Sample records for erbium 152

  1. International Workshop on Photonics and Applications. Hanoi, Vietnam. April 5-8, 2004 Wavelength shifts in Erbium doped glass microspherical

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Wavelength shifts in Erbium doped glass microspherical Whispering Gallery Mode lasers Carole Arnaud, Mohamed13/2 4 I15/2 transition of Er3+ ions around 1550 nm in microspheres fabricated with Erbium doped fluoride "ZBLALiP" and phosphate "Schott" glasses. The microsphere lasers have been studied under pumping

  2. Erbium hydride decomposition kinetics.

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrizz, Robert Matthew

    2006-11-01

    Thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) is used to study the decomposition kinetics of erbium hydride thin films. The TDS results presented in this report are analyzed quantitatively using Redhead's method to yield kinetic parameters (E{sub A} {approx} 54.2 kcal/mol), which are then utilized to predict hydrogen outgassing in vacuum for a variety of thermal treatments. Interestingly, it was found that the activation energy for desorption can vary by more than 7 kcal/mol (0.30 eV) for seemingly similar samples. In addition, small amounts of less-stable hydrogen were observed for all erbium dihydride films. A detailed explanation of several approaches for analyzing thermal desorption spectra to obtain kinetic information is included as an appendix.

  3. Hybrid Brillouin\\/erbium fiber laser

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory J. Cowle; Dmitrii Yu. Stepanov

    1996-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate a novel hybrid Brillouin\\/erbium fiber laser that uses both Brillouin gain in single-mode optical fiber and gain in erbium-doped fiber. The lasing frequency was accurately determined by the Brillouin shift in single-mode optical fiber and was 10.35GHz from the Brillouin pump. Large powers could be extracted because of incorporation of erbium-doped fiber in the laser resonator.

  4. Ultrasonic approach for formation of erbium oxide nanoparticles with variable geometries.

    PubMed

    Radziuk, Darya; Skirtach, André; Gessner, Andre; Kumke, Michael U; Zhang, Wei; Möhwald, Helmuth; Shchukin, Dmitry

    2011-12-01

    Ultrasound (20 kHz, 29 W·cm(-2)) is employed to form three types of erbium oxide nanoparticles in the presence of multiwalled carbon nanotubes as a template material in water. The nanoparticles are (i) erbium carboxioxide nanoparticles deposited on the external walls of multiwalled carbon nanotubes and Er(2)O(3) in the bulk with (ii) hexagonal and (iii) spherical geometries. Each type of ultrasonically formed nanoparticle reveals Er(3+) photoluminescence from crystal lattice. The main advantage of the erbium carboxioxide nanoparticles on the carbon nanotubes is the electromagnetic emission in the visible region, which is new and not examined up to the present date. On the other hand, the photoluminescence of hexagonal erbium oxide nanoparticles is long-lived (?s) and enables the higher energy transition ((4)S(3/2)-(4)I(15/2)), which is not observed for spherical nanoparticles. Our work is unique because it combines for the first time spectroscopy of Er(3+) electronic transitions in the host crystal lattices of nanoparticles with the geometry established by ultrasound in aqueous solution of carbon nanotubes employed as a template material. The work can be of great interest for "green" chemistry synthesis of photoluminescent nanoparticles in water. PMID:22022886

  5. Standardization of 152Eu.

    PubMed

    Grigorescu, E L; Razdolescu, Anamaria Cristina; Sahagia, Maria; Luca, A; Ivan, C; Tanase, G

    2002-01-01

    152Eu was standardized within the frame of a BIPM international comparison. The solution was prepared and bottled by PTB. The ampoules were measured at BIPM in the SIR ionization chambers and then dispatched to the participating laboratories. In the Radionuclide Metrology Laboratory of IFIN-HH, the solution was standardized using a coincidence method with "beta-efficiency extrapolation" by foil absorption. A simple 4pi beta-gamma-coincidence system was used, with NaI(Tl) and 4piPC detectors. No significant impurities were found apart for 0.5% 154Eu. To obtain linear extrapolation plots, a "gamma-window" of 180-1500 keV was chosen. Dead-times of 10 micros were used. A combined uncertainty of 0.24% was obtained, mainly from the extrapolation procedure component. PMID:11839052

  6. REAP: Recycled Erbium Amplifier Pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delavaux, J.-M. P.; Nuyts, R. J.; Mizuhara, O.; Nagel, J. A.; Digiovanni, D. J.

    1994-03-01

    We report a novel erbium doped fiber preamplifier design with a combination of high gain (greater than 40 dB) and low noise figure (3 dB) at 1556 nm for 80 mW of 980 nm pump power. The co-directional single pumped amplifier employs a composite two stage arrangement in which the second stage is pumped with recycled pump not used in the first stage. In addition, we contrast the amplifier performance trade-offs with the insertions of an isolator or a band pass filter or both in between the two amplifier sections. Finally, we demonstrate a receiver sensitivity of -37 dBm (156 photons/bit) with a 10 Gb/s optical preamplifier regenerator.

  7. RBS measurement of depth profiles of erbium incorporated into lithium niobate for optical amplifier applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pe?ina, Vratislav; Vacík, Ji?í; Hnatovicz, Vladimír.; ?ervená, Jarmila; Kolá?ová, Pavla; Špirková-Hradilová, Jarmila; Schröfel, Josef

    1998-04-01

    Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) was used for the determination of Er 3+ concentration profiles in locally doped lithium niobate. The doped layers are the basic substrates for the fabrication of optical waveguiding structures which may be utilized as planar optical amplifiers and waveguiding lasers making use of the 4I 13/2 ? 4I 15/2 transition in Er 3+, which falls into the third low loss telecommunication window (1.5 ?m). We present a new aproach of fabrication of locally doped lithium niobate single crystal wafers. The doping occurs under moderate temperature (˜350°C) from reaction melts containing ca. 10 wt% of erbium nitrate. The erbium content in particular cuts varies dramatically between ca. 3 at.% in the Y- and Z-cut up to 20 at.% in the X-cuts. Erbium ions are localized in a 50 nm thick layer, but they can be diffused deeper into the substrate by subsequent annealing at 350°C. The Er concentrations of the samples doped at moderated temperature are compared with the Er concentrations of the samples doped by a standard high-temperature diffusion (>1000°C) from evaporated metal layers. To utilize the Er doped substrates in integrated optic circuits high quality waveguides must be subsequently fabricated. For that we used the Annealed Proton Exchange (APE) method with adipic acid. For the actual fabrication of the waveguides the following order of operation should be kept: the erbium doping should be done before the APE because the substantially changed structure of APE layers prevents the doping process. The APE process is checked by measurements of lithium depth profiles by Neutron Depth Profiling (NDP).

  8. All-optical logical gates based on pump-induced resonant nonlinearity in an erbium-doped fiber coupler.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiliang; Zhang, Zhen; Li, Dongqiang; Zhu, Mengyun; Tang, Xianghong; Li, Shuqin

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we theoretically investigate all-optical logical gates based on the pump-induced resonant nonlinearity in an erbium-doped fiber coupler. The resonant nonlinearity yielded by the optical transitions between the I15/24 states and I13/24 states in Er3+ induces the refractive index to change, which leads to switching between two output ports. First, we do a study on the switching performance, and calculate the extinction ratio (Xratio) of the device. Second, using the Xratio, we obtain the truth tables of the device. The results reveal that compared with other undoped nonlinear couplers, the erbium-doped fiber coupler can drop the switching threshold power. We also obtain different logic gates and logic operations in the cases of the same phase and different phase of two initial signals by changing the pump power. PMID:25607960

  9. Update On Erbium:YAG lithotripsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teichman, Joel M. H.; Kang, Hyun Wook; Glickman, Randolph D.; Welch, Ashley J.

    2007-04-01

    The Holmium:YAG laser fragments stones by a photothermal mechanism. It produces tiny fragments compared to short pulse duration lasers which fragment stones by laser induced shockwave lithotripsy. Holmium:YAG lithotripsy fragments stones of all compositions, but fragments stones slowly. In an effort to achieve photothermal lithotripsy more efficiently, Erbium:YAG lithotripsy has been tested. The Erbium:YAG laser fragments stones up to 5 times more efficiently than the Holmium:YAG laser. Its principal limitation is that it is not transmitted well by currently available fibers. Erbium:YAG lithotripsy is more efficient than Holmium:YAG lithotripsy but it is not yet practical for clinical use with current technology.

  10. Erbium-doped aluminophosphosilicate optical fibres

    SciTech Connect

    Likhachev, M E; Bubnov, M M; Zotov, K V; Medvedkov, O I [Fiber Optics Research Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Lipatov, D S; Yashkov, M V; Gur'yanov, Aleksei N [Institute of Chemistry of High-Purity Substances, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhnii Novgorod (Russian Federation)

    2010-09-10

    We have studied the active properties of erbium-doped aluminophosphosilicate (APS) core fibres in wide ranges of erbia, alumina and phosphorus pentoxide concentrations. The absorption and luminescence spectra of the P{sub 2}O{sub 5}- or Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-enriched erbium-doped APS fibres are shown to be similar to those of the erbium-doped fibres singly doped with phosphorus pentoxide or alumina, respectively. The formation of AlPO{sub 4} in APS fibres leads not only to a reduction in the refractive index of the glass but also to a marked increase in Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} solubility in silica. (optical fibres)

  11. Infrared spectroscopy and upconversion luminescence behaviour of erbium doped yttrium (III) oxide phosphor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubey, Vikas; Tiwari, Ratnesh; Tamrakar, Raunak Kumar; Rathore, Gajendra Singh; Sharma, Chitrakant; Tiwari, Neha

    2014-11-01

    The paper reports upconversion luminescence behaviour and infra-red spectroscopic pattern of erbium doped yttrium (III) oxide phosphor. Sample was synthesized by solid state reaction method with variable concentration or erbium (0.5-2.5 mol%). The conventional solid state method is suitable for large scale production and eco-friendly method. The prepared sample was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. From structural analysis by XRD technique shows cubic structure of prepared sample with variable concentration of erbium and no impurity phase were found when increase the concentration of Er3+. Particle size was calculated by Scherer's formula and it varies from 67 nm to 120 nm. The surface morphology of prepared phosphor was determined by field emission gun scanning electron microscopy (FEGSEM) technique. The surface morphology of the sample shows good connectivity with grains as well as some agglomerates formation occurs in sample. The functional group analysis was done by Fourier transform infra-red technique (FTIR) analysis which confirm the formation of Y2O3:Er3+ phosphor was prepared. The results indicated that the Y2O3:Er3+ phosphors might have high upconversion efficiency because of their low vibrational energy. Under 980 nm laser excitation sample shows intense green emission at 555 nm and orange emission at 590 nm wavelength. For green emission transition occurs 2H11/2 ? 4I15/2, 4S3/2 ? 4I15/2 for upconversion emissions. Excited state absorption and energy transfer process were discussed as possible upconversion mechanisms. The near infrared luminescence spectra was recorded. The upconversion luminescence intensity increase with increasing the concentration or erbium up to 2 mol% after that luminescence intensity decreases due to concentration quenching occurs. Spectrophotometric determinations of peaks are evaluated by Commission Internationale de I'Eclairage (CIE) technique. From CIE technique the dominant peak of from PL spectra shows intense green emission so the prepared phosphor is may be useful for green light emitting diode (GLED) application.

  12. Erbium-doped and Raman fiber amplifiers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dominique Bayart

    2003-01-01

    This paper provides keys to understand why erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFA) have revolutionized signal transmission techniques and how they can complement with Raman amplification in the next generation of telecommunications systems. The basic physics of EDFAs is first reviewed, followed by a description of requirements for both terrestrial and submarine system applications. The related characteristics and second-order effects causing limitations

  13. Standing-wave monomode erbium fiber laser

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. A. Ball; W. W. Morey; W. H. Glenn

    1991-01-01

    An integrated standing-wave, single frequency, erbium fiber laser having a laser linewidth of less than 47 kHz is reported. The monolithic fiber laser incorporated two highly reflective intracore Bragg reflectors which provide both cavity feedback and adequate longitudinal mode discrimination. The narrow linewidth single-mode operation and monolithic construction may make this a valuable communications\\/sensor source.

  14. [Influence of erbium ion concentration on Judd-Ofelt parameters of Er3+ -doped tellurite glass].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Gang; Dai, Shi-xun; Yu, Chun-lei; Zhang, Jun-jie; Hu, Li-li; Jiang, Zhong-hong

    2006-03-01

    Er3+ -doped tellurite glasses with four different concentrations were fabricated, and the oscillator strength of Er3+ in the tellurite glasses were calculated through the absorption spectra of the glasses. The Judd-Ofelt intensity parameter omega i, spontaneous transition probability A, fluorescence branching ratio beta, and radiative lifetime tau rad of Er3+ were calculated on the basis of Judd-Ofelt theory, and the effect of the erbium ion concentration on the above optical parameters was also discussed. The fluorescence spectra of Er3+: (4)I(13/2)--> (4)I(15/2) transition and the lifetime of Er3+: (4)I(13/2) level of the samples were measured. The stimulated emission cross-section of (4)I(13/2)--> (4)I(15/2) transition of the samples was finally calculated by using McCumber theory. The results show that with the increase in the Er3+ concentration, the oscillator strength and spontaneous transition probability A of Er3+ increase, while the fluorescence branching ratio beta of Er3+ shows little difference. The stimulated emission cross-section of Er3+: (4)I(13/2)--> (4)I(15/2) transition of the samples changes slightly with the increase in the Er3+ concentration. All the fluorescence effective line widths for the four different Er3+ concentration samples are nearly 50 nm. PMID:16830740

  15. IRS DEFINITION OF DEPENDENT SECTION 152 Sec. 152. Dependent Defined

    E-print Network

    Emmons, Scott

    (other than only for a claim of refund) with the individual's spouse under section 6013 for the taxable year as a qualifying child and", effective for taxable years beginning after 2008. #12;For purposes of paragraph (1)(C such individual as a qualifying child and-- 152(c)(3)(A)(i) has not attained the age of 19 as of the close

  16. Multiple wavelength generation with Brillouin\\/erbium fiber lasers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory J. Cowle; D. Yu. Stepanov

    1996-01-01

    Brillouin\\/erbium fiber lasers, which have recently been demonstrated, operate with a combination of Brillouin gain and gain in erbium-doped fiber. In this letter, we describe techniques for cascading the Brillouin\\/erbium fiber laser to generate optical combs, and experimentally demonstrate optical comb generation. Internal and external cascading techniques are demonstrated. The line spacing in the combs is approximately 10 GHz, with

  17. 7 CFR 3550.152 - Loan payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Loan payments. 3550.152 Section...Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...DIRECT SINGLE FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Regular... § 3550.152 Loan payments. (a) Payment terms... (1) Protective advances charged to the...

  18. 14 CFR 152.605 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Definitions. 152.605 Section... AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Energy Conservation in Airport Aid Program § 152.605 Definitions. As used in this subpart...construction cost. Energy assessment means...

  19. 14 CFR 152.605 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Definitions. 152.605 Section... AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Energy Conservation in Airport Aid Program § 152.605 Definitions. As used in this subpart...construction cost. Energy assessment means...

  20. 14 CFR 152.605 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Definitions. 152.605 Section... AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Energy Conservation in Airport Aid Program § 152.605 Definitions. As used in this subpart...construction cost. Energy assessment means...

  1. 14 CFR 152.605 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Definitions. 152.605 Section... AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Energy Conservation in Airport Aid Program § 152.605 Definitions. As used in this subpart...construction cost. Energy assessment means...

  2. 14 CFR 152.605 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Definitions. 152.605 Section... AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Energy Conservation in Airport Aid Program § 152.605 Definitions. As used in this subpart...construction cost. Energy assessment means...

  3. 41 CFR 128-1.152 - Citation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Citation. 128-1.152 Section 128-1.152 Public Contracts...1-INTRODUCTION 1.1-Regulation System § 128-1.152 Citation. The JPMR will be cited in accordance with the Federal...

  4. 25 CFR 152.26 - Advertisement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Advertisement. 152.26 Section 152.26 Indians BUREAU OF...and Conveyances of Trust Or Restricted Lands § 152.26 Advertisement. (a) Upon approval of an application for an...

  5. 25 CFR 152.26 - Advertisement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Advertisement. 152.26 Section 152.26 Indians BUREAU OF...and Conveyances of Trust Or Restricted Lands § 152.26 Advertisement. (a) Upon approval of an application for an...

  6. 25 CFR 152.26 - Advertisement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Advertisement. 152.26 Section 152.26 Indians BUREAU OF...and Conveyances of Trust Or Restricted Lands § 152.26 Advertisement. (a) Upon approval of an application for an...

  7. 25 CFR 152.26 - Advertisement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Advertisement. 152.26 Section 152.26 Indians BUREAU OF...and Conveyances of Trust Or Restricted Lands § 152.26 Advertisement. (a) Upon approval of an application for an...

  8. 25 CFR 152.26 - Advertisement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Advertisement. 152.26 Section 152.26 Indians BUREAU OF...and Conveyances of Trust Or Restricted Lands § 152.26 Advertisement. (a) Upon approval of an application for an...

  9. Characterization of the surface changes during the activation of erbium/erbium oxide for hydrogen storage.

    SciTech Connect

    Zavadil, Kevin Robert; Snow, Clark Sheldon; Brumbach, Michael Todd

    2010-09-01

    Erbium is known to effectively load with hydrogen when held at high temperature in a hydrogen atmosphere. To make the storage of hydrogen kinetically feasible, a thermal activation step is required. Activation is a routine practice, but very little is known about the physical, chemical, and/or electronic processes that occur during Activation. This work presents in situ characterization of erbium Activation using variable energy photoelectron spectroscopy at various stages of the Activation process. Modification of the passive surface oxide plays a significant role in Activation. The chemical and electronic changes observed from core-level and valence band spectra will be discussed along with corroborating ion scattering spectroscopy measurements.

  10. Characterization of new erbium-doped tellurite glasses and fibers

    E-print Network

    Dierolf, Volkmar

    of their excellent optical and chemical properties. The emission spectrum from erbium in tellurite glasses is almost. Introduction Erbium-doped tellurite glasses have optical and chemical properties suitable for optical applica, many valence states of tellurium, a low-bonding strength of Te­O, low glass transition and chemi- cal

  11. Noise figure for erbium-doped optical fibre amplifiers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Olshansky

    1988-01-01

    In this paper, a simple rate equation model is used to make the first prediction of the noise figure for erbium-doped fiber amplifiers for both co- and counterpropagating pumps. It is shown that erbium amplifiers can be operated with noise figures very close to the 3 dB quantum limit. If the application requires both low noise and maximum gain, the

  12. Design for a single mode erbium-doped fiber laser

    E-print Network

    Wang, Jon-En

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this research was to design and fabricate a single-mode, narrow-linewidth linear erbium-doped fiber laser using a solid etalon for mode selection. This thesis describes the design of the linear laser which uses erbium-doped fiber...

  13. Amplifying properties of heavily erbium-doped active fibres

    SciTech Connect

    Plotskii, A Yu; Kurkov, Andrei S; Yashkov, M Yu; Bubnov, M M; Likhachev, M E; Sysolyatin, A A; Dianov, Evgenii M [Fiber Optics Research Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Gur'yanov, A N [Institute of Chemistry of High-Purity Substances, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhnii Novgorod (Russian Federation)

    2005-06-30

    The relative concentration of erbium ions undergoing nonradiative relaxation from the metastable to the ground level is measured in aluminosilicate glass fibres doped with erbium ions at concentration between 3x10{sup 18} and 10{sup 20} cm{sup -3}. The dependence of the fraction of such ions on the Er{sup 3+} concentration is determined for fibres containing different amounts of aluminium oxide in a core. It is shown that the fraction of erbium ions not involved in amplification substantially decreases with increasing the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentration. It is found that clustering leads to a considerable decrease in the gain in heavily Er{sup 3+}-doped active fibres. The dependence of the quantum efficiency of a fibre amplifier on the erbium ion concentration is obtained based on the measurements performed. This dependence can be used for optimising the parameters of erbium-doped fibre amplifiers. (fibres. integrated-optic waveguides)

  14. Investigation of A=152 radioactivities with mass-separated sources: Identification of 152Lu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toth, K. S.; Sousa, D. C.; Nitschke, J. M.; Wilmarth, P. A.

    1987-01-01

    Nuclides with A=152 were produced in 58Ni bombardments of 96Ru and their decay properties were investigated following on-line mass separation. The isotope 152Lu (T1/2=0.7+/-0.1 s) was identified by ? rays in its ?-decay daughter, 152Yb. Based on its decay characteristics, the parent state has a probable spin and parity assignment of (4,5,6-). Several new transitions were observed to follow the ? decays of 152Yb and the 152Tm low-spin isomer; they established previously unknown levels in both 152Tm and 152Er. The additional ? rays in 152Yb decay reduce from 100% to 88% the direct feeding to the one excited state in 152Tm that had been known earlier. Nevertheless, the corresponding logft value is calculated to be 3.5, indicating that this is an allowed ? transition which connects the 0+ parent with a 1+ excited state in 152Tm. By comparing the ?-decay rates of 148Dy and 152Ho, and the ?- and ?-decay rates of 152Er, an ? branch of 90+/-4 % was deduced for 152Er.

  15. Erbium laser resurfacing for actinic cheilitis.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Joel L

    2013-11-01

    Actinic cheilitis is a precancerous condition characterized by grayish-whitish area(s) of discoloration on the mucosal lip, often blunting the demarcation between mucosa and cutaneous lip. Actinic cheilitis is considered to be an early part of the spectrum of squamous cell carcinoma. Squamous cell carcinoma specifically of the lip has a high rate of recurrence and metastasis through the oral cavity leading to a poor overall survival. Risk factors for the development of actinic cheilitis include chronic solar irradiation, increasing age, male gender, light skin complexion, immunosuppression, and possibly tobacco and alcohol consumption. Treatment options include topical pharmacotherapy (eg, fluorouracil, imiquimod) or procedural interventions (eg, cryotherapy, electrosurgery, surgical vermillionectomy, laser resurfacing), each with their known advantages and disadvantages. There is little consensus as to which treatment options offer the most clinical utility given the paucity of comparative clinical data. In my practice, laser resurfacing has become an important tool for the treatment of actinic cheilitis owing to its ease of use and overall safety, tolerability, and cosmetic acceptability. Herein the use of erbium laser resurfacing is described for three actinic cheilitis presentations for which I find it particularly useful: clinically prominent actinic cheilitis, biopsy-proven actinic cheilitis, and treatment of the entire lip following complete tumor excision of squamous cell carcinoma. All patients were treated with a 2940-nm erbium laser (Sciton Profile Contour Tunable Resurfacing Laser [TRL], Sciton, Inc., Palo Alto, CA). PMID:24196339

  16. Spectroscopy of erbium in La3+-doped tellurite glass & fibres

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. R. Oermann; H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem; Yahua Li; T. M. Monro

    2008-01-01

    We study the spectroscopic properties of erbium doped tellurite glass and the effect of co-doping with lanthanum. This is a route towards the development of versatile fibre lasers for the mid-infrared.

  17. Output power characteristics of erbium-doped fiber ring lasers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Pfeiffer; H. Schmuck; H. Bulow

    1992-01-01

    The output power of an erbium-doped fiber ring laser has been measured as a function of pump power, emission wavelength, doped-fiber length, and reflectivity of the output coupler. A theoretical model for the calculation of the output power is introduced that is based on a previously derived gain equation for erbium-doped fiber amplifiers. The calculated values are in good agreement

  18. Analytical model of an ytterbium-erbium fiber saturating amplifier

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Yu. Golyshev

    2003-01-01

    The amplification of an optical signal in an erbium-and ytterbium-doped fiber saturation-mode amplifier is considered. Analytical\\u000a distributions of the inverse population, pump power, and signal intensity along an active light guide are derived. Spectral\\u000a dependences of the saturation power and amplification threshold are obtained for different mode sizes of the radiation and\\u000a ytterbium-to-erbium active ion ratios. The optimal active-fiber length

  19. Erbium-doped waveguide amplifier for reconfigurable WDM metro networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Ennser; G. Della Valle; M. Ibsen; J. Shmulovich; S. Taccheo

    2005-01-01

    Transient dynamic due to signal power fluctuations is the main impairment in reconfigurable transparent wavelength-division-multiplexing metro networks design. In this letter, we demonstrate an optical-gain-clamped erbium-doped waveguide amplifier using fiber Bragg grating filters. We show both theoretically and experimentally that it is virtually insensitive to signal transient and that it reduces overshoot by 10 dB compared to standard erbium-doped fiber

  20. 14 CFR 152.203 - Allowable project costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Allowable project costs. 152.203 Section 152.203 Aeronautics...AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Funding of Approved Projects § 152.203 Allowable project costs. (a) Airport development. To...

  1. 14 CFR 152.203 - Allowable project costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Allowable project costs. 152.203 Section 152.203 Aeronautics...AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Funding of Approved Projects § 152.203 Allowable project costs. (a) Airport development. To...

  2. 14 CFR 152.203 - Allowable project costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allowable project costs. 152.203 Section 152.203 Aeronautics...AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Funding of Approved Projects § 152.203 Allowable project costs. (a) Airport development. To...

  3. 14 CFR 152.203 - Allowable project costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Allowable project costs. 152.203 Section 152.203 Aeronautics...AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Funding of Approved Projects § 152.203 Allowable project costs. (a) Airport development. To...

  4. 14 CFR 152.203 - Allowable project costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Allowable project costs. 152.203 Section 152.203 Aeronautics...AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Funding of Approved Projects § 152.203 Allowable project costs. (a) Airport development. To...

  5. 14 CFR 152.609 - Energy conservation practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Energy conservation practices. 152.609 Section 152...AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Energy Conservation in Airport Aid Program § 152.609 Energy conservation practices. Each sponsor shall...

  6. 14 CFR 152.609 - Energy conservation practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Energy conservation practices. 152.609 Section 152...AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Energy Conservation in Airport Aid Program § 152.609 Energy conservation practices. Each sponsor shall...

  7. 14 CFR 152.609 - Energy conservation practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Energy conservation practices. 152.609 Section 152...AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Energy Conservation in Airport Aid Program § 152.609 Energy conservation practices. Each sponsor shall...

  8. 14 CFR 152.609 - Energy conservation practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Energy conservation practices. 152.609 Section 152...AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Energy Conservation in Airport Aid Program § 152.609 Energy conservation practices. Each sponsor shall...

  9. 14 CFR 152.609 - Energy conservation practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Energy conservation practices. 152.609 Section 152...AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Energy Conservation in Airport Aid Program § 152.609 Energy conservation practices. Each sponsor shall...

  10. 40 CFR 152.96 - Documentation of a data gap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Documentation of a data gap. 152.96 Section 152.96 Protection...PROCEDURES Procedures To Ensure Protection of Data Submitters' Rights § 152.96 Documentation of a data gap. Except as provided in...

  11. 40 CFR 152.96 - Claim of data gap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Claim of data gap. 152.96 Section 152.96 Protection...AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Satisfaction of Data Requirements and Protection of Data Submitters' Rights § 152.96 Claim of...

  12. 40 CFR 152.96 - Documentation of a data gap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Documentation of a data gap. 152.96 Section 152.96 Protection...PROCEDURES Procedures To Ensure Protection of Data Submitters' Rights § 152.96 Documentation of a data gap. Except as provided in...

  13. 40 CFR 152.96 - Documentation of a data gap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Documentation of a data gap. 152.96 Section 152.96 Protection...PROCEDURES Procedures To Ensure Protection of Data Submitters' Rights § 152.96 Documentation of a data gap. Except as provided in...

  14. Silver as a sensitizer for erbium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strohhofer, C.; Polman, A.

    2002-08-01

    The photoluminescence of Er3+ in borosilicate glass is strongly enhanced by the presence of silver. Samples prepared by a combination of erbium ion implantation and Na+[leftright arrow]Ag+ ion exchange show an increase of the Er3+ excitation efficiency of up to a factor 70 when excited at 488 nm. Excitation of Er3+ is possible over a broad wavelength range in the near ultraviolet and visible. Our data suggest that absorption of light occurs at a silver ion/atom pair or similar defect, followed by energy transfer to Er3+. We can exclude that silver nanocrystals are part of the dominant excitation mechanism, neither via local field enhancement effects due to their surface plasmon resonance nor via absorption and subsequent energy transfer to Er3+.

  15. Luminescence of erbium ions in tellurite glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Savikin, Alexander P.; Grishin, Igor A.; Sharkov, Valery V.; Budruev, Andrei V., E-mail: budruev@gmail.com

    2013-11-15

    Optical characteristics of new generation of tellurite glasses having high stability against crystallization have been studied. As the initial reagents for the glasses synthesis on the base of tellurium oxide (TeO{sub 2}) there were used such oxides as WO{sub 3}, MoO{sub 3}, La{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, ZnO—Bi{sub 2}O{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and active components such as high purity Er{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Yb{sub 2}O{sub 3}, ErF{sub 3} and YbF{sub 3}. Intensities of luminescence at 1.53 µm of the erbium ions were determined after excitation at 975 nm. Experimental data obtained have shown the possibility to use the studied glasses doped by Er{sup 3+} and Yb{sup 3+} as active elements for fiber and integrated optics. - Graphical abstract: In contrast to the case of ZBLAN glass the TeO{sub 2}–WO{sub 3} (Er{sup 3+}) glass has bright intensity of luminescence at 1.53 µm for erbium ions that should be caused by excitation at 975 nm. Experimental data obtained have shown the possibility to use the studied glasses doped by Er{sup 3+} and Yb{sup 3+} as active elements for fiber and integrated optics. Display Omitted - Highlights: • We examined changes in growth of luminescence in doubly-doped tellurite glasses. • We found that luminescence grows in two orders by using Er{sup 3+} and Yb{sup 3+} at 1.53 ?m. • We see possibility to use those glasses as active elements for integrated optics.

  16. Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 152

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, M.J.

    2013-11-15

    Detailed level schemes, decay schemes, and the experimental data on which they are based are presented for all nuclei with mass number A=152. The experimental data are evaluated; inconsistencies and discrepancies are noted; and adopted values for level and ?–ray energies, ? intensities, as well as for other nuclear properties are given. This evaluation replaces the A=152 evaluation published by Agda Artna–Cohen in Nuclear Data Sheets 79, 1 (1996) and the evaluation for 152Dy prepared by Balraj Singh and published in Nuclear Data Sheets 95, 995 (2002)

  17. Multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber ring laser source with a hybrid gain medium

    E-print Network

    Wai, Ping-kong Alexander

    Multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber ring laser source with a hybrid gain medium D.N. Wang a,*, F optical amplifier is incorporated into the cavity of an erbium-doped fiber ring laser to form a hybrid amplifier; Fiber laser 1. Introduction There has been increasing research interest in multiwavelength erbium

  18. Stable and uniform multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber laser using nonlinear polarization

    E-print Network

    Wai, Ping-kong Alexander

    Stable and uniform multiwavelength erbium- doped fiber laser using nonlinear polarization rotation oscillations in an erbium-doped fiber laser is proposed and successfully demonstrated. The NPR effect of America OCIS codes: (140.3500) Lasers, erbium; (140.3510) Lasers, fiber; (190.3270) Kerr effect References

  19. Controlled modification of erbium lifetime in silicon dioxide with metallic Jiming Bao,a

    E-print Network

    Bao, Jiming

    Controlled modification of erbium lifetime in silicon dioxide with metallic overlayers Jiming Bao the radiative properties of erbium can be achieved in erbium-implanted materials in a wide range of implantation radiative lifetime, due to spontaneous emission, as well as by its nonradiative interactions

  20. DSINTGRATION DE QUELQUES ISOTOPES D'ERBIUM ET D'HOLMIUM DFICIENTS EN NEUTRONS

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    116. DÉSINTÉGRATION DE QUELQUES ISOTOPES D'ERBIUM ET D'HOLMIUM DÉFICIENTS EN NEUTRONS Par P principaux rayonnements 03B3 de 12 isotopes d'erbium ou d'holmium déficients en neutrons. Les résultats sont'étude spectroscopique de la désintégration des isotopes d'erbium et d'holmium déficients en neutrons s'avère très

  1. 40 CFR 152.132 - Supplemental distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...registered product. (b) The distributor product is produced, packaged and labeled in a registered establishment operated by the same...under contract in accordance with § 152.30) who produces, packages, and labels the registered product. (c) The...

