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Sample records for ercp wire systems

  1. Therapeutic ERCP

    MedlinePlus

    ... the duct into the bowel. A variety of balloons and baskets attached to specialized catheters can be ... the best type of stent for your problem. Balloon Dilation There are ERCP catheters fitted with dilating ...

  2. Post-ERCP pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Arata, Shinju; Takada, Tadahiro; Hirata, Koichi; Yoshida, Masahiro; Mayumi, Toshihiko; Hirota, Morihisa; Yokoe, Masamichi; Hirota, Masahiko; Kiriyama, Seiki; Sekimoto, Miho; Amano, Hodaka; Wada, Keita; Kimura, Yasutoshi; Gabata, Toshifumi; Takeda, Kazunori; Kataoka, Keisho; Ito, Tetsuhide; Tanaka, Masao

    2010-01-01

    Pancreatitis remains the most common severe complication of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). Detailed information about the findings of previous studies concerning post-ERCP pancreatitis has not been utilized sufficiently. The purpose of the present article was to present guidelines for the diagnostic criteria of post-ERCP pancreatitis, and its incidence, risk factors, and prophylactic procedures that are supported by evidence. To achieve this purpose, a critical examination was made of the articles on post-ERCP pancreatitis, based on the data obtained by research studies published up to 2009. At present, there are no standardized diagnostic criteria for post-ERCP pancreatitis. It is appropriate that post-ERCP pancreatitis is defined as acute pancreatitis that has developed following ERCP, and its diagnosis and severity assessment should be made according to the diagnostic criteria and severity assessment of the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. The incidence of acute pancreatitis associated with diagnostic and therapeutic ERCP is 0.4-1.5 and 1.6-5.4%, respectively. Endoscopic papillary balloon dilation is associated with a high risk of acute pancreatitis compared with endoscopic sphincterotomy. It was made clear that important risk factors include dysfunction of the Oddi sphincter, being of the female sex, past history of post-ERCP pancreatitis, and performance of pancreaticography. Temporary prophylactic placement of pancreatic stents in the high-risk group is useful for the prevention of post-ERCP pancreatitis [odds ratio (OR) 3.2, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.6-6.4, number needed to treat (NNT) 10]. Use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is associated with a reduction in the development of post-ERCP pancreatitis (OR 0.46, 95% CI 0.32-0.65). Single rectal administration of NSAIDs is useful for the prevention of post-ERCP pancreatitis [relative risk (RR) 0.36, 95% CI 0.22-0.60, NNT 15] and decreases the

  3. 49 CFR 393.28 - Wiring systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wiring systems. 393.28 Section 393.28 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Lamps, Reflective Devices, and Electrical Wiring § 393.28 Wiring...

  4. SpaceWire Data Handling Demonstration System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, S.; Parkes, S. M.; O'Gribin, N.

    2007-08-01

    The SpaceWire standard was published in 2003 with the aim of providing a standard for onboard communications, defining the physical and data link layers of an interconnection, in order to improve reusability, reliability and to reduce the cost of mission development. The many benefits which it provides mean that it has already been used in a number of missions, both in Europe and throughout the world. Recent work by the SpaceWire community has included the development of higher level protocols for SpaceWire, such as the Remote Memory Access Protocol (RMAP) which can be used for many purposes, including the configuration of SpaceWire devices. Although SpaceWire has become very popular, the various ways in which it can be used are still being discovered, as are the most efficient ways to use it. At the same time, some in the space industry are not even aware of SpaceWire's existence. This paper describes the SpaceWire Data Handling Demonstration System that has been developed by the University of Dundee. This system simulates an onboard data handling network based on SpaceWire. It uses RMAP for all communication, and so demonstrates how SpaceWire and standardised higher level protocols can be used onboard a spacecraft. The system is not only a good advert for those who are unfamiliar with the benefits of SpaceWire, it is also a useful tool for those using SpaceWire to test ideas.

  5. A Vibrating Wire System For Quadrupole Fiducialization

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, Zachary

    2010-12-13

    A vibrating wire system is being developed to fiducialize the quadrupoles between undulator segments in the LCLS. This note provides a detailed analysis of the system. The LCLS will have quadrupoles between the undulator segments to keep the electron beam focused. If the quadrupoles are not centered on the beam axis, the beam will receive transverse kicks, causing it to deviate from the undulator axis. Beam based alignment will be used to move the quadrupoles onto a straight line, but an initial, conventional alignment must place the quadrupole centers on a straight line to 100 {micro}m. In the fiducialization step of the initial alignment, the position of the center of the quadrupole is measured relative to tooling balls on the outside of the quadrupole. The alignment crews then use the tooling balls to place the magnet in the tunnel. The required error on the location of the quadrupole center relative to the tooling balls must be less than 25 {micro}m. In this note, we analyze a system under construction for the quadrupole fiducialization. The system uses the vibrating wire technique to position a wire onto the quadrupole magnetic axis. The wire position is then related to tooling balls using wire position detectors. The tooling balls on the wire position detectors are finally related to tooling balls on the quadrupole to perform the fiducialization. The total 25 {micro}m fiducialization error must be divided between these three steps. The wire must be positioned onto the quadrupole magnetic axis to within 10 {micro}m, the wire position must be measured relative to tooling balls on the wire position detectors to within 15 {micro}m, and tooling balls on the wire position detectors must be related to tooling balls on the quadrupole to within 10 {micro}m. The techniques used in these three steps will be discussed. The note begins by discussing various quadrupole fiducialization techniques used in the past and discusses why the vibrating wire technique is our method

  6. LANSCE-R WIRE-SCANNER SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Gruchalla, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    The National Instruments cRIO platform is used for the new LANSCE-R wire-scanner systems. All wire-scanner electronics are integrated into a single BiRa BiRIO 4U cRIO chassis specifically designed for the cRIO crate and all interface electronics. The BiRIO chassis, actuator and LabVIEW VIs provide a complete wire-scanner system integrated with EPICS. The new wire-scanner chassis includes an 8-slot cRIO crate with Virtex-5 LX 110 FPGA and Power-PC real-time controller, the LANL-developed cRIO 2-axis wire-sensor analog interface module (AFE), NI9222 cRIO 4-channel 16-bit digitizer, cRIO resolver demodulator, cRIO event receiver, front-panel touch panel display, motor driver, and all necessary software, interface wiring, connectors and ancillary components. This wirescanner system provides a complete, turn-key, 2-axis wire-scanner system including 2-channel low-noise sensewire interface with variable DC wire bias and wireintegrity monitor, 16-bit signal digitizers, actuator motor drive and control, actuator position sensing, limit-switch interfaces, event receiver, LabVIEW and EPICS interface, and both remote operation and full stand-alone operation using the touch panel.

  7. Wire-rope emplacement of diagnostics systems

    SciTech Connect

    Burden, W.L.

    1982-05-07

    The study reported here was initiated to determine if, with the Cable Downhole System (CDS) currently under development, there is an advantage to using continuous wire rope to lower the emplacement package to the bottom of the hole. A baseline design using two wire ropes as well as several alternatives are discussed in this report. It was concluded that the advantages of the wire-rope emplacement system do not justify the cost of converting to such a system, especially for LLNL's maximum emplacement package weights.

  8. Systems Analysis Teaching: The Kengor Wire Company

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, W. J., Jr.; Derrick, L. R.

    1976-01-01

    Describes a group of systems analysis courses which utilizes a computer model of a company which makes house wire to provide a realistic representation of the complexities involved in industrial management. (CP)

  9. In-Situ Wire Damage Detection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Martha; Roberson, Luke; Tate, Lanetra; Smith, Trent; Gibson, Tracy; Medelius, Pedro; Jolley, Scott

    2012-01-01

    An In-Situ Wire Damage Detection System (ISWDDS) has been developed that is capable of detecting damage to a wire insulation, or a wire conductor, or to both. The system will allow for realtime, continuous monitoring of wiring health/integrity and reduce the number of false negatives and false positives while being smaller, lighter in weight, and more robust than current systems. The technology allows for improved safety and significant reduction in maintenance hours for aircraft, space vehicles, satellites, and other critical high-performance wiring systems for industries such as energy production and mining. The integrated ISWDDS is comprised of two main components: (1) a wire with an innermost core conductor, an inner insulation film, a conductive layer or inherently conductive polymer (ICP) covering the inner insulation film, an outermost insulation jacket; and (2) smart connectors and electronics capable of producing and detecting electronic signals, and a central processing unit (CPU) for data collection and analysis. The wire is constructed by applying the inner insulation films to the conductor, followed by the outer insulation jacket. The conductive layer or ICP is on the outer surface of the inner insulation film. One or more wires are connected to the CPU using the smart connectors, and up to 64 wires can be monitored in real-time. The ISWDDS uses time domain reflectometry for damage detection. A fast-risetime pulse is injected into either the core conductor or conductive layer and referenced against the other conductor, producing transmission line behavior. If either conductor is damaged, then the signal is reflected. By knowing the speed of propagation of the pulse, and the time it takes to reflect, one can calculate the distance to and location of the damage.

  10. Printed wiring board system programmer's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinkerhoff, C. D.

    1973-01-01

    The printed wiring board system provides automated techniques for the design of printed circuit boards and hybrid circuit boards. The system consists of four programs: (1) the preprocessor program combines user supplied data and pre-defined library data to produce the detailed circuit description data; (2) the placement program assigns circuit components to specific areas of the board in a manner that optimizes the total interconnection length of the circuit; (3) the organizer program assigns pin interconnections to specific board levels and determines the optimal order in which the router program should attempt to layout the paths connecting the pins; and (4) the router program determines the wire paths which are to be used to connect each input pin pair on the circuit board. This document is intended to serve as a programmer's reference manual for the printed wiring board system. A detailed description of the internal logic and flow of the printed wiring board programs is included.

  11. A FLYING WIRE SYSTEM IN THE AGS.

    SciTech Connect

    HUANG,H.; BUXTON,W.; MAHLER,G.; MARUSIC,A.; ROSER,T.; SMITH,G.; SYPHERS,M.; WILLIAMS,N.; WITKOVER,R.

    1999-03-29

    As the AGS prepares to serve as the injector for RHIC, monitoring and control of the beam transverse emittance become a major and important topic. Before the installation of the flying wire system, the emittance was measured with ionization profile monitors in the AGS, which require correction for space charge effects. It is desirable to have a second means of measuring profile that is less depend on intensity. A flying wire system has been installed in the AGS recently to perform this task. This paper discusses the hardware and software setup and the capabilities of the system.

  12. LANSCE Wire Scanner System Prototype: Switchyard Test

    SciTech Connect

    Sedillo, James D

    2012-04-11

    On November 19, 2011, the beam diagnostics team of Los Alamos National Laboratory's LANSCE accelerator facility conducted a test of a prototype wire scanner system for future deployment within the accelerator's switchyard area. The primary focus of this test was to demonstrate the wire scanner control system's ability to extend its functionality beyond acquiring lower energy linac beam profile measurements to acquiring data in the switchyard. This study summarizes the features and performance characteristics of the electronic and mechanical implementation of this system with details focusing on the test results.

  13. Integrated Electrical Wire Insulation Repair System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Martha; Jolley, Scott; Gibson, Tracy; Parks, Steven

    2013-01-01

    An integrated system tool will allow a technician to easily and quickly repair damaged high-performance electrical wire insulation in the field. Low-melt polyimides have been developed that can be processed into thin films that work well in the repair of damaged polyimide or fluoropolymer insulated electrical wiring. Such thin films can be used in wire insulation repairs by affixing a film of this low-melt polyimide to the damaged wire, and heating the film to effect melting, flow, and cure of the film. The resulting repair is robust, lightweight, and small in volume. The heating of this repair film is accomplished with the use of a common electrical soldering tool that has been modified with a special head or tip that can accommodate the size of wire being repaired. This repair method can furthermore be simplified for the repair technician by providing replaceable or disposable soldering tool heads that have repair film already "loaded" and ready for use. The soldering tool heating device can also be equipped with a battery power supply that will allow its use in areas where plug-in current is not available

  14. A review of wiring system safety in space power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stavnes, Mark W.; Hammoud, Ahmad N.

    1993-01-01

    Wiring system failures have resulted from arc propagation in the wiring harnesses of current aerospace vehicles. These failures occur when the insulation becomes conductive upon the initiation of an arc. In some cases, the conductive path of the carbon arc track displays a high enough resistance such that the current is limited, and therefore may be difficult to detect using conventional circuit protection. Often, such wiring failures are not simply the result of insulation failure, but are due to a combination of wiring system factors. Inadequate circuit protection, unforgiving system designs, and careless maintenance procedures can contribute to a wiring system failure. This paper approaches the problem with respect to the overall wiring system, in order to determine what steps can be taken to improve the reliability, maintainability, and safety of space power systems. Power system technologies, system designs, and maintenance procedures which have led to past wiring system failures will be discussed. New technologies, design processes, and management techniques which may lead to improved wiring system safety will be introduced.

  15. Robust 300 C wire insulation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nairus, John G.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this program is to identify, develop, and demonstrate an optimum wire insulation system that is capable of continuous operation at 300 C. The system is to possess a combination of superior electrical (AC or DC), mechanical, and physical properties over the KAPTON (trademark) derived insulations described in MIL-W-81381 and those hybrid constructions identified in Air Force contract F33615-89-C-5606, commonly known as TKT constructions.

  16. ERCP

    MedlinePlus

    ... through the mouth. It goes through the esophagus (food pipe) and stomach until it reaches the duodenum (the part of the small intestine that is closest to the stomach). You should not feel discomfort, and may have little memory of the test. You may gag as the ...

  17. ERCP

    MedlinePlus

    ... dye, or drug used during the procedure Bleeding Hole (perforation) of the bowel Inflammation of the pancreas ( ... or severe bloating Bleeding from the rectum or black stools Fever above 100°F (37.8°C) ...

  18. A Prototype Wire Position Monitoring System

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Wei

    2010-12-07

    The Wire Position Monitoring System (WPM) will track changes in the transverse position of LCLS Beam Position Monitors (BPMs) to 1{micro}m over several weeks. This position information will be used between applications of beam based alignment to correct for changes in component alignment. The WPM system has several requirements. The sensor range must be large enough so that precision sensor positioning is not required. The resolution needs to be small enough so that the signal can be used to monitor motion to 1{micro}m. The system must be stable enough so that system drift does not mimic motion of the component being monitored. The WPM sensor assembly consists of two parts, the magnetic sensor and an integrated lock-in amplifier. The magnetic sensor picks up a signal from the alternating current in a stretched wire. The voltage v induced in the sensor is proportional to the wire displacement from the center of the sensor. The integrated lock-in amplifier provides a DC output whose magnitude is proportional to the AC signal from the magnetic sensor. The DC output is either read on a digital voltmeter or digitized locally and communicated over a computer interface.

  19. In-Situ Wire Damage Detection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Martha K. (Inventor); Roberson, Luke B. (Inventor); Tate, Lanetra C. (Inventor); Smith, Trent M. (Inventor); Gibson, Tracy L. (Inventor); Jolley, Scott T. (Inventor); Medelius, Pedro J. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    An in-situ system for detecting damage in an electrically conductive wire. The system includes a substrate at least partially covered by a layer of electrically conductive material forming a continuous or non-continuous electrically conductive layer connected to an electrical signal generator adapted to delivering electrical signals to the electrically conductive layer. Data is received and processed to identify damage to the substrate or electrically conductive layer. The electrically conductive material may include metalized carbon fibers, a thin metal coating, a conductive polymer, carbon nanotubes, metal nanoparticles or a combination thereof.

  20. Evaluation of the intermittent GTA cold wire feed weld system

    SciTech Connect

    Dereskiewicz, J.P.

    1991-08-01

    An intermittent gas tungsten arc cold wire feed process was statistically evaluated to determine the feasibility of applying this process to meet the 0.030-inch weld penetration and peak temperature requirements when unfavorable joint tolerances exist on a subassembly weld. The wire feed system was determined to only slightly benefit the welding process over normal pulsed gas tungsten arc welding using traditional wire feeding capabilities. However, the complexity of this process and extensive welding operator training and qualification does not outweigh the benefits of incorporating this synchronized pulse wire feed system in production. 2 refs., 43 figs., 11 tabs.

  1. Flywheel system using wire-wound rotor

    DOEpatents

    Chiao, Edward Young; Bender, Donald Arthur; Means, Andrew E.; Snyder, Philip K.

    2016-06-07

    A flywheel is described having a rotor constructed of wire wound onto a central form. The wire is prestressed, thus mitigating stresses that occur during operation. In another aspect, the flywheel incorporates a low-loss motor using electrically non-conducting permanent magnets.

  2. System and method for evaluating a wire conductor

    DOEpatents

    Panozzo, Edward; Parish, Harold

    2013-10-22

    A method of evaluating an electrically conductive wire segment having an insulated intermediate portion and non-insulated ends includes passing the insulated portion of the wire segment through an electrically conductive brush. According to the method, an electrical potential is established on the brush by a power source. The method also includes determining a value of electrical current that is conducted through the wire segment by the brush when the potential is established on the brush. The method additionally includes comparing the value of electrical current conducted through the wire segment with a predetermined current value to thereby evaluate the wire segment. A system for evaluating an electrically conductive wire segment is also disclosed.

  3. A New Flying Wire System for the Tevatron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blokland, Willem; Dey, Joseph; Vogel, Greg

    1997-05-01

    A new Flying Wires system replaces the old system to enhance the analysis of the beam emittance, improve the reliability, and handle the upcoming upgrades of the Tevatron. New VME data acquisition modules and timing modules allow for more bunches to be sampled more precisely. The programming language LabVIEW, running on a Macintosh computer, controls the VME modules and the nuLogic motion board that flies the wires. LabVIEW also analyzes and stores the data, and handles local and remote commands. The new system flies three wires and fits profiles of 72 bunches to a gaussian function within two seconds. A new console application operates the flying wires from any control console. This paper discusses the hardware and software setup, the capabilities and measurement results of the new Flying Wires system.

  4. 49 CFR 393.28 - Wiring systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... Electrical wiring shall be installed and maintained to conform to SAE J1292—Automobile, Truck, Truck-Tractor... conform to SAE J560. The reference to SAE J1292 shall not be construed to require circuit protection...

  5. 49 CFR 393.28 - Wiring systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... Electrical wiring shall be installed and maintained to conform to SAE J1292—Automobile, Truck, Truck-Tractor... conform to SAE J560. The reference to SAE J1292 shall not be construed to require circuit protection...

  6. 49 CFR 393.28 - Wiring systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .... Electrical wiring shall be installed and maintained to conform to SAE J1292—Automobile, Truck, Truck-Tractor... conform to SAE J560. The reference to SAE J1292 shall not be construed to require circuit protection...

  7. 49 CFR 393.28 - Wiring systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... Electrical wiring shall be installed and maintained to conform to SAE J1292—Automobile, Truck, Truck-Tractor... conform to SAE J560. The reference to SAE J1292 shall not be construed to require circuit protection...

  8. Plasmon hybridization in parallel nano-wire systems

    SciTech Connect

    Moradi, Afshin

    2011-06-15

    We apply the plasmon hybridization method to a double-nano-wire system, providing a simple and intuitive description of the plasmon excitations in the system. We apply the two-center cylindrical coordinate system for mathematical convenience and find an explicit form of the surface plasmon oscillations, in terms of the interaction between the bare plasmon modes of the individual surfaces of the nano-wires. We present numerical results to display how the plasmon excitations of the system depend on nano-wire separation when there is no angular momentum transfer, i.e., when m = 0.

  9. Beam Position and Phase Monitor - Wire Mapping System

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, Heath A; Shurter, Robert B.; Gilpatrick, John D.; Kutac, Vincent G.; Martinez, Derwin

    2012-04-10

    The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) deploys many cylindrical beam position and phase monitors (BPPM) throughout the linac to measure the beam central position, phase and bunched-beam current. Each monitor is calibrated and qualified prior to installation to insure it meets LANSCE requirements. The BPPM wire mapping system is used to map the BPPM electrode offset, sensitivity and higher order coefficients. This system uses a three-axis motion table to position the wire antenna structure within the cavity, simulating the beam excitation of a BPPM at a fundamental frequency of 201.25 MHz. RF signal strength is measured and recorded for the four electrodes as the antenna position is updated. An effort is underway to extend the systems service to the LANSCE facility by replacing obsolete electronic hardware and taking advantage of software enhancements. This paper describes the upgraded wire positioning system's new hardware and software capabilities including its revised antenna structure, motion control interface, RF measurement equipment and Labview software upgrades. The main purpose of the wire mapping system at LANSCE is to characterize the amplitude response versus beam central position of BPPMs before they are installed in the beam line. The wire mapping system is able to simulate a beam using a thin wire and measure the signal response as the wire position is varied within the BPPM aperture.

  10. Endoscopic retrograde cholangio pancreatography (ERCP) - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Search MedlinePlus GO GO About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Endoscopic retrograde cholangio pancreatography (ERCP) - series URL of this ...

  11. Aircraft wire system laboratory development : phase I progress report.

    SciTech Connect

    Dinallo, Michael Anthony; Lopez, Christopher D.

    2003-08-01

    An aircraft wire systems laboratory has been developed to support technical maturation of diagnostic technologies being used in the aviation community for detection of faulty attributes of wiring systems. The design and development rationale of the laboratory is based in part on documented findings published by the aviation community. The main resource at the laboratory is a test bed enclosure that is populated with aged and newly assembled wire harnesses that have known defects. This report provides the test bed design and harness selection rationale, harness assembly and defect fabrication procedures, and descriptions of the laboratory for usage by the aviation community.

  12. Adverse reactions to iodinated contrast media administered at the time of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP).

    PubMed

    Pan, Jen-Jung; Draganov, Peter V

    2009-03-01

    Adverse reactions after intravascular administration of iodine contrast media are common and prophylactic regiments consisting of the use of steroids and low osmolality contrast media are highly effective in significantly decreasing the adverse reactions rate. The same type of contrast media are also used for opacification of the biliary tree and the pancreatic duct at the time of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). Systemic absorption of contrast media after ERCP routinely occurs. Although the adverse reaction rate appears to be very low the exact incidence remains unknown due to the retrospective nature of all reports. Despite the lack of formal recommendations, numerous prophylactic regiments are routinely used prior to ERCP in patients with history of prior reaction to intravascular contrast media. Moreover, the use of prophylaxis has even expanded to patients with no prior reaction to intravascular contrast media who are somehow perceived to be at increase risk (e.g. shellfish allergy). Recently, the first large scale prospective study reported exceedingly low incidence of adverse reaction to high oslmolality iodine-containing contrast media administered at the time of ERCP done without prophylactic premedication even in patients considered to be at the highest risk (prior severe reaction to intravascular contrast media administration). These data suggest that the use of prophylactic regiments prior to ERCP appears to be unnecessary. PMID:19275689

  13. BAE Systems Radiation Hardened SpaceWire ASIC and Roadmap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berger, Richard; Milliser, Myrna; Kapcio, Paul; Stanley, Dan; Moser, David; Koehler, Jennifer; Rakow, Glenn; Schnurr, Richard

    2006-01-01

    An Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) that implements the SpaceWire protocol has been developed in a radiation hardened 0.25 micron CMOS, technology. This effort began in March 2003 as a joint development between the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and BAE Systems. The BAE Systems SpaceWire ASlC is comprised entirely of reusable core elements, many of which are already flight-proven. It incorporates a 4-port SpaceWire router with two local ports, dual PC1 bus interfaces, a microcontroller, 32KB of internal memory, -and a memory controller for additional external memory use. The SpaceWire ASlC is planned for use on both the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES)-R and the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO). Engineering parts have already been delivered to both programs. This paper discusses the SpaceWire protocol and those elements of it that have been built into the current SpaceWire reusable core. There are features within the core that go beyond the current standard that can be enabled or disabled by the user and these will be described. The adaptation of SpaceWire to BAE Systems' On Chip Bus (OCB) for compatibility with the other reusable cores will be discussed. Optional configurations within user systems will be shown. The physical imp!ementation of the design will be described and test results from the hardware will be discussed. Finally, the BAE Systems roadmap for SpaceWire developments will be discussed, including some products already in design as well as longer term plans.

  14. Ferrite insertion at Recycler Flying Wire System

    SciTech Connect

    K.Y. Ng

    2004-02-27

    Ferrite rods are installed inside the flying-wire cavity of the Recycler Ring and at entrance and exit beam pipes in order to absorb high-frequency electromagnetic waves excited by the beam. However, these rods may also deteriorate the vacuum pressure of the ring. An investigation is made to analyze the necessity of the ferrite rods at the entrance and exit beam pipes.

  15. SNS LINAC Wire Scanner System : Signal Levels and Accuracy.

    SciTech Connect

    Plum, M. A.; Christensen, W.; Myer, R. E.; Rose, C. R.

    2002-01-01

    The linac wire scanner system for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge, TN, USA, calls for 5 units in the medium energy beam transport (MEBT), 5 in the drift tube linac (DTL), and 10 in the coupled cavity linac (CCL). In this paper we present expected signal levels and an analysis of the error in the beam size measurement as functions of wire position and electrical signal errors.

  16. A Laser-Wire System at the ATF Extraction Line

    SciTech Connect

    Boogert, S.T.; Blair, G.; Boorman, G.; Bosco, A.; Deacon, L.; Driouichi, C.; Karataev, P.; Kamps, T.; Delerue, N.; Dixit, S.; Foster, B.; Gannaway, F.; Howell, D.F.; Qureshi, M.; Reichold, A.; Senanayake, R.; Aryshev, A.; Hayano, H.; Kubo, K.; Terunuma, N.; Urakawa, J.; /KEK, Tsukuba /Liverpool U. /Cockcroft Inst. Accel. Sci. Tech. /SLAC

    2007-02-12

    A new laser-wire (LW) system has been installed at the ATF extraction line at KEK, Tsukuba. The system aims at a micron-scale laser spot size and employs a mode-locked laser system. The purpose-built interaction chamber, light delivery optics, and lens systems are described, and the first results are presented.

  17. Operational environments for electrical power wiring on NASA space systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stavnes, Mark W.; Hammoud, Ahmad N.; Bercaw, Robert W.

    1994-01-01

    Electrical wiring systems are used extensively on NASA space systems for power management and distribution, control and command, and data transmission. The reliability of these systems when exposed to the harsh environments of space is very critical to mission success and crew safety. Failures have been reported both on the ground and in flight due to arc tracking in the wiring harnesses, made possible by insulation degradation. This report was written as part of a NASA Office of Safety and Mission Assurance (Code Q) program to identify and characterize wiring systems in terms of their potential use in aerospace vehicles. The goal of the program is to provide the information and guidance needed to develop and qualify reliable, safe, lightweight wiring systems, which are resistant to arc tracking and suitable for use in space power applications. This report identifies the environments in which NASA spacecraft will operate, and determines the specific NASA testing requirements. A summary of related test programs is also given in this report. This data will be valuable to spacecraft designers in determining the best wiring constructions for the various NASA applications.

