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1

Homogeneous linewidth of the I_11/2--I_15/2 optical transition of erbium in LiNbO_3:Er^3+  

E-print Network

We work out a simple, pulsed pump-probe measurement scheme to measure the homogeneous linewidth of an atomic transition in an inhomogeneously broadened spectral line in a solid state environment. We apply the theory to the I_11/2 -- I_15/2 optical transition of erbium in LiNbO_3:Er^3+ crystal. Beside obtaining the homogeneous linewidth, we have estimated the population relaxation time as well.

Mandula, G; Sinkovicz, P; Kovács, L; 10.1088/1757-899X/15/1/012062

2010-01-01

2

Microspherical Laser In Erbium-Ytterbium-Doped Glass G. Nunzi Conti (1), C. Arnaud (2), M. Boustimi (2), P. Fron (2), S. Pelli (1), G.C. Righini (1)  

E-print Network

Microspherical Laser In Erbium-Ytterbium-Doped Glass G. Nunzi Conti (1), C. Arnaud (2), M. Boustimi/2 4 I15/2 transition at 1550 nm of erbium ions in phosphate glass spheres. We also report on the laser emission. Keywords: Whispering Gallery Mode, Erbium, Microlaser, Optical Feedback 1. Introduction

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

3

Study of the complex atomic susceptibility of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of the complex atomic susceptibility of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers operating near the 1.53-?m transition (4I 13\\/2-4I15\\/2) developed from a semiclassical theoretical description is presented. Expressions for the emission cross section ?e(?) and absorption cross section ?a(?) of erbium:glass as a quasi-three-level laser system with Stark-split sublevel manifolds are derived. The results are used to calculate the cross sections

Emmanuel Desurvire

1990-01-01

4

Annales de la Fondation Louis de Broglie, Volume 29 no 1-2, 2004 317 Whispering Gallery Mode Lasers in Erbium doped  

E-print Network

in Erbium doped fluoride glasses Patrice F´eron GIS "FOTON" Laboratoire d'Optronique (CNRS-UMR 6082) ENSSAT on the optical transition 4 I13/2 -4 I15/2 around 1.55µm of Erbium doped fluoride glass, which offers potential

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

5

Preparation, fluorescence spectroscopy, and AFM analysis of erbium oxide nanocolloid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanocolloids of compounds containing fluorescent rare earth ions have recently attracted significant attention as agents for biolabeling, bioimaging, bio- and chemical sensing, and other applications. Erbium oxide nanocolloids have been prepared for the first time in water and gammabutyrolactone. Optical dynamic scatterometry and atomic force microscopy determined an average size (average mean height) of erbium oxide nanoparticles to be 10-11 nm. Prominent optical absorption peaks of the nanocolloids at 442.5 nm, 450.0 nm, 487.2 nm (strong), 492.0 nm, 523.0 nm (strong), 541.6 nm, 548.6 nm, 652.6 nm, and 665.7 nm (strong) can be attributed to erbium ions hosted within nanoparticles. Laser fluorescence spectroscopy of the nanocolloids was conducted using excitations with the lines of argon-ion laser (514 nm, 488 nm, 476 nm, and 458 nm) and 980-nm semiconductor laser. Strong green emission at 571 nm is more likely from transition between 4S3/2 and 4I15/2 levels and relatively weak red emissions from transition between 4I9/2 and 4I15/2 level of erbium was observed at excitation with visible laser radiation 488 nm and 476 nm. The reported nanocolloids thus showed to be good candidates for fluorescent biosensing applications and also as a new lasing filling medium in fiber lasers.

Patel, Darayas; Vance, Calvin; King, Newton; Jessup, Malcolm; Sarkisov, Sergey

2009-02-01

6

Role of CaO addition in the local order around Erbium in SiO2GeO2P2O5 fiber preforms F. d'Acapito C. Maurizio  

E-print Network

Role of CaO addition in the local order around Erbium in SiO2­GeO2­P2O5 fiber preforms F. d/crystalline local structure around the Er3+ ion is evidenced. Keywords: Optic fibers; EXAFS; Erbium; Nanoparticles 1. Among the rare earths, erbium is especially interesting because the 4I13/2 - 4I15/2 transition at 1

Boyer, Edmond

7

Erbium diffusion in silicon dioxide  

SciTech Connect

Erbium diffusion in silicon dioxide layers prepared by magnetron sputtering, chemical vapor deposition, and thermal growth has been investigated by secondary ion mass spectrometry, and diffusion coefficients have been extracted from simulations based on Fick's second law of diffusion. Erbium diffusion in magnetron sputtered silicon dioxide from buried erbium distributions has in particular been studied, and in this case a simple Arrhenius law can describe the diffusivity with an activation energy of 5.3{+-}0.1 eV. Within a factor of two, the erbium diffusion coefficients at a given temperature are identical for all investigated matrices.

Lu Yingwei; Julsgaard, B.; Petersen, M. Christian [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Jensen, R. V. Skougaard [Department of Physics and Nanotechnology, Aalborg University, DK-9220 Aalborg O (Denmark); Pedersen, T. Garm; Pedersen, K. [Department of Physics and Nanotechnology, Aalborg University, DK-9220 Aalborg O (Denmark); Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center-iNANO, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Larsen, A. Nylandsted [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center-iNANO, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)

2010-10-04

8

Real-time synchrotoron radiation X-ray diffraction and abnormal temperature dependence of photoluminescence from erbium silicates on SiO{sub 2}/Si substrates  

SciTech Connect

The erbium silicate formation processes during annealing in Ar gas were monitored by synchrotron radiation grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD) in real time and the optical properties of the silicates were investigated by photoluminescence measurements in spectral and time-resolved domains. The GIXD measurements show that erbium silicates and erbium oxide are formed by interface reactions between silicon oxide and erbium oxides deposited on silicon oxide by reactive sputtering in Ar gas and O{sub 2}/Ar mixture gas ambiences. The erbium silicates are formed above 1060 degree sign C in Ar gas ambience and above 1010 degree sign C in O{sub 2}/Ar gas ambience, and erbium silicides are dominantly formed above 1250 degree sign C. The I{sub 15/2}-I{sub 13/2} Er{sup 3+} photoluminescence from the erbium oxide and erbium silicate exhibits abnormal temperature dependence, which can be explained by the phonon-assisted resonant absorption of the 532-nm excitation photons into the {sup 2}H{sub 11/2} levels of Er{sup 3+} ions of the erbium compounds.

Omi, H.; Tawara, T.; Tateishi, M. [NTT Basic Research Laboratories, NTT Corporation, 3-1 Morinosato- Wakamiya, Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-0198 (Japan)

2012-03-15

9

Demonstration of an erbium-doped microdisk laser on a silicon chip  

SciTech Connect

An erbium-doped microlaser is demonstrated utilizing SiO{sub 2} microdisk resonators on a silicon chip. Passive microdisk resonators exhibit whispering-gallery-type modes (WGM's) with intrinsic optical quality factors of up to 6x10{sup 7} and were doped with trivalent erbium ions (peak concentration {approx}3.8x10{sup 20} cm{sup -3}) using MeV ion implantation. Coupling to the fundamental WGM of the microdisk resonator was achieved by using a tapered optical fiber. Upon pumping of the {sup 4}I{sub 15/2}{yields}{sup 4}I{sub 13/2} erbium transition at 1450 nm, a gradual transition from spontaneous to stimulated emission was observed in the 1550-nm band. Analysis of the pump-output power relation yielded a pump threshold of 43 {mu}W and allowed measuring the spontaneous emission coupling factor: {beta}{approx_equal}1x10{sup -3}.

Kippenberg, T. J.; Kalkman, J.; Polman, A.; Vahala, K. J. [Department of Applied Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Center for Nanophotonics, FOM-Institute AMOLF, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Applied Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)

2006-11-15

10

Optical emission from erbium-doped silica nanowires  

SciTech Connect

Infrared optical emission from erbium-doped silica nanowires is shown to have property characteristic of the material nanostructure and to provide the basis for the fabrication of integrated photonic devices and biosensors. Silica nanowires of approximately 150 nm diameter were grown on a silicon wafer by metal-induced growth using a thin (20 nm) sputter-deposited palladium layer as a catalyst. The resulting wires were then ion implanted with 110 keV ErO{sup -} ions and annealed at 900 deg. C to optically activate the erbium. These wires exhibited photoluminescence emission at 1.54 {mu}m, characteristic of the {sup 4}I{sub 15/2}-{sup 4}I{sub 13/2} transition in erbium; however, comparison to similarly implanted fused silica layers revealed stronger thermal quenching and longer luminescence lifetimes in the nanowire samples. The former is attributed to an increase in defect-induced quenching partly due to the large surface-volume ratio of the nanowires, while the latter is attributed to a reduction in the optical density of states associated with the nanostructure morphology. Details of this behavior are discussed together with the implications for potential device applications.

Elliman, R. G.; Wilkinson, A. R.; Kim, T.-H. [Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT0200 (Australia); Sekhar, P. K.; Bhansali, S. [Nanomaterials and Nanomanufacturing Research Center, Department of Electrical Engineering, University of South Florida, 4202 E. Fowler Ave., Tampa, Florida 33620 (United States)

2008-05-15

11

Low threshold erbiumLow threshold erbium--implantedimplanted toroidal microcavity laserstoroidal microcavity lasers  

E-print Network

Low threshold erbiumLow threshold erbium--implantedimplanted toroidal microcavity laserstoroidal ­ Ultra-high-Q toroidal microcavities ­ Erbium-implanted microcavity lasers Analysis ­ Coupled harmonicFransisco Motivations : Erbium-doped microcavity lasers Neodymium-doped microsphere lasers ­ Pth = 200 nW ­ V

12

Light emission and luminescence enhancement in Erbium Oxide nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We reports light emission from Erbium Oxide nanoparticles. The nanoparticles, with 45 nm diameter, were obtained in the form of nanopowder. These nanoparticles were characterized for light emission under a 30 mW, 532 nm Nd:YAG laser excitation and a Photoluminescence (PL) system, made by Princeton Instrumentation, with a Pixis brand CCD camera. The nanoparticles were stick on a scotch tape and placed in the PL system. Spectrum of the light emitted from the nanoparticles was obtained and analyzed after subtracting the background spectrum. Two emission peaks were observed around 554 nm and 820 nm. The green emission at 554 nm was obtained as a result of ^2H11/2 ->^4I15/2 transition, and the near infrared emission from ^4I9/2->^4I15/2 transition. The process was also repeated in vacuum and it was found that the green emission enhances tremendously, showing the importance of Erbium Oxide nanoparticles optical and biophotonics applications.

Wilkinson, Lynda; Maqbool, Muhammad; Ahmad, Iftikhar

2011-10-01

13

Modeling erbium-doped fiber amplifiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers are modeled using the propagation and rate equations of a homogeneous two-level laser medium. Numerical methods are used to analyze the effects of optical modes and erbium confinement on amplifier performance, and to calculate both the gain and amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) spectra. Fibers with confined erbium doping are completely characterized from easily measured parameters: the ratio

C. Randy Giles; Emmanuel Desurvire

1991-01-01

14

Plasmon-enhanced erbium luminescence H. Mertensa  

E-print Network

Plasmon-enhanced erbium luminescence H. Mertensa and A. Polman Center for Nanophotonics, FOM that the photoluminescence intensity of optically active erbium ions positioned in close proximity of anisotropic Ag with the erbium emission. In addition, the photoluminescence intensity enhancement is found to be polarized

Polman, Albert

15

1744 OPTICS LETTERS / Vol. 21, No. 21 / November 1, 1996 Dual-stage erbium-doped, erbium/ytterbium-codoped  

E-print Network

1744 OPTICS LETTERS / Vol. 21, No. 21 / November 1, 1996 Dual-stage erbium-doped, erbium Received June 3, 1996 By concatenating an aluminum-codoped erbium-doped fiber with an efficient erbium energy transfer between erbium and ytterbium ions, we are able to pump the second stage with a high

Park, Namkyoo

16

Optical properties of organic semiconductors based on erbium phthalocyanine complexes in the mid- and near-infrared spectral regions  

SciTech Connect

The transmittance spectra of erbium phthalocyanine complexes in the mid- and near-infrared wavelength regions are studied. A detailed identification of the transmittance lines is presented for three types of phthalocyanine complexes. Data on the absorption of electromagnetic radiation at the wavelengths around 1.5 {mu}m due to the {sup 4}I{sub 13/2} {sup {yields}} {sup 4}I{sub 15/2} intracenter transitions between the levels of the erbium ions incorporated into the samples are obtained. It is found that some of the mid-infrared absorption lines shift when the number of organic ligands is increased by a factor of 2 or 3. It is shown that the absorption coefficient at the wavelengths around 1.5 {mu}m is equal to 27.5, 32.5, and 74 cm{sup -1} for erbium monophthalocyanine, bisphthalocyanine, and triphthalocyanine, respectively.

Belogorokhov, I. A., E-mail: jugqwerty@mail.ru; Tikhonov, E. V.; Breusova, M. O.; Pushkarev, V. E.; Tomilova, L. G.; Khokhlov, D. R. [Moscow State University (Russian Federation)

2007-10-15

17

English II: ENG 152.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A course guide for students in English 152 of Oakland Community College, a composition course in argumentative writing, this document gives the class schedule, the course outline, examples of writing, worksheets, ways of preparing bibliography and note cards, checklists, and a research bibliography, as well as presenting other cogent materials.…

Hudson, James

18

Hybrid Brillouin\\/erbium fiber laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose and demonstrate a novel hybrid Brillouin\\/erbium fiber laser that uses both Brillouin gain in single-mode optical fiber and gain in erbium-doped fiber. The lasing frequency was accurately determined by the Brillouin shift in single-mode optical fiber and was 10.35GHz from the Brillouin pump. Large powers could be extracted because of incorporation of erbium-doped fiber in the laser resonator.

Gregory J. Cowle; Dmitrii Yu. Stepanov

1996-01-01

19

Spectral gain hole-burning at 1.53 ?m in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spectral gain hole-burning at ?0=1.53 ?m was observed in an erbium-doped fiber amplifier at temperatures between 4.2 and 77 K. The hole width was found to broaden with temperature for T ⩾20 K according to a T1.73 law. From the data, the room-temperature homogeneous linewidth associated with the 1.531-?m transition in the 4I13\\/2-4I15\\/2 laser system was determined to be ??h=11.5

E. Desurvire; J. L. Zyskind; J. R. Simpson

1990-01-01

20

Room-temperature photoluminescence of amorphous hydrogenated silicon carbide doped with erbium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Room temperature photoluminescence of Er ions at 1.54 ?m corresponding to 4I13\\/2?4I15\\/2 transition in the ion f-shell was observed in erbium-doped hydrogenated amorphous silicon carbide films (a-Si1?xCx:H?Er?). Films of a-Si1?xCx:H?Er? were prepared by co-sputtering of graphite and Er targets applying the magnetron-assisted silane-decomposition technique with mixtures of Ar and silane. The composition of films (x) was 0?x?0.29. The concentration of

E. I Terukov; V. Kh Kudoyarova; A. N Kuznetsov; W Fuhs; G Weiser; H Kuehne

1998-01-01

21

Fabrication and properties of erbium oxide  

SciTech Connect

Erbium oxide (Er{sub 2}O{sub 3}) is a rare earth oxide of interest because of its chemical and thermal stability and high melting point, 2,430 C. However, there is relatively little information available regarding the relation between the structure and the mechanical properties of this material. A densification study of polycrystalline erbium oxide powders is reported here. Erbium oxide pellets were uniaxially pressed (40--280 MPa) and sintered (1,500--1,800 C) in order to obtain density data for as-received commercial powders. In addition, the particle size and distribution of as-received powders were varied by milling and the effects on densification were studied. The powders were characterized for particle size, phase and impurity content and surface area. The mechanical properties of high density sintered erbium oxide bodies were characterized using indentation hardness and toughness as a function of temperature and microstructure. Relations between the microstructure and mechanical properties are described.

Neuman, A.; Platero, M.; Romero, R.; McClellan, K.J.; Petrovic, J.J.

1997-03-01

22

Erbium-activated monolithic silica xerogels and silica-titania planar waveguides: optical and spectroscopic characterization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent results obtained for Er2O3-SiO2 monolithic xerogels and erbium activated SiO2-TiO2 planar waveguides are presented. Monolithic erbium-activated silica xerogels with erbium content ranging from 0 up to 40000 ppm were prepared by the sol-gel technique. Samples were densified by thermal treatment in air at 950 degrees C for 120 hours. The densification degree and the relative content of hydroxyl groups were studied by NIR absorption and Raman spectroscopies. Emission at 1.5 micrometers , characteristic of the 4I13/2 yields 4I15/2 transition of Er3+ ions, was observed at room temperature for all monolithic samples upon continuous wave excitation at 980 nm. For the 5000 Er/Si ppm doped xerogel, an intense photoluminescence was observed with a lifetime of 8 ms for the metastable 4I13/2 level. Passive and erbium-activated SiO2-TiO2 planar waveguides, monomode at 632.8 nm, were prepared by a dip-coating technique. Some parameters such as H2O content, intermediate and final thermal treatments, and the molar ratio TiO2/SiO2 were modified during the preparation of the solution in order to minimize the final content of residual hydroxyl groups and the phase separation between silica and titania. Raman spectroscopy was used to check the structural properties of the waveguides. A lifetime of 7 ms was measured for the metastable 4I13/2 level in a 93SiO2-7TiO2 planar waveguide activated by 10000 ppm Er/(Si + Ti). The best value of the attenuation coefficient was of 0.5 dB/cm at 632.8 nm.

Zampedri, Luca; Tosello, Cristiana; Rossi, Flavio; Ronchin, Sabina; Rolli, Raffaella; Montagna, Maurizio; Chiasera, Alessandro; Righini, Giancarlo C.; Pelli, Stefano; Monteil, Andre; Chaussedent, Stephane; Bernard, Christope; Duverger, Claire; Ferrari, Maurizio; Armellini, Cristina

2001-04-01

23

Absorption bleaching by stimulated emission in erbium-doped  

E-print Network

Absorption bleaching by stimulated emission in erbium-doped silicon-rich silicon nitride waveguides 133641); published December 16, 2010 Stimulated emission from sensitized erbium ions in silicon in the photoinduced absorption of the probe at the wavelength of erbium emission is observed and is attributed

Lipson, Michal

24

Erbium emission properties in nanostructured fibers Wilfried Blanc,1  

E-print Network

1 Erbium emission properties in nanostructured fibers Wilfried Blanc,1 Bernard Dussardier,1 the incorporation of erbium ions in amorphous dielectric nanoparticles, grown in fiber preforms. Here we present the achieved stabilization of nanometric erbium-doped dielectric nanoparticles within the core of silica fibers

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

25

Enhanced Light Emission from Erbium Doped Silicon Nitride in Plasmonic  

E-print Network

Enhanced Light Emission from Erbium Doped Silicon Nitride in Plasmonic Metal and nano-particle arrays in a metal- insulator-metal structures are fabricated on an erbium doped silicon, J. Warga, S. N. Basu, "Sensitized Erbium emission from silicon-rich nitride/silicon super- lattice

Vuckovic, Jelena

26

Controlled spontaneous emission in erbium-doped microphotonic materials  

E-print Network

Controlled spontaneous emission in erbium-doped microphotonic materials #12;Controlled spontaneous emission in erbium-doped microphotonic materials Jeroen Kalkman ISBN 90-393-0295-2 A digital version of this thesis can be downloaded from http://www.amolf.nl #12;Controlled spontaneous emission in erbium

Polman, Albert

27

UNCORRECTED 2 Luminescence of erbium-doped bismuthborate glasses  

E-print Network

UNCORRECTED PROOF 2 Luminescence of erbium-doped bismuth­borate glasses 3 Isabella-Ioana Oprea Received 26 May 2005; accepted 12 July 2005 7 Abstract 8 Absorption and luminescence properties of erbium for the composition range 25­65 mol% Bi2O3. A Judd­Ofelt analysis of the typical erbium bands in the absorption

Osnabrück, Universität

28

Characterization of new erbium-doped tellurite glasses and fibers  

E-print Network

Characterization of new erbium-doped tellurite glasses and fibers S. Marjanovic a,*, J. Toulouse of their excellent optical and chemical properties. The emission spectrum from erbium in tellurite glasses is almost on the microscopic structure of these glasses, and a study of the erbium emission in fibers fabricated from

Dierolf, Volkmar

29

Erbium-doped Lithium Niobate waveguide lasers: recent progress  

E-print Network

Erbium-doped Lithium Niobate waveguide lasers: recent progress W. Sohler, D. Dey, B. Das, S. Reza, Warburger Str. 100, 33098 Paderborn, Germany ABSTRACT Erbium diffusion doping of LiNbO3 (e.g. 30 nm / 1130 achieved with an output power up to 150 µW. Keywords: Erbium, Lithium Niobate, integrated optics, waveguide

Mohseni, Hooman

30

All-optical logical gates based on pump-induced resonant nonlinearity in an erbium-doped fiber coupler.  

PubMed

In this paper, we theoretically investigate all-optical logical gates based on the pump-induced resonant nonlinearity in an erbium-doped fiber coupler. The resonant nonlinearity yielded by the optical transitions between the I15/24 states and I13/24 states in Er3+ induces the refractive index to change, which leads to switching between two output ports. First, we do a study on the switching performance, and calculate the extinction ratio (Xratio) of the device. Second, using the Xratio, we obtain the truth tables of the device. The results reveal that compared with other undoped nonlinear couplers, the erbium-doped fiber coupler can drop the switching threshold power. We also obtain different logic gates and logic operations in the cases of the same phase and different phase of two initial signals by changing the pump power. PMID:25607960

Li, Qiliang; Zhang, Zhen; Li, Dongqiang; Zhu, Mengyun; Tang, Xianghong; Li, Shuqin

2014-12-01

31

Assignments of the Raman modes of monoclinic erbium oxide  

SciTech Connect

As a heavy rare earth oxide, erbium oxide (Er{sub 2}O{sub 3}) has many attractive properties. Monoclinic Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} has useful properties not found in stable cubic Er{sub 2}O{sub 3}, such as unique optical properties and high radiation damage tolerance. In this study, cubic Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating and Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating with mixed phases were prepared. The Raman scattering spectra of these coatings were investigated by using a confocal micro-Raman spectrometer equipped with 325, 473, 514, 532, 633, and 784?nm lasers. A total of 17 first-order Raman modes of monoclinic Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} were identified and assigned. The modes at 83, 112, 152, 170, 278, 290, 409, 446, 478, 521, 603, and 622?cm{sup ?1} are of A{sub g} symmetry, whereas modes at 71, 98, 333, 409, 446, and 468?cm{sup ?1} are of B{sub g} symmetry. This research provides basic data necessary for the characterization of monoclinic Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} by Raman spectroscopy.

Yan, D.; Wu, P., E-mail: pingwu@sas.ustb.edu.cn; Zhang, S. P.; Liang, L.; Yang, F.; Pei, Y. L.; Chen, S. [Department of Physics, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China)

2013-11-21

32

Erbium-doped aluminophosphosilicate optical fibres  

SciTech Connect

We have studied the active properties of erbium-doped aluminophosphosilicate (APS) core fibres in wide ranges of erbia, alumina and phosphorus pentoxide concentrations. The absorption and luminescence spectra of the P{sub 2}O{sub 5}- or Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-enriched erbium-doped APS fibres are shown to be similar to those of the erbium-doped fibres singly doped with phosphorus pentoxide or alumina, respectively. The formation of AlPO{sub 4} in APS fibres leads not only to a reduction in the refractive index of the glass but also to a marked increase in Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} solubility in silica. (optical fibres)

Likhachev, M E; Bubnov, M M; Zotov, K V; Medvedkov, O I [Fiber Optics Research Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Lipatov, D S; Yashkov, M V; Gur'yanov, Aleksei N [Institute of Chemistry of High-Purity Substances, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhnii Novgorod (Russian Federation)

2010-09-10

33

Infrared spectroscopy and upconversion luminescence behaviour of erbium doped yttrium (III) oxide phosphor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper reports upconversion luminescence behaviour and infra-red spectroscopic pattern of erbium doped yttrium (III) oxide phosphor. Sample was synthesized by solid state reaction method with variable concentration or erbium (0.5-2.5 mol%). The conventional solid state method is suitable for large scale production and eco-friendly method. The prepared sample was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. From structural analysis by XRD technique shows cubic structure of prepared sample with variable concentration of erbium and no impurity phase were found when increase the concentration of Er3+. Particle size was calculated by Scherer's formula and it varies from 67 nm to 120 nm. The surface morphology of prepared phosphor was determined by field emission gun scanning electron microscopy (FEGSEM) technique. The surface morphology of the sample shows good connectivity with grains as well as some agglomerates formation occurs in sample. The functional group analysis was done by Fourier transform infra-red technique (FTIR) analysis which confirm the formation of Y2O3:Er3+ phosphor was prepared. The results indicated that the Y2O3:Er3+ phosphors might have high upconversion efficiency because of their low vibrational energy. Under 980 nm laser excitation sample shows intense green emission at 555 nm and orange emission at 590 nm wavelength. For green emission transition occurs 2H11/2 ? 4I15/2, 4S3/2 ? 4I15/2 for upconversion emissions. Excited state absorption and energy transfer process were discussed as possible upconversion mechanisms. The near infrared luminescence spectra was recorded. The upconversion luminescence intensity increase with increasing the concentration or erbium up to 2 mol% after that luminescence intensity decreases due to concentration quenching occurs. Spectrophotometric determinations of peaks are evaluated by Commission Internationale de I'Eclairage (CIE) technique. From CIE technique the dominant peak of from PL spectra shows intense green emission so the prepared phosphor is may be useful for green light emitting diode (GLED) application.

Dubey, Vikas; Tiwari, Ratnesh; Tamrakar, Raunak Kumar; Rathore, Gajendra Singh; Sharma, Chitrakant; Tiwari, Neha

2014-11-01

34

Anisotropic optical trapping of ultracold erbium atoms  

E-print Network

Ultracold atoms confined in a dipole trap are submitted to a potential whose depth is proportional to the real part of their dynamic dipole polarizability. The atoms also experience photon scattering whose rate is proportional to the imaginary part of their dynamic dipole polarizability. In this article we calculate the complex dynamic dipole polarizability of ground-state erbium, a rare-earth atom that was recently Bose-condensed. The polarizability is calculated with the sum-over-state formula inherent to second-order perturbation theory. The summation is performed on transition energies and transition dipole moments from ground-state erbium, which are computed using the Racah-Slater least-square fitting procedure provided by the Cowan codes. This allows us to predict 9 unobserved odd-parity energy levels of total angular momentum J=5, 6 and 7, in the range 25000-31000 cm-1 above the ground state. Regarding the trapping potential, we find that ground-state erbium essentially behaves like a spherically-symmetric atom, in spite of its large electronic angular momentum. We also find a mostly isotropic van der Waals interaction between two ground-state erbium atoms, characterized by a coefficient C_6^{iso}=1760 a.u.. On the contrary, the photon-scattering rate shows a pronounced anisotropy, since it strongly depends on the polarization of the trapping light.

Maxence Lepers; Jean-François Wyart; Olivier Dulieu; --

2013-10-23

35

Erbium hydride thermal desorption : controlling kinetics.  

SciTech Connect

Thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) is used to study the decomposition kinetics of erbium hydride thin films. The TDS results presented in this report show that hydride film processing parameters directly impact thermal stability. Issues to be addressed include desorption kinetics for dihydrides and trihydrides, and the effect of film growth parameters, loading parameters, and substrate selection on desorption kinetics.

Ferrizz, Robert Matthew

2007-08-01

36

Standing-wave monomode erbium fiber laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

An integrated standing-wave, single frequency, erbium fiber laser having a laser linewidth of less than 47 kHz is reported. The monolithic fiber laser incorporated two highly reflective intracore Bragg reflectors which provide both cavity feedback and adequate longitudinal mode discrimination. The narrow linewidth single-mode operation and monolithic construction may make this a valuable communications\\/sensor source.

G. A. Ball; W. W. Morey; W. H. Glenn

1991-01-01

37

A spectrophotometric study of erbium (III) speciation in chloride solutions at elevated temperatures  

E-print Network

A spectrophotometric study of erbium (III) speciation in chloride solutions at elevated 2006; accepted 1 April 2006 Abstract The speciation of erbium in chloride-bearing solutions. Keywords: Rare Earth Elements; Erbium; Chloride; Aqueous solution; Speciation; Formation constants

Long, Bernard

38

Sol-gel erbium-doped silica-hafnia planar and channel waveguides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Erbium activated SiO2-HfO2 planar waveguides, doped with Er3+ concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 4 mol%, were prepared by sol-gel method. The films were deposited on v-SiO2 and silica-on-silicon substrates using dip-coating technique. The waveguides show high densification degree, effective intermingling of the two film components, and uniform surface morphology. The waveguide deposited on silica-on-silicon substrates shows one single propagation mode at 1.5?m, with a confinement coefficient of 0.81 and an attenuation coefficient of 0.8 dB/cm at 632.8nm. Emission in the C-telecommunication band was observed at room temperature for all the samples upon continuous-wave excitation at 980 nm or 514.5 nm. The shape of the emission band corresponding to the 4I13/2-->4I15/2 transition is found to be almost independent both on erbium content and excitation wavelength, with a FWHM between 44 and 48 nm. The 4I13/2 level decay curves presented a single-exponential profile, with a lifetime ranging between 1.1-6.6 ms, depending on the erbium concentration. Infrared to visible upconversion luminescence upon continuous-wave excitation at 980 nm was observed for all the samples. Channel waveguide in rib configuration was obtained by etching the active film in order to have a well confined mode at 1.5 ?m.

Goncalves, Rogeria R.; Carturan, Giovanni; Zampedri, Luca; Ferrari, Maurizio; Armellini, Cristina; Chiasera, Alessandro; Mattarelli, M.; Moser, Enrico; Montagna, Maurizio; Righini, Giancarlo C.; Pelli, Stefano; Nunzi Conti, Gualtiero; Ribeiro, Sidney J. L.; Messaddeq, Younes; Minotti, Antonio; Foglietti, Vittorio; Portales, Herve

2003-06-01

39

MTAMAGNTI SME DU GRENAT D'ERBIUM ET DE GALLIUM  

E-print Network

281 M�TAMAGN�TI SME DU GRENAT D'ERBIUM ET DE GALLIUM J. P. REDOULES, P. CARRARA, A. R. FERT, M. C gallate d'erbium suivant les trois directions [001], [011] et [111], à une température voisine de 0,080 °K modèle d'Ising. Abstract. 2014 Experimental study of the metamagnetism of erbium gallium garnet along

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

40

Multiple wavelength generation with Brillouin\\/erbium fiber lasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brillouin\\/erbium fiber lasers, which have recently been demonstrated, operate with a combination of Brillouin gain and gain in erbium-doped fiber. In this letter, we describe techniques for cascading the Brillouin\\/erbium fiber laser to generate optical combs, and experimentally demonstrate optical comb generation. Internal and external cascading techniques are demonstrated. The line spacing in the combs is approximately 10 GHz, with

Gregory J. Cowle; D. Yu. Stepanov

1996-01-01

41

Theoretical and experimental evaluation of multilayer porous silicon structures for enhanced erbium up-conversion luminescence  

E-print Network

The enhancement of Er$^{3+}$-based up-conversion for photovoltaics in multilayer porous silicon photonic structures is considered theoretically and experimentally. Transfer matrix simulations are used to assess the increased photonic density of states that results from the slowing of energy propagation at the short-wavelength edge of one-dimensional photonic band gaps. An indirect calculation of Er$^{3+}$ absorption enhancement within slow-light modes is then used to illustrate an increase in absorption over the bulk value: the effective absorption coefficient is shown to increase by more than 22% over a broad spectral region and by more than 400% over a narrow region. Erbium-doped porous silicon photonic crystals are fabricated with the photonic band edge coincident with the $^{4}I_{15/2} \\rightarrow^{4}I_{13/2}$ Er$^{3+}$ transition. Challenges in fabrication and the results of compositional analysis are discussed. An angular-dependent photoluminescence measurement demonstrates emission intensity that varie...