  2. 40 CFR 152.82 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...purposes of this subpart, the definitions set forth in the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), in § 152.3...experimental use permit, or to maintain an existing registration in effect. The term includes the person who originally...

  3. 44 CFR 152.9 - Reconsideration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...HOMELAND SECURITY FIRE PREVENTION AND CONTROL ASSISTANCE TO FIREFIGHTERS GRANT PROGRAM § 152.9 Reconsideration. (a) Reconsideration...Administrator, Grant Programs Directorate, Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program, FEMA, 800 K Street, NW., South...

  4. 44 CFR 152.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...PREVENTION AND CONTROL ASSISTANCE TO FIREFIGHTERS GRANT PROGRAM § 152.2 Definitions. Active firefighter is a member of a fire department...or organization in which all active firefighters are considered full-time...

  5. 7 CFR 1738.152 - Interest rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL BROADBAND ACCESS LOANS AND LOAN GUARANTEES Direct Loan Terms § 1738.152 Interest rates. (a) Direct cost-of-money loans shall bear interest at a rate equal to...

  6. 7 CFR 1738.152 - Interest rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL BROADBAND ACCESS LOANS AND LOAN GUARANTEES Direct Loan Terms § 1738.152 Interest rates. (a) Direct cost-of-money loans shall bear interest at a rate equal to...

  7. 7 CFR 1738.152 - Interest rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL BROADBAND ACCESS LOANS AND LOAN GUARANTEES Direct Loan Terms § 1738.152 Interest rates. (a) Direct cost-of-money loans shall bear interest at a rate equal to...

  8. 32 CFR 152.5 - Implementation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...PERTAINING TO MILITARY JUSTICE REVIEW OF THE MANUAL FOR COURTS-MARTIAL § 152.5 Implementation. The foregoing policies...substantive of procedural, to any person or enforceable at law by any party against the United States, its agencies, its...

  9. 32 CFR 152.5 - Implementation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...PERTAINING TO MILITARY JUSTICE REVIEW OF THE MANUAL FOR COURTS-MARTIAL § 152.5 Implementation. The foregoing policies...substantive of procedural, to any person or enforceable at law by any party against the United States, its agencies, its...

  10. 32 CFR 152.5 - Implementation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...PERTAINING TO MILITARY JUSTICE REVIEW OF THE MANUAL FOR COURTS-MARTIAL § 152.5 Implementation. The foregoing policies...substantive of procedural, to any person or enforceable at law by any party against the United States, its agencies, its...

  11. 32 CFR 152.5 - Implementation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...PERTAINING TO MILITARY JUSTICE REVIEW OF THE MANUAL FOR COURTS-MARTIAL § 152.5 Implementation. The foregoing policies...substantive of procedural, to any person or enforceable at law by any party against the United States, its agencies, its...

  12. 32 CFR 152.5 - Implementation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...PERTAINING TO MILITARY JUSTICE REVIEW OF THE MANUAL FOR COURTS-MARTIAL § 152.5 Implementation. The foregoing policies...substantive of procedural, to any person or enforceable at law by any party against the United States, its agencies, its...

  13. 40 CFR 82.152 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Section 82.152 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...supermarkets, convenience stores, restaurants and other food...includes the equipment used to store meat, produce, dairy products...be unsafe in its intended environment, and/or will be...

  14. 40 CFR 82.152 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Section 82.152 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...supermarkets, convenience stores, restaurants and other food...includes the equipment used to store meat, produce, dairy products...be unsafe in its intended environment, and/or will be...

  15. Investigation of ^152,153Dy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoraka, Babak; Werner, Volker; McCutchan, Elizabeth; Ai, Ho-Chiang; Casperson, Robert J.; Casten, Rick; Heinz, Andreas; Huber, Bernhard; Luettke, Robert; Qian, Jing; Terry, Russ; Williams, Elizabeth; Winkler, Ryan

    2007-10-01

    152Dy is one of the most studied nuclei in the nuclear chart. Excited states in 152Dy (and 153Dy) were populated via the 124Sn(33S,Xn) reaction with the beam being delivered by the ESTU tandem accelerator at the Wright Nuclear Structure Laboratory. The New Yale Plunger Device (NYPD) was used in the SPEEDY array. Lifetimes are determined using the differential decay curve method from gamma-gamma coincidence data. First results will be presented.

  16. 14 CFR 152.411 - Affirmative action steps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Affirmative action steps. 152.411 Section 152.411 Aeronautics...Program § 152.411 Affirmative action steps. (a) Each grantee which is...occur, by taking the affirmative action steps in § 152.409(b)(3), as...

  17. Correlating structure and photophysics in erbium-doped silicon nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffer, Jeffrey L.; Senter, Robert A.; Ji, Junmin

    2002-11-01

    Silicon's position as the semiconductor of choice in micro/nanoelectronics hinges on its ability to shift to new design paradigms such as opto-electronics. Strategies to produce silicon-based light emitters remain limited, however, relying either on quantum confinement effects or optically-active dopants. We are actively studying the effects of incorporating optically-active Erbium centers into discrete crystalline Si nanocrystals. Such nanocrystals have been prepared via the pyrolysis of disilanein the presence of a suitable Er source. Two rather different types of doped materials have been synthesized to date: one involving a random distribution of erbium centers throughout the nanocrystal; the other forces erbium into a location preferentially-enriched near the surface. This work entails the structural characterization of such materials and their photophysical properties, including spectroscopic measurements under the conditions of high pressure.

  18. Erbium concentration dependent absorbance in tellurite glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sazali, E. S.; Rohani, M. S.; Sahar, M. R.; Arifin, R.; Ghoshal, S. K.; Hamzah, K.

    2014-09-01

    Enhancing the optical absorption cross-section in topically important rare earth doped tellurite glasses is challenging for photonic devices. Controlled synthesis and detailed characterizations of the optical properties of these glasses are important for the optimization. The influence of varying concentration of Er3+ ions on the absorbance characteristics of lead tellurite glasses synthesized via melt-quenching technique are investigated. The UV-Vis absorption spectra exhibits six prominent peaks centered at 490, 526, 652, 800, 982 and 1520 nm ascribed to the transitions in erbium ion from the ground state to the excited states 4F7/2, 2H11/2, 4F9/2, 4I9/2, 2H11/2 and 4I13/2, respectively. The results are analyzed by means of optical band gap Eg and Urbach energy Eu. The values of the energy band gap are found decreased from 2.82 to 2.51 eV and the Urbach energy increased from 0.15 to 0.24 eV with the increase of the Er2O3 concentration from 0 to 1.5 mol%. The excellent absorbance of the prepared tellurite glasses makes them suitable for fabricating solid state lasers.

  19. Activatino of Erbium Films for Hydrogen Storage

    SciTech Connect

    M Brumbach; j Ohlhausen; K Zavadil; C Snow; J Woicik

    2011-12-31

    Hydriding of metals can be routinely performed at high temperature in a rich hydrogen atmosphere. Prior to the hydrogen loading process, a thermal activation procedure is required to promote facile hydrogen sorption into the metal. Despite the wide spread utilization of this activation procedure, little is known about the chemical and electronic changes that occur during activation and how this thermal pretreatment leads to increased rates of hydrogen uptake. This study utilized variable kinetic energy X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to interrogate the changes during in situ thermal annealing of erbium films, with results confirmed by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and low energy ion scattering. Activation can be identified by a large increase in photoemission between the valence band edge and the Fermi level and appears to occur over a two stage process. The first stage involves desorption of contaminants and recrystallization of the oxide, initially impeding hydrogen loading. Further heating overcomes the first stage and leads to degradation of the passive surface oxide leading to a bulk film more accessible for hydrogen loading.

  20. Erbium concentration dependent absorbance in tellurite glass

    SciTech Connect

    Sazali, E. S., E-mail: mdsupar@utm; Rohani, M. S., E-mail: mdsupar@utm; Sahar, M. R., E-mail: mdsupar@utm; Arifin, R., E-mail: mdsupar@utm; Ghoshal, S. K., E-mail: mdsupar@utm; Hamzah, K., E-mail: mdsupar@utm [Advanced Optical Material Research Group, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310, Skudai, Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia)

    2014-09-25

    Enhancing the optical absorption cross-section in topically important rare earth doped tellurite glasses is challenging for photonic devices. Controlled synthesis and detailed characterizations of the optical properties of these glasses are important for the optimization. The influence of varying concentration of Er{sup 3+} ions on the absorbance characteristics of lead tellurite glasses synthesized via melt-quenching technique are investigated. The UV-Vis absorption spectra exhibits six prominent peaks centered at 490, 526, 652, 800, 982 and 1520 nm ascribed to the transitions in erbium ion from the ground state to the excited states {sup 4}F{sub 7/2}, {sup 2}H{sub 11/2}, {sup 4}F{sub 9/2}, {sup 4}I{sub 9/2}, {sup 2}H{sub 11/2} and {sup 4}I{sub 13/2}, respectively. The results are analyzed by means of optical band gap E{sub g} and Urbach energy E{sub u}. The values of the energy band gap are found decreased from 2.82 to 2.51 eV and the Urbach energy increased from 0.15 to 0.24 eV with the increase of the Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentration from 0 to 1.5 mol%. The excellent absorbance of the prepared tellurite glasses makes them suitable for fabricating solid state lasers.

  1. Erbium-Doped Fibers Based on Cesium-Silicate Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belov, A. V.; Dianov, E. M.; Devy'atykh, G. G.; Khopin, V. F.; Gur'yanov, A. N.; Zverev, Yu. B.

    2000-01-01

    Using modified chemical vapor deposition and solution doping techniques, erbium-doped fibers (EDFs) were prepared based on cesium-silicate glasses. The possibility of manufacturing high-concentration (1-13 wt%) EDFs was shown, and a fiber structure was realized by means of direct doping of cesium-silicate glass with erbium ions. The optical, fluorescence, and gain properties of prepared samples were examined. A maximum gain of 25 dB at 1538 nm was achieved in the fiber at an optimum length of 30 cm at a pump power of 50 mW at 979 nm.

  2. Radiation-resistant erbium-doped silica fibre

    SciTech Connect

    Zotov, K V; Likhachev, M E; Tomashuk, A L; Bubnov, M M [Fiber Optics Research Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Yashkov, M V; Gur'yanov, A N [Institute of Chemistry of High-Purity Substances, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhnii Novgorod (Russian Federation)

    2007-10-31

    It is shown that the service life of erbium-doped fibres can be increased many times under conditions of an elevated radiation level by loading the fibre glass network with molecular hydrogen. Backdiffusion of hydrogen from the fibre in the process of its operation is virtually excluded for the fibre covered with a hermetic carbon coating. It is shown that this technique of fibre preparation allows one to slow down significantly degradation of the lasing properties of erbium fibres under the conditions characteristic of space applications. (special issue devoted to the 25th anniversary of the a.m. prokhorov general physics institute)

  3. Photoluminescence and polariton dispersion in erbium nitrate hydrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorelik, V. S.; Burdanova, M. G.

    2014-12-01

    The photoluminescence spectrum of erbium nitrate hydrate is analyzed. The dispersion dependencies of polaritonic waves in erbium nitrate hydrate are established by means of a model of the interaction between electromagnetic waves and resonance electronic states of Er3+ ions. The positions of unitary polaritons, for which the refraction index is unity, are established. Velocity and effective mass of unitary polaritons are calculated. Our research allows construction of a liquid-core laser. The calculations show an increase of pump efficiency in such a laser.

  4. Characterization of the surface changes during the activation process of erbium/erbium oxide for hydrogen storage.

    SciTech Connect

    Zavadil, Kevin Robert; Snow, Clark Sheldon; Ohlhausen, James Anthony; Brumbach, Michael Todd

    2010-10-01

    Erbium is known to effectively load with hydrogen when held at high temperature in a hydrogen atmosphere. To make the storage of hydrogen kinetically feasible, a thermal activation step is required. Activation is a routine practice, but very little is known about the physical, chemical, and/or electronic processes that occur during Activation. This work presents in situ characterization of erbium Activation using variable energy photoelectron spectroscopy at various stages of the Activation process. Modification of the passive surface oxide plays a significant role in Activation. The chemical and electronic changes observed from core-level and valence band spectra will be discussed along with corroborating ion scattering spectroscopy measurements.

  5. Nanophotonicmaterialsgroup Erbium-implanted microcavity laser on silicon

    E-print Network

    Polman, Albert

    ( 100 µm) by photolithography and HL etching 4) Etch Si in XeF2 5) CO2 laser anneal #12;Total RBS signalNanophotonicmaterialsgroup Erbium-implanted microcavity laser on silicon A. Polman, B. Min, T in a microsphere CO2 laser melting of fiber tip Surface-tension smoothing100 µm Whispering Gallery mode 25 µm

  6. Properties of erbium silicate doped with chromium in porous silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demidov, E. S.; Karzanov, V. V.; Demidova, N. E.; Rassolova, I. S.; Gorshkov, O. N.; Marychev, M. O.; Stepikhova, M. V.; Sharonov, A. M.

    2007-03-01

    The possible formation of chromium-doped erbium silicate Er2SiO5: Cr in thin layers of porous silicon is demonstrated. This paper reports on studies of the photoluminescence, electron paramagnetic resonance, and transverse current transport in porous silicon layers (with different chromium and erbium contents) grown on n-and p-silicon single crystals heavily doped with shallow impurities. The Er2SiO5: Cr phase with the photoluminescence maxima at approximately 1.3 and 1.5 ?m manifests itself after high-temperature annealing at 1000°C. The introduction of erbium and annealing at 700°C increase the intensity of the red photoluminescence of porous silicon by several factors. The decrease in the electrical conductivity of porous silicon suggests the onset of the formation of erbium silicate. The current-voltage characteristics exhibit a nonlinear behavior with an exponential dependence of the current on the voltage due to the discrete electron tunneling. An electron paramagnetic resonance spectrum of P b centers in p-type heavily doped silicon is observed for the first time.

  7. Multiple wavelength operation of an erbium-doped fiber laser

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. W. Dawson; K. J. Vahala

    1992-01-01

    Wavelength-locked, six-channel, colasing operation using a single gain medium is reported for the first time. The system is an all-fiber, erbium-amplifier-based design that uses a grating wavelength division multiplexer with a fixed channel spacing of 4.8 nm for frequency selection. The authors investigate two possible configurations for the laser cavity

  8. Multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber lasers exploiting polarization hole burning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Junqiang Sun; Junlin Qiu; Dexiu Huang

    2000-01-01

    Simultaneous multiwavelength lasing is demonstrated exploiting intracavity polarization hole burning in an erbium-doped fiber laser. Experimental results indicate that polarization hole burning can be enhanced by the changes of the light polarization states and bias current of optical MQW waveguide which serves as reflector in the laser. Eleven wavelengths with 0.9 nm spacing are generated at room temperature.

  9. Optical doping of materials by erbium ion implantation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Priolo; G. Franzó; S. Coffa; A. Polman; E. Snoeks; G. N. van den Hoven; S. Libertino; S. Lombardo; S. U. Campisano; A. Carnera

    1996-01-01

    The development of silicon compatible optoelectronics would require the fabrication and integration of several optical functions such as waveguides, amplifiers, signal processing components and light emitters in silicon or on thin films deposited on silicon. In this paper the optical doping by erbium ion implantation of sodalime silica glass and silicon is presented with the aim to fabricate an amplifier

  10. Gain analysis of Erbium and Ytterbium Doped Optical Fiber Amplifiers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tolga Kucukarslan; N. Ozlem Unverdi

    2012-01-01

    In this study, importance of optical amplifiers which are used in optical communication systems is explained and gains of EDFA, Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier, and YDFA, Ytterbium Doped Fiber Amplifier, which are among the most commonly used optical amplifiers today, are analysed based on their performance parameters. The effects of the power of input signal, the power of pump laser,

  11. Neodymium, erbium, and ytterbium co-doped fiber amplifier

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Itai Ron; Amos A. Hardy

    2011-01-01

    A combination of erbium (Er), ytterbium (Yb), and neodymium (Nd), in fiber amplifiers, is examined. This combination extends the pumping wavelength spectrum by creating a new pumping path. Furthermore, the Nd addition enables pumping the amplifier from within the amplifier center, and thereby decreases the amplified spontaneous emission at the amplifier ends. A mathematical model is presented relating the excited

  12. Erbium-doped Lithium Niobate waveguide lasers: recent progress

    E-print Network

    Mohseni, Hooman

    Erbium-doped Lithium Niobate waveguide lasers: recent progress W. Sohler, D. Dey, B. Das, S. Reza °C / 150 hrs) is the preferred method to fabricate an excellent laser material for integrated opticsBack (DFB-) lasers will be presented. They are based on photorefractive gratings holographically defined

  13. Discovery of dysprosium, holmium, erbium, thulium and ytterbium isotopes

    E-print Network

    C. Fry; M. Thoennessen

    2012-05-26

    Currently, 31 dysprosium, 32 holmium, 32 erbium, 33 thulium and 31 ytterbium isotopes have been observed and the discovery of these isotopes is discussed here. For each isotope a brief synopsis of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  14. Discovery of dysprosium, holmium, erbium, thulium, and ytterbium isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, C.; Thoennessen, M., E-mail: thoennessen@nscl.msu.edu

    2013-09-15

    Currently, thirty-one dysprosium, thirty-two holmium, thirty-two erbium, thirty-three thulium, and thirty-one ytterbium isotopes have been observed and the discovery of these isotopes is described here. For each isotope a brief synopsis of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  15. Discovery of dysprosium, holmium, erbium, thulium and ytterbium isotopes

    E-print Network

    Fry, C

    2012-01-01

    Currently, 31 dysprosium, 32 holmium, 32 erbium, 33 thulium and 31 ytterbium isotopes have been observed and the discovery of these isotopes is discussed here. For each isotope a brief synopsis of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  16. Up-conversion luminescence analysis in ytterbium-sensitized erbium-doped oxide-halide tellurite and germanate-niobic-lead glasses.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hongtao; Yu, Chunlei; Zhou, Gang; Duan, Zhongchao; Liao, Meisong; Zhang, Junjie; Hu, Lili; Jiang, Zhonghong

    2005-12-01

    Ytterbium-sensitized erbium-doped oxide-halide tellurite and germanate-niobic-lead glasses have been synthesized by conventional melting method. Intense green and red emissions centered at 525, 546 and 657 nm, corresponding to the transitions 2H11/2-->4I15/2, 4S3/2-->4I15/2 and 4F9/2-->4I15/2, respectively, were simultaneously observed at room temperature in these glasses. The quadratic dependence of the 525, 546 and 657 nm emissions on excitation power indicates that a two-photon absorption process occurs. Tellurite glass showed a weaker up-conversion emission than germanate-niobic-lead glass, which is inconsistent with the prediction from the difference of maximum phonon energy between tellurite and germanate-niobic-lead glasses. In this paper, Raman spectroscopy was employed to investigate the origin of the difference in up-conversion luminescence in the two glasses. Compared with phonon side-band spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy extracts more information including both phonon energy and phonon density. Our results reveal that the phonon density and the maximum phonon energy of host glasses are both important factors in determining the up-conversion efficiency. PMID:15950534

  17. 50 CFR 300.152 - Procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...REGULATIONS U.S. Nationals Fishing in Russian Fisheries § 300.152 Procedures...must have a valid permit issued by the Russian Federation obtained pursuant to a complete...submitted through NMFS before fishing in the Russian EZ or for Russian fishery...

  18. 40 CFR 152.404 - Fee amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...accordance with § 152.412. Table—Registration Fees Type of review Fee New chemical $184,500 New biochemical or microbial 64,000 New use pattern 33,800 Experimental use permit 4,500 Old chemical 4,000 Amendment 700...

  19. 29 CFR 1915.152 - General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...person performing the hazard assessment. Note 1 to paragraph (b ): A hazard...the course of their work activities. Note 2 to paragraph (b ): Non-mandatory...requirements no later than May 15, 2008. Note to § 1915.152(f ): When the...

  20. Environmental Management ISSN 0364-152X

    E-print Network

    North, Malcolm

    in Fire- Suppressed Landscapes #12;ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT Using Topography to Meet Wildlife and Fuels1 23 Environmental Management ISSN 0364-152X Volume 46 Number 5 Environmental Management (2010) 46 Units (LMUs) using a three by three matrix (canyon, mid-slope, ridge-top and northerly, southerly

  1. 32 CFR 152.3 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...JUSTICE REVIEW OF THE MANUAL FOR COURTS-MARTIAL § 152.3 Policy. To assist...Defense shall review the Manual for Courts-Martial annually, and, as appropriate, propose...comprehensive body of military criminal law and procedure. The role of the JSC...

  2. 32 CFR 152.3 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...JUSTICE REVIEW OF THE MANUAL FOR COURTS-MARTIAL § 152.3 Policy. To assist...Defense shall review the Manual for Courts-Martial annually, and, as appropriate, propose...comprehensive body of military criminal law and procedure. The role of the JSC...

  3. 32 CFR 152.3 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...JUSTICE REVIEW OF THE MANUAL FOR COURTS-MARTIAL § 152.3 Policy. To assist...Defense shall review the Manual for Courts-Martial annually, and, as appropriate, propose...comprehensive body of military criminal law and procedure. The role of the JSC...

  4. 32 CFR 152.3 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...JUSTICE REVIEW OF THE MANUAL FOR COURTS-MARTIAL § 152.3 Policy. To assist...Defense shall review the Manual for Courts-Martial annually, and, as appropriate, propose...comprehensive body of military criminal law and procedure. The role of the JSC...

  5. 32 CFR 152.3 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...JUSTICE REVIEW OF THE MANUAL FOR COURTS-MARTIAL § 152.3 Policy. To assist...Defense shall review the Manual for Courts-Martial annually, and, as appropriate, propose...comprehensive body of military criminal law and procedure. The role of the JSC...

  6. Physics 152 Laboratory Manual, 8th Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacIssac, Dan; And Others

    This document is the laboratory manual for the Physics 152 course at Purdue University. It includes a laboratory introduction, hardware and software guide, and laboratory report guide. Labs include: (1) "Measurement Uncertainty and Propagation"; (2) "Introduction to Computer Data Acquisition and Relationships between Position, Velocity, and…

  7. 5 CFR 1207.152-1207.159 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Section 1207.152-1207.159 Administrative Personnel MERIT SYSTEMS PROTECTION BOARD ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURES ...BASIS OF DISABILITY IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE MERIT SYSTEMS PROTECTION BOARD §§ 1207.152-1207.159...

  8. 5 CFR 1207.152-1207.159 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Section 1207.152-1207.159 Administrative Personnel MERIT SYSTEMS PROTECTION BOARD ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURES ...BASIS OF DISABILITY IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE MERIT SYSTEMS PROTECTION BOARD §§ 1207.152-1207.159...

  9. 5 CFR 1201.152 - Compliance with subpart B procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Compliance with subpart B procedures. 1201.152 Section 1201.152 Administrative Personnel MERIT SYSTEMS PROTECTION BOARD ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURES PRACTICES AND PROCEDURES Procedures for Cases Involving...

  10. 40 CFR 152.168 - Advertising of restricted use products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Advertising of restricted use products. 152...Classification of Pesticides § 152.168 Advertising of restricted use products. ...radio and television. (4) Telephone advertising. (5) Billboards and...

  11. 40 CFR 152.168 - Advertising of restricted use products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Advertising of restricted use products. 152...Classification of Pesticides § 152.168 Advertising of restricted use products. ...radio and television. (4) Telephone advertising. (5) Billboards and...

  12. 40 CFR 152.168 - Advertising of restricted use products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Advertising of restricted use products. 152...Classification of Pesticides § 152.168 Advertising of restricted use products. ...radio and television. (4) Telephone advertising. (5) Billboards and...

  13. 40 CFR 152.168 - Advertising of restricted use products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Advertising of restricted use products. 152...Classification of Pesticides § 152.168 Advertising of restricted use products. ...radio and television. (4) Telephone advertising. (5) Billboards and...

  14. 40 CFR 152.168 - Advertising of restricted use products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Advertising of restricted use products. 152...Classification of Pesticides § 152.168 Advertising of restricted use products. ...radio and television. (4) Telephone advertising. (5) Billboards and...

  15. 40 CFR 60.152 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.152 Section 60... § 60.152 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after...the atmosphere of: (1) Particulate matter at a rate in excess of...

  16. 40 CFR 60.152 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.152 Section 60... § 60.152 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after...the atmosphere of: (1) Particulate matter at a rate in excess of...

  17. 40 CFR 60.152 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.152 Section 60... § 60.152 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after...the atmosphere of: (1) Particulate matter at a rate in excess of...

  18. 40 CFR 60.152 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.152 Section 60... § 60.152 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after...the atmosphere of: (1) Particulate matter at a rate in excess of...

  19. 40 CFR 60.152 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.152 Section 60... § 60.152 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after...the atmosphere of: (1) Particulate matter at a rate in excess of...

  20. 21 CFR 146.152 - Orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice with preservative. 146.152 Section...Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.152 Orange juice with preservative. (a) Orange juice with preservative is the food...

  1. 14 CFR 152.409 - Affirmative action plan standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Affirmative action plan standards. 152.409 Section...Airport Aid Program § 152.409 Affirmative action plan standards. (a) Each affirmative action plan required by this subpart...

  2. 14 CFR 152.409 - Affirmative action plan standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Affirmative action plan standards. 152.409 Section...Airport Aid Program § 152.409 Affirmative action plan standards. (a) Each affirmative action plan required by this subpart...

  3. 14 CFR 152.409 - Affirmative action plan standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Affirmative action plan standards. 152.409 Section...Airport Aid Program § 152.409 Affirmative action plan standards. (a) Each affirmative action plan required by this subpart...

  4. 14 CFR 152.409 - Affirmative action plan standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Affirmative action plan standards. 152.409 Section...Airport Aid Program § 152.409 Affirmative action plan standards. (a) Each affirmative action plan required by this subpart...

  5. 14 CFR 152.409 - Affirmative action plan standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Affirmative action plan standards. 152.409 Section...Airport Aid Program § 152.409 Affirmative action plan standards. (a) Each affirmative action plan required by this subpart...

  6. 30 CFR 218.152 - Fishermen's Contingency Fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Contingency Fund. 218.152 Section 218.152 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT COLLECTION OF MONIES AND PROVISION FOR GEOTHERMAL CREDITS AND INCENTIVES Oil, Gas and...

  7. 36 CFR 1208.152-1208.159 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...152-1208.159 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION GENERAL RULES ENFORCEMENT...HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION §§ 1208.152-1208.159...

  8. 36 CFR 1208.152-1208.159 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...152-1208.159 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION GENERAL RULES ENFORCEMENT...HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION §§ 1208.152-1208.159...

  9. 36 CFR 1208.152-1208.159 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...152-1208.159 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION GENERAL RULES ENFORCEMENT...HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION §§ 1208.152-1208.159...

  10. 14 CFR 152.325 - Financial status report: Airport planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 false Financial status report: Airport planning. 152...Requirements § 152.325 Financial status report: Airport planning...system planning shall submit a financial status report on a form prescribed by...

  11. 14 CFR 152.325 - Financial status report: Airport planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2011-01-01 false Financial status report: Airport planning. 152...Requirements § 152.325 Financial status report: Airport planning...system planning shall submit a financial status report on a form prescribed by...

  12. Conception and characterization of a dual-concentric-core erbium-doped dispersion-compensating fiber

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Maury; J. L. Auguste; S. Février; J. M. Blondy; B. Dussardier; G. Monnom

    2004-01-01

    We present an erbium-doped dispersion-compensating fiber made up of two asymmetric concentric cores, inner and outer matched claddings, and erbium located in the central core only. We demonstrate a high negative chromatic dispersion value [-700ps\\/nmkm at 1568 nm], significant modification of the gain spectrum compared with that of a classic erbium-doped fiber amplifier, and 30-dB peak small-signal gain at 1535

  13. 27 CFR 22.152 - Reconsignment in transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reconsignment in transit. 22.152 Section 22.152 Alcohol, Tobacco Products...Tax-Free or Recovered Alcohol § 22.152 Reconsignment in transit. (a) Reconsignment. Tax-free alcohol may...

  14. 27 CFR 22.152 - Reconsignment in transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reconsignment in transit. 22.152 Section 22.152 Alcohol, Tobacco Products...Tax-Free or Recovered Alcohol § 22.152 Reconsignment in transit. (a) Reconsignment. Tax-free alcohol may...

  15. 27 CFR 22.152 - Reconsignment in transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reconsignment in transit. 22.152 Section 22.152 Alcohol, Tobacco Products...Tax-Free or Recovered Alcohol § 22.152 Reconsignment in transit. (a) Reconsignment. Tax-free alcohol may...

  16. 27 CFR 22.152 - Reconsignment in transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Reconsignment in transit. 22.152 Section 22.152 Alcohol, Tobacco Products...Tax-Free or Recovered Alcohol § 22.152 Reconsignment in transit. (a) Reconsignment. Tax-free alcohol may...

  17. 27 CFR 22.152 - Reconsignment in transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reconsignment in transit. 22.152 Section 22.152 Alcohol, Tobacco Products...Tax-Free or Recovered Alcohol § 22.152 Reconsignment in transit. (a) Reconsignment. Tax-free alcohol may...

  18. 25 CFR 152.35 - Deferred payment sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Deferred payment sales. 152.35 Section 152.35 Indians...COMPETENCY, REMOVAL OF RESTRICTIONS, AND SALE OF CERTAIN INDIAN LANDS Mortgages and...Indians § 152.35 Deferred payment sales. When the Indian owner and...

  19. 38 CFR 3.152 - Claims for death benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Claims for death benefits. 3.152 Section 3.152...Compensation Claims § 3.152 Claims for death benefits. (a) A specific claim...3.153) must be filed in order for death benefits to be paid to any...

  20. 38 CFR 3.152 - Claims for death benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Claims for death benefits. 3.152 Section 3.152...Compensation Claims § 3.152 Claims for death benefits. (a) A specific claim...3.153) must be filed in order for death benefits to be paid to any...

  1. 45 CFR 152.28 - Preventing insurer dumping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Preventing insurer dumping. 152.28 Section 152.28 Public...Oversight § 152.28 Preventing insurer dumping. (a) General rule. If...Procedures and criteria for a determination of dumping. A PCIP shall establish...

  2. 45 CFR 152.40 - Relation to State laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Relation to State laws. 152.40 Section 152...Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH...Existing Laws and Programs § 152.40 Relation to State laws. The standards...

  3. 45 CFR 152.40 - Relation to State laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Relation to State laws. 152.40 Section 152...Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH...Existing Laws and Programs § 152.40 Relation to State laws. The standards...

  4. 45 CFR 152.40 - Relation to State laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Relation to State laws. 152.40 Section 152...Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH...Existing Laws and Programs § 152.40 Relation to State laws. The standards...

  5. 38 CFR 3.152 - Claims for death benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Claims for death benefits. 3.152 Section 3.152...Compensation Claims § 3.152 Claims for death benefits. (a) A specific claim...3.153) must be filed in order for death benefits to be paid to any...

  6. Quantifying and controlling the magnetic dipole contribution to 1.5 $\\mu$m light emission in erbium-doped yttrium oxide

    E-print Network

    Li, Dongfang; Cueff, Sébastien; Dodson, Christopher M; Karaveli, Sinan; Zia, Rashid

    2014-01-01

    We experimentally quantify the contribution of magnetic dipole (MD) transitions to the near-infrared light emission from trivalent erbium-doped yttrium oxide (Er$^{3+}$:Y$_2$O$_3$). Using energy-momentum spectroscopy, we demonstrate that the $^4$I$_{13/2}{\\to}^4$I$_{15/2}$ emission near 1.5 $\\mu$m originates from nearly equal contributions of electric dipole (ED) and MD transitions that exhibit distinct emission spectra. We then show how these distinct spectra, together with the differing local density of optical states (LDOS) for ED and MD transitions, can be leveraged to control Er$^{3+}$ emission in structured environments. We demonstrate that far-field emission spectra can be tuned to resemble almost pure emission from either ED or MD transitions, and show that the observed spectral modifications can be accurately predicted from the measured ED and MD intrinsic emission rates.

