium were measured by Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS) using 2 MeV He+ ions. The photoluminescence spectra of the samples were measured to determine the emission of 1.5 ?m.It has been shown that the projected range Rp of the implanted erbium depends on the beam energies of implantation. The concentration of the implanted erbium corresponds well with the fluence and is similar in all of the cuts of lithium niobate used. What was different were the intensities of the 1.5 ?m luminescence bands not only before and after the annealing but also in various types of the crystal cuts. The cut perpendicular to the cleavage plane <10-14> exhibited the best luminescence properties for all of the experimental conditions used. In order to study the damage introduced by the implantation process, the influence of the annealing procedure on the recovery of the host lattice was examined by RBS/channelling. The RBS/channelling method serves to determine the disorder density in the as-implanted surface layer.

Nekvindova, P.; Svecova, B.; Cajzl, J.; Mackova, A.; Malinsky, P.; Oswald, J.; Kolistsch, A.; Spirkova, J.

2012-02-01

207

New method to estimate the fluorescence lifetime of the Erbium-doped-fiber temperature sensing system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Erbium-doped fiber is a main component of Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifiers (EDFAs), which is wildly used in optical communication. Erbium doped fiber is a good sensing material of fluorescence temperature sensors as well. The Erbium- doped-fiber temperature sensors can operate under high temperature up to 1100 degree(s)C. Fluorescence sensors show considerable promise, with the advantage of being intensity independent. Following the termination of a square excitation light pulse, the fluorescence signal is an exponential decay, which decay lifetime depends on the temperature and can be measured by several methods. The decay acquisition and estimation methods are one kind of them. Different arithmetic is developed such as the Marquardt method, the Prony method and the log-fit method. A new estimation is given in this paper, basing on the FFT (Fast Fourier Transform) and the Taylor series. The fluorescence lifetime can be calculated from the items of the FFT with different accuracy. This method is especially designed for the long-fluorescence-lifetime system, for example, Erbium-doped fiber sensing with lifetime up to 10mn. However this method can be used for other fluorescence material also with a little shift. The advantages of this method include high accuracy, quick processing, independence on the base offset etc. The effect of this method is discussed and compared with other estimation methods by numerical simulation and experiment results.

Sun, Weimin; Zhang, Jianzhong; Zhao, Yancheng; Sun, Qiuhua; Yuan, Libo

2002-09-01

208

Design of erbium-doped fiber laser based on linear multi-cavity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An erbium-doped fiber laser with a novel cavity--linear multi-cavity is proposed. It is different from a linear single-cavity and a ring-cavity used in fiber laser before. Based on the character of erbium-doped fiber gain at 1550 nm, a laser diode radiated at 980 nm and acted as the pumping source, an erbium-doped fiber employed as gain medium and the linear multi-cavity used as selector, a linear multi-cavity erbium-doped fiber laser radiated at 1558.2 nm is demonstrated with an output power of 10.04dBm and a bandwidth of 0.2 nm under 80 mw power of pump laser. thin addition, the theory of linear multi-cavity erbium-doped fiber laser was discussed in detail.The factors that influences the stability of the output power of fiber laser were analyzed theoretically. Examination results are used for reference to research..

Pang, Hua-wei; Cui, Hui-min; Lian, Hua; Zhao, Rui-mei; Hu, Bo-ning; Wang, Ya-fang

2007-12-01

209

27 CFR 44.152 - Claim for remission of tax liability.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Claim for remission of tax liability. 44.152 Section...152 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL...for remission of tax liability. Remission of the tax liability on tobacco products, and...

2013-04-01

210

29 CFR 1952.152 - Completion of developmental steps and certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Completion of developmental steps and certification. 1952.152 Section 1952...STANDARDS North Carolina § 1952.152 Completion of developmental steps and certification. (a) In accordance...

2013-07-01

211

24 CFR 1000.152 - How is the recipient to use criminal conviction information?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false How is the recipient to use criminal conviction information? 1000.152...1000.152 How is the recipient to use criminal conviction information? (a) With...assistance, the recipient shall use the criminal conviction information described...

2013-04-01

212

27 CFR 25.152 - Reduced rate of tax for certain brewers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...152 Section 25.152 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Tax on Beer Liability...barrels of beer removed for consumption or sale by a brewer...

2013-04-01

213

16 CFR 6.152 - Program accessibility: Electronic and information technology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...accessibility: Electronic and information technology. 6.152 Section 6.152 Commercial...accessibility: Electronic and information technology. (a) When developing, procuring...or using electronic and information technology, the Commission shall ensure,...

2013-01-01

214

34 CFR 668.152 - Administration of tests by assessment centers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Administration of tests by assessment centers. 668.152 Section... Approval of Independently Administered Tests; Specification of Passing Score; Approval...Process § 668.152 Administration of tests by assessment centers. (a) If...

2013-07-01

215

40 CFR 152.125 - Submission of information pertaining to adverse effects.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Submission of information pertaining to adverse effects. 152.125 Section 152...Submission of information pertaining to adverse effects. If at any time the registrant...factual information regarding unreasonable adverse effects of the pesticide on the...

2012-07-01

216

14 CFR 152.205 - United States share of project costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false United States share of project costs. 152.205 Section 152...205 United States share of project costs. (a) Airport development...States share of the allowable project costs of an airport planning project...

2013-01-01

217

Doppler-free frequency-modulation spectroscopy of atomic erbium in a hollow-cathode discharge cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The erbium atomic system is a promising candidate for an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate of atoms with a non-vanishing orbital angular momentum ( L?0) of the electronic ground state. In this paper we report on the frequency stabilization of a blue external cavity diode laser system on the 400.91 nm laser cooling transition of atomic erbium. Doppler-free saturation spectroscopy is applied within a hollow-cathode discharge tube to the corresponding electronic transition of several of the erbium isotopes. Using the technique of frequency-modulation spectroscopy, a zero-crossing error signal is produced to lock the diode laser frequency on the atomic erbium resonance. The latter is taken as a reference laser to which a second main laser system, used for laser cooling of atomic erbium, is frequency stabilized.

Brammer, H.; Ulitzsch, J.; Bourouis, R.; Weitz, M.

2012-02-01

218

RNF152, a novel lysosome localized E3 ligase with pro-apoptotic activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

RING finger protein 152 (RNF152) is a novel RING finger protein and has not been well characterized. We report here that RNF152\\u000a is a canonical RING finger protein and has E3 ligase activity. It is polyubiqitinated partly through Lys-48-linked ubiquitin\\u000a chains in vivo and this phenomenon is dependent on its RING finger domain and transmembrane domain. RNF152 is localized in

Songling Zhang; Wei Wu; Yanfang Wu; Jiyan Zheng; Talin Suo; Hong Tang; Jie Tang

2010-01-01

219

27 CFR 31.152 - Requirements as to wines and beer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Requirements as to wines and beer. 31.152 Section 31.152 Alcohol...31.152 Requirements as to wines and beer. Every wholesale dealer in liquors who receives wines, or wines and beer, and every wholesale dealer in...

2013-04-01

220

30 CFR 250.152 - How do I name facilities in the Alaska Region?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How do I name facilities in the Alaska Region? 250.152 Section 250.152 Mineral Resources...Include Modus) § 250.152 How do I name facilities in the Alaska Region? Facilities will be named and identified...

2013-07-01

221

Femtosecond erbium-doped fiber lasers and a soliton compression technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lasing characteristics of an erbium-doped fiber laser with a nonlinear amplifying loop mirror (NALM) were investigated in detail. The NALM was pumped by 1.48 micron InGaAsP laser diodes and an output pulse as short as 123 fs was obtained at 1.56 micron. The 124-fs pulse was shortened to 50 fs by using adiabatic soliton narrowing and high order soliton compression. Soliton narrowing was achieved by amplifying the soliton pulse adiabatically with an erbium-doped fiber amplifier, and a short length of dispersion-flattened fiber was used for soliton compression. Soliton narrowing enabled us to succeed in generating a 98-fs pulse directly from a modified erbium-doped fiber laser.

Yoshida, Eiji; Kimura, Yasuo; Nakazawa, Masataka

1993-08-01

222

Femtosecond Erbium-Doped Fiber Lasers and a Soliton Compression Technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lasing characteristics of an erbium-doped fiber laser with a nonlinear amplifying loop mirror (NALM) were investigated in detail. The NALM was pumped by 1.48 ?m InGaAsP laser diodes and an output pulse as short as 124 fs was obtained at 1.56 ?m. The 124-fs pulse was shortened to 50 fs by using adiabatic soliton narrowing and high order soliton compression. Soliton narrowing was achieved by amplifying the soliton pulse adiabatically with an erbium-doped fiber amplifier, and a short length of dispersion-flattened fiber was used for soliton compression. Soliton narrowing enabled us to succeed in generating a 98-fs pulse directly from a modified erbium-doped fiber laser.

Yoshida, Eiji; Kimura, Yasuo; Nakazawa, Masataka

1993-08-01

223

Photoluminescence in semiconductor structures based on butyl-substituted erbium phthalocyanine complexes  

SciTech Connect

The study is concerned with the luminescence properties of ensembles of semiconductor structures containing organic phthalocyanine molecules with erbium ions as complexing agents. The photoluminescence spectra of the structures of the type of erbium monophthalocyanine, bisphthalocyanine, and triphthalocyanine are recorded. The photoluminescence peaks are detected at the wavelengths 888, 760, and 708 nm (and photon energies 1.4, 1.6, and 1.75 eV) corresponding to electronic transitions within the organic complexes. It is found that, when a metal complexing agent is introduced into the molecular structure of the ligand, the 708 nm luminescence peak becomes unobservable. It is shown that, in the bisphthalocyanine samples, the photoluminescence signal corresponding to transitions from the 4F{sub 9/2} level of erbium ions is enhanced.

Belogorokhov, I. A., E-mail: jugqwerty@mail.ru; Ryabchikov, Yu. V.; Tikhonov, E. V.; Pushkarev, V. E.; Breusova, M. O.; Tomilova, L. G.; Khokhlov, D. R. [Moscow State University (Russian Federation)

2008-03-15

224

Double-Brillouin-Frequency Spaced Multiwavelength Generation in a Ring Brillouin-Erbium Fiber Laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate the double-Brillouin-frequency spaced multiwavelength generation at room temperature by using a simple ring Brillouin-erbium fiber laser. The Brillouin pump is pre-amplified before entering the single-mode fiber, the odd Stokes and even Stokes are amplified in two opposite directions. All amplification provided by a home-made bi-directional operation erbium-doped fiber may achieve high intensity of Brillouin Stokes that leads to the homogenous gain saturation. Twelve even Stokes and thirteen odd Stokes with a wavelength spacing of 0.172 nm (20 GHz) are simultaneously obtained for 6 dBm Brillouin pump power and 120 mW pump power at 980 nm. The influence of different Brillouin and erbium-doped-fiber pump powers on multiwavelength and tuning range are investigated in detail.

Li, Jun; Chen, Tao; Sun, Jun-Qiang; Shen, Xiang

2013-02-01

225

Photoluminescence in silicon implanted with erbium ions at an elevated temperature  

SciTech Connect

Photoluminescence spectra of n-type silicon upon implantation with erbium ions at 600 Degree-Sign C and oxygen ions at room temperature and subsequent annealings at 1100 Degree-Sign C in a chlorine-containing atmosphere have been studied. Depending on the annealing duration, photoluminescence spectra at 80 K are dominated by lines of the Er{sup 3+} ion or dislocation-related luminescence. The short-wavelength shift of the dislocation-related luminescence line observed at this temperature is due to implantation of erbium ions at an elevated temperature. At room temperature, lines of erbium and dislocation-related luminescence are observed in the spectra, but lines of near-band-edge luminescence predominate.

Sobolev, N. A., E-mail: nick@sobolev.ioffe.rssi.ru; Kalyadin, A. E.; Shek, E. I.; Sakharov, V. I.; Serenkov, I. T. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical Technical Institute (Russian Federation); Vdovin, V. I. [St. Petersburg University, Fock Research Institute of Physics (Russian Federation); Parshin, E. O.; Makoviichuk, M. I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Yaroslavl Branch, Institute of Physics and Technology (Russian Federation)

2011-08-15

226

Low-noise, single-frequency, single-polarization Brillouin/erbium fiber laser.  

PubMed

We demonstrate a low-noise Brillouin/erbium fiber laser (BEFL), which uses only 1.5 m polarization-maintaining erbium-doped fiber as both the Brillouin and erbium gain media. This BEFL presents a phase noise of -125 dB/Hz(1/2) at 1 kHz frequency, at 2 mW Brillouin pump (~3 MHz linewidth) power and 200 mW 980 nm pump power. The polarization extinction ratio of the laser output light is 31 dB. Stable (~2 h) single-mode operation is observed. This BEFL presents potential applications in distributed Brillouin fiber sensors, inteferometric fiber sensors, and optical communications. PMID:23938970

Chen, Mo; Meng, Zhou; Tu, Xiaobo; Zhou, Huijuan

2013-06-15

227

Erbium-implanted high-Q silica toroidal microcavity laser on a silicon chip  

SciTech Connect

Lasing from an erbium-doped high-Q silica toroidal microcavity coupled to a tapered optical fiber is demonstrated and analyzed. Average erbium ion concentrations were in the range 0.009-0.09 at. %, and a threshold power as low as 4.5 {mu}W and an output lasing power as high as 39.4 {mu}W are obtained from toroidal cavities with major diameters in the range 25-80 {mu}m. Controlling lasing wavelength in a discrete way at each whispering-gallery mode was possible by changing the cavity loading, i.e., the distance between the tapered optical fiber and the microcavity. Analytic formulas predicting threshold power and differential slope efficiency are derived and their dependence on cavity loading, erbium ion concentration, and Q factor is analyzed. It is shown that the experimental results are in good agreement with the derived formulas.

Min, Bumki; Kippenberg, Tobias J.; Yang, Lan; Vahala, Kerry J.; Kalkman, Jeroen; Polman, Albert [Thomas J. Watson Laboratory of Applied Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); FOM Institute for Atomic and Molecular Physics, Kruislaan 407, 1098 SJ Amsterdam (Netherlands)

2004-09-01

228

Upconversion in erbium-doped transparent glass ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transparent glass ceramics (TGCs) are a class of materials that are composed of a robust glass matrix which is densely embedded with nanometer-sized fluoride crystals: In bulk, fluoride materials tend to have poor handling and mechanical properties, and can be expensive to produce. In contrast, the forming and handling properties of the TGC are similar to those of the precursor, glass, and are engineered to be robust and mechanically stable. Rare earth ions can be incorporated into the TGC during manufacture and can become partially segregated into the crystalline phase. There they experience the low-phonon energy environment of the fluoride nanocrystallite, which induces long energy level lifetimes and enhanced frequency upconversion. Therefore, rare earth doped TGCs can have the spectroscopic properties of a crystal with the durability of an aluminosilicate glass. Upconversion fluorescence is studied for an aluminosilicate TGC containing LaF3 nanocrystallites and doped with an erbium density of 1.7 x 1020 CM-3. Time gated fluorescence and excitation spectra as well as photoluminescence decays are used to find the nature and origin of this fluorescence. It is determined that energy transfer upconversion occurs only in the nanocrystallite phase and sequential two-photon absorption upconversion occurs in both glass and crystal phases.

Jones, Gina Christine

229

Shape transitions and collective excitations in {sup 152}Dy  

SciTech Connect

We adopt a self-consistent cranked Nilsson plus quasiparticle random-phase approximation by using a Hamiltonian of separable form to study the collective properties of {sup 152}Dy as it evolves toward the superdeformed shape. Our calculation, while confirming the octupole character of the negative-parity superdeformed bands, emphasizes the effect of the new shell structure, induced by fast rotation combined with large deformation, on the other collective modes. It shows, in particular, that superdeformation enhances strongly the collectivity of the low-lying scissors mode built on the superdeformed shape.

Kvasil, J.; Knapp, F. [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Physics, Charles University, V. Holesovickach 2, CZ-18000 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Lo Iudice, N.; Andreozzi, F.; Porrino, A. [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli, 'Federico II' and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Monte S. Angelo, Via Cinthia I-80126 Naples (Italy)

2006-03-15

230

40 CFR 152.95 - Citation of all studies in the Agency's files pertinent to a specific data requirement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Agency's files pertinent to a specific data requirement. 152.95 Section 152...PROCEDURES Procedures To Ensure Protection of Data Submitters' Rights § 152.95 Citation...Agency's files pertinent to a specific data requirement. An applicant normally...

2012-07-01

231

The characteristics of dynamic gratings in ultra-narrow linewidth erbium-doped fiber ring lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The characteristics of dynamic gratings greatly affect the linewidth and mode hopping properties of ultra-narrow linewidth erbium-doped fiber lasers. In this paper, we propose a novel method to estimate the temporal evolution of the reflectance spectrum of the dynamic gratings recorded in EDF based on the transient effect of the erbium ions. An experimental setup is also proposed to measure the reflectivity spectrum of the dynamic gratings utilized in lasers. The experimental data are compared with the numerical results and their differences are analyzed. The experiment results reveal some important transient characteristics of dynamic gratings in real lasers which are helpful to understand the mechanism of mode hopping.

Xu, Pan; Hu, Zhengliang; Hu, Yongming; Ma, Mingxiang; Ma, Lina

2011-11-01

232

Ablation of brain by erbium laser: study of dynamic behavior and tissue damage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work two aspects of the ablation of brain by Erbium laser have been mainly addressed: the time evolution of the phenomenon and the damages, both thermal and mechanical, produced in the tissues. The time resolved images acquired during the laser interaction revealed that deep lacerations develop in the tissue due to a mechanical stress. The damages have been evaluated by studying the changes in the autofluorescence emission properties and the reduction in enzymatic activities (NADH Oxidase and ATPase). The results obtained in this study indicate that the thermal alterations resulting from the exposure to Erbium laser are limited, whereas the mechanical damages can be very pronounced.

Cubeddu, Rinaldo; Sozzi, C.; Taroni, Paola; Valentini, Gianluca; Bottiroli, Giovanni F.; Croce, Anna C.

1994-02-01

233

Manufacture and properties of erythromycin beads containing neutron-activated erbium-171  

SciTech Connect

To evaluate the effects of a neutron activation radiolabeling technique on an enteric-coated multiparticulate formulation of erythromycin, test quantities were produced under industrial pilot scale conditions. The pellets contained the stable isotope erbium oxide (Er-170), which was later converted by neutron activation into the short-lived gamma ray-emitting radionuclide, erbium-171. In vitro studies indicated that the dissolution profile, acid resistance, and enteric-coated surface of the pellets were minimally affected by the irradiation procedure. Antimicrobial potency was also unaffected, as determined by microbiological assay. Neutron activation thus appears to simplify the radiolabeling of complex pharmaceutical dosage forms for in vivo study by external gamma scintigraphy.

Parr, A.F.; Digenis, G.A.; Sandefer, E.P.; Ghebre-Sellassie, I.; Iyer, U.; Nesbitt, R.U.; Scheinthal, B.M. (Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington (USA))

1990-03-01

234

Femtosecond Erbium-Doped Fiber Laser with Nonlinear Polarization Rotation and Its Soliton Compression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A continuous wave suppressed, uniformly repetitive pulse train as short as 136 145 fs has been successfully generated at a wavelength of 1.55 m from a new type of femtosecond erbium-doped fiber laser with nonlinear polarization rotation. The 145 fs pulse was shortened to 52 fs by using soliton narrowing and high order soliton compression. Soliton narrowing was achieved by amplifying the soliton pulse with an erbium-doped fiber amplifier, and a short length of dispersion-flattened fiber was used for further compressing the soliton.

Yoshida, Eiji; Kimura, Yasuo; Nakazawa, Masataka

1994-10-01

235

Femtosecond erbium-doped fiber laser with nonlinear polarization rotation and its soliton compression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A continuous wave suppressed, uniformly repetitive pulse train as short as 136-145 fs has been successfully generated at a wavelength of 1.55 micron from a new type of femtosecond erbium-doped fiber laser with nonlinear polarization rotation. The 145 fs pulse was shortened to 52 fs by using soliton narrowing and high order soliton compression. Soliton narrowing was achieved by amplifying the soliton pulse with an erbium-doped fiber amplifier, and a short length of dispersion-flattened fiber was used for further compressing the soliton.

Yoshida, Eiji; Kimura, Yasuo; Nakazawa, Masataka

1994-10-01

236

Resonantly photo-pumped nickel-like erbium x-ray laser  

DOEpatents

A resonantly photo-pumped x-ray laser (10) that enhances the gain of several laser lines that also lase because of collisional excitations and recombination processes, is described. The laser comprises an aluminum (12) and erbium (14) foil combination (16) that is driven by two beams (18, 20) of intense line focused (22, 24) optical laser radiation. Ground state nickel-like erbium ions (34) are resonantly photo-pumped by line emission from hydrogen-like aluminum ions (32). 3 figs., 1 tab.

Nilsen, J.

1990-03-29

237

Six direct methods for standardisation of 152Eu  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the course of the past 40 years, IRMM has developed a large number of direct methods for the accurate standardisation of radionuclide solutions, all providing traceability to the SI unit. Six different measurement methods were employed to standardise a 152Eu solution in the frame of a BIPM key comparison: 4/??(PPC)-/?-coincidence counting, using a modified version of the `Funck' pressurised proportional counter (Ar-CH4) for counting the electrons and low-energy photons, and a 1515cm NaI(Tl) well crystal for counting the ?-rays 4/??(PPC)-/?-sum counting using the same equipment as above 4/??-?-coincidence counting, using a 2D shaped proportional counter (Kr-CH4) sandwiched between two 7.57.5cm2 NaI(Tl) crystals 4/?? counting, using a 1515cm2 NaI(Tl) well crystal 4?CsI(Tl) counting; Liquid scintillation counting (LSC) using the CIEMAT/NIST method. The methods will be described and compared, with emphasis on their strengths and weaknesses. In the case of 152Eu, we were able to achieve a standard deviation of the weighted mean of 0.14% among all methods, or 0.11% when excluding the LSC result.

Johansson, L.; Altzitzoglou, T.; Sibbens, G.; Denecke, B.; Reher, D. F. G.

2003-08-01

238

Investigation of {sup 152}Sm by Complementary Reactions  

SciTech Connect

Understanding the nuclear structure of {sup 152}Sm, along with other N = 90 isotones, has long posed a challenge. A rapid transition in shape between the spherical N = 88 {sup 150}Sm and well-deformed N = 92 {sup 154}Sm is observed, along with strong evidence for shape coexistence. Competing ideas have been put forward over the decades, with the most recent being that N = 90 is at the critical point of a shape phase transition. Until recently, the lack of high-precision data has not allowed the competing models to be extensively tested. In a coordinated program of investigation, a series of complementary experiments, which include high-statistics {beta} decay, multi-step Coulomb excitation, the {sup 150}Nd({alpha},2n) reaction, and the (n,n'{gamma}) reaction, have been performed for {sup 152}Sm. These experiments have revealed the existence of a pairing-isomer band, a hexadecapole band, the lack of multi-phonon {beta} vibrational bands, and the repetition of structures built on the first excited K{sup {pi}} = 0{sup +} as built on the ground state. The status of these coordinated studies is examined.

Garrett, P. E. [Department of Physics, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N1G2W1 (Canada); Kulp, W. D.; Wood, J. L.; Allmond, J. M. [Department of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia, 30332 (United States); Bandyopadhyay, D.; Choudry, S. N.; Kumar, A.; Lesher, S. R.; McEllistrem, M. T.; Mynk, M. G.; McKay, C. J.; Orce, J. N. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, 40506 (United States); Christen, S.; Dewald, A.; Fitzler, A.; Fransen, C.; Jessen, K.; Jolie, J.; Kloezer, A.; Kudejova, P. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universtaet zu Koeln, Zuelpicherstrasse 77, Koeln, D-50937 (Germany)] (and others)

2009-01-28

239

Erbium:YAG laser skin resurfacing: preliminary clinical evaluation.  

PubMed

Each of the increasing number of resurfacing lasers uses a unique strategy to produce tissue ablation. Erbium:YAG (Er:YAG) lasers have been used in other applications for precise tissue removal with little thermal effect. Recovery time, duration of erythema, and clinical improvement were evaluated using an Er:YAG resurfacing laser (2.94-microm wavelength, 350-microsec pulse, 2 J, 3-5-mm spot). Twenty-five patients were treated with two passes to the full face and 3 to 5 passes to the most affected aesthetic unit. At each follow-up visit, percent epithelialization, erythema, and swelling were graded, and the presence or absence of complications was noted. Clinical improvement was evaluated at 6 months by optical profilometry on a subset of patients. Er:YAG resurfacing produced a transient whitening of dermis followed by a resumption of pink appearance. The surgical end point was judged by elimination of visible rhytids or presence of punctate bleeding. Bleeding from the dermal surface was encountered less than customarily in dermabrasion, but more than seen with carbon dioxide laser resurfacing. A moderate amount of tissue shrinkage was observable during the treatment. Mean period to full epithelialization was 6.9+/-0.97 days (range, 5-9 days). The mean duration of erythema (4.24+/-1.5 weeks) was relatively short compared with carbon dioxide resurfacing. Clinical improvement was 44+/-30% in the lateral canthal area and 55+/-22% in the upper lip area. There were no infections or hypertrophic scars. Hyperpigmentation and hypopigmentation was seen in 24% and 12% of patients respectively. Er:YAG resurfacing is a reliable means of obtaining rhytid improvement with less recovery time and duration of erythema compared with carbon dioxide resurfacing. The technique is significantly different from carbon dioxide resurfacing in selection of end point, number of passes, and energy settings. PMID:9555984

Bass, L S

1998-04-01

240

Novel Thermal Effects at the First Order Magnetic Phase Transition in Erbium, and a Comparison with Dysprosium  

SciTech Connect

In low temperature studies of ultrapure erbium (and dysprosium) we have discovered unusual thermal effects at the first order magnetic transformation of erbium ({congruent} 19K). These include (1)superheating (i.e., {ital the metal is colder after heat has been added to it than before the heat pulse }), (2)supercooling, and (3)the existence of metastable intermediate phases during this phase transformation in erbium (four on heating and two on cooling). In comparison, dysprosium exhibits both superheating and supercooling, but no intermediate metastable phases are observed. Furthermore, none of these effects are observed in less pure metals. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

Gschneidner, K.A. Jr.; Pecharsky, V.K. [Ames Laboratory and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011-3020 (United States); Fort, D. [School of Metallurgy and Materials, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom)

1997-06-01

241

Energy transfer to erbium ions from wide-band-gap SnO{sub 2} nanocrystals in silica  

SciTech Connect

We give the spectroscopic evidence of energy transfer to erbium ions provided by SnO{sub 2} nanocrystals in silica. The spectral and time resolved analysis of the nanocluster luminescence resonant with Er{sup 3+} transitions demonstrates that erbium ions take part to energy-transfer mechanisms with an efficiency of about 20%. The spectral features of erbium emission excited by energy transfer allow to ascribe it to Er{sup 3+} sites in ordered environments, nearby crystalline tin-dioxide nanoclusters.

Brovelli, S.; Chiodini, A.; Lauria, A.; Meinardi, F.; Paleari, A. [Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Universita di Milano-Bicocca, via Cozzi 53, I-20125 Milan (Italy)

2006-02-15

242

A numerical model for the complex susceptibility of saturated erbium-doped amplifiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed model for the complex susceptibility behavior of erbium-doped amplifiers, which applies in the saturation regime of operation, is presented. The model takes into account the effective individual laser transitions between the upper and lower manifolds. The model is based on a curve fitting algorithm that fits the emission and absorption cross section with Voigt lineshapes, which correspond to

Kamal E. Alameh; Robert A. Minasian

1997-01-01

243

Temperature-tuned erbium-doped fiber ring laser with polymer-coated fiber grating  

Microsoft Academic Search

A widely tunable erbium-doped fiber (EDF) grating ring laser has been demonstrated by varying the temperature of the polymer coated-grating. The fiber grating was coated with a special type of polymer material with large thermal expansion coefficient and so its thermal sensitivity was largely improved. A tuning range of more than 41 nm was achieved by varying the grating temperature

Bai-Ou Guan; Hwa-Yaw Tam; Helen L. W Chan; Xiao-Yi Dong; Chung-Loong Choy; Muhtesem Sleyman Demokan

2002-01-01

244

Spectroscopic analysis of erbium doped laser-induced crystals for fiber-laser applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser induced crystallization of glasses is a highly spatially selective process which could be used to produce crystalline-core optical fibers for fiber-laser applications. Toward this goal, single crystal lines were ``written'' in Er:LaBGeO5 glass using a femtosecond pulsed laser. These structures were analyzed using micro-Raman and luminescence spectroscopy in order to determine their viability as waveguiding laser gain media. Two-dimensional scans reveal that the erbium fluorescence is inhomogeneous over the cross-section of the crystal and lacks spatial coordination with the Raman emission, implying a physical ion accumulation in addition to enhancement due to the crystal field. Additionally, erbium fluorescence spectra taken at low temperatures from polycrystals with varying concentrations of erbium were compared to those from the laser-induced crystal lines. Significant differences in the emission energies and intensity ratios of the erbium peaks were observed. These differences may be due to the presence of strain, grain boundaries, or charge resulting from the different crystallization processes used.