Johnson, Craig M; Tan, H Hoe; Conibeer, Gavin J

2012-01-01

42

14 CFR 152.419 - Minority business.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minority business. 152.419 Section 152...in Airport Aid Program § 152.419 Minority business. Each person subject to this subpart is required to comply with the Minority Business Enterprise Regulations of...

2010-01-01

43

14 CFR 152.419 - Minority business.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Minority business. 152.419 Section 152...in Airport Aid Program § 152.419 Minority business. Each person subject to this subpart is required to comply with the Minority Business Enterprise Regulations of...

2011-01-01

44

19 CFR 152.106 - Computed value.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Computed value. 152.106 Section 152.106 Customs Duties...Valuation of Merchandise § 152.106 Computed value. (a) Elements. The computed value of imported merchandise is the sum of:...

2010-04-01

45

Coherence Investigations of Erbium doped in Waveguide Structures for a Quantum Memory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Erbium doped waveguides are very promising candidates for the realization of a quantum memory based on reversible absorption in a controllably broadened absorption line (CRIB). First of all the wavelength of the ``storage transition'' matches well with the ``telecom wavelength'' most often used for long-distance quantum communications in the past. Secondly the interaction length between light and ions can be made very long within a waveguide. Thus high optical depth can be achieved as required for the proposal. We have measured the homogeneous linewidth of the I15/2->I13/2 transition in a Erbium-doped SiO2 glass fiber and a LiNOb3 Crystal with a waveguiding structure at a wavelength of ?=1530 nm. The homogeneous lifetime in the glass shows an abnormal magnetic field dependency and is in the order of several ?s, which is an improvement of two orders of magnitude compared to existing data in similar material. Also we investigated the preservation of information encoded into the relative phase and amplitudes of optical pulses during storage and retrieval in an optical memory based on stimulated photon echo.

Staudt, M. U.; Hastings-Simon, S. R.; Lauritzen, B.; Afzelius, M.; de Riedmatten, H.; Sangouard, N.; Simon, C.; Tittel, W.; Gisin, N.

2007-03-01

46

Anisotropic optical trapping of ultracold erbium atoms  

E-print Network

Ultracold atoms confined in a dipole trap are submitted to a potential whose depth is proportional to the real part of their dynamic dipole polarizability. The atoms also experience photon scattering whose rate is proportional to the imaginary part of their dynamic dipole polarizability. In this article we calculate the complex dynamic dipole polarizability of ground-state erbium, a rare-earth atom that was recently Bose-condensed. The polarizability is calculated with the sum-over-state formula inherent to second-order perturbation theory. The summation is performed on transition energies and transition dipole moments from ground-state erbium, which are computed using the Racah-Slater least-square fitting procedure provided by the Cowan codes. This allows us to predict 9 unobserved odd-parity energy levels of total angular momentum J=5, 6 and 7, in the range 25000-31000 cm-1 above the ground state. Regarding the trapping potential, we find that ground-state erbium essentially behaves like a spherically-symme...

Lepers, Maxence; Dulieu, Olivier; --,

2013-01-01

47

Characterization of the surface changes during the activation of erbium/erbium oxide for hydrogen storage.  

SciTech Connect

Erbium is known to effectively load with hydrogen when held at high temperature in a hydrogen atmosphere. To make the storage of hydrogen kinetically feasible, a thermal activation step is required. Activation is a routine practice, but very little is known about the physical, chemical, and/or electronic processes that occur during Activation. This work presents in situ characterization of erbium Activation using variable energy photoelectron spectroscopy at various stages of the Activation process. Modification of the passive surface oxide plays a significant role in Activation. The chemical and electronic changes observed from core-level and valence band spectra will be discussed along with corroborating ion scattering spectroscopy measurements.

Zavadil, Kevin Robert; Snow, Clark Sheldon; Brumbach, Michael Todd

2010-09-01

48

Effects of an erbium:YAG laser on ocular structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the effects of the erbium:YAG laser (2.9 µm wavelength) on ocular structures. Energy was successfully transmitted through a fiberoptic bundle for intraocular and extraocular applications. The wavelength was strongly absorbed by ocular tissues, producing ablations with minimal thermal damage. Our results indicated that the erbium: YAG laser may have potential uses as a photoablative tool to reshape the

Gholam A. Peyman; Naoko Katoh

1987-01-01

49

Noise figure for erbium-doped optical fibre amplifiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a simple rate equation model is used to make the first prediction of the noise figure for erbium-doped fiber amplifiers for both co- and counterpropagating pumps. It is shown that erbium amplifiers can be operated with noise figures very close to the 3 dB quantum limit. If the application requires both low noise and maximum gain, the

R. Olshansky

1988-01-01

50

Model Investigation of Temperature and Concentration Dependent Luminescence of Erbium-doped Tellurite Glasses  

SciTech Connect

Improving the up-conversion efficiency is the key issue in tellurite glasses. The quantum efficiency, radiative transition rate and lifetimes of excited states are greatly influenced by the optical properties of the host material, ligand field, multiphonon relaxation processes, impurities, temperature and concentration of erbium ions. We develop a comprehensive 4-level model to examine the radiative and nonradiative (NR) decay processes for the green ({sup 4}S{sub 3/2}{yields}{sup 4}I{sub 15/2}) and red ({sup 4}F{sub 9/2}{yields}{sup 4}I{sub 15/2}) emission over a temperature range of (10-340 K) and concentration range of (0.1-4.5 mol.%). Concentration dependent enhancement and thermal quenching of efficiency for up-conversion is investigated using the derived rate equations. These features are attributed to the NR energy transfer processes, trapped impurity effects, and thermal assisted hopping. The unusual nature of temperature and concentration dependent quenching effects for green and red emission is queries for further investigations. It is further suggested that to achieve higher infrared to visible up-converted efficiency in tellurite glasses the NR channels for energy and charge transfer by phonon and impurity mediated process has to be minimized. Our results on pump power dependent emission intensity, quantum efficiency, luminescence intensity, radiative lifetimes, and transition probabilities are in conformity with other experimental findings.

Ghoshal, S. K.; Sahar, M. R.; Rohani, M. S. [Advanced Optical Materials Research Group, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor (Malaysia); Tewari, H. S. [Department of Pure and Applied Physics, Guru Ghasidas University Bilaspur - 495009 (CG) (India)

2011-11-22

51

Bose-Einstein Condensation of Erbium  

E-print Network

We report on the achievement of Bose-Einstein condensation of erbium atoms and on the observation of magnetic Feshbach resonances at low magnetic field. By means of evaporative cooling in an optical dipole trap, we produce pure condensates of $^{168}$Er, containing up to $7 \\times 10^{4}$ atoms. Feshbach spectroscopy reveals an extraordinary rich loss spectrum with six loss resonances already in a narrow magnetic-field range up to 3 G. Finally, we demonstrate the application of a low-field Feshbach resonance to produce a tunable dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate and we observe its characteristic d-wave collapse.

Aikawa, K; Mark, M; Baier, S; Rietzler, A; Grimm, R; Ferlaino, F

2012-01-01

52

Molecular and ionic sublimation of erbium tribromide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The molecular and ionic composition of vapor over erbium tribromide sublimed from the Knudsen effusion cell and the open surface of a single crystal was studied by high-temperature mass spectrometry. The partial pressures of ErBr3 and Er2Br6 molecules in saturated vapor and the ratio between their sublimation coefficients under free vaporization conditions were determined. The enthalpies and activation energies of sublimation of ErBr3 crystals in the form of monomers and dimers were calculated. The emission of and Er2 was recorded in studies of ionic sublimation in both modes. The enthalpies of formation of gas molecules and ions were determined.

Butman, M. F.; Kudin, L. S.; Motalov, V. B.; Kryuchkov, A. S.; Grishin, A. E.; Krämer, K. W.

2009-01-01

53

ROB. THALN. 2014 Spektralunderskningar rrande skandium, ytterbium, erbium och thulium (Recherches spectrales sur le scandium, l'ytterbium, l'erbium et le  

E-print Network

35 ROB. THAL�N. 2014 Spektralundersökningar rörande skandium, ytterbium, erbium och thulium (Recherches spectrales sur le scandium, l'ytterbium, l'erbium et le thulium ) ; Ofversigt af Kongl. Vetenskaps solutions de nitrates, l'une rose, riche en erbium, l'autre presclue incolore et riche en thulium. Plusieurs

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

54

Microstructural Features in Aged Erbium Tritide Foils  

SciTech Connect

Aged erbium tritide foil specimens are found to contain five distinctly different microstructural features. The general structure was of large columnar grains of ErT2. But on a fine scale, precipitates believed to be erbium oxy-tritides and helium bubbles could be identified. The precipitate size was in the range of ~10 nm and the bubbles were of an unusual planar shape on {111} planes with an invariant thickness of ~1 nm and a diameter on the order of 10 nm. Also, an outer layer containing no fine precipitate structure and only a few helium bubbles was present on foils. This layer is best described as a denuded zone which probably grew during aging in air. Finally, large embedded Er2O3 particles were found at low density and non-uniformly distributed, but sometimes extending through the thickness of the foil. A failure mechanism allowing the helium to escape is suggested by observed cracking between bubbles closer to end of life.

Gelles, David S.; Brewer, L. N.; Kotula, Paul G.; Cowgill, Donald F.; Busick, C. C.; Snow, C. S.

2008-01-01

55

28 CFR 115.152-115.153 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...115.152-115.153 Section 115.152-115.153 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Lockups Reporting §§ 115.152-115.153...

2012-07-01

56

14 CFR 152.609 - Energy conservation practices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Energy conservation practices. 152.609 Section 152...AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Energy Conservation in Airport Aid Program § 152.609 Energy conservation practices. Each sponsor shall...

2014-01-01

57

14 CFR 152.609 - Energy conservation practices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Energy conservation practices. 152.609 Section 152...AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Energy Conservation in Airport Aid Program § 152.609 Energy conservation practices. Each sponsor shall...

2011-01-01

58

14 CFR 152.609 - Energy conservation practices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Energy conservation practices. 152.609 Section 152...AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Energy Conservation in Airport Aid Program § 152.609 Energy conservation practices. Each sponsor shall...

2010-01-01

59

14 CFR 152.609 - Energy conservation practices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Energy conservation practices. 152.609 Section 152...AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Energy Conservation in Airport Aid Program § 152.609 Energy conservation practices. Each sponsor shall...

2013-01-01

60

14 CFR 152.609 - Energy conservation practices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Energy conservation practices. 152.609 Section 152...AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Energy Conservation in Airport Aid Program § 152.609 Energy conservation practices. Each sponsor shall...

2012-01-01

61

17 CFR 201.152 - Filing of papers: Form.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Filing of papers: Form. 201.152 Section 201.152 ...Practice General Rules § 201.152 Filing of papers: Form. (a) Specifications. Papers filed in connection with any proceeding as...

2010-04-01

62

40 CFR 152.96 - Documentation of a data gap.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Documentation of a data gap. 152.96 Section 152.96 Protection...PROCEDURES Procedures To Ensure Protection of Data Submitters' Rights § 152.96 Documentation of a data gap. Except as provided in...

2011-07-01

63

40 CFR 152.91 - Waiver of a data requirement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Waiver of a data requirement. 152.91 Section 152.91 ...AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Satisfaction of Data Requirements and Protection of Data Submitters' Rights § 152.91 Waiver of...

2014-07-01

64

40 CFR 152.96 - Documentation of a data gap.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Documentation of a data gap. 152.96 Section 152.96 Protection...PROCEDURES Procedures To Ensure Protection of Data Submitters' Rights § 152.96 Documentation of a data gap. Except as provided in...

2010-07-01

65

40 CFR 152.96 - Documentation of a data gap.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Documentation of a data gap. 152.96 Section 152.96 Protection...PROCEDURES Procedures To Ensure Protection of Data Submitters' Rights § 152.96 Documentation of a data gap. Except as provided in...

2013-07-01

66

40 CFR 152.96 - Documentation of a data gap.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Documentation of a data gap. 152.96 Section 152.96 Protection...PROCEDURES Procedures To Ensure Protection of Data Submitters' Rights § 152.96 Documentation of a data gap. Except as provided in...

2012-07-01

67

Erbium-doped waveguide amplifier for reconfigurable WDM metro networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transient dynamic due to signal power fluctuations is the main impairment in reconfigurable transparent wavelength-division-multiplexing metro networks design. In this letter, we demonstrate an optical-gain-clamped erbium-doped waveguide amplifier using fiber Bragg grating filters. We show both theoretically and experimentally that it is virtually insensitive to signal transient and that it reduces overshoot by 10 dB compared to standard erbium-doped fiber

K. Ennser; G. Della Valle; M. Ibsen; J. Shmulovich; S. Taccheo

2005-01-01

68

Cladding-pumped erbium-doped multicore fiber amplifier.  

PubMed

A cladding pumped multicore erbium-doped fiber amplifier for simultaneous amplification of 6 channels is demonstrated. Peak gain over 32 dB has been obtained at a wavelength of 1560 nm and the bandwidth measured at 20-dB gain was about 35 nm. Numerical modeling of cladding pumped multicore erbium-doped amplifier was also performed to study the properties of the amplifier. The results of experiment and simulation are found to be in good agreement. PMID:23037071

Abedin, K S; Taunay, T F; Fishteyn, M; DiGiovanni, D J; Supradeepa, V R; Fini, J M; Yan, M F; Zhu, B; Monberg, E M; Dimarcello, F V

2012-08-27

69

Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 152  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detailed level schemes, decay schemes, and the experimental data on which they are based are presented for all nuclei with mass number A=152. The experimental data are evaluated; inconsistencies and discrepancies are noted; and adopted values for level and ?-ray energies, ? intensities, as well as for other nuclear properties are given. This evaluation replaces the A=152 evaluation published by Agda Artna-Cohen in Nuclear Data Sheets 79, 1 (1996) and the evaluation for 152Dy prepared by Balraj Singh and published in Nuclear Data Sheets 95, 995 (2002).

Martin, M. J.

2013-11-01

70

Quantifying and controlling the magnetic dipole contribution to 1.5-?m light emission in erbium-doped yttrium oxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We experimentally quantify the contribution of magnetic dipole (MD) transitions to the near-infrared light emission from trivalent erbium-doped yttrium oxide (Er3+:Y2O3). Using energy-momentum spectroscopy, we demonstrate that the 4I13/2?4I15/2 emission near 1.5 ?m originates from nearly equal contributions of electric dipole (ED) and MD transitions that exhibit distinct emission spectra. We then show how these distinct spectra, together with the differing local density of optical states for ED and MD transitions, can be leveraged to control Er3+ emission in structured environments. We demonstrate that far-field emission spectra can be tuned to resemble almost pure emission from either ED or MD transitions and show that the observed spectral modifications can be accurately predicted from the measured ED and MD intrinsic emission rates.

Li, Dongfang; Jiang, Mingming; Cueff, Sébastien; Dodson, Christopher M.; Karaveli, Sinan; Zia, Rashid

2014-04-01

71

Characterisation of Erbium Doped Phosphate Glass  

SciTech Connect

A series of erbium doped phosphate glass has been successfully fabricated, and the determination of their density and luminescence properties has been carried out. It is particularly interesting to study the effect of modifying oxides to the properties of the glass. The glass density reduces with the increasing content of Na{sub 2}O. The emission spectra from luminescence spectroscopy resolved six emission peaks from the excitation wavelength of 336.8 nm (3.69 eV). The emission of {sup 4}F{sub 7/2} gives two emission peaks, where the peak near 482 nm shows a higher intensity and the peak near 491 nm gives a weak emission spectra.

Rasid, A. A.; Rohani, M. S.; Sahar, M. R.; Kasim, A. [Advanced Optical Material Research Group, Physics Dept., Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor (Malaysia)

2010-03-11

72

Luminescence of erbium ions in tellurite glasses  

SciTech Connect

Optical characteristics of new generation of tellurite glasses having high stability against crystallization have been studied. As the initial reagents for the glasses synthesis on the base of tellurium oxide (TeO{sub 2}) there were used such oxides as WO{sub 3}, MoO{sub 3}, La{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, ZnO—Bi{sub 2}O{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and active components such as high purity Er{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Yb{sub 2}O{sub 3}, ErF{sub 3} and YbF{sub 3}. Intensities of luminescence at 1.53 µm of the erbium ions were determined after excitation at 975 nm. Experimental data obtained have shown the possibility to use the studied glasses doped by Er{sup 3+} and Yb{sup 3+} as active elements for fiber and integrated optics. - Graphical abstract: In contrast to the case of ZBLAN glass the TeO{sub 2}–WO{sub 3} (Er{sup 3+}) glass has bright intensity of luminescence at 1.53 µm for erbium ions that should be caused by excitation at 975 nm. Experimental data obtained have shown the possibility to use the studied glasses doped by Er{sup 3+} and Yb{sup 3+} as active elements for fiber and integrated optics. Display Omitted - Highlights: • We examined changes in growth of luminescence in doubly-doped tellurite glasses. • We found that luminescence grows in two orders by using Er{sup 3+} and Yb{sup 3+} at 1.53 ?m. • We see possibility to use those glasses as active elements for integrated optics.

Savikin, Alexander P.; Grishin, Igor A.; Sharkov, Valery V.; Budruev, Andrei V., E-mail: budruev@gmail.com

2013-11-15

73

Single-Longitudinal-Mode Lanthanum-Codoped Bismuth-Based Erbium Doped Fiber Ring Laser  

E-print Network

Single-Longitudinal-Mode Lanthanum-Codoped Bismuth-Based Erbium Doped Fiber Ring Laser K. K and demonstrate a stable single-longitudinal-mode lanthanum-codoped bismuth oxide- based erbium doped fiber ring

Wai, Ping-kong Alexander

74

Design and fabrication of an intrinsicallygain flattened Erbium doped fiber amplifier  

E-print Network

1 Design and fabrication of an intrinsicallygain flattened Erbium doped fiber amplifier B. Nagaraju fabrication of an intrinsically gain flattened Erbium doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) based on a highly

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

75

Erbium-doped transparent glass ceramic optical Characterization using mass spectroscopy and molecular dynamics modeling.  

E-print Network

Erbium-doped transparent glass ceramic optical fibres: Characterization using mass spectroscopy properties of the erbium ions embedded within the phospho-silicate DNP. These results permit to get more

Boyer, Edmond

76

170 Gbit/s transmission in an erbium-doped waveguide amplifier on silicon  

E-print Network

1 170 Gbit/s transmission in an erbium-doped waveguide amplifier on silicon Jonathan D. B. Bradley amplifying wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) signals. Alternatively, planar erbium-doped waveguide

Boyer, Edmond

77

25 CFR 152.1 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER ISSUANCE OF PATENTS IN FEE, CERTIFICATES OF COMPETENCY, REMOVAL OF RESTRICTIONS, AND SALE OF CERTAIN INDIAN LANDS § 152.1 Definitions. As used in this part:...

2014-04-01

78

25 CFR 152.1 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER ISSUANCE OF PATENTS IN FEE, CERTIFICATES OF COMPETENCY, REMOVAL OF RESTRICTIONS, AND SALE OF CERTAIN INDIAN LANDS § 152.1 Definitions. As used in this part:...

2012-04-01

79

12 CFR 152.6 - Shareholders.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...THE TREASURY FEDERAL STOCK ASSOCIATIONS-INCORPORATION, ORGANIZATION, AND CONVERSION § 152.6 Shareholders. (a) Shareholder...shall be provided for use at the annual meeting. (h) Informal action by stockholders. If the bylaws of the...

2013-01-01

80

7 CFR 929.152 - Delinquent assessments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF MASSACHUSETTS, RHODE ISLAND, CONNECTICUT, NEW JERSEY, WISCONSIN, MICHIGAN, MINNESOTA, OREGON, WASHINGTON, AND LONG ISLAND IN THE STATE OF NEW YORK Rules and Regulations § 929.152...

2013-01-01

81

40 CFR 82.152 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01...152 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Recycling and Emissions Reduction...refrigerant recovery or recycling equipment means...unsafe in its intended environment, and/or will...

2014-07-01

82

40 CFR 82.152 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01...152 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Recycling and Emissions Reduction...refrigerant recovery or recycling equipment means...unsafe in its intended environment, and/or will...

2012-07-01

83

40 CFR 82.152 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01...152 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Recycling and Emissions Reduction...refrigerant recovery or recycling equipment means...unsafe in its intended environment, and/or will...

2011-07-01

84

40 CFR 82.152 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01...152 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Recycling and Emissions Reduction...refrigerant recovery or recycling equipment means...unsafe in its intended environment, and/or will...

2013-07-01

85

40 CFR 82.152 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01...152 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Recycling and Emissions Reduction...refrigerant recovery or recycling equipment means...unsafe in its intended environment, and/or will...

2010-07-01

86

40 CFR 51.152 - Contingency plans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...51.152 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR...episode stage, including procedures for contact with public officials, major emission sources, public health, safety, and emergency agencies...

2010-07-01

87

Ultralow-threshold erbium-implanted toroidal microlaser on silicon A. Polmana)  

E-print Network

Ultralow-threshold erbium-implanted toroidal microlaser on silicon A. Polmana) Department an erbium-doped microlaser on silicon operating at a wavelength of 1.5 m that operates at a launched pump threshold as low as 4.5 W. The 40 m diameter toroidal microresonator is made using a combination of erbium

Polman, Albert

88

Application of H Control on Pilot Tones in Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers  

E-print Network

Application of H Control on Pilot Tones in Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers Y. Taing and L. Pavel the effects of cross gain modulation due to supervisory pilot tones within Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers: (060.2410) Fibers, erbium; (060.2320) Fiber optics amplifiers and oscillators; (140.4480) Optical

Pavel, Lacra

89

Multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber laser employing a nonlinear optical loop mirror  

E-print Network

Multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber laser employing a nonlinear optical loop mirror Xinhuan Feng a; accepted 6 July 2006 Abstract A stable and broad bandwidth multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber laser is about 0.1 dB within a 2-h period. Ã? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Erbium-doped fiber

Wai, Ping-kong Alexander

90

Periodic and non-periodic frequency selection in an erbium doped fiber laser  

E-print Network

Periodic and non-periodic frequency selection in an erbium doped fiber laser by silica microdisk spectral filters. These filters can control the spectral emission of an erbium doped fiber laser erbium- doped fiber lasers anchored on the itu frequency grid," J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 825­831 (2000

Peter, Yves-Alain

91

Energy backtransfer and infrared photoresponse in erbium-doped silicon pn diodes  

E-print Network

Energy backtransfer and infrared photoresponse in erbium-doped silicon p­n diodes N. Hamelin,a) P, and infrared photocurrent, were performed on an erbium-implanted silicon p­n junction in order to investigate surface. The PL intensity and PL lifetime measurements show weak temperature quenching of the erbium intra

Polman, Albert

92

Fast intracavity polarization dynamics of an erbium-doped fiber ring laser: Inclusion of stochastic effects  

E-print Network

Fast intracavity polarization dynamics of an erbium-doped fiber ring laser: Inclusion of stochastic The dynamics of a unidirectional erbium-doped fiber laser is investigated on a time scale short enough observations of the intracavity dynamics of an erbium-doped fiber laser. A polarization- controlling device

Yorke, James

93

Generation of a 6602100 nm laser frequency comb based on an erbium fiber laser  

E-print Network

Generation of a 660­2100 nm laser frequency comb based on an erbium fiber laser Gabriel Ycas,1 present a multibranch laser frequency comb based upon a 250 MHz mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser]. Here, we present a technique for generating a visible light frequency comb from a mode-locked erbium

94

Spectrum engineering of multiwavelength erbium doped fiber lasers with intensity-dependent loss  

E-print Network

Spectrum engineering of multiwavelength erbium doped fiber lasers with intensity-dependent loss@polyu.edu.hk Abstract: We studied multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber lasers with intensity-dependent loss using rate. The realization of multiwavelength CW lasers with erbium-doped fiber at room temperature by incorporating

Wai, Ping-kong Alexander

95

Demonstration of an erbium-doped microdisk laser on a silicon chip T. J. Kippenberg*  

E-print Network

Demonstration of an erbium-doped microdisk laser on a silicon chip T. J. Kippenberg* Department; published 16 November 2006 An erbium-doped microlaser is demonstrated utilizing SiO2 microdisk resonators optical quality factors of up to 6 107 and were doped with trivalent erbium ions peak concentration 3

Polman, Albert

96

Incorporation and optical activation of erbium in silicon using molecular beam epitaxy  

E-print Network

Incorporation and optical activation of erbium in silicon using molecular beam epitaxy R. Serna; accepted for publication 23 October 1995 Erbium is incorporated in crystalline silicon during molecular of silicon with erbium has been a very active field of research since its introduction by Ennen et al.1

Polman, Albert

97

Physica B 300 (2001) 7890 Erbium as a probe of everything?  

E-print Network

Physica B 300 (2001) 78­90 Erbium as a probe of everything? A. Polman* FOM-Institute for Atomic; accepted 11 May 2001 Abstract Erbium is a lanthanide ion with unique electronic and optical properties, and photonic bandstructure. r 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Erbium 1. Introduction

Polman, Albert

98

Near-infrared thermal lens spectrometer based on an erbium-doped fiber amplifier and  

E-print Network

Near-infrared thermal lens spectrometer based on an erbium-doped fiber amplifier and an acousto light from 1515 to 1590 nm was provided by an erbium-doped fiber amplifier EDFA . An acousto lens, acousto-optic tunable filter, erbium doped fiber amplifier, nucleotides. 1. Introduction Tran

Reid, Scott A.

99

Design and fabrication of an intrinsically gain flattened Erbium doped fiber amplifier  

E-print Network

Design and fabrication of an intrinsically gain flattened Erbium doped fiber amplifier B. Nagaraju1 of an intrinsically gain flattened Erbium- doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) based on a highly asymmetrical and concentric economics is a premium, because it would cut down the cost on gain flattening filter head. Keywords: Erbium

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

100

H Optimal Control Design for Time Dependent Tones within Erbium-doped Fiber Amplifiers  

E-print Network

H Optimal Control Design for Time Dependent Tones within Erbium-doped Fiber Amplifiers Yong Taing effects within Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers owed to pilot tone disturbances used for optical monitoring to this growth the application of Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFAs) within wavelength di- vision multiplexed

Pavel, Lacra

101

Two-wave mixing in an erbium-doped fiber amplifier for modulation depth enhancement  

E-print Network

Two-wave mixing in an erbium-doped fiber amplifier for modulation depth enhancement of optically method based on two-wave mixing in an erbium- doped fiber amplifier for optical carrier reduction of optically carried microwave signals by using two-wave mixing and beam coupling phenomena in an erbium

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

102

Multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber ring laser source with a hybrid gain medium  

E-print Network

Multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber ring laser source with a hybrid gain medium D.N. Wang a,*, F 17 December 2002; received in revised form 21 April 2003; accepted 30 September 2003 Abstract Erbium optical amplifier is incorporated into the cavity of an erbium-doped fiber ring laser to form a hybrid

Wai, Ping-kong Alexander

103

Erbium-doped nanoparticles in silica-based optical Wilfried Blanc*, Valrie Mauroy, Bernard  

E-print Network

Erbium-doped nanoparticles in silica-based optical fibres Wilfried Blanc*, Valérie Mauroy, Bernard on the incorporation of erbium ions in amorphous dielectric nanoparticles, grown in-situ in fiber preforms. By adding of nanometric erbium-doped dielectric nanoparticles within the core of silica fibers. We present

Boyer, Edmond

104

KonradZuseZentrum fr Informationstechnik Berlin Dynamics of Erbium--doped Waveguide Lasers  

E-print Network

Konrad­Zuse­Zentrum für Informationstechnik Berlin Dynamics of Erbium--doped Waveguide Lasers­19 (August 1995) #12; Dynamics of Erbium--doped Waveguide Lasers: Modelling, Reliable Simulation : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 25 6 Conclusions 29 3 #12; 1 Introduction In parallel with the successful development of erbium

Zumbusch, Gerhard

105

Sensitized erbium emission from silicon-rich nitride/silicon superlattice structures  

E-print Network

Sensitized erbium emission from silicon-rich nitride/silicon superlattice structures L. Dal Negro,1 February 2008; accepted 16 April 2008; published online 7 May 2008 Erbium-doped silicon-rich nitride discovery of efficient resonant energy transfer be- tween Si nanocrystals Si-nc embedded in SiO2 and erbium

106

Erbium-doped and Raman microlasers on a silicon chip fabricated by the solgel process  

E-print Network

Erbium-doped and Raman microlasers on a silicon chip fabricated by the sol­gel process Lan Yang+ -doped sol­gel layers with control of the laser dynamics possible by varying the erbium concentration of the starting sol­gel material. Continuous lasing with a threshold of 660 nW for erbium-doped microlaser

Carmon, Tal

107

Characterization of an Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifier as a Light Source and Development of a  

E-print Network

Characterization of an Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifier as a Light Source and Development of a Near is amplified by the doped fiber. Furthermore, the output intensity of this erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA by synergistic use of an erbium-doped fiber amplifier as a light source and an acoustooptic tunable filter

Reid, Scott A.

108

Chalcogenide-Bound Erbium Complexes: Paradigm Molecules for Infrared Fluorescence Emission  

E-print Network

Chalcogenide-Bound Erbium Complexes: Paradigm Molecules for Infrared Fluorescence Emission G. A ReceiVed June 23, 2005 The near-infrared luminescence properties of the nanoscale erbium ceramic cluster (THF)14Er10S6- Se12I6 (Er10, where THF ) tetrahydrofuran) and the molecular erbium thiolate (DME)2Er

Lawson, Catherine L.

