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Sample records for erectness improves plant

  1. Breeding erect plant type sweetpotato lines using cross breeding and gamma-ray irradiation.

    PubMed

    Kuranouchi, Toshikazu; Kumazaki, Tadashi; Kumagai, Toru; Nakatani, Makoto

    2016-06-01

    Few sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas Lam.) cultivars with erect plant type are available despite their advantages over spreading type, such as simplicity of cultivation and ability to adapt to limited space. One of the reasons is insufficiency of their agronomic characteristics for table use. So, it is important to overcome these drawbacks of ER-type lines. We attempted to breed new erect plant type sweetpotato lines having good agronomic traits using cross breeding and mutation breeding with gamma-ray irradiation. With cross breeding we successfully developed new erect plant type lines with almost equal levels of yield as compared to 'Beniazuma', one of the leading cultivars in Japan. However, mutation breeding failed to develop any promising lines because we could not obtain distinct erect plant type lines. In the future larger numbers of plants should be used for mutation breeding, and irradiation methods should be improved. PMID:27436957

  2. Breeding erect plant type sweetpotato lines using cross breeding and gamma-ray irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Kuranouchi, Toshikazu; Kumazaki, Tadashi; Kumagai, Toru; Nakatani, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Few sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas Lam.) cultivars with erect plant type are available despite their advantages over spreading type, such as simplicity of cultivation and ability to adapt to limited space. One of the reasons is insufficiency of their agronomic characteristics for table use. So, it is important to overcome these drawbacks of ER-type lines. We attempted to breed new erect plant type sweetpotato lines having good agronomic traits using cross breeding and mutation breeding with gamma-ray irradiation. With cross breeding we successfully developed new erect plant type lines with almost equal levels of yield as compared to ‘Beniazuma’, one of the leading cultivars in Japan. However, mutation breeding failed to develop any promising lines because we could not obtain distinct erect plant type lines. In the future larger numbers of plants should be used for mutation breeding, and irradiation methods should be improved. PMID:27436957

  3. 42. U.S. NITRATE PLANT UNDER CONSTRUCTION, STEEL BEING ERECTED FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. U.S. NITRATE PLANT UNDER CONSTRUCTION, STEEL BEING ERECTED FOR THE CARBIDE MILL ROOM, APRIL 23, 1918. - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  4. 43. U.S. NITRATE PLANT UNDER CONSTRUCTION, STEEL BEING ERECTED FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. U.S. NITRATE PLANT UNDER CONSTRUCTION, STEEL BEING ERECTED FOR THE MACHINE SHOP, FEBRUARY 28, 1918. - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  5. Population structure and association analysis of bolting, plant height, and leaf erectness in spinach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) is an important vegetable worldwide with high nutritional and health-promoting compounds. Bolting is an important trait to consider in order to grow spinach in different seasons and regions. Plant height and leaf erectness are important traits for machine-harvesting. B...

  6. 26 CFR 1.109-1 - Exclusion from gross income of lessor of real property of value of improvements erected by lessee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... property of value of improvements erected by lessee. 1.109-1 Section 1.109-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL... property of value of improvements erected by lessee. (a) Income derived by a lessor of real property upon... which may be realized by the lessor upon the termination of the lease but not attributable to the...

  7. Pneumatically erected rigid habitat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salles, Bradley

    1992-01-01

    The pneumatically erected rigid habitat concept consists of a structure based on an overexpanded metal bellows. The basic concept incorporates the advantages of both inflatable and rigid structures. The design and erection detail are presented with viewgraphs.

  8. [The physiology of erection].

    PubMed

    Hora, M; Vozeh, F

    1997-06-12

    The majority of contemporary knowledge on the physiology of erection was assembled during the past thirty years. Today we consider erection as a multifactorial process. Mechanically it can be compared to an electromechanically controlled hydraulic system. Its function is conditioned by a number of mutually coordinated processes. As to nervous processes they include autonomous (parasympathetic and sympathetic) innervation, as well as somatic innervation (sensory and motor pathways). The control function is exerted by spinal as well as cerebral centres. As to mediators, in particular acetylcholine, nitrous oxide (NO) released from the endothelium are involved, noradrenaline, VIP (vasoactive intestinal polypeptide), CGRP (calcitonin gene-related peptide) and prostaglandins. The most important roles in the phase of erection are played by nitrous oxide and VIP. Erection can be either reflex erection, psychogenic or nocturnal or morning. It usually takes place in six stages (at rest, latent, the tumescence stage, complete erection, rigid erection and subsequently the stage of detumescence). Except for neurohumoral mechanisms an essential prerequisite for the development of erection are the arterial supply of the genital and the so-called venoocclusive mechanism. Erection takes the following course (simplified): erotogenic stimuli lead to the stimulation of the parasympathetic nerve-->vasodilating substances are released-->the s inusoids are filled with blood (tumescence stage)-->the venoocclusive mechanism starts to work: thus complete erection occurs. Then the contractions of the musculature of the perineum compress the proximal portions of the corpora cavernosa: this leads to rigid erection. Detumescence which occurs as a rule after ejaculation) is due to released noradrenaline (active stage) and the reduced tonus of the smooth muscles of the blood vessels (released endothelin and neuropeptide Y). Knowledge of the physiological mechanisms of erection made clinical

  9. Electrostimulation and penile erection.

    PubMed

    Lue, T F; Schmidt, R A; Tanagho, E A

    1985-01-01

    Electrostimulation was used to study the neuroanatomy and physiology of penile erection in dogs and monkeys. The canine spinal nuclei responsible for penile erection, identified by the retrograde horseradish peroxidase transport technique after verification of the cavernous nerves with neurostimulation, were mediolateral autonomic neurons at T12-L3 and S1-S3. The erection induced by electrostimulation of the cavernous nerves is the result of increased arterial flow, relaxation of cavernous muscles, and venous outflow restriction. Study of electrostimulation in dogs and monkeys is invaluable for the understanding of the complex neurophysiology of human penile erection. PMID:3976090

  10. Erected mirror optical switch

    DOEpatents

    Allen, James J.

    2005-06-07

    A microelectromechanical (MEM) optical switching apparatus is disclosed that is based on an erectable mirror which is formed on a rotatable stage using surface micromachining. An electrostatic actuator is also formed on the substrate to rotate the stage and mirror with a high angular precision. The mirror can be erected manually after fabrication of the device and used to redirect an incident light beam at an arbitrary angel and to maintain this state in the absence of any applied electrical power. A 1.times.N optical switch can be formed using a single rotatable mirror. In some embodiments of the present invention, a plurality of rotatable mirrors can be configured so that the stages and mirrors rotate in unison when driven by a single micromotor thereby forming a 2.times.2 optical switch which can be used to switch a pair of incident light beams, or as a building block to form a higher-order optical switch.

  11. General view of crane with legs erected temporary erection ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of crane with legs erected - temporary erection towers still in place. Taken June 20, 1940. Fourteenth Naval District Photo Collection Item No. 13779 - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Exterior Cranes, Bridge Gantry Crane No. 1, Welding slab along Third Street, near intersection with Avenue G, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  12. 93. View showing erection traveler erecting 190 foot span over ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    93. View showing erection traveler erecting 190 foot span over Southern Pacific Company's main line track. This is the last span of the steel approach to the main bridge spans. - Carquinez Bridge, Spanning Carquinez Strait at Interstate 80, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  13. Hemodynamics of erection in man

    SciTech Connect

    Shirai, M.; Ishii, N.

    1981-02-01

    Inquiry was made into the theory that closure of the efferent vein from the corpora cavernosa is essential for erection of the human penis. To determine whether the venous closure is indeed a prerequisite to human penile erection, two tests were carried out in men: (1) direct infusion in 133Xe into corpora cavernosa and (2) performance of carvernosography. In each case, penile erection was induced by providing the subject with sexual stimulation. The behavioral changes were studied through the 133Xe clearance curve and the contrast medium, respectively. When the penis remained flaccid, the 133Xe clearance curve followed a gentle path and the contrast medium could be noted within the penis for a relatively long period. However, on erection with sexual stimulation, the 133Xe clearance curve fell rapidly instead of following the gentle course expected in the case of venous closure. Also, the contrast medium quickly flowed out of the corpora cavernosa. The human penis therefore can well erect without closure of the efferent vein from the corpora cavernosa.

  14. Melanocortinergic control of penile erection

    PubMed Central

    Wessells, H.; Blevins, J.E.; Vanderah, T.W.

    2016-01-01

    Melanocortin receptors in the forebrain and spinal cord can be activated by endogenous or synthetic ligands to induce penile erection in rats and human subjects. To better understand how melanocortin circuits play a role in sex behavior, we review the contribution of melanocortin receptors and/or neurons in the hypothalamus, hindbrain, spinal cord and peripheral nerves to erectile function. New information regarding neuropeptides that mediate penile erection has extended our understanding of the central control of sex behavior, and melanocortin agonists may provide alternatives to existing treatment for highly prevalent problems including erectile dysfunction. PMID:15992962

  15. Higher photosynthetic capacity and different functional trait scaling relationships in erect bryophytes compared with prostrate species.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhe; Liu, Xin; Bao, Weikai

    2016-02-01

    Ecophysiological studies of bryophytes have generally been conducted at the shoot or canopy scale. However, their growth forms are diverse, and knowledge of whether bryophytes with different shoot structures have different functional trait levels and scaling relationships is limited. We collected 27 bryophyte species and categorised them into two groups based on their growth forms: erect and prostrate species. Twenty-one morphological, nutrient and photosynthetic traits were quantified. Trait levels and bivariate trait scaling relationships across species were compared between the two groups. The two groups had similar mean values for shoot mass per area (SMA), light saturation point and mass-based nitrogen (N(mass)) and phosphorus concentrations. Erect bryophytes possessed higher values for mass-based chlorophyll concentration (Chl(mass)), light-saturated assimilation rate (A(mass)) and photosynthetic nitrogen/phosphorus use efficiency. N(mass), Chl(mass) and A(mass) were positively related, and these traits were negatively associated with SMA. Furthermore, the slope of the regression of N(mass) versus Chl(mass) was steeper for erect bryophytes than that for prostrate bryophytes, whereas this pattern was reversed for the relationship between Chl(mass) and A(mass). In conclusion, erect bryophytes possess higher photosynthetic capacities than prostrate species. Furthermore, erect bryophytes invest more nitrogen in chloroplast pigments to improve their light-harvesting ability, while the structure of prostrate species permits more efficient light capture. This study confirms the effect of growth form on the functional trait levels and scaling relationships of bryophytes. It also suggests that bryophytes could be good models for investigating the carbon economy and nutrient allocation of plants at the shoot rather than the leaf scale. PMID:26552378

  16. Improvements in plant performance [Sequoyah Nuclear Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Lorek, M.J.

    1999-11-01

    The improvements in plant reliability and performance at Sequoyah in the last two years can be directly attributed to ten key ingredients; teamwork, management stability, a management team that believes in teamwork, clear direction from the top, a strong focus on human performance, the company wide STAR 7 initiative, strong succession planning, a very seasoned and effective outage management organization, an infrastructure that ensures that the station is focused on the right hardware priorities, and a very strong line organization owned self-assessment program. Continued focus on these key ingredients and realization on a daily basis that good performance can lead to complacency will ensure that performance at Sequoyah will remain at a very high level well into the 21st century.

  17. Registration of two allelic erect leaf mutants of sorghum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two allelic sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] erect leaf (erl) mutants were isolated from an Annotated Individually-pedigreed Mutagenized Sorghum (AIMS) mutant library developed at the Plant Stress and Germplasm Development Unit, at Lubbock, Texas. The two mutants, erl1-1 and erl1-2, were isol...

  18. Potential of hypocotyl diameter in family selection aiming at plant architecture improvement of common bean.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, A M C; Batista, R O; Carneiro, P C S; Carneiro, J E S; Cruz, C D

    2015-01-01

    Cultivars of common bean with more erect plant architecture and greater tolerance to degree of lodging are required by producers. Thus, to evaluate the potential of hypocotyl diameter (HD) in family selection for plant architecture improvement of common bean, the HDs of 32 F2 plants were measured in 3 distinct populations, and the characteristics related to plant architecture were analyzed in their progenies. Ninety-six F2:3 families and 4 controls were evaluated in a randomized block design, with 3 replications, analyzing plant architecture grade, HD, and grain yield during the winter 2010 and drought 2011 seasons. We found that the correlation between the HD of F2 plants and traits related to plant architecture of F2:3 progenies were of low magnitude compared to the estimates for correlations considering the parents, indicating a high environmental influence on HD in bean plants. There was a predominance of additive genetic effects on the determination of hypocotyl diameter, which showed higher precision and accuracy compared to plant architecture grade. Thus, this characteristic can be used to select progenies in plant architecture improvement of common beans; however, selection must be based on the means of at least 39 plants in the plot, according to the results of repeatability analysis. PMID:26436392

  19. ESP IMPROVEMENTS AT POWER PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    An on-going ORD and OIA collaborative project in the Newly Independent States (NIS) is designed to upgrade ESPs used in NIS power plants and has laid the foundation for implementing cost-effective ESP modernization efforts at power plants. Thus far, state-of-the-art ESP performan...

  20. Steel erected at A-3 Test Stand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Workers erect the first fabricated steel girders to arrive at the A-3 Test Stand at Stennis Space Center. Steel work began at the construction site Oct. 29 and is scheduled to continue into next spring.

  1. Dopamine-oxytocin interactions in penile erection.

    PubMed

    Baskerville, T A; Allard, J; Wayman, C; Douglas, A J

    2009-12-01

    Dopamine and oxytocin have established roles in the central regulation of penile erection in rats; however, the neural circuitries involved in a specific erectile context and the interaction between dopamine and oxytocin mechanisms remain to be elucidated. The medial preoptic area (MPOA), supraoptic nucleus (SON) and paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus may serve as candidate sites because they contain oxytocin cells, receive dopaminergic inputs and have been implicated in mediating masculine sexual behavior. Double immunofluorescence revealed that substantial numbers of oxytocin cells in the MPOA, SON and PVN possess dopamine D(2), D(3) and D(4) receptors. In anaesthetized rats, using intracavernous pressure as a physiological indicator of erection, blockade of lumbosacral oxytocin receptors (UK, 427843) reduced erectile responses to a nonselective dopamine agonist (apomorphine), suggesting that dopamine recruits a paraventriculospinal oxytocin pathway. In conscious males in the absence of a female, penile erection elicited by a D(2)/D(3) (Quinelorane) but not D(4) (PD168077) agonist was associated with activation of medial parvocellular PVN oxytocin cells. In another experiment where males were given full access to a receptive female, a D(4) (L-745870) but not D(2) or D(3) antagonist (L-741626; nafadotride) inhibited penile erection (intromission), and this was correlated with SON magnocellular oxytocin neuron activation. Together, the data suggest dopamine's effects on hypothalamic oxytocin cells during penile erection are context-specific. Dopamine may act via different parvocellular and magnocellular oxytocin subpopulations to elicit erectile responses, depending upon whether intromission is performed. This study demonstrates the potential existence of interaction between central dopamine and oxytocin pathways during penile erection, with the SON and PVN serving as integrative sites. PMID:20128851

  2. Atlas SOHO Booster and Centaur Erection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The launch vehicle for the Solar Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) mission is a two stage Atlas-IIAS (Atlas/Centaur). The Atlas, consists of a solid rocket booster stage powered by four Thiokol Castor IVA solid rocket boosters (SRB) and a core vehicle stage (booster and sustainer) powered by Rocketdyne MA-5A liquid propellant engines (RP-1 fuel and liquid oxygen). The multiple firing Centaur is powered by two Pratt and Whitney (RL10A-4) liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen engines with extendible nozzles. This video shows the erection of the Atlas booster and transportation (to 36-B launching pad) and erection of the Centaur.

  3. Automatic Erection System for Antenna Masts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dotson, R. D.; Jacquemin, G. G.

    1985-01-01

    A telescoping mast does not require the payout of guy wires under tension. Erection system is built into stack of telescoping mast elements and is thereby protected from the weather. Concept is based on a telescoping tube mast, it is also applicable to an open truss with only minor modifications.

  4. Power plant productivity improvement in New York

    SciTech Connect

    1981-03-01

    The New York Public Service Commission (PSC), under contract with the US Department of Energy (DOE), began a joint program in September 1978 to improve the productivity of coal and nuclear electric generating units in New York State. The project had dual objectives: to ensure that the utilities in New York State have or develop a systematic permanent, cost-effective productivity improvement program based on sound engineering and economic considerations, and to develop a model program for Power Plant Productivity Improvement, which, through DOE, can also be utilized by other regulatory commissions in the country. To accomplish these objectives, the program was organized into the following sequence of activities: compilation and analysis of power plant performance data; evaluation and comparison of utility responses to outage/derating events; power plant productivity improvement project cost-benefit analysis; and evaluation of regulatory procedures and policies for improving productivity. The program that developed for improving the productivity of coal units is substantially different than for nuclear units. Each program is presented, and recommendations are made for activities of both the utilities and regulatory agencies which will promote improved productivity.

  5. View looking southeast to the Erecting Shop on the corner ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View looking southeast to the Erecting Shop on the corner of Spruce Street and Market Street (similar to HAER No. NJ-3-A-2) - Rogers Locomotive & Machine Works, Erecting Shop, Spruce & Market Streets, Paterson, Passaic County, NJ

  6. ERECTING SHOP, EAST SIDE, LOOKING SOUTH. LEFT FOREGROUND BREAK IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ERECTING SHOP, EAST SIDE, LOOKING SOUTH. LEFT FOREGROUND BREAK IN WALL IS FOR PASSAGE OF STEAM-POWERED BELTING FROM POWERHOUSE. - Southern Pacific, Sacramento Shops, Erecting Shop, 111 I Street, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  7. Foliage Plants for Improving Indoor Air Quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, B. C.

    1988-01-01

    NASA's research with foliage houseplants during the past 10 years has produced a new concept in indoor air quality improvement. This new and exciting technology is quite simple. Both plant leaves and roots are utilized in removing trace levels of toxic vapors from inside tightly sealed buildings. Low levels of chemicals such as carbon monoxide and formaldehyde can be removed from indoor environments by plant leaves alone, while higher concentrations of numerous toxic chemicals can be removed by filtering indoor air through the plant roots surrounded by activated carbon. The activated carbon absorbs large quantities of the toxic chemicals and retains them until the plant roots and associated microorganisms degrade and assimilate these chemicals.

  8. Role of RNA interference in plant improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagtap, Umesh Balkrishna; Gurav, Ranjit Gajanan; Bapat, Vishwas Anant

    2011-06-01

    Research to alter crops for their better performance involving modern technology is underway in numerous plants, and achievements in transgenic plants are impacting crop improvements in unparalleled ways. Striking progress has been made using genetic engineering technology over the past two decades in manipulating genes from diverse and exotic sources, and inserting them into crop plants for inducing desirable characteristics. RNA interference (RNAi) has recently been identified as a natural mechanism for regulation of gene expression in all higher organisms from plants to humans and promises greater accuracy and precision to plant improvement. The expression of any gene can be down-regulated in a highly explicit manner exclusive of affecting the expression of any other gene by using RNAi technologies. Additional research in this field has been focused on a number of other areas including microRNAs, hairpin RNA, and promoter methylation. Manipulating new RNAi pathways, which generate small RNA molecules to amend gene expression in crops, can produce new quality traits and having better potentiality of protection against abiotic and biotic stresses. Nutritional improvement, change in morphology, or enhanced secondary metabolite synthesis are some of the other advantages of RNAi technology. In addition to its roles in regulating gene expression, RNAi is also used as a natural defense mechanism against molecular parasites such as jumping genes and viral genetic elements that affect genome stability. Even though much advancement has been made on the field of RNAi over the preceding few years, the full prospective of RNAi for crop improvement remains to be fully realized. The intricacy of RNAi pathway, the molecular machineries, and how it relates to plant development are still to be explained.

  9. Improving plant transformation using Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro Neto, L V; Oliveira, A P; Lourenço, M V; Bertoni, B W; França, S C; Rosa-Santos, T M; Zingaretti, S M

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report a quick and low-cost method to improve plant transformation using Agrobacterium tumefaciens. This method involves the use of physical wounding, ultrasound, and an increase in exposure time to the bacteria. We show how the transformation rate increased from 0 to 14% when an ultrasound pulse of 10 s was used in conjunction with 96 h of bacterial exposure in Eclipta alba explants. PMID:26125878

  10. Erection rehabilitation following prostatectomy - current strategies and future directions.

    PubMed

    Sopko, Nikolai A; Burnett, Arthur L

    2016-04-01

    Despite continued advances in urological surgery, erectile dysfunction (ED) remains a serious adverse effect of radical prostatectomy. In this setting, ED is predominantly caused by injury to the neurovascular bundles, which lie alongside the prostate and are responsible for initiating and maintaining the erectile response. Most men will experience some degree of ED after radical prostatectomy, although erectile function outcomes have already remarkably improved since the development of nerve-sparing surgical techniques. To further improve outcomes, erection rehabilitation strategies are being investigated, which emphasize early treatment regimens with the aim of preventing adverse remodelling after surgery and preserving erectile function. Strategies include pharmacological therapy, mechanical therapy and psychosocial support. In addition, novel therapeutic approaches involving new targets for small-molecule treatments and regenerative medicine therapies are being developed to aid in restoring erectile function. Although ED treatments can be effective following radical prostatectomy, no specific erection rehabilitation regimen has currently been shown to be superior to other investigated rehabilitation regimens. Nevertheless, the different strategies rightfully remain an area of intensive research, as preservation of erectile function is a critical part of providing comprehensive care for men with prostate cancer to ensure their overall well-being, in contrast to just treating a patient's tumour. PMID:26976244

  11. A case of sleep-related painful erections with chronic daytime genital discomfort.

    PubMed

    Mellado, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Sleep-related painful erections (SRPE) are an uncommon condition characterized by recurrent nocturnal penile tumescence accompanied by penile pain without penile pathology, which occurs during the rapid eye movement (REM) sleep stage. A report of a 59-year-old patient with SRPE is described. Turgid painful erections (five to seven episodes of tumescence) during the sleep hours caused pain together with burning and tingling sensations in the penis and perineal zone during the daytime hours. Swelling of the pubic and perineal area was recurrent. Sleep loss, chronic fatigue, mild anxiety, lack of concentration and decreased work occurred along with this condition. Polysomnographic findings indicated REM sleep fragmentation. Attempts to treat this condition with muscle relaxants or anxiolytics did not prompt an improvement of this disorder, but a single daily dose of gabapentin 300 mg in combination with 1 mg clonazepam at bedtime improved total sleep time and reduced full sleep erections. PMID:24803352

  12. Efficiency improvement of thermal coal power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Hourfar, D.

    1996-12-31

    The discussion concerning an increase of the natural greenhouse effect by anthropogenic changes in the composition of the atmosphere has increased over the past years. The greenhouse effect has become an issue of worldwide debate. Carbon dioxide is the most serious emission of the greenhouse gases. Fossil-fired power plants have in the recent past been responsible for almost 30 % of the total CO{sub 2} emissions in Germany. Against this background the paper will describe the present development of CO{sub 2} emissions from power stations and present actual and future opportunities for CO{sub 2} reduction. The significance attached to hard coal as one of today`s prime sources of energy with the largest reserves worldwide, and, consequently, its importance for use in power generation, is certain to increase in the years to come. The further development of conventional power plant technology, therefore, is vital, and must be carried out on the basis of proven operational experience. The main incentive behind the development work completed so far has been, and continues to be, the achievement of cost reductions and environmental benefits in the generation of electricity by increasing plant efficiency, and this means that, in both the short and the long term, power plants with improved conventional technology will be used for environmentally acceptable coal-fired power generation.

  13. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant Process Efficiency improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Griebenow, B.

    1996-03-01

    In response to decreasing funding levels available to support activities at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) and a desire to be cost competitive, the Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) and Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company have increased their emphasis on cost-saving measures. The ICPP Effectiveness Improvement Initiative involves many activities to improve cost effectiveness and competitiveness. This report documents the methodology and results of one of those cost cutting measures, the Process Efficiency Improvement Activity. The Process Efficiency Improvement Activity performed a systematic review of major work processes at the ICPP to increase productivity and to identify nonvalue-added requirements. A two-phase approach was selected for the activity to allow for near-term implementation of relatively easy process modifications in the first phase while obtaining long-term continuous improvement in the second phase and beyond. Phase I of the initiative included a concentrated review of processes that had a high potential for cost savings with the intent of realizing savings in Fiscal Year 1996 (FY-96.) Phase II consists of implementing long-term strategies too complex for Phase I implementation and evaluation of processes not targeted for Phase I review. The Phase II effort is targeted for realizing cost savings in FY-97 and beyond.

  14. 20. 'Erection Plan, Renewal of Bridge 210 C over Sacramento ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. 'Erection Plan, Renewal of Bridge 210 C over Sacramento River near Tehama, Calif., 3 140'-0' S. T. Riveted Thru Truss Spans, 17'-9' C. to C. Trusses, 31'-0' C. To C. Chords. U.S.S. P. Co. Pacific Coast Dept., Order No. SF 604, Southern Pacific Co., Order No. 51168-P-38428, 1925 Specifications, Scale in. ft., American Bridge Co., Ambridge Plant, Dwgs. made at Ambridge No. 5 in charge of Reehl, Detailed by W.F.R., Date, Checked by L.A.E., Date 1/5/29, Fld. conn. chk. by ENN, Date 3/9/29, Order No. F5659, Sheet No. E3.' - Southern Pacific Railroad Shasta Route, Bridge No. 210.52, Milepost 210.52, Tehama, Tehama County, CA

  15. Method to improve drought tolerance in plants

    DOEpatents

    Schroeder, Julian I.; Kwak, June Myoung

    2003-10-21

    A method to increase drought resistance in plants is provided. The method comprises inhibiting or disabling inward-rectifying K.sup.+ (K.sup.+.sub.in) channels in the stomatal guard cells of the plant.

