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1

Analysis of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers pumped in the /sup 4/I/sub 15/2/-/sup 4/I/sub 13/2/ band  

SciTech Connect

In this paper a theoretical model for Er/sup 3+/ -doped fiber amplifiers pumped within the particular /sup 4/I/sub 13/2/ /sup 4/I/sub 15/2/ absorption band is developed. The model predicts gain coefficients around 2 dB per milliwatt of launched pump power, in close agreement with previously reported measurements. The model is also used to determine the optimal pump wavelength {lambda}/sub opt/ that maximizes the amplifier gain. It is shown that the latter is insensitive to pump detuning near {lambda}/sub opt/ = 1.48 {mu}m, within a 20 nm range, which indicates that broad-band, multimode laser diode pump sources and pumps with narrow linewidths should yield identical gain performance.

Desurvire, E. (AT and T Bell Labs., Holmdel, NJ (USA))

1989-10-01

2

Erbium-Doped ZnO Prepared by Vapor-Phase Transport  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Erbium-doped ZnO has been prepared by vapor-phase transport. ZnO powder, graphite powder, and Er2O3 powder were mixed at a molar ratio of 1:1:0.2 and heated at 1054 °C. Erbium-doped ZnO was deposited on n-type (100)Si wafers located in the same temperature zone. The photoluminescence of the as-deposited sample shows a strong ZnO band-gap emission near 378 nm. After annealing, green emissions at 548, 566, 576, 585, and 595 nm were observed, which correspond to the 4 f inner shell transition of erbium from 2H11/2 to 4I15/2 and 4S3/2 to 4I15/2. Our results indicate that vapor-phase transport is an alternative route for doping ZnO with erbium.

Chao, Liang-Chiun; Chiang, Ping-Chang; Yang, Shih-Hsuan; Huang, Jian-Wei; Liau, Chung-Chi; Chen, Jyh-Shin; Su, Chien-Ying

2006-09-01

3

Erbium diffusion in silicon dioxide  

SciTech Connect

Erbium diffusion in silicon dioxide layers prepared by magnetron sputtering, chemical vapor deposition, and thermal growth has been investigated by secondary ion mass spectrometry, and diffusion coefficients have been extracted from simulations based on Fick's second law of diffusion. Erbium diffusion in magnetron sputtered silicon dioxide from buried erbium distributions has in particular been studied, and in this case a simple Arrhenius law can describe the diffusivity with an activation energy of 5.3{+-}0.1 eV. Within a factor of two, the erbium diffusion coefficients at a given temperature are identical for all investigated matrices.

Lu Yingwei; Julsgaard, B.; Petersen, M. Christian [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Jensen, R. V. Skougaard [Department of Physics and Nanotechnology, Aalborg University, DK-9220 Aalborg O (Denmark); Pedersen, T. Garm; Pedersen, K. [Department of Physics and Nanotechnology, Aalborg University, DK-9220 Aalborg O (Denmark); Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center-iNANO, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Larsen, A. Nylandsted [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center-iNANO, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)

2010-10-04

4

Erbium hydride decomposition kinetics.  

SciTech Connect

Thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) is used to study the decomposition kinetics of erbium hydride thin films. The TDS results presented in this report are analyzed quantitatively using Redhead's method to yield kinetic parameters (E{sub A} {approx} 54.2 kcal/mol), which are then utilized to predict hydrogen outgassing in vacuum for a variety of thermal treatments. Interestingly, it was found that the activation energy for desorption can vary by more than 7 kcal/mol (0.30 eV) for seemingly similar samples. In addition, small amounts of less-stable hydrogen were observed for all erbium dihydride films. A detailed explanation of several approaches for analyzing thermal desorption spectra to obtain kinetic information is included as an appendix.

Ferrizz, Robert Matthew

2006-11-01

5

Real-time synchrotoron radiation X-ray diffraction and abnormal temperature dependence of photoluminescence from erbium silicates on SiO{sub 2}/Si substrates  

SciTech Connect

The erbium silicate formation processes during annealing in Ar gas were monitored by synchrotron radiation grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD) in real time and the optical properties of the silicates were investigated by photoluminescence measurements in spectral and time-resolved domains. The GIXD measurements show that erbium silicates and erbium oxide are formed by interface reactions between silicon oxide and erbium oxides deposited on silicon oxide by reactive sputtering in Ar gas and O{sub 2}/Ar mixture gas ambiences. The erbium silicates are formed above 1060 degree sign C in Ar gas ambience and above 1010 degree sign C in O{sub 2}/Ar gas ambience, and erbium silicides are dominantly formed above 1250 degree sign C. The I{sub 15/2}-I{sub 13/2} Er{sup 3+} photoluminescence from the erbium oxide and erbium silicate exhibits abnormal temperature dependence, which can be explained by the phonon-assisted resonant absorption of the 532-nm excitation photons into the {sup 2}H{sub 11/2} levels of Er{sup 3+} ions of the erbium compounds.

Omi, H.; Tawara, T.; Tateishi, M. [NTT Basic Research Laboratories, NTT Corporation, 3-1 Morinosato- Wakamiya, Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-0198 (Japan)

2012-03-15

6

Radiative lifetimes of neutral erbium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiative lifetimes have been measured for 123 levels of neutral erbium using time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence on a slow beam of erbium atoms. Of the 123 levels, 56 are even parity and range in energy from 26 993 to 40 440 cm?1 and 67 are odd parity ranging from 16 070 to 38 401 cm?1. This set of Er i lifetimes

E A Den Hartog; J P Chisholm; J E Lawler

2010-01-01

7

Radiative lifetimes of neutral erbium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiative lifetimes have been measured for 123 levels of neutral erbium using time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence on a slow beam of erbium atoms. Of the 123 levels, 56 are even parity and range in energy from 26 993 to 40 440 cm-1 and 67 are odd parity ranging from 16 070 to 38 401 cm-1. This set of Er i lifetimes

E. A. Den Hartog; J. P. Chisholm; J. E. Lawler

2010-01-01

8

Modeling erbium-doped fiber amplifiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers are modeled using the propagation and rate equations of a homogeneous two-level laser medium. Numerical methods are used to analyze the effects of optical modes and erbium confinement on amplifier performance, and to calculate both the gain and amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) spectra. Fibers with confined erbium doping are completely characterized from easily measured parameters: the ratio

C. Randy Giles; Emmanuel Desurvire

1991-01-01

9

High-concentration erbium-doped glasses, fiber amplifiers and lasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Upconversion coefficients in a new high-concentration erbium-doped tellurite glass were obtained a schematic study of experiments and modeling. The upconversion coefficient for 4I13\\/2 + 4I13\\/2 --> 4I9\\/2 + 4I15\\/2 is found to be 2.74 × 10-18 cm3\\/s and for 4I11\\/2 + 4I 11\\/2 --> 4I15\\/2 + 2F 7\\/2 is 1.09 × 10-18 cm3\\/s. The performance of high concentration Er3+-Yb3+ -codoped

Yongdan Hu

2001-01-01

10

Evidence for erbium-erbium energy migration in erbium(III) bis(perfluoro-p-tolyl)phosphinate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photoluminescence lifetime measurements of the erbium decay in samples of erbium(III) bis(perfluoro-p-tolyl)phosphinate, Er[(p-CF3C6F4)2PO2]3, as a function of erbium concentration have been made. It has been found that for concentrations greater than 50%, the lifetime could be fitted with a stretched exponential function, which is indicative of erbium-erbium energy migration to quenching sites, most likely at the surface of the finely divided powder. At concentrations below 50%, the decay was single exponential with a maximum lifetime of ˜700?s.

Tan, R. H. C.; Pearson, J. M.; Zheng, Y.; Wyatt, P. B.; Gillin, W. P.

2008-03-01

11

Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFAs) operate in the 1.5 micrometers wavelength telecommunications window and have achieved high gain, high output power, and near ideal noise performance. The feasibility of using semiconductor laser diodes to pump EDFAs insures that EDFAs are practical devices that will have great impact on optical communications as power boosters, optical repeaters, and optical preamplifiers.

John L. Zyskind

1992-01-01

12

40 CFR 152.161 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 152.161 Section 152...Pesticides § 152.161 Definitions. In addition to the definitions in § 152.3, the following...of a test substance in the diet that would cause 50...

2010-07-01

13

Efficiency and tuning of the erbium-doped glass lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Erbium-doped glass lasers operated near by 1 5 mm wavelength are helpful for medicine and biology optical communication and eye-safe range finder systems. Advances in erbium-doped glass especially phosphate glass and lasers based on it have been extensive in recent years. Nowadays we can approve that erbium glass lasers are not worse compared with the neodymium ones by many spectroscopic and laser properties. Developments of the energy spectral and temporal characteristics and tuning near the 1500 nm wavelength of the erbium - doped phosphate glass lasers are reported. 2. SPECTROSCOPIC PECULIARITIES OF THE ERBIUM DOPED GLASS Phosphate erbium-doped glass possess a number of spectroscopic peculiarities as a laser active medium. Energy level diagrams of Er3 ions and two other its co-doped ions -Yb3 and Cr3 and the actual transitions (radiate and nonradiate) between them are shown in Fig. 1 (a). Absorption spectrum of that phosphate glass is also shown in Fig. 1 (b) . One can see that the whole pum energy is absorbed only by coactivators - Yb Cr - Yb E r and Cr3 - and then quickly and efficiently transferred from them to Er3 ions. Thus ''7 lasing and pumping of the erbium glass are ''4 realized by means of quite different ions. 4 Thanks to that one can get a low laser threshold t1/2 usin a small doping of Er3 ions (about 1019 I3/2 cm ) and the same time have a high efficient 4T pumoing by using the big concentration of ions 15/2 Yb3 and Cr3 in them (1021 cm3 and 1020 b cm3 accordingly). Obstacles for high efficiency of the lasers may be connected with either increase of the back pump energy transfer from Yb3 ions to Cr3 ones by too large concentration of Cr3 ions or thermal distortions of the active medium. Optimal pumping conditions for lamp pumped Er - doped glass laser differ from neodymium ones. It is explained by the important role of pump energy transfer processes in Er - doped glass. In order to have of high efficient pumping it is necessary that energy transfer rates from Yb3 to Er3 - 3+ 3+ WybEr and from Cr to Yb - WCrYb would be a lot of more then pumping rate W p (mainly object to WYbEr W1). It means the need to use pump pulse durations of about 1O - 102 s and more in that lasers. 3. EFFICIENCY AND THERMAL DISTORTIONS IN THE LASERS Efficiency of the lamp pumped Cr - Yb - Er doped phosphate glass oscillator can be up to 3 or some more (slope efficiency is up to 3. 5 ) /1 at free - running operation and storage efficiency of amplifiers based on the glass can be up to 1. 2 / 3 /. It was achieved

Fromzel, Victor A.; Kuchma, Igor G.; Lunter, Sergei G.; Mak, Artur A.; Petrov, Aleksey A.

1992-11-01

14

Magnetic phases of erbium orthochromite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Erbium orthochromite, ErCrO3, is a distorted-perovskite which has antiferromagnetic ground state below 10 K and Cr3+ magnetic moments order at 133 K. The temperature dependence of magnetization is studied across different magnetic phases for ErCrO3 and different magnetization isotherms are analyzed. In the presence of external magnetic field, polycrystalline ErCrO3 develops weak ferromagnetism from antiferromagnetic ground state. These magnetic phase transitions are observed to be of first order which is justified by thermal hysteresis and Arrott-plots.

Tiwari, Brajesh; Krishna Surendra, M.; Ramachandra Rao, M. S.

2014-09-01

15

Gain Characteristics of Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers with High Erbium Concentration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gain characteristics of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFAs) with erbium concentrations as high as 8900 ppm have been investigated in detail with 0.98 mum and 1.48 mum pumping schemes. Although the emission cross section at 1.532 mum is 24% less than that with low erbium concentration as a result of concentration quenching, a gain as high as 24 dB was

Yasuo Kimura; Masataka Nakazawa

1993-01-01

16

RBS measurement of depth profiles of erbium incorporated into lithium niobate for optical amplifier applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) was used for the determination of Er 3+ concentration profiles in locally doped lithium niobate. The doped layers are the basic substrates for the fabrication of optical waveguiding structures which may be utilized as planar optical amplifiers and waveguiding lasers making use of the 4I 13/2 ? 4I 15/2 transition in Er 3+, which falls into the third low loss telecommunication window (1.5 ?m). We present a new aproach of fabrication of locally doped lithium niobate single crystal wafers. The doping occurs under moderate temperature (˜350°C) from reaction melts containing ca. 10 wt% of erbium nitrate. The erbium content in particular cuts varies dramatically between ca. 3 at.% in the Y- and Z-cut up to 20 at.% in the X-cuts. Erbium ions are localized in a 50 nm thick layer, but they can be diffused deeper into the substrate by subsequent annealing at 350°C. The Er concentrations of the samples doped at moderated temperature are compared with the Er concentrations of the samples doped by a standard high-temperature diffusion (>1000°C) from evaporated metal layers. To utilize the Er doped substrates in integrated optic circuits high quality waveguides must be subsequently fabricated. For that we used the Annealed Proton Exchange (APE) method with adipic acid. For the actual fabrication of the waveguides the following order of operation should be kept: the erbium doping should be done before the APE because the substantially changed structure of APE layers prevents the doping process. The APE process is checked by measurements of lithium depth profiles by Neutron Depth Profiling (NDP).

Pe?ina, Vratislav; Vacík, Ji?í; Hnatovicz, Vladimír.; ?ervená, Jarmila; Kolá?ová, Pavla; Špirková-Hradilová, Jarmila; Schröfel, Josef

1998-04-01

17

Erbium-doped aluminophosphosilicate optical fibres  

SciTech Connect

We have studied the active properties of erbium-doped aluminophosphosilicate (APS) core fibres in wide ranges of erbia, alumina and phosphorus pentoxide concentrations. The absorption and luminescence spectra of the P{sub 2}O{sub 5}- or Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-enriched erbium-doped APS fibres are shown to be similar to those of the erbium-doped fibres singly doped with phosphorus pentoxide or alumina, respectively. The formation of AlPO{sub 4} in APS fibres leads not only to a reduction in the refractive index of the glass but also to a marked increase in Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} solubility in silica. (optical fibres)

Likhachev, M E; Bubnov, M M; Zotov, K V; Medvedkov, O I [Fiber Optics Research Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Lipatov, D S; Yashkov, M V; Gur'yanov, Aleksei N [Institute of Chemistry of High-Purity Substances, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhnii Novgorod (Russian Federation)

2010-09-10

18

Assignments of the Raman modes of monoclinic erbium oxide  

SciTech Connect

As a heavy rare earth oxide, erbium oxide (Er{sub 2}O{sub 3}) has many attractive properties. Monoclinic Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} has useful properties not found in stable cubic Er{sub 2}O{sub 3}, such as unique optical properties and high radiation damage tolerance. In this study, cubic Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating and Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating with mixed phases were prepared. The Raman scattering spectra of these coatings were investigated by using a confocal micro-Raman spectrometer equipped with 325, 473, 514, 532, 633, and 784?nm lasers. A total of 17 first-order Raman modes of monoclinic Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} were identified and assigned. The modes at 83, 112, 152, 170, 278, 290, 409, 446, 478, 521, 603, and 622?cm{sup ?1} are of A{sub g} symmetry, whereas modes at 71, 98, 333, 409, 446, and 468?cm{sup ?1} are of B{sub g} symmetry. This research provides basic data necessary for the characterization of monoclinic Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} by Raman spectroscopy.

Yan, D.; Wu, P., E-mail: pingwu@sas.ustb.edu.cn; Zhang, S. P.; Liang, L.; Yang, F.; Pei, Y. L.; Chen, S. [Department of Physics, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China)

2013-11-21

19

Infrared spectroscopy and upconversion luminescence behaviour of erbium doped yttrium (III) oxide phosphor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper reports upconversion luminescence behaviour and infra-red spectroscopic pattern of erbium doped yttrium (III) oxide phosphor. Sample was synthesized by solid state reaction method with variable concentration or erbium (0.5-2.5 mol%). The conventional solid state method is suitable for large scale production and eco-friendly method. The prepared sample was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. From structural analysis by XRD technique shows cubic structure of prepared sample with variable concentration of erbium and no impurity phase were found when increase the concentration of Er3+. Particle size was calculated by Scherer's formula and it varies from 67 nm to 120 nm. The surface morphology of prepared phosphor was determined by field emission gun scanning electron microscopy (FEGSEM) technique. The surface morphology of the sample shows good connectivity with grains as well as some agglomerates formation occurs in sample. The functional group analysis was done by Fourier transform infra-red technique (FTIR) analysis which confirm the formation of Y2O3:Er3+ phosphor was prepared. The results indicated that the Y2O3:Er3+ phosphors might have high upconversion efficiency because of their low vibrational energy. Under 980 nm laser excitation sample shows intense green emission at 555 nm and orange emission at 590 nm wavelength. For green emission transition occurs 2H11/2 ? 4I15/2, 4S3/2 ? 4I15/2 for upconversion emissions. Excited state absorption and energy transfer process were discussed as possible upconversion mechanisms. The near infrared luminescence spectra was recorded. The upconversion luminescence intensity increase with increasing the concentration or erbium up to 2 mol% after that luminescence intensity decreases due to concentration quenching occurs. Spectrophotometric determinations of peaks are evaluated by Commission Internationale de I'Eclairage (CIE) technique. From CIE technique the dominant peak of from PL spectra shows intense green emission so the prepared phosphor is may be useful for green light emitting diode (GLED) application.

Dubey, Vikas; Tiwari, Ratnesh; Tamrakar, Raunak Kumar; Rathore, Gajendra Singh; Sharma, Chitrakant; Tiwari, Neha

2014-11-01

20

45 CFR 152.2 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Definitions. 152.2 Section...Provisions § 152.2 Definitions. For purposes of this part the following definitions apply: Creditable...212(d)(5) of the Immigration and Nationality...

2012-10-01

21

45 CFR 152.2 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Definitions. 152.2 Section...Provisions § 152.2 Definitions. For purposes of this part the following definitions apply: Creditable...212(d)(5) of the Immigration and Nationality...

2011-10-01

22

45 CFR 152.2 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Definitions. 152.2 Section...Provisions § 152.2 Definitions. For purposes of this part the following definitions apply: Creditable...212(d)(5) of the Immigration and Nationality...

2013-10-01

23

45 CFR 152.2 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Definitions. 152.2 Section...Provisions § 152.2 Definitions. For purposes of this part the following definitions apply: Creditable...212(d)(5) of the Immigration and Nationality...

2010-10-01

24

10 CFR 72.152 - Document control.  

10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01... 72.152 Section 72.152 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION...FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C WASTE Quality Assurance §...

2014-01-01

25

44 CFR 15.2 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01...true Definitions. 15.2 Section 15.2 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY...

2012-10-01

26

44 CFR 15.2 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01...false Definitions. 15.2 Section 15.2 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY...

2013-10-01

27

44 CFR 15.2 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01...false Definitions. 15.2 Section 15.2 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY...

2010-10-01

28

44 CFR 15.2 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

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2011-10-01

29

21 CFR 133.152 - Limburger cheese.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Limburger cheese. 133.152 Section 133.152 Food and Drugs...SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific...

2010-04-01

30

25 CFR 152.24 - Appraisal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Appraisal. 152.24 Section 152.24 Indians...Or Restricted Lands § 152.24 Appraisal. Except as otherwise provided by the Secretary, an appraisal shall be made indicating the fair...

2011-04-01

31

25 CFR 152.24 - Appraisal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Appraisal. 152.24 Section 152.24 Indians...Or Restricted Lands § 152.24 Appraisal. Except as otherwise provided by the Secretary, an appraisal shall be made indicating the fair...

2010-04-01

32

25 CFR 152.24 - Appraisal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Appraisal. 152.24 Section 152.24 Indians...Or Restricted Lands § 152.24 Appraisal. Except as otherwise provided by the Secretary, an appraisal shall be made indicating the fair...

2013-04-01

33

25 CFR 152.24 - Appraisal.  

... 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Appraisal. 152.24 Section 152.24 Indians...Or Restricted Lands § 152.24 Appraisal. Except as otherwise provided by the Secretary, an appraisal shall be made indicating the fair...

2014-04-01

34

25 CFR 152.26 - Advertisement.  

... Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Advertisement. 152.26 Section 152.26 Indians BUREAU OF...and Conveyances of Trust Or Restricted Lands § 152.26 Advertisement. (a) Upon approval of an application for an...

2014-04-01

35

25 CFR 152.26 - Advertisement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

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2011-04-01

36

25 CFR 152.26 - Advertisement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

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2012-04-01

37

25 CFR 152.26 - Advertisement.  

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2013-04-01

38

25 CFR 152.26 - Advertisement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

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2010-04-01

39

Resonantly pumped, erbium-doped, GSGG, 2.8 micron, solid state laser with energy recycling and high slope efficiency  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This invention is a laser system and method for producing a laser emission at a wavelength of substantially 2.8 microns and having a quantum efficiency of at least unity and a slope efficiency of about 36%. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, the laser system comprises a laser cavity defined by first and second reflective elements with one of the reflective elements operating as an output coupler; a crystal disposed in the laser cavity and having a GSGG host material doped with a preselected percent concentration of erbium, the GSGG host material and preselected percent concentration of erbium being selected so as to provide a quantum efficiency of at least unity by the 4I13/2 + 4I13/2 right arrow 4I9/2 + 4I15/2 upconversion process and a slope efficiency of about 36% when the crystal is resonantly pumped; and a resonant pump laser for directly pumping the 4I11/2 upper laser state of the erbium with a pump beam to cause the crystal to produce a laser emission corresponding to the 4I11/2 right arrow 4I13/2 laser transition having a wavelength of substantially 2.8 microns.

Esterowitz, Leon; Stoneman, Robert C.

1993-04-01

40

Preparation and characterization of visible-light-driven TiO2 photocatalyst Co-doped with nitrogen and erbium.  

PubMed

A series of nitrogen and erbium co-doped TiO2 photocatalyst was prepared by sol-hydrothermal method. The structure and properties of the photocatalyst were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS). The XRD and BET results showed that co-doping inhibited the increase of crystallite size and enlarged specific surface areas. XPS spectroscopy indicated nitrogen atoms were incorporated into TiO2 lattice, and erbium atoms mostly existed in the forms of Er2O3. A shift of the absorption edge to the lower energy and four absorption bands located at 654, 544, 524 and 489 nm attributed to the 4f transitions of 4I15/2 --> 4F2/9, 4I15/2 --> 4S3/2, 4I15/2 --> 2H11/2, 4I15/2 --> 4F7/2 of Er3+ were observed using DRS spectroscopy. The catalytic efficency was evaluated by the photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange (MO) under visible light irradiation. The results showed that the photocatalytic performance of the co-doped TiO2 was related with the hydrothermal temperature and the molar ratio of N/Ti, and they showed higher acitivites than pure TiO2. Results determined by fluorescence technique revealed that irradiation (lambda > 400 nm) of TiO2 photocatalyst dispersed in MO solution induces the generation of the highly active hydroxyl radicals (OH). It indicated the photocatalytic activities of TiO2 photocatalyst were correlation with the formation rate of hydroxyl radicals (OH) and other active oxygen species. PMID:22852309

Chen, Guihua; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Juihui; Wu, Chenglin; Liang, Huading; Yang, Hui

2012-05-01

41

Optical and spectroscopic properties of soda lime alumino-silicate glasses doped with erbium and silver  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spectroscopic properties of Ag/Er co-doped soda lime silicate glasses have been studied with the aim of assessing the effective role of silver as a sensitizer for erbium. Changes in spectroscopic properties of Er 3+ as a function of silver addition to the base composition have been measured. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), absorption as well as photoluminescence measurements in the visible and infrared spectral region, particularly 4I 13/2 ? 4I 15/2 transition of the Er 3+ ion were performed; excitation wavelengths in the range from 325 to 808 nm were used. Enhancement of the Er 3+ luminescence at 1.54 ?m was observed when Ag was added.

Carmo, A. P.; Bell, M. J. V.; Da Costa, Z. M.; Anjos, V.; Barbosa, L. C.; Chillcce, E. F.; Giehl, J. M.; Pontuschka, W. M.

2011-10-01

42

Theoretical and experimental evaluation of multilayer porous silicon structures for enhanced erbium up-conversion luminescence  

E-print Network

The enhancement of Er$^{3+}$-based up-conversion for photovoltaics in multilayer porous silicon photonic structures is considered theoretically and experimentally. Transfer matrix simulations are used to assess the increased photonic density of states that results from the slowing of energy propagation at the short-wavelength edge of one-dimensional photonic band gaps. An indirect calculation of Er$^{3+}$ absorption enhancement within slow-light modes is then used to illustrate an increase in absorption over the bulk value: the effective absorption coefficient is shown to increase by more than 22% over a broad spectral region and by more than 400% over a narrow region. Erbium-doped porous silicon photonic crystals are fabricated with the photonic band edge coincident with the $^{4}I_{15/2} \\rightarrow^{4}I_{13/2}$ Er$^{3+}$ transition. Challenges in fabrication and the results of compositional analysis are discussed. An angular-dependent photoluminescence measurement demonstrates emission intensity that varie...

Johnson, Craig M; Tan, H Hoe; Conibeer, Gavin J

2012-01-01

43

Erbium-doped phosphate fiber amplifiers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the development of phosphate glass fiber amplifier with a high gain per unit length is reviewed. The performance of compact multimode pumped erbium-doped phosphate fiber amplifiers is presented. A fiber amplifier with a small signal net gain of 41dB at 1535nm and 21dB over the full C-band was demonstrated using a newly developed 8-cm long erbium-doped phosphate fiber excited with a 1-W, 975-nm multimode laser diode. A theoretical model was developed for the multi-mode pumped amplifier based on modified rate equations and effective beam propagation method. Close agreement between experimental and modeling results is observed.

Jiang, Shibin

2003-08-01

44

Hybrid quantum circuit with implanted erbium ions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on hybrid circuit quantum electrodynamics experiments with focused ion beam implanted Er3+ ions in Y2SiO5 coupled to an array of superconducting lumped element microwave resonators. The Y2SiO5 crystal is divided into several areas with distinct erbium doping concentrations, each coupled to a separate resonator. The coupling strength is varied from 5 MHz to 18.7 MHz, while the linewidth ranges between 50 MHz and 130 MHz. We confirm the paramagnetic properties of the implanted spin ensemble by evaluating the temperature dependence of the coupling. The efficiency of the implantation process is analyzed and the results are compared to a bulk doped Er:Y2SiO5 sample. We demonstrate the integration of these engineered erbium spin ensembles with superconducting circuits.

Probst, S.; Kukharchyk, N.; Rotzinger, H.; Tkal?ec, A.; Wünsch, S.; Wieck, A. D.; Siegel, M.; Ustinov, A. V.; Bushev, P. A.

2014-10-01

45

Performance of an erbium laser vibration sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a 1.55 micrometer coherent fiber laser radar designed and developed at ONERA in France. This eye-safe Doppler system uses a 0.5 W codoped Erbium\\/Ytterbium fiber laser and a compact fiber optical architecture. The system has been tested at distances up to 1 km. Experimental results are presented and performances compared to the theoretical model taking into account

Jean-Pierre Cariou; Beatrice Augere

1999-01-01

46

Characterization of the surface changes during the activation of erbium/erbium oxide for hydrogen storage.  

SciTech Connect

Erbium is known to effectively load with hydrogen when held at high temperature in a hydrogen atmosphere. To make the storage of hydrogen kinetically feasible, a thermal activation step is required. Activation is a routine practice, but very little is known about the physical, chemical, and/or electronic processes that occur during Activation. This work presents in situ characterization of erbium Activation using variable energy photoelectron spectroscopy at various stages of the Activation process. Modification of the passive surface oxide plays a significant role in Activation. The chemical and electronic changes observed from core-level and valence band spectra will be discussed along with corroborating ion scattering spectroscopy measurements.

Zavadil, Kevin Robert; Snow, Clark Sheldon; Brumbach, Michael Todd

2010-09-01

47

15 CFR 930.152 - Application.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT FEDERAL CONSISTENCY WITH APPROVED COASTAL MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS Consistency of Federal Activities Having Interstate Coastal Effects § 930.152 Application....

2010-01-01

48

Design for a single mode erbium-doped fiber laser  

E-print Network

The objective of this research was to design and fabricate a single-mode, narrow-linewidth linear erbium-doped fiber laser using a solid etalon for mode selection. This thesis describes the design of the linear laser which uses erbium-doped fiber...

Wang, Jon-En

2012-06-07

49

Synoviorthesis with erbium-169: a double-blind controlled comparison of erbium-169 with corticosteroid.  

PubMed Central

Intra-articular injections of erbium--169 citrate and methylprednisolone acetate in hand joints were compared in a randomly selected double-blind trial. The patients included 21 with rheumatoid arthritis and 3 with psoriatic arthritis, and the design was an intrapatient comparison. No difference between joints treated with the radioisotope or steroid was observed in the year following injection. PMID:386961

Gumpel, J M; Matthews, S A; Fisher, M

1979-01-01

50

Synoviorthesis with erbium-169: a double-blind controlled comparison of erbium-169 with corticosteroid.  

PubMed

Intra-articular injections of erbium--169 citrate and methylprednisolone acetate in hand joints were compared in a randomly selected double-blind trial. The patients included 21 with rheumatoid arthritis and 3 with psoriatic arthritis, and the design was an intrapatient comparison. No difference between joints treated with the radioisotope or steroid was observed in the year following injection. PMID:386961

Gumpel, J M; Matthews, S A; Fisher, M

1979-08-01

51

Synoviorthesis with erbium-169: a double-blind controlled comparison of erbium-169 with corticosteroid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intra-articular injections of erbium--169 citrate and methylprednisolone acetate in hand joints were compared in a randomly selected double-blind trial. The patients included 21 with rheumatoid arthritis and 3 with psoriatic arthritis, and the design was an intrapatient comparison. No difference between joints treated with the radioisotope or steroid was observed in the year following injection.

J M Gumpel; S A Matthews; M Fisher

1979-01-01

52

17 CFR 201.152 - Filing of papers: Form.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Filing of papers: Form. 201.152 Section 201.152 ...Practice General Rules § 201.152 Filing of papers: Form. (a) Specifications. Papers filed in connection with any proceeding as...

2010-04-01

53

40 CFR 152.96 - Documentation of a data gap.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Documentation of a data gap. 152.96 Section 152.96 Protection...PROCEDURES Procedures To Ensure Protection of Data Submitters' Rights § 152.96 Documentation of a data gap. Except as provided in...

2011-07-01

54

40 CFR 152.96 - Documentation of a data gap.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Documentation of a data gap. 152.96 Section 152.96 Protection...PROCEDURES Procedures To Ensure Protection of Data Submitters' Rights § 152.96 Documentation of a data gap. Except as provided in...

2013-07-01

55

40 CFR 152.96 - Documentation of a data gap.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Documentation of a data gap. 152.96 Section 152.96 Protection...PROCEDURES Procedures To Ensure Protection of Data Submitters' Rights § 152.96 Documentation of a data gap. Except as provided in...

2012-07-01

56

40 CFR 152.96 - Documentation of a data gap.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Documentation of a data gap. 152.96 Section 152.96 Protection...PROCEDURES Procedures To Ensure Protection of Data Submitters' Rights § 152.96 Documentation of a data gap. Except as provided in...

2010-07-01

57

28 CFR 115.152-115.153 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...115.152-115.153 Section 115.152-115.153 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Lockups Reporting §§ 115.152-115.153...

2012-07-01

58

14 CFR 152.303 - Financial management system.  

...2014-01-01 false Financial management system. 152.303 Section 152...Requirements § 152.303 Financial management system. Each sponsor or planning...establish and maintain a financial management system that meets the standards...

2014-01-01

59

Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 152  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detailed level schemes, decay schemes, and the experimental data on which they are based are presented for all nuclei with mass number A=152. The experimental data are evaluated; inconsistencies and discrepancies are noted; and adopted values for level and ?-ray energies, ? intensities, as well as for other nuclear properties are given. This evaluation replaces the A=152 evaluation published by Agda Artna-Cohen in Nuclear Data Sheets 79, 1 (1996) and the evaluation for 152Dy prepared by Balraj Singh and published in Nuclear Data Sheets 95, 995 (2002).

Martin, M. J.

2013-11-01

60

Effect of AgCl on spectroscopic properties of erbium doped zinc tellurite glass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Er3+ doped zinc tellurite glass containing Ag nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized from high purity raw materials by melt quenching method and the influence of Ag NPs on the spectroscopic properties were investigated. The glasses are characterized using DTA, EDX, TEM, FTIR, UV-Vis-NIR and photoluminescence (PL) techniques. The DTA data reveal that the addition of silver chloride increased the thermal stability from 0.52 to 0.67 for samples without and with 2 mol% AgCl respectively. The sharp peaks in EDX spectra show the presence of Ag nanocrystallites. The TEM micrograph shows the distribution of NPs is Gaussian and the average size is estimated ˜10 nm. Seven absorption bands of erbium were evidenced in the UV-Vis-NIR measurements. Optical band gap and density were found to decrease with addition of AgCl concentration, while molar volume increased. The PL spectra exhibit four peaks corresponding to 2H11/2 ? 4I15/2, 4S3/2 ? 4I15/2, 4F9/2 ? 4I15/2 and 4S3/2 ? 4I13/2 transitions. An enhancement in the order of six times for 2 mol% of dopant and a subsequent quench in luminescence spectra of co-doped zinc tellurite glasses were observed. Such enhancements were attributed to silver nanoparticles with average size of 10 nm and absorption band centered at 552 nm. The studied glasses provide enormous scope to achieve the materials suitable for nanophotonics, solid state lasers and color displays.

Reza Dousti, M.; Sahar, M. R.; Ghoshal, S. K.; Amjad, Raja J.; Samavati, A. R.

2013-03-01

61

10 CFR 60.152 - Implementation.  

...WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES Quality Assurance § 60.152 Implementation. DOE shall implement a quality assurance program based on the criteria of appendix B of 10 CFR part...supplemented by additional criteria as required by §...

2014-01-01

62

37 CFR 1.152 - Design drawings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Processing Provisions Design Patents § 1.152 Design drawings...as formal drawings in one application. Photographs submitted in lieu of ink drawings in design patent applications must not disclose environmental structure...

2010-07-01

63

14 CFR 152.413 - Notice requirement.  

14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01... Section 152.413 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...that no person shall, on the grounds of race, creed, color, national origin,...

2014-01-01

64

14 CFR 152.413 - Notice requirement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01... Section 152.413 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...that no person shall, on the grounds of race, creed, color, national origin,...

2011-01-01

65

14 CFR 152.413 - Notice requirement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01... Section 152.413 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...that no person shall, on the grounds of race, creed, color, national origin,...