Knorr, Brian; Stone, Adam; Jain, Himanshu; Dierolf, Volkmar

2013-03-01

245

Erbium-Doped Fiber Lasers Operated in a Strong Normal Dispersion Regime at Low Repetition Rate  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on a passively mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser with a repetition rate as low as 1.2 MHz in a strong normal dispersion regime. The laser was mode locked via spectral filtering. It generated a pulse with large and linear chirp that can be dechirped to 430 fs outside the cavity.

Yue Cai; Chun Zhou; Meng Zhang; Lingling Chen; Yunfeng Ma; Zhongwei Fan; Gang Niu; Jin Yu; Yang Liu; Xue Zhang; Zhigang Zhang

2010-01-01

246

The influence of photonic mode density on the luminescence of erbium-doped optical materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Erbium doped optical materials have been widely researched and many applications have been demonstrated. According to the Fermi golden rule, the spontaneous emission rate from excited level |i> to lower level |j> is Gammaij ? |Mij|2 rho(nuij), where Mij is the matrix element related to the two energy levels, rhoij is the optical density and is also known as the

Feng Song; Qingru Wang; Chengguo Ming; Jianguo Tian; Jingjun Xu; Shangxin Lin; Edwin Y. B. Pun

2010-01-01

247

Performance of a High-Concentration Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifier with 100 nm Amplification Bandwidth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increasing demand for higher bandwidth has driven the need for higher Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) channels. One of the requirements to achieve this is a broadband amplifier. This paper reports the performance of a broadband, compact, high-concentration and silica-based erbium-doped fiber amplifier. The amplifier optimized to a 2.15 m long erbium-doped fiber with erbium ion concentration of 2000 ppm. The gain spectrum of the amplifier has a measured amplification bandwidth of 100 nm using a 980 nm laser diode with power of 150 mW. This silica-based EDFA shows lower noise figure, higher gain and wider bandwidth in shorter wavelengths compared to Bismuth-based EDFA with higher erbium ion concentration of 3250 ppm at equivalent EDF length. The silica-based EDF shows peak gain at 22 dB and amplification bandwidth between 1520 nm and 1620 nm. The lowest noise figure is 5 dB. The gain is further improved with the implementation of enhanced EDFA configurations.

Hajireza, P.; Shahabuddin, N. S.; Abbasi-Zargaleh, S.; Emami, S. D.; Abdul-Rashid, H. A.; Yusoff, Z.

2010-07-01

248

980-nm pump-band wavelengths for long-wavelength-band erbium-doped fiber amplifiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of pump wavelength and input signal power on the output signal and backward spontaneous emission noise power of L-band erbium-doped fiber amplifiers is examined. It is shown experimentally that tuning the pump wavelength 30-nm away from the 980-nm absorption peak provides 3-5-dB improvement in pump-to-signal conversion

F. A. Flood; C. C. Wang

1999-01-01

249

Characterization of a 10 GHz harmonically mode-locked erbium fiber ring laser using SHG FROG  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. Active, harmonic mode-locking of erbium fiber ring lasers (EFRLs) is an established technique for obtaining short pulses at GHz repetition rates. To date all reports on the characterization of such lasers have used techniques that provide incomplete information on the pulse shape and quality, e.g. autocorrelation with optical spectrum, streak camera etc. Whilst this is largely

B. C. Thomsen; P. Petropoulos; H. L. Offerhaus; D. J. Richardson; J. M. Dudley; J. D. Harvey

1999-01-01

250

Modelling - Simulation and gain flattening improvements for an Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper initially investigates the design parameters for an EDFA (erbium doped fiber amplifier) simulation perspective. Complex effects which occur during the gain and noise figure improvement operations of EDFA are researched and simulated with an optical environment design software tool named OptiSystem. A gain flattered EDFA is simulated with the expected results.

B. Altiner; N. O. Unverdi

2009-01-01

251

Effects of simultaneously fiber transmitted erbium and holmium radiation on the interaction with highly absorbing media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Erbium and Holmium lasers have both been shown to be suitable for orthopedic surgery performed under water. Erbium lasers emitting in the 3 micrometers wavelength region corresponding to the maximum water absorption peak effectively ablated biological tissues with high precision and minimal thermal damage. Holmium laser radiation at 2 micrometers , due to a lower absorption coefficient, is characterized by a greater extent of thermal damage leading to hemostasis. To combine the special advantages of each system we simultaneously coupled their radiation into a zirconium fluoride fiber (ZrF4) which was protected with a quartz fiber tip. Pressure measurements performed in the liquid using a piezo electrical transducer, transmission measurements and video flash lamp schlieren imaging of the laser induced vapor bubble were used in order to determine optimum laser parameters. The cutting efficiency of the Erbium laser is drastically improved when a low energy Holmium laser pulse is additionally used which is just able to open a vapor channel through which the Erbium laser pulse can be transmitted. The dynamics of the channel formation, geometry and life time are measured as a function of the delay time between the two different laser pulses and the pulse energy applied. The combination of 2 micrometers and 3 micrometers radiation seems to be an ideal instrument for tissue treatment.

Frenz, Martin; Pratisto, Hans; Ith, Michael; Koenz, Flurin; Weber, Heinz P.

1995-05-01

252

Performance of a High-Concentration Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifier with 100 nm Amplification Bandwidth  

SciTech Connect

Increasing demand for higher bandwidth has driven the need for higher Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) channels. One of the requirements to achieve this is a broadband amplifier. This paper reports the performance of a broadband, compact, high-concentration and silica-based erbium-doped fiber amplifier. The amplifier optimized to a 2.15 m long erbium-doped fiber with erbium ion concentration of 2000 ppm. The gain spectrum of the amplifier has a measured amplification bandwidth of 100 nm using a 980 nm laser diode with power of 150 mW. This silica-based EDFA shows lower noise figure, higher gain and wider bandwidth in shorter wavelengths compared to Bismuth-based EDFA with higher erbium ion concentration of 3250 ppm at equivalent EDF length. The silica-based EDF shows peak gain at 22 dB and amplification bandwidth between 1520 nm and 1620 nm. The lowest noise figure is 5 dB. The gain is further improved with the implementation of enhanced EDFA configurations.

Hajireza, P.; Shahabuddin, N. S.; Abbasi-Zargaleh, S.; Emami, S. D.; Abdul-Rashid, H. A.; Yusoff, Z. [Center for Advanced Devices and Systems, Faculty of Engineering, Multimedia University, 63100 Cyberjaya (Malaysia)

2010-07-07

253

Analysis of transient gain saturation and recovery in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis of transient gain dynamics in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers is presented to provide a qualitative explanation of its time constants. The theory yields analytical solutions at the fiber amplifier input end, making it convenient to study the time dependence of gain saturation and recovery under changing input signal conditions. It is shown that, independently of the pump wavelength, gain

E. Desurvire

1989-01-01

254

Multiwavelength generation in an erbium-doped fiber laser using in-fiber comb filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simultaneous continuous wave multiwavelength operation of an erbium-doped fiber laser has been demonstrated using two types of recently developed in-fiber grating comb filters. The lasing wavelengths and linewidths were determined by the comb filter, which was inserted in a ring cavity with a single inhomogeneously broadened gain medium.

Jong Chow; Graham Town; Ben Eggleton; Morten Ibsen; Kate Sugden; Ian Bennion

1996-01-01

255

Room-temperature multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber ring laser employing sinusoidal phase-modulation feedback  

Microsoft Academic Search

An effective method for achieving a room-temperature multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber ring laser is presented. Simultaneous multiwavelength lasing with 0.5-nm intervals is achieved both experimentally and theoretically by addition of sinusoidal phase modulation in the ring cavity to prevent single-wavelength oscillation.

Kejiang Zhou; Dongyun Zhou; Fengzhong Dong; Nam Quoc Ngo

2003-01-01

256

Average inversion level, modeling, and physics of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a detailed study of a set of models for characterizing the gain, the input and output powers of single erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFAs) and networks of EDFAs. The time dependent gain is described by a single ordinary differential equation for the average inversion level of an EDFA with arbitrary number of signal channels with arbitrary power levels and

Y. Sun; J. L. Zyskind; A. K. Srivastava

1997-01-01

257

Room temperature multifrequency erbium-doped fiber lasers anchored on the ITU frequency grid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Room temperature multifrequency erbium-doped fiber (EDF) lasers anchored on the ITU frequency grid and using frequency periodic filters are presented. The multifrequency operation is demonstrated both theoretically and experimentally by adding a frequency shifter in the ring cavity to prevent steady-state laser operation and single-frequency oscillation

Antoine Bellemare; Miroslav Karasek; Martin Rochette; S. LRochelle; Michel Ttu

2000-01-01

258

REVIEW ARTICLE: Slow and fast light based on coherent population oscillations in erbium-doped fibres  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we review the main results on slow and fast light induced by coherent population oscillations in optical fibres doped with erbium ions. We explain the physics behind this technique and we describe the experimental realization. Finally, we summarize some recent advances in this field and future goals.

Arrieta-Yez, Francisco; Caldern, Oscar G.; Melle, Sonia

2010-10-01

259

DEVELOPMENT OF A REFRIGERANT DISTRIBUTION SECTION FOR ASHRAE STANDARD 152.  

SciTech Connect

In a recent draft report titled ''Impacts of Refrigerant Line Length on System Efficiency in Residential Heating and Cooling Systems Using Refrigerant Distribution,'' (Andrews 2000) some baseline calculations were performed to estimate various impacts on system efficiency of long refrigerant distribution lines. Refrigerant distribution refers to ''mini-splits'' and other types of space beating and cooling equipment that utilize refrigerant lines, rather than ducts or pipes, to transport heat and cooling effect from the outdoor unit to the building spaces where this heat or cooling is used. Five factors affecting efficiency were studied in each of the space conditioning modes (heating and cooling) for a total of ten factors in all. Temperature changes and pressure drops in each of the two refrigerant lines accounted for four of the factors, with the remaining one being elevation of the indoor unit relative to the outdoor unit. Of these factors, pressure drops in the suction line in cooling showed by far the largest effect. This report builds on these baseline calculations to develop a possible algorithm for a refrigerant distribution section of ASHRAE Standard 152. It is based on the approximate treatment of the previous report, and is therefore subject to error that might be corrected using a more detailed analysis, possibly including computer modeling and field testing. However, because the calculated efficiency impacts are generally small (a few percent being typical) it may be that the approximate treatment is sufficient. That question is left open for discussion. The purpose of this report is not to advocate the adoption of the methodology developed, but rather to present it as an option that could either be adopted as-is or used as a starting point for further analysis. It is assumed that the reader has available and is familiar with ASHRAE Standard 152P and with the previous analysis referred to above.

ANDREWS,J.W.

2001-09-07

260

Comparison of the erbium-yttrium aluminum garnet and carbon dioxide lasers for in vitro bone and cartilage ablation  

SciTech Connect

The in vitro bone- and cartilage-ablation characteristics of the solid-state erbium:yttrium aluminum garnet laser were compared to those of the carbon dioxide laser. Ablations of fresh, frozen cadaver septal cartilage and maxillary sinus bone were performed using total energies between 1 and 6 J. Specimens were studied using hematoxylin and eosin stain and digitized, computer-assisted measurements of 35-mm photographs. Erbium-yttrium aluminum garnet-ablated bone averaged 5 microns of adjacent tissue thermal injury, compared with 67 microns with carbon dioxide-ablated bone. Erbium-yttrium aluminum garnet-ablated cartilage averaged 2 microns of adjacent tissue thermal injury, compared with 21 microns with the carbon dioxide-ablated cartilage. The tissue-ablation characteristics of the erbium-yttrium aluminum garnet laser are promising for future otolaryngologic applications.

Gonzalez, C.; van de Merwe, W.P.; Smith, M.; Reinisch, L. (Uniformed Services Univ. of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD (USA))

1990-01-01

261

CEP152 is a genome maintenance protein disrupted in Seckel syndrome.  

PubMed

Functional impairment of DNA damage response pathways leads to increased genomic instability. Here we describe the centrosomal protein CEP152 as a new regulator of genomic integrity and cellular response to DNA damage. Using homozygosity mapping and exome sequencing, we identified CEP152 mutations in Seckel syndrome and showed that impaired CEP152 function leads to accumulation of genomic defects resulting from replicative stress through enhanced activation of ATM signaling and increased H2AX phosphorylation. PMID:21131973

Kalay, Ersan; Yigit, Gkhan; Aslan, Yakup; Brown, Karen E; Pohl, Esther; Bicknell, Louise S; Kayserili, Hlya; Li, Yun; Tysz, Beyhan; Nrnberg, Gudrun; Kiess, Wieland; Koegl, Manfred; Baessmann, Ingelore; Buruk, Kurtulus; Toraman, Bayram; Kayipmaz, Saadettin; Kul, Sibel; Ikbal, Mevlit; Turner, Daniel J; Taylor, Martin S; Aerts, Jan; Scott, Carol; Milstein, Karen; Dollfus, Helene; Wieczorek, Dagmar; Brunner, Han G; Hurles, Matthew; Jackson, Andrew P; Rauch, Anita; Nrnberg, Peter; Karagzel, Ahmet; Wollnik, Bernd

2010-12-05

262

Chaotic communication with erbium-doped fiber ring lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The field of chaotic communication is relatively new; the concept was first conceived in the early 1990s. Since that time, many techniques for communicating with chaos have been proposed, and many of these techniques have been demonstrated with electronic circuits. When the research presented in this thesis was begun, however, no demonstrations of chaotic communication using optical systems had been performed. The aim of this thesis was to investigate the possibility of using optical systems for chaotic communication. Synchronization of chaotic systems is fundamentally related to communication with chaotic systems. Experiments demonstrating synchronization of chaotic Nd:YAG lasers are presented in this thesis. These experiments also reveal a beautiful experimental realization of generalized synchronization. A technique for communication using generalized synchronization is also presented. Erbium-doped fiber ring lasers (EDFRLs) were chosen for the experimental investigation of optical chaotic communication. To develop appropriate chaotic communication techniques with EDFRLs, investigations were performed to understand the origins of their chaotic intensity and polarization dynamics. As part of these investigations, a delay-differential model for the dynamics of an EDFRL was developed. Refinements to the model were made to incorporate important effects of the fiber-optic host. A high-speed (125 MHz) fiber-optic polarization analyzer was constructed to experimentally measure the rapid polarization dynamics of an EDFRL. It was also used to observe a striking EDFRL instability that involves self-pulsing and simultaneous polarization switching. The polarization analyzer revealed information about this instability that could not have been obtained without a full measurement of the lightwave's polarization state. Several chaotic communication techniques were developed to encode information in the chaotic intensity fluctuations output from the EDFRL. Good message recovery is demonstrated in each case. The communication privacy afforded by these systems varies, and in general, is limited. This is a consequence of the relatively slow (compared to the intensity fluctuations) dynamical evolution of the chaotic intensity fluctuations generated by EDFRLs. A method utilizing the chaotic polarization fluctuations of EDFRLs for communication, which may offer more significant communication privacy, was also proposed and experimentally demonstrated.

Vanwiggeren, Gregory Douglas

2000-10-01

263

Comparison of the erbium-yttrium aluminum garnet and carbon dioxide lasers for in vitro bone and cartilage ablation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The in vitro bone- and cartilage-ablation characteristics of the solid-state erbium:yttrium aluminum garnet laser were compared to those of the carbon dioxide laser. Ablations of fresh, frozen cadaver septal cartilage and maxillary sinus bone were performed using total energies between 1 and 6 J. Specimens were studied using hematoxylin and eosin stain and digitized, computer-assisted measurements of 35-mm photographs. Erbium-yttrium

Carlos Gonzalez; Willem P. Van De Merwe; Michael Smith; Lou Reinisch

1990-01-01

264

Coprecipitation of heavy metals with erbium hydroxide for their flame atomic absorption spectrometric determinations in environmental samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trace amounts of copper, manganese, cobalt, chromium, iron and lead were quantitatively coprecipitated with erbium hydroxide on 0.05M NaOH medium. The coprecipitant could be easily dissolved with 1M nitric acid. The presence of up to 15g\\/l of erbium ions did not interfere with the atomic absorption spectrometric determination of analyte ions. The recovery values for analyte ions were higher than

Mustafa Soylak; Sibel Saracoglu; Umit Divrikli; Latif Elci

2005-01-01

265

Erbium-doped silica-based waveguide amplifier integrated with a 980\\/1530 nm WDM coupler  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high gain of 27dB is achieved in an erbium-doped silica-based planar waveguide amplifier integrated with a directional coupler which multiplexes the signal and pump light. A low noise figure of 5.0dB is attained with the planar amplifier by using an integrated coupler which is formed of erbium-doped silica-based waveguides.

K. Hattori; T. Kitagawa; M. Oguma; Y. Ohmori; M. Horiguchi

1994-01-01

266

25 CFR 152.21 - Sale or exchange of tribal land.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Sale or exchange of tribal land. 152.21 Section 152.21 Indians...INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER ISSUANCE OF PATENTS IN FEE...RESTRICTIONS, AND SALE OF CERTAIN INDIAN LANDS Sales, Exchanges and Conveyances...

2011-04-01

267

25 CFR 152.25 - Negotiated sales, gifts and exchanges of trust or restricted lands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...gifts and exchanges of trust or restricted lands. 152.25 Section 152.25 Indians...INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER ISSUANCE OF PATENTS IN FEE...RESTRICTIONS, AND SALE OF CERTAIN INDIAN LANDS Sales, Exchanges and Conveyances...

2011-04-01

268

33 CFR 157.152 - Person in charge of COW operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Person in charge of COW operations. 157.152 Section 157...CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Personnel § 157.152 Person in charge of COW operations. The owner,...

2010-07-01

269

33 CFR 157.152 - Person in charge of COW operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 false Person in charge of COW operations. 157.152 Section 157...CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Personnel § 157.152 Person in charge of COW operations. The owner,...

2009-07-01

270

Soliton Interactions for a Hirota-Maxwell System in the Inhomogeneous Erbium-Doped Fiber  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we consider a generalized Hirota-Maxwell-Bloch system with the higher-order dispersion and self-steepening effects, which describes the propagation of ultrashort optical pulse in the inhomogeneous erbium-doped fiber. Under certain coefficient constraints, N-soliton solutions are obtained through the Hirota method and symbolic computation. Soliton interactions are graphically presented and analyzed in the different fibers. Compared with the Hirota equation without the Maxwell-Bloch parts, the self-induced transparency effect caused by the doped erbium atoms is found to lead to the change of the soliton velocity and phase. In addition, the amplitudes and widths of solitons are respectively observed to decrease and increase in the dispersion-decreasing and dispersion-increasing fibers. Finally, we give the modulational instability condition through the linear stability analysis.

Wang, M.; Tian, B.; Qi, F.-H.; Qin, B.; Lin, Z.-Q.

2012-09-01

271

Healing of bone in the rat following surgery with the erbium-YAG laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Background and objectives: the aim of this study was to examine the pattern of healing in rat calvarial defects prepared with the erbium-YAG laser, using the 'guided tissue regeneration' technique. Materials and method: PTFE membranes were placed over lased skull defects, and the skin wounds sutured. Rats were killed humanely at intervals after surgery, and the skulls processed for paraffin wax histology. A further group of mature rats were also killed humanely and the calvariae removed. Slots were prepared using the erbium-YAG laser and immediately examined under the environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) in hydrated conditions, which avoided drying artifacts. Results: An amorphous, mineral-rich carbon layer surrounds the lased bone defect, which in the in vivo experiments was seen as a basophilic zone which was resistant to resorption.

Dickinson, Mark R.; Devlin, Hugh; El Montaser, Monsour A.; Sloan, P.

1996-12-01

272

Enhancement of pump conversion efficiency in preamplified L-band erbium-doped fiber amplifiers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new configuration of L-band erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFAs) is presented here. The system contains a double-pass L-band EDFA and an optical preamplifier. Different from conventional preamplified double-pass L-band EDFA systems in which only the forward ASE of the preamplifier is re-used as an auxiliary pump, the new system recycles the backward ASE of the preamplifier as well. Two kinds of main L-band EDFAs are studied, both of which include a section of un-pumped erbium-doped fiber placed in a loop reflector. An improvement of up to 110% in pump conversion efficiency is demonstrated with the proposed recycling of the backward ASE, with respect to the system without recycling.

Hung, C. Y.; Wang, Likarn

2006-03-01

273

Effect of holmium and erbium laser action on the human lens: an in-vitro study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the holmium and erbium lasers operating at the medium IR range, used for cataract surgery. The main advantage of these lasers action on biological structures is total absorption of radiation by superficial layers. During the study of the lens emulsification process we found that the mechanical properties of the lens nucleus were of crucial importance for the rate of emulsification. The soft lenses were fragmented and emulsified after 200-700 pulses, while the hard lens required 5000 or more pulses while complete emulsification was not achieved. The results are promising and show that the holmium and erbium lasers can be used for human lens emulsification during ECCE. For clinical purposes, however, it is necessary to construct a suitable fiberoptic tip to be used in cataract removal. It seems that lasers whose beam is in the medium IR range could be used in many ophthalmic operations.

Kasprzak, Jan; Kecik, Dariusz

1997-10-01

274

Mode-locked L-band bismuth-erbium fiber laser using carbon nanotubes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A passively mode-locked, bismuth-erbium-co-doped fiber (Bi-EDF) with a pulse width of 460 fs is proposed and demonstrated. A highly doped, 180-cm Bi-EDF with an erbium concentration of 3,250 ppm/wt and an absorption rate of 133 dB/m at 1,530 nm serves as the gain medium. The cavity is 11.6 m long with an overall group velocity dispersion of +0.063 ps2. The output pulses have a repetition rate, average output power, pulse energy and peak power of 11.18 MHz, 5 mW, 448 pJ and 1 kW, respectively. The system has a high beam quality and a narrow pulse width output in the L-band region.

Ahmad, H.; Zulkifli, A. Z.; Muhammad, F. D.; Zulkifli, M. Z.; Thambiratnam, K.; Harun, S. W.

2013-08-01

275

Novel Numerical Method to Model Multichannel Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifier  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a novel numerical method based on genetic algorithm (GA) to solve the evolution equations that are the basis of modeling multichannel erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFAs). The evolution equations are first transformed from an iteration problem to an optimization problem. The unknown parameter related to backward amplified spontaneous emission (BASE) is coded into a string of bits based on their probable lower and upper limits. By defining proper random variation operators and cost function, the coupled evolution equations are optimized using GA for different values of erbium-doped fiber parameters. It is observed that GA is an efficient method for analyzing the EDFA characteristics in the entire C-band.

Priye, Vishnu; Singh, Dharmendra K.; Arya, Subhash C.

276

Biomimetic synthesis of chiral erbium-doped silver/peptide/silica core-shell nanoparticles (ESPN).  

PubMed

Peptide-modified silver nanoparticles have been coated with an erbium-doped silica layer using a method inspired by silica biomineralization. Electron microscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering confirm the presence of an Ag/peptide core and silica shell. The erbium is present as small Er(2)O(3) particles in and on the silica shell. Raman, IR, UV-Vis, and circular dichroism spectroscopies show that the peptide is still present after shell formation and the nanoparticles conserve a chiral plasmon resonance. Magnetic measurements find a paramagnetic behavior. In vitro tests using a macrophage cell line model show that the resulting multicomponent nanoparticles have a low toxicity for macrophages, even on partial dissolution of the silica shell. PMID:22031101

Mantion, Alexandre; Graf, Philipp; Florea, Ileana; Haase, Andrea; Thnemann, Andreas F; Mai?, Admir; Ersen, Ovidiu; Rabu, Pierre; Meier, Wolfgang; Luch, Andreas; Taubert, Andreas

2011-10-27

277

Simulation of an erbium-doped chalcogenide micro-disk mid-infrared laser source.  

PubMed

The feasibility of mid-infrared (MIR) lasing in erbium-doped gallium lanthanum sulfide (GLS) micro-disks was examined. Lasing condition at 4.5 m signal using 800 nm pump source was simulated using rate equations, mode propagation and transfer matrix formulation. Cavity quality (Q) factors of 1.48 10(4) and 1.53 10(6) were assumed at the pump and signal wavelengths, respectively, based on state-of-the-art chalcogenide micro-disk resonator parameters. With an 80 m disk diameter and an active erbium concentration of 2.8 10(20) cm(-3), lasing was shown to be possible with a maximum slope efficiency of 1.26 10(-4) and associated pump threshold of 0.5 mW. PMID:21716429

Al Tal, Faleh; Dimas, Clara; Hu, Juejun; Agarwal, Anu; Kimerling, Lionel C

2011-06-20

278

Negative parity states and some electromagnetic transition properties of even-odd erbium isotopes  

SciTech Connect

The negative parity states and some electromagnetic transition properties of even-odd erbium isotopes ({sup 159,161,163,165}Er) were studied within the framework of the interacting boson-fermion model. The single fermion is assumed to be in one of the lh{sub 9/2},3p{sub 3/2},2f{sub 5/2}, and 3p{sub 1/2} single-particle orbits. It was found that the calculated negative parity state energy spectra of the even-odd erbium isotopes agree quite well with the experimental data. The B(E2) values were also calculated and compared with the experimental data.

Yazar, Harun Resit; Uluer, Ihsan [Kirikkale University, Faculty of Art and Science, Kirikkale (Turkey)

2007-03-15

279

Laser Cooling without Repumping: A Magneto-Optical Trap for Erbium Atoms  

SciTech Connect

We report on a novel mechanism that allows for strong laser cooling of atoms that do not have a closed cycling transition. This mechanism is observed in a magneto-optical trap (MOT) for erbium, an atom with a very complex energy level structure with multiple pathways for optical-pumping losses. We observe surprisingly high trap populations of over 10{sup 6} atoms and densities of over 10{sup 11} atoms cm{sup -3}, despite the many potential loss channels. A model based on recycling of metastable and ground state atoms held in the quadrupole magnetic field of the trap explains the high trap population, and agrees well with time-dependent measurements of MOT fluorescence. The demonstration of trapping of a rare-earth atom such as erbium opens a wide range of new possibilities for practical applications and fundamental studies with cold atoms.

McClelland, J.J.; Hanssen, J.L. [Electron Physics Group, Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States)

2006-04-14

280

Specific features of the crystal structure of erbium polyphosphate of the structural type C  

SciTech Connect

Erbium polyphosphate Er(PO{sub 3}){sub 3} is synthesized at a temperature of 270 deg. C from a polyphosphoric acid melt containing cerium, erbium, and phosphorus in the atomic ratio Cs: Er: P = 5: 1: 15. The crystal structure of the Er(PO{sub 3}){sub 3} polyphosphate synthesized is determined. The framework structure of the Er(PO{sub 3}){sub 3} polyphosphate is built up of infinite polyphosphate chains and ErO{sub 6} octahedra bonded to these chains. The structure is a derivative of the structural type C, in which a large number of trivalent metal polyphosphates crystallize. The main distinguishing feature of this structural type is an increase in the parameter b of the monoclinic unit cell of the Er(PO{sub 3}){sub 3} compound by a factor of 11 (a = 10.040 A, b = 73.482 A, c = 11.268 A, {beta} = 97.28 deg., space group Ia)

Murashova, E. V. [Moscow State University, Department of Chemistry (Russian Federation)], E-mail: murashovaev@rambler.ru; Chudinova, N. N.; Ilyukhin, A. B. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Kurnakov Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry (Russian Federation)

2007-03-15

281

Erbium-doped photonic crystal fiber lasers optimization by microstructure control: experimental study analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two home-made erbium-doped PCFs are used to experimentally study how the PCF microstructures affect the performance of tunable ring lasers made of these fibers. It is found that significant improvement of lasers performance can be obtained. In particular a laser power of 98 mW and slope efficiency of 24 % (to our knowledge the largest reported so far) and also a threshold of 4.5 mW are obtained with the optimal configuration. From the analysis of experimental results it is found that the influence of the microstructure takes place through three mechanisms: overlapping between modal distributions and erbium-doped area, splice losses and passive propagation losses which are mainly due to radiation originated by the finite size microstructure of air holes.