  16. Switchable Wettability of the Honeybee's Tongue Surface Regulated by Erectable Glossal Hairs.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ji; Wu, Jianing; Yan, Shaoze

    2015-01-01

    Various nectarivorous animals apply bushy-hair-equipped tongues to lap nectar from nectaries of flowers. A typical example is provided by the Italian honeybee (Apis mellifera ligustica), who protracts and retracts its tongue (glossa) through a temporary tube, and actively controls the erectable glossal hairs to load nectar. We first examined the microstructure of the honeybee's glossal surface, recorded the kinematics of its glossal hairs during nectar feeding process and observed the rhythmical hair erection pattern clearly. Then we measured the wettability of the glossal surface under different erection angles (EA) in sugar water of the mass concentration from 25 to 45%, mimicked by elongating the glossa specimens. The results show that the EA in retraction approximately remains stable under different nectar concentrations. In a specific concentration (35, 45, or 55%), the contact angle decreases and glossal surface area increases while the EA of glossal hairs rises, the glossa therefore could dynamically alter the glossal surface and wettability in foraging activities, not only reducing the energy consumption for impelling the nectar during tongue protraction, but also improving the nectar-trapping volume for feeding during glossa retraction. The dynamic glossal surface with switchable wettability regulated by erectable hairs may reveal the effective adaptation of the honeybee to nectar intake activities. PMID:26643560

  17. Switchable Wettability of the Honeybee’s Tongue Surface Regulated by Erectable Glossal Hairs

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ji; Wu, Jianing; Yan, Shaoze

    2015-01-01

    Various nectarivorous animals apply bushy-hair-equipped tongues to lap nectar from nectaries of flowers. A typical example is provided by the Italian honeybee (Apis mellifera ligustica), who protracts and retracts its tongue (glossa) through a temporary tube, and actively controls the erectable glossal hairs to load nectar. We first examined the microstructure of the honeybee’s glossal surface, recorded the kinematics of its glossal hairs during nectar feeding process and observed the rhythmical hair erection pattern clearly. Then we measured the wettability of the glossal surface under different erection angles (EA) in sugar water of the mass concentration from 25 to 45%, mimicked by elongating the glossa specimens. The results show that the EA in retraction approximately remains stable under different nectar concentrations. In a specific concentration (35, 45, or 55%), the contact angle decreases and glossal surface area increases while the EA of glossal hairs rises, the glossa therefore could dynamically alter the glossal surface and wettability in foraging activities, not only reducing the energy consumption for impelling the nectar during tongue protraction, but also improving the nectar-trapping volume for feeding during glossa retraction. The dynamic glossal surface with switchable wettability regulated by erectable hairs may reveal the effective adaptation of the honeybee to nectar intake activities. PMID:26643560

  18. Biotechnological interventions to improve plant developmental traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Developmental traits are coordinated at various levels in a plant and involve organ to organ communications via long distance signaling processes that integrate transcription, hormonal action and environmental cues. Thus, plant architecture, root-soil-microbe interactions, flowering, fruit (and seed...

  19. Improvement of water treatment at thermal power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larin, B. M.; Bushuev, E. N.; Larin, A. B.; Karpychev, E. A.; Zhadan, A. V.

    2015-04-01

    Prospective and existing technologies for water treatment at thermal power plants, including pretreatment, ion exchange, and membrane method are considered. The results obtained from laboratory investigations and industrial tests of the proposed technologies carried out at different thermal power plants are presented. The possibilities of improving the process and environmental indicators of water treatment plants are shown.

  20. ALA Pretreatment Improves Waterlogging Tolerance of Fig Plants.

    PubMed

    An, Yuyan; Qi, Lin; Wang, Liangju

    2016-01-01

    5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), a natural and environmentally friendly plant growth regulator, can improve plant tolerance to various environmental stresses. However, whether ALA can improve plant waterlogging tolerance is unknown. Here, we investigated the effects of ALA pretreatment on the waterlogging-induced damage of fig (Ficus carica Linn.) plants, which often suffer from waterlogging stress. ALA pretreatment significantly alleviated stress-induced morphological damage, increased leaf relative water content (RWC), and reduced leaf superoxide anion ([Formula: see text]) production rate and malonaldehyde (MDA) content in fig leaves, indicating ALA mitigates waterlogging stress of fig plants. We further demonstrated that ALA pretreatment largely promoted leaf chlorophyll content, photosynthetic electron transfer ability, and photosynthetic performance index, indicating ALA significantly improves plant photosynthetic efficiency under waterlogging stress. Moreover, ALA pretreatment significantly increased activities of leaf superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD), root vigor, and activities of root alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), indicating ALA also significantly improves antioxidant ability and root function of fig plants under waterlogging stress. Taken together, ALA pretreatment improves waterlogging tolerance of fig plants significantly, and the promoted root respiration, leaf photosynthesis, and antioxidant ability may contribute greatly to this improvement. Our data firstly shows that ALA can improve plant waterlogging tolerance. PMID:26789407

  1. ALA Pretreatment Improves Waterlogging Tolerance of Fig Plants

    PubMed Central

    An, Yuyan; Qi, Lin; Wang, Liangju

    2016-01-01

    5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), a natural and environmentally friendly plant growth regulator, can improve plant tolerance to various environmental stresses. However, whether ALA can improve plant waterlogging tolerance is unknown. Here, we investigated the effects of ALA pretreatment on the waterlogging-induced damage of fig (Ficus carica Linn.) plants, which often suffer from waterlogging stress. ALA pretreatment significantly alleviated stress-induced morphological damage, increased leaf relative water content (RWC), and reduced leaf superoxide anion (O2⋅¯) production rate and malonaldehyde (MDA) content in fig leaves, indicating ALA mitigates waterlogging stress of fig plants. We further demonstrated that ALA pretreatment largely promoted leaf chlorophyll content, photosynthetic electron transfer ability, and photosynthetic performance index, indicating ALA significantly improves plant photosynthetic efficiency under waterlogging stress. Moreover, ALA pretreatment significantly increased activities of leaf superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD), root vigor, and activities of root alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), indicating ALA also significantly improves antioxidant ability and root function of fig plants under waterlogging stress. Taken together, ALA pretreatment improves waterlogging tolerance of fig plants significantly, and the promoted root respiration, leaf photosynthesis, and antioxidant ability may contribute greatly to this improvement. Our data firstly shows that ALA can improve plant waterlogging tolerance. PMID:26789407

  2. Improving pumping system efficiency at coal plants

    SciTech Connect

    Livoti, W.C.; McCandless, S.; Poltorak, R.

    2009-03-15

    The industry must employ ultramodern technologies when building or upgrading power plant pumping systems thereby using fuels more efficiently. The article discusses the uses and efficiencies of positive displacement pumps, centrifugal pumps and multiple screw pumps. 1 ref., 4 figs.

  3. Compositions and methods for improved plant feedstock

    DOEpatents

    Shen, Hui; Chen, Fang; Dixon, Richard A

    2014-12-02

    The invention provides methods for modifying lignin content and composition in plants and achieving associated benefits therefrom involving altered expression of newly discovered MYB4 transcription factors. Nucleic acid constructs for modifying MYB4 transcription factor expression are described. By over-expressing the identified MYB4 transcription factors, for example, an accompanying decrease in lignin content may be achieved. Plants are provided by the invention comprising such modifications, as are methods for their preparation and use.

  4. Erection mechanism of glossal hairs during honeybee feeding.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jieliang; Wu, Jianing; Yan, Shaoze

    2015-12-01

    Many animals use their mouthparts or tongue to feed themselves rapidly and efficiently. Honeybees have evolved specialized tongues to collect nectar from flowers. Nectar-intake movements consist of rapid protraction and retraction of glossa from a tube formed by the maxillae and labial palps. We establish a physical model to reveal the driving mechanism of hair erection. Results indicate that the glossa of honeybees is similar to a compression spring. Experimental results show that hair erection is generated by the tension of hyaline rod and the elasticity of segmental sheath. The retractor muscle of hyaline rod is contracted at first, which compresses the sheath of pigmented rings and flattens the hairs. While the retractor muscle of hyaline rod relaxes, the elastic energy storage in the compressed glossal sheath will release to change the equivalent stiffness of glossal sheath and erect glossal hairs. These results explain the erection mechanism of glossal hairs during honeybee feeding. PMID:26403500

  5. 12. VIEW OF NORTH FACE OF MST AND PARTIALLY ERECTED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW OF NORTH FACE OF MST AND PARTIALLY ERECTED UMBILICAL MAST. UMBILICAL MAST TRENCH AND DOORS IN FOREGROUND. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  6. 46. BASE OF UMBILICAL MAST FROM UMBILICAL MAST TRENCH. ERECTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. BASE OF UMBILICAL MAST FROM UMBILICAL MAST TRENCH. ERECTION AND RETRACTION CYLINDERS BETWEEN MAST AND TRENCH WALL. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  7. 72. VIEW SHOWING THE ERECTION OF A TAINTER GATE TRUSS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    72. VIEW SHOWING THE ERECTION OF A TAINTER GATE TRUSS ON TRUNNION PIN ON WEST SIDE OF BAY 9, LOOKING NORTHWEST. Taken on August 17, 1935. - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 10, Guttenberg, Clayton County, IA

  8. First Structural Steel Erected at NSLS-II

    SciTech Connect

    2009-09-14

    Ten steel columns were incorporated into the ever-growing framework for the National Synchrotron Light Source II last week, the first structural steel erected for the future 400,000-square-foot facility.

  9. First Structural Steel Erected at NSLS-II

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2010-01-08

    Ten steel columns were incorporated into the ever-growing framework for the National Synchrotron Light Source II last week, the first structural steel erected for the future 400,000-square-foot facility.

  10. 7. Detail of the Grant Locomotive Works Erecting Shop looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Detail of the Grant Locomotive Works Erecting Shop looking southwest showing ruined wall and entrance of a single story addition. - Grant Locomotive Works, Market & Spruce Streets, Paterson, Passaic County, NJ

  11. 14. VIEW OF SOUTH FACE OF MST, FULLY ERECTED UMBILICAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. VIEW OF SOUTH FACE OF MST, FULLY ERECTED UMBILICAL MAST, LAUNCHER, AND FLAME BUCKET - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  12. 74. ERECTION AND WELDING OF WEST BOILER CHAMBER, DECEMBER 21, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    74. ERECTION AND WELDING OF WEST BOILER CHAMBER, DECEMBER 21, 1955 (LOOKING NORTHEAST) - Shippingport Atomic Power Station, On Ohio River, 25 miles Northwest of Pittsburgh, Shippingport, Beaver County, PA

  13. ERECTION PLANS (TOP AND BOTTOM), ELEVATION AND SECTIONS FOR STEEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ERECTION PLANS (TOP AND BOTTOM), ELEVATION AND SECTIONS FOR STEEL TRUSS AT SPAN 2, APALACHICOLA RIVER BRIDGE, SHEET 5507-8-E1 - Apalachicola River Bridge, State Route 20 spanning the Apalachicola River, Blountstown, Calhoun County, FL

  14. ERECTION PLANS (TOP AND BOTTOM), ELEVATION AND SECTIONS FOR STEEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ERECTION PLANS (TOP AND BOTTOM), ELEVATION AND SECTIONS FOR STEEL TRUSS AT SPAN 3, APALACHICOLA RIVER BRIDGE, SHEET 5507-8-E2 - Apalachicola River Bridge, State Route 20 spanning the Apalachicola River, Blountstown, Calhoun County, FL

  15. ERECTION PLAN FOR BEAM SPANS FROM BENT NO. 106 TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ERECTION PLAN FOR BEAM SPANS FROM BENT NO. 106 TO BENT NO. 141 AT WEST APPROACH, APALACHICOLA RIVER BRIDGE, SHEET 5509-E4 - Apalachicola River Bridge, State Route 20 spanning the Apalachicola River, Blountstown, Calhoun County, FL

  16. ERECTION PLANS (TOP AND BOTTOM), ELEVATION AND SECTIONS FOR STEEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ERECTION PLANS (TOP AND BOTTOM), ELEVATION AND SECTIONS FOR STEEL TRUSS AT SPAN 5, APALACHICOLA RIVER BRIDGE, SHEET 5505-6-E2 - Apalachicola River Bridge, State Route 20 spanning the Apalachicola River, Blountstown, Calhoun County, FL

  17. ERECTION PLAN FOR BEAM SPANS FROM PIER 6 TO BENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ERECTION PLAN FOR BEAM SPANS FROM PIER 6 TO BENT NO. 185 AT EAST APPROACH, APALACHICOLA RIVER BRIDGE, SHEET 5509-E6 - Apalachicola River Bridge, State Route 20 spanning the Apalachicola River, Blountstown, Calhoun County, FL

  18. ERECTION PLAN FOR BEAM SPANS FROM BENT NO. 71 TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ERECTION PLAN FOR BEAM SPANS FROM BENT NO. 71 TO BENT NO. 106 AT WEST APPROACH, APALACHICOLA RIVER BRIDGE, SHEET 5509-E3 - Apalachicola River Bridge, State Route 20 spanning the Apalachicola River, Blountstown, Calhoun County, FL

  19. ERECTION PLAN FOR BEAM SPANS FROM BENT NO. 36 TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ERECTION PLAN FOR BEAM SPANS FROM BENT NO. 36 TO BENT NO. 71 AT WEST APPROACH, APALACHICOLA RIVER BRIDGE, SHEET 5509-E2 - Apalachicola River Bridge, State Route 20 spanning the Apalachicola River, Blountstown, Calhoun County, FL

  20. ERECTION PLAN FOR BEAM SPANS FROM BENT NO. 185 TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ERECTION PLAN FOR BEAM SPANS FROM BENT NO. 185 TO EAST ABUTMENT AT EAST APPROACH, APALACHICOLA RIVER BRIDGE, SHEET 5509-E7 - Apalachicola River Bridge, State Route 20 spanning the Apalachicola River, Blountstown, Calhoun County, FL

  1. ERECTION PLAN FOR BEAM SPANS FROM BENT NO. 141 TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ERECTION PLAN FOR BEAM SPANS FROM BENT NO. 141 TO PIER 1 AT WEST APPROACH, APALACHICOLA RIVER BRIDGE, SHEET 5509-E5 - Apalachicola River Bridge, State Route 20 spanning the Apalachicola River, Blountstown, Calhoun County, FL

  2. ERECTION PLAN FOR BEAM SPANS FROM WEST ABUTMENT TO BENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ERECTION PLAN FOR BEAM SPANS FROM WEST ABUTMENT TO BENT NO. 36 AT WEST APPROACH, APALACHICOLA RIVER BRIDGE, SHEET 5509-E1 - Apalachicola River Bridge, State Route 20 spanning the Apalachicola River, Blountstown, Calhoun County, FL

  3. ERECTION PLANS (TOP AND BOTTOM), ELEVATION AND SECTIONS FOR STEEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ERECTION PLANS (TOP AND BOTTOM), ELEVATION AND SECTIONS FOR STEEL TRUSS AT SPAN 1, APALACHICOLA RIVER BRIDGE, SHEET 5505-6-E1 - Apalachicola River Bridge, State Route 20 spanning the Apalachicola River, Blountstown, Calhoun County, FL

  4. ERECTION PLANS (TOP AND BOTTOM), ELEVATION AND SECTIONS FOR STEEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ERECTION PLANS (TOP AND BOTTOM), ELEVATION AND SECTIONS FOR STEEL TRUSS AT SPAN 4, APALACHICOLA RIVER BRIDGE, SHEET 5507-8-E3 - Apalachicola River Bridge, State Route 20 spanning the Apalachicola River, Blountstown, Calhoun County, FL

  5. 26. PULLEY SYSTEM FOR ERECTION OF ATLAS H LAUNCH VEHICLES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. PULLEY SYSTEM FOR ERECTION OF ATLAS H LAUNCH VEHICLES AT SOUTH SIDE OF MST, FROM STATION 93 - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  6. 37. ERECTION ASSEMBLY FOR ATLAS H LAUNCH VEHICLE AT STATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. ERECTION ASSEMBLY FOR ATLAS H LAUNCH VEHICLE AT STATION 124 OF MST, SOUTH SIDE - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  7. STEEL ERECTION. View of upstream side of bridge, looking north ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    STEEL ERECTION. View of upstream side of bridge, looking north from the old suspension bridge at unjoined cantilever arms - South Fork Trinity River Bridge, State Highway 299 spanning South Fork Trinity River, Salyer, Trinity County, CA

  8. Erection of the Apollo Service Module in High Bay #3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    Erection of the Apollo Service module in High Bay #3 of the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). This view is of the aft bulkhead showing the high-gain antenna and engine bell.

  9. Improved Economics of Nuclear Plant Life Management

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, Leonard J.; Doctor, Steven R.; Jarrell, Donald B.; Bond, Joseph W D.

    2007-07-31

    The adoption of new on-line monitoring, diagnostic and eventually prognostics technologies has the potential to impact the economics of the existing nuclear power plant fleet, new plants and future advanced designs. To move from periodic inspection to on-line monitoring for condition based maintenance and eventually prognostics will require advances in sensors, better understanding of what and how to measure within the plant; enhanced data interrogation, communication and integration; new predictive models for damage/aging evolution; system integration for real world deployments; quantification of uncertainties in what are inherently ill-posed problems and integration of enhanced condition based maintenance/prognostics philosophies into new plant designs, operation and O&M approaches. The move to digital systems in petrochemical, process and fossil fuel power plants is enabling major advances to occur in the instrumentation, controls and monitoring systems and approaches employed. The adoption within the nuclear power community of advanced on-line monitoring and advanced diagnostics has the potential for the reduction in costly periodic surveillance that requires plant shut-down , more accurate cost-benefit analysis, “just-in-time” maintenance, pre-staging of maintenance tasks, move towards true “operation without failures” and a jump start on advanced technologies for new plant concepts, such as those under the International Gen IV Program. There are significant opportunities to adopt condition-based maintenance when upgrades are implemented at existing facilities. The economic benefit from a predictive maintenance program based upon advanced on-line monitoring and advanced diagnostics can be demonstrated from a cost/benefit analysis. An analysis of the 104 US legacy systems has indicated potential savings at over $1B per year when applied to all key equipment; a summary of the supporting analysis is provided in this paper.

  10. [Genetic analysis of dense and erect panicle 2 allele DEP2-1388 and its application in hybrid rice breeding].

    PubMed

    Hu, Yungao; Guo, Lianan; Yang, Guotao; Qin, Peng; Fan, Cunliu; Peng, Youlin; Yan, Wei; He, Hang; Li, Shigui

    2016-01-01

    Using ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) mutagenesis, we isolated an erect panicle mutant, R1338, from indica heavy-panicle restorer Shuhui498. Compared with wild type control, the mutant displayed dwarfism, erect and short panicle, short primary panicle branch, increased grain density, short grain length and increased grain thickness. In addition, the erect panicle architecture of R1388 resulted in significant decreased bending moment and increased resistance to panicle bending. Histocytological analysis indicated that the diameter of uppermost internode, cellulose content and lignin content play important roles in resistance to panicle bending. Genetic analysis revealed that the mutant phenotype was controlled by a semi-dominant nuclear gene. With resequencing and MutMap analysis strategy, we found that one SNP from A to G at the seventh exon of DEP2 resulted in the 928(th) amino acid substitution from arginine (AGG) to glycine (GGG) in R1338 mutant. Considering the phenotype of other dep2 mutants, the phenotype of R1338 was likely to be caused by the SNP in DEP2. The mutant R1338 and wild type were crossed with several sterile lines which respectively had different panicle types, the combinations generated from R1338 and curve panicle sterile lines showed semi-erect panicle, higher seed setting percentage and heterosis, and the combinations generated from R1388 and erect panicle sterile line with DEP1 showed erect panicle by gene additive effect. Moreover, the combinations with semi-erect panicle had superior light transmittance and stronger light intensity, which improved efficiency of light utilization to intermediate and subjacent leaves compared to the combinations with curved panicle. This study provides a good strategy to solve the problem of population density in three-line hybrid rice. PMID:26787525

  11. Pharmacologic erection: time-dependent changes in the corporal environment.

    PubMed

    Broderick, G A; Harkaway, R

    1994-03-01

    Priapism is a persistent erection which fails to subside after climax and is accompanied by penile pain and tenderness. The most common form of priapism to confront contemporary urologists is persistence of erection following pharmacologic stimulation. We reviewed our experience over 18 months with initial diagnostic intracavernous challenges of prostaglandin E1. Three-hundred and sixty-six new impotence patients presented to our center and underwent PGE1/color duplex Doppler assessment; 14 patients developed persistent rigidity of two or more hours accompanied by penile discomfort. Each of these patients was successfully managed with penile aspiration and direct corporal instillation of the alpha-adrenergic agonist phenylephrine. The mean PGE1 dosage injected was 6 micrograms and mean duration of erection preceding aspiration 180 minutes. Penile blood gases were obtained from the initial aspirate in all cases. The duration of pharmacologic erections were correlated with the partial pressures of oxygen, carbon dioxide, bicarbonate and the pH using linear regression analysis. There was a clear trend towards deoxygenation, acidosis, and hypercarbia with prolonged erection (105-342 minutes). The relationship between duration of pharmacologic erection and acidosis/hypercarbia was highly significant. PMID:8019618

  12. 29 CFR 1926.752 - Site layout, site-specific erection plan and construction sequence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Site layout, site-specific erection plan and construction... Steel Erection § 1926.752 Site layout, site-specific erection plan and construction sequence. (a... strength or sufficient strength to support the loads imposed during steel erection. (c) Site layout....

  13. Sleep-Related Painful Erections in a Patient With Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Abouda, Maher; Jomni, Taieb; Yangui, Ferdaws; Charfi, Mohamed Ridha; Arnulf, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Sleep-related painful erection (SRPE) is a rare sleep disorder characterized by recurrent, painful penile erections occurring when awakening from rapid eye movement sleep, while erections are painless during wakefulness. Almost 35 cases have been reported worldwide, and only two of them had an associated obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). We report a new case of a 61-year-old man suffering from SRPE associated with OSAS. The adequate treatment of respiratory events with continuous positive airway pressure did not alleviate the SRPE symptoms and excessive daytime sleepiness. The SRPE diagnosis was made by polysomnography coupled with video surveillance when the patient was referred to the sleep laboratory for residual excessive daytime sleepiness. The patient had 2-4 episodes of SRPE/night. Beta-blocker did not alleviate the SRPE, but a transient improvement was noted when the patient was treated with paroxetine. In contrast with the two previously published cases of SRPE plus OSAS, continuous positive airway treatment did not improve SRPE symptoms in our patient. PMID:26392186

  14. Improved plant performance through evaporative steam condensing

    SciTech Connect

    Hutton, D.

    1998-07-01

    Combining an open cooling tower and a steam condenser into one common unit is a proven technology with many advantages in power generation application, including reduced first cost of equipment, reduced parasitic energy consumption, simplified design, reduced maintenance, and simplified water treatment, Performance of the steam turbine benefits from the direct approach to wet bulb temperature, and operating flexibility and reliability improve compared to a system with a cooling tower and surface condenser. System comparisons and case histories will be presented to substantiate improved systems economies.

  15. Nutritional improvements in plants: Time to bite on biofortified foods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Modern breeding, molecular genetic and biotechnology studies frequently describe changes in plant metabolism to improve nutritional content; however, this is often where the process of assessing biofortification ends. Ideally, these modified plants need to be used in controlled animal and human feed...

  16. Compressed Air System Optimization Project Improves Production at a Metal Forging Plant (Modern Forge, TN, Plant)

    SciTech Connect

    2000-12-01

    In 1995, Modern Forge of Tennessee implemented a compressed air system improvement project at its Piney Flats, Tennessee, forging plant. Due to the project’s implementation, the plant was able to operate with fewer compressors and improve its product quality, thus allowing it to increase productivity. The project also resulted in considerable energy and maintenance savings.

  17. Quantification of risks from technology for improved plant reliability

    SciTech Connect

    Rode, D.M.

    1996-12-31

    One of the least understood and therefore appreciated threats to profitability are risks from power plant technologies such as steam generators, turbines, and electrical systems. To effectively manage technological risks, business decisions need to be based on knowledge. The scope of the paper describes a quantification or risk process that combines technical knowledge and judgments with commercial consequences. The three principle alternatives to manage risks as well as risk mitigation techniques for significant equipment within a power plant are reported. The result is to equip the decision maker with a comprehensive picture of the risk exposures enabling cost effective activities to be undertaken to improve a plant`s reliability.