2012-01-01

66

14 CFR 152.413 - Notice requirement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01... Section 152.413 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...that no person shall, on the grounds of race, creed, color, national origin,...

2013-01-01

67

14 CFR 152.413 - Notice requirement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01... Section 152.413 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...that no person shall, on the grounds of race, creed, color, national origin,...

2010-01-01

68

40 CFR 152.83 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Data Submitters' Rights § 152.83 Definitions...chemical) or new combination of active ingredients (new combination) first registered...chemical or new combination (first registration...who possesses all rights to...

2010-07-01

69

40 CFR 152.81 - Applicability.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Procedures To Ensure Protection of Data Submitters' Rights § 152...Administrator or his designee finds that Agency consideration of scientific data would be necessary in order...consideration of scientific data would not be necessary...

2010-07-01

70

7 CFR 985.152 - Handling report.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MARKETING ORDER REGULATING THE HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Administrative Rules and Regulations § 985.152 Handling report....

2010-01-01

71

7 CFR 985.152 - Handling report.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MARKETING ORDER REGULATING THE HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Administrative Rules and Regulations § 985.152 Handling report....

2013-01-01

72

7 CFR 985.152 - Handling report.  

...AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MARKETING ORDER REGULATING THE HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Administrative Rules and Regulations § 985.152 Handling report....

2014-01-01

73

7 CFR 985.152 - Handling report.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MARKETING ORDER REGULATING THE HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Administrative Rules and Regulations § 985.152 Handling report....

2011-01-01

74

7 CFR 985.152 - Handling report.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MARKETING ORDER REGULATING THE HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Administrative Rules and Regulations § 985.152 Handling report....

2012-01-01

75

50 CFR 20.152 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Special Procedures for Issuance of Annual Hunting Regulations § 20.152 Definitions. As used in this subpart N: (a) Flyway...

2012-10-01

76

50 CFR 20.152 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Special Procedures for Issuance of Annual Hunting Regulations § 20.152 Definitions. As used in this subpart N: (a) Flyway...

2013-10-01

77

50 CFR 20.152 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Special Procedures for Issuance of Annual Hunting Regulations § 20.152 Definitions. As used in this subpart N: (a) Flyway...

2011-10-01

78

50 CFR 20.152 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Special Procedures for Issuance of Annual Hunting Regulations § 20.152 Definitions. As used in this subpart N: (a) Flyway...

2010-10-01

79

42 CFR 415.152 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PROVIDERS, SUPERVISING PHYSICIANS IN TEACHING SETTINGS, AND RESIDENTS IN CERTAIN SETTINGS Physician Services in Teaching Settings § 415.152 Definitions...the supervision of a physician in a teaching hospital making the cost election...

2011-10-01

80

42 CFR 415.152 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PROVIDERS, SUPERVISING PHYSICIANS IN TEACHING SETTINGS, AND RESIDENTS IN CERTAIN SETTINGS Physician Services in Teaching Settings § 415.152 Definitions...the supervision of a physician in a teaching hospital making the cost election...

2010-10-01

81

42 CFR 415.152 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...PROVIDERS, SUPERVISING PHYSICIANS IN TEACHING SETTINGS, AND RESIDENTS IN CERTAIN SETTINGS Physician Services in Teaching Settings § 415.152 Definitions...the supervision of a physician in a teaching hospital making the cost election...

2012-10-01

82

42 CFR 415.152 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROVIDERS, SUPERVISING PHYSICIANS IN TEACHING SETTINGS, AND RESIDENTS IN CERTAIN SETTINGS Physician Services in Teaching Settings § 415.152 Definitions...the supervision of a physician in a teaching hospital making the cost election...

2013-10-01

83

40 CFR 141.152 - Effective dates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Consumer Confidence Reports § 141.152 Effective dates. (a) The regulations in this subpart shall take effect on September 18,...

2013-07-01

84

40 CFR 141.152 - Effective dates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Consumer Confidence Reports § 141.152 Effective dates. (a) The regulations in this subpart shall take effect on September 18,...

2012-07-01

85

40 CFR 141.152 - Effective dates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Consumer Confidence Reports § 141.152 Effective dates. (a) The regulations in this subpart shall take effect on September 18,...

2011-07-01

86

40 CFR 141.152 - Effective dates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Consumer Confidence Reports § 141.152 Effective dates. (a) The regulations in this subpart shall take effect on September 18,...

2010-07-01

87

44 CFR 152.9 - Reconsideration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...HOMELAND SECURITY FIRE PREVENTION AND CONTROL ASSISTANCE TO FIREFIGHTERS GRANT PROGRAM § 152.9 Reconsideration. (a) Reconsideration...Administrator, Grant Programs Directorate, Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program, FEMA, 800 K Street, NW., South...

2011-10-01

88

44 CFR 152.9 - Reconsideration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...HOMELAND SECURITY FIRE PREVENTION AND CONTROL ASSISTANCE TO FIREFIGHTERS GRANT PROGRAM § 152.9 Reconsideration. (a) Reconsideration...Administrator, Grant Programs Directorate, Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program, FEMA, 800 K Street, NW., South...

2013-10-01

89

44 CFR 152.9 - Reconsideration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...HOMELAND SECURITY FIRE PREVENTION AND CONTROL ASSISTANCE TO FIREFIGHTERS GRANT PROGRAM § 152.9 Reconsideration. (a) Reconsideration...Administrator, Grant Programs Directorate, Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program, FEMA, 800 K Street, NW., South...

2010-10-01

90

44 CFR 152.9 - Reconsideration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...HOMELAND SECURITY FIRE PREVENTION AND CONTROL ASSISTANCE TO FIREFIGHTERS GRANT PROGRAM § 152.9 Reconsideration. (a) Reconsideration...Administrator, Grant Programs Directorate, Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program, FEMA, 800 K Street, NW., South...

2012-10-01

91

24 CFR 982.152 - Administrative fee.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PROGRAM Annual Contributions Contract and PHA Administration of Program § 982.152...HUD may approve administrative fees to the PHA for any of the following purposes: ...necessary additional expenses incurred by the PHA to provide reasonable accommodation...

2010-04-01

92

Erbium triflate promoted multicomponent synthesis of highly substituted imidazoles.  

PubMed

The synthesis of highly substituted imidazole derivatives has been achieved from various ?-azido chalcones, aryl aldehydes, and anilines. This multicomponent protocol employs erbium triflate as a catalyst resulting in excellent yield of the imidazoles. PMID:24428260

Rajaguru, Kandasamy; Suresh, Rajendran; Mariappan, Arumugam; Muthusubramanian, Shanmugam; Bhuvanesh, Nattamai

2014-02-01

93

Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifier Elements for Structural Analysis Sensors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The use of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFA's) in optical fiber sensor systems for structural analysis is described. EDFA's were developed for primary applications as periodic regenerator amplifiers in long-distance fiber-based communication systems. T...

P. Hanna-hawver K. D. Kamdar, S. Mehta, S. Nagarajan, M. H. Nasta

1992-01-01

94

UNCORRECTED 2 Luminescence of erbium-doped bismuthborate glasses  

E-print Network

UNCORRECTED PROOF 2 Luminescence of erbium-doped bismuth­borate glasses 3 Isabella-Ioana Oprea ions in the binary glass system bismuth oxide (Bi2O3)­boric oxide (B2O3) are 9 measured.V. 17 PACS: 42.70.Ce; 78.55.Qr 18 Keywords: Erbium doping; Bismuth­borate glass; Luminescence 19 20 1

Osnabrück, Universität

95

Luminescence of erbium ions in tellurite glasses  

SciTech Connect

Optical characteristics of new generation of tellurite glasses having high stability against crystallization have been studied. As the initial reagents for the glasses synthesis on the base of tellurium oxide (TeO{sub 2}) there were used such oxides as WO{sub 3}, MoO{sub 3}, La{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, ZnO—Bi{sub 2}O{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and active components such as high purity Er{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Yb{sub 2}O{sub 3}, ErF{sub 3} and YbF{sub 3}. Intensities of luminescence at 1.53 µm of the erbium ions were determined after excitation at 975 nm. Experimental data obtained have shown the possibility to use the studied glasses doped by Er{sup 3+} and Yb{sup 3+} as active elements for fiber and integrated optics. - Graphical abstract: In contrast to the case of ZBLAN glass the TeO{sub 2}–WO{sub 3} (Er{sup 3+}) glass has bright intensity of luminescence at 1.53 µm for erbium ions that should be caused by excitation at 975 nm. Experimental data obtained have shown the possibility to use the studied glasses doped by Er{sup 3+} and Yb{sup 3+} as active elements for fiber and integrated optics. Display Omitted - Highlights: • We examined changes in growth of luminescence in doubly-doped tellurite glasses. • We found that luminescence grows in two orders by using Er{sup 3+} and Yb{sup 3+} at 1.53 ?m. • We see possibility to use those glasses as active elements for integrated optics.

Savikin, Alexander P.; Grishin, Igor A.; Sharkov, Valery V.; Budruev, Andrei V., E-mail: budruev@gmail.com

2013-11-15

96

Assessment of spectroscopic properties of erbium ions in a soda-lime silicate glass after silver sodium exchange  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spectroscopic properties of Ag/Er co-doped thin plates of silicate glass were investigated with the aim of assessing the effective role of silver as a sensitizer for erbium. Additive heat treatments in air at different temperatures were performed on both a silver-exchanged and a silver-free plate in order to promote the formation of silver nanoparticles in the former and to refer to the later in the spectroscopic characterization. Absorption as well as photoluminescence and lifetime measurements in the region of the 4I 13/2 ? 4I 15/2 transition of the Er 3+ ion were performed; excitation wavelengths in the range from 360 to 750 nm were used. Enhancement of the Er 3+ luminescence at 1.53 ?m was observed when the excitation wavelength was in the blue region. This spectral range typically coincides with the excitation energy of the surface plasmon resonance of nanometer-sized spherical silver particles.

Chiasera, A.; Ferrari, M.; Mattarelli, M.; Montagna, M.; Pelli, S.; Portales, H.; Zheng, J.; Righini, G. C.

2005-10-01

97

Search for Intrinsic Excitations in 152Sm  

E-print Network

The 685 keV excitation energy of the first excited 0+ state in 152Sm makes it an attractive candidate to explore expected two-phonon excitations at low energy. Multiple-step Coulomb excitation and inelastic neutron scattering studies of 152Sm are used to probe the E2 collectivity of excited 0+ states in this "soft" nucleus and the results are compared with model predictions. No candidates for two-phonon K=0+ quadrupole vibrational states are found. A 2+, K=2 state with strong E2 decay to the first excited K=0+ band and a probable 3+ band member are established.

W. D. Kulp; J. L. Wood; P. E. Garrett; C. Y. Wu; D. Cline; J. M. Allmond; D. Bandyopadhyay; D. Dashdorj; S. N. Choudry; A. B. Hayes; H. Hua; M. G. Mynk; M. T. McEllistrem; C. J. McKay; J. N. Orce; R. Teng; S. W. Yates

2008-05-13

98

Shape Coexistence and Mixing in 152Sm  

E-print Network

Experimental studies of 152Sm using multiple-step Coulomb excitation and inelastic neutron scattering provide key data that clarify the low-energy collective structure of this nucleus. No candidates for two-phonon beta-vibrational states are found. Experimental level energies of the ground-state and first excited (0+ state) rotational bands, electric monopole transition rates, reduced quadrupole transition rates, and the isomer shift of the first excited 2+ state are all described within ~10% precision using two-band mixing calculations. The basic collective structure of 152Sm is described using strong mixing of near-degenerate coexisting quasi-rotational bands with different deformations.

W. D. Kulp; J. L. Wood; P. E. Garrett; C. Y. Wu; D. Cline; J. M. Allmond; D. Bandyopadhyay; D. Dashdorj; S. N. Choudry; A. B. Hayes; H. Hua; S. R. Lesher; M. Mynk; M. T. McEllistrem; C. J. McKay; J. N. Orce; R. Teng; S. W. Yates

2007-06-28

99

Composition and structure of sputter deposited erbium hydride thin films  

SciTech Connect

Erbium hydride thin films are grown onto polished, a-axis {alpha} Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (sapphire) substrates by reactive ion beam sputtering and analyzed to determine composition, phase and microstructure. Erbium is sputtered while maintaining a H{sub 2} partial pressure of 1.4 x 10{sup {minus}4} Torr. Growth is conducted at several substrate temperatures between 30 and 500 C. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and elastic recoil detection analyses after deposition show that the H/Er areal density ratio is approximately 3:1 for growth temperatures of 30, 150 and 275 C, while for growth above {approximately}430 C, the ratio of hydrogen to metal is closer to 2:1. However, x-ray diffraction shows that all films have a cubic metal sublattice structure corresponding to that of ErH{sub 2}. RBS and Auger electron that sputtered erbium hydride thin films are relatively free of impurities.

ADAMS,DAVID P.; ROMERO,JUAN A.; RODRIGUEZ,MARK A.; FLORO,JERROLD A.; BANKS,JAMES C.

2000-05-10

100

Erbium concentration dependent absorbance in tellurite glass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Enhancing the optical absorption cross-section in topically important rare earth doped tellurite glasses is challenging for photonic devices. Controlled synthesis and detailed characterizations of the optical properties of these glasses are important for the optimization. The influence of varying concentration of Er3+ ions on the absorbance characteristics of lead tellurite glasses synthesized via melt-quenching technique are investigated. The UV-Vis absorption spectra exhibits six prominent peaks centered at 490, 526, 652, 800, 982 and 1520 nm ascribed to the transitions in erbium ion from the ground state to the excited states 4F7/2, 2H11/2, 4F9/2, 4I9/2, 2H11/2 and 4I13/2, respectively. The results are analyzed by means of optical band gap Eg and Urbach energy Eu. The values of the energy band gap are found decreased from 2.82 to 2.51 eV and the Urbach energy increased from 0.15 to 0.24 eV with the increase of the Er2O3 concentration from 0 to 1.5 mol%. The excellent absorbance of the prepared tellurite glasses makes them suitable for fabricating solid state lasers.

Sazali, E. S.; Rohani, M. S.; Sahar, M. R.; Arifin, R.; Ghoshal, S. K.; Hamzah, K.

2014-09-01

101

Activation of erbium films for hydrogen storage  

SciTech Connect

Hydriding of metals can be routinely performed at high temperature in a rich hydrogen atmosphere. Prior to the hydrogen loading process, a thermal activation procedure is required to promote facile hydrogen sorption into the metal. Despite the wide spread utilization of this activation procedure, little is known about the chemical and electronic changes that occur during activation and how this thermal pretreatment leads to increased rates of hydrogen uptake. This study utilized variable kinetic energy X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to interrogate the changes during in situ thermal annealing of erbium films, with results confirmed by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and low energy ion scattering. Activation can be identified by a large increase in photoemission between the valence band edge and the Fermi level and appears to occur over a two stage process. The first stage involves desorption of contaminants and recrystallization of the oxide, initially impeding hydrogen loading. Further heating overcomes the first stage and leads to degradation of the passive surface oxide leading to a bulk film more accessible for hydrogen loading.

Brumbach, Michael T.; Ohlhausen, James A. [Materials Characterization Department, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Zavadil, Kevin R. [Materials Reliability Department, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Snow, Clark S. [Applied Science and Technology Maturation Department, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Woicik, Joseph C. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States)

2011-06-01

102

21 CFR 146.152 - Orange juice with preservative.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice with preservative. 146.152 Section...Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.152 Orange juice with preservative. (a) Orange juice with preservative is the food...

2010-04-01

103

10 CFR 431.152 - Definitions concerning commercial clothes washers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Definitions concerning commercial clothes washers. 431.152 Section 431...CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Clothers Washers § 431.152...

2013-01-01

104

10 CFR 431.152 - Definitions concerning commercial clothes washers.  

...2014-01-01 false Definitions concerning commercial clothes washers. 431.152 Section 431...CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Clothers Washers § 431.152...

2014-01-01

105

10 CFR 431.152 - Definitions concerning commercial clothes washers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Definitions concerning commercial clothes washers. 431.152 Section 431...CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Clothers Washers § 431.152...

2011-01-01

106

10 CFR 431.152 - Definitions concerning commercial clothes washers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Definitions concerning commercial clothes washers. 431.152 Section 431...CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Clothers Washers § 431.152...

2010-01-01

107

10 CFR 431.152 - Definitions concerning commercial clothes washers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Definitions concerning commercial clothes washers. 431.152 Section 431...CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Clothers Washers § 431.152...

2012-01-01

108

44 CFR 16.152-16.159 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01...152-16.159 Section 16.152-16.159 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY...

2011-10-01

109

44 CFR 16.152-16.159 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01...152-16.159 Section 16.152-16.159 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY...

2013-10-01

110

12 CFR 3.152 - Simple risk weight approach (SRWA).  

... 2014-01-01 false Simple risk weight approach (SRWA). 3.152 Section...Equity Exposures § 3.152 Simple risk weight approach (SRWA). (a) General...section) by the lowest applicable risk weight in this section. (1) Zero...

2014-01-01

111

12 CFR 324.152 - Simple risk weight approach (SRWA).  

... 2014-01-01 false Simple risk weight approach (SRWA). 324.152 Section...Exposures § 324.152 Simple risk weight approach (SRWA). (a) General...section) by the lowest applicable risk weight in this section. (1) Zero...

2014-01-01

112

12 CFR 217.152 - Simple risk weight approach (SRWA).  

... 2014-01-01 false Simple risk weight approach (SRWA). 217.152 Section...Exposures § 217.152 Simple risk weight approach (SRWA). (a) General...section) by the lowest applicable risk weight in this section. (1) Zero...

2014-01-01

113

40 CFR 152.168 - Advertising of restricted use products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Advertising of restricted use products. 152...Classification of Pesticides § 152.168 Advertising of restricted use products. ...radio and television. (4) Telephone advertising. (5) Billboards and...

2012-07-01

114

40 CFR 152.168 - Advertising of restricted use products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Advertising of restricted use products. 152...Classification of Pesticides § 152.168 Advertising of restricted use products. ...radio and television. (4) Telephone advertising. (5) Billboards and...

2013-07-01

115

14 CFR 152.303 - Financial management system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Financial management system. 152.303...AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Accounting and Reporting Requirements...152.303 Financial management system. Each sponsor...maintain a financial management system that meets...

2011-01-01

116

14 CFR 152.313 - Property management standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Property management standards. 152.313...AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Accounting and Reporting Requirements...152.313 Property management standards. (a...and maintain property management standards in...

2011-01-01

117

44 CFR 152.6 - Application review and award process.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY FIRE PREVENTION AND CONTROL ASSISTANCE TO FIREFIGHTERS GRANT PROGRAM § 152.6 Application review and award process. (a) As stated in § 152.5, we...

2013-10-01

118

44 CFR 152.6 - Application review and award process.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY FIRE PREVENTION AND CONTROL ASSISTANCE TO FIREFIGHTERS GRANT PROGRAM § 152.6 Application review and award process. (a) As stated in § 152.5, we...

2012-10-01

119

44 CFR 152.6 - Application review and award process.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY FIRE PREVENTION AND CONTROL ASSISTANCE TO FIREFIGHTERS GRANT PROGRAM § 152.6 Application review and award process. (a) As stated in § 152.5, we...

2011-10-01

120

Characterization of the surface changes during the activation process of erbium/erbium oxide for hydrogen storage.  

SciTech Connect

Erbium is known to effectively load with hydrogen when held at high temperature in a hydrogen atmosphere. To make the storage of hydrogen kinetically feasible, a thermal activation step is required. Activation is a routine practice, but very little is known about the physical, chemical, and/or electronic processes that occur during Activation. This work presents in situ characterization of erbium Activation using variable energy photoelectron spectroscopy at various stages of the Activation process. Modification of the passive surface oxide plays a significant role in Activation. The chemical and electronic changes observed from core-level and valence band spectra will be discussed along with corroborating ion scattering spectroscopy measurements.

Zavadil, Kevin Robert; Snow, Clark Sheldon; Ohlhausen, James Anthony; Brumbach, Michael Todd

2010-10-01

121

27 CFR 22.152 - Reconsignment in transit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reconsignment in transit. 22.152 Section 22.152 Alcohol, Tobacco Products...Tax-Free or Recovered Alcohol § 22.152 Reconsignment in transit. (a) Reconsignment. Tax-free alcohol may...

2010-04-01

122

19 CFR 10.152 - Bona-fide gifts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bona-fide gifts. 10.152 Section 10.152 Customs Duties...Provisions Importations Not over $200 and Bona Fide Gifts § 10.152 Bona-fide gifts. Subject to the conditions in §...

2012-04-01

123

19 CFR 10.152 - Bona-fide gifts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bona-fide gifts. 10.152 Section 10.152 Customs Duties...Provisions Importations Not over $200 and Bona Fide Gifts § 10.152 Bona-fide gifts. Subject to the conditions in §...

2013-04-01

124

19 CFR 10.152 - Bona-fide gifts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bona-fide gifts. 10.152 Section 10.152 Customs Duties...Provisions Importations Not over $200 and Bona Fide Gifts § 10.152 Bona-fide gifts. Subject to the conditions in §...

2010-04-01

125

19 CFR 10.152 - Bona-fide gifts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bona-fide gifts. 10.152 Section 10.152 Customs Duties...Provisions Importations Not over $200 and Bona Fide Gifts § 10.152 Bona-fide gifts. Subject to the conditions in §...

2011-04-01

126

19 CFR 10.152 - Bona-fide gifts.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bona-fide gifts. 10.152 Section 10.152 Customs Duties...Provisions Importations Not over $200 and Bona Fide Gifts § 10.152 Bona-fide gifts. Subject to the conditions in §...

2014-04-01

127

27 CFR 9.152 - Malibu-Newton Canyon.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Malibu-Newton Canyon. 9.152 Section 9.152...Viticultural Areas § 9.152 Malibu-Newton Canyon. (a) Name. The name of...described in this petition is “Malibu-Newton Canyon.” (b) Approved maps....

2014-04-01

128

27 CFR 9.152 - Malibu-Newton Canyon.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Malibu-Newton Canyon. 9.152 Section 9.152...Viticultural Areas § 9.152 Malibu-Newton Canyon. (a) Name. The name of...described in this petition is “Malibu-Newton Canyon.” (b) Approved maps....

2011-04-01

129

27 CFR 9.152 - Malibu-Newton Canyon.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Malibu-Newton Canyon. 9.152 Section 9.152...Viticultural Areas § 9.152 Malibu-Newton Canyon. (a) Name. The name of...described in this petition is “Malibu-Newton Canyon.” (b) Approved maps....

2010-04-01

130

27 CFR 9.152 - Malibu-Newton Canyon.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Malibu-Newton Canyon. 9.152 Section 9.152...Viticultural Areas § 9.152 Malibu-Newton Canyon. (a) Name. The name of...described in this petition is “Malibu-Newton Canyon.” (b) Approved maps....

2013-04-01

131

27 CFR 9.152 - Malibu-Newton Canyon.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Malibu-Newton Canyon. 9.152 Section 9.152...Viticultural Areas § 9.152 Malibu-Newton Canyon. (a) Name. The name of...described in this petition is “Malibu-Newton Canyon.” (b) Approved maps....

2012-04-01

132

38 CFR 3.152 - Claims for death benefits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Claims for death benefits. 3.152 Section 3.152...Compensation Claims § 3.152 Claims for death benefits. (a) A specific claim...3.153) must be filed in order for death benefits to be paid to any...

2012-07-01

133

38 CFR 3.152 - Claims for death benefits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Claims for death benefits. 3.152 Section 3.152...Compensation Claims § 3.152 Claims for death benefits. (a) A specific claim...3.153) must be filed in order for death benefits to be paid to any...

2010-07-01

134

38 CFR 3.152 - Claims for death benefits.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Claims for death benefits. 3.152 Section 3.152...Compensation Claims § 3.152 Claims for death benefits. (a) A specific claim...3.153) must be filed in order for death benefits to be paid to any...

2014-07-01

135

38 CFR 3.152 - Claims for death benefits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Claims for death benefits. 3.152 Section 3.152...Compensation Claims § 3.152 Claims for death benefits. (a) A specific claim...3.153) must be filed in order for death benefits to be paid to any...

2013-07-01

136

14 CFR 152.505 - Termination for cause.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Termination for cause. 152.505 Section 152.505 Aeronautics...Grants § 152.505 Termination for cause. (a) If the sponsor or planning...termination will contain— (1) The reasons for the termination, and (2)...

2010-01-01

137

45 CFR 152.27 - Fraud, waste, and abuse.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Fraud, waste, and abuse. 152.27 Section 152.27 Public...Oversight § 152.27 Fraud, waste, and abuse. (a) Procedures. The PCIP...to HHS incidences of waste, fraud, and abuse, and to appropriate law...

2010-10-01

138

45 CFR 152.27 - Fraud, waste, and abuse.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Fraud, waste, and abuse. 152.27 Section 152.27 Public...Oversight § 152.27 Fraud, waste, and abuse. (a) Procedures. The PCIP...to HHS incidences of waste, fraud, and abuse, and to appropriate law...

2011-10-01

139

45 CFR 152.27 - Fraud, waste, and abuse.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Fraud, waste, and abuse. 152.27 Section 152.27 Public...Oversight § 152.27 Fraud, waste, and abuse. (a) Procedures. The PCIP...to HHS incidences of waste, fraud, and abuse, and to appropriate law...

2013-10-01

140

45 CFR 152.27 - Fraud, waste, and abuse.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Fraud, waste, and abuse. 152.27 Section 152.27 Public...Oversight § 152.27 Fraud, waste, and abuse. (a) Procedures. The PCIP...to HHS incidences of waste, fraud, and abuse, and to appropriate law...

2012-10-01

141

Discovery of dysprosium, holmium, erbium, thulium and ytterbium isotopes  

E-print Network

Currently, 31 dysprosium, 32 holmium, 32 erbium, 33 thulium and 31 ytterbium isotopes have been observed and the discovery of these isotopes is discussed here. For each isotope a brief synopsis of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

C. Fry; M. Thoennessen

2012-05-26

142

Coupled-cavity erbium fiber lasers incorporating fiber grating reflectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Totally integrated coupled-cavity erbium-doped fiber lasers for both single- and controlled dual-frequency operation are reported. Applications to wide range of instruments, like signal generators, mixers, stable oscillators, and soliton and narrow linewidth coherent sources is indicated.

S. V. Chernikov; J. R. Taylor; R. Kashyap

1993-01-01

143

The Elastic Constants of Gadolinium, Terbium and Erbium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The five single crystal elastic constants of gadolinium, terbium and erbium have been measured within the temperature range 4.2-300 K. Contributions to the elastic constants due to domain and spin rotation effects were reduced and in some cases eliminated altogether by applying a magnetic field of 2.5 T along the magnetic easy directions.

S. B. Palmer; E. W. Lee; M. N. Islam

1974-01-01

144

Experimental investigation of tapered erbium-doped fiber amplifiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low noise erbium-doped fiber amplifiers find widespread use in telecommunication systems. Different design ideas have been presented for such amplifiers, including various pump configurations, the use of filters, and advanced active fiber design. In this paper we present an experimental confirmation of a fiber design based on an Er\\/Al doped untapered fiber. As recently predicted theoretically, a continuous uptapering of

Anders Grunnet-Jepsen; Kim Schuesler; Svend Dahl-Petersen; Bera Palsdottir; Anders Bjarklev; Karsten Rottwitt; Jorn Hedegaard Povlsen; Thomas P. Rasmussen

1993-01-01

145

Erbium:YAG Laser Resurfacing for Refractory Melasma  

Microsoft Academic Search

background. Melasma is a facial dyspigmentation which is a common complaint in patients with darker skin tones. Many current therapies used for this condition are ineffective and can cause significant adverse effects. objective. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of erbium:YAG laser resurfacing in the management of refrac- tory melasma. methods. Ten female patients with melasma

Rhesa May P. Manaloto; Tina Alster

1999-01-01

146

Erbium transfer to optical fiber preforms by vapor phase technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Erbium-doped optical fibers have been manufactured with a vapor phase technique. A `hot line' has been designed and realized which allows us to fabricate low and high alumina contents fibers, to make laser sources and optical amplifiers working in the third telecommunication window.

Guiseppe Cocito; Livio Cognolato; Angelantonio Gnazzo; C. Bruschi; D. Cout

1994-01-01

147

Fabrication and characterization of erbium-doped toroidal microcavity lasers  

E-print Network

lithography, etching, Er ion implantation, and CO2 laser reflow. Erbium is either preimplanted in the SiO2 memories.1,2 The figure of merit that describes the cavity is the quality factor Q that is proportional implantation is used as the doping technique since it gives control over the doping profile and composition

Polman, Albert

148

Erbium--169 versus triamcinolone hexacetonide in the treatment of rheumatoid finger joints.  

PubMed Central

Erbium--169 was compared with triamcinolone hexacetonide in the topical treatment of 32 patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis. Erbium--169 was injected into 83 and triamcinolone hexacetonide into 54 proximal interphalangeal or metacarpophalangeal joints. Both treatments produced alleviation of joint pain and swelling and improvement of grip strength. At every check-up (1--18 months) the percentage of remissions was higher after triamcinolone hexacetonide injection than after erbium--169. The difference was significant at 1, 3, and 6 months. PMID:434946

Ruotsi, A; Hypén, M; Rekonen, A; Oka, M

1979-01-01

149

Effect of Erbium Dopant on Conductivity of Antimony?Doped Tin Oxide (ATO) Nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

ATO nanoparticles doped with erbium were prepared using chemical co?precipitation method. Meanwhile, the conductivity of nanoparticles was investigated using Source Meter. The results indicate that erbium dopant has great effect on the electrical property of the ATO nanoparticles. Compared with undoped ATO nanoparticles, the resistivity of ATO nanoparticles doped with 0.5 mol% erbium decreased by a factor of 800. This may

Xuliang Wu; Zeyi Cui; Jin Mu

2007-01-01

150

Laser isotope separation of erbium and other isotopes  

DOEpatents

Laser isotope separation is accomplished using at least two photoionization pathways of an isotope simultaneously, where each pathway comprises two or more transition steps. This separation method has been applied to the selective photoionization of erbium isotopes, particularly for the enrichment of {sup 167}Er. The hyperfine structure of {sup 167}Er was used to find two three-step photoionization pathways having a common upper energy level. 3 figs.

Haynam, C.A.; Worden, E.F.

1995-08-22

151

Laser isotope separation of erbium and other isotopes  

DOEpatents

Laser isotope separation is accomplished using at least two photoionization pathways of an isotope simultaneously, where each pathway comprises two or more transition steps. This separation method has been applied to the selective photoionization of erbium isotopes, particularly for the enrichment of .sup.167 Er. The hyperfine structure of .sup.167 Er was used to find two three-step photoionization pathways having a common upper energy level.

Haynam, Christopher A. (3035 Ferdale Ct., Pleasanton, CA 94566); Worden, Earl F. (117 Vereda del Ciervo, Diablo, CA 94528)

1995-01-01

152

Controlled spontaneous emission in erbium-doped microphotonic materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Erbium is a rare-earth metal that, when incorporated in a solid, can emit light at a wavelength of 1.5 ?m. It plays a key role in current day telecommunication technology as the principle ingredient of optical fiber amplifiers. In this thesis the control of the Er spontaneous emission in three different types of microphotonic materials is described.\\u000a\\u000a\\u000aPart I of

Jeroen Kalkman

2005-01-01

153

Erbium in photosensitive hybrid organoaluminosilicate sol-gel glasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microstructural features of a new hybrid organoaluminosilicate glass are described. The glass is prepared by low temperature acid catalyzed hydrolysis and polycondensation of organoalkoxides. This sol-gel method produces transparent materials for one-step, crack-free thin film formation suitable for fabrication of passive and active optical waveguides. Aluminum NMR reveals that the inclusion of erbium ions affects the structure of the glass

Galina Milova; S. Iraj Najafi; A. Skirtach; David J. Simkin; Mark P. Andrews

1997-01-01

154

Compact erbium 3-um crystal lasers for medical applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The limit of the slope efficiency with respect to absorbed pump power is investigated in erbium-doped 3-micrometer crystal lasers. It depends on the major population mechanisms of the system. Fluoride hosts are favorable due to the long lifetime of the upper laser level. The calculated slope efficiency in Er:YLF approaches 56% when pumping at 970 nm. This value clearly exceeds

M. Pollnau; R. Spring; S. Wittwer; Willy Luthy; Heinz P. Weber

1996-01-01

155

Combined endoscopic erbium:YAG laser goniopuncture and cataract surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To study the safety and efficacy of endoscopic erbium:YAG (Er:YAG) laser goniopuncture combined with cataract surgery to treat glaucoma.Setting: Department of Ophthalmology, Albert-Ludwigs-University Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany, and Institute of Applied Physics, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.Methods: In this nonrandominized clinical trial, 20 eyes of 20 patients with cataract and glaucoma were treated by combined phacoemulsification and Er:YAG goniopuncture. The

Nicolas Feltgen; Heiko Mueller; Beat Ott; Martin Frenz; Jens Funk

2003-01-01

156

Graphene-Assisted Multiwavelength Erbium-Doped Fiber Ring Laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose and experimentally demonstrate a stable multiwavelength erbium-doped fi ber (EDF) ring laser based on four-wave-mixing of atomic few-layer graphene. The compact laser cavity consists of 3-m EDF, an optically deposited ultrathin graphene device, and a polarization-maintaining fiber Sagnac loop filter. The comparison between the ring laser cavity without and with the graphene device shows thatthe highly nonlinear graphene

Zhengqian Luo; Min Zhou; Zhiping Cai; Chenchun Ye; Jian Weng; Guoming Huang; Huiying Xu

2011-01-01

157

Erbium doped ceramic nanofiber synthesis for thermophotovoltaic selective emitter applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis explored the development of isothermal selective emitters for harvesting thermal energy to be used in conjunction with photovoltaic cells. The selective emitters were Erbium doped Titania nanofibers and Erbium and Yttrium doped Titania nanofibers that may be used with a Gallium Antimonide photovoltaic cell. The ultimate aim of this research was to develop Erbium doped Yttrium Titanate nanofibers. This research is of importance in recovering heat from a number of resources including power plant boilers. The thermal energy lost in the boilers can be as high as 20% of the input fuel energy and a recovery of this energy would boost the thermal performance of the power plants. It has been observed that the temperatures of the flue gas reaching the heat recovery region may be higher than 1600K and the radiation and convective losses in the burner occurs at even higher temperatures. Thermophotovoltaics (TPV) offer a solution in terms of converting the thermal energy to electricity without any moving parts. The efficiencies of conventional TPVs are very small (10-20%) and thus not a solution as the primary electric generator. However, in the field of the harvesting of waste energy, TPVs have tremendous potential. In order to improve efficiencies, Erbia (which can absorb thermal energy and convert it to electromagnetic radiation with a narrow wavelength spectrum with mean wavelength of 1500nm) can be used as a selective emitter with GaSb PV cells (which have its maximum efficiency in the same wavelength range) as the collector. In order to further improve its performance, the Erbia was proposed to be supported by Titania, which is transparent to IR in this range. However, past research has shown that the Erbia doped Titania nanofibers essentially have Erbium in the form of pyrochlore Erbium Titanate. Thus the research focused on a way to synthesize ErxY2-xTi 2O7 pyrochlore structure to act as the selective emitter. The self-supporting composite was designed to be nanostructured to ensure isothermal operation and a high surface to volume ratio to minimize re-adsorption and to have a compact design. The nanofiber emitters were prepared by electrospinning. This thesis demonstrated a synthesis procedure of optically selective nano-composites using electrospinning.