  18. Wired.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conklin, Aaron R.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses technology's impact on scoreboard design: the development of the light-emitting diode (LED) display. How the LED system works is explained, as are the advantages and disadvantages of LED compared with incandescent lamp boards. Final comments address deciding on materials for scoreboard casings. (GR)

  19. Risk management in fly-by-wire systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knoll, Karyn T.

    1993-01-01

    A general description of various types of fly-by-wire systems is provided. The risks inherent in digital flight control systems, like those used in the Space Shuttle, are identified. The results of a literature survey examining risk management methods in use throughout the aerospace industry are presented. The applicability of these methods to the Space Shuttle program is discussed.

  20. Semiautomatic cold wire feeder systems increase GTA productivity

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, M. )

    1995-01-01

    Often, the focus of attempts to increase GTA welding productivity is on studies to determine if justification exists for additional workstations, or for the investment in new fully automated dedicated welding fixtures. Often less costly and simpler solutions can bring about the necessary means to increase production rates and reduce operating costs. For short-run production applications, it is almost impossible to justify the substantial investment in a dedicated automatic fixture. Now, low cost GTA cold wire feeder systems are within the reach of even small shops. The paper views how cold wire equipment has been applied in several GTAW applications to improve results.

  1. Development of a Production Ready Automated Wire Delivery System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The current development effort is a Phase 3 research study entitled "A Production Ready Automated Wire Delivery System", contract number NAS8-39933, awarded to Nichols Research Corporation (NRC). The goals of this research study were to production harden the existing Automated Wire Delivery (AWDS) motion and sensor hardware and test the modified AWDS in a range of welding applications. In addition, the prototype AWDS controller would be moved to the VME bus platform by designing, fabricating and testing a single board VME bus AWDS controller. This effort was to provide an AWDS that could transition from the laboratory environment to production operations. The project was performed in two development steps. Step 1 modified and tested an improved MWG. Step 2 developed and tested the AWDS single board VME bus controller. Step 3 installed the Wire Pilot in a Weld Controller with the imbedded VME bus controller.

  2. NASA/BAE SYSTEMS SpaceWire Effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rakow, Glenn Parker; Schnurr, Richard G.; Kapcio, Paul

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses the state of the NASA and BAE SYSTEMS developments of SpaceWire. NASA has developed intellectual property that implements SpaceWire in Register Transfer Level (RTL) VHDL for a SpaceWire link and router. This design has been extensively verified using directed tests from the SpaceWire Standard and design specification, as well as being randomly tested to flush out hard to find bugs in the code. The high level features of the design will be discussed, including the support for multiple time code masters, which will be useful for the James Webb Space Telescope electrical architecture. This design is now ready to be targeted to FPGA's and ASICs. Target utilization and performance information will be presented for Spaceflight worthy FPGA's and a discussion of the ASIC implementations will be addressed. In particular, the BAE SYSTEMS ASIC will be highlighted which will be implemented on their .25micron rad-hard line. The chip will implement a 4-port router with the ability to tie chips together to make larger routers without external glue logic. This part will have integrated LVDS drivers/receivers, include a PLL and include skew control logic. It will be targeted to run at greater than 300 MHz and include the implementation for the proposed SpaceWire transport layer. The need to provide a reliable transport mechanism for SpaceWire has been identified by both NASA And ESA, who are attempting to define a transport layer standard that utilizes a low overhead, low latency connection oriented approach that works end-to-end. This layer needs to be implemented in hardware to prevent bottlenecks.

  3. Model-Based Testability Assessment and Directed Troubleshooting of Shuttle Wiring Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deb, Somnath; Domagala, Chuck; Shrestha, Roshan; Malepati, Venkatesh; Cavanaugh, Kevin; Patterson-Hine, Ann; Sanderfer, Dwight; Cockrell, Jim; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We have recently completed a pilot study on the Space shuttle wiring system commissioned by the Wiring Integrity Research (WIRe) team at NASA Ames Research Center, As the space shuttle ages, it is experiencing wiring degradation problems including arcing, chaffing insulation breakdown and broken conductors. A systematic and comprehensive test process is required to thoroughly test and quality assure (QA) the wiring systems. The NASA WIRe team recognized the value of a formal model based analysis for risk-assessment and fault coverage analysis. However. wiring systems are complex and involve over 50,000 wire segments. Therefore, NASA commissioned this pilot study with Qualtech Systems. Inc. (QSI) to explore means of automatically extracting high fidelity multi-signal models from wiring information database for use with QSI's Testability Engineering and Maintenance System (TEAMS) tool.

  4. Magnetization reversal modes in fourfold Co nano-wire systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blachowicz, T.; Ehrmann, A.

    2015-09-01

    Magnetic nano-wire systems are, as well as other patterned magnetic structures, of special interest for novel applications, such as magnetic storage media. In these systems, the coupling between neighbouring magnetic units is most important for the magnetization reversal process of the complete system, leading to a variety of magnetization reversal mechanisms. This article examines the influence of the magnetic material on hysteresis loop shape, coercive field, and magnetization reversal modes. While iron nano-wire systems exhibit flat or one-step hysteresis loops, systems consisting of cobalt nano-wires show hysteresis loops with several longitudinal steps and transverse peaks, correlated to a rich spectrum of magnetization reversal mechanisms. We show that changing the material parameters while the system geometry stays identical can lead to completely different hysteresis loops and reversal modes. Thus, especially for finding magnetic nano-systems which can be used as quaternary or even higher-order storage devices, it is rational to test several materials for the planned systems. Apparently, new materials may lead to novel and unexpected behaviour - and can thus result in novel functionalities.

  5. Commissioning a Vibrating Wire System for Quadrupole Fiducialization

    SciTech Connect

    Levashov, Michael Y

    2010-12-03

    Quadrupoles will be placed between the undulator segments in LCLS to keep the electron beam focused as it passes through. The quadrupoles will be assembled with their respective undulator segments prior to being placed into the tunnel. Beam alignment will be used to center the quadrupoles, along with the corresponding undulators, on the beam. If there is any displacement between the undulator and the quadrupole axes in the assemblies, the beam will deviate from the undulator axis. If it deviates by more than 80{micro}m in vertical or 140{micro}m in horizontal directions, the undulator will not perform as required by LCLS. This error is divided between three sources: undulator axis fiducialization, quadrupole magnetic axis fiducialization, and assembly of the two parts. In particular, it was calculated that the quadrupole needs to be fiducialized to within 25{micro}m in both vertical and horizontal directions. A previous study suggested using a vibrating wire system for finding the magnetic axis of the quadrupoles. The study showed that the method has high sensitivity (up to 1{micro}m) and laid out guidelines for constructing such a system. There are 3 steps in fiducializing the quadrupole with the vibrating wire system. They are positioning the wire at the magnet center (step 1), finding the wire with position detectors (step 2), and finding the quadrupole tooling ball positions relative to the position detector tooling balls (step 3). A previous study investigated the error associated with each step by using a permanent quadrupole magnet on an optical mover system. The study reported an error of 11{micro}m for step 1 and a repeatability of 4{micro}m for step 2. However, the set up used a FARO arm to measure tooling balls and didn't allow to accurately check step 2 for errors; an uncertainty of 100{micro}m was reported. Therefore, even though the repeatability was good, there was no way to check that the error in step 2 was small. Following the recommendations of

  6. Comparing conductance quantization in quantum wires and quantum Hall systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseev, Anton Yu.; Cheianov, Vadim V.; Fröhlich, Jürg

    1996-12-01

    We suggest a means to calculate the dc conductance of a one-dimensional electron system described by the Luttinger model. Our approach is based on the ideas of Landauer and Büttiker on transport in ballistic channels and on the methods of current algebra. We analyze in detail the way in which the system can be coupled to external reservoirs. This determines whether the conductance is renormalized or not. We provide a parallel treatment of a quantum wire and a fractional quantum Hall system on a cylinder with two widely separated edges. Although both systems are described by the same effective theory, the physical electrons are identified with different types of excitations, and hence the coupling to external reservoirs is different. As a consequence, the conductance in the wire is quantized in integer units of e2/h per spin orientation whereas the Hall conductance allows for fractional quantization.

  7. [Pneumoperitoneum, pneumoretroperitoneum, bilateral pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous emphysema due ERCP].

    PubMed

    Menéndez, Pablo; Padilla, David; Villarejo, Pedro; García, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) has become an essential procedure in the diagnosis and treatment of biliopancreatic diseases. Complications of this procedure are potentially serious, being necessary to know how to recognize them for the application of the appropriate treatment. We report the case of a 79-year-old woman who developed a massive subcutaneous emphysema, bilateral pneumothorax, retropneumomediastinum, retropneumoperitoneum and pneumoperitoneum due to iatrogenic duodenal injury secondary to ERCP. The clinical suspicion for early diagnosis of iatrogenic injury after ERCP will determine the correct treatment of this complication and will achieve better outcomes. PMID:22476185

  8. Fly-by-Wire Systems Enable Safer, More Efficient Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    Using the ultra-reliable Apollo Guidance Computer that enabled the Apollo Moon missions, Dryden Flight Research Center engineers, in partnership with industry leaders such as Cambridge, Massachusetts-based Draper Laboratory, demonstrated that digital computers could be used to fly aircraft. Digital fly-by-wire systems have since been incorporated into large airliners, military jets, revolutionary new aircraft, and even cars and submarines.

  9. Pneumoperitoneum, pneumoretroperitoneum and bilateral pneumothorax caused by ERCP.

    PubMed

    Ozgonul, Abdullah; Cece, Hasan; Sogut, Ozgur; Demir, Deniz; Kurkcuoglus, Ibrahim Can

    2010-01-01

    Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is one of the mainstay procedure treatment of hepatobiliary and pancreatic diseases. Life-threatening complications such as pneumoperitoneum, pneumoretroperitoneum, pneumomediastinum, subcutaneous emphysema and pneumothorax related to this procedure rarely occur and only a few cases are reported in English literature. Herein, we report a patient who developed acute abdominal symptoms with subcutaneous emphysema and bilateral pneumothorax due to duodenal perforation, accompaniment of ERCP that was successfuly treated. PMID:20055284

  10. Carbon-atom wires: 1-D systems with tunable properties.

    PubMed

    Casari, C S; Tommasini, M; Tykwinski, R R; Milani, A

    2016-02-28

    This review provides a discussion of the current state of research on linear carbon structures and related materials based on sp-hybridization of carbon atoms (polyynes and cumulenes). We show that such systems have widely tunable properties and thus represent an intriguing and mostly unexplored field for both fundamental and applied sciences. We discuss the rich interplay between the structural, vibrational, and electronic properties focusing on recent advances and the future perspectives of carbon-atom wires and novel hybrid sp-sp(2)-carbon architectures. PMID:26847474

  11. Polariton dispersion of a quantum wire superlattice system

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, K. S. Joseph; Revathy, V.; Amalanathan, M.; Lenin, S. Maria

    2015-06-24

    Superlattices have drawn considerable attention in the recent years. In this work, the behaviour of polaritons in a quantum wire superlattice is analysed both at the brillouin zone edge and at centre of the brillouin zone using LiNbO3/ LiTaO3 as an example. The significance of the polariton modes in both the cases are analysed. New modes on the polaritonic gap, where the propagation of electromagnetic wave is forbidden, is obtained in the system as suggested by some recent literature. The effect on nonlinear interactions of phonon polaritons in LiNbO3/ LiTaO3 superlattices is also discussed.

  12. Polariton dispersion of a quantum wire superlattice system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, K. S. Joseph; Amalanathan, M.; Revathy, V.; Lenin, S. Maria

    2015-06-01

    Superlattices have drawn considerable attention in the recent years. In this work, the behaviour of polaritons in a quantum wire superlattice is analysed both at the brillouin zone edge and at centre of the brillouin zone using LiNbO3/ LiTaO3 as an example. The significance of the polariton modes in both the cases are analysed. New modes on the polaritonic gap, where the propagation of electromagnetic wave is forbidden, is obtained in the system as suggested by some recent literature. The effect on nonlinear interactions of phonon polaritons in LiNbO3/ LiTaO3 superlattices is also discussed.

  13. Carbon-atom wires: 1-D systems with tunable properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casari, C. S.; Tommasini, M.; Tykwinski, R. R.; Milani, A.

    2016-02-01

    This review provides a discussion of the current state of research on linear carbon structures and related materials based on sp-hybridization of carbon atoms (polyynes and cumulenes). We show that such systems have widely tunable properties and thus represent an intriguing and mostly unexplored field for both fundamental and applied sciences. We discuss the rich interplay between the structural, vibrational, and electronic properties focusing on recent advances and the future perspectives of carbon-atom wires and novel hybrid sp-sp2-carbon architectures.

  14. Novel Calibration System with Sparse Wires for CMB Polarization Receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajima, O.; Nguyen, H.; Bischoff, C.; Brizius, A.; Buder, I.; Kusaka, A.

    2012-06-01

    A curl competent (also known as B-modes) in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization is a smoking gun signature of the inflationary universe. To achieve better sensitivity to this faint signal, CMB polarization experiments aim to maximize the number of detector elements, resulting in a large focal plane receiver. Detector calibration of the polarization response becomes essential. It is extremely useful to be able to calibrate "simultaneously" all detectors on the large focal plane. We developed a novel calibration system that rotates a large "sparse" grid of metal wires, in front of and fully covering the field of view of the focal plane receiver. Polarized radiation is created via the reflection of ambient temperature photons from the wire surface. Since the detector has a finite beam size, the observed signal is convolved with the beam property. The intensity of the of the calibrator is reasonable (a few Kelvin or less) compared to sky temperature for typical observing conditions (˜10 K). The system played a successful role for receiver calibration of QUIET, a CMB polarization experiment located in the Atacama desert in Chile. The successful performance revealed that this system is applicable to other experiments based on different technologies, e.g. TES bolometers.

  15. Novel calibration system with sparse wires for CMB polarization receivers

    SciTech Connect

    Tajima, O.; Nguyen, H.; Bischoff, C.; Brizius, A.; Buder, I.; Kusaka, A. /Chicago U., KICP

    2011-07-01

    B-modes in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization is a smoking gun signature of the inflationary universe. To achieve better sensitivity to this faint signal, CMB polarization experiments aim to maximize the number of detector elements, resulting in a large focal plane receiver. Detector calibration of the polarization response becomes essential. It is extremely useful to be able to calibrate 'simultaneously' all detectors on the large focal plane. We developed a novel calibration system that rotates a large 'sparse' grid of metal wires, in front of and fully covering the field of view of the focal plane receiver. Polarized radiation is created via the reflection of ambient temperature from the wire surface. Since the detector has a finite beam size, the observed signal is smeared according to the beam property. The resulting smeared polarized radiation has a reasonable intensity (a few Kelvin or less) compared to the sky temperature ({approx}10 K observing condition). The system played a successful role for receiver calibration of QUIET, a CMB polarization experiment located in the Atacama desert in Chile. The successful performance revealed that this system is applicable to other experiments based on different technologies, e.g. TES bolometers.

  16. A wire scanner system for characterizing the BNL energy recovery LINAC beam position monitor system

    SciTech Connect

    Michnoff R.; Biscardi, C.; Cerniglia, P.; Degen, C.; Gassner, D.; Hoff, L.; Hulsart, R.

    2012-04-15

    A stepper motor controlled wire scanner system has recently been modified to support testing of the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) Collider-Accelerator department's Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) beam position monitor (BPM) system. The ERL BPM consists of four 9.33 mm diameter buttons mounted at 90 degree spacing in a cube with 1.875 inch inside diameter. The buttons were designed by BNL and fabricated by Times Microwave Systems. Libera brilliance single pass BPM electronic modules with 700 MHz bandpass filter, manufactured by Instrumentation Technologies, will be used to measure the transverse beam positions at 14 locations around the ERL. The wire scanner assembly provides the ability to measure the BPM button response to a pulsed wire, and evaluate and calibrate the Libera position measurement electronics. A description of the wire scanner system and test result data will be presented.

  17. Yielding of the clamped-wire system in the Ilizarov external fixator.

    PubMed

    Watson, M A; Matthias, K J; Maffulli, N; Hukins, D W L

    2003-01-01

    This study demonstrates that the clamped-wire system used to suspend bones within an Ilizarov external fixator yields when the perpendicular load exceeds 50 N per wire. Cyclic loading was applied to tensioned wires clamped within an Ilizarov ring component, with steadily increasing load amplitude. Wires were tested at four initial tension settings. The amount of energy lost within the clamped-wire system per load cycle was calculated for every test. The results showed that there was a consistent trend to increasing non-recoverable energy loss per load cycle when peak loads exceed 50 N for all initial tension settings. A finite element (FE) model replicating the experimental conditions was performed to investigate the levels of stress within the loaded wires. The FE model analyses showed that high stresses were generated in the wires close to the clamping sites, and that the stress levels could reasonably be expected to exceed the material yield stress when loaded to about 55 N, for all initial tension settings. The results show that material yield, accompanied by some wire slippage through the clamps, is responsible for system yield, in agreement with previous studies. Although the initial wire tension has an appreciable effect on the wire stiffness, it did not affect the elastic load range of the clamped-wire system. To prevent yield of the clamped-wire system in practice, the fixator should be assembled with sufficient wires to ensure that the load transmitted to each wire by the patient does not exceed 50 N. PMID:14558649

  18. 30 CFR 77.704-11 - Use of grounded messenger wires; ungrounded systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Grounding § 77.704-11 Use of grounded messenger wires; ungrounded systems. Solely for purposes of grounding ungrounded high-voltage power systems, grounded messenger wires used to suspend the cables of such systems may be used as a grounding medium....

  19. 30 CFR 77.704-11 - Use of grounded messenger wires; ungrounded systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Grounding § 77.704-11 Use of grounded messenger wires; ungrounded systems. Solely for purposes of grounding ungrounded high-voltage power systems, grounded messenger wires used to suspend the cables of such systems may be used as a grounding medium....

  20. 30 CFR 75.902-2 - Approved ground check systems not employing pilot check wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Approved ground check systems not employing... Low- and Medium-Voltage Alternating Current Circuits § 75.902-2 Approved ground check systems not employing pilot check wires. Ground check systems not employing pilot check wires will be approved only...

  1. Model-based testability assessment and directed troubleshooting of shuttle wiring systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deb, Somnath; Domagala, Chuck; Shrestha, Roshan; Malepati, Venkatesh N.; Cavanaugh, Kevin F.; Patterson-Hine, Ann; Sanderfer, Dwight; Cockrell, Jim

    2001-07-01

    As the space shuttle ages, it is experiencing wiring degradation problems, including arcing, chaffing, insulation breakdown and broken conductors. A systematic and comprehensive test process is required to thoroughly test and QA the wiring systems. The NASA Wiring Integrity Reseach (WIRe) team recognized the value of a formal model based analysis for risk assessment and fault coverage analysis using our TEAMS toolset and commissioned a pilot study with QSI to explore means of automatically extracting high fidelity multisignal models from wiring information databases. The MEC1 Shuttle subsystem was the subject of this study. The connectivity and wiring information for the model was extracted from a Shuttle Connector Analysis Network (SCAN) electronic wirelist. Using this wirelist, QSI concurrently created manual and automatically generated wiring models for all wire paths associated with connector J3 on the MEC1 assembly. The manually generated model helped establish the rules of modeling. The complete MEC1 model was automatically generated based on these rules, thus saving significant modeling cost. The methodology is easily extensible to the entire shuttle wiring system. This paper presents our modeling and analysis results from the pilot study along with our proposed solutions to the complex issues of wiring integrity assessment problem.

  2. 14 CFR 121.1111 - Electrical wiring interconnection systems (EWIS) maintenance program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Electrical wiring interconnection systems (EWIS) maintenance program. 121.1111 Section 121.1111 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... Airworthiness and Safety Improvements § 121.1111 Electrical wiring interconnection systems (EWIS)...

  3. 14 CFR 121.1111 - Electrical wiring interconnection systems (EWIS) maintenance program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Electrical wiring interconnection systems (EWIS) maintenance program. 121.1111 Section 121.1111 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... Airworthiness and Safety Improvements § 121.1111 Electrical wiring interconnection systems (EWIS)...

  4. 14 CFR 121.1111 - Electrical wiring interconnection systems (EWIS) maintenance program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Electrical wiring interconnection systems (EWIS) maintenance program. 121.1111 Section 121.1111 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... Airworthiness and Safety Improvements § 121.1111 Electrical wiring interconnection systems (EWIS)...

  5. X-wing fly-by-wire vehicle management system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, Jr., William C. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A complete, computer based, vehicle management system (VMS) for X-Wing aircraft using digital fly-by-wire technology controlling many subsystems and providing functions beyond the classical aircraft flight control system. The vehicle management system receives input signals from a multiplicity of sensors and provides commands to a large number of actuators controlling many subsystems. The VMS includes--segregating flight critical and mission critical factors and providing a greater level of back-up or redundancy for the former; centralizing the computation of functions utilized by several subsystems (e.g. air data, rotor speed, etc.); integrating the control of the flight control functions, the compressor control, the rotor conversion control, vibration alleviation by higher harmonic control, engine power anticipation and self-test, all in the same flight control computer (FCC) hardware units. The VMS uses equivalent redundancy techniques to attain quadruple equivalency levels; includes alternate modes of operation and recovery means to back-up any functions which fail; and uses back-up control software for software redundancy.

  6. Virtual Instrument Systems in Reality (VISIR) for Remote Wiring and Measurement of Electronic Circuits on Breadboard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tawfik, M.; Sancristobal, E.; Martin, S.; Gil, R.; Diaz, G.; Colmenar, A.; Peire, J.; Castro, M.; Nilsson, K.; Zackrisson, J.; Hakansson, L.; Gustavsson, I.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on a state-of-the-art remote laboratory project called Virtual Instrument Systems in Reality (VISIR). VISIR allows wiring and measuring of electronic circuits remotely on a virtual workbench that replicates physical circuit breadboards. The wiring mechanism is developed by means of a relay switching matrix connected to a PCI…

  7. Toward a Reduced-Wire Readout System for Ultrasound Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Jaemyung; Arkan, Evren F.; Degertekin, F. Levent; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2015-01-01

    We present a system-on-a-chip (SoC) for use in high-frequency capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) imaging systems. This SoC consists of trans-impedance amplifiers (TIA), delay locked loop (DLL) based clock multiplier, quadrature sampler, and pulse width modulator (PWM). The SoC down converts RF echo signal to baseband by quadrature sampling which facilitates modulation. To send data through a 1.6 m wire in the catheter which has limited bandwidth and is vulnerable to noise, the SoC creates a pseudo-digital PWM signal which can be used for back telemetry or wireless readout of the RF data. In this implementation, using a 0.35-μm std. CMOS process, the TIA and single-to-differential (STD) converter had 45 MHz bandwidth, the quadrature sampler had 10.1 dB conversion gain, and the PWM had 5-bit ENoB. Preliminary results verified front-end functionality, and the power consumption of a TIA, STD, quadrature sampler, PWM, and clock multiplier was 26 mW from a 3 V supply. PMID:25571135

  8. Toward a reduced-wire readout system for ultrasound imaging.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jaemyung; Arkan, Evren F; Degertekin, F Levent; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2014-01-01

    We present a system-on-a-chip (SoC) for use in high-frequency capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) imaging systems. This SoC consists of trans-impedance amplifiers (TIA), delay locked loop (DLL) based clock multiplier, quadrature sampler, and pulse width modulator (PWM). The SoC down converts RF echo signal to baseband by quadrature sampling which facilitates modulation. To send data through a 1.6 m wire in the catheter which has limited bandwidth and is vulnerable to noise, the SoC creates a pseudo-digital PWM signal which can be used for back telemetry or wireless readout of the RF data. In this implementation, using a 0.35-μm std. CMOS process, the TIA and single-to-differential (STD) converter had 45 MHz bandwidth, the quadrature sampler had 10.1 dB conversion gain, and the PWM had 5-bit ENoB. Preliminary results verified front-end functionality, and the power consumption of a TIA, STD, quadrature sampler, PWM, and clock multiplier was 26 mW from a 3 V supply. PMID:25571135

  9. A One Chip Hardened Solution for High Speed SpaceWire System Implementations. Session: Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, Joseph R.; Berger, Richard W.; Rakow, Glenn P.

    2007-01-01

    An Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) that implements the SpaceWire protocol has been developed in a radiation hardened 0.25 micron CMOS technology. This effort began in March 2003 as a joint development between the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and BAE Systems. The BAE Systems SpaceWire ASIC is comprised entirely of reusable core elements, many of which are already flight-proven. It incorporates a router with 4 SpaceWire ports and two local ports, dual PC1 bus interfaces, a microcontroller, 32KB of internal memory, and a memory controller for additional external memory use. The SpaceWire cores are also reused in other ASICs under development. The SpaceWire ASIC is planned for use on the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES)-R, the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) and other missions. Engineering and flight parts have been delivered to programs and users. This paper reviews the SpaceWire protocol and those elements of it that have been built into the current and next SpaceWire reusable cores and features within the core that go beyond the current standard and can be enabled or disabled by the user. The adaptation of SpaceWire to BAE Systems' On Chip Bus (OCB) for compatibility with the other reusable cores will be reviewed and highlighted. Optional configurations within user systems and test boards will be shown. The physical implementation of the design will be described and test results from the hardware will be discussed. Application of this ASIC and other ASICs containing the SpaceWire cores and embedded microcontroller to Plug and Play and reconfigurable implementations will be described. Finally, the BAE Systems roadmap for SpaceWire developments will be updated, including some products already in design as well as longer term plans.

  10. Test wire for high voltage power supply crowbar system

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, J.T. III; Collins, M.

    1997-09-01

    The klystron microwave amplifier tubes used in the Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) and to be used in the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) plant have a strict upper limit on the amount of energy which can be safely dissipated within the klystron`s vacuum envelope during a high voltage arc. One way to prevent damage from occurring to the klystron microwave amplifier tube is through the use of a crowbar circuit which diverts the energy stored in the power supply filter capacitors from the tube arc. The crowbar circuit must be extremely reliable. To test the crowbar circuit, a wire that is designed to fuse when it absorbs a predetermined amount of energy is switched between the high voltage output terminals. The energy required to fuse the wire was investigated for a variety of circuits that simulated the power supply circuit. Techniques for calculating wire length and energy are presented along with verifying experimental data.

  11. Beam Emittance Measurement with Laser Wire Scanners in the ILC Beam Delivery System

    SciTech Connect

    Agapov, I.; Blair, G.A.; Woodley, M.; /SLAC

    2008-02-01

    Accurate measurement of the beam phase-space is essential for the next generation of electron accelerators. A scheme for beam optics optimization and beam matrix reconstruction algorithms for the diagnostics section of the beam delivery system of the International Linear Collider based on laser-wire beam profile monitors are discussed. Possible modes of operation of the laser-wire system together with their corresponding performance are presented. Based on these results, prospects for reconstructing the ILC beam emittance from representative laser-wire beam size measurements are evaluated.

  12. 75 FR 65052 - Consensus Standards, Standard Practice for Maintenance of Airplane Electrical Wiring Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-21

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Consensus Standards, Standard Practice for Maintenance of Airplane... Practice for Maintenance of Airplane Electrical Wiring Systems (Standard Practice) as an acceptable means... FAA finds the standards to be acceptable methods and procedures for maintenance of electrical...

  13. 30 CFR 75.705-11 - Use of grounded messenger wires; ungrounded systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Grounding § 75.705-11 Use of grounded messenger wires; ungrounded systems. Solely for purposes of grounding... may be used as a grounding medium....

