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Sample records for erg11 promoter mediate

  1. cis-Acting elements within the Candida albicans ERG11 promoter mediate the azole response through transcription factor Upc2p.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Brian G; Song, Jia L; Choiniere, Jake H; White, Theodore C

    2007-12-01

    The azole antifungal drugs are used to treat infections caused by Candida albicans and other fungi. These drugs interfere with the biosynthesis of ergosterol, the major sterol in fungal cells, by inhibiting an ergosterol biosynthetic enzyme, lanosterol 14 alpha-demethylase, encoded by the ERG11 gene. In vitro, these drugs as well as other ergosterol biosynthesis inhibitors increase ERG11 mRNA expression by activation of the ERG11 promoter. The signal for this activation most likely is the depletion of ergosterol, the end product of the pathway. To identify cis-acting regulatory elements that mediate this activation, ERG11 promoter fragments have been fused to the luciferase reporter gene from Renilla reniformis. Promoter deletions and linker scan mutations localized the region important for azole induction to a segment from bp -224 to -251 upstream of the start codon, specifically two 7-bp sequences separated by 13 bp. These sequences form an imperfect inverted repeat. The region is recognized by the transcription factor Upc2p and functions as an enhancer of transcription, as it can be placed upstream of a heterologous promoter in either direction, resulting in the azole induction of that promoter. The promoter constructs are not azole inducible in the upc2/upc2 homozygous deletion, demonstrating that Upc2p controls the azole induction of ERG11. These results identify an azole-responsive enhancer element (ARE) in the ERG11 promoter that is controlled by the Upc2p transcription factor. No other ARE is present in the promoter. Thus, this ARE and Upc2p are necessary and sufficient for azole induction of ERG11. PMID:17951521

  2. The Candida albicans Lanosterol 14-α-Demethylase (ERG11) Gene Promoter Is Maximally Induced after Prolonged Growth with Antifungal Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jia L.; Beth Harry, Jo; Eastman, Richard T.; Oliver, Brian G.; White, Theodore C.

    2004-01-01

    The azole antifungal drugs that target lanosterol 14-α-demethylase, encoded by the ERG11 gene, are used to treat a variety of infections caused by Candida albicans. Azoles are known to induce expression of ERG11 mRNA. The ERG11 promoter was cloned 5′ of the luciferase-coding region, and the induction of ERG11 expression by azoles was monitored by luciferase assays. Maximal induction of the ERG11 promoter by azoles occurs not during logarithmic growth but after the diauxic shift and requires azoles to be present throughout logarithmic growth. The effects of pH, carbon source, and aerobic or anaerobic growth on induction of the ERG11 promoter by azoles were analyzed. Treatment with terbinafine and fenpropimorph, which target other enzymes in the ergosterol biosynthetic pathway, also resulted in a delayed induction of ERG11 promoter activity. Nascent sterol synthesis was shown to parallel ERG11 promoter activity, and total sterols were reduced coincident with the timing of ERG11 promoter activation. These results as a whole suggest that expression of the ERG11 promoter is regulated in response to sterol depletion. PMID:15047513

  3. Contribution of Clinically Derived Mutations in ERG11 to Azole Resistance in Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Flowers, Stephanie A.; Colón, Brendan; Whaley, Sarah G.; Schuler, Mary A.