  18. Clinical Neuroanatomy and Neurotransmitter-Mediated Regulation of Penile Erection

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Hyun Woo; Kwon, Hyunseob

    2014-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) has an adverse impact on men's quality of life. Penile erection, which is regulated by nerves that are innervated into the erectile tissue, can be affected by functional or anatomical trauma of the perineal region, including specific structures of the penis, causing ED. Penile erection is neurologically controlled by the autonomic nervous system. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to understand the neurogenic structure of the erectile tissue and the types of neurotransmitters involved in the penile erection process. Here, we highlight the basic clinical anatomy and erectile function of the penis. Understanding the clinical connotation of the relationship between penile erectile structure and function may provide fresh insights for identifying the main mechanisms involved in ED and help develop surgical techniques for the treatment of ED. PMID:24987557

  19. Astronaut Ross Approaches Assembly Concept for Construction of Erectable Space Structure (ACCESS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The crew assigned to the STS-61B mission included Bryan D. O'Conner, pilot; Brewster H. Shaw, commander; Charles D. Walker, payload specialist; mission specialists Jerry L. Ross, Mary L. Cleave, and Sherwood C. Spring; and Rodolpho Neri Vela, payload specialist. Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis November 28, 1985 at 7:29:00 pm (EST), the STS-61B mission's primary payload included three communications satellites: MORELOS-B (Mexico); AUSSAT-2 (Australia); and SATCOM KU-2 (RCA Americom). Two experiments were conducted to test assembling erectable structures in space: EASE (Experimental Assembly of Structures in Extravehicular Activity), and ACCESS (Assembly Concept for Construction of Erectable Space Structure). In a joint venture between NASA/Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia, and the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), EASE and ACCESS were developed and demonstrated at MSFC's Neutral Buoyancy Simulator (NBS). In this STS-61B onboard photo, astronaut Ross, perched on the Manipulator Foot Restraint (MFR) approaches the erected ACCESS. The primary objective of these experiments was to test the structural assembly concepts for suitability as the framework for larger space structures and to identify ways to improve the productivity of space construction.

  20. STS-61B Astronaut Ross Works on Assembly Concept for Construction of Erectable Space Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The crew assigned to the STS-61B mission included Bryan D. O'Conner, pilot; Brewster H. Shaw, commander; Charles D. Walker, payload specialist; mission specialists Jerry L. Ross, Mary L. Cleave, and Sherwood C. Spring; and Rodolpho Neri Vela, payload specialist. Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis November 28, 1985 at 7:29:00 pm (EST), the STS-61B mission's primary payload included three communications satellites: MORELOS-B (Mexico); AUSSAT-2 (Australia); and SATCOM KU-2 (RCA Americom). Two experiments were conducted to test assembling erectable structures in space: EASE (Experimental Assembly of Structures in Extravehicular Activity), and ACCESS (Assembly Concept for Construction of Erectable Space Structure). In a joint venture between NASA/Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia and the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), EASE and ACCESS were developed and demonstrated at MSFC's Neutral Buoyancy Simulator (NBS). In this STS-61B onboard photo astronaut Ross, located on the Manipulator Foot Restraint (MFR) over the cargo bay, erects ACCESS. The primary objective of this experiment was to test the structural assembly concepts for suitability as the framework for larger space structures and to identify ways to improve the productivity of space construction.

  1. Strategies for Improving Potassium Use Efficiency in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Ryoung

    2014-01-01

    Potassium is a macronutrient that is crucial for healthy plant growth. Potassium availability, however, is often limited in agricultural fields and thus crop yields and quality are reduced. Therefore, improving the efficiency of potassium uptake and transport, as well as its utilization, in plants is important for agricultural sustainability. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the molecular mechanisms involved in potassium uptake and transport in plants, and the molecular response of plants to different levels of potassium availability. Based on this information, four strategies for improving potassium use efficiency in plants are proposed; 1) increased root volume, 2) increasing efficiency of potassium uptake from the soil and translocation in planta, 3) increasing mobility of potassium in soil, and 4) molecular breeding new varieties with greater potassium efficiency through marker assisted selection which will require identification and utilization of potassium associated quantitative trait loci. PMID:24938230

  2. Strategies for improving potassium use efficiency in plants.

    PubMed

    Shin, Ryoung

    2014-08-01

    Potassium is a macronutrient that is crucial for healthy plant growth. Potassium availability, however, is often limited in agricultural fields and thus crop yields and quality are reduced. Therefore, improving the efficiency of potassium uptake and transport, as well as its utilization, in plants is important for agricultural sustainability. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the molecular mechanisms involved in potassium uptake and transport in plants, and the molecular response of plants to different levels of potassium availability. Based on this information, four strategies for improving potassium use efficiency in plants are proposed; 1) increased root volume, 2) increasing efficiency of potassium uptake from the soil and translocation in planta, 3) increasing mobility of potassium in soil, and 4) molecular breeding new varieties with greater potassium efficiency through marker assisted selection which will require identification and utilization of potassium associated quantitative trait loci. PMID:24938230

  3. IMPROVING TACONITE PROCESSING PLANT EFFICIENCY BY COMPUTER SIMULATION, Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    William M. Bond; Salih Ersayin

    2007-03-30

    This project involved industrial scale testing of a mineral processing simulator to improve the efficiency of a taconite processing plant, namely the Minorca mine. The Concentrator Modeling Center at the Coleraine Minerals Research Laboratory, University of Minnesota Duluth, enhanced the capabilities of available software, Usim Pac, by developing mathematical models needed for accurate simulation of taconite plants. This project provided funding for this technology to prove itself in the industrial environment. As the first step, data representing existing plant conditions were collected by sampling and sample analysis. Data were then balanced and provided a basis for assessing the efficiency of individual devices and the plant, and also for performing simulations aimed at improving plant efficiency. Performance evaluation served as a guide in developing alternative process strategies for more efficient production. A large number of computer simulations were then performed to quantify the benefits and effects of implementing these alternative schemes. Modification of makeup ball size was selected as the most feasible option for the target performance improvement. This was combined with replacement of existing hydrocyclones with more efficient ones. After plant implementation of these modifications, plant sampling surveys were carried out to validate findings of the simulation-based study. Plant data showed very good agreement with the simulated data, confirming results of simulation. After the implementation of modifications in the plant, several upstream bottlenecks became visible. Despite these bottlenecks limiting full capacity, concentrator energy improvement of 7% was obtained. Further improvements in energy efficiency are expected in the near future. The success of this project demonstrated the feasibility of a simulation-based approach. Currently, the Center provides simulation-based service to all the iron ore mining companies operating in northern

  4. 104. Photocopied August 1978. CYLINDER USED IN THE ERECTION OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    104. Photocopied August 1978. CYLINDER USED IN THE ERECTION OF THE INCLINED BUTTRESSES FOR POWER HOUSE REINFORCEMENT IN 1916. AN AIR LOCK WAS PLACED ON TOP OF THE CYLINDER: THE LOWER PORTION OF THE VERTICAL ELEMENT RESTED ON THE POWER HOUSE FOUNDATION APRON: THE INCLINED ELEMENT WAS CUT LEVEL WITH THE RIVER BED. THE INCLINED PORTION OF THE CYLINDER CONTAINED THE SHIELD USED TO BEGIN THE ERECTION OF THE SEGMENTED INCLINED CAST IRON BUTTRESSES. (764) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  5. 29. (Credit JTL) Low service pump pit in background erected ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. (Credit JTL) Low service pump pit in background erected in 1911-1912 on the banks of Cross Bayou (a Worthington compound duplex steam engine was placed inside this structure.) In the foreground is the receiving well (also erected in 1911-1912) which received water from the Red River siphon. After 1926 this well received water, instead, from Cross Lake via a 30-inch conduit. A concrete platform was installed in 1960 for #6 electric low service pump which has been superceded by newer 1977 installation. - McNeil Street Pumping Station, McNeil Street & Cross Bayou, Shreveport, Caddo Parish, LA

  6. Guide for prioritizing power plant productivity improvement projects: handbook of availability improvement methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-09-15

    As part of its program to help improve electrical power plant productivity, the Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a methodology for evaluating productivity improvement projects. This handbook presents a simplified version of this methodology called the Availability Improvement Methodology (AIM), which provides a systematic approach for prioritizing plant improvement projects. Also included in this handbook is a description of data taking requirements necessary to support the AIM methodology, benefit/cost analysis, and root cause analysis for tracing persistent power plant problems. In applying the AIM methodology, utility engineers should be mindful that replacement power costs are frequently greater for forced outages than for planned outages. Equivalent availability includes both. A cost-effective ranking of alternative plant improvement projects must discern between those projects which will reduce forced outages and those which might reduce planned outages. As is the case with any analytical procedure, engineering judgement must be exercised with respect to results of purely mathematical calculations.

  7. 6. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST SHOWING SALVAGE ARCHAEOLOGY TRENCH, ERECTING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST SHOWING SALVAGE ARCHAEOLOGY TRENCH, ERECTING SHOP, ADMINISTRATION BUILDING, FITTING SHOP, MILLWRIGHT SHOP. DOLPHIN MANUFACTURING CO. AND BARBOUR FLAX SPINNING CO. IN LOWER LEFT, SUM HYDROELECTRIC IN UPPER RIGHT. - Rogers Locomotive & Machine Works, Spruce & Market Streets, Paterson, Passaic County, NJ

  8. 18. Photocopy of drawing, Erection Plan, North Truss, Bridge at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Photocopy of drawing, Erection Plan, North Truss, Bridge at Main and Washington Sts., Norwalk, Ct., Contract No. 3000, Berlin Iron Bridge Company, dated July 12, 1895. Original on file with Metro North Commuter Railroad. - South Norwalk Railroad Bridge, South Main & Washington Streets, Norwalk, Fairfield County, CT

  9. 17. Photocopy of drawing, Erection Plan of Top Lateral Bracing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Photocopy of drawing, Erection Plan of Top Lateral Bracing of Bridge at South Norwalk for the N.Y., N.H. and H.R.R., dated June 12, 1895. Original on file with Metro North Commuter Railroad. - South Norwalk Railroad Bridge, South Main & Washington Streets, Norwalk, Fairfield County, CT

  10. 75 FR 27428 - Safety Standards for Steel Erection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-17

    ... Labor's Order 5-2007 (72 FR 31160), and 29 CFR part 1911. Signed at Washington, DC, on May 4, 2010... (65 FR 50017), 5-2002 (67 FR 65008), and 5-2007 (72 FR 31160); and 29 CFR part 1911. 0 2. Amend Sec... Occupational Safety and Health Administration 29 CFR Part 1926 Safety Standards for Steel Erection...

  11. RETENTION BASIN. ERECTING REINFORCING STEEL FOR CONCRETE DECK. STACK RISES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    RETENTION BASIN. ERECTING REINFORCING STEEL FOR CONCRETE DECK. STACK RISES AT TOP LEFT. CAMERA FACES WEST. INL NEGATIVE NO. 2581. Unknown Photographer, 6/18/1951 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  12. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Erected 1822. Built by Colonel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Erected 1822. Built by Colonel William Rhodes. His wife Paulina Clay was the daughter of General Green Clay and sister of General Cassius Marcellus Clay, Ambassador to Russia under President Lincoln. - Woodlawn, Richmond, Madison County, KY

  13. Prey transport in "palatine-erecting" elapid snakes.

    PubMed

    Deufel, Alexandra; Cundall, David

    2003-12-01

    Cobras and mambas are members of a group of elapid snakes supposedly united by the morphology and inferred behavior of their palatine bone during prey transport (palatine erectors). The palatine erectors investigated (Dendroaspis polylepis, Naja pallida, Ophiophagus hannah, Aspidelaps scutatus, A. lubricus) show differences in the morphology of their feeding apparatus that do not affect the overall behavior of the system. We delineated the structures directly involved in producing palatine erection during prey transport. Palatine erection can be achieved by a colubroid muscle contraction pattern acting on a palato-pterygoid bar with a movable palato-pterygoid joint and a palatine that is stabilized against the snout. The palatine characters originally proposed to cause palatine erection are not required to produce the behavior and actually impede it in Naja pallida. Palatine-erecting elapids share a fundamental design of the palato-maxillary apparatus with all higher snakes. A set of plesiomorphic core characters is functionally integrated to function in prey transport using the pterygoid walk. Variant characters are either part of a structural periphery unrelated to the core structures that define function or patterns of variation are subordinate character sets operating within functional thresholds of a single system. PMID:14584037

  14. 11. VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, OF GALLERY D UNDER ERECTION March ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, OF GALLERY D UNDER ERECTION March 20, 1922 (Original negative destroyed; print in Barge Canal Construction Photographs, Box 12, Series 501, Accession No. 336-85) - New York Barge Canal, Gowanus Bay Terminal Pier, East of bulkhead supporting Columbia Street, Brooklyn, Kings County, NY

  15. Steel Erection Safety. Module SH-39. Safety and Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This student module on steel erection safety is one of 50 modules concerned with job safety and health. This module identifies typical jobsite hazards encountered by steel erectors, as well as providing safe job procedures for general and specific construction activities. Following the introduction, 11 objectives (each keyed to a page in the text)…

  16. Advanced thermometrics for fossil power plant process improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Shepard, R.L.; Weiss, J.M.; Holcomb, D.E.

    1996-04-30

    Improved temperature measurements in fossil power plants can reduce heat rate and uncertainties in power production efficiencies, extend the life of plant components, reduce maintenance costs, and lessen emissions. Conventional instruments for measurement of combustion temperatures, steam temperatures, and structural component temperatures can be improved by better specification, in situ calibration, signal processing, and performance monitoring. Innovative instruments can enhance, augment, or replace conventional instruments. Several critical temperatures can be accessed using new methods that were impossible with conventional instruments. Such instruments include high temperature resistance temperature detectors (RTDs), thermometric phosphors, inductive thermometry, and ultrasonic thermometry.

  17. Improving the safety of LWR power plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-04-01

    This report documents the results of the Study to identify current, potential research issues and efforts for improving the safety of Light Water Reactor (LWR) power plants. This final report describes the work accomplished, the results obtained, the problem areas, and the recommended solutions. Specifically, for each of the issues identified in this report for improving the safety of LWR power plants, a description is provided in detail of the safety significance, the current status (including information sources, status of technical knowledge, problem solution and current activities), and the suggestions for further research and development. Further, the issues are ranked for action into high, medium, and low priority with respect to primarily (a) improved safety (e.g. potential reduction in public risk and occupational exposure), and secondly (b) reduction in safety-related costs (improving or maintaining level of safety with simpler systems or in a more cost-effective manner).

  18. Integrating New Technology Solutions to Improve Plant Operations

    SciTech Connect

    HEAVIN, ERIC

    2004-06-29

    Continuing advancements in software and hardware technology are providing facilities the opportunity for improvements in the areas of safety, regulatory compliance, administrative control, data collection, and reporting. Implementing these changes to improve plant operating efficiency can also create many challenges which include but are not limited to: justifying cost, planning for scalability, implementing applications across varied platforms, integrating multitudes of proprietary vendor applications, and creating a common vision for diverse process improvement projects. The Defense Programs (DP) facility at the Savannah River Site meets these challenges on a daily basis. Like many other plants, DP, has room for improvement when it comes to effective and clear communication, data entry, data storage, and system integration. Specific examples of areas targeted for improvement include: shift turnover meetings using system status data one to two hours old, lockouts and alarm inhibits performed on points on the Distributed Control System (DCS) and tracked in a paper logbook, disconnected systems preventing preemptive correction of regulatory compliance issues, and countless examples of additional task and data duplication on independent systems. Investment of time, money, and careful planning addressing these issues are already providing returns in the form of increased efficiency, improved plant tracking and reduced cost of implementing the next process improvement. Specific examples of improving plant operations through thoroughly planned Rapid Application Development of new applications are discussed. Integration of dissimilar and independent data sources (NovaTech D/3 DCS, SQL Server, Access, Filemaker Pro, etc.) is also explored. The tangible benefits of the implementation of the different programs to solve the operational problems previously described are analyzed in an in-depth and comparative manner.

  19. New catalyst improves sulfur recovery at Canadian plant

    SciTech Connect

    Nasato, E. ); MacDougall, R.S. ); Lagas, J.A. )

    1994-02-28

    Installation at Mobil Oil Canada Ltd.'s Lone Pine Creek, Alta., gas plant of a second-generation Superclaus catalyst has, combined with the first-generation catalyst, resulted in higher overall sulfur recovery at lower reactor temperatures. Superclaus reactor inlet temperatures have been reduced from 255 to 200 C. and as a result have saved on utility costs and reduced tail-gas flow and CO[sub 2] emissions. Initial results indicate overall plant sulfur recovery has improved to the 98.7--98.9% range, up from the 98.0--98.3% first-generation catalyst performance level. The enhanced second-generation catalyst has also proven more operationally flexible than the first-generation catalyst. The paper describes the improved catalyst, the Superclaus process, catalyst performance, catalyst loading, equipment modifications, and performance of the plant.

  20. Genomics Approaches For Improving Salinity Stress Tolerance in Crop Plants.

    PubMed

    Nongpiur, Ramsong Chantre; Singla-Pareek, Sneh Lata; Pareek, Ashwani

    2016-08-01

    Salinity is one of the major factors which reduces crop production worldwide. Plant responses to salinity are highly complex and involve a plethora of genes. Due to its multigenicity, it has been difficult to attain a complete understanding of how plants respond to salinity. Genomics has progressed tremendously over the past decade and has played a crucial role towards providing necessary knowledge for crop improvement. Through genomics, we have been able to identify and characterize the genes involved in salinity stress response, map out signaling pathways and ultimately utilize this information for improving the salinity tolerance of existing crops. The use of new tools, such as gene pyramiding, in genetic engineering and marker assisted breeding has tremendously enhanced our ability to generate stress tolerant crops. Genome editing technologies such as Zinc finger nucleases, TALENs and CRISPR/Cas9 also provide newer and faster avenues for plant biologists to generate precisely engineered crops. PMID:27499683

  1. Neuroanatomy of penile erection: its relevance to iatrogenic impotence.

    PubMed

    Lue, T F; Zeineh, S J; Schmidt, R A; Tanagho, E A

    1984-02-01

    The neuroanatomy of erection in men is not well defined. Recently, we isolated successfully the cavernous nerves for acute and chronic neurostimulation to induce penile erection in dogs and monkeys. We then investigated the anatomy of these nerves in humans by cadaveric dissection and serial histologic sectioning. Our experience in tracing the spinal nuclei responsible for vesical and urethral function by transportation of horseradish peroxidase enabled us to explore the location and organization of the spinal center for erection. Thus, systemic knowledge of the neuroanatomy of erection was accumulated. The spinal nuclei for control of erection are located in the intermediolateral gray matter at the S1 to S3 and T12 to L3 levels in dogs, and the S2 to S4 and T10 to L2 levels in humans. From these sacral nuclei axons issue ventrally and join the axons of the nuclei for the bladder and rectum to form the sacral visceral efferent fibers. These fibers emerge from the anterior root of S2 to S4, and join the sympathetic fibers to form the pelvic plexus, which then branches out to innervate the bladder, rectum and penis. The fibers innervating the penis (cavernous nerves) travel along the posterolateral aspect of the seminal vesicle and prostate, and then accompany the membranous urethra through the genitourinary diaphragm. These fibers are located on the lateral aspect of the membranous urethra and ascend gradually to the 1 and 11 o'clock positions in the proximal bulbous urethra. Some of the fibers penetrate the tunica albuginea of the corpus spongiosum, while others spread to the trifurcation of the terminal internal pudendal artery and innervate the dorsal, deep and urethral arteries. Shortly before the 2 corpora cavernosa merge the cavernous nerves penetrate the tunica albuginea along with the deep artery and cavernous vein. The terminal branches of these nerves innervate the helicine arteries and the erectile tissue within the corpora cavernosa. Because of the

  2. Development of assembly and joint concepts for erectable space structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacquemin, G. G.; Bluck, R. M.; Grotbeck, G. H.; Johnson, R. R.

    1980-01-01

    The technology associated with the on-orbit assembly of tetrahedral truss platforms erected of graphite epoxy tapered columns is examined. Associated with the assembly process is the design and fabrication of nine member node joints. Two such joints demonstrating somewhat different technology were designed and fabricated. Two methods of automatic assembly using the node designs were investigated, and the time of assembly of tetrahedral truss structures up to 1 square km in size was estimated. The effect of column and node joint packaging on the Space Shuttle cargo bay is examined. A brief discussion is included of operating cost considerations and the selection of energy sources. Consideration was given to the design assembly machines from 5 m to 20 m. The smaller machines, mounted on the Space Shuttle, are deployable and restowable. They provide a means of demonstrating the capabilities of the concept and of erecting small specialized platforms on relatively short notice.

  3. Hybrid deployable/erectable solar dynamic box truss system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coyner, J. V., Jr.; Irvine, T. B.

    1986-01-01

    The design of a hybrid deployable/erectable solar dynamic box truss power generation system for the initial operation capability (IOC) of the Space Shuttle is examined. An organic Rankine cycle heat engine for IOC solar power generation is studied. The design configuration is a simple parabolic concentration where the receiver is located in the focal plane with its aperture at the focal point. The relationship between concentrator size and collection efficiency is analyzed. The geometry of the deployable graphite/epoxy box truss ring and the reflective panels of the system are described. Mass properties and dynamic analyses are performed to evaluate the center of gravity location and moments of inertia characteristics of the energy conversion subsystem (ECS). The deployable/erectable truss is applicable for large IR space telescopes and center and offset fed ECSs.

  4. Volume-dependent intracavernous hemodilution during pharmacologically induced penile erections.

    PubMed

    Siraj, Q H; Hilson, A J; Bomanji, J; Ahmed, M

    1992-11-01

    The change in the cavernous hematocrit following induction of pharmacological erection by an intracavernous injection of papaverine hydrochloride was documented in normal controls and patients with impotence. Blood samples taken from the penile cavernosa showed a significantly lower hematocrit compared to the systemic venous blood in all normal subjects. The decrease in the cavernous hematocrit was attributable to dilution of the cavernous blood pool by the injected volume of the drug, since this was not observed in erections produced by visual sexual stimulation. It appears that a restriction of the cavernous venous outflow in response to papaverine injection causes sequestration of the diluted blood in the cavernous compartment. The degree of cavernous hemodilution was found to aid in the differential diagnosis and was especially valuable in differentiating patients with arteriogenic impotence from those with venous leakage. PMID:1433546

  5. Brain potentials related to the human penile erection.

    PubMed

    Ponseti, J; Kropp, P; Bosinski, H A

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the brain processes preceding penile responses. Electroencephalographic (EEG) potentials and penile circumference were recorded simultaneously while male subjects were exposed to visual sexual stimuli (VSS). The trials were sorted by the penile response of the subjects (erection, maintenance or detumescence). The corresponding EEG recordings were then subjected to independent component analysis. We found that 200 ms after VSS onset brain potentials differ according to the genital response to follow. Whereas early posterior negativity (EPN) was predominantly related to erection and maintenance, P3-like activity was found to precede detumescence. EPN indicates a more 'emotional' processing state of the brain, whereas P3-like activity related to detumescence indicates a more 'cognitive' processing state. The latter is assumed to reflect activity of the locus coeruleus-norepinephrine system. Further research should evaluate the contribution of P3-related brain activity to psychogenic erectile dysfunction. PMID:19587685

  6. Conservation and restoration of indigenous plants to improve community livelihoods: the Useful Plants Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulian, Tiziana; Sacandé, Moctar; Mattana, Efisio

    2014-05-01

    Kew's Millennium Seed Bank partnership (MSBP) is one of the largest ex situ plant conservation initiatives, which is focused on saving plants in and from regions most at risk, particularly in drylands. Seeds are collected and stored in seed banks in the country of origin and duplicated in the Millennium Seed Bank in the UK. The MSBP also strengthens the capacity of local communities to successfully conserve and sustainably use indigenous plants, which are important for their wellbeing. Since 2007, high quality seed collections and research information have been gathered on ca. 700 useful indigenous plant species that were selected by communities in Botswana, Kenya, Mali, Mexico and South Africa through Project MGU - The Useful Plants Project. These communities range from various farmer's groups and organisations to traditional healers, organic cotton/crop producers and primary schools. The information on seed conservation and plant propagation was used to train communities and to propagate ca. 200 species that were then planted in local gardens, and as species reintroduced for reforestation programmes and enriching village forests. Experimental plots have also been established to further investigate the field performance (plant survival and growth rate) of indigenous species, using low cost procedures. In addition, the activities support revenue generation for local communities directly through the sustainable use of plant products or indirectly through wider environmental and cultural services. This project has confirmed the potential of biodiversity conservation to improve food security and human health, enhance community livelihoods and strengthen the resilience of land and people to the changing climate. This approach of using indigenous species and having local communities play a central role from the selection of species to their planting and establishment, supported by complementary research, may represent a model for other regions of the world, where

  7. Engineering performance monitoring: Sustained contributions to plant performance improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Bebko, J.J. )

    1992-01-01

    With the aim of achieving excellence in an engineering department that makes both individual project-by-project contributions to plant performance improvement and sustained overall contributions to plant performance, the Niagara Mohawk Nuclear Engineering Department went back to the basics of running a business and established an Engineering Performance Monitoring System. This system focused on the unique products and services of the department and their cost, schedule, and quality parameters. The goals were to provide the best possible service to customers and the generation department and to be one of the best engineering departments in the industry.

  8. Improving geothermal power plants with a binary cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomarov, G. V.; Shipkov, A. A.; Sorokina, E. V.