  7. Half-Linear Cavity Multiwavelength Brillouin-Erbium Fiber Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Alimi, A. W.; Yaacob, M. H.; Abas, A. E.

    2014-11-01

    Multiwavelength half-linear cavity Brillouin erbium fiber laser (BEFL) has been demonstrated. The half-linear cavity BEFL is formed by utilizing only two circulators: one circulator acts as input and output ports and the other circulator is used to form a physical mirror. This design exhibits low peak power difference between the adjacent channels, which is about 0.8 dB. At Brillouin pump (BP) power of 5 dBm and erbium doped fiber (EDF) pump power of 90 mW, up to 19 channels over a wide range of 40 nm (1529 nm to 1569 nm) have been obtained. These channels are free from self lasing cavity modes and for the first twelve Stokes lines, the optical signal to noise ratio (OSNR) is approximately higher than 20 dB.

  8. Urbach absorption edge in epitaxial erbium-doped silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shmagin, V. B.; Kudryavtsev, K. E.; Shengurov, D. V.; Krasilnik, Z. F.

    2015-02-01

    We investigate the dependencies of the photocurrent in Si:Er p-n junctions on the energy of the incident photons. The exponential absorption edge (Urbach edge) just below fundamental edge of silicon was observed in the absorption spectra of epitaxial Si:Er layers grown at 400-600 C. It is shown that the introduction of erbium significantly enhances the structural disorder in the silicon crystal which was estimated from the slope of the Urbach edge. We discuss the possible nature of the structural disorder in Si:Er and a new mechanism of erbium excitation, which does not require the presence of deep levels in the band gap of silicon.

  9. Photoluminescence of erbium ions in heterostructures with silicon nanocrystals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. M. Zhigunov; O. A. Shalygina; S. A. Teterukov; V. Yu. Timoshenko; P. K. Kashkarov; M. Zacharias

    2006-01-01

    Photoluminescence properties of erbium-doped silicon dioxide layers containing silicon nanocrystals with 1.5–4.5 nm average\\u000a size are investigated. It is found that the intensity and mean lifetime of the Er3+-ion photoluminescence depend on the nanocrystal size, optical pump intensity, and temperature. The results obtained are explained\\u000a both by the effect of the local environment on Er3+ ions and by the manifestation

  10. Laser isotope separation of erbium and other isotopes

    DOEpatents

    Haynam, Christopher A. (3035 Ferdale Ct., Pleasanton, CA 94566); Worden, Earl F. (117 Vereda del Ciervo, Diablo, CA 94528)

    1995-01-01

    Laser isotope separation is accomplished using at least two photoionization pathways of an isotope simultaneously, where each pathway comprises two or more transition steps. This separation method has been applied to the selective photoionization of erbium isotopes, particularly for the enrichment of .sup.167 Er. The hyperfine structure of .sup.167 Er was used to find two three-step photoionization pathways having a common upper energy level.

  11. Laser isotope separation of erbium and other isotopes

    DOEpatents

    Haynam, C.A.; Worden, E.F.

    1995-08-22

    Laser isotope separation is accomplished using at least two photoionization pathways of an isotope simultaneously, where each pathway comprises two or more transition steps. This separation method has been applied to the selective photoionization of erbium isotopes, particularly for the enrichment of {sup 167}Er. The hyperfine structure of {sup 167}Er was used to find two three-step photoionization pathways having a common upper energy level. 3 figs.

  12. Dynamics of high-power erbium-ytterbium fiber amplifiers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guillaume Canat; Jean-Claude Mollier; Jean-Pierre Bouzinac; Glenn M. Williams; Brian Cole; Lew Goldberg; Yves Jaouën; Gabor Kulcsar

    2005-01-01

    Dynamic regimes of high-peak-power erbium-ytterbium (Er3+-Yb3+) codoped fiber amplifiers are analyzed for nanosecond-to-microsecond pulses. High-energy pulse generation requires a large-core fiber amplifier to increase energy storage and the threshold of nonlinear effects. A numerical model of large-core Er3+-Yb3+ fiber amplifiers is described. Dynamics of peak powers, amplified spontaneous emission, and population inversion are presented. Influence of radial dependence and reflections

  13. Dual-stage erbium-doped, erbium/ytterbium-codoped fiber amplifier with up to +26-dBm output power and a 17-nm flat spectrum.

    PubMed

    Wysocki, P F; Park, N; Digiovanni, D

    1996-11-01

    By concatenating an aluminum-codoped erbium-doped fiber with an efficient erbium/ytterbium-codoped fiber, we produce a gain spectrum that is f lat within 0.5 dB for 17 nm from 1544 to 1561 nm. By using energy transfer between erbium and ytterbium ions, we are able to pump the second stage with a high-power 1064-nm source to achieve an output power as high as +26 dBm. Using 980-nm pumping of the first stage, we produce an overall noise figure below 5 dB. PMID:19881787

  14. Erbium doped ceramic nanofiber synthesis for thermophotovoltaic selective emitter applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trifon, George Sebastian

    This thesis explored the development of isothermal selective emitters for harvesting thermal energy to be used in conjunction with photovoltaic cells. The selective emitters were Erbium doped Titania nanofibers and Erbium and Yttrium doped Titania nanofibers that may be used with a Gallium Antimonide photovoltaic cell. The ultimate aim of this research was to develop Erbium doped Yttrium Titanate nanofibers. This research is of importance in recovering heat from a number of resources including power plant boilers. The thermal energy lost in the boilers can be as high as 20% of the input fuel energy and a recovery of this energy would boost the thermal performance of the power plants. It has been observed that the temperatures of the flue gas reaching the heat recovery region may be higher than 1600K and the radiation and convective losses in the burner occurs at even higher temperatures. Thermophotovoltaics (TPV) offer a solution in terms of converting the thermal energy to electricity without any moving parts. The efficiencies of conventional TPVs are very small (10-20%) and thus not a solution as the primary electric generator. However, in the field of the harvesting of waste energy, TPVs have tremendous potential. In order to improve efficiencies, Erbia (which can absorb thermal energy and convert it to electromagnetic radiation with a narrow wavelength spectrum with mean wavelength of 1500nm) can be used as a selective emitter with GaSb PV cells (which have its maximum efficiency in the same wavelength range) as the collector. In order to further improve its performance, the Erbia was proposed to be supported by Titania, which is transparent to IR in this range. However, past research has shown that the Erbia doped Titania nanofibers essentially have Erbium in the form of pyrochlore Erbium Titanate. Thus the research focused on a way to synthesize ErxY2-xTi 2O7 pyrochlore structure to act as the selective emitter. The self-supporting composite was designed to be nanostructured to ensure isothermal operation and a high surface to volume ratio to minimize re-adsorption and to have a compact design. The nanofiber emitters were prepared by electrospinning. This thesis demonstrated a synthesis procedure of optically selective nano-composites using electrospinning.

  15. Erbium-implanted silica microsphere laser J. Kalkman a,*, A. Polman a

    E-print Network

    Polman, Albert

    Erbium-implanted silica microsphere laser J. Kalkman a,*, A. Polman a , T.J. Kippenberg b , K annealing at 800 °C, light was coupled into the microsphere using a tapered optical fiber. An optical qual: 42.55.Sa; 42.60.Da; 42.81.Qb; 85.40.Ry Keywords: Microsphere; Laser; Erbium; Ion implantation 1

  16. Erbium-doped and Raman microlasers on a silicon chip fabricated by the solgel process

    E-print Network

    Carmon, Tal

    with erbium implanted silica layers,3 low threshold rare- earth-doped microlasers on-a-chip have beenErbium-doped and Raman microlasers on a silicon chip fabricated by the sol­gel process Lan Yang 2005; published online 25 February 2005 We report high-Q sol­gel microresonators on silicon chips

  17. Single-Longitudinal-Mode Lanthanum-Codoped Bismuth-Based Erbium Doped Fiber Ring Laser

    E-print Network

    Wai, Ping-kong Alexander

    Single-Longitudinal-Mode Lanthanum-Codoped Bismuth-Based Erbium Doped Fiber Ring Laser K. K and demonstrate a stable single-longitudinal-mode lanthanum-codoped bismuth oxide- based erbium doped fiber ring of the experimental setup to demonstrate the proposed SLM La-codoped bismuth based EDF ring laser. The fiber laser

  18. Erbium-doped nanoparticles in silica-based optical Wilfried Blanc*, Valrie Mauroy, Bernard

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Erbium-doped nanoparticles in silica-based optical fibres Wilfried Blanc*, Valérie Mauroy, Bernard.dussardier@unice.fr *Corresponding author Abstract: Developing of new rare-earth (RE)-doped optical fibres for power amplifiers potentials in improving rare-earth doped fibre amplifiers and laser sources. Keywords: Optical fibres, Erbium

  19. High-performace cladding-pumped erbium-doped fibre laser and amplifier

    SciTech Connect

    Kotov, L V; Likhachev, M E; Bubnov, M M; Medvedkov, O I; Lipatov, D S; Vechkanov, N N; Guryanov, Aleksei N

    2012-05-31

    We report cladding-pumped erbium-doped fibre laser and amplifier configurations. Through fibre design optimisation, we have achieved a record-high laser slope efficiency, 40 % with respect to absorbed pump power ({lambda} = 976 nm), and an output power of 7.5 W. The erbium-doped fibre amplifier efficiency reaches 32 %.

  20. Degradation model for erbium-doped fiber amplifiers to reduce network downtime

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Degradation model for erbium-doped fiber amplifiers to reduce network downtime Christian Merkle optical amplifiers and cross connects reduces the availability of a network and increases the operational of erbium-doped amplifiers (EDFAs) can be used to reduce the repair time by changing an EDFA before it fails

  1. Femtosecond soliton collapse and coherent pulse train generation in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers

    E-print Network

    Gabitov, Ildar

    Femtosecond soliton collapse and coherent pulse train generation in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers 1 collapse and pulse train generation in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers is examined. The amplification of ultrashort pulses in laser amplifi- ers is a well established field of physics and technology.' Nevertheless

  2. Switchable Multiwavelength Erbium-Doped Fiber Laser using a Multimode Fiber Bragg Grating and Photonic

    E-print Network

    Wai, Ping-kong Alexander

    Switchable Multiwavelength Erbium-Doped Fiber Laser using a Multimode Fiber Bragg Grating multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber laser with a multimode FBG and highly nonlinear PCF is demonstrated. Stable, four-wave mixing; (140.3510) Lasers, fiber 1. Introduction Multiwavelength fiber lasers are useful

  3. Characterization of multiwavelength erbium doped fiber lasers with intensity-dependent loss

    E-print Network

    Wai, Ping-kong Alexander

    Characterization of multiwavelength erbium doped fiber lasers with intensity-dependent loss Feng Li) Abstract We studied multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber lasers with intensity-dependent loss using rate are varied to characterize the laser dynamics. 1. Introduction Multiwavelength fiber lasers are desirable

  4. Generation of a 6602100 nm laser frequency comb based on an erbium fiber laser

    E-print Network

    Generation of a 660­2100 nm laser frequency comb based on an erbium fiber laser Gabriel Ycas,1 present a multibranch laser frequency comb based upon a 250 MHz mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser that spans more than 300 THz of bandwidth, from 660 nm to 2100 nm. Light from a mode-locked Er:fiber laser

  5. Fast intracavity polarization dynamics of an erbium-doped fiber ring laser: Inclusion of stochastic effects

    E-print Network

    Yorke, James

    Fast intracavity polarization dynamics of an erbium-doped fiber ring laser: Inclusion of stochastic The dynamics of a unidirectional erbium-doped fiber laser is investigated on a time scale short enough practical applications, fiber lasers are very interesting from a basic physics perspective. The conjunction

  6. Highly efficient, high power, inband-pumped Erbium\\/Ytterbium-codoped fiber laser

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ee-Leong Lim; Shaif-ul Alam; David J. Richardson

    2011-01-01

    A highly efficient (~80%), high power (18.45W) in-band pumped Erbium\\/Ytterbium- codoped fiber laser is demonstrated. Based on a fitted simulation model, the detrimental effect of pair induced quenching in high power operation is also highlighted. ©2011 Optical Society of America OCIS codes: (140.3500) Lasers, erbium; (140.3280) Laser amplifiers; (140.3510) Lasers, fiber

  7. Generation of high peak power pulse using 2 stage erbium-doped fiber amplifier

    E-print Network

    Lee, Kyung-Woo

    2000-01-01

    This thesis presents the results obtained from generation of high repetition rate, high power output pulse using an erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA). Two stage amplification was employed. The first stage setup used 980nm pump laser to pump erbium...

  8. Observation of enhanced photoluminescence in erbium-doped semiconductor microdisk resonator

    E-print Network

    Ho, Seng-Tiong

    Observation of enhanced photoluminescence in erbium-doped semiconductor microdisk resonator D. Y-shell photoluminescence was observed in the microdisk resonator due to microcavity effect and compared to a thin film sample. At low pumping power intensity, the photoluminescence from erbium-doped gallium phosphide

  9. Investigation of low intensity gamma-ray transitions in the 152Sm from 152Eu decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, R. M.; Vanin, V. R.; Pascholati, P. R.; Maidana, N. L.

    2011-08-01

    The intensities of weak gamma-ray transitions in the 152Sm level scheme from 152Eu decay measured in two gamma-ray coincidence experiments are compared; almost 40 new transitions with intensities around 10-5 gamma-rays per decay and 6 new levels were observed. One of the experiments was reanalysed to confirm some findings and this new data were included in this comparison. Despite some discrepancies, the obtained decay data are in general agreement. The measured energies form a consistent data set but the intensities not, suggesting that the uncertainties are underestimated by a factor of 2.

  10. Decay of 152Tb and E0 and M1+E0 transitions in 152Gd

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, J.; Pronskikh, V. S.; ?aloun, P.; Honusek, M.; Kalinnikov, V. G.; Lebedev, N. A.; Stegailov, V. I.; Tsoupko-Sitnikov, V. M.

    1999-02-01

    The decay of 152 Tb has been investigated by means of measurements of singles ?-spectra and ?—gamma coincidence experiment. The 704 transitions were observed, of which 347 were identified to the decay of 152 Tb for the first time. Using the more precise and full data about intensities of gamma-transitions and previously reported conversion electron intensities of the E0 or M1+E0 multipolarities were established for several transitions. The revised decay scheme consists of about one hundred excited levels from which 46 levels were introduced for the first time.

  11. 32 CFR 1807.152-1807.159 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense NATIONAL COUNTERINTELLIGENCE CENTER ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION...PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE NATIONAL COUNTERINTELLIGENCE CENTER §§ 1807.152-1807.159...

  12. 45 CFR 1706.152-1706.159 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION...ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE §§ 1706.152-1706.159...

  13. Math 152: Linear Systems Winter 2004 1: Vectors and Geometry

    E-print Network

    Jellinek, Mark

    Math 152: Linear Systems ­ Winter 2004 1: Vectors and Geometry Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Description of points and the geometry of solutions to systems of equations

  14. Erbium Doped Fiber Sensor for Ammonia Detection into Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Sánchez, G. G.; Pinzón-Escobar, E. F.; Sandoval-Romero, G. E.; Álvarez Chávez, J. A.

    2015-01-01

    The water pollution is a health problem around the world. One of the most common pollutants in water is the Ammonia. Some sensors have been developed for Ammoniac detection even though most of them are not in real time and could be expensive. In this work an Erbium-doped fibre-sensor for Ammonia detection with a mechanical long period fibre grating and a taper in cascade for improving the sensitivity; the detection bandwidth is in the 1550 nm region from 1460 nm to 1640 nm. Output optical spectrum for Ammonia concentrations from 1ml to 5 ml is shown

  15. Erbium-doped fiber amplifier elements for structural analysis sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanna-Hawver, P.; Kamdar, K. D.; Mehta, S.; Nagarajan, S.; Nasta, M. H.; Claus, R. O.

    1992-01-01

    The use of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFA's) in optical fiber sensor systems for structural analysis is described. EDFA's were developed for primary applications as periodic regenerator amplifiers in long-distance fiber-based communication systems. Their in-line amplification performance also makes them attractive for optical fiber sensor systems which require long effective lengths or the synthesis of special length-dependent signal processing functions. Sensor geometries incorporating EDFA's in recirculating and multiple loop sensors are discussed. Noise and polarization birefringence are also considered, and the experimental development of system components is discussed.

  16. Observation of superdeformation in /sup 152/Dy

    SciTech Connect

    Nyako, B.M.; Cresswell, J.R.; Forsyth, P.D.; Howe, D.; Nolan, P.J.; Riley, M.A.; Sharpey-Schafer, J.F.; Simpson, J.; Ward, N.J.; Twin, P.J.

    1984-02-13

    High-resolution, low-background two-dimensional ..gamma..-ray energy correlations E(..gamma../sub 1/) vs E(..gamma../sub 2/) have been measured at high spin in /sup 152/Dy with the spectrometer TESSA2. Ridges characteristic of rotational behavior are observed for ..gamma..-ray energies 0.8< or =E(..gamma..)< or =1.35 MeV. The separation of the ridges gives a dynamical moment of inertia scrI/sub band//sup(/sup 2/) = (85 +- 2)h/sup 2/ MeV/sup -1/ indicating a quadrupole deformation of epsilonroughly-equal0.51 for a rigid body assuming ..gamma.. = 0.

  17. 19 CFR 10.152 - Bona-fide gifts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01...152 Section 10.152 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION...10.153 of this part, the port director shall pass free of duty and tax any article sent...

  18. 25 CFR 152.5 - Issuance of patent in fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 2011-04-01 true Issuance of patent in fee. 152.5 Section 152.5...INTERIOR LAND AND WATER ISSUANCE OF PATENTS IN FEE, CERTIFICATES OF COMPETENCY...SALE OF CERTAIN INDIAN LANDS Issuing Patents in Fee, Certificates of Competency...

  19. 25 CFR 152.5 - Issuance of patent in fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 false Issuance of patent in fee. 152.5 Section 152.5...INTERIOR LAND AND WATER ISSUANCE OF PATENTS IN FEE, CERTIFICATES OF COMPETENCY...SALE OF CERTAIN INDIAN LANDS Issuing Patents in Fee, Certificates of Competency...

  20. 25 CFR 152.4 - Application for patent in fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Application for patent in fee. 152.4 Section 152.4...INTERIOR LAND AND WATER ISSUANCE OF PATENTS IN FEE, CERTIFICATES OF COMPETENCY...SALE OF CERTAIN INDIAN LANDS Issuing Patents in Fee, Certificates of Competency...

  1. 25 CFR 152.5 - Issuance of patent in fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 2013-04-01 false Issuance of patent in fee. 152.5 Section 152.5...INTERIOR LAND AND WATER ISSUANCE OF PATENTS IN FEE, CERTIFICATES OF COMPETENCY...SALE OF CERTAIN INDIAN LANDS Issuing Patents in Fee, Certificates of Competency...

  2. 25 CFR 152.4 - Application for patent in fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Application for patent in fee. 152.4 Section 152.4...INTERIOR LAND AND WATER ISSUANCE OF PATENTS IN FEE, CERTIFICATES OF COMPETENCY...SALE OF CERTAIN INDIAN LANDS Issuing Patents in Fee, Certificates of Competency...

  3. 25 CFR 152.5 - Issuance of patent in fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 2011-04-01 false Issuance of patent in fee. 152.5 Section 152.5...INTERIOR LAND AND WATER ISSUANCE OF PATENTS IN FEE, CERTIFICATES OF COMPETENCY...SALE OF CERTAIN INDIAN LANDS Issuing Patents in Fee, Certificates of Competency...

  4. 25 CFR 152.5 - Issuance of patent in fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 2014-04-01 false Issuance of patent in fee. 152.5 Section 152.5...INTERIOR LAND AND WATER ISSUANCE OF PATENTS IN FEE, CERTIFICATES OF COMPETENCY...SALE OF CERTAIN INDIAN LANDS Issuing Patents in Fee, Certificates of Competency...

  5. 25 CFR 152.4 - Application for patent in fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Application for patent in fee. 152.4 Section 152.4...INTERIOR LAND AND WATER ISSUANCE OF PATENTS IN FEE, CERTIFICATES OF COMPETENCY...SALE OF CERTAIN INDIAN LANDS Issuing Patents in Fee, Certificates of Competency...

  6. 25 CFR 152.27 - Procedure of sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procedure of sale. 152.27 Section 152.27 Indians BUREAU...CERTIFICATES OF COMPETENCY, REMOVAL OF RESTRICTIONS, AND SALE OF CERTAIN INDIAN LANDS Sales, Exchanges and Conveyances of Trust Or...

  7. MATH 152 -SPRING 2005 MATHEMATICS FOR THE LIFE SCIENCES

    E-print Network

    Gross, Louis J.

    MATH 152 - SPRING 2005 MATHEMATICS FOR THE LIFE SCIENCES Time: 10:10 - 11:00 Monday and Wednesday) dilling@math.utk.edu, and Lauren Wagener (Sections #57361, 57374) wagener@math.utk.edu. Course web page: http://www.tiem.utk.edu/~gross/math152.html This course, a continuation of Math 151, will provide

  8. MATH 152 -SPRING 2004 MATHEMATICS FOR THE LIFE SCIENCES

    E-print Network

    Gross, Louis J.

    MATH 152 - SPRING 2004 MATHEMATICS FOR THE LIFE SCIENCES Time: 10:10 - 11:00 Monday and Wednesday) gipson@math.utk.edu, and Kristin Gooch (Sections #57055, 57097, 57042) gooch@math.utk.edu. Course web page: http://www.tiem.utk.edu/~gross/math152.html This course, a continuation of Math 151, will provide

  9. 25 CFR 152.32 - Irrigation fee; payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Irrigation fee; payment. 152.32 Section...Trust Or Restricted Lands § 152.32 Irrigation fee; payment. Collection of all...any Indian-owned lands within Indian irrigation projects is deferred as long...

  10. 25 CFR 152.32 - Irrigation fee; payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Irrigation fee; payment. 152.32 Section...Trust Or Restricted Lands § 152.32 Irrigation fee; payment. Collection of all...any Indian-owned lands within Indian irrigation projects is deferred as long...

  11. 25 CFR 152.32 - Irrigation fee; payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Irrigation fee; payment. 152.32 Section...Trust Or Restricted Lands § 152.32 Irrigation fee; payment. Collection of all...any Indian-owned lands within Indian irrigation projects is deferred as long...

  12. 25 CFR 152.32 - Irrigation fee; payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Irrigation fee; payment. 152.32 Section...Trust Or Restricted Lands § 152.32 Irrigation fee; payment. Collection of all...any Indian-owned lands within Indian irrigation projects is deferred as long...

  13. 25 CFR 152.32 - Irrigation fee; payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Irrigation fee; payment. 152.32 Section...Trust Or Restricted Lands § 152.32 Irrigation fee; payment. Collection of all...any Indian-owned lands within Indian irrigation projects is deferred as long...

  14. Enhancement of erbium photoluminescence by substitutional C alloying of Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markmann, M.; Neufeld, E.; Sticht, A.; Brunner, K.; Abstreiter, G.; Buchal, Ch.

    1999-10-01

    Photoluminescence (PL) at 1.54 ?m of erbium-doped Si1-yCy alloys grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) has been analyzed depending on sample temperature, excitation density, and growth conditions. Erbium activation raises with increasing incorporation of substitutional carbon compared to interstitial carbon. For [Er]=4.5×1019cm-3 and y=0.1% maximum PL output at 1.54 ?m was achieved for growth temperatures at 430 °C. Additional annealing could further enhance PL intensity at 1.54 ?m. For increasing sample temperature a decrease of PL intensity with two characteristic activation energies around 100 and 10-20 meV is observed, which results in quenching of PL intensity at lower temperatures for Si:Er:C layers compared to Si:Er:O layers. PL spectra show different fine structure for oxygen and carbon codoping by MBE or ion implantation, higher efficiency, and lower PL background for MBE-grown samples in contrast to ion-implanted layers.

  15. 38 CFR 17.152 - Devices to assist in overcoming the handicap of deafness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 17.152 Section 17.152 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Prosthetic, Sensory, and Rehabilitative Aids § 17.152 Devices to assist in overcoming the handicap of deafness....

  16. 40 CFR 152.97 - Rights and obligations regarding the Data Submitters List.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... false Rights and obligations regarding the Data Submitters List. 152.97 Section 152.97...AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Satisfaction of Data Requirements and Protection of Data Submitters' Rights § 152.97 Rights and...

  17. 40 CFR 152.97 - Rights and obligations of data submitters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Rights and obligations of data submitters. 152.97 Section 152...PROCEDURES Procedures To Ensure Protection of Data Submitters' Rights § 152.97 Rights and obligations of data submitters. (a) Right to be...

  18. 40 CFR 152.97 - Rights and obligations of data submitters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Rights and obligations of data submitters. 152.97 Section 152...PROCEDURES Procedures To Ensure Protection of Data Submitters' Rights § 152.97 Rights and obligations of data submitters. (a) Right to be...

  19. 40 CFR 152.97 - Rights and obligations of data submitters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Rights and obligations of data submitters. 152.97 Section 152...PROCEDURES Procedures To Ensure Protection of Data Submitters' Rights § 152.97 Rights and obligations of data submitters. (a) Right to be...

  20. 40 CFR 152.97 - Rights and obligations of data submitters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Rights and obligations of data submitters. 152.97 Section 152...PROCEDURES Procedures To Ensure Protection of Data Submitters' Rights § 152.97 Rights and obligations of data submitters. (a) Right to be...

  1. Generation of high power, high repetition-rate pulses using erbium-doped fiber ring laser

    E-print Network

    Hinson, Brett Darren

    1998-01-01

    This thesis presents the results obtained from crographics. generation of high repetition rate, high peak power output pulses using an erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA). Two configurations were employed. The first setup used a linear cavity...

  2. High repetition rate, high average power, femtosecond erbium fiber ring laser

    E-print Network

    Ippen, Erich P.

    A 301 MHz fundamentally mode-locked erbium fiber ring laser generating 108 fs pulses is demonstrated. Novel combination of gain fiber with anomalous group-velocity dispersion and intra-cavity silicon with normal group-velocity ...

  3. Silicon-germanium saturable absorbers and erbium-doped waveguides for integrated mode-locked lasers

    E-print Network

    Byun, Hyunil

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis, Silicon-Germanium (SiGe) Saturable Bragg Reflectors (SBR) and Erbium-doped waveguide chips are fabricated and characterized as crucial components for integration of a mode-locked laser on a Si-chip. The ...

  4. Infrared fluorescence and optical gain characteristics of chalcogenide-bound erbium cluster-fluoropolymer nanocomposites

    E-print Network

    Lawson, Catherine L.

    Infrared fluorescence and optical gain characteristics of chalcogenide-bound erbium cluster-fluoropolymer in a transparent hexafluoroisopropyl 6F variant of a perfluorocyclobutyl PFCB -based fluoropolymer are reported

  5. A broadly tunable erbium-doped fiber ring laser: experimentation and modeling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antoine Bellemare; M. Karbsek; Christophe Riviere; François Babin; Gang He; Vincent Roy; Gregory W. Schinn

    2001-01-01

    Broad-band tunability of erbium-doped silica fiber ring lasers in the 1.48-1.62 ?m wavelength band is demonstrated through modeling and experiment. Tunability over the erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) C- and L-bands is achieved with a simple laser design using a single gain medium working in deep saturation. A comprehensive numerical model based on an iterative solution of propagation rate equations and

  6. Space radiation effects on erbium-doped fiber devices: sources, amplifiers, and passive measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. M. Williams; E. J. Friebele

    1997-01-01

    Measurements have been made of the effect of ?-irradiation on the performance of active erbium-doped fiber devices. These include the decrease in optical power of an erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) and a superluminescent source (SLS), and the shift in centroid wavelength of the SLS with exposure. Calculations have been performed to correlate these effects with the radiation-induced absorption measured passively.

  7. Lead test fuel assembly physics for erbium fuel at the San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. H. Gavin; A. Jonsson; S. Swoope; R. Y. Chang; O. J. Thomsen

    1993-01-01

    ABB Combustion Engineering Nuclear Fuel (ABB C-E) has completed a qualification program for the use of Er[sub 2]O[sub 3] as a burnable absorber in pressurized water reactors. Neutronic properties and performance have been assessed in a development program that included the following: 1. evaluation and processing of basic cross-section data for naturally occurring erbium isotopes and capture\\/decay products of erbium

  8. Noise figure limitation in ytterbium-codoped erbium-doped fiber amplifiers pumped at 1064 nm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. F. Wysocki; G. Nykolak; D. S. Shenk

    1996-01-01

    Summary form only given. Erbium\\/ytterbium-doped optical fiber amplifiers (EYDFAs) are attractive because they convert the power available in 1064-nm neodymium-doped sources to 1550 nm. In many potential applications such as CATV, LAN, and WDM systems, an excellent noise figure (NF) is required. In 980-nm pumped erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFAs), a 3-dB NF can be achieved. We show this is not

  9. An efficient double-pass Bismuth-based erbium-doped fiber amplifier

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. S. Osman; S. W. Harun; R. Parvizi; H. Ahmad

    2009-01-01

    An efficient Bismuth-based erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) is demonstrated using a double-pass configuration. The amplifier utilizes the double-propagation of the signal provided using an optical circulator at the output end of the erbium-doped fiber (EDF) and has obtained improved gain characteristics as compared to an amplifier of single-pass configuration. This amplifier provides again as high as 30 dB using 215

  10. Operation principles and numerical analysis of double-cladding erbium-ytterbium-codoped optical fiber amplifiers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shufu Dong; Shanghong Zhao; Shengbao Zhan; Guijin Xia; Guofu Chen

    2002-01-01

    The increasing capacity of wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) transmissions systems requires higher output power of erbium doped fiber amplifiers (EDFAs). The two improvements are the use of double cladding fibers (DCF) and the addition of ytterbium oxide as co-dopant in the glass base. In this paper, the operation principles of double-cladding erbium- ytterbium co-doped fiber amplifiers were analyzed. Numerical analysis of

  11. Subpicosecond pulse amplification in a short length, highly doped erbium\\/ytterbium phosphate fiber amplifier

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arturo Chavez-Pirson; Wenyan Tian; Shibin Jiang; Gregory Katona; Jane Lee; Axel Schülzgen; Nasser Peyghambarian

    We demonstrate sub-picosecond pulse amplification in a single mode, high gain, and short length (8cm) erbium-ytterbium phosphate fiber amplifier. The amplifier operates in saturation producing 100 mW of average power and 2 nJ per pulse. ©2006 Optical Society of America OCIS codes: (060.2320) Fiber optics amplifiers and oscillators; 060.7140 Ultrafast processes in fibers; (060.2410) Fiber, erbium

  12. Performance characterization of new erbium-doped fibers using MCVD nanoparticle doping process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Boivin; Alain Pastouret; Ekaterina Burov; Cédric Gonnet; Olivier Cavani; Simon Lempereur; Pierre Sillard

    2011-01-01

    In 2009, we introduced a new doping concept involving Al2O3\\/rare-earth nanoparticles (NP) in a MCVD-compatible process finding potential applications in Erbium-, Ytterbium- or Erbium-Ytterbium-doped fiber amplifiers and lasers.1 This approach, motivated by the need for increased efficiencies and improved attributes, is characterized by the ability to control the rare-earth ion environment independently from the core composition. The NP matrix can

  13. Resonantly photo-pumped nickel-like erbium X-ray laser

    DOEpatents

    Nilsen, Joseph (Livermore, CA)

    1990-01-01

    A resonantly photo-pumped X-ray laser (10) that enhances the gain of seve laser lines that also lase because of collisional excitations and recombination processes, is described. The laser comprises an aluminum (12) and erbium (14) foil combination (16) that is driven by two beams (18, 20) of intense line focused (22, 24) optical laser radiation. Ground state nickel-like erbium ions (34) are resonantly photo-pumped by line emission from hydrogen-like aluminum ions (32).