    2014-01-01

    In Candida albicans, the ERG11 gene encodes lanosterol demethylase, the target of the azole antifungals. Mutations in ERG11 that result in an amino acid substitution alter the abilities of the azoles to bind to and inhibit Erg11, resulting in resistance. Although ERG11 mutations have been observed in clinical isolates, the specific contributions of individual ERG11 mutations to azole resistance in C. albicans have not been widely explored. We sequenced ERG11 in 63 fluconazole (FLC)-resistant clinical isolates. Fifty-five isolates carried at least one mutation in ERG11, and we observed 26 distinct positions in which amino acid substitutions occurred. We mapped the 26 distinct variant positions in these alleles to four regions in the predicted structure for Erg11, including its predicted catalytic site, extended fungus-specific external loop, proximal surface, and proximal surface-to-heme region. In total, 31 distinct ERG11 alleles were recovered, with 10 ERG11 alleles containing a single amino acid substitution. We then characterized 19 distinct ERG11 alleles by introducing them into the wild-type azole-susceptible C. albicans SC5314 strain and testing them for susceptibilities to FLC, itraconazole (ITC), and voriconazole (VRC). The strains that were homozygous for the single amino acid substitutions Y132F, K143R, F145L, S405F, D446E, G448E, F449V, G450E, and G464S had a ≥4-fold increase in FLC MIC. The strains that were homozygous for several double amino acid substitutions had decreased azole susceptibilities beyond those conferred by any single amino acid substitution. These findings indicate that mutations in ERG11 are prevalent among azole-resistant clinical isolates and that most mutations result in appreciable changes in FLC and VRC susceptibilities. PMID:25385095

  4. Contribution of clinically derived mutations in ERG11 to azole resistance in Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Flowers, Stephanie A; Colón, Brendan; Whaley, Sarah G; Schuler, Mary A; Rogers, P David

    2015-01-01

    In Candida albicans, the ERG11 gene encodes lanosterol demethylase, the target of the azole antifungals. Mutations in ERG11 that result in an amino acid substitution alter the abilities of the azoles to bind to and inhibit Erg11, resulting in resistance. Although ERG11 mutations have been observed in clinical isolates, the specific contributions of individual ERG11 mutations to azole resistance in C. albicans have not been widely explored. We sequenced ERG11 in 63 fluconazole (FLC)-resistant clinical isolates. Fifty-five isolates carried at least one mutation in ERG11, and we observed 26 distinct positions in which amino acid substitutions occurred. We mapped the 26 distinct variant positions in these alleles to four regions in the predicted structure for Erg11, including its predicted catalytic site, extended fungus-specific external loop, proximal surface, and proximal surface-to-heme region. In total, 31 distinct ERG11 alleles were recovered, with 10 ERG11 alleles containing a single amino acid substitution. We then characterized 19 distinct ERG11 alleles by introducing them into the wild-type azole-susceptible C. albicans SC5314 strain and testing them for susceptibilities to FLC, itraconazole (ITC), and voriconazole (VRC). The strains that were homozygous for the single amino acid substitutions Y132F, K143R, F145L, S405F, D446E, G448E, F449V, G450E, and G464S had a ≥ 4-fold increase in FLC MIC. The strains that were homozygous for several double amino acid substitutions had decreased azole susceptibilities beyond those conferred by any single amino acid substitution. These findings indicate that mutations in ERG11 are prevalent among azole-resistant clinical isolates and that most mutations result in appreciable changes in FLC and VRC susceptibilities. PMID:25385095

  5. An A643T mutation in the transcription factor Upc2p causes constitutive ERG11 upregulation and increased fluconazole resistance in Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Heilmann, Clemens J; Schneider, Sabrina; Barker, Katherine S; Rogers, P David; Morschhäuser, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    The zinc cluster transcription factor Upc2p mediates upregulation of ergosterol biosynthesis genes in response to ergosterol depletion in the fungal pathogen Candida albicans. One mechanism of acquired resistance to the antifungal drug fluconazole, which inhibits ergosterol biosynthesis, is constitutively increased expression of the ERG11 gene encoding the drug target enzyme. A G648D mutation in Upc2p has recently been shown to cause hyperactivity of the transcription factor, resulting in overexpression of ergosterol biosynthesis genes and increased fluconazole resistance. In order to investigate if gain-of-function mutations in Upc2p are a common mechanism of ERG11 upregulation and fluconazole resistance, we sequenced the UPC2 alleles of four ERG11-overexpressing, fluconazole-resistant C. albicans isolates and matched susceptible isolates from the same patients. In three of the isolate pairs, no differences in the UPC2 alleles were found, suggesting that mechanisms other than Upc2p mutations can cause ERG11 overexpression. One resistant isolate had become homozygous for a UPC2 allele containing a G1927A substitution that caused an alanine-to-threonine exchange at amino acid position 643 of Upc2p. Replacement of one of the endogenous UPC2 alleles in a fluconazole-susceptible strain by the UPC2(A643T) allele resulted in ERG11 overexpression and increased fluconazole resistance, which was further elevated when the A643T mutation was also introduced into the second UPC2 allele. These results further establish gain-of-function mutations in UPC2, which can be followed by loss of heterozygosity for the mutated allele, as a mechanism of ERG11 overexpression and increased fluconazole resistance in C. albicans, but other mechanisms of ERG11 upregulation also exist. PMID:19884367