    2015-12-01

    The recent development of binary geothermal technology is analyzed. General trends in the introduction of low-temperature geothermal sources are summarized. The use of single-phase low-temperature geothermal fluids in binary power plants proves possible and expedient. The benefits of power plants with a binary cycle in comparison with traditional systems are shown. The selection of the working fluid is considered, and the influence of the fluid's physicochemical properties on the design of the binary power plant is discussed. The design of binary power plants is based on the chemical composition and energy potential of the geothermal fluids and on the landscape and climatic conditions at the intended location. Experience in developing a prototype 2.5 MW Russian binary power unit at Pauzhetka geothermal power plant (Kamchatka) is outlined. Most binary systems are designed individually for a specific location. Means of improving the technology and equipment at binary geothermal power plants are identified. One option is the development of modular systems based on several binary systems that employ the heat from the working fluid at different temperatures.

  9. 16. 'Erection Plan for 1 236' Single Tr. Thro' Draw ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. 'Erection Plan for 1 236' Single Tr. Thro' Draw Span over Sacramento River at Tehama Cal., Southern Pacific Co., The Phoenix Bridge Co., City Order: 952, Drawing No.: 2, Scale: 3/16' to 1', Engineer: F.G. Lippert, Drawn by: F.E. King, Date: May 20 98.' - Southern Pacific Railroad Shasta Route, Bridge No. 210.52, Milepost 210.52, Tehama, Tehama County, CA

  10. Prototype space erectable radiator system ground test article development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alario, Joseph P.

    1988-01-01

    A prototype heat rejecting system is being developed by NASA-JSC for possible space station applications. This modular system, the Space-Erectable Radiator System Ground Test Article (SERS-GTA) with high-capacity radiator panels, can be installed and replaced on-orbit. The design, fabrication and testing of a representative ground test article are discussed. Acceptance test data for the heat pipe radiator panel and the whiffletree clamping mechanism have been presented.

  11. Erectable/deployable concepts for large space system technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agan, W. E.

    1980-01-01

    Erectable/deployable space structure concepts particularly relating to the development of a science and applications space platform are presented. Design and operating features for an automatic coupler clevis joint, a side latching detent joint, and a module-to-module auto lock coupler are given. An analysis of the packaging characteristics of stacked subassembly, single fold, hybrid, and double fold concepts is given for various platform structure configurations. Payload carrier systems and assembly techniques are also discussed.

  12. Deployable-erectable trade study for space station truss structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikulas, M. M., Jr.; Wright, A. S., Jr.; Bush, H. G.; Watson, J. J.; Dean, E. B.; Twigg, L. T.; Rhodes, M. D.; Cooper, P. A.; Dorsey, J. T.; Lake, M. S.

    1985-01-01

    The results of a trade study on truss structures for constructing the space station are presented. Although this study was conducted for the reference gravity gradient space station, the results are generally applicable to other configurations. The four truss approaches for constructing the space station considered in this paper were the 9 foot single fold deployable, the 15 foot erectable, the 10 foot double fold tetrahedral, and the 15 foot PACTRUSS. The primary rational for considering a 9 foot single-fold deployable truss (9 foot is the largest uncollapsed cross-section that will fit in the Shuttle cargo bay) is that of ease of initial on-orbit construction and preintegration of utility lines and subsystems. The primary rational for considering the 15 foot erectable truss is that the truss bay size will accommodate Shuttle size payloads and growth of the initial station in any dimension is a simple extension of the initial construction process. The primary rational for considering the double-fold 10 foot tetrahedral truss is that a relatively large amount of truss structure can be deployed from a single Shuttle flight to provide a large number of nodal attachments which present a pegboard for attaching a wide variety of payloads. The 15 foot double-fold PACTRUSS was developed to incorporate the best features of the erectable truss and the tetrahedral truss.

  13. The economic valuation of improved process plant decision support technology.

    PubMed

    White, Douglas C

    2007-06-01

    How can investments that would potentially improve a manufacturing plant's decision process be economically justified? What is the value of "better information," "more flexibility," or "improved integration" and the technologies that provide these effects? Technology investments such as improved process modelling, new real time historians and other databases, "smart" instrumentation, better data analysis and visualization software, and/or improved user interfaces often include these benefits as part of their valuation. How are these "soft" benefits to be converted to a quantitative economic return? Quantification is important if rational management decisions are to be made about the correct amount of money to invest in the technologies, and which technologies to choose among the many available ones. Modelling the plant operational decision cycle-detect, analyse, forecast, choose and implement--provides a basis for this economic quantification. In this paper a new economic model is proposed for estimation of the value of decision support investments based on their effect upon the uncertainty in forecasting plant financial performance. This model leads to quantitative benefit estimates that have a realistic financial basis. An example is presented demonstrating the application of the method. PMID:17434170

  14. MAPK transgenic circuit to improve plant stress-tolerance?

    PubMed Central

    Moustafa, Khaled

    2014-01-01

    Thanks to their distinctive mode of action in a coordinated switch-like way, their multi-tiered signaling cascades and their involvement in cell responses to multiple internal and external stimuli, MAP kinases offer a remarkable possibility to be assembled into what we can call “MAPK transgenic circuits” to improve cell functions. Such circuit could be used to enhance cell signaling efficiency and boost cell functions for several purposes in plant biotechnology, medicine, and pharmaceutical industry. PMID:25482799

  15. Improving the Energy Efficiency of Pumped-Storage Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Artyukh, S. F.; Galat, V. V.; Kuz’min, V. V.; Chervonenko, I. I.; Shakaryan, Yu. G.; Sokur, P. V.

    2015-01-15

    Possible ways to improve the energy efficiency of hydroelectric generating sets of pumped-storage power plants (PSPPs) are studied. The Kiev PSPP is used as an example to show how its generating sets can be upgraded. It is concluded based on studies conducted that synchronous motor-generators should be replaced with asynchronized motor-generators. The feasibility of changing over the turbine to variable-speed operation is shown.

  16. Compressed Air System Modifications Improve Efficiency at a Plastics Blow Molding Plant (Southeastern Container Plant)

    SciTech Connect

    2001-06-01

    This case study is one in a series on industrial firms who are implementing energy efficient technologies and system improvements into their manufacturing processes. This case study documents the activities, savings, and lessons learned on the plastics blow molding plant project.

  17. Plant exomics: Concepts, applications and methodologies in crop improvement

    PubMed Central

    Hashmi, Uzair; Shafqat, Samia; Khan, Faria; Majid, Misbah; Hussain, Harris; Kazi, Alvina Gul; John, Riffat; Ahmad, Parvaiz

    2015-01-01

    Molecular breeding has a crucial role in improvement of crops. Conventional breeding techniques have failed to ameliorate food production. Next generation sequencing has established new concepts of molecular breeding. Exome sequencing has proven to be a significant tool for assessing natural evolution in plants, studying host pathogen interactions and betterment of crop production as exons assist in interpretation of allelic variation with respect to their phenotype. This review covers the platforms for exome sequencing, next generation sequencing technologies that have revolutionized exome sequencing and led toward development of third generation sequencing. Also discussed in this review are the uses of these sequencing technologies to improve wheat, rice and cotton yield and how these technologies are used in exploring the biodiversity of crops, providing better understanding of plant-host pathogen interaction and assessing the process of natural evolution in crops and it also covers how exome sequencing identifies the gene pool involved in symbiotic and other co-existential systems. Furthermore, we conclude how integration of other methodologies including whole genome sequencing, proteomics, transcriptomics and metabolomics with plant exomics covers the areas which are left untouched with exomics alone and in the end how these integration will transform the future of crops. PMID:25482786

  18. Plant exomics: concepts, applications and methodologies in crop improvement.

    PubMed

    Hashmi, Uzair; Shafqat, Samia; Khan, Faria; Majid, Misbah; Hussain, Harris; Kazi, Alvina Gul; John, Riffat; Ahmad, Parvaiz

    2015-01-01

    Molecular breeding has a crucial role in improvement of crops. Conventional breeding techniques have failed to ameliorate food production. Next generation sequencing has established new concepts of molecular breeding. Exome sequencing has proven to be a significant tool for assessing natural evolution in plants, studying host pathogen interactions and betterment of crop production as exons assist in interpretation of allelic variation with respect to their phenotype. This review covers the platforms for exome sequencing, next generation sequencing technologies that have revolutionized exome sequencing and led toward development of third generation sequencing. Also discussed in this review are the uses of these sequencing technologies to improve wheat, rice and cotton yield and how these technologies are used in exploring the biodiversity of crops, providing better understanding of plant-host pathogen interaction and assessing the process of natural evolution in crops and it also covers how exome sequencing identifies the gene pool involved in symbiotic and other co-existential systems. Furthermore, we conclude how integration of other methodologies including whole genome sequencing, proteomics, transcriptomics and metabolomics with plant exomics covers the areas which are left untouched with exomics alone and in the end how these integration will transform the future of crops. PMID:25482786

  19. Structure determination and improved model of plant photosystem I.

    PubMed

    Amunts, Alexey; Toporik, Hila; Borovikova, Anna; Nelson, Nathan

    2010-01-29

    Photosystem I functions as a sunlight energy converter, catalyzing one of the initial steps in driving oxygenic photosynthesis in cyanobacteria, algae, and higher plants. Functionally, Photosystem I captures sunlight and transfers the excitation energy through an intricate and precisely organized antenna system, consisting of a pigment network, to the center of the molecule, where it is used in the transmembrane electron transfer reaction. Our current understanding of the sophisticated mechanisms underlying these processes has profited greatly from elucidation of the crystal structures of the Photosystem I complex. In this report, we describe the developments that ultimately led to enhanced structural information of plant Photosystem I. In addition, we report an improved crystallographic model at 3.3-A resolution, which allows analysis of the structure in more detail. An improved electron density map yielded identification and tracing of subunit PsaK. The location of an additional ten beta-carotenes as well as five chlorophylls and several loop regions, which were previously uninterpretable, are now modeled. This represents the most complete plant Photosystem I structure obtained thus far, revealing the locations of and interactions among 17 protein subunits and 193 non-covalently bound photochemical cofactors. Using the new crystal structure, we examine the network of contacts among the protein subunits from the structural perspective, which provide the basis for elucidating the functional organization of the complex. PMID:19923216

  20. Acclimation improves salt stress tolerance in Zea mays plants.

    PubMed

    Pandolfi, Camilla; Azzarello, Elisa; Mancuso, Stefano; Shabala, Sergey

    2016-08-20

    Plants exposure to low level salinity activates an array of processes leading to an improvement of plant stress tolerance. Although the beneficial effect of acclimation was demonstrated in many herbaceous species, underlying mechanisms behind this phenomenon remain poorly understood. In the present study we have addressed this issue by investigating ionic mechanisms underlying the process of plant acclimation to salinity stress in Zea mays. Effect of acclimation were examined in two parallel sets of experiments: a growth experiment for agronomic assessments, sap analysis, stomatal conductance, chlorophyll content, and confocal laser scanning imaging; and a lab experiment for in vivo ion flux measurements from root tissues. Being exposed to salinity, acclimated plants (1) retain more K(+) but accumulate less Na(+) in roots; (2) have better vacuolar Na(+) sequestration ability in leaves and thus are capable of accumulating larger amounts of Na(+) in the shoot without having any detrimental effect on leaf photochemistry; and (3) rely more on Na(+) for osmotic adjustment in the shoot. At the same time, acclimation affect was not related in increased root Na(+) exclusion ability. It appears that even in a such salt-sensitive species as maize, Na(+) exclusion from uptake is of a much less importance compared with the efficient vacuolar Na(+) sequestration in the shoot. PMID:27372277

  1. Improvements in plant growth rate using underwater discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takaki, K.; Takahata, J.; Watanabe, S.; Satta, N.; Yamada, O.; Fujio, T.; Sasaki, Y.

    2013-03-01

    The drainage water from plant pots was irradiated by plasma and then recycled to irrigate plants for improving the growth rate by supplying nutrients to plants and inactivating the bacteria in the bed-soil. Brassica rapa var. perviridis (Chinese cabbage; Brassica campestris) plants were cultivated in pots filled with artificial soil, which included the use of chicken droppings as a fertiliser. The water was recycled once per day from a drainage water pool and added to the bed-soil in the pots. A magnetic compression type pulsed power generator was used to produce underwater discharge with repetition rate of 250 pps. The plasma irradiation times were set as 10 and 20 minutes per day over 28 days of cultivation. The experimental results showed that the growth rate increased significantly with plasma irradiation into the drainage water. The growth rate increased with the plasma irradiation time. The nitrogen concentration of the leaves increased as a result of plasma irradiation based on chlorophyll content analysis. The bacteria in the drainage water were inactivated by the plasma irradiation.

  2. Ross Works on the Assembly Concept for Construction of Erectable Space Structure (ACCESS) During

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The crew assigned to the STS-61B mission included Bryan D. O'Conner, pilot; Brewster H. Shaw, commander; Charles D. Walker, payload specialist; mission specialists Jerry L. Ross, Mary L. Cleave, and Sherwood C. Spring; and Rodolpho Neri Vela, payload specialist. Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis November 28, 1985 at 7:29:00 pm (EST), the STS-61B mission's primary payload included three communications satellites: MORELOS-B (Mexico); AUSSAT-2 (Australia); and SATCOM KU-2 (RCA Americom). Two experiments were conducted to test assembling erectable structures in space: EASE (Experimental Assembly of Structures in Extravehicular Activity), and ACCESS (Assembly Concept for Construction of Erectable Space Structure). In a joint venture between NASA/Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia, and the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), EASE and ACCESS were developed and demonstrated at MSFC's Neutral Buoyancy Simulator (NBS). In this STS-61B onboard photo, astronaut Ross works on ACCESS high above the orbiter. The primary objective of these experiments was to test the structural assembly concepts for suitability as the framework for larger space structures and to identify ways to improve the productivity of space construction.

  3. Improving Nutritional Quality of Plant Proteins Through Genetic Engineering.

    PubMed

    Le, Dung Tien; Chu, Ha Duc; Le, Ngoc Quynh

    2016-06-01

    Humans and animals are unable to synthesize essential amino acids such as branch chain amino acids methionine (Met), lysine (Lys) and tryptophan (Trp). Therefore, these amino acids need to be supplied through the diets. Several essential amino acids are deficient or completely lacking among crops used for human food and animal feed. For example, soybean is deficient in Met; Lys and Trp are lacking in maize. In this mini review, we will first summarize the roles of essential amino acids in animal nutrition. Next, we will address the question: "What are the amino acids deficient in various plants and their biosynthesis pathways?" And: "What approaches are being used to improve the availability of essential amino acids in plants?" The potential targets for metabolic engineering will also be discussed, including what has already been done and what remains to be tested. PMID:27252589

  4. 208. Several of these checking stations, erected for feecollection purposes ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    208. Several of these checking stations, erected for fee-collection purposes but never authorized to operate as such, were constructed on the parkway in the 1950's. They provided information on area accommodations. Locations included Rockfish Valley, Adney Gap, north and south of Roanoke, Asheville near Biltmore, and by the Oconaluftee River. All were removed by the 1980's, after cars ran into two structures and demolished them. The islands where these were located are now used for Pillar of Truth information displays. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  5. Soil management systems to improve water availability for plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klik, A.; Rosner, J.

    2009-04-01

    Due to climate change it is expected that the air temperature will increase and the amount as well as the variability of rainfall will change drastically within this century. Higher temperatures and fewer rainy days with more extreme events will increase the risk of surface runoff and erosion. This will lead to reduced soil water storage and therefore to a lower water use efficiency of plants. Soil and land management systems need to be applied and adapted to improve the amount of water stored in the soil and to ensure crop productivity functions of soils under changing climatic conditions. In a 14-yr. long field experiment, the effects of three soil management systems have been studied at three sites in Austria with respect to surface runoff, soil erosion, losses of nutrients and pesticides. Eight years after beginning of the project soil samples have been taken from different depth throughout the root zone to investigate the effects on soil properties. The results show that soil management systems with reduced tillage intensity are able to improve infiltration and soil water storage. More soil water enables plant development during longer dry periods and decreases amounts of irrigation. Overall, the higher water retention in the landscape improves the regional water balance and reduces environmental problems like soil erosion and nutrient and pesticide losses

  6. WindPACT Turbine Design Scaling Studies Technical Area 3 -- Self-Erecting Tower and Nacelle Feasibility: March 2000--March 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Global Energy Concepts, LLC

    2001-05-31

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE), through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), has implemented the Wind Partnerships for Advanced Component Technologies (WindPACT) program to explore advanced technologies for improving the reliability and cost-effectiveness of wind energy technology. Global Energy Concepts (GEC) prepared this report on self-erecting towers as part of the WindPACT program. The objectives of the work were to identify potential methods for erecting wind turbine towers without the use of large conventional cranes, establish the most promising methods, and compare the costs of the most promising methods to the costs of conventional cranes.

  7. Improving hot gas filtration behavior in PFBC power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Romeo, L.M.; Gil, A.; Cortes, C.

    1999-07-01

    According to a previous paper, a laboratory-scale cold flow model of the hot gas filtration system in Escatron PFBC power plant has been built. The main objectives were to establish the validity of the scaling laws for cyclone separator systems (cyclone and dipleg) and to perform detailed room temperature studies in a rapid and cost effective manner. In Escatron PFBC power plant, the hot gas filtration equipment is a two-stage process performed in nine streams between the fluidized bed and the gas turbine. Due to the unsteadiness in the dipleg and the suction nozzle, and the effect of sintered deposit, the cyclone performance is modified. The performances of cyclone separator system and suction nozzle diplegs are scarcely reported in the open literature. This paper presents the results of a detailed research in which some important conclusions of well known studies about cyclones are verified. Also remarkable is the increase in cyclone efficiency and decrease in pressure drop when the solid load to the cyclone is increased. The possibility to check the fouling by means of pressure drop has not been previously addressed. Finally, the influences of gas input velocity to the cyclone, the transport gas to the ash conveying lines, the solid load and the cyclone fouling have been analyzed. This study has allowed characterizing the performance of the full-scale ash removal system, establishing safe limits of operation and testing design improvements as the two suction nozzle dipleg, pointing out important conclusions for the filtration process in PFBC power plants.

  8. Improved conventional testing of power plant cables. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Anadakumaran, K.; Braun, J.M.; DiPaul, J.A. |

    1995-09-01

    The objective of the project is to develop improved condition monitoring techniques to assess the condition of power plant cables, particularly the unshielded cables found in older thermal plants. The cables of interest were insulated with PVC, butyl rubber, SBR (styrene butadiene rubber), EPR (ethylene propylene rubber), PE and XLPE (crosslinked polyethylene) as either single conductor, twisted pair, shielded and unshielded. The cables were thermally aged to embrittlement and characterized by physical, chemical and electrical tests. Physical characterization included, in addition to reference tensile elongation, tests performed on microscopic samples for quasi-nondestructive examination. Different tests proved particularly suited to different types of insulation. The dielectric characterization underlined the value of performing tests at other than power frequency and/or dc. Electric field calculations were carried out to develop a field testing strategy for unshielded cables and notably to investigate the feasibility of providing a suitable ground plane by testing conductor to grounded conductors(s). Two major electrical diagnostic test techniques were investigated in detail, low frequency insulation analysis to probe the bulk condition of insulations and partial discharge (PD) testing to detect cracks and defects. PD testing is well established but more challenging to perform with unshielded cables. Because of the attenuation properties of typical plant cables, a dual ended detector configuration is necessary. Two novel techniques were developed to provide dual ended detection without need for a second cable as the return path from the far end detector.

  9. Power plant performance monitoring and improvement. Volume 1. Boiler optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Crim, H.G.

    1986-02-01

    The boiler portion of RP1681/2153 deals with the development of procedures for determining the optimum fireside operating conditions in a coal fired power plant and the development of instrumentation and monitoring systems for achieving the resulting improvements in heat rate. This annual report describes the rsults of the project for the period beginning in October, 1982. A computer code was developed which takes information on the plant and calculates heat rate as a function of parameters such as excess air and steam flow rate. Computational results obtained to date for Potomac Electric Power Company's Morgantown Unit No. 2 show that the net unit heat rate is a very sensitive function of grind size of the coal, level of excess air and exit gas temperature. The theoretical calculations suggest that by optimizing these three parameters, improvements in net unit heat rate of the order of 100 Btu/Kwh may be possible at Morgantown. An intrumentation assessment was carried out. Preparations are underway for boiler tests.

  10. Feasibility studies to improve plant availability and reduce total installed cost in IGCC plants

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, Kevin; Anasti, William; Fang, Yichuan; Subramanyan, Karthik; Leininger, Tom; Zemsky, Christine

    2015-03-30

    The main purpose of this project is to look at technologies and philosophies that would help reduce the costs of an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plant, increase its availability or do both. GE’s approach to this problem is to consider options in three different areas: 1) technology evaluations and development; 2) constructability approaches; and 3) design and operation methodologies. Five separate tasks were identified that fall under the three areas: Task 2 – Integrated Operations Philosophy; Task 3 – Slip Forming of IGCC Components; Task 4 – Modularization of IGCC Components; Task 5 – Fouling Removal; and Task 6 – Improved Slag Handling. Overall, this project produced results on many fronts. Some of the ideas could be utilized immediately by those seeking to build an IGCC plant in the near future. These include the considerations from the Integrated Operations Philosophy task and the different construction techniques of Slip Forming and Modularization (especially if the proposed site is in a remote location or has a lack of a skilled workforce). Other results include ideas for promising technologies that require further development and testing to realize their full potential and be available for commercial operation. In both areas GE considers this project to be a success in identifying areas outside the core IGCC plant systems that are ripe for cost reduction and ity improvement opportunities.

  11. 32 CFR 643.115 - Contractors-Permission to erect structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Contractors-Permission to erect structures. 643.115 Section 643.115 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE Additional Authority of Commanders § 643.115 Contractors—Permission to erect structures. Installation commanders...

  12. 32 CFR 643.115 - Contractors-Permission to erect structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Contractors-Permission to erect structures. 643.115 Section 643.115 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE Additional Authority of Commanders § 643.115 Contractors—Permission to erect structures. Installation commanders...

  13. Manipulation of Carotenoid Content in Plants to Improve Human Health.

    PubMed

    Alós, Enriqueta; Rodrigo, Maria Jesús; Zacarias, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Carotenoids are essential components for human nutrition and health, mainly due to their antioxidant and pro-vitamin A activity. Foods with enhanced carotenoid content and composition are essential to ensure carotenoid feasibility in malnourished population of many countries around the world, which is critical to alleviate vitamin A deficiency and other health-related disorders. The pathway of carotenoid biosynthesis is currently well understood, key steps of the pathways in different plant species have been characterized and the corresponding genes identified, as well as other regulatory elements. This enables the manipulation and improvement of carotenoid content and composition in order to control the nutritional value of a number of agronomical important staple crops. Biotechnological and genetic engineering-based strategies to manipulate carotenoid metabolism have been successfully implemented in many crops, with Golden rice as the most relevant example of β-carotene improvement in one of the more widely consumed foods. Conventional breeding strategies have been also adopted in the bio-fortification of carotenoid in staple foods that are highly consumed in developing countries, including maize, cassava and sweet potatoes, to alleviate nutrition-related problems. The objective of the chapter is to summarize major breakthroughs and advances in the enhancement of carotenoid content and composition in agronomical and nutritional important crops, with special emphasis to their potential impact and benefits in human nutrition and health. PMID:27485228

  14. PG&E`s Geysers` Power Plant improvements - past, present, and future

    SciTech Connect

    Louden, P.; Southall, W.; Paquin, C.

    1996-04-10

    Geothermal power plant retrofits can improve plant efficiency, reduce operations and maintenance costs, as well as increase plant availability. All geothermal power producers must find new ways to become more competitive as the electric power industry becomes deregulated. To survive and thrive in the competitive power generation market, geothermal plant operators must continually look for economic power plant upgrades that reduce the cost of production and improve availability. This paper describes past and present power plant retrofits as well as shows how further research can help future plant improvements. Past power plant retrofits at Pacific Gas and Electric Company`s Geysers Power Plants include innovative H{sub 2}S burners that reduced chemical costs and a turbine jack-shaft that improved unit efficiency. Other important retrofits that dramatically reduced turbine forced outage and repair costs were turbine blade and nozzle changes, turbine weld repairs, and steam desuperheating.

  15. Cyclic AMP-dependent phosphorylation of neuronal nitric oxide synthase mediates penile erection

    PubMed Central

    Hurt, K. Joseph; Sezen, Sena F.; Lagoda, Gwen F.; Musicki, Biljana; Rameau, Gerald A.; Snyder, Solomon H.; Burnett, Arthur L.

