Science.gov

Sample records for erbium ions

  1. Hybrid quantum circuit with implanted erbium ions

    SciTech Connect

    Probst, S.; Rotzinger, H.; Tkalčec, A.; Kukharchyk, N.; Wieck, A. D.; Wünsch, S.; Siegel, M.; Ustinov, A. V.; Bushev, P. A.

    2014-10-20

    We report on hybrid circuit quantum electrodynamics experiments with focused ion beam implanted Er{sup 3+} ions in Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5} coupled to an array of superconducting lumped element microwave resonators. The Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5} crystal is divided into several areas with distinct erbium doping concentrations, each coupled to a separate resonator. The coupling strength is varied from 5 MHz to 18.7 MHz, while the linewidth ranges between 50 MHz and 130 MHz. We confirm the paramagnetic properties of the implanted spin ensemble by evaluating the temperature dependence of the coupling. The efficiency of the implantation process is analyzed and the results are compared to a bulk doped Er:Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5} sample. We demonstrate the integration of these engineered erbium spin ensembles with superconducting circuits.

  2. Luminescence of erbium ions in tellurite glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Savikin, Alexander P.; Grishin, Igor A.; Sharkov, Valery V.; Budruev, Andrei V.

    2013-11-15

    Optical characteristics of new generation of tellurite glasses having high stability against crystallization have been studied. As the initial reagents for the glasses synthesis on the base of tellurium oxide (TeO{sub 2}) there were used such oxides as WO{sub 3}, MoO{sub 3}, La{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, ZnO—Bi{sub 2}O{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and active components such as high purity Er{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Yb{sub 2}O{sub 3}, ErF{sub 3} and YbF{sub 3}. Intensities of luminescence at 1.53 µm of the erbium ions were determined after excitation at 975 nm. Experimental data obtained have shown the possibility to use the studied glasses doped by Er{sup 3+} and Yb{sup 3+} as active elements for fiber and integrated optics. - Graphical abstract: In contrast to the case of ZBLAN glass the TeO{sub 2}–WO{sub 3} (Er{sup 3+}) glass has bright intensity of luminescence at 1.53 µm for erbium ions that should be caused by excitation at 975 nm. Experimental data obtained have shown the possibility to use the studied glasses doped by Er{sup 3+} and Yb{sup 3+} as active elements for fiber and integrated optics. Display Omitted - Highlights: • We examined changes in growth of luminescence in doubly-doped tellurite glasses. • We found that luminescence grows in two orders by using Er{sup 3+} and Yb{sup 3+} at 1.53 μm. • We see possibility to use those glasses as active elements for integrated optics.

  3. Performance characteristics of a mode-locked erbium-doped fiber ring laser as a function of erbium ion concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanto, Michael L.; Gerhardstein, Cheryl M.; Vettese, E. K.; Winter, D. L.; Johns, Steven T.; Bussjager, Rebecca J.; Hayduk, Michael J.

    2003-07-01

    The generation of ultrastable picosecond pulses in the 1550 nm range is required for numerous applications including photonic analog-to-digital converter systems and high-bit rate optical communication systems. Mode-locked erbium-doped fiber ring lasers are typically used to generate pulses at this wavelength. In addition to stability and output power, the physical size of the laser cavity is of primary importance. The length of the erbium-doped fiber used as the gain medium may be on the order of meters or even tens of meters which makes packing of the laser rather difficult. However the length of the gain medium can often be reduced if the erbium ion concentration within the fiber is increased. This paper will investigate the performance of an erbium-doped fiber ring laser as a function of ion concentration within the gain medium. Results will be presented for mode-locked lasers consisting of Lucent HE980, HG980 and HC erbium-doped fibers. The parameters that will be compared between the lasers include the output power as a function of length and concentration, optical pulse width and spectral bandwidth. Phase noise measurements of the laser output will also be presented.

  4. Erbium doping of lithium niobate by the ion exchange process for high-gain optical amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caccavale, Frederico; Fedorov, Vyacheslav A.; Korkishko, Yuri N.; Morozova, Tamara V.; Sada, Cinzia; Segato, Francesco

    2000-04-01

    The erbium-lithium ion exchange is presented as a method for the erbium local doping of lithium niobate crystals. Ion exchange process is performed immersing the LiNbO3 substrates in a liquid melt, containing erbium ions; due to their high mobility, the lithium ions migrate from the crystal to the melt, and are replaced by erbium ions. A systematic analysis of the doping process is performed, and the influence of the process parameters is investigated: exchange time and temperature, crystal cut direction, composition and chemical reactivity of the Er ions liquid source. By structural (X-Ray Diffraction and Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry), compositional (Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry) and spectroscopic techniques (optical spectroscopy and micro-luminescence), the formation of lithium deficient phases and the incorporation of the Er ions into the LiNbO3 matrix is studied.

  5. Ion implantation of erbium into polycrystalline cadmium telluride

    SciTech Connect

    Ushakov, V. V. Klevkov, Yu. V.; Dravin, V. A.

    2015-05-15

    The specific features of the ion implantation of polycrystalline cadmium telluride with grains 20–1000 μm in dimensions are studied. The choice of erbium is motivated by the possibility of using rare-earth elements as luminescent “probes” in studies of the defect and impurity composition of materials and modification of the composition by various technological treatments. From the microphotoluminescence data, it is found that, with decreasing crystal-grain dimensions, the degree of radiation stability of the material is increased. Microphotoluminescence topography of the samples shows the efficiency of the rare-earth probe in detecting regions with higher impurity and defect concentrations, including regions of intergrain boundaries.

  6. Erbium ion implantation into different crystallographic cuts of lithium niobate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nekvindova, P.; Svecova, B.; Cajzl, J.; Mackova, A.; Malinsky, P.; Oswald, J.; Kolistsch, A.; Spirkova, J.

    2012-02-01

    Single crystals like lithium niobate are frequently doped with optically active rare-earth or transition-metal ions for a variety of applications in optical devices such as solid-state lasers, amplifiers or sensors. To exploit the potential of the Er:LiNbO 3, one must ensure high intensity of the 1.5 μm luminescence as an inevitable prerequisite. One of the important factors influencing the luminescence properties of a lasing ion is the crystal field of the surrounding, which is inevitably determined by the crystal structure of the pertinent material. From that point it is clear that it cannot be easy to affect the resulting luminescence properties - intensity or position of the luminescence band - without changing the structure of the substrate. However, there is a possibility to utilise a potential of the ion implantation of the lasing ions, optionally accompanied with a sensitising one, that can, besides the doping, also modify the structure of the treated area od the crystal. This effect can be eventually enhanced by a post-implantation annealing that may help to recover the damaged structure and hence to improve the desired luminescence. In this paper we are going to report on our experiments with ion-implantation technique followed with subsequent annealing could be a useful way to influence the crystal field of LN. Optically active Er:LiNbO 3 layers were fabricated by medium energy implantation under various experimental conditions. The Er + ions were implanted at energies of 330 and 500 keV with fluences ranging from 1.0 × 10 15 to 1.0 × 10 16 ion cm -2 into LiNbO 3 single-crystal cuts of both common and special orientations. The as-implanted samples were annealed in air and oxygen at two different temperatures (350 and 600 °C) for 5 h. The depth concentration profiles of the implanted erbium were measured by Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS) using 2 MeV He + ions. The photoluminescence spectra of the samples were measured to determine the

  7. Generalized rate-equation analysis of excitation exchange between silicon nanoclusters and erbium ions

    SciTech Connect

    Kenyon, A. J.; Wojdak, M.; Ahmad, I.; Loh, W. H.; Oton, C. J.

    2008-01-15

    We discuss the use of rate equations to analyze the sensitization of erbium luminescence by silicon nanoclusters. In applying the general form of second-order coupled rate-equations to the Si nanocluster-erbium system, we find that the photoluminescence dynamics cannot be described using a simple rate equation model. Both rise and fall times exhibit a stretched exponential behavior, which we propose arises from a combination of a strongly distance-dependent nanocluster-erbium interaction, along with the finite size distribution and indirect band gap of the silicon nanoclusters. Furthermore, the low fraction of erbium ions that can be excited nonresonantly is a result of the small number of ions coupled to nanoclusters.

  8. Photoluminescence in silicon implanted with erbium ions at an elevated temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Sobolev, N. A. Kalyadin, A. E.; Shek, E. I.; Sakharov, V. I.; Serenkov, I. T.; Vdovin, V. I.; Parshin, E. O.; Makoviichuk, M. I.

    2011-08-15

    Photoluminescence spectra of n-type silicon upon implantation with erbium ions at 600 Degree-Sign C and oxygen ions at room temperature and subsequent annealings at 1100 Degree-Sign C in a chlorine-containing atmosphere have been studied. Depending on the annealing duration, photoluminescence spectra at 80 K are dominated by lines of the Er{sup 3+} ion or dislocation-related luminescence. The short-wavelength shift of the dislocation-related luminescence line observed at this temperature is due to implantation of erbium ions at an elevated temperature. At room temperature, lines of erbium and dislocation-related luminescence are observed in the spectra, but lines of near-band-edge luminescence predominate.

  9. Erbium-ion implantation into various crystallographic cuts of Al2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nekvindova, P.; Mackova, A.; Malinsky, P.; Cajzl, J.; Svecova, B.; Oswald, J.; Wilhelm, R. A.

    2015-12-01

    This paper reports on the importance of crystallographic cuts with a different orientation on the luminescent properties and structural changes of Al2O3 implanted with Er+ ions at 190 keV and with a fluence of 1.0 × 1016 cm-2. Post-implantation annealing at 1000 °C in oxygen atmosphere was also done. The chemical compositions and erbium concentration-depth profiles of implanted layers were studied by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) and compared to SRIM simulations. The same value of the maximum erbium concentration (up to 2 at.%) was observed at a depth of about 40 nm for all crystallographic cuts. The structural properties of the prepared layers were characterised by RBS/channelling. The relative amount of disordered atoms of 70-80% was observed in the prepared implanted layers and discussed for various cuts. It has been found that erbium is positioned randomly in the Al2O3 crystalline matrix, and no preferential positions appeared even after the annealing procedure. Erbium luminescence properties were measured in the wavelength range of 1440-1650 nm for all samples. As-implanted Al2O3 samples had a significant luminescence band at 1530 nm. The best luminescence was repeatedly observed in the <0 0 0 1> cut of Al2O3. The annealing procedure significantly improved the luminescent properties.

  10. Optical addressing of an individual erbium ion in silicon.

    PubMed

    Yin, Chunming; Rancic, Milos; de Boo, Gabriele G; Stavrias, Nikolas; McCallum, Jeffrey C; Sellars, Matthew J; Rogge, Sven

    2013-05-01

    The detection of electron spins associated with single defects in solids is a critical operation for a range of quantum information and measurement applications under development. So far, it has been accomplished for only two defect centres in crystalline solids: phosphorus dopants in silicon, for which electrical read-out based on a single-electron transistor is used, and nitrogen-vacancy centres in diamond, for which optical read-out is used. A spin read-out fidelity of about 90 per cent has been demonstrated with both electrical read-out and optical read-out; however, the thermal limitations of the former and the poor photon collection efficiency of the latter make it difficult to achieve the higher fidelities required for quantum information applications. Here we demonstrate a hybrid approach in which optical excitation is used to change the charge state (conditional on its spin state) of an erbium defect centre in a silicon-based single-electron transistor, and this change is then detected electrically. The high spectral resolution of the optical frequency-addressing step overcomes the thermal broadening limitation of the previous electrical read-out scheme, and the charge-sensing step avoids the difficulties of efficient photon collection. This approach could lead to new architectures for quantum information processing devices and could drastically increase the range of defect centres that can be exploited. Furthermore, the efficient electrical detection of the optical excitation of single sites in silicon represents a significant step towards developing interconnects between optical-based quantum computing and silicon technologies. PMID:23636400

  11. Temperature dependences of the photoluminescence intensities of centers in silicon implanted with erbium and oxygen ions

    SciTech Connect

    Sobolev, N. A. Shtel’makh, K. F.; Kalyadin, A. E.; Shek, E. I.

    2015-12-15

    Low-temperature photoluminescence in n-Cz-Si after the implantation of erbium ions at an elevated temperature and subsequent implantation of oxygen ions at room temperature is studied. So-called X and W centers formed from self-interstitial silicon atoms, H and P centers containing oxygen atoms, and Er centers containing Er{sup 3+} ions are observed in the photoluminescence spectra. The energies of enhancing and quenching of photoluminescence for these centers are determined. These energies are determined for the first time for X and H centers. In the case of P and Er centers, the values of the energies practically coincide with previously published data. For W centers, the energies of the enhancing and quenching of photoluminescence depend on the conditions of the formation of these centers.

  12. Erbium diffusion in silicon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Lu Yingwei; Julsgaard, B.; Petersen, M. Christian; Jensen, R. V. Skougaard; Pedersen, T. Garm; Pedersen, K.; Larsen, A. Nylandsted

    2010-10-04

    Erbium diffusion in silicon dioxide layers prepared by magnetron sputtering, chemical vapor deposition, and thermal growth has been investigated by secondary ion mass spectrometry, and diffusion coefficients have been extracted from simulations based on Fick's second law of diffusion. Erbium diffusion in magnetron sputtered silicon dioxide from buried erbium distributions has in particular been studied, and in this case a simple Arrhenius law can describe the diffusivity with an activation energy of 5.3{+-}0.1 eV. Within a factor of two, the erbium diffusion coefficients at a given temperature are identical for all investigated matrices.

  13. Excitation functions for the helium-ion-induced fission of holmium and erbium

    SciTech Connect

    Iyer, R.H.; Pandey, A.K.; Kalsi, P.C.; Sharma, R.C. )

    1991-12-01

    Excitation functions for the helium-ion-induced fission of holmium ({ital Z}=67) and erbium ({ital Z}=68) in the energy range 34--70 MeV were measured using lexan polycarbonate plastic as the fission fragment track detector. By analyzing the data in terms of the statistical model expression for {Gamma}{sub {ital f}}/{Gamma}{sub {ital n}}, the ratio of the fission width to neutron emission width, the fission barriers of the compound nuclei {sup 1}{sub 69}{sup 69}Tm and {sup 17}{sub 70}{sup 1.3}Yb were determined to be 29.8{plus minus}3 and 27.8{plus minus}3 MeV, respectively. The corresponding values for the fission level density parameter were found to be {ital a}{sub {ital f}}={ital A}/12 and {ital A}/13, respectively. The uncertainties shown in the fission barriers allow for inclusion of other values derived from reasonable upper and lower limits of {ital a}{sub {ital f}} values of {ital A}/8 to {ital A}/20. The measured fission barriers compare very well with the shell-corrected liquid-drop barriers of Myers and Swiatecki. The present measurements extend the range of low-{ital Z} elements which are away from the closed-shell region and which are studied at these medium energies. The results are compared with similar data available in the literature which bring out some interesting correlations and trends in the fission properties, viz., fission barriers and level density parameters of low-{ital Z} elements.

  14. Specific features of erbium ion photoluminescence in structures with amorphous and crystalline silicon nanoclusters in silica matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Dyakov, S. A. Zhigunov, D. M.; Timoshenko, V. Yu.

    2010-04-15

    Photoluminescence properties of the structures of amorphous and crystalline silicon nanoclusters with average sizes no larger than 4 nm in an erbium-doped silicon dioxide matrix were studied. It was found that the photoluminescence lifetime of Er{sup 3+} ions at a wavelength of 1.5 {mu}m decreases from 5.7 to 2.0 ms and from 3.5 to 1.5 ms in samples with amorphous nanoclusters and with nanocrystals, respectively, as the Er{sup 3+} concentration increases from 10{sup 19} to 10{sup 21} cm{sup -3}. The decrease in the erbium photoluminescence lifetime with the ion concentration is attributed to the effects of concentration-related quenching and residual implantation-induced defects. The difference between lifetimes for samples with amorphous and crystalline nanoclusters is interpreted as the effect of different probabilities of energy back transfer from Er{sup 3+} ions to the solid-state matrix in the structures under consideration.

  15. Assessment of spectroscopic properties of erbium ions in a soda-lime silicate glass after silver sodium exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiasera, A.; Ferrari, M.; Mattarelli, M.; Montagna, M.; Pelli, S.; Portales, H.; Zheng, J.; Righini, G. C.

    2005-10-01

    Spectroscopic properties of Ag/Er co-doped thin plates of silicate glass were investigated with the aim of assessing the effective role of silver as a sensitizer for erbium. Additive heat treatments in air at different temperatures were performed on both a silver-exchanged and a silver-free plate in order to promote the formation of silver nanoparticles in the former and to refer to the later in the spectroscopic characterization. Absorption as well as photoluminescence and lifetime measurements in the region of the 4I13/2 → 4I15/2 transition of the Er3+ ion were performed; excitation wavelengths in the range from 360 to 750 nm were used. Enhancement of the Er3+ luminescence at 1.53 μm was observed when the excitation wavelength was in the blue region. This spectral range typically coincides with the excitation energy of the surface plasmon resonance of nanometer-sized spherical silver particles.

  16. Comprehensive Spectroscopic Determination of the Crystal Field Splitting in an Erbium Single-Ion Magnet.

    PubMed

    Rechkemmer, Yvonne; Fischer, Julia E; Marx, Raphael; Dörfel, María; Neugebauer, Petr; Horvath, Sebastian; Gysler, Maren; Brock-Nannestad, Theis; Frey, Wolfgang; Reid, Michael F; van Slageren, Joris

    2015-10-14

    The electronic structure of a novel lanthanide-based single-ion magnet, {C(NH2)3}5[Er(CO3)4]·11H2O, was comprehensively studied by means of a large number of different spectroscopic techniques, including far-infrared, optical, and magnetic resonance spectroscopies. A thorough analysis, based on crystal field theory, allowed an unambiguous determination of all relevant free ion and crystal field parameters. We show that inclusion of methods sensitive to the nature of the lowest-energy states is essential to arrive at a correct description of the states that are most relevant for the static and dynamic magnetic properties. The spectroscopic investigations also allowed for a full understanding of the magnetic relaxation processes occurring in this system. Thus, the importance of spectroscopic studies for the improvement of single-molecule magnets is underlined. PMID:26394012

  17. 2.7 μm emission in heavy metal oxide glasses doped with erbium ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ragin, Tomasz; Zmojda, Jacek; Kochanowicz, Marcin; Miluski, Piotr; Jelen, Piotr; Sitarz, Maciej; Dorosz, Dominik

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, heavy metal oxide glasses based on bismuth, germanate and gallium elements doped with Er3+ have been synthesized. Composition of glass matrix has been developed in terms of low phonon energy (724 cm-1), low absorption coefficient in the infrared region (1.2 cm-1), good mechanical and chemical properties. Synthesis of glasses has been performed under a low vacuum condition, which has reduced the OH- ions to 50 ppm. Glasses were doped with (0.25 - 1 mol%) Er2O3 to obtain emission at the wavelength of 2.7 μm (4I11/2 → 4I13/2) under 980 nm laser diode excitation. Obtained results demonstrate that developed heavy metal oxide glass is an attractive material for mid-infrared applications.

  18. Spectroscopic properties of bismuth-germanate glasses co-doped with erbium and holmium ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ragin, Tomasz; Kochanowicz, Marcin; Żmojda, Jacek; Dorosz, Dominik

    2014-05-01

    In the article an analysis of thermal and spectroscopic properties of heavy metal oxide glasses from the Bi2O3-Ga2O3- Na2O-Ge2O3 system doped with rare earth elements were presented. It has been focused on the elaboration of the glass composition in terms of low phonon energy, high transparency in the range of infrared region and high thermal stability (ΔT=160 °C) required in optical fiber technology. Fabricated glasses co-doped with Er3+/Ho3+ions under 980 nm laser diode excitation exhibit emission at 1.55 μm (Er3+: 4I 13/2 → 4I15/2) and 2.0 μm (Ho3+: 4I7 → 5I8). The emission at 2.0 μm results from the Er3+ → Ho3+energy transfer. Taking into account great thermal stability and good optical properties such as high transparency (up to 80%) or high refractive index (2.23), the fabricated bismuth-germanate glass co-doped with Er3+/Ho3+ is promising material for construction of active optical fibers operating in the range of mid-infrared.

  19. 100 MeV swift Si{sup 7+} ion induced thermoluminescence studies of nanocrystalline erbium doped ZrO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Lokesha, H. S.; Nagabhushana, K. R.; Singh, Fouran

    2015-06-24

    Pure and erbium (1mol%) doped nanocrystalline ZrO{sub 2} is synthesized by combustion technique. Thermoluminescence (TL) properties ZrO{sub 2}pellets annealed at 873 K and irradiated by 100 MeV swift Si{sup 7+} ion for various fluence are recorded. The evolution crystalline structure and crystallite size are done using by XRD data. Two TL glow curves, a well resolved one peak at ∼420 K and an unresolved with peak at ∼598 K are observed. TL intensity increases up to 3×10{sup 12} ions cm{sup −2} beyond which the TL intensity decreases. The glow peak shape method is used to calculate the TL trap parameter and discussed in this paper.

  20. Effect of electric field in the course of obtaining a-SiO{sub x}:H(Er, O) films by dc magnetron sputtering on their composition and photoluminescence intensity of erbium ions

    SciTech Connect

    Undalov, Yu. K. Terukov, E. I.; Gusev, O. B.; Lebedev, V. M.; Trapeznikova, I. N.

    2008-11-15

    The effect of electric field on the elemental composition and photoluminescence of films of amorphous hydrogenated silicon doped with erbium and oxygen (a-SiO{sub x}:H(Er, O)) in the course of obtaining these films by dc magnetron sputtering is studied. Two series of films were studied in relation to the electric-field strength in the magnetron, the area of the metallic erbium target, and oxygen content in the working chamber. The first series of films was obtained using an electrically insulated substrate holder, and the second series was obtained with a positive potential at the substrate holder with respect to the cathode. It is shown that, although the character of variation in the elemental composition and photoluminescence intensity for erbium Er{sup 3+} ions differ appreciably in the films of the two series, both of these factors are determined, as a result, by the processes of sputtering oxidation of the Si and Er targets that represent the cathode.

  1. Erbium Doped Fiber Sources and Amplifiers for Optical Fiber Sensors.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagener, Jefferson L.

    1996-08-01

    This thesis explores the use of erbium-doped fiber in lasers, amplified spontaneous emission sources, and amplifiers with particular attention to applications involving fiber sensor technology. Erbium-doped fiber laser output power is shown to be strongly dependent on the erbium dopant concentration in a fiber. Using multiple fibers with various erbium ion concentrations, laser output powers are found to decrease as erbium concentration is increased. Upconversion in paired ions is successfully used to model the lasers, resulting in a better understanding of the loss mechanism involved. Further investigation shows that co-doping an erbium-doped fiber with aluminum helps eliminate upconversion in paired ions, and an optimum ratio of 20 aluminum ions for every erbium ion is established. Upconversion due to paired ions is also used to predict the behavior of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers as a function of the erbium ion concentration. With this knowledge of concentration dependence, a low doped, high output power fiber is chosen for use as an amplified spontaneous emission source in a fiber optic gyroscope. Used as a single pass broadband source in one propagation direction and as a signal amplifier in the other direction, this source is tested experimentally in a high quality fiber gyroscope. Experimental results reveal an unexpected dependence on the polarization states of the optical pump and the gyroscope output signal. A theory of polarization anisotropy in the erbium ions is developed in full and accurately models the experimental observations. Using this model to optimize the source, a fiber gyroscope output stability of 4 parts per million is obtained experimentally, approaching the requirements of inertial navigation. This model is also used to explore novel single polarization amplified spontaneous emission sources. Large scale amplified sensor arrays are examined theoretically to determine component and amplification requirements. For balanced gain and loss

  2. Near-infrared emission and energy transfer in tellurite glasses co-doped with erbium and thulium ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zmojda, Jacek; Kochanowicz, Marcin; Ragin, Tomasz; Dorosz, Dominik; Sitarz, Maciej

    2014-05-01

    In the paper optical properties of 40TeO2 - 20GeO2 - 30(PbO - PbF2)- 10(BaO - Nb2O5 - LaF3) glass system co-doped with Er3+/Tm3+ ions were investigated. The maximum of phonon energy at 790cm-1 in fabricated tellurite glass which was determined by FTIR measurements. Optimisation of glass composition led to the emission at 1820 nm which was observed in results of energy transfer (ET) between Er3+and Tm3+ions under the optical exciting at 976 nm. In order to determine the optimal conditions of ET between exited energy levels of co-doped RE ionsthe dependence of the near-infrared emission upon the thulium ions concentration was studied. In result of that broadband emission in the range from1500 to 1900 nm was achieved owing to the superposition of electronic transition in Er3+ (4I13/2 → 4I15/2) and Tm3+ (3F4 → 3H6) ions.The highest efficiency of energy transfer was obtained in glass co-doped with 0.2Er2O3/0.3 Tm2O3.

  3. Characterization of the surface changes during the activation of erbium/erbium oxide for hydrogen storage.

    SciTech Connect

    Zavadil, Kevin Robert; Snow, Clark Sheldon; Brumbach, Michael Todd

    2010-09-01

    Erbium is known to effectively load with hydrogen when held at high temperature in a hydrogen atmosphere. To make the storage of hydrogen kinetically feasible, a thermal activation step is required. Activation is a routine practice, but very little is known about the physical, chemical, and/or electronic processes that occur during Activation. This work presents in situ characterization of erbium Activation using variable energy photoelectron spectroscopy at various stages of the Activation process. Modification of the passive surface oxide plays a significant role in Activation. The chemical and electronic changes observed from core-level and valence band spectra will be discussed along with corroborating ion scattering spectroscopy measurements.

  4. Effect of temperature on the active properties of erbium-doped optical fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotov, L. V.; Ignat'ev, A. D.; Bubnov, M. M.; Likhachev, M. E.

    2016-03-01

    We have studied the effect of heating on the performance of erbium-doped fibre based devices and determined temperaturedependent absorption and emission cross sections of the erbium ion in silica glass. The results demonstrate that heating of fibres in claddingpumped high-power (~100 W) erbium-doped fibre lasers causes no significant decrease in their efficiency. In contrast, superluminescent sources operating in the long-wavelength region (1565 – 1610 nm) are extremely sensitive to temperature changes.

  5. Dysprosium, holmium and erbium ions doped indium oxide nanotubes as photoanodes for dye sensitized solar cells and improved device performance.

    PubMed

    Miao, Chuang; Chen, Cong; Dai, Qilin; Xu, Lin; Song, Hongwei

    2015-02-15

    In this work, rare earth (RE) ion RE(3+) (RE(3+)=Dy(3+), Ho(3+) and Er(3+)) doped and undoped In2O3 nanotubes are synthesized by the electrospinning method and the band gap of In2O3 is systemically controlled, depending on the order of doped elements. Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) based on In2O3:RE(3+) nanotubes are also fabricated, and significantly improved performance of In2O3-DSSC is observed due to the modulation of the band gap, larger recombination charge transfer resistance and longer electron lifetime. PMID:25460702

  6. Erbium laser in gynecology.

    PubMed

    Vizintin, Z; Lukac, M; Kazic, M; Tettamanti, M

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a novel laser technology utilizing the erbium YAG laser for various minimally invasive, non-surgical procedures in gynecology. Non-ablative, thermal-only SMOOTH-mode erbium pulses are used to produce vaginal collagen hyperthermia, followed by collagen remodeling and the synthesis of new collagen fibers, resulting in improved vaginal tissue tightness and elasticity. This erbium laser technology is used for treatments of vaginal laxity, stress urinary incontinence, pelvic organ prolapse and vaginal atrophy. In the period from 2010 to 2014, several clinical studies covering all four indications were conducted with the aim to prove the efficacy and safety of this novel technology. An overview is presented of the results of these studies where several objective as well as subjective assessment tools were used. The results have shown that SMOOTH-mode erbium laser seems to be an effective and safe method for treating vaginal laxity, stress urinary incontinence, pelvic organ prolapses and vaginal atrophy. PMID:26366793

  7. Site-selective spectroscopy of the solid-state defect chemistry in erbium-doped barium titanate.

    PubMed

    Bak, John D; Wright, John C

    2005-10-01

    Erbium-doped barium titanate crystals were studied by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy. Thirteen spectroscopically distinct erbium ion sites were found. The relative concentrations of the different sites changed as a function of the crystal and its preparation and treatment. One major site was present in all crystals. The site distribution was changed either by growing codoped crystals with donor (La3+) and acceptor (Sc3+) ions or by changing the temperature and partial pressure of the oxygen in the annealing atmosphere. Equilibrium calculations were done to simulate the defect distributions that result from the charge compensation of the erbium ions. Comparison with the observed dependence of the site spectral intensities indicated that the erbium enters the lattice on barium sites. We assigned the dominant site to an erbium ion on a barium site that is locally compensated by a barium vacancy, whereas the other lower-intensity sites corresponded to erbium ions that are locally compensated by an electron and a more complex center of an erbium, a barium vacancy, and a hole. The spectra of one sample showed that its defects were different and were characteristic of a sample that had not equilibrated. The new sites in this sample were assigned to erbium entering the lattice on a titanium site, which was then locally compensated by an oxygen vacancy or a hole. Heating equilibrated the sample and changed the erbium to a barium site. PMID:16853368

  8. Erbium hydride decomposition kinetics.

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrizz, Robert Matthew

    2006-11-01

    Thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) is used to study the decomposition kinetics of erbium hydride thin films. The TDS results presented in this report are analyzed quantitatively using Redhead's method to yield kinetic parameters (E{sub A} {approx} 54.2 kcal/mol), which are then utilized to predict hydrogen outgassing in vacuum for a variety of thermal treatments. Interestingly, it was found that the activation energy for desorption can vary by more than 7 kcal/mol (0.30 eV) for seemingly similar samples. In addition, small amounts of less-stable hydrogen were observed for all erbium dihydride films. A detailed explanation of several approaches for analyzing thermal desorption spectra to obtain kinetic information is included as an appendix.

  9. Resonantly photo-pumped nickel-like erbium X-ray laser

    DOEpatents

    Nilsen, Joseph

    1990-01-01

    A resonantly photo-pumped X-ray laser (10) that enhances the gain of seve laser lines that also lase because of collisional excitations and recombination processes, is described. The laser comprises an aluminum (12) and erbium (14) foil combination (16) that is driven by two beams (18, 20) of intense line focused (22, 24) optical laser radiation. Ground state nickel-like erbium ions (34) are resonantly photo-pumped by line emission from hydrogen-like aluminum ions (32).

  10. Composition and structure of sputter deposited erbium hydride thin films

    SciTech Connect

    ADAMS,DAVID P.; ROMERO,JUAN A.; RODRIGUEZ,MARK A.; FLORO,JERROLD A.; BANKS,JAMES C.

    2000-05-10

    Erbium hydride thin films are grown onto polished, a-axis {alpha} Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (sapphire) substrates by reactive ion beam sputtering and analyzed to determine composition, phase and microstructure. Erbium is sputtered while maintaining a H{sub 2} partial pressure of 1.4 x 10{sup {minus}4} Torr. Growth is conducted at several substrate temperatures between 30 and 500 C. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and elastic recoil detection analyses after deposition show that the H/Er areal density ratio is approximately 3:1 for growth temperatures of 30, 150 and 275 C, while for growth above {approximately}430 C, the ratio of hydrogen to metal is closer to 2:1. However, x-ray diffraction shows that all films have a cubic metal sublattice structure corresponding to that of ErH{sub 2}. RBS and Auger electron that sputtered erbium hydride thin films are relatively free of impurities.