  14. 30 CFR 75.705-11 - Use of grounded messenger wires; ungrounded systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Grounding § 75.705-11 Use of grounded messenger wires; ungrounded systems. Solely for purposes of grounding... may be used as a grounding medium....

  15. The wiring diagram of a glomerular olfactory system.

    PubMed

    Berck, Matthew E; Khandelwal, Avinash; Claus, Lindsey; Hernandez-Nunez, Luis; Si, Guangwei; Tabone, Christopher J; Li, Feng; Truman, James W; Fetter, Rick D; Louis, Matthieu; Samuel, Aravinthan Dt; Cardona, Albert

    2016-01-01

    The sense of smell enables animals to react to long-distance cues according to learned and innate valences. Here, we have mapped with electron microscopy the complete wiring diagram of the Drosophila larval antennal lobe, an olfactory neuropil similar to the vertebrate olfactory bulb. We found a canonical circuit with uniglomerular projection neurons (uPNs) relaying gain-controlled ORN activity to the mushroom body and the lateral horn. A second, parallel circuit with multiglomerular projection neurons (mPNs) and hierarchically connected local neurons (LNs) selectively integrates multiple ORN signals already at the first synapse. LN-LN synaptic connections putatively implement a bistable gain control mechanism that either computes odor saliency through panglomerular inhibition, or allows some glomeruli to respond to faint aversive odors in the presence of strong appetitive odors. This complete wiring diagram will support experimental and theoretical studies towards bridging the gap between circuits and behavior. PMID:27177418

  16. Study on nondestructive detection system based on x-ray for wire ropes conveyer belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Changyun; Shi, Boya; Wan, Peng; Li, Jie

    2008-03-01

    A nondestructive detection system based on X-ray for wire ropes conveyer belt is designed by X-ray detection technology. In this paper X-ray detection principle is analyzed, a design scheme of the system is presented; image processing of conveyer belt is researched and image processing algorithms are given; X-ray acquisition receiving board is designed with the use of FPGA and DSP; the software of the system is programmed by C#.NET on WINXP/WIN2000 platform. The experiment indicates the system can implement remote real-time detection of wire ropes conveyer belt images, find faults and give an alarm in time. The system is direct perceived, strong real-time and high accurate. It can be used for fault detection of wire ropes conveyer belts in mines, ports, terminals and other fields.

  17. The wiring diagram of a glomerular olfactory system

    PubMed Central

    Berck, Matthew E; Khandelwal, Avinash; Claus, Lindsey; Hernandez-Nunez, Luis; Si, Guangwei; Tabone, Christopher J; Li, Feng; Truman, James W; Fetter, Rick D; Louis, Matthieu; Samuel, Aravinthan DT; Cardona, Albert

    2016-01-01

    The sense of smell enables animals to react to long-distance cues according to learned and innate valences. Here, we have mapped with electron microscopy the complete wiring diagram of the Drosophila larval antennal lobe, an olfactory neuropil similar to the vertebrate olfactory bulb. We found a canonical circuit with uniglomerular projection neurons (uPNs) relaying gain-controlled ORN activity to the mushroom body and the lateral horn. A second, parallel circuit with multiglomerular projection neurons (mPNs) and hierarchically connected local neurons (LNs) selectively integrates multiple ORN signals already at the first synapse. LN-LN synaptic connections putatively implement a bistable gain control mechanism that either computes odor saliency through panglomerular inhibition, or allows some glomeruli to respond to faint aversive odors in the presence of strong appetitive odors. This complete wiring diagram will support experimental and theoretical studies towards bridging the gap between circuits and behavior. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14859.001 PMID:27177418

  18. 30 CFR 77.902-2 - Approved ground check systems not employing pilot check wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Approved ground check systems not employing... Approved ground check systems not employing pilot check wires. Ground check systems not employing pilot... includes a fail safe design causing the circuit breaker to open when ground continuity is broken....

  19. Bond strengths of three resin systems used with brackets and embedded wire attachments.

    PubMed

    Schulz, R P; Mayhew, R B; Oesterle, L J; Pierson, W P

    1985-01-01

    Orthodontic wire bonded directly to teeth with a resin adhesive system has been used to establish anchor units for procedures in orthodontics as well as for splinting teeth in other disciplines. This procedure can save the cost and time of placing a bracket. In addition, several different resin systems have been used for this procedure as well as for placing brackets. The purpose of this study was to determine the strength of three adhesive systems used to bond orthodontic wires directly to teeth and to compare these values with those found for directly bonded orthodontic brackets. Equal sample sizes of brackets or wires were attached to 240 human teeth with either Concise, Miradept, or Endur in a standardized area of etched enamel. Shear and tensile strengths were measured at 30 minutes and at 48 hours. At 30 minutes brackets were significantly stronger than embedded wires, and Concise was significantly stronger than either of the other resins. However, all significant differences between any of the three resin systems using either bonded brackets or wires disappeared at 48 hours. Whether or not this initial strength difference is clinically significant remains speculative. PMID:3155593

  20. Real-time simulation of dynamic fluoroscopy of ERCP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Hoeryong; Lee, Doo Yong

    2010-02-01

    This paper discusses the methods for real-time rendering of time-varying dynamic fluoroscope images including fluid flow for the ERCP (Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography) simulation. A volume rendering technique is used to generate virtual fluoroscopy images. This paper develops an image-overlaying method which overlaps the timevarying images onto the constant background image. The full size fluoroscopy image is computed from the initial volume data set during the pre-processing stage, which is then saved as the background image. Only the time-varying images are computed from the time-varying volume data set during the actual simulation. This involves relatively small computation compared with the background image. The time-varying images are then overlaid onto the background image to obtain the complete images. This method reduces computational overhead by removing redundant computations. A simplified particle dynamics model is employed for fast simulation of the fluid flow. The fluid model, a collection of particles, interacts only with the ducts based on principles of a complete elastic collision. Hence, the velocity of the particles, when they collide with the duct, can be computed by using simple algebraic equations. The methods are implemented for fast simulation of the ERCP.

  1. Papillary cannulation and sphincterotomy techniques at ERCP: European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) Clinical Guideline.

    PubMed

    Testoni, Pier Alberto; Mariani, Alberto; Aabakken, Lars; Arvanitakis, Marianna; Bories, Erwan; Costamagna, Guido; Devière, Jacques; Dinis-Ribeiro, Mario; Dumonceau, Jean-Marc; Giovannini, Marc; Gyokeres, Tibor; Hafner, Michael; Halttunen, Jorma; Hassan, Cesare; Lopes, Luis; Papanikolaou, Ioannis S; Tham, Tony C; Tringali, Andrea; van Hooft, Jeanin; Williams, Earl J

    2016-07-01

    This Guideline is an official statement of the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE). It provides practical advice on how to achieve successful cannulation and sphincterotomy at minimum risk to the patient. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system was adopted to define the strength of recommendations and the quality of evidence. Main recommendations 1 ESGE suggests that difficult biliary cannulation is defined by the presence of one or more of the following: more than 5 contacts with the papilla whilst attempting to cannulate; more than 5 minutes spent attempting to cannulate following visualization of the papilla; more than one unintended pancreatic duct cannulation or opacification (low quality evidence, weak recommendation). 2 ESGE recommends the guidewire-assisted technique for primary biliary cannulation, since it reduces the risk of post-ERCP pancreatitis (moderate quality evidence, strong recommendation). 3 ESGE recommends using pancreatic guidewire (PGW)-assisted biliary cannulation in patients where biliary cannulation is difficult and repeated unintentional access to the main pancreatic duct occurs (moderate quality evidence, strong recommendation). ESGE recommends attempting prophylactic pancreatic stenting in all patients with PGW-assisted attempts at biliary cannulation (moderate quality evidence, strong recommendation). 4 ESGE recommends needle-knife fistulotomy as the preferred technique for precutting (moderate quality evidence, strong recommendation). ESGE suggests that precutting should be used only by endoscopists who achieve selective biliary cannulation in more than 80 % of cases using standard cannulation techniques (low quality evidence, weak recommendation). When access to the pancreatic duct is easy to obtain, ESGE suggests placement of a pancreatic stent prior to precutting (moderate quality evidence, weak recommendation). 5 ESGE recommends that in patients with a small papilla

  2. Characteristics of a large system of pad readout wire proportional chambers for the HPC calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Camporesi, T.; Cavallo, F.R.; Giordano, V.; Laurenti, G.; Molinari, G.; Navarria, F.L.; Privitera, P.; Rovelli, T.; Valenti, G.; Zucchini, A.

    1989-02-01

    A large system of wire proportional chambers is being constructed for the readout of the High-Density Projection Chamber (HPC) of the DELPHI experiment at the Large Electron-Positron storage ring. The system consists of 144 chambers, each 0.3 m/sup 2/ wide and read out via cathode pads, located at the end of the HPC drift volume.

  3. Three-dimensional wire-mesh capacitor system measures fluid density

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Gaging system automatically measures the bulk density of a stored, electrically nonconductive fluid containing varying portions of liquid and vapor. The system employs a three-dimensional wire-mesh capacitor whose capacitance varies with the bulk density of the fluid dielectric medium between the capacitor plates.

  4. Electric Field Wire Boom System and instrument for CubeSats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stromberg, E. M.; Burr, S.; Hui, D.; Swenson, C.

    2009-12-01

    The viability of CubeSats as meaningful platforms for observing the upper atmosphere depends upon the development of suitable scientific instrumentation. One of the most fundamental parameters to observe in the space environment is the electric fields which drive the motions of the plasma in the ionosphere and magnetosphere. A well known technique for observing electric fields is the double probe with sensors deployed several meters from the space vehicle. A compact wire boom system, deploying sensors from opposite sides of a spinning CubeSat has been developed at Utah State University. We present the development of a 10 meter tip-to-tip wire boom system to deploy four 1-cm spherical double probe sensors. The wire boom mechanism consists of a spool which is actuated with a small non-magnetic, piezoelectric motor, to control deployment. The wire boom and electric field instrument is 1.25cm high and fits a standard 10 x10 cm CubeSat cross section. The spherical sensors at the end of the wire booms are gold plated to minimize geometric work function dissimilarities and to provide surface electrical stability. We present an analysis of the expected performance and lifetime of this boom in low Earth orbit. The proposed design permits the measurement of the two-dimensional DC-electric field determined only by the spacecraft velocity and the instrument sampling rate.

  5. High dynamic range diamond detector acquisition system for beam wire scanner applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirvent, J. L.; Dehning, B.; Piselli, E.; Emery, J.; Dieguez, A.

    2016-03-01

    The CERN Beam Instrumentation group has been working during the last years on the beam wire scanners upgrade to cope up with the increasing requirements of CERN experiments. These devices are used to measure the beam profile by crossing a thin wire through a circulating beam, the resulting secondary particles produced from beam/wire interaction are detected and correlated with the wire position to reconstruct the beam profile. The upgraded secondary particles acquisition electronics will use polycrystalline chemical vapour deposition (pCVD) diamond detectors for particle shower measurements, with low noise acquisitions performed on the tunnel, near the detector. The digital data is transmitted to the surface through an optical link with the GBT protocol. Two integrator ASICs (ICECAL and QIE10) are being characterized and compared for detector readout with the complete acquisition chain prototype. This contribution presents the project status, the QIE10 front-end performance and the first measurements with the complete acquisition system prototype. In addition, diamond detector signals from particle showers generated by an operational beam wire scanner are analysed and compared with an operational system.

  6. Secondary particle acquisition system for the CERN beam wire scanners upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirvent, J. L.; Dehning, B.; Emery, J.; Diéguez, A.

    2015-04-01

    The increasing requirements of CERN experiments make essential the upgrade of beam instrumentation in general, and high accuracy beam profile monitors in particular. The CERN Beam Instrumentation Group has been working during the last years on the Wire Scanners upgrade. These systems cross a thin wire through a circulating beam, the resulting secondary particles produced from beam/wire interaction are detected to reconstruct the beam profile. For the new secondary shower acquisition system, it is necessary to perform very low noise measurements with high dynamic range coverage. The aim is to design a system without tuneable parameters and compatible for any beam wire scanner location at the CERN complex. Polycrystalline chemical vapour deposition diamond detectors (pCVD) are proposed as new detectors for this application because of their radiation hardness, fast response and linearity over a high dynamic range. For the detector readout, the acquisition electronics must be designed to exploit the detector capabilities and perform bunch by bunch measurements at 40MHz. This paper describes the design challenges of such a system, analysing different acquisition possibilities from the signal integrity point of view. The proposed system architecture is shown in detail and the development status presented.

  7. Severe Coronary Spasm in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Resulting in Recurrent Occlusions and Guide Wire Fracture.

    PubMed

    Lai, Chih-Hung; Lu, Tse-Min; Juan, Yu-Hsiang; Chang, Szu-Ling; Lee, Wen-Lieng; Sung, Shih-Hsien

    2016-07-01

    Middle-aged female patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have an increased risk of coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction (MI). We report a case of left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) MI associated with severe coronary spasm in both the LAD and left circumflex artery, complicated with fracture of the distal wire within the microcatheter which was successfully removed by manual aspiration using an inflation device. From this series of rare complications of SLE with MI, severe coronary spasm and guide wire fracture, we underscore that clinicians performing coronary intervention should be aware of an elevated chance of possible severe coronary spasms in SLE patients. PMID:27471364

  8. Severe Coronary Spasm in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Resulting in Recurrent Occlusions and Guide Wire Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Chih-Hung; Lu, Tse-Min; Juan, Yu-Hsiang; Chang, Szu-Ling; Lee, Wen-Lieng; Sung, Shih-Hsien

    2016-01-01

    Middle-aged female patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have an increased risk of coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction (MI). We report a case of left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) MI associated with severe coronary spasm in both the LAD and left circumflex artery, complicated with fracture of the distal wire within the microcatheter which was successfully removed by manual aspiration using an inflation device. From this series of rare complications of SLE with MI, severe coronary spasm and guide wire fracture, we underscore that clinicians performing coronary intervention should be aware of an elevated chance of possible severe coronary spasms in SLE patients. PMID:27471364

  9. 47 CFR 68.213 - Installation of other than “fully protected” non-system simple customer premises wiring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... non-system simple customer premises wiring. 68.213 Section 68.213 Telecommunication FEDERAL... protected” non-system simple customer premises wiring. (a) Scope of this rule. Provisions of this rule apply... to agreement between it and the customer or undertakings by it, otherwise consistent with...

  10. Differences in the force system delivered by different beta-titanium wires in elaborate designs

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Renato Parsekian; Caldas, Sergei Godeiro Fernandes Rabelo; Ribeiro, Alexandre Antonio; Vaz, Luís Geraldo; Shimizu, Roberto Hideo; Martins, Lídia Parsekian

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Evaluation of the force system produced by four brands of b-Ti wires bent into an elaborate design. Methods: A total of 40 T-loop springs (TLS) hand-bent from 0.017 x 0.025-in b-Ti were randomly divided into four groups according to wire brand: TMATM(G1), BETA FLEXYTM (G2), BETA III WIRETM (G3) and BETA CNATM (G4). Forces and moments were recorded by a moment transducer, coupled to a digital extensometer indicator adapted to a testing machine, every 0.5 mm of deactivation from 5 mm of the initial activation. The moment-to-force (MF) ratio, the overlapping of the vertical extensions of the TLSs and the load-deflection (LD) ratio were also calculated. To complement the results, the Young's module (YM) of each wire was determined by the slope of the load-deflection graph of a tensile test. The surface chemical composition was also evaluated by an energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. Results: All groups, except for G2, produced similar force levels initially. G3 produced the highest LD rates and G1 and G4 had similar amounts of overlap of the vertical extensions of the TLSs in "neutral position". G1 and G3 delivered the highest levels of moments, and G2 and G3 produced the highest MF ratios. b-Ti wires from G3 produced the highest YM and all groups showed similar composition, except for G2. Conclusion: The four beta-titanium wires analyzed produced different force systems when used in a more elaborate design due to the fact that each wire responds differently to bends. PMID:26691975

  11. Etomidate Anesthesia during ERCP Caused More Stable Haemodynamic Responses Compared with Propofol: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jin-Chao; Lu, Zhi-Jie; Jiao, Ying-Fu; Yang, Bin; Gao, Hao; Zhang, Jinmin; Yu, Wei-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Background: Propofol may result in hypotension and respiratory depression, while etomidate is considered to be a safe induction agent for haemodynamically unstable patients because of its low risk of hypotension. We hypothesized that etomidate anesthesia during ERCP caused more stable haemodynamic responses compared with propofol. The primary endpoint was to compare the haemodynamic effects of etomidate vs. propofol in ERCP cases. The secondary endpoint was overall survival. Methods: A total of 80 patients undergoing ERCP were randomly assigned to an etomidate or propofol group. Patients in the etomidate group received etomidate induction and maintenance during ERCP, and patients in the propofol group received propofol induction and maintenance. Cardiovascular parameters and procedure-related time were measured and recorded during ERCP. Results: The average percent change to baseline in MBP was -8.4±7.8 and -14.4±9.4 with P = 0.002, and in HR was 1.8±16.6 and 2.4±16.3 with P = 0.874 in the etomidate group and the propofol group, respectively. MBP values in the etomidate group decreased significantly less than those in the propofol group (P<0.05). The ERCP duration and recovery time in both groups was similar. There was no significant difference in the survival rates between groups ( p = 0.942). Conclusions: Etomidate anesthesia during ERCP caused more stable haemodynamic responses compared with propofol. PMID:26180512

  12. Testing of a flat conductor cable baseboard system for residential and commercial wiring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hankins, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    The results of extensive testing (mechanical, electrical, chemical, environmental, thermal, and analytical) are reported for a flat conductor cable baseboard system for residential and commercial wiring. In all of the tests, Underwriters Laboratories (UL) Standards, UL Tentative Test Programs, or Accepted Engineering Practices were followed during test selection, test setup, and test accomplishment.

  13. 14 CFR 26.11 - Electrical wiring interconnection systems (EWIS) maintenance program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Electrical wiring interconnection systems... by the FAA Oversight Office. For purposes of this section, the “representative airplane” is the... by the FAA Oversight Office. (2) Ensure that any revised EWIS ICA remain compatible with any...

  14. 14 CFR 129.111 - Electrical wiring interconnection systems (EWIS) maintenance program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Electrical wiring interconnection systems (EWIS) maintenance program. 129.111 Section 129.111 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATIONS:...

  15. USAF/WL robust 300 C wire insulation system program status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, Wing

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this program is to identify, develop, and demonstrate an optimum wire insulation system capable of continuous operation at 300 C which possesses a combination of superior electrical (AC or DC), mechanical, and physical properties over Kapton derived insulations described in MIL-W-81381 and those hybrid materials commonly known as TKT constructions.

  16. Parenchymal Guidewire Perforation during ERCP: An Unappreciated Injury

    PubMed Central

    Rabie, M. Ezzedien; Al Faris, Saad; Nasser, Ali; Shahir, Abdul Aziz; Al Mahdi, Yasser; Youssef Al Asmari, Mansour

    2015-01-01

    ERCP is attended with certain complications, the majority of which are well known to the medical community. Other less-known complications also exist. Guidewire injury to the hepatic or pancreatic parenchyma represents one of the much less appreciated, albeit preventable, complications. In this report, we present the clinical course of three patients who sustained guidewire perforation of the pancreatic or hepatic parenchyma. In one patient, the clinical deterioration was confidently attributed to guidewire perforation of the pancreatic parenchyma. Conservative treatment was successful and unnecessary emergency surgery was thus avoided. In the other two, in whom the cause of the clinical deterioration was unclear, an emergency surgery was performed. Guidewire injury to the hepatic parenchyma was then confirmed which needed only intraperitoneal drainage, with successful outcome. PMID:26693377

  17. Set Up and Test Results for a Vibrating Wire System for Quadrupole Fiducialization

    SciTech Connect

    Levashov, Michael Y.

    2010-12-01

    Quadrupoles will be placed between the undulator segments in LCLS to keep the electron beam focused as it passes through. The quadrupoles will be assembled with their respective undulator segments prior to being placed into the tunnel. Beam alignment will be used to center the quadrupoles, along with the corresponding undulators, on the beam. If there is any displacement between the undulator and the quadrupole axes in the assemblies, the beam will deviate from the undulator axis. If it deviates by more than 80{micro}m in vertical or 140{micro}m in horizontal directions, the undulator will not perform as required by LCLS. This error is divided between three sources: undulator axis fiducialization, quadrupole magnetic axis fiducialization, and assembly of the two parts. In particular, it was calculated that the quadrupole needs to be fiducialized to within 25{micro}m in both vertical and horizontal directions. A previous study suggested using a vibrating wire system for finding the magnetic axis of a quadrupole. The study showed that the method has high sensitivity (up to 1{micro}m) and laid out guidelines for constructing it. There are 3 steps in fiducializing the quadrupole with the vibrating wire system. They are positioning the wire at the magnet center (step 1), finding the wire with position detectors (step 2), and finding the quadrupole tooling ball positions relative to the position detector tooling balls (step 3). The following break up of error was suggested for the fiducialization steps: 10{micro}m for step 1 (finding the center), 20{micro}m for step 2 (finding the wire), and 10{micro}m for step 3 (tooling ball measurements). The purpose of this study is to investigate whether the vibrating wire system meets the requirements for LCLS. In particular, if it can reliably fiducialize a quadrupole magnetic center to within 25{micro}m in both vertical and horizontal directions. The behavior of individual system components is compared to the expected performance

  18. Set Up and Test Results for a Vibrating Wire System for Quadrupole Fiducialization

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-11-29

    Quadrupoles will be placed between the undulator segments in LCLS to keep the electron beam focused as it passes through. The quadrupoles will be assembled with their respective undulator segments prior to being placed into the tunnel. Beam alignment will be used to center the quadrupoles, along with the corresponding undulators, on the beam. If there is any displacement between the undulator and the quadrupole axes in the assemblies, the beam will deviate from the undulator axis. If it deviates by more than 80{micro}m in vertical or 140{micro}m in horizontal directions, the undulator will not perform as required by LCLS. This error is divided between three sources: undulator axis fiducialization, quadrupole magnetic axis fiducialization, and assembly of the two parts. In particular, it was calculated that the quadrupole needs to be fiducialized to within 25{micro}m in both vertical and horizontal directions. A previous study suggested using a vibrating wire system for finding the magnetic axis of a quadrupole. The study showed that the method has high sensitivity (up to 1{micro}m) and laid out guidelines for constructing it. There are 3 steps in fiducializing the quadrupole with the vibrating wire system. They are positioning the wire at the magnet center (step 1), finding the wire with position detectors (step 2), and finding the quadrupole tooling ball positions relative to the position detector tooling balls (step 3). The following break up of error was suggested for the fiducialization steps: 10{micro}m for step 1 (finding the center), 20{micro}m for step 2 (finding the wire), and 10{micro}m for step 3 (tooling ball measurements). The purpose of this study is to investigate whether the vibrating wire system meets the requirements for LCLS. In particular, if it can reliably fiducialize a quadrupole magnetic center to within 25{micro}m in both vertical and horizontal directions. The behavior of individual system components is compared to the expected performance

  19. Evolution of the Design of a Second Generation FireWire Based Data Acquisition System

    PubMed Central

    Lewellen, T.K.; Miyaoka, R.S.; MacDonald, L.R.; Haselman, M.; DeWitt, D.; Hauck, S.

    2011-01-01

    Our laboratory has previously reported on the basic design concepts of an updated FireWire based data acquisition system for depth-of-interaction detector systems designed at the University of Washington. The new version of our data acquisition system leverages the capabilities of modern field programmable gate arrays (FPGA) and puts almost all functions into the FPGA, including the FireWire elements, the embedded processor, and pulse timing and integration. The design is centered around an acquisition node board (ANB) that includes 64 serial ADC channels, one high speed parallel ADC, FireWire 1394b support, the FPGA, a serial command bus and signal lines to support a rough coincidence window implementation to reject singles events from being sent on the FireWire bus. Adapter boards convert detector signals into differential paired signals to connect to the ANB. In this paper we discuss many of the design details, including steps taken to minimize the number of layers in the printed circuit board and to avoid skewing of parallel signals and unwanted bandwidth limitations. PMID:22228135

  20. Operation and force analysis of the guide wire in a minimally invasive vascular interventional surgery robot system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xue; Wang, Hongbo; Sun, Li; Yu, Hongnian

    2015-03-01

    To develop a robot system for minimally invasive surgery is significant, however the existing minimally invasive surgery robots are not applicable in practical operations, due to their limited functioning and weaker perception. A novel wire feeder is proposed for minimally invasive vascular interventional surgery. It is used for assisting surgeons in delivering a guide wire, balloon and stenting into a specific lesion location. By contrasting those existing wire feeders, the motion methods for delivering and rotating the guide wire in blood vessel are described, and their mechanical realization is presented. A new resistant force detecting method is given in details. The change of the resistance force can help the operator feel the block or embolism existing in front of the guide wire. The driving torque for rotating the guide wire is developed at different positions. Using the CT reconstruction image and extracted vessel paths, the path equation of the blood vessel is obtained. Combining the shapes of the guide wire outside the blood vessel, the whole bending equation of the guide wire is obtained. That is a risk criterion in the delivering process. This process can make operations safer and man-machine interaction more reliable. A novel surgery robot for feeding guide wire is designed, and a risk criterion for the system is given.

  1. The electron dose monitoring and control system in EB radiation processing for wires and cables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xinzhi; Zhou, Yong; Zhou, Youyi; Tang, Qiang

    2002-03-01

    This paper introduces a close-loop microcomputer control system used for EB radiation processing of wires and cables, which is based on the measurements and calculations of the absorbed dose distribution of 0.6-2.0 MeV electrons in circular compound materials. The calculation of electron energy deposition in 4-layer media is carried out by the bipartition model of electron transport. The design ideas, system configuration and implementation of this control system governed by a 586 personal computer under windows 98 OS are described in this paper. The field operation results such as control precision and step response curves of this system are also given. The control system has been used for EB radiation processing of wires.

  2. Department of Energy`s Wire Development Workshop - Superconductivity program for electric systems

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    The 1996 High-Temperature Superconducting Wire Development Workshop was held on January 31--February 1 at the Crown Plaza Tampa Westshore in Tampa, Florida. The meeting was hosted by Tampa Electric Company and sponsored by the Department of Energy`s Superconductivity Program for Electric Systems. The meeting focused on recent high-temperature superconducting wire development activities in the Department of Energy`s Superconductivity Systems program. Tampa Electric`s Greg Ramon began the meeting by giving a perspective on the changes now occurring in the utility sector. Major program wire development accomplishments during the past year were then highlighted, particularly the world record achievements at Los Alamos and Oak Ridge National Laboratories. The meeting then focussed on three priority technical issues: thallium conductors; AC losses in HTS conductors; and coated conductors on textured substrates. Following in-depth presentations, working groups were formed in each technology area to discuss and critique the most important current research and development issues. The working groups identified research areas that have the potential for greatly enhancing the wire development effort. These areas are discussed in the summary reports from each of the working groups. This document is a compilation of the workshop proceedings including all general session presentations and summary reports from the working groups.

  3. 77 FR 58424 - Drucker, Inc., DynaMotive Energy Systems Corp., and Gate to Wire Solutions, Inc., Order of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Drucker, Inc., DynaMotive Energy Systems Corp., and Gate to Wire Solutions, Inc., Order of... current and accurate information concerning the securities of Gate to Wire Solutions, Inc. because it...