Snchez-Martn, J. A.; Rebolledo, M. A.; lvarez, J. M.; Berdejo, V.; Dez, A.; Andrs, M. V.

2013-03-01

282

Noise characteristics of erbium-doped fiber amplifier pumped at 980 nm  

Microsoft Academic Search

A noise figure of 2.90.4 dB, measured in a high-gain erbium-doped fiber amplifier for input signals in the range -35 to -15 dBm and for pump powers of >5.8 mW, is discussed. The spontaneous emission factor nsp was 0.990.09 for input signals less than -15 dBm. These low figures are attributable to the optimized fiber design and the use of

R. I. Laming; D. N. Payne

1990-01-01

283

Theoretical modeling of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers with excited-state absorption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerical solution of a general rate-equation model of an erbium-doped fiber amplifier highlights several important features of the device. A difference in strong-signal gain between copropagating and counterpropagating signal pump schemes in the presence of pump excited-state absorption is predicted, and this is confirmed by experiment. The detriment in the noise figure previously associated with counterpropagating schemes for only small-signal

P. R. Morkel; Richard I. Laming

1989-01-01

284

Specifics of crystallization of highly refractory alloys based on zirconium, yttrium, and erbium oxides  

Microsoft Academic Search

In production of melted ingots of highly refractory alloys in systems with zirconium, yttrium, and erbium oxides we have identified\\u000a the phenomenon of an increasing specific volume in the course of primary crystallization under unilateral center-symmetric\\u000a heating. The positive values of the volume crystallization effect are presumably due to the emergence of point defect complexes\\u000a in the course of formation

A. A. Frolov; E. R. Anrievskaya; O. A. Kornienko; Yu. A. Frolov

2007-01-01

285

Non-destructive concentration measurements of erbium-doped ZBLAN fluorozirconate glass  

Microsoft Academic Search

The non-destructive method proposed for the measurements of neodymium concentrations in laser materials has been extended to erbium-doped fluorozirconate glass. It consists of comparing the intensity of a luminescence signal from the rare-earth ions with the intensity of a Raman line from the host matrix, both measured in a single geometry under a microscope. The investigations have been performed in

S. Rogard; A. Bulou; H. Poignant; M. Rousseau

1995-01-01

286

Saturation of the 2.71 ?m laser output in erbium-doped ZBLAN fibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The saturation of the 2.71 ?m laser output power has been investigated in an erbium doped ZBLAN single-mode fiber with an Er3+ concentration of 5000 ppm mol. The bleaching of the ground state, the absorption coefficient at the pump wavelength and the fluorescence intensities over a wide wavelength range have been measured simultaneously during laser emission. In a computer simulation

S. Bed; M. Pollnau; W. Lthy; H. P. Weber

1995-01-01

287

New spectroscopic data of erbium ions in GaN thin films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optical properties of erbium ions in MBE-grown GaN-thin films are reported. Three types of sites were identified using site selective laser excitation. The main center is ascribed to the Er3+ ions substituted in the Ga sub-lattice while the two other centers are assigned to Er-related defects. The lifetimes of the 4S3\\/2 and 4I13\\/2 multiplets of the main center are strongly

F. Pell; F. Auzel; J. M. Zavada; D. S. Lee; A. J. Steckl

2003-01-01

288

Pulsed erbium fiber laser with an acetylene-filled photonic crystal fiber for saturable absorption.  

PubMed

We investigate the dynamics of an erbium-doped fiber ring laser that is equipped with an intracavity hollow core photonic crystal fiber gas cell. The cell is filled with acetylene as a saturable absorber. We observe cw operation at low pressures, Q switching at intermediate pressure levels, and mode locking at high pressures applied. Moreover, we show that the transition from the cw to the pulsed mode may be exploited for sensitive gas detection. PMID:21931393

Marty, Patrick Thomas; Morel, Jacques; Feurer, Thomas

2011-09-15

289

Pulpal thermal responses to an erbium,chromium:YSGG pulsed laser hydrokinetic system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem. Laser systems are known to raise pulpal temperatures when applied to tooth surfaces. Dental biocalcified tissues can be cut with an erbium,chromium:yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet laser-powered hydrokinetic system. This device is effective for caries removal and cavity preparation in vitro. Pulpal monitoring of temperature changes during hard tissue cutting by a hydrokinetic system have not been reported.Objectives. This study compared the effects

Ioana Rizoiu; Farideh Kohanghadosh; Andrew I Kimmel; Lewis R Eversole

1998-01-01

290

Erbium silicided n-type Schottky barrier tunnel transistors for nanometer regime applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theoretical and experimental current-voltage characteristics of Erbium silicided n-type Schottky barrier tunneling transistors (SBTTs) are discussed. The theoretical drain current to drain voltage characteristics show good correspondence with the experimental results in 10-?m-long channel n-type SBTTs. From these results, the extracted Schottky barrier height is 0.24 eV. The experimentally manufactured n-type SBTTs with 60-nm gate lengths show typical transistor

Moongyu Jang; Seongjae Lee

2003-01-01

291

Characteristics of erbium-silicided n-type Schottky barrier tunnel transistors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current-voltage characteristics of erbium-silicided n-type Schottky barrier tunnel transistors (SBTTs) are discussed. The n-type SBTTs with 60 nm gate lengths shows typical transistor behaviors in drain current to drain voltage characteristics. The drain current on\\/off ratio is about 105 at low drain voltage regime in drain current to gate voltage characteristics. However, the on\\/off ratio tends to decrease as

Moongyu Jang; Jihun Oh; Sunglyul Maeng; Wonju Cho; Seongjae Lee; Kicheon Kang

2003-01-01

292

Wavelength tunable passively mode-locked bismuth oxide-based erbium-doped fiber laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

The broadband gain of bismuth oxide-based erbium-doped fiber has been used to obtain wavelength-tunable mode-locking over a 30 nm range from 1570 to 1600 nm. Passive mode-locking using a proton-bombarded semiconductor saturable absorber mirror produces 2.2-ps pulses at a repetition rate of 17 MHz. After external frequency chirp compensation, 288-fs pulses are obtained at 1600 nm.

Hideyuki Sotobayashi; Juliet T. Gopinath; Elisabeth M. Koontz; Leslie A. Kolodziejski; Erich P. Ippen

2004-01-01

293

Study on Er3+ emission from the erbium-doped hydrogenated amorphous silicon suboxide film  

Microsoft Academic Search

The erbium-doped hydrogenated amorphous silicon suboxide films containing amorphous silicon clusters were prepared. The samples exhibited photoluminescence peaks at around 750 nm and 1.54 ?m, which could be assigned to the electron-hole recombination in amorphous silicon clusters and the intra-4f transition in Er3+, respectively. Correlations between the intensities of these two photoluminescence peaks and oxidation and dehydrogenation of the films

C. Y. Chen; W. D. Chen; S. F. Song; Z. J. Xu; X. B. Liao; G. H. Li; K. Ding

2003-01-01

294

Dual-wavelength 10GHz actively mode-locked erbium fiber laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the first 10 GHz dual-wavelength actively mode-locked erbium fiber laser (ML-EFL). Dual-wavelength operation is achieved by introducing two intracavity branches, each containing a tunable optical bandpass filter. A variable output coupler combining the filter branches also equalizes the effective cavity gain for the two wavelengths, By adjusting the filters and the coupler, dual-wavelength ML-EFL operation is achieved at

Bamdad Bakhshi; Peter A. Andrekson

1999-01-01

295

On the role of cerium in a chromium-ytterbium-erbium phosphate glass  

SciTech Connect

The influence of cerium oxide on photo- and gamma-stability of chromium-ytterbium-erbium phosphate glasses is studied. It is found that UV irradiation does not cause any noticeable changes in the glass independently of the presence of cerium. Gamma rays produce colour centres in glasses without cerium and their lasing properties deteriorate. Doping glasses with an optimum amount of cerium oxide improves their radiation resistance with respect to gamma rays. (active media)

Byshevskaya-Konopko, Lyudmila O; Izyneev, A A; Sadovskii, Pavel I [Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Fryazino, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Pavlov, Yu S [State Scientific Centre of Russian Federation 'L.Ya. Karpov Institute of Physical Chemistry', Moscow (Russian Federation)

2000-09-30

296

Bandwidth optimization of a Carbon Nanotubes mode-locked Erbium-doped fiber laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a new method to fabricate thin films using single-walled Carbon Nanotubes (SWCNT) and a urethane-based transparent polymer. We construct an Erbium-doped fiber laser to test our films as saturable absorbers to work as passive mode-locker. As results, pulse-trains were achieved and we carried on an optimization study involving total cavity dispersion, absorption strength of thin films incorporating SWCNT and laser bandwidth to produce broad bandwidths in passive mode-locking regime.

Rosa, H. G.; de Souza, E. A.

2012-03-01

297

Aerosol-gel deposition of pyrochlore multicomponent thin films heavily doped with erbium ions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optically active films in the system Y2Ti2O7-Er2Ti2O7 have been deposited using the Aerosol-gel process. Photoluminescence properties closely depend on the film crystallization state. Dilution of erbium ions within a crystalline Y2Ti2O7 matrix allows to prevent photoluminescence concentration quenching induced by short range distance interactions. Consequently, heavily doped films with good photoluminescence properties can be obtained.

Langlet, Michel; Jenouvrier, Pierre R.; Fick, Jochen; Rimet, Roger

2003-11-01

298

Phase transition, structural, mechanical and thermal properties of erbium pnictides under pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we have investigated the high-pressure structural phase transition of erbium pnictides (ErX; X?=?N, P and As). An extended interaction potential model has been developed (including the zero-point energy effect in three-body interaction potential model). Phase transition pressures are associated with a sudden collapse in volume. The phase transition pressures and associated volume collapses have been predicted successfully.

Purvee Bhardwaj; Sadhna Singh

2012-01-01

299

Mode-locking of thulium-doped and erbium-doped fiber lasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis reports work on passive mode-locking of thulium-doped and erbium-doped fiber ring lasers using the technique of polarization additive pulse mode-locking (P-APM). A self-starting, mode-locked Tm+3-doped fiber laser was demonstrated with 360 to 500 fsec pulses tunable from 1.8 to 1.9 mum, the largest tuning range demonstrated from a rare-earth doped fiber. This laser operated in the soliton regime

Lynn Elizabeth Nelson

1997-01-01

300

Generation of 47-fs pulses directly from an erbium-doped fiber laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show both numerically and experimentally that through appropriately selecting the output coupling position and strength in a mode-locked fiber laser, one can effectively manage the nonlinearity of the cavity. By implementing the technique together with cavity dispersion management in an erbium-doped fiber laser, we have achieved stable mode-locked pulses with a single-pulse energy of 2.08 nJ and pulse width

D. Y. Tang; L. M. Zhao

2007-01-01

301

Dispersion-managed dark solitons in erbium-doped fiber lasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on the observation of dispersion-managed (DM) dark soliton emission in a net-normal dispersion erbium-doped fiber laser. We found experimentally that dispersion management could not only reduce the pump threshold for the dark soliton formation in a fiber laser, but also stabilize the single dark soliton evolution in the cavity. Numerical simulations have also confirmed the DM dark soliton

Han Zhang; Dingyuan Tang; Mustapha Tlidi; Luming Zhao; Xuan Wu

2010-01-01

302

Clustering-induced nonsaturable absorption phenomenon in heavily erbium-doped silica fibers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nonsaturable absorption experiments in heavily erbium-doped fibers demonstrate that the behavior of the absorption with pump power cannot be interpreted with an ion-pair model but requires that the presence of larger clusters be taken into account. Numerical modeling permits the determination of the percentage of ions organized in clusters, as much as 52% of the dopants in the tested fiber, and the intracluster transfer rate, up to 2 \\times 106s -1 .

Maurice, Eric; Monnom, Grard; Dussardier, Bernard; Ostrowsky, D. B.

1995-12-01

303

Small-signal erbium-doped fibre amplifiers pumped at 980 nm: a design study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model for the erbium-doped fibre amplifier (EDFA) is presented and discussed. The model is used in a detailed analysis of the waveguide design of 980-nm pumped EDFAs operated in the small-signal gain region. A comparison of results for signals at wavelengths 1532 and 1552 nm is given. The influence of the amplified spontaneous emission on the optimum cut-off wavelength

B. Pedersen

1994-01-01

304

Gamma-ray-induced effects in erbium-doped fiber optic amplifiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four Erbium doped fiber optic amplifiers (EDFAs) were irradiated by gamma-rays to dose levels of 40 Krad(Si) and 100 Krad(Si) at dose rates of 0.25 rad(Si) sec-1 and 1.0 rad(Si) sec-1, respectively. All EDFAs were observed to incur radiation induced permanent decreases to their pre-irradiated signal gains. The paper will discuss the influence of gamma-ray irradiations on EDFA parameters such

Edward W. Taylor; Stanley J. McKinney; Anthony D. Sanchez; Alan H. Paxton; Douglas M. Craig; James E. Winter; Roberta M. Ewart; Ken Miller; Tim O'Connor; Robert W. Kaliski

1998-01-01

305

X-Ray Diffraction Study of Elemental Erbium to 65 GPa  

SciTech Connect

We have investigated phase transitions in elemental erbium in a diamond anvil cell up to 65 GPa using x-ray powder diffraction methods. We present preliminary evidence of a series of phase transitions that appear to follow the expected hcp {yields} Sm-type {yields} dhcp {yields} distorted fcc sequence. In particular, we believe that we have evidence for the predicted dhcp {yields} distorted fcc transition between 43 GPa and 65 GPa.

Pravica, M.G.; Lipinska-Kalita, K.; Quine, Z.; Romano, E.; Nicol, M.F. (UNLV)

2006-02-02

306

Multi-wavelength generation of L-band brillouin\\/erbium fibre laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the operation of the Brillouin\\/erbium fibre laser (BEFL) in the long wavelength band (L-band or 15651625 nm) is experimentally demonstrated. The Stokes frequency is shifted 10 GHz from its Brillouin pump (BP) from 1598 to 1612 nm for the single wavelength BEFL. Multiple wavelength generation in the BEFL is realised by adding two 3-dB couplers, which are

Andy L. Y. Low; S. F. Chien; W. M. Wong

2003-01-01

307

Wideband tunable erbium-doped fiber ring laser using switchable parallel fiber Bragg gratings  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wideband wavelength tunable Erbium-doped fiber laser using a unidirectional traveling-wave fiber ring combined with a novel switchable fiber Bragg grating (FBG) array is presented. The switchable FBG array consists of a 1 by 3 optical switch and three parallel discrete FBGs. The central reflection wavelengths of these three discrete FBGs are 1534 nm, 1549.15 nm and 1559.4 nm, respectively.

Jianliang Yang; Yunqi Liu; Jianping Yao

2001-01-01

308

An all fibre ring cavity watt-level erbium ytterbium co-doped fibre laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

An erbium-ytterbium co-doped fibre ring laser pumped by a 976 nm laser diode array is presented. The laser power reaches 1.07 W at 1565.8 nm under 3.5 W pump power, with an optical conversion efficiency of 30.6%. The optimal output splitting ratio is demonstrated to be 99%. Stable output with a fine-shaped laser spectrum is achieved, although no wavelength selecting

Sheng-Ping Chen; Yi-Gang Li; Jian-Ping Zhu; Hua Wang; Yun Zhang; Tuan-Wei Xu; Ru Guo; Ke-Cheng Lu

2005-01-01

309

Corrosion-resistant erbium oxide coatings by organometallic chemical vapor deposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

An organometallic chemical vapor deposition (OMCVD) process was developed for the preparation of protective erbium oxide coatings resistant to corrosion by liquid plutonium. The coatings were deposited from the precursor compound Er(tmhd)3 using a standard hot-wall reactor. The substrates used for process development were 304 stainless-steel flats; coatings were subsequently deposited on the internal surfaces of high-aspect-ratio tubular parts, as

Kevin M. Hubbard; Brent F. Espinoza

2000-01-01

310

Long-wavelength erbium-doped fiber amplifier gain enhanced by ASE end-reflectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use for what we believe is the first time narrow-band end-reflectors to reduce losses through short-wavelength amplified stimulated emission (ASE) in silica-based erbium-doped fiber amplifiers operating at wavelengths above 1570 mm. The end-reflectors feed a small fraction of the ASE, up to a few tenths of a milliwatt, back into the amplifying fiber. The reflected ASE compresses the short-wavelength

J. Nilsson; S. Y. Yun; S. T. Hwang; J. M. Kim; S. J. Kim

1998-01-01

311

Propagation of signal and noise in concatenated erbium-doped fiber optical amplifiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Signal propagation and noise accumulation in lightwave systems using saturated optical amplifiers as repeaters are analyzed. Numerical simulations of amplified spontaneous emission in concatenated erbium-doped fiber amplifiers indicate that a reach beyond 10000 km is possible with a 1.55-?m system in the absence of fiber nonlinearities. Distributed optical amplifiers are shown to have low noise, but require higher pump power

C. R. Giles; Emmanuel Desurvire

1991-01-01

312

Sensitized erbium emission from silicon-rich nitride/silicon superlattice structures  

SciTech Connect

Erbium-doped silicon-rich nitride/silicon superlattice structures were fabricated by direct magnetron cosputtering deposition on Si substrates. Rapid thermal annealing resulted in the nucleation of small amorphous Si clusters, which efficiently sensitize 1.54 {mu}m emission via a nanosecond-fast nonresonant energy transfer process, providing an alternative route toward the fabrication of Si-compatible devices based on Er sensitization.

Dal Negro, L.; Li, R.; Warga, J. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Boston University 8 Saint Mary's Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02215-2421 (United States); Basu, S. N. [Department of Manufacturing Engineering, Boston University 15 Saint Mary's Street, Brookline, Massachusetts 02446 (United States)

2008-05-05

313

Amplification of spontaneous emission in erbium-doped single-mode fibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amplification of spontaneous emission (ASE) in erbium-doped single-mode fiber amplifiers operating at ?=1.53 ?m is studied theoretically and experimentally. The ASE noise spectra obtained from the theory are found to be in excellent quantitative agreement with the experimental data. The observed changes in ASE spectral shapes under different population inversion conditions are also explained. The model may be used to

Emmanuel Desurvire; JAY R. SIMPSON

1989-01-01

314

Effects of ion pairs on the dynamics of erbium-doped fiber lasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments with erbium-doped fiber lasers demonstrate cw, sinusoidal, and self-pulsing operation. The obtained regimes depend on three control parameters: ion-pair concentration, photon lifetime, and pumping rate. We present a theoretical model which describes the active medium as a mixture of isolated ions and ion pairs. Starting with the adapted laser rate equations we show that the description of the dynamical

Franois Sanchez; Patrice Le Boudec; Pierre-Luc Franois; Guy Stephan

1993-01-01

315

A review of the fabrication and properties of erbium-doped fibers for optical amplifiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Erbium-doped fiber has become the central component of nearly all optical amplifiers. Applications reported include repeaters, power amplifiers, preamplifiers, and distributed amplifiers. To date, nearly all the fiber used in these devices has been silica based and fabricated by variations on the major telecommunications fiber technology. Disadvantages of the silica-based host glass, such as low solubility of the rare-earth ions

B. James Ainslie

1991-01-01

316

24-line multiwavelength operation of erbium-doped fiber-ring laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simultaneous lasing at up to 24 wavelengths is demonstrated in an erbium-doped fiber-ring laser using a simple design. This result is achieved using a low-loss cavity, controlled polarization evolution and liquid nitrogen cooling to enhance spectral hole-burning, polarization hole-burning, and polarization selectivity. The design does not include any wavelength-selective components; instead, it utilizes wavelength selectivity provided by polarization evolution in

Paul F. Wysocki

1996-01-01

317

Wavelength flattened saturated erbium amplifier using multiple side-tap Bragg gratings  

Microsoft Academic Search

By writing several loss-inducing photosensitive side-tap Bragg gratings in a short length of optical fibre, the gain variation of +\\/- 1.6 dB over a bandwidth of 33 nm in a saturated erbium doped fibre amplifier is reduced to +\\/- 0.3 dB. It is shown for the first time that these gratings may be written with predictable ease.

R. Kashyap; R. Wyatt; P. F. McKee

1993-01-01

318

Photonic crystal interactions with electroluminescence from zinc sulfide thin films doped with erbium trifluoride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photonic crystal (PC) interactions with the near-infrared emission at a wavelength of 1550 nm from zinc sulfide (ZnS) doped with erbium trifluoride (ErF3) have been studied in alternating current thin film electroluminescent (ACTFEL) devices. An objective of this study was to determine if propagation of light parallel to the surface would be frustrated by the PC and result in the

Evan Stanley Law

2009-01-01

319

A study of erbium, thulium and other rare earth ethyl sulphates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The available sets of crystal field parameters for erbium and thulium ethyl sulphates are used to calculate the Stark levels,g-values, Schottky specific heat, magnetic anisotropy, hyperfine interaction parameters and low temperature specific heat of\\u000a these compounds. A comparison of these calculations with experimental data shows that one of these sets can be taken to be\\u000a optimum within the accuracy of

Vishwamittar; S P Puri

1975-01-01

320

Nuclear-Magnetic-Resonance Studies of Er167 in Erbium Iron Garnet  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nuclear magnetic resonance of Er167 in erbium iron garnet (ErIG) has been studied at 4.2 K using both single crystals and polycrystalline powders. The zero-field spectrum obtained with the powder samples shows the existence of two types of rare-earth sites that would be expected when the magnetization is along a direction. The two types of sites are found to

R. L. Streever; P. J. Caplan

1973-01-01

321

Deuterium permeation behavior of erbium oxide coating on austenitic, ferritic, and ferritic\\/martensitic steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tritium permeation barrier is required in fusion blanket for reduction of loss of fuel and health hazard. In this study, deuterium permeation experiments have been performed on four kinds of steels and erbium oxide coatings fabricated by a filtered arc deposition method. The permeation flux of uncoated samples shows diffusion-limited regime in the temperature range 573723K and the permeability is

Takumi Chikada; Akihiro Suzuki; Zhenyu Yao; Denis Levchuk; Hans Maier; Takayuki Terai; Takeo Muroga

2009-01-01

322

Novel stoichiometrically erbium-ytterbium cocrystalline complex exhibiting enhanced near-infrared luminescence.  

PubMed

Three beta-diketonate complexes of erbium and ytterbium, Er(HFA)3(TPPO)3, Yb(HFA)3(TPPO)3, and Er(1/2)Yb(1/)(2)(HFA)3(TPPO)2 (HFA = hexafluoroacetylacetonate, TPPO = triphenylphosphine oxide) are synthesized and structurally characterized, and their luminescent properties are examined in detail. Compared with monometallic complexes Er(HFA)3(TPPO)3 and Er(HFA)3(TPPO)3, the stoichiometrically Er-Yb cocrystalline complex Er(1/2)Yb(1/2)(HFA)3(TPPO)2 exhibits special indirect near-infrared (NIR) luminescence with the acceptor and sensitizer (donor) coexisting in a single crystal. Of interest is that the NIR luminescence of the erbium ion in Er(1/2)Yb(1/2)(HFA)3(TPPO)2 is significantly enhanced because of the coexistence of the ytterbium ion through the energy-transfer between the ytterbium and erbium ions. The estimated donor-acceptor energy-transfer critical radii R(C,DA), obtained from the Frster model, are in good agreement with those determined from the single X-ray crystal structure, confirming the dipole-dipole character for such a Yb-Er energy-transfer process. PMID:16711704

Zhong, Qi; Wang, Huaishan; Qian, Guodong; Wang, Zhiyu; Zhang, Jiahua; Qiu, Jianrong; Wang, Minquan

2006-05-29

323

Laser trabecular ablation of human eyes with the erbium:YAG laser: a histopathologic study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We postulated that ablation of trabecular meshwork can be accomplished without damage to Schlemm's canal and adjacent tissue. We performed Erbium:YAG laser trabecular ablation on human autopsy eyes and confirmed the results by histopathologic examination. We used an Erbium:YAG laser (2.94 micrometers ) equipped with a sapphire probe and a quartz tip (350 micrometers diameter). Energy levels of 5, 10, 15, 20, and 40 mJ per pulse were used. The probe was placed directly onto the trabecular meshwork viewed through an operating microscope and focal ablation was performed with single pulses. The tissue was then processed and examined under light and scanning microscopy. The histopathologic study of the trabecular meshwork revealed that a single pulse at an energy level of 15 mJ was optimal for ablating through the trabecular meshwork to Schlemm's canal with a minimal amount of coagulative damage to the surrounding tissue. The mean width of ablated tissue was 150 micrometers +/- 29 micrometers (n equals 18) and the mean depth of ablation was 133 +/- 48 micrometers (n equals 18) at this energy level. The mean width of coagulative damage to adjacent tissue was 16 +/- 8 micrometers (n equals 18). The ablation and coagulative damage increased with increasing energy levels. The Erbium:YAG laser equipped with a contact probe effectively ablates trabecular meshwork with little surrounding coagulative damage. This feature may minimize scarring and result in a high long-term patency rate of outflow channels created by laser trabecular ablation.

Kramer, Theresa R.; Noecker, Robert J.; Snyder, Robert W.; Ellsworth, Lansing G.; Yarborough, J. Michael

1994-06-01

324

Mode-locked erbium-doped fiber lasers, synchronization and noise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the applications multiply for compact sources of ultrashort pulses, it is necessary to develop a full understanding of the advantages and limitations of the different mode-locking techniques. With the current emphasis on increasing the capacity of the communications infrastructure, picosecond and sub-picosecond pulsed fiber lasers have attracted increasing interest especially in light of the efficiency of erbium fiber amplifiers. With this in mind, a comparative, experimental study of the mode-locking processes of three erbium-doped fiber lasers was conducted. An actively mode-locked fiber ring laser and a passively mode-locked Fabry-Perot fiber laser employing a multiple quantum well saturable absorber were constructed as a precursor to developing a hybrid laser source which would combine the most desirable features of the individual lasers. The actively mode-locked laser produced picosecond pulses at repetition rates ranging from 1.5 MHz to 5.0 GHz and was tunable over the whole erbium gain bandwidth. The passively mode-locked laser utilized the nonlinear transmission of the multiple quantum well saturable absorber to start and sustain mode-locked operation. Additionally, the two lasers were integrated to form a hybrid mode-locked laser. By injecting a portion of the ring laser's output directly into the Fabry-Perot cavity, the output of the two lasers would synchronize at the fundamental cavity frequency.

Kaechele, Walter Irving, IV

1997-09-01

325

Core-shell nanoparticle erbium-doped fibers for next generation amplifiers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New generation systems are expected to include more intelligent amplifiers able to adapt to many conditions including different gains, channel load, temperature, aging and transient events.1 To face the challenge and meet these new requirements, having an accurate control on the Er environment within the fiber core matrix has never appeared to be so necessary and predominant as it is the case now. Unlike conventional solution doping techniques where Erbium ions are randomly incorporated in the fiber core, our process makes use of a soft chemical synthesis to initially produce Erbium-doped nanoparticles (NPs). Erbium ions are therefore incorporated in the fiber core together with their local environment. So far, our investigations2 first showed that, from the material point of view, quenching levels are intimately linked to the design of the NPs through their chemical composition. Then, from the system perspective, we evidenced the higher power conversion efficiencies exhibited by NP fibers when compared to their conventional counterparts in high power amplifier configurations. In this paper, we address our most recent work focusing on the NP optimisation towards quenching-free Erbiumdoped fibers with a particular focus on core-shell alumino-silicate NPs. Completing our first amplifier results obtained in high power configurations, we also explore new NP fiber profiles that extend the range of their applications. Gain and noise characteristics of typical WDM operating points serve as key indicators on the benefits our NP doping process could provide.