Trifon, George Sebastian

158

Erbium emission from porous silicon one-dimensional photonic band gap structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report tunable, narrow, directional, and enhanced erbium emission from one-dimensional photonic band gap structures. The structures are prepared by anodic etching of crystalline silicon and consist of two highly reflecting porous silicon Bragg reflectors sandwiching an active layer. The cavities are doped by cathodic electromigration of the erbium ions into the porous silicon matrix, followed by high temperature oxidation.

Herman A. Lopez; Philippe M. Fauchet

2000-01-01

159

Erbium-doped nanoparticles in silica-based optical Wilfried Blanc*, Valrie Mauroy, Bernard  

E-print Network

on the incorporation of erbium ions in amorphous dielectric nanoparticles, grown in-situ in fiber preforms. By adding to modify some spectroscopic properties of rare-earth ions in silica- based fibers based of nanometric erbium-doped dielectric nanoparticles within the core of silica fibers. We present

Boyer, Edmond

160

Passively harmonic mode locked erbium doped fiber soliton laser with carbon nanotubes based  

E-print Network

exhibits slightly lower pulse chirp. ©2012 Optical Society of America OCIS codes: (140.3510) Lasers, fiber fs erbium-doped fiber laser mode locked with a cellulose polymer film containing single-wall carbonPassively harmonic mode locked erbium doped fiber soliton laser with carbon nanotubes based

Turitsyn, Sergei K.

161

Design and fabrication of an intrinsicallygain flattened Erbium doped fiber amplifier  

E-print Network

1 Design and fabrication of an intrinsicallygain flattened Erbium doped fiber amplifier B. Nagaraju b Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, Jadavpore, Kolkata 700 032, India c Laboratoire de fabrication of an intrinsically gain flattened Erbium doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) based on a highly

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

162

Generation of high peak power pulse using 2 stage erbium-doped fiber amplifier  

E-print Network

This thesis presents the results obtained from generation of high repetition rate, high power output pulse using an erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA). Two stage amplification was employed. The first stage setup used 980nm pump laser to pump erbium-doped...

Lee, Kyung-Woo

2012-06-07

163

40 CFR 152.130 - Distribution under approved labeling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Distribution under approved labeling. 152.130...Rights of Registrants § 152.130 Distribution under approved labeling. (a...provide sufficient time for product in channels of trade to be distributed or sold...

2010-07-01

164

MATH 152 -SPRING 2004 MATHEMATICS FOR THE LIFE SCIENCES  

E-print Network

MATH 152 - SPRING 2004 MATHEMATICS FOR THE LIFE SCIENCES Time: 10:10 - 11:00 Monday and Wednesday) gipson@math.utk.edu, and Kristin Gooch (Sections #57055, 57097, 57042) gooch@math.utk.edu. Course web page: http://www.tiem.utk.edu/~gross/math152.html This course, a continuation of Math 151, will provide

Gross, Louis J.

165

MATH 152 -SPRING 2005 MATHEMATICS FOR THE LIFE SCIENCES  

E-print Network

MATH 152 - SPRING 2005 MATHEMATICS FOR THE LIFE SCIENCES Time: 10:10 - 11:00 Monday and Wednesday) dilling@math.utk.edu, and Lauren Wagener (Sections #57361, 57374) wagener@math.utk.edu. Course web page: http://www.tiem.utk.edu/~gross/math152.html This course, a continuation of Math 151, will provide

Gross, Louis J.

166

14 CFR 152.607 - Building design requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Building design requirements. 152.607 Section...in Airport Aid Program § 152.607 Building design requirements. Each sponsor...assessment for each federally-assisted building construction or major building...

2010-01-01

167

25 CFR 152.32 - Irrigation fee; payment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Irrigation fee; payment. 152.32 Section...Trust Or Restricted Lands § 152.32 Irrigation fee; payment. Collection of all...any Indian-owned lands within Indian irrigation projects is deferred as long...

2012-04-01

168

25 CFR 152.32 - Irrigation fee; payment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Irrigation fee; payment. 152.32 Section...Trust Or Restricted Lands § 152.32 Irrigation fee; payment. Collection of all...any Indian-owned lands within Indian irrigation projects is deferred as long...

2013-04-01

169

25 CFR 152.32 - Irrigation fee; payment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Irrigation fee; payment. 152.32 Section...Trust Or Restricted Lands § 152.32 Irrigation fee; payment. Collection of all...any Indian-owned lands within Indian irrigation projects is deferred as long...

2011-04-01

170

25 CFR 152.32 - Irrigation fee; payment.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Irrigation fee; payment. 152.32 Section...Trust Or Restricted Lands § 152.32 Irrigation fee; payment. Collection of all...any Indian-owned lands within Indian irrigation projects is deferred as long...

2014-04-01

171

25 CFR 152.32 - Irrigation fee; payment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Irrigation fee; payment. 152.32 Section...Trust Or Restricted Lands § 152.32 Irrigation fee; payment. Collection of all...any Indian-owned lands within Indian irrigation projects is deferred as long...

2010-04-01

172

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Er-171 (Erbium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Er-171 (Erbium, atomic number Z = 68, mass number A = 171).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

173

Erbium-doped fiber amplifier elements for structural analysis sensors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFA's) in optical fiber sensor systems for structural analysis is described. EDFA's were developed for primary applications as periodic regenerator amplifiers in long-distance fiber-based communication systems. Their in-line amplification performance also makes them attractive for optical fiber sensor systems which require long effective lengths or the synthesis of special length-dependent signal processing functions. Sensor geometries incorporating EDFA's in recirculating and multiple loop sensors are discussed. Noise and polarization birefringence are also considered, and the experimental development of system components is discussed.

Hanna-Hawver, P.; Kamdar, K. D.; Mehta, S.; Nagarajan, S.; Nasta, M. H.; Claus, R. O.

1992-01-01

174

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Er-227 (Erbium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Er-227 (Erbium, atomic number Z = 68, mass number A = 227).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

175

Electronic structure of erbium suicide ultra-thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electronic structure of erbium silicide ultra-thin films epitaxially grown on Si(111) has been studied by means of angle-resolved ultra-violet photoemission spectroscopy (ARUPS) in the coverage range 0.2-4 monolayers (ML). Some peaks probably related to the silicide surface atomic structure are observed at any coverage. Features that appear at normal emission in connection with an R3 superstructure are ascribed to vacancy-induced states in the silicon surface plane. No true interface states could be identified in this study.

Veuillen, J.-Y.; Tan, T. A. Nguyen; Lollman, D. B. B.

1993-08-01

176

40 CFR 152.97 - Rights and obligations of data submitters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Rights and obligations of data submitters. 152.97 Section 152...PROCEDURES Procedures To Ensure Protection of Data Submitters' Rights § 152.97 Rights and obligations of data submitters. (a) Right to be...

2011-07-01

177

40 CFR 152.97 - Rights and obligations of data submitters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Rights and obligations of data submitters. 152.97 Section 152...PROCEDURES Procedures To Ensure Protection of Data Submitters' Rights § 152.97 Rights and obligations of data submitters. (a) Right to be...

2013-07-01

178

40 CFR 152.97 - Rights and obligations of data submitters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Rights and obligations of data submitters. 152.97 Section 152...PROCEDURES Procedures To Ensure Protection of Data Submitters' Rights § 152.97 Rights and obligations of data submitters. (a) Right to be...

2012-07-01

179

24 CFR 1000.152 - How is the recipient to use criminal conviction information?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...recipient to use criminal conviction information? 1000.152 Section 1000.152 Housing and Urban Development Regulations...HOUSING ACTIVITIES Affordable Housing Activities § 1000.152 How is the recipient to use criminal...

2010-04-01

180

Double-blind study of erbium 169 injection (synoviorthesis) in rheumatoid digital joints.  

PubMed Central

A double-blind study of erbium 169 injection into rheumatoid digital joints was carried out with saline as control. 201 joints in 36 patients were studied (137 metacarpophalalangeal, 64 proximal interphalangeal). Erbium 169 was injected into 121 joints and saline water into 80 joints. Local injection of corticosteroids was given to both groups. A definite improvement was observed in 55% to 58% of cases with erbium 169 (+prednisolone acetate) and in 26% to 28% of cases with saline (+prednisolone acetate). The difference was highly significant. PMID:327948

Menkes, C J; Gô, A L; Verrier, P; Aignan, M; Delbarre, F

1977-01-01

181

Dose reduction by the use of erbium filtration in a general radiographic room.  

PubMed

The conventional aluminium filtration of a general purpose X-ray tube in a district general hospital was replaced by an erbium filter for a 2-month period. The resulting reduction in skin dose was measured for a number of examinations using thermoluminescent dosimetry. The change in effective dose equivalent was calculated from these measurements and compared with previous theoretical estimates. The use of the erbium filter had no effect on radiograph quality. It was concluded that the use of an erbium filter resulted in a worthwhile reduction in radiation dose, and was a cost-effective method of dose reduction. PMID:1547451

Cranage, R W; Howard, C J; Welsh, A D

1992-03-01

182

Experimental investigation of tapered erbium-doped fiber amplifiers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low noise erbium-doped fiber amplifiers find widespread use in telecommunication systems. Different design ideas have been presented for such amplifiers, including various pump configurations, the use of filters, and advanced active fiber design. In this paper we present an experimental confirmation of a fiber design based on an Er/Al doped untapered fiber. As recently predicted theoretically, a continuous uptapering of the radius of the core of the active fiber from the signal input end to the signal output end improves the population inversion of the erbium in the signal input end of the fiber. This ensures that the generated amplifier spontaneous emission is reduced while the high gain properties are retained. The result is a significant reduction of the noise figure. The active fiber is pumped at 980 nm with the pump power copropagating with the signal. In this way we have demonstrated noise figure improvements in excess of 1.5 dB compared with similar conventional fibers, while still obtaining high gain. To our knowledge, this represents the first experimental verification that tapered fiber amplifiers have considerably improved noise properties. This communication will include a short description of the method used to fabricate the tapered fiber.

Grunnet-Jepsen, Anders; Schuesler, Kim; Dahl-Petersen, Svend; Palsdottir, Bera; Bjarklev, Anders; Rottwitt, Karsten; Povlsen, Joern H.; Rasmussen, Thomas P.

1993-03-01

183

40 CFR 61.152 - Air-cleaning.  

...POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Asbestos § 61.152 Air-cleaning. ...fabrics is allowed for filtering air from asbestos ore dryers; and (ii) Ensuring...operation generating the particulate asbestos material. (3) For fabric...

2014-07-01

184

40 CFR 152.175 - Pesticides classified for restricted use.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Classification of Pesticides § 152.175 Pesticides classified for restricted use. The following uses of pesticide products containing the active ingredients...Residue effects on avian species. Hazard to bees. All dust and granular...

2012-07-01

185

7 CFR 1717.152 - Required documentation for all mergers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PROCEDURES COMMON TO INSURED AND GUARANTEED ELECTRIC LOANS Mergers and Consolidations of Electric Borrowers § 1717.152 Required documentation...advance funds, send bills, and otherwise conduct business with a successor, the...

2011-01-01

186

7 CFR 1717.152 - Required documentation for all mergers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROCEDURES COMMON TO INSURED AND GUARANTEED ELECTRIC LOANS Mergers and Consolidations of Electric Borrowers § 1717.152 Required documentation...advance funds, send bills, and otherwise conduct business with a successor, the...

2013-01-01

187

7 CFR 1717.152 - Required documentation for all mergers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...PROCEDURES COMMON TO INSURED AND GUARANTEED ELECTRIC LOANS Mergers and Consolidations of Electric Borrowers § 1717.152 Required documentation...advance funds, send bills, and otherwise conduct business with a successor, the...

2012-01-01

188

7 CFR 1717.152 - Required documentation for all mergers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PROCEDURES COMMON TO INSURED AND GUARANTEED ELECTRIC LOANS Mergers and Consolidations of Electric Borrowers § 1717.152 Required documentation...advance funds, send bills, and otherwise conduct business with a successor, the...

2010-01-01

189

45 CFR 1706.152-1706.159 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Continued) NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS...CONDUCTED BY NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE §§ 1706.152-1706.159...

2010-10-01

190

45 CFR 152.44 - End of PCIP program coverage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS PRE-EXISTING CONDITION INSURANCE PLAN PROGRAM Transition to Exchanges § 152.44 End of PCIP program coverage. Effective January 1,...

2012-10-01

191

45 CFR 152.44 - End of PCIP program coverage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS PRE-EXISTING CONDITION INSURANCE PLAN PROGRAM Transition to Exchanges § 152.44 End of PCIP program coverage. Effective January 1,...

2010-10-01

192

45 CFR 152.44 - End of PCIP program coverage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS PRE-EXISTING CONDITION INSURANCE PLAN PROGRAM Transition to Exchanges § 152.44 End of PCIP program coverage. Effective January 1,...

2013-10-01

193

45 CFR 152.44 - End of PCIP program coverage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS PRE-EXISTING CONDITION INSURANCE PLAN PROGRAM Transition to Exchanges § 152.44 End of PCIP program coverage. Effective January 1,...

2011-10-01

194

14 CFR 152.423 - Investigation and enforcement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Nondiscrimination in Airport Aid Program § 152.423 Investigation...determine what sanctions or remedies are appropriate under section...determination of the sanctions or remedies; or (2) If it...

2013-01-01

195

14 CFR 152.423 - Investigation and enforcement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Nondiscrimination in Airport Aid Program § 152.423 Investigation...determine what sanctions or remedies are appropriate under section...determination of the sanctions or remedies; or (2) If it...

2011-01-01

196

14 CFR 152.423 - Investigation and enforcement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Nondiscrimination in Airport Aid Program § 152.423 Investigation...determine what sanctions or remedies are appropriate under section...determination of the sanctions or remedies; or (2) If it...

2012-01-01

197

14 CFR 152.423 - Investigation and enforcement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Nondiscrimination in Airport Aid Program § 152.423 Investigation...determine what sanctions or remedies are appropriate under section...determination of the sanctions or remedies; or (2) If it...

2010-01-01

198

14 CFR 152.423 - Investigation and enforcement.  

...CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Nondiscrimination in Airport Aid Program § 152.423 Investigation...determine what sanctions or remedies are appropriate under section...determination of the sanctions or remedies; or (2) If it...

2014-01-01

199

14 CFR 93.152 - Description of area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES Ketchikan International Airport Traffic Rule § 93.152 Description of...

2010-01-01

200

18 CFR 1313.152-1313.159 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS...HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY §§ 1313.152-1313.159...

2010-04-01

201

45 CFR 1153.152-1153.159 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE...CONDUCTED BY THE NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS §§ 1153.152-1153.159...

2013-10-01

202

45 CFR 1153.152-1153.159 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE...CONDUCTED BY THE NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS §§ 1153.152-1153.159...

2012-10-01

203

45 CFR 1153.152-1153.159 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE...CONDUCTED BY THE NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS §§ 1153.152-1153.159...

2011-10-01

204

22 CFR 1600.152-1600.159 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...159 Section 1600.152-1600.159 Foreign Relations JAPAN-UNITED STATES FRIENDSHIP COMMISSION ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION...THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE JAPAN-UNITED STATES FRIENDSHIP COMMISSION §§...

2010-04-01

205

152. Historic American Buildings Survey, Donald W. Dickensheets, Photographer. March ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

152. Historic American Buildings Survey, Donald W. Dickensheets, Photographer. March 28, 1940. PENDENTIVE MURAL - CHOIR LOFT - ST. MARK WITH LION. (NORTHEAST ELEVATION) - San Xavier del Bac Mission, Mission Road, Tucson, Pima County, AZ

206

25 CFR 152.35 - Deferred payment sales.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FEE, CERTIFICATES OF COMPETENCY, REMOVAL OF RESTRICTIONS, AND SALE OF CERTAIN INDIAN LANDS Mortgages and Deeds of Trust to Secure Loans to Indians § 152.35 Deferred payment sales. When the Indian owner and purchaser desire, a sale may be...

2010-04-01

207

11 CFR 100.152 - Fundraising costs for Presidential candidates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fundraising costs for Presidential candidates...Exceptions to Expenditures § 100.152 Fundraising costs for Presidential candidates...means any cost reasonably related to fundraising activity, including the costs of...

2010-01-01

208

11 CFR 100.152 - Fundraising costs for Presidential candidates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fundraising costs for Presidential candidates...Exceptions to Expenditures § 100.152 Fundraising costs for Presidential candidates...means any cost reasonably related to fundraising activity, including the costs of...

2011-01-01

209

30 CFR 1218.152 - Fishermen's Contingency Fund.  

...RESOURCES REVENUE COLLECTION OF ROYALTIES, RENTALS, BONUSES, AND OTHER MONIES DUE THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT Oil, Gas and Sulfur, Offshore § 1218.152 Fishermen's Contingency Fund. Upon the establishment of the Fishermen's...

2014-07-01

210

22 CFR 219.152-219.159 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01...219.152-219.159 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ENFORCEMENT...PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT COOPERATION...

2010-04-01

211

22 CFR 219.152-219.159 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01...219.152-219.159 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ENFORCEMENT...PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT COOPERATION...

2011-04-01

212

22 CFR 219.152-219.159 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01...219.152-219.159 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ENFORCEMENT...PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT COOPERATION...

2013-04-01

213

22 CFR 219.152-219.159 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01...219.152-219.159 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ENFORCEMENT...PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT COOPERATION...

2012-04-01

214

22 CFR 219.152-219.159 - [Reserved  

22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01...219.152-219.159 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ENFORCEMENT...PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT COOPERATION...

2014-04-01

215

44 CFR 152.3 - Availability of funds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...HOMELAND SECURITY FIRE PREVENTION AND CONTROL ASSISTANCE TO FIREFIGHTERS GRANT PROGRAM § 152.3 Availability of funds. ...departments that have received funding under the Assistance to Firefighter Grant Program in previous years are eligible to...

2012-10-01

216

44 CFR 152.8 - Application submission and deadline.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY FIRE PREVENTION AND CONTROL ASSISTANCE TO FIREFIGHTERS GRANT PROGRAM § 152.8 Application submission and deadline. In each year that this program is authorized and...

2012-10-01

217

44 CFR 152.3 - Availability of funds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...HOMELAND SECURITY FIRE PREVENTION AND CONTROL ASSISTANCE TO FIREFIGHTERS GRANT PROGRAM § 152.3 Availability of funds. ...departments that have received funding under the Assistance to Firefighter Grant Program in previous years are eligible to...

2013-10-01

218

44 CFR 152.8 - Application submission and deadline.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY FIRE PREVENTION AND CONTROL ASSISTANCE TO FIREFIGHTERS GRANT PROGRAM § 152.8 Application submission and deadline. In each year that this program is authorized and...

2011-10-01

219

44 CFR 152.8 - Application submission and deadline.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY FIRE PREVENTION AND CONTROL ASSISTANCE TO FIREFIGHTERS GRANT PROGRAM § 152.8 Application submission and deadline. In each year that this program is authorized and...

2010-10-01

220

44 CFR 152.8 - Application submission and deadline.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY FIRE PREVENTION AND CONTROL ASSISTANCE TO FIREFIGHTERS GRANT PROGRAM § 152.8 Application submission and deadline. In each year that this program is authorized and...

2013-10-01

221

44 CFR 152.3 - Availability of funds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...HOMELAND SECURITY FIRE PREVENTION AND CONTROL ASSISTANCE TO FIREFIGHTERS GRANT PROGRAM § 152.3 Availability of funds. ...departments that have received funding under the Assistance to Firefighter Grant Program in previous years are eligible to...

2011-10-01

222

45 CFR 2301.152-2301.159 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) ARCTIC RESEARCH COMMISSION ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON...HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE UNITED STATES ARCTIC RESEARCH COMMISSION §§ 2301.152-2301.159...

2013-10-01

223

45 CFR 2301.152-2301.159 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) ARCTIC RESEARCH COMMISSION ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON...HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE UNITED STATES ARCTIC RESEARCH COMMISSION §§ 2301.152-2301.159...

2011-10-01

224

45 CFR 2301.152-2301.159 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) ARCTIC RESEARCH COMMISSION ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON...HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE UNITED STATES ARCTIC RESEARCH COMMISSION §§ 2301.152-2301.159...

2012-10-01

225

45 CFR 2301.152-2301.159 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) ARCTIC RESEARCH COMMISSION ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON...HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE UNITED STATES ARCTIC RESEARCH COMMISSION §§ 2301.152-2301.159...

2010-10-01

226

40 CFR 152.175 - Pesticides classified for restricted use.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pesticides classified for restricted use. 152.175 Section...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES...

2010-07-01

227

40 CFR 152.175 - Pesticides classified for restricted use.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pesticides classified for restricted use. 152.175 Section...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES...

2011-07-01

228

Generalized rate-equation analysis of excitation exchange between silicon nanoclusters and erbium ions  

SciTech Connect

We discuss the use of rate equations to analyze the sensitization of erbium luminescence by silicon nanoclusters. In applying the general form of second-order coupled rate-equations to the Si nanocluster-erbium system, we find that the photoluminescence dynamics cannot be described using a simple rate equation model. Both rise and fall times exhibit a stretched exponential behavior, which we propose arises from a combination of a strongly distance-dependent nanocluster-erbium interaction, along with the finite size distribution and indirect band gap of the silicon nanoclusters. Furthermore, the low fraction of erbium ions that can be excited nonresonantly is a result of the small number of ions coupled to nanoclusters.

Kenyon, A. J.; Wojdak, M.; Ahmad, I.; Loh, W. H.; Oton, C. J. [Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University College London, Torrington Place, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Optoelectronics Research Centre, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

2008-01-15

229

Silicon-germanium saturable absorbers and erbium-doped waveguides for integrated mode-locked lasers  

E-print Network

In this thesis, Silicon-Germanium (SiGe) Saturable Bragg Reflectors (SBR) and Erbium-doped waveguide chips are fabricated and characterized as crucial components for integration of a mode-locked laser on a Si-chip. The ...

Byun, Hyunil

2006-01-01

230

Highly efficient short length Bismuth-based erbium-doped fiber amplifier  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An efficient 21 cm Bismuth-based erbium doped fiber amplifier (Bi-EDFA) operating in both C- and L-band wavelength regions is proposed and demonstrated. The proposed Bi-EDFA uses the gain medium with an erbium ion concentration of 6300 ppm in conjunction with a double-pass configuration. Compared to conventional silica-based erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (Si-EDFAs) with the same amount of Erbium ions, the Bi-EDFA provides a higher attainable gain as well as a greater amplification bandwidth ranging from 1525 to 1620 nm. The proposed Bi-EDFA achieved a flat-gain of around 23 dB with gain variation of ±3.5 dB within the wavelength region from 1530 to 1565 nm at the maximum pump power of 150 mW. The corresponding noise figures are obtained at an average of 6 dB.

Cheng, X. S.; Hamida, B. A.; Arof, H.; Ahmad, H.; Harun, S. W.

2011-10-01

231

Radiation-resistant erbium-doped-nanoparticles optical fiber for space applications.  

PubMed

We demonstrate for the first time a radiation-resistant Erbium-Doped Fiber exhibiting performances that can fill the requirements of Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers for space applications. This is based on an Aluminum co-doping atom reduction enabled by Nanoparticules Doping-Process. For this purpose, we developed several fibers containing very different erbium and aluminum concentrations, and tested them in the same optical amplifier configuration. This work allows to bring to the fore a highly radiation resistant Erbium-doped pure silica optical fiber exhibiting a low quenching level. This result is an important step as the EDFA is increasingly recognized as an enabling technology for the extensive use of photonic sub-systems in future satellites. PMID:22330481

Thomas, Jérémie; Myara, Mikhaël; Troussellier, Laurent; Burov, Ekaterina; Pastouret, Alain; Boivin, David; Mélin, Gilles; Gilard, Olivier; Sotom, Michel; Signoret, Philippe

2012-01-30

232

An on-chip Erbium doped three-photon upconversion silica microlaser emitting at green wavelengths  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report an on-chip erbium doped silica upconversion toroid laser. Pumped at Infrared wavelengths (1450 nm) with threshold power as low as 689 muW, the laser emits green light via continuously absorbing three pump photons.

Tao Lu; Lan Yang; R. V. van Loon; A. Polman; K. Vahala

2008-01-01

233

Effect of niobium oxide introduction on erbium luminescence in borophosphate glasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of the addition of niobium oxide in large amount on the Er3+ emission properties at 1535nm for excitation at 980nm in borophosphate glass has been investigated. An increase of the emission, associated with a decrease of the lifetime of the 4I13\\/2 erbium level and a larger absorption cross section of erbium and ytterbium at 980nm was evidenced. Changes

L. Petit; T. Cardinal; J. J. Videau; E. Durand; L. Canioni; M. Martines; Y. Guyot; G. Boulon

2006-01-01

234

Resonantly photo-pumped nickel-like erbium X-ray laser  

DOEpatents

A resonantly photo-pumped X-ray laser (10) that enhances the gain of seve laser lines that also lase because of collisional excitations and recombination processes, is described. The laser comprises an aluminum (12) and erbium (14) foil combination (16) that is driven by two beams (18, 20) of intense line focused (22, 24) optical laser radiation. Ground state nickel-like erbium ions (34) are resonantly photo-pumped by line emission from hydrogen-like aluminum ions (32).

Nilsen, Joseph (Livermore, CA)

1990-01-01

235

Structural, photonic band-gap, and luminescence properties of the opal-erbium composite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Erbium oxide and silicates were embedded in the pores of synthetic opal by using the chemical bath deposition technique. Electron-microscopic\\u000a images showed the synthesized compounds to be deposited predominantly in a thin uniform layer on the inner surface of the\\u000a pores. An analysis of the transmittance spectra suggested that the opal-erbium composite thus obtained retained the photonic\\u000a band-gap properties of

G. N. Aliev; V. G. Golubev; A. A. Dukin; D. A. Kurdyukov; A. V. Medvedev; A. B. Pevtsov; L. M. Sorokin; J. L. Hutchison

2002-01-01

236

Multiwavelength L-Band Brillouin–Erbium Comb Fiber Laser Utilizing Nonlinear Amplifying Loop Mirror  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we demonstrate a novel multiwavelength L-band Brillouin-erbium fiber laser utilizing nonlinear amplifying loop mirror. The erbium-doped fiber section in the fiber loop mirror provides efficient amplification of Brillouin pump (BP) to generate the stimulated Brillouin scattering in the single-mode fiber coil. The laser structure can achieve symmetry breaking of the loop without requirements to an asymmetric coupler

Mohammed Hayder Al-Mansoori; Mohd Adzir Mahdi

2009-01-01

237

Energy transfer to erbium ions from wide-band-gap SnO2 nanocrystals in silica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We give the spectroscopic evidence of energy transfer to erbium ions provided by SnO2 nanocrystals in silica. The spectral and time resolved analysis of the nanocluster luminescence resonant with Er3+ transitions demonstrates that erbium ions take part to energy-transfer mechanisms with an efficiency of about 20% . The spectral features of erbium emission excited by energy transfer allow to ascribe it to Er3+ sites in ordered environments, nearby crystalline tin-dioxide nanoclusters.

Brovelli, S.; Chiodini, A.; Lauria, A.; Meinardi, F.; Paleari, A.

2006-02-01

238

Multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber laser based on graphene oxide.  

PubMed

A multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber (EDF) laser based on graphene oxide (GO) has been proposed, to the best of our knowledge, for the first time, to generate an output of stable wavelengths. The structure mainly comprises a few layers of GO between two single-mode fibers incorporated into a capillary device and a Lyot comb filter. GO can show a good nonlinear optical effect, which is beneficial to suppress the mode competition caused by the EDF and stabilize the multiwavelength output. With assistance from the GO device, 11 stable simultaneous lasing signals with a power nonuniformity of about 1.5 dB are obtained. Wavelength spacing is about 0.42 nm and the linewidth of each wavelength is less than 0.07 nm. PMID:25090073

Hao, Xia; Tong, Zhengrong; Zhao, Junfa; Cao, Ye; Li, Lan

2014-07-10

239

Dual-kind Q-switching of erbium fiber laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two different regimes of Q-switching in the same implementation of an actively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser are demonstrated. Depending on the active fiber length and repetition rate of an intracavity Q-cell (acousto-optic modulator), the laser operates either in the regime of common, rather long and low-power, pulses composed of several sub-pulses or in the one of very short and powerful stimulated Brillouin scattering-induced pulses. The basic physical reason of the laser system to oscillate in one of these two regimes is the existence or absence of CW narrow-line "bad-cavity" lasing in the intervals when the Q-cell is blocked.

Barmenkov, Yuri O.; Kir'yanov, Alexander V.; Cruz, Jose L.; Andres, Miguel V.

2014-03-01

240

General analysis of instabilities in erbium-doped fiber lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A detailed analysis of a general model of erbium-doped fiber laser dynamics is investigated. Depending upon the parameters the same model describes single-mode cw or self-pulsing lasers, dual-wavelength or bipolarized two-mode lasers. A summary of previous works concerning self-pulsing behavior and antiphase phenomena is presented. The basic physics responsible for the instabilities is the existence of ion clusters in heavily doped fibers. A thorough investigation of the bimode laser equations is performed. Approximate solutions for the steady states and for the second threshold are obtained. The influence of ion-pair concentration (x) on dynamical behavior is studied. In particular, it is demonstrated that optical bistability occurs between 2T- and 3T-periodic orbits versus the pumping rate in the case of intermediate pair concentrations (where T is the fundamental period of the system). The route to chaos is found to be x dependent and of codimension 2.

Sanchez, François; Stephan, Guy

1996-03-01

241

Certification of the Cessna 152 on 100% ethanol  

SciTech Connect

In June 1996, the Renewable Aviation Fuels Development Center (RAFDC) at Baylor University in Waco, Texas, received a Supplemental Type Certificate (STC) for the use of 100% ethanol as a fuel for the Cessna 152, the most popular training aircraft in the world. This is the first certification granted by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) for a non-petroleum fuel. Certification of an aircraft on a new fuel requires a certification of the engine followed by a certification of the airframe/engine combination. This paper will describe the FAA airframe certification procedure, the tests required and their outcome using ethanol as an aviation fuel in a Cessna 152.

Shauck, M.E.; Zanin, M.G.

1997-12-31

242

Radiation-resistant erbium-doped optical fiber for space applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last decade, there has been increased interest in photonic technology for new satellite applications. One critical issue is the high sensitivity to radiative environments of the Erbium Doped Fiber (EDF). It leads to a radiation-induced absorption (RIA) that is not due to erbium content but mainly to the aluminium that ensures the erbium inclusion in glass. As the radiation induced losses grow as an exponential function of fiber length, the principal way so far to reduce EDFA degradation has consisted in increasing erbium concentration using conventional doping techniques. However, this is limited by the quenching effect, which impacts the fiber length needed to reach high gain, but also by the Aluminium-induced RIA. It has been recently proposed an original nanoparticle (NP) doping approach, which allows codopant content decrease with reduced quenching impact, while keeping EDF amplifying performances. A radiation-resistant amplifier can thus be designed as a "quenching-free", heavily-erbium-doped amplifier with low RIA. We demonstrate for the first time an aluminium-free EDF, exhibiting low quenching and low RIA. Despite the lack of aluminium, using silica NPs allows an erbium concentration close to the one of standard EDFs (200 ppm). This fiber is compared to a 1400 ppm Erbium-doped optical fiber with a strong aluminium concentration. Whereas the two fibers exhibit similar initial optical gain (15 dB under saturation conditions), the NP doped Al-free EDF shows only 2 dB gain reduction after a 600 Gy gamma deposit, while the Al/Er EDF incurs more than 10 dB gain degradation.

Thomas, Jérémie; Myara, Mikha"l.; Signoret, Philippe; Pastouret, Alain; Burov, Ekaterina; Boivin, David; Cavani, Olivier; Sotom, Michel; Maignan, Michel; Gilard, Olivier

2012-01-01

243

Combination of fiber-guided pulsed erbium and holmium laser radiation for tissue ablation under water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Because of the high absorption of near-infrared laser radiation in biological tissue, erbium lasers and holmium lasers emitting at 3 and 2 mu m, respectively, have been proven to have optimal qualities for cutting or welding and coagulating tissue. To combine the advantages of both wavelengths, we realized a multiwavelength laser system by simultaneously guiding erbium and holmium laser radiation by means of a single zirconium fluoride (ZrF4) fiber. Laser-induced channel formation in water and poly(acrylamide) gel was investigated by the use of a time-resolved flash-photography setup, while pressure transients were recorded simultaneously with a needle hydrophone. The shapes and depths of vapor channels produced in water and in a submerged gel after single erbium and after combination erbium-holmium radiation delivered by means of a 400- mu m ZrF4 fiber were measured. Transmission measurements were performed to determine the amount of pulse energy available for tissue ablation. The effects of laser wavelength and the delay time between pulses of different wavelengths on the photomechanical and photothermal responses of meniscal tissue were evaluated in vitro by the use of histology. It was observed that the use of a short (200- mu s, 100-mJ) holmium laser pulse as a prepulse to generate a vapor bubble through which the ablating erbium laser pulse can be transmitted (delay time, 100 mu s) increases the cutting depth in meniscus from 450 to 1120 mu m as compared with the depth following a single erbium pulse. The results indicate that a combination of erbium and holmium laser radiation precisely and efficiently cuts tissue under water with 20-50- mu m collateral tissue damage. wave, cavitation, channel formation, infrared-fiber-delivery system, tissue damage, cartilage.

Pratisto, Hans; Frenz, Martin; Ith, Michael; Altermatt, Hans J.; Jansen, E. Duco; Weber, Heinz P.