  4. International space station wire program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, Todd

    1995-01-01

    Hardware provider wire systems and current wire insulation issues for the International Space Station (ISS) program are discussed in this viewgraph presentation. Wire insulation issues include silicone wire contamination, Tefzel cold temperature flexibility, and Russian polyimide wire insulation. ISS is a complex program with hardware developed and managed by many countries and hundreds of contractors. Most of the obvious wire insulation issues are known by contractors and have been precluded by proper selection.

  5. Migrated biliary stent predisposing to fatal ERCP-related perforation of the duodenum.

    PubMed

    Paikos, Demetrios; Gatopoulou, Anthia; Moschos, John; Soufleris, Konstantinos; Tarpagos, Anestis; Katsos, Ioannis

    2006-12-01

    ERCP may be associated with very serious and even fatal complications. Internal drainage with endoscopical prostheses has been used as a palliative treatment for malignant bile duct obstruction. We report a rare case of subcutaneous emphysema with a fatal outcome. The emphysema resulted from a perforation of a duodenal ulcer during ERCP due to a migrated biliary stent that had been previously endoscopically placed. PMID:17205153

  6. System Security Authorization Agreement (SSAA) for the WIRE Archive and Research Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Wide-Field Infrared Explorer (WIRE) Archive and Research Facility (WARF) is operated and maintained by the Department of Physics, USAF Academy. The lab is located in Fairchild Hall, 2354 Fairchild Dr., Suite 2A103, USAF Academy, CO 80840. The WARF will be used for research and education in support of the NASA Wide Field Infrared Explorer (WIRE) satellite, and for related high-precision photometry missions and activities. The WARF will also contain the WIRE preliminary and final archives prior to their delivery to the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC). The WARF consists of a suite of equipment purchased under several NASA grants in support of WIRE research. The core system consists of a Red Hat Linux workstation with twin 933 MHz PIII processors, 1 GB of RAM, 133 GB of hard disk space, and DAT and DLT tape drives. The WARF is also supported by several additional networked Linux workstations. Only one of these (an older 450 Mhz PIII computer running Red Hat Linux) is currently running, but the addition of several more is expected over the next year. In addition, a printer will soon be added. The WARF will serve as the primary research facility for the analysis and archiving of data from the WIRE satellite, together with limited quantities of other high-precision astronomical photometry data from both ground- and space-based facilities. However, the archive to be created here will not be the final archive; rather, the archive will be duplicated at the NSSDC and public access to the data will generally take place through that site.

  7. Preparation of Dy-123 system superconductor composed with Pt Rh wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, H.; Fujimoto, H.; Yoshizawa, S.

    2008-09-01

    The melt-textured DyBa 2Cu 3O x (Dy-123) system superconductors were grown by means of the top seeding and temperature gradient method. Ag 2O powder of 30 wt% was added to the mixture of Dy-123 and Dy-211 powder. The pellet of 20 mm in diameter and 20 mm in thickness was prepared using coaxial pressing equipment. For improving the mechanical property and resolving the hot-spot problem, platinum-rhodium (Pt-Rh) alloy wires 0.4 mm in diameter and 18 mm in length were added from the surface into the bottom of the pellet. The pellet was partially melted in air at 1030 °C for one hr and rapidly cooled to 975 °C in a bulk material, where Nd-123 seed crystal was placed in contact with the top surface of the bulk. After the seeding, the bulk was cooled to 925 °C, and then furnace-cooled to the room temperature. Finally, the sample was annealed in oxygen atmosphere. The single-domain superconducting bulk containing two Pt-Rh wires was fabricated. There were intermediate layers and no voids or cracks between the metal wire and Dy-123 superconducting oxide. Single peak in the trapped field distribution with the maximum value of about 0.12 T at 77.3 K was obtained, which was almost the same as that of the bulk without wires. It was concluded that the superconductivity of the melt textured bulk was not deteriorated by the addition of Pt-Rh wires.

  8. Cable Bundle Wire Derating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lundquist, Ray A.; Leidecker, Henning

    1998-01-01

    The allowable operating currents of electrical wiring when used in the space vacuum environment is predominantly determined by the maximum operating temperature of the wire insulation. For Kapton insulated wire this value is 200 C. Guidelines provided in the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Preferred Parts List (PPL) limit the operating current of wire within vacuum to ensure the maximum insulation temperature is not exceeded. For 20 AWG wire, these operating parameters are: (1) 3.7 amps per wire; (2) bundle of 15 or more wires; (3) 70 C environment: and (4) vacuum of 10(exp -5) torr or less. To determine the behavior and temperature of electrical wire at different operating conditions, a thermal vacuum test was performed on a representative electrical harness of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) power distribution system. This paper describes the test and the results.

  9. Cable Bundle Wire Derating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lundquist, Ray A.; Leidecker, Henning

    1999-01-01

    The allowable operating currents of electrical wiring when used in the space vacuum environment is predominantly determined by the maximum operating temperature of the wire insulation. For Kapton insulated wire this value is 200 degree C. Guidelines provided in the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Preferred Parts List (PPL) limit the operating current of wire within vacuum to ensure the maximum insulation temperature is not exceeded. For 20 AWG wire, these operating parameters are: (1) 3.7 amps per wire (2) bundle of 15 or more wires (3) 70 C environment (4) vacuum of 10(exp -5) torr or less To determine the behavior and temperature of electrical wire at different operating conditions, a thermal vacuum test was performed on a representative electrical harness of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) power distribution system. This paper describes the test and the results.

  10. Cable Bundle Wire Derating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lundquist, Ray A.; Leidecker, Henning

    1998-01-01

    The allowable operating currents of electrical wiring when used in the space vacuum environment is predominantly determined by the maximum operating temperature of the wire insulation. For Kapton insulated wire this value is 200 C. Guidelines provided in the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Preferred Parts List (PPL) limit the operating current of wire within vacuum to ensure the maximum insulation temperature is not exceeded. For 20 AWG wire, these operating parameters are: 3.7 amps per wire, bundle of 15 or more wires, 70 C environment, and vacuum of 10(exp -5) torr or less. To determine the behavior and temperature of electrical wire at different operating conditions, a thermal vacuum test was performed on a representative electrical harness of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) power distribution system. This paper describes the test and the results.

  11. Flight test experience with the F-8 digital fly-by-wire system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szalai, K. J.

    1975-01-01

    Flight test results of the F-8 digital fly-by-wire (DFBW) control system are presented and the implications for application to active control technology (ACT) are discussed. The F-8 DFBW system has several of the attributes of proposed ACT systems, so the flight test experience is helpful in assessing the capabilities of those systems. Topics of discussion include the predicted and actual flight performance of the control system, assessments of aircraft flying qualities and other piloting factors, software management and control, and operational experience.

  12. Flight test experience with the F-8 digital fly-by-wire system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szalai, K. J.

    1976-01-01

    Flight test results of the F-8 digital fly by wire control system are presented and the implications for application to active control technology are discussed. The F-8 DFBW system has several of the attributes of proposed ACT systems, so the flight test experience is helpful in assessing the capabilities of those systems. Topics of discussion include the predicted and actual flight performance of the control system, assessments of aircraft flying qualities and other piloting factors, software management and control, and operational experience.

  13. Modeling of Steer-by-Wire System Used in New Braking Handwheel Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messaoudène, K.; Oufroukh, N. Ait; Mammar, S.

    2008-06-01

    The handwheel is one of the primary control mechanisms of automobile thus interaction between the handwheel and the driver is critical to safety. The driver applies forces that direct the vehicle while the handwheel communicates feedback information to the driver of the forces experience by the car within its environment. The handwheel also provides a predictable mechanical feel to the driver to allow smooth and safe control. Many researchers tried to reproduce this feeling by creating steer-by-wire systems. This paper explores this new concept of handwheel and it describes the modeling steps of the components including the restitution mechanism for force feedback and its various links with the vehicle lateral dynamics and the pneumatic contacts. The aim is to explore the possibility to combine a braking device within the steer-by-wire system in order to provide a more suitable and ergonomic device to the driver.

  14. DC wiring system grounding and ground fault protection issues for central station photovoltaic power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simburger, E. J.

    1983-01-01

    The DC wiring system for a photovoltaic power plant presents a number of unique challenges to be overcome by the plant designers. There are a number of different configurations that the grounding of the DC wiring system can take, and the choice will affect the number and type of protective devices required to ensure safety of personnel and protection of equipment. The major grounding and fault protection considerations that must be taken into account when selecting the basic overall circuit configuration are summarized. The inherent advantages and disadvantages of each type of circuit grounding (resistance or solid) along with the personnel safety and equipment protection issues for each of these grounding methods are presented.

  15. Monitoring of debris flows and landslides by wired and wireless systems. Experiences from the Catalan Pyrenees.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hürlimann, Marcel; Abancó, Clàudia; Moya, José; Vilajosana, Ignasi; Llosa, Jordi

    2013-04-01

    Sophisticated monitoring of landslides for research purpose has started in the 1990thies in the Catalan Pyrenees. Since then several types of mass movements (large landslides, debris flows, shallow landslides and rock falls) and multiples techniques have been applied. In this contribution, special attention will be given to the debris-flow monitoring system installed since summer 2009 in the Rebaixader catchment, Central Pyrenees. The monitoring system has continuously been improved during the last years and nowadays includes devices studying the three major aspects: 1) initiation, 2) flow dynamics, and 3) accumulation. While some parts of the monitoring network include a traditional wired system, the newer parts were installed using low-power wireless devices. Two major aspects will be discussed. First, results of the Rebaixader monitoring site will be presented. Second, experience regarding the monitoring will be evaluated focussing on technical aspects and the comparison between wired and wireless techniques. In the Rebaixader catchment, 6 debris flows and 11 debris floods were observed between August 2009 and October 2012. Surprisingly, also 4 major rock falls were recorded. The rainfall analysis shows that the debris flows were triggered by short, high-intensity rainstorms with a preliminary threshold of about 15 mm during 1 hour. In addition, there was observed a positive trend between event volume and rainfall amount or intensity. The analysis of the ground vibration signals shows significant differences between the time series recorded at the different geophones. These differences are associated with the geophone location in the channel (distance and material), the mounting or the data acquisition system. For instance, the most downstream geophone, installed in bedrock, shows the clearest debris-flows vibration time series, while the uppermost is the most reliable regarding the detection of rockfalls. An evaluation of wired versus wireless monitoring

  16. NASA/BAE Systems SpaceWire Efforts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rakow, Glenn Parker; Schnurr, Richard G.; Kapcio, Paul

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses the state of the NASA and BAE SYSTEMS developments using Spacewire. NASA has developed intellectual property that implements Spacewire in Register Transfer Level VHDL for a Spacewire link and router. This design has been extensively verified using directed tests from the Spacewire Standard and design specification, as well as being randomly tested to flush out hard to find bugs in the code. The high level features of the design will be discussed, including the support for multiple time code masters, which will be useful for the James Webb Space Telescope electrical architecture. This design is now ready to be targeted to FPGA's and ASICs. Target utilization and performance information will be presented for some spaceflight qualified FPGA's and a discussion of the ASIC implementations will be addressed. In particular, the BAE SYSTEMS ASIC will be highlighted which will be implemented in their 0.25 micron rad-hard line. The chip will implement a 4-port router with the ability to tie chips together to make larger routers without external glue logic. This part will have integrated LVDS driver/receivers, include a PLL and include skew control logic. It will be targeted to run at greater than 300 MHz and include the implementation for the proposed Spacewire transport layer. The need to provide a reliable transport mechanism for Spacewire has been identified by both NASA and ESA, who are attempting to define a transport layer standard that utilizes a low overhead, low latency connection oriented approach. The Transport layer needs to be implemented in hardware-to prevent bottlenecks.

  17. 49 CFR 234.241 - Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... underground wire. 234.241 Section 234.241 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SIGNAL SYSTEM SAFETY... of insulated wire; splice in underground wire. Insulated wire shall be protected from...

  18. 49 CFR 234.241 - Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... underground wire. 234.241 Section 234.241 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SIGNAL SYSTEM SAFETY... of insulated wire; splice in underground wire. Insulated wire shall be protected from...

  19. Intelligent electrical harness connector assembly using Bell Helicopter Textron's 'Wire Harness Automated Manufacturing System'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Springer, D. W.

    Bell Helicopter Textron, Incorporated (BHTI) installed two Digital Equipment Corporation PDP-11 computers and an American Can Inc. Ink Jet printer in 1980 as the cornerstone of the Wire Harness Automated Manufacturing System (WHAMS). WHAMS is based upon the electrical assembly philosophy of continuous filament harness forming. This installation provided BHTI with a 3 to 1 return-on-investment by reducing wire and cable identification cycle time by 80 percent and harness forming, on dedicated layout tooling, by 40 percent. Yet, this improvement in harness forming created a bottle neck in connector assembly. To remove this bottle neck, BHTI has installed a prototype connector assembly cell that integrates the WHAMS' data base and innovative computer technologies to cut harness connector assembly cycle time. This novel connector assembly cell uses voice recognition, laser identification, and animated computer graphics to help the electrician in the correct assembly of harness connectors.

  20. SpaceWire-based thermal-infrared imager system for asteroid sample return mission HAYABUSA2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hihara, Hiroki; Iwase, Kaori; Sano, Junpei; Otake, Hisashi; Okada, Tatsuaki; Funase, Ryu; Kashikawa, Ryoichi; Higashino, Isamu; Masuda, Tetsuya

    2014-01-01

    A thermal-infrared (TIR) imager system is developed for HAYABUSA2, which is planned to be launched in 2014 and aims at sample-return from a C-class near-Earth asteroid 162173 (1999JU3) considered to contain organic or hydrated materials. The system consists of a TIR imager and digital electronics, which are used not only for the scientific investigation of physical properties of the asteroid surface, but also for the assessment of landing site selection and safe descent operation onto the asteroid surface with in situ measurement. TIR adopts an uncooled bolometer. Image operations such as multiple images summation, dark image subtraction, and the compensation of dead pixels are processed onboard. A processing module is connected to sensor interfaces through SpaceWire in order to provide deterministic processing time. Data compression is also provided to reduce the restriction of transmission time, which provides the equivalent compression ratio as JPEG2000 in 1/30 processing time in average. A high-speed data recorder is connected through SpaceWire in order to record TIR data in parallel with other sensor data. The modularity of SpaceWire enables us to use these as built devices for TIR and inherits the same design as the long-wavelength infrared imager developed for the Venus climate orbiter Akatsuki.

  1. Design and test experience with a triply redundant digital fly-by-wire control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szalai, K. J.; Felleman, P. G.; Gera, J.; Glover, R. D.

    1976-01-01

    A triplex digital fly-by-wire flight control system was developed and then installed in a NASA F-8C aircraft to provide fail-operative, full authority control. Hardware and software redundancy management techniques were designed to detect and identify failures in the system. Control functions typical of those projected for future actively controlled vehicles were implemented. This paper describes the principal design features of the system, the implementation of computer, sensor, and actuator redundancy management, and the ground test results. An automated test program to verify sensor redundancy management software is also described.

  2. Software Development for a CompactRIO-Based Wire Scanner Control and Data Acquisition SYstem

    SciTech Connect

    Sedillo, James Daniel

    2012-05-16

    The Beam Diagnostics and Instrumentation Team at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center is developing a wire scanner data acquisition and control system with a National Instrument's compactRIO at its core. For this application, the compactRIO controller not only requires programming the FPGA and RT computer internal to the compactRIO, but also requires programming a client computer and a touch panel display. This article will summarize the hardware interfaces and describe the software design approach utilized for programming and interfacing the four systems together in order to fulfill the design requirements and promote reliable interoperability.

  3. Basic Wiring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaltwasser, Stan; And Others

    This module is the first in a series of three wiring publications; it serves as the foundation for students enrolled in a wiring program. It is a prerequisite to either "Residential Wiring" or "Commercial and Industrial Wiring." The module contains 16 instructional units that cover the following topics: occupational introduction; general safety;…

  4. SpaceWire- Based Control System Architecture for the Lightweight Advanced Robotic Arm Demonstrator [LARAD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rucinski, Marek; Coates, Adam; Montano, Giuseppe; Allouis, Elie; Jameux, David

    2015-09-01

    The Lightweight Advanced Robotic Arm Demonstrator (LARAD) is a state-of-the-art, two-meter long robotic arm for planetary surface exploration currently being developed by a UK consortium led by Airbus Defence and Space Ltd under contract to the UK Space Agency (CREST-2 programme). LARAD has a modular design, which allows for experimentation with different electronics and control software. The control system architecture includes the on-board computer, control software and firmware, and the communication infrastructure (e.g. data links, switches) connecting on-board computer(s), sensors, actuators and the end-effector. The purpose of the control system is to operate the arm according to pre-defined performance requirements, monitoring its behaviour in real-time and performing safing/recovery actions in case of faults. This paper reports on the results of a recent study about the feasibility of the development and integration of a novel control system architecture for LARAD fully based on the SpaceWire protocol. The current control system architecture is based on the combination of two communication protocols, Ethernet and CAN. The new SpaceWire-based control system will allow for improved monitoring and telecommanding performance thanks to higher communication data rate, allowing for the adoption of advanced control schemes, potentially based on multiple vision sensors, and for the handling of sophisticated end-effectors that require fine control, such as science payloads or robotic hands.

  5. Preliminary system design study for a digital fly-by-wire flight control system for an F-8C aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seacord, C. L.; Vaughn, D. K.

    1976-01-01

    The design of a fly-by-wire control system having a mission failure probability of less than one millionth failures per flight hour is examined. Emphasis was placed on developing actuator configurations that would improve the system performance, and consideration of the practical aspects of sensor/computer and computer/actuator interface implementation. Five basic configurations were defined as appropriate candidates for the F-8C research aircraft. Options on the basic configurations were included to cover variations in flight sensors, redundancy levels, data transmission techniques, processor input/output methods, and servo actuator arrangements. The study results can be applied to fly by wire systems for transport aircraft in general and the space shuttle.

  6. Description and Flight Test Results of the NASA F-8 Digital Fly-by-Wire Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A NASA program to develop digital fly-by-wire (DFBW) technology for aircraft applications is discussed. Phase I of the program demonstrated the feasibility of using a digital fly-by-wire system for aircraft control through developing and flight testing a single channel system, which used Apollo hardware, in an F-8C airplane. The objective of Phase II of the program is to establish a technology base for designing practical DFBW systems. It will involve developing and flight testing a triplex digital fly-by-wire system using state-of-the-art airborne computers, system hardware, software, and redundancy concepts. The papers included in this report describe the Phase I system and its development and present results from the flight program. Man-rated flight software and the effects of lightning on digital flight control systems are also discussed.

  7. Optimal Design of Litz Wire Coils With Sandwich Structure Wirelessly Powering an Artificial Anal Sphincter System.

    PubMed

    Ke, Lei; Yan, Guozheng; Yan, Sheng; Wang, Zhiwu; Li, Xiaoyang

    2015-07-01

    Transcutaneous energy transfer system (TETS) is widely used to energize implantable biomedical devices. As a key part of the TETS, a pair of applicable coils with low losses, high unloaded Q factor, and strong coupling is required to realize an efficient TETS. This article presents an optimal design methodology of planar litz wire coils sandwiched between two ferrite substrates wirelessly powering a novel mechanical artificial anal sphincter system for treating severe fecal incontinence, with focus on the main parameters of the coils such as the wire diameter, number of turns, geometry, and the properties of the ferrite substrate. The theoretical basis of optimal power transfer efficiency in an inductive link was analyzed. A set of analytical expressions are outlined to calculate the winding resistance of a litz wire coil on ferrite substrate, taking into account eddy-current losses, including conduction losses and induction losses. Expressions that describe the geometrical dimension dependence of self- and mutual inductance are derived. The influence of ferrite substrate relative permeability and dimensions is also considered. We have used this foundation to devise an applicable coil design method that starts with a set of realistic constraints and ends with the optimal coil pair geometries. All theoretical predictions are verified with measurements using different types of fabricated coils. The results indicate that the analysis is useful for optimizing the geometry design of windings and the ferrite substrate in a sandwich structure as part of which, in addition to providing design insight, allows speeding up the system efficiency-optimizing design process. PMID:25808086

  8. Sudden Death After Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)—Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Hauser, Goran; Milosevic, Marko; Zelić, Marko; Stimac, Davor

    2014-01-01

    Abstract There are only a few cases found in literature regarding air embolism in endoscopic procedures, especially in connection to endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). We are presenting a case of a 56-year-old female patient who suffered from non-Hodgkin lymphoma located in her right groin. She was also diagnosed with choledocholithiasis and underwent ERCP to remove the gallstones. Immediately after the procedure she went into sudden cardiac arrest and subsequently died, despite all of our efforts. We reviewed literature in order to identify possible causes of death because fatal outcome following an uneventful and successful procedure was not expected. It is important to bear in mind all possible complications of ERCP. Our focus during the literature search was on air embolism. PMID:25501087

  9. The SpaceWire-based thermal infrared imager system for asteroid sample return mission HAYABUSA2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otake, Hisashi; Okada, Tatsuaki; Funase, Ryu; Hihara, Hiroki; Sano, Junpei; Iwase, Kaori; Kashikawa, Ryoichi; Higashino, Isamu; Masuda, Tetsuya

    2013-09-01

    Thermal infrared imager system is developed for HAYABUSA2, which is planned to be launched in 2014 and aims at sample-return from a C class near-Earth asteroid 1999JU3 considered to contain organic or hydrated materials. The system consists of a thermal-infrared imager (TIR) and a digital electronics, which is used not only for the scientific investigation of physical properties of the asteroid surface, but also for the assessment of landing site selection and safe descent operation onto the asteroid surface with in situ measurement. Since round trip communication time between the asteroid and the Earth is more than thirty minutes, onboard automatic data processing function and high speed data recording capability are provided to exploit the limited downlink capacity which is up to 32kbps. TIR adopts an uncooled bolometer with 320 x 240 effective pixels. Image operations as multiple images summation, dark image subtraction, and the compensation of dead pixels are processed onboard. A processing module is connected to sensor interfaces through SpaceWire in order to provide deterministic processing time. Data compression is also provided to reduce restriction on storage capacity and operation time, which provides the equivalent compression ratio as JPEG2000 in 1/30 processing time in average. A high speed data recorder is also connected through SpaceWire in 50Mbps in order to record TIR data in parallel with other sensor data. The modularity of SpaceWire enables to use as built devices for TIR and inherits the same design as the long-wavelength infrared imager developed for the Venus climate orbiter Akatsuki.

  10. High-conductive organometallic molecular wires with delocalized electron systems strongly coupled to metal electrodes.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Florian; Kastlunger, Georg; Lissel, Franziska; Riel, Heike; Venkatesan, Koushik; Berke, Heinz; Stadler, Robert; Lörtscher, Emanuel

    2014-10-01

    Besides active, functional molecular building blocks such as diodes or switches, passive components, for example, molecular wires, are required to realize molecular-scale electronics. Incorporating metal centers in the molecular backbone enables the molecular energy levels to be tuned in respect to the Fermi energy of the electrodes. Furthermore, by using more than one metal center and sp-bridging ligands, a strongly delocalized electron system is formed between these metallic "dopants", facilitating transport along the molecular backbone. Here, we study the influence of molecule-metal coupling on charge transport of dinuclear X(PP)2FeC4Fe(PP)2X molecular wires (PP = Et2PCH2CH2PEt2); X = CN (1), NCS (2), NCSe (3), C4SnMe3 (4), and C2SnMe3 (5) under ultrahigh vacuum and variable temperature conditions. In contrast to 1, which showed unstable junctions at very low conductance (8.1 × 10(-7) G0), 4 formed a Au-C4FeC4FeC4-Au junction 4' after SnMe3 extrusion, which revealed a conductance of 8.9 × 10(-3) G0, 3 orders of magnitude higher than for 2 (7.9 × 10(-6) G0) and 2 orders of magnitude higher than for 3 (3.8 × 10(-4) G0). Density functional theory (DFT) confirmed the experimental trend in the conductance for the various anchoring motifs. The strong hybridization of molecular and metal states found in the C-Au coupling case enables the delocalized electronic system of the organometallic Fe2 backbone to be extended over the molecule-metal interfaces to the metal electrodes to establish high-conductive molecular wires. PMID:25233125

  11. Distributed image processing system for the monitoring of hot steel wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Leary, Paul; Weiss, Michael; Schiller, Arnulf

    2003-05-01

    In a prototype for monitoring hot steel wire different technologies are integrated to achieve a robust, flexibly configurable and scalable imaging system. It is designed as a distributed system with private network and Tuplespace communication implementable on a LINUX Server. Intelligent cameras grab and process the image data. For real time communication between the cameras and standard industrial I/O-modules (IEC-61131) MODBUS/TCP messaging is applied. A switch with integrated firewall makes services available to the supervisory control system. Results are available as XML-logfiles. The image processing defines the upper and lower edges of the material by minimum/maximum filtering of the y-gradient. Dual Grassmanian coordinates are used to fit two parallel lines to the edge points by singular value decomposition. This gives the distance between the lines and the confidence interval of each measurement simultaneously, whereas latter is used to reject poor data. Changes of the distance are analysed computing local central moments. Presently, 12 images per second are acquired. The application is able to detect spontaneous rotation of the wire around the axis of rolling directly at the rolling stands and treats also poor images (due to steam of cooling water). It indicates resulting defects, which may go undetected otherwise.

  12. Pose measurement base on machine vision for the aircraft model in wire-driven parallel suspension system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yi-feng; Wu, Liao-ni; Yue, Sui-lu; Lin, Qi

    2013-03-01

    In wind tunnel tests, the pose of the aircraft model in wire-driven parallel suspension system (WDPSS) is determined by driving several wires. Pose measurement is very important for the study of WDPSS. Using machine vision technology, Monocular Vision Measurement System has been constructed to estimate the pose of the aircraft model by applying a camera calibration, by extracting corresponding control points for the aircraft model, and by applying several homogeneous transformations. This article describes the programs of the measurement system, measurement principle and data processing methods which is based on HALCON to achieve the Solution of the pose of aircraft model. Through experiments, practical feasibility of the system is validated.