  14. Erbium:ytterbium planar waveguide laser in ion-exchanged glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winick, Kim A.; Vossler, Gerald L.

    1997-05-01

    Erbium-ytterbium co-doped is an attractive system for short, efficient lasers and amplifiers operating in the 1.5 micron band. Co-doping permits a cooperative cross-relaxation process to transfer energy from excited ytterbium ions to the erbium system. This process can be used as a transfer energy from excited ytterbium ions to the erbium system. This process can be used as a pumping mechanism at 980 nanometers to significantly increase the absorbed pump power.Efficient energy transfer between the ytterbium and erbium ions enables the operation of compact laser devices with low erbium concentration, thus avoiding parasitic effects. The material parameters of a co-doped glass, including the cross-relaxation coefficient, are measured. A rate equation analysis of the co-doped system is developed, and approximate analytic expressions are derived for the lasing threshold, slope efficiency, and maximum output power. Short, ion-exchanged, waveguide lasers are fabricated in co-doped erbium-ytterbium glass. Lasing is achieved around 1537 nanometers with a launch power threshold and slope efficiency of approximately 15 milliwatts and 5.5 percent, respectively.

  15. Dual-kind Q-switching of erbium fiber laser

    SciTech Connect

    Barmenkov, Yuri O., E-mail: yuri@cio.mx; Kir'yanov, Alexander V. [Centro de Investigaciones en Optica, Loma del Bosque 115, Col. Lomas del Campestre, 37150 Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico); Cruz, Jose L.; Andres, Miguel V. [Department of Applied Physics and Electromagnetism, University of Valencia, Dr. Moliner 50, Burjassot 46100 (Spain)

    2014-03-03

    Two different regimes of Q-switching in the same implementation of an actively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser are demonstrated. Depending on the active fiber length and repetition rate of an intracavity Q-cell (acousto-optic modulator), the laser operates either in the regime of common, rather long and low-power, pulses composed of several sub-pulses or in the one of very short and powerful stimulated Brillouin scattering-induced pulses. The basic physical reason of the laser system to oscillate in one of these two regimes is the existence or absence of CW narrow-line “bad-cavity” lasing in the intervals when the Q-cell is blocked.

  16. Characteristics of the Brillouin spectra in Erbium-Ytterbium fibers.

    PubMed

    Canat, G; Durécu, A; Lesueur, G; Lombard, L; Bourdon, P; Jolivet, V; Jaouën, Y

    2008-03-01

    This paper reports the main characteristics of the Stokes spectra for typical pumped and unpumped Erbium-Ytterbium doped fibers. Doped fibers show shorter Brillouin shifts and their spectra are up to 1.6 times broader than undoped fibers. Those spectra are composed of several peaks originating from several longitudinal acoustic modes. The effective Brillouin gain of the secondary modes can be as large as 20% of the main peak gain. They can merge into a more complex structure for the largest cores. Simulations allow to relate these characteristics to the influence of codoping and index profile inhomogeneity. An additional broadening of the Stokes spectrum in pumped fibers is reported and attributed to thermal effects. PMID:18542409

  17. Synthesis and properties of erbium oxide single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Petrovic, J.J.; Romero, R.S.; Mendoza, D.; Kukla, A.M.; Hoover, R.C.; McClellan, K.J.

    1999-04-01

    Erbium oxide (Er{sub 2}O{sub 3}, erbia) is a highly stable cubic rare earth oxide with a high melting point of 2,430 C. Because of this, it may have potential applications where high temperature stability and corrosion resistance are required. However, relatively little is known about the properties of this oxide ceramic. The authors have employed a xenon optical floating zone unit with a temperature capability of 3,000 C to grow high quality single crystals of erbia. The conditions for single crystal growth of erbia have been established. The mechanical properties of erbia single crystals have been initially examined using microhardness indentation as a function of temperature.

  18. Neodymium, erbium, and ytterbium co-doped fiber amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ron, Itai; Hardy, Amos A.

    2011-07-01

    A combination of erbium (Er), ytterbium (Yb), and neodymium (Nd), in fiber amplifiers, is examined. This combination extends the pumping wavelength spectrum by creating a new pumping path. Furthermore, the Nd addition enables pumping the amplifier from within the amplifier center, and thereby decreases the amplified spontaneous emission at the amplifier ends. A mathematical model is presented relating the excited population density, the signal power along the amplifier, the energy transfer among the ions, and the amplified spontaneous emissions. The study compares the amplifier characteristics of Er-Yb-Nd co-doped amplifier with a traditional Er-Yb amplifier for various combinations. The new configuration adds flexibility into the amplifier design. By properly selecting its parameters, one can increase the output signal power and decrease the amplified spontaneous emission, to comply with various requirements.

  19. Mechanical properties of melt-derived erbium oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Neuman, A.D.; Blacic, M.J.; Platero, M.; Romero, R.S.; McClellan, K.J.; Petrovic, J.J.

    1998-12-31

    Erbium oxide (Er{sub 2}O{sub 3}) is a rare earth oxide that is chemically and thermally stable and has a melting point of 2,430 C. There is relatively little information available regarding single crystal growth of erbia or the properties of erbia. In this study, erbia single crystals have been grown in a Xenon Optical Floating Zone Unit (XeOFZ) capable of melting materials at temperatures up to 3,000 C. Erbia was melt synthesized in the XeOFZ unit in a container less fashion, proving for little chance of contamination. Crystals were grown in compressed air and in reducing atmospheres. A recurring problem with melt synthesis of erbia is the appearance of flakes at the edges of the melt zone during growth; these flakes disrupt the growth process. The processing details and an initial survey of the physical properties of erbia single crystals is discussed.

  20. 44 CFR 152.6 - Application review and award process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    44 Emergency Management and Assistance...review and award process. 152.6 Section...6 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT...review and award process. (a)...

  1. 44 CFR 152.6 - Application review and award process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    44 Emergency Management and Assistance...review and award process. 152.6 Section...6 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT...review and award process. (a)...

  2. 44 CFR 152.6 - Application review and award process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    44 Emergency Management and Assistance...review and award process. 152.6 Section...6 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT...review and award process. (a)...

  3. 44 CFR 152.6 - Application review and award process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    44 Emergency Management and Assistance...review and award process. 152.6 Section...6 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT...review and award process. (a)...

  4. 44 CFR 152.6 - Application review and award process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    44 Emergency Management and Assistance...review and award process. 152.6 Section...6 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT...review and award process. (a)...

  5. 22 CFR 1600.152-1600.159 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...159 Section 1600.152-1600.159 Foreign Relations JAPAN-UNITED STATES FRIENDSHIP COMMISSION ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION...THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE JAPAN-UNITED STATES FRIENDSHIP COMMISSION §§...

  6. 27 CFR 479.152 - Penalties (records and returns).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND CERTAIN OTHER FIREARMS Examination of Books and Records § 479.152 Penalties (records...

  7. 27 CFR 479.152 - Penalties (records and returns).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND CERTAIN OTHER FIREARMS Examination of Books and Records § 479.152 Penalties (records...

  8. 27 CFR 479.152 - Penalties (records and returns).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND CERTAIN OTHER FIREARMS Examination of Books and Records § 479.152 Penalties (records...

  9. 27 CFR 479.152 - Penalties (records and returns).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND CERTAIN OTHER FIREARMS Examination of Books and Records § 479.152 Penalties (records...

  10. 27 CFR 479.152 - Penalties (records and returns).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND CERTAIN OTHER FIREARMS Examination of Books and Records § 479.152 Penalties (records...

  11. 29 CFR 784.152 - Operations performed on byproducts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...TO FISHING AND OPERATIONS ON AQUATIC PRODUCTS Exemptions Provisions Relating to Fishing and Aquatic Products Processing, Freezing, and Curing § 784.152 Operations performed on byproducts. The principles stated in the two preceding...

  12. 29 CFR 784.152 - Operations performed on byproducts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...TO FISHING AND OPERATIONS ON AQUATIC PRODUCTS Exemptions Provisions Relating to Fishing and Aquatic Products Processing, Freezing, and Curing § 784.152 Operations performed on byproducts. The principles stated in the two preceding...

  13. 29 CFR 784.152 - Operations performed on byproducts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...TO FISHING AND OPERATIONS ON AQUATIC PRODUCTS Exemptions Provisions Relating to Fishing and Aquatic Products Processing, Freezing, and Curing § 784.152 Operations performed on byproducts. The principles stated in the two preceding...

  14. 29 CFR 784.152 - Operations performed on byproducts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...TO FISHING AND OPERATIONS ON AQUATIC PRODUCTS Exemptions Provisions Relating to Fishing and Aquatic Products Processing, Freezing, and Curing § 784.152 Operations performed on byproducts. The principles stated in the two preceding...

  15. 29 CFR 784.152 - Operations performed on byproducts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...TO FISHING AND OPERATIONS ON AQUATIC PRODUCTS Exemptions Provisions Relating to Fishing and Aquatic Products Processing, Freezing, and Curing § 784.152 Operations performed on byproducts. The principles stated in the two preceding...

  16. 45 CFR 1153.152-1153.159 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE...CONDUCTED BY THE NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS §§ 1153.152-1153.159...

  17. 45 CFR 1153.152-1153.159 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE...CONDUCTED BY THE NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS §§ 1153.152-1153.159...

  18. 45 CFR 1153.152-1153.159 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE...CONDUCTED BY THE NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS §§ 1153.152-1153.159...

  19. 45 CFR 1153.152-1153.159 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE...CONDUCTED BY THE NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS §§ 1153.152-1153.159...

  20. 45 CFR 1153.152-1153.159 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE...CONDUCTED BY THE NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS §§ 1153.152-1153.159...

  1. 18 CFR 1313.152-1313.159 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...159 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION...OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY §§ 1313.152-1313.159...

  2. 18 CFR 1313.152-1313.159 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...159 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION...OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY §§ 1313.152-1313.159...

  3. 18 CFR 1313.152-1313.159 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...159 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION...OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY §§ 1313.152-1313.159...

  4. 45 CFR 2490.152-2490.159 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) JAMES MADISON MEMORIAL FELLOWSHIP FOUNDATION ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION...HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE JAMES MADISON MEMORIAL FELLOWSHIP FOUNDATION §§ 2490.152-2490.159...

  5. 45 CFR 2490.152-2490.159 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) JAMES MADISON MEMORIAL FELLOWSHIP FOUNDATION ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION...HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE JAMES MADISON MEMORIAL FELLOWSHIP FOUNDATION §§ 2490.152-2490.159...

  6. 45 CFR 2490.152-2490.159 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) JAMES MADISON MEMORIAL FELLOWSHIP FOUNDATION ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION...HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE JAMES MADISON MEMORIAL FELLOWSHIP FOUNDATION §§ 2490.152-2490.159...

  7. 45 CFR 2490.152-2490.159 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) JAMES MADISON MEMORIAL FELLOWSHIP FOUNDATION ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION...HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE JAMES MADISON MEMORIAL FELLOWSHIP FOUNDATION §§ 2490.152-2490.159...

  8. 45 CFR 2490.152-2490.159 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) JAMES MADISON MEMORIAL FELLOWSHIP FOUNDATION ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION...HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE JAMES MADISON MEMORIAL FELLOWSHIP FOUNDATION §§ 2490.152-2490.159...

  9. 22 CFR 1103.152-1103.159 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01...1103.152-1103.159 Foreign Relations INTERNATIONAL BOUNDARY AND WATER COMMISSION...PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY INTERNATIONAL BOUNDARY AND WATER...

  10. 44 CFR 152.4 - Roles and responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY FIRE PREVENTION AND CONTROL ASSISTANCE TO FIREFIGHTERS GRANT PROGRAM § 152.4 Roles and responsibilities. (a) Applicants must: (1) Complete the application...

  11. 44 CFR 152.8 - Application submission and deadline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY FIRE PREVENTION AND CONTROL ASSISTANCE TO FIREFIGHTERS GRANT PROGRAM § 152.8 Application submission and deadline. In each year that this program is authorized and...

  12. 44 CFR 152.3 - Availability of funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...HOMELAND SECURITY FIRE PREVENTION AND CONTROL ASSISTANCE TO FIREFIGHTERS GRANT PROGRAM § 152.3 Availability of funds. ...departments that have received funding under the Assistance to Firefighter Grant Program in previous years are eligible to...

  13. 45 CFR 1181.152-1181.159 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES INSTITUTE OF MUSEUM AND LIBRARY SERVICES ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS...ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE INSTITUTE OF MUSEUM AND LIBRARY SERVICES §§ 1181.152-1181.159...

  14. 14 CFR 152.607 - Building design requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Energy Conservation in Airport Aid Program § 152.607 Building design requirements. Each sponsor shall perform an energy assessment for each federally-assisted building construction or major...

  15. 45 CFR 152.7 - PCIP proposal process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Administration § 152.7 PCIP proposal process. (a) General. A proposal from a State or nonprofit...functions necessary for the design and operation of a PCIP...year. (2) A State's proposal to administer a PCIP...

  16. 45 CFR 152.7 - PCIP proposal process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Administration § 152.7 PCIP proposal process. (a) General. A proposal from a State or nonprofit...functions necessary for the design and operation of a PCIP...year. (2) A State's proposal to administer a PCIP...

  17. 45 CFR 152.7 - PCIP proposal process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Administration § 152.7 PCIP proposal process. (a) General. A proposal from a State or nonprofit...functions necessary for the design and operation of a PCIP...year. (2) A State's proposal to administer a PCIP...

  18. 45 CFR 152.7 - PCIP proposal process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Administration § 152.7 PCIP proposal process. (a) General. A proposal from a State or nonprofit...functions necessary for the design and operation of a PCIP...year. (2) A State's proposal to administer a PCIP...

  19. 45 CFR 152.7 - PCIP proposal process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Administration § 152.7 PCIP proposal process. (a) General. A proposal from a State or nonprofit...functions necessary for the design and operation of a PCIP...year. (2) A State's proposal to administer a PCIP...

  20. 45 CFR 1706.152-1706.159 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE...ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE §§ 1706.152-1706.159...

  1. 40 CFR 162.152 - State registration authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false State registration authority. 162.152 ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS STATE REGISTRATION OF PESTICIDE PRODUCTS Regulations Pertaining to State Registration of Pesticides To Meet...

  2. 40 CFR 162.152 - State registration authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State registration authority. 162.152 ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS STATE REGISTRATION OF PESTICIDE PRODUCTS Regulations Pertaining to State Registration of Pesticides To Meet...

  3. 40 CFR 162.152 - State registration authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false State registration authority. 162.152 ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS STATE REGISTRATION OF PESTICIDE PRODUCTS Regulations Pertaining to State Registration of Pesticides To Meet...

  4. 40 CFR 162.152 - State registration authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false State registration authority. 162.152 ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS STATE REGISTRATION OF PESTICIDE PRODUCTS Regulations Pertaining to State Registration of Pesticides To Meet...

  5. 40 CFR 162.152 - State registration authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false State registration authority. 162.152 ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS STATE REGISTRATION OF PESTICIDE PRODUCTS Regulations Pertaining to State Registration of Pesticides To Meet...

  6. 32 CFR 1906.152-1906.159 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE...IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY §§ 1906.152-1906.159...

  7. 32 CFR 1906.152-1906.159 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE...IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY §§ 1906.152-1906.159...

  8. 32 CFR 1906.152-1906.159 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE...IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY §§ 1906.152-1906.159...

  9. 32 CFR 1906.152-1906.159 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE...IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY §§ 1906.152-1906.159...

  10. 32 CFR 1906.152-1906.159 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE...IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY §§ 1906.152-1906.159...

  11. 42 CFR 441.152 - Certification of need for services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...SERVICES Inpatient Psychiatric Services for Individuals Under Age 21 in Psychiatric Facilities or Programs § 441.152...psychiatric condition requires services on an inpatient basis under the direction of a physician; and (3) The...

  12. 42 CFR 441.152 - Certification of need for services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...SERVICES Inpatient Psychiatric Services for Individuals Under Age 21 in Psychiatric Facilities or Programs § 441.152...psychiatric condition requires services on an inpatient basis under the direction of a physician; and (3) The...

  13. 42 CFR 441.152 - Certification of need for services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...SERVICES Inpatient Psychiatric Services for Individuals Under Age 21 in Psychiatric Facilities or Programs § 441.152...psychiatric condition requires services on an inpatient basis under the direction of a physician; and (3) The...

  14. 42 CFR 441.152 - Certification of need for services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...SERVICES Inpatient Psychiatric Services for Individuals Under Age 21 in Psychiatric Facilities or Programs § 441.152...psychiatric condition requires services on an inpatient basis under the direction of a physician; and (3) The...

  15. 42 CFR 441.152 - Certification of need for services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...SERVICES Inpatient Psychiatric Services for Individuals Under Age 21 in Psychiatric Facilities or Programs § 441.152...psychiatric condition requires services on an inpatient basis under the direction of a physician; and (3) The...

  16. 10 CFR 63.152 - Training and certification program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Training and Certification of Personnel § 63.152 Training and certification program. DOE...

  17. 10 CFR 63.152 - Training and certification program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Training and Certification of Personnel § 63.152 Training and certification program. DOE...

  18. 10 CFR 63.152 - Training and certification program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Training and Certification of Personnel § 63.152 Training and certification program. DOE...

  19. 10 CFR 63.152 - Training and certification program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Training and Certification of Personnel § 63.152 Training and certification program. DOE...

  20. 7 CFR 1710.152 - Primary support documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...POLICIES AND PROCEDURES COMMON TO ELECTRIC LOANS AND GUARANTEES Basic Requirements for Loan Approval § 1710.152 Primary support...loads. The load forecast provides a basis for projecting annual electricity (kWh) sales and revenues, and for engineering...

  1. 42 CFR 84.152 - Breathing tube test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Breathing tube test; minimum requirements. ...Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.152 Breathing tube test; minimum requirements. ...respirators shall employ one or two flexible breathing tubes of the nonkinking type...

  2. 42 CFR 84.152 - Breathing tube test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Breathing tube test; minimum requirements. ...Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.152 Breathing tube test; minimum requirements. ...respirators shall employ one or two flexible breathing tubes of the nonkinking type...

  3. 42 CFR 84.152 - Breathing tube test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Breathing tube test; minimum requirements. ...Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.152 Breathing tube test; minimum requirements. ...respirators shall employ one or two flexible breathing tubes of the nonkinking type...

  4. 42 CFR 84.152 - Breathing tube test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing tube test; minimum requirements. ...Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.152 Breathing tube test; minimum requirements. ...respirators shall employ one or two flexible breathing tubes of the nonkinking type...

  5. 42 CFR 84.152 - Breathing tube test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Breathing tube test; minimum requirements. ...Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.152 Breathing tube test; minimum requirements. ...respirators shall employ one or two flexible breathing tubes of the nonkinking type...

  6. 36 CFR 909.152-909.159 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...152-909.159 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION...BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION §§...

  7. 36 CFR 909.152-909.159 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...152-909.159 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION...BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION §§...

  8. 36 CFR 909.152-909.159 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...152-909.159 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION...BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION §§...

  9. 7 CFR 4280.152 - Servicing guaranteed loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS AND GRANTS Rural Energy for America Program General Renewable Energy System and Energy Efficiency Improvement Guaranteed Loans § 4280.152 Servicing...

  10. 152. Historic American Buildings Survey, Donald W. Dickensheets, Photographer. March ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    152. Historic American Buildings Survey, Donald W. Dickensheets, Photographer. March 28, 1940. PENDENTIVE MURAL - CHOIR LOFT - ST. MARK WITH LION. (NORTHEAST ELEVATION) - San Xavier del Bac Mission, Mission Road, Tucson, Pima County, AZ

  11. Erbium-doped silicon nanocrystals in silicon/silicon nitride superlattice structures: Light emission and energy transfer

    E-print Network

    Erbium-doped silicon nanocrystals in silicon/silicon nitride superlattice structures: Light ($2 nm diameter) amorphous silicon (Si) clusters coupled to erbium (Er) ions. The superlattice structure is fabricated by direct co-sputtering of thin ($3­5 nm) Er-doped silicon- rich nitride/Si (Er

  12. La-codoped Bismuth-based Erbium-doped Fiber Ring laser with 80-nm Tuning Range

    E-print Network

    Wai, Ping-kong Alexander

    La-codoped Bismuth-based Erbium-doped Fiber Ring laser with 80-nm Tuning Range H. L. Liu1 , H. Y tunable fiber ring lasers using 253.3-cm long La-codoped bismuth-based erbium doped fiber and a narrowband

  13. Root Surface Bio-modification with Erbium Lasers- A Myth or a Reality??

    PubMed Central

    Lavu, Vamsi; Sundaram, Subramoniam; Sabarish, Ram; Rao, Suresh Ranga

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this literature review was to critically review the evidence available in the literature regarding the expediency of erbium family of lasers for root bio modification as a part of periodontal therapy. The literature search was performed on the Pubmed using MeSH words such as "lasers/therapeutic use, scaling, dental calculus, tooth root/anatomy and histology, ultrasonic therapy". The studies were screened and were grouped as follows: those evaluating a) efficacy for calculus removal with the Erbium family of laser b) root surface changes following Er YAG and Er Cr YSGG application c) comparative studies of the Er YAG, Er Cr YSGG lasers versus conventional methods of root surface modification d) Bio compatibility of root surface following Erbium laser treatment e) Studies on the combined efficacy of laser root modification with conventional methods towards root surface bio-modification f) Studies on effectiveness of root surface bio-modification prior to root coverage procedures. In conclusion, the erbium family has a proven anti-bacterial action, predictable calculus removal, minimal root substance removal, and appears to favor cell attachment. The Erbium family of lasers appears to be a useful adjunct for the management of periodontal disease. PMID:25713635

  14. Femtosecond Erbium-Doped Fiber Lasers and a Soliton Compression Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Eiji; Kimura, Yasuo; Nakazawa, Masataka

    1993-08-01

    The lasing characteristics of an erbium-doped fiber laser with a nonlinear amplifying loop mirror (NALM) were investigated in detail. The NALM was pumped by 1.48 ?m InGaAsP laser diodes and an output pulse as short as 124 fs was obtained at 1.56 ?m. The 124-fs pulse was shortened to 50 fs by using adiabatic soliton narrowing and high order soliton compression. Soliton narrowing was achieved by amplifying the soliton pulse adiabatically with an erbium-doped fiber amplifier, and a short length of dispersion-flattened fiber was used for soliton compression. Soliton narrowing enabled us to succeed in generating a 98-fs pulse directly from a modified erbium-doped fiber laser.

  15. Femtosecond erbium-doped fiber lasers and a soliton compression technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Eiji; Kimura, Yasuo; Nakazawa, Masataka

    1993-08-01

    The lasing characteristics of an erbium-doped fiber laser with a nonlinear amplifying loop mirror (NALM) were investigated in detail. The NALM was pumped by 1.48 micron InGaAsP laser diodes and an output pulse as short as 123 fs was obtained at 1.56 micron. The 124-fs pulse was shortened to 50 fs by using adiabatic soliton narrowing and high order soliton compression. Soliton narrowing was achieved by amplifying the soliton pulse adiabatically with an erbium-doped fiber amplifier, and a short length of dispersion-flattened fiber was used for soliton compression. Soliton narrowing enabled us to succeed in generating a 98-fs pulse directly from a modified erbium-doped fiber laser.

  16. Enhancement of photoluminescence intensity of erbium doped silica containing Ge nanocrystals: distance dependent interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manna, S.; Aluguri, R.; Bar, R.; Das, S.; Prtljaga, N.; Pavesi, L.; Ray, S. K.

    2015-01-01

    Photo-physical processes in Er-doped silica glass matrix containing Ge nanocrystals prepared by the sol–gel method are presented in this article. Strong photoluminescence at 1.54 ?m, important for fiber optics telecommunication systems, is observed from the different sol–gel derived glasses at room temperature. We demonstrate that Ge nanocrystals act as strong sensitizers for Er3+ ions emission and the effective Er excitation cross section increases by almost four orders of magnitude with respect to the one without Ge nanocrystals. Rate equations are considered to demonstrate the sensitization of erbium luminescence by Ge nanocrystals. Analyzing the erbium effective excitation cross section, extracted from the flux dependent rise and decay times, a Dexter type of short range energy transfer from a Ge nanocrystal to erbium ion is established.

  17. Surface behaviour in deuterium permeation through erbium oxide coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chikada, T.; Suzuki, A.; Adelhelm, C.; Terai, T.; Muroga, T.

    2011-06-01

    Suppression of tritium permeation through structural materials is essential in order to mitigate fuel loss and radioactivity concerns. Ceramic coatings have been investigated for over three decades as tritium permeation barriers (TPBs); however, a very limited number of investigations on the mechanism of hydrogen-isotope permeation through the coatings have been reported. In this study, deuterium permeation behaviour of erbium oxide coatings fabricated by filtered arc deposition on reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels has been investigated. The samples coated on both sides of the substrates showed remarkably lower permeability than those coated on one side, and the maximum reduction efficiency indicated a factor of 105 compared with the substrate. The different permeation behaviour between the coatings facing the high and low deuterium pressure sides has been found by the crystal structure analysis and the evaluation of the energy barriers. It is suggested that the permeation processes on the front and back surfaces are independent, and the TPB efficiency of the samples coated on both sides can be expressed by a multiplication of that of each side.

  18. Refractive index of erbium doped GaN thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Alajlouni, S.; Sun, Z. Y.; Li, J.; Lin, J. Y.; Jiang, H. X., E-mail: hx.jiang@ttu.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409 (United States); Zavada, J. M. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Polytechnic Institute of New York University, Brooklyn, New York 11201 (United States)

    2014-08-25

    GaN is an excellent host for erbium (Er) to provide optical emission in the technologically important as well as eye-safe 1540?nm wavelength window. Er doped GaN (GaN:Er) epilayers were synthesized on c-plane sapphire substrates using metal organic chemical vapor deposition. By employing a pulsed growth scheme, the crystalline quality of GaN:Er epilayers was significantly improved over those obtained by conventional growth method of continuous flow of reaction precursors. X-ray diffraction rocking curve linewidths of less than 300?arc sec were achieved for the GaN (0002) diffraction peak, which is comparable to the typical results of undoped high quality GaN epilayers and represents a major improvement over previously reported results for GaN:Er. Spectroscopic ellipsometry was used to determine the refractive index of the GaN:Er epilayers in the 1540?nm wavelength window and a linear dependence on Er concentration was found. The observed refractive index increase with Er incorporation and the improved crystalline quality of the GaN:Er epilayers indicate that low loss GaN:Er optical waveguiding structures are feasible.

  19. Refractive index of erbium doped GaN thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alajlouni, S.; Sun, Z. Y.; Li, J.; Zavada, J. M.; Lin, J. Y.; Jiang, H. X.

    2014-08-01

    GaN is an excellent host for erbium (Er) to provide optical emission in the technologically important as well as eye-safe 1540 nm wavelength window. Er doped GaN (GaN:Er) epilayers were synthesized on c-plane sapphire substrates using metal organic chemical vapor deposition. By employing a pulsed growth scheme, the crystalline quality of GaN:Er epilayers was significantly improved over those obtained by conventional growth method of continuous flow of reaction precursors. X-ray diffraction rocking curve linewidths of less than 300 arc sec were achieved for the GaN (0002) diffraction peak, which is comparable to the typical results of undoped high quality GaN epilayers and represents a major improvement over previously reported results for GaN:Er. Spectroscopic ellipsometry was used to determine the refractive index of the GaN:Er epilayers in the 1540 nm wavelength window and a linear dependence on Er concentration was found. The observed refractive index increase with Er incorporation and the improved crystalline quality of the GaN:Er epilayers indicate that low loss GaN:Er optical waveguiding structures are feasible.

  20. Cavitation bubbles induced by Erbium lasers: implications for dentistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verleng, Marja; Verdaasdonk, Rudolf; van der Veen, Albert; Lemberg, Vladimir; Boutoussov, Dmitri

    2014-02-01

    With new fiber systems available for 3 ?m, Erbium lasers become more interesting for precise tissue ablation in a water environment enabling new application in e.g. dentistry. The dynamics of explosive bubble formation was investigated at 2.78 ?m (Er,Cr;YSGG) and 2.94 ?m (Er:YAG), in relation to energy (10-50 mJ), pulse length (20-150 ?s) and fiber tip shape (flat or taper). The dynamics of exploding and imploding vapor bubbles were captured with high speed imaging (10 - 300 ?s range). Increasing the pulse length and energy, the vapor bubble became more elongated with an opaque surface for flat tip fibers. Tapered fibers produced spherical vapor bubbles with an optically transparent surface expected to be more forceful for creating mechanical effects in both hard and soft tissues. There was no significant difference between bubbles formed at 2.78 ?m (Er,Cr;YSGG) and 2.94 ?m (Er:YAG).

  1. Hydrogen diffusion along grain boundaries in erbium oxide coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Wei; Chikada, Takumi; Suzuki, Akihiro; Terai, Takayuki

    2014-12-01

    Diffusion of interstitial atomic hydrogen in erbium oxide (Er2O3) was investigated using density functional theory (DFT) and molecular dynamics (MD) methods. Hydrogen diffusivity in bulk, on (0 0 1) surface, and along ?13 (4-3-1)/[1 1 1] symmetric tilt grain boundaries (GBs) were evaluated in a temperature range of 673-1073 K, as well as hydrogen diffusion barriers. It was found that H diffusion shows the faster on (0 0 1) surface than along GBs and in bulk. Also, energy barrier of H diffusion in bulk estimated by DFT and MD methods is somewhat higher than that along GBs evaluated in the experiments. This suggests that H diffusion in Er2O3 coatings depends on GBs rather than bulk. In addition, with a correction of GB density, the simulated diffusivity along GBs in MD simulations is in good agreement with the experimental data within one order of magnitude. The discrepancy of H diffusivity between the experiments and the simulations should be reduced by considering H concentration, H diffusion direction, deviations of the initial configuration, vacancy defects, etc.

  2. Erbium-doped silicon light-emitting devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Thomas D.; Agarwal, Anuradha; Giovane, Laura M.; Foresi, James S.; Liao, Ling; Lim, Desmond R.; Morse, Michael T.; Ouellette, Edward J., III; Ahn, Sang H.; Duan, Xiaoman; Michel, Jurgen; Kimerling, Lionel C.

    1998-04-01

    Research in erbium-doped silicon (Si:Er) is discussed in light of our effort to improve the luminescence performance of our LEDs and to demonstrate an integration scheme for a microphotonic clock distribution system. Excitation from Si:Er can occur int ow ways: (1) direct excitation of an Er ion by high energy electrons or (2) energy transfer from an injected electron-hole pair to an Er ion in the lattice. In an LED the first excitation mechanism corresponds to operation in reverse bias, and the latter corresponds to operation in forward bias. We have studied the forward bias case, and we use an energy pathway model to describe the excitation and de-excitation processes. The competing, nonradiative processes against excitation and spontaneous emission are discussed. Maximization of light output can be approached in three ways: (1) decreasing the number of nonradiative energy pathways, (2) enhancing the probability of the radiative pathway, or (3) simply increasing the concentration of active Er sties. We report specific methods that address these issues, and we discuss more device structures that can be used as emitters, optical waveguides, and optical switches in a fully integrated microphotonic system.