    2012-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) generated by neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) initiates penile erection, but has not been thought to participate in the sustained erection required for normal sexual performance. We now show that cAMP-dependent phosphorylation of nNOS mediates erectile physiology, including sustained erection. nNOS is phosphorylated by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) at serine(S)1412. Electrical stimulation of the penile innervation increases S1412 phosphorylation that is blocked by PKA inhibitors but not by PI3-kinase/Akt inhibitors. Stimulation of cAMP formation by forskolin also activates nNOS phosphorylation. Sustained penile erection elicited by either intracavernous forskolin injection, or augmented by forskolin during cavernous nerve electrical stimulation, is prevented by the NOS inhibitor l-NAME or in nNOS-deleted mice. Thus, nNOS mediates both initiation and maintenance of penile erection, implying unique approaches for treating erectile dysfunction. PMID:23012472

  16. Characterization of Rolled and Erect Leaf 1 in regulating leave morphology in rice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qiaoling; Xie, Qingjun; Gao, Ju; Wang, Wenyi; Sun, Bo; Liu, Bohan; Zhu, Haitao; Peng, Haifeng; Zhao, Haibing; Liu, Changhong; Wang, Jiang; Zhang, Jingliu; Zhang, Guiquan; Zhang, Zemin

    2015-01-01

    Leaf morphology, particularly in crop, is one of the most important agronomic traits because it influences the yield through the manipulation of photosynthetic capacity and transpiration. To understand the regulatory mechanism of leaf morphogenesis, an Oryza sativa dominant mutant, rolled and erect leaf 1 (rel1) has been characterized. This mutant has a predominant rolled leaf, increased leaf angle, and reduced plant height phenotype that results in a reduction in grain yield. Electron microscope observations indicated that the leaf incurvations of rel1 dominant mutants result from the alteration of the size and number of bulliform cells. Molecular cloning revealed that the rel1 dominant mutant phenotype is caused by the activation of the REL1 gene, which encodes a novel unknown protein, despite its high degree of conservation among monocot plants. Moreover, the downregulation of the REL1 gene in the rel1 dominant mutant restored the phenotype of this dominant mutant. Alternatively, overexpression of REL1 in wild-type plants induced a phenotype similar to that of the dominant rel1 mutant, indicating that REL1 plays a positive role in leaf rolling and bending. Consistent with the observed rel1 phenotype, the REL1 gene was predominantly expressed in the meristem of various tissues during plant growth and development. Nevertheless, the responsiveness of both rel1 dominant mutants and REL1-overexpressing plants to exogenous brassinosteroid (BR) was reduced. Moreover, transcript levels of BR response genes in the rel1 dominant mutants and REL1-overexpressing lines were significantly altered. Additionally, seven REL1-interacting proteins were also identified from a yeast two-hybrid screen. Taken together, these findings suggest that REL1 regulates leaf morphology, particularly in leaf rolling and bending, through the coordination of BR signalling transduction. PMID:26142419

  17. Advanced control strategy for plant heat rate improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, P.; Frerichs, D.K.; Kyr, D.

    1995-12-31

    Florida Power & Light Company (FPL) supplies electricity to about half of the population of Florida, roughly 6.5 million people. The load base is largely residential/business with the obvious seasonal extremes due to the climate. FPL`s generating capacity is 16,320 MW composed of 70% traditional fossil cycle, 18% nuclear, and 12% gas turbine. The system load profile coupled with bulk power purchases is such that the 400 MW class units (9 Foster Wheeler drum type units comprising 24% of total capacity) are now forced to cycle daily all year, and to come off line on weekends during the winter months. The current economic realities of power generation force utility companies to seek methods to improve plant heat rate, and FPL is no exception. FPL believed it possible to achieve the goal of lower heat rate and follow the required load demand with the 400 MW class units through the use of an advanced control strategy implemented totally within the unit`s Distributed Control System (DCS). As of the writing of this paper, the project is still ongoing. This paper will present the theory and methodology of the advanced control strategy along with the current design and implementation status and results obtained to date.

  18. Compressed Air System Upgrade Improves Production at an Automotive Glass Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2003-02-01

    In 2000, The Visteon automotive glass plant improved its compressed air system at its automotive glass plant in Nashville, Tennessee. This improvement allowed Visteon to save $711,000 annually, reduce annual energy consumption by 7.9 million kilowatt-hours, reduce maintenance, improve system performance, and avoid $800,000 in asbestos abatement costs.

  19. Electrophysiological actions of the dopamine agonist apomorphine in the paraventricular nucleus during penile erection.

    PubMed

    Richards, Natalie; Wayman, Chris; Allers, Kelly A

    2009-11-20

    The ability to achieve and maintain penile erection is necessary for successful copulation. Studies have demonstrated that dopamine receptor stimulation in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus induces penile erection in rodents, and the dopamine agonist apomorphine has been used to treat erectile dysfunction. The aim of this study was to determine the electrophysiological characteristics of PVN neuronal firing activity in anaesthetised rodents during apomorphine-induced erection. Our findings can be placed in two categories; those effects that occur immediately upon apomorphine administration and continue for up to several minutes prior to penile erection, deemed 'pre-erectile', and those effects that were only observed during penile erection and seminal emission. In the pre-erectile period, apomorphine acts on two different populations of PVN neurons to increase or decrease firing rates and increases alpha1 frequency band power in local field potentials. Decreased delta and increased theta frequency power in PVN local field potentials occur only during penile erection and seminal emission. These studies provide further understanding of the coordinated neuronal activity that occurs in the PVN during apomorphine-induced penile erection. PMID:19733217

  20. Micronutrient fortification of plants through plant breeding: can it improve nutrition in man at low cost?

    PubMed

    Bouis, Howarth E

    2003-05-01

    Can commonly-eaten food staple crops be developed that fortify their seeds with essential minerals and vitamins? Can farmers be induced to grow such varieties? If so, would this result in a marked improvement in human nutrition at a lower cost than existing nutrition interventions? An interdisciplinary international effort is underway to breed for mineral- and vitamin-dense varieties of rice, wheat, maize, beans and cassava for release to farmers in developing countries. The biofortification strategy seeks to take advantage of the consistent daily consumption of large amounts of food staples by all family members, including women and children as they are most at risk for micronutrient malnutrition. As a consequence of the predominance of food staples in the diets of the poor, this strategy implicitly targets low-income households. After the one-time investment is made to develop seeds that fortify themselves, recurrent costs are low and germplasm may be shared internationally. It is this multiplier aspect of plant breeding across time and distance that makes it so cost-effective. Once in place, the biofortified crop system is highly sustainable. Nutritionally-improved varieties will continue to be grown and consumed year after year, even if government attention and international funding for micronutrient issues fades. Biofortification provides a truly feasible means of reaching malnourished populations in relatively remote rural areas, delivering naturally-fortified foods to population groups with limited access to commercially-marketed fortified foods that are more readily available in urban areas. Biofortification and commercial fortification are, therefore, highly complementary. Breeding for higher trace mineral density in seeds will not incur a yield penalty. Mineral-packed seeds sell themselves to farmers because, as recent research has shown, these trace minerals are essential in helping plants resist disease and other environmental stresses. More seedlings

  1. Exploring high throughput phenotyping, plant architecture and plant-boll distribution for improving drought tolerance in cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is a pressing need to identify and understand the effects of different irrigation regimes on plant-boll distribution, seed cotton yield, and plant architecture for improving yield and fiber quality under stress and/or drought tolerance of cotton (Gossypium spp.) cultivars. To identify the impa...

  2. Improved stereo matching applied to digitization of greenhouse plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Peng; Xu, Lihong; Li, Dawei; Gu, Xiaomeng

    2015-03-01

    The digitization of greenhouse plants is an important aspect of digital agriculture. Its ultimate aim is to reconstruct a visible and interoperable virtual plant model on the computer by using state-of-the-art image process and computer graphics technologies. The most prominent difficulties of the digitization of greenhouse plants include how to acquire the three-dimensional shape data of greenhouse plants and how to carry out its realistic stereo reconstruction. Concerning these issues an effective method for the digitization of greenhouse plants is proposed by using a binocular stereo vision system in this paper. Stereo vision is a technique aiming at inferring depth information from two or more cameras; it consists of four parts: calibration of the cameras, stereo rectification, search of stereo correspondence and triangulation. Through the final triangulation procedure, the 3D point cloud of the plant can be achieved. The proposed stereo vision system can facilitate further segmentation of plant organs such as stems and leaves; moreover, it can provide reliable digital samples for the visualization of greenhouse tomato plants.

  3. Crop Improvement through Modification of the Plant's Own Genome

    PubMed Central

    Rommens, Caius M.; Humara, Jaime M.; Ye, Jingsong; Yan, Hua; Richael, Craig; Zhang, Lynda; Perry, Rachel; Swords, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    Plant genetic engineering has, until now, relied on the incorporation of foreign DNA into plant genomes. Public concern about the extent to which transgenic crops differ from their traditionally bred counterparts has resulted in molecular strategies and gene choices that limit, but not eliminate, the introduction of foreign DNA. Here, we demonstrate that a plant-derived (P-) DNA fragment can be used to replace the universally employed Agrobacterium transfer (T-) DNA. Marker-free P-DNAs are transferred to plant cell nuclei together with conventional T-DNAs carrying a selectable marker gene. By subsequently linking a positive selection for temporary marker gene expression to a negative selection against marker gene integration, 29% of derived regeneration events contain P-DNA insertions but lack any copies of the T-DNA. Further refinements are accomplished by employing Ω-mutated virD2 and isopentenyl transferase cytokinin genes to impair T-DNA integration and select against backbone integration, respectively. The presented methods are used to produce hundreds of marker-free and backbone-free potato (Solanum tuberosum) plants displaying reduced expression of a tuber-specific polyphenol oxidase gene in potato. The modified plants represent the first example of genetically engineered plants that only contain native DNA. PMID:15133156

  4. 29 CFR 1926.752 - Site layout, site-specific erection plan and construction sequence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... concrete in the footings, piers and walls and the mortar in the masonry piers and walls has attained, on... erect steel unless it has received written notification that the concrete in the footings, piers...

  5. 29 CFR 1926.752 - Site layout, site-specific erection plan and construction sequence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... concrete in the footings, piers and walls and the mortar in the masonry piers and walls has attained, on... erect steel unless it has received written notification that the concrete in the footings, piers...

  6. 29 CFR 1926.752 - Site layout, site-specific erection plan and construction sequence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... concrete in the footings, piers and walls and the mortar in the masonry piers and walls has attained, on... erect steel unless it has received written notification that the concrete in the footings, piers...

  7. 29 CFR 1926.752 - Site layout, site-specific erection plan and construction sequence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... concrete in the footings, piers and walls and the mortar in the masonry piers and walls has attained, on... erect steel unless it has received written notification that the concrete in the footings, piers...

  8. Formosa Plastics Corporation: Plant-Wide Assessment of Texas Plant Identifies Opportunities for Improving Process Efficiency and Reducing Energy Costs

    SciTech Connect

    2005-01-01

    At Formosa Plastics Corporation's plant in Point Comfort, Texas, a plant-wide assessment team analyzed process energy requirements, reviewed new technologies for applicability, and found ways to improve the plant's energy efficiency. The assessment team identified the energy requirements of each process and compared actual energy consumption with theoretical process requirements. The team estimated that total annual energy savings would be about 115,000 MBtu for natural gas and nearly 14 million kWh for electricity if the plant makes several improvements, which include upgrading the gas compressor impeller, improving the vent blower system, and recovering steam condensate for reuse. Total annual cost savings could be $1.5 million. The U.S. Department of Energy's Industrial Technologies Program cosponsored this assessment.

  9. Root Traits and Phenotyping Strategies for Plant Improvement

    PubMed Central

    Paez-Garcia, Ana; Motes, Christy M.; Scheible, Wolf-Rüdiger; Chen, Rujin; Blancaflor, Elison B.; Monteros, Maria J.

    2015-01-01

    Roots are crucial for nutrient and water acquisition and can be targeted to enhance plant productivity under a broad range of growing conditions. A current challenge for plant breeding is the limited ability to phenotype and select for desirable root characteristics due to their underground location. Plant breeding efforts aimed at modifying root traits can result in novel, more stress-tolerant crops and increased yield by enhancing the capacity of the plant for soil exploration and, thus, water and nutrient acquisition. Available approaches for root phenotyping in laboratory, greenhouse and field encompass simple agar plates to labor-intensive root digging (i.e., shovelomics) and soil boring methods, the construction of underground root observation stations and sophisticated computer-assisted root imaging. Here, we summarize root architectural traits relevant to crop productivity, survey root phenotyping strategies and describe their advantages, limitations and practical value for crop and forage breeding programs. PMID:27135332

  10. Root Traits and Phenotyping Strategies for Plant Improvement.

    PubMed

    Paez-Garcia, Ana; Motes, Christy M; Scheible, Wolf-Rüdiger; Chen, Rujin; Blancaflor, Elison B; Monteros, Maria J

    2015-01-01

    Roots are crucial for nutrient and water acquisition and can be targeted to enhance plant productivity under a broad range of growing conditions. A current challenge for plant breeding is the limited ability to phenotype and select for desirable root characteristics due to their underground location. Plant breeding efforts aimed at modifying root traits can result in novel, more stress-tolerant crops and increased yield by enhancing the capacity of the plant for soil exploration and, thus, water and nutrient acquisition. Available approaches for root phenotyping in laboratory, greenhouse and field encompass simple agar plates to labor-intensive root digging (i.e., shovelomics) and soil boring methods, the construction of underground root observation stations and sophisticated computer-assisted root imaging. Here, we summarize root architectural traits relevant to crop productivity, survey root phenotyping strategies and describe their advantages, limitations and practical value for crop and forage breeding programs. PMID:27135332

  11. Process energy efficiency improvement in Wisconsin cheese plants

    SciTech Connect

    Zehr, S.; Mitchell, J.; Reinemann, D.; Klein, S.; Reindl, D.

    1997-07-01

    Costs for the energy involved in cheese making has a major impact on profit. Although industrial cheese plants differ in size, production equipment, and the manner in which whey is processed, there are common elements in most plants. This paper evaluates several process integration opportunities at two representative cheese plants in Wisconsin. Pinch analysis is used to help assess the heat recovery potential for the major thermal processes in the plants. The potential of using packaged cheese as a thermal storage medium to allow electrical demand shifting in the cold storage warehouse is evaluated and shown to be feasible. Three major conservation measures are identified with a total cost savings of $130,000 to $160,000 annually.

  12. Ways to Improve Russian Coal-Fired Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Tumanovskii, A. G. Olkhovsky, G. G.

    2015-07-15

    Coal is an important fuel for the electric power industry of Russia, especially in Ural and the eastern part of the country. It is fired in boilers of large (200 – 800 MW) condensing power units and in many cogeneration power plants with units rated at 50 – 180 MW. Many coal-fired power plants have been operated for more than 40 – 50 years. Though serviceable, their equipment is obsolete and does not comply with the current efficiency, environmental, staffing, and availability standards. It is urgent to retrofit and upgrade such power plants using advanced equipment, engineering and business ideas. Russian power-plant engineering companies have designed such advanced power units and their equipment such as boilers, turbines, auxiliaries, process and environmental control systems similar to those produced by the world’s leading manufacturers. Their performance and ways of implementation are discussed.

  13. Bromeliad-living spiders improve host plant nutrition and growth.

    PubMed

    Romero, Gustavo Q; Mazzafera, Paulo; Vasconcellos-Neto, Joao; Trivelin, Paulo C O

    2006-04-01

    Although bromeliads are believed to obtain nutrients from debris deposited by animals in their rosettes, there is little evidence to support this assumption. Using stable isotope methods, we found that the Neotropical jumping spider Psecas chapoda (Salticidae), which lives strictly associated with the terrestrial bromeliad Bromelia balansae, contributed 18% of the total nitrogen of its host plant in a greenhouse experiment. In a one-year field experiment, plants with spiders produced leaves 15% longer than plants from which the spiders were excluded. This is the first study to show nutrient provisioning in a spider-plant system. Because several animal species live strictly associated with bromeliad rosettes, this type of facultative mutualism involving the Bromeliaceae may be more common than previously thought. PMID:16676522

  14. Lab to Farm: Applying Research on Plant Genetics and Genomics to Crop Improvement

    PubMed Central

    Ronald, Pamela C.

    2014-01-01

    Over the last 300 years, plant science research has provided important knowledge and technologies for advancing the sustainability of agriculture. In this Essay, I describe how basic research advances have been translated into crop improvement, explore some lessons learned, and discuss the potential for current and future contribution of plant genetic improvement technologies to continue to enhance food security and agricultural sustainability. PMID:24915201

  15. Millwater Pumping System Optimization Improves Efficiency and Saves Energy at an Automotive Glass Plant

    SciTech Connect

    2003-03-01

    In 2001, the Visteon automotive glass plant in Nashville, Tennessee renovated its millwater pumping system. This improvement saved the plant $280,000 annually in energy and operating costs, reduced annual energy consumption by 3.2 million kilowatt-hours, reduced water consumption, improved system performance, and reduced use of water treatment chemicals.

  16. A natural plant growth promoter calliterpenone from a plant Callicarpa macrophylla Vahl improves the plant growth promoting effects of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPRs).

    PubMed

    Maji, Deepamala; Barnawal, Deepti; Gupta, Aakansha; King, Shikha; Singh, A K; Kalra, A

    2013-05-01

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of calliterpenone, a natural plant growth promoter from a shrub Callicarpa macrophylla Vahl., in enhancing the growth and yield promoting effects of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPRs), in menthol mint (Mentha arvensis L).This study is based on our previous results indicating the microbial growth promotion by calliterpenone and assumption that application of calliterpenone along with PGPRs will improve the population of PGPRs resulting in higher impacts on plant growth and yield. Of the 15 PGPRs (identified as potent ones in our laboratory), 25 μl of 0.01 mM calliterpenone (8.0 μg/100 ml) was found to be useful in improving the population of nine PGPRs in culture media. The five selected strains of PGPRs exhibiting synergy with calliterpenone in enhancing growth of maize compared to PGPR or calliterpenone alone were selected and tested on two cultivars (cvs. Kosi and Kushal) of M. arvensis. Of the five strains, Bacillus subtilis P-20 (16S rDNA sequence homologous to Accession No NR027552) and B. subtilis Daz-26 (16SrDNA sequence homologuos to Accession No GU998816) were found to be highly effective in improving the herb and essential oil yield in the cultivars Kushal and Kosi respectively when co-treated with calliterpenone. The results open up the possibilities of using a natural growth promoter along with PGPRs as a bio-agri input for sustainable and organic agriculture. PMID:23271460

  17. Reduced Wind Speed Improves Plant Growth in a Desert City

    PubMed Central

    Bang, Christofer; Sabo, John L.; Faeth, Stanley H.

    2010-01-01

    Background The often dramatic effects of urbanization on community and ecosystem properties, such as primary productivity, abundances, and diversity are now well-established. In most cities local primary productivity increases and this extra energy flows upwards to alter diversity and relative abundances in higher trophic levels. The abiotic mechanisms thought to be responsible for increases in urban productivity are altered temperatures and light regimes, and increased nutrient and water inputs. However, another abiotic factor, wind speed, is also influenced by urbanization and well known for altering primary productivity in agricultural systems. Wind effects on primary productivity have heretofore not been studied in the context of urbanization. Methodology/Principal Findings We designed a field experiment to test if increased plant growth often observed in cities is explained by the sheltering effects of built structures. Wind speed was reduced by protecting Encelia farinosa (brittlebush) plants in urban, desert remnant and outlying desert localities via windbreaks while controlling for water availability and nutrient content. In all three habitats, we compared E. farinosa growth when protected by experimental windbreaks and in the open. E. farinosa plants protected against ambient wind in the desert and remnant areas grew faster in terms of biomass and height than exposed plants. As predicted, sheltered plants did not differ from unprotected plants in urban areas where wind speed is already reduced. Conclusion/Significance Our results indicate that reductions in wind speed due to built structures in cities contribute to increased plant productivity and thus also to changes in abundances and diversity of higher trophic levels. Our study emphasizes the need to incorporate wind speed in future urban ecological studies, as well as in planning for green space and sustainable cities. PMID:20548790

  18. Nitric Oxide Improves Internal Iron Availability in Plants1

    PubMed Central

    Graziano, Magdalena; Beligni, María Verónica; Lamattina, Lorenzo

    2002-01-01

    Iron deficiency impairs chlorophyll biosynthesis and chloroplast development. In leaves, most of the iron must cross several biological membranes to reach the chloroplast. The components involved in the complex internal iron transport are largely unknown. Nitric oxide (NO), a bioactive free radical, can react with transition metals to form metal-nitrosyl complexes. Sodium nitroprusside, an NO donor, completely prevented leaf interveinal chlorosis in maize (Zea mays) plants growing with an iron concentration as low as 10 μm Fe-EDTA in the nutrient solution. S-Nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine, another NO donor, as well as gaseous NO supply in a translucent chamber were also able to revert the iron deficiency symptoms. A specific NO scavenger, 2-(4-carboxy-phenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide, blocked the effect of the NO donors. The effect of NO treatment on the photosynthetic apparatus of iron-deficient plants was also studied. Electron micrographs of mesophyll cells from iron-deficient maize plants revealed plastids with few photosynthetic lamellae and rudimentary grana. In contrast, in NO-treated maize plants, mesophyll chloroplast appeared completely developed. NO treatment did not increase iron content in plant organs, when expressed in a fresh matter basis, suggesting that root iron uptake was not enhanced. NO scavengers 2-(4-carboxy-phenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide and methylene blue promoted interveinal chlorosis in iron-replete maize plants (growing in 250 μm Fe-EDTA). Even though results support a role for endogenous NO in iron nutrition, experiments did not establish an essential role. NO was also able to revert the chlorotic phenotype of the iron-inefficient maize mutants yellow stripe1 and yellow stripe3, both impaired in the iron uptake mechanisms. All together, these results support a biological action of NO on the availability and/or delivery of metabolically active iron within the plant. PMID:12481068

  19. PHYTOCHEMICALS IN PLANTS: GENOMICS-ASSISTED PLANT IMPROVEMENT FOR NUTRITIONAL AND HEALTH BENEFITS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plants are an important source of essential nutrients and health-beneficial components that are crucial for human life. Because the intake of these phytochemicals is not always adequate, the resources of plant biotechnology are being used to enhance the nutritional quality of our plant-based food s...

  20. ERC product improvement activities for direct fuel cell power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Maru, H.C.; Farooque, M.; Bentley, C.

    1995-12-01

    This program is designed to advance the carbonate fuel cell technology from the current power plant demonstration status to the commercial design in an approximately five-year period. The specific objectives which will allow attainment of the overall program goal are: (1) Define market-responsive power plant requirements and specifications, (2) Establish the design for a multifuel, low-cost, modular, market-responsive power plant, (3) Resolve power plant manufacturing issues and define the design for the commercial manufacturing facility, (4) Define the stack and BOP equipment packaging arrangement and define module designs, (5) Acquire capability to support developmental testing of stacks and BOP equipment as required to prepare for commercial design, and (6) Resolve stack and BOP equipment technology issues and design, build, and field test a modular commercial prototype power plant to demonstrate readiness for commercial entry. A seven-task program, dedicated to attaining objective(s) in the areas noted above, was initiated in December 1994. Accomplishments of the first six months are discussed in this paper.

  1. ERC product improvement activities for direct fuel cell power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Bentley, C.; Carlson, G.; Doyon, J.

    1995-08-01

    This program is designed to advance the carbonate fuel cell technology from the current power plant demonstration status to the commercial design in an approximately five-year period. The specific objectives which will allow attainment of the overall program goal are: (1) Define market-responsive power plant requirements and specifications, (2) Establish the design for a multifuel, low-cost, modular, market-responsive power plant, (3) Resolve power plant manufacturing issues and define the design for the commercial manufacturing facility, (4) Define the stack and BOP equipment packaging arrangement and define module designs, (5) Acquire capability to support developmental testing of stacks and BOP equipment as required to prepare for commercial design, and (6) Resolve stack and BOP equipment technology issues and design, build, and field test a modular commercial prototype power plant to demonstrate readiness for commercial entry. A seven-task program, dedicated to attaining objective(s) in the areas noted above, was initiated in December 1994. Accomplishments of the first six months are discussed in this paper.

  2. Improved outage management techniques for better plant availability

    SciTech Connect

    Bemer, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    To maintain high availability of nuclear generating units is one of the most important management objectives. The duration of outages-whether planned or unplanned-is the main parameter impacting on plant availability, but the planned outages, and essentially the refueling outages, are the most important in this respect, and they also have a heavy impact on the economics of plant operation. The following factors influence the duration of the outages: (1) modifications; (2) preventive maintenance operations; and (3) corrective maintenance operations of generic faults. In this paper, the authors examine how the outage management organization of Electricite de France (EdF) plants is tending to optimize the solutions to the above-mentioned points.

  3. Using plant canopy temperature to improve irrigated crop management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Remotely sensed plant canopy temperature has long been recognized as having potential as a tool for irrigation management. However, a number of barriers have prevented its routine use in practice, such as the spatial and temporal resolution of remote sensing platforms, limitations in computing capac...

  4. [Evaluation of the efficacy of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) administration on penile erection in males undergoing hemodialysis and effect on pituitary-gonadal function].