  13. Evaluation of a novel, ultrathin, tip-bending endoscope in a synthetic force-sensing pancreas with comparison to medical guide wires

    PubMed Central

    Chandler, John E; Lee, Cameron M; Babchanik, Alexander P; Melville, C David; Saunders, Michael D; Seibel, Eric J

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Direct visualization of pancreatic ductal tissue is critical for early diagnosis of pancreatic diseases and for guiding therapeutic interventions. A novel, ultrathin (5 Fr) scanning fiber endoscope (SFE) with tip-bending capability has been developed specifically to achieve high resolution imaging as a pancreatoscope during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). This device has potential to dramatically improve both diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities during ERCP by providing direct video feedback and tool guidance to clinicians. Methods Invasiveness of the new tip-bending SFE was evaluated by a performance comparison to ERCP guide wires, which are routinely inserted into the pancreatic duct during ERCP. An in vitro test model with four force sensors embedded in a synthetic pancreas was designed to detect and compare the insertion forces for 0.89 mm and 0.53 mm diameter guide wires as well as the 1.7 mm diameter SFE. Insertions were performed through the working channel of a therapeutic duodenoscope for the two types of guide wires and using a statistically similar direct insertion method for comparison to the SFE. Results Analysis of the forces detected by the sensors showed the smaller diameter 0.53 mm wire produced significantly less average and maximum forces during insertion than the larger diameter 0.89 mm wire. With the use of tip-bending and optical visualization, the 1.7 mm diameter SFE produced significantly less average force during insertion than the 0.89 mm wire at every sensor, despite its larger size. It was further shown that the use of tip-bending with the SFE significantly reduced the forces at all sensors, compared to insertions when tip-bending was not used. Conclusion Combining high quality video imaging with two-axis tip-bending allows a larger diameter guide wire-style device to be inserted into the pancreatic duct during ERCP with improved capacity to perform diagnostics and therapy. PMID:23166452

  14. A one-wire battery monitoring system with applications to on-board charging for electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowak, Dieter

    1990-10-01

    A on-board charge system which utilizes a one-wire system for voltage monitoring is discussed and test results obtained using the system are presented. The system consists of the following: (1) a 20 kHz high frequency charger; (2) a charge algorithm for lead-acid batteries with gelled electrolyte, such that gassing is avoided; (3) the control system to implement this charge algorithm; and (4) a one-wire battery monitoring system to provide cell/module voltage information to the battery charge controller. Prototype elements of the system have been tested and the system was installed into an EVA Pacer electric vehicle. Charge tests are performed and data taken with the system installed. All elements of the system functioned properly under user conditions. In particular, the charger demonstrated good efficiency, near unity power factor and full programmability. The charge controller functioned reliably and without flaw. The one-wire monitoring system which permits monitoring of cell/module voltages in a battery pack without an extensive conventional wire harness has proven effective and voltage measurements were taken fast enough for control of charging. It was found that for the purpose of voltage monitoring under driving conditions, the system in its present form is too slow.

  15. A one-wire'' battery monitoring system with applications to on-board charging for electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Nowak, D. . Kenneth E. Johnson Research Center)

    1990-10-08

    A novel on-board charge system which utilizes a One-Wire'' system for voltage monitoring is discussed and test results obtained using the system are presented. The system consists of a 20 kHz high frequency charger, an algorithm for charging lead-acid batteries with gelled electrolyte, such that gassing is avoided, the control system to implement this charge algorithm and a one-wire battery monitoring system to provide cell/module voltage information to the battery charge controller. Prototype elements of the system have been tested and the system was installed into an EVA Pacer electric vehicle. Charge tests are performed and data taken with the system installed. All elements of the system functioned properly under user conditions. In particular, the charger demonstrated good efficiency, near unity power factor and full programmability. The charge controller functioned reliably and without flaw. The one-wire monitoring system which permits monitoring of cell/module voltages in a battery pack without an extensive conventional wire harness has proven effective and voltage measurements have taken fast enough for control of charging. It was found that for the purpose of voltage monitoring under driving conditions, the system in its present form is too slow.

  16. Front-end electronics and data acquisition system for a multi-wire 3D gas tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Łojek, K.; Rozpȩdzik, D.; Bodek, K.; Perkowski, M.; Severijns, N.

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents the design and implementation of the front-end electronics and the data acquisition (DAQ) system for readout of multi-wire drift chambers (MWDC). Apart of the conventional drift time measurement the system delivers the hit position along the wire utilizing the charge division technique. The system consists of preamplifiers, and analog and digital boards sending data to a back-end computer via an Ethernet interface. The data logging software formats the received data and enables an easy access to the data analysis software. The use of specially designed preamplifiers and peak detectors allows the charge-division readout of the low resistance signal wire. The implication of the charge-division circuitry onto the drift time measurement was studied and the overall performance of the electronic system was evaluated in dedicated off-line tests.

  17. Surface and interface phonon-polaritons in freestanding quantum well wire systems of polar ternary mixed crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, C. L.; Bao, J.; Yan, Z. W.

    2016-03-01

    The surface and interface phonon-polaritons in freestanding rectangular quantum well wire systems consisting of polar ternary mixed crystals are investigated in the modified random-element-isodisplacement model and the Born-Huang approximation, based on the Maxwell's equations with the boundary conditions. The numerical results of the surface and interface phonon-polariton frequencies as functions of the wave-vector, geometric structure, and the composition of the ternary mixed crystals in GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs and ZnxCd1-xSe/ZnSe quantum well wire systems are obtained and discussed. It is shown that there are 10 and 8 branches of surface and interface phonon-polaritons in the two quantum well wire systems respectively. The effects of the "two-mode" and "one-mode" behaviors of the ternary mixed crystals on the surface and interface phonon-polariton modes are shown in the dispersion curves.

  18. Control effects of steer-by-wire system for motorcycles on lane-keeping performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marumo, Yoshitaka; Katagiri, Nozomi

    2011-08-01

    This study discusses the control effects of the steer-by-wire (SBW) system for motorcycles on the lane-keeping performance by examining computer simulation with a rider-vehicle system which consists of a simplified vehicle model, a rider control model and the controller of the SBW system. The SBW system, which compensates the rolling angle deviation between the desired rolling angle intended by the rider and the actual rolling angle, improves the lane-keeping performance of the rider-vehicle system under the steering torque disturbance. The SBW system is, on the other hand, not effective in the lane-keeping performance under the lateral force disturbance. In addition, the lane-keeping assistance (LKA) system is applied to the SBW system and the cooperativeness of the SBW and the LKA systems is examined. The LKA system improves the lane-keeping performance of the SBW system under not only the steering torque disturbance but also the lateral force disturbance.

  19. Factors and Outcomes Associated with MRCP Use prior to ERCP in Patients at High Risk for Choledocholithiasis

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Gobind; Patel, Yuval A.; Yeh, Hsin-Chieh; Khashab, Mouen A.; Lennon, Anne Marie; Shin, Eun Ji; Canto, Marcia I.; Okolo, Patrick I.; Kalloo, Anthony N.; Singh, Vikesh K.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Consensus guidelines recommend that patients at high risk for choledocholithiasis undergo endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) without additional imaging. This study evaluates factors and outcomes associated with performing magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) prior to ERCP among patients at high risk for choledocholithiasis. Methods. An institutional administrative database was searched using diagnosis codes for choledocholithiasis, cholangitis, and acute pancreatitis and procedure codes for MRCP and ERCP. Patients categorized as high risk for choledocholithiasis were evaluated. Results. 224 patients classified as high risk, of whom 176 (79%) underwent ERCP only, while 48 (21%) underwent MRCP prior to ERCP. Patients undergoing MRCP experienced longer time to ERCP (72 hours versus 35 hours, p < 0.0001), longer length of stay (8 days versus 6 days, p = 0.02), higher hospital charges ($23,488 versus $19,260, p = 0.08), and higher radiology charges ($3,385 versus $1,711, p < 0.0001). The presence of common bile duct stone(s) on ultrasound was the only independent factor associated with less use of MRCP (OR 0.09, p < 0.0001). Conclusions. MRCP use prior to ERCP in patients at high risk for choledocholithiasis is common and associated with greater length of hospital stay, higher radiology charges, and a trend towards higher hospital charges. PMID:27446845

  20. Pancreatic Stenting Reduces Post-ERCP Pancreatitis and Biliary Sepsis in High-Risk Patients: A Randomized, Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hai-En; Li, Qi-Xiang; Wang, Wei; Ou, Wei-Lin; Xia, Harry Hua-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Background. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is an established treatment modality for bile duct disorders, but patients have a risk of post-ERCP pancreatitis (PEP) and biliary sepsis. Aim. To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of pancreatic stent for prophylaxis of PEP and biliary sepsis in high-risk patients with complicating common bile duct (CBD) disorders. Methods. Two hundred and six patients with complicating confirmed or suspected CBD disorders were randomly assigned to receive ERCP with pancreatic stenting (experimental group) or without stenting (control group). Primary outcome measure was frequency of PEP, and secondary outcome measures included operative time, blood loss, postoperative recovery times, and other ERCP-associated morbidities. Results. Baseline age, sex, CBD etiology, concomitant medical/surgical conditions, cannulation difficulty, and ERCP success were comparable between the two groups (all P > 0.05). Compared to the control group, the experimental group had a significantly lower frequency of PEP (7.7% versus 17.7%, P < 0.05) and positive bile microbial culture (40.4% versus 62.7%, P < 0.05). However, the two groups were similar in operative time, blood loss, postoperative recovery times, and other ERCP-associated morbidities (all P > 0.05). Conclusions. Pancreatic stenting can reduce the occurrence of PEP and biliary sepsis in high-risk patients with complicating CBD disorders but does not increase other ERCP-associated morbidities. This trial is registered with the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (registration identifier ChiCTR-OCH-14005134). PMID:27057161

  1. The Effects of Operational Parameters on a Mono-wire Cutting System: Efficiency in Marble Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilmazkaya, Emre; Ozcelik, Yilmaz

    2016-02-01

    Mono-wire block cutting machines that cut with a diamond wire can be used for squaring natural stone blocks and the slab-cutting process. The efficient use of these machines reduces operating costs by ensuring less diamond wire wear and longer wire life at high speeds. The high investment costs of these machines will lead to their efficient use and reduce production costs by increasing plant efficiency. Therefore, there is a need to investigate the cutting performance parameters of mono-wire cutting machines in terms of rock properties and operating parameters. This study aims to investigate the effects of the wire rotational speed (peripheral speed) and wire descending speed (cutting speed), which are the operating parameters of a mono-wire cutting machine, on unit wear and unit energy, which are the performance parameters in mono-wire cutting. By using the obtained results, cuttability charts for each natural stone were created on the basis of unit wear and unit energy values, cutting optimizations were performed, and the relationships between some physical and mechanical properties of rocks and the optimum cutting parameters obtained as a result of the optimization were investigated.

  2. Final Results of the Protected Superficial Femoral Artery Trial Using the FilterWire EZ System

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller-Huelsbeck, Stefan; Paulsen, Friedrich; Heller, Martin; Jahnke, Thomas

    2010-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of debris-capture for distal protection using the FilterWire EZ Embolic Protection System (Boston Scientific, Mountain View, CA) with the additional aim to further define the incidence of distal embolization during superficial femoral artery (SFA) interventions. A prospective, single-centre registry was designed to evaluate the performance of the FilterWire EZ in capturing debris during standard SFA percutaneous intervention. The PRO-RATA study included 30 patients suitable for PTA (Fontaine IIb to III or Rutherford I to II classification). The primary end points were occurrence of distal embolization or decreased runoff, improvement in ankle-brachial index ankle-brachial index (ABI) after the procedure, and number of filters containing emboli. Secondary end points included major adverse events (i.e., procedure- or device-related death and/or clinical target lesion revascularisation), device delivery, deployment success, and incidence of embolic recovery (patients with device success exhibiting embolic protection in the filter). Procedural success was determined as {<=}30% residual stenosis with no worsening of distal runoff as determined on angiography. A total of 29 patients (age 66.2 {+-} 12 years; total no. of limbs = 30; total no. of lesions = 30) suitable for PTA were enrolled in the study between February 2007 and March 2008. There were 26 patients with claudication (Fontaine IIB) and 3 patients with stage IV peripheral vascular disease. In one patient, lesions in both legs were treated. No procedural or device-related complications occured. The average degree of stenosis was 86 {+-} 7%. Stenosis length ranged from 8 to 88 mm. The average degree of residual stenosis was 10 {+-} 10%. ABI improved from 0.56 {+-} 0.16 to 0.92 {+-} 0.19 (P < 0.05). No restenosis or dissection was seen at 1-month ultrasound follow-up. Macroscopic debris was found in 27 of 30 filters of all distal protection devices

  3. Alpha-beta monitoring system based on pair of simultaneous Multi-Wire Proportional Counters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wengrowicz, U.; Amidan, D.; Orion, I.

    2016-08-01

    A new approach for a simultaneous alpha-beta Multi-wire Proportional Counter (MWPC) is presented. The popular approach for alpha-beta monitoring systems consists of a large area MWPC using noble gas flow such as Argon Methane. This method of measurement is effective but requires large-scale and expensive maintenance due to the needs of gas flow control and periodic replacements. In this work, a pair of simultaneous MWPCs for alpha-beta measuring is presented. The developed detector consists of a sealed gas MWPC sensor for beta particles, behind a free air alpha sensor. This approach allows effective simultaneous detection and discrimination of both alpha and beta radiation without the maintenance cost noble gas flow required for unsealed detectors.

  4. Impact of stray charge on interconnect wire via probability model of double-dot system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiangye, Chen; Li, Cai; Qiang, Zeng; Xinqiao, Wang

    2016-02-01

    The behavior of quantum cellular automata (QCA) under the influence of a stray charge is quantified. A new time-independent switching paradigm, a probability model of the double-dot system, is developed. Superiority in releasing the calculation operation is presented by the probability model compared to previous stray charge analysis utilizing ICHA or full-basis calculation. Simulation results illustrate that there is a 186-nm-wide region surrounding a QCA wire where a stray charge will cause the target cell to switch unsuccessfully. The failure is exhibited by two new states' dominating the target cell. Therefore, a bistable saturation model is no longer applicable for stray charge analysis. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61172043) and the Key Program of Shaanxi Provincial Natural Science for Basic Research (No. 2011JZ015).

  5. Reliability analysis of the F-8 digital fly-by-wire system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brock, L. D.; Goodman, H. A.

    1981-01-01

    The F-8 Digital Fly-by-Wire (DFBW) flight test program intended to provide the technology for advanced control systems, giving aircraft enhanced performance and operational capability is addressed. A detailed analysis of the experimental system was performed to estimated the probabilities of two significant safety critical events: (1) loss of primary flight control function, causing reversion to the analog bypass system; and (2) loss of the aircraft due to failure of the electronic flight control system. The analysis covers appraisal of risks due to random equipment failure, generic faults in design of the system or its software, and induced failure due to external events. A unique diagrammatic technique was developed which details the combinatorial reliability equations for the entire system, promotes understanding of system failure characteristics, and identifies the most likely failure modes. The technique provides a systematic method of applying basic probability equations and is augmented by a computer program written in a modular fashion that duplicates the structure of these equations.

  6. Cost Effective Open Geometry HTS MRI System amended to BSCCO 2212 Wire for High Field Magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Kennth Marken

    2006-08-11

    the project start and that date a substantial shift in the MRI marketplace occurred, with rapid growth for systems at higher fields (1.5 T and above) and a consequent decline in the low field market (<1.0 T). While the project aim appeared technically attainable at that time, the conclusion was reached that the system and market economics do not warrant additional investment. The program was redirected to develop BSCCO 2212 multifilament wire development for high field superconducting magnets for NMR and other scientific research upon an agreement between DOE and Oxford Instruments, Superconducting Technology. The work t took place between September, 2004 and the project end in early 2006 was focused on 2212 multifilamentary wire. This report summarizes the technical achievements both in 2212 dip coated for an HTS MRI system and in BSCCO 2212 multifilamentary wire for high field magnets.

  7. The Influence of Pd-Doped Au Wire Bonding on HAZ Microstructure and Looping Profile in Micro-Electromechanical Systems (MEMS) Packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, Roslina; Omar, Ghazali; Jalar, Azman; Majlis, Burhanuddin Yeop

    2015-07-01

    Wire bonding processes has been widely adopted in micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) packaging especially in biomedical devices for the integration of components. In the first process sequence in wire bonding, the zone along the wire near the melted tips is called the heat-affected zone (HAZ). The HAZ plays an important factor that influenced the looping profiles of wire bonding process. This paper investigates the effect of dopants on microstructures in the HAZ. One precent palladium (Pd) was added to the as-drawn 4N gold wire and annealed at 600°C. The addition of Pd was able to moderate the grain growth in the HAZ by retarding the heat propagation to the wire. In the formation of the looping profile, the first bending point of the looping is highly associated with the length of the HAZ. The alloyed gold wire (2N gold) has a sharp angle at a distance of about 30 m from the neck of the wire with a measured bending radius of about 40 mm and bending angle of about 40° clockwise from vertical axis, while the 4N gold wire bends at a longer distance. It also shows that the HAZ for 4N gold is longer than 2N gold wire.

  8. Metallic Glass Wire Based Localization of Kinesin/Microtubule Bio-molecular Motility System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K.; Sikora, A.; Yaginuma, S.; Nakayama, K. S.; Nakazawa, H.; Umetsu, M.; Hwang, W.; Teizer, W.

    2014-03-01

    We report electrophoretic accumulation of microtubules along metallic glass (Pd42.5Cu30Ni7.5P20) wires free-standing in solution. Microtubules are dynamic cytoskeletal filaments. Kinesin is a cytoskeletal motor protein. Functions of these bio-molecules are central to various dynamic cellular processes. Functional artificial organization of bio-molecules is a prerequisite for transferring their native functions into device applications. Fluorescence microscopy at the individual-microtubule level reveals microtubules aligning along the wire axis during the electrophoretic migration. Casein-treated electrodes are effective for releasing trapped microtubules upon removal of the external field. Furthermore, we demonstrate gliding motion of microtubules on kinesin-treated metallic glass wires. The reversible manner in the local adsorption of microtubules, the flexibility of wire electrodes, and the compatibility between the wire electrode and the bio-molecules are beneficial for spatio-temporal manipulation of the motility machinery in 3 dimensions.

  9. Water Desalination with Wires.

    PubMed

    Porada, S; Sales, B B; Hamelers, H V M; Biesheuvel, P M

    2012-06-21

    We show the significant potential of water desalination using a novel capacitive wire-based technology in which anode/cathode wire pairs are constructed from coating a thin porous carbon electrode layer on top of electrically conducting rods (or wires). By alternately dipping an array of electrode pairs in freshwater with and in brine without an applied cell voltage, we create an ion adsorption/desorption cycle. We show experimentally how in six subsequent cycles we can reduce the salinity of 20 mM feed (brackish) water by a factor of 3, while application of a cation exchange membrane on the cathode wires makes the desalination factor increase to 4. Theoretical modeling rationalizes the experimental findings, and predicts that system performance can be significantly enhanced by material modifications. To treat large volumes of water, multiple stacks of wire pairs can be used simultaneously in a "merry-go-round" operational mode. PMID:26285717

  10. Investigations of some aspects of the spray process in a single wire arc plasma spray system using high speed camera.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, N; Sahasrabudhe, S N; Tak, A K; Barve, D N; Das, A K

    2012-02-01

    A high speed camera has been used to record and analyze the evolution as well as particle behavior in a single wire arc plasma spray torch. Commercially available systems (spray watch, DPV 2000, etc.) focus onto a small area in the spray jet. They are not designed for tracking a single particle from the torch to the substrate. Using high speed camera, individual particles were tracked and their velocities were measured at various distances from the spray torch. Particle velocity information at different distances from the nozzle of the torch is very important to decide correct substrate position for the good quality of coating. The analysis of the images has revealed the details of the process of arc attachment to wire, melting of the wire, and detachment of the molten mass from the tip. Images of the wire and the arc have been recorded for different wire feed rates, gas flow rates, and torch powers, to determine compatible wire feed rates. High speed imaging of particle trajectories has been used for particle velocity determination using time of flight method. It was observed that the ripple in the power supply of the torch leads to large variation of instantaneous power fed to the torch. This affects the velocity of the spray particles generated at different times within one cycle of the ripple. It is shown that the velocity of a spray particle depends on the instantaneous torch power at the time of its generation. This correlation was established by experimental evidence in this paper. Once the particles leave the plasma jet, their forward speeds were found to be more or less invariant beyond 40 mm up to 500 mm from the nozzle exit. PMID:22380128

  11. Transfissural Route Used for Preoperative Localization of Small Pulmonary Lesions with a Short Hook Wire and Suture System

    SciTech Connect

    Iguchi, Toshihiro Hiraki, Takao Gobara, Hideo Fujiwara, Hiroyasu Matsui, Yusuke; Sugimoto, Seiichiro Toyooka, Shinichi Oto, Takahiro Miyoshi, Shinichiro; Kanazawa, Susumu

    2015-02-15

    PurposeWe retrospectively evaluated the results of the transfissural route for preoperative localization with a short hook wire and suture system for video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS).MethodsEleven patients with 11 tumors underwent CT-guided transfissural placement of a hook wire before VATS. This route was selected for all patients, because the distance between the tumor and interlobar fissure was much shorter than the required distance traversed using the conventional approach. Complications were evaluated using the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events Version 4.0.ResultsThe hook wire was successfully placed using the transfissural route in all but one case. Of these ten successful placements, two tumors needed a second puncture for optimal placement, because the CT scan showed that the first hook wire was not properly placed in the lung. In one patient, we did not attempt replacement after the first placement was incorrect. In ten successful procedures, the mean distance traversed in the parenchyma of the unaffected lung lobe was 27.9 mm. The distance between the pleura and placed hook wire was significantly shorter than the estimated distance between the pleura and hook wire using the conventional route (mean 16.3 vs. 40.9 mm; P = 0.0002). Grade 1 adverse events occurred (11 pneumothoraxes and 4 pulmonary hemorrhages). No grade 2 or higher adverse event was observed.ConclusionsThe transfissural route used for preoperative localization before VATS is useful for selected patients because this route may allow for more limited lung parenchyma resection.

  12. Towards a molecular QCA wire: simulation of write-in and read-out systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulimeno, A.; Graziano, M.; Demarchi, D.; Piccinini, G.

    2012-11-01

    Among emerging beyond CMOS technologies Molecular Quantum Dot Cellular Automata (MQCA) are estimated as extremely promising for computational purposes. The elementary nanoelectronic devices are molecular systems in which the binary encoding is provided by the charge localization within a molecule. As a consequence, there is no current flowing among the cells and power dissipation is dramatically reduced. We study a new real molecule that was synthesized ad hoc for this technology. Differently with respect to previous contributions, this study has the aim of assessing the realistic properties of this molecule in a perspective experimental system based on a molecular wire principle. We use a combination of ab initio calculations and molecular dynamics simulations and analyze the molecule behavior when specific electric fields are applied to move the electrons inside the molecule in order to force a logic state. Our results allowed us (i) to asses the molecule behavior and to explore the working points of our experimental system for the write-in, (ii) to introduce in this scenario new metrics for studying and using these new devices from an electronic point of view, (iii) to give a perspective and to define design constraints for possible experimental solutions eligible for issue of molecule state read-out.

  13. Next Generation Wiring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medelius, Petro; Jolley, Scott; Fitzpatrick, Lilliana; Vinje, Rubiela; Williams, Martha; Clayton, LaNetra; Roberson, Luke; Smith, Trent; Santiago-Maldonado, Edgardo

    2007-01-01

    Wiring is a major operational component on aerospace hardware that accounts for substantial weight and volumetric space. Over time wire insulation can age and fail, often leading to catastrophic events such as system failure or fire. The next generation of wiring must be reliable and sustainable over long periods of time. These features will be achieved by the development of a wire insulation capable of autonomous self-healing that mitigates failure before it reaches a catastrophic level. In order to develop a self-healing insulation material, three steps must occur. First, methods of bonding similar materials must be developed that are capable of being initiated autonomously. This process will lead to the development of a manual repair system for polyimide wire insulation. Second, ways to initiate these bonding methods that lead to materials that are similar to the primary insulation must be developed. Finally, steps one and two must be integrated to produce a material that has no residues from the process that degrades the insulating properties of the final repaired insulation. The self-healing technology, teamed with the ability to identify and locate damage, will greatly improve reliability and safety of electrical wiring of critical systems. This paper will address these topics, discuss the results of preliminary testing, and remaining development issues related to self-healing wire insulation.

  14. Residential Wiring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Mark

    The second in a series of three curriculum packages on wiring, these materials for a five-unit course were developed to prepare postsecondary students for entry-level employment in the residential wiring trade. The five units are: (1) blueprint reading and load calculations; (2) rough-in; (3) service; (4) trim out and troubleshooting; and (5) load…

  15. Wire chamber

    DOEpatents

    Atac, Muzaffer

    1989-01-01

    A wire chamber or proportional counter device, such as Geiger-Mueller tube or drift chamber, improved with a gas mixture providing a stable drift velocity while eliminating wire aging caused by prior art gas mixtures. The new gas mixture is comprised of equal parts argon and ethane gas and having approximately 0.25% isopropyl alcohol vapor.

  16. Development of Active Catheter,Active Guide Wire and Micro Sensor Systems

    PubMed Central

    Haga, Y.; Mineta, T.; Totsu, K.; Makishi, W.; Esashi, M.

    2001-01-01

    Summary Active catheters and active guide wires which move like a snake have been developed for catheter-based minimally invasive diagnosis and therapy. Communication and control IC chips in the active catheter reduce the number of lead wires for control. The active catheter can be not only bent but also torsioned and extended. An ultra minature fiber-optic pressure sensor; a forward-looking ultrasonic probe and a magnetic position and orientation sensor have been developed for catheters and guide wires. These moving mechanisms and several sensors which are fitted near the tip of the catheter and the guide wire will provide detailed information near the tip and enable delicate and effective catheter intervention. PMID:20663389

  17. Endoscopic treatment of duodenal fistula after incomplete closure of ERCP-related duodenal perforation

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Dong Wook; Hong, Man Yong; Hong, Seung Goun

    2014-01-01

    Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is an important diagnostic and therapeutic modality for various pancreatic and biliary diseases. The most common ERCP-induced complication is pancreatitis, whereas hemorrhage, cholangitis, and perforation occur less frequently. Early recognition and prompt treatment of these complications may minimize the morbidity and mortality. One of the most serious complications is perforation. Although the incidence of duodenal perforation after ERCP has decreased to < 1.0%, severe cases still require prolonged hospitalization and urgent surgical intervention, potentially leading to permanent disability or mortality. Surgery remains the mainstay treatment for perforations of the luminal organs of the gastrointestinal tract. However, evidence from case reports and case series support a beneficial role of endoscopic clipping in the closure of these defects. Duodenal fistulas are usually a result of sphincterotomies, perforated duodenal ulcers, or gastrectomy. Other causative factors include Crohn’s disease, trauma, pancreatitis, and cancer. The majority of duodenal fistulas heal with nonoperative management. Those that fail to heal are best treated with gastrojejunostomy. Recently proposed endoscopic approaches for managing gastrointestinal leaks caused by fistulas include fibrin glue injection and positioning of endoclips. Our patient developed a secondary persistent duodenal fistula as a result of previous incomplete closure of duodenal perforation with hemoclips and an endoloop. The fistula was successfully repaired by additional clipping and fibrin glue injection. PMID:24932379

  18. McDonnell Douglas Space Systems worker checks STS-46 TSS wiring at KSC O and C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    In the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Operations and Checkout (O and C) Building, a McDonnell Douglas Space Systems technician Hugh Beins, wearing a clean suit, inspects a complex array of wiring for the Tethered Satellite System (TSS) scheduled to fly on STS-46 aboard Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104. Other technicians work on the spacelab enhanced multiplexer/demultiplexer pallet (EMP) and support struts in the background.