109

Active waveguide fabrication in erbium-doped oxyfluoride silicate glass using femtosecond pulses  

E-print Network

Active waveguide fabrication in erbium-doped oxyfluoride silicate glass using femtosecond pulses R September 2005 By directly writing waveguides inside bulk erbium-doped oxyfluoride silicate glass using and crystals.2 Recently, we have demonstrated that active waveguides may be fabricated inside erbium

110

Application of Robust L2 Control to Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier: Input and State Uncertainty  

E-print Network

Application of Robust L2 Control to Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier: Input and State Uncertainty Nem nonlinear controller applied to an erbium doped fiber amplifier (EDFA). We consider the rejection of input controller of [9]. I. INTRODUCTION Regarded as the greatest innovation since optical fiber, the erbium doped

Pavel, Lacra

111

Spectroscopic signature of phosphate crystallization in Erbium-doped optical fibre preforms  

E-print Network

Spectroscopic signature of phosphate crystallization in Erbium-doped optical fibre preforms R, as structural modifier. In erbium ion (Er3+ ) doped fibres, phosphorus preferentially coordinates to Er3+ ions observed at room and low temperature are attributed to ErPO4 crystallites. Keywords : Erbium, Luminescence

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

112

Silver as a sensitizer for erbium C. Strohhofer and A. Polmana)  

E-print Network

Silver as a sensitizer for erbium C. Strohho¨fer and A. Polmana) FOM Institute for Atomic by the presence of silver. Samples prepared by a combination of erbium ion implantation and Na Ag ion exchange absorption cross sections of rare earth ions such as erbium or neodymium have spawned numerous at- tempts

Polman, Albert

113

Observation of enhanced photoluminescence in erbium-doped semiconductor microdisk resonator  

E-print Network

Observation of enhanced photoluminescence in erbium-doped semiconductor microdisk resonator D. Y from an erbium-doped gallium phosphide microdisk resonator pumped by a Ti-sapphire laser at 980 nm sample. At low pumping power intensity, the photoluminescence from erbium-doped gallium phosphide

Ho, Seng-Tiong

114

Manufacturing condition optimization for optical activity enhancement on Silicon nanocluster sensitized Erbium doped waveguide amplifier  

E-print Network

for optical activity enhancement on Silicon nanocluster sensitized Erbium doped waveguide amplifier Hansuek-PON PON , , . (NC- Si EDWA: silicon nanocluster sensitized Erbium doped related to optical gain in erbium-doped silicon-rich silicon oxide waveguide amplifier," Appl. Phys. Lett

Park, Namkyoo

115

Stable and uniform multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber laser using nonlinear polarization  

E-print Network

Stable and uniform multiwavelength erbium- doped fiber laser using nonlinear polarization rotation oscillations in an erbium-doped fiber laser is proposed and successfully demonstrated. The NPR effect by homogeneous gain broadening in erbium-doped fibers. Up to 28-wavelength lasing operation with wavelength

Wai, Ping-kong Alexander

116

Gain characteristics of a 210 km hybrid Raman/erbium-doped fiber amplified loop  

E-print Network

Gain characteristics of a 210 km hybrid Raman/erbium-doped fiber amplified loop Gaston E. Tudury a of combining gain from Raman amplifiers and erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFAs) in a fiber recir- culating and erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) gain media together to eliminate the gain tilt, removing the need

Maryland, Baltimore County, University of

117

Tunable silicon-based light sources using erbium doped liquid crystals S. M. Weissa  

E-print Network

Tunable silicon-based light sources using erbium doped liquid crystals S. M. Weissa Department for the tunable light sources consist of porous silicon microcavities infiltrated with erbium doped nematic liquid crystals. Erbium ions are the luminescence source, porous silicon microcavities narrow the emission band

Weiss, Sharon

118

Implementation of three functional devices using Erbium-doped Fibers: An Advanced Photonics Lab  

E-print Network

Implementation of three functional devices using Erbium- doped Fibers: An Advanced Photonics Lab at the undergraduate students' level. The experiment uses erbium-doped fiber to implement three functions through the erbium-doped fiber amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) and characterize its emission spectrum; ii

Qian, Li

119

Achieving optical gain in waveguide-confined nanocluster-sensitized erbium by pulsed excitation  

E-print Network

Achieving optical gain in waveguide-confined nanocluster-sensitized erbium by pulsed excitation for optical gain in nanocluster sensitized erbium in a slot waveguide geometry. We determine the viability to erbium. We show that pulsed excitation of a 10 nm layer achieves a modal gain of 0.9 dB/cm during each

Atwater, Harry

120

Structural properties and electrical characteristics of electron-beam gun evaporated erbium oxide films  

E-print Network

Structural properties and electrical characteristics of electron-beam gun evaporated erbium oxide of another rare-earth­ metal oxide, erbium oxide, Er2O3 . This material is rather well known as an optical it causes less of an erbium silicate in comparison with Gd2O3 and Y2O3 under similar annealing conditions

Eisenstein, Gadi

121

MO-PECVD (METAL-ORGANIC PLASMA ENHANCED CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION) OF ERBIUM-DOPED  

E-print Network

MO-PECVD (METAL-ORGANIC PLASMA ENHANCED CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION) OF ERBIUM-DOPED HYDROGENATED-PECVD (Metal-Organic Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapour Deposition) of Erbium-Doped Hydrogenated and Deuterated Sr. Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Toronto Abstract Erbium (Er3

Qian, Li

122

Gain Scheduling Control Design of an Erbium-Doped Fibre Amplifier by Pump Compensation  

E-print Network

Gain Scheduling Control Design of an Erbium-Doped Fibre Amplifier by Pump Compensation Min Ding) transmission network produces undesirable transients in the existing channels due to erbium-doped fibre the effectiveness of the gain scheduling scheme. I. INTRODUCTION Erbium-doped fibre amplifiers (EDFA's) provide low

Pavel, Lacra

123

Erbium: A Deterministic, Concurrent Intermediate Representation for Portable and Scalable Performance  

E-print Network

Erbium: A Deterministic, Concurrent Intermediate Representation for Portable and Scalable language, and for just-in-time compilation of bytecode languages. This paper introduces Erbium of Erbium, relying on a pro- totype implementation in GCC 4.3. Categories and Subject Descriptors: D.3

Boyer, Edmond

124

Enhanced light emission in photonic crystal nanocavities with Erbium-doped silicon nanocrystals  

E-print Network

Enhanced light emission in photonic crystal nanocavities with Erbium-doped silicon nanocrystals in silicon membranes covered by thermally annealed silicon-rich nitride films with Erbium-doped silicon. The nanocavities were carefully designed in order to enhance emission from the nanocrystal sensitized Erbium

Vuckovic, Jelena

125

Passively harmonic mode locked erbium doped fiber soliton laser with carbon nanotubes based  

E-print Network

fs erbium-doped fiber laser mode locked with a cellulose polymer film containing single-wall carbonPassively harmonic mode locked erbium doped fiber soliton laser with carbon nanotubes based.ac.uk Abstract: We have proposed and demonstrated passive harmonic mode locking of an erbium doped fiber laser

Turitsyn, Sergei K.

126

862 JOURNAL OF LIGHTWAVE TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 20, NO. 5, MAY 2002 Design and Performance of an Erbium-Doped Silicon  

E-print Network

862 JOURNAL OF LIGHTWAVE TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 20, NO. 5, MAY 2002 Design and Performance of an Erbium silicon-on-in- sulator material, and consists of an erbium-doped p­n junction lo- cated in the core measurements on an erbium-doped Si wave- guide detector at room temperature show a clear erbium related

Polman, Albert

127

Erbium diffusion from erbium metal or erbium oxide layers deposited on the surface of various LiNbO3 cuts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper the doping of erbium from thin layers deposited on the LiNbO3 surface with an emphasis on the relations between changes in the LiNbO3 structure and the luminescence properties of Er:LiNbO3 have been studied. The erbium-containing layers were primarily characterised in terms of the luminescence at 1.5 ?m. The obtained results showed a high level of structural ordering in the samples after indiffusion of Er at high-temperature. This was apparent from the luminescence results, where more than 6 quite narrow luminescence bands were found, and also from the RBS/channeling analysis which showed, that the doped structure has similar degree of ordering as the bulk crystal LiNbO3. In terms of luminescence intensity at 1.5 ?m a better source for the erbium doping seems to be the erbium oxide layer. The highest luminescence intensity values were among the cuts achieved in the Z cut.

Nekvindova, P.; Cajzl, J.; Svecova, B.; Mackova, A.; Malinsky, P.; Oswald, J.; Vacik, J.; Spirkova, J.

2013-12-01

128

Enhancing erbium emission by strain engineering in GaN heteroepitaxial layers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rare earth doped III-nitrides have been intensively studied due to their intra-4f transitions covering the window from visible emissions to infrared wavelengths. Trivalent Erbium (Er^3+) has driven particular interests since the intra-4f transition from its first excited (^4I13/2) to the ground state (^4I15/2) gives 1.54 ?m emission, which sits in the low optical loss band of silica fibers and potentially affords light emitters and optical amplifiers at optical communication wavelength. Due to the structural and thermal stability of GaN, GaN appears to be the promising candidate as the host semiconductors. We prepared Er doped GaN (GaN:Er) samples by metal organic chemical vapor deposition. GaN:Er epilayers were simultaneously grown on different templates, including GaN/Al2O3, AlN/Al2O3, GaN/Si(111), and c-GaN bulk. The effects of stress, caused by the lattice mismatch between GaN:Er epilayers and the substrates, on the intensity of 1.54 ?m emission were probed. The emission intensity at 1.54 ?m increased with greater tensile stress in the c-direction of GaN:Er epilayers. The correlation between stress and 1.54 ?m emission will be presented. The results implied the potential to design efficient photonic devices based on GaN:Er semiconductors.

Feng, I.-Wen; Li, Jing; Sedhain, Ashok; Lin, Jingyu; Jiang, Hongxing; Zavada, John

2011-03-01

129

Activation of erbium films for hydrogen storage  

SciTech Connect

Hydriding of metals can be routinely performed at high temperature in a rich hydrogen atmosphere. Prior to the hydrogen loading process, a thermal activation procedure is required to promote facile hydrogen sorption into the metal. Despite the wide spread utilization of this activation procedure, little is known about the chemical and electronic changes that occur during activation and how this thermal pretreatment leads to increased rates of hydrogen uptake. This study utilized variable kinetic energy X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to interrogate the changes during in situ thermal annealing of erbium films, with results confirmed by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and low energy ion scattering. Activation can be identified by a large increase in photoemission between the valence band edge and the Fermi level and appears to occur over a two stage process. The first stage involves desorption of contaminants and recrystallization of the oxide, initially impeding hydrogen loading. Further heating overcomes the first stage and leads to degradation of the passive surface oxide leading to a bulk film more accessible for hydrogen loading.

Brumbach, Michael T.; Ohlhausen, James A. [Materials Characterization Department, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Zavadil, Kevin R. [Materials Reliability Department, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Snow, Clark S. [Applied Science and Technology Maturation Department, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Woicik, Joseph C. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States)

2011-06-01

130

Activatino of Erbium Films for Hydrogen Storage  

SciTech Connect

Hydriding of metals can be routinely performed at high temperature in a rich hydrogen atmosphere. Prior to the hydrogen loading process, a thermal activation procedure is required to promote facile hydrogen sorption into the metal. Despite the wide spread utilization of this activation procedure, little is known about the chemical and electronic changes that occur during activation and how this thermal pretreatment leads to increased rates of hydrogen uptake. This study utilized variable kinetic energy X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to interrogate the changes during in situ thermal annealing of erbium films, with results confirmed by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and low energy ion scattering. Activation can be identified by a large increase in photoemission between the valence band edge and the Fermi level and appears to occur over a two stage process. The first stage involves desorption of contaminants and recrystallization of the oxide, initially impeding hydrogen loading. Further heating overcomes the first stage and leads to degradation of the passive surface oxide leading to a bulk film more accessible for hydrogen loading.

M Brumbach; j Ohlhausen; K Zavadil; C Snow; J Woicik

2011-12-31

131

Erbium concentration dependent absorbance in tellurite glass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Enhancing the optical absorption cross-section in topically important rare earth doped tellurite glasses is challenging for photonic devices. Controlled synthesis and detailed characterizations of the optical properties of these glasses are important for the optimization. The influence of varying concentration of Er3+ ions on the absorbance characteristics of lead tellurite glasses synthesized via melt-quenching technique are investigated. The UV-Vis absorption spectra exhibits six prominent peaks centered at 490, 526, 652, 800, 982 and 1520 nm ascribed to the transitions in erbium ion from the ground state to the excited states 4F7/2, 2H11/2, 4F9/2, 4I9/2, 2H11/2 and 4I13/2, respectively. The results are analyzed by means of optical band gap Eg and Urbach energy Eu. The values of the energy band gap are found decreased from 2.82 to 2.51 eV and the Urbach energy increased from 0.15 to 0.24 eV with the increase of the Er2O3 concentration from 0 to 1.5 mol%. The excellent absorbance of the prepared tellurite glasses makes them suitable for fabricating solid state lasers.

Sazali, E. S.; Rohani, M. S.; Sahar, M. R.; Arifin, R.; Ghoshal, S. K.; Hamzah, K.

2014-09-01

132

Composition and structure of sputter deposited erbium hydride thin films  

SciTech Connect

Erbium hydride thin films are grown onto polished, a-axis {alpha} Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (sapphire) substrates by reactive ion beam sputtering and analyzed to determine composition, phase and microstructure. Erbium is sputtered while maintaining a H{sub 2} partial pressure of 1.4 x 10{sup {minus}4} Torr. Growth is conducted at several substrate temperatures between 30 and 500 C. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and elastic recoil detection analyses after deposition show that the H/Er areal density ratio is approximately 3:1 for growth temperatures of 30, 150 and 275 C, while for growth above {approximately}430 C, the ratio of hydrogen to metal is closer to 2:1. However, x-ray diffraction shows that all films have a cubic metal sublattice structure corresponding to that of ErH{sub 2}. RBS and Auger electron that sputtered erbium hydride thin films are relatively free of impurities.

ADAMS,DAVID P.; ROMERO,JUAN A.; RODRIGUEZ,MARK A.; FLORO,JERROLD A.; BANKS,JAMES C.

2000-05-10

133

Achieving superior resurfacing results with the erbium:YAG laser.  

PubMed

Laser skin resurfacing has become increasingly popular. The carbon dioxide (CO2) laser seemingly remains the most commonly used laser modality for skin resurfacing. Many surgeons still promote the CO2 laser as being superior to the erbium:YAG laser, particularly for individuals with deeper lines. However, further experience with the erbium:YAG laser has shown the converse to be true. The erbium:YAG laser can be used to treat deep rhytids successfully, many times achieving results superior to those seen with the CO2 laser, particularly in the perioral region. The theory behind this relates to the 10-fold greater absorption of the erbium:YAG wavelength by water. The greater absorption produces more efficient vaporization, even at low fluences, with greatly reduced adjacent thermal injury. Ablation can be carried to deeper levels of the dermis than is consistently safe with the CO2 laser. Deliverance of total fluences in the range of 100 to 150 J/cm2, or more, produces a marked reduction or elimination of deeper rhytids. Clinically, experience with more than 300 cases indicates collagen remodeling occurs to a similar degree with the erbium:YAG laser as with the CO2 laser, as improvement in rhytids can be seen for 2 to 3 months after surgery. It would appear that superior results can be obtained without the "heat effect" of the CO2 laser. The erbium:YAG laser is capable of achieving superior resurfacing results, while offering many advantages to the patient, eg, reduced anesthetic requirements, shorter healing time, reduced erythema, less risk of pigmentary change, and more flexibility for resurfacing the skin off of the face. PMID:12437434

Jasin, Michael E

2002-01-01

134

Photoluminescence and polariton dispersion in erbium nitrate hydrate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The photoluminescence spectrum of erbium nitrate hydrate is analyzed. The dispersion dependencies of polaritonic waves in erbium nitrate hydrate are established by means of a model of the interaction between electromagnetic waves and resonance electronic states of Er3+ ions. The positions of unitary polaritons, for which the refraction index is unity, are established. Velocity and effective mass of unitary polaritons are calculated. Our research allows construction of a liquid-core laser. The calculations show an increase of pump efficiency in such a laser.

Gorelik, V. S.; Burdanova, M. G.

2014-12-01

135

Characterization of the surface changes during the activation process of erbium/erbium oxide for hydrogen storage.  

SciTech Connect

Erbium is known to effectively load with hydrogen when held at high temperature in a hydrogen atmosphere. To make the storage of hydrogen kinetically feasible, a thermal activation step is required. Activation is a routine practice, but very little is known about the physical, chemical, and/or electronic processes that occur during Activation. This work presents in situ characterization of erbium Activation using variable energy photoelectron spectroscopy at various stages of the Activation process. Modification of the passive surface oxide plays a significant role in Activation. The chemical and electronic changes observed from core-level and valence band spectra will be discussed along with corroborating ion scattering spectroscopy measurements.

Zavadil, Kevin Robert; Snow, Clark Sheldon; Ohlhausen, James Anthony; Brumbach, Michael Todd

2010-10-01

136

Quantum Chaos in Ultracold Collisions of Erbium  

E-print Network

Atomic and molecular samples reduced to temperatures below 1 microkelvin, yet still in the gas phase, afford unprecedented energy resolution in probing and manipulating how their constituent particles interact with one another. For simple atoms, such as alkalis, scattering resonances are extremely well-characterized. However, ultracold physics is now poised to enter a new regime, where far more complex species can be cooled and studied, including magnetic lanthanide atoms and even molecules. For molecules, it has been speculated that a dense forest of resonances in ultracold collision cross sections will likely express essentially random fluctuations, much as the observed energy spectra of nuclear scattering do. According to the Bohigas-Giannoni-Schmit conjecture, these fluctuations would imply chaotic dynamics of the underlying classical motion driving the collision. This would provide a paradigm shift in ultracold atomic and molecular physics, necessitating new ways of looking at the fundamental interactions of atoms in this regime, as well as perhaps new chaos-driven states of ultracold matter. In this report we provide the first experimental demonstration that random spectra are indeed found at ultralow temperatures. In the experiment, an ultracold gas of erbium atoms is shown to exhibit many Fano-Feshbach resonances, for bosons on the order of 3 per gauss. Analysis of their statistics verifies that their distribution of nearest-neighbor spacings is what one would expect from random matrix theory. The density and statistics of these resonances are explained by fully-quantum mechanical scattering calculations that locate their origin in the anisotropy of the atoms' potential energy surface. Our results therefore reveal for the first time chaotic behavior in the native interaction between ultracold atoms.

Albert Frisch; Michael Mark; Kiyotaka Aikawa; Francesca Ferlaino; John L. Bohn; Constantinos Makrides; Alexander Petrov; Svetlana Kotochigova

2013-12-06

137

Physics 152 Laboratory Manual, 8th Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is the laboratory manual for the Physics 152 course at Purdue University. It includes a laboratory introduction, hardware and software guide, and laboratory report guide. Labs include: (1) "Measurement Uncertainty and Propagation"; (2) "Introduction to Computer Data Acquisition and Relationships between Position, Velocity, and…

MacIssac, Dan; And Others

138

Erbium:YAG Laser Resurfacing for Refractory Melasma  

Microsoft Academic Search

background. Melasma is a facial dyspigmentation which is a common complaint in patients with darker skin tones. Many current therapies used for this condition are ineffective and can cause significant adverse effects. objective. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of erbium:YAG laser resurfacing in the management of refrac- tory melasma. methods. Ten female patients with melasma

Rhesa May P. Manaloto; Tina Alster

1999-01-01

139

The design of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

An accurate model for the erbium-doped fiber amplifier is presented. The model is used to design the index profile of the doped fiber, optimizing with regard to efficiency for inline- and preamplifiers as well as for power booster amplifiers. The predicted pump efficiencies (maximum gain to pump power ratios) are in agreement with experimental results presented in the literature. The

Bo Pedersen; Anders Bjarklev; J. H. Povlsen; Kristen Dybdal; Carl Christian Larsen

1991-01-01

140

Multiple wavelength operation of an erbium-doped fiber laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wavelength-locked, six-channel, colasing operation using a single gain medium is reported for the first time. The system is an all-fiber, erbium-amplifier-based design that uses a grating wavelength division multiplexer with a fixed channel spacing of 4.8 nm for frequency selection. The authors investigate two possible configurations for the laser cavity

J. W. Dawson; K. J. Vahala

1992-01-01

141

Multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber lasers exploiting polarization hole burning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simultaneous multiwavelength lasing is demonstrated exploiting intracavity polarization hole burning in an erbium-doped fiber laser. Experimental results indicate that polarization hole burning can be enhanced by the changes of the light polarization states and bias current of optical MQW waveguide which serves as reflector in the laser. Eleven wavelengths with 0.9 nm spacing are generated at room temperature.

Junqiang Sun; Junlin Qiu; Dexiu Huang

2000-01-01

142

Modeling of gain in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analytic method is described for fully characterizing the gain of an erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) that is based on easily measured monochromatic absorption data. The analytic expressions presented, which involve the solution of one transcendental equation, can predict signal gains and pump absorptions in an amplifier containing an arbitrary number of pumps and signals from arbitrary directions. The gain

A. A. M. Saleh; R. M. Jopson; J. D. Evankow; J. Aspell

1990-01-01

143

Erbium: Yag Laser Trabecular Ablation with a Sapphire Optical Fiber  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of erbium (Er): yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) laser trabecular ablation with a sapphire optical fiber on outflow facility.After obtaining baseline outflow facility using a computerized differential pressure perfusion system, human cadaver eyes were subjected to Er: YAG laser trabecular ablation using a sapphire optical fiber. Single pulses at varying energy

M. LISA McHAM; DAN L. EISENBERG; JOEL S. SCHUMAN; NAN WANG

1997-01-01

144

Discovery of dysprosium, holmium, erbium, thulium and ytterbium isotopes  

E-print Network

Currently, 31 dysprosium, 32 holmium, 32 erbium, 33 thulium and 31 ytterbium isotopes have been observed and the discovery of these isotopes is discussed here. For each isotope a brief synopsis of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

C. Fry; M. Thoennessen

2012-05-26

145

Discovery of dysprosium, holmium, erbium, thulium and ytterbium isotopes  

E-print Network

Currently, 31 dysprosium, 32 holmium, 32 erbium, 33 thulium and 31 ytterbium isotopes have been observed and the discovery of these isotopes is discussed here. For each isotope a brief synopsis of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

Fry, C

2012-01-01

146

Discovery of dysprosium, holmium, erbium, thulium, and ytterbium isotopes  

SciTech Connect

Currently, thirty-one dysprosium, thirty-two holmium, thirty-two erbium, thirty-three thulium, and thirty-one ytterbium isotopes have been observed and the discovery of these isotopes is described here. For each isotope a brief synopsis of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

Fry, C.; Thoennessen, M., E-mail: thoennessen@nscl.msu.edu

2013-09-15

147

47 CFR 73.152 - Modification of directional antenna data.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Modification of directional antenna data. 73.152 Section 73...152 Modification of directional antenna data. (a) If, after construction...final adjustment of a directional antenna, a measured inverse...

2011-10-01

148

47 CFR 73.152 - Modification of directional antenna data.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...false Modification of directional antenna data. 73.152 Section 73...152 Modification of directional antenna data. (a) If, after construction...final adjustment of a directional antenna, a measured inverse...

2014-10-01

149

47 CFR 73.152 - Modification of directional antenna data.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Modification of directional antenna data. 73.152 Section 73...152 Modification of directional antenna data. (a) If, after construction...final adjustment of a directional antenna, a measured inverse...

2013-10-01

150

47 CFR 73.152 - Modification of directional antenna data.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Modification of directional antenna data. 73.152 Section 73...152 Modification of directional antenna data. (a) If, after construction...final adjustment of a directional antenna, a measured inverse...

2012-10-01

151

25 CFR 152.8 - Issuance of certificate of competency.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Issuance of certificate of competency. 152.8 Section 152.8 Indians...ISSUANCE OF PATENTS IN FEE, CERTIFICATES OF COMPETENCY, REMOVAL OF RESTRICTIONS, AND SALE...Issuing Patents in Fee, Certificates of Competency Or Orders Removing Restrictions...

2010-04-01

152

25 CFR 152.7 - Application for certificate of competency.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Application for certificate of competency. 152.7 Section 152.7 Indians...ISSUANCE OF PATENTS IN FEE, CERTIFICATES OF COMPETENCY, REMOVAL OF RESTRICTIONS, AND SALE...Issuing Patents in Fee, Certificates of Competency Or Orders Removing Restrictions...

2011-04-01

153

25 CFR 152.8 - Issuance of certificate of competency.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Issuance of certificate of competency. 152.8 Section 152.8 Indians...ISSUANCE OF PATENTS IN FEE, CERTIFICATES OF COMPETENCY, REMOVAL OF RESTRICTIONS, AND SALE...Issuing Patents in Fee, Certificates of Competency Or Orders Removing Restrictions...

2013-04-01

154

25 CFR 152.8 - Issuance of certificate of competency.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... false Issuance of certificate of competency. 152.8 Section 152.8 Indians...ISSUANCE OF PATENTS IN FEE, CERTIFICATES OF COMPETENCY, REMOVAL OF RESTRICTIONS, AND SALE...Issuing Patents in Fee, Certificates of Competency Or Orders Removing Restrictions...

2014-04-01

155

25 CFR 152.8 - Issuance of certificate of competency.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... true Issuance of certificate of competency. 152.8 Section 152.8 Indians...ISSUANCE OF PATENTS IN FEE, CERTIFICATES OF COMPETENCY, REMOVAL OF RESTRICTIONS, AND SALE...Issuing Patents in Fee, Certificates of Competency Or Orders Removing Restrictions...

2012-04-01

156

25 CFR 152.8 - Issuance of certificate of competency.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Issuance of certificate of competency. 152.8 Section 152.8 Indians...ISSUANCE OF PATENTS IN FEE, CERTIFICATES OF COMPETENCY, REMOVAL OF RESTRICTIONS, AND SALE...Issuing Patents in Fee, Certificates of Competency Or Orders Removing Restrictions...

2011-04-01

157

25 CFR 152.7 - Application for certificate of competency.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Application for certificate of competency. 152.7 Section 152.7 Indians...ISSUANCE OF PATENTS IN FEE, CERTIFICATES OF COMPETENCY, REMOVAL OF RESTRICTIONS, AND SALE...Issuing Patents in Fee, Certificates of Competency Or Orders Removing Restrictions...

2010-04-01

158

25 CFR 152.7 - Application for certificate of competency.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Application for certificate of competency. 152.7 Section 152.7 Indians...ISSUANCE OF PATENTS IN FEE, CERTIFICATES OF COMPETENCY, REMOVAL OF RESTRICTIONS, AND SALE...Issuing Patents in Fee, Certificates of Competency Or Orders Removing Restrictions...

2013-04-01

159

25 CFR 152.7 - Application for certificate of competency.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...true Application for certificate of competency. 152.7 Section 152.7 Indians...ISSUANCE OF PATENTS IN FEE, CERTIFICATES OF COMPETENCY, REMOVAL OF RESTRICTIONS, AND SALE...Issuing Patents in Fee, Certificates of Competency Or Orders Removing Restrictions...

2012-04-01

160

25 CFR 152.7 - Application for certificate of competency.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...false Application for certificate of competency. 152.7 Section 152.7 Indians...ISSUANCE OF PATENTS IN FEE, CERTIFICATES OF COMPETENCY, REMOVAL OF RESTRICTIONS, AND SALE...Issuing Patents in Fee, Certificates of Competency Or Orders Removing Restrictions...

2014-04-01

161

42 CFR 422.152 - Quality improvement program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Quality improvement program. 422.152 Section 422...MEDICARE PROGRAM MEDICARE ADVANTAGE PROGRAM Quality Improvement § 422.152 Quality improvement program. (a) General...

2011-10-01

162

42 CFR 422.152 - Quality improvement program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Quality improvement program. 422.152 Section 422...MEDICARE PROGRAM MEDICARE ADVANTAGE PROGRAM Quality Improvement § 422.152 Quality improvement program. (a) General...

2010-10-01

163

18 CFR 152.1 - Exemption applications and blanket certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Exemption applications and blanket certificates. 152.1 Section 152.1 Conservation...C) THEREOF AND ISSUANCE OF BLANKET CERTIFICATES AUTHORIZING CERTAIN SALES FOR RESALE... Exemption applications and blanket certificates. (a) Application for...

2010-04-01

164

50 CFR 550.152-550.159 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Section 550.152-550.159 Wildlife and Fisheries MARINE MAMMAL COMMISSION ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY MARINE MAMMAL COMMISSION §§ 550.152-550.159...

2014-10-01

165

36 CFR 1208.152-1208.159 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...152-1208.159 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION GENERAL RULES ENFORCEMENT...HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION §§ 1208.152-1208.159...

2010-07-01

166

14 CFR 152.109 - Project eligibility: Airport planning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Project eligibility: Airport planning. 152.109 Section...Procedures § 152.109 Project eligibility: Airport planning. (a) Airport master planning. A proposed project for airport master...

2011-01-01

167

14 CFR 152.109 - Project eligibility: Airport planning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Project eligibility: Airport planning. 152.109 Section...Procedures § 152.109 Project eligibility: Airport planning. (a) Airport master planning. A proposed project for airport master...

2010-01-01

168

36 CFR 1208.152-1208.159 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...152-1208.159 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION GENERAL RULES ENFORCEMENT...HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION §§ 1208.152-1208.159...

2011-07-01

169

12 CFR 152.10 - Annual reports to stockholders.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Annual reports to stockholders. 152.10...AND CONVERSION § 152.10 Annual reports to stockholders. A Federal...vote at its annual meeting an annual report containing financial...

2012-01-01

170

12 CFR 152.10 - Annual reports to stockholders.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Annual reports to stockholders. 152.10...AND CONVERSION § 152.10 Annual reports to stockholders. A Federal...vote at its annual meeting an annual report containing financial...

2013-01-01

171

12 CFR 152.10 - Annual reports to stockholders.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Annual reports to stockholders. 152.10...AND CONVERSION § 152.10 Annual reports to stockholders. A Federal...vote at its annual meeting an annual report containing financial...

2014-01-01

172

19 CFR 10.152 - Bona-fide gifts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bona-fide gifts. 10.152 Section 10.152 Customs Duties...Provisions Importations Not over $200 and Bona Fide Gifts § 10.152 Bona-fide gifts. Subject to the conditions in §...

2010-04-01

173

14 CFR 152.321 - Notice of delay or acceleration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notice of delay or acceleration. 152.321 Section 152.321 Aeronautics and Space...Reporting Requirements § 152.321 Notice of delay or acceleration. (a) The sponsor or planning agency shall...

2010-01-01

174

14 CFR 152.321 - Notice of delay or acceleration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Notice of delay or acceleration. 152.321 Section 152.321 Aeronautics and Space...Reporting Requirements § 152.321 Notice of delay or acceleration. (a) The sponsor or planning agency shall...

2011-01-01

175

14 CFR 152.321 - Notice of delay or acceleration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Notice of delay or acceleration. 152.321 Section 152.321 Aeronautics and Space...Reporting Requirements § 152.321 Notice of delay or acceleration. (a) The sponsor or planning agency shall...

2013-01-01

176

14 CFR 152.321 - Notice of delay or acceleration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Notice of delay or acceleration. 152.321 Section 152.321 Aeronautics and Space...Reporting Requirements § 152.321 Notice of delay or acceleration. (a) The sponsor or planning agency shall...

2014-01-01

177

14 CFR 152.321 - Notice of delay or acceleration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Notice of delay or acceleration. 152.321 Section 152.321 Aeronautics and Space...Reporting Requirements § 152.321 Notice of delay or acceleration. (a) The sponsor or planning agency shall...

2012-01-01

178

46 CFR 502.152 - Offer of proof.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Offer of proof. 502.152 Section 502.152 Shipping FEDERAL...Presiding Officers; Evidence § 502.152 Offer of proof. An offer of proof made in connection with an objection...

2010-10-01

179

45 CFR 152.27 - Fraud, waste, and abuse.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Fraud, waste, and abuse. 152.27 Section 152.27 Public...Oversight § 152.27 Fraud, waste, and abuse. (a) Procedures. The PCIP...to HHS incidences of waste, fraud, and abuse, and to appropriate law...

2012-10-01

180

45 CFR 152.27 - Fraud, waste, and abuse.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Fraud, waste, and abuse. 152.27 Section 152.27 Public...Oversight § 152.27 Fraud, waste, and abuse. (a) Procedures. The PCIP...to HHS incidences of waste, fraud, and abuse, and to appropriate law...