  3. Optical bistability in erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet crystal combined with a laser diode.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Y

    1994-01-10

    Optical bistability was observed in a simple structure of an injection laser diode combined with an erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet crystal. Since a hysteresis characteristic exists in the relationship between the wavelength and the injection current of a laser diode, an optical memory function capable of holding the output status is confirmed. In addition, an optical signal inversion was caused by the decrease of transmission of the erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet crystal against the red shift (principally mode hopping) of the laser diode. It is suggested that the switching time of this phenomenon is the time necessary for a mode hopping by current injection. PMID:20862016

  4. Femtosecond erbium-doped fiber laser with nonlinear polarization rotation and its soliton compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Eiji; Kimura, Yasuo; Nakazawa, Masataka

    1994-10-01

    A continuous wave suppressed, uniformly repetitive pulse train as short as 136-145 fs has been successfully generated at a wavelength of 1.55 micron from a new type of femtosecond erbium-doped fiber laser with nonlinear polarization rotation. The 145 fs pulse was shortened to 52 fs by using soliton narrowing and high order soliton compression. Soliton narrowing was achieved by amplifying the soliton pulse with an erbium-doped fiber amplifier, and a short length of dispersion-flattened fiber was used for further compressing the soliton.

  5. Femtosecond Erbium-Doped Fiber Laser with Nonlinear Polarization Rotation and Its Soliton Compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Eiji; Kimura, Yasuo; Nakazawa, Masataka

    1994-10-01

    A continuous wave suppressed, uniformly repetitive pulse train as short as 136 145 fs has been successfully generated at a wavelength of 1.55 µ m from a new type of femtosecond erbium-doped fiber laser with nonlinear polarization rotation. The 145 fs pulse was shortened to 52 fs by using soliton narrowing and high order soliton compression. Soliton narrowing was achieved by amplifying the soliton pulse with an erbium-doped fiber amplifier, and a short length of dispersion-flattened fiber was used for further compressing the soliton.

  6. Erbium:YAG laser incision of urethral strictures: early clinical results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munoz, John A.; Riemer, Jennifer D.; Hayes, Gary B.; Negus, Dan; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2007-02-01

    Two cases involving Erbium:YAG laser incision of proximal bulbar urethral strictures are described. Erbium:YAG laser radiation with a wavelength of 2.94 ?m, pulse energy of 10 mJ, and a pulse repetition rate of 15 Hz, was delivered through a 2-m-long, 250-?m-core sapphire optical fiber in contact with tissue. Total laser irradiation time was 5 min. The first patient suffering from a virgin urethral stricture was treated and is stricture-free. The second patient suffering from a recurrent urethral stricture required further treatment. This case report describes the first clinical application of the Er:YAG laser in urology.

  7. Multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber laser based on intensity-dependent transmission in a linear cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Jiajun; Yao, Yong; Xiao, Jun Jun; Xu, Xiaochuan; Chen, Deying

    2011-06-01

    A multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber laser with linear cavity configuration is proposed and demonstrated. A power-symmetric nonlinear optical loop mirror (NOLM) serves as the laser's output coupler and has an intensity-induced increase in transmission (IIT) that leads to higher cavity loss for oscillating wavelengths with higher power. The IIT feature of the NOLM suppresses the mode competition in the erbium-doped fiber and ensures stable multiwavelength operation at room temperature. Both the wavelength number and the output power of the laser can be flexibly controlled by adjusting the work state of the NOLM via a quarter wave plate and/or a polarization controller.

  8. Up-Conversion in a KGW Crystal by Residual Erbium Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khodasevich, I. A.; Kornienko, A. A.; Dunina, E. B.; Grabtchikov, A. S.

    2015-01-01

    We have studied the effect of up-conversion by residual erbium ions, observed in a KGW crystal in the green and red regions of the spectrum upon excitation by the radiation output from diode lasers with wavelengths 808 nm and 970 nm. We demonstrate the existence of different up-conversion regimes under conditions where there is a residual erbium ion concentration. The experimental data indicate up-conversion processes for excitation by laser radiation with wavelength 970 nm with n > 2, where n is a parameter characterizing the dependence of the luminescence intensity on pump power.

  9. Erbium oxide thin films on Si(100) obtained by laser ablation and electron beam evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Queralt, X.; Ferrater, C.; Sánchez, F.; Aguiar, R.; Palau, J.; Varela, M.

    1995-02-01

    Erbium oxide thin films have been obtained by laser ablation and electron beam evaporation techniques on Si(100) substrates. The samples were grown under different conditions of oxygen atmosphere and substrate temperature without any oxidation process after deposition. The crystal structure has been studied by X-ray diffraction. Films obtained by laser ablation are highly textured in the [ hhh] direction, although this depends on the conditions of oxygen pressure and substrate temperature. In order to study the depth composition profile of the thin films and the interdiffusion of erbium metal and oxygen towards the silicon substrates, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses have been carried out.

  10. Identification of a pairing isomeric band in 152Sm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulp, W. D.; Wood, J. L.; Garrett, P. E.; Allmond, J. M.; Cline, D.; Hayes, A. B.; Hua, H.; Krane, K. S.; Larimer, R.-M.; Loats, J.; Norman, E. B.; Schmelzenbach, P.; Stapels, C. J.; Teng, R.; Wu, C. Y.

    2005-04-01

    A coexisting band structure is identified in 152Sm through ?-ray coincidence spectroscopy following ? decay of 152m,gEu and following multistep Coulomb excitation. This structure is interpreted as a pairing isomer analogous to a similar band identified in 154Gd, based on relative B(E2) values for transitions out of the band and two-neutron transfer reaction population of the 0+ and 2+ band members. Systematics for odd-A isotopes near N=90 suggest that there should be a low-lying pairing isomer in 156Dy and similar structures at higher energy in 150Nd and 158Er.

  11. Certification of the Cessna 152 on 100% ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Shauck, M.E.; Zanin, M.G.

    1997-12-31

    In June 1996, the Renewable Aviation Fuels Development Center (RAFDC) at Baylor University in Waco, Texas, received a Supplemental Type Certificate (STC) for the use of 100% ethanol as a fuel for the Cessna 152, the most popular training aircraft in the world. This is the first certification granted by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) for a non-petroleum fuel. Certification of an aircraft on a new fuel requires a certification of the engine followed by a certification of the airframe/engine combination. This paper will describe the FAA airframe certification procedure, the tests required and their outcome using ethanol as an aviation fuel in a Cessna 152.

  12. 45 CFR 152.15 - Enrollment and disenrollment process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS PRE-EXISTING...with the Department of Health and Human Services...section 1101(g) of Public Law 111-148 and § 152...Accordingly, a PCIP may employ strategies to manage...

  13. 45 CFR 152.15 - Enrollment and disenrollment process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS PRE-EXISTING...with the Department of Health and Human Services...section 1101(g) of Public Law 111-148 and § 152...Accordingly, a PCIP may employ strategies to manage...

  14. 152. 1932 MEMORIAL PLAQUE FROM THE NATIONAL COLONIAL DAMES OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    152. 1932 MEMORIAL PLAQUE FROM THE NATIONAL COLONIAL DAMES OF AMERICA, DISTRICT CHAPTER, AND MEMORIAL PLANTING OF TWO SPECIMEN WILLOW OAKS AT FT. WASHINGTON OVERLOOK LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - George Washington Memorial Parkway, Along Potomac River from McLean to Mount Vernon, VA, Mount Vernon, Fairfax County, VA

  15. 44 CFR 152.5 - Review process and evaluation criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Review process and evaluation criteria...PROGRAM § 152.5 Review process and evaluation criteria...funds including details of each budget line item. For example, if...personnel costs are included in the budget, please provide a...

  16. 19 CFR 191.152 - Merchandise released from Customs custody.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...191.152 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS...abatement, or drawback of duty shall be allowed...regularly entered in good faith and are subsequently...557(c) of the Act, as amended (19...which case any accrued duties shall be...

  17. 12 CFR 217.152 - Simple risk weight approach (SRWA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Simple risk weight approach (SRWA). 217.152...ADEQUACY OF BOARD-REGULATED INSTITUTIONS Risk-Weighted Assets-Internal Ratings-Based and Advanced Measurement Approaches Risk-Weighted Assets for Equity Exposures...

  18. 12 CFR 324.152 - Simple risk weight approach (SRWA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Simple risk weight approach (SRWA). 324.152...ADEQUACY OF FDIC-SUPERVISED INSTITUTIONS Risk-Weighted Assets-Internal Ratings-Based and Advanced Measurement Approaches Risk-Weighted Assets for Equity Exposures...

  19. 12 CFR 3.152 - Simple risk weight approach (SRWA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Simple risk weight approach (SRWA). 3.152 ...TREASURY CAPITAL ADEQUACY STANDARDS Risk-Weighted Assets-Internal Ratings-Based and Advanced Measurement Approaches Risk-Weighted Assets for Equity Exposures...

  20. April15,2 Generalized Scale Independence Through Incremental Precomputation

    E-print Network

    Kraska, Tim

    even as an application scales to hundreds of machines. Categories and Subject Descriptors H.2April15,2 Generalized Scale Independence Through Incremental Precomputation Michael Armbrust environments. A new type of data independence, called scale independence, seeks to ad- dress this challenge

  1. 152. View of lightning arrester houses on the hillside above ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    152. View of lightning arrester houses on the hillside above powerhouse. To the right is surge tank for penstock no. 1. Looking southeast. Photo by Jet Lowe, HAER, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

  2. Transport properties of 1,1-difluoroethane (R152a)

    SciTech Connect

    Krauss, R.; Stephan, K. [Institut fuer Technische Thermodynamik und Thermische Verfahrenstechnik, Stuttgart (Germany); Weiss, V.C.; Edison, T.A.; Sengers, J.V. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    1996-07-01

    Based on reliable, carefully selected data sets, equations for the thermal conductivity and the viscosity of the refrigerant R152a are presented. They are valid at temperatures from 240 to 440 K, pressures up to 20 MPa, and densities up to 1050 kg {center_dot} m {sup {minus}3}, including the critical region.

  3. 152. Photocopy of drawing (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    152. Photocopy of drawing (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company Surveyor's Transit Book #363, Page 1). 1912 CONDITION REPORT OF MILNER DAM AREA, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  4. Defect accumulation during channeled erbium implantation into GaN

    SciTech Connect

    Pipeleers, Bert; Hogg, Susan M.; Vantomme, Andre [Instituut voor Kern-en Stralingsfysica, K. U. Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, 3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2005-12-15

    Gallium nitride films epitaxially grown on sapphire, were irradiated at room temperature with 80 keV {sup 166}Er{sup +} or 170 keV {sup 166}Er{sup 2+} ions to fluences ranging from 1x10{sup 13} cm{sup -2} to 1x10{sup 15} cm{sup -2}. The defects induced by ion implantation (as a result of the nuclear energy transfer) generate a perpendicular elastic strain in the hexagonal GaN lattice. The accumulation of lattice damage and lattice deformation were investigated for Er ions impinging along the GaN<0001> axis, i.e., channeled implantation, and compared to random implantation, i.e., the conventional geometry in which the ion beam is tilted 10 deg. off the GaN c axis. For this purpose, Rutherford backscattering and channeling spectrometry and high-resolution x-ray diffraction were used. The defect concentration and the maximum perpendicular strain exhibit the same increasing trend with the ion fluence. Three regimes can be distinguished for both implantation geometries, for low fluences (corresponding to a value below 1 displacement per atom in case of random implantation), the defect concentration remains low due to an effective dynamic annealing process. In the second fluence regime, the defect concentration rises sharply, which is characteristic for nucleation-limited amorphization and finally, a third regime is found where layer-by-layer amorphization of the implanted area starts from the surface. The onset of the steep increase in the case of implantations along the GaN c axis is found at a significantly higher erbium fluence compared to random implantation.

  5. All-fiber phase actuator based on an erbium-doped fiber amplifier for coherent beam combining at 1064 nm.

    PubMed

    Tünnermann, Henrik; Neumann, Jörg; Kracht, Dietmar; Wessels, Peter

    2011-02-15

    Active phase control in fiber amplifiers is of considerable interest for low-noise single-frequency amplifiers and for coherent beam combining. We demonstrate phase control at 1064 nm by use of an erbium-doped fiber. We investigated the phase shift by guiding the beam through an erbium-doped fiber amplifier in a Mach-Zehnder configuration and applied the results to stabilize the relative phase of two ytterbium-doped fiber amplifiers. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of an all-fiber coherent beam combining at 1064 nm employing an erbium-doped fiber as a phase actuator. PMID:21326418

  6. Growth studies of erbium-doped GaAs deposited by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy using noval cyclopentadienyl-based erbium sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redwing, J. M.; Kuech, T. F.; Gordon, D. C.; Vaartstra, B. A.; Lau, S. S.

    1994-01-01

    Erbium-doped GaAS layers were grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy using two new sources, bis(i-propylcyclopentadienyl)cyclopentadienyl erbium and tris(t-butylcyclopentadienyl) erbium. Controlled Er doping in the range of 10(exp 17) - 10(exp 18)/cu cm was achieved using a relatively low source temperature of 90 C. The doping exhibits a second-order dependence on inlet source partial pressure, similar to behavior obtained with cyclopentadienyl Mg dopant sources. Equivalent amounts of oxygen and Er are present in 'as-grown' films indicating that the majority of Er dopants probably exist as Er-O complexes in the material. Er(+3) luminescence at 1.54 micrometers was measured from the as-grown films, but ion implantation of additional oxygen decreases the emission intensity. Electrical compensation of n-type GaAs layers codoped with Er and Si is directly correlated to the Er concentration is proposed to arise from the deep centers associated with Er which are responsible for a broad emission band near 0.90 micrometers present in the photoluminescence spectra of GaAs:Si, Er films.

  7. Erbium-implanted microcavity laser on silicon A. Polman, B. Min, T.J. Kippenberg,

    E-print Network

    Polman, Albert

    ) Define circular structures ( 100 µm) by photolithography and HL etching 4) Etch Si in XeF2 5) CO2 laserErbium-implanted microcavity laser on silicon A. Polman, B. Min, T.J. Kippenberg, J. Kalkman, M of fiber tip Surface-tension smoothing 100 µm Whispering Gallery mode 25 µm Er depth profile -500 0 500

  8. Flat-Gain Wide-Band Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier by Combining Two Difference Doped Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamida, B. A.; Azooz, S. M.; Jasim, A. A.; Eltaif, T.; Ahmad, H.; Khan, S.; Harun, S. W.

    2015-03-01

    A new erbium-doped fibre amplifier (EDFA) is demonstrated using a combination of newly developed Erbium Zirconia co-doped fiber (Zr-EDF) and the commercial silica-based Erbium-doped fiber (Si-EDF) as the gain medium. Both fibers have a very high concentration of erbium ion. A compact amplifier operating in C-band region is firstly reported using a double-pass configuration. It is shown that average gains of the proposed Zr-EDF amplifier are obtained at approximately 18 dB with a gain variation of ±2 dB within C-band region. A flat-gain and wide band operation is achieved by configuring the amplifier in two stages comprising a 2 m long Zr-EDF and 9 m long Si-EDF optimised for C- and L-band operations, respectively, in a double-pass parallel configuration. A chirp fibre Bragg grating (CFBG) is used in both stages to ensure double propagation of the signal and thus to increase the attainable gain in both C- and L-band regions. At an input signal power of 0 dBm, a flat gain of 15 dB is achieved with a gain variation of less than 0.5 dB within a wide wavelength range from 1530 to 1605 nm. The corresponding noise figure varies from 6.2 to 10.8 dB within this wavelength region.

  9. Structural properties and electrical characteristics of electron-beam gun evaporated erbium oxide films

    E-print Network

    Eisenstein, Gadi

    Structural properties and electrical characteristics of electron-beam gun evaporated erbium oxide for publication 3 January 2002 We report properties of Er2O3 films deposited on silicon using electron-beam gun to 700 °C.6 The Er2O3 films we describe were deposited by an electron-beam gun EBG evaporation system

  10. Coupled fiber taper extraction of 1.53 m photoluminescence from erbium doped silicon

    E-print Network

    Vuckovic, Jelena

    Coupled fiber taper extraction of 1.53 m photoluminescence from erbium doped silicon nitride. Kung, W. Qian, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, "Low Vpp, ultralow-energy operating at 10 Gb/s," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(10), 101111 (2006). 5. O. Fidaner, A. K. Okyay, J. E. Roth, R. K

  11. Near-infrared thermal lens spectrometer based on an erbium-doped fiber amplifier and

    E-print Network

    Reid, Scott A.

    Near-infrared thermal lens spectrometer based on an erbium-doped fiber amplifier and an acousto. Tran A novel spectrometer that is based on the use of the thermal lens effect for sensitive be developed. The thermal lens technique is one such possibility. The thermal lens technique is based

  12. Erbium-doped transparent glass ceramic optical Characterization using mass spectroscopy and molecular dynamics modeling.

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Erbium-doped transparent glass ceramic optical fibres: Characterization using mass spectroscopy) doped silica-based optical fibres with transparent glass ceramic (TGC) core were fabricated through amplifiers and laser sources. Keywordst; Optical fibres, Rare-earth-doped materials; Silica; Spectroscopy

  13. Rational harmonic figure-eight actively-passively mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhaoying; Yu, Zhenhong; Gao, Peiliang; Yang, Tianxin; Zhang, Ruifeng; Jia, Dongfang; Li, Shichen

    2003-05-01

    The nonlinear optical loop mirror (NOLM) is used as a saturable absorbed to reshape pulses. Experimentally, an actively mode-locked erbium-doped fiber ring laser with figure-eight structure is set up. 2 ? 4 order harmonic pulse train with stable amplitude has been obtained when the RF modulation frequency is about 2.5 GHz.

  14. Optically injected rational-harmonic mode locking of erbium-doped fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Gong-Ru; Chang, Yung-Cheng

    2002-08-01

    Harmonic and rational-harmonic mode-locking of erbium-doped fiber lasers (EDFLs) with wavelength tunability is achieved by seeding optical pulses from a gain-switched Fabry-Perot laser diode that is feedback-injection controlled with the slave EDFLs via optical circulator.

  15. Performance of a High-Concentration Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifier with 100 nm Amplification Bandwidth

    SciTech Connect

    Hajireza, P.; Shahabuddin, N. S.; Abbasi-Zargaleh, S.; Emami, S. D.; Abdul-Rashid, H. A.; Yusoff, Z. [Center for Advanced Devices and Systems, Faculty of Engineering, Multimedia University, 63100 Cyberjaya (Malaysia)

    2010-07-07

    Increasing demand for higher bandwidth has driven the need for higher Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) channels. One of the requirements to achieve this is a broadband amplifier. This paper reports the performance of a broadband, compact, high-concentration and silica-based erbium-doped fiber amplifier. The amplifier optimized to a 2.15 m long erbium-doped fiber with erbium ion concentration of 2000 ppm. The gain spectrum of the amplifier has a measured amplification bandwidth of 100 nm using a 980 nm laser diode with power of 150 mW. This silica-based EDFA shows lower noise figure, higher gain and wider bandwidth in shorter wavelengths compared to Bismuth-based EDFA with higher erbium ion concentration of 3250 ppm at equivalent EDF length. The silica-based EDF shows peak gain at 22 dB and amplification bandwidth between 1520 nm and 1620 nm. The lowest noise figure is 5 dB. The gain is further improved with the implementation of enhanced EDFA configurations.

  16. Switchable multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber laser with cascaded fiber grating cavities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qinghe Mao; John W. Y. Lit

    2002-01-01

    We propose a new concept to produce switchable multiwavelength oscillations with a cascaded fiber Bragg grating overlapping cavity erbium-doped fiber laser. The laser can be designed to operate in multiwavelength or in wavelength switching modes. The different lines have different thresholds. For three-wavelength oscillation, the output powers are linear or piecewise linear functions of the input pump power. An output

  17. Room-temperature multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber ring laser employing sinusoidal phase-modulation feedback

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kejiang Zhou; Dongyun Zhou; Fengzhong Dong; Nam Quoc Ngo

    2003-01-01

    An effective method for achieving a room-temperature multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber ring laser is presented. Simultaneous multiwavelength lasing with 0.5-nm intervals is achieved both experimentally and theoretically by addition of sinusoidal phase modulation in the ring cavity to prevent single-wavelength oscillation.

  18. Multiwavelength generation in an erbium-doped fiber laser using in-fiber comb filters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jong Chow; Graham Town; Ben Eggleton; Morten Ibsen; Kate Sugden; Ian Bennion

    1996-01-01

    Simultaneous continuous wave multiwavelength operation of an erbium-doped fiber laser has been demonstrated using two types of recently developed in-fiber grating comb filters. The lasing wavelengths and linewidths were determined by the comb filter, which was inserted in a ring cavity with a single inhomogeneously broadened gain medium.

  19. Room temperature multifrequency erbium-doped fiber lasers anchored on the ITU frequency grid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antoine Bellemare; Miroslav Karasek; Martin Rochette; S. LRochelle; Michel Têtu

    2000-01-01

    Room temperature multifrequency erbium-doped fiber (EDF) lasers anchored on the ITU frequency grid and using frequency periodic filters are presented. The multifrequency operation is demonstrated both theoretically and experimentally by adding a frequency shifter in the ring cavity to prevent steady-state laser operation and single-frequency oscillation

  20. Erbium-doped fiber ring laser tuning using an intra-cavity Fabry-Perot filter

    E-print Network

    Malik, Bilal Hameed

    2009-06-02

    A tunable erbium-doped fiber ring laser using an intra-cavity Fabry-Perot filter as the tuning element is investigated. Tuning is achieved by varying the applied voltage which controls the FP cavity length. The laser's wavelength is monitored using...

  1. Selectively Erbium Doped Titanium Diffused Optical Waveguide Amplifiers in Lithium Niobate

    E-print Network

    Suh, Jae Woo

    2011-02-22

    Selectively erbium (Er) doped titanium (Ti) in-diffused optical waveguide amplifiers on lithium niobate (LiNbO3) substrate have been fabricated and characterized in the wavelength regime around ? = 1.53?m using counter-directional pumping at ?P = 1...

  2. Extractable energy from erbium-ytterbium co-doped pulsed fiber amplifiers and lasers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoav Sintov; Yaakov Glick; Tomer Koplowitch; Yehuda Nafcha

    2008-01-01

    An analytic model is developed for evaluating the extractable energy from high energy pulsed erbium-ytterbium co-doped fiber amplifiers and lasers. The energy extraction capabilities under the limitation of spurious lasing, due to amplified spontaneous emission (ASE), are mapped for various numerical apertures, single and multi transverse mode evolution and operating wavelengths. The model provides an assessment for the maximum pulse

  3. Study on double-cladding erbium-ytterbium codoped phosphate glass fiber amplifiers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. L. Huang; H. Y. Chen; Y. Z. Liu; J. Z. Dai; Y. P. Yang; J. Q. Song

    2002-01-01

    A novel double-cladding erbium-ytterbium co-doped fiber amplifier (EYCDFA) based phosphate glass (LGS-L) fabricated by ourselves is theoretically designed. Numerical calculation demonstrates its gain per unit is higher than EYCDFA based on silica glass, and it is promising for the next generation of WDM network with high channel counts.

  4. Gain and noise in ytterbium-sensitized erbium-doped fiber amplifiers: measurements and simulations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Achtenhagen; Robert James Beeson; Feng Pan; Bruce Nyman; Amos Hardy

    2001-01-01

    The fiber gain and noise figure in erbium (Er)-ytterbium (Yb) codoped fiber amplifiers are experimentally studied and theoretically modeled. The different fiber parameters for the model are found in separate characterization measurements. The comparison between the measured and calculated data show excellent agreement. In addition, we demonstrate the design process for a specific cladding-pumped fiber to find the optimum fiber

  5. VISIBLE AND INFRARED RARE-EARTH ACTIVATED ELECTROLUMINESCENCE FROM ERBIUM DOPED GaN

    E-print Network

    Steckl, Andrew J.

    characteristics of Er-doped GaN LEDs emitting in both the visible and IR regions. EXPERIMENT The GaN:Er lightVISIBLE AND INFRARED RARE-EARTH ACTIVATED ELECTROLUMINESCENCE FROM ERBIUM DOPED GaN M. Garter*, R temperature visible and IR light electroluminescence (EL) has been obtained from Er-doped GaN Schottky barrier

  6. Erbium-doped germanium-based sulphide optical waveguide amplifier for near- and mid-IR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Nazabal; P. Camy; P. Nemec; H. Lhermite; J. Charrier; J. L. Doualan; S. Zhang; M. Frumar; J. L. Adam

    2009-01-01

    Due to remarkable properties of the chalcogenide glasses (Chgs), especially sulphide glasses, amorphous chalcogenide films should play a motivating role in the development of integrated planar optical circuits and their components. This paper describes the fabrication and properties of optical waveguides of undoped and erbium doped sulphide films obtained by RF magnetron sputtering and laser ablation (PLD). The deposition parameters

  7. Nonlinear wave mixing in a multilongitudinal-mode erbium-doped fiber laser

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Roy; M. Piché; F. Babin; G. W. Schinn

    2005-01-01

    The emission spectrum of an erbium-doped fiber ring laser is shown to result from the nonlinear wave mixing taking place between the multiple oscillating longitudinal modes. The dependence of the resultant spectral broadening upon the signal power circulating in the laser cavity is investigated both theoretically and experimentally. In the case considered here, the extent of this spectral broadening is

  8. Neutron Total Cross-Section Measurements and Resonance Parameter Analysis of Holmium, Thulium, and Erbium

    E-print Network

    Danon, Yaron

    Neutron Total Cross-Section Measurements and Resonance Parameter Analysis of Holmium, Thulium transmission measurements of rare earth metal samples of holmium, erbium, and thulium and isotopically enriched, and holmium.As shown by Har- ris et al.3 and Jonsson et al.,4 precise knowledge of such capture cross sections

  9. Tunable erbium-doped fiber ring laser using an intra-cavity filter

    E-print Network

    Fadel, Hicham Joseph

    2004-11-15

    Linear tuning the frequency of an erbium-doped fiber ring laser using both a Fabry-Perot filter and an electro-optic tunable filter has been experimentally demonstrated. The rate of frequency change is determined by monitoring the fringes produced...

  10. 7 CFR 457.152 - Hybrid seed corn crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Hybrid seed corn crop insurance provisions. 457.152 Section 457...Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL CROP INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.152 Hybrid...

  11. 7 CFR 457.152 - Hybrid seed corn crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Hybrid seed corn crop insurance provisions. 457.152 Section 457...Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL CROP INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.152 Hybrid...

  12. 7 CFR 457.152 - Hybrid seed corn crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Hybrid seed corn crop insurance provisions. 457.152 Section 457...Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL CROP INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.152 Hybrid...

  13. 7 CFR 457.152 - Hybrid seed corn crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Hybrid seed corn crop insurance provisions. 457.152 Section 457...Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL CROP INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.152 Hybrid...

  14. 16 CFR 6.152 - Program accessibility: Electronic and information technology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...accessibility: Electronic and information technology. 6.152 Section 6.152 Commercial...accessibility: Electronic and information technology. (a) When developing, procuring...or using electronic and information technology, the Commission shall ensure,...

  15. 16 CFR 6.152 - Program accessibility: Electronic and information technology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...accessibility: Electronic and information technology. 6.152 Section 6.152 Commercial...accessibility: Electronic and information technology. (a) When developing, procuring...or using electronic and information technology, the Commission shall ensure,...

  16. 14 CFR 221.152 - Method of withdrawing portion of authority conferred by power of attorney.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...withdrawing portion of authority conferred by power of attorney. 221.152 Section 221...REGULATIONS TARIFFS Giving and Revoking Powers of Attorney to Agents § 221.152 ...withdrawing portion of authority conferred by power of attorney. If a carrier desires...

  17. 14 CFR 221.152 - Method of withdrawing portion of authority conferred by power of attorney.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...withdrawing portion of authority conferred by power of attorney. 221.152 Section 221...REGULATIONS TARIFFS Giving and Revoking Powers of Attorney to Agents § 221.152 ...withdrawing portion of authority conferred by power of attorney. If a carrier desires...

  18. 14 CFR 221.152 - Method of withdrawing portion of authority conferred by power of attorney.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...withdrawing portion of authority conferred by power of attorney. 221.152 Section 221...REGULATIONS TARIFFS Giving and Revoking Powers of Attorney to Agents § 221.152 ...withdrawing portion of authority conferred by power of attorney. If a carrier desires...

  19. 14 CFR 221.152 - Method of withdrawing portion of authority conferred by power of attorney.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...withdrawing portion of authority conferred by power of attorney. 221.152 Section 221...REGULATIONS TARIFFS Giving and Revoking Powers of Attorney to Agents § 221.152 ...withdrawing portion of authority conferred by power of attorney. If a carrier desires...

  20. 14 CFR 221.152 - Method of withdrawing portion of authority conferred by power of attorney.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...withdrawing portion of authority conferred by power of attorney. 221.152 Section 221...REGULATIONS TARIFFS Giving and Revoking Powers of Attorney to Agents § 221.152 ...withdrawing portion of authority conferred by power of attorney. If a carrier desires...

  1. 40 CFR 68.152 - Substantiating claims of confidential business information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... false Substantiating claims of confidential business information. 68.152...68.152 Substantiating claims of confidential business information. (a) An...operator claiming that information is confidential business information must...

  2. 40 CFR 68.152 - Substantiating claims of confidential business information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... false Substantiating claims of confidential business information. 68.152...68.152 Substantiating claims of confidential business information. (a) An...operator claiming that information is confidential business information must...

  3. 40 CFR 68.152 - Substantiating claims of confidential business information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... false Substantiating claims of confidential business information. 68.152...68.152 Substantiating claims of confidential business information. (a) An...operator claiming that information is confidential business information must...

  4. 41 CFR 105-8.152 - Program accessibility: Assignment of space.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    41 Public Contracts and Property Management...Program accessibility: Assignment of space. 105-8.152 Section 105-8.152 Public Contracts and Property Management...accessibility: Assignment of space. (a) When GSA assigns...

  5. 34 CFR 668.152 - Administration of tests by assessment centers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Administration of tests by assessment centers. 668.152 Section... Approval of Independently Administered Tests; Specification of Passing Score; Approval...Process § 668.152 Administration of tests by assessment centers. (a) If...

  6. 19 CFR 12.152 - Prohibitions and conditions on the importation and exportation of rough diamonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...on the importation and exportation of rough diamonds. 12.152 Section 12.152 Customs Duties...on the importation and exportation of rough diamonds. (a) General. The Clean Diamond Trade Act (Pub. L. 108-19)...

  7. 40 CFR 152.95 - Citation of all studies in the Agency's files pertinent to a specific data requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Agency's files pertinent to a specific data requirement. 152.95 Section 152...PROCEDURES Procedures To Ensure Protection of Data Submitters' Rights § 152.95 Citation...Agency's files pertinent to a specific data requirement. An applicant normally...

  8. 40 CFR 152.95 - Citation of all studies in the Agency's files pertinent to a specific data requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Agency's files pertinent to a specific data requirement. 152.95 Section 152...PROCEDURES Procedures To Ensure Protection of Data Submitters' Rights § 152.95 Citation...Agency's files pertinent to a specific data requirement. An applicant normally...

  9. 40 CFR 152.95 - Citation of all studies in the Agency's files pertinent to a specific data requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...in the Agency's files pertinent to a specific data requirement. 152.95 Section 152.95 Protection...AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Satisfaction of Data Requirements and Protection of Data Submitters' Rights § 152.95 Citation...

  10. 40 CFR 152.95 - Citation of all studies in the Agency's files pertinent to a specific data requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Agency's files pertinent to a specific data requirement. 152.95 Section 152...PROCEDURES Procedures To Ensure Protection of Data Submitters' Rights § 152.95 Citation...Agency's files pertinent to a specific data requirement. An applicant normally...

  11. 40 CFR 152.95 - Citation of all studies in the Agency's files pertinent to a specific data requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Agency's files pertinent to a specific data requirement. 152.95 Section 152...PROCEDURES Procedures To Ensure Protection of Data Submitters' Rights § 152.95 Citation...Agency's files pertinent to a specific data requirement. An applicant normally...