  19. Manchester Coding Option for SpaceWire: Providing Choices for System Level Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rakow, Glenn; Kisin, Alex

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes an optional coding scheme for SpaceWire in lieu of the current Data Strobe scheme for three reasons. First reason is to provide a straightforward method for electrical isolation of the interface; secondly to provide ability to reduce the mass and bend radius of the SpaceWire cable; and thirdly to provide a means for a common physical layer over which multiple spacecraft onboard data link protocols could operate for a wide range of data rates. The intent is to accomplish these goals without significant change to existing SpaceWire design investments. The ability to optionally use Manchester coding in place of the current Data Strobe coding provides the ability to DC balanced the signal transitions unlike the SpaceWire Data Strobe coding; and therefore the ability to isolate the electrical interface without concern. Additionally, because the Manchester code has the clock and data encoded on the same signal, the number of wires of the existing SpaceWire cable could be optionally reduced by 50. This reduction could be an important consideration for many users of SpaceWire as indicated by the already existing effort underway by the SpaceWire working group to reduce the cable mass and bend radius by elimination of shields. However, reducing the signal count by half would provide even greater gains. It is proposed to restrict the data rate for the optional Manchester coding to a fixed data rate of 10 Megabits per second (Mbps) in order to make the necessary changes simple and still able to run in current radiation tolerant Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs). Even with this constraint, 10 Mbps will meet many applications where SpaceWire is used. These include command and control applications and many instruments applications with have moderate data rate. For most NASA flight implementations, SpaceWire designs are in rad-tolerant FPGAs, and the desire to preserve the heritage design investment is important for cost and risk considerations. The

  20. Determining damping characteristics of railway-overhead-wire system for finite-element analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Dong; Zhang, Wei Hua; Li, Rui Ping; Zhou, Ning; Mei, Gui Ming

    2016-07-01

    In order to investigate the damping characteristics of railway-overhead-wire systems, we propose herein an approach based on the continuous wavelet transform (CWT) and two existing formulas concerning Rayleigh damping coefficients (RDCs). In the proposed process, the displacement histories of a real catenary are first obtained by using a set of noncontact photogrammetric devices, following which an exclusive catenary damping ratio related to the first dominant modal component in the catenary response is identified through a complex Morlet CWT. Thereafter, iterative finite-element analysis is conducted to find the optimal RDCs, which involves using two related formulas and the similarity between the catenary displacements obtained by simulation and experimentation. The results of our study demonstrate that this combined approach is constructive, especially for structures with closely spaced modes, such as catenaries. For the case studied herein, the catenary modal damping ratio at 1.19 Hz is approximately 1%, and the mass and stiffness proportional Rayleigh damping coefficients are approximately 0.02845 and 0.00274, respectively.

  1. Developmental origin of wiring specificity in the olfactory system of Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Jefferis, Gregory S X E; Vyas, Raj M; Berdnik, Daniela; Ramaekers, Ariane; Stocker, Reinhard F; Tanaka, Nobuaki K; Ito, Kei; Luo, Liqun

    2004-01-01

    In both insects and mammals, olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) expressing specific olfactory receptors converge their axons onto specific glomeruli, creating a spatial map in the brain. We have previously shown that second order projection neurons (PNs) in Drosophila are prespecified by lineage and birth order to send their dendrites to one of approximately 50 glomeruli in the antennal lobe. How can a given class of ORN axons match up with a given class of PN dendrites? Here, we examine the cellular and developmental events that lead to this wiring specificity. We find that, before ORN axon arrival, PN dendrites have already created a prototypic map that resembles the adult glomerular map, by virtue of their selective dendritic localization. Positional cues that create this prototypic dendritic map do not appear to be either from the residual larval olfactory system or from glial processes within the antennal lobe. We propose instead that this prototypic map might originate from both patterning information external to the developing antennal lobe and interactions among PN dendrites. PMID:14645123

  2. Objective evaluation of ERCP procedures: a simple grading scale for evaluating technical difficulty

    PubMed Central

    Ragunath, K; Thomas, L; Cheung, W; Duane, P; Richards, D

    2003-01-01

    Background and objective: Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is a technically demanding endoscopic procedure that varies from a simple diagnostic to a highly complex therapeutic procedure. Simple outcome measures such as success and complication rates do not reflect the competence of the operator or endoscopy unit, as case mix is not taken into account. A grading scale to assess the technical difficulty of ERCP can improve the objectivity of outcome data. Methods: A I to IV technical difficulty grading scale was constructed and applied prospectively to all ERCPs over a 12 month period at a single centre. The procedures were performed by two senior trainees and two experienced consultants (trainers). The grading scale was validated for construct validity and inter-rater reliability at the end of the study using the χ2 test and κ statistics. Results: There were 305 ERCPs in 259 patients over the 12 months study period (males: 112, females: 147, age range 17–97, mean 70.3 years). There was overall success in 244 (80%) procedures with complications in 13 (4%): bleeding in five (1.6%), cholangitis in one (0.3%), pancreatitis in five (1.6%), and perforation in two (0.7%). Success rate was highest for grade I, 49/55 (89%), compared with grade IV procedures, 8/11 (73%). There was a significant linear trend towards a lower success rate from grade I to IV (p=0.021) for trainees, but not for trainers. Complications were low in grade I, II, and III procedures, 12/295(4%), compared with grade IV procedures, 1/11(9%). The inter-rater reliability for the grading scale was good with a substantial agreement between the raters (κ=0.68, p<0.001). Conclusion: Success and complications of ERCP by trainees are influenced by the technical difficulty of the procedure. Outcome data incorporating a grading scale can give accurate information when auditing the qualitative outcomes. This can provide a platform for structured objective evaluation. PMID:12954961

  3. Design of a hybrid (wired/wireless) acquisition data system for monitoring of cultural heritage physical parameters in Smart Cities.

    PubMed

    García Diego, Fernando-Juan; Esteban, Borja; Merello, Paloma

    2015-01-01

    Preventive conservation represents a working method and combination of techniques which helps in determining and controlling the deterioration process of cultural heritage in order to take the necessary actions before it occurs. It is acknowledged as important, both in terms of preserving and also reducing the cost of future conservation measures. Therefore, long-term monitoring of physical parameters influencing cultural heritage is necessary. In the context of Smart Cities, monitoring of cultural heritage is of interest in order to perform future comparative studies and load information into the cloud that will be useful for the conservation of other heritage sites. In this paper the development of an economical and appropriate acquisition data system combining wired and wireless communication, as well as third party hardware for increased versatility, is presented. The device allows monitoring a complex network of points with high sampling frequency, with wired sensors in a 1-wire bus and a wireless centralized system recording data for monitoring of physical parameters, as well as the future possibility of attaching an alarm system or sending data over the Internet. This has been possible with the development of three board's designs and more than 5000 algorithm lines. System tests have shown an adequate system operation. PMID:25815447

  4. Design of a Hybrid (Wired/Wireless) Acquisition Data System for Monitoring of Cultural Heritage Physical Parameters in Smart Cities

    PubMed Central

    García Diego, Fernando-Juan; Esteban, Borja; Merello, Paloma

    2015-01-01

    Preventive conservation represents a working method and combination of techniques which helps in determining and controlling the deterioration process of cultural heritage in order to take the necessary actions before it occurs. It is acknowledged as important, both in terms of preserving and also reducing the cost of future conservation measures. Therefore, long-term monitoring of physical parameters influencing cultural heritage is necessary. In the context of Smart Cities, monitoring of cultural heritage is of interest in order to perform future comparative studies and load information into the cloud that will be useful for the conservation of other heritage sites. In this paper the development of an economical and appropriate acquisition data system combining wired and wireless communication, as well as third party hardware for increased versatility, is presented. The device allows monitoring a complex network of points with high sampling frequency, with wired sensors in a 1-wire bus and a wireless centralized system recording data for monitoring of physical parameters, as well as the future possibility of attaching an alarm system or sending data over the Internet. This has been possible with the development of three board’s designs and more than 5000 algorithm lines. System tests have shown an adequate system operation. PMID:25815447

  5. Investigation of the effects of laser non-linearity and RIN in direct modulation hybrid wired/wireless PON systems employing an integrated two section laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saljoghei, Arsalan; Browning, Colm; Smyth, Frank; Barry, Liam P.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper the transmission of OFDM based wired/wireless services for hybrid PONs using direct laser modulation is studied. To overcome the limitations imposed by direct modulation of cost effective low bandwidth laser transmitters, we make use of novel monolithically integrated Discrete Mode lasers and optical injection. The system includes a wired OFDM signal, operating at 12.5 Gb/s and three wireless signals delivering Long Term Evolution (LTE) services encoded with 16 QAM. The system's performance is evaluated for various relative power ratios of the wired/wireless signals. Additionally, the impact of Relative Intensity Noise (RIN) on such a hybrid system is studied through computer simulations.

  6. Wire Wise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanquist, Barry

    1998-01-01

    Discusses how today's technology is encouraging schools to invest in furnishings that are adaptable to computer use and telecommunications access. Explores issues concerning modularity, wiring management, ergonomics, durability, price, and aesthetics. (GR)

  7. Simultaneous Multiple Preoperative Localizations of Small Pulmonary Lesions Using a Short Hook Wire and Suture System

    SciTech Connect

    Iguchi, Toshihiro Hiraki, Takao Gobara, Hideo Fujiwara, Hiroyasu Matsui, Yusuke; Sugimoto, Seiichiro Toyooka, Shinichi Oto, Takahiro Miyoshi, Shinichiro; Kanazawa, Susumu

    2015-08-15

    PurposeThe aim of the study was to retrospectively evaluate simultaneous multiple hook wire placement outcomes before video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS).Materials and MethodsThirty-eight procedures were performed on 35 patients (13 men and 22 women; mean age, 59.9 years) with 80 lung lesions (mean diameter 7.9 mm) who underwent simultaneous multiple hook wire placements for preoperative localizations. The primary endpoints were technical success, complications, procedure duration, and VATS outcome; secondary endpoints included comparisons between technical success rates, complication rates, and procedure durations of the 238 single-placement procedures performed. Complications were also evaluated.ResultsIn 35 procedures including 74 lesions, multiple hook wire placements were technically successful; in the remaining three procedures, the second target placement was aborted because of massive pneumothorax after the first placement. Although complications occurred in 34 procedures, no grade 3 or above adverse event was observed. The mean procedure duration was 36.4 ± 11.8 min. Three hook wires dislodged during patient transport to the surgical suite. Seventy-four successfully marked lesions were resected. Six lesions without hook wires were successfully resected after detection by palpation with an additional mini-thoracotomy or using subtle pleural changes as a guide. The complication rates and procedure durations of multiple-placement procedures were significantly higher (P = 0.04) and longer (P < 0.001) than those in the single-placement group, respectively, while the technical success rate was not significantly different (P = 0.051).ConclusionsSimultaneous multiple hook wire placements before VATS were clinically feasible, but increased the complication rate and lengthened the procedure time.

  8. Iron-sulfur-based single molecular wires for enhancing charge transport in enzyme-based bioelectronic systems.

    PubMed

    Mahadevan, Aishwarya; Fernando, Teshan; Fernando, Sandun

    2016-04-15

    When redox enzymes are wired to electrodes outside a living cell (ex vivo), their ability to produce a sufficiently powerful electrical current diminishes significantly due to the thermodynamic and kinetic limitations associated with the wiring systems. Therefore, we are yet to harness the full potential of redox enzymes for the development of self-powering bioelectronics devices (such as sensors and fuel cells). Interestingly, nature uses iron-sulfur complexes ([Fe-S]), to circumvent these issues in vivo. Yet, we have not been able to utilize [Fe-S]-based chains ex vivo, primarily due to their instability in aqueous media. Here, a simple technique to attach iron (II) sulfide (FeS) to a gold surface in ethanol media and then complete the attachment of the enzyme in aqueous media is reported. Cyclic voltammetry and spectroscopy techniques confirmed the concatenation of FeS and glycerol-dehydrogenase/nicotinamide-adenine-dinucleotide (GlDH-NAD(+)) apoenzyme-coenzyme molecular wiring system on the base gold electrode. The resultant FeS-based enzyme electrode reached an open circuit voltage closer to its standard potential under a wide range of glycerol concentrations (0.001-1M). When probed under constant potential conditions, the FeS-based electrode was able to amplify current by over 10 fold as compared to electrodes fabricated with the conventional pyrroloquinoline quinone-based composite molecular wiring system. These improvements in current/voltage responses open up a wide range of possibilities for fabricating self-powering, bio-electronic devices. PMID:26657591

  9. 14 CFR 129.111 - Electrical wiring interconnection systems (EWIS) maintenance program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (EWIS) maintenance program. 129.111 Section 129.111 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... ENGAGED IN COMMON CARRIAGE Continued Airworthiness and Safety Improvements § 129.111 Electrical wiring...Havilland D.H. 106 Comet 4C (7) VFW-Vereinigte Flugtechnische Werk VFW-614 (8) Illyushin Aviation IL 96T...

  10. 14 CFR 129.111 - Electrical wiring interconnection systems (EWIS) maintenance program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (EWIS) maintenance program. 129.111 Section 129.111 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... ENGAGED IN COMMON CARRIAGE Continued Airworthiness and Safety Improvements § 129.111 Electrical wiring...Havilland D.H. 106 Comet 4C (7) VFW-Vereinigte Flugtechnische Werk VFW-614 (8) Illyushin Aviation IL 96T...

  11. 14 CFR 129.111 - Electrical wiring interconnection systems (EWIS) maintenance program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... (EWIS) maintenance program. 129.111 Section 129.111 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... ENGAGED IN COMMON CARRIAGE Continued Airworthiness and Safety Improvements § 129.111 Electrical wiring...Havilland D.H. 106 Comet 4C (7) VFW-Vereinigte Flugtechnische Werk VFW-614 (8) Illyushin Aviation IL 96T...

  12. An Advanced Fly-By-Wire Flight Control System for the RASCAL Research Rotorcraft: Concept to Reality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rediess, Nicholas A.; Dones, Fernando; McManus, Bruce L.; Ulmer, Lon; Aiken, Edwin W. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Design features of a new fly-by-wire flight control system for the Rotorcraft-Aircrew Systems Concepts Airborne Laboratory (RASCAL) are described. Using a UH-60A Black Hawk helicopter as a baseline vehicle, the RASCAL will be a flying laboratory capable of supporting the research requirements of major NASA and Army guidance, control, and display research programs. The paper describes the research facility requirements of these pro-rams and the design implementation of the research flight control system (RFCS), with emphasis on safety-of-flight, adaptability to multiple requirements and performance considerations.

  13. [Pain and jaundice secondary to hemobilia resolved by ERCP and endoscopic sphincterectomy].

    PubMed

    Defarges, V; Loscos, J M; Meroño, E; Fernández Madrid, J; Carda, P

    1996-06-01

    We report the case of a patient with hemobilia resulting from a liver biopsy where the performance of the endoscopic sphincterectomy solved the jaundice and the pain of the patient. ERCP has been used previously in the diagnosis of biliary and pancreatic tumors that manifested themselves as an hemobilia. The therapeutic utilization of endoscopic sphincterotomy had been described rarely in this type of bleedings. We recommend endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and sphincterotomy in the cases of hemobilia with severe abdominal pain resulting from the accumulation of clots inside the biliary tract. PMID:8755328

  14. Composite superconducting wires obtained by high-rate tinning in molten Bi-Pb-Sr-Ca-Cu-O system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grosav, A. D.; Konopko, L. A.; Leporda, N. I.

    1991-01-01

    Long lengths of metal superconductor composites were prepared by passing a copper wire through the bismuth based molten oxide system at a constant speed. The key to successful composite preparation is the high pulling speed involved, which permits minimization of the severe interaction between the unbuffered metal surface and the oxide melt. Depending on the temperature of the melt and the pulling speed, a coating with different thickness and microstructure appeared. The nonannealed thick coatings contained a Bi2(Sr,Ca)2Cu1O6 phase as a major component. After relatively short time annealing at 800 C, both resistivity and initial magnetization versus temperature measurements show superconducting transitions beginning in the 110 to 115 K region. The effects of annealing and composition on obtained results are discussed. This method of manufacture led to the fabrication of wire with a copper core in a dense covering with uniform thickness of about h approximately equal to 5 to 50 microns. Composite wires with h approximately equal to 10 microns (h/d approximately equal to 0.1) sustained bending on a 15 mm radius frame without cracking during flexing.

  15. Foundational model of structural connectivity in the nervous system with a schema for wiring diagrams, connectome, and basic plan architecture.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Larry W; Bota, Mihail

    2010-11-30

    The nervous system is a biological computer integrating the body's reflex and voluntary environmental interactions (behavior) with a relatively constant internal state (homeostasis)-- promoting survival of the individual and species. The wiring diagram of the nervous system's structural connectivity provides an obligatory foundational model for understanding functional localization at molecular, cellular, systems, and behavioral organization levels. This paper provides a high-level, downwardly extendible, conceptual framework--like a compass and map--for describing and exploring in neuroinformatics systems (such as our Brain Architecture Knowledge Management System) the structural architecture of the nervous system's basic wiring diagram. For this, the Foundational Model of Connectivity's universe of discourse is the structural architecture of nervous system connectivity in all animals at all resolutions, and the model includes two key elements--a set of basic principles and an internally consistent set of concepts (defined vocabulary of standard terms)--arranged in an explicitly defined schema (set of relationships between concepts) allowing automatic inferences. In addition, rules and procedures for creating and modifying the foundational model are considered. Controlled vocabularies with broad community support typically are managed by standing committees of experts that create and refine boundary conditions, and a set of rules that are available on the Web. PMID:21078980

  16. 46 CFR 129.340 - Cable and wiring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.340 Cable and wiring. (a) If individual wires, rather than... tank, unless it supplies power to equipment in the tank; and (9) Have sheathing or wire insulation...) Cable and wire in power and lighting circuits must be #14 AWG or larger. Cable and wire in control...

  17. Durability Evaluation of a Thin Film Sensor System With Enhanced Lead Wire Attachments on SiC/SiC Ceramic Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lei, Jih-Fen; Kiser, J. Douglas; Singh, Mrityunjay; Cuy, Mike; Blaha, Charles A.; Androjna, Drago

    2000-01-01

    An advanced thin film sensor system instrumented on silicon carbide (SiC) fiber reinforced SiC matrix ceramic matrix composites (SiC/SiC CMCs), was evaluated in a Mach 0.3 burner rig in order to determine its durability to monitor material/component surface temperature in harsh environments. The sensor system included thermocouples in a thin film form (5 microns thick), fine lead wires (75 microns diameter), and the bonds between these wires and the thin films. Other critical components of the overall system were the heavy, swaged lead wire cable (500 microns diameter) that contained the fine lead wires and was connected to the temperature readout, and ceramic attachments which were bonded onto the CMCs for the purpose of securing the lead wire cables, The newly developed ceramic attachment features a combination of hoops made of monolithic SiC or SiC/SiC CMC (which are joined to the test article) and high temperature ceramic cement. Two instrumented CMC panels were tested in a burner rig for a total of 40 cycles to 1150 C (2100 F). A cycle consisted of rapid heating to 1150 C (2100 F), a 5 minute hold at 1150 C (2100 F), and then cooling down to room temperature in 2 minutes. The thin film sensor systems provided repeatable temperature measurements for a maximum of 25 thermal cycles. Two of the monolithic SiC hoops debonded during the sensor fabrication process and two of the SiC/SiC CMC hoops failed during testing. The hoops filled with ceramic cement, however, showed no sign of detachment after 40 thermal cycle test. The primary failure mechanism of this sensor system was the loss of the fine lead wire-to-thin film connection, which either due to detachment of the fine lead wires from the thin film thermocouples or breakage of the fine wire.

  18. Six-state, three-level, six-fold ferromagnetic wire system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blachowicz, T.; Ehrmann, A.

    2013-04-01

    Six stable states at remanence were identified in iron wire samples of 6-fold spatial symmetry using micromagnetic simulations and the finite element method. Onion and domain-wall magnetic states were tailored by sample shape and guided by an applied magnetic field with a fixed in-plane direction. Different directions of externally applied magnetic fields revealed a tendency for stability or nonstability of the considered states.

  19. One-dimensional electronic systems in ultra-fine mesa etched InGaAs-InAlAs-InP quantum wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kern, K.; Demel, T.; Heitmann, D.; Grambow, P.; Ploog, K.; Razeghi, M.

    1990-04-01

    Quantum wire structures have been prepared by deep mesa etching of modulation doped InGaAs-InAlAs-InP heterostructures. In very narrow wires (width t ≈ 300 nm) it was possible to realize one-dimensional electronic systems (IDES) with quantum confined energy levels. The separation of the ID subbands was, as determined from magnetic depopulation, about 2.5 meV.

  20. No Wires.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLoughry, Thomas J.

    1995-01-01

    The University of California at Santa Cruz has completed a successful test of a wireless computer network that would enable students and professors to get on line from anywhere on campus. The network, linked by radio waves, could save millions of dollars in campus wiring costs and would better meet student and faculty information needs. (MSE)

  1. Optimisation of Radiation Exposure to Gastroenterologists and Patients during Therapeutic ERCP

    PubMed Central

    Alzimami, Khalid; Sulieman, Abdelmoneim; Paroutoglou, Georgios; Potamianos, Spiros; Vlychou, Marianna; Theodorou, Kiki

    2013-01-01

    This study intended to optimize the radiation doses for gastroenterologists and patients during therapeutic endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and to compare the doses based on available data obtained by other researchers. A total of 153 patients were studied in two Gastroenterology Departments, (group A, 111; group B, 42). Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) were used to measure the staff and patients entrance surface air kerma (ESAK) at different body sites. The mean ESAK and effective doses per procedure were estimated to be 68.75 mGy and 2.74 mSv, respectively. Staff was exposed to a heterogonous doses. The third examiner (trainee) was exposed to a high dose compared with other examiners because no shield was located to protect him from stray radiation. Patients and examiners doses were lower compared to the lowest values found in previous studies taking into consideration the heterogeneity of patients and equipment. Staff doses during ERCP are within the safety limit in the light of the current practice. PMID:23589714

  2. Is endoscopic papillary balloon dilatation really a risk factor for post-ERCP pancreatitis?

    PubMed

    Fujisawa, Toshio; Kagawa, Koichi; Hisatomi, Kantaro; Kubota, Kensuke; Nakajima, Atsushi; Matsuhashi, Nobuyuki

    2016-07-14

    Endoscopic papillary balloon dilatation (EPBD) is useful for decreasing early complications of endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography (ERCP), including bleeding, biliary infection, and perforation, but it is generally avoided in Western countries because of a relatively high reported incidence of post-ERCP pancreatitis (PEP). However, as the efficacy of endoscopic papillary large-balloon dilatation (EPLBD) becomes widely recognized, EPBD is attracting attention. Here we investigate whether EPBD is truly a risk factor for PEP, and seek safer and more effective EPBD procedures by reviewing past studies. We reviewed thirteen randomised control trials comparing EPBD and endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) and ten studies comparing direct EPLBD and EST. Three randomized controlled trials of EPBD showed significantly higher incidence of PEP than EST, but no study of EPLBD did. Careful analysis of these studies suggested that longer and higher-pressure inflation of balloons might decrease PEP incidence. The paradoxical result that EPBD with small-calibre balloons increases PEP incidence while EPLBD does not may be due to insufficient papillary dilatation in the former. Insufficient dilatation could cause the high incidence of PEP through the use of mechanical lithotripsy and stress on the papilla at the time of stone removal. Sufficient dilation of the papilla may be useful in preventing PEP. PMID:27468185

  3. Is endoscopic papillary balloon dilatation really a risk factor for post-ERCP pancreatitis?

    PubMed Central

    Fujisawa, Toshio; Kagawa, Koichi; Hisatomi, Kantaro; Kubota, Kensuke; Nakajima, Atsushi; Matsuhashi, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic papillary balloon dilatation (EPBD) is useful for decreasing early complications of endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography (ERCP), including bleeding, biliary infection, and perforation, but it is generally avoided in Western countries because of a relatively high reported incidence of post-ERCP pancreatitis (PEP). However, as the efficacy of endoscopic papillary large-balloon dilatation (EPLBD) becomes widely recognized, EPBD is attracting attention. Here we investigate whether EPBD is truly a risk factor for PEP, and seek safer and more effective EPBD procedures by reviewing past studies. We reviewed thirteen randomised control trials comparing EPBD and endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) and ten studies comparing direct EPLBD and EST. Three randomized controlled trials of EPBD showed significantly higher incidence of PEP than EST, but no study of EPLBD did. Careful analysis of these studies suggested that longer and higher-pressure inflation of balloons might decrease PEP incidence. The paradoxical result that EPBD with small-calibre balloons increases PEP incidence while EPLBD does not may be due to insufficient papillary dilatation in the former. Insufficient dilatation could cause the high incidence of PEP through the use of mechanical lithotripsy and stress on the papilla at the time of stone removal. Sufficient dilation of the papilla may be useful in preventing PEP. PMID:27468185

  4. Flying wires at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Gannon, J.; Crawford, C.; Finley, D.; Flora, R.; Groves, T.; MacPherson, M.

    1989-03-01

    Transverse beam profile measurement systems called ''Flying Wires'' have been installed and made operational in the Fermilab Main Ring and Tevatron accelerators. These devices are used routinely to measure the emittance of both protons and antiprotons throughout the fill process, and for emittance growth measurements during stores. In the Tevatron, the individual transverse profiles of six proton and six antiproton bunches are obtained simultaneously, with a single pass of the wire through the beam. Essential features of the hardware, software, and system operation are explained in the rest of the paper. 3 refs., 4 figs.

  5. 49 CFR 236.76 - Tagging of wires and interference of wires or tags with signal apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... with signal apparatus. 236.76 Section 236.76 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... wires and interference of wires or tags with signal apparatus. Each wire shall be tagged or otherwise so... apparatus. Inspections and Tests; All Systems...

  6. 49 CFR 236.76 - Tagging of wires and interference of wires or tags with signal apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... with signal apparatus. 236.76 Section 236.76 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... wires and interference of wires or tags with signal apparatus. Each wire shall be tagged or otherwise so... apparatus. Inspections and Tests; All Systems...

  7. Put Your Cable Wiring to the Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, C. William

    2001-01-01

    Discusses why schools and universities should use testing procedures in any wire bid specification for cable wiring and also know how experienced the installers are in testing and installing structured cabling systems. Key cabling terms are included. (GR)

  8. Trainee caseload correlates with ERCP success rates but not with procedure-related complications: results from a prospective study (the QUASIE cohort)

    PubMed Central

    Voiosu, Theodor; Bengus, Andreea; Voiosu, Andrei; Rimbas, Mihai; Zlate, Alina; Haidar, Andrei; Baicus, Cristian; Mateescu, Bogdan

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aim: Endoscopy society guidelines recommend a minimum of 200 cases for endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) trainees in order to ensure competency and quality standards. However, there are few data regarding procedure-related complication rates and added risk for patients during this learning process. We aimed to evaluate the correlation between trainee caseload and procedure- and patient-related outcomes in an ERCP training program, and to assess the risk factors for ERCP failure and complications. Patients and methods: We conducted a prospective study of all procedures performed in the ERCP training program at Colentina Clinical Hospital, Bucharest, Romania. Relevant data for each procedure (diagnosis, cannulation method, outcome, and complications during the following 30 days) as well as operator experience were documented. Univariable and multivariable analysis of the risk factors for ERCP failure and complications was done by analyzing the procedures completed by expert and trainee endoscopists during the study period. Results: The analysis included 534 ERCPs performed by 1 expert and 3 supervised trainees during a 12-month period. Technical success rates were comparable in the trainee and expert groups, and no statistically significant difference was found between the two groups with regard to procedure-related complications and mortality. The more experienced trainees had a better chance of successfully completing a procedure (odds ratio of 1.1 for each additional 10 ERCPs performed), but post-ERCP complications were unrelated to individual trainee caseloads on multivariable analysis. Conclusion: The ERCP technical success rate increases with trainee experience, reflecting the learning curve of individual operators. However, the complication rates are similar across different levels of operator experience, indicating that ERCPs performed by supervised trainees imply no additional risk for patients. PMID:27092319

  9. Aircraft wiring program status report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beach, Rex

    1995-01-01

    In this Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC) Aircraft Division status report, the general and wire and cable component activities, the systems engineering activities, the aircraft wiring lead maintenance activities, the NAVAIR/NASA interface activities, and the Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) Commission recommendations are presented.