  6. The A395T mutation in ERG11 gene confers fluconazole resistance in Candida tropicalis causing candidemia.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jingwen; Zhang, Jinqing; Chen, Wei; Sun, Yi; Wan, Zhe; Li, Ruoyu; Liu, Wei

    2015-04-01

    The mechanism of fluconazole resistance in Candida tropicalis is still unclear. Recently, we isolated a fluconazole-resistant strain of C. tropicalis from the blood specimen of a patient with candidemia in China. In vitro antifungal susceptibility of the isolate was determined by using CLSI M27-A3 and E-test methods. The sequence of ERG11 gene was then analyzed, and the three-dimensional model of Erg11p encoded by ERG11 gene was also investigated. The sequencing of ERG11 gene revealed the mutation of A395T in this fluconazole-resistant isolate of C. tropicalis, resulting in the Y132F substitution in Erg11p. Sequence alignment and three-dimensional model comparison of Erg11ps showed high similarity between fluconazole-susceptible isolates of C. tropicalis and Candida albicans. The comparison of the three-dimensional models of Erg11ps demonstrated that the position of the Y132F substitution in this isolate of C. tropicalis is identical to the isolate of C. albicans with fluconazole resistance resulting from Y132F substitution in Erg11p. Hence, we ascertain that the Y132F substitution of Erg11p caused by A395T mutation in ERG11 gene confers the fluconazole resistance in C. tropicalis. PMID:25398256

  7. An isochromosome confers drug resistance in vivo by amplification of two genes, ERG11 and TAC1.

    PubMed

    Selmecki, Anna; Gerami-Nejad, Maryam; Paulson, Carsten; Forche, Anja; Berman, Judith

    2008-05-01

    Acquired azole resistance is a serious clinical problem that is often associated with the appearance of aneuploidy and, in particular, with the formation of an isochromosome [i(5L)] in the fungal opportunist Candida albicans. Here we exploited a series of isolates from an individual patient during the rapid acquisition of fluconazole resistance (Flu(R)). Comparative genome hybridization arrays revealed that the presence of two extra copies of Chr5L, on the isochromosome, conferred increased Flu(R) and that partial truncation of Chr5L reduced Flu(R). In vitro analysis of the strains by telomere-mediated truncations and by gene deletion assessed the contribution of all Chr5L genes and of four specific genes. Importantly, ERG11 (encoding the drug target) and a hyperactive allele of TAC1 (encoding a transcriptional regulator of drug efflux pumps) made independent, additive contributions to Flu(R) in a gene copy number-dependent manner that was not different from the contributions of the entire Chr5L arm. Thus, the major mechanism by which i(5L) formation causes increased azole resistance is by amplifying two genes: ERG11 and TAC1. PMID:18363649

  8. Fluconazole susceptibility and ERG11 gene expression in vaginal candida species isolated from Lagos Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Pam, Victoria K; Akpan, Juliet U; Oduyebo, Oyinlola O; Nwaokorie, Francisca O; Fowora, Muinah A; Oladele, Rita O; Ogunsola, Folasade T; Smith, Stella I