  11. Characterization of the surface changes during the activation process of erbium/erbium oxide for hydrogen storage.

    SciTech Connect

    Zavadil, Kevin Robert; Snow, Clark Sheldon; Ohlhausen, James Anthony; Brumbach, Michael Todd

    2010-10-01

    Erbium is known to effectively load with hydrogen when held at high temperature in a hydrogen atmosphere. To make the storage of hydrogen kinetically feasible, a thermal activation step is required. Activation is a routine practice, but very little is known about the physical, chemical, and/or electronic processes that occur during Activation. This work presents in situ characterization of erbium Activation using variable energy photoelectron spectroscopy at various stages of the Activation process. Modification of the passive surface oxide plays a significant role in Activation. The chemical and electronic changes observed from core-level and valence band spectra will be discussed along with corroborating ion scattering spectroscopy measurements.

  12. Erbium localized doping into various cuts of lithium niobate and sapphire: a comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nekvindova, Pavla; Mackova, Anna; Perina, Vratislav; Cervena, Jarmila; Capek, Pavel; Schroefel, Josef; Spirkova, Jarmila; Oswald, Jiri

    2003-07-01

    Medium temperature (350 °C) localized doping of Er3+ was studied in lithium niobate (LN) and sapphire single crystal wafers that were cut in various crystallographic directions. It was found that the efficiency of the doping was connected with orientations of the substrate wafers of both LN and sapphire, and with the presence of mobile lithium ions in the structure of LN. The basic interstitial mechanism of erbium incorporation into the structure of sapphire and LN is in the latter accompanied with erbium for lithium ion exchange. While the rate of the interstitial diffusion was higher in the wafers oriented perpendicularly towards the cleavage planes of the crystals, ion exchange process was significant in the wafers cut in cleavage planes. Waveguiding properties in erbium doped lithium niobate originated rather from presence of erbium in the structure of the crystals than being a consequence of a weak proton exchange. Luminescence properties of the fabricated samples are also presented.

  13. Preparation, fluorescence spectroscopy, and AFM analysis of erbium oxide nanocolloid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Darayas; Vance, Calvin; King, Newton; Jessup, Malcolm; Sarkisov, Sergey

    2009-02-01

    Nanocolloids of compounds containing fluorescent rare earth ions have recently attracted significant attention as agents for biolabeling, bioimaging, bio- and chemical sensing, and other applications. Erbium oxide nanocolloids have been prepared for the first time in water and gammabutyrolactone. Optical dynamic scatterometry and atomic force microscopy determined an average size (average mean height) of erbium oxide nanoparticles to be 10-11 nm. Prominent optical absorption peaks of the nanocolloids at 442.5 nm, 450.0 nm, 487.2 nm (strong), 492.0 nm, 523.0 nm (strong), 541.6 nm, 548.6 nm, 652.6 nm, and 665.7 nm (strong) can be attributed to erbium ions hosted within nanoparticles. Laser fluorescence spectroscopy of the nanocolloids was conducted using excitations with the lines of argon-ion laser (514 nm, 488 nm, 476 nm, and 458 nm) and 980-nm semiconductor laser. Strong green emission at 571 nm is more likely from transition between 4S3/2 and 4I15/2 levels and relatively weak red emissions from transition between 4I9/2 and 4I15/2 level of erbium was observed at excitation with visible laser radiation 488 nm and 476 nm. The reported nanocolloids thus showed to be good candidates for fluorescent biosensing applications and also as a new lasing filling medium in fiber lasers.

  14. Coupling of erbium dopants to yttrium orthosilicate photonic crystal cavities for on-chip optical quantum memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazono, Evan; Zhong, Tian; Craiciu, Ioana; Kindem, Jonathan M.; Faraon, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    Erbium dopants in crystals exhibit highly coherent optical transitions well suited for solid-state optical quantum memories operating in the telecom band. Here, we demonstrate coupling of erbium dopant ions in yttrium orthosilicate to a photonic crystal cavity fabricated directly in the host crystal using focused ion beam milling. The coupling leads to reduction of the photoluminescence lifetime and enhancement of the optical depth in microns-long devices, which will enable on-chip quantum memories.

  15. The study on the effect of erbium on diamond-like carbon deposited by pulsed laser deposition technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foong, Y. M.; Hsieh, J.; Li, X.; Chua, D. H. C.

    2009-09-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films doped with a small fraction of erbium (0.5-2.0 at. %, at 0.5 at. % interval) were prepared by using a 248 nm KrF pulsed laser deposition technique. The effects of erbium on the surface morphology, microstructure, chemical binding states, tribological property, and the adhesion strength of DLC films were investigated. Atomic force microscopy showed that the surface roughness of the films increased with the increasing of erbium fraction, but generally the nanocomposite films were smooth with rms below 1 nm. Raman analysis showed broad peaks centered at 1550 cm-1 on all the samples. The deconvoluted Raman spectra on DLC doped with different fractions of erbium showed that the ID/IG ratio increased with increasing erbium content, and the comparative percent of sp3 is between 50% and 58% for erbium fraction between 0.5 and 2.0 at. %. High resolution x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed that the C 1s peaks had slightly shifted away from 285.2 (diamond) to 284.5 eV (graphite). The deconvolution of the spectra further confirmed the influence of erbium to the sp3 contents and revealed the presence of SiC with the increasing of Er fraction. Microscratch tester results showed that the adhesion strength (critical load) of the films improved with the presence of SiC bonding at the interface. This hinted that the presence of the heavier erbium may force the impinging carbon ions to react more with the interface to form silicon carbide bonds, thus enhancing the adhesion strength. Although the presence of erbium increased the surface roughness of the films, the coefficients of friction of the erbium doped DLC films were still closely resembled to pure DLC, i.e., 0.11-0.12 compared to 0.10 for pure DLC.

  16. Optical emission from erbium-doped silica nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliman, R. G.; Wilkinson, A. R.; Kim, T.-H.; Sekhar, P. K.; Bhansali, S.

    2008-05-01

    Infrared optical emission from erbium-doped silica nanowires is shown to have property characteristic of the material nanostructure and to provide the basis for the fabrication of integrated photonic devices and biosensors. Silica nanowires of approximately 150 nm diameter were grown on a silicon wafer by metal-induced growth using a thin (20 nm) sputter-deposited palladium layer as a catalyst. The resulting wires were then ion implanted with 110 keV ErO- ions and annealed at 900 °C to optically activate the erbium. These wires exhibited photoluminescence emission at 1.54 μm, characteristic of the I415/2-I413/2 transition in erbium; however, comparison to similarly implanted fused silica layers revealed stronger thermal quenching and longer luminescence lifetimes in the nanowire samples. The former is attributed to an increase in defect-induced quenching partly due to the large surface-volume ratio of the nanowires, while the latter is attributed to a reduction in the optical density of states associated with the nanostructure morphology. Details of this behavior are discussed together with the implications for potential device applications.

  17. Erbium Implantation in Silica Studied by Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Jincheng; Corrales, Louis R.

    2007-02-01

    Defect formation induced by erbium implantation in silica glass and cristobalite was studied using molecular dynamics simulations employing a partial charge model in combination with the ZBL potential. The results show that the number of displaced atoms generated at the same PKA energy is similar in silica and cristobalite but the number of coordination defects created is much lower in the cristobalite than in silica glass. In both cases, the erbium ion is able to create an optimal coordination environment at the end of the collision cascade. Subsequent thermal annealing causes the relaxation of the silicon oxygen network structure along with a reduction of silicon and oxygen defects. This research is supported by the Divisions of Materials Sciences and Engineering and Chemical Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, U.S. Department of Energy. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  18. Real-time synchrotoron radiation X-ray diffraction and abnormal temperature dependence of photoluminescence from erbium silicates on SiO{sub 2}/Si substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Omi, H.; Tawara, T.; Tateishi, M.

    2012-03-15

    The erbium silicate formation processes during annealing in Ar gas were monitored by synchrotron radiation grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD) in real time and the optical properties of the silicates were investigated by photoluminescence measurements in spectral and time-resolved domains. The GIXD measurements show that erbium silicates and erbium oxide are formed by interface reactions between silicon oxide and erbium oxides deposited on silicon oxide by reactive sputtering in Ar gas and O{sub 2}/Ar mixture gas ambiences. The erbium silicates are formed above 1060 degree sign C in Ar gas ambience and above 1010 degree sign C in O{sub 2}/Ar gas ambience, and erbium silicides are dominantly formed above 1250 degree sign C. The I{sub 15/2}-I{sub 13/2} Er{sup 3+} photoluminescence from the erbium oxide and erbium silicate exhibits abnormal temperature dependence, which can be explained by the phonon-assisted resonant absorption of the 532-nm excitation photons into the {sup 2}H{sub 11/2} levels of Er{sup 3+} ions of the erbium compounds.

  19. Enhancement of photoluminescence intensity of erbium doped silica containing Ge nanocrystals: distance dependent interactions.

    PubMed

    Manna, S; Aluguri, R; Bar, R; Das, S; Prtljaga, N; Pavesi, L; Ray, S K

    2015-01-30

    Photo-physical processes in Er-doped silica glass matrix containing Ge nanocrystals prepared by the sol-gel method are presented in this article. Strong photoluminescence at 1.54 μm, important for fiber optics telecommunication systems, is observed from the different sol-gel derived glasses at room temperature. We demonstrate that Ge nanocrystals act as strong sensitizers for Er(3+) ions emission and the effective Er excitation cross section increases by almost four orders of magnitude with respect to the one without Ge nanocrystals. Rate equations are considered to demonstrate the sensitization of erbium luminescence by Ge nanocrystals. Analyzing the erbium effective excitation cross section, extracted from the flux dependent rise and decay times, a Dexter type of short range energy transfer from a Ge nanocrystal to erbium ion is established. PMID:25558802

  20. Photoluminescence in semiconductor structures based on butyl-substituted erbium phthalocyanine complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Belogorokhov, I. A. Ryabchikov, Yu. V.; Tikhonov, E. V.; Pushkarev, V. E.; Breusova, M. O.; Tomilova, L. G.; Khokhlov, D. R.

    2008-03-15

    The study is concerned with the luminescence properties of ensembles of semiconductor structures containing organic phthalocyanine molecules with erbium ions as complexing agents. The photoluminescence spectra of the structures of the type of erbium monophthalocyanine, bisphthalocyanine, and triphthalocyanine are recorded. The photoluminescence peaks are detected at the wavelengths 888, 760, and 708 nm (and photon energies 1.4, 1.6, and 1.75 eV) corresponding to electronic transitions within the organic complexes. It is found that, when a metal complexing agent is introduced into the molecular structure of the ligand, the 708 nm luminescence peak becomes unobservable. It is shown that, in the bisphthalocyanine samples, the photoluminescence signal corresponding to transitions from the 4F{sub 9/2} level of erbium ions is enhanced.

  1. Enhancement of photoluminescence intensity of erbium doped silica containing Ge nanocrystals: distance dependent interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manna, S.; Aluguri, R.; Bar, R.; Das, S.; Prtljaga, N.; Pavesi, L.; Ray, S. K.

    2015-01-01

    Photo-physical processes in Er-doped silica glass matrix containing Ge nanocrystals prepared by the sol-gel method are presented in this article. Strong photoluminescence at 1.54 μm, important for fiber optics telecommunication systems, is observed from the different sol-gel derived glasses at room temperature. We demonstrate that Ge nanocrystals act as strong sensitizers for Er3+ ions emission and the effective Er excitation cross section increases by almost four orders of magnitude with respect to the one without Ge nanocrystals. Rate equations are considered to demonstrate the sensitization of erbium luminescence by Ge nanocrystals. Analyzing the erbium effective excitation cross section, extracted from the flux dependent rise and decay times, a Dexter type of short range energy transfer from a Ge nanocrystal to erbium ion is established.

  2. Raman and Fluorescence Study of Erbium-Doped Laser-Induced Crystals-in-Glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knorr, Brian; Veenhuizen, Keith; Stone, Adam; Jain, Himanshu; Dierolf, Volkmar

    Laser induced crystallization of glasses is a spatially selective process which has the potential to produce photonic integrated circuits in a glass matrix. Low temperature Combined Excitation Emission Spectroscopy in Er:LaBGeO5 show that erbium incorporates at predominantly one majority site in both glass-ceramics and laser-induced crystals-in-glass, but that other minority sites also exist. The energy levels of the majority site were quantified. The fluorescence characteristics of the erbium ions in any site in the laser-induced crystals were found to be only weakly influenced by the irradiation conditions during growth. On the other hand, a hidden parameter, potentially boron deficiency-related defects, resulted in a significant change in the incorporation behavior of the erbium ions. Simultaneous scanning confocal Raman and fluorescence spectroscopy showed that the energies of the Raman modes are shifted, and the erbium fluorescence intensity varies, in a non-uniform manner, despite the host glass being homogeneously doped, across the cross-sections of laser-induced crystals in glass. These fluctuations within the Raman and fluorescence are spatially correlated, implying that different erbium sites form preferentially at different locations in the crystal cross-section.

  3. Nanoscale nonlinear effects in Erbium-implanted Yttrium Orthosilicate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukharchyk, Nadezhda; Shvarkov, Stepan; Probst, Sebastian; Xia, Kangwei; Becker, Hans-Werner; Pal, Shovon; Markmann, Sergej; Kolesov, Roman; Siyushev, Petr; Wrachtrup, Jörg; Ludwig, Arne; Ustinov, Alexey V.; Wieck, Andreas D.; Bushev, Pavel

    2016-09-01

    Doping of substrates at desired locations is a key technology for spin-based quantum memory devices. Focused ion beam implantation is well-suited for this task due to its high spacial resolution. In this work, we investigate ion-beam implanted erbium ensembles in Yttrium Orthosilicate crystals by means of confocal photoluminescence spectroscopy. The sample temperature and the post-implantation annealing step strongly reverberate in the properties of the implanted ions. We find that hot implantation leads to a higher activation rate of the ions. At high enough fluences, the relation between the fluence and final concentration of ions becomes non-linear. Two models are developed explaining the observed behaviour.

  4. Activatino of Erbium Films for Hydrogen Storage

    SciTech Connect

    M Brumbach; j Ohlhausen; K Zavadil; C Snow; J Woicik

    2011-12-31

    Hydriding of metals can be routinely performed at high temperature in a rich hydrogen atmosphere. Prior to the hydrogen loading process, a thermal activation procedure is required to promote facile hydrogen sorption into the metal. Despite the wide spread utilization of this activation procedure, little is known about the chemical and electronic changes that occur during activation and how this thermal pretreatment leads to increased rates of hydrogen uptake. This study utilized variable kinetic energy X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to interrogate the changes during in situ thermal annealing of erbium films, with results confirmed by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and low energy ion scattering. Activation can be identified by a large increase in photoemission between the valence band edge and the Fermi level and appears to occur over a two stage process. The first stage involves desorption of contaminants and recrystallization of the oxide, initially impeding hydrogen loading. Further heating overcomes the first stage and leads to degradation of the passive surface oxide leading to a bulk film more accessible for hydrogen loading.

  5. Erbium concentration dependent absorbance in tellurite glass

    SciTech Connect

    Sazali, E. S. Rohani, M. S. Sahar, M. R. Arifin, R. Ghoshal, S. K. Hamzah, K.

    2014-09-25

    Enhancing the optical absorption cross-section in topically important rare earth doped tellurite glasses is challenging for photonic devices. Controlled synthesis and detailed characterizations of the optical properties of these glasses are important for the optimization. The influence of varying concentration of Er{sup 3+} ions on the absorbance characteristics of lead tellurite glasses synthesized via melt-quenching technique are investigated. The UV-Vis absorption spectra exhibits six prominent peaks centered at 490, 526, 652, 800, 982 and 1520 nm ascribed to the transitions in erbium ion from the ground state to the excited states {sup 4}F{sub 7/2}, {sup 2}H{sub 11/2}, {sup 4}F{sub 9/2}, {sup 4}I{sub 9/2}, {sup 2}H{sub 11/2} and {sup 4}I{sub 13/2}, respectively. The results are analyzed by means of optical band gap E{sub g} and Urbach energy E{sub u}. The values of the energy band gap are found decreased from 2.82 to 2.51 eV and the Urbach energy increased from 0.15 to 0.24 eV with the increase of the Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentration from 0 to 1.5 mol%. The excellent absorbance of the prepared tellurite glasses makes them suitable for fabricating solid state lasers.

  6. Activation of erbium films for hydrogen storage

    SciTech Connect

    Brumbach, Michael T.; Ohlhausen, James A.; Zavadil, Kevin R.; Snow, Clark S.; Woicik, Joseph C.

    2011-06-01

    Hydriding of metals can be routinely performed at high temperature in a rich hydrogen atmosphere. Prior to the hydrogen loading process, a thermal activation procedure is required to promote facile hydrogen sorption into the metal. Despite the wide spread utilization of this activation procedure, little is known about the chemical and electronic changes that occur during activation and how this thermal pretreatment leads to increased rates of hydrogen uptake. This study utilized variable kinetic energy X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to interrogate the changes during in situ thermal annealing of erbium films, with results confirmed by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and low energy ion scattering. Activation can be identified by a large increase in photoemission between the valence band edge and the Fermi level and appears to occur over a two stage process. The first stage involves desorption of contaminants and recrystallization of the oxide, initially impeding hydrogen loading. Further heating overcomes the first stage and leads to degradation of the passive surface oxide leading to a bulk film more accessible for hydrogen loading.

  7. Surface segregation effects of erbium in GaAs growth and their implications for optical devices containing ErAs nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Crook, Adam M.; Nair, Hari P.; Bank, Seth R.

    2011-03-21

    We report on the integration of semimetallic ErAs nanoparticles with high optical quality GaAs-based semiconductors, grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Secondary ion mass spectrometry and photoluminescence measurements provide evidence of surface segregation and incorporation of erbium into layers grown with the erbium cell hot, despite the closed erbium source shutter. We establish the existence of a critical areal density of the surface erbium layer, below which the formation of ErAs precipitates is suppressed. Based upon these findings, we demonstrate a method for overgrowing ErAs nanoparticles with III-V layers of high optical quality, using subsurface ErAs nanoparticles as a sink to deplete the surface erbium concentration. This approach provides a path toward realizing optical devices based on plasmonic effects in an epitaxially-compatible semimetal/semiconductor system.

  8. REVIEW ARTICLE: Slow and fast light based on coherent population oscillations in erbium-doped fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrieta-Yáñez, Francisco; Calderón, Oscar G.; Melle, Sonia

    2010-10-01

    In this paper we review the main results on slow and fast light induced by coherent population oscillations in optical fibres doped with erbium ions. We explain the physics behind this technique and we describe the experimental realization. Finally, we summarize some recent advances in this field and future goals.

  9. Development of erbium phosphate doped poly(glycidyl methacrylate/ethylene dimethacrylate) spin columns for selective enrichment of phosphopeptides.

    PubMed

    Güzel, Yüksel; Rainer, Matthias; Messner, Christoph B; Hussain, Shah; Meischl, Florian; Sasse, Michael; Tessadri, Richard; Bonn, Günther K

    2015-05-01

    In this study, a novel method for the highly selective enrichment of phosphopeptides using erbium phosphate doped poly(glycidyl methacrylate/ethylene dimethacrylate) spin columns is presented. Erbium phosphate was synthesized by precipitation from boiling phosphoric acid and incubated overnight in erbium chloride solutions. The resulting powder was embedded in a monolithic poly(glycidyl methacrylate/ethylene dimethacrylate) polymer. The monolith was synthesized in a spin column by radical polymerization. Erbium phosphate demonstrated a high affinity and selectivity for phosphopeptides due to the strong interaction of trivalent erbium ions with the phosphate groups of phosphopeptides. The high selectivity and performance of the designed spin columns were demonstrated by successfully enriching phosphopeptides from tryptically digested protein mixtures containing the model phosphoproteins α- and β-casein, bovine milk, and human saliva. By the implementation of several washing steps, unspecific components were removed and the enriched phosphopeptides were effectively eluted from the spin columns under alkaline conditions. The selective performance of the presented method was further demonstrated by the enrichment of two synthetic phosphopeptides, which were spiked in tryptically digested and dephosphorylated HeLa cell lysates at low ratios. Finally, the presented approach was compared to conventional phosphopeptide enrichment by titanium oxide and revealed higher recoveries for the erbium phosphate doped monoliths. PMID:25645427

  10. Performance of a High-Concentration Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifier with 100 nm Amplification Bandwidth

    SciTech Connect

    Hajireza, P.; Shahabuddin, N. S.; Abbasi-Zargaleh, S.; Emami, S. D.; Abdul-Rashid, H. A.; Yusoff, Z.

    2010-07-07

    Increasing demand for higher bandwidth has driven the need for higher Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) channels. One of the requirements to achieve this is a broadband amplifier. This paper reports the performance of a broadband, compact, high-concentration and silica-based erbium-doped fiber amplifier. The amplifier optimized to a 2.15 m long erbium-doped fiber with erbium ion concentration of 2000 ppm. The gain spectrum of the amplifier has a measured amplification bandwidth of 100 nm using a 980 nm laser diode with power of 150 mW. This silica-based EDFA shows lower noise figure, higher gain and wider bandwidth in shorter wavelengths compared to Bismuth-based EDFA with higher erbium ion concentration of 3250 ppm at equivalent EDF length. The silica-based EDF shows peak gain at 22 dB and amplification bandwidth between 1520 nm and 1620 nm. The lowest noise figure is 5 dB. The gain is further improved with the implementation of enhanced EDFA configurations.

  11. Lanthanide Recognition: an Asymetric Erbium Microsensor Based on a Hydrazone Derivative

    PubMed Central

    Faridbod, Farnoush; Ganjali, Mohammad Reza; Larijani, Bagher; Norouzi, Parviz; Riahi, Siavash; Mirnaghi, Fatemeh Sadat

    2007-01-01

    N'-(2-hydroxy-1,2-diphenylethylidene)benzohydrazide (HDB) was found to have a very selective and sensitive behavior towards erbium(III) ions, in comparison to thirteen lanthanide ions, inner transition and representative metal ions and was hence used as a neutral ion carrier in construction of an Er(III) microelectrode. Theoretical calculations and conductance studies of HDB to erbium and some other metal ions were carried out and confirmed selectivity toward Er(III) ions. The best performance was obtained with a membrane contain 3% potassium tetrakis(p-chlorophenyl)borate (KTpClPB) as an anionic additive, 72% dibutyl phthalate (DBP) as solvent mediator, 5% HDB, and 20% poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC). The proposed Er(III) microelectrode exhibits a near Nernstian response of 17.5±0.5 mV per decade of erbium activity, and a very wide linear range 1.0×10-3-3.0×10-10 M. It can work well in the pH range of 3.0-9.0. The lower detection limit (LDL) of the microelectrode was calculated to be 2.0×10-10 M.

  12. Microwave multimode memory with an erbium spin ensemble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Probst, S.; Rotzinger, H.; Ustinov, A. V.; Bushev, P. A.

    2015-07-01

    Hybrid quantum systems combining circuit QED with spin-doped solids are an attractive platform for distributed quantum information processing. There, the magnetic ions serve as coherent memory elements and reversible conversion elements of microwave to optical qubits. Among many possible spin-doped solids, erbium ions offer the unique opportunity for a coherent conversion of microwave photons into the telecom C band at 1.54 μ m employed for long distance communication. In our work, we perform a time-resolved electron spin resonance study of an Er3 +:Y2SiO5 spin ensemble at millidegrees Kelvin temperatures and demonstrate multimode storage and retrieval of up to 16 coherent microwave pulses. The memory efficiency is measured to be 10-4 at a coherence time of T2=5.6 μ s . We observe a saturation of the spin coherence time below 50 mK due to full polarization of the surrounding electronic spin bath.

  13. Erbium-doped aluminophosphosilicate optical fibres

    SciTech Connect

    Likhachev, M E; Bubnov, M M; Zotov, K V; Medvedkov, O I; Lipatov, D S; Yashkov, M V; Gur'yanov, Aleksei N

    2010-09-10

    We have studied the active properties of erbium-doped aluminophosphosilicate (APS) core fibres in wide ranges of erbia, alumina and phosphorus pentoxide concentrations. The absorption and luminescence spectra of the P{sub 2}O{sub 5}- or Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-enriched erbium-doped APS fibres are shown to be similar to those of the erbium-doped fibres singly doped with phosphorus pentoxide or alumina, respectively. The formation of AlPO{sub 4} in APS fibres leads not only to a reduction in the refractive index of the glass but also to a marked increase in Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} solubility in silica. (optical fibres)

  14. Flat-Gain Wide-Band Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier by Combining Two Difference Doped Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamida, B. A.; Azooz, S. M.; Jasim, A. A.; Eltaif, T.; Ahmad, H.; Khan, S.; Harun, S. W.

    2015-03-01

    A new erbium-doped fibre amplifier (EDFA) is demonstrated using a combination of newly developed Erbium Zirconia co-doped fiber (Zr-EDF) and the commercial silica-based Erbium-doped fiber (Si-EDF) as the gain medium. Both fibers have a very high concentration of erbium ion. A compact amplifier operating in C-band region is firstly reported using a double-pass configuration. It is shown that average gains of the proposed Zr-EDF amplifier are obtained at approximately 18 dB with a gain variation of ±2 dB within C-band region. A flat-gain and wide band operation is achieved by configuring the amplifier in two stages comprising a 2 m long Zr-EDF and 9 m long Si-EDF optimised for C- and L-band operations, respectively, in a double-pass parallel configuration. A chirp fibre Bragg grating (CFBG) is used in both stages to ensure double propagation of the signal and thus to increase the attainable gain in both C- and L-band regions. At an input signal power of 0 dBm, a flat gain of 15 dB is achieved with a gain variation of less than 0.5 dB within a wide wavelength range from 1530 to 1605 nm. The corresponding noise figure varies from 6.2 to 10.8 dB within this wavelength region.

  15. Thermodynamic characteristics of sorption extraction and chromatographic separation of anionic complexes of erbium and cerium with Trilon B on weakly basic anionite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheremisina, O. V.; Ponomareva, M. A.; Sagdiev, V. N.

    2016-03-01

    The adsorption of anionic complexes of erbium with Trilon B on D-403 anionite is studied at ionic strengths of 1 and 2 mol/kg (NaNO3) and temperatures of 298 and 343 K. The values of the stability constants of complex ions of REE with Trilon B and the Gibbs energies of complexation are calculated. The values of the Gibbs energy and the enthalpy and entropy of ion exchange are determined. Using the obtained thermo-dynamic and sorption characteristics, the possible separation of anionic complexes of erbium and cerium with Trilon B is demonstrated via frontal ion-exchange chromatography. A series of sorption capacities of anionic complexes of cerium, yttrium, and erbium is presented using the values of the Gibbs energy of ion exchange.

  16. Optimizing the pumping configuration for the power scaling of in-band pumped erbium doped fiber amplifiers.

    PubMed

    Lim, Ee-Leong; Alam, Shaif-ul; Richardson, David J

    2012-06-18

    A highly efficient (~80%), high power (18.45 W) in-band, core pumped erbium/ytterbium co-doped fiber laser is demonstrated. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest reported efficiency from an in-band pumped 1.5 µm fiber laser operating in the tens of watts regime. Using a fitted simulation model, we show that the significantly sub-quantum limit conversion efficiency of in-band pumped erbium doped fiber amplifiers observed experimentally can be explained by concentration quenching. We then numerically study and experimentally validate the optimum pumping configuration for power scaling of in-band, cladding pumped erbium doped fiber amplifiers. Our simulation results indicate that a ~77% power conversion efficiency with high output power should be possible through cladding pumping of current commercially available pure Erbium doped active fibers providing the loss experienced by the cladding guided 1535 nm pump due to the coating absorption can be reduced to an acceptable level by better coating material choice. The power conversion efficiency has the potential to exceed 90% if concentration quenching of erbium ions can be reduced via improvements in fiber design and fabrication. PMID:22714454

  17. Erbium hydride thermal desorption : controlling kinetics.

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrizz, Robert Matthew

    2007-08-01

    Thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) is used to study the decomposition kinetics of erbium hydride thin films. The TDS results presented in this report show that hydride film processing parameters directly impact thermal stability. Issues to be addressed include desorption kinetics for dihydrides and trihydrides, and the effect of film growth parameters, loading parameters, and substrate selection on desorption kinetics.

  18. Erbium:YAG laser for cataract extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, Robert W.; Jani, Mahendra G.; Yarborough, Mike; Marcellino, George R.; Noecker, Robert J.; Kramer, Theresa R.; Vidaurri, Jesus

    1998-06-01

    The Erbium:YAG laser may be an effective laser for use in cataract surgery. At 2.94 mm the energy is maximally absorbed by water thereby efficiently disrupting tissue with minimal surrounding thermal damage. The laser may be safer to use in the eye than conventional ultrasonic emulsifiers. Preliminary clinical studies of the safety and efficacy have begun.

  19. Anisotropic optical trapping of ultracold erbium atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dulieu, Olivier; Lepers, Maxence; Wyart, Jean-Francois

    2014-05-01

    We calculate the complex dynamic dipole polarizability of ground-state erbium, a rare-earth atom that was recently Bose-condensed. This quantity determines the trapping conditions of cold atoms in an optical trap. The polarizability is calculated with the sum-over-state formula inherent to second-order perturbation theory. The summation is performed on transition energies and transition dipole moments from ground-state erbium, which are computed using the Racah-Slater least-square fitting procedure provided by the Cowan codes. This allows us to predict several yet unobserved energy levels in the range 25000-31000 cm-1 above the ground state. Regarding the trapping potential, we find that ground-state erbium essentially behaves like a spherically-symmetric atom, in spite of its large electronic angular momentum. We find a mostly isotropic van der Waals interaction between two ground-state erbium atoms, with a coefficient C6iso= 1760 a.u.. On the contrary, the photon-scattering rate is strongly anisotropic with respect to the polarization of the trapping light. also at LERMA, UMR8112, Observatoire de Paris-Meudon, Univ. Pierre et Marie Curie, Meudon, France.

  20. Anisotropic optical trapping of ultracold erbium atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepers, M.; Wyart, J.-F.; Dulieu, O.

    2014-02-01

    Ultracold atoms confined in a dipole trap are submitted to a potential whose depth is proportional to the real part of their dynamic dipole polarizability. The atoms also experience photon scattering whose rate is proportional to the imaginary part of their dynamic dipole polarizability. In this article we calculate the complex dynamic dipole polarizability of ground-state erbium, a rare-earth atom that was recently Bose condensed. The polarizability is calculated with the sum-over-state formula inherent to second-order perturbation theory. The summation is performed on transition energies and transition dipole moments from ground-state erbium, which are computed using the Racah-Slater least-squares fitting procedure provided by the cowan codes. This allows us to predict nine unobserved odd-parity energy levels of total angular momentum J =5, 6, and 7, in the range 25 000-31 000 cm-1 above the ground state. Regarding the trapping potential, we find that ground-state erbium essentially behaves like a spherically symmetric atom, in spite of its large electronic angular momentum. We also find a mostly isotropic van der Waals interaction between two ground-state erbium atoms, characterized by a coefficient C6iso=1760 a.u. To the contrary, the photon-scattering rate shows a pronounced anisotropy since it strongly depends on the polarization of the trapping light.