  10. The Geostationary Operational Satellite R Series SpaceWire Based Data System Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krimchansky, Alexander; Anderson, William H.; Bearer, Craig

    2010-01-01

    The GOES-R program selected SpaceWire as the best solution to satisfy the desire for simple and flexible instrument to spacecraft command and telemetry communications. Data generated by GOES-R instruments is critical for meteorological forecasting, public safety, space weather, and other key applications. In addition, GOES-R instrument data is provided to ground stations on a 24/7 basis. GOES-R requires data errors be detected and corrected from origin to final destination. This paper describes GOES-R developed strategy to satisfy this requirement

  11. Hybrid CATV/MMW/BB lightwave transmission system based on fiber-wired/fiber-wireless/fiber-VLLC integrations.

    PubMed

    Li, Chung-Yi; Lu, Hai-Han; Lu, Ting-Chieh; Chu, Chien-An; Chen, Bo-Rui; Lin, Chun-Yu; Peng, Peng-Chun

    2015-12-14

    A hybrid lightwave transmission system for cable television (CATV)/millimeter-wave (MMW)/baseband (BB) signal transmission based on fiber-wired/fiber-wireless/fiber-visible laser light communication (VLLC) integrations is proposed and demonstrated. For down-link transmission, the light is intensity-modulated with 50-550 MHz CATV signal and optically promoted from 25 GHz radio frequency (RF) signal to 10 Gbps/50 GHz and 20 Gbps/100 GHz MMW data signals based on fiber-wired and fiber-wireless integrations. Good performances of carrier-to-noise ratio (CNR), composite second-order (CSO), composite triple-beat (CTB), and bit error rate (BER) are obtained over a 40-km single-mode fiber (SMF) and a 10-m RF wireless transport. For up-link transmission, the light is successfully intensity-remodulated with 5-Gbps BB data stream based on fiber-VLLC integration. Good BER performance is achieved over a 40-km SMF and a 10-m free-space VLLC transport. Such a hybrid CATV/MMW/BB lightwave transmission system is an attractive alternative, it gives the benefits of a communication link for broader bandwidth and higher transmission rate. PMID:26698972

  12. Precision wire feeder for small diameter wire

    DOEpatents

    Brandon, E.D.; Hooper, F.M.; Reichenbach, M.L.

    1992-08-11

    A device for feeding small diameter wire having a diameter less than 0.04 mm (16 mil) to a welding station includes a driving wheel for controllably applying a non-deforming driving force to the wire to move the free end of the wire towards the welding station; and a tension device such as a torque motor for constantly applying a reverse force to the wire in opposition to the driving force to keep the wire taut. 1 figure.

  13. Precision wire feeder for small diameter wire

    DOEpatents

    Brandon, Eldon D.; Hooper, Frederick M.; Reichenbach, Marvin L.

    1992-01-01

    A device for feeding small diameter wire having a diameter less than 0.04 mm (16 mil) to a welding station includes a driving wheel for controllably applying a non-deforming driving force to the wire to move the free end of the wire towards the welding station; and a tension device such as a torque motor for constantly applying a reverse force to the wire in opposition to the driving force to keep the wire taut.

  14. The impact of brush cytology from endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) on patient management at a UK teaching hospital

    PubMed Central

    Sethi, Rajiv; Singh, Kaushiki; Warner, Ben; Mahadeva, Ula; Wilkinson, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Patients with suspected pancreaticobiliary cancers frequently undergo endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) to obtain brush cytology for confirmatory diagnosis. The outcome of this often leads to the management of the patient and can avoid more invasive investigations. There is a wide range of sensitivities and specificities reported in the literature. Aims To determine the accuracy of the brush cytology obtained at ERCP by performing a retrospective audit of all patients admitted to Guy's and St. Thomas’ Hospital for ERCP during 2008–2013. Also, to evaluate the impact of cytology results on patient care following ERCP. Method Data were collected from 4 January 2008 to 27 December 2013. This involved analysing EndoSoft (the in-house software for endoscopic data entry), Pathnet (the pathology database) and Electronic Patient Records. Results 162 patients underwent brush cytology during ERCP. 58 patients had positive cytology. With intention-to-treat analysis, sensitivity was 54.7%, specificity was 100.0% and negative predictive value was 53.9% with a positive predictive value of 100%. Patients with a positive brush cytology result required fewer investigations compared with patients with a negative cytology result. Conclusions Our results compare favourably with previous studies in the field. Brush cytology has been ignored in recent times due to perceived poor results and efficacy. Our audit shows that it can reduce the number of investigations required to reach a diagnosis of malignancy and so is a valuable tool in the diagnosis of pancreaticobiliary malignancies. However, better guidance on preparation of samples for cytology is needed to reduce the number of insufficient samples. PMID:27103983

  15. NEMA wire and cable standards development programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baird, Robert W.

    1994-01-01

    The National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) is the nation's largest trade association for manufacturers of electrical equipment. Its member companies produce components, end-use equipment and systems for the generation, transmission, distribution, control and use of electricity. The wire and cable division is presented in 6 sections: building wire and cable, fabricated conductors, flexible cords, high performance wire and cable, magnet wire, and power and control cable. Participating companies are listed.

  16. Welding wire pressure sensor assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Timothy B. (Inventor); Milly, Peter F., Sr. (Inventor); White, J. Kevin (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    The present invention relates to a device which is used to monitor the position of a filler wire relative to a base material being welded as the filler wire is added to a welding pool. The device is applicable to automated welding systems wherein nonconsumable electrode arc welding processes are utilized in conjunction with a filler wire which is added to a weld pool created by the electrode arc. The invention senses pressure deviations from a predetermined pressure between the filler wire and the base material, and provides electrical signals responsive to the deviations for actuating control mechanisms in an automatic welding apparatus so as to minimize the pressure deviation and to prevent disengagement of the contact between the filler wire and the base material.

  17. Welding wire pressure sensor assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Timothy B.; Milly, Peter F.; White, J. Kevin

    1993-05-01

    The present invention relates to a device which is used to monitor the position of a filler wire relative to a base material being welded as the filler wire is added to a welding pool. The device is applicable to automated welding systems wherein nonconsumable electrode arc welding processes are utilized in conjunction with a filler wire which is added to a weld pool created by the electrode arc. The invention senses pressure deviations from a predetermined pressure between the filler wire and the base material, and provides electrical signals responsive to the deviations for actuating control mechanisms in an automatic welding apparatus so as to minimize the pressure deviation and to prevent disengagement of the contact between the filler wire and the base material.

  18. Welding wire pressure sensor assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Timothy B.; Milly, Peter F., Sr.; White, J. Kevin

    1994-04-01

    The present invention relates to a device which is used to monitor the position of a filler wire relative to a base material being welded as the filler wire is added to a welding pool. The device is applicable to automated welding systems wherein nonconsumable electrode arc welding processes are utilized in conjunction with a filler wire which is added to a weld pool created by the electrode arc. The invention senses pressure deviations from a predetermined pressure between the filler wire and the base material, and provides electrical signals responsive to the deviations for actuating control mechanisms in an automatic welding apparatus so as to minimize the pressure deviation and to prevent disengagement of the contact between the filler wire and the base material.

  19. Novel Radiopaque UHMWPE Sublaminar Wires in a Growth-Guidance System for the Treatment of Early Onset Scoliosis: Feasibility in a Large Animal Study.

    PubMed

    Bogie, R; Roth, Ak; Faber, S; de Jong, Jja; Welting, Tjm; Willems, Pc; Arts, Jj; van Rhijn, Lw

    2014-09-29

    Study Design. In vivo analysis in an ovine model.Objective. To evaluate the feasibility of radiopaque UHMWPE sublaminar wires in a growth-guidance spinal system by assessing stability, biocompatibility and growth potential.Summary of Background Data. Several growth-guidance systems have been developed for the treatment of early onset scoliosis (EOS). The use of gliding pedicle screws and metal sublaminar wires during these procedures can cause metal-on-metal debris formation and neurological deficits. Novel radiopaque UHMWPE wires are introduced to safely facilitate longitudinal growth and provide stability in a growth-guidance system for EOS.Methods. Twelve immature sheep received posterior segmental spinal instrumentation; pedicle screws were inserted at L5 and radiopaque UHWMPE (bismuth trioxide) wires were passed sublaminarly at each level between L3 and T11 and fixed to dual cobalt-chromiun rods. Four age-matched, unoperated animals were evaluated to serve as a control group. Radiographs were taken to measure growth of the instrumented segment. After 24 weeks, the animals were sacrificed and the spines were harvested for histological evaluation and high resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) analysis.Results. No neurological deficits occurred and all instrumentation remained stable. One animal died from an unknown cause. Substantial growth occurred in the instrumented segments (L5-T11) in the intervention group (27± 2 mm), which was not significantly different to the control group, (30 ± 4mm, p = 0.42). HR-pQCT analysis clearly showed safe routing and fixation of the UHMWPE wires and instrumentation. Despite the noted growth, ectopic bone formation with the formation of bony bridges was observed in all animals. Histology revealed no evidence of chronic inflammation or wear debris.Conclusions. This study shows the first results of radiopaque UHMWPE sublaminar wires as part of a growth guidance spinal system. UHMWPE sublaminar wires

  20. Ground and flight test experience with a triple redundant digital fly by wire control system. [installed in F-8C aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jarvis, C. R.; Szalai, K. J.

    1981-01-01

    A triplex digital fly by wire flight control system was developed and installed in an F-8C aircraft to provide fail operative, full authority control. Hardware and software redundancy management techniques were designed to detect and identify failures in the system. Control functions typical of those projected for future actively controlled vehicles were implemented.

  1. NASA wiring for space applications program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulze, Norman

    1995-01-01

    An overview of the NASA Wiring for Space Applications Program and its relationship to NASA's space technology enterprise is given in viewgraph format. The mission of the space technology enterprise is to pioneer, with industry, the development and use of space technology to secure national economic competitiveness, promote industrial growth, and to support space missions. The objectives of the NASA Wiring for Space Applications Program is to improve the safety, performance, and reliability of wiring systems for space applications and to develop improved wiring technologies for NASA flight programs and commercial applications. Wiring system failures in space and commercial applications have shown the need for arc track resistant wiring constructions. A matrix of tests performed versus wiring constructions is presented. Preliminary data indicate the performance of the Tensolite and Filotex hybrid constructions are the best of the various candidates.

  2. Pre-Study protocol MagPEP: a multicentre randomized controlled trial of magnesium sulphate in the prevention of post-ERCP pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Acute pancreatitis is the most common complication of diagnostic and therapeutic endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). In spite of continuing research, no pharmacologic agent capable of effectively reducing the incidence of ERCP-induced pancreatitis has found its way into clinical practise. A number of experimental studies suggest that intrapancreatic calcium concentrations play an important role in the initiation of intracellular protease activation, an initiating step in the course of acute pancreatitis. Magnesium can act as a calcium-antagonist and counteracts effects in calcium signalling. It can thereby attenuate the intracellular activation of proteolytic digestive enzymes in the pancreas and reduces the severity of experimental pancreatitis when administered either intravenously or as a food supplement. Methods We designed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase III study to test whether the administration of intravenous magnesium sulphate before and after ERCP reduces the incidence and the severity of post-ERCP pancreatitis. A total of 502 adult patients with a medical indication for ERCP are to be randomized to receive either 4930 mg magnesium sulphate (= 20 mmol magnesium) or placebo 60 min before and 6 hours after ERCP. The incidence of clinical post-ERCP pancreatitis, hyperlipasemia, pain levels, use of analgetics and length of hospital stay will be evaluated. Conclusions If magnesium sulphate is found to be effective in preventing post-ERCP pancreatitis, this inexpensive agent with limited adverse effects could be used as a routine pharmacological prophylaxis. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN46556454 PMID:23320650

  3. COBRA-STAR, a five frame point-projection x-ray imaging system for 1 MA scale wire-array Z pinches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglass, J. D.; Hammer, D. A.

    2008-03-01

    A new imaging system for 1MA scale wire-array Z-pinch experiments that produces up to five high-resolution x-ray images per experimental pulse has been developed. Calibrated areal density measurements of the Z-pinch plasma can be obtained from each pulse. The system substitutes five molybdenum (Mo) X pinches for the normal copper return-current conductors to provide point sources of x-rays for point-projection radiography. Each backlighting X pinch consists of four Mo wires, the x-ray burst timing of which was controlled by varying the wire diameter (mass) from 10.2to30μm in the five X pinches. Typical images have a 16×8mm2 field of view at the wire array and a magnification of about 6.5:1 on the x-ray-sensitive film. Titanium (Ti) filters in front of the films transmit continuum radiation in the spectral range of 3-5keV. Inclusion on the Ti of a step wedge having known thickness increments of the same material as the wires enables the calibrated areal density measurements to be made of the exploding wire plasmas. Here, we used tungsten (W) step wedges with step thicknesses ranging from 0.015to1.1μm to obtain accurate (±10%) areal density measurements of W plasmas from the spatial profile of film exposure. When imaging arrays that produce intense radiation pulses, a plastic monofilament "quencher" is placed on axis to avoid film saturation. Images have subnanosecond temporal resolution and about 7μm spatial resolution.

  4. COBRA-STAR, a five frame point-projection x-ray imaging system for 1 MA scale wire-array Z pinches

    SciTech Connect

    Douglass, J. D.; Hammer, D. A.

    2008-03-15

    A new imaging system for 1 MA scale wire-array Z-pinch experiments that produces up to five high-resolution x-ray images per experimental pulse has been developed. Calibrated areal density measurements of the Z-pinch plasma can be obtained from each pulse. The system substitutes five molybdenum (Mo) X pinches for the normal copper return-current conductors to provide point sources of x-rays for point-projection radiography. Each backlighting X pinch consists of four Mo wires, the x-ray burst timing of which was controlled by varying the wire diameter (mass) from 10.2 to 30 {mu}m in the five X pinches. Typical images have a 16x8 mm{sup 2} field of view at the wire array and a magnification of about 6.5:1 on the x-ray-sensitive film. Titanium (Ti) filters in front of the films transmit continuum radiation in the spectral range of 3-5 keV. Inclusion on the Ti of a step wedge having known thickness increments of the same material as the wires enables the calibrated areal density measurements to be made of the exploding wire plasmas. Here, we used tungsten (W) step wedges with step thicknesses ranging from 0.015 to 1.1 {mu}m to obtain accurate ({+-}10%) areal density measurements of W plasmas from the spatial profile of film exposure. When imaging arrays that produce intense radiation pulses, a plastic monofilament ''quencher'' is placed on axis to avoid film saturation. Images have subnanosecond temporal resolution and about 7 {mu}m spatial resolution.

  5. 49 CFR 236.57 - Shunt and fouling wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shunt and fouling wires. 236.57 Section 236.57...: All Systems Track Circuits § 236.57 Shunt and fouling wires. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, shunt wires and fouling wires hereafter installed or replaced shall consist of...

  6. Plasma chemistry in wire chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, J.

    1990-05-01

    The phenomenology of wire chamber aging is discussed and fundamentals of proportional counters are presented. Free-radical polymerization and plasma polymerization are discussed. The chemistry of wire aging is reviewed. Similarities between wire chamber plasma (>1 atm dc-discharge) and low-pressure rf-discharge plasmas, which have been more widely studied, are suggested. Construction and use of a system to allow study of the plasma reactions occurring in wire chambers is reported. A proportional tube irradiated by an {sup 55}Fe source is used as a model wire chamber. Condensable species in the proportional tube effluent are concentrated in a cryotrap and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Several different wire chamber gases (methane, argon/methane, ethane, argon/ethane, propane, argon/isobutane) are tested and their reaction products qualitatively identified. For all gases tested except those containing methane, use of hygroscopic filters to remove trace water and oxygen contaminants from the gas resulted in an increase in the average molecular weight of the products, consistent with results from low-pressure rf-discharge plasmas. It is suggested that because water and oxygen inhibit polymer growth in the gas phase that they may also reduce polymer deposition in proportional tubes and therefore retard wire aging processes. Mechanistic implications of the plasma reactions of hydrocarbons with oxygen are suggested. Unresolved issues in this work and proposals for further study are discussed.

  7. Conventional versus Analgesia-Oriented Combination Sedation on Recovery Profiles and Satisfaction after ERCP: A Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Moon Jae; Park, Jeong Youp; Park, Seung Woo; Chung, Jae Bok; Song, Si Young; Cho, Jooyoun; Park, Sang-Hun; Yoo, Young Chul; Bang, Seungmin

    2015-01-01

    Background The importance of providing effective analgesia during sedation for complex endoscopic procedures has been widely recognized. However, repeated administration of opioids in order to achieve sufficient analgesia may carry the risk of delayed recovery after propofol based sedation. This study was done to compare recovery profiles and the satisfaction of the endoscopists and patients between conventional balanced propofol sedation and analgesia-oriented combination sedation for patients undergoing endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). Methods Two hundred and two adult patients scheduled for ERCP were sedated by either the Conventional (initial bolus of meperidine with propofol infusion) or Combination (repeated bolus doses of fentanyl with propofol infusion) method. Recovery profiles, satisfaction levels of the endoscopists and patients, drug requirements and complications were compared between groups. Results Patients of the Combination Group required significantly less propofol compared to the Conventional Group (135.0 ± 68.8 mg vs. 165.3 ± 81.7 mg, P = 0.005). Modified Aldrete scores were not different between groups throughout the recovery period, and recovery times were also comparable between groups. Satisfaction scores were not different between the two groups in both the endoscopists and patients (P = 0.868 and 0.890, respectively). Conclusions Considering the significant reduction in propofol dose, the non-inferiority of recovery profiles and satisfaction scores of the endoscopists and patients, analgesia oriented combination sedation may be a more safe yet effective sedative method compared to conventional balanced propofol sedation during ERCP. PMID:26402319

  8. Windows: Life after Wire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razwick, Jerry

    2003-01-01

    Although wired glass is extremely common in school buildings, the International Building Code adopted new standards that eliminate the use of traditional wired glass in K-12 schools, daycare centers, and athletic facilities. Wired glass breaks easily, and the wires can cause significant injuries by forming dangerous snags when the glass breaks.…

  9. Transient switching control strategy from regenerative braking to anti-lock braking with a semi-brake-by-wire system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Liang; Li, Xujian; Wang, Xiangyu; Liu, Yahui; Song, Jian; Ran, Xu

    2016-02-01

    Regenerative braking is an important technology in improving fuel economy of an electric vehicle (EV). However, additional motor braking will change the dynamic characteristics of the vehicle, leading to braking instability, especially when the anti-lock braking system (ABS) is triggered. In this paper, a novel semi-brake-by-wire system, without the use of a pedal simulator and fail-safe device, is proposed. In order to compensate for the hysteretic characteristics of the designed brake system while ensure braking reliability and fuel economy when the ABS is triggered, a novel switching compensation control strategy using sliding mode control is brought forward. The proposed strategy converts the complex coupling braking process into independent control of hydraulic braking and regenerative braking, through which a balance between braking performance, braking reliability, braking safety and fuel economy is achieved. Simulation results show that the proposed strategy is effective and adaptable in different road conditions while the large wheel slip rate is triggered during a regenerative braking course. The research provides a new possibility of low-cost equipment and better control performance for the regenerative braking in the EV and the hybrid EV.

  10. Wire insulation defect detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greulich, Owen R. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    Wiring defects are located by detecting a reflected signal that is developed when an arc occurs through the defect to a nearby ground. The time between the generation of the signal and the return of the reflected signal provides an indication of the distance of the arc (and therefore the defect) from the signal source. To ensure arcing, a signal is repeated at gradually increasing voltages while the wire being tested and a nearby ground are immersed in a conductive medium. In order to ensure that the arcing occurs at an identifiable time, the signal whose reflection is to be detected is always made to reach the highest potential yet seen by the system.

  11. Double-balloon enteroscopy for ERCP in patients with Billroth II anatomy: results of a large series of papillary large-balloon dilation for biliary stone removal

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Chi-Liang; Liu, Nai-Jen; Tang, Jui-Hsiang; Yu, Ming-Chin; Tsui, Yi-Ning; Hsu, Fang-Yu; Lee, Ching-Song; Lin, Cheng-Hui

    2015-01-01

    Background and study aims: Data on double-balloon enteroscopy (DBE)-assisted endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatogrphy (ERCP) in patients with Billroth II gastrectomy and the use of endoscopic papillary large-balloon dilation (EPLBD) for the removal of common bile duct stones in Billroth II anatomy are limited. The aims of the study were to evaluate the success of DBE-assisted ERCP in patients with Billroth II gastrectomy and examine the efficacy of EPLBD ( ≥ 10 mm) for the removal of common bile duct stones. Patients and methods: A total of 77 patients with Billroth II gastrectomy in whom standard ERCP had failed underwent DBE-assisted ERCP. DBE success was defined as visualizing the papilla and ERCP success as completing the intended intervention. The clinical results of EPLBD for the removal of common bile duct stones were analyzed. Results: DBE was successful in 73 of 77 patients (95 %), and ERCP success was achieved in 67 of these 73 (92 %). Therefore, the rate of successful DBE-assisted ERCP was 87 % (67 of a total of 77 patients). The reasons for ERCP failure (n = 10) included tumor obstruction (n = 2), adhesion obstruction (n = 2), failed cannulation (n = 3), failed stone removal (n = 2), and bowel perforation (n = 1). Overall DBE-assisted ERCP complications occurred in 5 of 77 patients (6.5 %). A total of 48 patients (34 male, mean age 75.5 years) with common bile duct stones underwent EPLBD. Complete stone removal in the first session was accomplished in 36 patients (75 %); mechanical lithotripsy was required in 1 patient. EPLBD-related mild perforation occurred in 2 patients (4 %). No acute pancreatitis occurred. Conclusions: DBE permits therapeutic ERCP in patients who have a difficult Billroth II gastrectomy with a high success rate and acceptable complication rates. EPLBD is effective and safe for the removal of common bile duct stones in patients with Billroth II anatomy. PMID:26171434

  12. Stretched Wire Mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Bowden, Gordon; /SLAC

    2005-09-06

    Stretched wires are beginning to play an important role in the alignment of accelerators and synchrotron light sources. Stretched wires are proposed for the alignment of the 130 meter long LCLS undulator. Wire position technology has reached sub-micron resolution yet analyses of perturbations to wire straightness are hard to find. This paper considers possible deviations of stretched wire from the simple 2-dimensional catenary form.

  13. HTS Wire Development Workshop: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The 1994 High-Temperature Superconducting Wire Development Workshop was held on February 16--17 at the St. Petersburg Hilton and Towers in St. Petersburg, Florida. The meeting was hosted by Florida Power Corporation and sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Superconductivity Program for Electric Power Systems. The meeting focused on recent high-temperature superconducting wire development activities in the Department of Energy`s Superconductivity Systems program. The meeting opened with a general discussion on the needs and benefits of superconductivity from a utility perspective, the US global competitiveness position, and an outlook on the overall prospects of wire development. The meeting then focused on four important technology areas: Wire characterization: issues and needs; technology for overcoming barriers: weak links and flux pinning; manufacturing issues for long wire lengths; and physical properties of HTS coils. Following in-depth presentations, working groups were formed in each technology area to discuss the most important current research and development issues. The working groups identified research areas that have the potential for greatly enhancing the wire development effort. These areas are discussed in the summary reports from each of the working groups. This document is a compilation of the workshop proceedings including all general session presentations and summary reports from the working groups.

  14. Development of real-time monitoring system using wired and wireless networks in a full-scale ship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paik, Bu-Geun; Cho, Seong-Rak; Park, Beom-Jin; Lee, Dongkon; Bae, Byung-Dueg

    2010-09-01

    In the present study, the real-time monitoring system is developed based on the wireless sensor network (WSN) and power line communication (PLC) employed in the 3,000-ton-class training ship. The WSN consists of sensor nodes, router, gateway and middleware. The PLC is composed of power lines, modems, Ethernet gateway and phase-coupler. The basic tests show that the ship has rather good environments for the wired and wireless communications. The developed real-time monitoring system is applied to recognize the thermal environments of main-engine room and one cabin in the ship. The main-engine room has lots of heat sources and needs careful monitoring to satisfy safe operation condition or detect any human errors beforehand. The monitoring is performed in two regions near the turbocharger and cascade tank, considered as heat sources. The cabin on the second deck is selected to monitor the thermal environments because it is close to the heat source of main engine. The monitoring results of the cabin show the thermal environment is varied by the human activity. The real-time monitoring for the thermal environment would be useful for the planning of the ventilation strategy based on the traces of the human activity against inconvenient thermal environments as well as the recognizing the temperature itself in each cabin.

  15. Application of a one-wire digital temperature sensor in the monitoring system of a granary's temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Hongtao; Wang, Xiaojun; Zhang, Xiuqing

    2009-07-01

    A temperature monitoring system with characteristics of bus topology structure is made up of computer, interface adapter, bus driver, bus converter, transmission line and especially 1-wire digital temperature sensor DS18B20. Category 5 twisted-pair is used to form a tree-like or star-like network, in which more than 500 digital temperature sensors can be connected. Bus drivers and converters in network are composed of low-cost 74HC series logic ICs which has a very low static power consumption and high performance, so they can be powered through the sensor bus and make installation, maintenance, and expansion of system very convenient. Because of hardware fault-tolerant technology used by bus driver and converter circuits, the fault sensor branch or branch bus can automatically detach from the main bus and will not affect normal working of other sensors in network, so to solve the problem of a certain sensor or branch's damage causing the paralysis of entire bus. The length of sensor bus can extend to more than 1000 meters. It is very suitable for the multi-point temperature monitoring sites where the detected points are relative concentrated such as food storage, vegetables greenhouses and so on.

  16. SpaceWire Architectures: Present and Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rakow, Glen Parker

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on current and future spacewire architectures is shown. The topics include: 1) Current Spacewire Architectures: Swift Data Flow; 2) Current SpaceWire Architectures : LRO Data Flow; 3) Current Spacewire Architectures: JWST Data Flow; 4) Current SpaceWire Architectures; 5) Traditional Systems; 6) Future Systems; 7) Advantages; and 8) System Engineer Toolkit.