1996-07-01

244

53-Line Multi-wavelength Generation in Brillouin/Erbium Fiber Laser with Enhanced Stokes Feedback Coupling  

E-print Network

53-Line Multi-wavelength Generation in Brillouin/Erbium Fiber Laser with Enhanced Stokes Feedback Coupling Kap-Dong Park, Jae-Hyoung Park*, Namkyoo Park*, Jai-Hyung Lee, and Joon-Sung Chang Laser will be described. ThA4-1 #12;53-Line Multi-wavelength Generation of Brillouin/Erbium Fiber Laser with Enhanced

Park, Namkyoo

245

Fibre Bragg grating interrogation technique based on a chirped grating written in an erbium-doped fibre  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fibre Bragg grating interrogation technique with tunable sensitivity is reported. It relies on the utilization of the edge filtering concept applied to a chirped fibre Bragg grating (CFBG) written in an erbium-doped fibre as the processing element. Through the combination of the optical gain properties of the erbium-doped fibre and of the distributed wavelength reflection characteristics of the CFBG,

R. Romero; O. Frazão; P. V. S. Marques; H. M. Salgado; J. L. Santos

2003-01-01

246

152. View of lightning arrester houses on the hillside above ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

152. View of lightning arrester houses on the hillside above powerhouse. To the right is surge tank for penstock no. 1. Looking southeast. Photo by Jet Lowe, HAER, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

247

45 CFR 152.45 - Transition to the exchanges.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Transition to the exchanges...REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS PRE-EXISTING...INSURANCE PLAN PROGRAM Transition to Exchanges § 152...develop procedures to transition PCIP enrollees to...1321 of the Affordable Care Act, to ensure...

2012-10-01

248

45 CFR 152.45 - Transition to the exchanges.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Transition to the exchanges...REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS PRE-EXISTING...INSURANCE PLAN PROGRAM Transition to Exchanges § 152...develop procedures to transition PCIP enrollees to...1321 of the Affordable Care Act, to ensure...

2013-10-01

249

152 COLLEGE OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES College of Health  

E-print Network

in the health and human services professions. Programs. The College offers degree programs at the doctoral152 COLLEGE OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES College of Health and Human Services www.health.uncc.edu Dean: Karen Schmaling Associate Dean: Jane Neese Purpose. The College of Health and Human Services

Xie,Jiang (Linda)

250

152. Photographic copy of original construction drawing dated October 24, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

152. Photographic copy of original construction drawing dated October 24, 1930 (from Record Group 115, Denver Branch of the National Archives, Denver). 60 x 12 RING GATE CONTROL; FLOAT WELL ASSEMBLY AND COVER HOIST STEM-CONNECTION ROD-SLEEVE. - Owyhee Dam, Across Owyhee River, Nyssa, Malheur County, OR

251

152. Photocopy of drawing (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

152. Photocopy of drawing (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company Surveyor's Transit Book #363, Page 1). 1912 CONDITION REPORT OF MILNER DAM AREA, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

252

Defect-free erbium silicide formation using an ultrathin Ni interlayer.  

PubMed

An ultrathin Ni interlayer (?1 nm) was introduced between a TaN-capped Er film and a Si substrate to prevent the formation of surface defects during thermal Er silicidation. A nickel silicide interfacial layer formed at low temperatures and incurred uniform nucleation and the growth of a subsequently formed erbium silicide film, effectively inhibiting the generation of recessed-type surface defects and improving the surface roughness. As a side effect, the complete transformation of Er to erbium silicide was somewhat delayed, and the electrical contact property at low annealing temperatures was dominated by the nickel silicide phase with a high Schottky barrier height. After high-temperature annealing, the early-formed interfacial layer interacted with the growing erbium silicide, presumably forming an erbium silicide-rich Er-Si-Ni mixture. As a result, the electrical contact property reverted to that of the low-resistive erbium silicide/Si contact case, which warrants a promising source/drain contact application for future high-performance metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors. PMID:25093916

Choi, Juyun; Choi, Seongheum; Kang, Yu-Seon; Na, Sekwon; Lee, Hoo-Jeong; Cho, Mann-Ho; Kim, Hyoungsub

2014-08-27

253

New method to estimate the fluorescence lifetime of the Erbium-doped-fiber temperature sensing system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Erbium-doped fiber is a main component of Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifiers (EDFAs), which is wildly used in optical communication. Erbium doped fiber is a good sensing material of fluorescence temperature sensors as well. The Erbium-doped-fiber temperature sensors can operate under high temperature up to 1100°C. Fluorescence sensors show considerable promise, with the advantage of being intensity independent. Following the termination of a square excitation light pulse, the fluorescence signal is an exponential decay, which decay lifetime depends on the temperature and can be measured by several methods. The decay acquisition and estimation methods are one kind of them. Different arithmetic is developed such as the Marquardt method, the Prony method and the log-fit method. A new estimation is given in this paper, basing on the FFT (Fast Fourier Transform) and the Taylor series. The fluorescence lifetime can be calculated from the items of the FFT with different accuracy. This method is especially designed for the long-fluorescence-lifetime system, for example, Erbium-doped fiber sensing with lifetime up to 10mn. However this method can be used for other fluorescence material also with a little shift. The advantages of this method include high accuracy, quick processing, independence on the base offset etc. The effect of this method is discussed and compared with other estimation methods by numerical simulation and experiment results.

Sun, Weimin; Zhang, Jianzhong; Zhao, Yancheng; Sun, Qiuhua; Yuan, Libo

2002-09-01

254

Spin-Coated Erbium-Doped Silica Sol-Gel Films on Silicon  

E-print Network

This work reports optical functionality contained in, as well as and produced by, thin film coatings. A sol-gel process, formulated with precursor active ingredients of erbium oxide and tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS), was used for spin-coating thin (~130 nm) erbium-doped (~6 at. %) silica films on single-crystal silicon. Annealed films produce infrared emission in the 1.5-micron band from erbium ions in the film, as well as greatly enhancing (~100X) band-gap emission from the underlying silicon. The distinctly different mechanisms for the two modes of optical activities are interpreted in terms of optical emission theory and modeling; prospects for opto-electronic applications are discussed.

Abedrabbo, Sufian; Shet, Sudhakar; Fiory, Anthony; Ravindra, Nuggehalli

2012-01-01

255

Low-temperature growth of silicon epitaxial layers codoped with erbium and oxygen atoms  

SciTech Connect

The fabrication technology and properties of light-emitting Si structures codoped with erbium and oxygen are reported. The layers are deposited onto (100) Si by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) using an Er-doped silicon sublimation source. The partial pressure of the oxygen-containing gases in the growth chamber of the MBE facility before layer growth is lower than 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -10} Torr. The oxygen and erbium concentrations in the Si layers grown at 450 Degree-Sign C is {approx}1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 19} and 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3}, respectively. The silicon epitaxial layers codoped with erbium and oxygen have high crystal quality and yield effective photoluminescence and electroluminescence signals with the dominant optically active Er-1 center forming upon postgrowth annealing at a temperature of 800 Degree-Sign C.

Shengurov, D. V., E-mail: shengurov@phys.unn.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Physics of Microstructures (Russian Federation); Chalkov, V. Yu.; Denisov, S. A.; Shengurov, V. G., E-mail: shengurov@phys.unn.ru [Nizhni Novgorod State University, Physical-Technical Research Institute (Russian Federation); Stepikhova, M. V.; Drozdov, M. N.; Krasilnik, Z. F. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Physics of Microstructures (Russian Federation)

2013-03-15

256

Erbium filtration: a cost-effective, dose-reducing filter which maintains abdominal image quality.  

PubMed

The current study investigated the effect of erbium filtration on an anteroposterior abdominal image. The radiation dose reductions achievable and the cost effectiveness of this filter were also evaluated. An assessment of the radiation dose delivered employing either the standard total filtration (3 mm Al equivalent) or 0.1 mm of erbium filtration added to the standard filtration was undertaken on 21 patients. Image quality was assessed using the Commission of European Communities (CEC) criteria. Significant reductions of 64.6 % in entrance surface (p = 0.0001) and 23.4 % in effective dose (p = 0.0099) were recorded with erbium filtration. Image quality was maintained and the cost per man saved was pound 128. More widespread use of this dose reducing filter is advocated. PMID:10602978

Doyle, C A; Brennan, P C

1999-01-01

257

Effect of Fiber Bragg Grating Reflectivity in Linear Cavity Brillouin/Erbium Fiber Laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A multiwavelength generation was demonstrated using a Brillouin/Erbium fiber laser (BEFL) with stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) effect. BEFL utilizes single-mode fiber (SMF) and erbium-doped fiber as nonlinear and linear gain medium [1-4]. The linear gain of the EDF provides high gain to amplify the Stokes signal produced through SBS in the SMF. We demonstrate a linear cavity BEFL utilizing a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) to act as a cavity loop mirror. The effect of FBG reflectivity ranging from 5 nm to 40 nm in brillouin erbium fiber laser cavity is studied. The bandwidth of the oscillating modes is determined by the FBG bandwidth. 19 stable output channels with 0.088 nm line spacing were obtained for the 40 nm setup. 23 Stokes were achieved when the FBG bandwidth was reduced to 10 nm. Though more Stokes were generated at smaller FBG bandwidth, there is a trade-off for the tuning range.

Shahabuddin, Nurul Shahrizan; Kaur, Harinderjit; Rashid, Hairul Azhar Abdul; Yusoff, Zulfadzli

2011-03-01

258

Refractive index of erbium doped GaN thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

GaN is an excellent host for erbium (Er) to provide optical emission in the technologically important as well as eye-safe 1540 nm wavelength window. Er doped GaN (GaN:Er) epilayers were synthesized on c-plane sapphire substrates using metal organic chemical vapor deposition. By employing a pulsed growth scheme, the crystalline quality of GaN:Er epilayers was significantly improved over those obtained by conventional growth method of continuous flow of reaction precursors. X-ray diffraction rocking curve linewidths of less than 300 arc sec were achieved for the GaN (0002) diffraction peak, which is comparable to the typical results of undoped high quality GaN epilayers and represents a major improvement over previously reported results for GaN:Er. Spectroscopic ellipsometry was used to determine the refractive index of the GaN:Er epilayers in the 1540 nm wavelength window and a linear dependence on Er concentration was found. The observed refractive index increase with Er incorporation and the improved crystalline quality of the GaN:Er epilayers indicate that low loss GaN:Er optical waveguiding structures are feasible.

Alajlouni, S.; Sun, Z. Y.; Li, J.; Zavada, J. M.; Lin, J. Y.; Jiang, H. X.

2014-08-01

259

Cavitation bubbles induced by Erbium lasers: implications for dentistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With new fiber systems available for 3 ?m, Erbium lasers become more interesting for precise tissue ablation in a water environment enabling new application in e.g. dentistry. The dynamics of explosive bubble formation was investigated at 2.78 ?m (Er,Cr;YSGG) and 2.94 ?m (Er:YAG), in relation to energy (10-50 mJ), pulse length (20-150 ?s) and fiber tip shape (flat or taper). The dynamics of exploding and imploding vapor bubbles were captured with high speed imaging (10 - 300 ?s range). Increasing the pulse length and energy, the vapor bubble became more elongated with an opaque surface for flat tip fibers. Tapered fibers produced spherical vapor bubbles with an optically transparent surface expected to be more forceful for creating mechanical effects in both hard and soft tissues. There was no significant difference between bubbles formed at 2.78 ?m (Er,Cr;YSGG) and 2.94 ?m (Er:YAG).

Verleng, Marja; Verdaasdonk, Rudolf; van der Veen, Albert; Lemberg, Vladimir; Boutoussov, Dmitri

2014-02-01

260

Electroluminescence efficiencies of erbium in silicon-based hosts  

SciTech Connect

We report on room-temperature 1.5??m electroluminescence from trivalent erbium (Er{sup 3+}) ions embedded in three different CMOS-compatible silicon-based hosts: SiO{sub 2}, Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, and SiN{sub x}. We show that although the insertion of either nitrogen or excess silicon helps enhance electrical conduction and reduce the onset voltage for electroluminescence, it drastically decreases the external quantum efficiency of Er{sup 3+} ions from 2% in SiO{sub 2} to 0.001% and 0.0004% in SiN{sub x} and Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, respectively. Furthermore, we present strong evidence that hot carrier injection is significantly more efficient than defect-assisted conduction for the electrical excitation of Er{sup 3+} ions. These results suggest strategies to optimize the engineering of on-chip electrically excited silicon-based nanophotonic light sources.

Cueff, Sébastien, E-mail: sebastien-cueff@brown.edu, E-mail: christophe.labbe@ensicaen.fr [Centre de Recherche sur les Ions, les Matériaux et la Photonique (CIMAP), UMR 6252 CNRS/CEA/Ensicaen/UCBN, Caen 14050 (France) [Centre de Recherche sur les Ions, les Matériaux et la Photonique (CIMAP), UMR 6252 CNRS/CEA/Ensicaen/UCBN, Caen 14050 (France); School of Engineering, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912 (United States); Manel Ramírez, Joan; Berencén, Yonder; Garrido, Blas [MIND-IN2UB, Department Electrònica, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1, Barcelona 08028 (Spain)] [MIND-IN2UB, Department Electrònica, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1, Barcelona 08028 (Spain); Kurvits, Jonathan A.; Zia, Rashid [School of Engineering, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912 (United States) [School of Engineering, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912 (United States); Department of Physics, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912 (United States); Rizk, Richard; Labbé, Christophe, E-mail: sebastien-cueff@brown.edu, E-mail: christophe.labbe@ensicaen.fr [Centre de Recherche sur les Ions, les Matériaux et la Photonique (CIMAP), UMR 6252 CNRS/CEA/Ensicaen/UCBN, Caen 14050 (France)] [Centre de Recherche sur les Ions, les Matériaux et la Photonique (CIMAP), UMR 6252 CNRS/CEA/Ensicaen/UCBN, Caen 14050 (France)

2013-11-04

261

Opto-electrical characterization of erbium-doped slot waveguides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The convergence of photonics and microelectronics within a single chip is still lacking of a monolithical on-chip optical amplifier. Rare-earth doped slot waveguides show a large potential as on-chip source. Slot waveguides with silicon nanocrystals embedded in a dielectric host matrix can increase the light confinement in the active layer and allow electrical injection. In this work, horizontal slot waveguides formed by two thick silicon layers separated by a thin erbium doped silicon rich silicon oxide layer are studied as on-chip optical amplifiers. The waveguides are grown in a CMOS line with the active material grown by low-pressure chemical vapor deposition. Optical tests are performed and light propagation in the slot waveguides is observed. Using the cut-back technique, spectra propagation losses are evaluated. Room temperature electroluminescence is observed at 1.54 ?m. Transmitted optical signal resonant with Er absorption is studied as a function of the injected current for different probing laser wavelengths.

Tengattini, Andrea; Gandolfi, Davide; Marconi, Alessandro; Anopchenko, Oleksiy; Prtljaga, Nikola; Ramirez, Joan Manel; Ferrarese Lupi, Federico; Berencen, Yonder; Navarro Urrios, Daniel; Garrido, Blas; Fedeli, Jean-Marc; Rivallin, Pierrette; Surana, Kavita; Pavesi, Lorenzo

2012-06-01

262

25 CFR 152.25 - Negotiated sales, gifts and exchanges of trust or restricted lands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Negotiated sales, gifts and exchanges of trust or restricted lands. 152.25 Section... Sales, Exchanges and Conveyances of Trust Or Restricted Lands § 152.25 Negotiated sales, gifts and exchanges of trust or restricted lands. Those sales,...

2010-04-01

263

47 CFR 69.152 - End user common line for price cap local exchange carriers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false End user common line for price cap local exchange carriers. 69.152 Section...CHARGES Computation of Charges for Price Cap Local Exchange Carriers § 69.152 End user common line for price cap local exchange carriers....

2013-10-01

264

47 CFR 69.152 - End user common line for price cap local exchange carriers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false End user common line for price cap local exchange carriers. 69.152 Section...CHARGES Computation of Charges for Price Cap Local Exchange Carriers § 69.152 End user common line for price cap local exchange carriers....

2011-10-01

265

47 CFR 69.152 - End user common line for price cap local exchange carriers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false End user common line for price cap local exchange carriers. 69.152 Section...CHARGES Computation of Charges for Price Cap Local Exchange Carriers § 69.152 End user common line for price cap local exchange carriers....

2012-10-01

266

9 CFR 381.152 - Preparation in an official establishment of articles not for human food.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...establishment of articles not for human food. 381.152 Section 381.152 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...establishment of articles not for human food. (a) Requirements...

2010-01-01

267

9 CFR 381.152 - Preparation in an official establishment of articles not for human food.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...establishment of articles not for human food. 381.152 Section 381.152 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...establishment of articles not for human food. (a) Requirements...

2011-01-01

268

9 CFR 381.152 - Preparation in an official establishment of articles not for human food.  

...establishment of articles not for human food. 381.152 Section 381.152 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...establishment of articles not for human food. (a) Requirements...

2014-01-01

269

9 CFR 381.152 - Preparation in an official establishment of articles not for human food.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...establishment of articles not for human food. 381.152 Section 381.152 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...establishment of articles not for human food. (a) Requirements...

2012-01-01

270

9 CFR 381.152 - Preparation in an official establishment of articles not for human food.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...establishment of articles not for human food. 381.152 Section 381.152 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...establishment of articles not for human food. (a) Requirements...

2013-01-01

271

14 CFR 221.152 - Method of withdrawing portion of authority conferred by power of attorney.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...withdrawing portion of authority conferred by power of attorney. 221.152 Section 221...REGULATIONS TARIFFS Giving and Revoking Powers of Attorney to Agents § 221.152 ...withdrawing portion of authority conferred by power of attorney. If a carrier desires...

2010-01-01

272

16 CFR 6.152 - Program accessibility: Electronic and information technology.  

...accessibility: Electronic and information technology. 6.152 Section 6.152 Commercial...accessibility: Electronic and information technology. (a) When developing, procuring...or using electronic and information technology, the Commission shall ensure,...

2014-01-01

273

16 CFR 6.152 - Program accessibility: Electronic and information technology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...accessibility: Electronic and information technology. 6.152 Section 6.152 Commercial...accessibility: Electronic and information technology. (a) When developing, procuring...or using electronic and information technology, the Commission shall ensure,...

2011-01-01

274

27 CFR 44.152 - Claim for remission of tax liability.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

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2012-04-01

275

27 CFR 44.152 - Claim for remission of tax liability.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

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2011-04-01

276

21 CFR 357.152 - Package inserts for anthelmintic drug products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Package inserts for anthelmintic drug products. 357.152 Section...FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Anthelmintic Drug Products § 357.152 Package inserts for anthelmintic drug products. The labeling...

2012-04-01

277

21 CFR 357.152 - Package inserts for anthelmintic drug products.  

...2014-04-01 false Package inserts for anthelmintic drug products. 357.152 Section...FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Anthelmintic Drug Products § 357.152 Package inserts for anthelmintic drug products. The labeling...

2014-04-01

278

21 CFR 357.152 - Package inserts for anthelmintic drug products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Package inserts for anthelmintic drug products. 357.152 Section...FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Anthelmintic Drug Products § 357.152 Package inserts for anthelmintic drug products. The labeling...

2011-04-01

279

21 CFR 357.152 - Package inserts for anthelmintic drug products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Package inserts for anthelmintic drug products. 357.152 Section...FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Anthelmintic Drug Products § 357.152 Package inserts for anthelmintic drug products. The labeling...

2010-04-01

280

21 CFR 357.152 - Package inserts for anthelmintic drug products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Package inserts for anthelmintic drug products. 357.152 Section...FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Anthelmintic Drug Products § 357.152 Package inserts for anthelmintic drug products. The labeling...

2013-04-01

281

40 CFR 152.97 - Rights and obligations of data submitters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rights and obligations of data submitters. 152.97...Procedures To Ensure Protection of Data Submitters' Rights § 152.97 Rights and obligations of data submitters. (a)...

2010-07-01

282

29 CFR 780.152 - General scope of specified delivery operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 780.152 Section 780.152 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY...in “delivery to storage or to market or to carriers for...

2012-07-01

283

29 CFR 780.152 - General scope of specified delivery operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 780.152 Section 780.152 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY...in “delivery to storage or to market or to carriers for...

2011-07-01

284

29 CFR 780.152 - General scope of specified delivery operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 780.152 Section 780.152 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY...in “delivery to storage or to market or to carriers for...

2013-07-01

285

Erbium:YAG laser incision of urethral strictures: early clinical results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two cases involving Erbium:YAG laser incision of proximal bulbar urethral strictures are described. Erbium:YAG laser radiation with a wavelength of 2.94 ?m, pulse energy of 10 mJ, and a pulse repetition rate of 15 Hz, was delivered through a 2-m-long, 250-?m-core sapphire optical fiber in contact with tissue. Total laser irradiation time was 5 min. The first patient suffering from a virgin urethral stricture was treated and is stricture-free. The second patient suffering from a recurrent urethral stricture required further treatment. This case report describes the first clinical application of the Er:YAG laser in urology.

Munoz, John A.; Riemer, Jennifer D.; Hayes, Gary B.; Negus, Dan; Fried, Nathaniel M.

2007-02-01

286

Erbium-Doped ZnO Prepared by Vapor-Phase Transport  

Microsoft Academic Search

Erbium-doped ZnO has been prepared by vapor-phase transport. ZnO powder, graphite powder, and Er2O3 powder were mixed at a molar ratio of 1:1:0.2 and heated at 1054 °C. Erbium-doped ZnO was deposited on n-type (100)Si wafers located in the same temperature zone. The photoluminescence of the as-deposited sample shows a strong ZnO band-gap emission near 378 nm. After annealing, green

Liang-Chiun Chao; Ping-Chang Chiang; Shih-Hsuan Yang; Jian-Wei Huang; Chung-Chi Liau; Jyh-Shin Chen; Chien-Ying Su

2006-01-01

287

1.54 ?m infrared photoluminescence and electroluminescence from an erbium organic compound  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Infrared emission at 1.54 ?m excited optically and electrically from an erbium organic compound tris(acetylacetonato)(1,10-phenanthroline) erbium [Er(acac)3(phen)] is observed. The rare-earth complex is dispersed into a polymer matrix of poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK) to fabricate an electroluminescent (EL) device with an ITO/PVK:Er(acac)3(phen)/Al:Li/Ag structure, where ITO represents indium-tin-oxide-coated glass. The device shows infrared EL emission at 1.54 ?m, which suggests a simple and cheap method to obtain a light source for 1.54-?m-wavelength devices in optical communications.

Sun, R. G.; Wang, Y. Z.; Zheng, Q. B.; Zhang, H. J.; Epstein, A. J.

2000-05-01

288

Search for intrinsic collective excitations in {sup 152}Sm  

SciTech Connect

The 685 keV excitation energy of the first excited 0{sup +} state in {sup 152}Sm makes it an attractive candidate to explore expected two-phonon excitations at low energy. Multiple-step Coulomb excitation and inelastic neutron scattering studies of {sup 152}Sm are used to probe the E2 collectivity of excited 0{sup +} states in this 'soft' nucleus and the results are compared with model predictions. No candidates for two-phonon K{sup {pi}}=0{sup +}quadrupole vibrational states are found. A 2{sup +},K=2 state with strong E2 decay to the first excited K{sup {pi}}=0{sup +} band and a probable 3{sup +} band member are established.

Kulp, W. D.; Wood, J. L.; Allmond, J. M. [School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0430 (United States); Garrett, P. E. [Department of Physics, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario N0B 1S0 (Canada); TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 2A3 (Canada); Wu, C. Y.; Cline, D.; Hayes, A. B.; Hua, H.; Teng, R. [Nuclear Structure Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States); Bandyopadhyay, D.; Choudry, S. N.; McEllistrem, M. T.; McKay, C. J.; Orce, J. N. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40506-0055 (United States); Dashdorj, D. [Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695-8202 (United States); Mynk, M. G. [Department of Chemistry, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40506-0055 (United States); Yates, S. W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40506-0055 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40506-0055 (United States)

2008-06-15

289

40 CFR 152.95 - Citation of all studies in the Agency's files pertinent to a specific data requirement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Agency's files pertinent to a specific data requirement. 152.95 Section 152...PROCEDURES Procedures To Ensure Protection of Data Submitters' Rights § 152.95 Citation...Agency's files pertinent to a specific data requirement. An applicant normally...

2013-07-01

290

40 CFR 152.95 - Citation of all studies in the Agency's files pertinent to a specific data requirement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Agency's files pertinent to a specific data requirement. 152.95 Section 152...PROCEDURES Procedures To Ensure Protection of Data Submitters' Rights § 152.95 Citation...Agency's files pertinent to a specific data requirement. An applicant normally...

2010-07-01

291

40 CFR 152.95 - Citation of all studies in the Agency's files pertinent to a specific data requirement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Agency's files pertinent to a specific data requirement. 152.95 Section 152...PROCEDURES Procedures To Ensure Protection of Data Submitters' Rights § 152.95 Citation...Agency's files pertinent to a specific data requirement. An applicant normally...

2011-07-01

292

40 CFR 152.95 - Citation of all studies in the Agency's files pertinent to a specific data requirement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Agency's files pertinent to a specific data requirement. 152.95 Section 152...PROCEDURES Procedures To Ensure Protection of Data Submitters' Rights § 152.95 Citation...Agency's files pertinent to a specific data requirement. An applicant normally...

2012-07-01

293

27 CFR 31.152 - Requirements as to wines and beer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Requirements as to wines and beer. 31.152 Section 31.152...Reports § 31.152 Requirements as to wines and beer. Every wholesale dealer in liquors who receives wines, or wines and beer, and every...

2010-04-01

294

30 CFR 250.152 - How do I name facilities in the Alaska Region?  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How do I name facilities in the Alaska Region? 250.152 Section 250.152 Mineral Resources...Include Modus) § 250.152 How do I name facilities in the Alaska Region? Facilities will be named and identified...

2014-07-01

295

New Features of Shape Coexistence in {sup 152}Sm  

SciTech Connect

Excited states in {sup 152}Sm have been investigated with the {sup 152}Sm(n,n{sup '}gamma) reaction. The lowest four negative-parity band structures have been characterized in detail with respect to their absolute decay properties. Specifically, a new K{sup p}i=0{sup -} band has been assigned with its 1{sup -} band head at 1681 keV. This newly observed band has a remarkable similarity in its E1 transition rates for decay to the first excited K{sup p}i=0{sup +} band at 684 keV to the lowest K{sup p}i=0{sup -} band and its decay to the ground-state band. Based on these decay properties, as well as energy considerations, this new band is assigned as a K{sup p}i=0{sup -} octupole excitation based on the K{sup p}i=0{sub 2}{sup +} state. An emerging pattern of repeating excitations built on the 0{sub 2}{sup +} level similar to those built on the ground state may indicate that {sup 152}Sm is a complex example of shape coexistence rather than a critical point nucleus.

Garrett, P. E. [Department of Physics, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N1G2W1 Canada (Canada); Kulp, W. D.; Wood, J. L. [Department of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0430 (United States); Bandyopadhyay, D.; Choudry, S.; Lesher, S. R.; McEllistrem, M. T.; Mynk, M.; Orce, J. N.; Yates, S. W. [University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40506-0055 (United States); Dashdorj, D. [Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States)

2009-08-07

296

Minimizing gain transient dynamics by optimizing the erbium concentration and cavity length of a gain clamped EDFA.  

PubMed

Erbium doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) gain transient dynamics are studied in the context of their application in optically reconfigurable networks. We address the question of how to design the EDFA in order to minimize the gain transients present in the output signals of the EDFA when the system is optically reconfigured such that the total average input power levels and wavelengths are changed. Both experimental measurements and theoretical simulations show that the amplitude transients depend on the length of the erbium doped fiber (EDF) and the erbium concentration. We show how it may be possible to reduce the gain transients by appropriate design of the EDFA. PMID:19498777

Chan, P; Tsang, H

2005-09-19

297

Growth studies of erbium-doped GaAs deposited by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy using noval cyclopentadienyl-based erbium sources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Erbium-doped GaAS layers were grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy using two new sources, bis(i-propylcyclopentadienyl)cyclopentadienyl erbium and tris(t-butylcyclopentadienyl) erbium. Controlled Er doping in the range of 10(exp 17) - 10(exp 18)/cu cm was achieved using a relatively low source temperature of 90 C. The doping exhibits a second-order dependence on inlet source partial pressure, similar to behavior obtained with cyclopentadienyl Mg dopant sources. Equivalent amounts of oxygen and Er are present in 'as-grown' films indicating that the majority of Er dopants probably exist as Er-O complexes in the material. Er(+3) luminescence at 1.54 micrometers was measured from the as-grown films, but ion implantation of additional oxygen decreases the emission intensity. Electrical compensation of n-type GaAs layers codoped with Er and Si is directly correlated to the Er concentration is proposed to arise from the deep centers associated with Er which are responsible for a broad emission band near 0.90 micrometers present in the photoluminescence spectra of GaAs:Si, Er films.

Redwing, J. M.; Kuech, T. F.; Gordon, D. C.; Vaartstra, B. A.; Lau, S. S.

1994-01-01

298

Switchable Multiwavelength Erbium-Doped Fiber Laser using a Multimode Fiber Bragg Grating and Photonic  

E-print Network

Switchable Multiwavelength Erbium-Doped Fiber Laser using a Multimode Fiber Bragg Grating multiwavelength EDFL which employs a multimode fiber Bragg grating (MM-FBG) for multiwavelength operations. We light sources for wavelength-division-multiplexed (WDM) fiber communication systems, fiber sensors

Wai, Ping-kong Alexander

299

Silver as a sensitizer for erbium C. Strohhofer and A. Polmana)  

E-print Network

for publication 14 June 2002 The photoluminescence of Er3 in borosilicate glass is strongly enhanced investigations of borosilicate glass doped with erbium by ion implantation and with silver by ion ex- change related centers rather than under the influence of silver nanocrystals. The borosilicate glass substrates

Polman, Albert

300

Single-Longitudinal-Mode Lanthanum-Codoped Bismuth-Based Erbium Doped Fiber Ring Laser  

E-print Network

wave plates. La-codoped bismuth oxide glass is much more soluble to Er 3+ ions than silicate glass and thus high concentration of Er 3+ ions up to 13000 ppm can be doped in bismuth-based glass withoutSingle-Longitudinal-Mode Lanthanum-Codoped Bismuth-Based Erbium Doped Fiber Ring Laser K. K

Wai, Ping-kong Alexander

301

Features of the explosive boiling up of water irradiated by a Q-switched erbium laser  

SciTech Connect

Subnanosecond pressure pulses were observed on the surface of water irradiated by 200-ns, 2.94-{mu}m, 0.65-0.8-J cm{sup -2} pulses from a Q-switched erbium laser. The pulses can be related to the development of explosive boiling up in a thin subsurface layer of the overheated water. (letters)

Samokhin, A A; Vovchenko, V I; Il'ichev, N N [A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Shapkin, P V [P.N. Lebedev Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2007-12-31

302

Numerical and analytical modeling of polarization-dependent gain in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a rate-equation model that accounts for polarization hole burning in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers. This model yields analytical expressions for the polarization sensitivity of the amplifier for arbitrary signal polarization states. We investigate the influence of the birefringence properties of the fiber and calculate the average polarization properties of an amplifier chain. Copyright (c) 1995 Optical Society of America

Leners, R.; Georges, T.

1995-10-01

303

Dynamics of two coupled erbium-doped fiber ring lasers in transient regime  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transient of an erbium-doped fiber ring laser coupled to another one receiving CW pump power is studied. The transient signals experimentally obtained may present different profiles depending on several conditions (degree of coupling between both lasers, pump powers of each one, etc.). In particular, an appropriate choice of working conditions makes possible to suppress relaxation oscillations and to shorten

J. A. Sánchez-Martín; J. Used; J. C. Martín

2008-01-01

304

Channel propagation in water and gelatin by a free-running erbium laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

Channel propagation in water and gelatin by a free-running erbium laser is described with a hydrodynamic model which describes the propagation process in terms of energy, mass, and momentum balance equations which influence the evaporation pressure at the phase boundary. The theory takes the deformability of cold material below the zone of absorption into account. It is shown that by

Martin Forrer; Martin Frenz; Valerio Romano; Heinz P. Weber; Aleksandr Silenok; Vitalij I. Konov

1993-01-01

305

Erbium in oxygen-doped silicon: Electroluminescence S. Lombard0 and S. U. Campisano  

E-print Network

. Unfortunately, due to its indirect band gap, silicon is characterized by a low probability for radiative on the use of epitaxial Ge,Si, -x alloys (orSi-Ge superlattices, which may show a nearly direct band gapErbium in oxygen-doped silicon: Electroluminescence S. Lombard0 and S. U. Campisano Dipartime

Polman, Albert

306

DOMAIN STRUCTURES OF MONOCRYSTALS OF THE FERRITIES OF YTTRIUM, HOLMIUM, ERBIUM, AND GADOLINIUM  

Microsoft Academic Search

The response of the domain structure to magnetic fields for the ferrites ; of Y, Ho, Er, and Gd as monocrystals is described. The domain structure on (110) ; for yttrium ferrite was the same as in isometric crystals. Figures on (211) were ; examined for the other ferrites. Erbium ferrite closely resembled holmium ; ferrite. The gadolinium ferrite showed

A. I. Drokin; V. D. Dylgerov; B. V. Beznosikov

1962-01-01

307

Average inversion level, modeling, and physics of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a detailed study of a set of models for characterizing the gain, the input and output powers of single erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFAs) and networks of EDFAs. The time dependent gain is described by a single ordinary differential equation for the average inversion level of an EDFA with arbitrary number of signal channels with arbitrary power levels and

Y. Sun; J. L. Zyskind; A. K. Srivastava

1997-01-01

308

High gain erbium-doped fiber amplifier for the investigation of nonlinear processes in fibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work we present a novel design of an optical amplifier with high gain elaborated from erbium-doped fiber (EDF). Its purpose is the amplification of low power pulses from laser diodes. The high power of the output pulses allows the investigation of nonlinear processes in optical fibers. The optical amplifier consists of two stages. The first stage uses a

S. Mendoza v; E. Kuzin; O. Pottiez

2008-01-01

309

Theoretical modeling of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers pumped by the 800-nm band  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using an accurate and comprehensive computer model, we study the pump wavelength dependence of amplifier performance in the 800 nm band in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers. A comparison is made for both forward and bidirectional pumping over a wide range of pump powers. It is shown that 800 - 810 nm pumping is more efficient if bidirectional pumping is used, while

Steven P. Bastien; Harish D. Sunak; Balakrishnan Sridhar; Vasilios E. Kalomiris

1992-01-01

310

Effects of simultaneously fiber transmitted erbium and holmium radiation on the interaction with highly absorbing media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Erbium and Holmium lasers have both been shown to be suitable for orthopedic surgery performed under water. Erbium lasers emitting in the 3 micrometers wavelength region corresponding to the maximum water absorption peak effectively ablated biological tissues with high precision and minimal thermal damage. Holmium laser radiation at 2 micrometers , due to a lower absorption coefficient, is characterized by a greater extent of thermal damage leading to hemostasis. To combine the special advantages of each system we simultaneously coupled their radiation into a zirconium fluoride fiber (ZrF4) which was protected with a quartz fiber tip. Pressure measurements performed in the liquid using a piezo electrical transducer, transmission measurements and video flash lamp schlieren imaging of the laser induced vapor bubble were used in order to determine optimum laser parameters. The cutting efficiency of the Erbium laser is drastically improved when a low energy Holmium laser pulse is additionally used which is just able to open a vapor channel through which the Erbium laser pulse can be transmitted. The dynamics of the channel formation, geometry and life time are measured as a function of the delay time between the two different laser pulses and the pulse energy applied. The combination of 2 micrometers and 3 micrometers radiation seems to be an ideal instrument for tissue treatment.