    PubMed

    Kuwahara, M; Takagi, N; Nishitani, M; Matsushita, K; Ohta, K; Nakamura, K; Fujisaki, N

    1995-04-01

    Recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) was administered to males undergoing hemodialysis, and its effects on penile erection and hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal hormone levels were studied. The subject consisted of 18 males undergoing hemodialysis ranging in age from 22 to 58 years (mean 45.3 years). Chronic glomerulonephritis was present in 16, and diabetic nephropathy in 2, as underlying disease. rHuEPO was administered intravenously at 1,500 U 3 times a week with a target to increase the Ht value to 25% or above. Penile erection was evaluated subjectively by a questionnaire based on a visual analogue scale and objectively by semi quantitative measurement of nocturnal penile tumescence (NPT) using an erectometer. Of the 18 patients, subjective improvements in penile erection were observed in 13 (72%), and objective improvements in NPT were observed in 10 (56%). The administration of rHuEPO may alleviate hyperprolactinemia but was found to have no effect on the FSH, LH, Zn, or HS-PTH level. rHuEPO was suggested to be fairly effective for the treatment of sexual disorders. PMID:7776560

  5. An Improved Quantitative Analysis Method for Plant Cortical Microtubules

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yi; Huang, Chenyang; Wang, Jia; Shang, Peng

    2014-01-01

    The arrangement of plant cortical microtubules can reflect the physiological state of cells. However, little attention has been paid to the image quantitative analysis of plant cortical microtubules so far. In this paper, Bidimensional Empirical Mode Decomposition (BEMD) algorithm was applied in the image preprocessing of the original microtubule image. And then Intrinsic Mode Function 1 (IMF1) image obtained by decomposition was selected to do the texture analysis based on Grey-Level Cooccurrence Matrix (GLCM) algorithm. Meanwhile, in order to further verify its reliability, the proposed texture analysis method was utilized to distinguish different images of Arabidopsis microtubules. The results showed that the effect of BEMD algorithm on edge preserving accompanied with noise reduction was positive, and the geometrical characteristic of the texture was obvious. Four texture parameters extracted by GLCM perfectly reflected the different arrangements between the two images of cortical microtubules. In summary, the results indicate that this method is feasible and effective for the image quantitative analysis of plant cortical microtubules. It not only provides a new quantitative approach for the comprehensive study of the role played by microtubules in cell life activities but also supplies references for other similar studies. PMID:24744684

  6. Compressed Air System Optimization Project Saves Energy and Improves Production at a Citation Forging Plant

    SciTech Connect

    2003-05-01

    In the 1990s, a subsidiary of the Citation Corporation, Interstate Forging, implemented a compressed air system improvement project at its Milwaukee, Wisconsin, forging plant. This improvement enabled the plant to maintain an adequate and stable pressure level using fewer compressors, which led to improved product quality and lower production downtime. The project also yielded annual energy savings of 820,000 kWh and $45,000. With a total project cost of $67,000, the plant achieved a simple payback of just 1.5 years.

  7. Citation Corporation: Compressed Air System Optimization Project Saves Energy and Improves Production at Forging Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2003-05-01

    In the 1990s, a subsidiary of the Citation Corporation, Interstate Forging, implemented a compressed air system improvement project at its Milwaukee, Wisconsin, forging plant. This improvement enabled the plant to maintain an adequate and stable pressure level using fewer compressors, which led to improved product quality and lower production downtime. The project also yielded annual energy savings of 820,000 kWh and$45,000. With a total project cost of$67,000, the plant achieved a simple payback of just 1.5 years.

  8. Improved tritium monitoring at the Pantex Nuclear Weapons Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Brain, W.F.; Click, C.N.; Griffis, D.W.

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes the development of a system capable of sampling ambient levels of both elemental and oxidized tritium in ambient air at the US Department of Energy`s Pantex Nuclear Weapons Plant. The system of monitors uses a combination of commercial laboratory equipment and custom fabricated components. Problems inherent in tritium sampling, and those specific to weather extremes in Texas, were identified and researched. Experience with the sampling network is still limited, but concentrations of oxidized tritium are presently comparable to the original sampling network.

  9. Novel enabling technologies of gene isolation and plant transformation for improved crop protection

    SciTech Connect

    Torok, Tamas

    2013-02-04

    Meeting the needs of agricultural producers requires the continued development of improved transgenic crop protection products. The completed project focused on developing novel enabling technologies of gene discovery and plant transformation to facilitate the generation of such products.

  10. Predicted Efficiency of Spaced Plant Selection to Indirectly Improve Tall Fescue Sward Yield and Quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The validity of spaced plant evaluation to determine sward performance of forage grasses has oft been questioned. This experiment studied the efficiency of spaced plant evaluation to indirectly improve sward yield and nutritional quality in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.). A tall fescue ...

  11. Application of microbial inoculants promote plant growth, increased nutrient uptake and improve root morphology of corn plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reducing fertilizers impacts from agriculture is a world-wide concern, both from an environmental and human health perspective. One way to reduce impacts of fertilizers is by enhancing plant uptake which improves nutrient use efficiency and also potentially reduce the amounts of fertilizer needed. ...

  12. Edwin I. Hatch nuclear plant implementation of improved technical specifications

    SciTech Connect

    Mahler, S.R.; Pendry, D.

    1994-12-31

    Edwin I. Hatch nuclear plant consists of two General Electric boiling water reactor/4 units, with a common control room and a common refueling floor. In March 1993, Hatch began conversion of both units` technical specifications utilizing NUREG 1433. The technical specifications amendment request was submitted February 25, 1994. Issuance is scheduled for October 21, 1994, with implementation on March 15, 1994. The current unit-1 technical specifications are in the {open_quotes}custom{close_quotes} format, and the unit-2 technical specifications are in the old standard format. Hatch previously relocated the fire protection and radiological technical specifications requirements. The Hatch conversion will provide consistency between the two units, to the extent practicable.

  13. Remote Sensing and Modeling for Improving Operational Aquatic Plant Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bubenheim, Dave

    2016-01-01

    The California Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta is the hub for California’s water supply, conveying water from Northern to Southern California agriculture and communities while supporting important ecosystem services, agriculture, and communities in the Delta. Changes in climate, long-term drought, water quality changes, and expansion of invasive aquatic plants threatens ecosystems, impedes ecosystem restoration, and is economically, environmentally, and sociologically detrimental to the San Francisco Bay/California Delta complex. NASA Ames Research Center and the USDA-ARS partnered with the State of California and local governments to develop science-based, adaptive-management strategies for the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. The project combines science, operations, and economics related to integrated management scenarios for aquatic weeds to help land and waterway managers make science-informed decisions regarding management and outcomes. The team provides a comprehensive understanding of agricultural and urban land use in the Delta and the major water sheds (San Joaquin/Sacramento) supplying the Delta and interaction with drought and climate impacts on the environment, water quality, and weed growth. The team recommends conservation and modified land-use practices and aids local Delta stakeholders in developing management strategies. New remote sensing tools have been developed to enhance ability to assess conditions, inform decision support tools, and monitor management practices. Science gaps in understanding how native and invasive plants respond to altered environmental conditions are being filled and provide critical biological response parameters for Delta-SWAT simulation modeling. Operational agencies such as the California Department of Boating and Waterways provide testing and act as initial adopter of decision support tools. Methods developed by the project can become routine land and water management tools in complex river delta systems.

  14. An improved protocol to study the plant cell wall proteome

    PubMed Central

    Printz, Bruno; Dos Santos Morais, Raphaël; Wienkoop, Stefanie; Sergeant, Kjell; Lutts, Stanley; Hausman, Jean-Francois; Renaut, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Cell wall proteins were extracted from alfalfa stems according to a three-steps extraction procedure using sequentially CaCl2, EGTA, and LiCl-complemented buffers. The efficiency of this protocol for extracting cell wall proteins was compared with the two previously published methods optimized for alfalfa stem cell wall protein analysis. Following LC-MS/MS analysis the three-steps extraction procedure resulted in the identification of the highest number of cell wall proteins (242 NCBInr identifiers) and gave the lowest percentage of non-cell wall proteins (about 30%). However, the three protocols are rather complementary than substitutive since 43% of the identified proteins were specific to one protocol. This three-step protocol was therefore selected for a more detailed proteomic characterization using 2D-gel electrophoresis. With this technique, 75% of the identified proteins were shown to be fraction-specific and 72.7% were predicted as belonging to the cell wall compartment. Although, being less sensitive than LC-MS/MS approaches in detecting and identifying low-abundant proteins, gel-based approaches are valuable tools for the differentiation and relative quantification of protein isoforms and/or modified proteins. In particular isoforms, having variations in their amino-acid sequence and/or carrying different N-linked glycan chains were detected and characterized. This study highlights how the extracting protocols as well as the analytical techniques devoted to the study of the plant cell wall proteome are complementary and how they may be combined to elucidate the dynamism of the plant cell wall proteome in biological studies. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001927. PMID:25914713

  15. Deployable and erectable concepts for large spacecraft. [determining structural proportions of space platforms for STS delivery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bush, H. G.; Heard, W. L., Jr.; Walz, J. E.; Rehder, J. J.

    1980-01-01

    Computerized structural sizing techniques were used to determine structural proportions of minimum mass tetrahedral truss platforms designed for low Earth and geosynchronous orbit. Optimum (minimum mass) deployable and erectable, hexagonal shaped spacecraft are sized to satisfy multiple design requirements and constraints. Strut dimensions characterizing minimum mass designs are found to be significantly more slender than those conventionally used for structural applications. Comparison studies show that mass characteristics of deployable and erectable platforms are approximately equal and that the shuttle flights required by deployable trusses become excessive above certain critical stiffness values. Recent investigations of eractable strut assembly are reviewed. Initial erectable structure assembly experiments show that a pair of astronauts can achieve EVA assembly times of 2-5 min/strut and studies indicate that an automated assembler can achieve times of less than 1 min/strut for around the clock operation.

  16. Electromyographic analysis of male rat perineal muscles during copulation and reflexive erections.

    PubMed

    Holmes, G M; Chapple, W D; Leipheimer, R E; Sachs, B D

    1991-06-01

    Anatomical examination of the ventral bulbospongiosus (BS) muscle suggested that its proximal and distal portions may act during penile erection as a two-stage pump governing the intensity of glans erections. The coordination between these portions of the BS, and of the proximal BS with the ischiocavernosus (IC) muscle, was studied using electromyographic (EMG) recordings taken during copulation and reflexive erections. Mounts without intromission were accompanied by either strong IC activity with little or no proximal BS activity, or strong proximal BS activity preceding the onset of IC activity. Activity in the proximal BS during mounts was variable in both duration and amplitude but uniform in frequency. During mounts with intromission, EMG activity of the proximal BS consisted of two characteristic phases, an early phase of low-amplitude activity which was similar to proximal BS activity during nonintromissive mounts, followed by an intromissive phase of high-amplitude, high-frequency activity. During intromission patterns, IC activity reliably preceded proximal BS activity. Ejaculations were accompanied by stronger proximal BS activity than were other copulatory events and were followed by a series of proximal BS and IC bursts lasting for 10-20 seconds. During reflexive erections, EMG activity in the proximal BS was always fusiform and varied with the intensity of erection only in frequency. In contrast to the proximal BS, activity in the distal BS was similar in frequency and amplitude across copulatory and reflexive events. These findings suggest that: a) different motoneuron pools serve the different portions of the BS muscle; b) the distal BS does not differentially affect glans erection but may serve primarily to promote rigidity of the portion of the bulb that it surrounds, while the proximal BS acts as the variable aspect of a hypothetical two-stage pump, and c) activity in the IC must precede activity in the proximal BS to achieve intromission. PMID

  17. A synthetic erectile optogenetic stimulator enabling blue-light-inducible penile erection.

    PubMed

    Kim, Taeuk; Folcher, Marc; Doaud-El Baba, Marie; Fussenegger, Martin

    2015-05-11

    Precise spatiotemporal control of physiological processes by optogenetic devices inspired by synthetic biology may provide novel treatment opportunities for gene- and cell-based therapies. An erectile optogenetic stimulator (EROS), a synthetic designer guanylate cyclase producing a blue-light-inducible surge of the second messenger cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) in mammalian cells, enabled blue-light-dependent penile erection associated with occasional ejaculation after illumination of EROS-transfected corpus cavernosum in male rats. Photostimulated short-circuiting of complex psychological, neural, vascular, and endocrine factors to stimulate penile erection in the absence of sexual arousal may foster novel advances in the treatment of erectile dysfunction. PMID:25788334

  18. Improvement of growth rate of plants by bubble discharge in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahata, Junichiro; Takaki, Koichi; Satta, Naoya; Takahashi, Katsuyuki; Fujio, Takuya; Sasaki, Yuji

    2015-01-01

    The effect of bubble discharge in water on the growth rate of plants was investigated experimentally for application to plant cultivation systems. Spinach (Spinacia oleracea), radish (Raphanus sativus var. sativus), and strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) were used as specimens to clarify the effect of the discharge treatment on edible parts of the plants. The specimens were cultivated in pots filled with artificial soil, which included chicken manure charcoal. Distilled water was sprayed on the artificial soil and drained through a hole in the pots to a water storage tank. The water was circulated from the water storage tank to the cultivation pots after 15 or 30 min discharge treatment on alternate days. A magnetic compression-type pulsed power generator was used to produce the bubble discharge with a repetition rate of 250 pps. The plant height in the growth phase and the dry weight of the harvested plants were improved markedly by the discharge treatment in water. The soil and plant analyzer development (SPAD) value of the plants also improved in the growth phase of the plants. The concentration of nitrate nitrogen, which mainly contributed to the improvement of the growth rate, in the water increased with the discharge treatment. The Brix value of edible parts of Fragaria × ananassa increased with the discharge treatment. The inactivation of bacteria in the water was also confirmed with the discharge treatment.

  19. Overexpression of monoubiquitin improves photosynthesis in transgenic tobacco plants following high temperature stress.

    PubMed

    Tian, Fengxia; Gong, Jiangfeng; Zhang, Jin; Feng, Yanan; Wang, Guokun; Guo, Qifang; Wang, Wei

    2014-09-01

    The ubiquitin/26S proteasome system (Ub/26S) is implicated in abiotic stress responses in plants. In this paper, transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing Ta-Ub2 from wheat were used to study the functions of Ub in the improvement of photosynthesis under high temperature (45°C) stress. We observed higher levels of Ub conjugates in transgenic plants under high temperature stress conditions compared to wild type (WT) as a result of the constitutive overexpression of Ta-Ub2, suggesting increased protein degradation by the 26S proteasome system under high temperature stress. Overexpressing Ub increased the photosynthetic rate (Pn) of transgenic tobacco plants, consistent with the improved ATPase activity in the thylakoid membrane and enhanced efficiency of PSII photochemistry. The higher D1 protein levels following high temperature stress in transgenic plants than WT were also observed. These findings imply that Ub may be involved in tolerance of photosynthesis to high temperature stress in plants. Compared with WT, the transgenic plants showed lower protein carbonylation and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, less reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, but higher antioxidant enzyme activity under high temperature stress. These findings suggest that the improved antioxidant capacity of transgenic plants may be one of the most important mechanisms underlying Ub-regulated high temperature tolerance. PMID:25113454

  20. Ongoing Control System Modernization Project at a Steel Plant Improves Operations (Weirton Plant)

    SciTech Connect

    2000-12-01

    Weirton Steel Corporation is the eighth largest steel producer in the U.S. and its main manufacturing facility is located in Weirton, West Virginia. In 1998 Weirton Steel successfully implemented a project at its Weirton plant in which it modernized the control systems on its utilities and built a control center in a central location from which those utilities could be monitored.

  1. Application of plant genomics for improved symbiotic nitrogen fixation in plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Because genome sequencing, transcript profiling, proteome analysis, metabolite profiling, mutant analysis, and comparative genomics have progressed at a logarithmic pace, we know more about the plant genes involved in symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF) than could have been imagined a decade ago. Howe...

  2. BOOK REVIEW OF "IMPROVEMENT OF CROP PLANTS FOR INDUSTRIAL END USE"

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Industrial crops are acquiring greater importance as countries seek to reduce their dependence on raw materials and energy derived from fossil sources. Thus, a thorough assessment of the prospects for improving industrial crops is timely. The book Improvement of Crop Plants for Industrial End Use, r...

  3. Microbial Inoculation Improves Growth of Oil Palm Plants (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.)

    PubMed Central

    Om, Azlin Che; Ghazali, Amir Hamzah Ahmad; Keng, Chan Lai; Ishak, Zamzuri

    2009-01-01

    Introduction of diazotrophic rhizobacteria to oil palm tissues during the in vitro micropropagation process establishes an early associative interaction between the plant cells and bacteria. In the association, the diazotrophs provide the host plants with phytohormones and fixed nitrogen. This study was conducted to observe growth of bacterised tissue cultured oil palm plants under ex vitro conditions after 280 days of growth. Root dry weight, shoot dry weight, root volume, bacterial colonisation, leaf protein and chlorophyll content of the host plants were observed. The results revealed that the inocula successfully colonised roots of the host plants. Plants inoculated with Acetobacter diazotrophicus (R12) had more root dry weight and volume than plants inoculated with Azospirillum brasilense (Sp7). Leaf protein and chlorophyll content were higher in the bacterised plants compared to Control 2 plants (inoculated with killed Sp7). These results suggest that the diazotrophs successfully improved the growth of the host plant (oil palm) and minimised the amount of N fertiliser necessary for growth. PMID:24575180

  4. Insect stings to change gear for healthy plant: Improving maize drought tolerance by whitefly infestation.

    PubMed

    Park, Yong-Soon; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2016-05-01

    Since plants first appeared about 1.1 billion years ago, they have been faced with biotic and abiotic stresses in their environment. To overcome these stresses, plants developed defense strategies. Accumulating evidence suggests that the whitefly [Bemisia tabaci (Genn.)] affects the regulation of plant defenses and physiology. A recent study demonstrates that aboveground whitefly infestation positively modulates root biomass and anthocyanin pigmentation on brace roots of maize plants (Zea mays L.). In agreement with these observations, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and jasmonic acid (JA) contents and the expression of IAA- and JA-related genes are higher in whitefly-infested maize plants than in non-infected control plants. Interestingly, the fresh weight of whitefly-infested maize plants is approximately 20% higher than in non-infected control plants under water stress conditions. Further investigation has revealed that hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) accumulates in whitefly-infested maize plants after water stoppage. Taken together, these results suggest that activation of phytohormones- (i.e., IAA and JA) and H2O2-mediated maize signaling pathways triggered by aboveground whitefly infestation promotes drought resistance. They also provide an insight into how inter-kingdom interactions can improve drought tolerance in plants. PMID:27164447

  5. Automated construction of lightweight, simple, field-erected structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, R. S.

    1980-01-01

    The feasibility of automation of construction processes which could result in mobile construction robots is examined. The construction of a large photovoltaic power plant with a peak power output of 100 MW is demonstrated. The reasons to automate the construction process, a conventional construction scenario as the reference for evaluation, and a list of potential cost benefits using robots are presented. The technical feasibility of using robots to construct SPS ground stations is addressed.

  6. Condom-associated erection problems: behavioural responses and attributions in young, heterosexual men

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Brandon J.; Sanders, Stephanie A.; Crosby, Richard A.; Ingelhart, Kara N.; Janssen, Erick

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous studies have associated men who experience condom-associated erection problems (CAEP) with incomplete condom use and/or foregoing using condoms altogether. However, how men respond to CAEP and what they attribute CAEP to, remains unclear. Understanding young men's CAEP responses and attributions could help improve sexually transmissible infections (STI)/HIV prevention programs and interventions. Methods Behavioural responses to, and attributions for, CAEP during application (CAEP-Application) and/or during penile-vaginal intercourse (CAEP-PVI) were reported using an online questionnaire by 295 young, heterosexual men (aged 18–24 years) who were recruited via social media websites and university Listservs across major cities in the Midwestern USA. Results Behavioural responses to CAEP-Application included receiving oral or manual stimulation, stimulating a partner, self-stimulation, foregoing condom use and applying the condom after starting intercourse. Attributions for CAEP-Application included: distraction, fit and feel problems, application taking too long and having consumed too much alcohol. Behavioural responses to CAEP-PVI included increasing the intensity of intercourse, removing the condom to receive oral or manual stimulation and removing condom and continuing intercourse. Attributions for CAEP-PVI included: lack of sensation, taking too long to orgasm, not being ‘turned on’ enough, fit and feel problems and partner-related factors. Conclusions Men who report CAEP respond with both STI/HIV risk-reducing and potentially risk-increasing behaviours (e.g. forgoing condom use). Men attribute their experiences to a wide range of individual- and partner-level factors. Addressing men's CAEP behavioural responses and attributions may increase the efficacious value of condom programs and STI/HIV prevention interventions – particularly among men who experience CAEP. PMID:26166025

  7. Condom-Associated Erection Problems: A Study of High-Risk Young Black Males Residing in the Southern United States.

    PubMed

    Graham, Cynthia A; Crosby, Richard; Sanders, Stephanie; Milhausen, Robin; Yarber, William L

    2016-03-01

    Previous research indicates that young men may experience condom-associated erection loss and that these problems may lead to inconsistent or incomplete condom use. The primary aim of this study was to assess, using a retrospective recall period of 2 months, correlates of condom-associated erection problems among young Black men attending sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinics. Data were collected in clinics treating patients with STIs in three southern U.S. cities. Males 15 to 23 years of age who identified as Black/African American and reported recent (past 2 months) condom use were eligible. A total of 494 men participated. Nineteen percent reported that condom-associated erection problems during condom application occurred at least once, and 17.8% indicated erection difficulties occurred during sexual intercourse at least once in the past 2 months. Multivariate analyses identified that condom-associated erection problems were associated with reports of sex with more than one partner during the recall period, reported problems with condom fit and feel, lower motivation to use condoms, and attempts at condom application before having a full erection. Findings suggest that clinic interventions should address possible condom-associated erection problems among young Black men who are at risk of STIs. Encouraging men who may be vulnerable to erection loss when condoms are used to allow sufficient time for sexual arousal to build may be an effective strategy. PMID:25475105

  8. Portal Crane P51, 50ton Crane. Erecting side trusses and ladder. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Portal Crane P-51, 50-ton Crane. Erecting side trusses and ladder. Looking east. Taken April 12, 1920. 14th Naval District Photo Collection Item No. 3207 - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Exterior Cranes, Waterfront Crane Track System, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  9. 31. VIEW LOOKING AFT TOWARD WHEELHOUSE ERECTED IN THE 1940s. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. VIEW LOOKING AFT TOWARD WHEELHOUSE ERECTED IN THE 1940s. CREW MEMBER IS UNKNOWN. Original 3-1/2'x4-1/4' photograph taken c. 1930? - Pilot Schooner "Alabama", Moored in harbor at Vineyard Haven, Vineyard Haven, Dukes County, MA

  10. CONTROL HOUSE, TRA620. MASONS ERECT PUMICE BLOCK WALLS. BUILDING WILL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONTROL HOUSE, TRA-620. MASONS ERECT PUMICE BLOCK WALLS. BUILDING WILL CONTROL ACCESS TO MTR AND OTHER "HOT" AND CLASSIFIED AREAS. INL NEGATIVE NO. 577. Unknown Photographer, 9/11/1950 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  11. 32 CFR 643.118 - Nonappropriated funds-Authority to permit erection of structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Nonappropriated funds-Authority to permit erection of structures. 643.118 Section 643.118 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE Additional Authority of Commanders § 643.118 Nonappropriated funds—Authority to permit...

  12. 32 CFR 643.118 - Nonappropriated funds-Authority to permit erection of structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Nonappropriated funds-Authority to permit erection of structures. 643.118 Section 643.118 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE Additional Authority of Commanders §...

  13. 32 CFR 643.118 - Nonappropriated funds-Authority to permit erection of structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Nonappropriated funds-Authority to permit erection of structures. 643.118 Section 643.118 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE Additional Authority of Commanders §...

  14. 32 CFR 643.118 - Nonappropriated funds-Authority to permit erection of structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Nonappropriated funds-Authority to permit erection of structures. 643.118 Section 643.118 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE Additional Authority of Commanders § 643.118 Nonappropriated funds—Authority to permit...

  15. 32 CFR 643.118 - Nonappropriated funds-Authority to permit erection of structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Nonappropriated funds-Authority to permit erection of structures. 643.118 Section 643.118 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE Additional Authority of Commanders §...

  16. 76 FR 33786 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Steel Erection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-09

    ... Federal Register on March 2, 2011 (76 FR 11516). Interested parties are encouraged to send comments to the...; Steel Erection ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Labor (DOL) is submitting the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) sponsored information collection request (ICR) titled,...

  17. SPERTI Control Building (PER601). Preengineered metal frame building is erected, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SPERT-I Control Building (PER-601). Pre-engineered metal frame building is erected, with metal siding on part of one side. Photographer: R.G. Larsen. Date: April 22, 1955. INEEL negative no. 55-1002 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, SPERT-I & Power Burst Facility Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  18. A.J. STEVENS MEMORIAL, “ERECTED TO A FRIEND OF LABOR BY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    A.J. STEVENS MEMORIAL, “ERECTED TO A FRIEND OF LABOR BY HIS COWORKERS, NOV. 28, 1889.” CESAR CHAVEZ PLAZA, SACRAMENTO, CA. STEVENS WAS MASTER MECHANIC AT SACRAMENTO SHOPS FROM 1870-1888. - Southern Pacific, Sacramento Shops, 111 I Street, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  19. Archimede solar energy molten salt parabolic trough demo plant: Improvements and second year of operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maccari, Augusto; Donnola, Sandro; Matino, Francesca; Tamano, Shiro

    2016-05-01

    Since July 2013, the first stand-alone Molten Salt Parabolic Trough (MSPT) demo plant, which was built in collaboration with Archimede Solar Energy and Chiyoda Corporation, is in operation, located adjacent to the Archimede Solar Energy (ASE) manufacturing plant in Massa Martana (Italy). During the two year's operating time frame, the management of the demo plant has shown that MSPT technology is a suitable and reliable option. Several O&M procedures and tests have been performed, as Heat Loss and Minimum Flow Test, with remarkable results confirming that this technology is ready to be extended to standard size CSP plant, if the plant design takes into account molten salt peculiarities. Additionally, the plant has been equipped on fall 2014 with a Steam Generator system by Chiyoda Corporation, in order to test even this important MSPT plant subsystem and to extend the solar field active time, overcoming the previous lack of an adequate thermal load. Here, a description of the plant improvements and the overall plant operation figures will be presented.