  1. Enhanced near-infrared-luminescence in an erbium tetrafluoroterephthalate framework.

    PubMed

    Chen, Banglin; Yang, Yu; Zapata, Fatima; Qian, Guodong; Luo, Yongshi; Zhang, Jiahua; Lobkovsky, Emil B

    2006-10-30

    Two erbium-organic frameworks Er2(BDC)3(DMF)2(H2O)2.H2O (1) and Er2(BDC-F4)3(DMF)(H2O).DMF (2) (BDC = 1,4-benzenedicarboxylate; BDC-F(4) = 2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-1,4-benzenedicarboxylate or tetrafluoroterephthalate; DMF = dimethylformamide) have been synthesized and structurally characterized. Studies on thermal gravimetric analysis and the spectroscopic and luminescent properties of 1, 2, and their desolvated solid Er2(BDC)3 (1a) and partially desolvated solid Er2(BDC-F4)3(DMF).DMF (2a) indicate that fluorination can significantly improve the luminescence intensity of the Er ions by reducing the fluorescence quenching effect of the vibrational C-H bond; thus, the near-IR-luminescence intensity of 2a is 3 times higher than that of 1a. PMID:17054346

  2. Growth studies of erbium-doped GaAs deposited by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy using noval cyclopentadienyl-based erbium sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redwing, J. M.; Kuech, T. F.; Gordon, D. C.; Vaartstra, B. A.; Lau, S. S.

    1994-01-01

    Erbium-doped GaAS layers were grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy using two new sources, bis(i-propylcyclopentadienyl)cyclopentadienyl erbium and tris(t-butylcyclopentadienyl) erbium. Controlled Er doping in the range of 10(exp 17) - 10(exp 18)/cu cm was achieved using a relatively low source temperature of 90 C. The doping exhibits a second-order dependence on inlet source partial pressure, similar to behavior obtained with cyclopentadienyl Mg dopant sources. Equivalent amounts of oxygen and Er are present in 'as-grown' films indicating that the majority of Er dopants probably exist as Er-O complexes in the material. Er(+3) luminescence at 1.54 micrometers was measured from the as-grown films, but ion implantation of additional oxygen decreases the emission intensity. Electrical compensation of n-type GaAs layers codoped with Er and Si is directly correlated to the Er concentration is proposed to arise from the deep centers associated with Er which are responsible for a broad emission band near 0.90 micrometers present in the photoluminescence spectra of GaAs:Si, Er films.

  3. 1.54 micron Emission from Erbium implanted GaN for Photonic Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaik, Myo; Hommerich, U.; Schwartz, R. N.; Wilson, R. G.; Zavada, J. M.

    1998-01-01

    The development of efficient and compact light sources operating at 1.54 micron is of enormous importance for the advancement of new optical communication systems. Erbium (1%) doped fiber amplifiers (EDFA's) or semiconductor lasers are currently being employed as near infrared light sources. Both devices, however, have inherent limitations due to their mode of operation. EDFA's employ an elaborate optical pumping scheme, whereas diode lasers have a strongly temperature dependent lasing wavelength. Novel light emitters based on erbium doped III-V semiconductors could overcome these limitations. Er doped semiconductors combine the convenience of electrical excitation with the excellent luminescence properties of Er(3+) ions. Electrically pumped, compact, and temperature stable optoelectronic devices are envisioned from this new class of luminescent materials. In this paper we discuss the potential of Er doped GaN for optoelectronic applications based on temperature dependent photoluminescence excitation studies.

  4. Synthesis and characterization of erbium-doped YAlO3 phosphor.

    PubMed

    Baig, Huma Nazli; Saluja, Jagjeet Kaur; Dhoble, S J

    2016-03-01

    In the yttrium aluminium system, the YAlO3 phosphor is a prominent host because of the yttrium aluminium ratio (1:1). Phosphor was synthesized by the solid-state reaction method at variable concentrations of erbium (0.1-2.5 mol%). This method is suitable for large-scale production and is a less time-consuming method when compared with the soft synthesis method. The prepared sample was characterized by X-ray diffraction technique and the crystallite size was calculated by Scherer's formula. Vibrational and bending analysis of prepared phosphor for optimized concentration of erbium ion is described based on the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic technique. The photoluminescence (PL) emission spectra of prepared phosphor for variable concentrations of erbium ion were recorded and the excitation spectrum was found to be at 291 nm with three shoulder peaks at 305, 270 and 242 nm. For 291 nm excitation, the emission spectrum was found at 546 nm and 552 nm. PL intensity increased with increasing concentrations of erbium and after 2 mol% emission intensity decreased due to concentration quenching. Spectrophotometric determination of YAlO3:Er(3+) is described by CIE co-ordinates and shows an intense emission in the green region such that the prepared phosphor can act as a single host for green light emission. Thermoluminescence glow curve analysis of the YAlO3:Er(3+) phosphor was recorded for different ultraviolet (UV) light exposures and gamma exposure. Different gamma doses 0.5-2 kGy show a linear response. Kinetic parameters were calculated by the peak shape method. PMID:26455914

  5. Electroluminescence efficiencies of erbium in silicon-based hosts

    SciTech Connect

    Cueff, Sébastien E-mail: christophe.labbe@ensicaen.fr; Manel Ramírez, Joan; Berencén, Yonder; Garrido, Blas; Kurvits, Jonathan A.; Zia, Rashid; Rizk, Richard; Labbé, Christophe E-mail: christophe.labbe@ensicaen.fr

    2013-11-04

    We report on room-temperature 1.5 μm electroluminescence from trivalent erbium (Er{sup 3+}) ions embedded in three different CMOS-compatible silicon-based hosts: SiO{sub 2}, Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, and SiN{sub x}. We show that although the insertion of either nitrogen or excess silicon helps enhance electrical conduction and reduce the onset voltage for electroluminescence, it drastically decreases the external quantum efficiency of Er{sup 3+} ions from 2% in SiO{sub 2} to 0.001% and 0.0004% in SiN{sub x} and Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, respectively. Furthermore, we present strong evidence that hot carrier injection is significantly more efficient than defect-assisted conduction for the electrical excitation of Er{sup 3+} ions. These results suggest strategies to optimize the engineering of on-chip electrically excited silicon-based nanophotonic light sources.

  6. Efficient and long-lived Zeeman-sublevel atomic population storage in an erbium-doped glass fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saglamyurek, Erhan; Lutz, Thomas; Veissier, Lucile; Hedges, Morgan P.; Thiel, Charles W.; Cone, Rufus L.; Tittel, Wolfgang

    2015-12-01

    Long-lived population storage in optically pumped levels of rare-earth ions doped into solids, referred to as persistent spectral hole burning, is of significant fundamental and technological interest. However, the demonstration of deep and persistent holes in rare-earth ion doped amorphous hosts, e.g., glasses, has remained an open challenge for many decades—a fact that motivates our work towards a better understanding of the interaction between impurities and vibrational modes in glasses. Here we report the observation and detailed characterization of such holes in an erbium-doped silica glass fiber cooled to below 1 K. We demonstrate population storage in electronic Zeeman sublevels of the erbium ground state with lifetimes up to 30 seconds and 80% spin polarization. In addition to its fundamental aspect, our investigation reveals a potential technological application of rare-earth ion doped amorphous materials, including at telecommunication wavelength.

  7. Surface morphology of erbium silicide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, S. S.; Pai, C. S.; Wu, C. S.; Kuech, T. F.; Liu, B. X.

    1982-01-01

    The surface of rare-earth silicides (Er, Tb, etc.), formed by the reaction of thin-film metal layers with a silicon substrate, is typically dominated by deep penetrating, regularly shaped pits. These pits may have a detrimental effect on the electronic performance of low Schottky barrier height diodes utilizing such silicides on n-type Si. This study suggests that contamination at the metal-Si or silicide-Si interface is the primary cause of surface pitting. Surface pits may be reduced in density or eliminated entirely through either the use of Si substrate surfaces prepared under ultrahigh vacuum conditions prior to metal deposition and silicide formation or by means of ion irradiation techniques. Silicide layers formed by these techniques possess an almost planar morphology.

  8. Nanostructuring an erbium local environment inside sol-gel silica glasses: toward efficient erbium optical fiber lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savelii, Inna; El Hamzaoui, Hicham; Bigot, Laurent; Bouwmans, Géraud; Fsaifes, Ihsan; Capoen, Bruno; Bouazaoui, Mohamed

    2016-02-01

    To extend the use of erbium- (Er-)/aluminum- (Al-) codoped optical fibers in hostile environments, the reduction of the Al amount has been identified as a serious way to harden them against harsh radiation. In this work, sol-gel monolithic Er3+-doped and Er3+/Al3+-codoped silica glasses were prepared from nanoporous silica xerogels soaked in a solution containing an Er salt together or not with an Al salt. After sintering, these glasses were used as the core material of microstructured optical fibers made by the stack-and-draw method. The influence of Al incorporation on the optical properties of Er3+-doped silica glasses and fibers is investigated. This approach enabled the preparation of silica glasses containing dispersed Er3+ ions with low Al content. The obtained fibers have been tested in an all-fibered cavity laser architecture. The Er3+/Al3+-codoped fiber laser presents a maximum efficiency of 27% at 1530 nm. We show that without Al doping, the laser exhibits lower performances that depend on Er content inside the doped fiber core. The effect of Er pair-induced quenching also has been investigated through nonsaturable absorption experiments, which clearly indicate that the fraction of Er ion pairs is significantly reduced in the Al-codoped fiber.

  9. Physical properties of erbium implanted tungsten oxide filmsdeposited by reactive dual magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Mohamed, Sodky H.; Anders, Andre

    2006-11-08

    Amorphous and partially crystalline WO3 thin films wereprepared by reactive dual magnetron sputtering and successively implantedby erbium ions with a fluence in the range from 7.7 x 1014 to 5 x 1015ions/cm2. The electrical and optical properties were studied as afunction of the film deposition parameters and the ion fluence. Ionimplantation caused a strong decrease of the resistivity, a moderatedecrease of the index of refraction and a moderate increase of theextinction coefficient in the visible and near infrared, while theoptical band gap remained almost unchanged. These effects could belargely ascribed to ion-induced oxygen deficiency. When annealed in air,the already low resistivities of the implanted samples decreased furtherup to 70oC, whereas oxidation, and hence a strong increase of theresistivity, was observed at higher annealing temperatures.

  10. Erbium laser resurfacing for actinic cheilitis.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Joel L

    2013-11-01

    Actinic cheilitis is a precancerous condition characterized by grayish-whitish area(s) of discoloration on the mucosal lip, often blunting the demarcation between mucosa and cutaneous lip. Actinic cheilitis is considered to be an early part of the spectrum of squamous cell carcinoma. Squamous cell carcinoma specifically of the lip has a high rate of recurrence and metastasis through the oral cavity leading to a poor overall survival. Risk factors for the development of actinic cheilitis include chronic solar irradiation, increasing age, male gender, light skin complexion, immunosuppression, and possibly tobacco and alcohol consumption. Treatment options include topical pharmacotherapy (eg, fluorouracil, imiquimod) or procedural interventions (eg, cryotherapy, electrosurgery, surgical vermillionectomy, laser resurfacing), each with their known advantages and disadvantages. There is little consensus as to which treatment options offer the most clinical utility given the paucity of comparative clinical data. In my practice, laser resurfacing has become an important tool for the treatment of actinic cheilitis owing to its ease of use and overall safety, tolerability, and cosmetic acceptability. Herein the use of erbium laser resurfacing is described for three actinic cheilitis presentations for which I find it particularly useful: clinically prominent actinic cheilitis, biopsy-proven actinic cheilitis, and treatment of the entire lip following complete tumor excision of squamous cell carcinoma. All patients were treated with a 2940-nm erbium laser (Sciton Profile Contour Tunable Resurfacing Laser [TRL], Sciton, Inc., Palo Alto, CA). PMID:24196339

  11. Microstructural Features in Aged Erbium Tritide Foils

    SciTech Connect

    Gelles, David S.; Brewer, L. N.; Kotula, Paul G.; Cowgill, Donald F.; Busick, C. C.; Snow, C. S.

    2008-01-01

    Aged erbium tritide foil specimens are found to contain five distinctly different microstructural features. The general structure was of large columnar grains of ErT2. But on a fine scale, precipitates believed to be erbium oxy-tritides and helium bubbles could be identified. The precipitate size was in the range of ~10 nm and the bubbles were of an unusual planar shape on {111} planes with an invariant thickness of ~1 nm and a diameter on the order of 10 nm. Also, an outer layer containing no fine precipitate structure and only a few helium bubbles was present on foils. This layer is best described as a denuded zone which probably grew during aging in air. Finally, large embedded Er2O3 particles were found at low density and non-uniformly distributed, but sometimes extending through the thickness of the foil. A failure mechanism allowing the helium to escape is suggested by observed cracking between bubbles closer to end of life.

  12. Optical Frequency Comb Generation based on Erbium Fiber Lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Droste, Stefan; Ycas, Gabriel; Washburn, Brian R.; Coddington, Ian; Newbury, Nathan R.

    2016-06-01

    Optical frequency combs have revolutionized optical frequency metrology and are being actively investigated in a number of applications outside of pure optical frequency metrology. For reasons of cost, robustness, performance, and flexibility, the erbium fiber laser frequency comb has emerged as the most commonly used frequency comb system and many different designs of erbium fiber frequency combs have been demonstrated. We review the different approaches taken in the design of erbium fiber frequency combs, including the major building blocks of the underlying mode-locked laser, amplifier, supercontinuum generation and actuators for stabilization of the frequency comb.

  13. Near infrared emission for erbium-doped calcium aluminum silicate glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lihui, Huang; Xingren, Liu; Baojiu, Chen; Jiuling, Lin

    2001-09-01

    In this work, erbium-doped calcium aluminum silicate (CAS) glass has been synthesized by solid-state reaction. Intense emission at 1534 nm, corresponding to the 4I13/2→ 4I15/2 transition of the Er 3+ ion, was observed upon both 488 nm Ar + laser and 978 nm diode laser excitations at room temperature. The luminescence mechanisms in the glass are discussed. These results indicate this glass is a promising laser material with its high chemical durability and thermal stability.

  14. Observations of proton beam enhancement due to erbium hydride on gold foil targets

    SciTech Connect

    Offermann, D. T.; Van Woerkom, L. D.; Freeman, R. R.; Foord, M. E.; Hey, D.; Key, M. H.; Mackinnon, A. J.; MacPhee, A. G.; Patel, P. K.; Ping, Y.; Sanchez, J. J.; Shen, N.; Bartal, T.; Beg, F. N.; Espada, L.; Chen, C. D.

    2009-09-15

    Recent theoretical work suggests that the conversion efficiency from laser to protons in laser irradiated thin foil experiments increases if the atomic mass of nonhydrogen atoms on the foil rear surface increases. Experiments were performed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Jupiter Laser Facility to observe the effect of thin foils coated with erbium hydride on the conversion efficiency from laser to protons. Gold foils with and without the rear surface coated with ErH{sub 3} were irradiated using the ultrashort pulse, 40 TW Callisto laser. An argon-ion etching system was used to remove naturally occurring nanometer thick surface layer contaminants from the hydride. With the etcher, gold with ErH{sub 3} showed a 25% increase in the conversion efficiency to protons above 3.4 MeV relative to contaminants, where C{sup +4} and H{sup +} were the dominant ion species. No difference in the ion signal was observed without first cleaning the hydrides. Simulations using the hybrid PIC code, LSP, revealed that the increase due to erbium hydride versus contaminants is 37% for protons above 3 MeV.

  15. Size control of erbium-doped silicon nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, John St.; Coffer, Jeffery L.; Chen, Yandong; Pinizzotto, Russell F.

    2000-09-01

    This work describes the effects of pyrolysis oven length and erbium precursor on the preparation of discrete erbium-doped silicon nanoparticles. These doped nanoparticles were prepared by the co-pyrolysis of disilane and the volatile complex Er(tmhd)3 (tmhd=2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptanedionato). The particle sizes and size distributions were determined using high resolution and conventional transmission electron microscopy. Erbium-doped silicon nanoparticles exhibit a selected area electron diffraction pattern consistent with the diamond cubic phase and a distinctive dark contrast in the transmission electron microscope. The presence of erbium is confirmed by x-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy. In general, the mean diameter of the individual nanoparticles increases as the length of the pyrolysis oven used during their preparation is increased.

  16. Performance characterization of new erbium-doped fibers using MCVD nanoparticle doping process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boivin, David; Pastouret, Alain; Burov, Ekaterina; Gonnet, Cédric; Cavani, Olivier; Lempereur, Simon; Sillard, Pierre

    2011-02-01

    In 2009, we introduced a new doping concept involving Al2O3/rare-earth nanoparticles (NP) in a MCVD-compatible process finding potential applications in Erbium-, Ytterbium- or Erbium-Ytterbium-doped fiber amplifiers and lasers.1 This approach, motivated by the need for increased efficiencies and improved attributes, is characterized by the ability to control the rare-earth ion environment independently from the core composition. The NP matrix can therefore be viewed as an optimized sub-micronic amplifying medium for the embedded rareearth ion. The first experimental evidence to support this idea is reported in a comparative study with a standard process2 where homogeneous up-conversion (HUC) and pair-induced quenching (PIQ) levels are extracted from Er3+ unsaturable absorption measurements. NP-based fibers are found to mitigate the effects of the Er3+ concentration increase seen in standard heavily-doped fibers. This conclusion is particularly clear when focusing on the HUC coefficient evolution since, for a given type of NP, its level is independent from the Er3+ concentration in the doped zone. In this paper, we address our most recent work completing these preliminary results. First, we investigate the quenching signature of a new NP design and its behavior when incorporated in different core matrices. The interplay is further analysed by relating this set of measurements to practical EDFA performances. Gain and noise characteristics of typical WDM amplifiers operating points serve as key benchmarking indicators to identify the benefits of NP Erbium-doped fibers in the wide variety of EDFAs implementations.

  17. Reduced erbium-doped ceria nanoparticles: one nano-host applicable for simultaneous optical down- and up-conversions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces a new synthesis procedure to form erbium-doped ceria nanoparticles (EDC NPs) that can act as an optical medium for both up-conversion and down-conversion in the same time. This synthesis process results qualitatively in a high concentration of Ce3+ ions required to obtain high fluorescence efficiency in the down-conversion process. Simultaneously, the synthesized nanoparticles contain the molecular energy levels of erbium that are required for up-conversion. Therefore, the synthesized EDC NPs can emit visible light when excited with either UV or IR photons. This opens new opportunities for applications where emission of light via both up- and down-conversions from a single nanomaterial is desired such as solar cells and bio-imaging. PMID:24940173

  18. Magnetic behavior of erbium-zinc-borate glasses and glass ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borodi, G.; Pascuta, P.; Bosca, M.; Stefan, R.; Tetean, R.; Pop, V.; Radulescu, D.

    2013-11-01

    Glasses of the system (Er2O3)xṡ(B2O3)(60-x)ṡ(ZnO)40 (3 ≤ x ≤ 15 mol%) were prepared by conventional melt quenching and subsequently converted to glass ceramics by heat treatment of glass samples at 860 °C for 2 h. The magnetic behaviour of the studied glasses and glass ceramics were investigated using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and a Faraday-type magnetic balance. Magnetic data show that erbium ions are involved in negative superexchange interactions in all the investigated samples, being antiferromagnetically coupled. For all studied samples the experimental values obtained for the effective magnetic moments are lower than the value corresponding to free Er3+ ions and decrease with the increasing of Er2O3 content. The decrease is more pronounced in heat treated samples than untreated ones.

  19. Magnetic behavior of erbium-zinc-borate glasses and glass ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Borodi, G.; Pascuta, P.; Bosca, M.; Pop, V.; Stefan, R.; Tetean, R.; Radulescu, D.

    2013-11-13

    Glasses of the system (Er{sub 2}O{sub 3}){sub x}⋅(B{sub 2}O{sub 3}){sub (60−x)}⋅(ZnO){sub 40} (3 ≤ x ≤ 15 mol%) were prepared by conventional melt quenching and subsequently converted to glass ceramics by heat treatment of glass samples at 860 °C for 2 h. The magnetic behaviour of the studied glasses and glass ceramics were investigated using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and a Faraday-type magnetic balance. Magnetic data show that erbium ions are involved in negative superexchange interactions in all the investigated samples, being antiferromagnetically coupled. For all studied samples the experimental values obtained for the effective magnetic moments are lower than the value corresponding to free Er{sup 3+} ions and decrease with the increasing of Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} content. The decrease is more pronounced in heat treated samples than untreated ones.

  20. Photocatalytic activity of erbium-doped TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles immobilized in macro-porous silica films

    SciTech Connect

    Castaneda-Contreras, J.; Maranon-Ruiz, V.F.; Chiu-Zarate, R.; Perez-Ladron de Guevara, H.; Rodriguez, R.; Michel-Uribe, C.

    2012-02-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Erbium-doped TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were immobilized on macro-porous silica films. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The films were obtained by a phase separation process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The samples exhibited photo-catalytic activity under visible light. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The sensitization of TiO{sub 2} was attributed to a red shift in the TiO{sub 2} band-gap. -- Abstract: A macro-porous silica film served as mechanical support to immobilize TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles, which were doped with erbium. The films and the nanoparticles were prepared by sol-gel route. The nanoparticles exhibited photocatalytic activity under visible light. We obtained a degradation rate of methylene blue that followed first order kinetics. The sensitization of the nanoparticles to visible light was attributed to a red shift in the band-gap of the TiO{sub 2} due to the addition of erbium ions.

  1. Detecting Thermal Barrier Coating Delamination Using Visible and Near-Infrared Luminescence from Erbium-Doped Sublayers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eldridge, J. I.; Bencic, T. J.; Martin, R. E.; Singh, J.; Wolfe, D. E.

    2007-01-01

    Nondestructive diagnostic tools are needed to monitor early stages of delamination progression in thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) because the risk of delamination induced coating failure will compromise engine performance and safety. Previous work has demonstrated that for TBCs composed of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), luminescence from a buried europium-doped sublayer can be utilized to identify the location of TBC delamination from the substantially higher luminescence intensity observed from the delaminated regions of the TBC. Luminescence measurements from buried europium-doped layers depend on sufficient transmittance of the 532 nm excitation and 606 nm emission wavelengths through the attenuating undoped YSZ overlayer to produce easily detected luminescence. In the present work, improved delamination indication is demonstrated using erbium-doped YSZ sublayers. For visible-wavelength luminescence, the erbium-doped sublayer offers the advantage of a very strong excitation peak at 517 nm that can be conveniently excited a 514 nm Ar ion laser. More importantly, the erbium-doped sublayer also produces near-infrared luminescence at 1550 nm that is effectively excited by a 980 nm laser diode. Both the 980 nm excitation and the 1550 nm emission are transmitted through the TBC with much less attenuation than visible wavelengths and therefore show great promise for delamination monitoring through thicker or more highly scattering TBCs. The application of this approach for both electron beam physical vapor deposited (EB-PVD) and plasma-sprayed TBCs is discussed.

  2. Nanothermometry using optically trapped erbium oxide nanoparticle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baral, Susil; Johnson, Samuel C.; Alaulamie, Arwa A.; Richardson, Hugh H.

    2016-04-01

    A new optical probe technique using a laser-trapped erbium oxide nanoparticle (size ~150 nm) is introduced that can measure absolute temperature with a spatial resolution on the size of the trapped nanoparticle. This technique (scanning optical probe thermometry) is used to collect a thermal image of a gold nanodot prepared with hole-mask colloidal lithography. A convolution analysis of the thermal profile shows that the point spread function of our measurement is a Gaussian with a FWHM of 165 nm. We attribute the width of this function to clustering of Er2O3 nanoparticles in solution. The scanning optical probe thermometer is used to measure the temperature where vapor nucleation occurs in degassed water (555 K), confirming that a nanoscale object heated in water will superheat the surrounding water to the spinodal decomposition temperature. Subsequently, the temperature inside the vapor bubble rises to the melting point of the gold nanostructure (~1300) where a temperature plateau is observed. The rise in temperature is attributed to inhibition of thermal transfer to the surrounding liquid by the thermal insulating vapor cocoon.

  3. Dipolar Physics in an Erbium Quantum Gas Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebert, Anne; Krahn, Aaron; Phelps, Gregory; Dickerson, Susannah; Greiner, Markus; Erbium Lab Team

    2016-05-01

    Erbium offers exciting possibilities for extending the single-site imaging work of current quantum gas microscopes. With a magnetic dipole moment of 7μB, the dipole-dipole interaction of erbium is 50 times that of alkali atoms. The long-range and anisotropic nature of the dipole interaction adds richness to the short-range interactions that dominate the physics of the ground-state alkali atoms commonly used in ultracold experiments today. Erbium has several abundant isotopes, giving the added flexibility of studying both bosonic and fermionic systems. We present proposed avenues of research for the dipolar microscope being developed, including studies of magnetism, the Einstein-de Haas effect, and quantum phase transitions with fractional filling factors.

  4. Nonlinear optical responses of erbium-doped YAG ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Wangliang; Yi, Jun; Miao, Lili; Li, Jiang; Xie, Tengfei; Zhao, Chujun; Pan, Yubai; Wen, Shuangchun

    2016-07-01

    By performing the Z-scan measurements with ultrafast femtosecond laser centered at 800 nm wavelength, we can unambiguously distinguish the real and imaginary part of the third-order optical nonlinearity of the erbium-doped YAG ceramics. The reverse saturable absorption of the erbium-doped YAG ceramics has been observed experimentally, and the nonlinear refractive index of the ceramics is estimated to be about 10-21 m2/W. The experimental results may provide design guidelines for the high power laser design and its applications.

  5. Radiation-resistant erbium-doped silica fibre

    SciTech Connect

    Zotov, K V; Likhachev, M E; Tomashuk, A L; Bubnov, M M; Yashkov, M V; Gur'yanov, A N

    2007-10-31

    It is shown that the service life of erbium-doped fibres can be increased many times under conditions of an elevated radiation level by loading the fibre glass network with molecular hydrogen. Backdiffusion of hydrogen from the fibre in the process of its operation is virtually excluded for the fibre covered with a hermetic carbon coating. It is shown that this technique of fibre preparation allows one to slow down significantly degradation of the lasing properties of erbium fibres under the conditions characteristic of space applications. (special issue devoted to the 25th anniversary of the a.m. prokhorov general physics institute)

  6. Excitation of Er{sup 3+} ions in SiO{sub 2} with Si nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Prokofiev, A. A. Moskalenko, A. S.; Yassievich, I. N.

    2008-08-15

    Probabilities of excitation of erbium ions via Coulomb interaction with carriers localized in silicon nanocrystals embedded in SiO{sub 2}, in recombination and intraband relaxation of these carriers, have been calculated.

  7. Discovery of dysprosium, holmium, erbium, thulium, and ytterbium isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, C.; Thoennessen, M.

    2013-09-15

    Currently, thirty-one dysprosium, thirty-two holmium, thirty-two erbium, thirty-three thulium, and thirty-one ytterbium isotopes have been observed and the discovery of these isotopes is described here. For each isotope a brief synopsis of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  8. Optical and spectroscopic properties of soda lime alumino-silicate glasses doped with erbium and silver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmo, A. P.; Bell, M. J. V.; Da Costa, Z. M.; Anjos, V.; Barbosa, L. C.; Chillcce, E. F.; Giehl, J. M.; Pontuschka, W. M.

    2011-10-01

    Spectroscopic properties of Ag/Er co-doped soda lime silicate glasses have been studied with the aim of assessing the effective role of silver as a sensitizer for erbium. Changes in spectroscopic properties of Er 3+ as a function of silver addition to the base composition have been measured. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), absorption as well as photoluminescence measurements in the visible and infrared spectral region, particularly 4I 13/2 → 4I 15/2 transition of the Er 3+ ion were performed; excitation wavelengths in the range from 325 to 808 nm were used. Enhancement of the Er 3+ luminescence at 1.54 μm was observed when Ag was added.

  9. Quantum storage of entangled telecom-wavelength photons in an erbium-doped optical fibre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saglamyurek, Erhan; Jin, Jeongwan; Verma, Varun B.; Shaw, Matthew D.; Marsili, Francesco; Nam, Sae Woo; Oblak, Daniel; Tittel, Wolfgang

    2015-02-01

    The realization of a future quantum Internet requires the processing and storage of quantum information at local nodes and interconnecting distant nodes using free-space and fibre-optic links. Quantum memories for light are key elements of such quantum networks. However, to date, neither an atomic quantum memory for non-classical states of light operating at a wavelength compatible with standard telecom fibre infrastructure, nor a fibre-based implementation of a quantum memory, has been reported. Here, we demonstrate the storage and faithful recall of the state of a 1,532 nm wavelength photon entangled with a 795 nm photon, in an ensemble of cryogenically cooled erbium ions doped into a 20-m-long silica fibre, using a photon-echo quantum memory protocol. Despite its currently limited efficiency and storage time, our broadband light-matter interface brings fibre-based quantum networks one step closer to reality.

  10. Influence of Bi on the Er luminescence in yttrium-erbium disilicate thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Scarangella, Adriana; Miritello, Maria; Priolo, Francesco

    2014-09-28

    The influence of bismuth on erbium optical properties at 1.54 μm has been investigated in yttrium-erbium disilicate thin films synthesized by magnetron co-sputtering and implanted with two Bi different doses. The Bi depth distribution and the evolution of its oxidation states after annealing treatments at 1000 °C in two atmospheres, O₂ and N₂, have been investigated. It was found that only in O₂ the Bi³⁺ valence state is prevalent, thanks to the enhanced Bi mobility in the oxidizing ambient, as demonstrated by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. At lower Bi content, although the formation of Bi⁰ metallic nanoparticles that are deleterious non radiative channels for Er luminescence, efficient energy transfer from Bi to Er has been obtained only in O₂. It is due to the excitation of ultraviolet broad Bi₃⁺ absorption band and the energy transfer to Er ions. We have evaluated that in this case, Er effective excitation cross section increased by a factor of 5 in respect with the one for direct Er absorption at 488 nm. At higher Bi dose, this mechanism is absent, but an increased Er optical efficiency at 1.54 μm has been observed under resonant excitation. It is due to the contribution of a fraction of Er ions having an increased lifetime. This phenomenon is associated with the formation of Bi agglomerates, induced at higher Bi doses, which well isolate Er from non-radiative quenching centers. The increased decay time assures higher optical efficiency at 1.54 μm.

  11. Laser cooling of a stored ion beam: A first step towards crystalline beams

    SciTech Connect

    Hangst, J.S.

    1992-09-01

    This report discusses: a brief introduction to storage rings; crystalline beams; laser cooling of ion beams; description of astrid-the experimental setup; first experiments with lithium 7 ion beam; experiments with erbium 166 ion beams; further experiments with lithium 7 ion beams; beam dynamics, laser cooling,and crystalline beams in astrid; possibilities for further study in astrid.