2010-10-01

181

45 CFR 152.27 - Fraud, waste, and abuse.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 false Fraud, waste, and abuse. 152.27 Section 152.27 Public...Oversight § 152.27 Fraud, waste, and abuse. (a) Procedures. The PCIP...to HHS incidences of waste, fraud, and abuse, and to appropriate law...

2014-10-01

182

45 CFR 152.27 - Fraud, waste, and abuse.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Fraud, waste, and abuse. 152.27 Section 152.27 Public...Oversight § 152.27 Fraud, waste, and abuse. (a) Procedures. The PCIP...to HHS incidences of waste, fraud, and abuse, and to appropriate law...

2011-10-01

183

45 CFR 152.27 - Fraud, waste, and abuse.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Fraud, waste, and abuse. 152.27 Section 152.27 Public...Oversight § 152.27 Fraud, waste, and abuse. (a) Procedures. The PCIP...to HHS incidences of waste, fraud, and abuse, and to appropriate law...

2013-10-01

184

27 CFR 22.152 - Reconsignment in transit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reconsignment in transit. 22.152 Section 22.152 Alcohol, Tobacco Products...Tax-Free or Recovered Alcohol § 22.152 Reconsignment in transit. (a) Reconsignment. Tax-free alcohol may...

2013-04-01

185

27 CFR 22.152 - Reconsignment in transit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reconsignment in transit. 22.152 Section 22.152 Alcohol, Tobacco Products...Tax-Free or Recovered Alcohol § 22.152 Reconsignment in transit. (a) Reconsignment. Tax-free alcohol may...

2014-04-01

186

27 CFR 22.152 - Reconsignment in transit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reconsignment in transit. 22.152 Section 22.152 Alcohol, Tobacco Products...Tax-Free or Recovered Alcohol § 22.152 Reconsignment in transit. (a) Reconsignment. Tax-free alcohol may...

2010-04-01

187

27 CFR 22.152 - Reconsignment in transit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Reconsignment in transit. 22.152 Section 22.152 Alcohol, Tobacco Products...Tax-Free or Recovered Alcohol § 22.152 Reconsignment in transit. (a) Reconsignment. Tax-free alcohol may...

2012-04-01

188

27 CFR 22.152 - Reconsignment in transit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reconsignment in transit. 22.152 Section 22.152 Alcohol, Tobacco Products...Tax-Free or Recovered Alcohol § 22.152 Reconsignment in transit. (a) Reconsignment. Tax-free alcohol may...

2011-04-01

189

44 CFR 152.3 - Availability of funds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Availability of funds. 152.3 Section 152...FIREFIGHTERS GRANT PROGRAM § 152.3 Availability of funds. (a) Fire departments...communities (urban, suburban or rural) as well as an equitable geographic...

2010-10-01

190

38 CFR 3.152 - Claims for death benefits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Claims for death benefits. 3.152 Section 3.152...Compensation Claims § 3.152 Claims for death benefits. (a) A specific claim...3.153) must be filed in order for death benefits to be paid to any...

2012-07-01

191

38 CFR 3.152 - Claims for death benefits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Claims for death benefits. 3.152 Section 3.152...Compensation Claims § 3.152 Claims for death benefits. (a) A specific claim...3.153) must be filed in order for death benefits to be paid to any...

2013-07-01

192

DSINTGRATION DE QUELQUES ISOTOPES D'ERBIUM ET D'HOLMIUM DFICIENTS EN NEUTRONS  

E-print Network

116. D�SINT�GRATION DE QUELQUES ISOTOPES D'ERBIUM ET D'HOLMIUM D�FICIENTS EN NEUTRONS Par P principaux rayonnements 03B3 de 12 isotopes d'erbium ou d'holmium déficients en neutrons. Les résultats sont rays of 12 erbium or hol- mium neutron deficient isotopes have been measured. Results are discussed

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

193

Erbium-implanted silica microsphere laser J. Kalkman a,*, A. Polman a  

E-print Network

Erbium-implanted silica microsphere laser J. Kalkman a,*, A. Polman a , T.J. Kippenberg b , K with erbium ions by ion implantation at energies of 925 keV and 2.05 MeV using a rotating stage. After thermal: 42.55.Sa; 42.60.Da; 42.81.Qb; 85.40.Ry Keywords: Microsphere; Laser; Erbium; Ion implantation 1

Polman, Albert

194

LE JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE TUDE DE LA DSINTGRATION DE L'ERBIUM 169  

E-print Network

LE JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE ET LE RADIUM �TUDE DE LA D�SINT�GRATION DE L'ERBIUM 169 Par G. CHARPAK et F 169, atteint par désin- tégration de l'erbium 169. On a obtenu pour la probabilité de désintégration of the low energy electron and photon spectrum of erbium 169. The branching ratio to the 8,4 keV excited

Boyer, Edmond

195

SUR LES SPECTRES DE L'YTTRIUM, DE L'ERBIUM, DU DIDYME ET DU LANTHANE,  

E-print Network

33 SUR LES SPECTRES DE L'YTTRIUM, DE L'ERBIUM, DU DIDYME ET DU LANTHANE, PAR M. ROB. THAL�N,~=ttriuln, erbium, etc. e j~ . Le but principal de la recherche em question fut de contrôler, au moyen de l'analysespectrale, s'il a été possible aux chimistes de sé- parer entre ceux les sels d'yttriuiii et d erbium. et (eux

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

196

Laser verre codop Erbium et Ytterbium pomp par une diode laser de puissance  

E-print Network

Laser verre codopé Erbium et Ytterbium pompé par une diode laser de puissance Eric Tanguy CL lean proposé est fondé sur l'utilisation d'un verre codopé erbium et ytterbium pompé optiquement par unediode laser fibrée de puissanceet émettantvers 980 nm. Les lasers exploitant les propriétés de l'erbium et

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

197

Conception and characterization of a dual-concentric-core erbium-doped dispersion-compensating fiber.  

PubMed

We present an erbium-doped dispersion-compensating fiber made up of two asymmetric concentric cores, inner and outer matched claddings, and erbium located in the central core only. We demonstrate a high negative chromatic dispersion value [-700 ps/(nm km) at 1568 nm], significant modification of the gain spectrum compared with that of a classic erbium-doped fiber amplifier, and 30-dB peak small-signal gain at 1535 and 1553 nm. PMID:15072363

Maury, J; Auguste, J L; Février, S; Blondy, J M; Dussardier, B; Monnom, G

2004-04-01

198

Synthesis and Photophysical Properties of Erbium-Included Mesoporous Materials for Optical Amplification  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have synthesized erbium-included mesoporous materials to enhance optical amplification gain in Er3+-doped silica materials. Various mesoporous materials such as MCM-41, MCM-48 or SBA-15 were prepared and then erbium ions were filled into the empty pores in the mesoporous materials via sol-gel process through the external modification of the mesoporous materials. All erbium-included mesoporous materials exhibit the near infrared emission

Yun Hui Cha; Kyong-Soo Hong; Soon Chang Lee; Duck-Lae Joo; Jin Kook Lee; Jong-Sung Yu; Suk Bon Yoon; Hwan Kyu Kim

2004-01-01

199

Laser isotope separation of erbium and other isotopes  

DOEpatents

Laser isotope separation is accomplished using at least two photoionization pathways of an isotope simultaneously, where each pathway comprises two or more transition steps. This separation method has been applied to the selective photoionization of erbium isotopes, particularly for the enrichment of .sup.167 Er. The hyperfine structure of .sup.167 Er was used to find two three-step photoionization pathways having a common upper energy level.

Haynam, Christopher A. (3035 Ferdale Ct., Pleasanton, CA 94566); Worden, Earl F. (117 Vereda del Ciervo, Diablo, CA 94528)

1995-01-01

200

Resonance magnetic x-ray-scattering study of erbium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The magnetic phases of erbium have been studied by resonance x-ray-scattering techniques. When the incident x-ray energy is tuned near the LIII absorption edge, large resonant enhancements of the magnetic scattering are observed above 18 K. We have measured the energy and polarization dependence of this magnetic scattering and analyzed it using a simple model based on electric dipole and

M. K. Sanyal; Doon Gibbs; J. Bohr; M. Wulff

1994-01-01

201

Experimental demonstration of erbium-doped fiber optic temperature sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe experimental results demonstrating the performance of the erbium-doped silica fiber as a remote temperature sensor in the temperature interval [21 C - 96 C]. We present the measured fluorescence spectrum corresponding to the energy levels 2H11\\/2 and 4S3\\/2. This sensor incorporates simple signal detection in a band and data analysis system, incorporating a power ratio to reduce noise

Gonzalo Paez; Victor Lopez; Marija Strojnik

2003-01-01

202

Dynamic gain compensation in saturated erbium-doped fiber amplifiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamic compensation of low-frequency gain fluctuations in saturated erbium-doped fiber amplifiers is demonstrated. This compensation, based on a simple feedback-loop scheme makes it possible to reduce transient gain fluctuations efficiently across the whole amplifier bandwidth using only a low-power optical feedback signal. Such an, automatic gain control technique could be applied to suppress data packet interference due to traffic bursts

E. Desurvire; M. Zirngibl; H. M. Presby; D. Digiovanni

1991-01-01

203

Design optimization for efficient erbium-doped fiber amplifiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gain and pumping efficiency of aluminosilicate erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFAs) are analyzed as a function of guiding parameters and Er-doping profile for two pump wavelengths of ? p=980 nm and ?p=1.47 ?m. Three designs of fiber-amplifier waveguides are considered: one with the same mode size as standard 1.5-?m communication fibers (type 1); one with the same mode size as

E. Desurvire; J. L. Zyskind; C. R. Giles

1990-01-01

204

Erbium-doped fiber amplifier with flattened gain spectrum  

Microsoft Academic Search

An optical notch filter was incorporated within the length of all erbium-doped fiber amplifier. Careful choice of the filter characteristics and location made it possible to enhance the amplifier gain at wavelengths around 1550 nm. An amplifier with 27-dB gain and 33-nm bandwidth was demonstrated. The saturation characteristics of the amplifier were uniform across its gain spectrum, making it ideal

M. Tachibana; R. I. Laming; P. R. Morkel; D. N. Payne

1991-01-01

205

Laser isotope separation of erbium and other isotopes  

DOEpatents

Laser isotope separation is accomplished using at least two photoionization pathways of an isotope simultaneously, where each pathway comprises two or more transition steps. This separation method has been applied to the selective photoionization of erbium isotopes, particularly for the enrichment of {sup 167}Er. The hyperfine structure of {sup 167}Er was used to find two three-step photoionization pathways having a common upper energy level. 3 figs.

Haynam, C.A.; Worden, E.F.

1995-08-22

206

1088 IEEE PHOTONICS TECHNOLOGY LETTERS, VOL. 18, NO. 9, MAY 1, 2006 Switchable Multiwavelength Erbium-Doped Fiber  

E-print Network

Erbium-Doped Fiber Laser With a Multimode Fiber Bragg Grating and Photonic Crystal Fiber Xinhuan Feng, a simple switchable multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber laser is proposed and demonstrated. The wavelengths or wavelength switching modes by varying the states of polarizations of the laser cavity. Index Terms--Erbium

Wai, Ping-kong Alexander

207

IEEE PHOTONICS TECHNOLOGY LETTERS, VOL. 18, NO. 14, JULY 15, 2006 1515 Internal Gain From an Erbium-Doped  

E-print Network

IEEE PHOTONICS TECHNOLOGY LETTERS, VOL. 18, NO. 14, JULY 15, 2006 1515 Internal Gain From an Erbium, Animesh Jha, and Ajoy K. Kar, Member, IEEE Abstract--A channel waveguide is fabricated inside an erbium for the first time. Erbium (Er)-doped waveguide amplifiers (EDWAs) ex- hibiting impressive performance have

208

March 1, 1999 / Vol. 24, No. 5 / OPTICS LETTERS 279 Passive erbium-doped fiber seed photon generator  

E-print Network

March 1, 1999 / Vol. 24, No. 5 / OPTICS LETTERS 279 Passive erbium-doped fiber seed photon is suggested for a high-power erbium-doped fiber (EDF) broadband source. A considerable increase in output (ASE) from an erbium- doped fiber (EDF) have been considered to be one of the optimum candidates

Park, Namkyoo

209

Ultra-flat spectrum, multiwavelength operation in an erbium-doped fiber laser using power-clamping effect  

E-print Network

Ultra-flat spectrum, multiwavelength operation in an erbium-doped fiber laser using power to realize multiwavelength oscillations in erbium- doped fiber lasers (EDFLs) [1-2]. In this work, we propose. The amplifying unidirectional loop consists of a commercial high power erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA

Wai, Ping-kong Alexander

210

La-codoped Bismuth-based Erbium-doped Fiber Ring Laser with 106-nm Tuning Range  

E-print Network

OME14 La-codoped Bismuth-based Erbium-doped Fiber Ring Laser with 106-nm Tuning Range H. L. Liu, H component characterization. Silica-based erbium-doped fibers (Si-EDFs) are commonly employed as gain medium the concentration of erbium ions that can be doped into silicate fiber and therefore long length of Si

Wai, Ping-kong Alexander

211

January 1, 1997 / Vol. 22, No. 1 / OPTICS LETTERS 13 Frequency doubling of femtosecond erbium-fiber soliton lasers  

E-print Network

January 1, 1997 / Vol. 22, No. 1 / OPTICS LETTERS 13 Frequency doubling of femtosecond erbium efficient frequency doubling of passively mode-locked femtosecond erbium-fiber lasers. Quasi- phase Diode-pumped passively mode-locked erbium-doped- fiber lasers (EDFL's) are compact and flexible sources

Fejer, Martin M.

212

53-Line Multi-wavelength Generation in Brillouin/Erbium Fiber Laser with Enhanced Stokes Feedback Coupling  

E-print Network

53-Line Multi-wavelength Generation in Brillouin/Erbium Fiber Laser with Enhanced Stokes Feedback will be described. ThA4-1 #12;53-Line Multi-wavelength Generation of Brillouin/Erbium Fiber Laser with Enhanced lasers. Of these, a hybrid Brillouin/Erbium fiber laser (BEFL) with feedback scheme is one of the strong

Park, Namkyoo

213

756 IEEE PHOTONICS TECHNOLOGY LETTERS, VOL. 17, NO. 4, APRIL 2005 Multiwavelength Erbium-Doped Fiber Ring Laser  

E-print Network

756 IEEE PHOTONICS TECHNOLOGY LETTERS, VOL. 17, NO. 4, APRIL 2005 Multiwavelength Erbium, Zhichao Deng, and Jian Liu, Member, IEEE Abstract--A novel room-temperature multiwavelength erbium- doped and wavelength spacing as small as 0.19 nm is demonstrated at room temperature. Index Terms--Erbium-doped fiber

Yao, Jianping

214

C-and L-band erbium-doped waveguide lasers with wafer-scale silicon nitride cavities  

E-print Network

C- and L-band erbium-doped waveguide lasers with wafer-scale silicon nitride cavities Purnawirman,1; posted April 22, 2013 (Doc. ID 187023); published May 20, 2013 We report on integrated erbium and a top erbium-doped aluminum oxide layer deposited as the final step in the fabrication process

Reif, Rafael

215

Topic (PIS) Code : OMNO Presentation Preference : Oral (invited) IN-SITU GROWN ERBIUM-DOPED DIELECTRIC NANOPARTICLES IN SILICA-  

E-print Network

Topic (PIS) Code : OMNO Presentation Preference : Oral (invited) IN-SITU GROWN ERBIUM in fabrication, respectively. Erbium and alkaline-earth ions (Mg, Ca and Sr) were incorporated through the wellB/m only. This value is compatible with amplifier applications. The spectroscopic properties of erbium ions

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

216

Silicon nanocrystals in erbium-doped silica for optical amplifiers F. Lucarz and A.J Kenyon  

E-print Network

Silicon nanocrystals in erbium-doped silica for optical amplifiers F. Lucarz and A.J Kenyon pumped at room temperature, nanometer-sized silicon crystals embedded in erbium-doped silica can be used as efficient sensitisers for Er3+ ions, leading to enhanced photoluminescence from erbium at 1540 nm

Haddadi, Hamed

217

Abstract--A novel multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL) based on two comb filters is proposed and  

E-print Network

Abstract-- A novel multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL) based on two comb filters broadening of the erbium-doped fiber (EDF). As a result, triple-wavelength lasing operation with wavelengthB. I. INTRODUCTION Multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber lasers (EDFLs) are useful light sources for WDM

Wai, Ping-kong Alexander

218

Microscopic structure and energy transfer of vacancy-related defect pairs with Erbium in wide-gap semiconductors  

E-print Network

Microscopic structure and energy transfer of vacancy-related defect pairs with Erbium in wide Available online 12 February 2011 Keywords: Erbium SiC GaN EPR a b s t r a c t Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) measurements of Erbium-doped 6H­SiC and wurtzite GaN sam- ples are compared to total energy

Schmidt, Wolf Gero

219

Erbium-doped silicon nanocrystals in silicon/silicon nitride superlattice structures: Light emission and energy transfer  

E-print Network

Erbium-doped silicon nanocrystals in silicon/silicon nitride superlattice structures: Light ($2 nm diameter) amorphous silicon (Si) clusters coupled to erbium (Er) ions. The superlattice emission with nanosecond-fast dynamics, small temperature quenching and efficient energy transfer to erbium

220

La-codoped Bismuth-based Erbium-doped Fiber Ring laser with 80-nm Tuning Range  

E-print Network

La-codoped Bismuth-based Erbium-doped Fiber Ring laser with 80-nm Tuning Range H. L. Liu1 , H. Y tunable fiber ring lasers using 253.3-cm long La-codoped bismuth-based erbium doped fiber and a narrowband allowing fast component characterization. Silica-based erbium-doped fibers (Si-EDFs) are commonly employed

Wai, Ping-kong Alexander

221

All-optical clock recovery using erbium-doped fiber ring laser incorporating an electro-absorption  

E-print Network

All-optical clock recovery using erbium-doped fiber ring laser incorporating an electro, Hung Hom, Hong Kong Abstract We demonstrated 10-GHz all-optical clock recovery using an erbium-optical clock recovery which composes of an EAM, an LOA, a 12 meter long erbium-doped fiber, a bandpass filter

Wai, Ping-kong Alexander

222

Synthesis, Structure, and Molecular Orbital Studies of Yttrium, Erbium, and Lutetium Complexes Bearing 2-Pyrazolato Ligands: Development of a New Class of Precursors for  

E-print Network

Synthesis, Structure, and Molecular Orbital Studies of Yttrium, Erbium, and Lutetium Complexes procedure, the reaction of erbium metal with 3,5-dialkylpyrazole (alkyl ) methyl or tert-butyl), bis-tert-butylpyrazole) yielded tris(3,5-di-tert-butylpyrazolato)bis(4-tert-butylpy- ridine)erbium(III) (63%), tris(3,5-di-tert-butylpyrazolato)bis(pyridine)erbium

Schlegel, H. Bernhard

223

ERBIUM-DOPED WET OXIDES OF AlGaAs AND InAlP ON GaAs SUBSTRATES FOR OPTOELECTRONIC INTEGRATION  

E-print Network

ERBIUM-DOPED WET OXIDES OF AlGaAs AND InAlP ON GaAs SUBSTRATES FOR OPTOELECTRONIC INTEGRATION;ERBIUM-DOPED WET OXIDES OF AlGaAs AND InAlP ON GaAs SUBSTRATES FOR OPTOELECTRONIC INTEGRATION Abstract of luminescence properties of Erbium ....................................... 3 1.3 Review of Erbium host materials

224

Degradation model for erbium-doped fiber amplifiers to reduce network downtime  

E-print Network

Degradation model for erbium-doped fiber amplifiers to reduce network downtime Christian Merkle optical amplifiers and cross connects reduces the availability of a network and increases the operational of erbium-doped amplifiers (EDFAs) can be used to reduce the repair time by changing an EDFA before it fails

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

225

High-performace cladding-pumped erbium-doped fibre laser and amplifier  

SciTech Connect

We report cladding-pumped erbium-doped fibre laser and amplifier configurations. Through fibre design optimisation, we have achieved a record-high laser slope efficiency, 40 % with respect to absorbed pump power ({lambda} = 976 nm), and an output power of 7.5 W. The erbium-doped fibre amplifier efficiency reaches 32 %.

Kotov, L V; Likhachev, M E; Bubnov, M M; Medvedkov, O I; Lipatov, D S; Vechkanov, N N; Guryanov, Aleksei N

2012-05-31

226

Femtosecond soliton collapse and coherent pulse train generation in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers  

E-print Network

Femtosecond soliton collapse and coherent pulse train generation in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers 1 collapse and pulse train generation in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers is examined. The amplification of ultrashort pulses in laser amplifi- ers is a well established field of physics and technology.' Nevertheless

Gabitov, Ildar

227

A Mueller matrix formalism for modeling polarization effects in erbium-doped fiber  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of erbium anisotropy in erbium-doped fiber lasers, sources, and amplifiers are examined. Starting from basic ion properties, inversion and gain equations are derived analytically to describe polarization dependencies. A novel matrix form of the Er3+ rate equations is presented to propagate powers and polarization states. These equations are then numerically integrated and compared to experimentally observed polarization hole

Jefferson L. Wagener; Dario G. Falquier; J. J. F. Digonnet; Herbert J. Shaw

1998-01-01

228

Effects of ionizing radiation and hydrogen on erbium-doped fiber amplifiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments to determine the effects of exposure to ionizing radiation and hydrogen on erbium fibers and erbium fiber amplifiers are described. A preliminary assignment of the radiation induced losses to components of the fiber composition is made. Both reversible and long term losses resulting from hydrogen permeation have been observed. As in other types of fibers, the presence of hydrogen

Ronald H. West; Stuart Dowling; Richard Lewis; Ed S. Sikora; John V. Wright

1993-01-01

229

Fabrication and characterization of optical planar waveguides activated by erbium ions for 1.5-?m applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent results obtained for SiO2-HfO2: Er3+ and SiO2-TiO2: Er3+-Yb3+ waveguides are presented. (100-x)SiO2-xHfO2 (x = 10, 20, 30, 40 mol) planar waveguides, doped with 0.01 and 0.3 mol % Er3+ ions were prepared by sol-gel route, using dip-coating deposition on v-SiO2 substrates. The waveguides were characterized by m-line, Raman and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The spectral shape of the band assigned to the 4I13/2->4I15/2 transition does not change practically with the hafnium and erbium content. The 4I13/2 level decay curves present a single-exponential profile, with a lifetime between 5.5 and 7.1 ms, for the 0.3 mol% doped samples, and between 8.5 and 6.6 ms for the 0.01 mol% doped samples. The SiO2-TiO2: Er3+-Yb3+ waveguides were prepared by rf-sputtering technique. All waveguides were single-mode at 1550 nm. The losses, for the TE0 mode, were evaluated at 632.8 and 1300 nm and an attenuation coefficient equal or lower than 0.2 dB/cm was measured both at 632.8 nm and 1300 nm. The emission of 4I13/2->4I15/2 of Er3+ ion transition was observed upon excitation in the TE0 mode at 981 and 514.5 nm. Back energy transfer from Er3+ to Yb3+ was demonstrated by measurement of Yb3+ emission upon Er3+ excitation at 514.5 nm. Photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy was used to obtain information about the effective excitation efficiency of Er3+ ions by co-doping with Yb3+ ions.

Chiasera, Alessandro; Ferrari, Maurizio; Zampedri, Luca; Mattarelli, Maurizio; Montagna, Maurizio; Portales, Herve; Tosello, Cristiana; Dire, Sandra; Pelli, Stefano; Righini, Giancarlo C.

2004-08-01

230

67 cm long bismuth-based erbium doped fiber amplifier with wideband operation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we demonstrate a wideband Bismuth-based erbium doped fiber amplifier (Bi-EDFA) using two pieces of bismuth-based erbium-doped fiber (Bi-EDF) with a total length of 67 cm as gain media in a double pass parallel configuration. Both Bi-EDFs have an erbium ion concentration of 6300 ppm. Compared to conventional silica-based erbium-doped fiber amplifier (Si-EDFA) with the same amount of erbium ions, the Bi-EDFA provides a higher attainable gain as well as a greater amplification bandwidth, which ranging from 1525 to 1620 nm. The proposed Bi-EDFA achieved a wideband gain of around 18 dB within the wavelength region from 1530 to 1565 nm. The noise figures are maintained below 10 dB within a wide wavelength region from 1535 nm to 1620 nm.

Cheng, X. S.; Hamida, B. A.; Naji, A. W.; Ahmad, H.; Harun, S. W.

2011-11-01

231

45 CFR 1706.152-1706.159 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION...ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE §§ 1706.152-1706.159...

2010-10-01

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45 CFR 1706.152-1706.159 - [Reserved  

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2011-10-01

233

Math 152: Linear Systems Winter 2004 1: Vectors and Geometry  

E-print Network

Math 152: Linear Systems ­ Winter 2004 1: Vectors and Geometry Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Description of points and the geometry of solutions to systems of equations

Jellinek, Mark

234

Magnetically trapped erbium and thulium: rapid spin relaxation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spin relaxation due to atom--atom collisions is measured for buffer-gas cooled and magnetically trapped erbium and thulium atoms at a temperature near 500 mK. The rate constants for Er--Er and Tm--Tm collisions are 3.0 x10-10 and 1.1 x10-10 cm^3 s-1, respectively, 2--3 orders of magnitude larger than those observed for highly magnetic S-state atoms. This is strong evidence for an

Colin B. Connolly; Yat Shan Au; S. Charles Doret; Wolfgang Ketterle; John M. Doyle

2010-01-01

235

Erbium-doped fiber amplifier elements for structural analysis sensors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFA's) in optical fiber sensor systems for structural analysis is described. EDFA's were developed for primary applications as periodic regenerator amplifiers in long-distance fiber-based communication systems. Their in-line amplification performance also makes them attractive for optical fiber sensor systems which require long effective lengths or the synthesis of special length-dependent signal processing functions. Sensor geometries incorporating EDFA's in recirculating and multiple loop sensors are discussed. Noise and polarization birefringence are also considered, and the experimental development of system components is discussed.

Hanna-Hawver, P.; Kamdar, K. D.; Mehta, S.; Nagarajan, S.; Nasta, M. H.; Claus, R. O.

1992-01-01

236

Sub-Doppler laser cooling and magnetic trapping of erbium  

E-print Network

We investigate cooling mechanisms in magneto-optically and magnetically trapped erbium. We find efficient sub-Doppler cooling in our trap, which can persist even in large magnetic fields due to the near degeneracy of two Lande g factors. Furthermore, a continuously loaded magnetic trap is demonstrated where we observe temperatures below 25 microkelvin. These favorable cooling and trapping properties suggest a number of scientific possibilities for rare-earth atomic physics, including narrow linewidth laser cooling and spectroscopy, unique collision studies, and degenerate bosonic and fermionic gases with long-range magnetic dipole coupling.

Andrew J. Berglund; Siu Au Lee; Jabez J. McClelland

2008-02-06

237

Erbium Doped Fiber Sensor for Ammonia Detection into Water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The water pollution is a health problem around the world. One of the most common pollutants in water is the Ammonia. Some sensors have been developed for Ammoniac detection even though most of them are not in real time and could be expensive. In this work an Erbium-doped fibre-sensor for Ammonia detection with a mechanical long period fibre grating and a taper in cascade for improving the sensitivity; the detection bandwidth is in the 1550 nm region from 1460 nm to 1640 nm. Output optical spectrum for Ammonia concentrations from 1ml to 5 ml is shown

Pérez-Sánchez, G. G.; Pinzón-Escobar, E. F.; Sandoval-Romero, G. E.; Álvarez Chávez, J. A.

2015-01-01

238

Three Level Systems for Quantum Memories in Erbium Doped Materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum memories for single photons could play an important role in quantum communication and optical quantum computing. We are working towards the realization of such a quantum memory based on the controlled reversible inhomogeneous broadening (CRIB) of a single absorption line in a rare earth ion. The implementation of the CRIB protocol for such a quantum memory requires a three level system such that the absorption over a broad bandwidth in a material can be greatly reduced via optical pumping to the auxiliary level. We report on the first experimental steps towards the realization of such a three level systems in Erbium doped materials with spectral hole burning techniques.

Hastings-Simon, Sara; Staudt, Matthias; Lauritzen, Bjoern; Afzelius, Mikael; de Riedmatten, Hugues; Sangouard, Nicolas; Simon, Christoph; Tittel, Wolfgang; Gisin, Nicolas

2007-03-01

239

Radiative lifetimes for 80 levels of singly ionized erbium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiative lifetimes, accurate to ±5%, have been measured for 8 even-parity and 72 odd-parity levels of singly ionized erbium using time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) on Er ions in a beam. This new set of measurements is more extensive than earlier LIF sets, and is in good agreement with those sets where they overlap. These lifetimes provide an absolute scale for a large, accurate set of Er \\\\sc II atomic transition probabilities. Basic spectroscopic data on rare earth transition probabilities are needed for astrophysical research and for research on lighting products.

Stockett, M. H.; Den Hartog, E. A.; Lawler, J. E.

2007-12-01

240

25 CFR 152.4 - Application for patent in fee.  

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2010-04-01

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2013-04-01

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25 CFR 152.32 - Irrigation fee; payment.  

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249

Photoluminescence from germanate glasses containing silicon nanocrystals and erbium ions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the first observation of photoluminescence enhancement in Er3+ doped GeO2-Bi2O3 glasses containing silicon nanocrystals (Si-NCs) excited by a laser operating at 980 nm. The growth of ?200% in the intensity of the Er3+ transition 4S3/2?4I15/2 (545 nm) and of ?100% for transitions 2H11/2?4I15/2 (525 nm), 4F9/2?4I15/2 (660 nm), and 4I5/2?4I13/2 (1530 nm) was observed in comparison with a reference sample that does not contain Si-NCs. The results open a new road for obtaining efficient Stokes and anti-Stokes emissions in germanate composites doped with rare-earth ions.

da Silva, Diego S.; Naranjo, Luz P.; Kassab, Luciana R. P.; de Araújo, Cid B.

2012-03-01

250

Evidence of two erbium sites in standard aluminosilicate glass for EDFA.  

PubMed

Site distributions of Er(3+)-doped aluminosilicate preforms of standard EDFA were studied by the low temperature Resonant Fluorescence Line Narrowing (RFLN) spectroscopy. Two erbium concentration samples with the same glass base were investigated. At very low erbium concentration, two classes of sites were identified, related to the number of AlO(6) octahedral linked by two oxygen edge-sharing to Er(3+) in the coordination sphere. As erbium concentration is increased, the high AlO(6) coordinated class of sites is smeared out by the optical response of the one AlO(6) coordinated class of sites. PMID:20940961

Peretti, R; Jurdyc, A M; Jacquier, B; Burov, E; Pastouret, A

2010-09-27

251

Enhanced light emission in photonic crystal nanocavities with Erbium-doped silicon nanocrystals  

SciTech Connect

Photonic crystal nanocavities are fabricated in silicon membranes covered by thermally annealed silicon-rich nitride films with Erbium-doped silicon nanocrystals. Silicon nitride films were deposited by sputtering on top of silicon on insulator wafers. The nanocavities were carefully designed in order to enhance emission from the nanocrystal sensitized Erbium at the 1540 nm wavelength. Experimentally measured quality factors of {approx}6000 were found to be consistent theoretical predictions. The Purcell factor of 1.4 was estimated from the observed 20-fold enhancement of Erbium luminescence.