    2012-01-01

    Fluconazole resistance is an important type of resistance in Candida because in most countries, fluconazole is the drug of choice for vulvovaginal candidiasis. Candida species resist fluconazole by various mechanisms but there is paucity of data on these in our environment. Such mechanisms include among others, over-expression of the ERG11 gene, which codes for synthesis of the target enzymes in the fungus. The aim of this study was to screen Candida spp. resistant to fluconazole for the expression of ERG11 gene. Fluconazole susceptibility test was performed on 28 clinical strains of Candida species previously obtained from students of a School of Nursing in Lagos, Nigeria. They were identified by API Candida, CHROMagar candida and germ tube test. Using 25 mcg discs, fluconazole susceptibility was determined by the disc diffusion method and results were interpreted in accordance with the Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI) criteria; sensitive (S), resistant (R) and susceptible dose dependent (SDD). The R and SDD isolates were subsequently evaluated for the presence of ERG11 gene. Of the 28 clinical isolates, 14 were identified as C. albicans and six as C. tropicalis. The remaining isolates were identified as C. glabrata (2), C. famata (2) C. kefyr (2) one each of C. parapsilosis and C. guilliermondii respectively. In this study, 18 were susceptible (S) to fluconazole, eight were SDD and two were resistant to the antifungal agent. Out of the 14 C. albicans isolates, 12 were susceptible, one showed high level resistance and similar number showed susceptible dose dependence. ERG11 was detected in three susceptible dose dependent Candida species. This analysis demonstrates that susceptible dose dependence should not be overlooked as it may be associated with the presence of ERG11 gene and resistance to fluconazole. There is a need to consider routine antifungal susceptibility testing for Candida species causing vulvovaginitis. PMID:22493755

  9. ERG11 mutations and expression of resistance genes in fluconazole-resistant Candida albicans isolates.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yonghao; Sheng, Fang; Zhao, Jie; Chen, Lamei; Li, Chunyang

    2015-11-01

    Azole resistance in the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans poses significant challenges for its antibiotic treatment. The conformational change of the target enzyme 14 alpha-demethylase (Erg11p) due to ERG11 gene mutations is one of the mechanisms resulting in the azole resistance. ERG11 of 23 isolates (8 susceptible and 15 resistant) and 6 standard strains of Candida albicans were amplified and sequenced. Nineteen missense mutations were detected. Two mutations, G487T (A114S) and T916C (Y257H), coexisted exclusively in 14 fluconazole-resistant isolates. To identify the resistance mechanisms in the isolates with G487T and T916C mutations, we compared the expression of 5 resistance-related genes in the 14 azole-resistant isolates with those in the susceptible type strain ATCC 10231, Saccharomyces cerevisiae AD/CDR1 and AD/CDR2. The tested values of mRNA transcription of CDR1 and CDR2 were higher than that of control strain, while the semi-quantified Cdr1p values were not higher in all of the 14 resistant isolates. And the data analyzed with t test suggest that both of the differences are significant (P < 0.0005) when the resistant isolates are considered as a whole. Cdr2p was up-regulated in 5 isolates, and down-regulated or even undetectable in the remaining 9 isolates. The transcription of ERG11, MDR1, and FLU1 varied in these isolates. These data suggested that overexpression of the five genes might not be the reason of resistance in the 14 isolates with G487T and T916C, especially in the 5 isolates (GZ09, GZ15, GZ16, GZ58, and 4263) in which neither translation of Cdr1p/Cdr2p nor transcription of ERG11, MDR1, or FLU1 was detected up-regulated. The results suggest that Erg11p conformational change due to the point mutations is most likely responsible for the azole resistance in these isolates. PMID:26349561

  10. Reduced susceptibility of Candida albicans clinical isolates to azoles and detection of mutations in the ERG11 gene.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Yang, Hai-Fei; Liu, Yan-Yan; Xu, Xi-Hai; Ye, Ying; Li, Jia-Bin

    2013-12-01

    We investigated the susceptibility of Candida albicans isolated from clinic specimens to azole antifungal agents and estimated the association of the ERG11 mutations with azole resistance during recent 5years in China. In this study, novel mutations G346A, A434V, and L480F in ERG11 may be related to azole resistance in C. albicans. PMID:24070847

  11. Association of T916C (Y257H) mutation in Candida albicans ERG11 with fluconazole resistance.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jie; Xu, Yonghao; Li, Chunyang