  12. Nanomaterials for photonic applications: Silica self-assembly and erbium titanate activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Cheol

    Nanomaterials are typically defined as amorphous or polycrystalline solids with particle diameters or grain sizes of 100 nm or less. Recently, a number of innovative efforts have opened the opportunity to a new class of materials, which allow to control both the flow of light and the dynamics of photons. The nanostructured periodic materials, Photonic Crystals, and waveguides embedded in them have been very attractive subjects of current research. Another attractive approach is to utilize rare earth emission within nanocrystals. The restricted geometry of rare earth ions in nanocrystals may affect luminescence behavior with respect to energy transfer and electron-phonon interactions in a bulk crystal, providing efficient light emission for future integration with optoelectronic devices. Based on such concepts addressed above, this dissertation has focused on two facets of nanomaterials investigation that are applicable to active 1.5 mum emission planar devices. First, the synthetic opaline films, 6 muM in thickness, were fabricated from self-assembly of a monodisperse colloidal suspensions of silica spheres with a diameter of 310 nm. This film showed an optical gap centered around 730 nm with a full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 50 nm, exhibiting 20% of maximum reflectivity. This study showed that the photon bands are the result of interplay between the coherent scattering due to the periodic structure and the non-coherent (diffuse) scattering due to the individual spheres, the latter exhibiting Mie resonance, the scattering coefficient is inversely proportional to lambda2 in regions of optical wavelength. Further, it was indicated that Me resonance remaining in the photon bands should be nearly eliminated to minimize optical loss and maximize band gap strength. This may be possible by organizing uniform features of dielectric structures, whether opal or inverse-opal, with smaller building blocks, the size of which are below theoretical scattering limit. Second

  13. Growth, characterization and upconversion properties of erbium-doped potassium lithium tantalate niobate single crystals under 975 nm laser excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhongxiang; Li, Lei; Duan, Qianqian; Feng, Lei; Tian, Hao

    2012-04-01

    Potassium lithium tantalate niobate single crystals doped with erbium ions are grown by top-seeded solution growth method. The crystals are characterized by X-ray diffraction and differential thermal analysis. The refractive indices of the crystal are measured using ellipsometry method and fitted by Sellmeier equation. The as-grown crystals are tetragonal phase tungsten bronze-type structure with Curie temperature of 271.3 °C. Characteristic Er3 + absorption bands are observed from 350 to 1100 nm in ultraviolet-visible-near infrared absorption spectra. These crystals emit brightly green and red upconversion fluorescence under 975 nm LD laser excitation, and the steady state upconversion spectra are obtained at room temperature. The red emission intensity increases as the erbium ions concentration increases in crystals. Processes of excited state absorption and energy transfer are responsible for upconversion luminescence. The emission intensities are quadratic dependences on pump power from pump power dependence analyses and deduction of transition rate equation model.

  14. Urbach absorption edge in epitaxial erbium-doped silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Shmagin, V. B. Kudryavtsev, K. E.; Shengurov, D. V.; Krasilnik, Z. F.

    2015-02-07

    We investigate the dependencies of the photocurrent in Si:Er p-n junctions on the energy of the incident photons. The exponential absorption edge (Urbach edge) just below fundamental edge of silicon was observed in the absorption spectra of epitaxial Si:Er layers grown at 400–600 C. It is shown that the introduction of erbium significantly enhances the structural disorder in the silicon crystal which was estimated from the slope of the Urbach edge. We discuss the possible nature of the structural disorder in Si:Er and a new mechanism of erbium excitation, which does not require the presence of deep levels in the band gap of silicon.

  15. Adaptive dynamic FBG interrogation utilising erbium-doped fibre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, R. N.; Read, I.; MacPherson, W. N.

    2013-04-01

    A dynamic fibre Bragg grating interrogation scheme is investigated using two-wave mixing in erbium-doped fibre, capable of adapting to quasistatic strain and temperature drifts. An interference pattern set up in the erbium-doped fibre creates, due to the photorefractive effect, a dynamic grating capable of wavelength demodulating the FBG signal. The presence of a dynamic grating was verified and then dynamic strain signals from a fibre stretcher were measured. The adaptive nature of the technique was successfully demonstrated by heating the FBG while it underwent dynamic straining leading to detection unlike an alternative arrayed waveguide grating system which simultaneously failed detection. Two gratings were then wavelength division multiplexed with the signal grating receiving approximately 30dB greater signal showing that there was little cross talk in the system.

  16. Laser isotope separation of erbium and other isotopes

    DOEpatents

    Haynam, C.A.; Worden, E.F.

    1995-08-22

    Laser isotope separation is accomplished using at least two photoionization pathways of an isotope simultaneously, where each pathway comprises two or more transition steps. This separation method has been applied to the selective photoionization of erbium isotopes, particularly for the enrichment of {sup 167}Er. The hyperfine structure of {sup 167}Er was used to find two three-step photoionization pathways having a common upper energy level. 3 figs.

  17. Laser isotope separation of erbium and other isotopes

    DOEpatents

    Haynam, Christopher A.; Worden, Earl F.

    1995-01-01

    Laser isotope separation is accomplished using at least two photoionization pathways of an isotope simultaneously, where each pathway comprises two or more transition steps. This separation method has been applied to the selective photoionization of erbium isotopes, particularly for the enrichment of .sup.167 Er. The hyperfine structure of .sup.167 Er was used to find two three-step photoionization pathways having a common upper energy level.

  18. Transient photoacoustic effects induced in liquids by pulsed erbium lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frenz, Martin; Pratisto, Hans; Ith, Michael; Asshauer, Thomas; Rink, Klaus; Delacretaz, Guy P.; Romano, Valerio; Salathe, Rene-Paul; Weber, Heinz P.

    1994-08-01

    The intense interest in the investigation of erbium laser radiation in medicine is due to the fact that radiation at 3 micrometers is very strongly absorbed by water, which is present in all biological tissue. As a consequence of this high absorption the interaction of pulsed radiation is characterized by an explosive process with a low ablation threshold and a thin coagulation zone along the laser incisions. Erbium lasers, therefore, have a wide field of potential medical applications which become even more attractive with the availability of reliable delivery systems. An interesting situation arises in orthopaedics and angioplasty, where a precise cutting instrument is needed in a liquid environment. For this reason, we experimentally investigated the interaction mechanism of fiber transmitted, pulsed, free-running and Q- switched Erbium:YSGG ((lambda) equals 2.79 micrometers ) and Erbium:YAG ((lambda) equals 2.94 micrometers ) laser radiation with liquid water. The dynamics of the bubble formation and the propagation of shockwaves in water was studied and visualized by flash photography. Acoustic transients of a few hundreds of bars accompanying the ablation process were measured with a needle hydrophone. A clear correlation between the spikes of the laser pulse and those of the pressure signal was observed. Additionally, strong pressure transients were measured after the end of the laser pulse, which could be associated with the collapse of the vapor bubble and further collapses after multiple rebounds. The influence of pulse energy, fiber size and pulse duration on the formation and the amplitude of the pressure waves is demonstrated.

  19. Erbium-doped fiber lasers as deep-sea hydrophones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagnoli, P. E.; Beverini, N.; Bouhadef, B.; Castorina, E.; Falchini, E.; Falciai, R.; Flaminio, V.; Maccioni, E.; Morganti, M.; Sorrentino, F.; Stefani, F.; Trono, C.

    2006-11-01

    The present work describes the development of a hydrophone prototype for deep-sea acoustic detection. The base-sensitive element is a single-mode erbium-doped fiber laser. The high sensitivity of these sensors makes them particularly suitable for a wide range of deep-sea acoustic applications, including geological and marine mammals surveys and above all as acoustic detectors in under-water telescopes for high-energy neutrinos.

  20. Pressure-dependent resistivity and magnetoresistivity of erbium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellerby, Mark; McEwen, Keith A.; Bauer, Ernst; Hauser, Robert; Jensen, Jens

    2000-03-01

    A comprehensive resistance study of erbium subjected to a hydrostatic pressure is presented. From the experimental results we derive a p-T phase diagram for the magnetic phases in erbium. In the zero-temperature limit, the conical structure is predicted to transform into the cycloidal one at a pressure of about 1.3 kbar. Experimentally, the transition is found to occur between 1 and 3 kbar at 4.5 K. The experimental results are analyzed in terms of a variational calculation of the resistivity using the model developed for erbium from previous experiments. The theory of Elliott and Wedgwood is utilized in the account of the superzone effects. The analysis indicates that the a-axis resistivity is slightly affected by the superzones. In the c-axis case the superzone effects do not simply scale with the magnetization, but also reflect the 20% change of the ordering wave vector. This occurs between TN and TC at ambient pressure, and at 4.5 K when the pressure is increased from 1 to 3 kbar. It is tentatively proposed that the tilted cycloidal structure exists in Er, just above TC at ambient pressure and in the interval between 1.3 and 9 kbar at zero temperature.

  1. Oxygen-impurity interactions in crystalline silicon: The cases of aluminum and erbium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimini, E.; La Ferla, A.; Galvagno, G.; Coffa, S.; Franzò, G.; Priolo, F.

    1997-01-01

    Impurities such as oxygen and carbon have a strong influence on the electrical and optical behaviour of other species introduced in Si. The influence can be either beneficial or detrimental according to the considered case. Two different examples are discussed in the present paper. The electrical activity of ion implanted Al, the fastest diffusing p-type dopant, amounts to a few percent of the fluence in Czochralski wafers while is practically unity in epitaxial or float-zone wafers, having a low content of dissolved oxygen. This behaviour is accounted for in terms of AlO inactive complexes whose formation is enhanced by defects. Good activation and deep junctions can be obtained by avoiding the simultaneous presence of O and defects. Erbium ions introduced by ion implantation in Si are optically active with an emission at 1.54 μm. The luminescence, however, strongly quenches with temperature and room temperature emission cannot be achieved. The co-introduction of Er and O, with the subsequent formation of ErO complexes in Si, strongly reduces this temperature quenching and room temperature light emission can be easily achieved. These two cases are presented and possible applications discussed.

  2. High-performace cladding-pumped erbium-doped fibre laser and amplifier

    SciTech Connect

    Kotov, L V; Likhachev, M E; Bubnov, M M; Medvedkov, O I; Lipatov, D S; Vechkanov, N N; Guryanov, Aleksei N

    2012-05-31

    We report cladding-pumped erbium-doped fibre laser and amplifier configurations. Through fibre design optimisation, we have achieved a record-high laser slope efficiency, 40 % with respect to absorbed pump power ({lambda} = 976 nm), and an output power of 7.5 W. The erbium-doped fibre amplifier efficiency reaches 32 %.

  3. Observation of low voltage driven green emission from erbium doped Ga2O3 light-emitting devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhengwei; Wang, Xu; Zhang, Fabi; Noda, Shinji; Saito, Katsuhiko; Tanaka, Tooru; Nishio, Mitsuhiro; Arita, Makoto; Guo, Qixin

    2016-07-01

    Erbium doped Ga2O3 thin films were deposited on Si substrate by pulsed laser deposition method. Bright green emission (˜548 nm) can be observed by naked eye from Ga2O3:Er/Si light-emitting devices (LEDs). The driven voltage of this LEDs is 6.2 V which is lower than that of ZnO:Er/Si or GaN:Er/Si devices. Since the wide bandgap of Ga2O3 contain more defect-related level which will enhance the effects of recombination between electrons in the defect-related level and the holes in the valence band, resulting in the improvement of the energy transfer to Er ions. We believe that this work paves the way for the development of Si-based green LEDs by using wide bandgap Ga2O3 as the host materials for Er3+ ions.

  4. Novel samarium/erbium and samarium/terbium codoped glass phosphor for application in warm white light-emitting-diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, Cosmo M.; Gouveia-Neto, Artur S.; Bueno, Luciano A.

    2014-02-01

    Tunable polychromatic light emission within the low color correlated temperature range was produced using terbiumand/ or erbium-samarium co-doped PbGeO3:PbF2:CdF2 glass phosphor. The phosphors were synthesized, and their luminescence characteristics were examined under UV-blue light-emitting-diode laser excitation. Luminescence emission around 490, 545, 600, and 645 nm in Tb3+/Sm3+ and 525, 545, 600, and 645 nm in Er3+/Sm3+ co-doped phosphor was obtained and analyzed as a function of the active ions concentration, and excitation wavelength. Color tunability in the red-orange-yellow-green region was achieved combining of Tb3+, Er3+, and Sm3+ ions contents. Results suggest that the color-tunable polychromatic light emitter phosphor herein reported is a promising novel candidate for application in cold white-light LED-based illumination technology

  5. Challenging lanthanide relaxation theory: erbium and thulium complexes that show NMR relaxation rates faster than dysprosium and terbium analogues.

    PubMed

    Funk, Alexander M; Harvey, Peter; Finney, Katie-Louise N A; Fox, Mark A; Kenwright, Alan M; Rogers, Nicola J; Senanayake, P Kanthi; Parker, David

    2015-07-01

    Measurements of the proton NMR paramagnetic relaxation rates for several series of isostructural lanthanide(III) complexes have been performed in aqueous solution over the field range 1.0 to 16.5 Tesla. The field dependence has been modeled using Bloch-Redfield-Wangsness theory, allowing values for the electronic relaxation time, Tle and the magnetic susceptibility, μeff, to be estimated. Anomalous relaxation rate profiles were obtained, notably for erbium and thulium complexes of low symmetry 8-coordinate aza-phosphinate complexes. Such behaviour challenges accepted theory and can be interpreted in terms of changes in Tle values that are a function of the transient ligand field induced by solvent collision and vary considerably between Ln(3+) ions, along with magnetic susceptibilities that deviate significantly from free-ion values. PMID:26051749

  6. Performance analysis of a concatenated erbium-doped fiber amplifier supporting four mode groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Zujun; Fan, Di; Zhang, Wentao; Xiong, Xianming

    2016-05-01

    An erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) supporting four mode groups has been theoretically designed by concatenating two sections of erbium-doped fibers (EDFs). Each EDF has a simple erbium doping profile for the purpose of reducing its fabrication complexity. We propose a modified genetic algorithm (GA) to provide detailed investigations on the concatenated amplifier. Both the optimal fiber length and erbium doping radius in each EDF have been found to minimize the gain difference between signal modes. Results show that the parameters of the central-doped EDF have a greater impact on the amplifier performance compared to those of the annular-doped one. We then investigate the influence of the small deviations of the erbium fiber length, doping radius and doping concentration of each EDF from their optimal values upon the amplifier performance, and discuss their design tolerances in obtaining a desirable amplification characteristics.

  7. An optical amplifier having 5 cm long silica-clad erbium doped phosphate glass fiber fabricated by "core-suction" technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goel, Nitin K.; Pickrell, Gary; Stolen, Roger

    2014-08-01

    We have fabricated an erbium-doped phosphate glass fiber with a silica cladding and used 5 cm length of it to form an optical amplifier. A bulk erbium phosphate glass called MM2 was used as a core glass in a silica cladding tube to prepare a preform using "core-suction" technique. This MM2 glass preform was drawn to a fiber and the resultant fiber was of good optical quality, free from air bubbles and major defects. The fiber was mechanically strong enough to allow for ease of handling and could be spliced to conventional silica fiber using commercial fusion splicer. This fiber was then used to setup an EDFA. Our work demonstrates the potential to form silica clad optical fibers with phosphate cores doped with very high levels of rare-earth ions. It is demonstrated that the core suction technique can be used to make a high-gain erbium phosphate fiber amplifier that is compatible with conventional silica fibers.

  8. Low Temperature Cathodoluminescence Spectroscopy of Amorphous Aluminum Nitride Nanoparticles doped with Erbium, synthesized using Inert Gas Condensation Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandya, Sneha; Wang, Jingzhou; Wojciech, Jadwisienczak; Kordesch, Martin

    2015-03-01

    Free standing Aluminum Nitride Nanoparticles (NPs) doped in situwith Erbium (AlN:Er), ranging from 3-30nm in size, were synthesized using a vapor phase deposition technique known as Inert Gas Condensation (IGC). Amorphous behavior of these NPs was inferred from the wide-angle X-ray spectroscopy studies. Raman spectra analysis for these AlN:Er NPs showed characteristic peaks for A1(TO) and E2(high) phonon modes of AlN. Detailed structural characterization of these Er doped AlN NPs will be carried out using a High-Resolution TEM, results of which will be included in my talk. Low temperature Cathodoluminescence (CL) measurements were carried out for these a-AlN:Er NPs. The corresponding Er+3 ion emission peaks were compared to the CL emission spectra obtained for a-AlN:Er thin films, and for commercially obtained Erbium-Oxide NPs. These spectroscopic results will be discussed in detail. I will also present the CL results obtained for in-air and in-nitrogen atmosphere annealed a-AlN:Er NPs. In addition to this, I will illustrate how these Er doped NPs can be used as nano-scale temperature sensors. The SNOM help provided by Prof. Hugh Richardson is gratefully acknowledged.

  9. Intense red upconversion fluorescence emission in NIR-excited erbium-ytterbium doped laponite-derived phosphor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, Andréa F.; Moura, Diógenes S.; Gouveia-Neto, Artur S.; Silva, Elias A., Jr.; Bueno, Luciano A.; Costa, Ernande B.; Azevedo, Eduardo N.

    2011-02-01

    In this report the optical properties and energy-transfer frequency upconversion luminescence of Er3+/Yb3+-codoped laponite-derived powders under 975 nm infrared excitation is investigated. The 75%(laponite):25%(PbF2) samples doped with erbium and ytterbium ions, generated high intensity red emission around 660 nm and lower intensity green emission around 525, and 545 nm. The observed emission signals were examined as a function of the excitation power and annealing temperature. The results indicate that energy-transfer, and excited-state absorption are the major upconversion excitation mechanism for the erbium excited-state red emitting level. The precursor glass samples were also heat treated at annealing temperatures of 300 °C, 400 °C, 500 °C, and 600 °C, for a 2h period. The dependence of the visible upconversion luminescence emission upon the annealing temperature indicated the existence of an optimum temperature which leads to the generation of the most intense and spectrally pure red emission signal.

  10. Erbium-doped slot waveguides containing size-controlled silicon nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffmann, R.; Beyer, J. Heitmann, J.; Klemm, V.; Rafaja, D.; Johnson, B. C.; McCallum, J. C.

    2015-04-28

    Silicon based slot waveguides with a slot containing Si nanocrystals (Si-nc) and Erbium ions (Er{sup 3+}) inside a silica matrix were prepared using sputter deposition and low-energy ion implantation. This sequence enabled independent optimization of nanocrystal formation and Er{sup 3+} incorporation parameters. Using a superlattice approach, the size of the Si-nc inside the slot could be controlled and optimized for maximum Er{sup 3+} luminescence yield at 1.54 μm. Er{sup 3+} is found to be efficiently pumped by Si-nc of sizes around 3 to 4 nm. Increasing Er{sup 3+} photoluminescence at 1.54 μm with increasing post-implantation annealing temperatures up to 1000 °C is attributed to annealing of matrix or Si-nc interface defects mainly. Additionally, a dependence of the Er{sup 3+} luminescence intensity on both the excitation and emission linear polarization orientation is shown, which demonstrates efficient field enhancement in sputtered slot waveguide structures.

  11. Erbium doping into silicate glasses to form luminescent optical layers for photonics applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salavcova, Linda; Mackova, Anna; Oswald, Jiri; Svecova, Blanka; Janakova, Stanislava; Spirkova, Jarmila; Mika, Martin

    2007-05-01

    Here we summarise results of our research on the Er-containing thin surface layers in the silicate glasses and on the effect of the layers’ composition on their luminescence properties (emission at 1535 nm) in the wavelength region widely used in photonics. The optical layers were fabricated by Er3+ (melt)⇔Li+/Na+ (glass substrate) ion exchange in the specially designed Li2O containing silicate glasses using various conditions (including annealing of the samples) to obtain a set of layers with diverse distribution of the Er3+ ions. Changes in the chemical composition of the prepared layers were suggested to avoid the concentration quenching effect and to improve their luminescence properties; special attention was paid to presence of hydrogen in the layers that may decrease the emission intensity. Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy and Elastic Recoil Detection were used to obtain detailed information on migration of erbium and hydrogen through the glass matrix, respectively. Photoluminescence spectra of the fabricated samples were measured (excitation at 980 nm) to examine the desired emission around 1535 nm.

  12. The influence of silver-ion doping using ion implantation on the luminescence properties of Er-Yb silicate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanek, S.; Nekvindova, P.; Svecova, B.; Vytykacova, S.; Mika, M.; Oswald, J.; Mackova, A.; Malinsky, P.; Spirkova, J.

    2016-03-01

    A set of zinc-silicate glasses with different ratios of erbium and ytterbium was fabricated. To achieve Ag-rich thin films in a sub-surface layer, ion-implantation technique at an energy of 1.2 MeV and 1.7 MeV with a fluence of 1 × 1016 cm-2 was used. Post-implantation annealing was also applied. Changes in the spectroscopic and lasing properties of erbium ions as a function of implantation fluence of silver were studied with the aim to assess the positive effect of silver as a sensitiser of erbium luminescence. Therefore, absorption spectra in the visible range as well as luminescence spectra in the near-infrared range were measured and partially also the 4I11/2-4I15/2 transition of the erbium ion was studied. The results showed that silver positively influenced luminescence intensity at 1530 nm by increasing it almost three times. The biggest increase was achieved in glass with the highest concentration of erbium. Luminescence lifetime was not significantly influenced by the presence of silver and still remained around 10 ms.

  13. Pyramidal structural defects in erbium silicide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Eu Jin; Bouville, Mathieu; Chi, Dong Zhi; Pey, Kin Leong; Lee, Pooi See; Srolovitz, David J.; Tung, Chih Hang

    2006-01-01

    Pyramidal structural defects, 5-8μm wide, have been discovered in thin films of epitaxial ErSi2-x formed by annealing thin Er films on Si(001) substrates at temperatures of 500-800°C. The formation of these defects is not due to oxidation. We propose that they form as a result of the separation of the silicide film from the substrate and its buckling in order to relieve the compressive, biaxial epitaxial stresses. Silicon can then diffuse through the silicide or along the interface to fully or partially fill the void between the buckled erbium disilicide film and the substrate.

  14. Erbium Doped Fiber Sensor for Ammonia Detection into Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Sánchez, G. G.; Pinzón-Escobar, E. F.; Sandoval-Romero, G. E.; Álvarez Chávez, J. A.

    2015-01-01

    The water pollution is a health problem around the world. One of the most common pollutants in water is the Ammonia. Some sensors have been developed for Ammoniac detection even though most of them are not in real time and could be expensive. In this work an Erbium-doped fibre-sensor for Ammonia detection with a mechanical long period fibre grating and a taper in cascade for improving the sensitivity; the detection bandwidth is in the 1550 nm region from 1460 nm to 1640 nm. Output optical spectrum for Ammonia concentrations from 1ml to 5 ml is shown

  15. Erbium-doped fiber amplifier elements for structural analysis sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanna-Hawver, P.; Kamdar, K. D.; Mehta, S.; Nagarajan, S.; Nasta, M. H.; Claus, R. O.

    1992-01-01

    The use of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFA's) in optical fiber sensor systems for structural analysis is described. EDFA's were developed for primary applications as periodic regenerator amplifiers in long-distance fiber-based communication systems. Their in-line amplification performance also makes them attractive for optical fiber sensor systems which require long effective lengths or the synthesis of special length-dependent signal processing functions. Sensor geometries incorporating EDFA's in recirculating and multiple loop sensors are discussed. Noise and polarization birefringence are also considered, and the experimental development of system components is discussed.

  16. Erbium-doped fiber amplifier elements for structural analysis sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanna-Hawver, P.; Kamdar, K. D.; Mehta, S.; Nagarajan, S.; Nasta, M. H.; Claus, R. O.

    1992-06-01

    The use of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFA's) in optical fiber sensor systems for structural analysis is described. EDFA's were developed for primary applications as periodic regenerator amplifiers in long-distance fiber-based communication systems. Their in-line amplification performance also makes them attractive for optical fiber sensor systems which require long effective lengths or the synthesis of special length-dependent signal processing functions. Sensor geometries incorporating EDFA's in recirculating and multiple loop sensors are discussed. Noise and polarization birefringence are also considered, and the experimental development of system components is discussed.

  17. Photoluminescence of Erbium-Doped Potassium Tantalate Niobate Polycrystalline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Cheng‑Hung; Chu, Sheng‑Yuan; Shin, Yan‑Yu; Wen, Cheng‑Kuo

    2006-07-01

    In this study, we investigated the luminescence properties of erbium-doped potassium tantalite niobate (KTaxNb1-xO3 or KTN) ceramics, which were prepared by the conventional solid-state reaction synthesis method. In this work, we studied the relationships of the crystal structure, and Raman and photoluminescence (PL) spectra with the tantalum concentration, respectively. The experiments showed that the tantalum dopants modified the intensity of the green, red and near-infrared emission bands. The experiments also showed a blue shift for the 2 mol % erbium doped KTN samples with different tantalum compositions. Doping Ta not only led to the change in PL intensity but also in spectral shapes. The PL spectra showed the splitting peaks for the samples with low Ta compositions. Then these peaks combined and broadened as Ta concentration increase. When Ta was substituted for Nb completely, the luminescence intensity of the green emission band had an increase of approximately about one order of magnitude, which was because of the absence of the first-order phonon relaxation in the high-Ta-concentration samples.

  18. Harmonically mode-locked erbium-doped waveguide laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanto, Michael L.; Malowicki, John E.; Bussjager, Rebecca J.; Johns, Steven T.; Vettese, Elizabeth K.; Hayduk, Michael J.

    2004-08-01

    The generation of ultrastable picosecond pulses in the 1550 nm range is required for numerous applications that include photonic analog-to-digital converter systems and high-bit rate optical communication systems. Mode-locked erbium-doped fiber ring lasers (EDFLs) are typically used to generate pulses at this wavelength. In addition to timing stability and output power, the physical size of the laser cavity is of primary importance to the Air Force. The length of the erbium (Er)-doped fiber used as the gain medium may be on the order of meters or even tens of meters which adds complexity to packaging. However, with the recent advancements in the production of multi-component glasses, higher doping concentrations can be achieved as compared to silicate glasses. Even more recent is the introduction of Er-doped multi-component glass waveguides, thus allowing the overall footprint of the gain medium to be reduced. We have constructed a novel harmonically mode-locked fiber ring laser using the Er-doped multi-component glass waveguide as the gain medium. The performance characteristics of this Er-doped waveguide laser (EDWL) including pulse width, spectral width, harmonic suppression, optical output power, laser stability and single sideband residual phase noise will be discussed in this paper.

  19. Evidence of two erbium sites in standard aluminosilicate glass for EDFA.

    PubMed

    Peretti, R; Jurdyc, A M; Jacquier, B; Burov, E; Pastouret, A

    2010-09-27

    Site distributions of Er(3+)-doped aluminosilicate preforms of standard EDFA were studied by the low temperature Resonant Fluorescence Line Narrowing (RFLN) spectroscopy. Two erbium concentration samples with the same glass base were investigated. At very low erbium concentration, two classes of sites were identified, related to the number of AlO(6) octahedral linked by two oxygen edge-sharing to Er(3+) in the coordination sphere. As erbium concentration is increased, the high AlO(6) coordinated class of sites is smeared out by the optical response of the one AlO(6) coordinated class of sites. PMID:20940961

  20. Numerical simulation and optimization of passively q-switched erbium microchip lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belghachem, Nabil; Mlynczak, Jarslow

    2015-08-01

    In this article we present a procedure of optimization of passively q-switched erbium microchip lasers. The procedure is based on the rate equation model, validated by comparing the numerical results to the experimental results of pulse generation in different types of erbium/ytterbium glass microchips q-switched by Co2+ : MgAl2O4 saturable absorber. Some Degnan’s optimization limitations in case of microchip lasers were also shown and the reabsorbtion cross section of erbium glass was also estimated.

  1. Self-quenching of luminescence in concentrated lithium--erbium and lithium--holmium double fluoride crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Tkachuk, A.M.; Klokishner, S.I.; Petrov, M.V.

    1985-10-01

    For the radiative terms of holmium and erbium ions in concentrated LiErF/sub 4/ and LiHoF/sub 4/ crystals, numerical estimates were made of the microparameters and transfer rates on the basis of known experimental data on the structure of luminescence centers, probabilities of intracenter transitions, phonon spectrum of the crystals, and electron--phonon interaction. The schemes of the most important processes of cross-relaxation quenching and nonlinear (in excitation intensity) interaction have been determined. On the basis of an analysis of numerical values of the rates of intracenter relaxation and interionic transfer of energy, conclusions are reached concerning the processes which significantly affect the radiative characteristics of concentrated crystals. The role of the processes of cross-relaxation quenching and nonlinear interaction in the formation of an inverse population of excited multiplets and the influences of these processes on the characteristics of stimulated emission are discussed.

  2. Optical properties of erbium-doped aluminum-gallium-arsenide native oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kou, Leigang

    In this study, native oxides of Al-bearing III-V compound semiconductors are explored as a host material for erbium ions with potential for integration in the AlGaAs alloy system. Using room temperature photoluminescence and lifetime measurements, the AlGaAs native oxide has been shown to be a much better host for Er 3+ than the unoxidized semiconductors themselves. Furthermore, various luminescence quench ing mechanisms, including arsenic quenching, hydroxyl (OH) group quenching and concentration quenching, are investigated in order to optimize the process. Ampoule annealing with arsenic overpressure has been used to show the effect of arsenic quenching. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) transform spectra of oxide films thermally oxidized in water (H2O) vapor reveal the existence of OH groups, which act as luminescence quenching centers. However, such OH groups may not be intrinsic to the wet oxidation process, but appear instead to come primarily from the adsorption of moisture from the atmosphere due to the porous nature of the native oxide and strong affinity of OH radical to the oxide. This is supported by the fact that FTIR spectra of oxide films oxidized in deuterated water (D2O) show the presence of OH groups instead of OD groups. In order to fabricate an Er-doped planar waveguide amplifier, a high Er concentration is essential. However, the photoluminescence intensity of Er3+ does not increase linearly as the Er concentration increases because the shorter distance among Er 3+ ions introduces strong ion-ion interactions which reduce the excited Er3+ ion population through non-radiative transitions. High-temperature annealing has been employed as an effective post-processing step to activate Er3+ ions and remove OH groups. The annealing process parameters (temperature, time and gas ambient) have been optimized. The optimal annealing temperature, however, is reduced by arsenic quenching mechanism particular to AlGaAs oxide/semiconductor system. The oxidation

  3. Laser-diode-pumped, erbium-doped, solid-state laser with high slope efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Esterowitz, L.; Allen, R.; Kintz, G.

    1989-10-31

    A laser and method for producing a laser emission at a wavelength of substantially 2.8 microns is disclosed. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, the laser comprises laser diode means for emitting a pump beam at a preselected wavelength; and a crystal having a preselected host material doped with a predetermined percent concentration of erbium activator ions sufficient to produce a laser emission at substantially 2.8 microns at a slope efficiency of at least 5 percent, but preferrably 10 percent, when the crystal is pumped by the pump beam. It is well known that the human body is comprised of approximately 70% water, with various human tissues containing about 60% to 90% of water, and bone and cartilage containing about 30% to 40% of water. Since the 2.8 micron wavelength has a substantially maximum absorption in water, this 2.8 micron wavelength is the ideal wavelength to use for a large variety of medical laser applications on the human body. A 2.8 micron wavelength laser could be used for precise surgery in such exemplary applications as brain surgery, neurosurgery, eye surgery, plastic surgery, burn treatment and the removal of malignancies.

  4. High-energy, in-band pumped erbium doped fiber amplifiers.

    PubMed

    Lim, Ee-Leong; Shaif-ul Alam; Richardson, David J

    2012-08-13

    We have demonstrated and compared high-energy, in-band pumped erbium doped fiber amplifiers operating at 1562.5 nm under both a core pumping scheme (CRS) and a cladding pumping scheme (CLS). The CRS/CLS sources generated smooth, single-peak pulses with maximum pulse energies of ~1.53/1.50 mJ, and corresponding pulse widths of ~176/182 ns respectively, with an M2 of ~1.6 in both cases. However, the conversion efficiency for the CLS was >1.5 times higher than the equivalent CRS variant operating at the same pulse energy due to the lower pump intensity in the CLS that mitigates the detrimental effects of ion concentration quenching. With a longer fiber length in a CLS implementation a pulse energy of ~2.6 mJ is demonstrated with a corresponding M2 of ~4.2. Using numerical simulations we explain that the saturation of pulse energy observed in our experiments is due to saturation of the pump absorption. PMID:23038520

  5. Laser diode pumped, erbium-doped, solid state laser with high slope efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esterowitz, Leon; Allen, R.; Kintz, G.