Makarova, Maria; Sih, Vanessa; Vuckovic, Jelena [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Warga, Joe; Li Rui; Dal Negro, Luca [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States)

2008-04-21

252

30 CFR 202.152 - Standards for reporting and paying royalties on gas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Standards for reporting and paying royalties on gas. 202.152 Section 202.152 Mineral...REVENUE MANAGEMENT ROYALTIES Federal Gas § 202.152 Standards for reporting and paying royalties on gas. (a)(1) If you are...

2010-07-01

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25 CFR 152.16 - Effect of order removing restrictions, Five Civilized Tribes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

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25 CFR 152.15 - Judicial review of removal of restrictions, Five Civilized Tribes, without application.  

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2011-04-01

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25 CFR 152.16 - Effect of order removing restrictions, Five Civilized Tribes.  

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40 CFR 152.97 - Rights and obligations of data submitters.  

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268

Photoluminescence of Erbium-Doped Potassium Tantalate Niobate Polycrystalline  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we investigated the luminescence properties of erbium-doped potassium tantalite niobate (KTaxNb1-xO3 or KTN) ceramics, which were prepared by the conventional solid-state reaction synthesis method. In this work, we studied the relationships of the crystal structure, and Raman and photoluminescence (PL) spectra with the tantalum concentration, respectively. The experiments showed that the tantalum dopants modified the intensity of the green, red and near-infrared emission bands. The experiments also showed a blue shift for the 2 mol % erbium doped KTN samples with different tantalum compositions. Doping Ta not only led to the change in PL intensity but also in spectral shapes. The PL spectra showed the splitting peaks for the samples with low Ta compositions. Then these peaks combined and broadened as Ta concentration increase. When Ta was substituted for Nb completely, the luminescence intensity of the green emission band had an increase of approximately about one order of magnitude, which was because of the absence of the first-order phonon relaxation in the high-Ta-concentration samples.

Wen, Cheng?Hung; Chu, Sheng?Yuan; Shin, Yan?Yu; Wen, Cheng?Kuo

2006-07-01

269

Erbium Silicon Oxide crystalline films prepared by MOMBE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Er-Si-O crystalline thin film preparation on silicon substrates by using metal organic molecular beam epitaxy (MOMBE) is proposed. Tetra ethoxy silane (TEOS) and tris-2,2,6,6-tetra methyl-3,5-octane dionato erbium (Er(TMOD) 3) were used as Si-O and Er-O precursors, respectively. The Er-Si-O thin film crystallizes mainly during the post-annealing process and into a novel type of erbium-silicate crystalline compounds, which have not ever been reported. The atomic fraction of Er:Si:O in the prepared thin film is 3:2:8. The Er 3+ related PL spectra show a fine structure with a line width of less than 1 meV at 20 K and 4 meV at room temperature. The narrow line width is due to the crystalline nature. In addition, the PL spectrum fine structure observed in these Er-Si-O films has reproduced the fine structure observed in Er-Si-O crystallites prepared by the wet-chemical method reported by Isshiki et al. The present results have proved that the method proposed in this paper is effective to form Er-Si-O crystalline films.

Masaki, K.; Isshiki, H.; Kimura, T.

2005-02-01

270

Radiation-resistant erbium-doped-nanoparticles optical fiber for space applications.  

PubMed

We demonstrate for the first time a radiation-resistant Erbium-Doped Fiber exhibiting performances that can fill the requirements of Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers for space applications. This is based on an Aluminum co-doping atom reduction enabled by Nanoparticules Doping-Process. For this purpose, we developed several fibers containing very different erbium and aluminum concentrations, and tested them in the same optical amplifier configuration. This work allows to bring to the fore a highly radiation resistant Erbium-doped pure silica optical fiber exhibiting a low quenching level. This result is an important step as the EDFA is increasingly recognized as an enabling technology for the extensive use of photonic sub-systems in future satellites. PMID:22330481

Thomas, Jérémie; Myara, Mikhaël; Troussellier, Laurent; Burov, Ekaterina; Pastouret, Alain; Boivin, David; Mélin, Gilles; Gilard, Olivier; Sotom, Michel; Signoret, Philippe

2012-01-30

271

Silicon-germanium saturable absorbers and erbium-doped waveguides for integrated mode-locked lasers  

E-print Network

In this thesis, Silicon-Germanium (SiGe) Saturable Bragg Reflectors (SBR) and Erbium-doped waveguide chips are fabricated and characterized as crucial components for integration of a mode-locked laser on a Si-chip. The ...

Byun, Hyunil

2006-01-01

272

High repetition rate, high average power, femtosecond erbium fiber ring laser  

E-print Network

A 301 MHz fundamentally mode-locked erbium fiber ring laser generating 108 fs pulses is demonstrated. Novel combination of gain fiber with anomalous group-velocity dispersion and intra-cavity silicon with normal group-velocity ...

Ippen, Erich P.

273

Processing and properties of ytterbium-erbium silicate thin film gain media  

E-print Network

The structural and photoluminescence properties of ytterbium-erbium silicate thin films have been investigated. The films were fabricated by RF-magnetron co-sputtering of Er[subscript 2]O[subscript 3], Yb[subscript ...

Kimerling, Lionel C.

274

Generalized rate-equation analysis of excitation exchange between silicon nanoclusters and erbium ions  

SciTech Connect

We discuss the use of rate equations to analyze the sensitization of erbium luminescence by silicon nanoclusters. In applying the general form of second-order coupled rate-equations to the Si nanocluster-erbium system, we find that the photoluminescence dynamics cannot be described using a simple rate equation model. Both rise and fall times exhibit a stretched exponential behavior, which we propose arises from a combination of a strongly distance-dependent nanocluster-erbium interaction, along with the finite size distribution and indirect band gap of the silicon nanoclusters. Furthermore, the low fraction of erbium ions that can be excited nonresonantly is a result of the small number of ions coupled to nanoclusters.

Kenyon, A. J.; Wojdak, M.; Ahmad, I.; Loh, W. H.; Oton, C. J. [Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University College London, Torrington Place, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Optoelectronics Research Centre, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

2008-01-15

275

Multi-wavelength Brillouin Raman erbium-doped fiber laser generation in a linear cavity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A multi-wavelength Brillouin Raman erbium-doped fiber laser is proposed and demonstrated. The setup uses a 7.7 km dispersion compensating fiber simultaneously as the Brillouin and Raman nonlinear gain media and operates in conjunction with a 3 m erbium-doped fiber as the linear gain medium. At a Brillouin pump (BP) wavelength of 1530 nm, where Raman and erbium gains overlap each other, 34 Brillouin Stokes lines having line spacing of 0.075 nm are created by using a Raman pump power of only 24.1 dBm, an erbium pump power of about 22.1 dBm, and a BP power of 6.5 dBm in the proposed linear cavity. The system is highly efficient and is able to generate many comparable peak-power lines at a low pump power.

Shirazi, M. R.; Harun, S. W.; Ahmad, H.

2014-03-01

276

Optical gain at 1.54 mum in erbium-doped silicon nanocluster sensitized waveguide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optical gain at 1.54 mum in erbium-doped silicon-rich silicon oxide (SRSO) is demonstrated. Er-doped SRSO thin film was fabricated by electron-cyclotron resonance enhanced chemical vapor deposition of silicon suboxide with concurrent sputtering of erbium followed by a 5 min anneal at 1000 °C. Ridge-type single mode waveguides were fabricated by wet chemical etching. Optical gain of 4 dB\\/cm of an

Hak-Seung Han; Se-Young Seo; Jung H. Shin

2001-01-01

277

Experience in using uranium-erbium fuel in power-generating units with RBMK-1000 reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main reasons for and the results of switching to uranium-erbium fuel in the units of the Lengingrad, Kursk, and Smolensk\\u000a nuclear power plants are presented. It is shown that uranium-erbium fuel made it possible to regulate the steam coefficient\\u000a of reactivity, upgrade the control rods, lower the power density in the core, increase the reliability of the fuel assemblies,

A. A. Bystrikov; A. K. Egorov; V. I. Ivanov; E. V. Burlakov; A. V. Krayushkin; A. M. Fedosov; A. I. Kupalov-Yaropolk; V. M. Panin; Yu. M. Cherkashov

2006-01-01

278

Resonantly photo-pumped nickel-like erbium X-ray laser  

DOEpatents

A resonantly photo-pumped X-ray laser (10) that enhances the gain of seve laser lines that also lase because of collisional excitations and recombination processes, is described. The laser comprises an aluminum (12) and erbium (14) foil combination (16) that is driven by two beams (18, 20) of intense line focused (22, 24) optical laser radiation. Ground state nickel-like erbium ions (34) are resonantly photo-pumped by line emission from hydrogen-like aluminum ions (32).

Nilsen, Joseph (Livermore, CA)

1990-01-01

279

Modeling of pair-induced quenching in erbium-doped silicate fibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is shown that in low-concentration erbium-doped silicate fibers (below 1000 p.p.m.), a residual absorption at 980 nm cannot be saturated. Usual models for upconversion of Er3+ cannot match this behavior nor explain a fluorescence lifetime independent of pump power and erbium concentration. A phenomenon, the pair induced quenching (PIQ), that is compatible with the previous experimental results is exhibited.

E. Delevaque; T. Georges; M. Monerie; P. Lamouler; J.-F. Bayon

1993-01-01

280

Effects of ionizing radiation and hydrogen on erbium-doped fiber amplifiers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments to determine the effects of exposure to ionizing radiation and hydrogen on erbium fibers and erbium fiber amplifiers are described. A preliminary assignment of the radiation induced losses to components of the fiber composition is made. Both reversible and long term losses resulting from hydrogen permeation have been observed. As in other types of fibers, the presence of hydrogen modifies the response to radiation.

West, Ronald H.; Dowling, Stuart; Lewis, Richard; Sikora, Ed S.; Wright, John V.

1993-02-01

281

INTERPRTATION DE L'AIMANTATION DU GALLATE D'ERBIUM EN CHAMP FORT ET A BASSE TEMPRATURE  

E-print Network

INTERPR�TATION DE L'AIMANTATION DU GALLATE D'ERBIUM EN CHAMP FORT ET A BASSE TEMP�RATURE Par Y'interprétation des spectres d'absorp- tion optique du gallate d'erbium, permet également d'expliquer les propriétés. - The crystalline field model wich gives a good interpretation of the optical absorp- tion spectra of erbium gallium

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

282

Sub-100 fs mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser using a 45-tilted fiber grating  

E-print Network

Sub-100 fs mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser using a 45°-tilted fiber grating Zuxing Zhang demonstrate generation of sub-100 fs pulses at 1.5 µm in a mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser using a 45.3510) Lasers, erbium; (140.4050) Mode- locked lasers. References and links 1. H. A. Haus, K. Tamura, L. E

Turitsyn, Sergei K.

283

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2012-04-01

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2011-04-01

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2011-10-01

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2010-10-01

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2013-10-01

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2012-10-01

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2014-10-01

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2012-01-01

301

14 CFR 152.303 - Financial management system.  

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2010-01-01

302

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2014-01-01

303

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2011-04-01

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2010-10-01

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311

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315

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318

Combination of erbium and holmium laser radiation for tissue ablation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Erbium lasers emitting at 2.94 micrometers and holmium lasers emitting at 2.1 micrometers are interesting tools for cutting, drilling, smoothing and welding of water containing tissues. The high absorption coefficient of water at these wavelengths leads to their good ablation efficiency with controlled thermally altered zones around the ablation sites. Combination of pulses with both wavelengths transmitted through one fiber were used to perform incisions in soft tissue and impacts in bone disks. Histological results and scanning electron microscope evaluations reveal the strong influence of the absorption coefficient on tissue effects, especially on the ablation efficiency and the zone of thermally damaged tissue. It is demonstrated that the combination of high ablation rates and deep coagulation zones can be achieved. The results indicate that this laser system can be considered as a first step towards a multi-functional medical instrument.

Pratisto, Hans S.; Frenz, Martin; Koenz, Flurin; Altermatt, Hans J.; Weber, Heinz P.

1996-05-01

319

Erbium-doped nanoparticles in silica-based optical fibres  

E-print Network

Developing of new rare-earth (RE)-doped optical fibres for power amplifiers and lasers requires continuous improvements in the fibre spectroscopic properties (like shape and width of the gain curve, optical quantum efficiency, resistance to spectral hole burning and photodarkening...). Silica glass as a host material for fibres has proved to be very attractive. However, some potential applications of RE-doped fibres suffer from limitations in terms of spectroscopic properties resulting from clustering or inappropriate local environment when doped into silica. To this aim, we present a new route to modify some spectroscopic properties of RE ions in silica-based fibres based on the incorporation of erbium ions in amorphous dielectric nanoparticles, grown in-situ in fibre preforms. By adding alkaline earth elements, in low concentration into silica, one can obtain a glass with an immiscibility gap. Then, phase separation occurs under an appropriate heat treatment. We investigated the role of three alkaline-earth...

Blanc, Wilfried; Dussardier, Bernard; 10.1504/IJNT.2012.045350

2012-01-01

320

Towards Bose-Einstein condensation of Erbium atoms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultracold dipolar gases offer a promising playground for exploring a wide variety of novel quantum phases as well as quantum magnetism. Recent advances in laser cooling technique have opened up a possibility to reach ultracold temperature with highly magnetic rare-earth atoms. Here, we present our results towards Bose-Einstein condensation of Erbium atoms. By using a broad transition at 401 nm for Zeeman slowing and a narrow transition at 583 nm for a magneto-optical trap (MOT), we obtained up to 3x10^8 atoms at a temperature of 15 ?K. Typically 1x10^7 atoms are directly loaded from a MOT into an optical dipole trap operating at 1064 nm. The results show that our approach gives a good starting condition for evaporative cooling.

Aikawa, Kiyotaka; Frisch, Albert; Mark, Michael; Rietzler, Alexander; Schindler, Johannes; Zupanic, Erik; Baier, Simon; Grimm, Rudolf; Ferlaino, Francesca

2012-06-01

321

Dual-kind Q-switching of erbium fiber laser  

SciTech Connect

Two different regimes of Q-switching in the same implementation of an actively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser are demonstrated. Depending on the active fiber length and repetition rate of an intracavity Q-cell (acousto-optic modulator), the laser operates either in the regime of common, rather long and low-power, pulses composed of several sub-pulses or in the one of very short and powerful stimulated Brillouin scattering-induced pulses. The basic physical reason of the laser system to oscillate in one of these two regimes is the existence or absence of CW narrow-line “bad-cavity” lasing in the intervals when the Q-cell is blocked.

Barmenkov, Yuri O., E-mail: yuri@cio.mx; Kir'yanov, Alexander V. [Centro de Investigaciones en Optica, Loma del Bosque 115, Col. Lomas del Campestre, 37150 Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico); Cruz, Jose L.; Andres, Miguel V. [Department of Applied Physics and Electromagnetism, University of Valencia, Dr. Moliner 50, Burjassot 46100 (Spain)

2014-03-03

322

Combination of fiber-guided pulsed erbium and holmium laser radiation for tissue ablation under water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Because of the high absorption of near-infrared laser radiation in biological tissue, erbium lasers and holmium lasers emitting at 3 and 2 mu m, respectively, have been proven to have optimal qualities for cutting or welding and coagulating tissue. To combine the advantages of both wavelengths, we realized a multiwavelength laser system by simultaneously guiding erbium and holmium laser radiation by means of a single zirconium fluoride (ZrF4) fiber. Laser-induced channel formation in water and poly(acrylamide) gel was investigated by the use of a time-resolved flash-photography setup, while pressure transients were recorded simultaneously with a needle hydrophone. The shapes and depths of vapor channels produced in water and in a submerged gel after single erbium and after combination erbium-holmium radiation delivered by means of a 400- mu m ZrF4 fiber were measured. Transmission measurements were performed to determine the amount of pulse energy available for tissue ablation. The effects of laser wavelength and the delay time between pulses of different wavelengths on the photomechanical and photothermal responses of meniscal tissue were evaluated in vitro by the use of histology. It was observed that the use of a short (200- mu s, 100-mJ) holmium laser pulse as a prepulse to generate a vapor bubble through which the ablating erbium laser pulse can be transmitted (delay time, 100 mu s) increases the cutting depth in meniscus from 450 to 1120 mu m as compared with the depth following a single erbium pulse. The results indicate that a combination of erbium and holmium laser radiation precisely and efficiently cuts tissue under water with 20-50- mu m collateral tissue damage. wave, cavitation, channel formation, infrared-fiber-delivery system, tissue damage, cartilage.

Pratisto, Hans; Frenz, Martin; Ith, Michael; Altermatt, Hans J.; Jansen, E. Duco; Weber, Heinz P.

1996-07-01

323

Passive mode locking in erbium fiber lasers with negative group delay M. E. Fermann, M. J. Andrejco, M. L. Stock,a) Y. Silberberg, and A. M. Weiner  

E-print Network

Passive mode locking in erbium fiber lasers with negative group delay M. E. Fermann, M. J. Andrejco are generated in passively mode-locked erbium fiber lasers with small negative group-velocity dispersion- theless, the potential pulse-width limit of 60 fs set by the erbium gain bandwidth6 has not yet been

Purdue University

324

Measurements of the intensity noise of a broadly tunable, erbium-do fiber ring laser, relative to the standard quantum limit  

E-print Network

Measurements of the intensity noise of a broadly tunable, erbium-do fiber ring laser, relative February 1992; accepted for publication 16 March 1992) The intensity noise of an erbium-doped fiber ring-Perot erbium-doped fiber laser has recently emerged as a potential candidate for communication systems

Park, Namkyoo

325

Erbium-implanted high-Q silica toroidal microcavity laser on a silicon chip Bumki Min, Tobias J. Kippenberg, Lan Yang, and Kerry J. Vahala  

E-print Network

Erbium-implanted high-Q silica toroidal microcavity laser on a silicon chip Bumki Min, Tobias J; published 16 September 2004) Lasing from an erbium-doped high-Q silica toroidal microcavity coupled to a tapered optical fiber is dem- onstrated and analyzed. Average erbium ion concentrations were in the range

Polman, Albert

326

Co-lasing in an electrically tunable erbium-doped fiber laser Jay W. Dawson, Namkyoo Park, and Kerry J. Vahala  

E-print Network

Co-lasing in an electrically tunable erbium-doped fiber laser Jay W. Dawson, Namkyoo Park simultaneous wavelength operation (co-lasing) of an erbium-doped fiber ring laser with independent tunability tunable single-frequency, erbium-doped fiber ring laser with a tandem Fabry-Perot filter,le3 having

Park, Namkyoo

327

Reduction of the intensity noise from an erbium-doped fiber laser to the standard quantum limit by intracavity spectral filtering  

E-print Network

Reduction of the intensity noise from an erbium-doped fiber laser to the standard quantum limit Fabry-Perot erbium-doped fiber ring laser is reduced to the standard quantum limit, with a 0.5 d modes using a narrow-band fiber Fabry-Perot etalon. Broadly tunable, single-frequency erbium-doped fiber

Park, Namkyoo

328

SEM-mapped micro-photoluminescence studies of highly luminescent micro-clusters in erbium-doped silicon-rich silicon oxide  

E-print Network

SEM-mapped micro-photoluminescence studies of highly luminescent micro-clusters in erbium Available online 8 September 2010 Keywords: Erbium Stark Micro-clusters Photoluminescence ErSRSO SEM a b s t r a c t This paper reports on the formation of unique micrometer-scale clusters in erbium

329

Abstract--We demonstrate adaptive control of mode-dependent gain in a multi-mode erbium-doped fiber amplifier by  

E-print Network

Abstract--We demonstrate adaptive control of mode- dependent gain in a multi-mode erbium far been proposed for controlling MDG in multi-mode erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (MM-EDFAs). One approach would be to use an optimized erbium doping profile in the MM-EDFA [5]. While this approach can

Kahn, Joseph M.

330

720 IEEE PHOTONICS TECHNOLOGY LETTERS, VOL. 19, NO. 10, MAY 15, 2007 All-Optical Clock Recovery Using Erbium-Doped  

E-print Network

Using Erbium-Doped Fiber Laser Incorporating an Electroabsorption Modulator and a Linear Optical using an erbium-doped fiber laser that incorporates an electroabsorption modulator and a linear optical, and erbium-doped fiber (EDF) laser, or semiconductor-optical- amplifier-based fiber mode-locked lasers

Wai, Ping-kong Alexander

331

40 GHz actively mode-locked erbium-doped fiber ring laser using an electro-absorption modulator and a linear optical amplifier  

E-print Network

40 GHz actively mode-locked erbium-doped fiber ring laser using an electro-absorption modulator, Hong Kong Abstract: We demonstrated a 40-GHz actively mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser mode-locking the laser. Q-switching occurs easily in erbium-doped fiber lasers incorporating

Wai, Ping-kong Alexander

332

10 GHz actively mode-locked erbium-doped fiber ring laser using an electro-absorption modulator and a linear optical amplifier  

E-print Network

10 GHz actively mode-locked erbium-doped fiber ring laser using an electro-absorption modulator, Hung Hom, Hong Kong Abstract: We demonstrated a 10-GHz actively mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser-bit-rate clock recovery or demultiplexing [1]. Reported mode-locking techniques include erbium-doped fiber lasers

Wai, Ping-kong Alexander

333

June 1, 1993 / Vol. 18, No. 11 / OPTICS LETTERS 879 Frequency locking of an erbium-doped fiber ring laser to an  

E-print Network

June 1, 1993 / Vol. 18, No. 11 / OPTICS LETTERS 879 Frequency locking of an erbium-doped fiber ring 91125 Received December 23, 1992 An all-fiber, single-frequency, erbium-doped ring laser has been lifetime.3'4 We have recently demonstrated an all-fiber erbium- doped ring laser whose characteristics

Park, Namkyoo

334

Reducing pulse distortion in fast-light pulse propagation through an erbium-doped fiber amplifier using a mutually incoherent background field  

E-print Network

Reducing pulse distortion in fast-light pulse propagation through an erbium-doped fiber amplifier.65.Ã?k Keywords: Fast-light propagation Pulse distortion reduction Erbium-doped fiber a b s t r a c in fast-light propagation through an erbium-doped fiber amplifier by placing the pulse on top

Boyd, Robert W.

335

arXiv:1304.3326v1[physics.atom-ph]11Apr2013 Hyperfine Structure of Laser-Cooling Transitions in Fermionic Erbium-167  

E-print Network

in Fermionic Erbium-167 Albert Frisch, Kiyotaka Aikawa, Michael Mark, and Francesca Ferlaino Institut f structure of the only stable fermionic isotope of atomic erbium as well as determined its isotope shift of the hyperfine structure of the only stable fermionic erbium isotope, 167 Er. In particular, we obtain

Kotochigova, Svetlana

336

Defect-free erbium silicide formation using an ultrathin Ni interlayer.  

PubMed

An ultrathin Ni interlayer (?1 nm) was introduced between a TaN-capped Er film and a Si substrate to prevent the formation of surface defects during thermal Er silicidation. A nickel silicide interfacial layer formed at low temperatures and incurred uniform nucleation and the growth of a subsequently formed erbium silicide film, effectively inhibiting the generation of recessed-type surface defects and improving the surface roughness. As a side effect, the complete transformation of Er to erbium silicide was somewhat delayed, and the electrical contact property at low annealing temperatures was dominated by the nickel silicide phase with a high Schottky barrier height. After high-temperature annealing, the early-formed interfacial layer interacted with the growing erbium silicide, presumably forming an erbium silicide-rich Er-Si-Ni mixture. As a result, the electrical contact property reverted to that of the low-resistive erbium silicide/Si contact case, which warrants a promising source/drain contact application for future high-performance metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors. PMID:25093916

Choi, Juyun; Choi, Seongheum; Kang, Yu-Seon; Na, Sekwon; Lee, Hoo-Jeong; Cho, Mann-Ho; Kim, Hyoungsub

2014-08-27

337

Frequency stabilization of a tunable erbium-doped fiber laser.  

PubMed

A single-frequency Er-doped fiber laser that is tunable from 1.52 to 1.58 ,microm has been constructed. The laser linewidth was determined to be less than 1.6 MHz FWHM by observing the spectrum of the beat between the fiber laser and a 1.523-microm He-Ne laser. The frequency of the fiber laser was locked to several absorption lines of acetylene near 1.53 microm. This research demonstrates the inherent stability of fiber lasers and their potential for use in a wavelength standard for optical communications. PMID:19773865

Gilbert, S L

1991-02-01

338

Performance analysis of dynamic erbium-doped fiber amplifier simulator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A real time multichannel dynamic erbium doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) Simulink model with flat gain and gain clamping facility has been developed on a MATLAB platform. We model the EDFA simulator with one-dimensional nonlinear differential equation that describes the time dependent population density. For the model to show gain flattening multiplexed channels at different wavelengths, the MATLAB function block is used. Next, to simulate the noise performance of EDFA. New forward amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) noise blocks are designed that add noise dynamically at signal wavelength. The model has been implemented in the study of performance characteristics of an EDFA in both C- and L-band signal amplification by simulation. Based on the designed ASE generator, noise figure for different signal wavelengths are calculated. For 980 nm pump power, the noise figure almost reaches the practical limit of 3 dB whereas for 1480 nm pump power, a variation of about 1.5 dB and 0.8 dB is observed from the practical limit for the C- and L-bands, respectively. The present model can be implemented successfully as a test bed in the study of EDFA gain dynamics over the entire third optical communication bandwidth (1525 to 1690 nm) in signal amplification.

Roy, Sharbani; Priye, Vishnu; Kumar, Santosh

2013-04-01

339

Cavitation bubbles induced by Erbium lasers: implications for dentistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With new fiber systems available for 3 ?m, Erbium lasers become more interesting for precise tissue ablation in a water environment enabling new application in e.g. dentistry. The dynamics of explosive bubble formation was investigated at 2.78 ?m (Er,Cr;YSGG) and 2.94 ?m (Er:YAG), in relation to energy (10-50 mJ), pulse length (20-150 ?s) and fiber tip shape (flat or taper). The dynamics of exploding and imploding vapor bubbles were captured with high speed imaging (10 - 300 ?s range). Increasing the pulse length and energy, the vapor bubble became more elongated with an opaque surface for flat tip fibers. Tapered fibers produced spherical vapor bubbles with an optically transparent surface expected to be more forceful for creating mechanical effects in both hard and soft tissues. There was no significant difference between bubbles formed at 2.78 ?m (Er,Cr;YSGG) and 2.94 ?m (Er:YAG).

Verleng, Marja; Verdaasdonk, Rudolf; van der Veen, Albert; Lemberg, Vladimir; Boutoussov, Dmitri

2014-02-01

340

Refractive index of erbium doped GaN thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

GaN is an excellent host for erbium (Er) to provide optical emission in the technologically important as well as eye-safe 1540 nm wavelength window. Er doped GaN (GaN:Er) epilayers were synthesized on c-plane sapphire substrates using metal organic chemical vapor deposition. By employing a pulsed growth scheme, the crystalline quality of GaN:Er epilayers was significantly improved over those obtained by conventional growth method of continuous flow of reaction precursors. X-ray diffraction rocking curve linewidths of less than 300 arc sec were achieved for the GaN (0002) diffraction peak, which is comparable to the typical results of undoped high quality GaN epilayers and represents a major improvement over previously reported results for GaN:Er. Spectroscopic ellipsometry was used to determine the refractive index of the GaN:Er epilayers in the 1540 nm wavelength window and a linear dependence on Er concentration was found. The observed refractive index increase with Er incorporation and the improved crystalline quality of the GaN:Er epilayers indicate that low loss GaN:Er optical waveguiding structures are feasible.

Alajlouni, S.; Sun, Z. Y.; Li, J.; Zavada, J. M.; Lin, J. Y.; Jiang, H. X.

2014-08-01

341

Hydrogen diffusion along grain boundaries in erbium oxide coatings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diffusion of interstitial atomic hydrogen in erbium oxide (Er2O3) was investigated using density functional theory (DFT) and molecular dynamics (MD) methods. Hydrogen diffusivity in bulk, on (0 0 1) surface, and along ?13 (4-3-1)/[1 1 1] symmetric tilt grain boundaries (GBs) were evaluated in a temperature range of 673-1073 K, as well as hydrogen diffusion barriers. It was found that H diffusion shows the faster on (0 0 1) surface than along GBs and in bulk. Also, energy barrier of H diffusion in bulk estimated by DFT and MD methods is somewhat higher than that along GBs evaluated in the experiments. This suggests that H diffusion in Er2O3 coatings depends on GBs rather than bulk. In addition, with a correction of GB density, the simulated diffusivity along GBs in MD simulations is in good agreement with the experimental data within one order of magnitude. The discrepancy of H diffusivity between the experiments and the simulations should be reduced by considering H concentration, H diffusion direction, deviations of the initial configuration, vacancy defects, etc.

Mao, Wei; Chikada, Takumi; Suzuki, Akihiro; Terai, Takayuki

2014-12-01

342

Erbium: YAG laser trabecular ablation with a sapphire optical fiber.  

PubMed

The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of erbium (Er): yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) laser trabecular ablation with a sapphire optical fiber on outflow facility. After obtaining baseline outflow facility using a computerized differential pressure perfusion system, human cadaver eyes were subjected to Er: YAG laser trabecular ablation using a sapphire optical fiber. Single pulses at varying energy levels (10 to 20 mJ pulse-1) were applied in a nearly contiguous fashion over four clock hours of meshwork. Post-laser outflow facility was then determined utilizing the same perfusion system and histopathologic analysis performed. Of the ten eyes, nine were perfused to steady baseline facility. One eye was excluded from the study because of a leak in our system during the initial perfusion. The mean baseline facility was 0.283+/-0.08 microl min-1 mmHg-1. There was a significant increase in outflow facility after trabecular ablation, with a mean post-laser facility of 0.62+/-0.15 microl min-1 mmHg-1 (P=0.01). Eyes which received a sham treatment showed no increase or a minimal increase in facility. Histopathologic analysis revealed ablation into Schlemm's canal with some thermal damage to the outer wall at all energy levels. Er: YAG laser trabecular ablation with a sapphire fiber is capable of increasing outflow facility in human cadaver eyes. PMID:9268583

McHam, M L; Eisenberg, D L; Schuman, J S; Wang, N

1997-08-01

343

Optical excitation cross section of erbium in GaN.  

PubMed

Epilayers of erbium-doped GaN (GaN:Er) were synthesized by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition, and the optical excitation cross section (?(exc)) of Er ions in this host material were determined. Photoluminescence (PL) measurements were made using laser diodes at excitation wavelengths of 375 and 405 nm, and the integrated emission intensity at 1.54 ?m was measured as a function of excitation photon flux. Together with time-resolved PL measurements, values of ?(exc) of Er ions in GaN:Er were obtained. For excitation at 375 nm, the observed excitation cross section was found to be 4.6×10(-17) cm(-2), which is approximately three orders of magnitude larger than that using resonant excitation. Based on the present and previous works, the optical excitation cross section ?(exc) of Er ions in GaN:Er as a function the excitation wavelength has been obtained. The large values of ?(exc) with near-band-edge excitation makes GaN:Er attractive for realization of chip-scale photonic devices for optical communications. PMID:23434981

Feng, I-Wen; Li, Jing; Lin, Jingyu; Jiang, Hongxing; Zavada, John

2013-02-20

344

Femtosecond Erbium-Doped Fiber Lasers and a Soliton Compression Technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lasing characteristics of an erbium-doped fiber laser with a nonlinear amplifying loop mirror (NALM) were investigated in detail. The NALM was pumped by 1.48 ?m InGaAsP laser diodes and an output pulse as short as 124 fs was obtained at 1.56 ?m. The 124-fs pulse was shortened to 50 fs by using adiabatic soliton narrowing and high order soliton compression. Soliton narrowing was achieved by amplifying the soliton pulse adiabatically with an erbium-doped fiber amplifier, and a short length of dispersion-flattened fiber was used for soliton compression. Soliton narrowing enabled us to succeed in generating a 98-fs pulse directly from a modified erbium-doped fiber laser.