Frenz, Martin; Pratisto, Hans S.; Ith, Michael; Koenz, Flurin; Weber, Heinz P.

1995-05-01

311

Implementation of three functional devices using Erbium-doped Fibers: An Advanced Photonics Lab  

E-print Network

Implementation of three functional devices using Erbium- doped Fibers: An Advanced Photonics Lab amplifier, and a tunable fiber laser. As part of an Optical Communication Systems course, the experiment sources have been applied in various areas such as optical device characterization, gyroscopes

Qian, Li

312

Erbium-doped fiber ring laser tuning using an intra-cavity Fabry-Perot filter  

E-print Network

A tunable erbium-doped fiber ring laser using an intra-cavity Fabry-Perot filter as the tuning element is investigated. Tuning is achieved by varying the applied voltage which controls the FP cavity length. The laser's wavelength is monitored using...

Malik, Bilal Hameed

2009-06-02

313

Selectively Erbium Doped Titanium Diffused Optical Waveguide Amplifiers in Lithium Niobate  

E-print Network

Selectively erbium (Er) doped titanium (Ti) in-diffused optical waveguide amplifiers on lithium niobate (LiNbO3) substrate have been fabricated and characterized in the wavelength regime around ? = 1.53?m using counter-directional pumping at ?P = 1...

Suh, Jae Woo

2011-02-22

314

Design and fabrication of an intrinsically gain flattened Erbium doped fiber amplifier  

E-print Network

; for example, the twin core fiber requires fabrication of two separate preforms followed by polishingDesign and fabrication of an intrinsically gain flattened Erbium doped fiber amplifier B. Nagaraju1 Scientifique, Parc Valrose, F 06108 Nice CEDEX 2, FRANCE Abstract: We report design and subsequent fabrication

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

315

Soliton-Dragging Logic Gate with an Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifier.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We place an erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) in th interaction region between orthogonally polarized control and signal pulses to widen the timing window for a soliton-dragging logic gate (SDLG). In general, the two inputs to an SDLG must overlap withi...

M. N. Islam, C. E. Soccolich, B. J. Hong, C. J. Chen, J. R. Simpson

1992-01-01

316

Optimized Nonregenerative Repeater Using Cascaded Erbium-Doped and Raman Fiber Amplifier.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Fiber-based optical amplifiers such as the erbium-doped fiber amplifier(EDFA) and Raman fiber amplifier (RFA) offer the attraction of high gain, low coupling loss and polarization insensitivity. Hence their use in combination to form a nonregenerative rep...

S. L. Zhang, J. J. O'Reilly

1992-01-01

317

Calculated Groundstate Properties of Erbium Isotopes in Comparison with Measured 2+-STATES  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The deformation properties of nuclei in the vicinity of Erbium are calculated within the relativistic mean-field and the Skyrme-Hartree-Fock model and compared to experimentally measured 2+-states. The investigation in this region is of special interest since the lowest 2+-energy of an isotope-chain is not located in the midshell region.

Cornelius, T.; Maruhn, J. A.; Greiner, W.; Fleischer, P.; Reinhard, P.-G.; Bürvenich, T.; Bender, M.; Schramm, S.; Hamilton, J. H.

2003-10-01

318

Erbium-doped and Raman microlasers on a silicon chip fabricated by the solgel process  

E-print Network

-dimensional photonic crystal devices and external-cavity distributed Bragg reflector DBR laser have been achieved usingErbium-doped and Raman microlasers on a silicon chip fabricated by the sol­gel process Lan Yang lasing at absorbed pump powers below 1 mW. Additionally, Er3+ -doped microlasers were fabricated from Er3

Carmon, Tal

319

Tunable erbium-doped fiber ring laser using an intra-cavity filter  

E-print Network

Linear tuning the frequency of an erbium-doped fiber ring laser using both a Fabry-Perot filter and an electro-optic tunable filter has been experimentally demonstrated. The rate of frequency change is determined by monitoring the fringes produced...

Fadel, Hicham Joseph

2004-11-15

320

Design and Experimental Characterization of an Erbium Doped GaN Waveguide  

E-print Network

ABSTRACT The goal of this research was to develop an optical amplifier based on Erbium doped GaN waveguides, which can be used in the next-generation of planar integrated optic circuits. This thesis started from the basic concepts of fiber optic...

Wang, Qian

2012-05-31

321

Decay of 152 Eu and the unified nuclear model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The radiations from152Eu (t1\\/2=13 yrs) were investigated using an intermediate image spectrometer, a magnetic thin lens spectrometer and a coincidence scintillation\\u000a spectrometer. Three ?--groups are present with end-points (1450±25), (1040 ±20), (710±20)keV; the highest energy group exhibits an ?-shape. ?-ray\\u000a investigations showed that the following ?-rays are present: 101 (5), 121 (88), 244 (30), 315 (4), 344 (100), 410 (9),

S. K. Bhattacherjee; T. D. Nainan; Shree Raman; Baldev Sahai

1958-01-01

322

[Epidemiology of burns in Marrakech: 152 cases considered].  

PubMed

This paper is a retrospective epidemiological study of 152 burn patients hospitalized between 2006 and 2008. The patients were aged less than 20 years in 65% of cases. The sex ratio (m/f) was 1.18/1. A thermal origin was responsible in 84% of the cases. Flame was the cause in 56% of cases. The average burned body surface area was 28% and second-degree burns were the most frequent. In our study, the face and the neck were the body area most frequently involved. Prevention continues to be the best weapon to combat this problem, for which objective several measures are proposed. PMID:21991231

Ibnouzahir, M; Ettalbi, S; Ouahbi, S; Droussi, H; Sousou, M; Chlihi, A; Bahaichar, N; Boukind, H

2011-03-31

323

University of Virginia Physics 152: Introductory Physics II  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a set of resource materials for second-semester introductory physics, developed at the University of Virginia. The unifying theme of the course is applying Newtonâs Laws to a small segment of a large system to find laws governing the system as a whole. Resources include complete lecture notes, demonstrations, links to related interactive simulations, problem sets/study sheets for students, and downloadable animated spreadsheets. Physics 152 covers topics that include gravity, waves and oscillations, fluids, heat, and thermodynamics. It is intended for prospective physics majors or students who have some preparation in the fundamentals of calculus.

Fowler, Michael

2009-02-24

324

Photocopy of copy of blueprint between pages 151 and 152 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Photocopy of copy of blueprint between pages 151 and 152 in completion report and history of the U.S.A. General hospital no. 21, compiled and edited under the direction of Major W.J. Cameron, by T.R. Wieger, Chief Engineer. The report was dated April 1, 1919. A copy of the report (4003/14/29) is at the National Archives, military records (floor 13 W), Washington, D.C. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Bounded by East Colfax to south, Peoria Street to west, Denver City/County & Adams County Line to north, & U.S. Route 255 to east, Aurora, Adams County, CO

325

Influence of high-temperature treatment on the structure and emission properties of opal doped with erbium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of high-temperature treatment of opal—erbium composites on their spectral properties in the wavelength region\\u000a of 1.5 ?m is investigated, the dependence of the luminescence intensity on the erbium concentration is measured, and the structure\\u000a of the composite after high-temperature treatment is examined using transmission electron microscopy. The regular structure\\u000a of the composites undergoes considerable transformations up to the

V. M. Masalov; É. A. Shte?nman; A. N. Tereshchenko; E. A. Kudrenko; A. V. Bazhenov; M. A. Koval’chuk; I. I. Khodos; G. A. Emel’chenko

2009-01-01

326

Influence of high-temperature treatment on the structure and emission properties of opal doped with erbium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of high-temperature treatment of opal---erbium composites on their spectral properties in the wavelength region of 1.5 mum is investigated, the dependence of the luminescence intensity on the erbium concentration is measured, and the structure of the composite after high-temperature treatment is examined using transmission electron microscopy. The regular structure of the composites undergoes considerable transformations up to the

V. M. Masalov; É. A. Shteinman; A. N. Tereshchenko; E. A. Kudrenko; A. V. Bazhenov; M. A. Koval'Chuk; I. I. Khodos; G. A. Emel'Chenko

2009-01-01

327

Sensor protection using nonlinear properties of Erbium doped Zinc Oxide (EZO) thin films prepared by sol-gel method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zinc Oxide (ZO) and Erbium doped zinc oxide (EZO) thin film were deposited on corning glass substrate by sol- gel method. Concentration of erbium is varying from 0.0 to 0.2 at.%. These films were characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-VIS-NIR transmission and single beam Z-scan technique under illumination of frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser. The films developed were found to

Devendra Mohan; Vinay Kumari; Purmima

2011-01-01

328

Investigation of {sup 152}Sm by Complementary Reactions  

SciTech Connect

Understanding the nuclear structure of {sup 152}Sm, along with other N = 90 isotones, has long posed a challenge. A rapid transition in shape between the spherical N = 88 {sup 150}Sm and well-deformed N = 92 {sup 154}Sm is observed, along with strong evidence for shape coexistence. Competing ideas have been put forward over the decades, with the most recent being that N = 90 is at the critical point of a shape phase transition. Until recently, the lack of high-precision data has not allowed the competing models to be extensively tested. In a coordinated program of investigation, a series of complementary experiments, which include high-statistics {beta} decay, multi-step Coulomb excitation, the {sup 150}Nd({alpha},2n) reaction, and the (n,n'{gamma}) reaction, have been performed for {sup 152}Sm. These experiments have revealed the existence of a pairing-isomer band, a hexadecapole band, the lack of multi-phonon {beta} vibrational bands, and the repetition of structures built on the first excited K{sup {pi}} = 0{sup +} as built on the ground state. The status of these coordinated studies is examined.

Garrett, P. E. [Department of Physics, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N1G2W1 (Canada); Kulp, W. D.; Wood, J. L.; Allmond, J. M. [Department of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia, 30332 (United States); Bandyopadhyay, D.; Choudry, S. N.; Kumar, A.; Lesher, S. R.; McEllistrem, M. T.; Mynk, M. G.; McKay, C. J.; Orce, J. N. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, 40506 (United States); Christen, S.; Dewald, A.; Fitzler, A.; Fransen, C.; Jessen, K.; Jolie, J.; Kloezer, A.; Kudejova, P. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universtaet zu Koeln, Zuelpicherstrasse 77, Koeln, D-50937 (Germany)] (and others)

2009-01-28

329

Production of terbium-152 by heavy ion reactions and proton induced spallation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Terbium-152 (Tb-152) is of potential value as a radiotracer for radiolanthanides in positron emission tomography. We report the production of Tb-152 by heavy ion reactions at the ANU Tandem accelerator, and by the spallation method at the CERN proton accelerator using the on-line ISOLDE separator, obtaining microcurie and millicurie yields, respectively. After purification, a phantom image in PET is obtained

B. J. Allen; G. Goozee; S. Sarkar; G. Beyer; C. Morel; A. P. Byrne

2001-01-01

330

Production of terbium-152 by heavy ion reactions and proton induced spallation.  

PubMed

Terbium-152 (Tb-152) is of potential value as a radiotracer for radiolanthanides in positron emission tomography. We report the production of Tb-152 by heavy ion reactions at the ANU Tandem accelerator, and by the spallation method at the CERN proton accelerator using the on-line ISOLDE separator, obtaining microcurie and millicurie yields, respectively. After purification, a phantom image in PET is obtained which shows the feasibility of using Tb-152 for monitoring the kinetics of Tb-149 and other radiolanthanides. However, the current availability of this radioisotope will be restricted to major nuclear physics research centres. PMID:11144253

Allen, B J; Goozee, G; Sarkar, S; Beyer, G; Morel, C; Byrne, A P

2001-01-01

331

Boiler Shop (Bldg. 152) 150ton Morgan bridge crane, looking east ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Boiler Shop (Bldg. 152) 150-ton Morgan bridge crane, looking east - Atchison, Topeka, Santa Fe Railroad, Albuquerque Shops, Boiler Shop, 908 Second Street, Southwest, Albuquerque, Bernalillo County, NM

332

Boiler Shop (Bldg. 152) 150ton Morgan bridge crane, looking west ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Boiler Shop (Bldg. 152) 150-ton Morgan bridge crane, looking west - Atchison, Topeka, Santa Fe Railroad, Albuquerque Shops, Boiler Shop, 908 Second Street, Southwest, Albuquerque, Bernalillo County, NM

333

Double Brillouin frequency spaced multiwavelength Brillouin-erbium fiber laser with 50 nm tuning range  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 50 nm tuning range multiwavelength Brillouin-erbium fiber laser (MWBEFL) with double Brillouin frequency spacing is presented. Two separated gain blocks with symmetrical architecture, consisted by erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFAs) and Brillouin gain media, are used to generate double Brillouin frequency spacing. The wider tuning range is realized by eliminating the self-lasing cavity modes existing in conventional MWBEFLs because of the absence of the physical mirrors at the ends of the linear cavity. The Brillouin pump (BP) is preamplified by the EDFA before entering the single-mode fiber (SMF), which leads to the reduction of threshold power and the generation enhancement of Brillouin Stokes (BS) signals. Four channels with 0.176 nm spacing are achieved at 2 mW BP power and 280 mW 980 nm pump power which can be tuned from 1525 to 1575 nm.

Zhao, J. F.; Liao, T. Q.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, R. X.; Miao, C. Y.; Tong, Z. R.

2012-09-01

334

Measurement of Activation Cross Sections of Erbium Irradiated by Proton Beam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Erbium is one of the rare earth elements which are used to produce therapeutic radioisotopes by charged particle induced reactions, such as proton, deuteron and alpha particle-induced reactions. In this study, production cross sections of 165Tm and 166Tm were measured for erbium samples irradiated by a proton beam with E=45 MeV provided by the MC-50 cyclotron of KIRAMS (Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences). A HPGe detector was used to measure ?-rays for an activation cross section measurement. A stacked foil technique was adopted to measure the activation cross sections at different proton energies using copper foils as degraders and monitor foils to measure the proton beam current. The SRIM code was used to calculate the energy of the proton beam penetrating each foil. The measured data are compared with other available experimental data and theoretical cross sections calculated by TALYS code.

Song, T. Y.; Kim, J. W.; Kim, H. I.; Lee, C. W.; Lee, Y. O.; Yang, S. C.; Kim, K. S.; Kim, G. N.

2014-05-01

335

Erbium-doped spiral amplifiers with 20 dB of net gain on silicon.  

PubMed

Spiral-waveguide amplifiers in erbium-doped aluminum oxide on a silicon wafer are fabricated and characterized. Spirals of several lengths and four different erbium concentrations are studied experimentally and theoretically. A maximum internal net gain of 20 dB in the small-signal-gain regime is measured at the peak emission wavelength of 1532 nm for two sample configurations with waveguide lengths of 12.9 cm and 24.4 cm and concentrations of 1.92 × 1020 cm-3 and 0.95 × 1020 cm-3, respectively. The noise figures of these samples are reported. Gain saturation as a result of increasing signal power and the temperature dependence of gain are studied. PMID:25401633

Vázquez-Córdova, Sergio A; Dijkstra, Meindert; Bernhardi, Edward H; Ay, Feridun; Wörhoff, Kerstin; Herek, Jennifer L; García-Blanco, Sonia M; Pollnau, Markus

2014-10-20

336

1.54 micron Emission from Erbium implanted GaN for Photonic Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of efficient and compact light sources operating at 1.54 micron is of enormous importance for the advancement of new optical communication systems. Erbium (1%) doped fiber amplifiers (EDFA's) or semiconductor lasers are currently being employed as near infrared light sources. Both devices, however, have inherent limitations due to their mode of operation. EDFA's employ an elaborate optical pumping scheme, whereas diode lasers have a strongly temperature dependent lasing wavelength. Novel light emitters based on erbium doped III-V semiconductors could overcome these limitations. Er doped semiconductors combine the convenience of electrical excitation with the excellent luminescence properties of Er(3+) ions. Electrically pumped, compact, and temperature stable optoelectronic devices are envisioned from this new class of luminescent materials. In this paper we discuss the potential of Er doped GaN for optoelectronic applications based on temperature dependent photoluminescence excitation studies.

Thaik, Myo; Hommerich, U.; Schwartz, R. N.; Wilson, R. G.; Zavada, J. M.

1998-01-01

337

Photo-annealing effect of gamma-irradiated erbium-doped fibre by femtosecond pulsed laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, a photo-annealing effect of gamma-irradiated erbium-doped glass fibre is investigated. Two commercial erbium-doped fibres (EDFs) with different doping concentrations were sealed inside a chamber with a cobalt-60 gamma source for 6 h to give an accumulated dose of 3.18 kGy. A tunable femtosecond pulsed laser with a repetition rate of 80 MHz was then used to pump EDF to generate 1550 nm fluorescence and green up-conversion emission, resulting in the annealing effect of the gamma-irradiated EDF. The fluorescence power of gamma-irradiated EDF with a moderate level of doping was almost returned to the initial state by photo-annealing, unlike that of a heavily doped EDF. This finding may facilitate the development of anti-irradiated superfluorescence fibre source for space navigation.

Hsiung Chang, Sheng; Liu, Ren-Young; Lin, Chu-En; Chou, Fong-In; Tai, Chao-Yi; Chen, Chii-Chang

2013-12-01

338

Photonic properties of erbium doped InGaN alloys grown on Si (001) substrates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Erbium doped InGaN alloys (InGaN:Er) were grown on Si (001) substrates using metal organic chemical vapor deposition. The growth of epitaxial films was accomplished by depositing InGaN:Er on GaN templates deposited on 7.3° off-oriented Si (001) substrates which were prepared by etching and subsequent selective area growth. X-ray diffraction measurements confirmed the formation of wurtzite InGaN (11¯01) epilayers, which exhibit strong photoluminescence emission at 1.54 ?m. The observed emission intensity at 1.54 ?m was comparable to that from similar alloys grown on GaN/AlN/Al2O3 templates. These results indicate the high potential for on-chip integration of erbium based photonic devices with complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology.

Feng, I. W.; Cao, X. K.; Li, J.; Lin, J. Y.; Jiang, H. X.; Sawaki, N.; Honda, Y.; Tanikawa, T.; Zavada, J. M.

2011-02-01

339

Mode-locked L-band bismuth-erbium fiber laser using carbon nanotubes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A passively mode-locked, bismuth-erbium-co-doped fiber (Bi-EDF) with a pulse width of 460 fs is proposed and demonstrated. A highly doped, 180-cm Bi-EDF with an erbium concentration of 3,250 ppm/wt and an absorption rate of 133 dB/m at 1,530 nm serves as the gain medium. The cavity is 11.6 m long with an overall group velocity dispersion of +0.063 ps2. The output pulses have a repetition rate, average output power, pulse energy and peak power of 11.18 MHz, 5 mW, 448 pJ and 1 kW, respectively. The system has a high beam quality and a narrow pulse width output in the L-band region.

Ahmad, H.; Zulkifli, A. Z.; Muhammad, F. D.; Zulkifli, M. Z.; Thambiratnam, K.; Harun, S. W.

2014-06-01

340

Modelling of micromachining of human tooth enamel by erbium laser radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider a 3D cellular model of human tooth enamel and a photomechanical cellular model of enamel ablation by erbium laser radiation, taking into account the structural peculiarities of enamel, energy distribution in the laser beam cross section and attenuation of laser energy in biological tissue. The surface area of the texture in enamel is calculated after its micromachining by erbium laser radiation. The influence of the surface area on the bond strength of enamel with dental filling materials is discussed. A good correlation between the computer simulation of the total work of adhesion and experimentally measured bond strength between the dental filling material and the tooth enamel after its micromachining by means of YAG : Er laser radiation is attained.

Belikov, A. V.; Skrypnik, A. V.; Shatilova, K. V.

2014-08-01

341

S-Band Brillouin/erbium Fiber Laser for Dwdm Application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A multi-wavelength Brillouin erbium fiber laser (BEFL) which operates in a short wavelength band (S-Band) is demonstrated using a depressed cladding erbium-doped fiber (EDF). Two 80/20 couplers were used in the system for internal feedback of generated stokes signal in order to produce cascaded Brillouin stokes for multi-wavelength operation. It generates an optical wavelength comb with spacing of approximately 0.084 m. A stable output laser of up to 7 lines was obtained with a Brillouin pump of 3.5 mW, a 980 nm pump laser of 200 mW and an EDF length of 20 m. The BEFL has the potential to be used in the future dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) communication system.

Harun, Sulaiman Wadi; San, Cheng Xiau; Ahmad, Harith

342

Electric control of collective atomic coherence in an Erbium doped solid  

E-print Network

We demonstrate fast and accurate control of the evolution of collective atomic coherences in an Erbium doped solid using external electric fields. This is achieved by controlling the inhomogeneous broadening of Erbium ions emitting at 1536 nm using an electric field gradient and the linear Stark effect. The manipulation of atomic coherence is characterized with the collective spontaneous emission (optical free induction decay) emitted by the sample after an optical excitation, which does not require any previous preparation of the atoms. We show that controlled dephasing and rephasing of the atoms by the electric field result in collapses and revivals of the optical free induction decay. Our results show that the use of external electric fields does not introduce any substantial additional decoherence and enables the manipulation of collective atomic coherence with a very high degree of precision on the time scale of tens of ns. This provides an interesting resource for photonic quantum state storage and quantum state manipulation.

Ji?í Miná?; Björn Lauritzen; Hugues de Riedmatten; Mikael Afzelius; Christoph Simon; Nicolas Gisin

2009-07-14

343

X-ray diffraction study of elemental erbium to 70 GPa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have investigated phase transitions in elemental erbium in a diamond anvil cell (DAC) up to 70GPa using angular-dispersive x-ray powder diffraction methods. We present evidence of a series of phase transitions that appear to follow the anticipated hcp?Sm-type?doublehcp(dhcp)?distorted fcc sequence. In particular, we present evidence for the predicted dhcp?distorted fcc transition above 63GPa . Equation of state data are also presented up to 70GPa .

Pravica, Michael G.; Romano, Edward; Quine, Zachary

2005-12-01

344

Photoluminescence properties of erbium doped InGaN epilayers A. Sedhain,1,2  

E-print Network

properties of Er doped InGaN synthe- sized by MOCVD. The Er doped InGaN sample structure used for this workPhotoluminescence properties of erbium doped InGaN epilayers A. Sedhain,1,2 C. Ugolini,2 J. Y. Lin on Er doped InGaN rather than Er doped GaN. However, the growth of Er-doped InGaN epilayers

Jiang, Hongxing

345

Dynamics of two coupled erbium-doped fiber ring lasers in transient regime  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transient of an erbium-doped fiber ring laser coupled to another one receiving CW pump power is studied. The transient\\u000a signals experimentally obtained may present different profiles depending on several conditions (degree of coupling between\\u000a both lasers, pump powers of each one, etc.). In particular, an appropriate choice of working conditions makes possible to\\u000a suppress relaxation oscillations and to shorten

J. A. Sánchez-Martín; J. Used; J. C. Martín

2008-01-01

346

Thermal, chemical and structural characteristics of erbium-doped sodium phosphate glasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal, chemical and structural characteristics of the erbium-doped sodium phosphate glasses with 1–6mol% Er2O3 were investigated. The glass transition temperature increase, but the thermal expansion coefficient and the dissolution rate of the glasses decrease with increasing Er2O3 content. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectrometer were used to inspect the structural changes of the glasses. The doping

P. Y Shih

2004-01-01

347

Structural properties and electrical characteristics of electron-beam gun evaporated erbium oxide films  

E-print Network

for publication 3 January 2002 We report properties of Er2O3 films deposited on silicon using electron-beam gun with the surface morphology. The obtained characteristics make the Er2O3 films a promising substitute for SiO2 of another rare-earth­ metal oxide, erbium oxide, Er2O3 . This material is rather well known as an optical

Eisenstein, Gadi

348

Photonic crystal interactions with electroluminescence from zinc sulfide thin films doped with erbium trifluoride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photonic crystal (PC) interactions with the near-infrared emission at a wavelength of 1550 nm from zinc sulfide (ZnS) doped with erbium trifluoride (ErF3) have been studied in alternating current thin film electroluminescent (ACTFEL) devices. An objective of this study was to determine if propagation of light parallel to the surface would be frustrated by the PC and result in the

Evan Stanley Law

2009-01-01

349

Erbium doping in InGaAsP grown by liquid-phase epitaxy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Er-doped InGaAsP epitaxial layers lattice-matched to InP with wavelengths of 1.29 and 1.55 ?m have been grown by liquid-phase epitaxy. When the Er amount doped in the InGaAsP growth solution is above 0.32 wt %, it will have a fairly rough surface morphology with many extensive deposits of erbium hydride and oxide. The lattice mismatch normal to the wafer

Meng-Chyi Wu; En-Hsing Chen; Tsung-Shune Chin; Yuan-Kuang Tu

1992-01-01

350

Physical properties of erbium implanted tungsten oxide films deposited by reactive dual magnetron sputtering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amorphous and partially crystalline WO3 thin films were prepared by reactive dual magnetron sputtering and successively implanted by erbium ions with a fluence in the range from 7.7×1014 to 5×1015 ions\\/cm2. The electrical and optical properties were studied as a function of the film deposition parameters and the ion fluence. Ion implantation caused a strong decrease of the resistivity, a

Sodky H. Mohamed; André Anders

2007-01-01

351

Erbium-doped optical fiber amplifiers pumped in the 660- and 820-nm bands  

Microsoft Academic Search

State-of-the-art erbium (Er)-doped optical fiber amplifiers (EDFA's) pumped in the 660- and 820-nm bands are described. We have demonstrated highly efficient EDFA's incorporating optimized 664- and 827-nm pump wavelengths and an Er-doped high numerical aperture (NA) fiber with thermally diffused expanded core (TEC) fiber ends. Gain coefficients of 3.8 and 1.3 dB\\/mW at respective wavelengths of 664 and 827 nm

Masaharu Horiguchi; Kaoru Yoshino; Makoto Shimizu; Makoto Yamada; Hiroaki Hanafusa

1994-01-01

352

High output power Erbium-Ytterbium doped cladding pumped fiber amplifier  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of a high output power Erbium-Ytterbium doped fiber amplifier (EYDFA) pumped by a 927 nm laser diode are proposed\\u000a and experimentally investigated. The EYDFA provides a flat gain and output power higher than 23 dBm in the wavelength region\\u000a from 1545 to 1566 nm using a double-pass configuration. A broadband fiber Bragg grating is used in the double-pass

S. W. Harun; M. R. A. Moghaddam; H. Ahmad

2010-01-01

353

An output power stabilized erbium-doped fiber amplifier with automatic gain control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the cross-saturation between two different-wavelength optical signals in an erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA), we have developed an output power stabilized EDFA system with automatic gain control. The developed system shows 18.5-dB dynamic range of the output power limitation with the ability to set the output power level arbitrarily. When a temporally varying optical signal is input, the system

Nobuaki Takahashi; Takafumi Hirono; Haruaki Akashi; Sumio Takahashi; Tai Sasaki

1997-01-01

354

High output power Erbium-Ytterbium doped cladding pumped fiber amplifier  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of a high output power Erbium-Ytterbium doped fiber amplifier (EYDFA) pumped by a 927 nm laser diode are proposed and experimentally investigated. The EYDFA provides a flat gain and output power higher than 23 dBm in the wavelength region from 1545 to 1566 nm using a double-pass configuration. A broadband fiber Bragg grating is used in the double-pass

S. W. Harun; M. R. A. Moghaddam; H. Ahmad

2010-01-01

355

Experimental and theoretical studies on ytterbium sensitized erbium-doped fiber amplifier  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of a high power erbium–ytterbium doped fiber amplifier (EYDFA) is investigated experimentally and theoretically. The EYDFA provides a flat gain with an output power higher than 23dBm in the wavelength region from 1541 to 1565nm using a multimode pumping at 927nm. In the theoretical analysis, the rate and power propagation equations are solved to examine the effect of

M. R. A. Moghaddam; S. W. Harun; R. Parvizi; Z. S. Salleh; H. Arof; A. Lokman; H. Ahmad

2011-01-01

356

Performance of multi-gigabit\\/sec transmission systems using erbium doped fiber amplifiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of a series of 11-Gb\\/s system experiments incorporating one or more erbium-doped fiber amplifiers are reported. These experiments employed 1550-nm directly modulated DFB (distributed feedback) lasers and an 11-Gb\\/s timing recovery circuit over span lengths as long as 260 km. Also discussed are various system-degrading effects which can adversely affect lightwave systems employing fiber amplifiers, including the effects

M. Z. Iqbal; J. L. Gimlett; A. Yi-Yan; M. M. Choy; M. A. Saifi; N. K. Cheung; A. Righetti; F. Fontana; G. Delrosso; G. Grasso

1990-01-01

357

Length dependence of saturation power in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dependence of the output saturation power on length is determined for an alumino silicate erbium-doped fiber amplifier. For low gain amplifiers the output saturation power is found to decrease with increasing length. But for amplifiers with small signal gains above about 20 dB the output saturation power increases with length. The self-saturation by amplified spontaneous emission of such high

John L. Zyskind; J. W. Sulhoff; David J. Digiovanni

1992-01-01

358

Reentrant Sagnac fiber gyroscope with a recirculating delay line using an erbium-doped fiber amplifier  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fiber-optic reentrant gyroscope based on the principle of Sagnac interferometry incorporating a recirculating delay line is demonstrated. Loss compensation in the delay line is achieved through an erbium-doped fiber amplifier bidirectionally pumped at 1.48 ?m. A theoretical analysis shows the potential device limits for very low rotation rates detection. Nonreciprocal effects induced by the fiber amplifier and Kerr nonlinearities

D. N. Chen; K. Motoshima; M. M. Downs; E. Desurvire

1992-01-01

359

A high efficiency, low threshold, erbium-doped holey optical fiber laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the first continuous wave operation of an erbium doped holey fiber laser with a slope efficiency as high as 57.3%, and with an absorbed pump power threshold as low as 0.55mW. Holey optical fibers have attracted a lot of interest in recent years due to their unique and usefbl optical properties. To date most work has focused on

K. Furusawa; J. K. Sabu; T. M. Monro; D. J. Richardson

2003-01-01

360

Resonantly pumped high power flat L-band erbium-doped superfluorescent fiber source.  

PubMed

An all-single-mode-fiber L-band superfluorescent fiber source (SFS) with 1 W output power, 34.3 nm bandwidth (FWHM) and 54% optical conversion efficiency is constructed by seeding a high power erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) with a low power L-band ASE seed source to avoid parasitic lasing. The source is resonantly pumped by a high power C-band SFS peaked at 1545 nm. PMID:18521149

Chen, Sheng-Ping; Liu, Ze-Jin; Li, Yi-Gang; Lu, Ke-Cheng; Zhou, Shou-Huan

2008-01-01

361

Soliton propagation in an erbium-doped fiber with and without a continuous wave background.  

PubMed

Considering ultrashort pulse propagation in a nonlinear resonant fiber governed by Hirota-Maxwell Bloch equations, the soliton interaction in an erbium-doped fiber system associated with higher-order dispersion, self-steepening, and self-induced transparency effects is studied for the case when the fiber is driven with and without a constant pumping source. Using auto-Bäcklund-transformation, one- and two-soliton solutions are generated. The significance of the results is discussed in detail. PMID:14754344

Ganapathy, R; Kuriakose, V C; Porsezian, K

2003-12-01

362

A 103 W erbium–ytterbium co-doped large-core fiber laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a highly efficient cladding-pumped erbium–ytterbium co-doped large-core fiber laser, generating up to 103 W of continuous-wave output power at 1.57 ?m with a beam quality (M2) of 2.0. The overall slope efficiency was 30% (40% at low powers) with respect to the launched pump power. A roll-off in output power was observed at higher powers caused by the

J. K Sahu; Y Jeong; D. J Richardson; J Nilsson

2003-01-01

363

Optically active erbium-doped waveguides fabricated using a single-sol-gel-deposition technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the results of optical-characterization experiments conducted on optically active erbium-doped waveguides. Using selected characterization results presented in this paper and a simple analysis, the device operation is evaluated. Each of the core and the cladding layers were individually fabricated using a single sol-gel deposition. These are, to the best of our knowledge, the first optically active waveguides to

Robert R. Thomson; Henry T. Bookey; H. Ur-Rehman; S. Liu; N. Suyal; Ajoy K. Kar

2005-01-01

364

Optical properties of polymer waveguides dispensed on an erbium\\/ytterbium codoped glass  

Microsoft Academic Search

A composite waveguide was fabricated by dispensing polymer on top of an erbium\\/ytterbium codoped bulk glass. The parabolic surface of the polymer layer induces a transverse graded index waveguide behavior enabling tighter lateral confinement of light than in a typical step-index multimode waveguide. Spontaneous emission of light in the 1520-1570-nm band has been observed, We have also observed up to

Madhu Krishnaswamy; David Boertjes; J. N. McMullin; Barrie P. Keyworth

1996-01-01

365

Self-similar erbium-doped fiber laser with large normal dispersion  

PubMed Central

We report a large normal dispersion erbium-doped fiber laser with self-similar pulse evolution in the gain fiber. The cavity is stabilized by the local nonlinear attractor in the gain fiber through the use of a narrow filter. Experimental results are accounted for by numerical simulations. This laser produces 3.5 nJ pulses, which can be dechirped to 70 fs with an external grating pair. PMID:24562267

Liu, Hui; Liu, Zhanwei; Lamb, Erin S.; Wise, Frank

2014-01-01

366

Erbium, chromium:yttrium–scandium–gallium–garnet laser-assisted sinus graft procedure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility of using lasers in the field of dentistry has been a subject of investigation. There are few reports that\\u000a any laser systems have been used for bony window osteotomy by direct sinus grafting. In this study, erbium, chromium:yttrium–scandium–gallium–garnet\\u000a (Er,Cr:YSGG) laser of various laser systems was used for 12 sinus bone grafts in ten patients, and the efficiency of

Dong-Seok Sohn; Ji-Soo Lee; Kyung-Mi An; George E. Romanos

2009-01-01

367

Evaluation of mineral content of dentin prepared by erbium, chromium:yttrium scandium gallium garnet laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laser etching has an effect on the mineral content of dentin. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mineral content of\\u000a dentin prepared at three different power settings with an erbium, chromium:yttrium scandium gallium garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) laser.\\u000a The enamel of five, lower, wisdom, molar teeth was removed to expose the dentin surface. Four dentin slabs were obtained,\\u000a then

Asli Secilmis; Subutayhan Altintas; Aslihan Usumez; Gizem Berk

2008-01-01

368

Shear bond strength of composite bonded to erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser-prepared dentin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the dentin bond strength to resin composite following erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet\\u000a (Er:YAG) laser preparation using different adhesive systems. Seventy dentin specimens prepared from human molar teeth were\\u000a randomly assigned to seven groups of ten. The first five groups were prepared with an Er:YAG laser 2940 nm at the manufacturer’s\\u000a recommended settings and (1) acid etched,

Sevil Gurgan; Arlin Kiremitci; Filiz Yalcin Cakir; Esra Yazici; Jale Gorucu; Norbert Gutknecht

2009-01-01

369

Optical memory bandwidth and multiplexing capacity in the erbium telecommunication window  

E-print Network

We study the bandwidth and multiplexing capacity of an erbium-doped optical memory for quantum storage purposes. We concentrate on the protocol ROSE (Revival of a Silenced Echo) because it has the largest potential multiplexing capacity. Our analysis is applicable to other protocols that involve strong optical excitation. We show that the memory performance is limited by instantaneous spectral diffusion and we describe how this effect can be minimised to achieve optimal performance.