  20. Power plant performance monitoring and improvement. Volume 3. Power plant performance instrumentation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Crim, H.G.; Westcott, J.C.; de Mello, R.W.; Brandon, R.E.; Parkinson, D.W.; Czuba, J.S.

    1986-02-01

    PEPCO's Morgantown Unit 2 and the PJM system control center are serving as the test facilities for this project. This first phase of the project utilizes currently (or soon to be) available instrumentation for monitoring and analyzing plant and system performance on a continuous basis. The overall approach is to demonstrate in one facility all sensors, monitoring devices, and necessary computer hardware and software for on-line performance monitoring and dispatch purposes. Significant developments include turbine packing leakage measurement, condenser back-pressure measurement, power cycle testing, and studies of the application of advanced instrumentation to system dispatch.

  1. Indefatigable: an erect coralline alga is highly resistant to fatigue.

    PubMed

    Denny, Mark; Mach, Katharine; Tepler, Sarah; Martone, Patrick

    2013-10-15

    Intertidal organisms are subjected to intense hydrodynamic forces as waves break on the shore. These repeated insults can cause a plant or animal's structural materials to fatigue and fail, even though no single force would be sufficient to break the organism. Indeed, the survivorship and maximum size of at least one species of seaweed is set by the accumulated effects of small forces rather than the catastrophic imposition of a single lethal force. One might suppose that fatigue would be especially potent in articulated coralline algae, in which the strain of the entire structure is concentrated in localized joints, the genicula. However, previous studies of joint morphology suggest an alternative hypothesis. Each geniculum is composed of a single tier of cells, which are attached at their ends to the calcified segments of the plant (the intergenicula) but have minimal connection to each other along their lengths. This lack of neighborly attachment potentially allows the weak interfaces between cells to act as 'crack stoppers', inhibiting the growth of fatigue cracks. We tested this possibility by repeatedly loading fronds of Calliarthron cheilosporioides, a coralline alga common on wave-washed shores in California. When repeatedly loaded to 50-80% of its breaking strength, C. cheilosporioides commonly survives more than a million stress cycles, with a record of 51 million. We show how this extraordinary fatigue resistance interacts with the distribution of wave-induced water velocities to set the limits to size in this species. PMID:24068348

  2. Luminant's Big Brown Plant wins for continuous improvement and safety programs

    SciTech Connect

    Peltier, R.

    2008-07-15

    Staff from Luminant's Big Brown Plant accepted the PRB Coal Users' Group's top honour for innovative improvements to coal-handling systems and a sterling safety record. The numbers reveal their accomplishments: an average EFOR less than 4%, an availability factor averaging 90% for a plant that burns a lignite/PRB mix, and staff who worked more than 2.6 million man-hours since March 2000 without a lost-time injury. 13 photos., 1 tab.

  3. Circadian rhythms of hydraulic conductance and growth are enhanced by drought and improve plant performance

    PubMed Central

    Caldeira, Cecilio F.; Jeanguenin, Linda; Chaumont, François; Tardieu, François

    2014-01-01

    Circadian rhythms enable plants to anticipate daily environmental variations, resulting in growth oscillations under continuous light. Because plants daily transpire up to 200% of their water content, their water status oscillates from favourable during the night to unfavourable during the day. We show that rhythmic leaf growth under continuous light is observed in plants that experience large alternations of water status during an entrainment period, but is considerably buffered otherwise. Measurements and computer simulations show that this is due to oscillations of plant hydraulic conductance and plasma membrane aquaporin messenger RNA abundance in roots during continuous light. A simulation model suggests that circadian oscillations of root hydraulic conductance contribute to acclimation to water stress by increasing root water uptake, thereby favouring growth and photosynthesis. They have a negative effect in favourable hydraulic conditions. Climate-driven control of root hydraulic conductance therefore improves plant performances in both stressed and non-stressed conditions. PMID:25370944

  4. Circadian rhythms of hydraulic conductance and growth are enhanced by drought and improve plant performance.

    PubMed

    Caldeira, Cecilio F; Jeanguenin, Linda; Chaumont, François; Tardieu, François

    2014-01-01

    Circadian rhythms enable plants to anticipate daily environmental variations, resulting in growth oscillations under continuous light. Because plants daily transpire up to 200% of their water content, their water status oscillates from favourable during the night to unfavourable during the day. We show that rhythmic leaf growth under continuous light is observed in plants that experience large alternations of water status during an entrainment period, but is considerably buffered otherwise. Measurements and computer simulations show that this is due to oscillations of plant hydraulic conductance and plasma membrane aquaporin messenger RNA abundance in roots during continuous light. A simulation model suggests that circadian oscillations of root hydraulic conductance contribute to acclimation to water stress by increasing root water uptake, thereby favouring growth and photosynthesis. They have a negative effect in favourable hydraulic conditions. Climate-driven control of root hydraulic conductance therefore improves plant performances in both stressed and non-stressed conditions. PMID:25370944

  5. Gamma irradiation to improve plant vigour, grain development, and yield attributes of wheat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Bhupinder; Datta, P. S.

    2010-02-01

    Utilizing low dose gamma radiation holds promise for physiological crop improvement. Seed treatment of low dose gamma radiation 0.01-0.10 kGy reduced plant height, improved plant vigour, flag leaf area, total and number of EBT. Gamma irradiation increased grain yield due to an increase in number of EBT and grain number while 1000 grain weight was negatively affected. Further uniformity in low dose radiation response in wheat in the field suggests that the affect is essentially at physiological than at genetic level and that role of growth hormones could be crucial.

  6. Water stress preconditioning to improve drought resistance in young apricot plants.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Sánchez; Domingo; Torrecillas; Pérez-Pastor

    2000-07-28

    The effect of water stress preconditioning was studied in 1-year-old apricot plants (Prunus armeniaca L., cv. Búlida). Plants were submitted to different treatments, T-0 (control treatment) and T-1, drip irrigated daily; T-2 and T-3, irrigated daily at 50% and 25% of T-0, respectively; T-4 and T-5, irrigated to field capacity every 3 and 6 days, respectively. After 30 days, irrigation was withheld for 10 days, maintaining the T-0 treatment irrigated daily. After this period, the plants were re-irrigated to run-off and treated as control treatment. The stomatal closure and epinasty observed in response to water stress represented adaptive mechanisms to drought, allowing the plants to regulate water loss more effectively and prevent leaf heating. A substantial reduction in the irrigation water supplied combined with a high frequency of application (T-3 treatment) promoted plant hardening; the plants enduring drought better, due to their greater osmotic adjustment (0.77 MPa), which prevented severe plant dehydration and leaf abscission. Such a preconditioning treatment may be valuable for young apricot plants in the nursery stage in order to improve their subsequent resistance to drought. A 50% reduction in daily irrigation (T-2 treatment) did not significantly affect either gas exchange rates or leaf turgor, which suggests that water should be applied frequently if deficit irrigation is to be implemented. PMID:10936532

  7. An optimized procedure for plant recovery from somatic embryos significantly facilitates the genetic improvement of Vitis.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhijian T; Kim, Kyung-Hee; Dhekney, Sadanand A; Jasinski, Jonathan R; Creech, Matthew R; Gray, Dennis J

    2014-01-01

    Plant regeneration from grapevine (Vitis spp.) via somatic embryogenesis typically is poor. Recovery of plants from Vitis rotundifolia Michx. (muscadine grape) is particularly problematic due to extremely low efficiency, including extended culture durations required for embryo-plant conversion. Poor plant recovery is an obstacle to the selection of improved genetically modified lines. Somatic embryos (SEs) of V. rotundifolia cultivar Delicious (Del-HS) and Vitis vinifera L cultivar Thompson Seedless (TS) were used to identify culture media and conditions that promoted embryo differentiation and plant conversion; this resulted in a two-step culture system. In comparative culture experiments, C2D medium containing 6% sucrose was the most effective, among four distinct formulae tested, for inducing precocious SE germination and cell differentiation. This medium, further supplemented with 4 µM 6-benzylaminopurine (C2D4B), was subsequently determined to enhance post-germinative growth of SE. MS medium supplemented with 0.5 µM 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (MSN) was then utilized to stimulate root and shoot growth of germinated SE. An average of 35% and 80% 'Del-HS' and 'TS' SE, respectively, developed into plants. All plants developed robust root and shoot systems and exhibited excellent survival following transfer to soil. Over 150 plants of 'Del-HS' were regenerated and established within 2.5 months, which is a dramatic reduction from the 6- to 12-month time period previously required. Similarly, 88 'TS' plant lines were obtained within the same time period. Subsequently, seven out of eight Vitis cultivars exhibited significantly increased plant conversion percentages, demonstrating broad application of the two-step culture system to produce the large numbers of independent plant lines needed for selection of desired traits. PMID:26504540

  8. An optimized procedure for plant recovery from somatic embryos significantly facilitates the genetic improvement of Vitis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhijian T; Kim, Kyung-Hee; Dhekney, Sadanand A; Jasinski, Jonathan R; Creech, Matthew R; Gray, Dennis J

    2014-01-01

    Plant regeneration from grapevine (Vitis spp.) via somatic embryogenesis typically is poor. Recovery of plants from Vitis rotundifolia Michx. (muscadine grape) is particularly problematic due to extremely low efficiency, including extended culture durations required for embryo–plant conversion. Poor plant recovery is an obstacle to the selection of improved genetically modified lines. Somatic embryos (SEs) of V. rotundifolia cultivar Delicious (Del-HS) and Vitis vinifera L cultivar Thompson Seedless (TS) were used to identify culture media and conditions that promoted embryo differentiation and plant conversion; this resulted in a two-step culture system. In comparative culture experiments, C2D medium containing 6% sucrose was the most effective, among four distinct formulae tested, for inducing precocious SE germination and cell differentiation. This medium, further supplemented with 4 µM 6-benzylaminopurine (C2D4B), was subsequently determined to enhance post-germinative growth of SE. MS medium supplemented with 0.5 µM 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (MSN) was then utilized to stimulate root and shoot growth of germinated SE. An average of 35% and 80% ‘Del-HS’ and ‘TS’ SE, respectively, developed into plants. All plants developed robust root and shoot systems and exhibited excellent survival following transfer to soil. Over 150 plants of ‘Del-HS’ were regenerated and established within 2.5 months, which is a dramatic reduction from the 6- to 12-month time period previously required. Similarly, 88 ‘TS’ plant lines were obtained within the same time period. Subsequently, seven out of eight Vitis cultivars exhibited significantly increased plant conversion percentages, demonstrating broad application of the two-step culture system to produce the large numbers of independent plant lines needed for selection of desired traits. PMID:26504540

  9. Heat-Rate Improvement Obtained by Retubing Power-Plant Condenser Enhanced Tubes

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1994-01-21

    A utility will only retube a condenser with enhanced tubes if the incremental cost of the enhanced tubes can be offset with reduced fuel costs. The reduced fuel cost is obtained for some units because of the higher heat-transfer coefficient of enhanced tubes. They lead to improved condenser performance measured by a lower condenser pressure and therefore a more efficient power plant. However, the higher haet-transfer coefficients do not always guarantee that enhanced tubes willmore » be more cost effective. Other issues must be considered such as the cooling-water flow reduction due to the increased pressure drop, the low-pressure turbine heat-rate variation with backpressure, and the cooling-water pump and system characteristics. These and other parameters must be considered to calculate the efficiency improvement of the power plant as commonly measured by the quantity known as the heat rate. Knowing the heat-rate improvement, the fuel cost, and the incremental increase of the enhanced tubes from the supplier, the payback time can be determined. This program calculates the heat-rate improvement that can be obtained by retubing a power plant condenser with enhanced tubes of a particular type called Korodense LPD made by Wolverine Tube, Inc. The fuel savings are easily established knowing the heat-rate improvement. All electrical utilities are potential users because a condenser is used as the heat sink for every power plant.« less

  10. Heat-Rate Improvement Obtained by Retubing Power-Plant Condenser Enhanced Tubes

    SciTech Connect

    1994-01-21

    A utility will only retube a condenser with enhanced tubes if the incremental cost of the enhanced tubes can be offset with reduced fuel costs. The reduced fuel cost is obtained for some units because of the higher heat-transfer coefficient of enhanced tubes. They lead to improved condenser performance measured by a lower condenser pressure and therefore a more efficient power plant. However, the higher haet-transfer coefficients do not always guarantee that enhanced tubes will be more cost effective. Other issues must be considered such as the cooling-water flow reduction due to the increased pressure drop, the low-pressure turbine heat-rate variation with backpressure, and the cooling-water pump and system characteristics. These and other parameters must be considered to calculate the efficiency improvement of the power plant as commonly measured by the quantity known as the heat rate. Knowing the heat-rate improvement, the fuel cost, and the incremental increase of the enhanced tubes from the supplier, the payback time can be determined. This program calculates the heat-rate improvement that can be obtained by retubing a power plant condenser with enhanced tubes of a particular type called Korodense LPD made by Wolverine Tube, Inc. The fuel savings are easily established knowing the heat-rate improvement. All electrical utilities are potential users because a condenser is used as the heat sink for every power plant.

  11. HTRATE; Heat-Rate Improvement Obtained by Retubing Power-Plant Condenser Enhanced Tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Rabas, T.J.

    1990-06-01

    A utility will only retube a condenser with enhanced tubes if the incremental cost of the enhanced tubes can be offset with reduced fuel costs. The reduced fuel cost is obtained for some units because of the higher heat-transfer coefficient of enhanced tubes. They lead to improved condenser performance measured by a lower condenser pressure and therefore a more efficient power plant. However, the higher haet-transfer coefficients do not always guarantee that enhanced tubes will be more cost effective. Other issues must be considered such as the cooling-water flow reduction due to the increased pressure drop, the low-pressure turbine heat-rate variation with backpressure, and the cooling-water pump and system characteristics. These and other parameters must be considered to calculate the efficiency improvement of the power plant as commonly measured by the quantity known as the heat rate. Knowing the heat-rate improvement, the fuel cost, and the incremental increase of the enhanced tubes from the supplier, the payback time can be determined. This program calculates the heat-rate improvement that can be obtained by retubing a power plant condenser with enhanced tubes of a particular type called Korodense LPD made by Wolverine Tube, Inc. The fuel savings are easily established knowing the heat-rate improvement. All electrical utilities are potential users because a condenser is used as the heat sink for every power plant.

  12. Post-floral Erection of Stalks Provides Insight into the Evolution of Fruit Orientation and Its Effects on Seed Dispersal

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Yang; Zhou, Zhuo; Sha, Wen; Sun, Hang

    2016-01-01

    That stalks reorient after flowering to face upwards is a common phenomenon in many flowering plants, indicating the potential importance of fruit orientation on seed dispersal. But this idea has not been subject to an empirical test. We examined this hypothesis by analysing the evolutionary correlation between fruit orientation and other characters and by investigating the effects of fruit orientation on seed dispersal. We found that 1) in a sub-alpine plant community, upward fruit orientation strongly correlates with fruits that act as seed containers, which are often of dry type and are dispersed by non-animal vectors; 2) as exemplified by the Campanulaceae s. str., fruit orientation strongly correlates with dehiscence position. Upwardly-oriented capsules dehisce at the apex, whereas pendent ones dehisce at the base, in both cases ensuring that seeds are released from an upright position; 3) in manipulation experiments on Silene chungtienensis, upward fruits (the natural state) exhibit much greater dispersal distances and more dispersive pattern than pendent ones, and have a more even distribution of dispersal direction than horizontal ones. Our results suggest that fruit orientation may have important function in seed dispersal, which may be the reason why the phenomenon that stalk erection after flowering occurs widely. PMID:26832830

  13. Post-floral Erection of Stalks Provides Insight into the Evolution of Fruit Orientation and Its Effects on Seed Dispersal.

    PubMed

    Niu, Yang; Zhou, Zhuo; Sha, Wen; Sun, Hang

    2016-01-01

    That stalks reorient after flowering to face upwards is a common phenomenon in many flowering plants, indicating the potential importance of fruit orientation on seed dispersal. But this idea has not been subject to an empirical test. We examined this hypothesis by analysing the evolutionary correlation between fruit orientation and other characters and by investigating the effects of fruit orientation on seed dispersal. We found that 1) in a sub-alpine plant community, upward fruit orientation strongly correlates with fruits that act as seed containers, which are often of dry type and are dispersed by non-animal vectors; 2) as exemplified by the Campanulaceae s. str., fruit orientation strongly correlates with dehiscence position. Upwardly-oriented capsules dehisce at the apex, whereas pendent ones dehisce at the base, in both cases ensuring that seeds are released from an upright position; 3) in manipulation experiments on Silene chungtienensis, upward fruits (the natural state) exhibit much greater dispersal distances and more dispersive pattern than pendent ones, and have a more even distribution of dispersal direction than horizontal ones. Our results suggest that fruit orientation may have important function in seed dispersal, which may be the reason why the phenomenon that stalk erection after flowering occurs widely. PMID:26832830

  14. Trends in plant virus epidemiology: opportunities from new or improved technologies.

    PubMed

    Jones, R A C

    2014-06-24

    This review focuses on new or improved technologies currently being applied, or likely to be applied in the future, to worldwide research on plant virus epidemiology. Recent technological advances and innovations provide many opportunities to improve understanding of the way diverse types of plant virus epidemics develop and how to manage them. The review starts at the macro level by considering how recent innovations in remote sensing and precision agriculture can provide valuable information about (i) virus epidemics occurring at continental, regional or district scales (via satellites) and within individual crops (mostly via lightweight unmanned aerial vehicles), and (ii) exactly where to target control measures. It then considers recent improvements in information systems and innovations in modelling that improve (i) understanding of virus epidemics and ability to predict them, and (ii) delivery to end-users of critical advice on control measures, such as Internet-based Decision Support Systems. The review goes on to discuss how advances in analysis of spatiotemporal virus spread patterns within crops can help to enhance understanding of how virus epidemics develop and validate potentially useful virus control measures. At the micro level, the review then considers the many insights that advances in molecular epidemiology can provide about genetic variation within plant virus populations involved in epidemics, and how this variation drives what occurs at the macro level. Next, it describes how recent innovations in virus detection technologies are providing many opportunities to collect and analyse new types, and ever increasing amounts, of data about virus epidemics, and the genetic variability of the virus populations involved. Finally, the implications for plant virus epidemiology of technologies likely to be important in the future are considered. To address looming world food insecurity and threats to plant biodiversity resulting from climate change and

  15. Genetic Improvement of Switchgrass and Other Herbaceous Plants for Use as Biomass Fuel Feedstock

    SciTech Connect

    Vogel, K.P.

    2001-01-11

    It should be highly feasible to genetically modify the feedstock quality of switchgrass and other herbaceous plants using both conventional and molecular breeding techniques. Effectiveness of breeding to modify herbages of switchgrass and other perennial and annual herbaceous species has already been demonstrated. The use of molecular markers and transformation technology will greatly enhance the capability of breeders to modify the plant structure and cell walls of herbaceous plants. It will be necessary to monitor gene flow to remnant wild populations of plants and have strategies available to curtail gene flow if it becomes a potential problem. It also will be necessary to monitor plant survival and long-term productivity as affected by genetic changes that improve forage quality. Information on the conversion processes that will be used and the biomass characteristics that affect conversion efficiency and rate is absolutely essential as well as information on the relative economic value of specific traits. Because most forage or biomass quality characteristics are highly affected by plant maturity, it is suggested that plant material of specific maturity stages be used in research to determining desirable feedstock quality characteristics. Plant material could be collected at various stages of development from an array of environments and storage conditions that could be used in conversion research. The same plant material could be used to develop NIRS calibrations that could be used by breeders in their selection programs and also to develop criteria for a feedstock quality assessment program. Breeding for improved feedstock quality will likely affect the rate of improvement of biomass production per acre. If the same level of resources are used, multi-trait breeding simply reduces the selection pressure and hence the breeding progress that can be made for a single trait unless all the traits are highly correlated. Since desirable feedstock traits are likely

  16. Value impact assessment: A preliminary assessment of improvement opportunities at the Quantico Central Heating Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Brambley, M.R.; Weakley, S.A.

    1990-09-01

    This report presents the results of a preliminary assessment of opportunities for improvement at the US Marine Corps (USMC) Quantico, Virginia, Central Heating Plant (CHP). This study is part of a program intended to provide the CHP staff with a computerized Artificial Intelligence (AI) decision support system that will assist in a more efficient, reliable, and safe operation of their plant. As part of the effort to provide the AI decision support system, a team of six scientists and engineers from the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) visited the plant to characterize the conditions and environment of the CHP. This assessment resulted in a list of potential performance improvement opportunities at the CHP. In this report, 12 of these opportunities are discussed and qualitatively analyzed. 70 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

  17. Exploiting plant-microbe partnerships to improve biomass production and remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Weyens, N.; van der Lelie, D.; Taghavi, S.; Newman, L.; Vangronsveld, J.

    2009-10-01

    Although many plant-associated bacteria have beneficial effects on their host, their importance during plant growth and development is still underestimated. A better understanding of their plant growth-promoting mechanisms could be exploited for sustainable growth of food and feed crops, biomass for biofuel production and feedstocks for industrial processes. Such plant growth-promoting mechanisms might facilitate higher production of energy crops in a more sustainable manner, even on marginal land, and thus contribute to avoiding conflicts between food and energy production. Furthermore, because many bacteria show a natural capacity to cope with contaminants, they could be exploited to improve the efficiency of phytoremediation or to protect the food chain by reducing levels of agrochemicals in food crops.

  18. Suggested improvements for the allergenicity assessment of genetically modified plants used in foods.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Richard E; Tetteh, Afua O

    2011-08-01

    Genetically modified (GM) plants are increasingly used for food production and industrial applications. As the global population has surpassed 7 billion and per capita consumption rises, food production is challenged by loss of arable land, changing weather patterns, and evolving plant pests and disease. Previous gains in quantity and quality relied on natural or artificial breeding, random mutagenesis, increased pesticide and fertilizer use, and improved farming techniques, all without a formal safety evaluation. However, the direct introduction of novel genes raised questions regarding safety that are being addressed by an evaluation process that considers potential increases in the allergenicity, toxicity, and nutrient availability of foods derived from the GM plants. Opinions vary regarding the adequacy of the assessment, but there is no documented proof of an adverse effect resulting from foods produced from GM plants. This review and opinion discusses current practices and new regulatory demands related to food safety. PMID:21487714

  19. Exergoeconomic analysis of a refinery`s utilities plant: Part II-improvement proposals

    SciTech Connect

    Rivero, R.; Hernandez, R.

    1996-12-31

    A crude oil refinery normally consumes a large amount of energy, not only in the form of the combustion of fossil fuels in the process units, but also in the associated Utilities Plant which produces process steam at different pressure levels and electricity. Energy losses of the utilities plant represent some 40 % of the total refinery`s energy losses. It is then extremely important to evaluate the performance of this plant and the costs to be assigned to the production of steam and electricity as a supplier of energy to the process units. This paper presents the improvement proposals generated by the application of an exergoeconomic analysis to the Utilities Plant of an existing 150,000 BPD crude oil refinery. 2 refs., 7 figs.

  20. Improved method for HPLC analysis of polyamines, agmatine and aromatic monoamines in plant tissue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slocum, R. D.; Flores, H. E.; Galston, A. W.; Weinstein, L. H.

    1989-01-01

    The high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method of Flores and Galston (1982 Plant Physiol 69: 701) for the separation and quantitation of benzoylated polyamines in plant tissues has been widely adopted by other workers. However, due to previously unrecognized problems associated with the derivatization of agmatine, this important intermediate in plant polyamine metabolism cannot be quantitated using this method. Also, two polyamines, putrescine and diaminopropane, also are not well resolved using this method. A simple modification of the original HPLC procedure greatly improves the separation and quantitation of these amines, and further allows the simulation analysis of phenethylamine and tyramine, which are major monoamine constituents of tobacco and other plant tissues. We have used this modified HPLC method to characterize amine titers in suspension cultured carrot (Daucas carota L.) cells and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) leaf tissues.

  1. Use of validation dosimetry, in source rack load planning, to improve cobalt irradiation plant efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyne, C. H.; Comben, M. J.

    2002-03-01

    Source load planning is an important part of optimising the performance of cobalt-60 gamma irradiation plants. The best results are achieved using a complex algorithm to accurately model the radiation profile of the source. In this way operational plant performance may be predicted as a function of changes in activity distribution within the source rack. This paper describes an approach to the prediction of plant performance that is numerically simpler than attempting to calculate actual doses from first principles. It shows how validation dosimetry results can be used to validate the software-predicted dose distribution and details how this enables the load plan to be tailored to meet the specific objectives of the plant operator. Improvements in product throughput and reduced maximum to minimum dose ratios are typical.

  2. Plant cell wall engineering: applications in biofuel production and improved human health.

    PubMed

    Burton, Rachel A; Fincher, Geoffrey B

    2014-04-01

    Plant cell walls consist largely of cellulose, non-cellulosic polysaccharides and lignin. Concerted attempts are underway to convert wall polysaccharides from crop plant residues into renewable transport fuels and other valuable products, and to exploit the dietary benefits of cereal grain wall polysaccharides in human health. Attempts to improve plant performance for these applications have involved the manipulation of the levels and structures of wall components. Some successes in altering non-cellulosic polysaccharides has been achieved, but it would appear that drastic changes in cellulose are more difficult to engineer. Nevertheless, future prospects for both genetically modified (GM) and non-GM technologies to modify plant cell wall composition and structure remain bright, and will undoubtedly find applications beyond the current focus on human health and biofuel production. PMID:24679262

  3. Amending metal contaminated mine soil with biochars to sequester metals and improve plant growth cover

    EPA Science Inventory

    There are numerous mine spoil sites in the U.S. Pacific Northwest that contain highly acidic, heavy metal-laden soils, which limits establishment of a soil-stabilizing plant cover. Biochars may be a suitable soil amendment to reduce toxic metals, improve soil fertility, soil wa...