Yoshida, Eiji; Kimura, Yasuo; Nakazawa, Masataka

1993-08-01

345

Femtosecond erbium-doped fiber lasers and a soliton compression technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lasing characteristics of an erbium-doped fiber laser with a nonlinear amplifying loop mirror (NALM) were investigated in detail. The NALM was pumped by 1.48 micron InGaAsP laser diodes and an output pulse as short as 123 fs was obtained at 1.56 micron. The 124-fs pulse was shortened to 50 fs by using adiabatic soliton narrowing and high order soliton compression. Soliton narrowing was achieved by amplifying the soliton pulse adiabatically with an erbium-doped fiber amplifier, and a short length of dispersion-flattened fiber was used for soliton compression. Soliton narrowing enabled us to succeed in generating a 98-fs pulse directly from a modified erbium-doped fiber laser.

Yoshida, Eiji; Kimura, Yasuo; Nakazawa, Masataka

1993-08-01

346

Enhancement of photoluminescence intensity of erbium doped silica containing Ge nanocrystals: distance dependent interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photo-physical processes in Er-doped silica glass matrix containing Ge nanocrystals prepared by the sol–gel method are presented in this article. Strong photoluminescence at 1.54 ?m, important for fiber optics telecommunication systems, is observed from the different sol–gel derived glasses at room temperature. We demonstrate that Ge nanocrystals act as strong sensitizers for Er3+ ions emission and the effective Er excitation cross section increases by almost four orders of magnitude with respect to the one without Ge nanocrystals. Rate equations are considered to demonstrate the sensitization of erbium luminescence by Ge nanocrystals. Analyzing the erbium effective excitation cross section, extracted from the flux dependent rise and decay times, a Dexter type of short range energy transfer from a Ge nanocrystal to erbium ion is established.

Manna, S.; Aluguri, R.; Bar, R.; Das, S.; Prtljaga, N.; Pavesi, L.; Ray, S. K.

2015-01-01

347

Enhancement of photoluminescence intensity of erbium doped silica containing Ge nanocrystals: distance dependent interactions.  

PubMed

Photo-physical processes in Er-doped silica glass matrix containing Ge nanocrystals prepared by the sol-gel method are presented in this article. Strong photoluminescence at 1.54 ?m, important for fiber optics telecommunication systems, is observed from the different sol-gel derived glasses at room temperature. We demonstrate that Ge nanocrystals act as strong sensitizers for Er(3+) ions emission and the effective Er excitation cross section increases by almost four orders of magnitude with respect to the one without Ge nanocrystals. Rate equations are considered to demonstrate the sensitization of erbium luminescence by Ge nanocrystals. Analyzing the erbium effective excitation cross section, extracted from the flux dependent rise and decay times, a Dexter type of short range energy transfer from a Ge nanocrystal to erbium ion is established. PMID:25558802

Manna, S; Aluguri, R; Bar, R; Das, S; Prtljaga, N; Pavesi, L; Ray, S K

2015-01-30

348

Photoluminescence in semiconductor structures based on butyl-substituted erbium phthalocyanine complexes  

SciTech Connect

The study is concerned with the luminescence properties of ensembles of semiconductor structures containing organic phthalocyanine molecules with erbium ions as complexing agents. The photoluminescence spectra of the structures of the type of erbium monophthalocyanine, bisphthalocyanine, and triphthalocyanine are recorded. The photoluminescence peaks are detected at the wavelengths 888, 760, and 708 nm (and photon energies 1.4, 1.6, and 1.75 eV) corresponding to electronic transitions within the organic complexes. It is found that, when a metal complexing agent is introduced into the molecular structure of the ligand, the 708 nm luminescence peak becomes unobservable. It is shown that, in the bisphthalocyanine samples, the photoluminescence signal corresponding to transitions from the 4F{sub 9/2} level of erbium ions is enhanced.

Belogorokhov, I. A., E-mail: jugqwerty@mail.ru; Ryabchikov, Yu. V.; Tikhonov, E. V.; Pushkarev, V. E.; Breusova, M. O.; Tomilova, L. G.; Khokhlov, D. R. [Moscow State University (Russian Federation)

2008-03-15

349

Spin-Coated Erbium-Doped Silica Sol-Gel Films on Silicon  

E-print Network

This work reports optical functionality contained in, as well as and produced by, thin film coatings. A sol-gel process, formulated with precursor active ingredients of erbium oxide and tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS), was used for spin-coating thin (~130 nm) erbium-doped (~6 at. %) silica films on single-crystal silicon. Annealed films produce infrared emission in the 1.5-micron band from erbium ions in the film, as well as greatly enhancing (~100X) band-gap emission from the underlying silicon. The distinctly different mechanisms for the two modes of optical activities are interpreted in terms of optical emission theory and modeling; prospects for opto-electronic applications are discussed.

Abedrabbo, Sufian; Shet, Sudhakar; Fiory, Anthony; Ravindra, Nuggehalli

2012-01-01

350

Erbium electroluminescence in forward-biased amorphous silicon p-i-n diodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have fabricated erbium-doped amorphous silicon p-i-n structures by conventional plasma decomposition of silane. The erbium doping was achieved by sublimation of the metal-organic compound tris(2,4-pentanedionato)-Er(III) which has a more favorable erbium-carbon ratio than previously used compounds. Since the Er centers introduce donors and defects in the amorphous silicon, counterdoping with diborane has been required to obtain the near-intrinsic i layers with a reduced defect density. The p-i-n junctions have excellent diode characteristics and exhibit, under forward bias, pronounced electroluminescence near 1.54 m at room temperature. Their power efficiency is by two orders of magnitude larger than that of previously fabricated heterojunctions of amorphous and crystalline silicon. We discuss possible mechanisms of the Er3+ excitation in our diodes.

Mell, H.; Weiser, G.; Terukov, E. I.; Kudoyarova, V. Kh.

2004-03-01

351

Fast-tuning, low-noise, compact Brillouin/erbium fiber laser.  

PubMed

We demonstrate a fast-tuning Brillouin/erbium fiber laser (BEFL) using 4 m erbium-doped fiber (EDF) as both the Brillouin and erbium gain media. The BEFL frequency is fast tuned via modulating a piezoelectric transducer on which the EDF is coiled. Over 60 MHz frequency-tuning range is obtained at less than 5 V voltage amplitude and the tuning rates can achieve 48 kHz. This fast-tuning BEFL presents a low phase noise of -124 dB/Hz(1/2) at 1 kHz (normalized to 1 m interferometer optical path difference) with 32 kHz modulating frequency. It presents potential applications in fiber sensors and optical communications. PMID:24487900

Chen, Mo; Meng, Zhou; Tu, Xiaobo; Zhang, Yichi

2014-02-01

352

In vitro application of optical transmission systems in erbium:YAG laser temporomandibular joint surgery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The experimental setup of this study is focused on the changes in temporomandibular joint tissue after irradiation with an Erbium:YAG laser. Initially, the free-running beam from the laser was focused onto freshly excised porcine tissue samples, indicating an optimum average energy density and pulse duration for the purpose of temporomandibular joint surgery of about 15 - 60 J/cm2 and 120 microsecond(s) - 240 microsecond(s) , respectively. Consecutively, an attempt was made to couple the Erbium:YAG laser beam on the one hand to optical fibers made of infrared-transmitting glasses (fluoride- and chalcogenide-based), on the other hand to a recently developed sapphire and liquid core fiber, respectively. From the preliminary observations of this investigation it appears that both the liquid core and the sapphire fiber are the most promising candidates for delivery of Erbium-YAG laser radiation in arthroscopic surgery of the craniomandibular articulation.

Nuebler-Moritz, Michael; Hering, Peter; Niederdellmann, Herbert; Deuerling, Christian; Dammer, Ralf

1995-05-01

353

Luminescence from erbium-doped silicon epi layers grown by liquid-phase epitaxy  

SciTech Connect

Dislocation-related photoluminescence at 0.806 and 0.873 eV is observed in erbium-doped silicon epi layers grown by liquid-phase epitaxy on (100) Si wafers. These signals are detected at T = 2 K only on epi layers deposited on Czochralski grown silicon substrates. No luminescence is observed when float zone-grown substrates are used. The peak intensity shows temperature quenching, but the signal remains detectable up to 195 K. The luminescence apparently is due to dislocations in silicon in the simultaneous presence of high oxygen concentration and erbium impurities. A comparison with the typical infrared emission from erbium-implanted silicon samples is presented.

Pizzini, S.; Donghi, M.; Binetti, S.; Wagner, G.; Bersani, M. [Univ. Degli Studi di Milano, Milan (Italy)

1998-01-01

354

Photoluminescence in silicon implanted with erbium ions at an elevated temperature  

SciTech Connect

Photoluminescence spectra of n-type silicon upon implantation with erbium ions at 600 Degree-Sign C and oxygen ions at room temperature and subsequent annealings at 1100 Degree-Sign C in a chlorine-containing atmosphere have been studied. Depending on the annealing duration, photoluminescence spectra at 80 K are dominated by lines of the Er{sup 3+} ion or dislocation-related luminescence. The short-wavelength shift of the dislocation-related luminescence line observed at this temperature is due to implantation of erbium ions at an elevated temperature. At room temperature, lines of erbium and dislocation-related luminescence are observed in the spectra, but lines of near-band-edge luminescence predominate.

Sobolev, N. A., E-mail: nick@sobolev.ioffe.rssi.ru; Kalyadin, A. E.; Shek, E. I.; Sakharov, V. I.; Serenkov, I. T. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical Technical Institute (Russian Federation); Vdovin, V. I. [St. Petersburg University, Fock Research Institute of Physics (Russian Federation); Parshin, E. O.; Makoviichuk, M. I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Yaroslavl Branch, Institute of Physics and Technology (Russian Federation)

2011-08-15

355

Femtosecond erbium-doped fiber laser with nonlinear polarization rotation and its soliton compression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A continuous wave suppressed, uniformly repetitive pulse train as short as 136-145 fs has been successfully generated at a wavelength of 1.55 micron from a new type of femtosecond erbium-doped fiber laser with nonlinear polarization rotation. The 145 fs pulse was shortened to 52 fs by using soliton narrowing and high order soliton compression. Soliton narrowing was achieved by amplifying the soliton pulse with an erbium-doped fiber amplifier, and a short length of dispersion-flattened fiber was used for further compressing the soliton.

Yoshida, Eiji; Kimura, Yasuo; Nakazawa, Masataka

1994-10-01

356

Femtosecond Erbium-Doped Fiber Laser with Nonlinear Polarization Rotation and Its Soliton Compression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A continuous wave suppressed, uniformly repetitive pulse train as short as 136 145 fs has been successfully generated at a wavelength of 1.55 µ m from a new type of femtosecond erbium-doped fiber laser with nonlinear polarization rotation. The 145 fs pulse was shortened to 52 fs by using soliton narrowing and high order soliton compression. Soliton narrowing was achieved by amplifying the soliton pulse with an erbium-doped fiber amplifier, and a short length of dispersion-flattened fiber was used for further compressing the soliton.

Yoshida, Eiji; Kimura, Yasuo; Nakazawa, Masataka

1994-10-01

357

Up-Conversion in a KGW Crystal by Residual Erbium Ions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have studied the effect of up-conversion by residual erbium ions, observed in a KGW crystal in the green and red regions of the spectrum upon excitation by the radiation output from diode lasers with wavelengths 808 nm and 970 nm. We demonstrate the existence of different up-conversion regimes under conditions where there is a residual erbium ion concentration. The experimental data indicate up-conversion processes for excitation by laser radiation with wavelength 970 nm with n > 2, where n is a parameter characterizing the dependence of the luminescence intensity on pump power.

Khodasevich, I. A.; Kornienko, A. A.; Dunina, E. B.; Grabtchikov, A. S.

2015-01-01

358

Experimental investigation on chaos generation in erbium-doped fiber single-ring lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the chaotic behaviors in an erbium-doped fiber (EDF) single-ring laser (EDFSRL) are investigated experimentally by using the loss modulation method. An electro—optic modulator (EOM) made of LiNbO3 crystal is added to the system. Thus, by changing the modulation voltage and the modulation frequency of the EOM, the freedom of the EDFSRL system is increased. The chaotic characteristics of the system are studied by observing the time series and the power spectra. The experimental results indicate that the erbium-doped fiber single-ring laser system can enter into chaos states through period-doubling bifurcation and intermittency routes.

Chang, Feng; Feng, Yu-Ling; Yao, Zhi-Hai; Fan, Jian; Song, Yuan-Chao; Zhao, Yu-Zhu

2012-10-01

359

152. Photocopy of drawing (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

152. Photocopy of drawing (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company Surveyor's Transit Book #363, Page 1). 1912 CONDITION REPORT OF MILNER DAM AREA, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

360

152. View of lightning arrester houses on the hillside above ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

152. View of lightning arrester houses on the hillside above powerhouse. To the right is surge tank for penstock no. 1. Looking southeast. Photo by Jet Lowe, HAER, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

361

21 CFR 152.126 - Frozen cherry pie.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FRUIT PIES Requirements for Specific Standardized Fruit Pies § 152.126 Frozen...and Cosmetic Act or color additives as defined...are food additives or color additives as so defined...follows: (i) The fruit content of the pie...

2013-04-01

362

21 CFR 152.126 - Frozen cherry pie.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FRUIT PIES Requirements for Specific Standardized Fruit Pies § 152.126 Frozen...and Cosmetic Act or color additives as defined...are food additives or color additives as so defined...follows: (i) The fruit content of the pie...

2011-04-01

363

21 CFR 152.126 - Frozen cherry pie.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FRUIT PIES Requirements for Specific Standardized Fruit Pies § 152.126 Frozen...and Cosmetic Act or color additives as defined...are food additives or color additives as so defined...follows: (i) The fruit content of the pie...

2012-04-01

364

21 CFR 152.126 - Frozen cherry pie.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FRUIT PIES Requirements for Specific Standardized Fruit Pies § 152.126 Frozen...and Cosmetic Act or color additives as defined...are food additives or color additives as so defined...follows: (i) The fruit content of the pie...

2014-04-01

365

45 CFR 152.45 - Transition to the exchanges.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Transition to the exchanges...REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS PRE-EXISTING...INSURANCE PLAN PROGRAM Transition to Exchanges § 152...develop procedures to transition PCIP enrollees to...1321 of the Affordable Care Act, to ensure...

2010-10-01

366

45 CFR 152.45 - Transition to the exchanges.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Transition to the exchanges...REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS PRE-EXISTING...INSURANCE PLAN PROGRAM Transition to Exchanges § 152...develop procedures to transition PCIP enrollees to...1321 of the Affordable Care Act, to ensure...

2011-10-01

367

45 CFR 152.45 - Transition to the exchanges.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 false Transition to the exchanges...REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS PRE-EXISTING...INSURANCE PLAN PROGRAM Transition to Exchanges § 152...develop procedures to transition PCIP enrollees to...1321 of the Affordable Care Act, to ensure...

2014-10-01

368

45 CFR 152.45 - Transition to the exchanges.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Transition to the exchanges...REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS PRE-EXISTING...INSURANCE PLAN PROGRAM Transition to Exchanges § 152...develop procedures to transition PCIP enrollees to...1321 of the Affordable Care Act, to ensure...

2013-10-01

369

45 CFR 152.45 - Transition to the exchanges.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Transition to the exchanges...REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS PRE-EXISTING...INSURANCE PLAN PROGRAM Transition to Exchanges § 152...develop procedures to transition PCIP enrollees to...1321 of the Affordable Care Act, to ensure...

2012-10-01

370

12 CFR 3.152 - Simple risk weight approach (SRWA).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Simple risk weight approach (SRWA). 3.152 ...TREASURY CAPITAL ADEQUACY STANDARDS Risk-Weighted Assets-Internal Ratings-Based and Advanced Measurement Approaches Risk-Weighted Assets for Equity Exposures...

2014-01-01

371

12 CFR 324.152 - Simple risk weight approach (SRWA).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Simple risk weight approach (SRWA). 324.152...ADEQUACY OF FDIC-SUPERVISED INSTITUTIONS Risk-Weighted Assets-Internal Ratings-Based and Advanced Measurement Approaches Risk-Weighted Assets for Equity Exposures...

2014-01-01

372

12 CFR 217.152 - Simple risk weight approach (SRWA).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Simple risk weight approach (SRWA). 217.152...ADEQUACY OF BOARD-REGULATED INSTITUTIONS Risk-Weighted Assets-Internal Ratings-Based and Advanced Measurement Approaches Risk-Weighted Assets for Equity Exposures...

2014-01-01

373

Thermal diffusivity and ultrasonic velocity of saturated R152a  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report thermal diffusivity and ultrasonic sound velocity data for both phases of saturated diflourethane (R152a) in the temperature range from 278 K to the critical temperature. The data were obtained in thermodynamic equilibrium by applying dynamic light scattering. For both values comparison with data from literature has been made.

Kraft, K.; Leipertz, A.

1994-09-01

374

Thermal diffusivity and ultrasonic velocity of saturated R152a  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report thermal diffusivity and ultrasonic sound velocity data for both phases of saturated diflourethane (R152a) in the temperature range from 278 K to the critical temperature. The data were obtained in thermodynamic equilibrium by applying dynamic light scattering. For both values comparison with data from literature has been made.

K. Kraft; A. Leipertz

1994-01-01

375

Transport properties of 1,1-difluoroethane (R152a)  

SciTech Connect

Based on reliable, carefully selected data sets, equations for the thermal conductivity and the viscosity of the refrigerant R152a are presented. They are valid at temperatures from 240 to 440 K, pressures up to 20 MPa, and densities up to 1050 kg {center_dot} m {sup {minus}3}, including the critical region.

Krauss, R.; Stephan, K. [Institut fuer Technische Thermodynamik und Thermische Verfahrenstechnik, Stuttgart (Germany); Weiss, V.C.; Edison, T.A.; Sengers, J.V. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

1996-07-01

376

Precision intensities and angular correlation measurements in ^152Sm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The samarium isotopic chain shows great structural change dripline-to-dripline; evolving from deformed at the proton dripline, through spherical near stability before undergoing another transformation near N=90 when large prolate deformation re-emerges. Lying at the midpoint of this latter transition is ^152Sm. Numerous models have been developed to explain ^152Sm in terms of either being at the critical point of a phase transition, or in terms of coexisting shapes. To test the validity of these different models, a beta-decay experiment was performed at the ATLAS facility at Argonne. The decay of ^152Eu to ^152Sm was studied through gamma-ray spectroscopy using Gammasphere. An extremely large data set was collected, consisting of > 7x10^9 gamma-gamma or higher fold events. This made possible a high precision measurement of energies and intensities and very definite angular correlation determinations. The new results resolve some previous experimental ambiguities and help to differentiate between theoretical models. Work supported by the DOE Office of Nuclear Physics under contract DE-AC02-06CH11357.

McCutchan, E. A.; Lister, C. J.; Zhu, S.; Carpenter, M. P.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Khoo, T. L.; Lauritsen, T.; Seweryniak, D.

2010-11-01

377

35. INTERIOR VIEW TO THE NORTHWEST OF ROOM 152, A ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

35. INTERIOR VIEW TO THE NORTHWEST OF ROOM 152, A FIRST FLOOR CORRIDOR AND VIEWING GALLERY ON THE WEST SIDE OF THE POST-MORTEM CELLS. VIEWING AND WORK STATIONS ARE IN THE EAST WALL. - Nevada Test Site, Reactor Maintenance Assembly & Dissassembly Facility, Area 25, Jackass Flats, Junction of Roads F & G, Mercury, Nye County, NV

378

152. Photographic copy of original construction drawing dated October 24, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

152. Photographic copy of original construction drawing dated October 24, 1930 (from Record Group 115, Denver Branch of the National Archives, Denver). 60 x 12 RING GATE CONTROL; FLOAT WELL ASSEMBLY AND COVER HOIST STEM-CONNECTION ROD-SLEEVE. - Owyhee Dam, Across Owyhee River, Nyssa, Malheur County, OR

379

25 CFR 152.31 - Cost of conveyance; payment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Conveyances of Trust Or Restricted Lands § 152.31 Cost of conveyance; payment. Pursuant to the Act of February 14, 1920 (41 Stat. 415), as amended by the Act of March 1, 1933 (47 Stat. 1417; 25 U.S.C. 413), the Secretary...

2010-04-01

380

25 CFR 152.10 - Application for orders removing restrictions, except Five Civilized Tribes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Application for orders removing restrictions, except Five Civilized Tribes. 152.10 Section 152.10 Indians BUREAU...Application for orders removing restrictions, except Five Civilized Tribes. Any Indian not under legal disability under...

2011-04-01

381

25 CFR 152.10 - Application for orders removing restrictions, except Five Civilized Tribes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Application for orders removing restrictions, except Five Civilized Tribes. 152.10 Section 152.10 Indians BUREAU...Application for orders removing restrictions, except Five Civilized Tribes. Any Indian not under legal disability under...

2010-04-01

382

25 CFR 152.10 - Application for orders removing restrictions, except Five Civilized Tribes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Application for orders removing restrictions, except Five Civilized Tribes. 152.10 Section 152.10 Indians BUREAU...Application for orders removing restrictions, except Five Civilized Tribes. Any Indian not under legal disability under...

2012-04-01

383

25 CFR 152.10 - Application for orders removing restrictions, except Five Civilized Tribes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Application for orders removing restrictions, except Five Civilized Tribes. 152.10 Section 152.10 Indians BUREAU...Application for orders removing restrictions, except Five Civilized Tribes. Any Indian not under legal disability under...

2013-04-01

384

25 CFR 152.11 - Issuance of orders removing restrictions, except Five Civilized Tribes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...false Issuance of orders removing restrictions, except Five Civilized Tribes. 152.11 Section 152.11 Indians BUREAU...11 Issuance of orders removing restrictions, except Five Civilized Tribes. (a) An application for an order...

2014-04-01

385

25 CFR 152.11 - Issuance of orders removing restrictions, except Five Civilized Tribes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Issuance of orders removing restrictions, except Five Civilized Tribes. 152.11 Section 152.11 Indians BUREAU...11 Issuance of orders removing restrictions, except Five Civilized Tribes. (a) An application for an order...

2013-04-01

386

25 CFR 152.10 - Application for orders removing restrictions, except Five Civilized Tribes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Application for orders removing restrictions, except Five Civilized Tribes. 152.10 Section 152.10 Indians BUREAU...Application for orders removing restrictions, except Five Civilized Tribes. Any Indian not under legal disability under...

2014-04-01

387

25 CFR 152.11 - Issuance of orders removing restrictions, except Five Civilized Tribes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Issuance of orders removing restrictions, except Five Civilized Tribes. 152.11 Section 152.11 Indians BUREAU...11 Issuance of orders removing restrictions, except Five Civilized Tribes. (a) An application for an order...

2010-04-01

388

25 CFR 152.11 - Issuance of orders removing restrictions, except Five Civilized Tribes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...true Issuance of orders removing restrictions, except Five Civilized Tribes. 152.11 Section 152.11 Indians BUREAU...11 Issuance of orders removing restrictions, except Five Civilized Tribes. (a) An application for an order...

2012-04-01

389

25 CFR 152.11 - Issuance of orders removing restrictions, except Five Civilized Tribes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Issuance of orders removing restrictions, except Five Civilized Tribes. 152.11 Section 152.11 Indians BUREAU...11 Issuance of orders removing restrictions, except Five Civilized Tribes. (a) An application for an order...

2011-04-01

390

14 CFR 152.205 - United States share of project costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false United States share of project costs. 152.205 Section 152...205 United States share of project costs. (a) Airport development...States share of the allowable project costs of an airport planning project...

2013-01-01

391

14 CFR 152.205 - United States share of project costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false United States share of project costs. 152.205 Section 152...205 United States share of project costs. (a) Airport development...States share of the allowable project costs of an airport planning project...

2011-01-01

392

14 CFR 152.205 - United States share of project costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...false United States share of project costs. 152.205 Section 152...205 United States share of project costs. (a) Airport development...States share of the allowable project costs of an airport planning project...

2014-01-01

393

14 CFR 152.205 - United States share of project costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false United States share of project costs. 152.205 Section 152...205 United States share of project costs. (a) Airport development...States share of the allowable project costs of an airport planning project...

2010-01-01

394

14 CFR 152.205 - United States share of project costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false United States share of project costs. 152.205 Section 152...205 United States share of project costs. (a) Airport development...States share of the allowable project costs of an airport planning project...

2012-01-01

395

14 CFR 221.152 - Method of withdrawing portion of authority conferred by power of attorney.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...withdrawing portion of authority conferred by power of attorney. 221.152 Section 221...REGULATIONS TARIFFS Giving and Revoking Powers of Attorney to Agents § 221.152 ...withdrawing portion of authority conferred by power of attorney. If a carrier desires...

2012-01-01

396

14 CFR 221.152 - Method of withdrawing portion of authority conferred by power of attorney.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...withdrawing portion of authority conferred by power of attorney. 221.152 Section 221...REGULATIONS TARIFFS Giving and Revoking Powers of Attorney to Agents § 221.152 ...withdrawing portion of authority conferred by power of attorney. If a carrier desires...

2013-01-01

397

14 CFR 221.152 - Method of withdrawing portion of authority conferred by power of attorney.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...withdrawing portion of authority conferred by power of attorney. 221.152 Section 221...REGULATIONS TARIFFS Giving and Revoking Powers of Attorney to Agents § 221.152 ...withdrawing portion of authority conferred by power of attorney. If a carrier desires...

2010-01-01

398

14 CFR 221.152 - Method of withdrawing portion of authority conferred by power of attorney.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...withdrawing portion of authority conferred by power of attorney. 221.152 Section 221...REGULATIONS TARIFFS Giving and Revoking Powers of Attorney to Agents § 221.152 ...withdrawing portion of authority conferred by power of attorney. If a carrier desires...

2011-01-01

399

14 CFR 221.152 - Method of withdrawing portion of authority conferred by power of attorney.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...withdrawing portion of authority conferred by power of attorney. 221.152 Section 221...REGULATIONS TARIFFS Giving and Revoking Powers of Attorney to Agents § 221.152 ...withdrawing portion of authority conferred by power of attorney. If a carrier desires...

2014-01-01

400

29 CFR 780.152 - General scope of specified delivery operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false General scope of specified delivery operations. 780.152 Section 780...General Scope of Agriculture Specified Delivery Operations § 780.152 General scope of specified delivery operations. Employment in...

2013-07-01

401

29 CFR 780.152 - General scope of specified delivery operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false General scope of specified delivery operations. 780.152 Section 780...General Scope of Agriculture Specified Delivery Operations § 780.152 General scope of specified delivery operations. Employment in...

2012-07-01

402

29 CFR 780.152 - General scope of specified delivery operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false General scope of specified delivery operations. 780.152 Section 780...General Scope of Agriculture Specified Delivery Operations § 780.152 General scope of specified delivery operations. Employment in...

2011-07-01

403

29 CFR 780.152 - General scope of specified delivery operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... false General scope of specified delivery operations. 780.152 Section 780...General Scope of Agriculture Specified Delivery Operations § 780.152 General scope of specified delivery operations. Employment in...

2014-07-01

404

29 CFR 780.152 - General scope of specified delivery operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false General scope of specified delivery operations. 780.152 Section 780...General Scope of Agriculture Specified Delivery Operations § 780.152 General scope of specified delivery operations. Employment in...

2010-07-01

405

19 CFR 12.152 - Prohibitions and conditions on the importation and exportation of rough diamonds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...on the importation and exportation of rough diamonds. 12.152 Section 12.152 Customs Duties...on the importation and exportation of rough diamonds. (a) General. The Clean Diamond Trade Act (Pub. L. 108-19)...

2014-04-01

406

40 CFR 152.95 - Citation of all studies in the Agency's files pertinent to a specific data requirement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...in the Agency's files pertinent to a specific data requirement. 152.95 Section 152.95 Protection...AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Satisfaction of Data Requirements and Protection of Data Submitters' Rights § 152.95 Citation...

2014-07-01

407

40 CFR 152.95 - Citation of all studies in the Agency's files pertinent to a specific data requirement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Agency's files pertinent to a specific data requirement. 152.95 Section 152...PROCEDURES Procedures To Ensure Protection of Data Submitters' Rights § 152.95 Citation...Agency's files pertinent to a specific data requirement. An applicant normally...

2011-07-01

408

40 CFR 152.95 - Citation of all studies in the Agency's files pertinent to a specific data requirement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Agency's files pertinent to a specific data requirement. 152.95 Section 152...PROCEDURES Procedures To Ensure Protection of Data Submitters' Rights § 152.95 Citation...Agency's files pertinent to a specific data requirement. An applicant normally...

2012-07-01

409

40 CFR 152.95 - Citation of all studies in the Agency's files pertinent to a specific data requirement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Agency's files pertinent to a specific data requirement. 152.95 Section 152...PROCEDURES Procedures To Ensure Protection of Data Submitters' Rights § 152.95 Citation...Agency's files pertinent to a specific data requirement. An applicant normally...

2013-07-01

410

Minimizing gain transient dynamics by optimizing the erbium concentration and cavity length of a gain clamped EDFA.  

PubMed

Erbium doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) gain transient dynamics are studied in the context of their application in optically reconfigurable networks. We address the question of how to design the EDFA in order to minimize the gain transients present in the output signals of the EDFA when the system is optically reconfigured such that the total average input power levels and wavelengths are changed. Both experimental measurements and theoretical simulations show that the amplitude transients depend on the length of the erbium doped fiber (EDF) and the erbium concentration. We show how it may be possible to reduce the gain transients by appropriate design of the EDFA. PMID:19498777

Chan, P; Tsang, H

2005-09-19

411

Energy transfer to erbium ions from wide-band-gap SnO{sub 2} nanocrystals in silica  

SciTech Connect

We give the spectroscopic evidence of energy transfer to erbium ions provided by SnO{sub 2} nanocrystals in silica. The spectral and time resolved analysis of the nanocluster luminescence resonant with Er{sup 3+} transitions demonstrates that erbium ions take part to energy-transfer mechanisms with an efficiency of about 20%. The spectral features of erbium emission excited by energy transfer allow to ascribe it to Er{sup 3+} sites in ordered environments, nearby crystalline tin-dioxide nanoclusters.