Boivin, David; Pastouret, Alain; Burov, Ekaterina; Gonnet, Cdric; Cavani, Olivier; Lempereur, Simon; Sillard, Pierre; Goldmann, Claire; Saudry, Elodie; Chanac, Corinne; Shlifer, Alex; Ghera, Uri

2012-02-01

326

The Effect of Erbium and Oxygen on the Photoluminescence Intensity of Erbium and the Composition of a-SiO{sub x}:(H, Er, O) Films Deposited by DC Magnetron Sputtering  

SciTech Connect

The effect of the oxygen content (C{sub O{sub 2}}) in the gas mixture (20% of SiH{sub 4} + 80% of Ar) + O{sub 2} and the surface area of an erbium target (S{sub Er}) on the composition and Er{sup 3+} photoluminescence of amorphous a-SiO{sub x}:(H, Er, O) films prepared by dc magnetron sputtering has been investigated. Analysis of the experimental data shows that [Er-O] and [Er-O-Si-O] clusters are formed in the gas plasma due to the competing processes of oxidation and sputtering of Si and Er targets and to the interaction of [Si-O] and [Er-O] clusters with each other and with the oxygen in the gas phase. The discontinuities in the dependences of the contents of erbium-bound oxygen and erbium in a film, N{sub O}{sup Er-O} and N{sub Er} = f(C{sub O{sub 2}}, S{sub Er}), at C{sub O{sub 2}} {approx_equal} (5-6.5) mol % supports the hypothesis on the existence of different erbium clusters. The necessary conditions for preparing a-SiO{sub x}:(H, Er, O) films with the highest photoluminescence intensity of erbium ions at a wavelength of 1.54 {mu}m are determined.

Undalov, Yu.K.; Terukov, E.I.; Gusev, O.B.; Kudoyarova, V.Kh. [Ioffe Physicotechnical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Politekhnicheskaya ul. 26, St. Petersburg, 194021 (Russian Federation)

2005-08-15

327

Optimizing the pumping configuration for the power scaling of in-band pumped erbium doped fiber amplifiers.  

PubMed

A highly efficient (~80%), high power (18.45 W) in-band, core pumped erbium/ytterbium co-doped fiber laser is demonstrated. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest reported efficiency from an in-band pumped 1.5 m fiber laser operating in the tens of watts regime. Using a fitted simulation model, we show that the significantly sub-quantum limit conversion efficiency of in-band pumped erbium doped fiber amplifiers observed experimentally can be explained by concentration quenching. We then numerically study and experimentally validate the optimum pumping configuration for power scaling of in-band, cladding pumped erbium doped fiber amplifiers. Our simulation results indicate that a ~77% power conversion efficiency with high output power should be possible through cladding pumping of current commercially available pure Erbium doped active fibers providing the loss experienced by the cladding guided 1535 nm pump due to the coating absorption can be reduced to an acceptable level by better coating material choice. The power conversion efficiency has the potential to exceed 90% if concentration quenching of erbium ions can be reduced via improvements in fiber design and fabrication. PMID:22714454

Lim, Ee-Leong; Alam, Shaif-ul; Richardson, David J

2012-06-18

328

Erbium: YAG laser ablation versus 70% trichloroacet?c acid application in the treatment of xanthelasma palpebrarum.  

PubMed

Background: Xanthelasma palpebrarum (XP) is characterized by soft, yellow plaques on the upper or lower eyelids that create aesthetic problems for patients. There are several methods in the treatment of XP, such as surgical excision, blepharoplasty, cryotherapy, electrocauterization, chemical cauterization using trichloroacetic acid (TCA) or bichloroacetic acid and laser ablation. Objective: To evaluate the efficiency and complications of 70% TCA application versus erbium: YAG laser ablation in different XP lesions on the same patient. Methods: A total of 21 patients were taken into the study-1 male and 20 females, from ages 22 to 70 years. Erbium: YAG laser ablation and 70% TCA application were performed in different XP lesions of the same patient. All patients were photographed before initiating treatment and after 4 weeks using the same digital camera. Evaluation was performed 4 weeks after the first treatment session by comparing pre-treatment and post-treatment photographs by two independent dermatologists. Results: No significant difference of the improvement scores between the erbium laser and TCA was found (p = 0.248). No significant difference between the complication scores using erbium laser and TCA was found (p = 0.739). Conclusions: Both 70% TCA application and erbium: YAG laser ablation methods have similar effectiveness and complication rates. PMID:23441855

Gngr, Sule; Canat, Dilek; Gkdemir, Gonca

2013-05-01

329

Resonant Enhancement of Neutrinoless Double-Electron Capture in {sup 152}Gd  

SciTech Connect

In the search for the nuclide with the largest probability for neutrinoless double-electron capture, we have determined the Q{sub {epsilon}{epsilon}} value between the ground states of {sup 152}Gd and {sup 152}Sm by Penning-trap mass-ratio measurements. The new Q{sub {epsilon}{epsilon}} value of 55.70(18) keV results in a half-life of 10{sup 26} yr for a 1 eV neutrino mass. With this smallest half-life among known 0{nu}{epsilon}{epsilon} transitions, {sup 152}Gd is a promising candidate for the search for neutrinoless double-electron capture.

Eliseev, S.; Roux, C. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Blaum, K. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Physikalisches Institut, Ruprecht-Karls-Universitaet, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Block, M.; Herfurth, F. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Droese, C.; Schweikhard, L. [Institut fuer Physik, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universitaet, 17487 Greifswald (Germany); Kluge, H.-J. [Physikalisches Institut, Ruprecht-Karls-Universitaet, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Krivoruchenko, M. I. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, 117218 Moscow (Russian Federation); Novikov, Yu. N. [PNPI, Gatchina, 188300 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Minaya Ramirez, E. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Helmholtz-Institut Mainz, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Shabaev, V. M.; Tupitsyn, I. I.; Zubova, N. A. [Department of Physics, St. Petersburg State University, 198504 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Simkovic, F. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Department of Nuclear Physics and Biophysics, Comenius University, 84248 Bratislava (Slovakia); Zuber, K. [Institut fuer Kern- und Teilchenphysik, Technische Universitaet, 01069 Dresden (Germany)

2011-02-04

330

25 CFR 152.22 - Secretarial approval necessary to convey individual-owned trust or restricted lands or land owned...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...necessary to convey individual-owned trust or restricted lands or land owned by a tribe. 152.22 Section 152.22 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER ISSUANCE OF PATENTS IN FEE,...

2011-04-01

331

Surface segregation effects of erbium in GaAs growth and their implications for optical devices containing ErAs nanostructures  

SciTech Connect

We report on the integration of semimetallic ErAs nanoparticles with high optical quality GaAs-based semiconductors, grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Secondary ion mass spectrometry and photoluminescence measurements provide evidence of surface segregation and incorporation of erbium into layers grown with the erbium cell hot, despite the closed erbium source shutter. We establish the existence of a critical areal density of the surface erbium layer, below which the formation of ErAs precipitates is suppressed. Based upon these findings, we demonstrate a method for overgrowing ErAs nanoparticles with III-V layers of high optical quality, using subsurface ErAs nanoparticles as a sink to deplete the surface erbium concentration. This approach provides a path toward realizing optical devices based on plasmonic effects in an epitaxially-compatible semimetal/semiconductor system.

Crook, Adam M.; Nair, Hari P.; Bank, Seth R. [University of Texas at Austin, Microelectronics Research Center, 10100 Burnet Rd. Bldg. 160, Austin, Texas 78758 (United States)

2011-03-21

332

40 CFR 152.15 - Pesticide products required to be registered.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pesticide products required to be registered. 152.15...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES...

2011-07-01

333

40 CFR 152.15 - Pesticide products required to be registered.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pesticide products required to be registered. 152.15...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES...

2012-07-01

334

38 CFR 21.152 - Interpreter service for the hearing impaired.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Interpreter service for the hearing impaired...Rehabilitation Services § 21.152 Interpreter service for the hearing impaired...General. The main purpose of interpreter service for the hearing...

2009-07-01

335

38 CFR 21.152 - Interpreter service for the hearing impaired.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Interpreter service for the hearing impaired...Rehabilitation Services § 21.152 Interpreter service for the hearing impaired...General. The main purpose of interpreter service for the hearing...

2013-07-01

336

38 CFR 21.152 - Interpreter service for the hearing impaired.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interpreter service for the hearing impaired...Rehabilitation Services § 21.152 Interpreter service for the hearing impaired...General. The main purpose of interpreter service for the hearing...

2010-07-01

337

40 CFR 97.152 - Responsibilities of CAIR authorized account representative.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Allowance Tracking System § 97.152 Responsibilities of CAIR authorized...establishment of a CAIR NOX Allowance Tracking System account, all submissions to the Administrator pertaining to the account,...

2011-07-01

338

40 CFR 96.152 - Responsibilities of CAIR authorized account representative.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Allowance Tracking System § 96.152 Responsibilities of CAIR authorized...establishment of a CAIR NOX Allowance Tracking System account, all submissions to the Administrator pertaining to the account, including,...

2011-07-01

339

9 CFR 381.152 - Preparation in an official establishment of articles not for human food.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Preparation in an official establishment of articles not for human food. 381.152 Section...PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Entry of Articles Into Official Establishments; Processing...Preparation in an official establishment of articles not for human food. (a)...

2013-01-01

340

40 CFR 81.152 - Southern Coastal Plain Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Southern Coastal Plain Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Regions § 81.152 Southern Coastal Plain Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Southern Coastal Plain Intrastate Air Quality Control...

2012-07-01

341

42 CFR 433.152 - Requirements for cooperative agreements for third party collections.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Requirements for cooperative agreements for third party collections. 433.152 Section... STATE FISCAL ADMINISTRATION Third Party Liability Cooperative Agreements...Requirements for cooperative agreements for third party collections. (a)...

2012-10-01

342

20 CFR 1001.152 - Hold-harmless criteria and minimum funding level.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Hold-harmless criteria and minimum funding level. 1001.152 Section 1001...Hold-harmless criteria and minimum funding level. (a) A hold-harmless rate of 90 percent of the prior year's funding level will be applied after...

2013-04-01

343

25 CFR 152.23 - Applications for sale, exchange or gift.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...SALE OF CERTAIN INDIAN LANDS Sales, Exchanges and Conveyances...152.23 Applications for sale, exchange or gift. Applications for the sale, exchange or gift of trust...Applications may be approved if, after careful examination of...

2011-04-01

344

12 CFR 152.18 - Conversion from stock form depository institution to Federal stock association.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Conversion from stock form depository institution to Federal...ASSOCIATIONS-INCORPORATION, ORGANIZATION, AND CONVERSION § 152.18 Conversion from stock form depository institution to...

2013-01-01

345

40 CFR 159.152 - What the law requires of registrants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01...Section 159.152 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...unreasonable adverse effects on the environment of the pesticide, he shall...

2011-07-01

346

40 CFR 152.112 - Approval of registration under FIFRA sec. 3(c)(5).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01...Section 152.112 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...unreasonable adverse effects on the environment, and that, when used in...

2011-07-01

347

40 CFR 152.171 - Restrictions other than those relating to use by certified applicators.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01...Section 152.171 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...unreasonable adverse effects on the environment; and (b) The decrease in...

2011-07-01

348

40 CFR 65.152 - Carbon adsorbers used as control devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Carbon adsorbers used as control devices. 65...Fuel Gas System or a Process § 65.152 Carbon adsorbers used as control devices. (a) Carbon adsorber equipment and operating...

2013-07-01

349

40 CFR 68.152 - Substantiating claims of confidential business information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...claims of confidential business information. 68...PREVENTION PROVISIONS Risk Management Plan § 68.152 ...claims of confidential business information. ...senior official with management responsibility of...claimed as confidential business information...

2011-07-01

350

40 CFR 152.15 - Pesticide products required to be registered.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pesticide products required to be registered. 152.15...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES...

2013-07-01

351

Cep152 acts as a scaffold for recruitment of Plk4 and CPAP to the centrosome  

PubMed Central

Both gain and loss of function studies have identified the Polo-like kinase Plk4/Sak as a crucial regulator of centriole biogenesis, but the mechanisms governing centrosome duplication are incompletely understood. In this study, we show that the pericentriolar material protein, Cep152, interacts with the distinctive cryptic Polo-box of Plk4 via its N-terminal domain and is required for Plk4-induced centriole overduplication. Reduction of endogenous Cep152 levels results in a failure in centriole duplication, loss of centrioles, and formation of monopolar mitotic spindles. Interfering with Cep152 function prevents recruitment of Plk4 to the centrosome and promotes loss of CPAP, a protein required for the control of centriole length in Plk4-regulated centriole biogenesis. Our results suggest that Cep152 recruits Plk4 and CPAP to the centrosome to ensure a faithful centrosome duplication process.

Cizmecioglu, Onur; Arnold, Marc; Bahtz, Ramona; Settele, Florian; Ehret, Lena; Haselmann-Weiss, Uta; Antony, Claude

2010-01-01

352

75 FR 42069 - Expansion of Foreign-Trade Zone 152, Burns Harbor, Indiana  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [Order No. 1695] Expansion of Foreign-Trade Zone 152, Burns Harbor, Indiana...Pursuant to its authority under the Foreign-Trade Zones (FTZ) Act of June...

2010-07-20

353

Subpicosecond pulse compression and Raman generation using a mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser-amplifier  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pulses of 20 ps duration from a 1536-nm erbium-doped fiber laser mode-locked at 10 MHz were soliton-compressed in a 1-km fiber to 1.5 ps. The pulses were then amplified in an erbium-doped fiber amplifier and compressed in a second fiber to less than 300 fs. Pulses give rise to stimulated Raman scattering in fibers; the direct output from the erbium fiber laser-amplifier has sufficient peak power to pump fiber Raman lasers. The sources can be made very compact and, with laser diode pumping, an all-fiber design can be realized. Such sources will find use in high-speed optical and electrooptical sampling instrumentation. Peak powers are high enough to study the nonlinear fiber effects that usually require a high-power Nd:YAG or color center laser.

Schlager, J. B.; Hale, P. D.; Franzen, D. L.

1990-08-01

354

Mode-locked erbium-doped fiber lasers as source for optical sensor networks over C and L bands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The performance of mode-locked erbium-doped fiber lasers in optical sensor networks is analyzed and compared with the results obtained by using commercial erbium-doped fiber amplifiers as source. Passive mode-locked lasers developed are based on nonlinear polarization rotation and they have been built using the same erbium-doped fiber amplifiers. To simulate a real sensor network, a tree structure with four fiber Bragg gratings was built employing 50/50 couplers. The mode-locked laser developed offers a reasonably good behavior at a very wide spectral range (83 nm, approximately) over C and L bands. The signal to noise ratio and the peak power are greatly improved with regard to the values obtained employing commercial amplifiers as source.

Lavieja, Cristian; Jarabo, Sebastin; Marn-Dogueda, Mercedes; Sola, igo J.

2013-10-01

355

Accurate modal gain control in a multimode erbium doped fiber amplifier incorporating ring doping and a simple LP?? pump configuration.  

PubMed

We experimentally validate a numerical model to study multimode erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (MM-EDFAs). Using this model, we demonstrate the improved performance achievable in a step index MM-EDFA incorporating a localized erbium doped ring and its potential for Space Division Multiplexed (SDM) transmission. Using a pure LP?? pump beam, which greatly simplifies amplifier construction, accurate modal gain control can be achieved by carefully tuning the thickness of the ring-doped layer in the active fiber and the pump power. In particular, by optimizing the erbium-ring-doped structure and the length of active fiber used, over 20dB gain for both LP?? and LP?? signals with a maximum gain difference of around 2 dB across the C band are predicted for a pure LP?? pump beam delivering 250 mW power at 980 nm. PMID:23037207

Kang, Qiongyue; Lim, Ee-Leong; Jung, Yongmin; Sahu, Jayanta K; Poletti, Francesco; Baskiotis, Catherine; Alam, Shaif-Ul; Richardson, David J

2012-09-10

356

Specific features of the mechanisms of excitation of erbium photoluminescence in epitaxial Si:Er/Si structures  

SciTech Connect

The excitation spectra and kinetics of erbium photoluminescence and silicon interband photoluminescence in Si:Er/Si structures under conditions of high-intensity pulse optical excitation are studied. It is shown that, in the interband photoluminescence spectra of the Si:Er/Si structures, both the luminescence of free excitons and the emission associated with the electron-hole plasma can be observed, depending on the excitation power and wavelength. It is found that the formation of a peak in the erbium photoluminescence excitation spectra at high pumping powers correlates with the Mott transition from the exciton gas to the electron-hole plasma. It is demonstrated that, in the Si:Er/Si structures, the characteristic rise times of erbium photoluminescence substantially depend on the concentration of charge carriers.

Yablonskiy, A. N., E-mail: yablonsk@ipm.sci-nnov.ru; Andreev, B. A.; Krasilnikova, L. V.; Kryzhkov, D. I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Physics of Microstructures (Russian Federation); Kuznetsov, V. P. [Nizhni Novgorod State University, Physicotechnical Research Institute (Russian Federation); Krasilnik, Z. F. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Physics of Microstructures (Russian Federation)

2010-11-15

357

C- and L-band erbium-doped waveguide lasers with wafer-scale silicon nitride cavities.  

PubMed

We report on integrated erbium-doped waveguide lasers designed for silicon photonic systems. The distributed Bragg reflector laser cavities consist of silicon nitride waveguide and grating features defined by wafer-scale immersion lithography and a top erbium-doped aluminum oxide layer deposited as the final step in the fabrication process. The resulting inverted ridge waveguide yields high optical intensity overlap with the active medium for both the 0.98 ?m pump (89%) and 1.5 ?m laser (87%) wavelengths with a pump-laser intensity overlap of >93%. We obtain output powers of up to 5 mW and show lasing at widely spaced wavelengths within both the C and L bands of the erbium gain spectrum (1536, 1561, and 1596 nm). PMID:23862218

Purnawirman; Sun, J; Adam, T N; Leake, G; Coolbaugh, D; Bradley, J D B; Shah Hosseini, E; Watts, M R

2013-06-01

358

Modeling of output characteristics in erbium-doped fiber ring lasers for effective active fiber lengths and input pump powers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Erbium-doped fiber lasers (EDFL) are attracting a great deal of attention in the optical communications industry. This is due mainly to the fact that the gain spectrums of these lasers are well matched to the output spectrum of erbium doper fiber amplifiers (EDFA) in the 1550 nm operating window. Many different configurations for the fiber lasers have been developed in recent years. The two most popular are ring and linear cavity lasers. Ring lasers can be designed to have a large tuning range when consideration is given to active fiber length and output coupling ratios. Here an erbium-doped fiber ring laser is modeled for comparison of input pump powers and active fiber lengths. Theoretical analysis is given based on values of optical component losses for couplers, isolators, and tuning elements. We will present the laser output powers that are dependent on the output couplers reflectivity for a range of optical pump powers and various active fiber lengths.

Todd, Shawn; Matin, M.

2005-08-01

359

Essential Roles of ECAT15-2/Dppa2 in Functional Lung Development ?  

PubMed Central

Many transcription factors and DNA binding proteins play essential roles in the development of organs in which they are highly and/or specifically expressed. Embryonic stem cell (ESC)-associated transcript 15-1 (ECAT15-1) and ECAT15-2, also known as developmental pluripotency-associated 4 (Dppa4) and Dppa2, respectively, are enriched in mouse ESCs and preimplantation embryos, and their genes encode homologous proteins with a common DNA binding domain known as the SAP motif. Previously, ECAT15-1 was shown to be important in lung development, while it is dispensable in early development. In this study, we generated ECAT15-2 single and ECAT15-1 ECAT15-2 double knockout (double KO) mice and found that almost all mutants, like ECAT15-1 mutants, died around birth with respiratory defects. Paradoxically, the expression of neither ECAT15-1 nor ECAT15-2 was detected in lung organogenesis. Several genes, such as Nkx2-5, Gata4, and Pitx2, were downregulated in the ECAT15-2-null lung. On the other hand, genomic DNA of these genes showed inactive chromatin statuses in ECAT15-2-null ESCs, but not in wild-type ESCs. The chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay revealed that ECAT15-2 binds to the regulatory region of Nkx2-5 in ESCs. These data suggest that ECAT15-2 has important roles in lung development, where it is no longer expressed, by leaving epigenetic marks from earlier developmental stages.

Nakamura, Tomonori; Nakagawa, Masato; Ichisaka, Tomoko; Shiota, Arufumi; Yamanaka, Shinya

2011-01-01

360

Residual 152Eu and 60Co activities induced by neutrons from the Hiroshima atomic bomb  

Microsoft Academic Search

Specific activities of 152Eu:Eu in stone samples exposed to the Hiroshima atomic bomb were determined for 70 samples up to a 1,500-m slant range from the epicenter. The specific activities of 60Co:Co were also determined for six samples near the Hiroshima hypocenter. First, the 152Eu data were investigated to find out the directional dependence of neutron activation. Directional anisotropy was

Kiyoshi Shizuma; Kazuo Iwatani; Hiromi Hasai; Masaharu Hoshi; Takamitsu Oka; Hiroshige Morishima

1993-01-01

361

Bias between MNI and Talairach coordinates analyzed using the ICBM152 brain template  

Microsoft Academic Search

MNI coordinates determined using SPM2 and FSL\\/FLIRT with the ICBM-152 template were compared to Talairach coordinates determined using a landmark-based Talairach registration method (TAL). Analysis revealed a clear-cut bias in reference frames (origin, orientation) and scaling (brain size). Accordingly, ICBM-152 fitted brains were consistently larger, oriented more nose down, and translated slightly down relative to TAL fitted brains. Whole brain

Jack L. Lancaster; Diana Tordesillas-Gutirrez; Michael Martinez; Felipe Salinas; Alan Evans; Karl Zilles; John C. Mazziotta; Peter T. Fox

2007-01-01

362

Essential roles of ECAT15-2/Dppa2 in functional lung development.  

PubMed

Many transcription factors and DNA binding proteins play essential roles in the development of organs in which they are highly and/or specifically expressed. Embryonic stem cell (ESC)-associated transcript 15-1 (ECAT15-1) and ECAT15-2, also known as developmental pluripotency-associated 4 (Dppa4) and Dppa2, respectively, are enriched in mouse ESCs and preimplantation embryos, and their genes encode homologous proteins with a common DNA binding domain known as the SAP motif. Previously, ECAT15-1 was shown to be important in lung development, while it is dispensable in early development. In this study, we generated ECAT15-2 single and ECAT15-1 ECAT15-2 double knockout (double KO) mice and found that almost all mutants, like ECAT15-1 mutants, died around birth with respiratory defects. Paradoxically, the expression of neither ECAT15-1 nor ECAT15-2 was detected in lung organogenesis. Several genes, such as Nkx2-5, Gata4, and Pitx2, were downregulated in the ECAT15-2-null lung. On the other hand, genomic DNA of these genes showed inactive chromatin statuses in ECAT15-2-null ESCs, but not in wild-type ESCs. The chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay revealed that ECAT15-2 binds to the regulatory region of Nkx2-5 in ESCs. These data suggest that ECAT15-2 has important roles in lung development, where it is no longer expressed, by leaving epigenetic marks from earlier developmental stages. PMID:21896782

Nakamura, Tomonori; Nakagawa, Masato; Ichisaka, Tomoko; Shiota, Arufumi; Yamanaka, Shinya

2011-09-06

363

Crystal structure of the basic erbium tetramethyl-heptanedionate, Er 8 O(thd) 10 (OH) 12  

Microsoft Academic Search

The crystal structure of the basic erbium diketonate, Er8O(thd)10(OH)12, which occurs as a minor by-product in the synthesis of tris(2,2,6,6-tetramethylheptane-2, 5-dionato)erbium(III), Er(thd)3, has been studied at room temperature by X-ray diffraction. The space group isPbcn and the crystal data area = 18376(19),b = 31625(35),c = 27914(28) ,Z = 4,Dc = 138 gcm-3,Dm = 137 gcm-3. Full-matrix least-squares refinement of atomic

J. C. A. Boeyens; J. P. R. de Villiers

1972-01-01

364

Efficient erbium-doped fiber amplifier at a 1. 53-. mu. m wavelength with a high output saturation power  

Microsoft Academic Search

An efficient erbium-doped fiber amplifier providing gains from +25 to +37 dB with pump powers at Σ = 1.49 μm in the 11--54-mW range is described. Corresponding saturation output powers of +2.5 to +11 dBm were achieved. A maximum gain coefficient of 2.1{plus minus}0.1 dB\\/mW was measured, which is to our knowledge the highest value reported for erbium-doped fiber amplifiers

E. Desurvire; C. R. Giles; J. R. Simpson; J. L. Zyskind

1989-01-01

365

Silicon nanocluster-sensitized emission from erbium: The role of stress in the formation of silicon nanoclusters  

SciTech Connect

Erbium-doped silicon-rich silicon oxide films deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition suffer from compressive stress as deposited, which converts to a large tensile stress on annealing due to the release of hydrogen. Although the cracking that results from this stress can be avoided by patterning the films into ridges, significant stress remains along the ridge axis. Measurements of erbium photoluminescence sensitized by silicon nanoclusters in stressed and relaxed films suggest an important role for internal film stresses in promoting the phase separation of excess silicon into nanoclusters, which has previously been thought of as a thermally driven process.

Ahmad, I.; Kallis, A.; Wojdak, M.; Saleh, H.; Kenyon, A. J. [Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University College London, WC1E 7JE London (United Kingdom); Temple, M. P.; Oton, C. J.; Loh, W. H. [Optoelectronics Research Centre, University of Southampton, SO17 1BJ Southampton (United Kingdom); Barbier, D. [Teem Photonics, 61, Chemin du Vieux Chene 38246 Meylan (France)

2008-12-15

366

Performance characterization of new erbium-doped fibers using MCVD nanoparticle doping process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2009, we introduced a new doping concept involving Al2O3/rare-earth nanoparticles (NP) in a MCVD-compatible process finding potential applications in Erbium-, Ytterbium- or Erbium-Ytterbium-doped fiber amplifiers and lasers.1 This approach, motivated by the need for increased efficiencies and improved attributes, is characterized by the ability to control the rare-earth ion environment independently from the core composition. The NP matrix can therefore be viewed as an optimized sub-micronic amplifying medium for the embedded rareearth ion. The first experimental evidence to support this idea is reported in a comparative study with a standard process2 where homogeneous up-conversion (HUC) and pair-induced quenching (PIQ) levels are extracted from Er3+ unsaturable absorption measurements. NP-based fibers are found to mitigate the effects of the Er3+ concentration increase seen in standard heavily-doped fibers. This conclusion is particularly clear when focusing on the HUC coefficient evolution since, for a given type of NP, its level is independent from the Er3+ concentration in the doped zone. In this paper, we address our most recent work completing these preliminary results. First, we investigate the quenching signature of a new NP design and its behavior when incorporated in different core matrices. The interplay is further analysed by relating this set of measurements to practical EDFA performances. Gain and noise characteristics of typical WDM amplifiers operating points serve as key benchmarking indicators to identify the benefits of NP Erbium-doped fibers in the wide variety of EDFAs implementations.

Boivin, David; Pastouret, Alain; Burov, Ekaterina; Gonnet, Cdric; Cavani, Olivier; Lempereur, Simon; Sillard, Pierre

2011-02-01

367

Cross sections of excited-state absorption at 800nm in erbium-doped ZBLAN fiber  

Microsoft Academic Search

4I13\\/2 and 4I11\\/2 of erbium is measured in afluorozirconate fiber in the wavelength range 780840nm. Using apump- and probe-beam technique\\u000a and choosing the pump wavelength such that the perturbation by pump ESA is minimized in the measurement, it is possible to\\u000a determine the effective ESA cross sections, despite the fact that the excitation is distributed among two metastable levels.\\u000a The

M. Pollnau; Ch. Ghisler; W. Lthy; H. P. Weber

1998-01-01

368

ARTICLES: Active mode locking in an yttrium erbium aluminum garnet crystal laser (? = 2.94?)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A constant-temperature yttrium erbium aluminum garnet crystal laser was actively mode locked by resonant modulation of the resonator losses using a lithium niobate electrooptic modulator with Brewster faces without any polarizers. This gave a modulation depth 2.6 times greater than that for a modulator with an ideal polarizer. A spike energy of ~1 mJ was obtained with an estimated duration of 200 psec in the 1.7 mm diameter TEM00 mode. The laser radiation was elliptically polarized. It was found that three-micron radiation could be recorded using an SNF-T photomultiplier.