    1989-10-01

    A laser and method for producing a laser emission at a wavelength of substantially 2.8 microns is disclosed. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, the laser comprises laser diode means for emitting a pump beam at a preselected wavelength; and a crystal having a preselected host material doped with a predetermined percent concentration of erbium activator ions sufficient to produce a laser emission at substantially 2.8 microns at a slope efficiency of at least 5 percent, but preferrably 10 percent, when the crystal is pumped by the pump beam. It is well known that the human body is comprised of approximately 70 percent water, with various human tissues containing about 60 to 90 percent of water, and bone and cartilage containing about 30 to 40 percent of water. Since the 2.8 micron wavelength has a substantially maximum absorption in water, this 2.8 micron wavelength is the ideal wavelength to use for a large variety of medical laser applications on the human body. A 2.8 micron wavelength laser could be used for precise surgery in such exemplary applications as brain surgery, neurosurgery, eye surgery, plastic surgery, burn treatment, and the removal of malignancies.

  6. Radiation-resistant erbium-doped-nanoparticles optical fiber for space applications.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Jérémie; Myara, Mikhaël; Troussellier, Laurent; Burov, Ekaterina; Pastouret, Alain; Boivin, David; Mélin, Gilles; Gilard, Olivier; Sotom, Michel; Signoret, Philippe

    2012-01-30

    We demonstrate for the first time a radiation-resistant Erbium-Doped Fiber exhibiting performances that can fill the requirements of Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers for space applications. This is based on an Aluminum co-doping atom reduction enabled by Nanoparticules Doping-Process. For this purpose, we developed several fibers containing very different erbium and aluminum concentrations, and tested them in the same optical amplifier configuration. This work allows to bring to the fore a highly radiation resistant Erbium-doped pure silica optical fiber exhibiting a low quenching level. This result is an important step as the EDFA is increasingly recognized as an enabling technology for the extensive use of photonic sub-systems in future satellites. PMID:22330481

  7. Long lifetime, high density single-crystal erbium compound nanowires as a high optical gain material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Leijun; Ning, Hao; Turkdogan, Sunay; Liu, Zhicheng; Nichols, Patricia L.; Ning, C. Z.

    2012-06-01

    Erbium-containing materials of long lifetime and high Er density are important for achieving strong luminescence and high optical gain in compact integrated photonics devices. We have systematically studied the lifetime and crystal quality as a function of growth conditions for an erbium compound that we recently reported, erbium chloride silicate (ECS). The lifetime for the best quality ECS nanowires can be as long as 540 μs, the longest for high-density Er-materials, representing a lifetime-density product as high as 8.7 × 1018 s cm-3. Such high density, long lifetime erbium materials can find many interesting applications such as compact lasers or amplifiers.

  8. An Erbium Quantum Gas Microscope with a Reflective Objective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krahn, Aaron; Phelps, Gregory; Hebert, Anne; Dickerson, Susannah; Greiner, Markus; Erbium Lab Team

    2016-05-01

    Dipolar atoms present an exciting opportunity to extend previous quantum gas microscope (QGM) experiments to more complex systems influenced by long range, anisotropic interactions. We present on current progress toward the construction of a QGM for ultracold Erbium atoms in an optical lattice, including the development of a novel imaging system for single-site resolution. While most QGMs until now have typically utilized a high numerical aperture microscope objective, we discuss a reflective mirror alternative that offers an equally high NA (.9-.95), a comparable field of view (34 micrometers radial), and a larger working distance (25 millimeters) that keeps the atoms far from any surfaces. By operating in a Schmidt telescope configuration, this imaging system is well-suited both for collecting 401 nm imaging fluorescence and for the creation of an expandable lattice with a variety of associated lattice geometries.

  9. Analytical interactomic potential for a molybdenum–erbium system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Q. Q.; Yang, T. L.; Yang, L.; Peng, S. M.; Long, X. G.; Zhou, X. S.; Zu, X. T.; Gao, F.

    2016-05-01

    Analytical interatomic potentials of a molybdenum–erbium (Mo–Er) system are developed based on a Tersoff–Brenner-type form. The potentials well describes the bulk and defect properties of bcc Mo, including lattice parameter, cohesive energy, elastic constants, formation energies of point defects, surface energies and melting point. The adsorption behavior of Er on a Mo (1 1 0) surface is studied using ab initio calculations based on the density functional theory, which is used to fit the interatomic potential of a Mo–Er interaction. The growth mechanism of the Er film on a Mo substrate is investigated using the present potentials. The simulation results show that the microstructures and morphologies of Er films are sensitive to substrate temperatures. Columnar grains of hexagonal close-packed Er parallel to a Mo (1 1 0) surface are observed and the grain sizes increase with increasing substrate temperature.

  10. Dual-kind Q-switching of erbium fiber laser

    SciTech Connect

    Barmenkov, Yuri O. Kir'yanov, Alexander V.; Cruz, Jose L.; Andres, Miguel V.

    2014-03-03

    Two different regimes of Q-switching in the same implementation of an actively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser are demonstrated. Depending on the active fiber length and repetition rate of an intracavity Q-cell (acousto-optic modulator), the laser operates either in the regime of common, rather long and low-power, pulses composed of several sub-pulses or in the one of very short and powerful stimulated Brillouin scattering-induced pulses. The basic physical reason of the laser system to oscillate in one of these two regimes is the existence or absence of CW narrow-line “bad-cavity” lasing in the intervals when the Q-cell is blocked.

  11. Passive mode locking in erbium-ytterbium fiber lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thai, Serey; Hayduk, Michael J.

    1999-11-01

    A novel mode-locked erbium-ytterbium fiber laser operating at 1550 nm using multiple quantum well (MQW) saturable absorbers was developed. The laser was constructed in a Fabry-Perot configuration using a fiber Bragg grating as a front reflector and a fiber Bragg grating output as a back reflector of the laser cavity. The passive mode-locking element placed inside the laser cavity is a 75 period InGaAs/InAlAs MQW saturable absorber grown lattice matched on an InP substrate. The output of the laser was taken through the other available port of a wavelength-division demultiplexer. The laser produced mode-locked output pulse trains at 16.67-MHz repetition rate and 10 mW of average output power.

  12. Stable dual-wavelength erbium fiber laser for temperature measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, S.; Lopez-Amo, M.

    2015-09-01

    In this work, a new stable dual-wavelength erbium fiber ring laser is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. This configuration is made by creating two symmetrical laser cavities with similar optical power. This topology allows the performance of two laser emission lines in single-longitudinal mode and with a power instability lower than 0.23 dB, and an optical signal-to-noise ratio higher than 40 dB for all the emitted wavelengths. The sensing capability of the FBGs enables this source to be also used as sensor-network multiplexing scheme. The system offers a better stability and higher optical signal to noise ratios than similar configurations.

  13. Combination of erbium and holmium laser radiation for tissue ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratisto, Hans S.; Frenz, Martin; Koenz, Flurin; Altermatt, Hans J.; Weber, Heinz P.

    1996-05-01

    Erbium lasers emitting at 2.94 micrometers and holmium lasers emitting at 2.1 micrometers are interesting tools for cutting, drilling, smoothing and welding of water containing tissues. The high absorption coefficient of water at these wavelengths leads to their good ablation efficiency with controlled thermally altered zones around the ablation sites. Combination of pulses with both wavelengths transmitted through one fiber were used to perform incisions in soft tissue and impacts in bone disks. Histological results and scanning electron microscope evaluations reveal the strong influence of the absorption coefficient on tissue effects, especially on the ablation efficiency and the zone of thermally damaged tissue. It is demonstrated that the combination of high ablation rates and deep coagulation zones can be achieved. The results indicate that this laser system can be considered as a first step towards a multi-functional medical instrument.

  14. Study of the transport properties of organic semiconductors based on europium diphthalocyanine and bi-tris-phthalocyanine complexes with ortho-bis(oxymethyl)phenyl bridge and based on erbium and europium dinaphthalocyanine complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Belogorokhov, I. A.; Tikhonov, E. V.; Dronov, M. A.; Ryabchikov, Yu. V.; Pashkova, N. V.; Kladova, E. I.; Belogorokhova, L. I.; Tomilova, L. G.; Khokhlov, D. R.

    2011-11-15

    The transport properties of organic semiconductors based on europium diphthalocyanine and bitris-phthalocyanine complexes with ortho-bis(oxymethyl)phenyl bridge and based on europium and erbium dinaphthalocyanine are studied. The temperature dependences of the dc conductivity for all types of the structures under study are obtained; it is shown that all dependences include two activation portions. For high-temperature portions, the activation energies are determined as 0.85 eV for europium diphthalocyanine with the ortho-bis(oxymethyl)phenyl bridge, 1.135 eV for europium bi-tris-phthalocyanine with the orthobis(oxymethyl)phenyl bridge, 0.98 eV for europium dinaphthalocyanine, and 1.18 eV for erbium dinaphthalocyanine. For the low-temperature activation portion, it is shown that lanthanide ions and their bond with a ligand make the dominant contribution to the conductivity of the structures under study.

  15. Optical switching and photoluminescence in erbium-implanted vanadium dioxide thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, Herianto Stavrias, Nikolas; Johnson, Brett C.; McCallum, Jeffrey C.; Marvel, Robert E.; Haglund, Richard F.

    2014-03-07

    Vanadium dioxide (VO{sub 2}) is under intensive consideration for optical switching due to its reversible phase transition, which features a drastic and rapid shift in infrared reflectivity. Classified as an insulator–to–metal transition, the phase transition in VO{sub 2} can be induced thermally, electrically, and optically. When induced optically, the transition can occur on sub-picosecond time scales. It is interesting to dope VO{sub 2} with erbium ions (Er{sup 3+}) and observe their combined properties. The first excited-state luminescence of Er{sup 3+} lies within the wavelength window of minimal transmission-loss in silicon and has been widely utilized for signal amplification and generation in silicon photonics. The incorporation of Er{sup 3+} into VO{sub 2} could therefore result in a novel photonic material capable of simultaneous optical switching and amplification. In this work, we investigate the optical switching and photoluminescence in Er-implanted VO{sub 2} thin films. Thermally driven optical switching is demonstrated in the Er-implanted VO{sub 2} by infrared reflectometry. Photoluminescence is observed in the thin films annealed at ∼800 °C or above. In addition, Raman spectroscopy and a statistical analysis of switching hysteresis are carried out to assess the effects of the ion implantation on the VO{sub 2} thin films. We conclude that Er-implanted VO{sub 2} can function as an optical switch and amplifier, but with reduced switching quality compared to pure VO{sub 2}.

  16. Rapid onsite detection of bacterial spores of biothreat importance by paper-based colorimetric method using erbium-pyrocatechol violet complex.

    PubMed

    Shivakiran, M S; Venkataramana, M; Lakshmana Rao, P V

    2016-01-01

    Dipicolinic acid (DPA) is an important chemical marker for the detection of bacterial spores. In this study, complexes of lanthanide series elements such as erbium, europium, neodymium, and terbium were prepared with pyrocatechol violet and effectively immobilized the pyrocatechol violet (PV)-metal complex on a filter paper using polyvinyl alcohol. These filter paper strips were employed for the onsite detection of bacterial spores. The test filter papers were evaluated quantitatively with different concentrations of DPA and spores of various bacteria. Among the four lanthanide ions, erbium displayed better sensitivity than the other ions. The limit of detection of this test for DPA was 60 μM and 5 × 10(6) spores. The effect of other non-spore-forming bacteria and interfering chemicals on the test strips was also evaluated. The non-spore-forming bacteria did not have considerable effect on the test strip whereas chemicals such as EDTA had significant effects on the test results. The present test is rapid and robust, capable of providing timely results for better judgement to save resources on unnecessary decontamination procedures during false alarms. PMID:26603759

  17. Combination of fiber-guided pulsed erbium and holmium laser radiation for tissue ablation under water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratisto, Hans; Frenz, Martin; Ith, Michael; Altermatt, Hans J.; Jansen, E. Duco; Weber, Heinz P.

    1996-07-01

    Because of the high absorption of near-infrared laser radiation in biological tissue, erbium lasers and holmium lasers emitting at 3 and 2 mu m, respectively, have been proven to have optimal qualities for cutting or welding and coagulating tissue. To combine the advantages of both wavelengths, we realized a multiwavelength laser system by simultaneously guiding erbium and holmium laser radiation by means of a single zirconium fluoride (ZrF4) fiber. Laser-induced channel formation in water and poly(acrylamide) gel was investigated by the use of a time-resolved flash-photography setup, while pressure transients were recorded simultaneously with a needle hydrophone. The shapes and depths of vapor channels produced in water and in a submerged gel after single erbium and after combination erbium-holmium radiation delivered by means of a 400- mu m ZrF4 fiber were measured. Transmission measurements were performed to determine the amount of pulse energy available for tissue ablation. The effects of laser wavelength and the delay time between pulses of different wavelengths on the photomechanical and photothermal responses of meniscal tissue were evaluated in vitro by the use of histology. It was observed that the use of a short (200- mu s, 100-mJ) holmium laser pulse as a prepulse to generate a vapor bubble through which the ablating erbium laser pulse can be transmitted (delay time, 100 mu s) increases the cutting depth in meniscus from 450 to 1120 mu m as compared with the depth following a single erbium pulse. The results indicate that a combination of erbium and holmium laser radiation precisely and efficiently cuts tissue under water with 20-50- mu m collateral tissue damage. wave, cavitation, channel formation, infrared-fiber-delivery system, tissue damage, cartilage.

  18. Root Surface Bio-modification with Erbium Lasers- A Myth or a Reality??

    PubMed Central

    Lavu, Vamsi; Sundaram, Subramoniam; Sabarish, Ram; Rao, Suresh Ranga

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this literature review was to critically review the evidence available in the literature regarding the expediency of erbium family of lasers for root bio modification as a part of periodontal therapy. The literature search was performed on the Pubmed using MeSH words such as "lasers/therapeutic use, scaling, dental calculus, tooth root/anatomy and histology, ultrasonic therapy". The studies were screened and were grouped as follows: those evaluating a) efficacy for calculus removal with the Erbium family of laser b) root surface changes following Er YAG and Er Cr YSGG application c) comparative studies of the Er YAG, Er Cr YSGG lasers versus conventional methods of root surface modification d) Bio compatibility of root surface following Erbium laser treatment e) Studies on the combined efficacy of laser root modification with conventional methods towards root surface bio-modification f) Studies on effectiveness of root surface bio-modification prior to root coverage procedures. In conclusion, the erbium family has a proven anti-bacterial action, predictable calculus removal, minimal root substance removal, and appears to favor cell attachment. The Erbium family of lasers appears to be a useful adjunct for the management of periodontal disease. PMID:25713635

  19. Refractive index of erbium doped GaN thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Alajlouni, S.; Sun, Z. Y.; Li, J.; Lin, J. Y.; Jiang, H. X.; Zavada, J. M.

    2014-08-25

    GaN is an excellent host for erbium (Er) to provide optical emission in the technologically important as well as eye-safe 1540 nm wavelength window. Er doped GaN (GaN:Er) epilayers were synthesized on c-plane sapphire substrates using metal organic chemical vapor deposition. By employing a pulsed growth scheme, the crystalline quality of GaN:Er epilayers was significantly improved over those obtained by conventional growth method of continuous flow of reaction precursors. X-ray diffraction rocking curve linewidths of less than 300 arc sec were achieved for the GaN (0002) diffraction peak, which is comparable to the typical results of undoped high quality GaN epilayers and represents a major improvement over previously reported results for GaN:Er. Spectroscopic ellipsometry was used to determine the refractive index of the GaN:Er epilayers in the 1540 nm wavelength window and a linear dependence on Er concentration was found. The observed refractive index increase with Er incorporation and the improved crystalline quality of the GaN:Er epilayers indicate that low loss GaN:Er optical waveguiding structures are feasible.

  20. Assignments of the Raman modes of monoclinic erbium oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, D.; Wu, P. Zhang, S. P.; Liang, L.; Yang, F.; Pei, Y. L.; Chen, S.

    2013-11-21

    As a heavy rare earth oxide, erbium oxide (Er{sub 2}O{sub 3}) has many attractive properties. Monoclinic Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} has useful properties not found in stable cubic Er{sub 2}O{sub 3}, such as unique optical properties and high radiation damage tolerance. In this study, cubic Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating and Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating with mixed phases were prepared. The Raman scattering spectra of these coatings were investigated by using a confocal micro-Raman spectrometer equipped with 325, 473, 514, 532, 633, and 784 nm lasers. A total of 17 first-order Raman modes of monoclinic Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} were identified and assigned. The modes at 83, 112, 152, 170, 278, 290, 409, 446, 478, 521, 603, and 622 cm{sup −1} are of A{sub g} symmetry, whereas modes at 71, 98, 333, 409, 446, and 468 cm{sup −1} are of B{sub g} symmetry. This research provides basic data necessary for the characterization of monoclinic Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} by Raman spectroscopy.

  1. Advanced experiments with an erbium-doped fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, Paulo V. S.; Marques, Manuel B.; Rosa, Carla C.

    2014-07-01

    This communication describes an optical hands-on fiber laser experiment aimed at advanced college courses. Optical amplifiers and laser sources represent very important optical devices in numerous applications ranging from telecommunications to medicine. The study of advanced photonics experiments is particularly relevant at undergraduate and master level. This paper discusses the implementation of an optical fiber laser made with a cavity built with two tunable Bragg gratings. This scheme allows the students to understand the laser working principles as a function of the laser cavity set-up. One or both of the gratings can be finely tuned in wavelength through applied stress; therefore, the degree of spectral mismatch of the two gratings can be adjusted, effectively changing the cavity feedback. The impact of the cavity conditions on the laser threshold, spectrum and efficiency is analyzed. This experiment assumes that in a previous practice, the students should had already characterized the erbium doped fiber in terms of absorption and fluorescent spectra, and the spectral gain as a function of pump power.

  2. Surface behaviour in deuterium permeation through erbium oxide coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chikada, T.; Suzuki, A.; Adelhelm, C.; Terai, T.; Muroga, T.

    2011-06-01

    Suppression of tritium permeation through structural materials is essential in order to mitigate fuel loss and radioactivity concerns. Ceramic coatings have been investigated for over three decades as tritium permeation barriers (TPBs); however, a very limited number of investigations on the mechanism of hydrogen-isotope permeation through the coatings have been reported. In this study, deuterium permeation behaviour of erbium oxide coatings fabricated by filtered arc deposition on reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels has been investigated. The samples coated on both sides of the substrates showed remarkably lower permeability than those coated on one side, and the maximum reduction efficiency indicated a factor of 105 compared with the substrate. The different permeation behaviour between the coatings facing the high and low deuterium pressure sides has been found by the crystal structure analysis and the evaluation of the energy barriers. It is suggested that the permeation processes on the front and back surfaces are independent, and the TPB efficiency of the samples coated on both sides can be expressed by a multiplication of that of each side.

  3. Hydrogen diffusion along grain boundaries in erbium oxide coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Wei; Chikada, Takumi; Suzuki, Akihiro; Terai, Takayuki

    2014-12-01

    Diffusion of interstitial atomic hydrogen in erbium oxide (Er2O3) was investigated using density functional theory (DFT) and molecular dynamics (MD) methods. Hydrogen diffusivity in bulk, on (0 0 1) surface, and along Σ13 (4-3-1)/[1 1 1] symmetric tilt grain boundaries (GBs) were evaluated in a temperature range of 673-1073 K, as well as hydrogen diffusion barriers. It was found that H diffusion shows the faster on (0 0 1) surface than along GBs and in bulk. Also, energy barrier of H diffusion in bulk estimated by DFT and MD methods is somewhat higher than that along GBs evaluated in the experiments. This suggests that H diffusion in Er2O3 coatings depends on GBs rather than bulk. In addition, with a correction of GB density, the simulated diffusivity along GBs in MD simulations is in good agreement with the experimental data within one order of magnitude. The discrepancy of H diffusivity between the experiments and the simulations should be reduced by considering H concentration, H diffusion direction, deviations of the initial configuration, vacancy defects, etc.

  4. Cavitation bubbles induced by Erbium lasers: implications for dentistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verleng, Marja; Verdaasdonk, Rudolf; van der Veen, Albert; Lemberg, Vladimir; Boutoussov, Dmitri

    2014-02-01

    With new fiber systems available for 3 μm, Erbium lasers become more interesting for precise tissue ablation in a water environment enabling new application in e.g. dentistry. The dynamics of explosive bubble formation was investigated at 2.78 μm (Er,Cr;YSGG) and 2.94 μm (Er:YAG), in relation to energy (10-50 mJ), pulse length (20-150 μs) and fiber tip shape (flat or taper). The dynamics of exploding and imploding vapor bubbles were captured with high speed imaging (10 - 300 μs range). Increasing the pulse length and energy, the vapor bubble became more elongated with an opaque surface for flat tip fibers. Tapered fibers produced spherical vapor bubbles with an optically transparent surface expected to be more forceful for creating mechanical effects in both hard and soft tissues. There was no significant difference between bubbles formed at 2.78 μm (Er,Cr;YSGG) and 2.94 μm (Er:YAG).

  5. Ablation characteristics of quantum square pulse mode dental erbium laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukač, Nejc; Suhovršnik, Tomaž; Lukač, Matjaž; Jezeršek, Matija

    2016-01-01

    Erbium lasers are by now an accepted tool for performing ablative medical procedures, especially when minimal invasiveness is desired. Ideally, a minimally invasive laser cutting procedure should be fast and precise, and with minimal pain and thermal side effects. All these characteristics are significantly influenced by laser pulse duration, albeit not in the same manner. For example, high cutting efficacy and low heat deposition are characteristics of short pulses, while vibrations and ejected debris screening are less pronounced at longer pulse durations. We report on a study of ablation characteristics on dental enamel and cementum, of a chopped-pulse Er:YAG [quantum square pulse (QSP)] mode, which was designed to reduce debris screening during an ablation process. It is shown that in comparison to other studied standard Er:YAG and Er,Cr:YSGG laser pulse duration modes, the QSP mode exhibits the highest ablation drilling efficacy with lowest heat deposition and reduced vibrations, demonstrating that debris screening has a considerable influence on the ablation process. By measuring single-pulse ablation depths, we also show that tissue desiccation during the consecutive delivery of laser pulses leads to a significant reduction of the intrinsic ablation efficacy that cannot be fully restored under clinical settings by rehydrating the tooth using an external water spray.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of discrete luminescent erbium-doped silicon nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    John, J.S.; Coffer, J.L.; Chen, Y.; Pinizzotto, R.F.

    1999-03-10

    The preparation of discrete erbium-doped silicon nanoparticles prepared by the co-pyrolysis of disilane and the volatile complex Er(tmhd){sub 3} (tmhd = 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptanedionato) is described. The nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction, X-ray dispersive spectroscopy, photoluminescence, and UV-visible absorption spectroscopies. Erbium-doped silicon nanoparticles possess a distinctive dark contrast in the transmission electron microscope, and the presence of erbium is confirmed by X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy. The mean diameter of the nanoparticle aggregates can be shifted by altering the length of the pyrolysis oven employed. Characteristic Er{sup 3+} near-infrared photoluminescence at 1,540 nm is detected in these doped nanoparticles; preliminary excitation and power dependence measurements of this luminescence suggest a carrier-mediated emission mechanism.

  7. Low-temperature growth of silicon epitaxial layers codoped with erbium and oxygen atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Shengurov, D. V.; Chalkov, V. Yu.; Denisov, S. A.; Shengurov, V. G.; Stepikhova, M. V.; Drozdov, M. N.; Krasilnik, Z. F.

    2013-03-15

    The fabrication technology and properties of light-emitting Si structures codoped with erbium and oxygen are reported. The layers are deposited onto (100) Si by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) using an Er-doped silicon sublimation source. The partial pressure of the oxygen-containing gases in the growth chamber of the MBE facility before layer growth is lower than 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -10} Torr. The oxygen and erbium concentrations in the Si layers grown at 450 Degree-Sign C is {approx}1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 19} and 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3}, respectively. The silicon epitaxial layers codoped with erbium and oxygen have high crystal quality and yield effective photoluminescence and electroluminescence signals with the dominant optically active Er-1 center forming upon postgrowth annealing at a temperature of 800 Degree-Sign C.

  8. In vitro application of optical transmission systems in erbium:YAG laser temporomandibular joint surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuebler-Moritz, Michael; Hering, Peter; Niederdellmann, Herbert; Deuerling, Christian; Dammer, Ralf

    1995-05-01

    The experimental setup of this study is focused on the changes in temporomandibular joint tissue after irradiation with an Erbium:YAG laser. Initially, the free-running beam from the laser was focused onto freshly excised porcine tissue samples, indicating an optimum average energy density and pulse duration for the purpose of temporomandibular joint surgery of about 15 - 60 J/cm2 and 120 microsecond(s) - 240 microsecond(s) , respectively. Consecutively, an attempt was made to couple the Erbium:YAG laser beam on the one hand to optical fibers made of infrared-transmitting glasses (fluoride- and chalcogenide-based), on the other hand to a recently developed sapphire and liquid core fiber, respectively. From the preliminary observations of this investigation it appears that both the liquid core and the sapphire fiber are the most promising candidates for delivery of Erbium-YAG laser radiation in arthroscopic surgery of the craniomandibular articulation.

  9. Optical characterization and crystal field calculations for some erbium based solid state materials for laser refrigeration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, Z.; Qiu, Z.; Johnson, Jackie; Homerick, Uwe

    2009-02-01

    The potential of three erbium based solids hosts has been investigated for laser cooling. Absorption and emission spectra have been studied for the low lying IR transitions of erbium that are relevant to recent reports of cooling using the 4I15/2-4I9/2 and4I15/2 -4I13/2 transitions. Experimental studies have been performed for erbium in three hosts; ZBLAN glass and KPb2Cl5 and Cs2NaYCl6 crystals. In order to estimate the efficiencies of cooling, theoretical calculations have been performed for the cubic Elpasolite (Cs2NaYCl6 ) crystal. These calculations also provide a first principle insight into the cooling efficiency for non-cubic and glassy hosts where such calculations are not possible.

  10. Color tunable green-yellow-orange-red erbium/europium codoped fluorolead germanate glass phosphor for application in LED illumination technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouveia-Neto, Artur S.; Souza, Wellington S.; Domingues, Renata O.; da Costa, Ernande B.; Bueno, Luciano A.

    2013-03-01

    Color tunable wide gamut light covering the greenish, yellow-green, yellow, orange, and reddish tone chromaticity region in europium/erbium co-doped lead-cadmium-germanate PbGeO3:PbF2:CdF2 glass phosphor is presented. The phosphors were synthesized, and their light emission properties examined under UV/blue light-emitting-diode excitation. Luminescence emission around 525, 550, 590, 610, and 660 nm was obtained and analyzed as a function of Eu/Er concentration, excitation wavelength, and glass host composition. The color tunability was actually obtained via proper combination of Er3+ and Eu3+ active ions concentration. The combination of the emission tone with a blue LED in the region of 400-460 nm, yields a mixture of light with color in the white-light region presenting a CCT in the range of 2000 to 4000 K. Results indicate that the color-tunable fluorolead germanate erbium/europium co-doped glass phosphor herein reported is a promising novel contender for application in LED-based solid-state illumination technology

  11. Comprehensive study of the conditions for obtaining hydrogenated amorphous erbium- and oxygen-doped silicon suboxide films, a-SiO{sub x}:H Left-Pointing-Angle-Bracket Er,O Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket , by dc-magnetron deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Undalov, Yu. K. Terukov, E. I.; Gusev, O. B.; Lebedev, V. M.; Trapeznikova, I. N.

    2011-12-15

    The results of a comprehensive study of the conditions for growing a-SiO{sub x}:H Left-Pointing-Angle-Bracket Er,O Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket films are presented. The effect of the composition of various erbium-containing targets (a-SiO{sub x}:H , ErO{sub x}, Er{sub 2}SiO{sub 5}, Er{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and Er), substrate temperature, and annealing temperatures in argon, air, and under conditions of SiH{sub 4} + Ar + O{sub 2} plasma glow is studied. In order to obtain a-SiO{sub x}:H Left-Pointing-Angle-Bracket Er,O Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket films with the highest photoluminescence intensity of erbium ions, it is recommended for the following technological conditions to be used: the substrate holder should be insulated from dc-magnetron electrodes and the working gas mixture should include silane, argon, and oxygen. Single-crystal silicon and metal erbium should be used as targets. The erbium target should be placed only in the Si-target erosion zone.

  12. Design of mid-infrared amplifiers based on fiber taper coupling to erbium-doped microspherical resonator.

    PubMed

    Mescia, Luciano; Bia, Pietro; De Sario, Marco; Di Tommaso, Annalisa; Prudenzano, Francesco

    2012-03-26

    A dedicated 3D numerical model based on coupled mode theory and solving the rate equations has been developed to analyse, design and optimize an optical amplifier obtained by using a tapered fiber and a Er³⁺-doped chalcogenide microsphere. The simulation model takes into account the main transitions among the erbium energy levels, the amplified spontaneous emission and the most important secondary transitions pertaining to the ion-ion interactions. The taper angle of the optical fiber and the fiber-microsphere gap have been designed to efficiently inject into the microsphere both the pump and the signal beams and to improve their spatial overlapping with the rare earth doped region. In order to reduce the computational time, a detailed investigation of the amplifier performance has been carried out by changing the number of sectors in which the doped area is partitioned. The simulation results highlight that this scheme could be useful to develop high efficiency and compact mid-infrared amplifiers. PMID:22453441

  13. Manufacture and properties of erythromycin beads containing neutron-activated erbium-171

    SciTech Connect

    Parr, A.F.; Digenis, G.A.; Sandefer, E.P.; Ghebre-Sellassie, I.; Iyer, U.; Nesbitt, R.U.; Scheinthal, B.M. )

    1990-03-01

    To evaluate the effects of a neutron activation radiolabeling technique on an enteric-coated multiparticulate formulation of erythromycin, test quantities were produced under industrial pilot scale conditions. The pellets contained the stable isotope erbium oxide (Er-170), which was later converted by neutron activation into the short-lived gamma ray-emitting radionuclide, erbium-171. In vitro studies indicated that the dissolution profile, acid resistance, and enteric-coated surface of the pellets were minimally affected by the irradiation procedure. Antimicrobial potency was also unaffected, as determined by microbiological assay. Neutron activation thus appears to simplify the radiolabeling of complex pharmaceutical dosage forms for in vivo study by external gamma scintigraphy.