Dajczgewand, Julian; Böttger, Thomas; Louchet-Chauvet, Anne; Gouët, Jean-Louis Le; Chanelière, Thierry

2014-01-01

370

Effect of niobium oxide introduction on erbium luminescence in borophosphate glasses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role of the addition of niobium oxide in large amount on the Er 3+ emission properties at 1535 nm for excitation at 980 nm in borophosphate glass has been investigated. An increase of the emission, associated with a decrease of the lifetime of the 4I 13/2 erbium level and a larger absorption cross section of erbium and ytterbium at 980 nm was evidenced. Changes induced on hydroxyl groups absorption with addition of Nb 2O 5 in glasses was clearly shown by IR Spectroscopy in the range 2500-3700 cm -1. The relationship between erbium luminescence at 1535 nm, Nb 2O 5 concentration and OH group nature in niobium borophosphate glasses has been discussed. A fluorination treatment, conducted to reduce the OH group content, has allowed the reduction of the absorption coefficient at 3000 cm -1 by half. Amplification measured at 1535 nm has confirmed the beneficial effect of the Nb 2O 5 introduction on the gain and has been found to be in accordance with the evolution of the luminescence properties.

Petit, L.; Cardinal, T.; Videau, J. J.; Durand, E.; Canioni, L.; Martines, M.; Guyot, Y.; Boulon, G.

2006-02-01

371

Erbium-doped chalcogenide fiber ring laser for mid-IR applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, infrared light sources have attracted great attention for their application in remote sensing, sensors, optical communication, medical and military technology, and so on. Innovative erbium-doped microstructured optical fiber ring lasers (EDFRLs) have been proposed in order to increase the performance of the conventional fiber lasers, enabling a number of advantages such as smaller size, higher power, better beam quality. In a previous work, the authors proposed a design of a Fabry Perot laser made of a novel erbium-doped Ga5Ge20Sb10S65 chalcogenide glass, operating in the Mid-IR wavelength range. This work reports the design of a ring laser, made of the same glass, operating at the signal wavelength ?s = 4600 nm and at the pump wavelength ?p = 806 nm. The design and optimization has been performed in order to improve the laser performance. The numerical computer code, implemented ad-hoc to investigate the fiber ring laser, takes into account the rate equations of the 5-level erbium ion system, the pump and signal power propagation, the energy transfer of the up-conversion and cross-relaxation phenomena, the cavity losses and the coupling losses. The measured amplified spontaneous emission ASE power spectrum has been accurately sampled in 150 wavelength slots from ?1=4200 nm to ?2=4800 nm, to obtain more realistic simulations.

Mescia, L.; Prudenzano, F.; Allegretti, L.; De Sario, M.; Palmisano, T.; Petruzzelli, V.; Smektala, F.; Moizan, V.; Nazabal, V.; Troles, J.

2009-05-01

372

Investigation on the effect of EDFA location in ring cavity Brillouin-Erbium fiber laser.  

PubMed

We have investigated the characteristics of Brillouin-Erbium fiber laser (BEFL) with variation of Erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) locations in a ring cavity configuration. Three possible locations of the EDFA in the laser cavity have been studied. The experimental results show that the location of EDFA plays vital role in determining the output power and the tuning range. Besides the Erbium gain, Brillouin gain also contributes to the performance of the BEFL. By placing the EDFA next to the Brillouin gain medium (dispersion compensating fiber), the Brillouin pump signal is amplified thereby generating higher intensities of Brillouin Stokes line. This efficient process suppresses the free running self-lasing cavity modes from oscillating in cavity as a result of higher Stokes laser power and thus provide a wider tuning range. At the injected Brillouin pump power of 1.6 mW and the maximum 1480 nm pump power of 135 mW, the maximum Stokes laser power of 25.1 mW was measured and a tuning range of 50 nm without any self-lasing cavity modes was obtained. PMID:19582091

Hambali, Nor Azura Malini A; Mahdi, Mohd Adzir; Al-Mansoori, Mohammed Hayder; Abas, Ahmad Fauzi; Saripan, M Iqbal

2009-07-01

373

25 CFR 152.21 - Sale or exchange of tribal land.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Sale or exchange of tribal land. 152.21 Section 152.21 Indians...INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER ISSUANCE OF PATENTS IN FEE...RESTRICTIONS, AND SALE OF CERTAIN INDIAN LANDS Sales, Exchanges and Conveyances...

2010-04-01

374

30 CFR 75.152 - Tests of air flow; qualified person.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 false Tests of air flow; qualified person. 75.152 ...Certified Persons § 75.152 Tests of air flow; qualified person. A person...of this part requiring that tests of air flow be made by a qualified person...

2011-07-01

375

30 CFR 75.152 - Tests of air flow; qualified person.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Tests of air flow; qualified person. 75.152 ...Certified Persons § 75.152 Tests of air flow; qualified person. A person...of this part requiring that tests of air flow be made by a qualified person...

2013-07-01

376

30 CFR 75.152 - Tests of air flow; qualified person.  

... 2014-07-01 false Tests of air flow; qualified person. 75.152 ...Certified Persons § 75.152 Tests of air flow; qualified person. A person...of this part requiring that tests of air flow be made by a qualified person...

2014-07-01

377

30 CFR 75.152 - Tests of air flow; qualified person.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Tests of air flow; qualified person. 75.152 ...Certified Persons § 75.152 Tests of air flow; qualified person. A person...of this part requiring that tests of air flow be made by a qualified person...

2010-07-01

378

30 CFR 75.152 - Tests of air flow; qualified person.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-07-01 false Tests of air flow; qualified person. 75.152 ...Certified Persons § 75.152 Tests of air flow; qualified person. A person...of this part requiring that tests of air flow be made by a qualified person...

2012-07-01

379

Artificial Intelligence 152 (2004) 213234 www.elsevier.com/locate/artint  

E-print Network

Artificial Intelligence 152 (2004) 213­234 www.elsevier.com/locate/artint Consistency. Felfernig et al. / Artificial Intelligence 152 (2004) 213­234 1. Introduction Knowledge-based configuration-based diagnosis of configurator knowledge bases, in: W. Horn (Ed.), Proc. 14th European Conference on Artificial

Jannach, Dietmar

380

14 CFR Appendix A to Part 152 - Contract and Labor Provisions  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Pt. 152, App. A Appendix A to Part 152—Contract and Labor Provisions...Soldiers' and Sailors' Civil Relief Act of 1940 (50 U.S.C. App. 501) and have been honorably discharged from the...

2013-01-01

381

14 CFR Appendix A to Part 152 - Contract and Labor Provisions  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Pt. 152, App. A Appendix A to Part 152—Contract and Labor Provisions...Soldiers' and Sailors' Civil Relief Act of 1940 (50 U.S.C. App. 501) and have been honorably discharged from the...

2011-01-01

382

14 CFR Appendix A to Part 152 - Contract and Labor Provisions  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Pt. 152, App. A Appendix A to Part 152—Contract and Labor Provisions...Soldiers' and Sailors' Civil Relief Act of 1940 (50 U.S.C. App. 501) and have been honorably discharged from the...

2012-01-01

383

14 CFR Appendix A to Part 152 - Contract and Labor Provisions  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Pt. 152, App. A Appendix A to Part 152—Contract and Labor Provisions...Soldiers' and Sailors' Civil Relief Act of 1940 (50 U.S.C. App. 501) and have been honorably discharged from the...

2010-01-01

384

IEEE PHOTONICS TECHNOLOGY LETTERS, VOL. 17, NO. 2, FEBRUARY 2005 297 La-Codoped Bismuth-Based Erbium-Doped Fiber  

E-print Network

IEEE PHOTONICS TECHNOLOGY LETTERS, VOL. 17, NO. 2, FEBRUARY 2005 297 La-Codoped Bismuth lasers using 84.6-cm-long lanthanum-codoped bismuth-based erbium doped fiber and a narrow-band tunable)-codoped bismuth-based erbium-doped fiber (Bi-EDF), laser tuning, microelectromechanical system (MEMS) filter. I

Wai, Ping-kong Alexander

385

Sintering effects on structure, morphology, and electrical properties of sol-gel synthesized, nano-crystalline erbium oxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nano-crystalline erbium oxide powder was synthesized through the sol-gel technique. The effect of sintering temperature from 250°C to 1400°C on structure, morphology, and electrical properties was studied. The results were compared with the microcrystalline erbium oxide purchased from the market. The synthesized erbium oxide showed fiber like nanostructures. Dielectric properties at different sintering temperatures were measured in the frequency range 100 Hz to 5MHz. The synthesized erbium oxide had the highest dielectric constant at 650°C. The behavior of the dissipation factor tan ? for sol-gel synthesized material was distinct from that of the purchased material; it was higher at low frequencies and then decreased with the increase in frequency. The synthesized material sintered at different temperatures exhibited a similar sort of frequency-dependent response for permittivity (?) and resistivity ( ?). This was in accordance with Koop's theory of dielectrics. For the microcrystalline material, frequency dependence of permittivity and resistivity was not uniform. The results showed that sol-gel synthesized erbium oxide could be a good candidate for high-k applications.

Bakhsh, Allah; Maqsood, Asghari

2012-12-01

386

Direct interaction of the mouse cytomegalovirus m152/gp40 immunoevasin with RAE-1 isoforms†  

PubMed Central

Cytomegaloviruses (CMVs) are ubiquitous species-specific viruses that establish acute, persistent, and latent infections. Both human and mouse CMVs encode proteins that inhibit the activation of natural killer (NK) cells by downregulating cellular ligands for the NK cell activating receptor, NKG2D. The MCMV glycoprotein m152/gp40 downregulates the surface expression of RAE-1 in order to avoid NK cell control in vivo. So far it is unclear if there is a direct interaction between m152 and RAE-1, and if so, if m152 interacts differentially with the five identified RAE-1 isoforms, which are expressed as two groups in MCMV-susceptible or resistant mouse strains. To address these questions, we expressed and purified the extracellular domains of RAE-1 and m152, and performed size exclusion chromatography binding assays as well as analytical ultracentrifugation and isothermal titration calorimetry to characterize these interactions quantitatively. We further evaluated the role of full-length and naturally glycosylated m152 and RAE-1 in cotransfected HEK293T cells. Our results confirmed that m152 binds RAE-1 directly, relatively tightly (Kd < 5 ?M), and with 1:1 stoichiometry. The binding is quantitatively different depending on particular RAE-1 isoforms, corresponding to the susceptibility to downregulation by m152. A PLWY motif found in RAE-1?, although contributing to its affinity for m152, does not influence the affinity of RAE-1 ? or ?, suggesting that other differences contribute to the RAE-1/m152 interaction. Molecular modeling of the different RAE-1 isoforms suggests a potential site for the m152 interaction. PMID:20166740

Zhi, Li; Mans, Janet; Paskow, Michael J.; Brown, Patrick H.; Schuck, Peter; Jonjic, Stipan; Natarajan, Kannan; Margulies, David H.

2010-01-01

387

Accurate modal gain control in a multimode erbium doped fiber amplifier incorporating ring doping and a simple LP?? pump configuration.  

PubMed

We experimentally validate a numerical model to study multimode erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (MM-EDFAs). Using this model, we demonstrate the improved performance achievable in a step index MM-EDFA incorporating a localized erbium doped ring and its potential for Space Division Multiplexed (SDM) transmission. Using a pure LP?? pump beam, which greatly simplifies amplifier construction, accurate modal gain control can be achieved by carefully tuning the thickness of the ring-doped layer in the active fiber and the pump power. In particular, by optimizing the erbium-ring-doped structure and the length of active fiber used, over 20dB gain for both LP?? and LP?? signals with a maximum gain difference of around 2 dB across the C band are predicted for a pure LP?? pump beam delivering 250 mW power at 980 nm. PMID:23037207

Kang, Qiongyue; Lim, Ee-Leong; Jung, Yongmin; Sahu, Jayanta K; Poletti, Francesco; Baskiotis, Catherine; Alam, Shaif-Ul; Richardson, David J

2012-09-10

388

25 CFR 152.22 - Secretarial approval necessary to convey individual-owned trust or restricted lands or land owned...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...necessary to convey individual-owned trust or restricted lands or land owned by a tribe. 152.22 Section 152.22 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER ISSUANCE OF PATENTS IN FEE,...

2010-04-01

389

40 CFR 417.152 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Section 417.152 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Spray Dried Detergents Subcategory § 417.152...

2011-07-01

390

40 CFR 152.98 - Procedures for transfer of exclusive use or compensation rights to another person.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...transfer of exclusive use or compensation rights to another person. 152.98 Section...Ensure Protection of Data Submitters' Rights § 152.98 Procedures for transfer of exclusive use or compensation rights to another person. A person...

2010-07-01

391

Europium-152 depth profile of a stone bridge pillar exposed to the Hiroshima atomic bomb: 152Eu activities for analysis of the neutron spectrum.  

PubMed

The 152Eu activity depth profile of a granite pillar of the Motoyasu bridge located 132 m from the Hiroshima atomic bomb hypocenter was assessed. The pillars each measured 82 cm in depth, 82 cm in width and 193 cm in height. One of the pillars was bored and 6.8-cm-diameter core samples were removed and cut into 2-cm-thick disks. Two gamma rays of 152Eu, 122 keV and 344 keV, in each disk were measured using a low background, gamma-ray spectrometer, and the activity distribution was determined as a function of depth in the granite. A concentration of stable Eu in the granite was determined by activation analysis. The specific radioactivity of 152Eu and 154Eu at the pillar surface was determined to have been 117 and 24 Bq per mg Eu, respectively, at the time of detonation. The value of 152Eu agrees within 20% of that calculated by Loewe. The depth profile of 152Eu in granite demonstrates a distinct difference from the estimates made only by thermal neutrons. Present data provide valuable information for the analysis of the neutron spectrum of the Hiroshima atomic bomb and its intensity. PMID:3623912

Hasai, H; Iwatani, K; Shizuma, K; Hoshi, M; Yokoro, K; Sawada, S; Kosako, T; Morishima, H

1987-09-01

392

Europium-152 depth profile of a stone bridge pillar exposed to the Hiroshima atomic bomb: /sup 152/Eu activities for analysis of the neutron spectrum  

SciTech Connect

The /sup 152/Eu activity depth profile of a granite pillar of the Motoyasu bridge located 132 m from the Hiroshima atomic bomb hypocenter was assessed. The pillars each measured 82 cm in depth, 82 cm in width and 193 cm in height. One of the pillars was bored and 6.8-cm-diameter core samples were removed and cut into 2-cm-thick disks. Two gamma rays of /sup 152/Eu, 122 keV and 344 keV, in each disk were measured using a low background, gamma-ray spectrometer, and the activity distribution was determined as a function of depth in the granite. A concentration of stable Eu in the granite was determined by activation analysis. The specific radioactivity of /sup 152/Eu and /sup 154/Eu at the pillar surface was determined to have been 117 and 24 Bq per mg Eu, respectively, at the time of detonation. The value of /sup 152/Eu agrees within 20% of that calculated by Loewe. The depth profile of /sup 152/Eu in granite demonstrates a distinct difference from the estimates made only by thermal neutrons. Present data provide valuable information for the analysis of the neutron spectrum of the Hiroshima atomic bomb and its intensity.

Hasai, H.; Iwatani, K.; Shizuma, K.; Hoshi, M.; Yokoro, K.; Sawada, S.; Kosako, T.; Morishima, H.

1987-09-01

393

Silicon nanocluster-sensitized emission from erbium: The role of stress in the formation of silicon nanoclusters  

SciTech Connect

Erbium-doped silicon-rich silicon oxide films deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition suffer from compressive stress as deposited, which converts to a large tensile stress on annealing due to the release of hydrogen. Although the cracking that results from this stress can be avoided by patterning the films into ridges, significant stress remains along the ridge axis. Measurements of erbium photoluminescence sensitized by silicon nanoclusters in stressed and relaxed films suggest an important role for internal film stresses in promoting the phase separation of excess silicon into nanoclusters, which has previously been thought of as a thermally driven process.

Ahmad, I.; Kallis, A.; Wojdak, M.; Saleh, H.; Kenyon, A. J. [Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University College London, WC1E 7JE London (United Kingdom); Temple, M. P.; Oton, C. J.; Loh, W. H. [Optoelectronics Research Centre, University of Southampton, SO17 1BJ Southampton (United Kingdom); Barbier, D. [Teem Photonics, 61, Chemin du Vieux Chene 38246 Meylan (France)

2008-12-15

394

Efficient erbium-doped fiber amplifier at a 1. 53-. mu. m wavelength with a high output saturation power  

Microsoft Academic Search

An efficient erbium-doped fiber amplifier providing gains from +25 to +37 dB with pump powers at Σ = 1.49 μm in the 11--54-mW range is described. Corresponding saturation output powers of +2.5 to +11 dBm were achieved. A maximum gain coefficient of 2.1{plus minus}0.1 dB\\/mW was measured, which is to our knowledge the highest value reported for erbium-doped fiber amplifiers

E. Desurvire; C. R. Giles; J. R. Simpson; J. L. Zyskind

1989-01-01

395

78 FR 16655 - Draft Damage Assessment, Restoration Plan and Environmental Assessment for the T/B DBL 152 Oil...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Plan and Environmental Assessment for the T/B DBL 152 Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico...Plan and Environmental Assessment for the T/B DBL 152 Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico...injuries resulting from the November 11, 2005, T/B DBL 152 oil spill in the Gulf of...

2013-03-18

396

CRACK GROWTH RESPONSE OF ALLOY 152 AND 52 WELD METALS IN SIMULATED PWR PRIMARY WATER  

SciTech Connect

The crack growth response of alloy 152 and 52 weld metals has been measured in simulated PWR primary water at both high (325-350 C) and low (50 C) temperatures. Tests were performed on samples machined from alloy 152 or 52 mockup welds. Propagation rates under cycle + hold and constant K conditions at high temperatures show stable, but extremely low SCC growth rates. The most significant intergranular cracking occurred during cycling at 50 C, particularly for the alloy 152 weld metal at high stress intensity.

Toloczko, Mychailo B.; Bruemmer, Stephen M.

2009-12-01

397

Resonant enhancement of neutrinoless double-electron capture in 152Gd.  

PubMed

In the search for the nuclide with the largest probability for neutrinoless double-electron capture, we have determined the Q(??) value between the ground states of (152)Gd and (152)Sm by Penning-trap mass-ratio measurements. The new Q(??) value of 55.70(18) keV results in a half-life of 10(26)??yr for a 1 eV neutrino mass. With this smallest half-life among known 0??? transitions, (152)Gd is a promising candidate for the search for neutrinoless double-electron capture. PMID:21405389

Eliseev, S; Roux, C; Blaum, K; Block, M; Droese, C; Herfurth, F; Kluge, H-J; Krivoruchenko, M I; Novikov, Yu N; Minaya Ramirez, E; Schweikhard, L; Shabaev, V M; Simkovic, F; Tupitsyn, I I; Zuber, K; Zubova, N A

2011-02-01

398

Performance characterization of new erbium-doped fibers using MCVD nanoparticle doping process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2009, we introduced a new doping concept involving Al2O3/rare-earth nanoparticles (NP) in a MCVD-compatible process finding potential applications in Erbium-, Ytterbium- or Erbium-Ytterbium-doped fiber amplifiers and lasers.1 This approach, motivated by the need for increased efficiencies and improved attributes, is characterized by the ability to control the rare-earth ion environment independently from the core composition. The NP matrix can therefore be viewed as an optimized sub-micronic amplifying medium for the embedded rareearth ion. The first experimental evidence to support this idea is reported in a comparative study with a standard process2 where homogeneous up-conversion (HUC) and pair-induced quenching (PIQ) levels are extracted from Er3+ unsaturable absorption measurements. NP-based fibers are found to mitigate the effects of the Er3+ concentration increase seen in standard heavily-doped fibers. This conclusion is particularly clear when focusing on the HUC coefficient evolution since, for a given type of NP, its level is independent from the Er3+ concentration in the doped zone. In this paper, we address our most recent work completing these preliminary results. First, we investigate the quenching signature of a new NP design and its behavior when incorporated in different core matrices. The interplay is further analysed by relating this set of measurements to practical EDFA performances. Gain and noise characteristics of typical WDM amplifiers operating points serve as key benchmarking indicators to identify the benefits of NP Erbium-doped fibers in the wide variety of EDFAs implementations.

Boivin, David; Pastouret, Alain; Burov, Ekaterina; Gonnet, Cédric; Cavani, Olivier; Lempereur, Simon; Sillard, Pierre

2011-02-01

399

LD-pumped erbium and neodymium lasers with high energy and output beam quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Physical and fabrication peculiarities which provide the high output energy and beam quality for the diode pumped erbium glass and Nd:YAG lasers are considered. Developed design approach allow to make passively Q-switched erbium glass eye-safe portable laser sources with output energy 8 - 12 mJ (output pulse duration is less than 25 ns, pulse repetition rate up to 5 Hz) and beam quality M2 less than 1.3. To reach these values the erbium laser pump unit parameters were optimized also. Namely, for the powerful laser diode arrays the optimal near-field fill-factor, output mirror reflectivity and heterostructure properties were determined. Construction of advanced diode and solid-state lasers as well as the optical properties of the active element and the pump unit make possible the lasing within a rather wide temperature interval (e.g. from minus forty till plus sixty Celsius degree) without application of water-based chillers. The transversally pumped Nd:YAG laser output beam uniformity was investigated depending on the active element (AE) pump conditions. In particular, to enhance the pump uniformity within AE volume, a special layer which practically doesn't absorb the pump radiation but effectively scatters the pump and lasing beams, was used. Application of such layer results in amplified spontaneous emission suppression and improvement of the laser output beam uniformity. The carried out investigations allow us to fabricate the solid-state Nd:YAG lasers (1064 nm) with the output energy up to 420 mJ at the pulse repetition rate up to 30 Hz and the output energy up to 100 mJ at the pulse repetition rate of of 100 Hz. Also the laser sources with following characteristics: 35 mJ, 30 Hz (266 nm); 60 mJ, 30 Hz (355 nm); 100 mJ, 30 Hz (532 nm) were manufactured on the base of the developed Nd:YAG quantrons.

Kabanov, Vladimir V.; Bezyazychnaya, Tatiana V.; Bogdanovich, Maxim V.; Grigor'ev, Alexandr V.; Lebiadok, Yahor V.; Lepchenkov, Kirill V.; Ryabtsev, Andrew G.; Ryabtsev, Gennadii I.; Shchemelev, Maxim A.

2013-05-01

400

Final report on COOMET.RI(II)-K2.Eu-152: Measurement of activity concentration of radionuclide Eu-152 in a solution (COOMET project no 423/RU/08)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The COOMET.RI(II)-K2.Eu-152 comparison of measurements of a standardized solution of Eu-152 has enabled the demonstration of the traceability to the SI of the national measurement standards of three national metrology institutes of the COOMET countries: BelGIM, CENTIS-DMR and SMU. The pilot laboratory is the D I Mendeleyev Institute for Metrology (VNIIM), which participated in the BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Eu-152 key comparison and will provide the link to evaluate the degrees of equivalence for these institutes. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

Kharitonov, I. A.; Zanevsky, A. V.; Milevski, V.; Ivaniukovich, A.; Oropesa Verdecia, P.; Moreno León, Y.; Švec, A.

2013-01-01

401

Bond durability in erbium:yttrium–aluminum–garnet laser-irradiated enamel  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study sought to evaluate the influence of thermocycling and water storage on the microtensile bond strength of composite\\u000a resin bonded to erbium:yttrium–aluminum–garnet (Er:YAG)-irradiated and bur-prepared enamel. Eighty bovine incisors were selected\\u000a and sectioned. Specimens were ground to produce a flat enamel surface. Samples were randomly assigned according to cavity\\u000a preparation device: (I) Er:YAG laser and (II) high-speed turbine, and

F. L. B. Amaral; V. Colucci; A. E. Souza-Gabriel; M. A. Chinelatti; R. G. Palma-Dibb; S. A. M. Corona

2010-01-01

402

Physical and biological dosimetry in patients undergoing radiosynoviorthesis with erbium-169 and rhenium-186.  

PubMed

Physical and biological dosimetry were investigated in 45 rheumatoid arthritis patients treated by radiosynoviorthesis (RSO) with 186Re-sulphide (medium-sized joints) and 169Er-citrate (digital joints). Biological dosimetry involved scoring dicentrics in lymphocytes, cultured from blood samples withdrawn just before and 6 h, 24 h and 7 days after treatment. Physical methods included repeated blood sample counts and scintigraphy data. For erbium-169 (pure beta emitter), only bremsstrahlung could be measured and solely in the injection area. For rhenium-186 (both beta and gamma emitter), whole body scans and static images of joints and locoregional lymph nodes were performed. Dosimetry calculations were in accordance with the MIRDOSE 3 software and tables. For erbium-169 (21 patients), either metacarpophalangeal (30 MBq) or proximal interphalangeal (20 MBq) joints of the hands were treated (one joint per patient); 18 patients (out of 21) were interpretable for biological dosimetry, 10 (out of 11) for physical dosimetry and six (out of 10) for both. For rhenium-186, 23 wrists, nine elbows, three shoulders and two ankles were injected in 24 patients, with a maximum of three joints per patient (70 MBq per joint); 20 patients (out of 24) and 10 (out of 10) were interpretable for biological and physical dosimetry, respectively, and eight (out of 10) for both methods. Erbium-169 biological dosimetry was negative in all interpretable patients, and physical dosimetry gave a blood dose of 15 +/- 29 microGy and an effective dose lower than 1 mSv/30 MBq. For rhenium-186, biological results were negative in 16 patients (out of 20), but showed a blood irradiation around 200 mGy in the last four. A significant cumulative increase of dicentrics 7 days after injection (16/10,000 instead of 5/10,000 prior to treatment; p < 0.04) was also noted. Gamma counts gave a blood dose of 23.9 +/- 19.8 mGy/70 MBq and the effective dose was found to be 26.7 +/- 5.1 mGy/70 MBq, i.e. about 380 microGy.MBq-1. Erbium-169 RSO is very safe from both physical and biological dosimetry standpoints. Rhenium-186 leak is greater, as demonstrated by the higher blood activity and the measurable, although limited, dicentrics induction in blood lymphocytes. However, the effective dose remains moderate, i.e. 30 times lower than in 131I therapy in benign thyroid diseases. PMID:11338051

Manil, L; Voisin, P; Aubert, B; Guerreau, D; Verrier, P; Lebègue, L; Wargnies, J P; Di Paola, M; Barbier, Y; Chossat, F; Menkes, C J; Tébib, J; Devaux, J Y; Kahan, A

2001-04-01

403

A dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser with widely tunable wavelength spacing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A stable dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL) with tunable wavelength spacing and equalized output power is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The fiber laser uses two fiber Fabry-Perot tunable filters (FFPTFs) as the wavelength filter. The main cavity is divided into two sub-cavities with imbalance cavity losses through a 30/70 optical coupler. The tunable wavelength spacing can be achieved by changing the center wavelength of the filters and the equalized dual-wavelength output power can be achieved by properly controlling the variable optical attenuator (VOA) inserted in the lower-loss cavity.

Zhang, Wei-hua; Tong, Zheng-rong; Cao, Ye

2014-03-01

404

Energy Transfer and Upconversion in YTTERBIUM:YAG and YTTERBIUM:ERBIUM:YAG  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Energy transfer and upconversion have been studied in ytterbium, and ytterbium-erbium doped YAG (yttrium-aluminum garnet rm Y_2 Al_5 O_ {12}). The energy-transfer probabilities were calculated for Yb-Yb, Yb-Er, and Er-Yb interactions, as well as for Er-Er and Yb-Er upconversion. The transfer of excitation from ytterbium to erbium was found experimentally to be efficient for Er concentrations above about 1%, with a Yb concentration of 6.5%. The Burshtein hopping model for donor migration-assisted transfer was applied to the Yb-Er system for different Er concentrations. Fitting the decay predicted by the Burshtein model to the Yb fluorescence gave a value for the Yb-Er dipole-dipole interaction strength which was in very close agreement with the calculated value, but discrepancies were noted for the donor-donor interaction. Upconversion was observed during pulsed measurements, and studied in detail with intense CW pumping. The Yb -Er upconversion was observed to dominate the Er-Er upconversion in the Yb-Er samples. Values for the Yb-Er and Er-Er rm(^4 I_{11/2}) upconversion coefficients were determined from quantitative measurements of the ^4 S_ {3/2} fluorescence which these processes generate, and measurements of the change in ^4 I_{11/2} population with increasing pump density. The quenching of nominally pure Yb:YAG by trace rare-earth impurities was also studied. The time dependence of the Yb fluorescence decay in some high-concentration samples suggested a fast quenching process active at high excited-ion densities, and a slower one at lower excited -ion densities. Study of the cooperative luminescence emitted by excited Yb pairs suggested a quenching mechanism acting preferentially on pairs. Sensitive Ar^+-ion laser -pumped fluorescence measurements showed the presence of high ppm levels of several impurities, including erbium, thulium and chromium. Pumping the ytterbium at 940 nm using pulsed and CW lasers revealed erbium and thulium upconversion. The latter is a three-step process, and its time-dependence illustrated the importance of Yb-Yb migration to the impurity quenching.

Lacovara, Philip

405

Discriminative strain and temperature measurement using Brillouin scattering and fluorescence in erbium-doped optical fiber.  

PubMed

We develop a novel discriminative sensing technique of strain and temperature using Brillouin scattering and fluorescence in an erbium-doped fiber (EDF). First, we show that the fluorescence intensity ratio (FIR), the ratio of the fluorescence intensities at two different wavelengths (1530 nm and 1565 nm in this experiment), is linearly dependent on temperature (with a coefficient of 5.6 × 10-4 /°C) but almost independent of strain. Then, by combined use of the FIR and the Brillouin frequency shift in an EDF, we experimentally demonstrate discriminative measurements of strain and temperature with four different sets of strain and temperature changes. PMID:25322045

Ding, Mingjie; Mizuno, Yosuke; Nakamura, Kentaro

2014-10-01

406

Two-photon-induced internal modification of silicon by erbium-doped fiber laser.  

PubMed

Three-dimensional bulk modification of dielectric materials by multiphoton absorption of laser pulses is a well-established technology. The use of multiphoton absorption to machine bulk silicon has been investigated by a number of authors using femtosecond laser sources. However, no modifications confined in bulk silicon, induced by multiphoton absorption, have been reported so far. Based on results from numerical simulations, we employed an erbium-doped fiber laser operating at a relatively long pulse duration of 3.5 nanoseconds and a wavelength of 1549 nm for this process. We found that these laser parameters are suitable to produce modifications at various depths inside crystalline silicon. PMID:25321571

Verburg, P C; Römer, G R B E; Huis In 't Veld, A J

2014-09-01

407

Flat broadband erbium-doped fiber ASE source based on symmetric nonlinear optical loop mirror  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new type of flat broadband Erbium-doped fiber (EDF) amplified spontaneous emission source is proposed and demonstrated. The intensity-dependent loss induced by a symmetric nonlinear optical loop mirror is used to flatten the spectrum and broaden the bandwidth. The 3 dB bandwidth over 50 nm has been obtained with 15 m EDF and 100 mW pump power based on the single-pass forward pump configuration. This spectrum flattening and broadening method is quite effective over a large range both in pump power and EDF length.

Tian, J. J.; Yao, Y.; Sun, Y. X.; Xu, X. C.; Zhao, X. H.; Chen, D. Y.

2010-08-01

408

Propagation properties of soliton solutions under the influence of higher order effects in erbium doped fibers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Under investigation in this paper is the Hirota-Maxwell-Bloch system which governs the propagation of optical solitons in nonlinear erbium doped fibers with higher order effects. By virtue of the Darboux transformation, the Akhmediev breathers, Ma-breathers, localized solitons, bound solitons, two-breathers and localized solutions are generated for the Hirota-Maxwell-Bloch system. Considering the influences of higher order effects, propagation properties of the breathers, modulation instability conditions for the Akhmediev breathers and interaction scenarios between bound solitons and two-breather solutions are discussed.

Guo, Rui; Hao, Hui-Qin

2014-10-01

409

10-GHz, 1.3-ps erbium fiber laser employing soliton pulse shortening  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An actively mode-locked single-polarization erbium fiber laser modulated at 10 GHz utilizes intracavity soliton formation to produce 1.3-ps pulses, well below the Kuizenga-Siegman limit, without passive mode locking. The observed degree of pulse shortening agrees with the predictions of recently developed soliton laser models. The pulse dropout ratio was measured to be less than 10-12 , and the rms amplitude and phase jitter are less than 1.1% and 0.16 ps, respectively.

Carruthers, Thomas F.; Duling, Irl N., III

1996-12-01

410

Demonstration of low pulse repetition frequency erbium-doped fiber lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate a low pulse repetition frequency (LPRF) Q-switched erbium-doped fiber (EDF) lasers based on acoustic optical modulator (AOM). The single wavelength fiber laser has a stable output at 1553 nm. In Q-switched operation, a pulse train with 3.3?s width and a repetition rate of 1kHz is obtained. The dual wavelength fiber laser is based on fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) and a Faraday rotator mirror (FRM) as the laser cavity, which has a stable output at 1545 nm and 1557 nm with similar peak power and same repetition rate.

Ran, Yanli; Luo, Yiyang; Xia, Li; Yang, Chengliang; Liu, Deming

2013-09-01

411

Optimization of erbium-ytterbium fibre laser with simple double-clad structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper deals with optimization of fibre laser based on experimental erbium- and ytterbium-doped fibre with simple double-clad structure pumped by multimode laser diode in 980 nm band. Fibre preparation and its characteristics are described. Different resonator configurations were investigated for the laser optimization, including high reflectivity fibre loop mirror. Experimental optimization ofthe pump wavelength, fibre length and output coupler ratio were carried out. The results obtained under the cladding pumping are compared with those measured with a fibre ring laser containing the same fibre single-mode pumped at 1060 nm.