Vodop'yanov, K. L.; Kulevski?, L. A.; Malyutin, A. A.; Pashinin, Pavel P.; Prokhorov, A. M.

1982-05-01

369

Narrowband, tunable, frequency-doubled, erbium-doped fiber-amplifed transmitter.  

PubMed

We report on the development of a fiber-based laser transmitter designed for active remote sensing spectroscopy. The transmitter uses a master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) configuration with a distributed feedback diode-laser master oscillator and an erbium-doped fiber amplifier. The output from the MOPA is frequency-doubled with a periodically poled potassium titanium oxide phosphate crystal. With 35 W of single-frequency peak optical pump power, 8 W of frequency-doubled peak power was achieved. The utility of this single-frequency, wavelength tunable, power scalable laser was then demonstrated in a spectroscopic measurement of diatomic oxygen A band. PMID:17671540

Stephen, Mark; Krainak, Michael; Riris, Haris; Allan, Graham R

2007-08-01

370

Lichen Amyloidosis: Novel Treatment with Fractional Ablative 2,940 nm Erbium: YAG Laser Treatment.  

PubMed

Lichen amyloidosis (LA) is a type of primary localized cutaneous amyloidosis clinically characterized by persistent pruritic, hyperkeratotic papules commonly distributed on the shins and histopathologically characterized by amyloid deposits in the papillary dermis. The condition is difficult to treat though various treatment modalities have been tried. We report a case of LA treated successfully with Fractional ablative 2,940 nm Erbium: YAG Laser treatment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first documented report of the successful use of fractional ablative laser in the treatment of LA. PMID:23060710

Anitha, B; Mysore, Venkataram

2012-04-01

371

Lichen Amyloidosis: Novel Treatment with Fractional Ablative 2,940 nm Erbium: YAG Laser Treatment  

PubMed Central

Lichen amyloidosis (LA) is a type of primary localized cutaneous amyloidosis clinically characterized by persistent pruritic, hyperkeratotic papules commonly distributed on the shins and histopathologically characterized by amyloid deposits in the papillary dermis. The condition is difficult to treat though various treatment modalities have been tried. We report a case of LA treated successfully with Fractional ablative 2,940 nm Erbium: YAG Laser treatment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first documented report of the successful use of fractional ablative laser in the treatment of LA.

Anitha, B; Mysore, Venkataram

2012-01-01

372

CONTROL OF LASER RADIATION PARAMETERS: Passive Q switches for a diode-pumped erbium glass laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A diode-pumped, passively Q-switched 1.54-?m erbium glass laser is studied. Zinc selenide (ZnSe) crystals doped with Co2+ and Cr2+ ions and magnesiumaluminium spinel (MgAl2O4) crystals doped with Co2+ ions were used as saturable absorbers in Q switches. It is shown that, depending on the type of a saturable absorber, the pump power, and the resonator design, the laser pulse energy can vary from 0.2 to 13 ?J, the pulse duration from 16 to 980 ns, and the pulse repetition rate from 0.1 to 30 kHz.

Kisel', V. E.; Shcherbitskii, V. G.; Kuleshov, N. V.; Postnova, L. I.; Levchenko, V. I.; Galagan, B. I.; Denker, B. I.; Sverchkov, S. E.

2005-07-01

373

Graphene Oxide-Based Q-Switched Erbium-Doped Fiber Laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate a pulsed ring erbium-doped fiber laser based on graphene oxide (GO), employing a simplified Hummer's method to synthesize the GO via chemical oxidation of graphite flakes at room temperature. By dipping a fiber ferrule end face onto the GO suspension, GO is successfully coated onto the end face, making it a simple saturable absorption device. A stable Q-switched pulsed fiber laser is achieved with a low pump threshold of 9.5 mW at 980 nm. The pulse repetition rate ranges from 16.0 to 57.0 kHz. The pulse width and the pulse energy are studied and discussed.

Yap, Y. K.; Huang, N. M.; Harun, S. W.; Ahmad, H.

2013-02-01

374

Enhanced light emission from erbium doped silicon nitride in plasmonic metal-insulator-metal structures.  

PubMed

Plasmonic gratings and nano-particle arrays in a metal-insulator-metal structures are fabricated on an erbium doped silicon nitride layer. This material system enables simple fabrication of the structure, since the active nitride layer can be directly grown on metal. Enhancement of collected emission of up to 12 is observed on resonance, while broad off-resonant enhancement is also present. The output polarization behavior of the gratings and nano-particle arrays is investigated and matched to plasmonic resonances, and the behavior of coupled modes as a function of inter-particle distance is also discussed. PMID:19997293

Gong, Yiyang; Yerci, Seluk; Li, Rui; Dal Negro, Luca; Vuckovi?, Jelena

2009-11-01

375

Experimental Investigation of High Power Erbium Ytterbium Co-doped Double Clad Fibre Laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

All-fibre high power erbium-ytterbium co-doped double clad fibre lasers are proposed and demonstrated. By using different back-cavity mirrors, the different double clad fibre lasers are constructed. It is experimentally found that the output behaviour of laser can be controlled by a back-cavity mirror. The lower the reflectivity of the back-cavity mirror, the higher the output power and the high the slop efficiency. The maximum output power is about 1.6 W and the slop efficiency is 27.6%.

Li, Li-Jun; Feng, Xin-Huan; Liu, Yan-Ge; Li, Yao; Yuan, Shu-Zhong; Dong, Xiao-Yi

2004-12-01

376

Multichannel AM-VSB television signal transmission using an erbium-doped optical fiber power amplifier  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of an erbium-doped optical fiber power amplifier in a multichannel amplitude-modulated vestigial-sideband CATV transmission system for potential subscriber loop applications is discussed. Using a color-center laser pump at 1.48 ?m, a fiber-to-fiber gain of 11.5 dB (at 1.539 ?m), which is 10 dB compressed from the small-signal gain, and a total system power margin of 15 dB were

M. M. Choy; A. Yi-Yan; M. Andrejco; M. Saifi; C. Lin

1989-01-01

377

Erbium Doping Effects on the Conduction Band Edge in Germanium Nanocrystals  

SciTech Connect

We have produced erbium-doped germanium nanocrystals (NCs) using a new two cell physical vapor deposition system. Using element specific x-ray techniques (absorption and photoemission), we are able to probe the chemical environment of Er in the Ge NCs. Evidence for the optically active Er3+ state is seen at low Er concentrations, with a disruption of NC formation at high Er concentrations. The x-ray absorption measurements suggest that the Er occupies lattice sites near the surface of the NC. Analysis of the quantum confinement effect with Er doping suggests that the native quantum properties of the Ge NC are maintained at low Er concentrations.

Meulenberg, Robert W.; Willey, Trevor M.; Lee, Jonathan R.; Terminello, Louis J.; Van Buren, T.

2011-05-16

378

Diode-pumped single-mode fluorozirconate fiber laser from the sup 4 I sub 11/2 r arrow sup 4 I sub 13/2 transition in erbium  

SciTech Connect

Diode-pumped cw lasing at 2.71, 2.75, and 2.78 {mu}m from an erbium-doped ZBLAN single-mode fiber is reported for the first time. A threshold of 4 mW absorbed power at 792 nm was obtained for the 2.71 {mu}m transition. 3% slope efficiency was obtained with an 80% reflecting output mirror. cw lasing was also observed from the fiber when a tunable pump was scanned across most of the {sup 4}{ital I}{sub 15/2}{r arrow}{sup 4}{ital I}{sub 9/2} absorption band. cw lasing observed when pumping around 820 nm indicates that excited-state absorption of the pump from the {sup 4}{ital I}{sub 13/2} may not be necessary for cw operation. However, excited-state absorption of the pump around 810 nm from the {sup 4}{ital I}{sub 11/2} may limit performance.

Allen, R.; Esterowitz, L. (Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Avenue, S. W., Washington, DC 20375-5000 (USA)); Ginther, R.J. (Sachs Freeman Associates, 1401 McCormick Drive, Landover, Maryland 20785 (USA))

1990-04-23

379

Enhancement of Spontaneous Erbium Emission near the Photonic Band Edge of Distributed Bragg Reflectors Based on a-Si:H/a-SiO{sub x}:H  

SciTech Connect

Results obtained in an experimental study of spontaneous emission from erbium ions in a spectral range corresponding to the lower photonic band edge of distributed Bragg reflectors (1D photonic crystals) are presented. The photonic crystals were constituted of alternating quarter-wave a-Si:H and a-SiO{sub x}:H layers grown by PECVD. Erbium was introduced into the a-Si:H layers by magnetron sputtering of an erbium target in the course of structure growth. The change observed in the intensity of spontaneous emission is due to the nonmonotonic behavior of the density of optical modes near the photonic band edge.

Medvedev, A.V.; Feoktistov, N.A.; Pevtsov, A.B.; Golubev, V.G. [Ioffe Physicotechnical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, 194021 (Russian Federation)

2005-11-15

380

Spectral luminescence and information characteristics of transparent lead fluoride nano-glass-ceramics doped with erbium ions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spectral luminescence properties of synthesized transparent nano-glass-ceramics doped with erbium ions are studied. It is shown that, as a result of the secondary heat treatment of nano-glass-ceramics, the width of the luminescence spectrum at half maximum increases more than by 15 nm. Luminescence life-time dependences of erbium ions in studied samples are measured, their absorption cross-sections are determined, and their emission cross-sections are calculated by the McCumber method. Spectral and ultimate information characteristics of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers based on synthesized nano-glass-ceramics are numerically simulated. It is shown that, in the unsaturated gain regime, a substantial ripple of the absorption and emission cross-section spectra and shorter lifetime of the metastable level of the erbium ion reduce the pumping radiation power that is required for obtaining the given peak gain, narrow the gain spectra, and lower the transmission capacity of devices based on nano-glass-ceramics compared to the initial glass. Conversely, fiber amplifiers based on calcium fluoride glass-ceramics, for which the lifetime of the metastable level increases with increasing annealing temperature, have an advantage in the transmission capacity over devices based on the primary glass.

Aseev, V. A.; Varaksa, Yu. A.; Klement'eva, A. V.; Kolobkova, E. V.; Nikonorov, N. V.; Sinitsyn, G. V.; Khodasevich, M. A.

2010-05-01

381

Analysis of gain difference between forward- and backward-pumped erbium-doped fiber amplifiers in the saturation regime  

Microsoft Academic Search

In saturated erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFAs), signal gain and power conversion efficiency are known to be greater in the backward pumping configuration. This study shows that the difference between pumping schemes is primarily an effect of amplified spontaneous emission. It is concluded that the highest conversion efficiency achievable in highly saturated EDFAs is predicted with fair accuracy by ASE noise-free

E. Desurvire; J. M. Wiesenfeld; D. S. Chemla; G. Raybon; G. Sucha; M. Wegener; G. Eisenstein; C. A. Bums; A. G. Dentai; U. Koren; B. I. Miller; H. Temkin; R. A. Logan; T. Tanbun-Ek; A. H. Gnauck; C. R. Giles; L. J. Cimini; J. Stone; L. W. Stulz

1992-01-01

382

Thermodynamic model of the stabilization of an intermediate state in the region of the metamagnetic phase transition in erbium orthoferrite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The possible mechanisms of the thermodynamic stabilization of an intermediate state in the first-order metamagnetic phase transition in a magnetic field parallel to the Ising c axis of the Er3+ ions in erbium orthoferrite at T = 1.6 K have been analyzed. The model is chosen using the magneto-optical experimental data on the features of this state.

Belyaeva, A. I.; Baranova, E. V.

2007-07-01

383

Remote (155 km) Fiber Bragg Grating Interrogation Technique Combining Raman, Brillouin, and Erbium Gain in a Fiber Laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present and demonstrate a technique for remote sensing offiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) beyond 150 km. The system combines Raman, Brillouin, and erbium gain in a linear cavity fiber laser and deploys a novel heterodyne detection technique to avoid the signal-to-noise ratio limitations produced by Rayleigh scattering. Two FBGs located in series were interrogated at 155 km away from the

Daniel Leandro; Angel Ullan; Alayn Loayssa; Jose Miguel Lopez-Higuera; Manuel Lopez-Amo

2011-01-01

384

The processes of erbium impurity excitation in Si/Si1-xGex:Er/Si heteroepitaxial structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Er doped Si/Si1-xGex/Si heterostructures have been prepared and characterized.Luminescence, photoconductivity, PL excitation studies have been performed.Erbium PL has been observed both under band-to-band and sub-bandgap excitation.Excitation efficiency of Er ions has been investigated.

Krasilnikova, L. V.; Stepikhova, M. V.; Antonov, A. V.; Shengurov, V. G.; Krasilnik, Z. F.

2013-05-01

385

Transdermal drug delivery enhanced and controlled by erbium:YAG laser: a comparative study of lipophilic and hydrophilic drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of an erbium:YAG laser on the transdermal delivery of drugs across skin was studied in vitro. Indomethacin and nalbuphine, which have the same molecular weight, were selected as model lipophilic and hydrophilic drugs, respectively, to compare skin permeation by laser treatment. The results indicate a significant increase in the permeation of indomethacin and nalbuphine across skin pretreated with

Woan-Ruoh Lee; Shing-Chuan Shen; Hsien-Hung Lai; Chung-Hong Hu; Jia-You Fang

2001-01-01

386

Passive gain-equalized wide-band erbium-doped fiber amplifier using samarium-doped fiber  

Microsoft Academic Search

A passive gain-equalization technique of erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) using a samarium-doped fiber to obtain wide-band flattened gain operation is reported. In the wavelength range from 1529-1559-nm, small inter-channel gain variations can be achieved. This simple technique is suitable for multiwavelength wide-band in-line-amplifier cascaded transmission applications.

Shien-Kuei Liaw; Yung-Kuang Chen

1996-01-01

387

Actively gain-flattened erbium-doped fiber amplifier over 35 nm by using all-fiber acoustooptic tunable filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

We demonstrate an actively gain-flattened erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) using an all-fiber gain-flattening filter with electronically controllable spectral profiles. A good gain flatness (35 nm) is achieved for a wide range of operational gain levels as well as input signal and pump powers

Hyo Sang Kim; Seok Hyun Yun; Hyang Kyun Kim; Byoung Yoon Kim

1998-01-01

388

Ultra-stable harmonically mode-locked erbium-doped waveguide laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Generation of stable pulses and a frequency stabilized optical comb are two key requirements for Fourier Based Arbitrary Waveform Generation (AWG) techniques. The longitudinal mode spacing of the laser must remain as stable as possible to permit effective isolation and processing of the modes for waveform synthesis. The short and long term temporal stability ultimately limits the system's precision as well as its operability in fielded systems. A packaged erbium-doped waveguide provided a highly compact gain medium for the harmonically mode-locked laser design. Stability was achieved by use of an intracavity etalon for frequency stabilization of the optical comb, a Pound-Drever- Hall (PDH) method, and an active bias feedback loop for low frequency noise suppression. The temperature was controlled to limit cavity length variation, and the contribution to stability of each method is quantitatively assessed. The system's stable operating time was increased from hours to greater than a day, and the timing jitter is demonstrated to be lower than that of commercially available erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL) systems. Applications to optical signal synthesis and Laser Radar are briefly discussed.

Fanto, M. L.; Erdmann, R. K.; Wysocki, B. T.; Malowicki, J. E.; McEwen, T. A.

2007-04-01

389

Synthesis And Luminescence Properties of Erbium-Doped Y(2)O(3) Nanotubes  

SciTech Connect

Erbium-doped yttrium oxide nanotubes (Er{sup 3+}:Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} NTs) with 0-100% doping levels were synthesized by a hydrothermal procedure followed by a dehydration process from Er{sup 3+}:Y(OH){sub 3} NTs. The as-synthesized Er{sup 3+}:Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanotubes ranged from 100 to 400 nm in outer diameter and 2 to 5 {micro}m in length with a hexagonal cross section. A time-dependent nanostructure evolution study was performed under hydrothermal conditions, and the effects of other processing parameters, including pH, concentration, and ionic strength of the precursor solution as well as the time span for adding the alkaline solution, were found to dictate the purity and morphology of the as-synthesized Er{sup 3+}:Y(OH){sub 3} nanostructures. A kinetics-controlled dissolution-recrystallization mechanism is proposed to explain the anisotropic growth of these hollow nanotubes from the hexagonal crystal structure of yttrium and erbium hydroxides. Outstanding room-temperature photoluminescence around 1535 nm was demonstrated for these Er{sup 3+}:Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} NTs, making them promising for optical amplifier, laser, and active waveguide applications in telecommunications.

Mao, Y.; Huang, J.Y.; Ostroumov, R.; Wang, K.L.; Chang, J.P.

2009-05-19

390

Recent progress of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers and their components  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFA) are widely available in a today's commercial market, and are deployed in various optical transmission applications from terrestrial system to undersea system. Broad gain spectrum over 9 THz enabled huge growth of bandwidth usage in 1550nm region aimed at broadband Internet, and its broad gain characteristics triggered bandwidth competition on dense wavelength division multiplex (DWDM) network these ten years. At first, we briefly review the evolutional history of EDFA with previous achievements. And we will explain the primary and important key devices which compose EDFA. We will discuss design parameters, and recent trend and achievements of the devices, which cover Erbium-doped fibers (EDF), 980-nm laser diodes (LD), and gain flattening filters (GFFs). The chip structure of 980-nm LD is explained to achieve high power and to realize high reliability. These key devices enabled EDFA to prevail in commercial area. After the discussion of key components, we will introduce recent achievements of gain controlled EDFAs which are applied in conjunction with Re-configurable Optical Add/Drop Multiplexer (ROADM). We will report the transient gain dynamics of the cascaded EDFAs with a recirculating loop experiment.

Fukushima, Masaru; Miura, Jutaro

2007-09-01

391

Experimental optimization of an erbium-doped super-fluorescent fiber source for fiber optic gyroscopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Double-pass forward and double-pass backward erbium-doped super-fluorescent fiber sources (ED-SFSs) were combined in one configuration. A 980 nm laser diode pumped the same erbium-doped fiber from both directions using a coupler as a power splitter. The double-pass configuration was achieved by coating the fiber end face. Firstly, an optimal fiber length was found to obtain a high stability of output light wavelength with pump power, and then 1530/1550 nm wavelength division multiplexing was used for spectrum planarization, which expanded the bandwidth to more than 22 nm. The final step was a test of temperature stability. The results show that the rate of the central wavelength change kept to below 3.5 ppm/C in the range of -40 to 60 C and 1-2 ppm/C in the range of 20-30 C. Considering all the three factors of the fiber optic gyro applications, we selected 80 mA as the pump current, in which case the central wavelength temperature instability was calculated as 2.70 ppm/C, 3 dB bandwidth 22.85 nm, spectral flatness 0.2 dB, output power 5.17 mW and power efficiency up to 9.92%. This experimental result has a significant reference value to the selection of devices and proper design of ED-SFSs for the application of high-precision fiber optic gyroscopes.

Jinlong, Chang; Manqing, Tan

2011-10-01

392

Optical-Pulse-Injection-Induced 40 GHz Photonic Frequency Multiplication in Erbium-Doped Fiber Laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The generation of a 40 GHz regeneratively amplified and frequency-multiplied optical pulse train from an erbium-doped fiber ring laser is demonstrated. This is achieved by seeding a 1 GHz gain-switched Fabry-Perot laser diode and detuning its repetition frequency to coincide with the harmonic resonant cavity mode. The peak power of frequency-multiplied erbium-doped fiber lasers (EDFL) pulses increases from 80 mW to 230 mW as the modulation level of the Fabry-Perot laser diode (FPLD) increases from 18 dBm to 30 dBm. The pulsewidth and peak power are 10 ps and 5 mW at a repetition rate of 40 GHz. The EDFL longitudinal mode frequency fluctuation is within 2.5 kHz during 2 h. The frequency-multiplied EDFL pulses exhibit relatively low phase noises of -95 dBc/Hz and -120 dBc/Hz at offset frequencies of 10 kHz and 1 MHz, respectively. The associated timing jitter of the EDFL pulses exponentially increases from 0.6 ps to beyond 5.8 ps as the frequency multiplication order increases from 1 to 40.

Lin, Gong-Ru; Lin, Gong-Cheng; Wu, Jung-Rung

2004-08-01

393

Observations of proton beam enhancement due to erbium hydride on gold foil targets  

SciTech Connect

Recent theoretical work suggests that the conversion efficiency from laser to protons in laser irradiated thin foil experiments increases if the atomic mass of nonhydrogen atoms on the foil rear surface increases. Experiments were performed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Jupiter Laser Facility to observe the effect of thin foils coated with erbium hydride on the conversion efficiency from laser to protons. Gold foils with and without the rear surface coated with ErH{sub 3} were irradiated using the ultrashort pulse, 40 TW Callisto laser. An argon-ion etching system was used to remove naturally occurring nanometer thick surface layer contaminants from the hydride. With the etcher, gold with ErH{sub 3} showed a 25% increase in the conversion efficiency to protons above 3.4 MeV relative to contaminants, where C{sup +4} and H{sup +} were the dominant ion species. No difference in the ion signal was observed without first cleaning the hydrides. Simulations using the hybrid PIC code, LSP, revealed that the increase due to erbium hydride versus contaminants is 37% for protons above 3 MeV.

Offermann, D. T.; Van Woerkom, L. D. [Department of Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Freeman, R. R. [Department of Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Department of Applied Science, University of California Davis, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Foord, M. E.; Hey, D.; Key, M. H.; Mackinnon, A. J.; MacPhee, A. G.; Patel, P. K.; Ping, Y.; Sanchez, J. J.; Shen, N. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Bartal, T.; Beg, F. N. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Espada, L. [Sandia National Laboratory, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Chen, C. D. [Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

2009-09-15

394

Multiwavelength narrow linewidth erbium-doped fiber laser based on FP-LDs.  

PubMed

In this paper, we propose and demonstrate a technique to realize multiwavelength operation in erbium-doped fiber lasers (EDFLs) by inserting two Fabry Prot laser diodes (FP-LDs) in the laser cavity respectively in cascaded and parallel way. The FP-LDs not only act as wavelength selection elements, but also offer optical gain or loss for the operation wavelengths in the laser cavity. The gains or losses for the oscillation wavelengths obtained from FP-LDs differ with adjustment of the driving current of the FP-LDs. Thus, the utilization of the FP-LDs in the laser cavity can introduce wavelength dependent gain or loss which can effectively suppress the competition caused by the homogeneous gain broadening of the erbium-doped fiber (EDF). As a result, 16-wavelength and 20-wavelength operation with a wavelength-spacing of 1.25 nm has been achieved respectively in the cascaded and parallel FP-LDs based EDFL schemes. The measured power fluctuation of each wavelength is smaller than 0.4dB for both EDFLs. Furthermore, the injection locking of the FP-LDs ensures a narrow linewidth of the EDFL output and the linewidth is estimated to be narrower than 100 MHz for the cascaded scheme based EDFL. PMID:23938541

Zhang, Aiqin; Jin, Yanbing; Feng, Xinhuan; Zhou, Jingjuan; Li, Zhaohui; Guan, Bai-Ou

2013-07-15

395

Controlled erbium incorporation and photoluminescence of Er-doped Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}  

SciTech Connect

A high concentration of erbium doping was achieved in Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films on Si (100) by depositing Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} alternatively with Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} using radical-enhanced atomic layer deposition (ALD). Specifically, the erbium doping level was controlled by varying the ratio of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} cycles during deposition, and a 10:5 ratio yielded {approx}9 at. % erbium incorporation in Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}, confirmed by the compositional analysis using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Room-temperature photoluminescence was observed in a 320-A Er-doped (9 at. %) Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} film deposited at 350 deg. C. This result is very promising, since the film was fairly thin and no annealing at high temperature was needed to activate the erbium ions. This suggests that radical-enhanced ALD was able to preserve the optically active trivalent state of the erbium ion from its precursor state. The effective absorption cross section for Er{sup 3+} ions incorporated in Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} was estimated to be on the order of 10{sup -18} cm{sup 2}, about three orders of magnitude larger than the direct optical absorption cross section reported for Er{sup 3+} ions in a stoichiometric SiO{sub 2} host. These results validate Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} as a promising Er{sup 3+} host material and demonstrate that radical-enhanced ALD is a viable technique for synthesizing these materials.

Trinh Tu Van; Chang, Jane P. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

2005-07-04

396

Mutations in Centrosomal Protein CEP152 in Primary Microcephaly Families Linked to MCPH4  

PubMed Central

Primary microcephaly is a rare condition in which brain size is substantially diminished without other syndromic abnormalities. Seven autosomal loci have been genetically mapped, and the underlying causal genes have been identified for MCPH1, MCPH3, MCPH5, MCPH6, and MCPH7 but not for MCPH2 or MCPH4. The known genes play roles in mitosis and cell division. We ascertained three families from an Eastern Canadian subpopulation, each with one microcephalic child. Homozygosity analysis in two families using genome-wide dense SNP genotyping supported linkage to the published MCPH4 locus on chromosome 15q21.1. Sequencing of coding exons of candidate genes in the interval identified a nonconservative amino acid change in a highly conserved residue of the centrosomal protein CEP152. The affected children in these two families were both homozygous for this missense variant. The third affected child was compound heterozygous for the missense mutation plus a second, premature-termination mutation truncating a third of the protein and preventing its localization to centrosomes in transfected cells. CEP152 is the putative mammalian ortholog of Drosphila asterless, mutations in which affect mitosis in the fly. Published data from zebrafish are also consistent with a role of CEP152 in centrosome function. By RT-PCR, CEP152 is expressed in the embryonic mouse brain, similar to other MCPH genes. Like some other MCPH genes, CEP152 shows signatures of positive selection in the human lineage. CEP152 is a strong candidate for the causal gene underlying MCPH4 and may be an important gene in the evolution of human brain size.

Guernsey, Duane L.; Jiang, Haiyan; Hussin, Julie; Arnold, Marc; Bouyakdan, Khalil; Perry, Scott; Babineau-Sturk, Tina; Beis, Jill; Dumas, Nadine; Evans, Susan C.; Ferguson, Meghan; Matsuoka, Makoto; Macgillivray, Christine; Nightingale, Mathew; Patry, Lysanne; Rideout, Andrea L.; Thomas, Aidan; Orr, Andrew; Hoffmann, Ingrid; Michaud, Jacques L.; Awadalla, Philip; Meek, David C.; Ludman, Mark; Samuels, Mark E.