  12. A dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser based on fiber grating pair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hongwei; Wang, Tianshu; Jia, Qingsong; Zhang, Peng; Jiang, Huilin

    2014-12-01

    A dual-wavelength linear cavity erbium-doped fiber (EDF) laser based on a fiber grating pair is demonstrated experimentally. A circulator, a 980nm/1550nm wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) coupler, a 1×2 coupler, a polarization controller, a 6m long erbium-doped fiber and a fiber grating pair for wavelength interval of 0.3nm are included in the structure. A circulator connected at two ports as reflecting mirror structure. A 980nm pump source pump an erbium-doped fiber with a length of 6m consist of an erbium doped fiber amplifier. Through adjusting the state of the polarization controller, the transmission characteristic of cavity is changed. In both polarization and wavelength, the feedback from the fiber grating pair results in the laser operating on two longitudinal modes that are separated. The birefringence induced by the fiber grating pair is beneficial to diversify the polarization states of different wavelength in the erbium-doped fiber. So it is enhanced the polarization hole burning effect. This polarization hole burning effect greatly reduced the wavelength competition. Then, it was possible to achieve stable dual-wavelength. It turns out the structure generated the stable dual-wavelength with the 0.3nm wavelength interval and the output power is 0.13dBm in the end. The whole system have a simple and compact structure, it can work stably and laid a foundation for microwave/millimeter wave generator. It has a good application performance in the future for scientific research and daily life.

  13. 40 CFR 721.2580 - C.I. Disperse Red 152 (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false C.I. Disperse Red 152 (generic). 721.2580 Section...Substances § 721.2580 C.I. Disperse Red 152 (generic). (a) Chemical substance...identified generically as C.I. disperse red 152 (PMN P-97-820) is subject...

  14. 33 CFR 167.152 - Off New York: Eastern approach, off Nantucket.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Off New York: Eastern approach, off Nantucket. 167.152 Section 167.152 Navigation... Atlantic East Coast § 167.152 Off New York: Eastern approach, off Nantucket. (a) A separation zone is...

  15. 40 CFR 721.2580 - C.I. Disperse Red 152 (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false C.I. Disperse Red 152 (generic). 721.2580 Section...Substances § 721.2580 C.I. Disperse Red 152 (generic). (a) Chemical substance...identified generically as C.I. disperse red 152 (PMN P-97-820) is subject...

  16. 40 CFR 721.2580 - C.I. Disperse Red 152 (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false C.I. Disperse Red 152 (generic). 721.2580 Section...Substances § 721.2580 C.I. Disperse Red 152 (generic). (a) Chemical substance...identified generically as C.I. disperse red 152 (PMN P-97-820) is subject...

  17. 40 CFR 721.2580 - C.I. Disperse Red 152 (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false C.I. Disperse Red 152 (generic). 721.2580 Section...Substances § 721.2580 C.I. Disperse Red 152 (generic). (a) Chemical substance...identified generically as C.I. disperse red 152 (PMN P-97-820) is subject...

  18. 40 CFR 721.2580 - C.I. Disperse Red 152 (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false C.I. Disperse Red 152 (generic). 721.2580 Section...Substances § 721.2580 C.I. Disperse Red 152 (generic). (a) Chemical substance...identified generically as C.I. disperse red 152 (PMN P-97-820) is subject...

  19. 27 CFR 31.152 - Requirements as to wines and beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... false Requirements as to wines and beer. 31.152 Section 31.152 Alcohol...31.152 Requirements as to wines and beer. Every wholesale dealer in liquors who receives wines, or wines and beer, and every wholesale dealer in...

  20. Comparison of the erbium-yttrium aluminum garnet and carbon dioxide lasers for in vitro bone and cartilage ablation

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, C.; van de Merwe, W.P.; Smith, M.; Reinisch, L. (Uniformed Services Univ. of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The in vitro bone- and cartilage-ablation characteristics of the solid-state erbium:yttrium aluminum garnet laser were compared to those of the carbon dioxide laser. Ablations of fresh, frozen cadaver septal cartilage and maxillary sinus bone were performed using total energies between 1 and 6 J. Specimens were studied using hematoxylin and eosin stain and digitized, computer-assisted measurements of 35-mm photographs. Erbium-yttrium aluminum garnet-ablated bone averaged 5 microns of adjacent tissue thermal injury, compared with 67 microns with carbon dioxide-ablated bone. Erbium-yttrium aluminum garnet-ablated cartilage averaged 2 microns of adjacent tissue thermal injury, compared with 21 microns with the carbon dioxide-ablated cartilage. The tissue-ablation characteristics of the erbium-yttrium aluminum garnet laser are promising for future otolaryngologic applications.

  1. Erbium-doped GaAs\\/AlGaAs quantum wells and normal mode coupling of semiconductor microcavities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric Karl Lindmark

    1997-01-01

    This dissertation investigated two different types of semiconductor heterostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy. The first were erbium-doped GaAs\\/AlGaAs quantum well structures with concentrations of Er in the range of 10sp{17}-2×10sp{19}\\\\ cmsp{-3}. Photoluminescence (PL) of Ersp{3+} ions and Er-induced defects were studied at liquid helium and higher temperatures. A strong diffusion of erbium and interdiffusion of gallium and aluminum ions

  2. Sub-100 fs mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser using a 45-tilted fiber grating

    E-print Network

    Turitsyn, Sergei K.

    Sub-100 fs mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser using a 45°-tilted fiber grating Zuxing Zhang demonstrate generation of sub-100 fs pulses at 1.5 µm in a mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser using a 45°-tilted fiber grating element. The laser features a genuine all-fiber configuration. Based on the unique

  3. Note: Optical receiver system for 152-channel magnetoencephalography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jin-Mok; Kwon, Hyukchan; Yu, Kwon-kyu; Lee, Yong-Ho; Kim, Kiwoong

    2014-11-01

    An optical receiver system composing 13 serial data restore/synchronizer modules and a single module combiner converted optical 32-bit serial data into 32-bit synchronous parallel data for a computer to acquire 152-channel magnetoencephalography (MEG) signals. A serial data restore/synchronizer module identified 32-bit channel-voltage bits from 48-bit streaming serial data, and then consecutively reproduced 13 times of 32-bit serial data, acting in a synchronous clock. After selecting a single among 13 reproduced data in each module, a module combiner converted it into 32-bit parallel data, which were carried to 32-port digital input board in a computer. When the receiver system together with optical transmitters were applied to 152-channel superconducting quantum interference device sensors, this MEG system maintained a field noise level of 3 fT/?Hz @ 100 Hz at a sample rate of 1 kSample/s per channel.

  4. MAXI J1659-152: Swift localization and monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennea, J. A.; Krimm, H.; Mangano, V.; Curran, P.; Romano, P.; Evans, P.; Burrows, D. N.

    2010-09-01

    We report on Swift monitoring of the newly discovered Galactic Transient source MAXI J1659-152 (Negoro et al, 2010, ATEL #2873; Mangano et al., 2010, GCN #11296). MAXI J1659-152 was first detected in the Swift/BAT hard X-ray transient monitor on September 24th, 2010 at a low significance. The 15-50 keV flux then rose sharply to 0.033 +/- 0.012 ct/s/cm^2 (150 mCrab) on September 25th, 2010. The count rate continues to rise, although more slowly, and is now 0.046 +/- 0.003 ct/s/cm^2 (~200 mCrab).

  5. High-performance air-stable n-type carbon nanotube transistors with erbium contacts.

    PubMed

    Shahrjerdi, Davood; Franklin, Aaron D; Oida, Satoshi; Ott, John A; Tulevski, George S; Haensch, Wilfried

    2013-09-24

    So far, realization of reproducible n-type carbon nanotube (CNT) transistors suitable for integrated digital applications has been a difficult task. In this work, hundreds of n-type CNT transistors from three different low work function metals-erbium, lanthanum, and yttrium-are studied and benchmarked against p-type devices with palladium contacts. The crucial role of metal type and deposition conditions is elucidated with respect to overall yield and performance of the n-type devices. It is found that high oxidation rates and sensitivity to deposition conditions are the major causes for the lower yield and large variation in performance of n-type CNT devices with low work function metal contacts. Considerable improvement in device yield is attained using erbium contacts evaporated at high deposition rates. Furthermore, the air-stability of our n-type transistors is studied in light of the extreme sensitivity of these metals to oxidation. PMID:24006886

  6. Cavity-dumped 2.70 ?m erbium laser using optomechanical shutter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Young Ho; Won Lee, Dong; Kong, Hong Jin; Kim, Yeong Sik

    2008-12-01

    A cavity-dumped 2.70 ?m erbium laser with a frustrated total internal reflection (FTIR) shutter was investigated and compared with a Q-switched erbium laser using the FTIR shutter. The Q-switched and the cavity-dumped 2.70 ?m laser outputs were obtained with a dichroic coated mirror with high reflectance at 2.70 ?m and high transmittance at 2.79 ?m. For the Q-switched operation, a maximum peak power of 33.5 kW was achieved, and its pulse width was 1.3 ?s. For the cavity-dumped operation, the laser pulse energy was optimized by changing the switching time of the FTIR shutter. When the pulse width is reduced to 210 ns, the peak power increases to 154 kW.

  7. Invariant bandwidth of erbium in ZnO-PbO-tellurite glasses: Local probe/model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramamoorthy, Raj Kumar; Bhatnagar, Anil K.

    2014-04-01

    A series of [(70TeO2-(30-x)ZnO-xPbO)0.99-(Er2O3)0.01; where x = 5, 10, 15 and 20] tellurite glasses, were prepared using the melt quenching technique. Crucial emission bandwidth of erbium at 1.5 ?m has been derived and found to be the same for all the glasses, irrespective of PbO content. This identical bandwidth in all tellurite glasses is attributed to the presence of erbium in tellurium rich disordered environments. This result has been complemented through XANES spectra and the obtained invariant first shell of 6.5 oxygen atoms, confirm the unchanged environment in these glasses for all PbO content.

  8. Passively mode-locked laser using an entirely centred erbium-doped fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, H.; Semangun, Julian M.; Azzuhri, Saaidal R.; Zulkifli, M. Z.; Awang, N. A.; Harun, S. W.

    2015-04-01

    This paper describes the setup and experimental results for an entirely centred erbium-doped fiber laser with passively mode-locked output. The gain medium of the ring laser cavity configuration comprises a 3?m length of two-core optical fiber, wherein an undoped outer core region of 9.38??m diameter surrounds a 4.00??m diameter central core region doped with erbium ions at 400?ppm concentration. The generated stable soliton mode-locking output has a central wavelength of 1533?nm and pulses that yield an average output power of 0.33?mW with a pulse energy of 31.8?pJ. The pulse duration is 0.7?ps and the measured output repetition rate of 10.37?MHz corresponds to a 96.4?ns pulse spacing in the pulse train.

  9. CMOS-compatible 75 mW erbium-doped distributed feedback laser.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Ehsan Shah; Purnawirman; Bradley, Jonathan D B; Sun, Jie; Leake, Gerald; Adam, Thomas N; Coolbaugh, Douglas D; Watts, Michael R

    2014-06-01

    On-chip, high-power, erbium-doped distributed feedback lasers are demonstrated in a CMOS-compatible fabrication flow. The laser cavities consist of silicon nitride waveguide and grating features, defined by wafer-scale immersion lithography and an erbium-doped aluminum oxide layer deposited as the final step in the fabrication process. The large mode size lasers demonstrate single-mode continuous wave operation with a maximum output power of 75 mW without any thermal damage. The laser output power does not saturate at high pump intensities and is, therefore, capable of delivering even higher on-chip signals if a stronger pump is utilized. The amplitude noise of the laser is investigated and the laser is shown to be stable and free from self-pulsing when the pump power is sufficiently above threshold. PMID:24875988

  10. 1.54 micron Emission from Erbium implanted GaN for Photonic Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaik, Myo; Hommerich, U.; Schwartz, R. N.; Wilson, R. G.; Zavada, J. M.

    1998-01-01

    The development of efficient and compact light sources operating at 1.54 micron is of enormous importance for the advancement of new optical communication systems. Erbium (1%) doped fiber amplifiers (EDFA's) or semiconductor lasers are currently being employed as near infrared light sources. Both devices, however, have inherent limitations due to their mode of operation. EDFA's employ an elaborate optical pumping scheme, whereas diode lasers have a strongly temperature dependent lasing wavelength. Novel light emitters based on erbium doped III-V semiconductors could overcome these limitations. Er doped semiconductors combine the convenience of electrical excitation with the excellent luminescence properties of Er(3+) ions. Electrically pumped, compact, and temperature stable optoelectronic devices are envisioned from this new class of luminescent materials. In this paper we discuss the potential of Er doped GaN for optoelectronic applications based on temperature dependent photoluminescence excitation studies.

  11. Erbium-ytterbium-yttrium compounds for light emission at 1.54microm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanhoutte, Michiel

    Silicon microphotonics? has emerged as the leading technology to overcome the interconnect bottleneck that limits a further increase of computation power following Moore's law. Optical interconnects between different electronic microprocessors in an electronic-photonic integrated circuit (EPIC) can provide a fast, low-loss and highbandwidth alternative to electrical interconnects, which suffer from issues such as resistive heating, RC delays and channel crosstalk at an increasing device density. A crucial device in such an electronic-photonic integrated circuit is a compact, highgain and low power optical amplifier to compensate for signal attenuation due to propagation losses and to recover signal strength after subsequent 3dB splits during fanout of the optical signal to different microprocessors. Erbium ions (Er3+) are an excellent candidate to provide amplification around .. = 1.54pm for optical telecommunications. Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFAs) have already enabled long-haul optical data. transmission through silica optical fibers, but scaling down a fiber amplifier to an on-chip erbium-doped waveguide amplifier (EDWA) brings along significant materials and device design challenges. In this thesis, erbium-ytterbium oxide (Erx Yb2-xO 3) and erbium-ytterbium-yttrium silicate (ErxYhyY 2-x-ySi2O7) compounds are investigated as novel materials systems for the development of EDWAs. The high erbium and ytterbium solubility (>1022 cm-3) and refractive index (1.71 < n < 1.92) make these materials excellent candidates for compact, low-power optical amplifiers. Erx Yb2-xO 3 and ErxYhyY2-x-ySi2O 7 thin films were deposited on SiO2 and analyzed structurally and optically. The role of ytterbium in these compounds is twofold. First, ytterbium can be used as an alternative to yttrium for dilution of the erbium concentration in order to mitigate parasitic concentration quenching effects. Second, ytterbium acts as a sensitizer for erbium during optical pumping at lambda = 980nm. Comparison of the different oxide and silicate thin films reveals that the alpha-disilicate phase is the best candidate for an EDWA gain medium pumped at lambda = 980nm. By means of rate and propagation equations, the composition of an Er xYhyY2-x-ySi2O7 gain medium was optimized for application as a 3dB EDWA. The optimal composition was found to be Er0.025Yb0.200Yb0.200Y1.775Si 2O7, which provides a 1.5dB/cm gain at only 3mW of pump power. In terms of the figure of merit 3dB gain/(device area ? pump power), this material outperforms other EDWA materials reported in literature. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, libraries.mit.edu/docs - docs mit.edu)

  12. Measurement of Activation Cross Sections of Erbium Irradiated by Proton Beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, T. Y.; Kim, J. W.; Kim, H. I.; Lee, C. W.; Lee, Y. O.; Yang, S. C.; Kim, K. S.; Kim, G. N.

    2014-05-01

    Erbium is one of the rare earth elements which are used to produce therapeutic radioisotopes by charged particle induced reactions, such as proton, deuteron and alpha particle-induced reactions. In this study, production cross sections of 165Tm and 166Tm were measured for erbium samples irradiated by a proton beam with E=45 MeV provided by the MC-50 cyclotron of KIRAMS (Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences). A HPGe detector was used to measure ?-rays for an activation cross section measurement. A stacked foil technique was adopted to measure the activation cross sections at different proton energies using copper foils as degraders and monitor foils to measure the proton beam current. The SRIM code was used to calculate the energy of the proton beam penetrating each foil. The measured data are compared with other available experimental data and theoretical cross sections calculated by TALYS code.

  13. Actively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber ring laser with a nanosecond ceramic optical switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lü, Xiaoying; Han, Qun; Liu, Tiegen; Chen, Yaofei; Ren, Kun

    2014-11-01

    An actively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser with a fiber-pigtailed nanosecond ceramic optical switch is experimentally investigated in this paper. Firstly, the ceramic optical switch was systematically characterized. Then, it was used to actively Q-switch an all-fiber erbium-doped fiber ring laser. Stable Q-switching laser pulses with a repetition rate from 2?kHz–40?kHz were achieved. The minimum pulse width was measured to be ~25?ns at 2?kHz when pumped at 150?mW, and the corresponding maximum peak power was ~2.9?W. Multi-peak pulses were observed at low repetition rates and the reasons for these were analyzed. This study shows that a nanosecond ceramic switch can be used as a good Q switch due to its low insertion loss, high on/off ratio, ultrafast response, and low electrical power consumption.

  14. Invariant bandwidth of erbium in ZnO-PbO-tellurite glasses: Local probe/model

    SciTech Connect

    Ramamoorthy, Raj Kumar [School of Engineering Sciences and Technology, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad-500046 (India); Bhatnagar, Anil K., E-mail: anilb42@gmail.com [School of Engineering Sciences and Technology, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad-500046, India and School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabd-500046 (India)

    2014-04-24

    A series of [(70TeO{sub 2}?(30?x)ZnO?xPbO){sub 0.99}?(Er{sub 2}O{sub 3}){sub 0.01}; where x = 5, 10, 15 and 20] tellurite glasses, were prepared using the melt quenching technique. Crucial emission bandwidth of erbium at 1.5 ?m has been derived and found to be the same for all the glasses, irrespective of PbO content. This identical bandwidth in all tellurite glasses is attributed to the presence of erbium in tellurium rich disordered environments. This result has been complemented through XANES spectra and the obtained invariant first shell of 6.5 oxygen atoms, confirm the unchanged environment in these glasses for all PbO content.

  15. Dynamic Fano-like resonances in erbium-doped whispering-gallery-mode microresonators

    SciTech Connect

    Lei, Fuchuan [State Key Laboratory of Low-dimensional Quantum Physics and Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Department of Electrical and Systems Engineering, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri 63130 (United States); Peng, Bo; Özdemir, ?ahin Kaya, E-mail: ozdemir@ese.wustl.edu; Yang, Lan, E-mail: yang@ese.wustl.edu [Department of Electrical and Systems Engineering, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri 63130 (United States); Long, Gui Lu [State Key Laboratory of Low-dimensional Quantum Physics and Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2014-09-08

    We report Fano-like asymmetric resonances modulated by optical gain in a whispering-gallery-mode resonator fabricated from erbium-doped silica. A time-dependent gain profile leads to dynamically varying sharp asymmetric resonances with features similar to Fano resonances. Depending on the scan speed of the frequency of the probe laser and the pump-probe power ratio, transmission spectra of the active microcavity exhibit a resonance dip, a resonance peak, or a Fano-like resonance.

  16. Self-similar erbium-doped fiber laser with large normal dispersion

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hui; Liu, Zhanwei; Lamb, Erin S.; Wise, Frank

    2014-01-01

    We report a large normal dispersion erbium-doped fiber laser with self-similar pulse evolution in the gain fiber. The cavity is stabilized by the local nonlinear attractor in the gain fiber through the use of a narrow filter. Experimental results are accounted for by numerical simulations. This laser produces 3.5 nJ pulses, which can be dechirped to 70 fs with an external grating pair. PMID:24562267

  17. Optical memory bandwidth and multiplexing capacity in the erbium telecommunication window

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dajczgewand, J.; Ahlefeldt, R.; Böttger, T.; Louchet-Chauvet, A.; Le Gouët, J.-L.; Chanelière, T.

    2015-02-01

    We study the bandwidth and multiplexing capacity of an erbium-doped optical memory for quantum storage purposes. We concentrate on the protocol revival of a silenced echo because it has the largest potential multiplexing capacity. Our analysis is applicable to other protocols that involve strong optical excitation. We show that the memory performance is limited by instantaneous spectral diffusion and we describe how this effect can be minimized to achieve optimal performance.

  18. Ring cavity multi-wavelength Brillouin-erbium fiber laser utilizing a fiber Bragg grating filter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. N. Mohd Nasir; Z. Yusoff; M. H. Al-Mansoori; H. A. Abdul Rashid; P. K. Choudhury

    2008-01-01

    An efficient multi-wavelength Brillouin-erbium fiber laser in a ring cavity is presented. Up to 31 Brillouin Stokes lines with SNR of more than 20 dB could be generated from the experimental setup which utilizes a broadband fiber Bragg grating filter as the cavity feedback. Only 0.2 dBm of Brillouin pump and 70 mW of the 980 nm LD powers were

  19. The gain and noise figure improvement of reflection L-band erbium-doped fiber amplifier

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hongyun Meng; Weiqing Gao; Yange Liu; Hao Zhang; Chunliu Zhao; Shuzhong Yuan; Xiaoyi Dong; Songhao Liu

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, a novel configuration of reflection L-band erbium-doped fiber amplifier (L-EDFA) via inserting a 980 nm pump laser diode (LD) in the input part was constructed. By selecting appropriate power ratio of the 980 and 1480 nm pump LD, gain and noise figure (NF) of the L-EDFA are greatly improved in different degree in the wavelength region from

  20. Reflection L-band erbium-doped fiber-amplifier-based fiber loop mirror

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hongyun Meng; Songhao Liu; Xiaoyi Dong

    2005-01-01

    We constructed a reflection L-band erbium-doped fiber amplifier based on fiber loop mirror, which reflects the backward ASE to the EDF as a secondary pumping source. A gain of 30 dB increased 6 dB compared to the forward end-pumped EDFA has been achieved in the wavelength region from 1570 to 1603 nm. In order to improve the gain and NF

  1. Near-IR imaging of Erbium Laser Ablation with a Water Spray.

    PubMed

    Darling, Cynthia L; Maffei, Marie E; Fried, William A; Fried, Daniel

    2008-01-20

    Near-IR (NIR) imaging can be used to view the formation of ablation craters during laser ablation since the enamel of the tooth is almost completely transparent near 1310-nm(1). Laser ablation craters can be monitored under varying irradiation conditions to assess peripheral thermal and transient-stress induced damage, measure the rate and efficiency of ablation and provide insight into the ablation mechanism. There are fundamental differences in the mechanism of enamel ablation using erbium lasers versus carbon dioxide laser systems due to the nature of the primary absorber and it is necessary to have water present on the tooth surface for efficient ablation at erbium laser wavelengths. In this study, sound human tooth sections of approximately 2-3-mm thickness were irradiated by free running and Q-switched Er:YAG & Er:YSGG lasers under varying conditions with and without a water spray. The incision area in the interior of each sample was imaged using a tungsten-halogen lamp with a band-pass filter centered at 1310-nm combined with an InGaAs area camera with a NIR zoom microscope. Obvious differences in the crater evolution were observed between CO(2) and erbium lasers. Ablation stalled after a few laser pulses without a water spray as anticipated. Efficient ablation was re-initiated by resuming the water spray. Micro-fractures were continuously produced apparently driven along prism lines during multi-pulse ablation. These fractures or fissures appeared to merge together as the crater evolved to form the leading edge of the ablation crater. These observations support the proposed thermo-mechanical mechanisms of erbium laser involving the strong mechanical forces generated by selective absorption by water. PMID:21892255

  2. Near-IR imaging of erbium laser ablation with a water spray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darling, Cynthia L.; Maffei, Marie E.; Fried, William A.; Fried, Daniel

    2008-02-01

    Near-IR (NIR) imaging can be used to view the formation of ablation craters during laser ablation since the enamel of the tooth is almost completely transparent near 1310-nm1. Laser ablation craters can be monitored under varying irradiation conditions to assess peripheral thermal and transient-stress induced damage, measure the rate and efficiency of ablation and provide insight into the ablation mechanism. There are fundamental differences in the mechanism of enamel ablation using erbium lasers versus carbon dioxide laser systems due to the nature of the primary absorber and it is necessary to have water present on the tooth surface for efficient ablation at erbium laser wavelengths. In this study, sound human tooth sections of approximately 2-3-mm thickness were irradiated by free running and Q-switched Er:YAG & Er:YSGG lasers under varying conditions with and without a water spray. The incision area in the interior of each sample was imaged using a tungsten-halogen lamp with a band-pass filter centered at 1310-nm combined with an InGaAs area camera with a NIR zoom microscope. Obvious differences in the crater evolution were observed between CO2 and erbium lasers. Ablation stalled after a few laser pulses without a water spray as anticipated. Efficient ablation was re-initiated by resuming the water spray. Micro-fractures were continuously produced apparently driven along prism lines during multi-pulse ablation. These fractures or fissures appeared to merge together as the crater evolved to form the leading edge of the ablation crater. These observations support the proposed thermo-mechanical mechanisms of erbium laser involving the strong mechanical forces generated by selective absorption by water.

  3. Room Temperature Photoluminescence from Erbium in Silica by Evaporation and Thermal Oxidation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hossein Alizadeh; Wahid Shams-Kolahi; Li Qian; Nazir P. Kherani; Stefan Zukotynski

    2008-01-01

    Room temperature photoluminescence (PL) at 1.54 mum from erbium-doped silicon rich silicon oxide (ErSRSO) films, fabricated on fused quartz by thermal evaporation followed by thermal-annealing in air, is reported. PL measurements show maximum intensity in samples annealed at 1000 °C for 4 h. X-ray diffraction (XRD) structural analyses show that annealing caused the formation of active Er3+ (Er2O3) centers. XRD

  4. Effects of ion pairs on the dynamics of erbium-doped fiber lasers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    François Sanchez; Patrice Le Boudec; Pierre-Luc François; Guy Stephan

    1993-01-01

    Experiments with erbium-doped fiber lasers demonstrate cw, sinusoidal, and self-pulsing operation. The obtained regimes depend on three control parameters: ion-pair concentration, photon lifetime, and pumping rate. We present a theoretical model which describes the active medium as a mixture of isolated ions and ion pairs. Starting with the adapted laser rate equations we show that the description of the dynamical

  5. Dispersion-managed dark solitons in erbium-doped fiber lasers

    E-print Network

    Han Zhang; Dingyuan Tang; Mustapha Tlidi; Luming Zhao; Xuan Wu

    2010-07-19

    We report on the observation of dispersion-managed (DM) dark soliton emission in a net-normal dispersion erbium-doped fiber laser. We found experimentally that dispersion management could not only reduce the pump threshold for the dark soliton formation in a fiber laser, but also stabilize the single dark soliton evolution in the cavity. Numerical simulations have also confirmed the DM dark soliton formation in a fiber laser.

  6. 24-line multiwavelength operation of erbium-doped fiber-ring laser

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul F. Wysocki

    1996-01-01

    Simultaneous lasing at up to 24 wavelengths is demonstrated in an erbium-doped fiber-ring laser using a simple design. This result is achieved using a low-loss cavity, controlled polarization evolution and liquid nitrogen cooling to enhance spectral hole-burning, polarization hole-burning, and polarization selectivity. The design does not include any wavelength-selective components; instead, it utilizes wavelength selectivity provided by polarization evolution in

  7. Room temperature light emitting silicon diodes fabricated by erbium ion implantation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Franzo; F. Priolo; S. Coffa; A. Polman; A. Carnera

    1995-01-01

    In this work we report the fabrication and characteristics of light emitting erbium-doped Si diodes operating at room temperature (RT). These devices were prepared by multiple high energy Er implantation in the active region of a p+-n+ Si diode. Oxygen or fluorine implantation in the Er-doped region was also performed in order to properly modify the Er3+ chemical surrounding. Electroluminescence

  8. Biomimetic synthesis of chiral erbium-doped silver/peptide/silica core-shell nanoparticles (ESPN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantion, Alexandre; Graf, Philipp; Florea, Ileana; Haase, Andrea; Thünemann, Andreas F.; Maši?, Admir; Ersen, Ovidiu; Rabu, Pierre; Meier, Wolfgang; Luch, Andreas; Taubert, Andreas

    2011-12-01

    Peptide-modified silver nanoparticles have been coated with an erbium-doped silica layer using a method inspired by silica biomineralization. Electron microscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering confirm the presence of an Ag/peptide core and silica shell. The erbium is present as small Er2O3 particles in and on the silica shell. Raman, IR, UV-Vis, and circular dichroism spectroscopies show that the peptide is still present after shell formation and the nanoparticles conserve a chiral plasmon resonance. Magnetic measurements find a paramagnetic behavior. In vitro tests using a macrophage cell line model show that the resulting multicomponent nanoparticles have a low toxicity for macrophages, even on partial dissolution of the silica shell.Peptide-modified silver nanoparticles have been coated with an erbium-doped silica layer using a method inspired by silica biomineralization. Electron microscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering confirm the presence of an Ag/peptide core and silica shell. The erbium is present as small Er2O3 particles in and on the silica shell. Raman, IR, UV-Vis, and circular dichroism spectroscopies show that the peptide is still present after shell formation and the nanoparticles conserve a chiral plasmon resonance. Magnetic measurements find a paramagnetic behavior. In vitro tests using a macrophage cell line model show that the resulting multicomponent nanoparticles have a low toxicity for macrophages, even on partial dissolution of the silica shell. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Figures S1 to S12, Tables S1 and S2. See DOI: 10.1039/c1nr10930h

  9. Characterisation of hydrogen and erbium in carbon layers fabricated by PACVD for optical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macková, A.; Pe?ina, V.; Hnatowicz, V.; Nekvindová, P.; Prajzler, V.; Hüttel, I.; Špirková, J.

    2002-04-01

    Carbon films prepared by plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition were doped by laser active ion Er 3+. The characterisation of the layers was performed using Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and elastic recoil detection analysis. Optical properties of the waveguides were measured at 660 nm wave length using standard prism spectroscopy. The correlation between the layer composition and the content of incorporated erbium and layer optical properties shows very interesting aspects [SPIE 4281, San Jose (2001) 13].

  10. X-ray diffraction study of elemental erbium to 70 GPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pravica, Michael G.; Romano, Edward; Quine, Zachary

    2005-12-01

    We have investigated phase transitions in elemental erbium in a diamond anvil cell (DAC) up to 70GPa using angular-dispersive x-ray powder diffraction methods. We present evidence of a series of phase transitions that appear to follow the anticipated hcp?Sm-type?doublehcp(dhcp)?distorted fcc sequence. In particular, we present evidence for the predicted dhcp?distorted fcc transition above 63GPa . Equation of state data are also presented up to 70GPa .