    2013-05-01

    Repeated and prolonged use of fluconazole in treating candidosis leads to drug resistance. The aim of this study was to confirm the relationship between T916C (Y257H) mutation in Candida albicans ERG11 and fluconazole resistance. We replaced one copy of ERG11 with ERG11 containing the T916C mutation in C. albicans CAI4 and expressed ERG11 with the T916C mutation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae INVSc1. The MIC values were two- to four-fold greater in CAI4 transformants with than without the T916C mutation and 128 and 32 μg ml(-1) for S. cerevisiae INVSc1-containing ERG11 with and without the T916C mutation. T916C mutation may be associated with fluconazole resistance in C. albicans. PMID:23216650

  12. Investigation of mutations in Erg11 gene of fluconazole resistant Candida albicans isolates from Turkish hospitals.

    PubMed

    Manastır, Lerzan; Ergon, M Cem; Yücesoy, Mine

    2011-03-01

    Widespread use of fluconazole has resulted in resistance in strains of Candida. The aim of our study was to investigate Y132H and other mutations in the ERG11 gene in conferring fluconazole resistance to C. albicans isolates. Seven fluconazole-resistant (R)/susceptible dose-dependent (SDD)/trailing and 10 fluconazole-susceptible (S) isolates were included. Restriction enzyme analysis was performed on all isolates for Y132H mutation and sequence analysis was performed for other mutations in the ERG11 gene. None of our strains had Y132H mutation. One single mutation (D153E, E266D, D116E, V437I) was detected in isolates 348, 533, 644, 1453, 2157, while the others had more than one nucleotide change. D116E and E266D, which were two mutations found in fluconazole R/SDD/trailing isolates with the highest frequency, were also detected in azole S strains. K143R, G464S, G465S and V488I mutations were determined in three of the R/SDD isolates. S412T and R469K mutations were detected only in this group of strains by sequence analysis. Mutations such as K143R, G464S, G465S, V488I, S412T and R469K in the ERG11 gene were determined to be effective mechanisms in our fluconazole R/SDD C. albicans isolates. Other mechanisms of resistance, such as overexpression of ERG11 and efflux pumps and mutations in the ERG3 gene should also be investigated. PMID:19732347

  13. Novel point mutations in the ERG11 gene in clinical isolates of azole resistant Candida species

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Danielly Beraldo dos Santos; Rodrigues, Luana Mireli Carbonera; de Almeida, Adriana Araújo; de Oliveira, Kelly Mari Pires; Grisolia/, Alexéia Barufatti

    2016-01-01

    The azoles are the class of medications most commonly used to fight infections caused by Candida sp. Typically, resistance can be attributed to mutations in ERG11 gene (CYP51) which encodes the cytochrome P450 14α-demethylase, the primary target for the activity of azoles. The objective of this study was to identify mutations in the coding region of theERG11 gene in clinical isolates of Candidaspecies known to be resistant to azoles. We identified three new synonymous mutations in the ERG11 gene in the isolates of Candida glabrata (C108G, C423T and A1581G) and two new nonsynonymous mutations in the isolates of Candida krusei - A497C (Y166S) and G1570A (G524R). The functional consequence of these nonsynonymous mutations was predicted using evolutionary conservation scores. The G524R mutation did not have effect on 14α-demethylase functionality, while the Y166S mutation was found to affect the enzyme. This observation suggests a possible link between the mutation and dose-dependent sensitivity to voriconazole in the clinical isolate of C. krusei. Although the presence of the Y166S in phenotype of reduced azole sensitivity observed in isolate C. kruseidemands investigation, it might contribute to the search of new therapeutic agents against resistant Candida isolates. PMID:26982177

  14. Novel point mutations in the ERG11 gene in clinical isolates of azole resistant Candida species.

    PubMed

    Silva, Danielly Beraldo dos Santos; Rodrigues, Luana Mireli Carbonera; Almeida, Adriana Araújo de; Oliveira, Kelly Mari Pires de; Grisolia, Alexéia Barufatti