2010-01-01

397

Speciation of artificial radionuclides 60 Co, 137 Cs, 152 Eu, and 241 Am in bottom sediments of the Yenisei river  

Microsoft Academic Search

The speciation of artificial radionuclides 60Co, 137Cs, 152Eu, and 241Am in surface layers of bottom sediments of the Yenisei river, collected within the near zone of impact of the Mining and\\u000a Chemical Combine (Rosatom), was studied. In these samples the radionuclides 60Co, 152Eu, and 241Am are mainly associated with fractions of humic and fulvic acids. The fraction of 152Eu associated

L. G. Bondareva; A. Ya. Bolsunovskii

2008-01-01

398

Multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber laser based on inhomogeneous loss mechanism by use of a highly nonlinear fiber and a Fabry-Perot filter  

Microsoft Academic Search

We demonstrated a simple technique to obtain stable room temperature multiwavelength lasing in an erbium-doped fiber laser by the inhomogeneous loss mechanism. Successful reduction of the cross-gain saturation in erbium-doped fiber was achieved by incorporating a section of highly nonlinear fiber (HNLF) and a Fabry-Perot filter (FPF) in the laser cavity. More than 70 wavelengths simultaneous lasing were observed with

Shilong Pan; Caiyun Lou; Yizi Gao

2006-01-01

399

Stable, tunable, and single-mode operation of an erbium-doped fibre laser system using a saturable absorber for gas spectroscopy applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an erbium doped fibre ring laser system to realize single frequency lasing by incorporating a reflector with ~2m of un-pumped polarization-maintaining erbium-doped fibre to act as a saturable absorber. Depending on the particular requirements, the fibre reflector may be a fibre Bragg grating (FBG), loop mirror (LM) or a reflective coating on the fibre end. In this way,

Norhana Arsad; George Stewart

2009-01-01

400

An optical bit-rate flexible transmission system with 5Tb\\/s-km capacity employing multiple in-line erbium-doped fiber amplifiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

An optical bit-rate flexible transmission system using erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFAs) is proposed, and the system design is discussed. An optical bit-rate flexible system using multiple in-line erbium-doped fiber amplifiers has produced a regenerative repeater spacing of 505 km at 10 Gb\\/s and 523 km at 5 Gb\\/s for direct-detection systems. This system proves that an optical bit-rate flexible system

Kazuo Hagimoto; Shigendo Nishi; Kiyoshi Nakagawa

1990-01-01

401

Rotational damping, ridges, and the quasicontinuum of ? rays in Dy152  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both the quasi-continuum of ? rays as well as the ridges from the feeding (and decay) of superdeformed and normal bands have been extracted in the nucleus 152Dy. A model has been developed that simultaneously describes all these spectra as well as the feeding intensity of the superdeformed bands. Through the calculation of the continuum of ? rays at finite

T. Lauritsen; R. V. F. Janssens; T. L. Khoo; I. Ahmad; M. P. Carpenter; A. M. Heinz; D. G. Jenkins; F. G. Kondev; C. J. Lister; E. F. Moore; D. Seweryniak; S. Zhu; T. Dssing; B. Herskind; R. M. Clark; M. Cromaz; P. Fallon; A. O. Macchiavelli; D. Ward; A. Korichi; A. Lopez-Martens; A. J. Larabee; J. Kozemczak; P. Chowdhury

2007-01-01

402

Rotational Damping, Ridges And The Quasi-Continuum Of gamma Rays In 152Dy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both the quasi-continuum of gamma rays as well as the ridges from the feeding (and decay) of superdeformed and normal bands have been extracted in the nucleus 152Dy. A model has been developed that simultaneously describes all these spectra as well as the feeding intensity of the superdeformed bands. Through the calculation of the continuum of gamma rays at finite

T. Lauritsen; R. V. F. Janssens; T. L. Khoo; I. Ahmad; M. P. Carpenter; A. M. Heinz; D. G. Jenkins; F. G. Kondev; C. J. Lister; E. F. Moore; D. Seweryniak; S. Zhu; T. Doessing; B. Herskind; R. M. Clark; M. Cromaz; P. Fallon; A. O. Macchiavelli; D. Ward; A. Korichi; A. Lopez-Martens; A. J. Larabee

2005-01-01

403

Rotational Damping, Ridges, and the Quasi-continuum of gamma Rays in 152Dy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quasi-continuum of gamma rays from the feeding and decay of superdeformed and normal bands in the nucleus 152Dy have been extracted in 1 - and 2 - dimensional spectra. The Egamma-Egamma correlations in the latter reveals strong ridges associated with superdeformed and normal states in this nucleus. The entry distributions for normal and superdeformed bands were also extracted. A

T. Lauritsen; R. V. F. Janssens; T. L. Khoo; I. Ahmad; M. P. Carpenter; K. G. Kondev; C. J. Lister; E. F. Moore; D. Seweryniak; S. Zhu; T. Doessing; B. Herskind; A. M. Heinz; D. G. Jenkins; R. M. Clark; P. Fallon; A. O. Macchiavelli; D. Ward; P. Chowdhury; A. Korichi; A. Lopez-Martens; A. J. Larabee

2006-01-01

404

37 CFR 1.52 - Language, paper, writing, margins, compact disc specifications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Language, paper, writing, margins, compact disc specifications...1.52 Language, paper, writing, margins, compact disc specifications...contrast between the paper and the writing thereon to permit the direct...electronic capture by use of digital imaging and optical...

2009-07-01

405

37 CFR 1.52 - Language, paper, writing, margins, compact disc specifications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Language, paper, writing, margins, compact disc specifications...1.52 Language, paper, writing, margins, compact disc specifications...contrast between the paper and the writing thereon to permit the direct...electronic capture by use of digital imaging and optical...

2010-07-01

406

Separation of carrier free 151,152Tb produced in 16O irradiated lanthanum oxide matrix.  

PubMed

Charged particle activation of natural La2O3 with approximately 78.5 MeV 16O results in the formation of carrier free 151,152Tb isotopes in the matrix. The liquid cation exchanger, HDEHP, has effectively been utilised as an extractant in the quantitative separation of the activation products from the bulk target matrix of lanthanum oxide. PMID:10581678

Nayak, D; Lahiri, S; Ramaswami, A; Manohar, S B; Das, N R

1999-12-01

407

Separation of carrier free 151,152Tb produced in 16O irradiated lanthanum oxide matrix  

Microsoft Academic Search

Charged particle activation of natural La2O3 with ?78.5 MeV 16O results in the formation of carrier free 151,152Tb isotopes in the matrix. The liquid cation exchanger, HDEHP, has effectively been utilised as an extractant in the quantitative separation of the activation products from the bulk target matrix of lanthanum oxide.

Dalia Nayak; Susanta Lahiri; A Ramaswami; S. B Manohar; N. R Das

1999-01-01

408

The stress corrosion cracking behavior of alloys 690 and 152 WELD in a PWR environment.  

SciTech Connect

Alloys 690 and 152 are the replacement materials of choice for Alloys 600 and 182, respectively. The latter two alloys are used as structural materials in pressurized water reactors (PWRs) and have been found to undergo stress corrosion cracking (SCC). The objective of this work is to determine the crack growth rates (CGRs) in a simulated PWR water environment for the replacement alloys. The study involved Alloy 690 cold-rolled by 26% and a laboratory-prepared Alloy 152 double-J weld in the as-welded condition. The experimental approach involved pre-cracking in a primary water environment and monitoring the cyclic CGRs to determine the optimum conditions for transitioning from the fatigue transgranular to intergranular SCC fracture mode. The cyclic CGRs of cold-rolled Alloy 690 showed significant environmental enhancement, while those for Alloy 152 were minimal. Both materials exhibited SCC of 10{sup -11} m/s under constant loading at moderate stress intensity factors. The paper also presents tensile property data for Alloy 690TT and Alloy 152 weld in the temperature range 25--870 C.

Alexandreanu, B.; Chopra, O. K.; Shack, W. J. (Nuclear Engineering Division); ( EVS); ( ESE)

2009-01-01

409

25 CFR 152.20 - Sale by Secretary of certain land in multiple ownership.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Sale by Secretary of certain land in multiple ownership. 152.20 Section...INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER ISSUANCE OF PATENTS IN FEE...RESTRICTIONS, AND SALE OF CERTAIN INDIAN LANDS Sales, Exchanges and Conveyances...

2011-04-01

410

152. Photocopy of drawing (1963 structural drawing by General Dynamics/Astronautics) ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

152. Photocopy of drawing (1963 structural drawing by General Dynamics/Astronautics) STRUCTURAL DETAILS FOR MST STATIONS 21, 30, 39, AND 48, SHEET S98 - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

411

14 CFR 152.105 - Sponsors and planning agencies: Airport planning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sponsors and planning agencies: Airport planning...Application Procedures § 152.105 Sponsors and planning agencies: Airport planning...airport master planning (i) Each sponsor must be a public agency and meet...

2013-01-01

412

152. Photocopy of photograph, U.S. Army, ca. 1943 (original print ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

152. Photocopy of photograph, U.S. Army, ca. 1943 (original print located at Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City, Colorado). R.M.A. - T-125 P.X. & INFIRMARY. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

413

N=90 Transitional Nuclei (sub 150)Nd and (sup 152)Sm Revisited.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this paper is to show that recent data on the ground-state band and excited states based on the 0(sub 2)(sup+) level in(sup 15)Nd and(sup 152)Sm, especially the measured B(E2) values, can be well described by including a(Delta)K= 0 coupling...

R. M. Clark M. Cromaz M. A. Deleplanque R. M. Diamond P. Fallon A. Gorgen I. Y. Lee A. O. Macchiavelli F. S. Stephens D. Ward

2003-01-01

414

24 CFR 983.152 - Purpose and content of the Agreement to enter into HAP contract.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false Purpose and content of the Agreement to enter into HAP contract...HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT PROJECT-BASED VOUCHER (PBV) PROGRAM Requirements...Constructed Units § 983.152 Purpose and content of the Agreement to enter into HAP...

2013-04-01

415

26 CFR 1.152-1 - General definition of a dependent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...of the Code, the term dependent means any individual...not claim his father as a dependent. (iii)(a ) For...taxable year of the taxpayer the relationship between such individual and...section 152(a)(9) that the dependent be related to the...

2013-04-01

416

40 CFR 152.93 - Citation of a previously submitted valid study.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Citation of a previously submitted valid study...Data Submitters' Rights § 152.93 Citation of a previously submitted valid study...submitter, no documentation other than the citation is necessary. (b) Study...

2013-07-01

417

40 CFR 152.93 - Citation of a previously submitted valid study.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Citation of a previously submitted valid study...Data Submitters' Rights § 152.93 Citation of a previously submitted valid study...submitter, no documentation other than the citation is necessary. (b) Study...

2011-07-01

418

A pseudodeficiency allele (D152N) of the human {beta}-glucuronidase gene  

SciTech Connect

We present evidence that a 480G{r_arrow}A transition in the coding region of the {Beta}glucuronidase gene, which results in an aspartic-acid-to-asparagine substitution at amino acid position 152 (D152N), produces a pseudodeficiency allele (GUSBp) that leads to greatly reduced levels of {Beta}-glucuronidase activity without apparent deleterious consequences. The 48OG{r_arrow}A mutation was found initially in the pseudodeficient mother of a child with mucopolysaccharidosis VII (MPSVII), but it was not on her disease-causing allele, which carried the L176F mutation. The 480G{r_arrow}A change was also present in an unrelated individual with another MPSVII allele who had unusually low {Beta}-glucuronidase activity, but whose clinical symptoms were probably unrelated to {Beta}-glucuronidase deficiency. This individual also had an R357X mutation, probably on his second allele. We screened 100 unrelated normal individuals for the 480G{r_arrow}A mutation with a PCR method and detected one carrier. Reduced {Beta}-glucuronidase activity following transfection of COS cells with the D152N cDNA supported the causal relationship between the D152N allele and pseudodeficiency. The mutation reduced the fraction of expressed enzyme that was secreted. Pulse-chase experiments indicated that the reduced activity in COS cells was due to accelerated intracellular turnover of the D152N enzyme. They also suggested that a potential glycosylation site created by the mutation is utilized in {approximately}50% of the enzyme expressed. 25 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

Vervoort, R.; Liebaers, I.; Lissens, W. [Univ. Hospital, Brussels (Belgium)] [and others

1995-10-01

419

A pseudodeficiency allele (D152N) of the human beta-glucuronidase gene.  

PubMed Central

We present evidence that a 480G-->A transition in the coding region of the beta-glucuronidase gene, which results in an aspartic-acid-to-asparagine substitution at amino acid position 152 (D152N), produces a pseudodeficiency allele (GUSBp) that leads to greatly reduced levels of beta-glucuronidase activity without apparent deleterious consequences. The 480G-->A mutation was found initially in the pseudodeficient mother of a child with mucopolysaccharidosis VII (MPSVII), but it was not on her disease-causing allele, which carried the L176F mutation. The 480G-->A change was also present in an unrelated individual with another MPSVII allele who had unusually low beta-glucuronidase activity, but whose clinical symptoms were probably unrelated to beta-glucuronidase deficiency. This individual also had an R357X mutation, probably on his second allele. We screened 100 unrelated normal individuals for the 480G-->A mutation with a PCR method and detected one carrier. Reduced beta-glucuronidase activity following transfection of COS cells with the D152N cDNA supported the causal relationship between the D152N allele and pseudodeficiency. The mutation reduced the fraction of expressed enzyme that was secreted. Pulse-chase experiments indicated that the reduced activity in COS cells was due to accelerated intracellular turnover of the D152N enzyme. They also suggested that a potential glycosylation site created by the mutation is utilized in approximately 50% of the enzyme expressed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3

Vervoort, R; Islam, M R; Sly, W; Chabas, A; Wevers, R; de Jong, J; Liebaers, I; Lissens, W

1995-01-01

420

Physical properties of erbium implanted tungsten oxide filmsdeposited by reactive dual magnetron sputtering  

SciTech Connect

Amorphous and partially crystalline WO3 thin films wereprepared by reactive dual magnetron sputtering and successively implantedby erbium ions with a fluence in the range from 7.7 x 1014 to 5 x 1015ions/cm2. The electrical and optical properties were studied as afunction of the film deposition parameters and the ion fluence. Ionimplantation caused a strong decrease of the resistivity, a moderatedecrease of the index of refraction and a moderate increase of theextinction coefficient in the visible and near infrared, while theoptical band gap remained almost unchanged. These effects could belargely ascribed to ion-induced oxygen deficiency. When annealed in air,the already low resistivities of the implanted samples decreased furtherup to 70oC, whereas oxidation, and hence a strong increase of theresistivity, was observed at higher annealing temperatures.

Mohamed, Sodky H.; Anders, Andre

2006-11-08

421

Diode-pumped 1.7-W erbium 3-mum fiber laser.  

PubMed

We report what is to our knowledge the first 3-mu;m fiber laser of the 1-W class. 1.7 W of output power and 17.3% slope efficiency (with respect to the launched pump power) at a wavelength of 2.71mum are demonstrated from a double-clad erbium-doped ZBLAN fiber diode pumped at 790 nm. Energy transfer from the Er(3+) lower laser level to a Pr(3+) codopant decreases ground-state bleaching and excited-state absorption, thus avoiding output-power saturation. This result represents more than an order-of-magnitude improvement over previous work of which we are aware. Advantages over current crystal-laser designs include nearly transverse-fundamental-mode operation, reduced thermal effects, and ease of use, e.g., in medical endoscopy. PMID:18073963

Jackson, S D; King, T A; Pollnau, M

1999-08-15

422

Passively mode-locked erbium doped zirconia fiber laser using a nonlinear polarisation rotation technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A nonlinear polarization rotation (NPR) based mode-locked fiber laser is demonstrated using a 2m long erbium-doped ZirconiaYttriaAllumino Silicate fiber (EDZF) as the gain medium. The EDZF is drawn from a silica preform fabricated using the Modified Chemical Vapor Deposition (MCVD) method in which glass modifiers and nucleating agents are added using the solution doping technique. The fabricated EDZF has a core with dopant concentrations of 0.25mol% of Al2O3, 2.10mol% of ZrO2 and 0.23mol% of Er2O3, peak absorption of 22.0dB/m at 978nm and the fluorescence life-time of 10.86ms. A stable picosecond laser is succesfully obtained with pulse width of 0.32ps and the repetition rate of 50MHz using a simple ring cavity.

Hamzah, A.; Paul, M. C.; Awang, N. A.; Ahmad, H.; Pal, M.; Das, S.; Ismail, M. A.; Harun, S. W.

2013-04-01

423

Carrier transport and electroluminescence efficiency of erbium-doped silicon nanocrystal superlattices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A detailed study of transport phenomena and electroluminescence of erbium-doped silicon-rich oxide/silicon oxide superlattices is presented. Extended states conduction is thermally activated from Poole-Frenkel traps located at silicon nanocrystals or its interface. These traps provide bulk limited conduction at low and medium electric fields. In contrast, under high electric fields, conduction is governed by trap-assisted tunneling of electrons from the electrode to the active layer conduction band. Superlattice electroluminescence efficiency at 1.5 ?m and injected electron energy distribution in the conduction band are evaluated and compared to a silicon dioxide and a silicon-rich oxide single layer. This work sheds light on the implementation of alternative electroluminescent device architectures with strong emphasis in the hot electron engineering.

Ramrez, J. M.; Berencn, Y.; Lpez-Conesa, L.; Rebled, J. M.; Peir, F.; Garrido, B.

2013-08-01

424

Passive Q-switching of erbium glass laser by magnesium aluminosilicate sitall with cobalt ions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have studied the radiation output parameters for an erbium glass laser, lasing at a wavelength of 1.54 m, with passive Q-switching by means of a cobalt-containing magnesium aluminosilicate sitall compared with a saturable absorber based on a magnesium aluminum spinel crystal with cobalt ions. We have shown that the output characteristics of the laser emission when using sitall are not inferior to the analogous characteristics of a laser based on a spinel crystal, and are practically independent of the temperature of the saturable absorber in the range 0C 80C. The duration (energy) of the output pulses was 70 nsec (4 mJ), the energy dispersion of the radiation pulse relative to the average value was no greater than 3%, the beam divergence was 2.8 mrad, the laser beam quality factor was M2 = 1.2.

Volk, Yu. V.; Malyarevich, A. M.; Yumashev, K. V.; Dymshits, O. S.; Shashkin, A. V.; Zhilin, A. A.

2007-01-01

425

1.53m photo-and electroluminescence from Er(3+) in erbium silicate.  

PubMed

Si-rich silicon oxide (SRO)/Er-Si-O/SRO multilayers were prepared on p-Si substrates using magnetron sputtering. X-ray diffraction measurements indicate that a mixture of silicates Er(2)Si(2)O(7) and Er(2)SiO(5) was formed after the multilayers were annealed at 1000 and 1150?C. Strong Er(3+)1.53m photoluminescence (PL) at room temperature has been observed from these multilayers and the full width at half-maximum of the 1.53m peak is less than 1.8nm for the multilayers annealed at 1150?C. Er(3+)1.53m electroluminescence has been observed from erbium silicate films for the first time. PMID:21817205

Yin, Y; Sun, K; Xu, W J; Ran, G Z; Qin, G G; Wang, S M; Wang, C Q

2008-12-01

426

A Q-Switched Erbium-Doped Fiber Laser with a Carbon Nanotube Based Saturable Absorber  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate a simple, compact and low cost Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL) using single-wall carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as a saturable absorber for possible applications in metrology, sensing, and medical diagnostics. The EDFL operates at around 1560 nm with repetition rates of 16.1 kHz and 6.4 kHz with saturable absorbers SA1 and SA2 at a pump power of 120 mW. The absorbers are constructed by optically driven deposition and normal deposition techniques. It is observed that the optical deposition method produces a Q-switched EDFL with a lower threshold of 70 mW and better Q-switching performance compared to that of the normal deposition method. The EDFL also has pulse energy of 90.3 nJ and pulse width of 11.6 ?s at 120 mW pump power.

W. Harun, S.; A. Ismail, M.; F., Ahmad; F. Ismail, M.; M. Nor, R.; R. Zulkepely, N.; H., Ahmad

2012-11-01

427

Passive Q switches for a diode-pumped erbium glass laser  

SciTech Connect

A diode-pumped, passively Q-switched 1.54-{mu}m erbium glass laser is studied. Zinc selenide (ZnSe) crystals doped with Co{sup 2+} and Cr{sup 2+} ions and magnesium-aluminium spinel (MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}) crystals doped with Co{sup 2+} ions were used as saturable absorbers in Q switches. It is shown that, depending on the type of a saturable absorber, the pump power, and the resonator design, the laser pulse energy can vary from 0.2 to 13 {mu}J, the pulse duration from 16 to 980 ns, and the pulse repetition rate from 0.1 to 30 kHz. (control of laser radiation parameters)

Kisel', V E; Shcherbitskii, V G; Kuleshov, N V [International Laser Center, Belarus State Technical University, Minsk (Belarus); Postnova, L I; Levchenko, V I [Institute of Solid-State and Semiconductor Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Minsk (Belarus); Galagan, B I; Denker, B I; Sverchkov, S E [A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2005-07-31

428

Gamma radiation effects on erbium-doped fiber in superfluorescent fiber source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The radiation effects of two erbium-doped superfluorescent fiber sources (SFSs) are studied in gamma ray environment. Two types of output spectrum profile (twin-peaked spectrum and single-peaked spectrum) of SFSs are constructed by different configuration and parameters. The dependence of radiation-induced power loss and spectra evolution on the dosage is revealed. The results show that the amplitudes of radiation-induced power decrease are quite similar in two SFSs. But the mean wavelength variation of the single-peaked spectrum SFS is approximately 25 times smaller than that of the twin-peaked spectrum SFS. Compared to the twin-peaked spectrum SFS, the single-peaked spectrum SFS presents better radiation tolerance, which should have potential advantages in space applications.

Liu, Chengxiang; Zhang, Li; Wu, Xu; Ruan, Shuangchen

2013-10-01

429

Dosimetric optimization of postproduction neutron-activated Erbium-170-oxide-enriched pancreatin  

SciTech Connect

The feasibility of postproduction neutron activation of an enteric-coated pancreatic enzyme preparation for in vivo gastric emptying studies has been investigated. During production of this multicomponent preparation, small amounts of {sup 170}Er-enriched erbium oxide, suitable for neutron activation, were added. Postproduction neutron irradiation of the labeled preparation resulted in short-lived (7.5 hr) gamma-emitting {sup 171}Er. Various radiocontaminants, however, are produced also. Because of variations in activation yields, half-lives, decay schemes and radiotoxicities, both major and trace consitituents were considered for optimization of both dosimetry and the diagnostic measurement. Conditions were optimized for the best ratio of the committed dose equivalent due to {sup 171}Er to the total committed dose equivalent. The results show that postproduction neutron activation of a {sup 170}Er-enriched multicomponent preparation can be performed safely within the guidelines set by the WHO for experiments in humans involving radioactive materials. 9 refs., 3 tabs.

Borm, J.J.J.; Bruno, M.J.; Goeij, J.J.M. de [Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)]|[Delft Univ. of Technology, Mekelweg (Netherlands)]|[Nordmark Arzneimittel GmbH, Uetersen (Germany)] [and others

1995-05-01

430

Raman scattering in semiconductor structures based on monophthalocyanine and triphthalocyanine molecules incorporating erbium ions  

SciTech Connect

Semiconductor structures of the type of butyl-substituted erbium monophthalocyanine and triphthalocyanine are studied by Raman spectroscopy. It is shown that, when the sandwich-like structure of the molecule incorporating two complexing atoms between the ligands is considered instead of the planar molecular structure with one ligand and one metal atom, a series of lines appears in the Raman spectrum. In this series, the wave numbers of the lines represent an arithmetic progression with the arithmetical ratio {approx}80 cm{sup -1}. It is suggested that this feature is due to the larger number of organic molecules per metal atom in the triphthalocyanine complex, and the four Raman peaks at the frequencies 122, 208, 280, and 362 cm{sup -1} are the manifestation of slight out-of-plane vibrations of the phthalocyanine ligands.

Belogorokhov, I. A., E-mail: jugqwerty@mail.ru; Tikhonov, E. V.; Breusova, M. O.; Pushkarev, V. E.; Zoteev, A. V.; Tomilova, L. G.; Khokhlov, D. R. [Moscow State University (Russian Federation)

2007-11-15

431

Theoretical and artificial neural network modeling for the output power of irradiated erbium doped fiber amplifier  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The out power of the erbium doped fiber amplifiers (EDFAs) irradiated by neutrons with a dose of 1000 krad, it is investigated by theoretical and artificial neural network (ANN) modeling. Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm has been used for the ANN modeling. The theoretical as well as ANN models are in good agreement with the experimental data. A minimum acceptable error of 1.410-4 has been obtained. The theoretical and the ANN models help us to understand the output of EDFAs in detail. The EDF could be used only in the low radiation dose less than 20 krad. The ANN model provide a powerful tool to study the output power of EDFAs.

Hamdalla, Taymour A.

2013-07-01

432

N-order bright and dark rogue waves in a resonant erbium-doped fiber system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rogue waves in a resonant erbium-doped fiber system governed by a coupled system of the nonlinear Schrdinger equation and the Maxwell-Bloch equation (NLS-MB equations) are given explicitly by a Taylor series expansion about the breather solutions of the normalized slowly varying amplitude of the complex field envelope E, polarization p, and population inversion ?. The n-order breather solutions of the three fields are constructed using a Darboux transformation (DT) by assuming periodic seed solutions. Moreover, the n-order rogue waves are given by determinant forms with n+3 free parameters. Furthermore, the possible connection between our rouge waves and the generation of supercontinuum generation is discussed.

He, Jingsong; Xu, Shuwei; Porseizan, K.

2012-12-01

433

Magnetic and structural phase transitions in erbium at low temperatures and high pressures  

SciTech Connect

Electrical resistance and crystal structure measurements have been carried out on polycrystalline erbium (Er) at temperatures down to 10 K and pressures up to 20 GPa. An abrupt change in the slope of the resistance is observed with decreasing temperature below 84 K, which is associated with the c-axis modulated (CAM) antiferromagnetic (AFM) ordering of the Er moments. With increasing pressure the temperature of the resistance slope change and the corresponding AFM ordering temperature decrease until vanishing above 10.6 GPa. The disappearance of the slope change in the resistance occurs at similar pressures where the hcp structural phase of Er is transformed to a nine-layer {alpha}-Sm structural phase, as confirmed by our high-pressure synchrotron x-ray diffraction studies. These results suggest that the disappearance in the AFM ordering of Er moments is strongly correlated to the structural phase transition at high pressures and low temperatures.

Thomas, Sarah A.; Tsoi, Georgiy M.; Wenger, Lowell E.; Vohra, Yogesh K. (UAB)

2012-02-07

434

Modeling erbium-thulium-co-doped fiber amplifier for 1400-1650 nm band  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present numerical models of tri-valence erbium ion and thulium ion-co-doped fiber amplifiers pumped by 800-nm and 980-nm lasers. The rate and power propagation equations of the models are numerically solved to analyze the gain as a function of co-doping concentrations, fiber length and signal wavelength. The results reveal that with 800-nm or 980-nm pump, gain competition exists between 1470- and 1530-nm bands, which may arise from the pump absorption competition and complicated energy transfer between the two types of active ions, and the results further show that the gain spectra may cover 305 nm (1375-1680 nm) for 800-nm pump and 160 nm (1400-1560 nm) for 980-nm pump. The doping concentrations and fiber length may be tuned to reduce the ripple of the gain spectra.

Jiang, C.; Jin, L.

2009-03-01

435

A Switchable Multi-wavelength Erbium-Doped Photonic Crystal Fiber Laser with Linear Cavity Configuration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A switchable multi-wavelength erbium-doped photonic crystal fiber laser with a linear cavity configuration based on a Sagnac loop mirror is proposed and demonstrated experimentally. The laser is based on saturated spectral hole burning and the polarization hole burning effects can be switched among single-wavelength, dual-wavelength, triple-wavelength and quadruple-wavelength outputs at room temperature. The wavelength period of the output spectrum is easily varied by using polarization maintaining fibers of different lengths. The proposed fiber laser has a signal-to-noise ratio of higher than 30 dB and achieves a low threshold power of 37mW. The power fluctuations of the lasing lines are less than 0.54 dB, 1.7 dB and 2.9 dB when the laser operates at single-wavelength, dual-wavelength and triple-wavelength for one hour.

Zheng, Wan-Jun; Cheng, Jian-Qun; Ruan, Shuang-Chen; Zhang, Min; Liu, Wen-Li; Yang, Xi; Zhang, Ying-Ying

2012-12-01

436

Influence of pulse duration on erbium and holmium laser ablation under water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Erbium and Holmium lasers are ideally suited for cutting and drilling biological tissue. This is due to the fact that their wavelengths (Er:YSGG at 2.79 micrometers and Ho:YAG at 2.12 micrometers ) are strongly absorbed in water which is present in all tissues. Combined with an optical fiber these lasers seem to be optimal instruments for endoscopic and/or minimal invasive applications in surgery. In this study we focused our interest on cutting of human meniscus in the knee where, besides a very limited operation field, the standard arthroscopic treatment is performed in a liquid, highly absorbing environment. The bubble formation process, therefore, has to be well understood because it mainly determines relevant aspects of tissue ablation. The influence of the laser parameters in general and the influence of pulse duration in particular are determined in this paper for two different laser wavelengths. The goal was to determine the optimum laser parameters in view of a high ablation efficiency, a high precision and a minimal destruction of the adjacent tissue. To determine the optimum pulse duration for ablating tissue under water and to obtain a better understanding of the channel formation process, transmission and pressure measurements together with video flash photography were performed. Additionally, we determined experimentally the ratio between initial laser pulse energy and energy available for tissue treatment under water. To prove the results obtained, cuts in human meniscus were performed, sectioned and evaluated. The comparison between the results obtained with the Erbium and Holmium laser revealed a strong influence of the absorption coefficients on the tissue effects, especially on the ablation efficiency and on the zone of thermally and mechanically damaged tissue.