Peterka, Pavel; Kašík, Ivan; Kube?ek, Václav; Mat?jec, Vlastimil; Hayer, Miloš; Honzátko, Pavel; Zavadilova, Alena; Dvo?á?ek, Pavel

2006-03-01

412

Fibercore AstroGain fiber: multichannel erbium doped fibers for optical space communications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fibercore have developed AstroGainTM fiber optimized for multichannel amplifiers used in optical satellite communications and control. The fiber has been designed to take full advantage of the photo-annealing effect that results from pumping in the 980nm region. The proprietary trivalent structure of the core matrix allows optimum recovery following radiation damage to the fiber, whilst also providing a market leading Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier (EDFA) efficiency. Direct measurements have been taken of amplifier efficiency in a multichannel assembly, which show an effective photo-annealing recovery of up to 100% of the radiation induced attenuation through excitation of point defects.

Hill, Mark; Gray, Rebecca; Hankey, Judith; Gillooly, Andy

2014-03-01

413

Analytical formula for the transient response of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers.  

PubMed

In wavelength-division-multiplexing systems with optical amplifiers, channel drop or add can cause power changes in the existing channels. We present an analytical formula for the transient power of the existing channels as a function of time when one or more input channel is dropped or added on an erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA). Although this formula was originally derived from perturbation theory of single-stage EDFA's, it is a good approximation of large-power excursion cases as well as two-stage EDFA's. PMID:18305790

Sun, Y; Zyskind, J L; Srivastava, A K; Zhang, L

1999-03-20

414

Erbium Doping Effects on the Conduction Band Edge in Germanium Nanocrystals  

SciTech Connect

We have produced erbium-doped germanium nanocrystals (NCs) using a new two cell physical vapor deposition system. Using element specific x-ray techniques (absorption and photoemission), we are able to probe the chemical environment of Er in the Ge NCs. Evidence for the optically active Er3+ state is seen at low Er concentrations, with a disruption of NC formation at high Er concentrations. The x-ray absorption measurements suggest that the Er occupies lattice sites near the surface of the NC. Analysis of the quantum confinement effect with Er doping suggests that the native quantum properties of the Ge NC are maintained at low Er concentrations.

Meulenberg, Robert W.; Willey, Trevor M.; Lee, Jonathan R.; Terminello, Louis J.; Van Buren, T.

2011-05-16

415

Adhesion after erbium, chromium:yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet laser application at three different irradiation conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate whether distinct cooling of low fluence erbium, chromium:yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet\\u000a (Er,Cr:YSGG) laser irradiation would influence adhesion. Main factors tested were: substrates (two), irradiation conditions\\u000a (three), and adhesives (three). A 750 ?m diameter tip was used, for 50 s, 1 mm from the surface, with a 0.25 W power output,\\u000a 20 Hz, energy density of 2.8 J\\/cm2 with energy per pulse

Sérgio Brossi Botta; Patricia Aparecida da Ana; Denise Maria Zezell; John M. Powers; Adriana Bona Matos

2009-01-01

416

Design and fabrication of erbium-doped fibers for optical amplifiers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Erbium-doped optical fibers are designed using the refractive index difference, fiber core diameter and Er concentration as parameters in the numerical calculations. The fibers are fabricated with modified chemical vapor deposition and solution doping techniques, which are described in detail. Preform and fiber parameters also measured at several laboratories participating in the European Community's COST 217 project are given and compared with the fiber design values. The produced Er fiber is utilized in prototype fiber amplifiers. The differential efficiency of an Al-doped Er fiber is measured to be 77%.

Kiiveri, Pauli; Tammela, Simo K.

2000-07-01

417

Tradeoff on gain-flatness and gain-stabilization of erbium doped fiber amplifier with FBGs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is a challenge to get gain-stabilization and gain-flatness of erbium doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) in C-band, simultaneously. In this article, we establish a gain-clamped EDFA model based uniform fiber grating-pair and optimize the reflectivity of grating by the designed targets. The tradeoff between stabilization and flatness can be obtained when an ideal reflectivity is adopted. The numerical results show that the gain-stabilization is controlled in +/-0.1dB and gain-flatness is less than +/-1.41dB in the range from 1535nm to 1565nm.

Buyin, Garidi; OuYang, Yunlun; Ma, Yu; Chang, Jinlong; Liu, Changxing; Yang, Jiuru

2014-07-01

418

25 CFR 170.152 - What transit facilities and activities are eligible for IRR Program funding?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What transit facilities and activities are eligible for IRR...Reservation Roads Program Policy and Eligibility Transit Facilities § 170.152 What transit facilities and activities are eligible for...

2010-04-01

419

28 CFR 35.152 - Jails, detention and correctional facilities, and community correctional facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Jails, detention and correctional facilities... Program Accessibility § 35.152 Jails, detention and correctional facilities...management of adult and juvenile justice jails, detention and correctional...

2012-07-01

420

28 CFR 35.152 - Jails, detention and correctional facilities, and community correctional facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Jails, detention and correctional facilities... Program Accessibility § 35.152 Jails, detention and correctional facilities...management of adult and juvenile justice jails, detention and correctional...

2011-07-01

421

28 CFR 35.152 - Jails, detention and correctional facilities, and community correctional facilities.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Jails, detention and correctional facilities... Program Accessibility § 35.152 Jails, detention and correctional facilities...management of adult and juvenile justice jails, detention and correctional...

2014-07-01

422

28 CFR 35.152 - Jails, detention and correctional facilities, and community correctional facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Jails, detention and correctional facilities... Program Accessibility § 35.152 Jails, detention and correctional facilities...management of adult and juvenile justice jails, detention and correctional...

2013-07-01

423

18 CFR 367.1520 - Account 152, Fuel stock expenses undistributed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...SUBJECT TO THE PROVISIONS OF THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 2005, FEDERAL POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Current and Accrued Assets § 367.1520 Account 152, Fuel stock expenses undistributed. The service...

2010-04-01

424

18 CFR 367.1520 - Account 152, Fuel stock expenses undistributed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...SUBJECT TO THE PROVISIONS OF THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 2005, FEDERAL POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Current and Accrued Assets § 367.1520 Account 152, Fuel stock expenses undistributed. The service...

2012-04-01

425

20 CFR 1001.152 - Hold-harmless criteria and minimum funding level.  

...Hold-harmless criteria and minimum funding level. 1001.152 Section 1001...Hold-harmless criteria and minimum funding level. (a) A hold-harmless rate of 90 percent of the prior year's funding level will be applied after...

2014-04-01

426

44 CFR 152.7 - Grant payment, reporting and other requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY FIRE PREVENTION AND CONTROL ASSISTANCE TO FIREFIGHTERS GRANT PROGRAM § 152.7 Grant payment, reporting and other requirements. (a) Grantees will have...

2011-10-01

427

44 CFR 152.7 - Grant payment, reporting and other requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY FIRE PREVENTION AND CONTROL ASSISTANCE TO FIREFIGHTERS GRANT PROGRAM § 152.7 Grant payment, reporting and other requirements. (a) Grantees will have...

2013-10-01

428

44 CFR 152.7 - Grant payment, reporting and other requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY FIRE PREVENTION AND CONTROL ASSISTANCE TO FIREFIGHTERS GRANT PROGRAM § 152.7 Grant payment, reporting and other requirements. (a) Grantees will have...

2012-10-01

429

40 CFR 81.152 - Southern Coastal Plain Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Southern Coastal Plain Intrastate Air Quality Control...Control Regions § 81.152 Southern Coastal Plain Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Southern Coastal Plain Intrastate Air Quality...

2010-07-01

430

HABS TEX,152LUBBO,12 (sheet 1 of 2) "U Lazy S" ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

HABS TEX,152-LUBBO,12- (sheet 1 of 2) - "U Lazy S" Carriage, Saddle & Harness House, National Ranching Heritage Center (moved from West Farm Road 669, South of Post, Garza County, TX), Lubbock, Lubbock County, TX

431

HABS TEX,152LUBBO,12 (sheet 2 of 2) "U Lazy S" ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

HABS TEX,152-LUBBO,12- (sheet 2 of 2) - "U Lazy S" Carriage, Saddle & Harness House, National Ranching Heritage Center (moved from West Farm Road 669, South of Post, Garza County, TX), Lubbock, Lubbock County, TX

432

40 CFR 152.15 - Pesticide products required to be registered.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pesticide products required to be registered. 152.15...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES...

2010-07-01

433

40 CFR 152.15 - Pesticide products required to be registered.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pesticide products required to be registered. 152.15...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES...

2011-07-01

434

Structure of 152Sm via Deuteron Inelastic Scattering to Probe the Tetrahedral Symmetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structure of 152Sm is investigated in search of the tetrahedral symmetry, which would represent a new quantum effect in the nucleus. The information for the existence of such exotic symmetry may reside in the transition matrix elements of the excited 152Sm nucleus, which are probed through a deuteron inelastic scattering experiment. The tetrahedral band candidates (low-lying negative-parity bands) are observed to be strongly populated, and preliminary coupled-channel calculations have been performed.

Chagnon-Lessard, S.; Garrett, P. E.; Bangay, J. C.; Bianco, L.; Leach, K. G.; Phillips, A. A.; Rand, E. T.; Svensson, C. E.; Ball, G.; Faestermann, T.; Krücken, R.; Hertenberger, R.; Wirth, H. F.; Hertenberger, R.; Wirth, H. F.

2013-03-01

435

Discrete Applied Mathematics 152 (2005) 229245 www.elsevier.com/locate/dam  

E-print Network

Discrete Applied Mathematics 152 (2005) 229­245 www.elsevier.com/locate/dam Fast fixed for each graph G in Wk(G), the removal of a set of at most k vertices from G results in a graph in the base reserved. doi:10.1016/j.dam.2005.02.029 #12;230 N. Nishimura et al. / Discrete Applied Mathematics 152

Dimitrios, Thilikos

436

Residual 152Eu and 60Co activities induced by neutrons from the Hiroshima atomic bomb  

Microsoft Academic Search

Specific activities of 152Eu:Eu in stone samples exposed to the Hiroshima atomic bomb were determined for 70 samples up to a 1,500-m slant range from the epicenter. The specific activities of 60Co:Co were also determined for six samples near the Hiroshima hypocenter. First, the 152Eu data were investigated to find out the directional dependence of neutron activation. Directional anisotropy was

Kiyoshi Shizuma; Kazuo Iwatani; Hiromi Hasai; Masaharu Hoshi; Takamitsu Oka; Hiroshige Morishima

1993-01-01

437

Embrittlement Mechanism due to Slow Cooling During Quenching for M152 Martensitic Heat Resistant Steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanism of brittleness of M152 martensitic heat resistant steel due to slow cooling during quenching was experimentally investigated. The mechanical property tests and microstructure observation were conducted by TEM and XRD. The results showed that the presence of irreversible brittleness during slow cooling of quenching for M152 steel is attributed to the continuous M23C6 precipitation along prior austenite grain

Gang YANG; Chang WANG; Xin-quan LIU; Zheng-dong LIU

2010-01-01

438

Utilizations of two-stage erbium amplifier and saturable-absorber filter for tunable and stable power-equalized fiber laser.  

PubMed

We propose and investigate experimentally a tunable and stable fiber laser with single-longitudinal-mode (SLM) and power-equalized output based on a two-stage erbium amplifier and a saturable-absorber filter. Two-stage amplifier consists of an erbium-doped waveguide amplifier (EDWA) and erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) to generate a flatter amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) source for constant output. Saturable-absorber filter constructs by an unpumped EDF and a fiber reflected mirror (FRM) to provide a fine mode restriction and guarantee a SLM operation. PMID:19532613

Yeh, Chien-Hung; Chi, Sien

2007-04-01

439

Investigation of multiwavelength operation of lasers built on the basis of erbium-doped fibers maintaining the polarization state  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents investigation results for fiber lasers built on the basis of polarization maintaining erbium-doped fibers. The multiwavelength operation of a laser was presented in the setup of a ring fiber laser. By changing the polarization state of the signal and the pump by means of polarization controllers built into the ring resonator multiwavelength and singlewavelength laser operation was obtained.

Borowicz, Bartosz; Budnicki, Aleksander; Beres-Pawlik, Elzbieta M.

2004-09-01

440

Polarization-Controlled Switchable Multi-Wavelength Erbium-Doped Fiber Laser with Cascaded Fiber Bragg Gratings  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple concept of switchable multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber laser is successfully proposed and demonstrated. The multiwavelengths are specified by a cascaded fiber Bragg gratings. The wavelength switching can be achieved due to the polarization dependence loss induced by proper adjustment of polarization controller in ring cavity, The experiments demonstrate that the switchable lasing operation with the random combination of three

Yang Yang; Xueguang Qiao; Jing Zhang; Rui Zhou; Ruohui Wang; Jinghua Zhang

2011-01-01

441

Transdermal drug delivery enhanced and controlled by erbium:YAG laser: a comparative study of lipophilic and hydrophilic drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of an erbium:YAG laser on the transdermal delivery of drugs across skin was studied in vitro. Indomethacin and nalbuphine, which have the same molecular weight, were selected as model lipophilic and hydrophilic drugs, respectively, to compare skin permeation by laser treatment. The results indicate a significant increase in the permeation of indomethacin and nalbuphine across skin pretreated with

Woan-Ruoh Lee; Shing-Chuan Shen; Hsien-Hung Lai; Chung-Hong Hu; Jia-You Fang

2001-01-01

442

Gain and Noise Performance of Erbium-Doped-Fiber Power Amplifiers Pumped Between 960 and 1000 nm.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Pumping erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFAs) near 980 nm has attracted much attention as a result of the lower noise characteristics and higher pump efficiency achieved compared to those obtained at 1480nm. The narrow absorption profile of the fiber at t...

J. Chirravuri, W. J. Miniscalco, T. Wei, B. Pedersen

1992-01-01

443

Polarization characteristics of a reflective erbium doped fiber amplifier with temperature changes at the Faraday rotator mirror.  

PubMed

The temperature dependence of a Faraday rotator mirror (FRM) used in a reflective erbium doped fiber amplifier(R-EDFA) is reported in this paper. The influence of this dependence on the polarization state (PS) of amplified optical signals is also discussed. PMID:19495012

Quintela, M Angeles; López-Higuera, José; Jáuregui, César

2005-03-01

444

Remote (155 km) Fiber Bragg Grating Interrogation Technique Combining Raman, Brillouin, and Erbium Gain in a Fiber Laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present and demonstrate a technique for remote sensing offiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) beyond 150 km. The system combines Raman, Brillouin, and erbium gain in a linear cavity fiber laser and deploys a novel heterodyne detection technique to avoid the signal-to-noise ratio limitations produced by Rayleigh scattering. Two FBGs located in series were interrogated at 155 km away from the

Daniel Leandro; Angel Ullan; Alayn Loayssa; Jose Miguel Lopez-Higuera; Manuel Lopez-Amo

2011-01-01

445

La-codoped Bismuth-based Erbium-doped Fiber Ring laser with 80-nm Tuning Range  

E-print Network

La-codoped Bismuth-based Erbium-doped Fiber Ring laser with 80-nm Tuning Range H. L. Liu1 , H. Y. This is because fiber ring lasers exhibit wide tunable range, narrow linewidth and could be tuned at high speed range of Si-EDF fiber ring laser is less than 50 nm and operates around the C-band region. Furthermore

Wai, Ping-kong Alexander

446

Successful erbium:YAG laser-induced chorioretinal venous anastomosis for the management of ischemic central retinal vein occlusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) is a disorder with potentially blinding complications, particularly when associated with retinal ischemia. There is no reliable treatment for ischemic CRVO. Methods: We developed a new approach for ischemic cases of CRVO consisting of vitrectomy, posterior hyaloid detachment, and four erbium:YAG laser-induced chorioretinal anastomoses, one in each quadrant. Results: We report two cases of

Hugo Quiroz-Mercado; Ermilo Sánchez-Buenfil; Jose Luis Guerrero-Naranjo; Daniel Ochoa-Contreras; Matilde Ruiz-Cruz; George Marcellino; Donald J. D'Amico

2001-01-01

447

Surface-directed synthesis of erbium-doped yttrium oxide nanoparticles within organosilane zeptoliter containers.  

PubMed

We introduce an approach to synthesize rare earth oxide nanoparticles using high temperature without aggregation of the nanoparticles. The dispersity of the nanoparticles is controlled at the nanoscale by using small organosilane molds as reaction containers. Zeptoliter reaction vessels prepared from organosilane self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) were used for the surface-directed synthesis of rare earth oxide (REO) nanoparticles. Nanopores of octadecyltrichlorosilane were prepared on Si(111) using particle lithography with immersion steps. The nanopores were filled with a precursor solution of erbium and yttrium salts to confine the crystallization step to occur within individual zeptoliter-sized organosilane reaction vessels. Areas between the nanopores were separated by a matrix film of octadecyltrichlorosilane. With heating, the organosilane template was removed by calcination to generate a surface array of erbium-doped yttria nanoparticles. Nanoparticles synthesized by the surface-directed approach retain the periodic arrangement of the nanopores formed from mesoparticle masks. While bulk rare earth oxides can be readily prepared by solid state methods at high temperature (>900 °C), approaches for preparing REO nanoparticles are limited. Conventional wet chemistry methods are limited to low temperatures according to the boiling points of the solvents used for synthesis. To achieve crystallinity of REO nanoparticles requires steps for high-temperature processing of samples, which can cause self-aggregation and dispersity in sample diameters. The facile steps for particle lithography address the problems of aggregation and the requirement for high-temperature synthesis. PMID:25163977

Englade-Franklin, Lauren E; Morrison, Gregory; Verberne-Sutton, Susan D; Francis, Asenath L; Chan, Julia Y; Garno, Jayne C

2014-09-24

448

Experimental and numerical study of high order Stokes lines in Brillouin-erbium fiber laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We experimentally study the dependences of high-order Stokes lines on the erbium-doped fiber (EDF) pump power PEDF, the Brillouin pump (BP) power PBP, and its working wavelength in a multiwavelength Brillouin erbium-doped fiber laser (MBEFL). By using the rate and propagation equations, and the coupled wave equations of stimulated Brillouin scattering, we establish a lumped model to describe the MBEFL. Numerical simulations show that the number of Stokes lines can be increased by decreasing the spacing between the BP wavelength and the EDF peak gain or PBP as long as it is larger than a critical value PBP(cr)=1.7 mW, or by increasing PEDF without reaching a saturation value PEDF(cr)=250 mW. However, when PBP and PEDF are varied beyond PBP(cr) and PEDF(cr), respectively, the number of Stokes lines is reduced, accompanied by some self-lasing cavity modes. These results by numerical simulation are consistent with experimental observations from the MBEFL.

Yuan, Yijun; Yao, Yong; Xiao, Jun Jun; Yang, Yanfu; Tian, Jiajun; Liu, Chao

2014-01-01

449

Synthesis And Luminescence Properties of Erbium-Doped Y(2)O(3) Nanotubes  

SciTech Connect

Erbium-doped yttrium oxide nanotubes (Er{sup 3+}:Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} NTs) with 0-100% doping levels were synthesized by a hydrothermal procedure followed by a dehydration process from Er{sup 3+}:Y(OH){sub 3} NTs. The as-synthesized Er{sup 3+}:Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanotubes ranged from 100 to 400 nm in outer diameter and 2 to 5 {micro}m in length with a hexagonal cross section. A time-dependent nanostructure evolution study was performed under hydrothermal conditions, and the effects of other processing parameters, including pH, concentration, and ionic strength of the precursor solution as well as the time span for adding the alkaline solution, were found to dictate the purity and morphology of the as-synthesized Er{sup 3+}:Y(OH){sub 3} nanostructures. A kinetics-controlled dissolution-recrystallization mechanism is proposed to explain the anisotropic growth of these hollow nanotubes from the hexagonal crystal structure of yttrium and erbium hydroxides. Outstanding room-temperature photoluminescence around 1535 nm was demonstrated for these Er{sup 3+}:Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} NTs, making them promising for optical amplifier, laser, and active waveguide applications in telecommunications.

Mao, Y.; Huang, J.Y.; Ostroumov, R.; Wang, K.L.; Chang, J.P.

2009-05-19

450

Four-Wave-Mixing in Zirconia-Yttria-Aluminum Erbium Codoped Silica Fiber  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The generation and characterization of the Four-Wave-Mixing (FWM) effect in an Erbium Doped Zirconia-Yttria-Alumino Silicate Fiber (EDZF) is described. The EZDF is fabricated from a conventional silica preform by Modified Chemical Vapour Deposition (MCVD) and also solution doping to add glass modifiers and nucleating agents, with the resulting preform annealed and drawn into a fiber strand with a 125 × 0.5 ?m diameter. A 4 m long EZDF with a propagation loss of 0.68 dB/m and an erbium concentration of 3000 ppm is used to investigate the FWM effect. The FWM power levels are measured to be approximately - 45 dBm at a region of 1565 nm and show good agreement with the theoretical predicted values. A non-linear coefficient of 14 W-1km-1 is also measured, along with chromatic and slope dispersion values of 28.45 ps/nm.km and 3.63 ps/nm2.km, which agree with the predicted values. The fabricated EZDF has many potential applications utilizing the FWM effect, including the generation of multi-wavelength outputs.

Ahmad, H.; Paul, M. C.; Awang, N. A.; Harun, S. W.; Pal, M.; Thambiratnam, K.

2012-05-01

451

Mechanism and characteristics of a fast-tuning Brillouin/erbium fiber laser.  

PubMed

A fast-tuning Brillouin/erbium fiber laser (BEFL) is investigated on its mechanism and characteristics in detail, in which a 4 m erbium-doped fiber (EDF) as both the Brillouin gain and linear gain media is coiled on a piezoelectric transducer (PZT) for laser frequency modulations. We demonstrate the fast-tuning mechanism theoretically and experimentally that only the lasing cavity mode is modulated, instead of the previous presumption that the Brillouin frequency shift of the EDF is modulated synchronously with the lasing mode. And the maximum tuning range (~60 MHz) is limited by the bandwidth of the Brillouin gain spectrum. The frequency tuning amplitude is direct proportional to the voltage on the PZT. The tuning rates reach up to 48 kHz. The BEFL keeps high-coherence property under fast frequency modulation. Its phase noise remains about -124 dB/Hz1/2 (normalized to 1 m optical path difference) at 1 kHz under 32 kHz modulations. This fast-tuning BEFL presents a wide range of applications in fiber sensors, optical fiber communications, and so forth. PMID:24977597

Chen, Mo; Meng, Zhou; Sun, Qiao; Sun, Shilin; Tu, Xiaobo

2014-06-16

452

Optical Amplifier with Flat-Gain and Wideband Operation Utilizing Highly Concentrated Erbium-Doped Fibers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we proposed a flat-gain and wide-band erbium doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) using two chirped fiber Bragg grating (CFBG) in serial configuration for double-pass operation. The amplifier consists of two sections of Erbium-doped fiber (EDF) operating in C-band and L-band respectively. A CFBG is used in each section to reflect the amplified signal back to the active area so that the overall gain spectrum can be enhanced and flattened. It is also observed that the gain of the amplifier produces a relatively higher gain with the Bismuth-based EDF (Bi-EDF) in the first stage compared to that of silica-based EDF (Si-EDF), especially in a longer wavelength region. The small signal gain of more than 19 dB is obtained within a wavelength region from 1545 to 1605 nm by the use of Bi-EDF with a small noise figure penalty. With a Si-EDF, the flat gain spectrum is observed within a wavelength region ranging from 1535 nm to 1605 nm with a gain variation of less than 2 dB at input signal of 0 dBm. This shows that the proposed serial double-pass amplifier may find its broad applications in wavelength division multiplexing long-haul systems as well as local optical networks.

Hamida, B. A.; Cheng, X. S.; Naji, A. W.; Ahmad, H.; Al-Khateeb, W.; Khan, S.; Harun, S. W.

453

Controlled erbium incorporation and photoluminescence of Er-doped Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}  

SciTech Connect

A high concentration of erbium doping was achieved in Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films on Si (100) by depositing Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} alternatively with Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} using radical-enhanced atomic layer deposition (ALD). Specifically, the erbium doping level was controlled by varying the ratio of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} cycles during deposition, and a 10:5 ratio yielded {approx}9 at. % erbium incorporation in Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}, confirmed by the compositional analysis using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Room-temperature photoluminescence was observed in a 320-A Er-doped (9 at. %) Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} film deposited at 350 deg. C. This result is very promising, since the film was fairly thin and no annealing at high temperature was needed to activate the erbium ions. This suggests that radical-enhanced ALD was able to preserve the optically active trivalent state of the erbium ion from its precursor state. The effective absorption cross section for Er{sup 3+} ions incorporated in Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} was estimated to be on the order of 10{sup -18} cm{sup 2}, about three orders of magnitude larger than the direct optical absorption cross section reported for Er{sup 3+} ions in a stoichiometric SiO{sub 2} host. These results validate Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} as a promising Er{sup 3+} host material and demonstrate that radical-enhanced ALD is a viable technique for synthesizing these materials.

Trinh Tu Van; Chang, Jane P. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

2005-07-04

454

Influence of high-temperature treatment on the structure and emission properties of opal doped with erbium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of high-temperature treatment of opal—erbium composites on their spectral properties in the wavelength region of 1.5 ?m is investigated, the dependence of the luminescence intensity on the erbium concentration is measured, and the structure of the composite after high-temperature treatment is examined using transmission electron microscopy. The regular structure of the composites undergoes considerable transformations up to the complete loss of periodicity upon annealing at a temperature of 1500 K for 10 h and more. The composites in this case are sintered into a homogeneous substance. Pores disappear, and erbium oxide inclusions in the form of 30- to 70-nm regular solid spheres are observed instead. Measurements of the luminescence spectra in the wavelength region of 1.5 ?m for the opal-erbium composites with erbium oxide concentrations in the range 0.25-16.00 wt % have shown that the luminescence yield reaches the maximum at an Er2O3 content of 1 wt % in the composite. Analysis of the influence of the temperature and time of heat treatment on the luminescence intensity of the samples has revealed a nonmonotonic character of the dependence on the annealing time for all the temperatures under investigation. The factors responsible for this behavior are discussed. The reflection spectra of the opal-Er2O3(1 wt %) composites after heat treatment have demonstrated that the photonic band gap of the samples degrades at annealing temperatures of 1300 K and higher. A method proposed for retaining the periodic structure upon heat treatment consists in introducing the stabilizing phase into the opal.

Masalov, V. M.; Shte?nman, É. A.; Tereshchenko, A. N.; Kudrenko, E. A.; Bazhenov, A. V.; Koval'Chuk, M. A.; Khodos, I. I.; Emel'Chenko, G. A.

2009-06-01

455

An erbium\\/ytterbium co-doped double-cladding fiber amplifier with 36.4dBm output power  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have described a high-power hybrid fiber amplifier, which comprising an erbium \\/ ytterbium co-doped double-cladding fiber amplifier (EYCDFA) as a post-amplifier and a conventional erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) as a pre-amplifier. At the signal wavelength of 1550 nm, the signal gains of up to 71 dB and the maximum output powers of 36.4 dBm or 4.37 W have been

Zhen Guo Lu; Arnaud Lavigne; Peng Lin; Chander P. Grover

2004-01-01

456

Tunable gain-clamped double-pass Erbium-doped fiber amplifier.  

PubMed

A tunable, gain-clamped (GC) double-pass Erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) with a linear laser-cavity configuration has been demonstrated. It solves the problems existing in the conventional linear-cavity GC-EDFA based on two fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs), in which the clamped-gain is very difficult to be tuned. In the new GC-EDFA, the lasing oscillation for clamping the gain is produced in a linear cavity comprised by a FBG and a fiber reflection mirror (FRM). Between them, a filter filters out the lasing light, and then a variable optical attenuator changes the loss of the laser cavity for tuning the clamped-gain. Meanwhile, the double-pass configuration is used to enhance the gain efficiency, and therefore the level of the clamped-gain is greatly improved. PMID:19503372

Yi, Lilin; Zhan, Li; Hu, Weisheng; Tang, Qianxin; Xia, Yuxing

2006-01-23

457

Stabilized 51-wavelength erbium-doped fiber ring laser based on high nonlinear fiber  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A multi-wavelength fiber laser source is demonstrated with a high power erbium-doped fiber amplifier as the gain medium. In order to alleviate the mode competition, a highly nonlinear fiber (HNLF) is inserted in the ring cavity to provide nonlinear effects. A fiber Fabry-Perot filter (FFPF) is incorporated in the ring cavity serving as a comb filter. The comparison between HNLF with different length is discussed. Fifty one simultaneous lasing wavelengths within 3 dB uniformity are observed with channel spacing of 25 GHz and a signal to noise ratio of ~48 dB. Moreover, these stable multi-carriers light source is a promising candidate for high capacity optical communication system, such as coherent dense-wavelength-multiplexing (DWDM) in our project.

Yang, Chengliang; Xia, Li; Wang, Yuanwu; Liu, Deming

2014-05-01

458

Gas-self-filter-based erbium-doped fiber loop laser for gas detection.  

PubMed

An erbium-doped fiber (EDF) loop laser, based on a gas-self-filter (GSF), is developed with single or multiple wavelength emission. The GSF is a type of Mach-Zehnder interferometer with a gas cell in one arm. By matching the destructive wavelength of the interferometer with the gas absorption line, the self-filtering function is achieved. A GSF-based multi-wavelength laser with a side-mode suppression ratio of ~50??dB is performed. As an example, C?H? gas is detected using a single-wavelength GSF-based laser with correlation spectroscopy, and a good linearity of the measurement is obtained. The present laser has the potential advantage for multiple gas detection, e.g., being free of wavelength calibration. PMID:25090309

Guo, Kaikai; Lou, Xiutao; Yan, Chunsheng; Mei, Liang

2014-08-01

459

Broadly tunable multiwavelength Brillouin-erbium fiber laser using a twin-core fiber coupler  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A tunable multiwavelength Brillouin-erbium fiber laser (MW-BEFL) using a twin-core fiber (TCF) coupler is proposed and demonstrated. The TCF coupler is formed by splicing a section of TCF between two single-mode fibers. By simply applying bending curvature on the TCF coupler, the peak net gain is shifted close to the Brillouin pump (BP), which has advantage for suppressing self-lasing cavity modes with low-BP-power injection. In this work, the dependency of the Stokes signals tuning range on the free spectral range (FSR) of TCF coupler is studied. It is also found that the tuning range of MW-BEFL can exceed the FSR of TCF coupler by adopting proper BP power and 980-nm pump power. Up to 40 nm tuning range of MW-BEFL in the absence of self-lasing cavity modes is achieved.

Peng, Wanjing; Yan, Fengping; Li, Qi; Liu, Shuo; Tan, Siyu; Feng, Suchun; Feng, Ting

2014-07-01

460

A Q-Switched Erbium-Doped Fiber Laser with a Carbon Nanotube Based Saturable Absorber  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate a simple, compact and low cost Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL) using single-wall carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as a saturable absorber for possible applications in metrology, sensing, and medical diagnostics. The EDFL operates at around 1560 nm with repetition rates of 16.1 kHz and 6.4 kHz with saturable absorbers SA1 and SA2 at a pump power of 120 mW. The absorbers are constructed by optically driven deposition and normal deposition techniques. It is observed that the optical deposition method produces a Q-switched EDFL with a lower threshold of 70 mW and better Q-switching performance compared to that of the normal deposition method. The EDFL also has pulse energy of 90.3 nJ and pulse width of 11.6 ?s at 120 mW pump power.

W. Harun, S.; A. Ismail, M.; F., Ahmad; F. Ismail, M.; M. Nor, R.; R. Zulkepely, N.; H., Ahmad

2012-11-01

461

Hybrid mode-locked erbium-doped all-fiber soliton laser with a distributed polarizer.  

PubMed

A soliton-type erbium-doped all-fiber ring laser hybrid mode-locked with a co-action of arc-discharge single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and nonlinear polarization evolution (NPE) is demonstrated. For the first time, to the best of our knowledge, boron nitride-doped SWCNTs were used as a saturable absorber for passive mode-locking initiation. Moreover, the NPE was introduced through the implementation of the short-segment polarizing fiber. Owing to the NPE action in the laser cavity, significant pulse length shortening as well as pulse stability improvement were observed as compared with a SWCNTs-only mode-locked laser. The shortest achieved pulse width of near transform-limited solitons was 222 fs at the output average power of 9.1 mW and 45.5 MHz repetition frequency, corresponding to the 0.17 nJ pulse energy. PMID:25322366

Chernykh, D S; Krylov, A A; Levchenko, A E; Grebenyukov, V V; Arutunyan, N R; Pozharov, A S; Obraztsova, E D; Dianov, E M

2014-10-10

462

Graphene oxide mode-locked femtosecond erbium-doped fiber lasers.  

PubMed

We demonstrated the femtosecond erbium-doped all-fiber lasers mode-locked with graphene oxide, which can be conveniently obtained from natural graphite by simple oxidation and ultra-sonication process. With proper dispersion management in an all-fiber ring cavity, the laser directly generated 200 fs pulses at a repetition rate of 22.9 MHz and the average output power was 5.8 mW. With the variation of net cavity dispersion, output pulses with pulse width of 0.2~3 ps were obtained at a repetition rate of 22.9~0.93 MHz. These results are comparable with those of graphene saturable absorbers and the superiority of easy fabrication and hydrophilic property of graphene oxide will facilitate its potential applications for ultrafast photonics. PMID:22772242

Xu, Jia; Liu, Jiang; Wu, Sida; Yang, Quan-Hong; Wang, Pu

2012-07-01

463

Nanosecond pulse generation in a graphene mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate a mode-locked nanosecond erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL) using a graphene-based saturable absorber (SA). The laser directly produces nanosecond pulses with pulse duration of 24 ns, repetition rate of 5.78 MHz and central wavelength of 1569.5 nm. The mode-locking is self-starting and the pulse train has no transient effects or signs of Q-switched behavior. The formation mechanism of nanosecond pulses emitted from the laser could be attributed to the pulse duration broadening induced by the large lumped normal dispersion of the graphene SA. Such nanosecond pulse duration as well as megahertz repetition rate makes this mode-locked all-fiber laser a suitable seed oscillator for chirped pulse amplifications and high-power applications.

Xia, Handing; Li, Heping; Wang, Zegao; Chen, Yuanfu; Zhang, Xiaoxia; Tang, Xionggui; Liu, Yong

2014-11-01

464

Suppression of thermal frequency noise in erbium-doped fiber random lasers.  