    2016-03-01

    The azoles are the class of medications most commonly used to fight infections caused by Candida sp. Typically, resistance can be attributed to mutations in ERG11 gene (CYP51) which encodes the cytochrome P450 14α-demethylase, the primary target for the activity of azoles. The objective of this study was to identify mutations in the coding region of theERG11 gene in clinical isolates of Candida species known to be resistant to azoles. We identified three new synonymous mutations in the ERG11 gene in the isolates of Candida glabrata (C108G, C423T and A1581G) and two new nonsynonymous mutations in the isolates of Candida krusei--A497C (Y166S) and G1570A (G524R). The functional consequence of these nonsynonymous mutations was predicted using evolutionary conservation scores. The G524R mutation did not have effect on 14α-demethylase functionality, while the Y166S mutation was found to affect the enzyme. This observation suggests a possible link between the mutation and dose-dependent sensitivity to voriconazole in the clinical isolate of C. krusei. Although the presence of the Y166S in phenotype of reduced azole sensitivity observed in isolate C. krusei demands investigation, it might contribute to the search of new therapeutic agents against resistant Candida isolates. PMID:26982177

  15. Erg11 mutations associated with azole resistance in clinical isolates of Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Ming-Jie; Liu, Jin-Yan; Ni, Pei-Hua; Wang, Shengzheng; Shi, Ce; Wei, Bing; Ni, Yu-Xing; Ge, Hai-Liang

    2013-06-01

    The widespread use of azoles has led to increasing azole resistance among Candida albicans strains. One mechanism of azole resistance involves point mutations in the ERG11 gene, which encodes the target enzyme (cytochrome P450 lanosterol 14α-demethylase). In the present study, we amplified and sequenced the ERG11 gene of 23 C. albicans clinical isolates. Seventeen mutations encoding distinct amino acid substitutions were found, of which seven (K143Q, Y205E, A255V, E260V, N435V, G472R, and D502E) were novel. We further verified the contribution of the amino acid substitutions to azole resistance using site-directed mutagenesis of the ERG11 gene to recreate these mutations for heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We observed that substitutions A114S, Y132H, Y132F, K143R, Y257H, and a new K143Q substitution contributed to significant increases (≧fourfold) in fluconazole and voriconazole resistance; changes in itraconazole resistance were not significant (≦twofold). PMID:23480635

  16. Structural basis for heterogeneous phenotype of ERG11 dependent Azole resistance in C.albicans clinical isolates.

    PubMed

    Debnath, Surajit; Addya, Soma

    2014-01-01

    Correlating antifungal Azole drug resistance and mis-sense mutations of ERG11 has been paradoxical in pathogenic yeast Candida albicans. Amino acid substitutions (single or multiple) are frequent on ERG11, a membrane bound enzyme of Ergosterol biosynthesis pathway. Presence or absence of mutations can not sufficiently predict susceptibility. To analyze role of mis-sense mutations on Azole resistance energetically optimized, structurally validated homology model of wild C.albicans ERG11 using eukaryotic template was generated. A Composite Search Approach is proposed to identify vital residues for interaction at 3D active site. Structural analysis of catalytic groove, dynamics of substrate access channels and proximity of Heme prosthetic group characterized ERG11 active site. Several mis-sense mutations of ERG11 reported in C.albicans clinical isolates were selected through a stringent criterion and modeled. ERG11 mutants subsequently subjected to a four tier comparative biophysical analysis. This study indicates (i) critical interactions occur with residues at anterior part of 3D catalytic groove and substitution of these vital residues alters local geometry causing considerable change in catalytic pocket dimension. (ii) Substitutions of vital residues lead to confirmed resistance in clinical isolates that may be resultant to changed geometry of catalytic pocket. (iii)These substitutions also impart significant energetic changes on C.albicans ERG11 and (iv) include detectable dynamic fluctuations on the mutants. (v)Mis-sense mutations on the vital residues of the active site and at the vicinity of Heme prosthetic group are less frequent compared to rest of the enzyme. This large scale mutational study can aid to characterize the mutants in clinical isolates. PMID:25512882

  17. Nucleotide substitutions in the Candida albicans ERG11 gene of azole-susceptible and azole-resistant clinical isolates.