  4. Coal flow aids reduce coke plant operating costs and improve production rates

    SciTech Connect

    Bedard, R.A.; Bradacs, D.J.; Kluck, R.W.; Roe, D.C.; Ventresca, B.P.

    2005-06-01

    Chemical coal flow aids can provide many benefits to coke plants, including improved production rates, reduced maintenance and lower cleaning costs. This article discusses the mechanisms by which coal flow aids function and analyzes several successful case histories. 2 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Motor Assembly Plant Saves $85,000 with Compressed Air System Improvements (Bodine Electric's Chicago Facility)

    SciTech Connect

    2001-06-01

    This case study is one in a series on industrial firms who are implementing energy efficient technologies and system improvements into their manufacturing processes. This case study documents the activities, savings, and lessons learned on the Bodine Electric motor assembly plant project.

  6. Giprokoks proposals for improvement in air quality at coke battery 1A of Radlin coke plant

    SciTech Connect

    T.F. Trembach; A.G. Klimenko

    2009-07-15

    Coke battery 1A, which uses rammed batch, has gone into production at Radlin coke plant (Poland), on the basis of Giprokoks designs. Up-to-date dust-trapping methods are used for the first time within the aspiration systems in the coal-preparation shop and in improving dust collection within the production buildings.

  7. Practical aspects of running DOE for improving growth media for in vitro plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Experiments using DOE software to improve plant tissue culture growth medium are complicated and require complex setups. Once the experimental design is set and the treatment points calculated, media sheets and mixing charts must be developed. Since these experiments require three passages on the sa...

  8. Application of plant growth regulators, a simple technique for improving the establishment success of plant cuttings in coastal dune restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balestri, Elena; Vallerini, Flavia; Castelli, Alberto; Lardicci, Claudio

    2012-03-01

    high survival potential and greater area cover. In contrast, a pre-treatment of cuttings of S. virginicus with Kinetin would achieve more acceptable plant survival rates. This easy and low cost-effective technique may be extended to other dune plant species and applied on a large scale to improve the chance of dune restoration success.

  9. Recent advances in structural technology for large deployable and erectable spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bush, H. G.; Heard, W. L., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Ultra-low mass deployable and erectable truss structure designs for spacecraft are identified using computerized structural sizing techniques. Extremely slender strut proportions are shown to characterize minimum mass spacecraft which are designed for shuttle transport to orbit. Discrete element effects using a recently developed buckling theory for periodic lattice type structures are presented. An analysis of fabrication imperfection effects on the surface accuracy of four different antenna reflector structures is summarized. The tetrahedral truss has the greatest potential of the structures examined for application to accurate or large reflectors. A deployable module which can be efficiently transported is identified and shown to have significant potential for application to future antenna requirements. Investigations of erectable structure assembly are reviewed.

  10. Design, construction and utilization of a space station assembled from 5-meter erectable struts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikulas, M. M., Jr.; Bush, H. G.

    1986-01-01

    Presented are the primary characteristics of the 5-meter erectable truss designated for the space station. The relatively large 5-meter truss dimension was chosen to provide a deep beam for high bending stiffness yet provide convenient mounting locations for space shuttle cargo bay size payloads which are 14.5 ft. (4.4 m) in diameter. Truss nodes and quick-attachment erectable joints are described which provide for evolutionary three-dimensional growth and for simple maintenance and repair. A mobile remote manipulator system is described which is provided to assist in station construction and maintenance. A discussion is also presented of the construction of the space station and the associated EVA time.

  11. Design, construction, and utilization of a space station assembled from 5-meter erectable struts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikulas, Martin M., Jr.; Bush, Harold G.

    1987-01-01

    The primary characteristics of the 5-meter erectable truss is presented, which was baselined for the Space Station. The relatively large 5-meter truss dimension was chosen to provide a deep beam for high bending stiffness yet provide convenient mounting locations for space shuttle cargo bay size payloads which are approx. 14.5 ft (4.4 m) in diameter. Truss nodes and quick attachment erectable joints are described which provide for evolutionary three dimensional growth and for simple maintenance and repair. A mobile remote manipulator system is described which is provided to assist in station construction and maintenance. A discussion is also presented of the construction of the Space Station and the associated extravehicular active (EVA) time.

  12. The use of cyclone modeling in the erection of precast segmental aerial construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleveland, S.

    1983-06-01

    The intent of this work is to analyze two methods of obtaining activity duration data in the field for use in the CYCLONE modeling program for determining construction productivity. One method is the traditional stopwatch-type study while the other is utilization of time-lapse photography. The construction activity which will be observed is the erection of an aerial guideway for the Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority (MARTA) rail line. The aerial guideway is being built using precast post-tensioned segmental concrete construction. This method of bridge construction or elevated span construction has proven to be more economical than more conventional methods of construction. One of the primary reasons for lower cost is the speed at which precast post-tensioned segmental concrete construction can be put in place. Field data for the erection procedure will be input into the CYCLONE model to obtain a production rate to be compared to actual field production.

  13. 11. 'Erection Plan, 1 208'101/2' C. to C. End ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. 'Erection Plan, 1 - 208'-10-1/2' C. to C. End Pins S. Tr. Thro. Skew Span, 6th Crossing Sacramento River, Pacific System, Southern Pacific Company, The Phoenix Bridge Co., C.O. 836D, Drawing No. 13, Scale 1/8' = 1'0', Engineer, B.M. Krohn, Draftsman, W.L. Clegg, Date, May 25th 1901' - Southern Pacific Railroad Shasta Route, Bridge No. 301.85, Milepost 301.85, Pollard Flat, Shasta County, CA

  14. [Increased occurrence of nuclear cataract in the calf after erection of a mobile phone base station].

    PubMed

    Hässig, M; Jud, F; Spiess, B

    2012-02-01

    We examined and monitored a dairy farm in which a large number of calves were born with nuclear cataracts after a mobile phone base station had been erected in the vicinity of the barn. Calves showed a 3.5 times higher risk for heavy cataract if born there compared to Swiss average. All usual causes such as infection or poisoning, common in Switzerland, could be excluded. The real cause of the increased incidence of cataracts remains unknown. PMID:22287140

  15. Influence of dihydroergotoxine, bromocriptine, and ergotamine on penile erection in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Radosavljevic, Milovan; Pajovic, Bogdan; Radunovic, Miodrag; Radojevic, Nemanja; Bjelogrlic, Bojana

    2012-01-01

    The pilot study presented was conducted to determine as to whether ergot alkaloids (alpha-adrenergic blockers) have a potential effect on penile erectile function. The influence of dihydroergotoxine, bromocriptine, and ergotamine was studied on the erection ability in intact, two-grade outbred male Wistar albino rats that were out of their estrous phase. The experimental animals were injected intrapenially with the substances under examination: dihydroergotoxine mesylate (0.1 mg/0.1 mL, 0.3 mg/0.1 mL, and 1 mg/0.1 mL), bromocriptine mesylate (0.3 mg/0.1 mL, 1 mg/0.1 mL, and 3 mg/0.1 mL), and ergotamine tartrate (0.1 mg/0.1 mL, 0.3 mg/0.1 mL, and 1mg/0.1 mL). Every dose was tested on a pattern of 30 rats. These mentioned substances were injected in the amount of 1 mm to the left of the proximal part of the superficial dorsal vein of the penis, in the region of the penis root. After injection, the animals were then observed within the next 90 minutes. In the trial, the following was observed: the number of rats with an erection achieved, the period of time from intrapenial application to the appearance of the first erection, and the duration of the erection. Ultimately, the research results confirm the efficiency of dihydroergotoxine and bromocriptine as erectogenic agents, as well as ergotamine as a detumescent compared with saline solutions. PMID:22441761

  16. 18. 'Erection Plan for 3 180'61/2' End Pins S. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. 'Erection Plan for 3 - 180'-6-1/2' End Pins S. Track Thro. Spans, 10th, 11th & 13th Crossings of Sacramento River, Pacific Systems, Southern Pacific Co. Phoenix Bridge Co., C. O. #839, Drawing #9, Scale = 1/8' & 1' = 1 ft., Eng'r-Chas. Scheidl, Drafts. H. O. McG., April 16th, 1901.' - Southern Pacific Railroad Shasta Route, Bridge No. 310.58, Milepost 310.58, Sims, Shasta County, CA

  17. 12. 'Erection Plan, 1 180'01/4' c. to c. End ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. 'Erection Plan, 1 - 180'-0-1/4' c. to c. End Pins Sing. Tr. Thro' Span, 16th Crossing over Sacramento River, Pacific System, Southern Pacific Co., Phoenix Bridge Co., C.O. #842, Drawing #13, Scale 1/8' & 1' = 1'-0', Eng'r C. Scheidl, Draftsman D. Sharp, Scale 1' = 1'-0', May 1st 1901.' - Southern Pacific Railroad Shasta Route, Bridge No. 324.99, Milepost 324.99, Shasta Springs, Siskiyou County, CA

  18. 134. ARAII SL1 decontamination and lay down building (ARA614) erected ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    134. ARA-II SL-1 decontamination and lay down building (ARA-614) erected after accidental explosion of SL-1 reactor. Shows vicinity map, index of related drawings, plot plan and other detail. F.C. Torkelson Company 842-area/SL-1-101-U-2. Date: September 1962. Ineel index code no. 070-0101-65-851-150713. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  19. Summary of LaRC 2-inch Erectable Joint Hardware Heritage Test Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorsey, John T.; Watson, Judith J.

    2016-01-01

    As the National Space Transportation System (STS, also known as the Space Shuttle) went into service during the early 1980's, NASA envisioned many missions of exploration and discovery that could take advantage of the STS capabilities. These missions included: large orbiting space stations, large space science telescopes and large spacecraft for manned missions to the Moon and Mars. The missions required structures that were significantly larger than the payload volume available on the STS. NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) conducted studies to design and develop the technology needed to assemble the large space structures in orbit. LaRC focused on technology for erectable truss structures, in particular, the joint that connects the truss struts at the truss nodes. When the NASA research in large erectable space structures ended in the early 1990's, a significant amount of structural testing had been performed on the LaRC 2-inch erectable joint that was never published. An extensive set of historical information and data has been reviewed and the joint structural testing results from this historical data are compiled and summarized in this report.

  20. Effects of a hurricane on survival and orientation of large erect coral reef sponges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wulff, J. L.

    1995-02-01

    In October 1988, Hurricane Joan struck reefs in the San Blas Island, Panama, where hurricanes had never been recorded. Effects on large erect sponges were dramatic. For several years before the hurricane, the three most common sponges had been studied, providing pre-storm data on population structure and dynamics. Nearly half the individuals and biomass of three species were lost in the storm. The species were not affected in the same way, even though they are all of erect branching growth forms. Iotrochota birotulata lost significantly more individuals chan Amphimedon rubens (57.6% vs 42.9%), which lost significantly more individuals than Aplysina fulva (31.6%). Patterns of biomass loss were very different, with both Iotrochota and Aplysina suffering losses of about 50%, but Amphimedon losing only 4.9%. Patterns of loss appear to be related to differences between species in the relative proportions of spicules (siliceous) and spongin (protein) in skeletal fibers and by differences in the speed and success rate of fragment reattachment. The incidence of toppling due to base failure varied among the six most common large erect sponge species, with significantly less toppling of the two species with skeletons composed solely of spongin. Clones of Iotrochota birotulata characterized by harrow branches suffered disproportionately greater losses than clones with more robust branches. The abundance of very small sponges, possibly developed from sexually produced larvae, was an order of magnitude higher after the storm than before.

  1. Detection of urethral incompetence. Erect studies using the fluid-bridge test.

    PubMed

    Sutherst, J R; Brown, M

    1981-08-01

    The fluid-bridge test (FBT) detects the entry of urine into the proximal urethra during coughing. In this study it was applied in the investigation of incontinent patients when they were first supine and then standing up. The test results in 76 women with urinary incontinence and 27 women with normal urinary control are reported. When the test was performed erect at 0.5 cm from the urethrovesical junction, it was positive in 68 (90%) of the study group and 4 (15%) of the controls. The difference between the results in the 2 groups is highly significant (P less than 0.001). In 12 (16%) of the incontinent group the test at 0.5 cm became positive only when the subject was standing up, indicating that erect testing adds to the diagnostic efficiency of the method. Erect testing seems more relevant to the investigation of stress urinary incontinence. This study has shown that this is possible using simple urodynamic apparatus. PMID:7196273

  2. A mixture of odorant molecules potentially indicating oestrus in mammals elicits penile erections in male rats.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Birte L; Jerôme, Nathalie; Saint-Albin, Audrey; Thonat, Catherine; Briant, Christine; Boué, Franck; Rampin, Olivier; Maurin, Yves

    2011-12-01

    A common set of odorous molecules may indicate female receptiveness across species, as male rats display sexual arousal when exposed to the odour of oestrous faeces from rats, vixens and mares. More than 900 different compounds were identified by GC-MS analyses performed on faeces samples from di-oestrous and oestrous females and from males of the three species. Five carboxylic acids were found in lower concentrations in faeces from all oestrous females. We subjected 12 sexually trained male rats to a 30 min exposure to different dilutions of a mixture of these five molecules in the same proportions as found in female oestrous faeces. The behavioural responses of the rats were compared to those displayed when exposed to water (negative control) and faeces from oestrous female rats (positive control). Frequency of penile erections were found to be significantly dependent on mixture dilution, with two intermediate dilutions eliciting frequencies of penile erections that did not differ from those obtained during exposure to oestrous female rat faeces. Higher and lower dilutions did not elicit more penile erections than observed with water. These results support our hypothesis that a small set of odorous molecules may indicate sexual receptiveness in mammalian females. PMID:21884731

  3. Replace, reuse, recycle: improving the sustainable use of phosphorus by plants.

    PubMed

    Baker, Alison; Ceasar, S Antony; Palmer, Antony J; Paterson, Jaimie B; Qi, Wanjun; Muench, Stephen P; Baldwin, Stephen A

    2015-06-01

    The 'phosphorus problem' has recently received strong interest with two distinct strands of importance. The first is that too much phosphorus (P) is entering into waste water, creating a significant economic and ecological problem. Secondly, while agricultural demand for phosphate fertilizer is increasing to maintain crop yields, rock phosphate reserves are rapidly declining. Unravelling the mechanisms by which plants sense, respond to, and acquire phosphate can address both problems, allowing the development of crop plants that are more efficient at acquiring and using limited amounts of phosphate while at the same time improving the potential of plants and other photosynthetic organisms for nutrient recapture and recycling from waste water. In this review, we attempt to synthesize these important but often disparate parts of the debate in a holistic fashion, since solutions to such a complex problem require integrated and multidisciplinary approaches that address both P supply and demand. Rapid progress has been made recently in our understanding of local and systemic signalling mechanisms for phosphate, and of expression and regulation of membrane proteins that take phosphate up from the environment and transport it within the plant. We discuss the current state of understanding of such mechanisms involved in sensing and responding to phosphate stress. We also discuss approaches to improve the P-use efficiency of crop plants and future direction for sustainable use of P, including use of photosynthetic organisms for recapture of P from waste waters. PMID:25944926

  4. Advances in plant proteomics toward improvement of crop productivity and stress resistancex

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Junjie; Rampitsch, Christof; Bykova, Natalia V.

    2015-01-01

    Abiotic and biotic stresses constrain plant growth and development negatively impacting crop production. Plants have developed stress-specific adaptations as well as simultaneous responses to a combination of various abiotic stresses with pathogen infection. The efficiency of stress-induced adaptive responses is dependent on activation of molecular signaling pathways and intracellular networks by modulating expression, or abundance, and/or post-translational modification (PTM) of proteins primarily associated with defense mechanisms. In this review, we summarize and evaluate the contribution of proteomic studies to our understanding of stress response mechanisms in different plant organs and tissues. Advanced quantitative proteomic techniques have improved the coverage of total proteomes and sub-proteomes from small amounts of starting material, and characterized PTMs as well as protein–protein interactions at the cellular level, providing detailed information on organ- and tissue-specific regulatory mechanisms responding to a variety of individual stresses or stress combinations during plant life cycle. In particular, we address the tissue-specific signaling networks localized to various organelles that participate in stress-related physiological plasticity and adaptive mechanisms, such as photosynthetic efficiency, symbiotic nitrogen fixation, plant growth, tolerance and common responses to environmental stresses. We also provide an update on the progress of proteomics with major crop species and discuss the current challenges and limitations inherent to proteomics techniques and data interpretation for non-model organisms. Future directions in proteomics research toward crop improvement are further discussed. PMID:25926838

  5. Effect of levitra on sustenance of erection (EROS): an open-label, prospective, multicenter, single-arm study to investigate erection duration measured by stopwatch with flexible dose vardenafil administered for 8 weeks in subjects with erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Shin, Y S; Lee, S W; Park, K; Chung, W S; Kim, S W; Hyun, J S; Moon, D G; Yang, S-K; Ryu, J K; Yang, D Y; Moon, K H; Min, K S; Park, J K

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the change of erection duration measured by stopwatch with flexible dose vardenafil administered for 8 weeks in subjects with erectile dysfunction (ED). Effect of levitra on sustenance of erection was an open-label, prospective, multicenter and single-arm study designed to measure the duration of erection in men with ED receiving a flexible dose of vardenafil over an 8-week treatment period. Patients were instructed to take vardenafil 10 mg 60 min before attempting the intercourse. Vardenfil could be increased to 20 mg or decreased to 5 mg concerning patients' efficacy and safety. Following the initial screening, patients entered a 4-week treatment-free run-in phase and 8-week treatment period, during which they were instructed to attempt intercourse at least four times on four separate days. A total of 95 men were enrolled in 10 centers. After the 8 weeks treatment, the mean duration of erection leading to successful intercourse was statistically superior when patients were treated with vardenafil. After an 8-week treatment, the duration of erection leading to successful intercourse was 9.39 min. There were significant benefits with vardenafil in all domains of International Index of Erectile Function. Secondary efficacy end points included success rate of penetration, maintaining erection, ejaculation and satisfaction were superior when patients were treated with vardenafil. There was a significant correlation between duration of erection with other sexual factors. Also partner's sexual satisfaction was increased with vardenafil. Most adverse events were mild or moderate in severity. Vardenafil was safe and well tolerated. Vardenafil therapy provided a statistically superior duration of erection leading to successful intercourse in men with ED with female partner. PMID:25471318

  6. Final Report on the Operation and Maintenance Improvement Program for Concentrating Solar Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen Gilbert E.; Kearney, David W.; Kolb, Gregory J.

    1999-06-01

    This report describes the results of a six-year, $6.3 million project to reduce operation and maintenance (O&M) costs at power plants employing concentrating solar power (CSP) technology. Sandia National Laboratories teamed with KJC Operating Company to implement the O&M Improvement Program. O&M technologies developed during the course of the program were demonstrated at the 150-MW Kramer Junction solar power park located in Boron, California. Improvements were made in the following areas: (a) efficiency of solar energy collection, (b) O&M information management, (c) reliability of solar field flow loop hardware, (d) plant operating strategy, and (e) cost reduction associated with environmental issues. A 37% reduction in annual O&M costs was achieved. Based on the lessons learned, an optimum solar- field O&M plan for future CSP plants is presented. Parabolic trough solar technology is employed at Kramer Junction. However, many of the O&M improvements described in the report are also applicable to CSP plants based on solar power tower or dish/engine concepts.

  7. Silicon moderated the K deficiency by improving the plant-water status in sorghum.

    PubMed

    Chen, Daoqian; Cao, Beibei; Wang, Shiwen; Liu, Peng; Deng, Xiping; Yin, Lina; Zhang, Suiqi

    2016-01-01

    Although silicon (Si) has been widely reported to alleviate plant nutrient deficiency, the underlying mechanism in potassium (K) deficiency is poorly understood. In this study, sorghum seedlings were treated with Si under a K deficiency condition for 15 days. Under control conditions, plant growth was not affected by Si application. The growth and water status were reduced by K-deficient stress, but Si application significantly alleviated these decreases. The leaf gas exchanges, whole-plant hydraulic conductance (Kplant), and root hydraulic conductance (Lpr) were reduced by K deficiency, but Si application moderated the K-deficiency-induced reductions, suggesting that Si alleviated the plant hydraulic conductance. In addition, 29% of Si-alleviated transpiration was eliminated by HgCl2 treatment, suggesting that aquaporin was not the primary cause for the reversal of plant hydraulic conductance. Moreover, the K(+) concentration in xylem sap was significantly increased and the xylem sap osmotic potential was decreased by Si application, suggesting that the major cause of Si-induced improvement in hydraulic conductance could be ascribed to the enhanced xylem sap K(+) concentration, which increases the osmotic gradient and xylem hydraulic conductance. The results of this study show that Si mediates K(+) accumulation in xylem, which ultimately alleviates the plant-water status under the K-deficient condition. PMID:26961070

  8. Silicon moderated the K deficiency by improving the plant-water status in sorghum

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Daoqian; Cao, Beibei; Wang, Shiwen; Liu, Peng; Deng, Xiping; Yin, Lina; Zhang, Suiqi

    2016-01-01

    Although silicon (Si) has been widely reported to alleviate plant nutrient deficiency, the underlying mechanism in potassium (K) deficiency is poorly understood. In this study, sorghum seedlings were treated with Si under a K deficiency condition for 15 days. Under control conditions, plant growth was not affected by Si application. The growth and water status were reduced by K-deficient stress, but Si application significantly alleviated these decreases. The leaf gas exchanges, whole-plant hydraulic conductance (Kplant), and root hydraulic conductance (Lpr) were reduced by K deficiency, but Si application moderated the K-deficiency-induced reductions, suggesting that Si alleviated the plant hydraulic conductance. In addition, 29% of Si-alleviated transpiration was eliminated by HgCl2 treatment, suggesting that aquaporin was not the primary cause for the reversal of plant hydraulic conductance. Moreover, the K+ concentration in xylem sap was significantly increased and the xylem sap osmotic potential was decreased by Si application, suggesting that the major cause of Si-induced improvement in hydraulic conductance could be ascribed to the enhanced xylem sap K+ concentration, which increases the osmotic gradient and xylem hydraulic conductance. The results of this study show that Si mediates K+ accumulation in xylem, which ultimately alleviates the plant-water status under the K-deficient condition. PMID:26961070

  9. Expression of peanut Iron Regulated Transporter 1 in tobacco and rice plants confers improved iron nutrition.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Hongchun; Guo, Xiaotong; Kobayashi, Takanori; Kakei, Yusuke; Nakanishi, Hiromi; Nozoye, Tomoko; Zhang, Lixia; Shen, Hongyun; Qiu, Wei; Nishizawa, Naoko K; Zuo, Yuanmei

    2014-07-01

    Iron (Fe) limitation is a widespread agricultural problem in calcareous soils and severely limits crop production. Iron Regulated Transporter 1 (IRT1) is a key component for Fe uptake from the soil in dicot plants. In this study, the peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) AhIRT1 was introduced into tobacco and rice plants using an Fe-deficiency-inducible artificial promoter. Induced expression of AhIRT1 in tobacco plants resulted in accumulation of Fe in young leaves under Fe deficient conditions. Even under Fe-excess conditions, the Fe concentration was also markedly enhanced, suggesting that the Fe status did not affect the uptake and translocation of Fe by AhIRT1 in the transgenic plants. Most importantly, the transgenic tobacco plants showed improved tolerance to Fe limitation in culture in two types of calcareous soils. Additionally, the induced expression of AhIRT1 in rice plants also resulted in high tolerance to low Fe availability in calcareous soils. PMID:24727792

  10. Foliar absorption of intercepted rainfall improves woody plant water status most during drought.

    PubMed

    Breshears, David D; McDowell, Nathan G; Goddard, Kelly L; Dayem, Katherine E; Martens, Scott N; Meyer, Clifton W; Brown, Karen M

    2008-01-01

    A large proportion of rainfall in dryland ecosystems is intercepted by plant foliage and is generally assumed to evaporate to the atmosphere or drip onto the soil surface without being absorbed. We demonstrate foliar absorption of intercepted rainfall in a widely distributed, continental dryland, woody-plant genus: Juniperus. We observed substantial improvement in plant water status, exceeding 1.0 MPa water potential for drought-stressed plants, following precipitation on an experimental plot that excluded soil water infiltration. Experiments that wetted shoots with unlabeled and with isotopically labeled water confirmed that water potential responded substantially to foliar wetting, that these responses were not attributable to re-equilibration with other portions of the xylem, and that magnitude of response increased with water stress. Foliar absorption is not included in most ecological, hydrological, and atmospheric models; has implications for interpreting plant isotopic signatures; and not only supplements water acquisition associated with increases in soil moisture that follow large or repeated precipitation events, but also enables plants to bypass soil water uptake and benefit from the majority of precipitation events, which wet foliage but do not increase soil moisture substantially. Foliar absorption of intercepted water could be more important than previously appreciated, especially during drought when water stress is greatest. PMID:18376545