PubMed

Frequency and intensity noise are characterized for erbium-doped fiber (EDF) random lasers based on Rayleigh distributed feedback mechanism. We propose a theoretical model for the frequency noise of such random lasers using the property of random phase modulations from multiple scattering points in ultralong fibers. We find that the Rayleigh feedback suppresses the noise at higher frequencies by introducing a Lorentzian envelope over the thermal frequency noise of a long fiber cavity. The theoretical model and measured frequency noise agree quantitatively with two fitting parameters. The random laser exhibits a noise level of 6??Hz²/Hz at 2 kHz, which is lower than what is found in conventional narrow-linewidth EDF fiber lasers and nonplanar ring laser oscillators (NPROs) by a factor of 166 and 2, respectively. The frequency noise has a minimum value for an optimum length of the Rayleigh scattering fiber. PMID:24562272

Saxena, Bhavaye; Bao, Xiaoyi; Chen, Liang

2014-02-15

465

Passively mode-locked erbium doped zirconia fiber laser using a nonlinear polarisation rotation technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A nonlinear polarization rotation (NPR) based mode-locked fiber laser is demonstrated using a 2 m long erbium-doped Zirconia-Yttria-Allumino Silicate fiber (EDZF) as the gain medium. The EDZF is drawn from a silica preform fabricated using the Modified Chemical Vapor Deposition (MCVD) method in which glass modifiers and nucleating agents are added using the solution doping technique. The fabricated EDZF has a core with dopant concentrations of 0.25 mol% of Al2O3, 2.10 mol% of ZrO2 and 0.23 mol% of Er2O3, peak absorption of 22.0 dB/m at 978 nm and the fluorescence life-time of 10.86 ms. A stable picosecond laser is succesfully obtained with pulse width of 0.32 ps and the repetition rate of 50 MHz using a simple ring cavity.

Hamzah, A.; Paul, M. C.; Awang, N. A.; Ahmad, H.; Pal, M.; Das, S.; Ismail, M. A.; Harun, S. W.

2013-04-01

466

Submicrojoule femtosecond erbium-doped fibre laser for the generation of dispersive waves at submicron wavelengths  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have demonstrated a femtosecond erbium-doped fibre laser system built in the master oscillator/power amplifier (MOPA) approach. The final amplifier stage utilises a specially designed large mode area active fibre cladding-pumped by multimode laser diodes. The system is capable of generating submicrojoule pulses at a wavelength near 1.6 ?m. We have obtained 530-fs pulses with an energy of 400 nJ. The output of the system can be converted to wavelengths shorter than 1 ?m through the generation of dispersive waves in passive nonlinear fibre. We have obtained ultra-short 7-nJ pulses with a spectral width of ~100 nm and a centre wavelength of 0.9 ?m, which can be used as a seed signal in parametric amplifiers in designing petawatt laser systems.

Kotov, L. V.; Koptev, M. Yu; Anashkina, E. A.; Muravyev, S. V.; Andrianov, A. V.; Bubnov, M. M.; Ignat'ev, A. D.; Lipatov, D. S.; Gur'yanov, A. N.; Likhachev, M. E.; Kim, A. V.

2014-05-01

467

Numerical Modelling of C-Band Bismuth-Based Erbium Doped Amplifier  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multi A performance of the Bismuth-based Erbium-doped fiber amplifier (Bi-EDFA) is experimentally and theoretically investigated using 1480 nm forward pumping scheme. In the theoretical analysis, the rate and power propagation equations are solved to examine the effect of fiber length on the bandwidth of the gain spectra. At C-band region, the small signal gain of the Bi-EDFA varies from 20 to 23 dB with 49 cm long Bi-EDF and 150 mW of 1480 nm pump power. It is shown that the calculated gain and noise figure are in good agreement with the experimental results, verifying the feasibility of our theoretical model. However, the experimental result shows a relatively lower gain and higher noise figure compared to the theoretical result due to the spurious reflection in the cavity and insertion loss of the Bi-EDF which was neglected in our theoretical model.

Parvizi, R.; Ali, N. M.; Harun, S. W.; Ahmad, H.

2011-03-01

468

Transient effect to small duty-cycle pulse in cascaded erbium-doped fiber amplifier system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Factors that affect the transient effect on small duty-cycle pulse in a cascaded erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) system are studied in simulation and experiment. The considered factors consist of the numbers of cascaded EDFAs, the peak power and the extinction ratio of optical pulse, with results showing that the optical pulse will be severely distorted by the transient effect of EDFA. The distortion becomes more serious with the increase of the three parameters. To avoid or mitigate the transient effect, a method of adding another optical signal with a different wavelength to the objective pulse is employed in the experiment. The experimental results show that this method could effectively restrain the transient effect in a cascaded EDFA system.

Chen, Mengmeng; Song, Yuejiang; Zhang, Xuping

2013-02-01

469

Simplified ASE correction algorithm for variable gain-flattened erbium-doped fiber amplifier.  

PubMed

We demonstrate a simplified algorithm to manifest the contribution of amplified spontaneous emission in variable gain-flattened Erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA). The detected signal power at the input and output ports of EDFA comprises of both signal and noise. The generated amplified spontaneous emission from EDFA cannot be differentiated by photodetector which leads to underestimation of the targeted gain value. This gain penalty must be taken into consideration in order to obtain the accurate gain level. By taking the average gain penalty within the dynamic gain range, the targeted output power is set higher than the desired level. Thus, the errors are significantly reduced to less than 0.15 dB from 15 dB to 30 dB desired gain values. PMID:19506658

Mahdi, Mohd Adzir; Sheih, Shou-Jong; Adikan, Faisal Rafiq Mahamd

2009-06-01

470

Bidirectional-pumped L-band erbium-doped fiber amplifier with pump distribution technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A dual-stage erbium doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) having a flat gain wavelength response throughout L-band transmission window is presented. By applying pump power distribution technique, the pump power is distributed to two different stages with different length of EDF depending on the coupling ratio. By controlling these two parameters, gain of 19.1 dB with small gain variation of less than 0.5 dB and a noise figure of less than 10.5 dB are achieved in this architecture using bidirectional pumping. However, when another 3 dB power coupler is added to split the pump power equally at the second stage in bidirectional, a better noise figure of less than 7.5 dB was obtained. Comparison with a conventional single-stage optical amplifier was made in order to validate the performances of this dual-stage EDFA.

Yusoff, N. Md.; Abas, A. F.; Hitam, S.; Mahdi, M. A.

2012-07-01

471

Tuning of an erbium-doped fiber ring laser based on heating a tapered fiber filter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An erbium-doped fiber ring laser (EDFRL) with wavelength tuning is reported. The laser has a Mach-Zehnder fiber interferometer (MZFI) based on tapers as an intracavity filter, which spectral interference transmission spectrum is modified by external refractive index changes induced by temperature variations in the 25-110 °C range. The MZFI is immersed in a glycerol solution, which refractive index is modified by controlled temperature changes, which allows the tuning of the laser wavelength determined by the interference fringes. Wavelength tuning of 12 nm was measured. This approach is very simple, portable and inexpensive over traditional methods to tune a fiber laser. In addition, the tuning mechanism do not require a solution replacement to operate.

Selvas-Aguilar, R.; Martínez-Rios, A.; Anzueto-Sánchez, G.; Castillo-Guzmán, A.; Hernández-Luna, M. C.; Robledo-Fava, R.

2014-08-01

472

Physical properties of erbium implanted tungsten oxide filmsdeposited by reactive dual magnetron sputtering  

SciTech Connect

Amorphous and partially crystalline WO3 thin films wereprepared by reactive dual magnetron sputtering and successively implantedby erbium ions with a fluence in the range from 7.7 x 1014 to 5 x 1015ions/cm2. The electrical and optical properties were studied as afunction of the film deposition parameters and the ion fluence. Ionimplantation caused a strong decrease of the resistivity, a moderatedecrease of the index of refraction and a moderate increase of theextinction coefficient in the visible and near infrared, while theoptical band gap remained almost unchanged. These effects could belargely ascribed to ion-induced oxygen deficiency. When annealed in air,the already low resistivities of the implanted samples decreased furtherup to 70oC, whereas oxidation, and hence a strong increase of theresistivity, was observed at higher annealing temperatures.

Mohamed, Sodky H.; Anders, Andre

2006-11-08

473

Magnetic behavior of erbium-zinc-borate glasses and glass ceramics  

SciTech Connect

Glasses of the system (Er{sub 2}O{sub 3}){sub x}?(B{sub 2}O{sub 3}){sub (60?x)}?(ZnO){sub 40} (3 ? x ? 15 mol%) were prepared by conventional melt quenching and subsequently converted to glass ceramics by heat treatment of glass samples at 860 °C for 2 h. The magnetic behaviour of the studied glasses and glass ceramics were investigated using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and a Faraday-type magnetic balance. Magnetic data show that erbium ions are involved in negative superexchange interactions in all the investigated samples, being antiferromagnetically coupled. For all studied samples the experimental values obtained for the effective magnetic moments are lower than the value corresponding to free Er{sup 3+} ions and decrease with the increasing of Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} content. The decrease is more pronounced in heat treated samples than untreated ones.

Borodi, G. [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)] [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Pascuta, P.; Bosca, M.; Pop, V. [Technical University, 28 Memorandumului, 400114 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)] [Technical University, 28 Memorandumului, 400114 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Stefan, R. [Agricultural Science and Veterinary Medicine University, 3-5 Calea Manastur, 400372 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)] [Agricultural Science and Veterinary Medicine University, 3-5 Calea Manastur, 400372 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Tetean, R. [Babes-Bolyai University, 1 Mihail Kogalniceanu, Faculty of Physics, 400084 Cluj Napoca (Romania)] [Babes-Bolyai University, 1 Mihail Kogalniceanu, Faculty of Physics, 400084 Cluj Napoca (Romania); Radulescu, D. [University of Medicine and Pharmacy Iuliu Hatieganu, 8 Victor Babes, 400012 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)] [University of Medicine and Pharmacy Iuliu Hatieganu, 8 Victor Babes, 400012 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

2013-11-13

474

Magnetic and structural phase transitions in erbium at low temperatures and high pressures  

SciTech Connect

Electrical resistance and crystal structure measurements have been carried out on polycrystalline erbium (Er) at temperatures down to 10 K and pressures up to 20 GPa. An abrupt change in the slope of the resistance is observed with decreasing temperature below 84 K, which is associated with the c-axis modulated (CAM) antiferromagnetic (AFM) ordering of the Er moments. With increasing pressure the temperature of the resistance slope change and the corresponding AFM ordering temperature decrease until vanishing above 10.6 GPa. The disappearance of the slope change in the resistance occurs at similar pressures where the hcp structural phase of Er is transformed to a nine-layer {alpha}-Sm structural phase, as confirmed by our high-pressure synchrotron x-ray diffraction studies. These results suggest that the disappearance in the AFM ordering of Er moments is strongly correlated to the structural phase transition at high pressures and low temperatures.

Thomas, Sarah A.; Tsoi, Georgiy M.; Wenger, Lowell E.; Vohra, Yogesh K. (UAB)

2012-02-07

475

Optical properties of amorphous, erbium-doped yttrium alumino-borate thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we report on the optical characterizations of erbium-doped yttrium alumino-borate glassy thin films prepared by the polymeric precursor and sol-gel routes and the spin-coating technique. High quality planar waveguides were produced by a multilayer processing of Y 1-xEr xAl 3(BO 3) 4 compositions with x = 0.02, 0.05, 0.10, 0.30, and 0.50. Their optical properties were investigated using transmission, photoluminescence, and m-lines spectroscopy, whereas high resolution scanning electron microscopy (HR-SEM) was applied to check film thickness and surface homogeneity. The refractive indices determined from transmission and m-lines spectroscopy are in good agreement just like the film thickness measured by HR-SEM and transmission spectroscopy. We observed low propagation losses, together with efficient photoluminescence emission for polymeric precursor thin films, involving low cost and environment friendly reactants.

Maia, L. J. Q.; Fick, J.; Hernandes, A. C.; Mastelaro, V. R.; Ibanez, A.

2012-02-01

476

Widely tunable triple-wavelength erbium-doped fiber ring laser and its applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a widely tunable, narrow-linewidth, simultaneous triple-wavelength oscillation erbium-doped fiber ring laser (EDFRL), which can produce double-wavelength oscillations with the same polarization output, as well as another widely tunable wavelength oscillation with orthogonal polarization from 1522.2 nm to 1595.9 nm. By using this EDFRL along with a method of measuring polarization-mode dispersion (PMD) in optical fibers based on a broad-band orthogonal-pump four-wave mixing in a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA), we have measured the PMD values of optical fibers, which are in good agreement with values measured by means of commercial PMD testing equipment. We have also proposed several novel devices for in-field PMD measurement and monitoring on dense wavelength-division multiplexed (DWDM) traffic-carrying links, which will significantly reduce the cost and time of the PMD testing in the running DWMD networking systems.

Lu, Zhen Guo; Sun, Feng Guo; Xiao, Gao Zhi; Grover, Chander P.

2004-12-01

477

Synthesis of a single cycle of light with compact erbium-doped fibre technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The advent of self-referenced optical frequency combs has sparked the development of novel areas in ultrafast sciences such as attosecond technology and the synthesis of arbitrary optical waveforms. Few-cycle light pulses are key to these time-domain applications, driving a quest for reliable, stable and cost-efficient mode-locked laser sources with ultrahigh spectral bandwidth. Here, we present a set-up based entirely on compact erbium-doped fibre technology, which produces single cycles of light. The pulse duration of 4.3 fs is close to the shortest possible value for a data bit of information transmitted in the near-infrared regime. These results demonstrate that fundamental limits for optical telecommunications are accessible with existing fibre technology and standard free-space components.

Krauss, Günther; Lohss, Sebastian; Hanke, Tobias; Sell, Alexander; Eggert, Stefan; Huber, Rupert; Leitenstorfer, Alfred

2010-01-01

478

Speciation of artificial radionuclides 60 Co, 137 Cs, 152 Eu, and 241 Am in bottom sediments of the Yenisei river  

Microsoft Academic Search

The speciation of artificial radionuclides 60Co, 137Cs, 152Eu, and 241Am in surface layers of bottom sediments of the Yenisei river, collected within the near zone of impact of the Mining and\\u000a Chemical Combine (Rosatom), was studied. In these samples the radionuclides 60Co, 152Eu, and 241Am are mainly associated with fractions of humic and fulvic acids. The fraction of 152Eu associated

L. G. Bondareva; A. Ya. Bolsunovskii

2008-01-01

479

Corneal photoablation in vivo with the erbium:YAG laser: first report  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As an alternative to far-UV lasers for corneal refractive surgery, the Erbium:YAG laser may be used in TEM00 mode. The resulting gaussian beam profile leads to a certain amount of myopic correction per laser pulse. Although animal data suggest that the clinical outcome should be comparable to the UV-lasers, no human data were available until now. We performed Erbium:YAG laser areal ablation in 5 blind human eyes. In TEM00 mode, the laser parameters were: effective diameter of laser spot equals 3.4 mm, fluence equals 380 mJ/cm2, pulse duration equals 250 microsecond(s) , Repetition rate equals 4 Hz, Number of applied laser pulses equals 15. Four patients with no light perception, one with intact light projection on one eye (some of them scheduled for enucleation) were treated under topical anaesthesia. Patient selection and informed consent were agreed to by the University's independent Ethics Committee. Prior to laser irradiation, corneal epithelium was removed. A postoperative silicone cast of the cornea was analyzed with a confocal laser micro-topometer for the ablation profile. The eyes were treated with antibiotic ointment until the epithelium was closed. Clinical appearance and, where possible, profilometry of the ablated area was observed. The ablation profile in cornea was gaussian shaped with a maximal depth of 30 micrometers . During laser treatment, the corneal surface becomes opaque, clearing in a matter of seconds. Epithelial healing and clinical appearance was similar to excimer laser treatment. However, during the first week, the irradiated area shows subepithelial irregularities, resembling small bubbles, disappearing thereafter.

Jean, Benedikt J.; Bende, Thomas; Matallana, Michael; Kriegerowski, Martin

1995-05-01

480

Influence of Bi on the Er luminescence in yttrium-erbium disilicate thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of bismuth on erbium optical properties at 1.54 ?m has been investigated in yttrium-erbium disilicate thin films synthesized by magnetron co-sputtering and implanted with two Bi different doses. The Bi depth distribution and the evolution of its oxidation states after annealing treatments at 1000 °C in two atmospheres, O2 and N2, have been investigated. It was found that only in O2 the Bi3+ valence state is prevalent, thanks to the enhanced Bi mobility in the oxidizing ambient, as demonstrated by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. At lower Bi content, although the formation of Bi0 metallic nanoparticles that are deleterious non radiative channels for Er luminescence, efficient energy transfer from Bi to Er has been obtained only in O2. It is due to the excitation of ultraviolet broad Bi3+ absorption band and the energy transfer to Er ions. We have evaluated that in this case, Er effective excitation cross section increased by a factor of 5 in respect with the one for direct Er absorption at 488 nm. At higher Bi dose, this mechanism is absent, but an increased Er optical efficiency at 1.54 ?m has been observed under resonant excitation. It is due to the contribution of a fraction of Er ions having an increased lifetime. This phenomenon is associated with the formation of Bi agglomerates, induced at higher Bi doses, which well isolate Er from non-radiative quenching centers. The increased decay time assures higher optical efficiency at 1.54 ?m.

Scarangella, Adriana; Miritello, Maria; Priolo, Francesco

2014-09-01

481

Broadband erbium-doped fiber sources for the fiber-optic gyroscope  

SciTech Connect

The sensitivity of early fiber-optic gyroscopes (FOG) fell short of the theoretical limit. The use of certain configurations, fiber components, and well designed optical sources can help the FOG reach this limit. Sources for the FOG must be broadband, spatially coherent and high power. They must produce a mean wavelength which is stable with respect to temperature and feedback from system components. Additionally, they must emit at long wavelengths, where silica fibers are insensitive to radiation induced losses. Two approaches to broadband, 1.55 [mu]m, erbium-doped fiber sources for the FOG are considered. The most promising approach is the superfluorescent fiber source (SFS), which utilizes amplification of spontaneous emission in a single pass or in two passes through the fiber, without a resonant cavity. Such sources have produced more than 50% conversion of pump photons near 980 nm or 1.48 [mu]m to source photons. Laser diode pumping in these pump bands is explored in detail. Depending on fiber length, pump power, pump wavelength, and SFS configuration, emission bandwidths between 8 and 27 nm are measured. The thermal coefficient of the mean wavelength of the SFS is consistently below 10 ppm/[degrees]C, and near 0 ppm/[degrees]C for certain design choices. The detrimental effects of feedback are reduced through optical isolation and the proper choice of FOG configuration. Issues such as the effect of multiple pump modes and loss mechanisms are treated by use of computer simulations. The broadband Er-doped wavelength-swept fiber laser (WSFL) is presented as an alternative to the SFS. This source utilizes an intracavity acousto-optic modulator to sweep the emission of an Er-doped laser across the gain curve of erbium. Theoretical and measured characteristics of such sources are discussed. The dynamic response of the WSFL and its coherence in an integrating system has been measured.

Wysocki, P.F.

1992-01-01

482

Identification of new negative-parity levels in 152,154Nd  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From an experiment with Gammasphere and a 252Cf spontaneous fission source, a new negative-parity band in 154Nd and new negative-parity levels in 152Nd were identified and the yrast bands were extended to 18+ in 154Nd and 20+ in 152Nd in a triple gamma coincidence study. These new negative-parity bands are consistent with octupole vibrational mode. There is a constant difference as a function of spin between the J1 values for the negative-parity band in 152Nd and J1 for the similar negative-parity band in 154Nd, however, their J2 values are essentially identical. These bands indicate a new kind of identical band.

Zhang, X. Q.; Hamilton, J. H.; Ramayya, A. V.; Peker, L. K.; Hwang, J. K.; Jones, E. F.; Komicki, J.; Beyer, C. J.; Gore, P. M.; Babu, B. R.; Ginter, T. N.; Asztalos, S. J.; Chu, S. Y.; Gregorich, K. E.; Lee, I. Y.; Macchiavelli, A. O.; MacLeod, R. W.; Rasmussen, J. O.; Gilat, J.; Ter-Akopian, G. M.; Oganessian, Yu. Ts.; Daniel, A. V.; Ma, W. C.; Varmette, P. G.; Cole, J. D.; Aryaeinejad, R.; Butler-Moore, K.; Dardenne, Y. X.; Drigert, M. W.; Stoyer, M. A.; Wild, J. F.; Becker, J. A.; Bernstein, L. A.; Lougheed, R. W.; Moody, K. J.; Donangelo, R.; Prussin, S. G.; Griffin, H. C.

1998-04-01

483

ZnO nanorefrigerant in R152a refrigeration system for energy conservation and green environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper the reliability and performance of a vapour compression refrigeration system with ZnO nanoparticles in the working fluid was investigated experimentally. Nanorefrigerant was synthesized on the basis of the concept of the nanofluids, which was prepared by mixing ZnO nanoparticles with R152a refrigerant. The conventional refrigerant R134a has a global warming potential (GWP) of 1300 whereas R152a has a significant reduced value of GWP of 140 only. An experimental test rig is designed and fabricated indigenously in the laboratory to carry out the investigations. ZnO nanoparticles with refrigerant mixture were used in HFC R152a refrigeration system. The system performance with nanoparticles was then investigated. The concentration of nano ZnO ranges in the order of 0.1% v, 0.3% v and 0.5%v with particle size of 50 nm and 150 g of R152a was charged and tests were conducted. The compressor suction pressure, discharge pressure and evaporator temperature were measured. The results indicated that ZnO nanorefrigerant works normally and safely in the system. The ZnO nanoparticle concentration is an important factor considered for heat transfer enhancement in the refrigeration system. The performance of the system was significantly improved with 21% less energy consumption when 0.5%v ZnO-R152a refrigerant. Both the suction pressure and discharge pressure were lowered by 10.5% when nanorefrigerant was used. The evaporator temperature was reduced by 6% with the use of nanorefrigerant. Hence ZnO nanoparticles could be used in refrigeration system to considerably reduce energy consumption. The usage of R152a with zero ozone depleting potential (ODP) and very less GWP and thus provides a green and clean environment. The complete experimental results and their analysis are reported in the main paper.

Sendil Kumar, D.; Elansezhian, R.

2014-03-01

484

microRNA-152 Mediates DNMT1-Regulated DNA Methylation in the Estrogen Receptor ? Gene  

PubMed Central

Background Estrogen receptor ? (ER?) has been shown to protect against atherosclerosis. Methylation of the ER? gene can reduce ER? expression leading to a higher risk for cardiovascular disease. Recently, microRNAs have been found to regulate DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) and thus control methylation status in several genes. We first searched for microRNAs involved in DNMT-associated DNA methylation in the ER? gene. We also tested whether statin and a traditional Chinese medicine (San-Huang-Xie-Xin-Tang, SHXXT) could exert a therapeutic effect on microRNA, DNMT and ER? methylation. Methodology/Principal Findings The ER? expression was decreased and ER? methylation was increased in LPS-treated human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs) and the aorta from rats under a high-fat diet. microRNA-152 was found to be down regulated in the LPS-treated HASMCs. We validated that microRNA-152 can knock down DNMT1 in HASMCs leading to hypermethylation of the ER? gene. Statin had no effect on microRNA-152, DNMT1 or ER? expression. On the contrary, SHXXT could restore microRNA-152, decrease DNMT1 and increase ER? expression in both cellular and animal studies. Conclusions/Significance The present study showed that microRNA-152 decreases under the pro-atherosclerotic conditions. The reduced microRNA-152 can lose an inhibitory effect on DNA methyltransferase, which leads to hypermethylation of the ER? gene and a decrease of ER? level. Although statin can not reverse these cascade proatherosclerotic changes, the SHXXT shows a promising effect to inhibit this unwanted signaling pathway. PMID:22295098

Wang, Yung-Song; Chou, Wen-Wen; Chen, Ku-Chung; Cheng, Hsin-Yun; Lin, Ruey-Tay; Juo, Suh-Hang Hank

2012-01-01

485

Performance Validation of Version 152.0 ANSER Control Laws for the F-18 HARV  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Actuated Nose Strakes for Enhanced Rolling (ANSER) Control Laws were modified as a result of Phase 3 F/A-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) flight testing. The control law modifications for the next software release were designated version 152.0. The Ada implementation was tested in the Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) simulation and results were compared to those obtained with the NASA Langley batch Fortran implementation of the control laws which are considered the 'truth model.' This report documents the performance validation test results between these implementations for ANSER control law version 152.0.

Messina, Michael D.

1996-01-01

486

Reduced erbium-doped ceria nanoparticles: one nano-host applicable for simultaneous optical down- and up-conversions  

PubMed Central

This paper introduces a new synthesis procedure to form erbium-doped ceria nanoparticles (EDC NPs) that can act as an optical medium for both up-conversion and down-conversion in the same time. This synthesis process results qualitatively in a high concentration of Ce3+ ions required to obtain high fluorescence efficiency in the down-conversion process. Simultaneously, the synthesized nanoparticles contain the molecular energy levels of erbium that are required for up-conversion. Therefore, the synthesized EDC NPs can emit visible light when excited with either UV or IR photons. This opens new opportunities for applications where emission of light via both up- and down-conversions from a single nanomaterial is desired such as solar cells and bio-imaging. PMID:24940173

2014-01-01

487

Performance Comparison of Mode-Locked Erbium-Doped Fiber Laser with Nonlinear Polarization Rotation and Saturable Absorber Approaches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL) is demonstrated using a highly concentrated erbium-doped fiber (EDF) as the gain medium in a ring configuration with and without a saturable absorber (SA). Without the SA, the proposed laser generates soliton pulses with a repetition rate of 12 MHz, pulse width of 1.11 ps and energy pulse of 1.6 pJ. By incorporating SA in the ring cavity, the optical output of the laser changes from soliton to stretched pulses due to the slight change in the group velocity dispersion. With the SA, a cleaner pulse is obtained with a repetition rate of 11.3 MHz, a pulse width of 0.58 ps and a pulse energy of 2.3 pJ.

A. Ismail, M.; J. Tan, S.; S. Shahabuddin, N.; W. Harun, S.; Arof, H.; H., Ahmad

2012-05-01

488

Switchable dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber ring laser with tunable wavelength spacing based on a compact fiber filter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, using a compact fiber filter (CFF), we demonstrate a dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber ring laser with tunable wavelength spacing. The two oscillation wavelengths are specified by a fiber modal interferometer (MI) and a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) embedded in the MI, which consists of the CFF. Due to the deeply saturated spectral hole-burning (SHB) effect in the erbium-doped fiber, stable dual-wavelength operation is achieved at room temperature and the wavelength spacing can be tuned from 9.29 nm to 11.11 nm continuously when the strain applied to the CFF is changed. By adjustment of the attenuator in the cavity, the laser can operate in dual-wavelength or in wavelength switching modes.

Cao, Zhigang; Zhang, Zhao; Shui, Tao; Ji, Xiaochun; Wang, Rui; Yin, Chenchen; Yu, Benli

2014-03-01

489

Switchable triple-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser using a single fiber Bragg grating in polarization-maintaining fiber  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A stable and narrow wavelength spacing multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber laser is proposed and demonstrated. The laser can produce simultaneous dual- and triple-wavelength lasing oscillations with a narrow wavelength spacing of less than 0.1 nm via using a single fiber Bragg gratings written in polarization-maintaining (PM) fiber. By adjusting polarization controller, the wavelength spacing of dual-wavelength lasing oscillations can be tuned to as small as 0.032 nm. The maximum amplitude variation for every lasing wavelength is less than 0.5 dB. The room-temperature operation principle is based on the polarization hole burning and deeply saturated effect in an ordinary erbium-doped fiber ring laser (EDFRL). The laser has the advantages of simple all-fiber configuration, low cost, high stability and operating at room temperature.

Liu, Zhanyuan; Liu, Yan-ge; Du, Jiangbing; Yuan, Shuzhong; Dong, Xiaoyi

2007-11-01

490

Growth, characterization and upconversion properties of erbium-doped potassium lithium tantalate niobate single crystals under 975 nm laser excitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Potassium lithium tantalate niobate single crystals doped with erbium ions are grown by top-seeded solution growth method. The crystals are characterized by X-ray diffraction and differential thermal analysis. The refractive indices of the crystal are measured using ellipsometry method and fitted by Sellmeier equation. The as-grown crystals are tetragonal phase tungsten bronze-type structure with Curie temperature of 271.3 °C. Characteristic Er3 + absorption bands are observed from 350 to 1100 nm in ultraviolet-visible-near infrared absorption spectra. These crystals emit brightly green and red upconversion fluorescence under 975 nm LD laser excitation, and the steady state upconversion spectra are obtained at room temperature. The red emission intensity increases as the erbium ions concentration increases in crystals. Processes of excited state absorption and energy transfer are responsible for upconversion luminescence. The emission intensities are quadratic dependences on pump power from pump power dependence analyses and deduction of transition rate equation model.

Zhou, Zhongxiang; Li, Lei; Duan, Qianqian; Feng, Lei; Tian, Hao

2012-04-01

491

Erbium:Ytterbium Codoped Large-Core Fiber Laser With 297-W Continuous-Wave Output Power  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have demonstrated a high-power and high-efficiency erbium:ytterbium (Er:Yb) codoped fiber laser that produces 297 W of continuous-wave output at 1567 nm. The slope efficiency with respect to the launched pump power changed from 40% to 19% at higher output power due to the onset of Yb colasing at 1067 nm. However, the Yb colasing was essential for the suppression

Yoonchan Jeong; Seongwoo Yoo; C. A. Coderaard; Johan Nilsson; Jayanta K. Sahu; David N. Payne; R. Horley; P. W. Turner; Louise Hickey; Andrew Harker; Mike Lovelady; Andy Piper

2007-01-01

492

Eects of heat treatment and concentration on the luminescence properties of erbium-doped silica solgel lms  

E-print Network

Eects of heat treatment and concentration on the luminescence properties of erbium-doped silica sol±gel focus on pure silica sol±gel ®lms. In this paper we report on a systematic study of the eect of Er ®lms L.H. Sloo a,1 , M.J.A. de Dood a , A. van Blaaderen a,b , A. Polman a,* a FOM Institute for Atomic

Polman, Albert

493

Spatially correlated erbium and Si nanocrystals in coimplanted SiO2 after a single high temperature anneal  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a study of silicon (Si) and erbium (Er) coimplanted silica (SiO2) in which we observe, by combining high resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy and selective electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), a high spatial correlation between silicon nanocrystals (Si-NCs), Er, and oxygen (O) after a single high temperature (1100 °C) anneal. The observation of a spatial overlap of the

Iain F. Crowe; Reza J. Kashtiban; Ben Sherliker; Ursel Bangert; Matthew P. Halsall; Andrew P. Knights; Russell M. Gwilliam

2010-01-01

494

La-codoped Bismuth-based Erbium-doped Fiber Ring Laser with 106-nm Tuning Range  

E-print Network

OME14 La-codoped Bismuth-based Erbium-doped Fiber Ring Laser with 106-nm Tuning Range H. L. Liu, H Engineering, TheHong Kong Polytechnic University,Hung Horn,Kowloon, Hong Kong, China N. Sugimoto Asahi Glass using 84.6-cm long La-codoped bismuth-based EDF is reported. The laser emits high output power with 35 d

Wai, Ping-kong Alexander

495

A simple route to fabricate high sensibility gas sensors based on erbium doped ZnO nanocrystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

ZnO based nanostructures including ZnO and erbium (Er) doped ZnO nanocrystals (NCs) were synthesized by a one-step solvothermal method. Compared with the pure ZnO NCs, photoluminescence (PL) of the Er-doped ZnO NCs made an improvement in the visible emissions, which was attributed to the defects or vacancies resulted from Er-dopants. The enhanced defects or vacancies resulted in high activity surfaces,

Xian-Hua Zhang; Jie Chen; Yaping Wu; Zhaoxiong Xie; Junyong Kang; Lansun Zheng

2011-01-01

496

A layered erbium phosphonate in pseudo-D(5h) symmetry exhibiting field-tunable magnetic relaxation and optical correlation.  

PubMed

A layered erbium(III) phosphonate compound, [Er(notpH4)(H2O)]ClO4·3H2O (1), in which the Er(III) ion has a pseudo-D5h symmetry exhibits field tunable multiple magnetic relaxation. The near-IR emission spectrum of 1, excited at 1064 nm (Nd:YAG laser), provides a direct probe of the crystal field splitting correlated to the magnetic data. PMID:24889410

Ren, Min; Bao, Song-Song; Ferreira, Rute A S; Zheng, Li-Min; Carlos, Luis D

2014-07-21

497

1.5-microm monolithic GaInNAs semiconductor saturable-absorber mode locking of an erbium fiber laser.  

PubMed

We present a new monolithic GaAs-based semiconductor saturable absorber operating at 1.55 microm. An epitaxially grown absorber mirror in a GaInNAs/GaAs material system was successfully used to mode lock an erbium-doped fiber laser. The GaInNAs material system possesses intriguing physical properties and provides great potential for lasers and nonlinear optical devices operating at the 1.3-1.55-microm wavelength range. PMID:12659445

Okhotnikov, O G; Jouhti, T; Konttinen, J; Karirinne, S; Pessa, M

2003-03-01

498

Gain saturation effects in high-speed, multichannel erbium-doped fiber amplifiers at ?=1.53 ?m  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gain compression effects during multichannel signal amplification in an erbium-doped fiber amplifier at ?=1.53 are investigated. A theory is presented that accurately models the observed amplified spontaneous emission spectra, signal gains, and saturation effects. Measurements of the gain dynamics show recovery times in the 1-ms range, indicating that the fiber amplifier is immune to interchannel interference over a wide range

EMMANUEL DESURVIRE; C. RANDY GILES; JAY R. SIMPSON

1989-01-01

499

A high-gain, high-output saturation power erbium-doped fiber amplifier pumped at 532 nm  

Microsoft Academic Search

An erbium-doped fiber amplifier with a high small-signal gain of 42 dB at the gain peak of 1536.4 nm, a pumping efficiency of 1.6 dB\\/mW, and an output saturation power of 10 dBm is obtained with a pump power of 60 mW at 532 nm using the second harmonic of a Nd:YAG laser as the pump source. These experimental results

M. M. Choy; C. Y. Chen; M. Andrejco; M. Saifi; C. Lin

1990-01-01

500

Erbium\\/ytterbium co-doped double clad fiber amplifier, its applications and effects in fiber optic communication systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased demand for larger bandwidth and longer inter-amplifiers distances translates to higher power budgets for fiber optic communication systems in order to overcome large splitting losses and achieve acceptable signal-to-noise ratios. Due to their unique design ytterbium sensitized erbium doped, double clad fiber amplifiers; offer significant increase in the output powers that can be obtained. In this thesis we investigate,

Puneit Dua

2005-01-01