  14. Optical bistability in erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet crystal combined with a laser diode.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Y

    1994-01-10

    Optical bistability was observed in a simple structure of an injection laser diode combined with an erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet crystal. Since a hysteresis characteristic exists in the relationship between the wavelength and the injection current of a laser diode, an optical memory function capable of holding the output status is confirmed. In addition, an optical signal inversion was caused by the decrease of transmission of the erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet crystal against the red shift (principally mode hopping) of the laser diode. It is suggested that the switching time of this phenomenon is the time necessary for a mode hopping by current injection. PMID:20862016

  15. EPR and optical studies of erbium-doped beta-PbF2 single-crystals and nanocrystals in transparent glass-ceramics.

    PubMed

    Dantelle, Géraldine; Mortier, Michel; Vivien, Daniel

    2007-11-01

    beta-PbF(2) single-crystals and nanocrystals in transparent glass-ceramics doped with ErF(3) have been synthesized and studied with two complementary techniques: electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and optical spectroscopy (absorption, selective excitation, fluorescence). A comparative study shows that, in both single-crystals and glass-ceramics, Er(3+) ions occupy the same types of sites, leading to similar optical properties. An EPR investigation demonstrates that, in these materials, part of the Er(3+) ions occupy cubic symmetry sites. For these ions, we determine the crystal field splitting of the ground state (4)I(15/2) and the symmetry of its sublevels. We also provide evidence for the presence of another type of Er(3+) ions, not detectable by EPR but evidenced by optical spectroscopy. We clearly show that this Er(3+), which gives rise to up-conversion luminescence, corresponds to clusters associating Er(3+) and F(-) ions. In the single-crystals, the proportion of these two types of erbium ions is estimated. It strongly depends on the doping rate of the beta-PbF(2) crystals. PMID:17957316

  16. Erbium-doped sol-gel materials for optical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berni, Anette; Mennig, Martin; Schmidt, Helmut K.

    2003-04-01

    A new chemical nanotechnological route for the preparation of fully densified doped SiO2 coatings with thicknesses in the low ´m-range on Si- and SiO2-wafers has been developed. Beside pure SiO2 coatings, that might be useful as a buffer layer on silicon, silicate layers with increased refractive index are needed for planar waveguide application. Therefore, a synthesis for the preparation of nano particulate sols was developed, thus allowing the incorporation of dopands like Al2O3, PbO and Er2O3 for passive and active layers. Alumina was incorporated for the improvement of the Erbium solubility in active components. The coating sols consist of an organic binder, dissolved in a suspension of nanoscaled silica particles (10 nm in diameter) and dopands and were applied on Si- and SiO2-wafers by spin coating. After removal of the binder at 500 °C, investigated by IR-spectroscopy, highly porous (nD = 1.23) but transparent doped silica layers were obtained. The densification of the layers was examined by measuring the refractive index by ellipsometry as a function of the densification temperature. Completely densified layers with thicknesses between 1.7 ´m (doped SiO2) and 6.5 ´m (doped SiO2) were obtained at temperatures between 1000 °C (doped SiO2) and 1100 °C) (pure SiO2). The layer thickness and unevenness was determined by interferometric measurements. The optical loss of Al2O3 and PbO doped layers was measured by prism coupling, the Er2O3 doped layers with Er3+ concentrations of up to 2.5 mole % show fluorescence around 1500 nm with a fluorescence lifetime of about 3.6 ms.

  17. Microwave photonic filter using multiwavelength Brillouin-erbium fiber laser with double-Brillouin-frequency shift

    SciTech Connect

    Loh, K. K.; Yeo, K. S.; Shee, Y. G.

    2015-04-24

    A microwave photonic filter based on double-Brillouin-frequency spaced multiwavelength Brillouin-erbium fiber laser (BEFL) is experimentally demonstrated. The filter selectivity can be easily adjusted by tuning and apodizing the optical taps generated from the multiwavelength BEFL. Reconfiguration of different frequency responses are demonstrated.

  18. Effects of simultaneously fiber transmitted erbium and holmium radiation on the interaction with highly absorbing media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frenz, Martin; Pratisto, Hans S.; Ith, Michael; Koenz, Flurin; Weber, Heinz P.

    1995-05-01

    Erbium and Holmium lasers have both been shown to be suitable for orthopedic surgery performed under water. Erbium lasers emitting in the 3 micrometers wavelength region corresponding to the maximum water absorption peak effectively ablated biological tissues with high precision and minimal thermal damage. Holmium laser radiation at 2 micrometers , due to a lower absorption coefficient, is characterized by a greater extent of thermal damage leading to hemostasis. To combine the special advantages of each system we simultaneously coupled their radiation into a zirconium fluoride fiber (ZrF4) which was protected with a quartz fiber tip. Pressure measurements performed in the liquid using a piezo electrical transducer, transmission measurements and video flash lamp schlieren imaging of the laser induced vapor bubble were used in order to determine optimum laser parameters. The cutting efficiency of the Erbium laser is drastically improved when a low energy Holmium laser pulse is additionally used which is just able to open a vapor channel through which the Erbium laser pulse can be transmitted. The dynamics of the channel formation, geometry and life time are measured as a function of the delay time between the two different laser pulses and the pulse energy applied. The combination of 2 micrometers and 3 micrometers radiation seems to be an ideal instrument for tissue treatment.

  19. Microwave photonic filter using multiwavelength Brillouin-erbium fiber laser with double-Brillouin-frequency shift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loh, K. K.; Yeo, K. S.; Shee, Y. G.

    2015-04-01

    A microwave photonic filter based on double-Brillouin-frequency spaced multiwavelength Brillouin-erbium fiber laser (BEFL) is experimentally demonstrated. The filter selectivity can be easily adjusted by tuning and apodizing the optical taps generated from the multiwavelength BEFL. Reconfiguration of different frequency responses are demonstrated.

  20. Ultrasonic approach for formation of erbium oxide nanoparticles with variable geometries.

    PubMed

    Radziuk, Darya; Skirtach, André; Gessner, Andre; Kumke, Michael U; Zhang, Wei; Möhwald, Helmuth; Shchukin, Dmitry

    2011-12-01

    Ultrasound (20 kHz, 29 W·cm(-2)) is employed to form three types of erbium oxide nanoparticles in the presence of multiwalled carbon nanotubes as a template material in water. The nanoparticles are (i) erbium carboxioxide nanoparticles deposited on the external walls of multiwalled carbon nanotubes and Er(2)O(3) in the bulk with (ii) hexagonal and (iii) spherical geometries. Each type of ultrasonically formed nanoparticle reveals Er(3+) photoluminescence from crystal lattice. The main advantage of the erbium carboxioxide nanoparticles on the carbon nanotubes is the electromagnetic emission in the visible region, which is new and not examined up to the present date. On the other hand, the photoluminescence of hexagonal erbium oxide nanoparticles is long-lived (μs) and enables the higher energy transition ((4)S(3/2)-(4)I(15/2)), which is not observed for spherical nanoparticles. Our work is unique because it combines for the first time spectroscopy of Er(3+) electronic transitions in the host crystal lattices of nanoparticles with the geometry established by ultrasound in aqueous solution of carbon nanotubes employed as a template material. The work can be of great interest for "green" chemistry synthesis of photoluminescent nanoparticles in water. PMID:22022886

  1. Erbium:YAG laser contouring of the nasal dorsum: a preliminary investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truong, Mai T.; Majaron, Boris; Pandoh, Nidhi S.; Wong, Brian J.

    2001-05-01

    In conventional aesthetic rhinoplasty operations, manual or powered rasps are used to reduce the osseo-cartilagenous nasal dorsum. This tactile method requires palpation of the instrument and the dorsum during surgery to estimate the degree of volume reduction, and often requires forceful manipulation of the dorsum which may illicit pain during surgery and contribute to post-operative edema and echymosis. In this preliminary study, we investigated the use of the Erbium:YAG laser ((lambda) equals294 micrometers ) to reduce bone and cartilage using ex-vivo porcine nasal dorsum and human cadaveric tissues. The short pulsed length and high absorption of this laser in biologic tissues results in minimization of thermal injury which are ideal for non- contact optical contouring of osseous and cartilagenous tissues in the face. Two Erbium:YAG lasers were used to ablate fresh porcine nasal bone and compared for their use. One Erbium:YAG laser, the Fidelis Laser, Fontana Medical Lasers, Ljubljana, Slovenija with variable pulse repetition rates (2 to 50 Hz), pulse energy (80 to 1000 mJ), and pulse duration (100, 300, 750 and 1000 microsecond(s) ) was used and compared to the Ultrafine Erbium:YAG laser, Coherent Inc., Santa Clara California, with variable pulse repetition rate (2 to 10 Hz), pulse energy (2-16 J/cm2), and spot diameter (2-6 mm). Only laser parameters approximating the conditions for thermal confinement were evaluated.

  2. Study of a Tm:Ho:YLF laser pumped by a Raman shifted erbium-doped fibre laser at 1678 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Kalachev, Yu L; Mikhailov, Viktor A; Podreshetnikov, V V; Shcherbakov, Ivan A

    2010-06-23

    The lasing, spectral, and luminescent characteristics of a Tm:Ho:YLF laser pumped by a Raman shifted erbium-doped fibre laser ({lambda} = 1678 nm) into the 1682-nm absorption line of the {sup 3}H{sub 6}-{sup 3}F{sub 4} transition of the Tm{sup 3+} ion are studied. It is shown that the total (with respect to the absorbed power) and slope laser efficiencies upon pulsed pumping reach 46% and 50%, respectively. The output radiation power in the cw regime is 400 mW. The comparative measurements showed that pumping by a fibre laser at 1678 nm is more efficient than diode pumping at 792 nm. (lasers)

  3. Erbium:YAG-laser induced vapor bubbles as a function of the quartz fiber tip geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mrochen, Michael; Riedel, Peter; Donitzky, Christof; Seiler, Theo

    2001-07-01

    Background. The use of modern erbium: yttrium-aluminum- garnet (YAG) laser systems in ophthalmic microsurgery requires a precise knowledge of the size and dynamics of the laser induced vapor bubbles. The aim of this work was to clarify the possibilities of controlling the vapor bubble shape and size by using an optimized fiber tip geometry for various ophthalmic applications with the erbium:YAG laser. Methods. The mid-infrared radiation of free-running erbium:YAG laser was coupled optically into means of different low OH- quartz fiber tips to investigate the vapor bubble formation in water by high-speed photography. The core diameter of four fiber tips ranged from 200 up to 940 micrometers . Fourteen fiber tips were polished at an angle graduated from 10 degree(s) to 70 degree(s) over the full core diameter (seven fiber tips) and over the half core diameter (seven fiber tips). Three fiber tips were produced to have a curvature at the distal end with curvature radii of 160, 230, and 420 micrometers . Results. The shape as well as the size of erbium:YAG laser induced vapor bubbles can be controlled systematically by using adequate fiber tip geometries. In detail, the used different angles and curvatures demonstrate that the propagation direction of the vapor bubbles can be estimated by optical modeling considering Snell's law and the Fresnel laws at a quartz-air boundary. Beside this, the size of a vapor bubble can be predetermined by choosing ideal fiber tip geometries to reduce or increase the radiant exposure at the distal end of the quartz fiber tip. Conclusions. The good possibility of controlling the shape and size of vapor bubbles offers a wider range of new applications, especially in ophthalmic microsurgery such as erbium YAG laser vitrectomy.

  4. Electroluminescence from metal-oxide-semiconductor devices with erbium-doped CeO{sub 2} films on silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Lv, Chunyan; Zhu, Chen; Wang, Canxing; Gao, Yuhan; Ma, Xiangyang Yang, Deren

    2015-04-06

    We report on erbium (Er)-related electroluminescence (EL) in the visible and near-infrared (NIR) from metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) devices with Er-doped CeO{sub 2} (CeO{sub 2}:Er) films on silicon. The onset voltage of such EL under either forward or reverse bias is smaller than 10 V. Moreover, the EL quenching can be avoidable for the CeO{sub 2}:Er-based MOS devices. Analysis on the current-voltage characteristic of the device indicates that the electron transportation at the EL-enabling voltages under either forward or reverse bias is dominated by trap-assisted tunneling mechanism. Namely, electrons in n{sup +}-Si/ITO can tunnel into the conduction band of CeO{sub 2} host via defect states at sufficiently high forward/reverse bias voltages. Then, a fraction of such electrons are accelerated by electric field to become hot electrons, which impact-excite the Er{sup 3+} ions, thus leading to characteristic emissions. It is believed that this work has laid the foundation for developing viable silicon-based emitters using CeO{sub 2}:Er films.

  5. Electroluminescence from metal-oxide-semiconductor devices with erbium-doped CeO2 films on silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Chunyan; Zhu, Chen; Wang, Canxing; Gao, Yuhan; Ma, Xiangyang; Yang, Deren

    2015-04-01

    We report on erbium (Er)-related electroluminescence (EL) in the visible and near-infrared (NIR) from metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) devices with Er-doped CeO2 (CeO2:Er) films on silicon. The onset voltage of such EL under either forward or reverse bias is smaller than 10 V. Moreover, the EL quenching can be avoidable for the CeO2:Er-based MOS devices. Analysis on the current-voltage characteristic of the device indicates that the electron transportation at the EL-enabling voltages under either forward or reverse bias is dominated by trap-assisted tunneling mechanism. Namely, electrons in n+-Si/ITO can tunnel into the conduction band of CeO2 host via defect states at sufficiently high forward/reverse bias voltages. Then, a fraction of such electrons are accelerated by electric field to become hot electrons, which impact-excite the Er3+ ions, thus leading to characteristic emissions. It is believed that this work has laid the foundation for developing viable silicon-based emitters using CeO2:Er films.

  6. Comparison of the erbium-yttrium aluminum garnet and carbon dioxide lasers for in vitro bone and cartilage ablation

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, C.; van de Merwe, W.P.; Smith, M.; Reinisch, L. )

    1990-01-01

    The in vitro bone- and cartilage-ablation characteristics of the solid-state erbium:yttrium aluminum garnet laser were compared to those of the carbon dioxide laser. Ablations of fresh, frozen cadaver septal cartilage and maxillary sinus bone were performed using total energies between 1 and 6 J. Specimens were studied using hematoxylin and eosin stain and digitized, computer-assisted measurements of 35-mm photographs. Erbium-yttrium aluminum garnet-ablated bone averaged 5 microns of adjacent tissue thermal injury, compared with 67 microns with carbon dioxide-ablated bone. Erbium-yttrium aluminum garnet-ablated cartilage averaged 2 microns of adjacent tissue thermal injury, compared with 21 microns with the carbon dioxide-ablated cartilage. The tissue-ablation characteristics of the erbium-yttrium aluminum garnet laser are promising for future otolaryngologic applications.

  7. Modelling of micromachining of human tooth enamel by erbium laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belikov, A. V.; Skrypnik, A. V.; Shatilova, K. V.

    2014-08-01

    We consider a 3D cellular model of human tooth enamel and a photomechanical cellular model of enamel ablation by erbium laser radiation, taking into account the structural peculiarities of enamel, energy distribution in the laser beam cross section and attenuation of laser energy in biological tissue. The surface area of the texture in enamel is calculated after its micromachining by erbium laser radiation. The influence of the surface area on the bond strength of enamel with dental filling materials is discussed. A good correlation between the computer simulation of the total work of adhesion and experimentally measured bond strength between the dental filling material and the tooth enamel after its micromachining by means of YAG : Er laser radiation is attained.

  8. Few-mode erbium-doped fiber amplifier with photonic lantern for pump spatial mode control.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Galmiche, G; Sanjabi Eznaveh, Z; Antonio-Lopez, J E; Velazquez Benitez, A M; Rodriguez Asomoza, J; Sanchez Mondragon, J J; Gonnet, C; Sillard, P; Li, G; Schülzgen, A; Okonkwo, C M; Amezcua Correa, R

    2016-06-01

    We demonstrate a few-mode erbium-doped fiber amplifier employing a mode-selective photonic lantern for controlling the modal content of the pump light. Amplification of six spatial modes in a 5 m long erbium-doped fiber to ∼6.2  dBm average power is obtained while maintaining high modal fidelity. Through mode-selective forward pumping of the two degenerate LP21 modes operating at 976 nm, differential modal gains of <1  dB between all modes and signal gains of ∼16  dB at 1550 nm are achieved. In addition, low differential modal gain for near-full C-band operation is demonstrated. PMID:27244421

  9. Invariant bandwidth of erbium in ZnO-PbO-tellurite glasses: Local probe/model

    SciTech Connect

    Ramamoorthy, Raj Kumar; Bhatnagar, Anil K.

    2014-04-24

    A series of [(70TeO{sub 2}−(30−x)ZnO−xPbO){sub 0.99}−(Er{sub 2}O{sub 3}){sub 0.01}; where x = 5, 10, 15 and 20] tellurite glasses, were prepared using the melt quenching technique. Crucial emission bandwidth of erbium at 1.5 μm has been derived and found to be the same for all the glasses, irrespective of PbO content. This identical bandwidth in all tellurite glasses is attributed to the presence of erbium in tellurium rich disordered environments. This result has been complemented through XANES spectra and the obtained invariant first shell of 6.5 oxygen atoms, confirm the unchanged environment in these glasses for all PbO content.

  10. Opportunities for Low Cost Processing of Erbium 8-Quinolinolates for Active Integrated Photonic Applications.

    PubMed

    Penna, Stefano; Mattiello, Leonardo; Di Bartolo, Silvia; Pizzoleo, Angelo; Attanasio, Vincenzo; Beleffi, Giorgio Maria Tosi; Otomo, Akira

    2016-04-01

    Erbium-doped organic emitters are promising active materials for Photonic Integrated Circuits (PICs) due to their emission shown at 1550 nm combined to the potential low cost processing. In particular, Erbium Quinoline (ErQ) gained a strong interest in the last decade for the good emission efficiency. This contribution reports the results derived from the application of ErQ as active core material within a buried optical waveguide, following the development of a purposed optical process to control the refractive index of ErQ and then to define a patterned structure from a single thin film deposition step. The reported results show the potential of Er-doped organic materials for low cost processing and application to planar PICs. PMID:27451632

  11. Modelling of micromachining of human tooth enamel by erbium laser radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Belikov, A V; Skrypnik, A V; Shatilova, K V

    2014-08-31

    We consider a 3D cellular model of human tooth enamel and a photomechanical cellular model of enamel ablation by erbium laser radiation, taking into account the structural peculiarities of enamel, energy distribution in the laser beam cross section and attenuation of laser energy in biological tissue. The surface area of the texture in enamel is calculated after its micromachining by erbium laser radiation. The influence of the surface area on the bond strength of enamel with dental filling materials is discussed. A good correlation between the computer simulation of the total work of adhesion and experimentally measured bond strength between the dental filling material and the tooth enamel after its micromachining by means of YAG : Er laser radiation is attained. (laser biophotonics)

  12. Effect of holmium and erbium laser action on the human lens: an in-vitro study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasprzak, Jan; Kecik, Dariusz

    1997-10-01

    We investigated the holmium and erbium lasers operating at the medium IR range, used for cataract surgery. The main advantage of these lasers action on biological structures is total absorption of radiation by superficial layers. During the study of the lens emulsification process we found that the mechanical properties of the lens nucleus were of crucial importance for the rate of emulsification. The soft lenses were fragmented and emulsified after 200-700 pulses, while the hard lens required 5000 or more pulses while complete emulsification was not achieved. The results are promising and show that the holmium and erbium lasers can be used for human lens emulsification during ECCE. For clinical purposes, however, it is necessary to construct a suitable fiberoptic tip to be used in cataract removal. It seems that lasers whose beam is in the medium IR range could be used in many ophthalmic operations.

  13. Simulation of an erbium-doped chalcogenide micro-disk mid-infrared laser source.

    PubMed

    Al Tal, Faleh; Dimas, Clara; Hu, Juejun; Agarwal, Anu; Kimerling, Lionel C

    2011-06-20

    The feasibility of mid-infrared (MIR) lasing in erbium-doped gallium lanthanum sulfide (GLS) micro-disks was examined. Lasing condition at 4.5 µm signal using 800 nm pump source was simulated using rate equations, mode propagation and transfer matrix formulation. Cavity quality (Q) factors of 1.48 × 10(4) and 1.53 × 10(6) were assumed at the pump and signal wavelengths, respectively, based on state-of-the-art chalcogenide micro-disk resonator parameters. With an 80 µm disk diameter and an active erbium concentration of 2.8 × 10(20) cm(-3), lasing was shown to be possible with a maximum slope efficiency of 1.26 × 10(-4) and associated pump threshold of 0.5 mW. PMID:21716429

  14. High-performance air-stable n-type carbon nanotube transistors with erbium contacts.

    PubMed

    Shahrjerdi, Davood; Franklin, Aaron D; Oida, Satoshi; Ott, John A; Tulevski, George S; Haensch, Wilfried

    2013-09-24

    So far, realization of reproducible n-type carbon nanotube (CNT) transistors suitable for integrated digital applications has been a difficult task. In this work, hundreds of n-type CNT transistors from three different low work function metals-erbium, lanthanum, and yttrium-are studied and benchmarked against p-type devices with palladium contacts. The crucial role of metal type and deposition conditions is elucidated with respect to overall yield and performance of the n-type devices. It is found that high oxidation rates and sensitivity to deposition conditions are the major causes for the lower yield and large variation in performance of n-type CNT devices with low work function metal contacts. Considerable improvement in device yield is attained using erbium contacts evaporated at high deposition rates. Furthermore, the air-stability of our n-type transistors is studied in light of the extreme sensitivity of these metals to oxidation. PMID:24006886

  15. Reflection L-band erbium-doped fiber-amplifier-based fiber loop mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Hongyun; Liu, Songhao; Dong, Xiaoyi

    2005-01-01

    We constructed a reflection L-band erbium-doped fiber amplifier based on fiber loop mirror, which reflects the backward ASE to the EDF as a secondary pumping source. A gain of 30 dB increased 6 dB compared to the forward end-pumped EDFA has been achieved in the wavelength region from 1570 to 1603 nm. In order to improve the gain and NF further, we constructed a novel configuration for reflection L-band erbium-doped fiber amplifier via inserting a 980 nm LD in the input part. Adjusting the ratio of power of the two LDs, the gain and NF are greatly improved in different degree in the region from 1565 to 1615 nm. Compared to the configuration pumped by only 1480 nm LD with given power, the gain enhanced 1.5-9.9 dB and the NF decreases 1.3-9.4 dB.

  16. Erbium:YAG laser incision of urethral strictures: early clinical results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munoz, John A.; Riemer, Jennifer D.; Hayes, Gary B.; Negus, Dan; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2007-02-01

    Two cases involving Erbium:YAG laser incision of proximal bulbar urethral strictures are described. Erbium:YAG laser radiation with a wavelength of 2.94 μm, pulse energy of 10 mJ, and a pulse repetition rate of 15 Hz, was delivered through a 2-m-long, 250-μm-core sapphire optical fiber in contact with tissue. Total laser irradiation time was 5 min. The first patient suffering from a virgin urethral stricture was treated and is stricture-free. The second patient suffering from a recurrent urethral stricture required further treatment. This case report describes the first clinical application of the Er:YAG laser in urology.

  17. A Room-Temperature Multiwavelength Erbium-Doped Fibre Laser by Exploiting Polarization Hole Burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hao; Xiong, Ling-Yun; Dou, Qing-Ying; Li, Yao; Yu, Ling; Liu, Yan-Ge; Liu, Li-Hui; Yuan, Shu-Zhong; Kai, Gui-Yun; Dong, Xiao-Yi

    2005-01-01

    Multiwavelength operation of a linear cavity erbium-doped fibre laser (EDFL) is proposed and demonstrated. A 3-dB fibre loop mirror and a high birefringence (HiBi) fibre loop mirror are utilized as the cavity reflectors. By utilizing the wavelength-dependent polarization rotation induced by the HiBi fibre loop mirror and by using a fibre polarizer to control the intracavity polarization state, the polarization states of different wavelengths are diversified. Therefore, the polarization hole burning (PHB) effect has been greatly enhanced and the homogeneous broadening of erbium-doped fibre is suppressed to a large extent. By simply tuning a polarization controller, we experimentally obtained simultaneous lasing of four and five wavelengths with wavelength spacing of ~1.8 nm and less than 2 nm at room temperature, respectively. The repeated scans show that all of these lasers have good stability.

  18. Fibre-end micro-lens system for endoscopic erbium-laser surgery applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heifer, D.; Frenz, M.; Romano, V.; Weber, H. P.

    1994-04-01

    A sapphire micro-lens system in combination with a zirconium-fluoride (ZrF4) fibre has been designed and constructed as a surgical tool for focusing Er:YAG-laser radiation. It both refocuses the laser radiation transmitted through a 350 µm core fibre to a spot diameter of 570 µm at a working distance of 7.6 mm, and protects the distal fibre end from damage. An accurate and uncomplicated visualization of the focus position of the erbium-laser beam is realized by coupling a HeNe aiming laser into the cladding of the fibre. In vitro cutting experiments reveal the high cutting precision with minimal thermal damage of the surrounding tissue and the high damage resistance of the system. It may render the use of the erbium laser possible in a wide range of endoscopic applications.

  19. Double Brillouin frequency spaced multiwavelength Brillouin-erbium fiber laser with 50 nm tuning range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, J. F.; Liao, T. Q.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, R. X.; Miao, C. Y.; Tong, Z. R.

    2012-09-01

    A 50 nm tuning range multiwavelength Brillouin-erbium fiber laser (MWBEFL) with double Brillouin frequency spacing is presented. Two separated gain blocks with symmetrical architecture, consisted by erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFAs) and Brillouin gain media, are used to generate double Brillouin frequency spacing. The wider tuning range is realized by eliminating the self-lasing cavity modes existing in conventional MWBEFLs because of the absence of the physical mirrors at the ends of the linear cavity. The Brillouin pump (BP) is preamplified by the EDFA before entering the single-mode fiber (SMF), which leads to the reduction of threshold power and the generation enhancement of Brillouin Stokes (BS) signals. Four channels with 0.176 nm spacing are achieved at 2 mW BP power and 280 mW 980 nm pump power which can be tuned from 1525 to 1575 nm.

  20. Healing of bone in the rat following surgery with the erbium-YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickinson, Mark R.; Devlin, Hugh; El Montaser, Monsour A.; Sloan, Philip

    1996-12-01

    Background and objectives: the aim of this study was to examine the pattern of healing in rat calvarial defects prepared with the erbium-YAG laser, using the 'guided tissue regeneration' technique. Materials and method: PTFE membranes were placed over lased skull defects, and the skin wounds sutured. Rats were killed humanely at intervals after surgery, and the skulls processed for paraffin wax histology. A further group of mature rats were also killed humanely and the calvariae removed. Slots were prepared using the erbium-YAG laser and immediately examined under the environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) in hydrated conditions, which avoided drying artifacts. Results: An amorphous, mineral-rich carbon layer surrounds the lased bone defect, which in the in vivo experiments was seen as a basophilic zone which was resistant to resorption.

  1. Biomimetic synthesis of chiral erbium-doped silver/peptide/silica core-shell nanoparticles (ESPN).

    PubMed

    Mantion, Alexandre; Graf, Philipp; Florea, Ileana; Haase, Andrea; Thünemann, Andreas F; Mašić, Admir; Ersen, Ovidiu; Rabu, Pierre; Meier, Wolfgang; Luch, Andreas; Taubert, Andreas

    2011-12-01

    Peptide-modified silver nanoparticles have been coated with an erbium-doped silica layer using a method inspired by silica biomineralization. Electron microscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering confirm the presence of an Ag/peptide core and silica shell. The erbium is present as small Er(2)O(3) particles in and on the silica shell. Raman, IR, UV-Vis, and circular dichroism spectroscopies show that the peptide is still present after shell formation and the nanoparticles conserve a chiral plasmon resonance. Magnetic measurements find a paramagnetic behavior. In vitro tests using a macrophage cell line model show that the resulting multicomponent nanoparticles have a low toxicity for macrophages, even on partial dissolution of the silica shell. PMID:22031101

  2. Coupling erbium spins to a three-dimensional superconducting cavity at zero magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu-Hui; Fernandez-Gonzalvo, Xavier; Longdell, Jevon J.

    2016-08-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the coupling at zero magnetic field of an isotopically pure erbium-doped yttrium orthosilicate crystal (167Er:YSO ) to a three-dimensional superconducting cavity with a Q factor of 105. A tunable loop-gap resonator is used and its resonance frequency is tuned to observe the hyperfine transitions of the erbium sample. The observed spectrum differs from what is predicted by the published spin Hamiltonian parameters. The narrow cavity linewidth also enables the observation of asymmetric line shapes for these hyperfine transitions. Such a broadly tunable superconducting cavity (from 1.6 to 4.0 GHz in the current design) is a promising device for building hybrid quantum systems.

  3. Space radiation effects on erbium-doped fiber devices: Sources, amplifiers and passive measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, G.M. |; Friebele, E.J.

    1998-06-01

    Measurements have been made of the effect of {gamma}-irradiation on the performance of active erbium-doped fiber devices. These include the decrease in optical power of an erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) and a superluminescent source (SLS), and the shift in centroid wavelength of the SLS with exposure. Calculations have been performed to correlate these effects with the radiation-induced absorption measured passively. Excellent agreement was obtained for the radiation-induced power loss in the EDFA, and a good agreement was obtained for the SLS. However, the calculation underestimated the centroid wavelength shift in the SLS by a factor of {approximately}3. A model has been developed to extrapolate the results of passive loss measurements to the low dose rates typical of the natural space environment.

  4. Multiwavelength Brillouin-erbium fiber laser with double-Brillouin-frequency spacing.

    PubMed

    Shee, Y G; Al-Mansoori, M H; Ismail, A; Hitam, S; Mahdi, M A

    2011-01-31

    We demonstrate a multiwavelength Brillouin-erbium fiber laser with double-Brillouin-frequency spacing. The wider channel spacing is realized by circulating the odd-order Stokes signals in the Brillouin gain medium through a four-port circulator. The circulated odd-order Stokes signals are amplified by the Brillouin gain and thus produce even-order Stokes signals at the output. These signals are then amplified by erbium gain block to form a ring-cavity laser. Ten channels with 0.174 nm spacing that are generated at 0.5 mW Brillouin pump power and 150 mW pump power at 1480 nm can be tuned from 1556 nm to 1564 nm. The minimum optical signal-to-noise ratio of the generated output channels is 30 dB with maximum power fluctuations of ±0.5 dB. PMID:21368983

  5. Generation of efficient 20 GHz optical combs in a Brillouin-erbium fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parvizi, R.; Shahabuddin, N. S.; Ali, N. M.; Harun, S. W.; Emami, S. D.; Vaseghi, B.; Ahmad, H.

    2013-01-01

    A tunable multiwavelength Brillouin-erbium fiber laser is experimentally demonstrated with a double-Brillouin-frequency spacing. This double-frequency shifter is constructed by incorporating a four-port circulator to isolate and circulate the odd-Stokes signals through the 10 km long non-zero dispersion shifted fiber, which acts as a Brillouin gain medium. The output even-order Stokes signals are amplified in the erbium gain block formed in a ring cavity. Up to 15 lasing lines with a wavelength spacing of 0.173 nm have been achieved at a 980 nm pump power of 50 mW and a Brillouin pump of 3 dB m. The multiwavelength laser source exhibits a 10 nm tuning range from 1552 to 1562 nm with the optical signal-to-noise ratio of the desired output channels at around 34.5 dB.