    PubMed

    Strzelczyk, Joanna Katarzyna; Slemp-Migiel, Anna; Rother, Magdalena; Gołąbek, Karolina; Wiczkowski, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    One of the mechanisms of Candida albicans resistance to azole drugs used in antifungal therapy relies on increased expression and presence of point mutations in the ERG11 gene that encodes sterol 14α demethylase (14DM), an enzyme which is the primary target for the azole class of antifungals. The aim of the study was to analyze nucleotide substitutions in the Candida albicans ERG11 gene of azole-susceptible and azole-resistant clinical isolates. The Candida albicans isolates represented a collection of 122 strains selected from 658 strains isolated from different biological materials. Samples were obtained from hospitalized patients. Fluconazole susceptibility was tested in vitro using a microdilution assay. Candida albicans strains used in this study consisted of two groups: 61 of the isolates were susceptible to azoles and the 61 were resistant to azoles. Four overlapping regions of the ERG11 gene of the isolates of Candida albicans strains were amplified and sequenced. The MSSCP (multitemperature single strand conformation polymorphism) method was performed to select Candida albicans samples presenting genetic differences in the ERG11 gene fragments for subsequent sequence analysis. Based on the sequencing results we managed to detect 19 substitutions of nucleotides in the ERG11 gene fragments. Sequencing revealed 4 different alterations: T495A, A530C, G622A and A945C leading to changes in the corresponding amino acid sequence: D116E, K128T, V159I and E266D. The single nucleotide changes in the ERG11 gene did not affect the sensitivity of Candida albicans strains, whereas multiple nucleotide substitutions in the ERG11 gene fragments indicated a possible relation with the increase in resistance to azole drugs. PMID:24340302

  18. Correlation between azole susceptibilities, genotypes, and ERG11 mutations in Candida albicans isolates associated with vulvovaginal candidiasis in China.

    PubMed

    Ge, Shu-Hua; Wan, Zhe; Li, Juan; Xu, Jianping; Li, Ruo-Yu; Bai, Feng-Yan

    2010-08-01

    The relationship between susceptibilities to fluconazole and itraconazole and microsatellite CAI genotypes were examined from a total of 154 Candida albicans isolates (97 isolates causing vulvovaginitis in Chinese women and 6 vaginal isolates and 51 oral cavity isolates from asymptomatic carriers). The two dominant genotypes, CAI 30-45 (45 isolates) and CAI 32-46 (33 isolates), associated with vulvovaginitis showed significantly different azole susceptibility patterns with strong statistical support. CAI 32-46 isolates were usually less susceptible to both fluconazole and itraconazole than CAI 30-45 isolates and than the oral isolates with other diversified CAI genotypes. Remarkably different mutation patterns in the azole target gene ERG11 were correspondingly observed among C. albicans isolates representing different genotypes and sources. Isolates with the same or similar CAI genotypes usually possessed identical or phylogenetically closely related ERG11 sequences. Loss of heterozygosity in ERG11 was observed in all the CAI 32-46 isolates but not in the CAI 30-45 isolates and most of the oral isolates sequenced. Compared with the ERG11 sequence of strain SC5314 (X13296), two homozygous missense mutations (G487T and T916C) leading to two amino acid changes (A114S and Y257H) in Erg11p were found in CAI 32-46 isolates. The correlation between azole susceptibility and C. albicans genotype may be of potential therapeutic significance. PMID:20516286

  19. Candida tropicalis Antifungal Cross-Resistance Is Related to Different Azole Target (Erg11p) Modifications

    PubMed Central

    Forastiero, A.; Mesa-Arango, A. C.; Alastruey-Izquierdo, A.; Alcazar-Fuoli, L.; Bernal-Martinez, L.; Pelaez, T.; Lopez, J. F.; Grimalt, J. O.; Gomez-Lopez, A.; Cuesta, I.; Zaragoza, O.