  17. A novel N-input voting algorithm for X-by-wire fault-tolerant systems.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Abbas; Zarafshan, Faraneh; Al-Haddad, S A R; Ramli, Abdul Rahman

    2014-01-01

    Voting is an important operation in multichannel computation paradigm and realization of ultrareliable and real-time control systems that arbitrates among the results of N redundant variants. These systems include N-modular redundant (NMR) hardware systems and diversely designed software systems based on N-version programming (NVP). Depending on the characteristics of the application and the type of selected voter, the voting algorithms can be implemented for either hardware or software systems. In this paper, a novel voting algorithm is introduced for real-time fault-tolerant control systems, appropriate for applications in which N is large. Then, its behavior has been software implemented in different scenarios of error-injection on the system inputs. The results of analyzed evaluations through plots and statistical computations have demonstrated that this novel algorithm does not have the limitations of some popular voting algorithms such as median and weighted; moreover, it is able to significantly increase the reliability and availability of the system in the best case to 2489.7% and 626.74%, respectively, and in the worst case to 3.84% and 1.55%, respectively. PMID:25386613

  18. A Novel N-Input Voting Algorithm for X-by-Wire Fault-Tolerant Systems

    PubMed Central

    Karimi, Abbas; Zarafshan, Faraneh; Al-Haddad, S. A. R.; Ramli, Abdul Rahman

    2014-01-01

    Voting is an important operation in multichannel computation paradigm and realization of ultrareliable and real-time control systems that arbitrates among the results of N redundant variants. These systems include N-modular redundant (NMR) hardware systems and diversely designed software systems based on N-version programming (NVP). Depending on the characteristics of the application and the type of selected voter, the voting algorithms can be implemented for either hardware or software systems. In this paper, a novel voting algorithm is introduced for real-time fault-tolerant control systems, appropriate for applications in which N is large. Then, its behavior has been software implemented in different scenarios of error-injection on the system inputs. The results of analyzed evaluations through plots and statistical computations have demonstrated that this novel algorithm does not have the limitations of some popular voting algorithms such as median and weighted; moreover, it is able to significantly increase the reliability and availability of the system in the best case to 2489.7% and 626.74%, respectively, and in the worst case to 3.84% and 1.55%, respectively. PMID:25386613

  19. Concealed wire tracing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus and method that combines a signal generator and a passive signal receiver to detect and record the path of partially or completely concealed electrical wiring without disturbing the concealing surface. The signal generator applies a series of electrical pulses to the selected wiring of interest. The applied pulses create a magnetic field about the wiring that can be detected by a coil contained within the signal receiver. An audible output connected to the receiver and driven by the coil reflects the receivers position with respect to the wiring. The receivers audible signal is strongest when the receiver is directly above the wiring and the long axis of the receivers coil is parallel to the wiring. A marking means is mounted on the receiver to mark the location of the wiring as the receiver is directed over the wiring's concealing surface. Numerous marks made on various locations of the concealing surface will trace the path of the wiring of interest.

  20. Neural wiring optimization.

    PubMed

    Cherniak, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Combinatorial network optimization theory concerns minimization of connection costs among interconnected components in systems such as electronic circuits. As an organization principle, similar wiring minimization can be observed at various levels of nervous systems, invertebrate and vertebrate, including primate, from placement of the entire brain in the body down to the subcellular level of neuron arbor geometry. In some cases, the minimization appears either perfect, or as good as can be detected with current methods. One question such best-of-all-possible-brains results raise is, what is the map of such optimization, does it have a distinct neural domain? PMID:22230636

  1. Plated wire memory subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, K. H.

    1974-01-01

    The design, construction, and test history of a 4096 word by 18 bit random access NDRO Plated Wire Memory for use in conjunction with a spacecraft input/output and central processing unit is reported. A technical and functional description is given along with diagrams illustrating layout and systems operation. Test data is shown on the procedures and results of system level and memory stack testing, and hybrid circuit screening. A comparison of the most significant physical and performance characteristics of the memory unit versus the specified requirements is also included.

  2. Influence of Friction Resistance on Expression of Superelastic Properties of Initial NiTi Wires in "Reduced Friction" and Conventional Bracket Systems.

    PubMed

    Reznikov, Natalie; Har-Zion, Gilad; Barkana, Idit; Abed, Yosef; Redlich, Meir

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of resistance to sliding on expression of superelastic properties of NiTi wires. Methods and Materials. A three-point bending test was performed for 0.014 NiTi wire engaged in self-ligating (Damon, SmartClip, In-Ovation) and conventional brackets (Victory) ligated with regular and reduced friction modules (Slide). The wire was deflected in the buccal direction and allowed to straighten. The maximum load, unloading plateau and unloading capacity were registered. Results. The lowest activation load was required in the active self-ligating group (In-Ovation 2.2 ± 0.4 N) and reduced friction module group (Victory/Slide 2.9 ± 0.4 N), followed by the passive self-ligating systems (Damon 3.6 ± 0.7 N, SmartClip 3.7 ± 0.4 N). Higher activation load was obtained in the conventionally ligated group (Victory/module 4.5 ± 0.4 N). Unloading plateau phase with the load magnitude ranging from 1.27 ± 0.4 N (In-Ovation) to 1.627 ± 0.4 N (Slide) was distinct in all groups but one (Victory). Conclusions. Higher friction at flanking points reduces the net force delivered by the wire. Unloading plateau phase of NiTi load-deflection curve disappears in the conventionally ligated group thus indicating to an incomplete expression of NiTi superelastic properties. A rigid passive bracket clip amplifies resistance to sliding in an active configuration and produces a permanent deflection of the wire. PMID:20981153

  3. Wire Test Grip Fixture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, Christopher S.

    2011-01-01

    Wire-testing issues, such as the gripping strains imposed on the wire, play a critical role in obtaining clean data. In a standard test frame fitted with flat wedge grips, the gripping action alone creates stresses on the wire specimen that cause the wire to fail at the grip location. A new test frame, which is outfitted with a vacuum chamber, negated the use of any conventional commercially available wire test fixtures, as only 7 in. (17.8 cm) existed between the grip faces. An innovative grip fixture was designed to test thin gauge wire for a variety of applications in an existing Instron test frame outfitted with a vacuum chamber.

  4. Wire frame to MOVIE. BYU transfer program

    SciTech Connect

    Robbins, D.; Byers, L.D.; Benner, M.S.

    1982-12-01

    At SNLA, the primary computer-aided drafting tool is the Applicon Graphics System (AGS). The data base for mechanical parts on the AGS is a wire frame model. This report summarizes a method of adding surface information to the wire frame and passing this information up stream to MOVIE.BYU which is on a VAX computer and is used to produce shaded graphics pictures of the AGS wire frame model on a RAMTEK 9400 display terminal.

  5. Survivable flight control system fly-by-wire development and flight test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, J. E.

    1976-01-01

    Results from an intensive FBW advanced development effort indicate significant improvements in overall flight control system performance, reliability, safety and maintainability. Additionally, the strong and credible FBW technology base developed as a result paved the way for further exploitation through the application of advanced concepts such as control configured vehicles and multi-mode controls.

  6. 14 CFR 26.11 - Electrical wiring interconnection systems (EWIS) maintenance program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... this section must develop Instructions for Continued Airworthiness (ICA) for the representative... effect on December 10, 2007 for each affected type design, and submit those ICA for review and approval... fuel tank system ICA developed by that person to comply with SFAR 88 to ensure compatibility with...

  7. 14 CFR 26.11 - Electrical wiring interconnection systems (EWIS) maintenance program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... this section must develop Instructions for Continued Airworthiness (ICA) for the representative... effect on December 10, 2007 for each affected type design, and submit those ICA for review and approval... fuel tank system ICA developed by that person to comply with SFAR 88 to ensure compatibility with...

  8. Comparison between wire and wireless EEG acquisition systems based on SSVEP in an Independent-BCI.

    PubMed

    Tello, Richard M G; Müller, Sandra M T; Bastos-Filho, Teodiano; Ferreira, Andre

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison between two different technologies of acquisition systems (BrainNet36 and Emotiv Epoc) for an Independent-BCI based on Steady-State Visual Evoked Potential (SSVEP). Two stimuli separated by a viewing angle <; 1° were used. Multivariate Synchronization Index (MSI) technique was used as feature extractor and five subjects participated in the experiments. The class is obtained through a criterion of maxima. The left and right flicker stimuli were modulated at frequencies of 8.0 and 13.0 Hz, respectively. Acquisition via BrainNet system showed better results, obtaining the highest value for accuracy (100%) and the highest ITR (35.18 bits/min). This Independent-BCI is based on covert attention. PMID:25569887

  9. Beam dispersion measurements with wire scanners in the SLC final focus systems

    SciTech Connect

    Emma, P.; McCormick, D.; Ross, M.C.

    1993-05-01

    A method is described to make a direct measurement of the horizontal and vertical momentum dispersion of the electron and positron beams as they pass through the chromatic correction sections (CCS) of the SLC final focus systems. The method is advantageous since it cleanly separates betatron components of the beam size from dispersive components, can be measured during standard colliding beams machine conditions in a minute or two, and directly measures the energy-position correlation within the beam.

  10. Vibration measurements of a wire scanner - Experimental setup and models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herranz, Juan; Barjau, Ana; Dehning, Bernd

    2016-03-01

    In the next years the luminosity of the LHC will be significantly increased. This will require a much higher accuracy of beam profile measurement than actually achievable by the current wire scanner. The new performance demands a wire travelling speed up to 20 m s-1 and a position measurement accuracy of the order of 1 μm. The vibrations of the mechanical parts of the system and particularly the vibrations of the thin carbon wire have been identified as the major error sources of wire position uncertainty. Therefore the understanding of the wire vibrations has been given high priority for the design and operation of the new device. This article presents a new strategy to measure the wire vibrations based on the piezoresistive effect of the wire itself. An electronic readout system based on a Wheatstone bridge is used to measure the variation of the carbon wire resistance, which is directly proportional to the wire elongation caused by the oscillations.

  11. Endoscopic and anesthetic feasibility of EUS and ERCP combined in a single session versus two different sessions

    PubMed Central

    Vila, Juan J; Kutz, Marcos; Goñi, Silvia; Ostiz, Miriam; Amorena, Edurne; Prieto, Carlos; Rodriguez, Cristina; Fernández-Urien, Ignacio; Jiménez, Francisco J

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To discuss the feasibility of single session endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) to discuss and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) execution. METHODS: Retrospective endoscopic and anesthetic outcome comparison of performing both EUS and ERCP in a single endoscopic session (Group I) versus performing each procedure in two different sessions (Group II) was made. The following variables were evaluated: epidemiological variables, American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status Classification (ASA) level, procedural time, propofol dose, anesthetic complications, endoscopic complications and diagnostic yield, and therapeutic procedures on both groups. T-student, Chi-Square and Fisher test were used for comparison. RESULTS: We included 39 patients in Group I (mean age: 69.85 ± 9.25; 27 men) and 46 in Group II (mean age: 67.46 ± 12.57; 25 men). Procedural time did not differ significantly between both groups (Group Ivs Group II: 93 ± 32.78 vs 98.98 ± 38.17; P >0.05) but the dose of propofol differed (Group I vs Group II: 322.28 ± 250.54 mg vs 516.96 ± 289.06 mg; P = 0.001). Three patients had normal findings on both explorations. Three anesthetic complications [O2 desaturation (2), broncoaspiration (1)] and 9 endoscopic complications [pancreatitis (6), bleeding (1), perforation (1), cholangitis (1)] occurred without significant differences between both groups (P > 0.05). We did not find any significant difference regarding age, sex, ASA scale level, diagnostic yield or therapeutic maneuvers between both groups. CONCLUSION: The performance of EUS and ERCP in a single session offers a similar diagnostic and therapeutic yield, does not entail a higher complication risk and requires a significantly smaller dose of propofol for sedation compared with performing each exploration in a different session. PMID:21455343

  12. Systems biology in psychiatric research: from complex data sets over wiring diagrams to computer simulations.

    PubMed

    Tretter, Felix; Gebicke-Haerter, Peter J

    2012-01-01

    The classification of psychiatric disorders has always been a problem in clinical settings. The present debate about the major systems in clinical practice, DSM-IV and ICD-10, has resulted in attempts to improve and replace those schemes by some that include more endophenotypic and molecular features. However, these disorders not only require more precise diagnostic tools, but also have to be viewed more extensively in their dynamic behaviors, which require more precise data sets related to their origins and developments. This enormous challenge in brain research has to be approached on different levels of the biological system by new methods, including improvements in electroencephalography, brain imaging, and molecular biology. All these methods entail accumulations of large data sets that become more and more difficult to interpret. In particular, on the molecular level, there is an apparent need to use highly sophisticated computer programs to tackle these problems. Evidently, only interdisciplinary work among mathematicians, physicists, biologists, and clinicians can further improve our understanding of complex diseases of the brain. PMID:22231839

  13. Isotope-Ratio-Monitoring Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (IRM-LCMS): First Results from a Moving Wire Interface System.

    PubMed

    Brand, W A; Dobberstein, P

    1996-08-01

    Abstract A Liquid Chromatography-Combustion (LC-C) Interface, based on a moving wire technique, has been built and tested. The LC effluent is deposited onto a transport wire, which carries the sample through solvent evaporation and combustion ovens. CO(2) from the combustion step is analysed in an isotope ratio mass spectrometer. Performance of the interface was tested by loop injections of sucrose and glucose into a liquid flow of methanol/water (80/20). Accuracy and precision of δ(13)C(PDB) < 1‰ was achieved for sample concentrations > 500 ng/ul (5μl loop), sufficient for studies at natural isotope ratios. In case of (13)C tracer applications the detection limit was determined to be about 20 pg carbon tracer (on wire). PMID:22088119

  14. A Wire Position Monitor System for the 1.3 FHZ Tesla-Style Cryomodule at the Fermilab New-Muon-Lab Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Eddy, N.; Fellenz, B.; Prieto, P.; Semenov, A.; Voy, D.C.; Wendt, M.; /Fermilab

    2011-08-17

    The first cryomodule for the beam test facility at the Fermilab New-Muon-Lab building is currently under RF commissioning. Among other diagnostics systems, the transverse position of the helium gas return pipe with the connected 1.3 GHz SRF accelerating cavities is measured along the {approx}15 m long module using a stretched-wire position monitoring system. An overview of the wire position monitor system technology is given, along with preliminary results taken at the initial module cooldown, and during further testing. As the measurement system offers a high resolution, we also discuss options for use as a vibration detector. An electron beam test facility, based on superconducting RF (SRF) TESLA-style cryomodules is currently under construction at the Fermilab New-Muon-Lab (NML) building. The first, so-called type III+, cryomodule (CM-1), equipped with eight 1.3 GHz nine-cell accelerating cavities was recently cooled down to 2 K, and is currently under RF conditioning. The transverse alignment of the cavity string within the cryomodule is crucial for minimizing transverse kick and beam break-up effects, generated by the high-order dipole modes of misaligned accelerating structures. An optimum alignment can only be guaranteed during the assembly of the cavity string, i.e. at room temperatures. The final position of the cavities after cooldown is uncontrollable, and therefore unknown. A wire position monitoring system (WPM) can help to understand the transverse motion of the cavities during cooldown, their final location and the long term position stability after cryo-temperatures are settled, as well as the position reproducibility for several cold-warm cycles. It also may serve as vibration sensor, as the wire acts as a high-Q resonant detector for mechanical vibrations in the low-audio frequency range. The WPM system consists out of a stretched-wire position detection system, provided with help of INFN-Milano and DESY Hamburg, and RF generation and read

  15. Transport Through Carbon Nanotube Wires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anantram, M. P.; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation deals with the use of carbon nanotubes as a transport system. Contact, defects, tubular bend, phonons, and mechanical deformations all contribute to reflection within the nanotube wire. Bragg reflection, however, is native to an ideal energy transport system. Transmission resistance depends primarily on the level of energy present. Finally, the details regarding coupling between carbon nanotubes and simple metals are presented.

  16. Contactin-5 expression during development and wiring of the thalamocortical system.

    PubMed

    Kleijer, K T E; Zuko, A; Shimoda, Y; Watanabe, K; Burbach, J P H

    2015-12-01

    The gene encoding the neural cell adhesion molecule Cntn5 (a.k.a. NB-2) has been put forward as a candidate in neurodevelopmental disorders, like autism spectrum disorder (ASD), by recent genetic findings. Little is known about the expression pattern and function of the gene, and its functional involvement in brain development has remained elusive. So far, most research has focused on its early postnatal expression in the auditory system, where the absence of Cntn5 causes abnormal responses to acoustic stimuli and a decrease in fiber density. The current study shows that the Cntn5 gene is expressed in forebrain structures during embryonic development, starting at E15.5, and that it continues to be expressed into adulthood. Sites of strong expression included the thalamus, the caudate putamen (CPu) and to a lesser extent layer Va of the cerebral cortex. Cntn5-positive thalamic nuclei include the laterodorsal (LD), ventrolateral (VL) and posterior group (Po), which contain glutamatergic neurons. Visualization of the expression pattern through the Tau-LacZ fusion protein coded by an insert in the Cntn5 gene, demonstrated that Cntn5-positive nuclei of the thalamus project to the cortex, based on co-localization with thalamocortical markers L1 and Calretinin. These results indicate that the cell adhesion functions of Cntn5 are exploited for circuit formation and connectivity in early development and for synaptic maintenance during adulthood. Subtle alterations in the formation of the thalamocortical circuit may contribute to neurodevelopmental disorders, such as ASD. PMID:26391921

  17. Laser Wire Stripper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    NASA-developed space shuttle technology is used in a laser wire stripper designed by Raytheon Company. Laser beams cut through insulation on a wire without damaging conductive metal, because laser radiation that melts plastic insulation is reflected by the metal. The laser process is fast, clean, precise and repeatable. It eliminates quality control problems and the expense of rejected wiring.

  18. A Practical Monitoring System for the Structural Safety of Mega-Trusses Using Wireless Vibrating Wire Strain Gauges

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyo Seon; Lee, Hwan Young; Choi, Se Woon; Kim, Yousok

    2013-01-01

    Sensor technologies have been actively employed in structural health monitoring (SHM) to evaluate structural safety. To provide stable and real-time monitoring, a practical wireless sensor network system (WSNS) based on vibrating wire strain gauges (VWSGs) is proposed and applied to a building under construction. In this WSNS, the data measured from each VWSG are transmitted to the sensor node via a signal line and then transmitted to the master node through a short-range wireless communication module (operating on the Industrial, Scientific, and Medical (ISM) band). The master node also employs a long-range wireless communication module (Code Division Multiple Access—CDMA) to transmit the received data from the sensor node to a server located in a remote area, which enables a manager to examine the measured data in real time without any time or location restrictions. In this study, a total of 48 VWSGs, 14 sensor nodes, and seven master nodes were implemented to measure long-term strain variations of mega-trusses in an irregular large-scale building under construction. Based on strain data collected over a 16-month period, a quantitative evaluation of the construction process was performed to determine the aspects that exhibit the greatest influence on member behavior and to conduct a comparison with numerical simulation results. The effect of temperature stress on the structural elements was also analyzed. From these observations, the feasibility of a long-term WSNS based on VWSGs to evaluate the structural safety of an irregular building under construction was confirmed. PMID:24351640

  19. A practical monitoring system for the structural safety of mega-trusses using wireless vibrating wire strain gauges.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyo Seon; Lee, Hwan Young; Choi, Se Woon; Kim, Yousok

    2013-01-01

    Sensor technologies have been actively employed in structural health monitoring (SHM) to evaluate structural safety. To provide stable and real-time monitoring, a practical wireless sensor network system (WSNS) based on vibrating wire strain gauges (VWSGs) is proposed and applied to a building under construction. In this WSNS, the data measured from each VWSG are transmitted to the sensor node via a signal line and then transmitted to the master node through a short-range wireless communication module (operating on the Industrial, Scientific, and Medical (ISM) band). The master node also employs a long-range wireless communication module (Code Division Multiple Access-CDMA) to transmit the received data from the sensor node to a server located in a remote area, which enables a manager to examine the measured data in real time without any time or location restrictions. In this study, a total of 48 VWSGs, 14 sensor nodes, and seven master nodes were implemented to measure long-term strain variations of mega-trusses in an irregular large-scale building under construction. Based on strain data collected over a 16-month period, a quantitative evaluation of the construction process was performed to determine the aspects that exhibit the greatest influence on member behavior and to conduct a comparison with numerical simulation results. The effect of temperature stress on the structural elements was also analyzed. From these observations, the feasibility of a long-term WSNS based on VWSGs to evaluate the structural safety of an irregular building under construction was confirmed. PMID:24351640

  20. Modular Wiring Offers Cost Savings and Future Flexibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewald, Mike; Ewald, Ann O'Connor

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the advantages of modular wiring, a prefabricated wiring system that replaces branch circuits in buildings. Advantages include on-site and day-to-day labor savings, and future technology cost advantages. Includes questions to ask manufacturers. (EV)

  1. [A study of mechanical properties of orthodontic wires in tension].

    PubMed

    Konstantellos, B; Lagoudakis, M; Toutountzakis, N

    1990-12-01

    Orthodontic forces are applied to the teeth basically by means of different types of orthodontic wires. Knowledge of the mechanical properties of such wires are very helpful to the clinician in design and application of optimal force systems during orthodontic treatment. The basic mechanical properties were studied for 17 types of orthodontic wires (all rectangular and of the same size), in tension. Modulus of elasticity (E), yield strength (YS) and maximum elastic strain (Springback) (YS/E) were calculated for each type of wires. Stainless steel wires have demonstrated higher modulus of elasticity (and yield strength) in comparison with wires of nickel-titanium and beta titanium alloys. B-titanium wires showed higher modulus of elasticity than nickel-titanium ones. In addition stainless steel wires were found to have higher values for springback than cobalt-chromium ones and lower values (for the same variable) than nickel-titanium and B-titanium wires. PMID:2129597

  2. 46 CFR 129.340 - Cable and wiring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cable and wiring. 129.340 Section 129.340 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.340 Cable and wiring. (a) If individual wires, rather than cables, are used in systems operating at...

  3. Phase-Sensing Guidance for Wire-Following Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, G. R.

    1983-01-01

    Guidance system for wire-following vehicles tested successfully at speeds exceeding 50 mi/h (80 km/h) on difficult 1 mile (1.6km) course. Unlike previous sensors that compare amplitudes of signals picked up from guide wire, new system compares signal phases. Array of coils is mounted in line along front bumper of vehicle and monitors electromagnetic signal radiating from wire. Guide wire on ground beneath vehicle carrier 6- to 7-kHz alternating current.

  4. Wire-Guide Manipulator For Automated Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Tim; White, Kevin; Gordon, Steve; Emerich, Dave; Richardson, Dave; Faulkner, Mike; Stafford, Dave; Mccutcheon, Kim; Neal, Ken; Milly, Pete

    1994-01-01

    Compact motor drive positions guide for welding filler wire. Drive part of automated wire feeder in partly or fully automated welding system. Drive unit contains three parallel subunits. Rotations of lead screws in three subunits coordinated to obtain desired motions in three degrees of freedom. Suitable for both variable-polarity plasma arc welding and gas/tungsten arc welding.

  5. Evaluation of staff, patient and foetal radiation doses due to endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) procedures in a pregnant patient.

    PubMed

    Huda, A; Garzón, W J; Filho, G C L; Vieira, B; Kramer, R; Xu, X G; Gao, Y; Khoury, H J

    2016-03-01

    The use of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in pregnant patients is not rare. Most studies on the safety and efficacy of these procedures report short- and long-term pregnancy outcomes and but not foetal absorbed doses. This investigation reports on an ERCP procedure for a 40-y-old woman who was 32-34 weeks pregnant. Thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLD 100) were used to measure doses received by the patient and the staff. Additionally, Monte Carlo calculations were performed using a 3D computational phantom representing a 9-month pregnant patient to estimate the foetal absorbed dose. The results show that the spleen of the mother received the largest absorbed dose of 12.18 mGy since it was closer to the source than other internal organs. For the foetus and uterus, the lowest absorbed dose was found to be 0.01 mGy to the foetal brain, while the largest absorbed dose was estimated to be 0.13 mGy to the placenta. PMID:26084305

  6. [ENDOSCOPIC RETROGRADE CHOLANGIO PANCREATOGRAPHY(ERCP): EXPERIENCE IN 902 PROCEDURES AT THE ENDOSCOPY DIGESTIVE CENTRE OF "ARZOBISPO LOAYZA" HOSPITAL

    PubMed

    Vargas Cardenas, Gloria; Astete Benavides, Magdalena

    1997-01-01

    On 1997, the Digestive Endoscopy Centre of "Arzobispo Loayza" Hospital was created with the cooperation of JICA (Japan International Cooperation Agency). 902 ERCP were regularly performed from 1985 to August 1997. 902 tests were reviewed and 831 cases were left after excluding 16 ampulloma cases, 15 cannulated or insufficient cases and 40 cases dealing only with pancreatic duct cannulation. The population is examined according to sex, age and diagnosis, establishing a relation among these three variables. Results showed that most of ERCP were made to women (3:1) with Choledocal Lithiasis (C.L.) and cholecistectomy antecedents, a greater frequency was observed in 56-65 year old women. In males, it was more frequent in people older than 65 years, they also had predominance of choledocal lithiasis, but malignant neoplasia of the biliary duct ranked in the third place. The highest incidence of C.L. with cholecistectomy antecedents suggests the performance of an appropriate evaluation of the biliary duct before surgery. PMID:12177716

  7. Development, implementation, and characterization of a standalone embedded viscosity measurement system based on the impedance spectroscopy of a vibrating wire sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, José; Janeiro, Fernando M.; Ramos, Pedro M.

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents an embedded liquid viscosity measurement system based on a vibrating wire sensor. Although multiple viscometers based on different working principles are commercially available, there is still a market demand for a dedicated measurement system capable of performing accurate, fast measurements and requiring little or no operator training for simple systems and solution monitoring. The developed embedded system is based on a vibrating wire sensor that works by measuring the impedance response of the sensor, which depends on the viscosity and density of the liquid in which the sensor is immersed. The core of the embedded system is a digital signal processor (DSP) which controls the waveform generation and acquisitions for the measurement of the impedance frequency response. The DSP also processes the acquired waveforms and estimates the liquid viscosity. The user can interact with the measurement system through a keypad and an LCD or through a computer with a USB connection for data logging and processing. The presented system is tested on a set of viscosity standards and the estimated values are compared with the standard manufacturer specified viscosity values. A stability study of the measurement system is also performed.

  8. Health care's 100 most wired.

    PubMed

    Solovy, A; Serb, C

    1999-02-01

    They're wired all right, and America's 100 most techno-savvy hospitals and health systems share one more thing: a commitment to using technology to link with employees, patients, suppliers, and insurers. "We want to be a health care travel agency for our community," says one chief information officer. "And we see Internet technology as a key." PMID:10081454

  9. Regeneration: New Neurons Wire Up.

    PubMed

    Raymond, Pamela A

    2016-09-12

    Functional repair of damage in the nervous system requires re-establishment of precise patterns of synaptic connectivity. A new study shows that after selective ablation, zebrafish retinal neurons regenerate and reconstruct some, although not all, of their stereotypic wiring. PMID:27623258

  10. 46 CFR 129.340 - Cable and wiring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.340 Cable and wiring. (a) If individual wires, rather than... tank, unless it supplies power to equipment in the tank; and (9) Have sheathing or wire insulation compatible with the fluid in a tank, when installed to comply with paragraph (b)(8) of this section....