Brovelli, S.; Chiodini, A.; Lauria, A.; Meinardi, F.; Paleari, A. [Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Universita di Milano-Bicocca, via Cozzi 53, I-20125 Milan (Italy)

2006-02-15

412

Growth studies of erbium-doped GaAs deposited by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy using noval cyclopentadienyl-based erbium sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Erbium-doped GaAS layers were grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy using two new sources, bis(i-propylcyclopentadienyl)cyclopentadienyl erbium and tris(t-butylcyclopentadienyl) erbium. Controlled Er doping in the range of 10(exp 17) - 10(exp 18)/cu cm was achieved using a relatively low source temperature of 90 C. The doping exhibits a second-order dependence on inlet source partial pressure, similar to behavior obtained with cyclopentadienyl Mg dopant sources. Equivalent amounts of oxygen and Er are present in 'as-grown' films indicating that the majority of Er dopants probably exist as Er-O complexes in the material. Er(+3) luminescence at 1.54 micrometers was measured from the as-grown films, but ion implantation of additional oxygen decreases the emission intensity. Electrical compensation of n-type GaAs layers codoped with Er and Si is directly correlated to the Er concentration is proposed to arise from the deep centers associated with Er which are responsible for a broad emission band near 0.90 micrometers present in the photoluminescence spectra of GaAs:Si, Er films.

Redwing, J. M.; Kuech, T. F.; Gordon, D. C.; Vaartstra, B. A.; Lau, S. S.

1994-08-01

413

Growth studies of erbium-doped GaAs deposited by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy using noval cyclopentadienyl-based erbium sources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Erbium-doped GaAS layers were grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy using two new sources, bis(i-propylcyclopentadienyl)cyclopentadienyl erbium and tris(t-butylcyclopentadienyl) erbium. Controlled Er doping in the range of 10(exp 17) - 10(exp 18)/cu cm was achieved using a relatively low source temperature of 90 C. The doping exhibits a second-order dependence on inlet source partial pressure, similar to behavior obtained with cyclopentadienyl Mg dopant sources. Equivalent amounts of oxygen and Er are present in 'as-grown' films indicating that the majority of Er dopants probably exist as Er-O complexes in the material. Er(+3) luminescence at 1.54 micrometers was measured from the as-grown films, but ion implantation of additional oxygen decreases the emission intensity. Electrical compensation of n-type GaAs layers codoped with Er and Si is directly correlated to the Er concentration is proposed to arise from the deep centers associated with Er which are responsible for a broad emission band near 0.90 micrometers present in the photoluminescence spectra of GaAs:Si, Er films.

Redwing, J. M.; Kuech, T. F.; Gordon, D. C.; Vaartstra, B. A.; Lau, S. S.

1994-01-01

414

40 CFR 721.2580 - C.I. Disperse Red 152 (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false C.I. Disperse Red 152 (generic). 721.2580 Section...Substances § 721.2580 C.I. Disperse Red 152 (generic). (a) Chemical substance...identified generically as C.I. disperse red 152 (PMN P-97-820) is subject...

2014-07-01

415

40 CFR 721.2580 - C.I. Disperse Red 152 (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false C.I. Disperse Red 152 (generic). 721.2580 Section...Substances § 721.2580 C.I. Disperse Red 152 (generic). (a) Chemical substance...identified generically as C.I. disperse red 152 (PMN P-97-820) is subject...

2013-07-01

416

40 CFR 721.2580 - C.I. Disperse Red 152 (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false C.I. Disperse Red 152 (generic). 721.2580 Section...Substances § 721.2580 C.I. Disperse Red 152 (generic). (a) Chemical substance...identified generically as C.I. disperse red 152 (PMN P-97-820) is subject...

2010-07-01

417

40 CFR 721.2580 - C.I. Disperse Red 152 (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false C.I. Disperse Red 152 (generic). 721.2580 Section...Substances § 721.2580 C.I. Disperse Red 152 (generic). (a) Chemical substance...identified generically as C.I. disperse red 152 (PMN P-97-820) is subject...

2012-07-01

418

40 CFR 721.2580 - C.I. Disperse Red 152 (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false C.I. Disperse Red 152 (generic). 721.2580 Section...Substances § 721.2580 C.I. Disperse Red 152 (generic). (a) Chemical substance...identified generically as C.I. disperse red 152 (PMN P-97-820) is subject...

2011-07-01

419

Optical Soliton Propagation in an Erbium Doped Nonlinear Light Guide with Higher Order Dispersion  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a coupled system of the Hirota equation and the Maxwell-Bloch equations to describe the wave propagation in an erbium doped nonlinear fiber with higher order dispersion. The Painlevé property of the same is analyzed and the coupled system is found to be integrable. The Lax pair is also constructed and the single-soliton solution is explicitly shown. The coupled

K. Porsezian; K. Nakkeeran

1995-01-01

420

Selectively Erbium Doped Titanium Diffused Optical Waveguide Amplifiers in Lithium Niobate  

E-print Network

Selectively erbium (Er) doped titanium (Ti) in-diffused optical waveguide amplifiers on lithium niobate (LiNbO3) substrate have been fabricated and characterized in the wavelength regime around ? = 1.53?m using counter-directional pumping at ?P = 1...

Suh, Jae Woo

2011-02-22

421

Performance comparison of Zr-based and Bi-based erbium-doped fiber amplifiers.  

PubMed

In this Letter, we present a comprehensive comparison of the performance of a zirconia-based erbium-doped fiber amplifier (Zr-EDFA) and a bismuth-based erbium-doped fiber amplifier (Bi-EDFA). The experimental results reveal that a Zr-EDFA can achieve comparable performance to the conventional Bi-EDFA for C-band and L-band operations. With a combination of both Zr and Al, we could achieve a high erbium-doping concentration of about 2800 ppm (parts per million) in the glass host without any phase separations of rare earths. The Zr-based erbium-doped fiber (Zr-EDF) was fabricated using in a ternary glass host, zirconia-yttria-aluminum codoped silica fiber through a solution-doping technique along with modified chemical vapor deposition. At a high input signal of 0 dBm, a flat gain at average value of 13 dB is obtained with a gain variation of less than 2 dB within the wavelength region of 1530-1575 nm and using 2 m of Zr-EDF and 120 mW pump power. The noise figures are less than 9.2 at this wavelength region. It was found that a Zr-EDFA can achieve even better flat-gain value and bandwidth as well as lower noise figure than the conventional Bi-EDFA. PMID:20808356

Paul, M C; Harun, S W; Huri, N A D; Hamzah, A; Das, S; Pal, M; Bhadra, S K; Ahmad, H; Yoo, S; Kalita, M P; Boyland, A J; Sahu, J K

2010-09-01

422

Clinical and radiological course in apicoectomies with the Erbium: YAG LASER  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. A study is made of the efficacy of the Erbium:YAG laser in granulomatous periapical lesions, based on clinical and radiographic controls. Material and methods. The study comprised a series of 45 patients amenable to periapical surgical treatment of incisors, canines and premolars. A conventional surgical technique was used, with silver amalgam retrograde filling and irradiation of the bone defect

María Isabel; Leco Berrocal; José María Martínez González; Manuel Donado Rodríguez

423

Rational harmonic figure-eight actively-passively mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nonlinear optical loop mirror (NOLM) is used as a saturable absorbed to reshape pulses. Experimentally, an actively mode-locked erbium-doped fiber ring laser with figure-eight structure is set up. 2 ? 4 order harmonic pulse train with stable amplitude has been obtained when the RF modulation frequency is about 2.5 GHz.

Wang, Zhaoying; Yu, Zhenhong; Gao, Peiliang; Yang, Tianxin; Zhang, Ruifeng; Jia, Dongfang; Li, Shichen

2003-05-01

424

Optically injected rational-harmonic mode locking of erbium-doped fiber laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Harmonic and rational-harmonic mode-locking of erbium-doped fiber lasers (EDFLs) with wavelength tunability is achieved by seeding optical pulses from a gain-switched Fabry-Perot laser diode that is feedback-injection controlled with the slave EDFLs via optical circulator.

Lin, Gong-Ru; Chang, Yung-Cheng

2002-08-01

425

Design and Experimental Characterization of an Erbium Doped GaN Waveguide  

E-print Network

ABSTRACT The goal of this research was to develop an optical amplifier based on Erbium doped GaN waveguides, which can be used in the next-generation of planar integrated optic circuits. This thesis started from the basic concepts of fiber optic...

Wang, Qian

2012-05-31

426

Application of robust L2 control to erbium doped fiber amplifier: Input and state uncertainty  

Microsoft Academic Search

We extend the results of our previous work (2005) to increase the robustness of an L2 nonlinear controller applied to an erbium doped fiber amplifier (EDFA). We consider the rejection of input and state uncertainties to a full information (FI) extended state space model of the EDFA. The generic robust stabilization problem is solved and the concept of state uncertainty

Nem Stefanovic; Lacra Pavel

2006-01-01

427

Average inversion level, modeling, and physics of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a detailed study of a set of models for characterizing the gain, the input and output powers of single erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFAs) and networks of EDFAs. The time dependent gain is described by a single ordinary differential equation for the average inversion level of an EDFA with arbitrary number of signal channels with arbitrary power levels and

Y. Sun; J. L. Zyskind; A. K. Srivastava

1997-01-01

428

Analysis of transient gain saturation and recovery in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis of transient gain dynamics in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers is presented to provide a qualitative explanation of its time constants. The theory yields analytical solutions at the fiber amplifier input end, making it convenient to study the time dependence of gain saturation and recovery under changing input signal conditions. It is shown that, independently of the pump wavelength, gain

E. Desurvire

1989-01-01

429

Features of the explosive boiling up of water irradiated by a Q-switched erbium laser  

SciTech Connect

Subnanosecond pressure pulses were observed on the surface of water irradiated by 200-ns, 2.94-{mu}m, 0.65-0.8-J cm{sup -2} pulses from a Q-switched erbium laser. The pulses can be related to the development of explosive boiling up in a thin subsurface layer of the overheated water. (letters)

Samokhin, A A; Vovchenko, V I; Il'ichev, N N [A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Shapkin, P V [P.N. Lebedev Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2007-12-31

430

Direct demonstration of sensitization at 980nm optical excitation in erbium-ytterbium silicates  

E-print Network

Sensitization of erbium by ytterbium in Er[subscript x]Yb[subscript 2-x]SiO[subscript 5] thin films at 980nm optical excitation is demonstrated by means of comparison of the 1.54?m photoluminescence intensities excited ...

Vanhoutte, Michiel

431

Switchable multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber laser with cascaded fiber grating cavities  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a new concept to produce switchable multiwavelength oscillations with a cascaded fiber Bragg grating overlapping cavity erbium-doped fiber laser. The laser can be designed to operate in multiwavelength or in wavelength switching modes. The different lines have different thresholds. For three-wavelength oscillation, the output powers are linear or piecewise linear functions of the input pump power. An output

Qinghe Mao; John W. Y. Lit

2002-01-01

432

Multiwavelength generation in an erbium-doped fiber laser using in-fiber comb filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simultaneous continuous wave multiwavelength operation of an erbium-doped fiber laser has been demonstrated using two types of recently developed in-fiber grating comb filters. The lasing wavelengths and linewidths were determined by the comb filter, which was inserted in a ring cavity with a single inhomogeneously broadened gain medium.

Jong Chow; Graham Town; Ben Eggleton; Morten Ibsen; Kate Sugden; Ian Bennion

1996-01-01

433

Room temperature multifrequency erbium-doped fiber lasers anchored on the ITU frequency grid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Room temperature multifrequency erbium-doped fiber (EDF) lasers anchored on the ITU frequency grid and using frequency periodic filters are presented. The multifrequency operation is demonstrated both theoretically and experimentally by adding a frequency shifter in the ring cavity to prevent steady-state laser operation and single-frequency oscillation

Antoine Bellemare; Miroslav Karasek; Martin Rochette; S. LRochelle; Michel Têtu

2000-01-01

434

Room-temperature multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber ring laser employing sinusoidal phase-modulation feedback  

Microsoft Academic Search

An effective method for achieving a room-temperature multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber ring laser is presented. Simultaneous multiwavelength lasing with 0.5-nm intervals is achieved both experimentally and theoretically by addition of sinusoidal phase modulation in the ring cavity to prevent single-wavelength oscillation.

Kejiang Zhou; Dongyun Zhou; Fengzhong Dong; Nam Quoc Ngo

2003-01-01

435

A 7-core erbium doped double-clad fiber amplifier with side-coupled pumping  

E-print Network

We demonstrate a 7-core erbium doped fiber amplifier employing side pumping using tapered multimode fiber. The amplifier has multicore inputs and outputs which can be readily spliced to multicore transmission fiber for amplifying space division multiplexed signals. Gain over 25dB was obtained in each of the cores over a 40-nm bandwidth covering C-band.

Abedin, Kazi; Thierry, Taunay; Zhu, Benyuan; Yan, Man; Bansal, Lalit; Dimarcello, Frank; Monberg, Eric; DiGiovanni, David

2013-01-01

436

Erbium:YAG laser contouring of the nasal dorsum: a preliminary investigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In conventional aesthetic rhinoplasty operations, manual or powered rasps are used to reduce the osseo-cartilagenous nasal dorsum. This tactile method requires palpation of the instrument and the dorsum during surgery to estimate the degree of volume reduction, and often requires forceful manipulation of the dorsum which may illicit pain during surgery and contribute to post-operative edema and echymosis. In this preliminary study, we investigated the use of the Erbium:YAG laser ((lambda) equals294 micrometers ) to reduce bone and cartilage using ex-vivo porcine nasal dorsum and human cadaveric tissues. The short pulsed length and high absorption of this laser in biologic tissues results in minimization of thermal injury which are ideal for non- contact optical contouring of osseous and cartilagenous tissues in the face. Two Erbium:YAG lasers were used to ablate fresh porcine nasal bone and compared for their use. One Erbium:YAG laser, the Fidelis Laser, Fontana Medical Lasers, Ljubljana, Slovenija with variable pulse repetition rates (2 to 50 Hz), pulse energy (80 to 1000 mJ), and pulse duration (100, 300, 750 and 1000 microsecond(s) ) was used and compared to the Ultrafine Erbium:YAG laser, Coherent Inc., Santa Clara California, with variable pulse repetition rate (2 to 10 Hz), pulse energy (2-16 J/cm2), and spot diameter (2-6 mm). Only laser parameters approximating the conditions for thermal confinement were evaluated.

Truong, Mai T.; Majaron, Boris; Pandoh, Nidhi S.; Wong, Brian J.

2001-05-01

437

Neutron Total Cross-Section Measurements and Resonance Parameter Analysis of Holmium, Thulium, and Erbium  

E-print Network

. Francis Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Environmental and Energy Engineering Department Troy, New York.O. Box 1072, Schenectady, New York 12301-1072 Received December 12, 1996 Accepted July 8, 1997 Abstract transmission measurements of rare earth metal samples of holmium, erbium, and thulium and isotopically enriched

Danon, Yaron

438

Förster transfer and the local optical density of states in erbium-doped silica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optically excited erbium ions incorporated near the surface of a silica glass decay by spontaneous emission and---at high Er concentration---via Förster energy transfer to quenching sites. By externally modifying the photonic microstructure we vary the local optical density of states (LDOS) in samples with different degrees of Förster transfer. Changes in spontaneous emission rate are consistent with calculated variations in

M. J. A. de Dood; J. Knoester; A. Tip; A. Polman

2005-01-01

439

Performance of a High-Concentration Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifier with 100 nm Amplification Bandwidth  

SciTech Connect

Increasing demand for higher bandwidth has driven the need for higher Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) channels. One of the requirements to achieve this is a broadband amplifier. This paper reports the performance of a broadband, compact, high-concentration and silica-based erbium-doped fiber amplifier. The amplifier optimized to a 2.15 m long erbium-doped fiber with erbium ion concentration of 2000 ppm. The gain spectrum of the amplifier has a measured amplification bandwidth of 100 nm using a 980 nm laser diode with power of 150 mW. This silica-based EDFA shows lower noise figure, higher gain and wider bandwidth in shorter wavelengths compared to Bismuth-based EDFA with higher erbium ion concentration of 3250 ppm at equivalent EDF length. The silica-based EDF shows peak gain at 22 dB and amplification bandwidth between 1520 nm and 1620 nm. The lowest noise figure is 5 dB. The gain is further improved with the implementation of enhanced EDFA configurations.

Hajireza, P.; Shahabuddin, N. S.; Abbasi-Zargaleh, S.; Emami, S. D.; Abdul-Rashid, H. A.; Yusoff, Z. [Center for Advanced Devices and Systems, Faculty of Engineering, Multimedia University, 63100 Cyberjaya (Malaysia)

2010-07-07

440

A dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser based on fiber grating pair  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A dual-wavelength linear cavity erbium-doped fiber (EDF) laser based on a fiber grating pair is demonstrated experimentally. A circulator, a 980nm/1550nm wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) coupler, a 1×2 coupler, a polarization controller, a 6m long erbium-doped fiber and a fiber grating pair for wavelength interval of 0.3nm are included in the structure. A circulator connected at two ports as reflecting mirror structure. A 980nm pump source pump an erbium-doped fiber with a length of 6m consist of an erbium doped fiber amplifier. Through adjusting the state of the polarization controller, the transmission characteristic of cavity is changed. In both polarization and wavelength, the feedback from the fiber grating pair results in the laser operating on two longitudinal modes that are separated. The birefringence induced by the fiber grating pair is beneficial to diversify the polarization states of different wavelength in the erbium-doped fiber. So it is enhanced the polarization hole burning effect. This polarization hole burning effect greatly reduced the wavelength competition. Then, it was possible to achieve stable dual-wavelength. It turns out the structure generated the stable dual-wavelength with the 0.3nm wavelength interval and the output power is 0.13dBm in the end. The whole system have a simple and compact structure, it can work stably and laid a foundation for microwave/millimeter wave generator. It has a good application performance in the future for scientific research and daily life.

Sun, Hongwei; Wang, Tianshu; Jia, Qingsong; Zhang, Peng; Jiang, Huilin

2014-12-01

441

Note: optical receiver system for 152-channel magnetoencephalography.  

PubMed

An optical receiver system composing 13 serial data restore/synchronizer modules and a single module combiner converted optical 32-bit serial data into 32-bit synchronous parallel data for a computer to acquire 152-channel magnetoencephalography (MEG) signals. A serial data restore/synchronizer module identified 32-bit channel-voltage bits from 48-bit streaming serial data, and then consecutively reproduced 13 times of 32-bit serial data, acting in a synchronous clock. After selecting a single among 13 reproduced data in each module, a module combiner converted it into 32-bit parallel data, which were carried to 32-port digital input board in a computer. When the receiver system together with optical transmitters were applied to 152-channel superconducting quantum interference device sensors, this MEG system maintained a field noise level of 3 fT/?Hz @ 100 Hz at a sample rate of 1 kSample/s per channel. PMID:25430154

Kim, Jin-Mok; Kwon, Hyukchan; Yu, Kwon-kyu; Lee, Yong-Ho; Kim, Kiwoong

2014-11-01

442

Thermal diffusivity of the alternative refrigerant R152a  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermal diffusivity of R152a was measured by dynamic light scattering. We have developed an apparatus which enables us\\u000a to apply both homodyne and heterodyne light-scattering techniques allowing a wide region of state to be investigated. A total\\u000a of 300 data points was obtained along the critical isochore. in both coexisting phases and on seven isotherms with densities\\u000a and temperatures

B. Kruppa; J. Straub

1997-01-01

443

A novel distributed strain sensor based on dynamic grating in polarization-maintaining erbium-doped fiber  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the experimental demonstration of a novel distributed fiber-optic strain sensor by localizing a dynamic grating in polarization maintaining erbium-doped fiber (PM-EDF) using the technique of synthesis of optical coherence function (SOCF).

Xinyu Fan; Zuyuan He; K. Hotate

2006-01-01

444

Stopping power and straggling of 0.2-2.0 MeV protons and 0.3-3.1 MeV 4He ions in erbium  

E-print Network

485 Stopping power and straggling of 0.2-2.0 MeV protons and 0.3-3.1 MeV 4He ions in erbium J. C des protons et des ions 4He dans des couches minces d'erbium, évaporées sous vide, ont été déterminées straggling of protons and 4He ions in erbium films evaporated in vacuum, were determined using

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

445

IEEE PHOTONICS TECHNOLOGY LETTERS, VOL. 17, NO. 2, FEBRUARY 2005 297 La-Codoped Bismuth-Based Erbium-Doped Fiber  

E-print Network

-Based Erbium-Doped Fiber Ring Laser With 106-nm Tuning Range H. L. Liu, H. Y. Tam, Senior Member, IEEE, W. H lasers using 84.6-cm-long lanthanum-codoped bismuth-based erbium doped fiber and a narrow-band tunable)-codoped bismuth-based erbium-doped fiber (Bi-EDF), laser tuning, microelectromechanical system (MEMS) filter. I

Wai, Ping-kong Alexander

446

TUDE PAR DIFFRACTION DE NEUTRONS DES STRUCTURES CRISTALLINE ET MAGNTIQUE DE L'ORTHOFERRTTE D'ERBIUM ErFeO3  

E-print Network

103 �TUDE PAR DIFFRACTION DE NEUTRONS DES STRUCTURES CRISTALLINE ET MAGN�TIQUE DE L'ORTHOFERRTTE D'ERBIUM seconde, au-dessous de TN = 4,4 ± 0,1 K, de la configuration Gz à la configuration Gy. Au-dessous de TN, l'erbium. - Les orthoferrites de terres rares et parmi eux, l'orthoferrite d'erbium, ont d6jd fait l'objet de

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

447

Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 2006, 152, 271278. With 3 figures 2006 The Linnean Society of London, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 2006, 152, 271278 271  

E-print Network

Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 2006, 152, 271­278. With 3 figures © 2006 The Linnean Society of London, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 2006, 152, 271­278 271 Blackwell Publishing deception and specific flo- ral mimicry. © 2006 The Linnean Society of London, Botanical Journal

Hammerton, James

448

In-flight fast-timing measurements in Sm152  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the first application of in-flight fast-timing measurements, a method developed in order to directly measure lifetimes in the picosecond to nanosecond range. As a proof of principle of the method, lifetimes of the states belonging to the ground-state band in Sm152 are measured up to the 81+ state. An excellent agreement with recommended values is found. A slightly improved determination of the spectroscopic quadrupole moment of the 41+ state is also reported. In-flight fast-timing measurements open interesting opportunities for future studies of collective properties in radioactive nuclei.

Plaisir, C.; Gaudefroy, L.; Méot, V.; Blanc, A.; Daugas, J. M.; Roig, O.; Arnal, N.; Bonnet, T.; Gobet, F.; Hannachi, F.; Tarisien, M.; Versteegen, M.; Roger, T.; Rejmund, M.; Navin, A.; Schmitt, C.; Fremont, G.; Goupil, J.; Pancin, J.; Spitaels, C.; Zieli?ska, M.

2014-02-01

449

University of Virginia Physics 152: Introductory Physics II  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a set of resource materials for second-semester introductory physics, developed at the University of Virginia. The unifying theme of the course is applying Newtonâs Laws to a small segment of a large system to find laws governing the system as a whole. Resources include complete lecture notes, demonstrations, links to related interactive simulations, problem sets/study sheets for students, and downloadable animated spreadsheets. Physics 152 covers topics that include gravity, waves and oscillations, fluids, heat, and thermodynamics. It is intended for prospective physics majors or students who have some preparation in the fundamentals of calculus.

Fowler, Michael

2009-02-24

450

Photocopy of copy of blueprint between pages 151 and 152 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Photocopy of copy of blueprint between pages 151 and 152 in completion report and history of the U.S.A. General hospital no. 21, compiled and edited under the direction of Major W.J. Cameron, by T.R. Wieger, Chief Engineer. The report was dated April 1, 1919. A copy of the report (4003/14/29) is at the National Archives, military records (floor 13 W), Washington, D.C. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Bounded by East Colfax to south, Peoria Street to west, Denver City/County & Adams County Line to north, & U.S. Route 255 to east, Aurora, Adams County, CO

451

Multiwavelength Brillouin-erbium fiber laser with double-Brillouin-frequency spacing.  

PubMed

We demonstrate a multiwavelength Brillouin-erbium fiber laser with double-Brillouin-frequency spacing. The wider channel spacing is realized by circulating the odd-order Stokes signals in the Brillouin gain medium through a four-port circulator. The circulated odd-order Stokes signals are amplified by the Brillouin gain and thus produce even-order Stokes signals at the output. These signals are then amplified by erbium gain block to form a ring-cavity laser. Ten channels with 0.174 nm spacing that are generated at 0.5 mW Brillouin pump power and 150 mW pump power at 1480 nm can be tuned from 1556 nm to 1564 nm. The minimum optical signal-to-noise ratio of the generated output channels is 30 dB with maximum power fluctuations of ±0.5 dB. PMID:21368983

Shee, Y G; Al-Mansoori, M H; Ismail, A; Hitam, S; Mahdi, M A

2011-01-31

452

1.54 micron Emission from Erbium implanted GaN for Photonic Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of efficient and compact light sources operating at 1.54 micron is of enormous importance for the advancement of new optical communication systems. Erbium (1%) doped fiber amplifiers (EDFA's) or semiconductor lasers are currently being employed as near infrared light sources. Both devices, however, have inherent limitations due to their mode of operation. EDFA's employ an elaborate optical pumping scheme, whereas diode lasers have a strongly temperature dependent lasing wavelength. Novel light emitters based on erbium doped III-V semiconductors could overcome these limitations. Er doped semiconductors combine the convenience of electrical excitation with the excellent luminescence properties of Er(3+) ions. Electrically pumped, compact, and temperature stable optoelectronic devices are envisioned from this new class of luminescent materials. In this paper we discuss the potential of Er doped GaN for optoelectronic applications based on temperature dependent photoluminescence excitation studies.

Thaik, Myo; Hommerich, U.; Schwartz, R. N.; Wilson, R. G.; Zavada, J. M.

1998-01-01

453

Soliton Interactions for a Hirota-Maxwell System in the Inhomogeneous Erbium-Doped Fiber  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we consider a generalized Hirota-Maxwell-Bloch system with the higher-order dispersion and self-steepening effects, which describes the propagation of ultrashort optical pulse in the inhomogeneous erbium-doped fiber. Under certain coefficient constraints, N-soliton solutions are obtained through the Hirota method and symbolic computation. Soliton interactions are graphically presented and analyzed in the different fibers. Compared with the Hirota equation without the Maxwell-Bloch parts, the self-induced transparency effect caused by the doped erbium atoms is found to lead to the change of the soliton velocity and phase. In addition, the amplitudes and widths of solitons are respectively observed to decrease and increase in the dispersion-decreasing and dispersion-increasing fibers. Finally, we give the modulational instability condition through the linear stability analysis.

Wang, M.; Tian, B.; Qi, F.-H.; Qin, B.; Lin, Z.-Q.

2012-09-01

454

Modelling of micromachining of human tooth enamel by erbium laser radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider a 3D cellular model of human tooth enamel and a photomechanical cellular model of enamel ablation by erbium laser radiation, taking into account the structural peculiarities of enamel, energy distribution in the laser beam cross section and attenuation of laser energy in biological tissue. The surface area of the texture in enamel is calculated after its micromachining by erbium laser radiation. The influence of the surface area on the bond strength of enamel with dental filling materials is discussed. A good correlation between the computer simulation of the total work of adhesion and experimentally measured bond strength between the dental filling material and the tooth enamel after its micromachining by means of YAG : Er laser radiation is attained.

Belikov, A. V.; Skrypnik, A. V.; Shatilova, K. V.

2014-08-01

455

Photo-annealing effect of gamma-irradiated erbium-doped fibre by femtosecond pulsed laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, a photo-annealing effect of gamma-irradiated erbium-doped glass fibre is investigated. Two commercial erbium-doped fibres (EDFs) with different doping concentrations were sealed inside a chamber with a cobalt-60 gamma source for 6 h to give an accumulated dose of 3.18 kGy. A tunable femtosecond pulsed laser with a repetition rate of 80 MHz was then used to pump EDF to generate 1550 nm fluorescence and green up-conversion emission, resulting in the annealing effect of the gamma-irradiated EDF. The fluorescence power of gamma-irradiated EDF with a moderate level of doping was almost returned to the initial state by photo-annealing, unlike that of a heavily doped EDF. This finding may facilitate the development of anti-irradiated superfluorescence fibre source for space navigation.

Hsiung Chang, Sheng; Liu, Ren-Young; Lin, Chu-En; Chou, Fong-In; Tai, Chao-Yi; Chen, Chii-Chang

2013-12-01

456

Mode-locked L-band bismuth-erbium fiber laser using carbon nanotubes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A passively mode-locked, bismuth-erbium-co-doped fiber (Bi-EDF) with a pulse width of 460 fs is proposed and demonstrated. A highly doped, 180-cm Bi-EDF with an erbium concentration of 3,250 ppm/wt and an absorption rate of 133 dB/m at 1,530 nm serves as the gain medium. The cavity is 11.6 m long with an overall group velocity dispersion of +0.063 ps2. The output pulses have a repetition rate, average output power, pulse energy and peak power of 11.18 MHz, 5 mW, 448 pJ and 1 kW, respectively. The system has a high beam quality and a narrow pulse width output in the L-band region.

Ahmad, H.; Zulkifli, A. Z.; Muhammad, F. D.; Zulkifli, M. Z.; Thambiratnam, K.; Harun, S. W.

2014-06-01

457

Multi-wavelength Erbium-doped fiber laser with single mode fiber and high nonlinear fiber  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A multi-wavelength Erbium-doped fiber (EDF) laser based on four-wave-mixing is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The 5km single mode fiber in the cavity enhances the four-wave-mixing to suppress the homogenous broadening of the erbium-doped fiber and get the stable multi-wavelength comb. The lasing stability is investigated. When the pump power is 300mW, the fiber laser has 5-lasing lines and the maximum fluctuation of the output power is about 3.18dB. At the same time, a laser with 110m high nonlinear fiber (HNFL) is demonstrated. When the pump power is 300mW, it has 7-lasing lines (above -30dBm) and the maximum fluctuation is 0.18dB.

Wang, Pinghe; Liu, Yong; Yu, Xuecai

2013-08-01

458

Tunable multiwavelength L-band Brillouin-Erbium fiber laser utilizing passive EDF absorber section  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate a simple tunable L-band multiwavelength Brillouin-Erbium fiber laser that utilizes a short passive erbium doped fiber (PEDF) as an absorber section. The impact of including the PEDF absorber section on the laser tunability is investigated. The proposed laser structure exhibits a wide tuning range of 24.4 nm (from 1583.5 nm to 1607.9 nm) at 1480 nm pump and Brillouin pump powers of 100 and 4 mW, respectively. This tuning range represents a 31% increase compared with a laser without a PEDF absorber section. The average number of stable output channels produced within this wavelength range is 16 channels with a spacing of 0.089 nm.

Al-Mashhadani, T. F.; Al-Mansoori, M. H.; Jamaludin, M. Z.; Abdullah, F.; Abass, A. K.; Rawi, N. I. M.

2013-12-01

459

Electric control of collective atomic coherence in an Erbium doped solid  

E-print Network

We demonstrate fast and accurate control of the evolution of collective atomic coherences in an Erbium doped solid using external electric fields. This is achieved by controlling the inhomogeneous broadening of Erbium ions emitting at 1536 nm using an electric field gradient and the linear Stark effect. The manipulation of atomic coherence is characterized with the collective spontaneous emission (optical free induction decay) emitted by the sample after an optical excitation, which does not require any previous preparation of the atoms. We show that controlled dephasing and rephasing of the atoms by the electric field result in collapses and revivals of the optical free induction decay. Our results show that the use of external electric fields does not introduce any substantial additional decoherence and enables the manipulation of collective atomic coherence with a very high degree of precision on the time scale of tens of ns. This provides an interesting resource for photonic quantum state storage and quantum state manipulation.