  11. Amplification of spontaneous emission in erbium-doped single-mode fibers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emmanuel Desurvire; JAY R. SIMPSON

    1989-01-01

    Amplification of spontaneous emission (ASE) in erbium-doped single-mode fiber amplifiers operating at ?=1.53 ?m is studied theoretically and experimentally. The ASE noise spectra obtained from the theory are found to be in excellent quantitative agreement with the experimental data. The observed changes in ASE spectral shapes under different population inversion conditions are also explained. The model may be used to

  12. Long-wavelength erbium-doped fiber amplifier gain enhanced by ASE end-reflectors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Nilsson; S. Y. Yun; S. T. Hwang; J. M. Kim; S. J. Kim

    1998-01-01

    We use for what we believe is the first time narrow-band end-reflectors to reduce losses through short-wavelength amplified stimulated emission (ASE) in silica-based erbium-doped fiber amplifiers operating at wavelengths above 1570 mm. The end-reflectors feed a small fraction of the ASE, up to a few tenths of a milliwatt, back into the amplifying fiber. The reflected ASE compresses the short-wavelength

  13. High output power Erbium-Ytterbium doped cladding pumped fiber amplifier

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. W. Harun; M. R. A. Moghaddam; H. Ahmad

    2010-01-01

    The performance of a high output power Erbium-Ytterbium doped fiber amplifier (EYDFA) pumped by a 927 nm laser diode are proposed\\u000a and experimentally investigated. The EYDFA provides a flat gain and output power higher than 23 dBm in the wavelength region\\u000a from 1545 to 1566 nm using a double-pass configuration. A broadband fiber Bragg grating is used in the double-pass

  14. High output power Erbium-Ytterbium doped cladding pumped fiber amplifier

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. W. Harun; M. R. A. Moghaddam; H. Ahmad

    2010-01-01

    The performance of a high output power Erbium-Ytterbium doped fiber amplifier (EYDFA) pumped by a 927 nm laser diode are proposed and experimentally investigated. The EYDFA provides a flat gain and output power higher than 23 dBm in the wavelength region from 1545 to 1566 nm using a double-pass configuration. A broadband fiber Bragg grating is used in the double-pass

  15. Integrated optics erbium ytterbium amplifier system in 10 Gb\\/s fiber transmission experiment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J.-M. P. Delavaux; S. Granlund; O. Mizuhara; L. D. Tzeng; D. Barbier; M. Rattay; F. S. Andre; A. Kevorkian

    1996-01-01

    We report the full characterization of a pigtailed erbium-ytterbium co-doped planar glass waveguide laser amplifier module. With a single 980 nm diode pump, this ion-exchanged 4.5 cm long device delivers signal gain of 16.5 dB, noise figure of 4.5 dB, and saturated power of a 12.5 dBm. To confirm its stability, we tested this module as a power booster in

  16. Generation and Amplification of Ultrashort Pulses in Erbium-Doped Optical Fibers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michelle Lynn Stock

    1994-01-01

    Erbium-doped optical fiber is used in order to create and amplify picosecond to sub-picosecond pulses at the technologically significant wavelength of 1.55 mum in the third communications window. The waveguide properties of optical fiber are exploited in order to utilize near-instantaneous nonlinear effects such as cross- and self-phase modulation for the creation of frequency and amplitude modulation necessary for pulse

  17. Experimental and theoretical studies on ytterbium sensitized erbium-doped fiber amplifier

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. R. A. Moghaddam; S. W. Harun; R. Parvizi; Z. S. Salleh; H. Arof; A. Lokman; H. Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    The performance of a high power erbium–ytterbium doped fiber amplifier (EYDFA) is investigated experimentally and theoretically. The EYDFA provides a flat gain with an output power higher than 23dBm in the wavelength region from 1541 to 1565nm using a multimode pumping at 927nm. In the theoretical analysis, the rate and power propagation equations are solved to examine the effect of

  18. Integrated optics erbium-ytterbium amplifier system in 10Gb\\/s fiber transmission experiment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J.-M. P. Delavaux; S. Granlund; O. Mizuhara; L. D. Tzeng; D. Barbier; M. Rattay; F. St. Andre; A. Kevorkian

    1997-01-01

    We report the full characterization of a pigtailed erbium-ytterbium codoped planar glass waveguide amplifier module. With a single 980-nm diode pump, this ion-exchanged 4.5-cm-long device delivers a signal gain of 16.5 dB, a noise figure of 5 dB, and a saturated output power of 12.5 dBm. To verify its practicality and stability, we tested this module as a power booster

  19. Mid-infrared optical parametric oscillator synchronously pumped by an erbium-doped fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Haakestad, Magnus W; Fonnum, Helge; Arisholm, Gunnar; Lippert, Espen; Stenersen, Knut

    2010-11-22

    A mid-infrared synchronously pumped optical parametric oscillator pumped by a femtosecond erbium-doped fiber laser is demonstrated and characterised. The idler is tunable from 3.7-4.7 ?m, with a maximum average power of 37 mW and a pulse length of ? 480 fs at 4 ?m. We compare the experimental results with numerical results based on an extensive simulation model. PMID:21164886

  20. Single-longitudinal-mode operation in tunable novel zirconia–yttria–alumina–erbium-doped fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, H.; Thambiratnam, K.; Paul, M. C.; Harun, S. W.

    2014-08-01

    A tunable, single-longitudinal-mode (SLM) fiber laser based on a short length, highly doped zirconia–erbium doped fiber (Zr-EDF) is proposed and demonstrated. The Zr-EDF is a novel fiber with an erbium ion concentration of 4320?ppm?wt???1 and an absorption rate of approximately 22.0?dB?m???1 at 978?nm, while at the same time being highly compatible with conventional silica-based optical fibers. The Zr-EDF is used as the gain medium in the laser cavity, while a tunable C-band fiber Bragg grating is used to adjust the operating wavelength of the system, providing an operating wavelength range of between 1533.8?nm to 1545.0?nm. Two short erbium-doped fibers, with active ion concentrations of 900?ppm?wt???1, serve as saturable absorbers, and allow for an SLM output with a narrow laser linewidth of only 0.2?MHz. The proposed system has multiple applications as a tunable SLM laser for communications and sensing purposes.

  1. Investigation of the Structural Evolution of Erbium Ditritide Films using Accelerator Based (Spallation) Neutron Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browning, James F.; Mangan, Michael A.; Blankenship, Dale M.; Smith, Gregory S.; Hjelm, Rex P.; Bond, Gillian M.

    2003-03-01

    The trapping and behavior of helium-3 in metal-tritide systems is of interest both from a fundamental perspective as well as a broad range of applications. In the erbium ditritide system, helium-3 is generated due to the beta decay of tritium. It is well known that much of the helium generated does not readily diffuse from the hydride system but becomes trapped or bound in low energy sites within the crystal such as interstices, defects, etc. Due to its limited solubility, helium tends to cluster at these sites subsequently forming high-density, high-pressure bubbles. Helium-3 bubble formation and kinetics in erbium ditritide is poorly understood. Our goal, in these investigations, is to elucidate the behavior of radiogenically produced helium-3 in thin films of erbium ditritide. We will present preliminary small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and neutron reflectometry results from thin films of ErT_2-xHex which suggest the periodic formation of helium bubbles along specific crystallographic planes. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  2. Lanthanide Recognition: an Asymetric Erbium Microsensor Based on a Hydrazone Derivative

    PubMed Central

    Faridbod, Farnoush; Ganjali, Mohammad Reza; Larijani, Bagher; Norouzi, Parviz; Riahi, Siavash; Mirnaghi, Fatemeh Sadat

    2007-01-01

    N'-(2-hydroxy-1,2-diphenylethylidene)benzohydrazide (HDB) was found to have a very selective and sensitive behavior towards erbium(III) ions, in comparison to thirteen lanthanide ions, inner transition and representative metal ions and was hence used as a neutral ion carrier in construction of an Er(III) microelectrode. Theoretical calculations and conductance studies of HDB to erbium and some other metal ions were carried out and confirmed selectivity toward Er(III) ions. The best performance was obtained with a membrane contain 3% potassium tetrakis(p-chlorophenyl)borate (KTpClPB) as an anionic additive, 72% dibutyl phthalate (DBP) as solvent mediator, 5% HDB, and 20% poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC). The proposed Er(III) microelectrode exhibits a near Nernstian response of 17.5±0.5 mV per decade of erbium activity, and a very wide linear range 1.0×10-3-3.0×10-10 M. It can work well in the pH range of 3.0-9.0. The lower detection limit (LDL) of the microelectrode was calculated to be 2.0×10-10 M.

  3. Pairing mechanism in interaction of atomic hydrogen with epitaxial erbium silicide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louis, P.; Angot, T.; Bolmont, D.; Gewinner, G.

    1999-02-01

    Hydrogen desorption from two-dimensional (2D) and bulk-like (3D) erbium silicides on Si(111) has been investigated by means of thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) and high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS). By TDS, hydrogen is found to desorb as a single feature with a maximum in temperature located at 620 K on 2D silicide, whereas two desorption peaks at 460 K and 615 K, respectively, are measured on 3D silicide. These spectra are analyzed in the frame of the formulation developed by Redhead, and compared with hydrogen desorption from a monohydride Si(111) surface. On erbium silicide films, first-order kinetics is always observed in sharp contrast with the second-order kinetics measured for hydrogen desorption from the Si(111) surface. This remarkable behavior can be understood in terms of a pairing mechanism in which, for stability reasons, the H chemisorption sites appear in the form of pairs that contain either 0 (empty pair) or 2 (filled pair) H atoms. Using HREELS, two kinds of hydrogen chemisorption sites were identified prior to desorption. It is deduced that the features at 460 K on 3D and at 620 K on 2D erbium silicides are clearly related to concomitant hydrogen chemisorbed on the top layer silicon dangling bonds and in an interstitial site of the Er layer beneath. In contrast, the desorption peak at 615 K on bulk-like silicide is assigned to hydrogen absorption in bulk sites of the subsurface region.

  4. Effect of niobium oxide introduction on erbium luminescence in borophosphate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petit, L.; Cardinal, T.; Videau, J. J.; Durand, E.; Canioni, L.; Martines, M.; Guyot, Y.; Boulon, G.

    2006-02-01

    The role of the addition of niobium oxide in large amount on the Er 3+ emission properties at 1535 nm for excitation at 980 nm in borophosphate glass has been investigated. An increase of the emission, associated with a decrease of the lifetime of the 4I 13/2 erbium level and a larger absorption cross section of erbium and ytterbium at 980 nm was evidenced. Changes induced on hydroxyl groups absorption with addition of Nb 2O 5 in glasses was clearly shown by IR Spectroscopy in the range 2500-3700 cm -1. The relationship between erbium luminescence at 1535 nm, Nb 2O 5 concentration and OH group nature in niobium borophosphate glasses has been discussed. A fluorination treatment, conducted to reduce the OH group content, has allowed the reduction of the absorption coefficient at 3000 cm -1 by half. Amplification measured at 1535 nm has confirmed the beneficial effect of the Nb 2O 5 introduction on the gain and has been found to be in accordance with the evolution of the luminescence properties.

  5. Photocopy of copy of blueprint between pages 151 and 152 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of copy of blueprint between pages 151 and 152 in completion report and history of the U.S.A. General hospital no. 21, compiled and edited under the direction of Major W.J. Cameron, by T.R. Wieger, Chief Engineer. The report was dated April 1, 1919. A copy of the report (4003/14/29) is at the National Archives, military records (floor 13 W), Washington, D.C. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Bounded by East Colfax to south, Peoria Street to west, Denver City/County & Adams County Line to north, & U.S. Route 255 to east, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  6. MAXI J1659-152 fading in optical

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, D. M.; Lewis, F.; Schreuder, L.; Yang, Y. J.; Wijnands, R.; Tripp, A.

    2011-07-01

    It was recently reported that the black hole candidate X-ray binary MAXI J1659-152 has faded to an X-ray flux (0.5-10 keV) of < 3.0e-13 ergs cm-2 s-1 (ATel #3506). This implies the source may be in quiescence after an outburst that lasted almost one year (GCN #11296, ATel #2873) including a late re-brightening in the last three months (ATels #3298, #3339, #3358, #3379). Here we report on recent optical observations with the two 2-m Faulkes Telescopes North and South (see ATel #2884).

  7. INTEGRAL TOO observations of MAXI J1659-152

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuulkers, E.; Kouveliotou, C.; Chenevez, J.; van der Horst, A. J.

    2010-09-01

    INTEGRAL observed the recently discovered X-ray transient MAXI J1659-152 (Negoro et al. 2010, ATel #2873; Mangano et al. 2010, GCN #11296) from UT 27 September 19:04 to 29 September 2010 09:04 (i.e., simultaneous with the XMM-Newton observations, Kuulkers et al. 2010, ATel #2887) for a total exposure of 100 ksec. During the first ~58 ksec exposure the source was about 180 mCrab (20-40 keV) and 110 mCrab (40-80 keV) as seen with IBIS/ISGRI.

  8. Optical variability in MAXI J1659-152

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, D. M.; Lewis, F.; Bersier, D.; Cano, Z.; Gandhi, P.; Patruno, A.; Kalamkar, M.; Yang, Y. J.; Altamirano, D.; Casella, P.; Linares, M.; Padilla, M. Armas; Cavecchi, Y.; Degenaar, N.; Kaur, R.; van der Klis, M.; Watts, A.; Wijnands, R.; Rea, N.

    2010-09-01

    The newly identified black hole candidate X-ray binary MAXI J1659-152 (ATel #2873, #2881, GCN #11307), originally designated GRB100925A (GCN #11296) has now been detected at radio (ATel #2874), sub-mm (GCN #11304), optical (GCN #11298, #11301, #11302, #11305, #11306, #11307, #11308, #11314) and X-ray (GCN #11296, ATel #2875, #2877) wavelengths. Here we report a brightening of the optical counterpart since the outburst began and short-timescale (minutes) variability characteristic of a black hole transient in outburst.

  9. XMM-Newton observations of MAXI J1659-152

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuulkers, E.; Kouveliotou, C.; van der Horst, A. J.

    2010-09-01

    XMM-Newton observed the recently discovered X-ray transient MAXI J1659-152 (Negoro et al. 2010, ATel #2873; Mangano et al. 2010, GCN #11296) from UT 27 September 2010 15:58 to 28 September 2010 06:41 for a total exposure of 53 ksec. We see an extremely bright source in the EPIC-pn (0.15-15 keV) CCD. A quick-look analysis reveals an estimate on the source count rate of more than 2000 counts/s, based on the raw light curves, which roughly translates to more than 0.2 Crab.

  10. Sudden radio flux decline in MAXI J1659-152

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Horst, A. J.; Linford, J. D.; Taylor, G. B.; Paragi, Z.; Lundgren, A.; de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Belloni, T. M.; Kuulkers, E.; Granot, J.; Kouveliotou, C.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; Garrett, M. A.

    2010-10-01

    We have continued observations of the black-hole candidate MAXI J1659-152 (GCN 11296, ATel #2873, ATel #2881) at radio and sub-millimeter wavelengths with the WSRT, EVLA, ATCA, e-VLBI, VLBA and APEX (for initial detections see GCN 11304, ATel #2874, ATel #2906). The source flux has been evolving for a week at levels between 5 and 15 mJy, but dropped below 0.6 mJy on 8 October at all wavelengths. Quenching of the radio emission has been often observed in X-ray binaries before the occurrence of strong radio flaring, during which discrete relativistic ejecta may appear.

  11. MAXI J1659-152 is a BH candidate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalamkar, M.; Yang, Y.; Altamirano, D.; Casella, P.; Linares, M.; Patruno, A.; Armas-Padilla, M.; Cavecchi, Y.; Degenaar, N.; Russell, D.; Kaur, R.; van der Klis, M.; Watts, A.; Wijnands, R.; Rea, N.

    2010-09-01

    We report on a pointed RXTE/PCA observation of the transient source MAXI J1659-152 (Atel #2873,#2874,#2875,#2877,#2880 GCN #11296,#11299, #11307 - initially referred to as GRB 100925A). The observation started on 28th September 2010 at 00:51:10 UT, for a total integration time of ~ 16 ks. We find strong variability in the X-ray light curve (average of ~520 cnts/sec/PCU in the 2-60 keV range). The fractional rms amplitude in the 0.01-100 Hz frequency range is 23.7(6)%.

  12. In-flight fast-timing measurements in Sm152

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plaisir, C.; Gaudefroy, L.; Méot, V.; Blanc, A.; Daugas, J. M.; Roig, O.; Arnal, N.; Bonnet, T.; Gobet, F.; Hannachi, F.; Tarisien, M.; Versteegen, M.; Roger, T.; Rejmund, M.; Navin, A.; Schmitt, C.; Fremont, G.; Goupil, J.; Pancin, J.; Spitaels, C.; Zieli?ska, M.

    2014-02-01

    We report on the first application of in-flight fast-timing measurements, a method developed in order to directly measure lifetimes in the picosecond to nanosecond range. As a proof of principle of the method, lifetimes of the states belonging to the ground-state band in Sm152 are measured up to the 81+ state. An excellent agreement with recommended values is found. A slightly improved determination of the spectroscopic quadrupole moment of the 41+ state is also reported. In-flight fast-timing measurements open interesting opportunities for future studies of collective properties in radioactive nuclei.

  13. MicroRNA-152 targets ADAM17 to suppress NSCLC progression.

    PubMed

    Su, Yunshu; Wang, Yuchang; Zhou, Hongmin; Lei, Lei; Xu, Lijun

    2014-05-21

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding RNAs that have been suggested to play an essential role in tumorigenesis. In this study, we show that miR-152 is significantly downregulated in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tissues and cell lines. Restoration of miR-152 significantly reduces proliferation, colony formation, migration and invasion of NSCLC cells. In addition, ADAM metallopeptidase domain 17 (ADAM17) is identified as a target of miR-152 in NSCLC cells, and miR-152-induced suppression of cell proliferation, colony formation, migration and invasion is partially mediated by silencing of ADAM17 expression. Furthermore, ADAM17 inversely correlates with miR-152 in NSCLC tissues. Collectively, our findings indicate that miR-152 acts as tumor suppressor in NSCLC partially via targeting ADAM17. PMID:24780186

  14. Q? Measurements of Neutron-Rich Isotopes in the Mass Region 147?A?152

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikuta, Tomohiko; Taniguchi, Akihiro; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Kawade, Kiyoshi; Kawase, Yoichi

    1995-09-01

    The systematic Q? measurements of 14 neutron-rich nuclei in the mass region from A=147 to A=152 have been performed with an HPGe detector. Neutron rich nuclei were mass separated from the thermal neutron induced fission of 235U using a He-jet type on-line isotope separator which has been developed at the Kyoto University Reactor (KUR). From ?-ray singles and ?-? coincidence measurements, the Q? values of 147La, 147-150Ce, 147-152Pr, 152Nd and 152Pm have been determined. The Q? values of 152Pr and 152Nd have been measured for the first time. The atomic masses derived from the Q? values are compared with the predictions of theoretical mass calculations.

  15. MiR-152 suppresses the proliferation and invasion of NSCLC cells by inhibiting FGF2

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Zhenshun; Ma, Rongli; Tan, Weijun; Zhang, Li

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate the proliferation and metastasis of cancer cells. Here, we showed that miR-152 was downregulated in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tissues and cell lines. Overexpression of miR-152 suppressed cell proliferation and colony formation and also limited migration and invasion. Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) was confirmed as a direct target of miR-152. FGF2 knockdown suppressed cell proliferation, colony formation, migration and invasion, whereas FGF2 overexpression partially reversed the suppressive effect of miR-152. Furthermore, the presence of miR-152 was inversely correlated with FGF2 in NSCLC tissues. Overall, this study demonstrated that miR-152 suppressed the proliferation and invasion of NSCLC cells by downregulating FGF2. These findings provide novel insights with potential therapeutic applications for the treatment of NSCLC. PMID:25190353

  16. IEEE PHOTONICS TECHNOLOGY LETTERS, VOL. 17, NO. 2, FEBRUARY 2005 297 La-Codoped Bismuth-Based Erbium-Doped Fiber

    E-print Network

    Wai, Ping-kong Alexander

    IEEE PHOTONICS TECHNOLOGY LETTERS, VOL. 17, NO. 2, FEBRUARY 2005 297 La-Codoped Bismuth lasers using 84.6-cm-long lanthanum-codoped bismuth-based erbium doped fiber and a narrow-band tunable)-codoped bismuth-based erbium-doped fiber (Bi-EDF), laser tuning, microelectromechanical system (MEMS) filter. I

  17. 40 GHz actively mode-locked erbium-doped fiber ring laser using an electro-absorption modulator and a linear optical amplifier

    E-print Network

    Wai, Ping-kong Alexander

    40 GHz actively mode-locked erbium-doped fiber ring laser using an electro-absorption modulator, Hong Kong Abstract: We demonstrated a 40-GHz actively mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser OCIS codes: (140.4050) mode-locked lasers; (060.2320) fiber optics amplifiers and oscillators; (060

  18. 250 OPTICS LETTERS / Vol. 29, No. 3 / February 1, 2004 Phase-locked, erbium-fiber-laser-based frequency comb in the

    E-print Network

    Washburn, Brian

    250 OPTICS LETTERS / Vol. 29, No. 3 / February 1, 2004 Phase-locked, erbium-fiber-laser-locked frequency comb in the near infrared is demonstrated with a mode-locked, erbium-doped, fiber laser whose rf signal with a fiber stretcher in the laser cavity and by control of the pump laser power

  19. 10 GHz actively mode-locked erbium-doped fiber ring laser using an electro-absorption modulator and a linear optical amplifier

    E-print Network

    Wai, Ping-kong Alexander

    10 GHz actively mode-locked erbium-doped fiber ring laser using an electro-absorption modulator, Hung Hom, Hong Kong Abstract: We demonstrated a 10-GHz actively mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser.4050) mode-locked lasers; (060.2320) fiber optics amplifiers and oscillators; (060.2330) fiber optics

  20. Passive mode locking in erbium fiber lasers with negative group delay M. E. Fermann, M. J. Andrejco, M. L. Stock,a) Y. Silberberg, and A. M. Weiner

    E-print Network

    Purdue University

    Passive mode locking in erbium fiber lasers with negative group delay M. E. Fermann, M. J. Andrejco are generated in passively mode-locked erbium fiber lasers with small negative group-velocity dispersion these intense experimental efforts, passively mode- locked Er fiber lasers are still suffering from a number

  1. Measurements of the intensity noise of a broadly tunable, erbium-do fiber ring laser, relative to the standard quantum limit

    E-print Network

    Park, Namkyoo

    Measurements of the intensity noise of a broadly tunable, erbium-do fiber ring laser, relative-Perot erbium-doped fiber laser has recently emerged as a potential candidate for communication systemsB of the SQL throughout a 24 nm tuning range. The fiber laser configuration is similar to that described in Ref

  2. IEEE JOURNAL OF SELECTED TOPICS IN QUANTUM ELECTRONICS, VOL. 3, NO. 4, AUGUST 1997 1065 Short Cavity Erbium/Ytterbium Fiber Lasers

    E-print Network

    Bergman, Keren

    Cavity Erbium/Ytterbium Fiber Lasers Mode-Locked with a Saturable Bragg Reflector Brandon C. Collings, W. Y. Jan, M. Koch, and W. H. Knox Abstract-- We present short cavity erbium/ytterbium fiber lasers-doped fiber amplifiers and soliton pulse propagation is supported. To be practical, these sources must

  3. Optimizing the pumping configuration for the power scaling of in-band pumped erbium doped fiber amplifiers.

    PubMed

    Lim, Ee-Leong; Alam, Shaif-ul; Richardson, David J

    2012-06-18

    A highly efficient (~80%), high power (18.45 W) in-band, core pumped erbium/ytterbium co-doped fiber laser is demonstrated. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest reported efficiency from an in-band pumped 1.5 µm fiber laser operating in the tens of watts regime. Using a fitted simulation model, we show that the significantly sub-quantum limit conversion efficiency of in-band pumped erbium doped fiber amplifiers observed experimentally can be explained by concentration quenching. We then numerically study and experimentally validate the optimum pumping configuration for power scaling of in-band, cladding pumped erbium doped fiber amplifiers. Our simulation results indicate that a ~77% power conversion efficiency with high output power should be possible through cladding pumping of current commercially available pure Erbium doped active fibers providing the loss experienced by the cladding guided 1535 nm pump due to the coating absorption can be reduced to an acceptable level by better coating material choice. The power conversion efficiency has the potential to exceed 90% if concentration quenching of erbium ions can be reduced via improvements in fiber design and fabrication. PMID:22714454

  4. CEP152 is a genome maintenance protein disrupted in Seckel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kalay, Ersan; Yigit, Gökhan; Aslan, Yakup; Brown, Karen E; Pohl, Esther; Bicknell, Louise S; Kayserili, Hülya; Li, Yun; Tüysüz, Beyhan; Nürnberg, Gudrun; Kiess, Wieland; Koegl, Manfred; Baessmann, Ingelore; Buruk, Kurtulus; Toraman, Bayram; Kayipmaz, Saadettin; Kul, Sibel; Ikbal, Mevlit; Turner, Daniel J; Taylor, Martin S; Aerts, Jan; Scott, Carol; Milstein, Karen; Dollfus, Helene; Wieczorek, Dagmar; Brunner, Han G; Hurles, Matthew; Jackson, Andrew P; Rauch, Anita; Nürnberg, Peter; Karagüzel, Ahmet; Wollnik, Bernd

    2011-01-01

    Functional impairment of DNA damage response pathways leads to increased genomic instability. Here we describe the centrosomal protein CEP152 as a new regulator of genomic integrity and cellular response to DNA damage. Using homozygosity mapping and exome sequencing, we identified CEP152 mutations in Seckel syndrome and showed that impaired CEP152 function leads to accumulation of genomic defects resulting from replicative stress through enhanced activation of ATM signaling and increased H2AX phosphorylation. PMID:21131973

  5. High spin single particle states in 152,153Er

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horn, D.; Young, G. R.; Lister, C. J.; Baktash, C.

    1981-03-01

    A spectroscopic investigation of yrast and near-yrast states in 152Er and 153Er is presented. We report measurements of prompt and delayed excitation functions, ?-? coincidences, isomeric lifetimes, and ?-ray angular distribution, obtained chiefly from the reactions 144Sm(12C,xn)152,153Er using carbon beams of laboratory energy 65-95 MeV. The levels observed extend to a spin of J>=432 and include two long-lived isomers in 153Er. The nuclear structure is discussed in terms of the shell model and compared with the systematic behavior of levels in N=84 and N=85 isotones. NUCLEAR REACTIONS 144Sm(12C,xn) E=65-95 MeV; 144Sm(11B,xn) E=40-70 MeV; 124Te(32S,xn) E=125-155 MeV. Measured I?(E,t), I?(?), ?-?(t). Deduced level sequences, T12, J?. Continuous and pulsed beams, enriched targets, Ge(Li) detectors, NaI(Tl) multiplicity filter.

  6. Complete fusion in 7Li+144,152Sm reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rath, P. K.; Santra, S.; Singh, N. L.; Nayak, B. K.; Mahata, K.; Palit, R.; Ramachandran, K.; Pandit, S. K.; Parihari, A.; Pal, A.; Appannababu, S.; Sharma, Sushil K.; Patel, D.; Kailas, S.

    2013-10-01

    Complete fusion cross sections for 7Li+144,152Sm reactions have been measured at energies around the Coulomb barrier by offline ?-counting technique. Measured cross sections for the above two reactions are found to be similar at energies well above the Coulomb barrier, however, at sub-barrier energies the cross sections for the 7Li+152Sm system are much higher compared to the 7Li+144Sm system, manifesting the effect of target deformation. Cross sections for the present reactions at above-barrier energies are found to be larger than previously measured reactions involving 6Li projectile with the same targets, possibly due to smaller breakup probability of 7Li than 6Li. Coupled-channels calculations show that the experimental fusion cross sections for both the systems are enhanced at subbarrier energies and suppressed at above-barrier energies compared to the respective one-dimensional barrier penetration model predictions. The calculations by different models show that the measured complete fusion cross sections at above-barrier energies are suppressed up to ˜25% compared to the theoretical predictions. It also reveals that a large part of the suppression could be due to inelastic and transfer coupling.

  7. Six direct methods for standardisation of 152Eu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansson, L.; Altzitzoglou, T.; Sibbens, G.; Denecke, B.; Reher, D. F. G.

    2003-08-01

    In the course of the past 40 years, IRMM has developed a large number of direct methods for the accurate standardisation of radionuclide solutions, all providing traceability to the SI unit. Six different measurement methods were employed to standardise a 152Eu solution in the frame of a BIPM key comparison: 4??(PPC)-?-coincidence counting, using a modified version of the 'Funck' pressurised proportional counter (Ar-CH 4) for counting the electrons and low-energy photons, and a 15×15 cm NaI(Tl) well crystal for counting the ?-rays; 4??(PPC)-?-sum counting using the same equipment as above; 4??-?-coincidence counting, using a 2D shaped proportional counter (Kr-CH 4) sandwiched between two 7.5×7.5 cm 2 NaI(Tl) crystals; 4?? counting, using a 15×15 cm 2 NaI(Tl) well crystal; 4?CsI(Tl) counting; Liquid scintillation counting (LSC) using the CIEMAT/NIST method. The methods will be described and compared, with emphasis on their strengths and weaknesses. In the case of 152Eu, we were able to achieve a standard deviation of the weighted mean of 0.14% among all methods, or 0.11% when excluding the LSC result.

  8. 16 CFR 6.152 - Program accessibility: Electronic and information technology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...accessibility: Electronic and information technology. 6.152 Section 6...accessibility: Electronic and information technology. (a) When developing...or using electronic and information technology, the Commission...

  9. Surface segregation effects of erbium in GaAs growth and their implications for optical devices containing ErAs nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Crook, Adam M.; Nair, Hari P.; Bank, Seth R. [University of Texas at Austin, Microelectronics Research Center, 10100 Burnet Rd. Bldg. 160, Austin, Texas 78758 (United States)

    2011-03-21

    We report on the integration of semimetallic ErAs nanoparticles with high optical quality GaAs-based semiconductors, grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Secondary ion mass spectrometry and photoluminescence measurements provide evidence of surface segregation and incorporation of erbium into layers grown with the erbium cell hot, despite the closed erbium source shutter. We establish the existence of a critical areal density of the surface erbium layer, below which the formation of ErAs precipitates is suppressed. Based upon these findings, we demonstrate a method for overgrowing ErAs nanoparticles with III-V layers of high optical quality, using subsurface ErAs nanoparticles as a sink to deplete the surface erbium concentration. This approach provides a path toward realizing optical devices based on plasmonic effects in an epitaxially-compatible semimetal/semiconductor system.

  10. Specific features of the mechanisms of excitation of erbium photoluminescence in epitaxial Si:Er/Si structures

    SciTech Connect

    Yablonskiy, A. N., E-mail: yablonsk@ipm.sci-nnov.ru; Andreev, B. A.; Krasilnikova, L. V.; Kryzhkov, D. I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Physics of Microstructures (Russian Federation); Kuznetsov, V. P. [Nizhni Novgorod State University, Physicotechnical Research Institute (Russian Federation); Krasilnik, Z. F. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Physics of Microstructures (Russian Federation)

    2010-11-15

    The excitation spectra and kinetics of erbium photoluminescence and silicon interband photoluminescence in Si:Er/Si structures under conditions of high-intensity pulse optical excitation are studied. It is shown that, in the interband photoluminescence spectra of the Si:Er/Si structures, both the luminescence of free excitons and the emission associated with the electron-hole plasma can be observed, depending on the excitation power and wavelength. It is found that the formation of a peak in the erbium photoluminescence excitation spectra at high pumping powers correlates with the Mott transition from the exciton gas to the electron-hole plasma. It is demonstrated that, in the Si:Er/Si structures, the characteristic rise times of erbium photoluminescence substantially depend on the concentration of charge carriers.

  11. (DRAFT) NIST Special Publication 800-152 A Profile for U. S. Federal

    E-print Network

    (DRAFT) NIST Special Publication 800-152 A Profile for U. S. Federal Cryptographic Key Management Publication 800-152 A Profile for U. S. Federal Cryptographic Key Management Systems Elaine Barker Computer has been developed by NIST to further its statutory responsibilities under the Federal Information

  12. NIST SPECIAL PUBLICATION 260-152 U. S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE/Technology Administration

    E-print Network

    necessarily the best available for the purpose. According to ISO 31-8, the term "Molecular Mass" has been identified are necessarily the best available for the purpose. National Institute of Standards and Technology Special Publication 260-152 Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. Spec. Publ. 260-152, 51 pages (November 2003

  13. 47 CFR 69.152 - End user common line for price cap local exchange carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false End user common line for price cap local exchange carriers. 69.152...ACCESS CHARGES Computation of Charges for Price Cap Local Exchange Carriers § 69.152 End user common line for price cap local exchange...

  14. 29 CFR 1952.152 - Completion of developmental steps and certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Completion of developmental steps and certification. 1952.152 Section...1952.152 Completion of developmental steps and certification. (a) In accordance...before March 31, 1976 all development steps specified in the plan as approved on...

  15. An hybrid organic inorganic approach to erbium-functionalized nanodots for emission in the telecom window

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Quang, A. Q.; Zyss, J.; Ledoux, I.; Truong, V. G.; Jurdyc, A.-M.; Jacquier, B.; Le, D. H.; Gibaud, A.