Ith, Michael; Frenz, Martin; Pratisto, Hans; Weber, Heinz P.; Altermatt, Hans J.; Staeubli, Hans U.; Asshauer, Thomas; Delacretaz, Guy P.; Salathe, Rene-Paul; Gerber, Bruno E.

1995-01-01

437

Investigations Into Ytterbium, Ytterbium-Erbium and Thulium-Doped Silica-Based Fibre Lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Continuous-wave monomode laser oscillation has been demonstrated in ytterbium-doped fiber at 974nm and around 1040nm for pump wavelengths in the 0.8mu m region. High slope efficiencies (up to 78%) and low threshold powers (10mW absorbed) were measured for this device. Tunable operation from 1000nm to 1162nm, the generation of Q-switched pulses, and efficient amplified spontaneous emission have also been demonstrated, and some of these features have been modelled. A fibre doped with erbium and sensitised with ytterbium has been investigated to study the effect of energy transfer from the ytterbium co-dopant to the erbium ions after excitation at wavelengths in the 0.8 ?m region. The effects of pump excited state absorption on the threshold and slope efficiency have been characterised. Continuous-wave monomode laser oscillation was observed at 1.564mum with a 5mW absorbed threshold power. The laser wavelength was tunable from 1.521mum to 1.562mu m. Continuous-wave monomode laser action in a thulium -doped fibre, also pumped in the 0.8mum region, was observed at around 2mum with an absorbed threshold power of about 30mW. The laser wavelength was tunable from 1810nm to 2014nm. A change of pump source to a high power Nd:YAG laser operating at 1.064mum yielded fibre laser output powers of up to 1.35W with a threshold power of 600mW. Pump excited state absorption at 1.064mum and the resulting upconverted visible fluorescence has been investigated and modelled.

Perry, Ian Richard

438

Measurements of erbium laser-ablation efficiency in hard dental tissues under different water cooling conditions.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT. Laser triangulation measurements of Er:YAG and Er,Cr:YSGG laser-ablated volumes in hard dental tissues are made, in order to verify the possible existence of a "hydrokinetic" effect that has been proposed as an alternative to the "subsurface water expansion" mechanism for hard-tissue laser ablation. No evidence of the hydrokinetic effect could be observed under a broad range of tested laser parameters and water cooling conditions. On the contrary, the application of water spray during laser exposure of hard dental material is observed to diminish the laser-ablation efficiency (AE) in comparison with laser exposure under the absence of water spray. Our findings are in agreement with the generally accepted principle of action for erbium laser ablation, which is based on fast subsurface expansion of laser-heated water trapped within the interstitial structure of hard dental tissues. Our measurements also show that the well-known phenomenon of ablation stalling, during a series of consecutive laser pulses, can primarily be attributed to the blocking of laser light by the loosely bound and recondensed desiccated minerals that collect on the tooth surface during and following laser ablation. In addition to the prevention of tooth bulk temperature buildup, a positive function of the water spray that is typically used with erbium dental lasers is to rehydrate these minerals, and thus sustaining the subsurface expansion ablation process. A negative side effect of using a continuous water spray is that the AE gets reduced due to the laser light being partially absorbed in the water-spray particles above the tooth and in the collected water pool on the tooth surface. Finally, no evidence of the influence of the water absorption shift on the hypothesized increase in the AE of the Er,Cr:YSGG wavelength is observed. PMID:24105399

Ku?er, Lovro; Diaci, Janez

2013-10-01

439

Broadband erbium-doped fiber sources for the fiber-optic gyroscope  

SciTech Connect

The sensitivity of early fiber-optic gyroscopes (FOG) fell short of the theoretical limit. The use of certain configurations, fiber components, and well designed optical sources can help the FOG reach this limit. Sources for the FOG must be broadband, spatially coherent and high power. They must produce a mean wavelength which is stable with respect to temperature and feedback from system components. Additionally, they must emit at long wavelengths, where silica fibers are insensitive to radiation induced losses. Two approaches to broadband, 1.55 [mu]m, erbium-doped fiber sources for the FOG are considered. The most promising approach is the superfluorescent fiber source (SFS), which utilizes amplification of spontaneous emission in a single pass or in two passes through the fiber, without a resonant cavity. Such sources have produced more than 50% conversion of pump photons near 980 nm or 1.48 [mu]m to source photons. Laser diode pumping in these pump bands is explored in detail. Depending on fiber length, pump power, pump wavelength, and SFS configuration, emission bandwidths between 8 and 27 nm are measured. The thermal coefficient of the mean wavelength of the SFS is consistently below 10 ppm/[degrees]C, and near 0 ppm/[degrees]C for certain design choices. The detrimental effects of feedback are reduced through optical isolation and the proper choice of FOG configuration. Issues such as the effect of multiple pump modes and loss mechanisms are treated by use of computer simulations. The broadband Er-doped wavelength-swept fiber laser (WSFL) is presented as an alternative to the SFS. This source utilizes an intracavity acousto-optic modulator to sweep the emission of an Er-doped laser across the gain curve of erbium. Theoretical and measured characteristics of such sources are discussed. The dynamic response of the WSFL and its coherence in an integrating system has been measured.

Wysocki, P.F.

1992-01-01

440

25 CFR 152.3 - Information regarding status of applications for removal of Federal supervision over Indian lands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...removal of Federal supervision over Indian lands. 152.3 Section 152.3 Indians...INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER ISSUANCE OF PATENTS IN FEE...RESTRICTIONS, AND SALE OF CERTAIN INDIAN LANDS Issuing Patents in Fee,...

2011-04-01

441

40 CFR 152.8 - Products that are not pesticides because they are not for use against pests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Products that are not pesticides because they are not for use against pests. 152.8 Section 152.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION...

2012-07-01

442

Tunable graphene Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser with suppressed self-mode locking effect.  

PubMed

Self-mode locking effect in a wideband tunable graphene-based passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser has been observed experimentally. Q-switching is achieved by using graphene as a saturable absorber, while a tunable bandpass filter with a narrow bandwidth is used to obtain wideband tunability. We propose to suppress the modulation on each pulse from self-mode locking by introducing three subring resonators constructed with three 3 dB couplers into the laser ring cavity. Moreover, the laser output characteristics with respect to pump power are studied in detail. A stable Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser with a tunable range from 1522 nm to 1568 nm is demonstrated experimentally. PMID:22614473

Zhou, Da-Peng; Wei, Li; Liu, Wing-Ki

2012-05-10

443

Dual-wavelength passively Q-switched Erbium doped fiber laser based on an SWNT saturable absorber  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a dual-wavelength, all-fiber, passively Q-switched Erbium doped fiber laser based on a single-wall carbon nanotube saturable absorber. By just varying the pump power to balance the peaks of the Erbium doped fiber gain spectra in the cavity, the laser can operate in the dual-wavelength Q-switching regime without intracavity spectral filters or modulation elements. Our experimental results show that the fiber laser can simultaneously generate Q-switched microsecond pulses at ?1532 nm and ?1558 nm, which have the same repetition rate of tens of kHz and around 0.5 nJ pulse energies. Our scheme is quite simple to implement at a low cost.

Liu, Lei; Zheng, Zheng; Zhao, Xin; Sun, Songsong; Bian, Yusheng; Su, Yalin; Liu, Jiansheng; Zhu, Jinsong

2013-05-01

444

Simulation and properties of Erbium-Doped Distributed Bragg Reflectors (ED-DBRs) and Fiber Bragg Gratings (ED-FBGs)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structure of an active Erbium-Doped Distributed Bragg Reflector (ED-DBR) and a Fiber Bragg Grating (ED-FBG) is simulated using a rigorous transmission line model and an approximate version of the coupled-mode theory, respectively. The basic calculation steps and assumptions of the proposed simulation models are described and the key parameters that determine the devices' reflection characteristics are in detail discussed. By applying the proposed transmission line model, numerical results are provided for both spectral reflectivity and transparency response for an active-slab DBR with increased erbium-ion concentration. In addition, using coupled-mode theory for the simulation of the cylindrical geometry of the ED-FBG device, the pump power-dependent reflection and transmission coefficients are obtained and their potential use in active sensor applications are discussed.

Stathopoulos, Nikolaos A.; Savaidis, Stylianos P.; Simos, Hercules; Rangoussi, Maria; Kervalishvili, Paata

2013-10-01

445

Optical Emission of the Black Hole X-Ray Transient MAXI J1659-152 during Quiescence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the optical detection of the black hole X-ray transient MAXI J1659-152 during its quiescent state. By using the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, we observed MAXI J1659-152 about seven months after the end of an X-ray outburst. The optical counterpart of MAXI J1659-152 is clearly detected with an r'-band magnitude of 23.6-23.8. The detection confirms that the optical emission of MAXI J1659-152 during quiescence is relatively bright compared to other black hole X-ray transients. This implies that the distance to MAXI J1659-152 is 4.6-7.5 kpc for an M2 dwarf companion star or 2.3-3.8 kpc for an M5 dwarf companion star. By comparing with other measurements, an M2 dwarf companion is more likely.

Kong, Albert K. H.

2012-12-01

446

Measurement of the g-Factor of the 27- High-Spin Isomer State of 152Dy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The g-factor of the 27- isomer state of 152Dy has been measured using the Time-Integral Perturbed Angular Distribution (TIPAD) method. The high-spin states of 152Dy have been populated by 141Pr(16O,p4n)152Dy reaction at E = 115 MeV from the AVF cyclotron at CYRIC. The paramagnetic correction factor of Dy ions in Pr has been determined to be 4.2(5) by the Time-Differential Perturbed Angular Distribution (TDPAD) measurement of the 21- state of 152Dy. As a result, the g-factor of the 27- isomer state of 152Dy has been obtained to be +0.09(5). This shows the smaller value than the expected one of +0.39 deduced from a fully aligned configuration of ?( h 11/2 2) ? ?( f 7/2 2 h 9/2 i 13/2).

Fujita, M.; Endo, T.; Yamazaki, A.; Sonada, T.; Miyake, T.; Tanaka, E.; Shinozuka, T.; Suzuki, T.; Goto, A.; Miyashita, Y.; Sato, N.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Hokoiwa, N.; Kibe, M.; Gono, Y.; Fukuchi, T.; Odahara, A.

2004-12-01

447

OPTICAL EMISSION OF THE BLACK HOLE X-RAY TRANSIENT MAXI J1659-152 DURING QUIESCENCE  

SciTech Connect

We report on the optical detection of the black hole X-ray transient MAXI J1659-152 during its quiescent state. By using the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, we observed MAXI J1659-152 about seven months after the end of an X-ray outburst. The optical counterpart of MAXI J1659-152 is clearly detected with an r'-band magnitude of 23.6-23.8. The detection confirms that the optical emission of MAXI J1659-152 during quiescence is relatively bright compared to other black hole X-ray transients. This implies that the distance to MAXI J1659-152 is 4.6-7.5 kpc for an M2 dwarf companion star or 2.3-3.8 kpc for an M5 dwarf companion star. By comparing with other measurements, an M2 dwarf companion is more likely.

Kong, Albert K. H., E-mail: akong@phys.nthu.edu.tw [Institute of Astronomy and Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)

2012-12-01

448

A channel-number insensitive erbium-doped fiber amplifier with automatic gain and power regulation function  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design scheme for an erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) with automatic channel-by-channel gain and power regulation function is discussed with much emphasis on the pump power control scheme and the requirement for feedback circuitry. Based on both wavelength and time-resolved simulation technique, an amplifier repeater employing novel high-speed automatic gain control (AGC) and automatic level control (ALC) functions is designed

Kuniaki Motoshima; Naoki Suzuki; Katsuhiro Shimizu; Kumio Kasahara; Tadayoshi Kitayama; Tadahiko Yasui

2001-01-01

449

Alternating cascade of spectrally different erbium-doped fiber amplifiers for link-loss-insensitive long-haul WDM transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper numerically investigates a cascade of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFAs) with different spectral characteristics in an alternating scheme. Thereby, in a transmission band with appropriate spectral properties (1544-1550 nm), the sensitivity of optically amplified long-haul WDM transmission links on the span loss between amplifiers can be reduced to that of single-channel systems. This may be as much as an

Johan Nilsson; Bozena Jaskorzynska

1999-01-01

450

Passively synchronized erbium (1550-nm) and ytterbium (1040-nm) mode-locked fiber lasers sharing a cavity.  

PubMed

Erbium and ytterbium fiber lasers were firmly synchronized by nonlinear interaction in active media placed in the same cavity. A two-color femtosecond-picosecond pulse train at largely separate wavelengths of 1.55 and 1.04 microm was generated. Optimizing the laser cavity to enhance the cross-phase modulation in the gain materials has yielded a large mismatch of 20 microm between the two laser cavities. PMID:15524369

Rusu, Matei; Herda, Robert; Okhotnikov, Oleg G

2004-10-01

451

1.5-microm monolithic GaInNAs semiconductor saturable-absorber mode locking of an erbium fiber laser.  

PubMed

We present a new monolithic GaAs-based semiconductor saturable absorber operating at 1.55 microm. An epitaxially grown absorber mirror in a GaInNAs/GaAs material system was successfully used to mode lock an erbium-doped fiber laser. The GaInNAs material system possesses intriguing physical properties and provides great potential for lasers and nonlinear optical devices operating at the 1.3-1.55-microm wavelength range. PMID:12659445

Okhotnikov, O G; Jouhti, T; Konttinen, J; Karirinne, S; Pessa, M

2003-03-01

452

Pulse generation and propagation in dispersion-managed ultralong erbium-doped fiber lasers mode-locked by carbon nanotubes.  

PubMed

We present a study of pulse generation and propagation in erbium-doped fiber lasers with cavity length varying from 8m to 3.5km. We demonstrate that soliton effect determines the pulse stabilization in ultralong cavities, measuring pulses with an average 7.0ps pulsewidth for cavity lengths between 2.25 and 3.5km. We also demonstrate that, by filling fundamental soliton requirements, pulsewidth can be determined by length and total dispersion cavity parameters. PMID:23258055

Rosa, H G; Thoroh de Souza, E A

2012-12-15

453

Second-order distortion of amplified intensity-modulated signals with chirping in erbium-doped fiber  

Microsoft Academic Search

Second-order distortion produced in an erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) is investigated theoretically and experimentally. Rate equations for intermodulation products are led by the perturbation method. From numerical calculation, it is shown that optimum combinations of input power to EDFA and signal wavelength exist that give a distortion-free condition, Improvement of the composite second-order (CSO) distortion, which results from the cancellation

Jun Ohya; Hisanao Sato; Masahiro Mitsuda; Tomoaki Uno; Toshihiro Fujita

1995-01-01

454

Experimental investigation of the gain flatness characteristics for 1.55 ?m erbium-doped fluoride fiber amplifiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The flat gain over a broad spectral width offered by fluoride-based Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers (EDFA) appears very attractive for wavelength-multiplex systems operating near 1550 nm. The relevant parameters (input pump and signal powers, fiber length) that determine the gain flatness characteristics of fluoride-based EDFA have been experimentally investigated. It is found that hat gain operation requires an optimal, though not

D. Bayart; B. Clesca; L. Hamon; J. L. Beylat

1994-01-01

455

Period-doubling of dispersion-managed solitons in an Erbium-doped fiber laser at around zero dispersion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Period-doubling of dispersion-managed solitons in an Erbium-doped fiber ring laser operating at the near zero net cavity group velocity dispersion region was experimentally observed. The generated dispersion-managed solitons of the laser are characterized by their near Gaussian spectral profiles and no sidebands. Numerical simulations verified our experimental observations and showed that the period-doubling could occur both in the positive and

L. M. Zhao; D. Y. Tang; T. H. Cheng; H. Y. Tam; C. Lu; S. C. Wen

2007-01-01

456

The erbium: YAG laser: A review and preliminary report on resurfacing of the face, neck, and hands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of short-pulsed or flash-scanned CO2 lasers to resurface skin has rapidly joined chemical peels and dermabrasion as an accepted procedure. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a mid-infrared pulsed Erbium: YAG laser prospectively to determine its clinical efficacy for resurfacing of the face, neck, and hands. Postoperative changes and recovery period were also evaluated. A total

David H. McDaniel; Keith Ash; Jeff Lord; John Newman; Mark Zukowski

1997-01-01

457

High-power flat L-band erbium-doped fiber ASE source using dual forward-pumping scheme  

Microsoft Academic Search

We experimentally investigate a high output power L-band (15651605 nm) erbium-doped fiber amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) source using dual forward-pumping configuration. Such configuration allows high pumping-power operation and enhances the pumping efficiency. The high pumping efficiency of 36.1% is achieved for such ASE source with a mirror reflectance of 30%. The output power of about 72.2 mW and a linewidth

S.-C. Tsai; T.-C. Tsai; P.-C. Law; Y.-K. Chen

2003-01-01

458

Gain saturation effects in high-speed, multichannel erbium-doped fiber amplifiers at ?=1.53 ?m  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gain compression effects during multichannel signal amplification in an erbium-doped fiber amplifier at ?=1.53 are investigated. A theory is presented that accurately models the observed amplified spontaneous emission spectra, signal gains, and saturation effects. Measurements of the gain dynamics show recovery times in the 1-ms range, indicating that the fiber amplifier is immune to interchannel interference over a wide range

EMMANUEL DESURVIRE; C. RANDY GILES; JAY R. SIMPSON

1989-01-01

459

Broad-band erbium-doped fiber amplifier flattened beyond 40 nm using long-period grating filter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Broad-bandwidth amplification is essential for the construction of high-capacity multichannel communication systems. We describe a silica-based erbium doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) with a flat gain bandwidth exceeding 40 nm. The dual-stage EDFA includes a precisely designed inter-stage long-period fiber grating filter with more than 14-dB peak attenuation. By careful choice of the filter spectrum and fiber lengths, this EDFA is

Paul F. Wysocki; Justin B. Judkins; Rolando P. Espindola; Matthew Andrejco; Ashish M. Vengsarkar

1997-01-01

460

Characterization of erbium-doped fibers and application to modeling 980-nm and 1480-nm pumped amplifiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Erbium-doped fibers are characterized using loss and gain coefficients, and one amplifier saturation parameter. With a large-signal amplifier model that resolves the amplified spontaneous emission spectrum, these easily measured parameters allow the fiber performance in 980-nm or 1480-nm pumped optical amplifiers to be assessed rapidly. In tests at 980-nm pump wavelength, good agreement between the theoretical and experimentally measured gains

C. R. Giles; C. A. Burrus; D. J. DiGiovanni; N. K. Dutta; G. Raybon

1991-01-01

461

Circulating loop transmission experiments for the study of long-haul transmission systems using erbium-doped fiber amplifiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A circulating loop transmission experiment is a useful tool for the research and development of long-haul transmission systems that use erbium-doped fiber-amplifier repeaters. Circulating loop techniques, applied to an amplifier chain of modest length, can provide an experimental platform to study a broad range of transmission phenomena for EDFA-based transmission systems. A loop experiment attempts to simulate the transmission performance

Neal S. Bergano; C. R. Davidson

1995-01-01

462

Thermodynamic model of the stabilization of an intermediate state in the region of the metamagnetic phase transition in erbium orthoferrite  

SciTech Connect

The possible mechanisms of the thermodynamic stabilization of an intermediate state in the first-order metamagnetic phase transition in a magnetic field parallel to the Ising c axis of the Er{sup 3+} ions in erbium orthoferrite at T = 1.6 K have been analyzed. The model is chosen using the magneto-optical experimental data on the features of this state.

Belyaeva, A. I., E-mail: belyaeva@kharkov.com; Baranova, E. V. [National Technical University Kharkov Polytechnic Institute (Ukraine)

2007-07-15

463

Synchronization of passively mode-locked erbium-doped fiber lasers and its application to optical communication networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We synchronized two passively mode-locked erbium-doped fiber lasers using a phase lock loop with a large dynamic range and bandwidth, which is realized by using a novel acoustooptic-modulator-grating scheme. Cross-correlation of the two lasers shows the interlaser jitter is under 2 ps (same as the laser pulse width) for period as long as hours. To prove the quality of phase

M. Jiang; K. H. Ahn; X.-D. Cao; P. Dasika; Y. Liang; M. N. Islam; A. F. Evans; R. M. Hawk; D. A. Nolan; D. L. Weidman

1997-01-01

464

Erbium-activated silicatitania planar waveguides on silica-on-silicon substrates prepared by rf sputtering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Erbium-activated silicatitania planar waveguides were prepared by radio-frequency (rf) sputtering technique. Silica-on-silicon substrates obtained by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) and rf sputtering (RFS) were employed. The refractive indices, the thickness and the propagation losses of the waveguides were measured. The refractive index and the roughness of the silica substrates produced by RFS appear to be dependent on the thickness.

C. Tosello; F Rossi; S Ronchin; R Rolli; G. C Righini; F Pozzi; S Pelli; M Fossi; E Moser; M Montagna; M Ferrari; C Duverger; A Chiappini; C De Bernardi

2001-01-01

465

Correlation between luminescent properties and structure organization in AlGaN\\/GaN superlattices annealed after erbium ion implantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolution of the structure organization of MOCVD-grown AlGaN\\/GaN superlattices subjected to erbium ion implantation with\\u000a an energy of 1 MeV and dose of 3 1015 cm?2 and subsequent annealing is correlated with their photoluminescent properties. The structure organization is quantitatively\\u000a estimated using parameter ? (degree of violation of local symmetry), which is found via multifractal analysis of surface morphology

E. E. Baranov; A. M. Emelyanov; W. V. Lundin; V. N. Petrov; V. I. Sakharov; I. T. Serenkov; N. A. Sobolev; A. N. Titkov; E. I. Shek; N. M. Shmidt

2006-01-01

466

Theoretical study and optimization of a high power mid-infrared erbium-doped ZBLAN fibre laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the rate equations describing the erbium-doped fluoride glass (ZBLAN) fibre lasers with different pumping configurations being taken into account, this paper presents theoretical calculations related to the dynamic population density and the operation performance of a high power mid-infrared all-fibre erbium-doped ZBLAN fibre laser. It shows that the ground-state absorption, excited-state absorption and energy-transfer-upconversion processes co-exist and produce a population balance, causing the laser to operate stably at a continuous wave state. A good agreement between the theoretical results and recent experimental measurement is obtained. Furthermore, the laser structure parameters including fibre length, reflectance of output fibre Bragg grating and pumping configurations are quantitatively optimised to achieve the best performance. The results show, as expected, that the slope efficiency of the fibre laser can be improved significantly through optimisation, which then provides an important guide for the design of high-performance mid-infrared erbium-doped ZBLAN fibre lasers. Project supported by the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant No. 20090451417), the China Postdoctoral Science Special Foundation (Grant No. 201003693), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China (Grant No. ZYGX2009J053) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 60736038).

Li, Jian-Feng; Stuart, D. Jackson

2011-03-01

467

Wideband and flat-gain amplifier based on high concentration erbium-doped fibres in parallel double-pass configuration  

SciTech Connect

A wideband and flat gain erbium-doped fibre amplifier (EDFA) is demonstrated using a hybrid gain medium of a zirconiabased erbium-doped fibre (Zr-EDF) and a high concentration erbium-doped fibre (EDF). The amplifier has two stages comprising a 2-m-long ZEDF and 9-m-long EDF optimised for C- and L-band operations, respectively, in a double-pass parallel configuration. A chirp fibre Bragg grating (CFBG) is used in both stages to ensure double propagation of the signal and thus to increase the attainable gain in both C- and L-band regions. At an input signal power of 0 dBm, a flat gain of 15 dB is achieved with a gain variation of less than 0.5 dB within a wide wavelength range from 1530 to 1605 nm. The corresponding noise figure varies from 6.2 to 10.8 dB within this wavelength region.

Hamida, B A; Cheng, X S; Harun, S W; Naji, A W; Arof, H; Al-Khateeb, W; Khan, S; Ahmad, H

2012-03-31

468

Distribution of 152Eu and 154Eu in the 'alluvial soil-rhizosphere-plant roots' system.  

PubMed

Accumulation of (152)Eu and (15)(4)Eu isotopes in bulk soil and rhizosphere soil in the near-field zone of influence of the Krasnoyarsk Mining and Chemical Combine was studied. An uneven distribution of specific activity of Eu isotopes was observed, with the gross specific activities of the isotopes in the bulk soil exceeding those of the rhizosphere. In the most contaminated locations the fine and the coarse granulometric fractions are enriched with the isotopes. A laboratory experiment indicated potential removal of soluble Eu isotopes by river flood waters may amount to 3% of the total Eu in both bulk and rhizosphere soils. The root system of plants growing in the contaminated territory accumulates (152)Eu and (154)Eu, although the isotopes were not discovered in aboveground parts of plants. Root-hairs were found to be the most contaminated. PMID:22305001

Kropatcheva, Marya; Chuguevsky, Alexei; Melgunov, Mikhail

2011-12-06

469

Europium-152: A Novel and Economical Isotope for Use in Brachytherapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Europium-152 is suggested as a nuclide of choice in hard-gamma brachytherapy. With a broad spectrum of gamma energies falling 63% between 1.0 and 1.4 MeV, 27% at 0.344 MeV and 37% at 0.122 MeV, an excellent distribution of isodose lines exists as a function of distance from the longitudinal axis of the needle or tube. The half-life, 13.4y, of 152Eu is desirably long, whilst its practical (and available) specific activity is easily greater than 1.85 TBq/g (50 Ci/g) of unenriched isotope. A stable oxide with a density of 4.4 g/cm3 assists encapsulation. The expected cost of europium needles compares favourably with csium-137 and most favourably with iridium-192

Adelman, Stuart

1998-11-01

470

Rotational damping, ridges, and the quasicontinuum of gamma rays in Dy152  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quasicontinuum of gamma rays from the feeding and decay of superdeformed and normal bands in Dy152 have been extracted in one- and two-dimensional spectra. The Egamma-Egamma correlations in the latter reveal strong ridges associated with superdeformed and normal states in this nucleus. The entry distributions for normal and superdeformed bands have been extracted from measured fold and sum-energy distributions.

T. Lauritsen; R. V. F. Janssens; T. L. Khoo; I. Ahmad; M. P. Carpenter; F. G. Kondev; C. J. Lister; E. F. Moore; D. Seweryniak; S. Zhu; T. Dssing; B. Herskind; A. Korichi; A. Lopez-Martens; R. M. Clark; P. Fallon; A. O. Macchiavelli; D. Ward; A. M. Heinz; D. G. Jenkins; A. J. Larabee; B. Meredith; J. Kozemczak; P. Chowdhury

2007-01-01

471

Determining the Excitation Energy, Spin, and Parity of Levels in the Superdeformed Bands of 152Dy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The excitation energy, spin and parity of the yrast superdeformed (SD) band in 152Dy have been established. The excitation energy of the lowest observed level in this band is found to be 10,644 keV with an assigned spin and parity of 24+. In addition, nine transitions of dipole character have been identified, which connect the excited superdeformed band 6 in

T. Lauritsen; M. P. Carpenter; R. V. F. Janssens; T. L. Khoo; P. Fallon; B. Herskind; D. G. Jenkins; F. G. Kondev; A. Lopez-Martens; A. O. Macchiavelli; D. Ward; K. S. Abu Saleem; I. Ahmad; R. Clark; M. Cromaz; T. Dssing; J. P. Greene; F. Hannachi; A. M. Heinz; A. Korichi; C. J. Lister; P. Reiter; D. Seweryniak; S. Siem; R. C. Vondrasek; I. Wiedenhver

2004-01-01

472

Measurement of thermal neutron cross section and resonance integral for (n,?) reaction in 152Sm  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study implies that 55Mn(n,?)55Mn monitor reaction may be a convenient alternative comparator for the activation method and thus, it was used for the determination of thermal neutron cross section (TNX) and the resonance integral (RI) of the reaction 152Sm(n,?)153Sm. The samples of MnO2 and Sm2O3 diluted with Al2O3 powder were irradiated within and without a cylindrical 1mm-Cd shield case

Mustafa Karadag; Haluk Ycel; M. Gray Budak

2007-01-01

473

1.52GHz micromechanical extensional wine-glass mode ring resonators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrating polysilicon micromechanical ring resonators, using a unique extensional wine-glass-mode shape to achieve lower impedance than previous UHF resonators, have been demonstrated at frequencies as high as 1.2 GHz with a Q of 3,700, and 1.52 GHz with a Q of 2,800. The 1.2-GHz resonator exhibits a measured motional resistance of 1 MOmega with a dc-bias voltage of 20 V,

Yuan Xie; Sheng-Shian Li; Yu-Wei Lin; Zeying Ren; C. T.-C. Nguyen

2008-01-01

474

Predicting the Configuration of a Planetary System: KOI-152 Observed by Kepler  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent Kepler discovery of KOI-152 reveals a system of three hot super-Earth candidates that are in or near a 4:2:1 mean motion resonance. It is unlikely that they formed in situ; the planets probably underwent orbital migration during the formation and evolution process. The small semimajor axes of the three planets suggest that migration stopped at the inner edge of the primordial gas disk. In this paper, we focus on the influence of migration halting mechanisms, including migration "dead zones," and inner truncation by the stellar magnetic field. We show that the stellar accretion rate, stellar magnetic field, and the speed of migration in the protoplanetary disk are the main factors affecting the final configuration of KOI-152. Our simulations suggest that three planets may be around a star with low star accretion rate or with high magnetic field. On the other hand, slow type I migration, which decreases to one-tenth of the linear analysis results, favors forming the configuration of KOI-152. Under such a formation scenario, the planets in the system are not massive enough to open gaps in the gas disk. The upper limits of the planetary masses are estimated to be about 15, 19, and 24 M ?, respectively. Our results are also indicative of the near Laplacian configurations that are quite common in planetary systems.