Ji?í Miná?; Björn Lauritzen; Hugues de Riedmatten; Mikael Afzelius; Christoph Simon; Nicolas Gisin

2009-07-24

460

Negative parity states and some electromagnetic transition properties of even-odd erbium isotopes  

SciTech Connect

The negative parity states and some electromagnetic transition properties of even-odd erbium isotopes ({sup 159,161,163,165}Er) were studied within the framework of the interacting boson-fermion model. The single fermion is assumed to be in one of the lh{sub 9/2},3p{sub 3/2},2f{sub 5/2}, and 3p{sub 1/2} single-particle orbits. It was found that the calculated negative parity state energy spectra of the even-odd erbium isotopes agree quite well with the experimental data. The B(E2) values were also calculated and compared with the experimental data.

Yazar, Harun Resit; Uluer, Ihsan [Kirikkale University, Faculty of Art and Science, Kirikkale (Turkey)

2007-03-15

461

State Preparation by Optical Pumping in Erbium Doped Solids using Stimulated Emission and Spin Mixing  

E-print Network

Erbium doped solids are potential candidates for the realization of a quantum memory for photons at telecommunication wavelengths. The implementation of quantum memory proposals in rare earth ion doped solids require spectral tailoring of the inhomogeneous absorption profile by efficient population transfer between ground state levels (spin polarization) using optical pumping. In this article we investigate the limiting factors of efficient optical pumping between ground state Zeeman levels in an erbium doped Y2SiO5 crystal. We introduce two methods to overcome these limiting factors: stimulated emission using a second laser and spin mixing using radio frequency excitation. Both methods significantly improve the degree of spin polarization. Population transfer between two Zeeman levels with less than 10 % of the total population in the initial ground state is achieved, corresponding to a spin polarization greater than 90 %. In addition, we demonstrate spectral tailoring by isolating a narrow absorption peak within a large transparency window.

B. Lauritzen; S. R. Hastings-Simon; H. de Riedmatten; M. Afzelius; N. Gisin

2008-08-26

462

Invariant bandwidth of erbium in ZnO-PbO-tellurite glasses: Local probe/model  

SciTech Connect

A series of [(70TeO{sub 2}?(30?x)ZnO?xPbO){sub 0.99}?(Er{sub 2}O{sub 3}){sub 0.01}; where x = 5, 10, 15 and 20] tellurite glasses, were prepared using the melt quenching technique. Crucial emission bandwidth of erbium at 1.5 ?m has been derived and found to be the same for all the glasses, irrespective of PbO content. This identical bandwidth in all tellurite glasses is attributed to the presence of erbium in tellurium rich disordered environments. This result has been complemented through XANES spectra and the obtained invariant first shell of 6.5 oxygen atoms, confirm the unchanged environment in these glasses for all PbO content.

Ramamoorthy, Raj Kumar [School of Engineering Sciences and Technology, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad-500046 (India); Bhatnagar, Anil K., E-mail: anilb42@gmail.com [School of Engineering Sciences and Technology, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad-500046, India and School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabd-500046 (India)

2014-04-24

463

Erbium-doped spiral amplifiers with 20 dB of net gain on silicon.  

PubMed

Spiral-waveguide amplifiers in erbium-doped aluminum oxide on a silicon wafer are fabricated and characterized. Spirals of several lengths and four different erbium concentrations are studied experimentally and theoretically. A maximum internal net gain of 20 dB in the small-signal-gain regime is measured at the peak emission wavelength of 1532 nm for two sample configurations with waveguide lengths of 12.9 cm and 24.4 cm and concentrations of 1.92 × 10(20) cm(-3) and 0.95 × 10(20) cm(-3), respectively. The noise figures of these samples are reported. Gain saturation as a result of increasing signal power and the temperature dependence of gain are studied. PMID:25401633

Vázquez-Córdova, Sergio A; Dijkstra, Meindert; Bernhardi, Edward H; Ay, Feridun; Wörhoff, Kerstin; Herek, Jennifer L; García-Blanco, Sonia M; Pollnau, Markus

2014-10-20

464

Optimization of resonantly cladding-pumped erbium-doped fiber amplifiers for space-borne applications.  

PubMed

Lasers for use in space-borne applications require ultrahigh efficiency due to limited heat dissipation and power generation capacity. In particular, interplanetary optical communication systems require high-efficiency, moderate-power (>4 W) optical transmitters in the 1600 nm wavelength range. Resonantly pumped dual-clad erbium-doped fiber lasers are best suited for this purpose. Parametric numerical optimizations are performed using a two-level propagation model modified to include spatial effects specific to large-mode-area fibers. Propagation loss mechanisms are found to be limiting factors due to the relatively low cross-sections and low quenching-free doping densities of erbium. Although experimental reports have demonstrated efficiencies up to 33%, simulation results indicate that over 53% power-conversion efficiency can be achieved using commercial fibers, and over 75% can be achieved using custom fibers employing propagation-loss mitigation strategies. PMID:23759839

Yao, Haomin; Wright, Malcolm W; Marciante, John R

2013-06-10

465

Measurement of Activation Cross Sections of Erbium Irradiated by Proton Beam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Erbium is one of the rare earth elements which are used to produce therapeutic radioisotopes by charged particle induced reactions, such as proton, deuteron and alpha particle-induced reactions. In this study, production cross sections of 165Tm and 166Tm were measured for erbium samples irradiated by a proton beam with E=45 MeV provided by the MC-50 cyclotron of KIRAMS (Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences). A HPGe detector was used to measure ?-rays for an activation cross section measurement. A stacked foil technique was adopted to measure the activation cross sections at different proton energies using copper foils as degraders and monitor foils to measure the proton beam current. The SRIM code was used to calculate the energy of the proton beam penetrating each foil. The measured data are compared with other available experimental data and theoretical cross sections calculated by TALYS code.

Song, T. Y.; Kim, J. W.; Kim, H. I.; Lee, C. W.; Lee, Y. O.; Yang, S. C.; Kim, K. S.; Kim, G. N.

2014-05-01

466

Resonantly pumped high power flat L-band erbium-doped superfluorescent fiber source.  

PubMed

An all-single-mode-fiber L-band superfluorescent fiber source (SFS) with 1 W output power, 34.3 nm bandwidth (FWHM) and 54% optical conversion efficiency is constructed by seeding a high power erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) with a low power L-band ASE seed source to avoid parasitic lasing. The source is resonantly pumped by a high power C-band SFS peaked at 1545 nm. PMID:18521149

Chen, Sheng-Ping; Liu, Ze-Jin; Li, Yi-Gang; Lu, Ke-Cheng; Zhou, Shou-Huan

2008-01-01

467

Self-similar erbium-doped fiber laser with large normal dispersion  

PubMed Central

We report a large normal dispersion erbium-doped fiber laser with self-similar pulse evolution in the gain fiber. The cavity is stabilized by the local nonlinear attractor in the gain fiber through the use of a narrow filter. Experimental results are accounted for by numerical simulations. This laser produces 3.5 nJ pulses, which can be dechirped to 70 fs with an external grating pair. PMID:24562267

Liu, Hui; Liu, Zhanwei; Lamb, Erin S.; Wise, Frank

2014-01-01

468

X-Ray Diffraction Study of Elemental Erbium to 65 GPa  

SciTech Connect

We have investigated phase transitions in elemental erbium in a diamond anvil cell up to 65 GPa using x-ray powder diffraction methods. We present preliminary evidence of a series of phase transitions that appear to follow the expected hcp {yields} Sm-type {yields} dhcp {yields} distorted fcc sequence. In particular, we believe that we have evidence for the predicted dhcp {yields} distorted fcc transition between 43 GPa and 65 GPa.

Pravica, M.G.; Lipinska-Kalita, K.; Quine, Z.; Romano, E.; Nicol, M.F. (UNLV)

2006-02-02

469

Effect of ytterbium co-doping on erbium clustering in silica-doped glass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of ytterbium co-doping on erbium ion clustering in silica-based glass was studied. It was experimentally shown that the pump-to-signal conversion efficiency could be significantly increased if the number of Yb3+ ions in the fiber core was 20 times higher than the number of Er3+ ions. Estimations of the number of Er3+ ions in clusters confirmed a decrease in their clustering at high Yb concentrations.

Kiritchenko, N. V.; Kotov, L. V.; Melkumov, M. A.; Likhachev, M. E.; Bubnov, M. M.; Yashkov, M. V.; Laptev, A. Yu; Guryanov, A. N.

2015-02-01

470

Noise characteristics of erbium-doped fiber amplifier pumped at 980 nm  

Microsoft Academic Search

A noise figure of 2.9±0.4 dB, measured in a high-gain erbium-doped fiber amplifier for input signals in the range -35 to -15 dBm and for pump powers of >5.8 mW, is discussed. The spontaneous emission factor nsp was 0.99±0.09 for input signals less than -15 dBm. These low figures are attributable to the optimized fiber design and the use of

R. I. Laming; D. N. Payne

1990-01-01

471

Optical memory bandwidth and multiplexing capacity in the erbium telecommunication window  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the bandwidth and multiplexing capacity of an erbium-doped optical memory for quantum storage purposes. We concentrate on the protocol revival of a silenced echo because it has the largest potential multiplexing capacity. Our analysis is applicable to other protocols that involve strong optical excitation. We show that the memory performance is limited by instantaneous spectral diffusion and we describe how this effect can be minimized to achieve optimal performance.

Dajczgewand, J.; Ahlefeldt, R.; Böttger, T.; Louchet-Chauvet, A.; Le Gouët, J.-L.; Chanelière, T.

2015-02-01

472

Dispersion-managed dark solitons in erbium-doped fiber lasers  

E-print Network

We report on the observation of dispersion-managed (DM) dark soliton emission in a net-normal dispersion erbium-doped fiber laser. We found experimentally that dispersion management could not only reduce the pump threshold for the dark soliton formation in a fiber laser, but also stabilize the single dark soliton evolution in the cavity. Numerical simulations have also confirmed the DM dark soliton formation in a fiber laser.

Han Zhang; Dingyuan Tang; Mustapha Tlidi; Luming Zhao; Xuan Wu

2010-07-19

473

Wavelength flattened saturated erbium amplifier using multiple side-tap Bragg gratings  

Microsoft Academic Search

By writing several loss-inducing photosensitive side-tap Bragg gratings in a short length of optical fibre, the gain variation of +\\/- 1.6 dB over a bandwidth of 33 nm in a saturated erbium doped fibre amplifier is reduced to +\\/- 0.3 dB. It is shown for the first time that these gratings may be written with predictable ease.

R. Kashyap; R. Wyatt; P. F. McKee

1993-01-01

474

Effects of ion pairs on the dynamics of erbium-doped fiber lasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments with erbium-doped fiber lasers demonstrate cw, sinusoidal, and self-pulsing operation. The obtained regimes depend on three control parameters: ion-pair concentration, photon lifetime, and pumping rate. We present a theoretical model which describes the active medium as a mixture of isolated ions and ion pairs. Starting with the adapted laser rate equations we show that the description of the dynamical

François Sanchez; Patrice Le Boudec; Pierre-Luc François; Guy Stephan

1993-01-01

475

Amplification of spontaneous emission in erbium-doped single-mode fibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amplification of spontaneous emission (ASE) in erbium-doped single-mode fiber amplifiers operating at ?=1.53 ?m is studied theoretically and experimentally. The ASE noise spectra obtained from the theory are found to be in excellent quantitative agreement with the experimental data. The observed changes in ASE spectral shapes under different population inversion conditions are also explained. The model may be used to

Emmanuel Desurvire; JAY R. SIMPSON

1989-01-01

476

A review of the fabrication and properties of erbium-doped fibers for optical amplifiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Erbium-doped fiber has become the central component of nearly all optical amplifiers. Applications reported include repeaters, power amplifiers, preamplifiers, and distributed amplifiers. To date, nearly all the fiber used in these devices has been silica based and fabricated by variations on the major telecommunications fiber technology. Disadvantages of the silica-based host glass, such as low solubility of the rare-earth ions

B. James Ainslie

1991-01-01

477

24-line multiwavelength operation of erbium-doped fiber-ring laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simultaneous lasing at up to 24 wavelengths is demonstrated in an erbium-doped fiber-ring laser using a simple design. This result is achieved using a low-loss cavity, controlled polarization evolution and liquid nitrogen cooling to enhance spectral hole-burning, polarization hole-burning, and polarization selectivity. The design does not include any wavelength-selective components; instead, it utilizes wavelength selectivity provided by polarization evolution in

Paul F. Wysocki

1996-01-01

478

Optical memory bandwidth and multiplexing capacity in the erbium telecommunication window  

E-print Network

We study the bandwidth and multiplexing capacity of an erbium-doped optical memory for quantum storage purposes. We concentrate on the protocol ROSE (Revival of a Silenced Echo) because it has the largest potential multiplexing capacity. Our analysis is applicable to other protocols that involve strong optical excitation. We show that the memory performance is limited by instantaneous spectral diffusion and we describe how this effect can be minimised to achieve optimal performance.

Julian Dajczgewand; Rose Ahlefeldt; Thomas Böttger; Anne Louchet-Chauvet; Jean-Louis Le Gouët; Thierry Chanelière

2014-09-19

479

Theoretical modeling of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers with excited-state absorption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerical solution of a general rate-equation model of an erbium-doped fiber amplifier highlights several important features of the device. A difference in strong-signal gain between copropagating and counterpropagating signal pump schemes in the presence of pump excited-state absorption is predicted, and this is confirmed by experiment. The detriment in the noise figure previously associated with counterpropagating schemes for only small-signal

P. R. Morkel; Richard I. Laming

1989-01-01

480

Dispersion-managed dark solitons in erbium-doped fiber lasers  

E-print Network

We report on the observation of dispersion-managed (DM) dark soliton emission in a net-normal dispersion erbium-doped fiber laser. We found experimentally that dispersion management could not only reduce the pump threshold for the dark soliton formation in a fiber laser, but also stabilize the single dark soliton evolution in the cavity. Numerical simulations have also confirmed the DM dark soliton formation in a fiber laser.

Zhang, Han; Tlidi, Mustapha; Zhao, Luming; Wu, Xuan

2010-01-01

481

Propagation of signal and noise in concatenated erbium-doped fiber optical amplifiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Signal propagation and noise accumulation in lightwave systems using saturated optical amplifiers as repeaters are analyzed. Numerical simulations of amplified spontaneous emission in concatenated erbium-doped fiber amplifiers indicate that a reach beyond 10000 km is possible with a 1.55-?m system in the absence of fiber nonlinearities. Distributed optical amplifiers are shown to have low noise, but require higher pump power

C. R. Giles; Emmanuel Desurvire

1991-01-01

482

Long-wavelength erbium-doped fiber amplifier gain enhanced by ASE end-reflectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use for what we believe is the first time narrow-band end-reflectors to reduce losses through short-wavelength amplified stimulated emission (ASE) in silica-based erbium-doped fiber amplifiers operating at wavelengths above 1570 mm. The end-reflectors feed a small fraction of the ASE, up to a few tenths of a milliwatt, back into the amplifying fiber. The reflected ASE compresses the short-wavelength

J. Nilsson; S. Y. Yun; S. T. Hwang; J. M. Kim; S. J. Kim

1998-01-01

483

Evaluation of mineral content of dentin prepared by erbium, chromium:yttrium scandium gallium garnet laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laser etching has an effect on the mineral content of dentin. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mineral content of\\u000a dentin prepared at three different power settings with an erbium, chromium:yttrium scandium gallium garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) laser.\\u000a The enamel of five, lower, wisdom, molar teeth was removed to expose the dentin surface. Four dentin slabs were obtained,\\u000a then

Asli Secilmis; Subutayhan Altintas; Aslihan Usumez; Gizem Berk

2008-01-01

484

Water flow on erbium:yttrium–aluminum–garnet laser irradiation: effects on dental tissues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since lasers were introduced in dentistry, there has been considerable advancement in technology. Several wavelengths have\\u000a been investigated as substitutes for high-speed air turbine. Owing to its high absorbability in water and hydroxyapatite,\\u000a the erbium:yttrium–aluminum–garnet (Er:YAG) laser has been of great interest among dental practitioners and scientists. In\\u000a spite of its great potential for hard tissue ablation, Er:YAG laser effectiveness

Vivian Colucci; Flávia Lucisano Botelho do Amaral; Jesus Djalma Pécora; Regina Guenka Palma-Dibb; Silmara Aparecida Milori Corona

2009-01-01

485

Fast intracavity polarization dynamics of an erbium-doped fiber ring laser: Inclusion of stochastic effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dynamics of a unidirectional erbium-doped fiber laser is investigated on a time scale short enough to observe, with good resolution, its behavior for individual round-trips in the laser cavity. With an intracavity polarization controller, a rich variety of nonlinear phenomena, ranging from self-pulsing to square-wave antiphase patterns in two orthogonal states of polarization, are observed. These patterns evolve continuously

Q. L. Williams; J. García-Ojalvo; R. Roy

1997-01-01

486

Erbium-doped ion-exchanged waveguide lasers in BK7 glass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ion-exchange in glass is a simple, flexible technique to realize optical fiber-compatible planar waveguide devices. Recently, neodymium-doped waveguide lasers operating at 1060 and 1300 nm have been demonstrated in this technology. Lasers operating at 1540 nm are desirable for telecommunication applications and the authors report for the first time ion-exchanged waveguide lasers in erbium-doped glass emitting at this wavelength. Lasers

T. Feuchter; E. K. Mwarania; J. Wang; L. Reekie; J. S. Wilkinson

1992-01-01

487

Gain Control in L-Band Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifier Using a Ring Resonator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gain control in a long-wavelength (L-band) erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) using a counter-propagating ring resonator is demonstrated. The clamped gain can be controlled to be in the range from 7.0 to 18.0 dB for the 1580 nm signal at -30 dBm by tuning the oscillating laser in the range from 1565 to 1540 nm. The design prevents oscillating light from

Sulaiman Wadi Harun; Nizam Tamchek; Prabakaran Poopalan; Harith Ahmad

2002-01-01

488

Gamma-ray-induced damage and recovery behavior in an erbium-doped fiber laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

Erbium-doped fiber lasers (EDFLs) may soon find applications in space as high bit rate optical communication systems and photonic analog-to-digital converters (ADCs). The rapid advancement in digital signal processing systems has led to an increased interest in the direct digitization of high- frequency analog signals. The potential high bandwidth, reduced weight, and reduced power requirements makes photonics an attractive technology

Rebecca J. Bussjager; Michael J. Hayduk; Steven T. Johns; Linda R. Taylor; Edward W. Taylor

2002-01-01

489

Biomimetic synthesis of chiral erbium-doped silver/peptide/silica core-shell nanoparticles (ESPN)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Peptide-modified silver nanoparticles have been coated with an erbium-doped silica layer using a method inspired by silica biomineralization. Electron microscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering confirm the presence of an Ag/peptide core and silica shell. The erbium is present as small Er2O3 particles in and on the silica shell. Raman, IR, UV-Vis, and circular dichroism spectroscopies show that the peptide is still present after shell formation and the nanoparticles conserve a chiral plasmon resonance. Magnetic measurements find a paramagnetic behavior. In vitro tests using a macrophage cell line model show that the resulting multicomponent nanoparticles have a low toxicity for macrophages, even on partial dissolution of the silica shell.Peptide-modified silver nanoparticles have been coated with an erbium-doped silica layer using a method inspired by silica biomineralization. Electron microscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering confirm the presence of an Ag/peptide core and silica shell. The erbium is present as small Er2O3 particles in and on the silica shell. Raman, IR, UV-Vis, and circular dichroism spectroscopies show that the peptide is still present after shell formation and the nanoparticles conserve a chiral plasmon resonance. Magnetic measurements find a paramagnetic behavior. In vitro tests using a macrophage cell line model show that the resulting multicomponent nanoparticles have a low toxicity for macrophages, even on partial dissolution of the silica shell. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Figures S1 to S12, Tables S1 and S2. See DOI: 10.1039/c1nr10930h

Mantion, Alexandre; Graf, Philipp; Florea, Ileana; Haase, Andrea; Thünemann, Andreas F.; Maši?, Admir; Ersen, Ovidiu; Rabu, Pierre; Meier, Wolfgang; Luch, Andreas; Taubert, Andreas

2011-12-01

490

MiR-152 suppresses the proliferation and invasion of NSCLC cells by inhibiting FGF2  

PubMed Central

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate the proliferation and metastasis of cancer cells. Here, we showed that miR-152 was downregulated in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tissues and cell lines. Overexpression of miR-152 suppressed cell proliferation and colony formation and also limited migration and invasion. Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) was confirmed as a direct target of miR-152. FGF2 knockdown suppressed cell proliferation, colony formation, migration and invasion, whereas FGF2 overexpression partially reversed the suppressive effect of miR-152. Furthermore, the presence of miR-152 was inversely correlated with FGF2 in NSCLC tissues. Overall, this study demonstrated that miR-152 suppressed the proliferation and invasion of NSCLC cells by downregulating FGF2. These findings provide novel insights with potential therapeutic applications for the treatment of NSCLC. PMID:25190353

Cheng, Zhenshun; Ma, Rongli; Tan, Weijun; Zhang, Li

2014-01-01

491

Study of optical gain and noise characteristics in novel zirconia codoped erbium fibres  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have fabricated new type of erbium doped fibre having core glass compositions of zirconia-yttria-alumino-phosphosilicate. With the proper combination of zirconia and aluminium with other codopants, high concentration of 4000 ppm erbium-ions was doped in the fibre core-glass by conventional MCVD and solution doping process without any phaseseparation. The fabricated fibre exhibited wide gain band-width covering both C and L bands. The optical gain and noise characteristics were studied for both single-channel and multi-channel amplification at C-band regime for different input signal levels. This novel zirconia-erbium-doped fibre (Zr-EDF) has produced intrinsically flat gain of maximum gaindifference of 2dB with average optical gain 22.5dB and noise figure of 4.5 dB for simultaneous four-channel amplification at input signal level of -30dBm/channel in the optimized condition. The performances of Zr-EDF in terms of gain-flattening and noise characteristics were found to be promising for small-signal multi-channel amplification which would be applicable in dense-wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) system.

Pal, Mrinmay; Paul, Mukul C.; Das, Shyamal; Sen, Ranjan; Bhadra, Shyamal K.

2011-12-01

492

Investigation on the effect of EDFA location in ring cavity Brillouin-Erbium fiber laser.  

PubMed

We have investigated the characteristics of Brillouin-Erbium fiber laser (BEFL) with variation of Erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) locations in a ring cavity configuration. Three possible locations of the EDFA in the laser cavity have been studied. The experimental results show that the location of EDFA plays vital role in determining the output power and the tuning range. Besides the Erbium gain, Brillouin gain also contributes to the performance of the BEFL. By placing the EDFA next to the Brillouin gain medium (dispersion compensating fiber), the Brillouin pump signal is amplified thereby generating higher intensities of Brillouin Stokes line. This efficient process suppresses the free running self-lasing cavity modes from oscillating in cavity as a result of higher Stokes laser power and thus provide a wider tuning range. At the injected Brillouin pump power of 1.6 mW and the maximum 1480 nm pump power of 135 mW, the maximum Stokes laser power of 25.1 mW was measured and a tuning range of 50 nm without any self-lasing cavity modes was obtained. PMID:19582091

Hambali, Nor Azura Malini A; Mahdi, Mohd Adzir; Al-Mansoori, Mohammed Hayder; Abas, Ahmad Fauzi; Saripan, M Iqbal

2009-07-01

493

Single-longitudinal-mode operation in tunable novel zirconia–yttria–alumina–erbium-doped fiber laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A tunable, single-longitudinal-mode (SLM) fiber laser based on a short length, highly doped zirconia–erbium doped fiber (Zr-EDF) is proposed and demonstrated. The Zr-EDF is a novel fiber with an erbium ion concentration of 4320?ppm?wt???1 and an absorption rate of approximately 22.0?dB?m???1 at 978?nm, while at the same time being highly compatible with conventional silica-based optical fibers. The Zr-EDF is used as the gain medium in the laser cavity, while a tunable C-band fiber Bragg grating is used to adjust the operating wavelength of the system, providing an operating wavelength range of between 1533.8?nm to 1545.0?nm. Two short erbium-doped fibers, with active ion concentrations of 900?ppm?wt???1, serve as saturable absorbers, and allow for an SLM output with a narrow laser linewidth of only 0.2?MHz. The proposed system has multiple applications as a tunable SLM laser for communications and sensing purposes.

Ahmad, H.; Thambiratnam, K.; Paul, M. C.; Harun, S. W.

2014-08-01

494

Growth of Erbium doped Yttrium oxide thin films by atomic layer deposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Er-doped Yttrium oxide (Er^3+:Y2O3) has gained recent attention for its possible use in optoelectronic devices. Here we report the use of atomic layer deposition (ALD) to synthesize thin films of Yttrium oxide with various doping levels of Erbium ions (Er^3+) using different chemistries. ALD uses self-limiting surface reactions to deposit highly conformal thin films over large areas and substrates of arbitrary shape. This allows for the uniform layered doping of Yttrium oxide with Er^3+. The spatial separation of the Erbium ions can be controlled using organometallic precursors with varying ligand sizes. The doping concentration (volume ratio of Er^3+ sites to Y^3+ sites) is controlled by the ratio of the precursor pulses. We comprehensively studied ALD-grown films of Er^3+:Y2O3 obtained from the Erbium precursors Er(MCp)3 and Er(BA)3 and the Yttrium precursors Y(MCp)3 and Y(Cp)3 using either water or hydrogen peroxide as an oxygen source. Detailed description of the studied optical and spectroscopic properties, stoichiometry, and physical characteristics of these films will be presented.

Becker, Nicholas; Proslier, Thomas; Klug, J.; Elam, J.; Sanamyan, T.; Dubinckii, M.; Girolami, J.; Pellin, M.

2011-03-01

495

Laser trabecular ablation of human eyes with the erbium:YAG laser: a histopathologic study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We postulated that ablation of trabecular meshwork can be accomplished without damage to Schlemm's canal and adjacent tissue. We performed Erbium:YAG laser trabecular ablation on human autopsy eyes and confirmed the results by histopathologic examination. We used an Erbium:YAG laser (2.94 micrometers ) equipped with a sapphire probe and a quartz tip (350 micrometers diameter). Energy levels of 5, 10, 15, 20, and 40 mJ per pulse were used. The probe was placed directly onto the trabecular meshwork viewed through an operating microscope and focal ablation was performed with single pulses. The tissue was then processed and examined under light and scanning microscopy. The histopathologic study of the trabecular meshwork revealed that a single pulse at an energy level of 15 mJ was optimal for ablating through the trabecular meshwork to Schlemm's canal with a minimal amount of coagulative damage to the surrounding tissue. The mean width of ablated tissue was 150 micrometers +/- 29 micrometers (n equals 18) and the mean depth of ablation was 133 +/- 48 micrometers (n equals 18) at this energy level. The mean width of coagulative damage to adjacent tissue was 16 +/- 8 micrometers (n equals 18). The ablation and coagulative damage increased with increasing energy levels. The Erbium:YAG laser equipped with a contact probe effectively ablates trabecular meshwork with little surrounding coagulative damage. This feature may minimize scarring and result in a high long-term patency rate of outflow channels created by laser trabecular ablation.

Kramer, Theresa R.; Noecker, Robert J.; Snyder, Robert W.; Ellsworth, Lansing G.; Yarborough, J. Michael

1994-06-01

496

CEP152 is a genome maintenance protein disrupted in Seckel syndrome.  

PubMed

Functional impairment of DNA damage response pathways leads to increased genomic instability. Here we describe the centrosomal protein CEP152 as a new regulator of genomic integrity and cellular response to DNA damage. Using homozygosity mapping and exome sequencing, we identified CEP152 mutations in Seckel syndrome and showed that impaired CEP152 function leads to accumulation of genomic defects resulting from replicative stress through enhanced activation of ATM signaling and increased H2AX phosphorylation. PMID:21131973

Kalay, Ersan; Yigit, Gökhan; Aslan, Yakup; Brown, Karen E; Pohl, Esther; Bicknell, Louise S; Kayserili, Hülya; Li, Yun; Tüysüz, Beyhan; Nürnberg, Gudrun; Kiess, Wieland; Koegl, Manfred; Baessmann, Ingelore; Buruk, Kurtulus; Toraman, Bayram; Kayipmaz, Saadettin; Kul, Sibel; Ikbal, Mevlit; Turner, Daniel J; Taylor, Martin S; Aerts, Jan; Scott, Carol; Milstein, Karen; Dollfus, Helene; Wieczorek, Dagmar; Brunner, Han G; Hurles, Matthew; Jackson, Andrew P; Rauch, Anita; Nürnberg, Peter; Karagüzel, Ahmet; Wollnik, Bernd

2011-01-01

497

The Effect of Erbium and Oxygen on the Photoluminescence Intensity of Erbium and the Composition of a-SiO{sub x}:(H, Er, O) Films Deposited by DC Magnetron Sputtering  

SciTech Connect

The effect of the oxygen content (C{sub O{sub 2}}) in the gas mixture (20% of SiH{sub 4} + 80% of Ar) + O{sub 2} and the surface area of an erbium target (S{sub Er}) on the composition and Er{sup 3+} photoluminescence of amorphous a-SiO{sub x}:(H, Er, O) films prepared by dc magnetron sputtering has been investigated. Analysis of the experimental data shows that [Er-O] and [Er-O-Si-O] clusters are formed in the gas plasma due to the competing processes of oxidation and sputtering of Si and Er targets and to the interaction of [Si-O] and [Er-O] clusters with each other and with the oxygen in the gas phase. The discontinuities in the dependences of the contents of erbium-bound oxygen and erbium in a film, N{sub O}{sup Er-O} and N{sub Er} = f(C{sub O{sub 2}}, S{sub Er}), at C{sub O{sub 2}} {approx_equal} (5-6.5) mol % supports the hypothesis on the existence of different erbium clusters. The necessary conditions for preparing a-SiO{sub x}:(H, Er, O) films with the highest photoluminescence intensity of erbium ions at a wavelength of 1.54 {mu}m are determined.

Undalov, Yu.K.; Terukov, E.I.; Gusev, O.B.; Kudoyarova, V.Kh. [Ioffe Physicotechnical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Politekhnicheskaya ul. 26, St. Petersburg, 194021 (Russian Federation)

2005-08-15

498

16 CFR 6.152 - Program accessibility: Electronic and information technology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...accessibility: Electronic and information technology. 6.152 Section 6...accessibility: Electronic and information technology. (a) When developing...or using electronic and information technology, the Commission...

2010-01-01

499

16 CFR 6.152 - Program accessibility: Electronic and information technology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...accessibility: Electronic and information technology. 6.152 Section 6...accessibility: Electronic and information technology. (a) When developing...or using electronic and information technology, the Commission...

2011-01-01

500

MOSSBAUER STUDIES OF DILUTE ERBIUM IMPURITIES IN ZIRCONIUM HYDRIDES* G.K. Shenoy, B.D. Dunlap, D.G. Westlake and A.E. Dwight*  

E-print Network

MOSSBAUER STUDIES OF DILUTE ERBIUM IMPURITIES IN ZIRCONIUM HYDRIDES* G.K. Shenoy, B.D. Dunlap, D'impuretés d'erbium diluées dans le composé ô-ZrHi,5 de structure fluorine et e-ZrHi,85 de structure fluorine

Boyer, Edmond