    2005-11-01

    A new class of hybrid materials for efficient laser emission and amplification in the 1.55 ?m eye-safe telecommunication window has been designed, elaborated and characterized, based on lanthanide-doped yttrium oxide nanoparticle guests embedded in a polymer host matrix. The average size of these nanocrystals can be finely tuned by controlling the relative quantities of an organic fuel (glycine) with respect to the yttrium- and lanthanide-containing reactants involved in the combustion reaction leading to nanoparticle synthesis. Two complementary sensitizers have been added to Er/Y 2O 3 nanocrystals in order to improve the Erbium luminescence efficiency: cerium to increase population inversion between the emitting and the ground state by accelerating the de-excitation process from the 4I 11/2 initially uppermost excited state at 980 nm down to 4I 13/2 state emitting around 1.55 ?m, and ytterbium to improve the pumping efficiency of the material owing to its strong absorption cross section at 980 nm and subsequent efficient energy transfer towards the 4I 11/2 state of erbium ion. Y 2O 3 nanoparticles with an optimized erbium-ytterbium composition have been incorporated in a PMMA polymer matrix, resulting in a hybrid amorphous material displaying high gain coefficient values (up to 30 cm -1 as from Amplified Spontaneous Emission experiments) upon moderate 980 nm pumping intensities. These materials open attractive perspectives in the domain of polymer-based telecom amplifiers, with the additional asset of multifunctional properties whereby gain originating from the inorganic Y 2O 3 nanocrystals can be associated to nonlinear responses attached to an adequately functionalized polymer host matrix.

  16. LD-pumped erbium and neodymium lasers with high energy and output beam quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabanov, Vladimir V.; Bezyazychnaya, Tatiana V.; Bogdanovich, Maxim V.; Grigor'ev, Alexandr V.; Lebiadok, Yahor V.; Lepchenkov, Kirill V.; Ryabtsev, Andrew G.; Ryabtsev, Gennadii I.; Shchemelev, Maxim A.

    2013-05-01

    Physical and fabrication peculiarities which provide the high output energy and beam quality for the diode pumped erbium glass and Nd:YAG lasers are considered. Developed design approach allow to make passively Q-switched erbium glass eye-safe portable laser sources with output energy 8 - 12 mJ (output pulse duration is less than 25 ns, pulse repetition rate up to 5 Hz) and beam quality M2 less than 1.3. To reach these values the erbium laser pump unit parameters were optimized also. Namely, for the powerful laser diode arrays the optimal near-field fill-factor, output mirror reflectivity and heterostructure properties were determined. Construction of advanced diode and solid-state lasers as well as the optical properties of the active element and the pump unit make possible the lasing within a rather wide temperature interval (e.g. from minus forty till plus sixty Celsius degree) without application of water-based chillers. The transversally pumped Nd:YAG laser output beam uniformity was investigated depending on the active element (AE) pump conditions. In particular, to enhance the pump uniformity within AE volume, a special layer which practically doesn't absorb the pump radiation but effectively scatters the pump and lasing beams, was used. Application of such layer results in amplified spontaneous emission suppression and improvement of the laser output beam uniformity. The carried out investigations allow us to fabricate the solid-state Nd:YAG lasers (1064 nm) with the output energy up to 420 mJ at the pulse repetition rate up to 30 Hz and the output energy up to 100 mJ at the pulse repetition rate of of 100 Hz. Also the laser sources with following characteristics: 35 mJ, 30 Hz (266 nm); 60 mJ, 30 Hz (355 nm); 100 mJ, 30 Hz (532 nm) were manufactured on the base of the developed Nd:YAG quantrons.

  17. Performance characterization of new erbium-doped fibers using MCVD nanoparticle doping process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boivin, David; Pastouret, Alain; Burov, Ekaterina; Gonnet, Cédric; Cavani, Olivier; Lempereur, Simon; Sillard, Pierre

    2011-02-01

    In 2009, we introduced a new doping concept involving Al2O3/rare-earth nanoparticles (NP) in a MCVD-compatible process finding potential applications in Erbium-, Ytterbium- or Erbium-Ytterbium-doped fiber amplifiers and lasers.1 This approach, motivated by the need for increased efficiencies and improved attributes, is characterized by the ability to control the rare-earth ion environment independently from the core composition. The NP matrix can therefore be viewed as an optimized sub-micronic amplifying medium for the embedded rareearth ion. The first experimental evidence to support this idea is reported in a comparative study with a standard process2 where homogeneous up-conversion (HUC) and pair-induced quenching (PIQ) levels are extracted from Er3+ unsaturable absorption measurements. NP-based fibers are found to mitigate the effects of the Er3+ concentration increase seen in standard heavily-doped fibers. This conclusion is particularly clear when focusing on the HUC coefficient evolution since, for a given type of NP, its level is independent from the Er3+ concentration in the doped zone. In this paper, we address our most recent work completing these preliminary results. First, we investigate the quenching signature of a new NP design and its behavior when incorporated in different core matrices. The interplay is further analysed by relating this set of measurements to practical EDFA performances. Gain and noise characteristics of typical WDM amplifiers operating points serve as key benchmarking indicators to identify the benefits of NP Erbium-doped fibers in the wide variety of EDFAs implementations.

  18. Erbium-doped germanium-based sulphide optical waveguide amplifier for near- and mid-IR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazabal, V.; Camy, P.; Nemec, P.; Lhermite, H.; Charrier, J.; Doualan, J. L.; Zhang, S.; Frumar, M.; Adam, J. L.

    2009-05-01

    Due to remarkable properties of the chalcogenide glasses (Chgs), especially sulphide glasses, amorphous chalcogenide films should play a motivating role in the development of integrated planar optical circuits and their components. This paper describes the fabrication and properties of optical waveguides of undoped and erbium doped sulphide films obtained by RF magnetron sputtering and laser ablation (PLD). The deposition parameters were adjusted to obtain, from sulphide glass targets with a careful control of their purity, layers with appropriate compositional, morphological, structural characteristics and optical properties. A transmission loss of 0.8 dB/cm can be obtained for rib waveguides produced by dry etching under CF4 plasma (4-300 ?m wide, 5.5 ?m film thickness, 1.5 ?m etched thickness). The photo-luminescence of erbium doped Ge20Ga5Sb10S65 films were clearly observed in the n-IR and mid-IR spectral domain. The study of their decay lifetime with a well adapted annealing treatment controlling the roughness variation reached value of the bulk counterpart. Amplification tests were carried out leading to a complete characterisation of the Erbium doped waveguide. Gain on/off of 4.4 dB (3.4 dB/cm) were achieved for a signal at 1.54 ?m in multiple modes sulphide:Er waveguides. The first demonstration of photoluminescence in mid-IR in an Er3+- doped Chg waveguide could potentially be employed to produce sources or amplifiers operating in the mid-IR.

  19. Photoluminescence of porous silicon stain etched and doped with erbium and ytterbium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz-Herrera, B.; González-Díaz, B.; Guerrero-Lemus, R.; Hernández-Rodríguez, C.; Méndez-Ramos, J.; Rodríguez, V. D.

    2009-02-01

    A novel low cost process has been developed for application in porous silicon-based photodetectors and solar cells, where conventional doping processes are not affordable because of the high processing cost and technical difficulties. Ytterbium and erbium (Yb 3+-Er 3+) ions were introduced into luminescent porous silicon stain etched by thermal diffusion. Doping profiles were evaluated by energy-dispersive spectroscopy analysis. The visible and near-infrared photoluminescence of Yb 3+-Er 3+ co-doped stain-etched porous silicon layers is observed and evaluated under 980 nm pumping. Up-conversion processes that could improve the efficiency of silicon-based solar cells are detected.

  20. Poor fluorinated graphene sheets carboxymethylcellulose polymer composite mode locker for erbium doped fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mou, Chengbo; Arif, Raz; Lobach, Anatoly S.; Khudyakov, Dmitry V.; Spitsina, Nataliya G.; Kazakov, Valery A.; Turitsyn, Sergei; Rozhin, Aleksey

    2015-02-01

    We report poor fluorinated graphene sheets produced by thermal exfoliation embedding in carboxymethylcellulose polymer composite (GCMC) as an efficient mode locker for erbium doped fiber laser. Two GCMC mode lockers with different concentration have been fabricated. The GCMC based mode locked fiber laser shows stable soliton output pulse shaping with repetition rate of 28.5 MHz and output power of 5.5 mW was achieved with the high concentration GCMC, while a slightly higher output power of 6.9 mW was obtained using the low concentration GCMC mode locker.

  1. Enhancement of photoluminescence due to erbium-doped in CdS thin films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Zelaya-Angel; S. A. Tomás; P. Rodríguez; J. G. Mendoza-Alvarez; R. Lozada-Morales; O. Portillo-Moreno; J. González-Hernández

    Cadmium sulfide (CdS) thin films were synthesized by chemical bath deposition on glass substrates at 80 °C. The CdS thin films\\u000a were doped with erbium (Er3+) during the growth process by adding aqueous solutions of Er(NO3)3·3H2O to the CdS chemical bath. The relative volume (V\\u000a r) of the doping-solution was varied to obtain ten different doping levels. X-ray diffraction patterns displayed

  2. Enhancing erbium emission by strain engineering in GaN heteroepitaxial I. W. Feng,1

    E-print Network

    Jiang, Hongxing

    stability. Er-doped GaN GaN:Er epilayers were grown on different templates, GaN/Al2O3, AlN/Al2O3, GaN/Si 111 different types of templates: AlN/Al2O3, GaN/Al2O3, GaN/Si 111 , and c-GaN bulk. An undoped GaN thin layerEnhancing erbium emission by strain engineering in GaN heteroepitaxial layers I. W. Feng,1 J. Li,1

  3. Linear Cavity Erbium-Doped Fibre Laser with Tunable Wavelength Range of 112 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Xin-Yong; Tam, Hwa-Yaw; Guan, Bai-Ou; Kai, Gui-Yun; Dong, Xiao-Yi

    2002-09-01

    We report on a linear cavity erbium-doped fibre laser with a large tuning range of 1509-1621 nm. We obtain a 1 dB flat tuning range of 1538-1613 nm and a 3 dB tuning range of 1516-1621 nm. The threshold at 1580 nm is 6.1 mW, the slope efficiency is 0.193 and the output power is 18.2 mW, when 100 mW pump power at 1480 nm is provided. High signal-to-noise ratios of better than 60 dB are achieved within all the tuning ranges.

  4. ARTICLES: Active mode locking in an yttrium erbium aluminum garnet crystal laser (? = 2.94?)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vodop'yanov, K. L.; Kulevski?, L. A.; Malyutin, A. A.; Pashinin, Pavel P.; Prokhorov, A. M.

    1982-05-01

    A constant-temperature yttrium erbium aluminum garnet crystal laser was actively mode locked by resonant modulation of the resonator losses using a lithium niobate electrooptic modulator with Brewster faces without any polarizers. This gave a modulation depth 2.6 times greater than that for a modulator with an ideal polarizer. A spike energy of ~1 mJ was obtained with an estimated duration of 200 psec in the 1.7 mm diameter TEM00 mode. The laser radiation was elliptically polarized. It was found that three-micron radiation could be recorded using an SNF-T photomultiplier.

  5. Discriminative strain and temperature measurement using Brillouin scattering and fluorescence in erbium-doped optical fiber.

    PubMed

    Ding, Mingjie; Mizuno, Yosuke; Nakamura, Kentaro

    2014-10-01

    We develop a novel discriminative sensing technique of strain and temperature using Brillouin scattering and fluorescence in an erbium-doped fiber (EDF). First, we show that the fluorescence intensity ratio (FIR), the ratio of the fluorescence intensities at two different wavelengths (1530 nm and 1565 nm in this experiment), is linearly dependent on temperature (with a coefficient of 5.6 × 10?? /°C) but almost independent of strain. Then, by combined use of the FIR and the Brillouin frequency shift in an EDF, we experimentally demonstrate discriminative measurements of strain and temperature with four different sets of strain and temperature changes. PMID:25322045

  6. Design and Experimental Characterization of an Erbium Doped GaN Waveguide

    E-print Network

    Wang, Qian

    2012-05-31

    temperatures as compared to other semiconductor host materials such as Si and GaAs. 1540nm optical emission in Er- doped waveguide has also been demonstrated using a 365nm light emitting diode as the optical pumping source. UV pumping above the GaN bandgap....9 eV In Table 2 - 1, GaN is the semiconductor material with the largest bandgap (SiO2 is not a semiconductor), which has proven to be an accomplished host of erbium, with reports of fabrication of light- emitting diodes operating in the visible...

  7. 10-GHz, 1.3-ps erbium fiber laser employing soliton pulse shortening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carruthers, Thomas F.; Duling, Irl N., III

    1996-12-01

    An actively mode-locked single-polarization erbium fiber laser modulated at 10 GHz utilizes intracavity soliton formation to produce 1.3-ps pulses, well below the Kuizenga-Siegman limit, without passive mode locking. The observed degree of pulse shortening agrees with the predictions of recently developed soliton laser models. The pulse dropout ratio was measured to be less than 10-12 , and the rms amplitude and phase jitter are less than 1.1% and 0.16 ps, respectively.

  8. Preliminary investigations on the utility of an erbium, chromium YSGG laser.

    PubMed

    Eversole, L R; Rizoiu, I M

    1995-12-01

    A variety of laser systems are under investigation as potential tools in dentistry. Most of these systems have been shown to be efficacious for soft tissue surgery of the mucous membranes; however, cutting bone and dental hard tissues has only recently been possible. In this report from the University of California at Los Angeles School of Dentistry, a review of laser applications in dentistry is discussed. The utility of a new laser system using an erbium YSGG medium with air water spray to cut soft tissues, bone, enamel and dentin is under investigation and preliminary research findings are presented. PMID:9052027

  9. Spectroscopic signature of phosphate crystallization in Erbium-doped optical fibre preforms

    E-print Network

    Peretti, Romain; Jacquier, Bernard; Blanc, Wilfried; Dussardier, Bernard; 10.1016/j.optmat.2011.01.005

    2011-01-01

    In rare-earth-doped silica optical fibres, the homogeneous distribution of amplifying ions and part of their spectroscopic properties are usually improved by adding selected elements, such as phosphorus or aluminum, as structural modifier. In erbium ion (Er3+) doped fibres, phosphorus preferentially coordinates to Er3+ ions to form regular cages around it. However, the crystalline structures described in literature never gave particular spectroscopic signature. In this article, we report emission and excitation spectra of Er3+ in a transparent phosphorus-doped silica fibre preform. The observed line features observed at room and low temperature are attributed to ErPO4 crystallites.

  10. Propagation properties of soliton solutions under the influence of higher order effects in erbium doped fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Rui; Hao, Hui-Qin

    2014-10-01

    Under investigation in this paper is the Hirota-Maxwell-Bloch system which governs the propagation of optical solitons in nonlinear erbium doped fibers with higher order effects. By virtue of the Darboux transformation, the Akhmediev breathers, Ma-breathers, localized solitons, bound solitons, two-breathers and localized solutions are generated for the Hirota-Maxwell-Bloch system. Considering the influences of higher order effects, propagation properties of the breathers, modulation instability conditions for the Akhmediev breathers and interaction scenarios between bound solitons and two-breather solutions are discussed.

  11. Fibercore AstroGain fiber: multichannel erbium doped fibers for optical space communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Mark; Gray, Rebecca; Hankey, Judith; Gillooly, Andy

    2014-03-01

    Fibercore have developed AstroGainTM fiber optimized for multichannel amplifiers used in optical satellite communications and control. The fiber has been designed to take full advantage of the photo-annealing effect that results from pumping in the 980nm region. The proprietary trivalent structure of the core matrix allows optimum recovery following radiation damage to the fiber, whilst also providing a market leading Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier (EDFA) efficiency. Direct measurements have been taken of amplifier efficiency in a multichannel assembly, which show an effective photo-annealing recovery of up to 100% of the radiation induced attenuation through excitation of point defects.

  12. Subpicosecond soliton compression of gain switched diode laser pulses using an erbium-doped fiber amplifier

    SciTech Connect

    Teng, Johnson Teng Ong; Tsuchiya, Masahiro; Wong, Sheng-Hsien; Sahara, R.T.; Kamiya, Takeshi (Univ. of Tokyo, Bunkyo-Ku, Tokyo (Japan)); Takahashi, Ryo (NTT Optoelectronics Labs., Atsugi (Japan)); Ogawa, Yoh (Oki Electric Industry Co., Hachioji, Tokyo (Japan))

    1993-06-01

    Subpicosecond pulse generation and control are important issues required for ultrafast optoelectronic information transfer or measurements. Combining a gain switched semiconductor laser, an erbium-doped fiber amplifier, and two cascaded fibers for compression, optical pulse trains of 0.63 ps FWHM in autocorrelation trace, with certain suppression of wing structures are successfully generated. Evaluated energy in each pulse was [ge]17 pJ. Computer simulation was performed on soliton effect compression of gain switched pulses containing substantial chirp and optimization procedure by simply controlling the dc bias current on the master DFB laser was clarified.

  13. Coupled fiber taper extraction of 153 ?m photoluminescence from erbium doped silicon nitride photonic crystal cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shambat, Gary; Gong, Yiyang; Lu, Jesse; Yerci, Selçuk; Li, Rui; Dal Negro, Luca; Vu?kovi?, Jelena

    2010-03-01

    Optical fiber tapers are used to collect photoluminescence emission at ~1.5 um from photonic crystal cavities fabricated in erbium doped silicon nitride on silicon. Photoluminescence collection via fiber taper is enhanced 2.5 times relative to free space, with a total taper collection efficiency of 53%. By varying the fiber taper offset from the cavity, a broad tuning range of coupling strength is obtained. This material system combined with fiber taper collection is promising for building on-chip optical amplifiers.

  14. Performance analysis of bi-directional broadband passive optical network using erbium-doped fiber amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almalaq, Yasser; Matin, Mohammad A.

    2014-09-01

    The broadband passive optical network (BPON) has the ability to support high-speed data, voice, and video services to home and small businesses customers. In this work, the performance of bi-directional BPON is analyzed for both down and up streams traffic cases by the help of erbium doped fiber amplifier (EDFA). The importance of BPON is reduced cost. Because PBON uses a splitter the cost of the maintenance between the providers and the customers side is suitable. In the proposed research, BPON has been tested by the use of bit error rate (BER) analyzer. BER analyzer realizes maximum Q factor, minimum bit error rate, and eye height.

  15. Erbium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet ablative laser treatment for endogenous ochronosis.

    PubMed

    Chaptini, Cassandra; Huilgol, Shyamala C

    2014-10-10

    Ochronosis is a rare disease characterised clinically by bluish-grey skin discolouration and histologically by yellow-brown pigment deposits in the dermis. It occurs in endogenous and exogenous forms. Endogenous ochronosis, also known as alkaptonuria, is an autosomal recessive disease of tyrosine metabolism, resulting in the accumulation and deposition of homogentisic acid in connective tissue. We report a case of facial endogenous ochronosis and coexistent photodamage, which was successfully treated with erbium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet laser resurfacing and deep focal point treatment to remove areas of residual deep pigment. PMID:25302636

  16. Erbium Doping Effects on the Conduction Band Edge in Germanium Nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Meulenberg, Robert W.; Willey, Trevor M.; Lee, Jonathan R.; Terminello, Louis J.; Van Buren, T.

    2011-05-16

    We have produced erbium-doped germanium nanocrystals (NCs) using a new two cell physical vapor deposition system. Using element specific x-ray techniques (absorption and photoemission), we are able to probe the chemical environment of Er in the Ge NCs. Evidence for the optically active Er3+ state is seen at low Er concentrations, with a disruption of NC formation at high Er concentrations. The x-ray absorption measurements suggest that the Er occupies lattice sites near the surface of the NC. Analysis of the quantum confinement effect with Er doping suggests that the native quantum properties of the Ge NC are maintained at low Er concentrations.

  17. Investigation of dynamic properties of erbium fiber laser for ultrasonic sensing.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qi; Okabe, Yoji; Sun, Junqiang

    2014-04-01

    Dynamic properties of an erbium fiber laser (EFL) is researched and demonstrated for ultrasonic sensing in this research. The EFL has ring cavity incorporated with a phase-shifted fiber Bragg grating. A numerical model is used to analyze its dynamic responses to quasi-static change, continuous wave and burst wave. The ultrasonic behavior of the EFL resembles the forced single degree of freedom vibration with damping. Corresponding experimental results fit the simulation results well, showing some interesting ultrasonic properties of this EFL. After certain data process method, this EFL can be used in practical ultrasonic nondestructive testing. PMID:24718214

  18. 40 CFR 417.152 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Section 417.152 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Spray Dried Detergents Subcategory § 417.152...

  19. 40 CFR 417.152 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Section 417.152 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Spray Dried Detergents Subcategory § 417.152...

  20. 40 CFR 417.152 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Section 417.152 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Spray Dried Detergents Subcategory § 417.152...

  1. 40 CFR 417.152 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Section 417.152 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Spray Dried Detergents Subcategory § 417.152...

  2. 40 CFR 152.98 - Procedures for transfer of exclusive use or compensation rights to another person.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...transfer of exclusive use or compensation rights to another person. 152.98 Section...Ensure Protection of Data Submitters' Rights § 152.98 Procedures for transfer of exclusive use or compensation rights to another person. A person...

  3. 1.54 m luminescence quenching of erbium-doped hydrogeated amorphous silicon deposited by D.C. magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kechouane, M.; Biggemen, D.; Tessler, L. R.

    2004-02-01

    Erbium was doped onto hydrogenated amorphous silicon using the D.C. magnetron sputtering technique. After annealing under oxygen atmosphere at 350 °C, a-Si:H films with variable optical gaps exhibits efficient room temperature at 1.538 mm. The intensities of the 1538 and 1549.6 nm Er3+ lines at room temperature were 15 and 12%, respectively, of those at 15K. This result suggests that DC sputtered a-Si:H is a suitable host for efficient Er3+ emission at room temperature. Amorphous silicon has an erbium solubility higher than 1020 cm-3 and a greatly reduced thermal quenching of the erbium PL due to a less efficient excitation energy transfer. The observation of efficient room temperature luminescence from erbium-doped a-Si:H films involves impurities such as oxygen. We found that the increase in the optical gap and the electrical resistivity of the a-Si:H films produced at low substrate temperature (high defect density, low gap) is more important than that in material deposited at 240 °C.

  4. La-codoped Bismuth-based Erbium-doped Fiber Ring Laser with 106-nm Tuning Range

    E-print Network

    Wai, Ping-kong Alexander

    OME14 La-codoped Bismuth-based Erbium-doped Fiber Ring Laser with 106-nm Tuning Range H. L. Liu, H using 84.6-cm long La-codoped bismuth-based EDF is reported. The laser emits high output power with 35 d

  5. High repetition rate passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser incorporating an electro-absorption modulator

    E-print Network

    Wai, Ping-kong Alexander

    High repetition rate passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser incorporating an electro report a novel passively Q-switched fiber laser using an electro-absorption modulator (EAM) as a saturable absorber. The fast response time of the EAM enables the Q-switched fiber laser to operate at high

  6. High energy erbium laser end-pumped by a laser diode bar array coupled to a Nonimaging Optic Concentrator

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    High energy erbium laser end-pumped by a laser diode bar array coupled to a Nonimaging Optic laser end pumped by a laser diode array emitting at 980 nm coupled to a Nonimaging Z .Optic Concentrator , 3q w xYb phosphate glass 2 end pumped by a laser diode bar array leads to a low-cost, compact micro

  7. Gain flatness comparison between erbium-doped fluoride and silica fiber amplifiers with wavelength-multiplexed signals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Clesca; D. Ronarc'h; D. Bayart; Y. Sorel; L. Hamon; M. Guibert; J. L. Beylat; J. F. Kerdiles; M. Semenkoff

    1994-01-01

    With the ever growing interest in wavelength division multiplexing transmission systems, the need for an optical amplifier with a large bandwidth is more and more necessary. Unlike the standard erbium-doped silica fiber amplifiers, the fluoride-based fiber amplifiers display more uniform gain spectra. The benefit expected from fluoride amplifiers with multiwavelength signals has been experimentally assessed through comparisons in single- and

  8. Pump induced nonlinear refractive index [n2] change in erbium and ytterbium doped fibers-theory and experiments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hernando Garcia; Anthony M. Johnson; Sudhir Trivedi

    2001-01-01

    Summary form only given. The increasingly demanding application of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFA) in fiber optic communication systems (including solitons), requires a deep understanding of the effects of the pump laser on the optical properties of the amplifier at the signal level. Amplification provides by EDFAs is produced by optically pumping an absorption band to provide signal gain in the

  9. An eight-wavelength 160-km transparent metro WDM ring network featuring cascaded erbium-doped waveguide amplifiers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. C. Reichmann; P. P. Iannone; M. Birk; N. J. Frigo; D. Barbier; C. Cassagnettes; T. Garret; A. Verlucco; S. Perrier; J. Philipsen

    2001-01-01

    We demonstrate an 8×2.5 Gb\\/s wavelength-division-multiplexing metropolitan ring network in which each network-sourced wavelength constitutes a distinct multiuser virtual ring. The ring's four nodes feature erbium-doped waveguide amplifiers, which promise future integrability

  10. Treatment of dilated pores with 1410-nm fractional erbium-doped fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Suh, Dong-Hye; Chang, Ka-Yeun; Lee, Sang-Jun; Song, Kye-Yong; Choi, Jeong Hwee; Shin, Min Kyung; Jeong, Ki-Heon

    2015-04-01

    Dilated pores can be an early sign of skin aging and are a significant cosmetic concern. The 1410-nm wavelength is optimal for superficial dermal treatments up to 650 ?m deep. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the clinical effectiveness and safety of the fractional erbium-doped fiber 1410-nm laser in the treatment of dilated pores. Fifteen patients with dilated facial pores underwent three laser treatments at 3-week intervals. Posttreatment skin responses and side effects were assessed at treatment and follow-up visits by study physicians. Clinical effectiveness of treatment was assessed by both study physicians and patients 3 months after the final laser treatment using a quartile grading scale. Histological examination was performed using biopsy samples taken at baseline (pretreatment) and 3 months after the last treatment. This study showed that greater than 51 % improvement in dilated pores was demonstrated in 14 of 15 patients after three sessions of laser treatments. Improvements in skin texture, tone, and smoothness were reported in all patients. Treatment was well tolerated in all patients, with no unanticipated side effects. This study demonstrates that the 1410-nm fractional erbium fiber laser is effective and safe for treatment of dilated facial pores in Fitzpatrick skin types III-IV. PMID:25647394

  11. Experimental and numerical study of high order Stokes lines in Brillouin-erbium fiber laser

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Yijun [Department of Electronic and Information Engineering, Shenzhen Graduate School, Harbin Institute of Technology, Shenzhen, Guangdong Province 518055 (China); College of Physics Science and Engineering Technology, Yichun University, Yichun, Jiangxi Province 336000 (China); Yao, Yong, E-mail: yaoyong@hit.edu.cn; Xiao, Jun Jun; Yang, Yanfu; Tian, Jiajun; Liu, Chao [Department of Electronic and Information Engineering, Shenzhen Graduate School, Harbin Institute of Technology, Shenzhen, Guangdong Province 518055 (China)

    2014-01-28

    We experimentally study the dependences of high-order Stokes lines on the erbium-doped fiber (EDF) pump power P{sub EDF}, the Brillouin pump (BP) power P{sub BP}, and its working wavelength in a multiwavelength Brillouin erbium-doped fiber laser (MBEFL). By using the rate and propagation equations, and the coupled wave equations of stimulated Brillouin scattering, we establish a lumped model to describe the MBEFL. Numerical simulations show that the number of Stokes lines can be increased by decreasing the spacing between the BP wavelength and the EDF peak gain or P{sub BP} as long as it is larger than a critical value P{sub BP}{sup (cr)}=1.7?mW, or by increasing P{sub EDF} without reaching a saturation value P{sub EDF}{sup (cr)}=250?mW. However, when P{sub BP} and P{sub EDF} are varied beyond P{sub BP}{sup (cr)} and P{sub EDF}{sup (cr)}, respectively, the number of Stokes lines is reduced, accompanied by some self-lasing cavity modes. These results by numerical simulation are consistent with experimental observations from the MBEFL.

  12. Tunable microwave photonic filter based on a fiber ring and erbium-doped fiber amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Hong-Yan; Ou, Hai-Yan; Chen, Da-Ru; Xiao, Yun; He, Sai-Ling

    2007-11-01

    The tunable microwave photonic filter based on a fiber ring and erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) was proposed. By introducing a section of erbium-doped fiber (EDF) into the fiber ring, the loss of the signal can be compensated by the EDFA gain through adjusting the pump power. This can largely increase the number of the effective sampling taps, and then improve the performance of the microwave photonic filter notably. When the pump power was set to be 42.7 mW, a microwave bandpass filter with the 3-dB bandwidth of 0.15 MHz, the Q factor up to 100 and extinction ratio up to 20 dB was achieved. By employing a tunable optical delay line in the above fiber ring, a tunable microwave photonic filter has been realized through tuning the length of the optical delay line. The proposed tunable microwave photonic filter can find great applications in microwave signal processing and ROF system.

  13. 78 FR 16655 - Draft Damage Assessment, Restoration Plan and Environmental Assessment for the T/B DBL 152 Oil...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-18

    ...Assessment for the T/B DBL 152 Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico AGENCY: National...Assessment for the T/B DBL 152 Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico, Request for...November 11, 2005, T/B DBL 152 oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. The...

  14. Final report on COOMET.RI(II)-K2.Eu-152: Measurement of activity concentration of radionuclide Eu-152 in a solution (COOMET project no 423/RU/08)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharitonov, I. A.; Zanevsky, A. V.; Milevski, V.; Ivaniukovich, A.; Oropesa Verdecia, P.; Moreno León, Y.; Švec, A.

    2013-01-01

    The COOMET.RI(II)-K2.Eu-152 comparison of measurements of a standardized solution of Eu-152 has enabled the demonstration of the traceability to the SI of the national measurement standards of three national metrology institutes of the COOMET countries: BelGIM, CENTIS-DMR and SMU. The pilot laboratory is the D I Mendeleyev Institute for Metrology (VNIIM), which participated in the BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Eu-152 key comparison and will provide the link to evaluate the degrees of equivalence for these institutes. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  15. Stopping power and straggling of 0.2-2.0 MeV protons and 0.3-3.1 MeV 4He ions in erbium

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    measurements have been made by ion backscattering technique, and the oxygen contamination of the erbium thin particle. The stopping powers of Knudsen et al. [2] were measured relative to the stopping power of silver

  16. Multi-wavelength operation of an erbium-doped fiber ring laser using a dual-pass Mach–Zehnder comb filter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. L. An; X. Z. Lin; E. Y. B. Pun; H. D. Liu

    1999-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate a novel multi-wavelength erbium-doped fiber ring laser. A dual-pass Mach–Zehnder (M–Z) interferometer fiber device is used as a comb filter inside the fiber laser cavity. Simultaneous oscillation of nine wavelengths is obtained when the erbium-doped fiber is immersed in liquid nitrogen. Tuning of the peak wavelengths and the spacings between adjacent modes in this laser is

  17. An erbium\\/ytterbium co-doped double-cladding fiber amplifier with 36.4dBm output power

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhen Guo Lu; Arnaud Lavigne; Peng Lin; Chander P. Grover

    2004-01-01

    We have described a high-power hybrid fiber amplifier, which comprising an erbium \\/ ytterbium co-doped double-cladding fiber amplifier (EYCDFA) as a post-amplifier and a conventional erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) as a pre-amplifier. At the signal wavelength of 1550 nm, the signal gains of up to 71 dB and the maximum output powers of 36.4 dBm or 4.37 W have been

  18. 19 CFR 152.2 - Notification to importer of increased duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2 Section 152.2 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER...Notification to importer of increased duties. If the port director believes that the entered...aggregate of the increase in duties on that entry exceeds...

  19. 25 CFR 170.152 - What transit facilities and activities are eligible for IRR Program funding?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true What transit facilities and activities are eligible for IRR...Reservation Roads Program Policy and Eligibility Transit Facilities § 170.152 What transit facilities and activities are eligible for...

  20. 25 CFR 170.152 - What transit facilities and activities are eligible for IRR Program funding?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What transit facilities and activities are eligible for IRR...Reservation Roads Program Policy and Eligibility Transit Facilities § 170.152 What transit facilities and activities are eligible for...