Wang, Su; Ji, Jianghui; Zhou, Ji-Lin

2012-07-01

475

Luminescence Characteristics of Rare-Earth Erbium Ion-Doped Nanocrystalline Zinc Oxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Er3+-doped ZnO nanocrystalline powders are successfully prepared by the chemical precipitation method, using various doping concentrations of Er3+ at different annealing temperatures from 500C to 900C. The characteristic emission peaks of the excitation state 4S3/2 (550 nm), 2H11/2 (520 nm), 4F5/2 (455 nm) ? 4I15/2 transition of Er3+ ions are observed in a wide visible band of the ZnO host. The relationship between the PL intensity of integration of nanocrystalline ZnO:Er3+ and the annealing temperature and doping concentration of Er3+ is given; it is found that the optimal dopant concentration and annealing temperature are 4.0 10-3 M and 850C for the 4S3/2 ? 4I15/2 (550 nm) and 4F5/2 ? 4I15/2 (455 nm) transition of Er3+. Based on these results, the mechanism of the emission spectra of ZnO is analyzed and its defects on the spectral properties are discussed. An energy transfer from excited states of ZnO hosts to doping Er3+ ion centers is revealed by the fact that PL intensity of the peaks of nanocrystalline ZnO:Er3+ changes with the annealing temperature and doping concentration of Er3+, and another from the 4f-4f transition of Er3+.

Guo-Li, Song

476

20 CFR 1002.152 - If employment is interrupted by a period of service in the uniformed services, are there any...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

20 Employees' Benefits 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01...1002.152 Section 1002.152 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY...those non-seniority rights and benefits. The employee's written notice does not...

2013-04-01

477

Comparison of calculated transition probabilities with luminescence characteristics of erbium(III) in fluoride glasses and in the mixed yttrium-zirconium oxide crystal  

SciTech Connect

Fluorozirconate glasses containing 2 mole % erbium fluoride (ErF/sub 3/) were prepared by melting the binary fluorides with ammonium bifluoride under an atmosphere of carbon tetrachloride and argon at 850/sup 0/C. Absorption spectra of these glasses were obtained and the Judd-Ofelt parameters were calculated. Emission spectra and lifetimes of erbium in fluorozirconate glass, in lead-gallium-zinc fluoride glass, and in yttrium-zirconium oxide crystal were measured and compared with the theoretical calculations. Laser emission lines in these materials are deduced from these measurements. It is suggested that materials doped with erbium may serve as light sources for fiber optic waveguides made from the undoped materials. 4 figures, 5 tables.

Reisfeld, R. (Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem, Israel); Katz, G.; Jacoboni, C.; De Pape, R.; Drexhage, M.G.; Brown, R.N.; Joergensen, C.K.

1983-07-15

478

76 FR 1133 - Foreign-Trade Zone 152-Burns Harbor, IN, Application for Reorganization (Expansion of Service...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [Docket 2-2011] Foreign-Trade Zone 152--Burns Harbor, IN, Application for Reorganization (Expansion of Service Area) Under the Alternative Site Framework An...

2011-01-07

479

40 CFR 421.152 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Primary Beryllium Subcategory § 421.152 Effluent...Ore. BPT Limitations for the Primary Beryllium Subcategory Pollutant or pollutant...kg (pounds per million pounds) of beryllium carbonate produced from bertrandite...

2012-07-01

480

40 CFR 152.401 - Inapplicability of fee provisions to applications filed prior to October 1, 1997.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Inapplicability...provisions to applications filed prior to October 1, 1997. 152.401 Section...provisions to applications filed prior to October 1, 1997. No fee...

2013-07-01

481

Thermally tunable microfiber knot resonator based erbium-doped fiber laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A compact and tunable erbium-doped fiber laser is demonstrated using a highly doped fiber and a microfiber knot resonator (MKR) structure which is laid on the surface of a small peltier. The MKR functions as both a reflector and a tunable filter where tunability is achieved by varying the temperature of the resonator by heating the peltier. A stable laser output is achieved at the 1533 nm region with an optical signal to noise ratio (OSNR) of 27 dB using a 65 mW of 980 nm pump power. The operating wavelength of the laser can be tuned from 1532.60 nm to 1533.49 nm as the temperature is increased from the room temperature of 24 to 90 C. It is observed that the operating wavelength shifts to a longer wavelength as the temperature increases with an efficiency of 12.4 pm/C. This is due to the thermally induced optical phase shift attributable to the changes in effective refractive index and optical path length of the MKR loop.

Sulaiman, A.; Harun, S. W.; Ahmad, H.

2012-10-01

482

Nonlinear pulse reshaping in a designed erbium-doped fiber amplifier with a multicladded index profile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A multicladded normally dispersive erbium-doped fiber amplifier (ND-EDFA) is designed for a short length to operate at the wavelength of 1550 nm with a dispersion of -6.5 ps/km nm and parabolic pulse generation through the proposed fiber is studied. The proposed ND-EDFA shows a flattened gain spectrum in C-band. The nonlinear Schrdinger equation is solved numerically in presence of fiber gain, nonlinearity, and dispersion to investigate the pulse propagation through the proposed fiber. While continuous wave (CW) sources are considered, parabolic self-similar pulses with structure factor of 0.072 are created at suitable values of optimum fiber length when input pulse properties and fiber parameters are optimized accordingly. Side by side with a low repetition rate laser source, the pulse propagation equation is controlled by the gain dispersion term and dipole relaxation time, such that the evolution of Gaussian pulses may lead to nonparabolic regime. The effects of pulse parameters like power level, pulse width, and dipole relaxation time on the propagation of input Gaussian pulses through the so-designed ND-EDFA are investigated. Our results depict that the pulses with same input energy reshape into exactly parabolic shape for CW laser source or nonparabolic profile for a laser source with low repetition rate.

Bose, Navonil; Ghosh, Dipankar; Mukherjee, Sampad; Basu, Mousumi

2013-08-01

483

Sorption of lanthanum and erbium from aqueous solution by activated carbon prepared from rice husk.  

PubMed

A biomass agricultural waste material, rice husk (RH) was used for preparation of activated carbon by chemical activation using phosphoric acid. The effect of various factors, e.g. time, pH, initial concentration and temperature of carbon on the adsorption capacity of lanthanum and erbium was quantitatively determined. It was found that the monolayer capacity is 175.4 mg g(-1) for La(III) and 250 mg g(-1) for Er(III). The calculated activation energy of La(III) adsorption on the activated carbon derived from rice husk was equal to 5.84 kJ/mol while it was 3.6 kJ/mol for Er(III), which confirm that the reaction is mainly particle-diffusion-controlled. The kinetics of sorption was described by a model of a pseudo-second-order. External diffusion and intra-particular diffusion were examined. The experimental data show that the external diffusion and intra-particular diffusion are significant in the determination of the sorption rate. Therefore, the developed sorbent is considered as a better replacement technology for removal of La(III) and Er(III) ions from aqueous solution due to its low-cost and good efficiency, fast kinetics, as well as easy to handle and thus no or small amount of secondary sludge is obtained in this application. PMID:20800456

Awwad, N S; Gad, H M H; Ahmad, M I; Aly, H F

2010-08-10

484

Performance of a practical gain controlling approach for erbium-doped fiber amplifier  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wavelength routing and reconfigurable cross connects are emerging concepts for optical multiwavelength telecommunication networks. They provide more efficient usage of the network resources, as individual wavelength channels can be added or dropped from the wavelength multiplex. However, problems arise with the erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFAs), whose gain is dependent on the input power level. If the gain of the EDFA is not by some means controlled, transient effects will occur due to the EDFA's slow gain dynamics. In this paper a simple device for controlling the gain of the EDFA is studied. The gain- controlling scheme is based on a fast pump laser control. Part of the total input power to the amplifier is detected by the gain controlling circuitry, which then compensates for the changing gain by adjusting the pump laser power. In the study, transient effects due to changing number of channels in an EDFA are measured. The response time and the transient suppression of the gain-controlling device are verified through measurements. The effect of the amplifier gain tilt is also studied. A comparison against other proposed gain-controlling schemes is done.

Soederlund, Mikko J.; Tammela, Simo K.

2000-04-01

485

Reflectivity and thermally modulated reflectivity of yttrium, gadolinium, erbium and ytterbium iron garnets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical reflectivity and thermoreflectivity measurements in the 2.5-4.7 eV region for gadolinium iron garnet, erbium iron garnet and ytterbium iron garnet are reported and discussed in relation to previous measurements performed on yttrium iron garnet. Near normal incidence reflectivity spectra of YbIG, ErIG, GdIG and YIG single crystals measured at room temperature and YIG measured at 80 K are shown to consist of two peaks centered around 3.3 and 4.4 eV and a number of structural features, demonstrating that the absolute reflectivity is not appreciably altered by the substitution of yttrium with heavier rare earth ions. Thermoreflectivity spectra of the same compounds taken at a temperature of 300 K are shown to contain the same number of positive and negative derivative peaks, which are strongly correlated with the reflectivity structures, and a gradual shift of the baseline with respect to YIG with increasing atomic weight. The experimental data for YbIG and YIG are analyzed in terms of a model describing the dielectric response of a system of localized excitations associated with a classical damped Lorentz operator. On the basis of the similarity of the rare earth spectra, assignments of YIG transitions are concluded to apply to the rare earth iron garnets, with the shift of the baseline with increasing atomic number attributed to the tailing of high-energy oscillators.

Balzarotti, A.; Picozzi, P.; Ricchiuto, A.; Santucci, S.

1980-12-01

486

Experimental observation of mode behavior in erbium-doped optical fiber ring laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two-polarization mode oscillation is observed in an erbium-doped optical fiber ring laser. This phenomenon was verified by the existence of the polarization hole burning effect in this optical fiber ring laser. The laser is a ring laser operating in the region of 1.55 ?m, pumped by a 1.48 ?m InGaAsP laser diode. Mode-hopping and mode-competition instabilities due to spatial hole burning and inhomogeneous spectral broadening were eliminated by using an ultra-narrow-bandwidth optical fiber Bragg grating and a polarization independent optical isolator. The oscillation in the two-polarization mode operation is remarkably stable at higher pump powers. The application of two-polarization mode oscillation for temperature sensing is described. The sensing is novel in that the change of double refraction with temperature and the frequency detection are combined. In this method, the detection sensitivity with temperature rise was about 100 Hz//C at around 40/C.

Inaba, H.; Akimoto, Y.; Tamura, K.; Yoshida, E.; Komukai, T.; Nakazawa, M.

2000-06-01

487

Rare earth erbium doped yttrium barium copper oxide superconducting domains and their magnetic properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The starting composition and structure of YBa2Cu3O 7-1 (Y123) ceramic powder with excess Y2BaCuO 5 is shown to be very important to successful processing of large single domain bulk Y123 material. Besides composition and structure it is shown that the setter and the setup of the setter are essential for the elimination of liquid loss and a key ingredient in the Robust Processing Method (RPM). The RPM was used to examine the effect on processing of high Erbium (Er) additions (60 mol/percent) to YBa2Cu3O7-1. The effect on microstructure, and the superconducting properties of the resulting material were also examined. The superconducting properties that were examined were the bulk-trapped magnetic field, the Critical Transition Temperature (Tc) and the Critical Current (Jc) in a changing applied magnetic field. The bulk-trapped fields were found to be unimproved due to decomposition of the SmBa2Cu3O7-1 (Sm123) seed during processing which causes sporadic crystallization during the growth cycle. Tc's of the textured resulting material were found to be relatively unaffected when compared to unadulterated Y123, while Jc's were found to increase with accelerated processing rate when compared to unadulterated Y123.

Hicks, William Carl

488

Laser-diode-pumped, erbium-doped, solid-state laser with high slope efficiency  

SciTech Connect

A laser and method for producing a laser emission at a wavelength of substantially 2.8 microns is disclosed. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, the laser comprises laser diode means for emitting a pump beam at a preselected wavelength; and a crystal having a preselected host material doped with a predetermined percent concentration of erbium activator ions sufficient to produce a laser emission at substantially 2.8 microns at a slope efficiency of at least 5 percent, but preferrably 10 percent, when the crystal is pumped by the pump beam. It is well known that the human body is comprised of approximately 70% water, with various human tissues containing about 60% to 90% of water, and bone and cartilage containing about 30% to 40% of water. Since the 2.8 micron wavelength has a substantially maximum absorption in water, this 2.8 micron wavelength is the ideal wavelength to use for a large variety of medical laser applications on the human body. A 2.8 micron wavelength laser could be used for precise surgery in such exemplary applications as brain surgery, neurosurgery, eye surgery, plastic surgery, burn treatment and the removal of malignancies.

Esterowitz, L.; Allen, R.; Kintz, G.

1989-10-31

489

Decontamination of deep dentin by means of erbium, chromium:yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet laser irradiation.  

PubMed

The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the depth of effectiveness of erbium, chromium:yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) laser irradiation on microorganism reduction. From human roots, dentin slices of 100 microm to 1,000 microm thickness were prepared. These specimens were sterilized and then inoculated with 1 microl of Enterococcus faecalis suspension. The backs of the specimens were then irradiated with Er,Cr:YSGG radiation at a pulse energy of 3.13 mJ, delivered at an incidence angle of 5 degrees to the dentin slice surface. A control group was left without irradiation. The remaining bacteria were collected in 1 ml sterilized NaCl solution, serially diluted and seeded in Columbia-Agar plates. Despite the low pulse energy of 3.13 mJ, the Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation resulted in significant bacterial reduction up to a dentin thickness of 500 microm (P < 0.05). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs of the contaminated and irradiated surfaces showed the absence of a smear layer and opened dentinal tubules. PMID:18027063

Franzen, Ren; Esteves-Oliveira, Marcella; Meister, Jrg; Wallerang, Anja; Vanweersch, Leon; Lampert, Friedrich; Gutknecht, Norbert

2007-11-20

490

Hyperfine structure of laser-cooling transitions in fermionic erbium-167  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have measured and analyzed the hyperfine structure of two lines, one at 583 nm and one at 401 nm, of the only stable fermionic isotope of atomic erbium as well as determined its isotope shift relative to the four most-abundant bosonic isotopes. Our work focuses on the J?J+1 laser cooling transitions from the [Xe]4f126s2(3H6) ground state to two levels of the excited [Xe]4f126s6p configuration, which are of major interest for experiments on quantum degenerate dipolar Fermi gases. From a fit to the observed spectra of the strong optical transition at 401 nm we find that the magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole hyperfine constants for the excited state are Ae/h=-100.1(3)MHz and Be/h=-3079(30)MHz, respectively. The hyperfine spectrum of the narrow transition at 583 nm, was previously observed and accurate Ae and Be coefficients are available. A simulated spectrum based on these coefficients agrees well with our measurements. We have also determined the hyperfine constants using relativistic configuration-interaction ab initio calculations. The agreement between the ab initio and fitted data for the ground state is better than 0.1%, while for the two excited states the agreement is 1% and 11% for the Ae and Be constants, respectively.

Frisch, Albert; Aikawa, Kiyotaka; Mark, Michael; Ferlaino, Francesca; Berseneva, Ekaterina; Kotochigova, Svetlana

2013-09-01

491

High pressure phase transitions in the rare earth metal erbium to 151 GPa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High pressure x-ray diffraction studies have been performed on the heavy rare earth metal erbium (Er) in a diamond anvil cell at room temperature to a pressure of 151 GPa and Er has been compressed to 40% of its initial volume. The rare earth crystal structure sequence {hcp} \\to {Sm}~ {type} \\to {dhcp} \\to {distorted} fcc (hcp: hexagonal close packed; fcc: face centered cubic; dhcp: double hcp) is observed in Er below 58 GPa. We have carried out Rietveld refinement of crystal structures in the pressure range between 58 GPa and 151 GPa. We have examined various crystal structures that have been proposed for the distorted fcc (dfcc) phase and the post-dfcc phase in rare earth metals. We find that the hexagonal hR 24 structure is the best fit between 58 and 118 GPa. Above 118 GPa, a structural transformation from hR 24 phase to a monoclinic C 2/m phase is observed with a volume change of - 1.9%. We have also established a clear trend for the pressure at which a post-dfcc phase is formed in rare earth metals and show that there is a monotonic increase in this pressure with the filling of 4f shell.

Samudrala, Gopi K.; Thomas, Sarah A.; Montgomery, Jeffrey M.; Vohra, Yogesh K.

2011-08-01

492

High pressure phase transitions in the rare earth metal erbium to 151 GPa.  

PubMed

High pressure x-ray diffraction studies have been performed on the heavy rare earth metal erbium (Er) in a diamond anvil cell at room temperature to a pressure of 151 GPa and Er has been compressed to 40% of its initial volume. The rare earth crystal structure sequence hcp ? Sm type ? dhcp ? distorted fcc (hcp: hexagonal close packed; fcc: face centered cubic; dhcp: double hcp) is observed in Er below 58 GPa. We have carried out Rietveld refinement of crystal structures in the pressure range between 58 GPa and 151 GPa. We have examined various crystal structures that have been proposed for the distorted fcc (dfcc) phase and the post-dfcc phase in rare earth metals. We find that the hexagonal hR 24 structure is the best fit between 58 and 118 GPa. Above 118 GPa, a structural transformation from hR 24 phase to a monoclinic C 2/m phase is observed with a volume change of - 1.9%. We have also established a clear trend for the pressure at which a post-dfcc phase is formed in rare earth metals and show that there is a monotonic increase in this pressure with the filling of 4f shell. PMID:21753243

Samudrala, Gopi K; Thomas, Sarah A; Montgomery, Jeffrey M; Vohra, Yogesh K

2011-07-14

493

Excitation functions for the helium-ion-induced fission of holmium and erbium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Excitation functions for the helium-ion-induced fission of holmium (Z=67) and erbium (Z=68) in the energy range 34-70 MeV were measured using lexan polycarbonate plastic as the fission fragment track detector. By analyzing the data in terms of the statistical model expression for ?f/?n, the ratio of the fission width to neutron emission width, the fission barriers of the compound nuclei 16969Tm and 171.370Yb were determined to be 29.8+/-3 and 27.8+/-3 MeV, respectively. The corresponding values for the fission level density parameter were found to be af=A/12 and A/13, respectively. The uncertainties shown in the fission barriers allow for inclusion of other values derived from reasonable upper and lower limits of af values of A/8 to A/20. The measured fission barriers compare very well with the shell-corrected liquid-drop barriers of Myers and Swiatecki. The present measurements extend the range of low-Z elements which are away from the closed-shell region and which are studied at these medium energies. The results are compared with similar data available in the literature which bring out some interesting correlations and trends in the fission properties, viz., fission barriers and level density parameters of low-Z elements.

Iyer, R. H.; Pandey, A. K.; Kalsi, P. C.; Sharma, R. C.

1991-12-01

494

4-(Dimethyl-amino)-pyridinium octa-aqua-erbium(III) tetra-chloride monohydrate  

PubMed Central

In the title compound, (C7H11N2)[Er(H2O)8]Cl4H2O, the asymmetric unit consists of one 4-(dimethylamino)pyridinium and one octaaquaerbium cation balanced by four Cl? anions, and one water molecule. The 4-(dimethylamino)pyridinium cation is protonated at the pyridine N atom. The dimethylamino group (C/N/C) lies close to the plane of the pyridinium ring, making a dihedral angle of 4.5?(3). In the crystal, the [Er(H2O)8]3+ cations are linked via OH?O and OH?Cl hydrogen bonds, forming two-dimensional networks propagating in the ab plane. These networks are linked via OH?O and OH?Cl hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional network. The 4-(dimethylamino)pyridinium cations are located in the cavities and are linked to the framework via NH?Cl, CH?O and CH?Cl hydrogen bonds.

Benslimane, Meriem; Merazig, Hocine; Daran, Jean-Claude; Zeghouan, Ouahida

2012-01-01

495

Laser sclerostomy ab externo with the Erbium:YAG laser using a new flexible application system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fistula from the anterior chamber of the eye into the subconjunctival space can be created by laser application ab externo (laser sclerostomy). The success of the procedure mainly depends on the special application system. The pulsed Erbium-YAG laser (2940 nm) was used as the energy source. The laser energy was guided to the application system via a ZrFl fiber with low attenuation at this wavelength. Because this fiber cannot be used in direct contact to the sclera, an optical coupling unit transmitted the energy to a short quartz fiber. This fiber was inserted in a specially sharpened retractable cannula to guide it into the subconjunctival space. Then the laser energy could be applied directly to the sclera to form the fistula. The procedure was demonstrated in vivo using rabbit eyes. A working fistula with formation of a filtering bleb could be achieved. The trauma to the conjunctiva was as minimal as in a subconjunctival injection. The minor alteration of the conjunctiva in this procedure compared to traditional surgical methods like goniotrepanation or trabeculectomy may cause less scarification and therefore less failure.

Wetzel, Wolfgang; Scheu, M.; Brinkmann, Ralf E.; Birngruber, Reginald

1992-08-01

496

High-energy, in-band pumped erbium doped fiber amplifiers.  

PubMed

We have demonstrated and compared high-energy, in-band pumped erbium doped fiber amplifiers operating at 1562.5 nm under both a core pumping scheme (CRS) and a cladding pumping scheme (CLS). The CRS/CLS sources generated smooth, single-peak pulses with maximum pulse energies of ~1.53/1.50 mJ, and corresponding pulse widths of ~176/182 ns respectively, with an M2 of ~1.6 in both cases. However, the conversion efficiency for the CLS was >1.5 times higher than the equivalent CRS variant operating at the same pulse energy due to the lower pump intensity in the CLS that mitigates the detrimental effects of ion concentration quenching. With a longer fiber length in a CLS implementation a pulse energy of ~2.6 mJ is demonstrated with a corresponding M2 of ~4.2. Using numerical simulations we explain that the saturation of pulse energy observed in our experiments is due to saturation of the pump absorption. PMID:23038520

Lim, Ee-Leong; Shaif-ul Alam; Richardson, David J

2012-08-13

497

Thermoluminescence property of LiMgF3 erbium activated phosphor.  

PubMed

The perovskite-like LiMgF(3):ErF(3) pellets were obtained from the melt formed by LiF and MgF(2) mixed salts in the stoichiometric ratio. The perovskite material was doped with 1, 2 and 4 mol% of ErF(3) impurity. The pellets samples were (60)Co gamma irradiated and their thermoluminescence (TL) properties were analyzed, i.e., dose-response, fading at RT and under UV irradiation, TL signal reproducibility, and kinetic parameters. The intensity of the TL response against irradiation dose was increased remarkably by the high concentration of impurity, and a linear dose-response was observed in the range of 1-10 Gy. The fading observed at RT was about 10-30% after 24h from irradiation. All samples were exposed from 1 to 200 Gy gamma dose range. The TL glow peaks were found around 367-376, 438-447, 509-521, and 594-611 K, when the doped samples were 1, 2 and 4 mol% of the erbium impurity concentration. The thermoluminescence kinetics parameters of the glow curves have been analyzed using the Computerized Glow Curve Deconvolution (CGCD) method. PMID:22381701

Muoz, I C; Cruz-Zaragoza, E; Favalli, A; Furetta, C

2012-02-21

498

Microleakage of glass ionomer formulations after erbium:yttrium-aluminium-garnet laser preparation.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the microleakage in class V cavities restored with four conventionally setting glass ionomers (CGIs) and one resin-modified glass ionomer (RMGI) following erbium:yttrium-aluminium-garnet (Er:YAG) laser or conventional preparation. Four hundred class V cavities were assigned to four groups: A and B were prepared by an Er:YAG laser; C and D were conventionally prepared. In groups B and D, the surface was additionally conditioned with Ketac conditioner. Each group was divided into five subgroups according to the glass ionomer cement (GIC) used: groups 1 (Ketac Fil), 2 (Ketac Molar), 3 (Ionofil Molar), 4 (Ionofil Molar Quick) and 5 (Photac Fil Quick). After thermocycling, a 2% methylene blue solution was used as dye. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) photographs were taken to show the conditioner's effect. Complete marginal sealing could not be reached. PhotacFil showed less microleakage than the conventionally setting glass ionomer cements (CGICs) investigated. Conditioning laser-prepared cavities did not negatively influence microleakage results except for Ionofil Molar Quick. PMID:18716828

Delm, Katleen I M; Deman, Peter J; De Bruyne, Mieke A A; Nammour, Samir; De Moor, Roeland J G

2008-08-21

499

Temperature-Insensitive Bend Sensor Using Entirely Centered Erbium Doping in the Fiber Core  

PubMed Central

A fiber based bend sensor using a uniquely designed Bend-Sensitive Erbium Doped Fiber (BSEDF) is proposed and demonstrated. The BSEDF has two core regions, namely an undoped outer region with a diameter of about 9.38 ?m encompassing a doped, inner core region with a diameter of 4.00 ?m. The doped core region has about 400 ppm of an Er2O3 dopant. Pumping the BSEDF with a conventional 980 nm laser diode gives an Amplified Spontaneous Emission (ASE) spectrum spanning from 1,510 nm to over 1,560 nm at the output power level of about ?58 dBm. The ASE spectrum has a peak power of ?52 dBm at a central wavelength of 1,533 nm when not spooled. Spooling the BSEDF with diameters of 10 cm to 2 cm yields decreasing peak powers from ?57.0 dBm to ?61.8 dBm, while the central wavelength remains unchanged. The output is highly stable over time, with a low temperature sensitivity of around ?0.005 dBm/C, thus allowing for the development of a highly stable sensor system based in the change of the peak power alone.

Ahmad, Harith; Zulkifli, Mohd Zamani; Muhammad, Farah Diana; Samangun, Julian Md; Abdul-Rashid, Hairul Azhar; Harun, Sulaiman Wadi

2013-01-01

500

First identification of high-spin states in the odd-odd neutron-rich nucleus 152Pr  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The odd-odd neutron-rich nucleus 152Pr has been studied from the spontaneous fission of 252Cf with Gammasphere. A high-spin level scheme of 152Pr has been established for the first time. Angular correlation and internal conversion coefficient measurements are used to determine the transition multipolarities. The possible configurations of the bandhead have been discussed based on systematics and total Routhian surface calculations.

Liu, S. H.; Hamilton, J. H.; Ramayya, A. V.; Shi, Y.; Xu, F. R.; Zhu, S. J.; Yeoh, E. Y.; Batchelder, J. C.; Brewer, N. T.; Hwang, J. K.; Luo, Y. X.; Rasmussen, J. O.; Ma, W. C.; Daniel, A. V.; Ter-Akopian, G. M.; Oganessian, Yu. Ts.

2011-10-01