  6. Erbium-doped spiral amplifiers with 20 dB of net gain on silicon.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Córdova, Sergio A; Dijkstra, Meindert; Bernhardi, Edward H; Ay, Feridun; Wörhoff, Kerstin; Herek, Jennifer L; García-Blanco, Sonia M; Pollnau, Markus

    2014-10-20

    Spiral-waveguide amplifiers in erbium-doped aluminum oxide on a silicon wafer are fabricated and characterized. Spirals of several lengths and four different erbium concentrations are studied experimentally and theoretically. A maximum internal net gain of 20 dB in the small-signal-gain regime is measured at the peak emission wavelength of 1532 nm for two sample configurations with waveguide lengths of 12.9 cm and 24.4 cm and concentrations of 1.92 × 10(20) cm(-3) and 0.95 × 10(20) cm(-3), respectively. The noise figures of these samples are reported. Gain saturation as a result of increasing signal power and the temperature dependence of gain are studied. PMID:25401633

  7. Dynamic Fano-like resonances in erbium-doped whispering-gallery-mode microresonators

    SciTech Connect

    Lei, Fuchuan; Peng, Bo; Özdemir, Şahin Kaya Yang, Lan; Long, Gui Lu

    2014-09-08

    We report Fano-like asymmetric resonances modulated by optical gain in a whispering-gallery-mode resonator fabricated from erbium-doped silica. A time-dependent gain profile leads to dynamically varying sharp asymmetric resonances with features similar to Fano resonances. Depending on the scan speed of the frequency of the probe laser and the pump-probe power ratio, transmission spectra of the active microcavity exhibit a resonance dip, a resonance peak, or a Fano-like resonance.

  8. Theoretical explanation of enhanced low dose rate sensitivity in erbium-doped optical fibers.

    PubMed

    Gilard, Olivier; Thomas, Jérémie; Troussellier, Laurent; Myara, Mikhael; Signoret, Philippe; Burov, Ekaterina; Sotom, Michel

    2012-05-01

    A new theoretical framework is proposed to explain the dose and dose-rate dependence of radiation-induced absorption in optical fibers. A first-order dispersive kinetics model is used to simulate the growth of the density of color centers during an irradiation. This model succeeds in explaining the enhanced low dose rate sensitivity observed in certain kinds of erbium-doped optical fiber and provides some insight into the physical reasons behind this sensitivity. PMID:22614396

  9. Soliton propagation in an erbium-doped fiber with and without a continuous wave background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganapathy, R.; Kuriakose, V. C.; Porsezian, K.

    2003-12-01

    Considering ultrashort pulse propagation in a nonlinear resonant fiber governed by Hirota-Maxwell Bloch equations, the soliton interaction in an erbium-doped fiber system associated with higher-order dispersion, self-steepening, and self-induced transparency effects is studied for the case when the fiber is driven with and without a constant pumping source. Using auto-Bäcklund-transformation, one- and two-soliton solutions are generated. The significance of the results is discussed in detail.

  10. Pulsed erbium fiber laser with an acetylene-filled photonic crystal fiber for saturable absorption.

    PubMed

    Marty, Patrick Thomas; Morel, Jacques; Feurer, Thomas

    2011-09-15

    We investigate the dynamics of an erbium-doped fiber ring laser that is equipped with an intracavity hollow core photonic crystal fiber gas cell. The cell is filled with acetylene as a saturable absorber. We observe cw operation at low pressures, Q switching at intermediate pressure levels, and mode locking at high pressures applied. Moreover, we show that the transition from the cw to the pulsed mode may be exploited for sensitive gas detection. PMID:21931393

  11. The structural changes and optical properties of LiNbO3 after Er implantation using high ion fluencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macková, A.; Malinský, P.; Pupíková, H.; Nekvindová, P.; Cajzl, J.; Sofer, Z.; Wilhelm, R. A.; Kolitsch, A.; Oswald, J.

    2014-08-01

    The structural and compositional changes of LiNbO3 implanted with 190 keV Er+ ions into various crystallographic cuts with fluencies of 1 × 1016 and 5 × 1016 cm-2 were studied. The effect of post-implantation annealing at 1000 °C in oxygen atmosphere was also examined. Concentration depth profiles of implanted erbium, determined by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS), are broader than those from the SRIM simulation. The maximum erbium concentration (of up to 8 at.%) is observed at the depth of about 50 nm, for all crystal cuts. The structure of the implanted layers were characterised by RBS-channelling method. The lower relative number of disordered atoms in the crystalline matrix was observed in the lithium niobate (LN) implanted at a fluence of 1 × 1016 cm-2, where also the preferential position of the erbium in substitutional sites was observed when compared to the randomly distributed erbium in interstitial positions at a fluence of 5 × 1016 cm-2 after the annealing. Surface-morphology changes at the highest implantation fluencies were studied using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Since we were interested in the relation between the structural changes and optical properties, erbium luminescence properties were measured in the region of 1440-1650 nm. The positive effect of post-implantation annealing on the luminescence properties caused by structural recovery was proved.

  12. Er + medium energy ion implantation into lithium niobate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svecova, B.; Nekvindova, P.; Mackova, A.; Oswald, J.; Vacik, J.; Grötzschel, R.; Spirkova, J.

    2009-05-01

    Erbium-doped lithium niobate (Er:LiNbO3) is a prospective photonics component, operating at 1.5 μm, which could find its use chiefly as an optical amplifier or waveguide laser. In this study, we have focused on the properties of the optically active Er:LiNbO3 layers, which are fabricated by medium energy ion implantation under various experimental conditions. Erbium ions were implanted at energies of 330 and 500 keV with fluences of 1.0 × 1015, 2.5 × 1015 and 1.0 × 1016 cm-2 into LiNbO3 single-crystalline cuts of various orientations. The as-implanted samples were annealed in air at 350 °C for 5 h. The depth distribution and diffusion profiles of the implanted Er were measured by Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS) using 2 MeV He+ ions. The projected range RP and projected range straggling ΔRP were calculated employing the SRIM code. The damage distribution and structural changes were described using the RBS/channelling method. Changes of the lithium concentration depth distribution were studied by Neutron Depth Profiling (NDP). The photoluminescence spectra of the samples were measured to determine whether the emission was in the desired region of 1.5 μm. The obtained data made it possible to reveal the relations between the structural changes of erbium-implanted lithium niobate and its luminescence properties important for photonics applications.

  13. Sintering effects on structure, morphology, and electrical properties of sol-gel synthesized, nano-crystalline erbium oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakhsh, Allah; Maqsood, Asghari

    2012-12-01

    The nano-crystalline erbium oxide powder was synthesized through the sol-gel technique. The effect of sintering temperature from 250°C to 1400°C on structure, morphology, and electrical properties was studied. The results were compared with the microcrystalline erbium oxide purchased from the market. The synthesized erbium oxide showed fiber like nanostructures. Dielectric properties at different sintering temperatures were measured in the frequency range 100 Hz to 5MHz. The synthesized erbium oxide had the highest dielectric constant at 650°C. The behavior of the dissipation factor tan δ for sol-gel synthesized material was distinct from that of the purchased material; it was higher at low frequencies and then decreased with the increase in frequency. The synthesized material sintered at different temperatures exhibited a similar sort of frequency-dependent response for permittivity (ɛ) and resistivity ( ρ). This was in accordance with Koop's theory of dielectrics. For the microcrystalline material, frequency dependence of permittivity and resistivity was not uniform. The results showed that sol-gel synthesized erbium oxide could be a good candidate for high-k applications.

  14. Expanding rare-earth oxidation state chemistry to molecular complexes of holmium(II) and erbium(II).

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Matthew R; Bates, Jefferson E; Fieser, Megan E; Ziller, Joseph W; Furche, Filipp; Evans, William J

    2012-05-23

    The first molecular complexes of holmium and erbium in the +2 oxidation state have been generated by reducing Cp'(3)Ln [Cp' = C(5)H(4)SiMe(3); Ln = Ho (1), Er (2)] with KC(8) in the presence of 18-crown-6 in Et(2)O at -35 °C under argon. Purification and crystallization below -35 °C gave isomorphous [(18-crown-6)K][Cp'(3)Ln] [Ln = Ho (3), Er (4)]. The three Cp' ring centroids define a trigonal-planar geometry around each metal ion that is not perturbed by the location of the potassium crown cation near one ring with K-C(Cp') distances of 3.053(8)-3.078(2) Å. The metrical parameters of the three rings are indistinguishable within the error limits. In contrast to Ln(2+) complexes of Eu, Yb, Sm, Tm, Dy, and Nd, 3 and 4 have average Ln-(Cp' ring centroid) distances only 0.029 and 0.021 Å longer than those of the Ln(3+) analogues 1 and 2, a result similar to that previously reported for the 4d(1) Y(2+) complex [(18-crown-6)K][Cp'(3)Y] (5) and the 5d(1) La(2+) complex [K(18-crown-6)(Et(2)O)][Cp″(3)La] [Cp″ = 1,3-(Me(3)Si)(2)C(5)H(3)]. Surprisingly, the UV-vis spectra of 3 and 4 are also very similar to that of 5 with two broad absorptions in the visible region, suggesting that 3-5 have similar electron configurations. Density functional theory calculations on the Ho(2+) and Er(2+) species yielded HOMOs that are largely 5d(z(2)) in character and supportive of 4f(10)5d(1) and 4f(11)5d(1) ground-state configurations, respectively. PMID:22583320

  15. Synthesis and characterization of erbium-doped SiO2 nanoparticles fabricated by using reverse micelle and sol-gel processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hoyyul; Bae, Dong-Sik

    2012-11-01

    Erbium-doped SiO2 nanoparticles have been synthesized using a reverse micelle technique combined with metal-alkoxide hydrolysis and condensation. The sizes and the morphologies of the erbium-doped SiO2 nanoparticles could be changed by varying the molar ratio of water to surfactant. The sizes and the morphologies of the erbium-doped SiO2 nanoparticles were examined by using a transmission electron microscope. The average size of synthesized erbium-doped SiO2 nanoparticles was approximately 20-25 nm and that of the erbium particles was 3-5 nm. The effects of the synthesis parameters, such as the molar ratio of water to surfactant, are discussed.

  16. Specific features of the mechanisms of excitation of erbium photoluminescence in epitaxial Si:Er/Si structures

    SciTech Connect

    Yablonskiy, A. N. Andreev, B. A.; Krasilnikova, L. V.; Kryzhkov, D. I.; Kuznetsov, V. P.; Krasilnik, Z. F.

    2010-11-15

    The excitation spectra and kinetics of erbium photoluminescence and silicon interband photoluminescence in Si:Er/Si structures under conditions of high-intensity pulse optical excitation are studied. It is shown that, in the interband photoluminescence spectra of the Si:Er/Si structures, both the luminescence of free excitons and the emission associated with the electron-hole plasma can be observed, depending on the excitation power and wavelength. It is found that the formation of a peak in the erbium photoluminescence excitation spectra at high pumping powers correlates with the Mott transition from the exciton gas to the electron-hole plasma. It is demonstrated that, in the Si:Er/Si structures, the characteristic rise times of erbium photoluminescence substantially depend on the concentration of charge carriers.

  17. 295 mW output, frequency-stabilized erbium silica fiber laser with a linewidth of 5 kHz and a RIN of -120 dB/Hz.

    PubMed

    Kasai, Keisuke; Yoshida, Masato; Nakazawa, Masataka

    2016-02-01

    We demonstrate the frequency stabilization of a high output power, erbium silica fiber laser by utilizing a (13)C2H2 (acetylene) absorption line at 1538.8 nm and a H(13)C(14)N (hydrogen cyanide) absorption line at 1549.73 nm. We introduced a novel short ring cavity configuration and pump power feedback control to suppress the intensity noise of the laser output, which is caused by the relaxation oscillation of erbium ions. As a result, we succeeded in simultaneously obtaining a stable single-frequency oscillation with an output power of over 290 mW, a linewidth of 5 kHz, and a low relative intensity noise (RIN) of -120 dB/Hz. The frequency stabilities reached 2.8 × 10(-11) and 6.9 × 10(-11) for an integration time of 1 s with a (13)C2H2 and a H(13)C(14)N absorption line, respectively. PMID:26906844

  18. Implementation of Lean System on Erbium Doped Fibre Amplifier Manufacturing Process to Reduce Production Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maneechote, T.; Luangpaiboon, P.

    2010-10-01

    A manufacturing process of erbium doped fibre amplifiers is complicated. It needs to meet the customers' requirements under a present economic status that products need to be shipped to customers as soon as possible after purchasing orders. This research aims to study and improve processes and production lines of erbium doped fibre amplifiers using lean manufacturing systems via an application of computer simulation. Three scenarios of lean tooled box systems are selected via the expert system. Firstly, the production schedule based on shipment date is combined with a first in first out control system. The second scenario focuses on a designed flow process plant layout. Finally, the previous flow process plant layout combines with production schedule based on shipment date including the first in first out control systems. The computer simulation with the limited data via an expected value is used to observe the performance of all scenarios. The most preferable resulted lean tooled box systems from a computer simulation are selected to implement in the real process of a production of erbium doped fibre amplifiers. A comparison is carried out to determine the actual performance measures via an analysis of variance of the response or the production time per unit achieved in each scenario. The goodness of an adequacy of the linear statistical model via experimental errors or residuals is also performed to check the normality, constant variance and independence of the residuals. The results show that a hybrid scenario of lean manufacturing system with the first in first out control and flow process plant lay out statistically leads to better performance in terms of the mean and variance of production times.

  19. LD-pumped erbium and neodymium lasers with high energy and output beam quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabanov, Vladimir V.; Bezyazychnaya, Tatiana V.; Bogdanovich, Maxim V.; Grigor'ev, Alexandr V.; Lebiadok, Yahor V.; Lepchenkov, Kirill V.; Ryabtsev, Andrew G.; Ryabtsev, Gennadii I.; Shchemelev, Maxim A.

    2013-05-01

    Physical and fabrication peculiarities which provide the high output energy and beam quality for the diode pumped erbium glass and Nd:YAG lasers are considered. Developed design approach allow to make passively Q-switched erbium glass eye-safe portable laser sources with output energy 8 - 12 mJ (output pulse duration is less than 25 ns, pulse repetition rate up to 5 Hz) and beam quality M2 less than 1.3. To reach these values the erbium laser pump unit parameters were optimized also. Namely, for the powerful laser diode arrays the optimal near-field fill-factor, output mirror reflectivity and heterostructure properties were determined. Construction of advanced diode and solid-state lasers as well as the optical properties of the active element and the pump unit make possible the lasing within a rather wide temperature interval (e.g. from minus forty till plus sixty Celsius degree) without application of water-based chillers. The transversally pumped Nd:YAG laser output beam uniformity was investigated depending on the active element (AE) pump conditions. In particular, to enhance the pump uniformity within AE volume, a special layer which practically doesn't absorb the pump radiation but effectively scatters the pump and lasing beams, was used. Application of such layer results in amplified spontaneous emission suppression and improvement of the laser output beam uniformity. The carried out investigations allow us to fabricate the solid-state Nd:YAG lasers (1064 nm) with the output energy up to 420 mJ at the pulse repetition rate up to 30 Hz and the output energy up to 100 mJ at the pulse repetition rate of of 100 Hz. Also the laser sources with following characteristics: 35 mJ, 30 Hz (266 nm); 60 mJ, 30 Hz (355 nm); 100 mJ, 30 Hz (532 nm) were manufactured on the base of the developed Nd:YAG quantrons.

  20. Erbium Doping Effects on the Conduction Band Edge in Germanium Nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Meulenberg, Robert W.; Willey, Trevor M.; Lee, Jonathan R.; Terminello, Louis J.; Van Buren, T.

    2011-05-16

    We have produced erbium-doped germanium nanocrystals (NCs) using a new two cell physical vapor deposition system. Using element specific x-ray techniques (absorption and photoemission), we are able to probe the chemical environment of Er in the Ge NCs. Evidence for the optically active Er3+ state is seen at low Er concentrations, with a disruption of NC formation at high Er concentrations. The x-ray absorption measurements suggest that the Er occupies lattice sites near the surface of the NC. Analysis of the quantum confinement effect with Er doping suggests that the native quantum properties of the Ge NC are maintained at low Er concentrations.

  1. Microprocessing of human hard tooth tissues surface by mid-infrared erbium lasers radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belikov, Andrey V.; Shatilova, Ksenia V.; Skrypnik, Alexei V.

    2015-03-01

    A new method of hard tooth tissues laser treatment is described. The method consists in formation of regular microdefects on tissue surface by mid-infrared erbium laser radiation with propagation ratio M2<2 (Er-laser microprocessing). Proposed method was used for preparation of hard tooth tissues surface before filling for improvement of bond strength between tissues surface and restorative materials, microleakage reduction between tissues surface and restorative materials, and for caries prevention as a result of increasing microhardness and acid resistance of tooth enamel.

  2. Infrared spectroscopy and upconversion luminescence behaviour of erbium doped yttrium (III) oxide phosphor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubey, Vikas; Tiwari, Ratnesh; Tamrakar, Raunak Kumar; Rathore, Gajendra Singh; Sharma, Chitrakant; Tiwari, Neha

    2014-11-01

    The paper reports upconversion luminescence behaviour and infra-red spectroscopic pattern of erbium doped yttrium (III) oxide phosphor. Sample was synthesized by solid state reaction method with variable concentration or erbium (0.5-2.5 mol%). The conventional solid state method is suitable for large scale production and eco-friendly method. The prepared sample was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. From structural analysis by XRD technique shows cubic structure of prepared sample with variable concentration of erbium and no impurity phase were found when increase the concentration of Er3+. Particle size was calculated by Scherer's formula and it varies from 67 nm to 120 nm. The surface morphology of prepared phosphor was determined by field emission gun scanning electron microscopy (FEGSEM) technique. The surface morphology of the sample shows good connectivity with grains as well as some agglomerates formation occurs in sample. The functional group analysis was done by Fourier transform infra-red technique (FTIR) analysis which confirm the formation of Y2O3:Er3+ phosphor was prepared. The results indicated that the Y2O3:Er3+ phosphors might have high upconversion efficiency because of their low vibrational energy. Under 980 nm laser excitation sample shows intense green emission at 555 nm and orange emission at 590 nm wavelength. For green emission transition occurs 2H11/2 → 4I15/2, 4S3/2 → 4I15/2 for upconversion emissions. Excited state absorption and energy transfer process were discussed as possible upconversion mechanisms. The near infrared luminescence spectra was recorded. The upconversion luminescence intensity increase with increasing the concentration or erbium up to 2 mol% after that luminescence intensity decreases due to concentration quenching occurs. Spectrophotometric determinations of peaks are evaluated by Commission Internationale de I'Eclairage (CIE) technique. From CIE technique the dominant peak of from PL spectra shows

  3. Visible continuum generation using a femtosecond erbium-doped fiber laser and a silica nonlinear fiber.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, J W; Bise, R; Alonzo, J; Stockert, T; Trevor, D J; Dimarcello, F; Monberg, E; Fini, J M; Westbrook, P S; Feder, K; Grüner-Nielsen, L

    2008-01-01

    Supercontinuum extending to visible wavelengths is generated in a hybrid silica nonlinear fiber pumped at 1560 nm by a femtosecond, erbium-doped fiber laser. The hybrid nonlinear fiber consists of a short length of highly nonlinear, germano-silicate fiber (HNLF) spliced to a length of photonic crystal fiber (PCF). A 2 cm length of HNLF provides an initial stage of continuum generation due to higher-order soliton compression and dispersive wave generation before launching into the PCF. The visible radiation is generated in the fundamental mode of the PCF. PMID:18157247

  4. Poor fluorinated graphene sheets carboxymethylcellulose polymer composite mode locker for erbium doped fiber laser

    SciTech Connect

    Mou, Chengbo E-mail: a.rozhin@aston.ac.uk; Turitsyn, Sergei; Rozhin, Aleksey E-mail: a.rozhin@aston.ac.uk; Arif, Raz; Lobach, Anatoly S.; Spitsina, Nataliya G.; Khudyakov, Dmitry V.; Kazakov, Valery A.

    2015-02-09

    We report poor fluorinated graphene sheets produced by thermal exfoliation embedding in carboxymethylcellulose polymer composite (GCMC) as an efficient mode locker for erbium doped fiber laser. Two GCMC mode lockers with different concentration have been fabricated. The GCMC based mode locked fiber laser shows stable soliton output pulse shaping with repetition rate of 28.5 MHz and output power of 5.5 mW was achieved with the high concentration GCMC, while a slightly higher output power of 6.9 mW was obtained using the low concentration GCMC mode locker.

  5. Smart Q-switching for single-pulse generation in an erbium-doped fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Escalante-Zarate, Luis; Barmenkov, Yuri O; Kolpakov, Stanislav A; Cruz, José L; Andrés, Miguel V

    2012-02-13

    In this paper, we report an active Q-switching of an erbium-doped fiber laser with special modulation functions and novel laser geometry. We experimentally demonstrate that using such a smart Q-switch approach, Q-switch ripple-free pulses with Gaussian-like shape and 17.3 ns width can be easily obtained. The idea behind the smart Q-switch is to suppress one of two laser waves contra-propagating along the fiber cavity, which arises after Q-cell opening, and to eliminate the minor sub-pulses. PMID:22418199

  6. Performance analysis of bi-directional broadband passive optical network using erbium-doped fiber amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almalaq, Yasser; Matin, Mohammad A.

    2014-09-01

    The broadband passive optical network (BPON) has the ability to support high-speed data, voice, and video services to home and small businesses customers. In this work, the performance of bi-directional BPON is analyzed for both down and up streams traffic cases by the help of erbium doped fiber amplifier (EDFA). The importance of BPON is reduced cost. Because PBON uses a splitter the cost of the maintenance between the providers and the customers side is suitable. In the proposed research, BPON has been tested by the use of bit error rate (BER) analyzer. BER analyzer realizes maximum Q factor, minimum bit error rate, and eye height.

  7. Effects of erbium doping of indium tin oxide electrode in resistive random access memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Po-Hsun; Chang, Kuan-Chang; Chang, Ting-Chang; Tsai, Tsung-Ming; Pan, Chih-Hung; Lin, Chih-Yang; Jin, Fu-Yuan; Chen, Min-Chen; Huang, Hui-Chun; Lo, Ikai; Zheng, Jin-Cheng; Sze, Simon M.

    2016-03-01

    Identical insulators and bottom electrodes were fabricated and capped by an indium tin oxide (ITO) film, either undoped or doped with erbium (Er), as a top electrode. This distinctive top electrode dramatically altered the resistive random access memory (RRAM) characteristics, for example, lowering the operation current and enlarging the memory window. In addition, the RESET voltage increased, whereas the SET voltage remained almost the same. A conduction model of Er-doped ITO is proposed through current-voltage (I-V) measurement and current fitting to explain the resistance switching mechanism of Er-doped ITO RRAM and is confirmed by material analysis and reliability tests.

  8. Preparative scale separation of thulium from erbium for neutron capture cross section measurements - Part: Preparative scale

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Birnbaum, Eva R.; Bene, Balazs J.; Taylor, Wayne Allen; Sudowe, Ralf

    2016-06-04

    Here, this paper discusses the development of a separation method for isolation of 171Tm from a half-gram irradiated erbium target in support of stockpile stewardship and astrophysics research. The developed procedure is based on cation exchange separation using alpha-hydroxyisobutyric acid (α-HIBA) as chelating agent. It is able to achieve either a decontamination factor of 1.4(4) × 105 with 68.9(3) % recovery or 95.4(3) % recovery with a decontamination factor of 5.82(7) × 103 for a mock 500-mg target containing 17.9 mg thulium in a single pass-through at room temperature.

  9. Resonant pumped erbium-doped waveguide lasers using distributed Bragg reflector cavities.

    PubMed

    Singh, G; Purnawirman, P; Bradley, J D B; Li, N; Magden, E S; Moresco, M; Adam, T N; Leake, G; Coolbaugh, D; Watts, M R

    2016-03-15

    This Letter reports on an optical pumping scheme, termed resonant pumping, for an erbium-doped distributed feedback (DFB) waveguide laser. The scheme uses two mirrors on either side of the DFB laser, forming a pump cavity that recirculates the unabsorbed pump light. Symmetric distributed Bragg reflectors are used as the mirrors and are designed by matching the external and internal quality factors of the cavity. Experimental demonstration shows lasing at an optical communication wavelength of around 1560 nm and an improvement of 1.8 times in the lasing efficiency, when the DFB laser is pumped on-resonance. PMID:26977666

  10. Highly stable and efficient erbium-doped 2.8 microm all fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Bernier, Martin; Faucher, Dominic; Caron, Nicolas; Vallée, Réal

    2009-09-14

    We demonstrate the efficient and stable CW laser operation at 2.824 microm of a diode-pumped erbium-doped fluoride fiber laser employing an intracore fiber Bragg grating high reflector. An output power of 5 W and an optical-to-optical conversion efficiency of 32% are reported. The temporal and spectral stability of the laser represent a significant improvement over previous work. This report paves the way to the commercialization of compact and stable fiber lasers for spectroscopic and medical applications. PMID:19770912

  11. Highly efficient and high output power of erbium doped fiber laser in a linear cavity configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awang, N. A.; Zulkifli, M. Z.; Norizan, S. F.; Harun, S. W.; Ghani, Z. A.; Ahmad, H.

    2010-10-01

    A simple Erbium Doped Fiber Laser (EDFL) in linear cavity configuration is reported. The cavity design is based on an FBG as a back reflector, and a loop back optical circulator with an output coupler as the front reflector. Different coupling ratios of the coupler are tested and 50: 50 provides the highest coupling output power of 22.06 dBm (160.7 mW). The pump power conversion efficiency is about 95% when pumping with two pump lasers at 1460 and 1490 nm with combined pumping power of 545 mW. The laser output has a measured linewidth of 0.0179 nm.

  12. 10-GHz, 1.3-ps erbium fiber laser employing soliton pulse shortening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carruthers, Thomas F.; Duling, Irl N., III

    1996-12-01

    An actively mode-locked single-polarization erbium fiber laser modulated at 10 GHz utilizes intracavity soliton formation to produce 1.3-ps pulses, well below the Kuizenga-Siegman limit, without passive mode locking. The observed degree of pulse shortening agrees with the predictions of recently developed soliton laser models. The pulse dropout ratio was measured to be less than 10-12 , and the rms amplitude and phase jitter are less than 1.1% and 0.16 ps, respectively.

  13. Fibercore AstroGain fiber: multichannel erbium doped fibers for optical space communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Mark; Gray, Rebecca; Hankey, Judith; Gillooly, Andy

    2014-03-01

    Fibercore have developed AstroGainTM fiber optimized for multichannel amplifiers used in optical satellite communications and control. The fiber has been designed to take full advantage of the photo-annealing effect that results from pumping in the 980nm region. The proprietary trivalent structure of the core matrix allows optimum recovery following radiation damage to the fiber, whilst also providing a market leading Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier (EDFA) efficiency. Direct measurements have been taken of amplifier efficiency in a multichannel assembly, which show an effective photo-annealing recovery of up to 100% of the radiation induced attenuation through excitation of point defects.

  14. Generation of stable cnoidal waves in an erbium doped fiber laser system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Mario; González-García, Andrés; Aboites, Vicente

    2016-05-01

    In this work an all-fiber laser system able to produce stable cnoidal waves in both limits, i.e. in sinusoidal and soliton limits, is presented. The system is constructed using an erbium highly-doped fiber as an active media and an electrooptic modulator as the core of the control tool. This control tool is able to modulate the cavity losses. The direct modulation allows to control the pulses properties, shape, width and intensity. The proposed system is well described by a three level laser model based on the Statz-de Mars rate equations. Numerical and Experimental results are presented.

  15. 120 nm Bandwidth noise-like pulse generation in an erbium-doped fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, L. M.; Tang, D. Y.; Cheng, T. H.; Tam, H. Y.; Lu, C.

    2008-01-01

    We report on the generation of noise-like pulses with up to 120 nm bandwidth in a passively mode-locked erbium-doped fiber ring laser. By inserting a segment of slightly normal dispersion fiber in a mode-locked fiber laser cavity, we found that the spectrum of the noise-like pulse emission of the laser can be significantly broadened as a result of the four-wave-mixing and the soliton self-frequency shift effects in the inserted fiber.

  16. Experimental and numerical study of high order Stokes lines in Brillouin-erbium fiber laser

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Yijun; Yao, Yong Xiao, Jun Jun; Yang, Yanfu; Tian, Jiajun; Liu, Chao

    2014-01-28

    We experimentally study the dependences of high-order Stokes lines on the erbium-doped fiber (EDF) pump power P{sub EDF}, the Brillouin pump (BP) power P{sub BP}, and its working wavelength in a multiwavelength Brillouin erbium-doped fiber laser (MBEFL). By using the rate and propagation equations, and the coupled wave equations of stimulated Brillouin scattering, we establish a lumped model to describe the MBEFL. Numerical simulations show that the number of Stokes lines can be increased by decreasing the spacing between the BP wavelength and the EDF peak gain or P{sub BP} as long as it is larger than a critical value P{sub BP}{sup (cr)}=1.7 mW, or by increasing P{sub EDF} without reaching a saturation value P{sub EDF}{sup (cr)}=250 mW. However, when P{sub BP} and P{sub EDF} are varied beyond P{sub BP}{sup (cr)} and P{sub EDF}{sup (cr)}, respectively, the number of Stokes lines is reduced, accompanied by some self-lasing cavity modes. These results by numerical simulation are consistent with experimental observations from the MBEFL.

  17. Deuterium permeation through erbium oxide coatings on RAFM steels by a dip-coating technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chikada, Takumi; Naitoh, Shunya; Suzuki, Akihiro; Terai, Takayuki; Tanaka, Teruya; Muroga, Takeo

    2013-11-01

    A tritium permeation barrier is a promising solution for the problems of tritium loss and radiological safety in fusion blanket systems. In recent years, erbium oxide coatings have shown remarkable permeation reduction factors. One of the remaining issues for the coatings is the establishment of plant-scale fabrication. In this study, erbium oxide thin films have been fabricated by a dip-coating technique, which has the potential to coat a complex-shaped substrate, and deuterium permeation behavior in the coatings has been examined. Crack-free coatings were formed on a reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel F82H substrate by use of a withdrawal speed of 1.0-1.4 mm s-1 and a heat-treatment process in hydrogen with moisture. In deuterium permeation experiments, a 0.2-μm-thick coating on both sides of the substrate showed a reduction factor of 600-700 in comparison with a F82H substrate below 873 K; however, the coating degraded at above 923 K because of crack formation. A double-coated sample indicated a reduction factor of up to 2000 and did not degrade at up to 923 K. The driving pressure dependence of the deuterium permeation flux indicated that the permeation tended to be limited by surface reactions at low temperatures. Optimization of the number of layers has the possibility to reduce degradation at high temperatures while maintaining high permeation reduction factors.

  18. Surface-Directed Synthesis of Erbium-Doped Yttrium Oxide Nanoparticles within Organosilane Zeptoliter Containers

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We introduce an approach to synthesize rare earth oxide nanoparticles using high temperature without aggregation of the nanoparticles. The dispersity of the nanoparticles is controlled at the nanoscale by using small organosilane molds as reaction containers. Zeptoliter reaction vessels prepared from organosilane self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) were used for the surface-directed synthesis of rare earth oxide (REO) nanoparticles. Nanopores of octadecyltrichlorosilane were prepared on Si(111) using particle lithography with immersion steps. The nanopores were filled with a precursor solution of erbium and yttrium salts to confine the crystallization step to occur within individual zeptoliter-sized organosilane reaction vessels. Areas between the nanopores were separated by a matrix film of octadecyltrichlorosilane. With heating, the organosilane template was removed by calcination to generate a surface array of erbium-doped yttria nanoparticles. Nanoparticles synthesized by the surface-directed approach retain the periodic arrangement of the nanopores formed from mesoparticle masks. While bulk rare earth oxides can be readily prepared by solid state methods at high temperature (>900 °C), approaches for preparing REO nanoparticles are limited. Conventional wet chemistry methods are limited to low temperatures according to the boiling points of the solvents used for synthesis. To achieve crystallinity of REO nanoparticles requires steps for high-temperature processing of samples, which can cause self-aggregation and dispersity in sample diameters. The facile steps for particle lithography address the problems of aggregation and the requirement for high-temperature synthesis. PMID:25163977

  19. Ultra-stable harmonically mode-locked erbium-doped waveguide laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanto, M. L.; Erdmann, R. K.; Wysocki, B. T.; Malowicki, J. E.; McEwen, T. A.

    2007-04-01

    Generation of stable pulses and a frequency stabilized optical comb are two key requirements for Fourier Based Arbitrary Waveform Generation (AWG) techniques. The longitudinal mode spacing of the laser must remain as stable as possible to permit effective isolation and processing of the modes for waveform synthesis. The short and long term temporal stability ultimately limits the system's precision as well as its operability in fielded systems. A packaged erbium-doped waveguide provided a highly compact gain medium for the harmonically mode-locked laser design. Stability was achieved by use of an intracavity etalon for frequency stabilization of the optical comb, a Pound-Drever- Hall (PDH) method, and an active bias feedback loop for low frequency noise suppression. The temperature was controlled to limit cavity length variation, and the contribution to stability of each method is quantitatively assessed. The system's stable operating time was increased from hours to greater than a day, and the timing jitter is demonstrated to be lower than that of commercially available erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL) systems. Applications to optical signal synthesis and Laser Radar are briefly discussed.

  20. High-coherence light extraction through a compact Brillouin/erbium fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Mo; Wang, Jianfei; Chen, Wei; Sun, Shilin; Meng, Zhou

    2016-05-01

    High-coherence light is stringently demanded in high-accuracy interferometric optical fiber sensors, where the phase noise of the light source greatly affects the sensitivity of the whole system. Distributed-feedback laser diodes with a phase noise of -80 ~ -90 dB/Hz1/2 at 1 kHz (with 1 m optical path difference) is now easily obtained, but the interferometric fiber sensors requires the laser source with the phase noise lower than -100 dB/Hz1/2. Lasers with ultra-low-noise usually require complicated and sophisticated techniques. We propose a novel structure to realize high-coherence light extraction through a compact Brillouin/erbium fiber laser (BEFL) which uses a length of 4 m erbium-doped fiber as both the Brillouin and linear gain media. The phase noise of the Brillouin pump light is greatly smoothed and suppressed after being transferred to the Brillouin Stokes light. High-coherence light with the phase noise of about -104 dB/Hz1/2 at 1 kHz is extracted through the compact BEFL from a commercialized laser diode with the phase noise of about -89 dB/Hz1/2. The capability of phase noise suppression in the compact BEFL presents much importance especially in large-array interferometric fiber sensor systems.

  1. Acoustical measurements during Erbium:YAG laser ablation of porcine calcified tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saaf, Randall R.; Wong, Brian J.; Milner, Thomas E.; Peavy, George M.; Anvari, Bahman

    1998-07-01

    The Erbium:YAG laser ((lambda) equals 2.94 micrometer) has been suggested for use in dental, orthopedic, and middle ear surgery due to decreased thermal trauma, precise ablation characteristics, and potential fiber optic delivery. While there has been much focus on the thermal and photoacoustic events that occur during pulsed laser ablation of hard tissue, there are few studies that examine the acoustic energy generated by these devices during ablation from an audiologic standpoint. In this study, the porcine otic capsule, nasal bone, and teeth were irradiated with an Erbium:YAG laser. Frequencies of 5 and 10 Hz shot repetition rate were used with .5 to 4 W average power. Additionally, a burst mode consisting of three pulses was used with .2 to 1.4 J total energy. During ablation, acoustic measurements were made using a sound level meter held 20 mm away from the target site. A constant spot size of 500 micrometer was maintained for each laser blast. With each set of laser parameters, the sound intensity (dB SPL) exceeded 70 dB. Peak intensity measurements of 95 dB were measured. The clinical significance of these findings is discussed and the acoustical aspects of middle ear function and noise trauma are reviewed.

  2. Surface-directed synthesis of erbium-doped yttrium oxide nanoparticles within organosilane zeptoliter containers.

    PubMed

    Englade-Franklin, Lauren E; Morrison, Gregory; Verberne-Sutton, Susan D; Francis, Asenath L; Chan, Julia Y; Garno, Jayne C

    2014-09-24

    We introduce an approach to synthesize rare earth oxide nanoparticles using high temperature without aggregation of the nanoparticles. The dispersity of the nanoparticles is controlled at the nanoscale by using small organosilane molds as reaction containers. Zeptoliter reaction vessels prepared from organosilane self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) were used for the surface-directed synthesis of rare earth oxide (REO) nanoparticles. Nanopores of octadecyltrichlorosilane were prepared on Si(111) using particle lithography with immersion steps. The nanopores were filled with a precursor solution of erbium and yttrium salts to confine the crystallization step to occur within individual zeptoliter-sized organosilane reaction vessels. Areas between the nanopores were separated by a matrix film of octadecyltrichlorosilane. With heating, the organosilane template was removed by calcination to generate a surface array of erbium-doped yttria nanoparticles. Nanoparticles synthesized by the surface-directed approach retain the periodic arrangement of the nanopores formed from mesoparticle masks. While bulk rare earth oxides can be readily prepared by solid state methods at high temperature (>900 °C), approaches for preparing REO nanoparticles are limited. Conventional wet chemistry methods are limited to low temperatures according to the boiling points of the solvents used for synthesis. To achieve crystallinity of REO nanoparticles requires steps for high-temperature processing of samples, which can cause self-aggregation and dispersity in sample diameters. The facile steps for particle lithography address the problems of aggregation and the requirement for high-temperature synthesis. PMID:25163977

  3. Efficient S-Band Amplification Using Depressed-Cladding Erbium-Doped Silica Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosolem, J. B.; Romero, M. A.

    2008-10-01

    In this paper we review our work to achieve S-band amplification using only erbium doped silica fibers. To this end, double-pass and single pass erbium doped depressed cladding fiber amplifier designed for S band operation are evaluated under changes of the input optical power, pumping power and fiber bending radius. The double pass configuration employs the usual combination of a circulator and a Faraday rotator mirror while the single pass is based on the co-propagating scheme. The amplifiers were characterized in terms of gain and noise figure. It is demonstrated that the double pass topology shows much improved gain performance compared to the single pass configuration although the noise figure is slightly degraded by counter-propagating ASE. Next, the amplifier double pass topology is properly modified to achieve signal amplification simultaneously over S, C and L bands. An embedded dispersion compensating fiber is included and the experimental characterization is carried out in terms gain and noise figure over the CWDM wavelength grid. By providing optical gain to seven CWDM channels spectrally located between 1490 and 1610 nm, the amplifier can extend the reach of a 16-channel CWDM optical bus well beyond the 100 km limit. The system results are then compared to those obtained by using a SOA (semiconductor optical amplifier), under the same experimental conditions.

  4. Gamma-ray-induced damage and recovery behavior in an erbium-doped fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bussjager, Rebecca J.; Hayduk, Michael J.; Johns, Steven T.; Taylor, Linda R.; Taylor, Edward W.

    2002-01-01

    Erbium-doped fiber lasers (EDFLs) may soon find applications in space as high bit rate optical communication systems and photonic analog-to-digital converters (ADCs). The rapid advancement in digital signal processing systems has led to an increased interest in the direct digitization of high- frequency analog signals. The potential high bandwidth, reduced weight, and reduced power requirements makes photonics an attractive technology for wide-band signal conversion as well as for use in space-based platforms. It is anticipated that photonic ADCs will be able to operate at sampling rates and resolutions far greater than current electronic ADCs. The high repetition rates and narrow pulse widths produced by EDFLs allow for high-speed impulse sampling of analog signals thus making it a vital component of a photonic ADC. In this paper we report on the in situ gamma-ray irradiation of an actively mode-locked EDFL operating at 1530 nm. The onset, growth and extent of ionization induced damage under time-resolved operational conditions is presented. The laser consisted of approximately 3 meters of erbium-doped fiber pumped by a laser diode operating at 980 nm. The picosecond pulses produced by the laser were initiated and controlled by a Mach-Zehnder lithium niobate electro-optic modulator. The active mode-locking element allowed for the precise timing control of the laser repetition rate which is critical in high-speed optical networking systems as well as in photonic ADCs.

  5. Spectroscopic studies of neutral erbium in a hollow cathode lamp: Electronic temperature and two-step optogalvanic spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bueno, Patricia; Victor, Alessandro R.; Santos, Jhonatha R. dos; Barreta, Luiz F. N.; Destro, Marcelo G.; Sbampato, Maria Esther; Neri, Jose W.; Silveira, Carlos A. B.

    2016-04-01

    This work reports the results obtained through spectroscopic studies developed on an erbium-neon hollow cathode lamp. First, emission spectra were obtained in order to estimate the electronic temperature of neutral erbium, which is an important plasma parameter for the calculation of atomic population in different energy levels. It was identified seven pairs of lines that can be used to estimate the electronic temperature of this metal by the two-line Boltzmann method. After these experiments, using the laser multistep excitation technique, three transitions for the first step excitation from the erbium ground state and eight transitions corresponding to the second step were observed. Four of these eight second steps correspond to erbium lines that were not reported in the literature before: 599.44 nm (17,157.31 → 33,844 cm- 1), 603.65 nm (17,073.80 → 33,635 cm- 1), 597.48 nm (17,029.06 → 33,761 cm- 1) and 597.56 nm (17,029.06 → 33,759 cm- 1).

  6. Gain enhanced L-band optical fiber amplifiers and tunable fiber lasers with erbium-doped fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H.; Leblanc, M.; Schinn, G. W.

    2003-02-01

    We report on the experimental investigation of gain enhanced L-band erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFA) by either recycling residual ASE or using a second C-band wavelength pump laser and on the experimental demonstration of L-band tunable erbium-doped fiber ring lasers. We observed that by reflecting ASE from pumped erbium-doped fiber (EDF) the L-band EDFA gain can be enhanced of 2-15 dB depending on amplifier designs. We also studied wavelength and power dependence of second pump laser on the gain enhanced L-band EDFA and found that an optimum wavelength for second pump laser was between 1550 and 1560 nm. Finally, a L-band tunable erbium-doped fiber laser was also constructed in which lazing oscillation was observed closed to 1624 nm by recycling residual ASE. This L-band tunable laser has a line-width of about 300 MHz, an output power of 1 mW, and a signal to source spontaneous emission ratio of 60 dB.

  7. Evaluation of the Removal Bacteria on Failed Titanium Implants After Irradiation With Erbium-Doped Yttrium Aluminium Garnet Laser.

    PubMed

    Scarano, Antonio; Nardi, Gianna; Murmura, Giovanna; Rapani, Manuela; Mortellaro, Carmen

    2016-07-01

    Peri-implantitis may occur because of biologic or mechanical factors. It can be treated by a variety of methods. The aim of the present study is to evaluate implant surface of failed oral titanium implants after being irradiated with erbium laser. PMID:27391491

  8. High dispersive mirrors for erbium-doped fiber chirped pulse amplification system.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; Wang, Yanzhi; Wang, Linjun; Zhu, Meiping; Qi, Hongji; Shao, Jianda; Huang, Xiaojun; Yang, Sheng; Li, Chao; Zhou, Kainan; Zhu, Qihua

    2016-08-22

    We report on the development of near-infrared high dispersive mirrors (HDM) with a group delay dispersion (GDD) of -2000 fs2. A HDM pair based on one optimized result at two reference wavelengths (1550 nm and 1560 nm) can reduce the total oscillation of the GDD effectively in the wavelength range of 1530-1575 nm. This HDM pair is designed and fabricated in a single coating run by means of the nonuniformity in film deposition. For the first time, near-infrared HDMs with two different reference wavelengths have been successfully applied in an erbium-doped fiber chirped pulse amplification system for the compression of 4.73 ps laser pulses to 380 fs. PMID:27557259

  9. Magnetic and structural phase transitions in erbium at low temperatures and high pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Sarah A.; Tsoi, Georgiy M.; Wenger, Lowell E.; Vohra, Yogesh K.

    2012-02-07

    Electrical resistance and crystal structure measurements have been carried out on polycrystalline erbium (Er) at temperatures down to 10 K and pressures up to 20 GPa. An abrupt change in the slope of the resistance is observed with decreasing temperature below 84 K, which is associated with the c-axis modulated (CAM) antiferromagnetic (AFM) ordering of the Er moments. With increasing pressure the temperature of the resistance slope change and the corresponding AFM ordering temperature decrease until vanishing above 10.6 GPa. The disappearance of the slope change in the resistance occurs at similar pressures where the hcp structural phase of Er is transformed to a nine-layer {alpha}-Sm structural phase, as confirmed by our high-pressure synchrotron x-ray diffraction studies. These results suggest that the disappearance in the AFM ordering of Er moments is strongly correlated to the structural phase transition at high pressures and low temperatures.

  10. Glassy behavior in a one-dimensional continuous-wave erbium-doped random fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, Anderson S. L.; Lima, Bismarck C.; Pincheira, Pablo I. R.; Moura, André L.; Gagné, Mathieu; Raposo, Ernesto P.; de Araújo, Cid B.; Kashyap, Raman

    2016-07-01

    The photonic analog of the paramagnetic to spin-glass phase transition in disordered magnetic systems, signaled by the phenomenon of replica symmetry breaking, has been reported using random lasers as the photonic platform. We report here a demonstration of replica symmetry breaking in a one-dimensional photonic system consisting of an erbium-doped random fiber laser operating in the continuous-wave regime. The system is based on a unique random fiber grating system which plays the role of random scattering, providing the disordered feedback mechanism. The clear transition from a photonic paramagnetic to a photonic spin-glass phase, characterized by the Parisi overlap parameter, was verified and indicates the glassy random-fiber-laser behavior.

  11. Stable and tunable self-seeded multiwavelength Brillouin-erbium fiber laser with higher OSNR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Hui; Yang, Ruilan; Shen, Xiao; Wei, Wei

    2016-07-01

    A stable and tunable self-seeded multiwavelength Brillouin-erbium fiber laser (BEFL) is designed and demonstrated based on a Single-Mode-Multimode-Single-Mode (SMS) fiber filter. The SMS filter is fabricated by splicing a 15 cm long multimode fiber between two single mode fibers. The self-excited Brillouin pump is internally achieved by cascaded stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in the single mode fiber. By applying axial strain (from 0 to 466.7 μɛ) to the SMS filter with the same step of 66.7 μɛ , the multiwavelength of the output laser is tuned from 1553.58 to 1559.79 nm correspondingly, and the tunable range is 6.21 nm. The generation of up to 16 Brillouin Stokes wavelengths with 30 dB optical signal to noise ratio (OSNR) are obtained.

  12. Frequency spacing switchable multiwavelength Brillouin erbium fiber laser utilizing cascaded Brillouin gain fibers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaorui; Yang, Yanfu; Liu, Meng; Yuan, Yijun; Sun, Yunxu; Gu, Yinglong; Yao, Yong

    2016-08-10

    A new hybrid Brillouin erbium fiber laser scheme that employs cascaded multiple Brillouin gain fibers in a ring cavity to realize multiwavelength laser output with switchable frequency spacing is proposed and experimentally investigated. The multiple frequency downshifting processes introduced by multiple stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) effects in one round-trip of the cavity make it possible to realize multiwavelength output with frequency spacing that is an integer multiple of the SBS frequency shifting. With two cascaded SBS fibers, the frequency spacing can be switched between single and double SBS frequency shifting by properly adjusting the Brillouin pump power. Multiwavelength outputs with triple or quadruple SBS frequency spacing are also demonstrated by employing three or four SBS gain fibers, respectively. PMID:27534498

  13. Q-switched Erbium-doped fiber laser using MoSe2 as saturable absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, H.; Suthaskumar, M.; Tiu, Z. C.; Zarei, A.; Harun, S. W.

    2016-05-01

    A Q-switched Erbium-doped fiber laser by using MoSe2 thin film as saturable absorber is experimentally demonstrated. The bulk MoSe2 is processed into few layer MoSe2 based on liquid phase exfoliation technique, and further fabricated into thin film by using polyvinyl alcohol polymer. Q-switching operation is obtained from pump power range of 22.4-102.0 mW. The pulse repetition rate shows an increasing trend from 16.9 kHz to 32.8 kHz, whereas the pulse width exhibits a decreasing trend from 59.1 μs to 30.4 μs. The highest pulse energy of 57.9 nJ is obtained at pump power of 102.0 mW.

  14. High optical carrier-suppression characteristics of Brillouin/erbium fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Mo; Zhou, Huijuan; Meng, Zhou

    2011-11-01

    A Brillouin/erbium fiber laser (BEFL) of 25km single-mode fiber is constructed, and its characteristics of optical carrier suppression are measured and analyzed. Light wave modulated by an electro-optic intensity modulator (EOIM) with 11GHz microwave frequency is adopted as the testing light. As much as 32 dB optical carrier-suppression ratio is achieved at 112mW of 980nm pump power inside the BEFL. Meanwhile, the sideband powers remain nearly unchanged in the process. Moreover, the carrier-suppression ratio is precisely controllable by tuning the 980nm pump power in the BEFL. These optical carrier-suppression characteristics promise significant applications of such a technique not only to distributed Brillouin optical fiber sensing based on EOIM but also to microwave photonic signal processing.

  15. Broadly tunable multiwavelength Brillouin-erbium fiber laser using a twin-core fiber coupler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Wanjing; Yan, Fengping; Li, Qi; Liu, Shuo; Tan, Siyu; Feng, Suchun; Feng, Ting

    2014-07-01

    A tunable multiwavelength Brillouin-erbium fiber laser (MW-BEFL) using a twin-core fiber (TCF) coupler is proposed and demonstrated. The TCF coupler is formed by splicing a section of TCF between two single-mode fibers. By simply applying bending curvature on the TCF coupler, the peak net gain is shifted close to the Brillouin pump (BP), which has advantage for suppressing self-lasing cavity modes with low-BP-power injection. In this work, the dependency of the Stokes signals tuning range on the free spectral range (FSR) of TCF coupler is studied. It is also found that the tuning range of MW-BEFL can exceed the FSR of TCF coupler by adopting proper BP power and 980-nm pump power. Up to 40 nm tuning range of MW-BEFL in the absence of self-lasing cavity modes is achieved.

  16. Phase-locked, erbium-fiber-laser-based frequency comb in the near infrared.

    PubMed

    Washburn, Brian R; Diddams, Scott A; Newbury, Nathan R; Nicholson, Jeffrey W; Yan, Man F; Jørgensen, Carsten G

    2004-02-01

    A phase-locked frequency comb in the near infrared is demonstrated with a mode-locked, erbium-doped, fiber laser whose output is amplified and spectrally broadened in dispersion-flattened, highly nonlinear optical fiber to span from 1100 to >2200 nm. The supercontinuum output comprises a frequency comb with a spacing set by the laser repetition rate and an offset by the carrier-envelope offset frequency, which is detected with the standard f-to-2f heterodyne technique. The comb spacing and offset frequency are phase locked to a stable rf signal with a fiber stretcher in the laser cavity and by control of the pump laser power, respectively. This infrared comb permits frequency metrology experiments in the near infrared in a compact, fiber-laser-based system. PMID:14759041

  17. 70-fs mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser with topological insulator.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenjun; Pang, Lihui; Han, Hainian; Tian, Wenlong; Chen, Hao; Lei, Ming; Yan, Peiguang; Wei, Zhiyi

    2016-01-01

    Femtosecond optical pulses have applications in optical communication, astronomical frequency combs, and laser spectroscopy. Here, a hybrid mode-locked erbium-doped fiber (EDF) laser with topological insulator (TI) is proposed, for the first time to our best knowledge. The pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method is employed to fabricate the fiber-taper TI saturable absorber (TISA). By virtue of the fiber-taper TISA, the hybrid EDF laser is passively mode-locked using the nonlinear polarization evolution (NPE), and emits 70 fs pulses at 1542 nm, whose 3 dB spectral width is 63 nm with a repetition rate and transfer efficiency of 95.4 MHz and 14.12%, respectively. Our experiments indicate that the proposed hybrid mode-locked EDF lasers have better performance to achieve shorter pulses with higher power and lower mode-locking threshold in the future. PMID:26813439

  18. 70-fs mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser with topological insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wenjun; Pang, Lihui; Han, Hainian; Tian, Wenlong; Chen, Hao; Lei, Ming; Yan, Peiguang; Wei, Zhiyi

    2016-01-01

    Femtosecond optical pulses have applications in optical communication, astronomical frequency combs, and laser spectroscopy. Here, a hybrid mode-locked erbium-doped fiber (EDF) laser with topological insulator (TI) is proposed, for the first time to our best knowledge. The pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method is employed to fabricate the fiber-taper TI saturable absorber (TISA). By virtue of the fiber-taper TISA, the hybrid EDF laser is passively mode-locked using the nonlinear polarization evolution (NPE), and emits 70 fs pulses at 1542 nm, whose 3 dB spectral width is 63 nm with a repetition rate and transfer efficiency of 95.4 MHz and 14.12%, respectively. Our experiments indicate that the proposed hybrid mode-locked EDF lasers have better performance to achieve shorter pulses with higher power and lower mode-locking threshold in the future.

  19. 70-fs mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser with topological insulator

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wenjun; Pang, Lihui; Han, Hainian; Tian, Wenlong; Chen, Hao; Lei, Ming; Yan, Peiguang; Wei, Zhiyi

    2016-01-01

    Femtosecond optical pulses have applications in optical communication, astronomical frequency combs, and laser spectroscopy. Here, a hybrid mode-locked erbium-doped fiber (EDF) laser with topological insulator (TI) is proposed, for the first time to our best knowledge. The pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method is employed to fabricate the fiber-taper TI saturable absorber (TISA). By virtue of the fiber-taper TISA, the hybrid EDF laser is passively mode-locked using the nonlinear polarization evolution (NPE), and emits 70 fs pulses at 1542 nm, whose 3 dB spectral width is 63 nm with a repetition rate and transfer efficiency of 95.4 MHz and 14.12%, respectively. Our experiments indicate that the proposed hybrid mode-locked EDF lasers have better performance to achieve shorter pulses with higher power and lower mode-locking threshold in the future. PMID:26813439

  20. Stable single-longitudinal-mode erbium-doped fiber laser with dual-ring structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Chien-Hung; Chen, Jhih-Yu; Chen, Hone-Zhang; Chow, Chi-Wai

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose and demonstrate experimentally a stable erbium-doped fiber (EDF) laser with single-longitudinal-mode (SLM) output by employing dual-ring structure. By using the multiple ring architecture, the densely spaced longitudinal modes would be suppressed and generated a SLM lasing output. In the measurement, the wavelength can be tuned in the wavelengths of 1530.0-1560.0 nm. And the measured output powers and side-mode suppression ratios (SMSRs) are between 5.2 and 14.1 dBm and 30.4 and 39.8 dB, respectively. In addition, the output stabilities of wavelength and power in proposed fiber laser have also been discussed.

  1. [INVITED] Multiwavelength operation of erbium-doped fiber-ring laser for temperature measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, S.; Lopez-Amo, M.

    2016-04-01

    In this work, simultaneous lasing at up to eight wavelengths is demonstrated in a multi-wavelength erbium-doped fiber ring laser previously reported. This is achieved by introducing a feedback fiber loop in a fiber ring cavity. Eight-wavelength laser emission lines were obtained simultaneously in single-longitudinal mode operation showing a power instability lower than 0.8 dB, and an optical signal-to-noise ratio higher than 42 dB for all the emitted wavelengths. The fiber Bragg gratings give this source the possibility to be also used as sensor-network multiplexing scheme. The application of this system for remote temperature measurements has been demonstrated obtaining good time stability results.

  2. Amplification and noise properties of an erbium-doped multicore fiber amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abedin, K. S.; Taunay, T. F.; Fishteyn, M.; Yan, M. F.; Zhu, B.; Fini, J. M.; Monberg, E. M.; Dimarcello, F. V.; Wisk, P. W.

    2011-08-01

    A multicore erbium-doped fiber (MC-EDF) amplifier for simultaneous amplification in the 7-cores has been developed, and the gain and noise properties of individual cores have been studied. The pump and signal radiation were coupled to individual cores of MC-EDF using two tapered fiber bundled (TFB) couplers with low insertion loss. For a pump power of 146 mW, the average gain achieved in the MC-EDF fiber was 30 dB, and noise figure was less than 4 dB. The net useful gain from the multicore-amplifier, after taking into consideration of all the passive losses, was about 23-27 dB. Pump induced ASE noise transfer between the neighboring channel was negligible.

  3. Exploring Few- and Many-Body Dipolar Quantum Phenomena with Ultracold Erbium Atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferlaino, Francesca

    2016-05-01

    Given their strong magnetic moment and exotic electronic configuration, rare-earth atoms disclose a plethora of intriguing phenomena in ultracold quantum physics with dipole-dipole interaction. Here, we report on the first degenerate Fermi gas of erbium atoms, based on direct cooling of identical fermions via dipolar collisions. We reveal universal scattering laws between identical dipolar fermions close to zero temperature, and we demonstrate the long-standing prediction of a deformed Fermi surface in dipolar gas. Finally, we present the first experimental study of an extended Bose-Hubbard model using bosonic Er atoms in a three-dimensional optical lattice and we report on the first observation of nearest-neighbor interactions.

  4. Accelerated two-wave mixing response in erbium-doped fibers with saturable optical absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, Eliseo; Stepanov, Serguei; Plata Sanchez, Marcos

    2016-08-01

    The contribution of the spatially uniform variation of average optical absorption to the dynamics of the transient two-wave mixing (TWM) response is considered. It is shown theoretically and confirmed experimentally that this transient effect, via dynamic population gratings in erbium-doped fibers (EDFs) can ensure a response nearly two times faster in such gratings as compared to the growth rate of fluorescence uniformly excited under similar conditions, and can also result in an additional overshot in the tail of the TWM response. This additional ‘accelerating’ contribution is of even type, and does not influence the odd transient TWM response for the refractive index component of such gratings in the EDFs reported earlier. It is also shown that this effect can be utilized to monitor the formation of the dynamic grating with an auxiliary probe wave of the essentially different non-Bragg wavelength.

  5. Timing stability enhancement of an Erbium Doped mode locked Fiber Laser using SESAM mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afifi, G.; Khedr, M. Atta; Badr, Y.; Danailov, M.; Sigalotti, P.; Cinquegrana, P.; Alsous, M. B.; Galaly, A. R.

    2016-05-01

    We report on an examination of pulse timing stability of a home built Erbium Doped Fiber Laser (EDFL) passively mode locked via nonlinear polarization rotation by inserting semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM) in laser cavity. A very low root mean square (RMS) timing jitter (less than 27 fsec) and faster self-starting mode locking have been established. In order to get clear, low noise signal for time resolving measurements, synchronization of EDFL laser with an external high precision electronic oscillator have been established. Subsequently, it is synchronized and optically cross-correlated with a Ti:Sapphire laser source (Micra). The measured relative timing jitter was found to be less than 65 fsec. In this way, the two, well synchronized Ti:Sapphire and EDFL laser pulses prove to be a powerful tool for time resolving measurements.

  6. Low-threshold and multi-wavelength Q-switched random erbium-doped fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Simin; Lin, Wei; Chen, Weicheng; Li, Can; Yang, Changsheng; Qiao, Tian; Yang, Zhongmin

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate a low-threshold and multi-wavelength Q-switched random fiber laser with erbium-doped fiber as the gain medium and Rayleigh scattering as the randomly distributed feedback. Q-switched pulses are generated with threshold as low as 27 mW by combining random cavity resonances and the Q-value modulation effect induced by stimulated Brillouin scattering. The repetition rate is typically on the kilohertz scale with rms timing jitter of <5.5% and rms amplitude fluctuation of <30%. Raman Stokes emissions up to the third order are observed with an overall energy of nearly 42% of the pulse output, which may open an avenue for applications requiring multiple wavelengths.

  7. Submicrojoule femtosecond erbium-doped fibre laser for the generation of dispersive waves at submicron wavelengths

    SciTech Connect

    Kotov, L V; Koptev, M Yu; Anashkina, E A; Muravyev, S V; Andrianov, A V; Kim, A V; Bubnov, M M; Likhachev, M E; Ignat'ev, A D; Lipatov, D S; Gur'yanov, A N

    2014-05-30

    We have demonstrated a femtosecond erbium-doped fibre laser system built in the master oscillator/power amplifier (MOPA) approach. The final amplifier stage utilises a specially designed large mode area active fibre cladding-pumped by multimode laser diodes. The system is capable of generating submicrojoule pulses at a wavelength near 1.6 μm. We have obtained 530-fs pulses with an energy of 400 nJ. The output of the system can be converted to wavelengths shorter than 1 μm through the generation of dispersive waves in passive nonlinear fibre. We have obtained ultra-short 7-nJ pulses with a spectral width of ∼100 nm and a centre wavelength of 0.9 μm, which can be used as a seed signal in parametric amplifiers in designing petawatt laser systems. (lasers)

  8. Stability of short, single-mode erbium-doped fiber lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Svalgaard, M.; Gilbert, S.L.

    1997-07-01

    We conducted a detailed study of the stability of short, erbium-doped fiber lasers fabricated with two UV-induced Bragg gratings written into the doped fiber. We find that the relative intensity noise of single-longitudinal-mode fiber grating lasers is approximately 3 orders of magnitude lower than that of a single-frequency 1.523-{mu}m helium-neon laser. The frequency noise spectrum contains few resonances, none of which exceeds 0.6 kHz/Hz{sup 1/2} rms; the integrated rms frequency noise from 50 Hz to 63 kHz is 36 kHz. We also demonstrate a simple method for monitoring the laser power and number of oscillating modes during laser fabrication. {copyright} 1997 Optical Society of America

  9. Simple and efficient L-band erbium-doped fiber amplifiers for WDM networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, H. B.; Oh, J. M.; Lee, D.; Ahn, S. J.; Park, B. S.; Lee, S. B.

    2002-11-01

    The performance of L-band erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) of a simple structure with a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) was investigated. The injected C-band ASE by the FBG offers low-cost amplification and greatly improves the efficiency of the EDFA. There are 9 and 4 dB improvements with the FBG at 1587 nm, at low and high input, respectively. The flat gain of 18 dB, up to a total input of -5 dBm at 150 mW of 980 nm pump, is obtained over 30 nm with less than ±0.5 dB gain variations without any gain equalizer. The proposed EDFA provides a cost-effective solution for wavelength division multiplexing systems.

  10. Erbium:YAG and holmium:YAG laser root resection of extracted human teeth.

    PubMed

    Komori, T; Yokoyama, K; Matsumoto, Y; Matsumoto, K

    1997-02-01

    Root resection of extracted human teeth was performed using the erbium:YAG (Er:YAG) and holmium:YAG (Ho:YAG) laser to investigate the clinical application of lasers on hard tissue. The CO2 laser and the mechanical drill were also used for comparison. After resection using these technologies, the morphological changes of the cut surface were investigated by optical and scanning electron microscope. Er:YAG laser irradiation produced smooth, clean resected surfaces without signs of thermal damages. Complete obturation of the root canal was maintained after Er:YAG laser irradiation. Ho:YAG laser irradiation, however, produced some signs of thermal damage. Relatively large voids between the gutta-percha and the canal walls were revealed after Ho:YAG laser irradiation. The sealing of the dentinal tubules was not completely attained as stipulated by original conditions of this study. PMID:9467336