    2013-01-01

    Candida tropicalis ranks between third and fourth among Candida species most commonly isolated from clinical specimens. Invasive candidiasis and candidemia are treated with amphotericin B or echinocandins as first-line therapy, with extended-spectrum triazoles as acceptable alternatives. Candida tropicalis is usually susceptible to all antifungal agents, although several azole drug-resistant clinical isolates are being reported. However, C. tropicalis resistant to amphotericin B is uncommon, and only a few strains have reliably demonstrated a high level of resistance to this agent. The resistance mechanisms operating in C. tropicalis strains isolated from clinical samples showing resistance to azole drugs alone or with amphotericin B cross-resistance were elucidated. Antifungal drug resistance was related to mutations of the azole target (Erg11p) with or without alterations of the ergosterol biosynthesis pathway. The antifungal drug resistance shown in vitro correlated very well with the results obtained in vivo using the model host Galleria mellonella. Using this panel of strains, the G. mellonella model system was validated as a simple, nonmammalian minihost model that can be used to study in vitro-in vivo correlation of antifungals in C. tropicalis. The development in C. tropicalis of antifungal drug resistance with different mechanisms during antifungal treatment has potential clinical impact and deserves specific prospective studies. PMID:23877676

  20. In vitro fluconazole susceptibility of 1,903 clinical isolates of Candida albicans and the identification of ERG11 mutations.

    PubMed

    Ying, Ying; Zhao, Yingjie; Hu, Xuefei; Cai, Zhenyu; Liu, Xin; Jin, Guilin; Zhang, Jieyu; Zhang, Jingyi; Liu, Jinhui; Huang, Xiaotian

    2013-08-01

    Abstract Fluconazole resistance of Candida albicans has been reported to be the result of one or more specific point mutations in ERG11 gene. In this study, we amplified and sequenced the entire ERG11 coding sequence of 72 isolates of C. albicans to search for possible mutations. Twenty-seven silent mutations and 14 missense mutations were identified. While the mutations K342R and V437I were found as single-amino-acid changes in Erg11p, other mutations were detected simultaneously in individual isolates. Several different clinical isolates had the same pattern of multiple amino acid alternations: (1) A114S with Y257H was identified in 11 resistant and 3 susceptible dose-dependent isolates without any other silent mutation and may be associated with resistance; (2) Y132H combined with G450E was identified in two fluconazole-resistant isolates and is known to contribute to resistance; and (3) the coexistence of D116E, K128T, Y132H, and G465S was first described in five reduced-susceptibility isolates, but the correlation of this pattern with resistance is still uncertain. These data indicate that multiple amino acid substitutions in Erg11p were found frequently in clinical isolates and may be associated with fluconazole resistance. PMID:23484590

  1. Investigation of ERG11 gene expression among fluconazole-resistant Candida albicans: first report from an Iranian referral paediatric hospital.

    PubMed

    Teymuri, M; Mamishi, S; Pourakbari, B; Mahmoudi, S; Ashtiani, M T; Sadeghi, R H; Yadegari, M H

    2015-01-01

    The multiplicity of mechanisms of resistance to azole antifungal agents has been described. As fluconazole-resistant clinical Candida albicans isolates that constitutively over-express ERG11 have been identified in previous studies, the aim of this study is to investigate this molecular mechanism involved in fluconazole resistance of C. albicans clinical isolates. Fluconazole susceptibility testing was carried out on clinical isolates of Candida spp. obtained from hospitalised children in an Iranian referral children's hospital. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) technique was used to differentiate Candida spp. The resistant C. albicans isolates were subjected to RT-qPCR using primers that identify ERG11 gene expression. Of the 142 Candida spp. isolates studied, C. albicans was the most predominant isolate, occurring in 68.3% (97/142) of the patients. According to the CLSI method, the majority of the C. albicans isolates (91.7%, 89/97), categorised as susceptible (minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] ≤8 μg/mL), five isolates were considered resistant (MIC ≤64 μg/mL) and three had dose-dependent susceptibility (MIC = 8.16-32 μg/mL). The ERG11 gene in the five fluconazole-resistant C. albicans isolates was upregulated 4.15-5.84-fold relative to the ATCC 10231 control strain. In this study, the expression of ERG11 was upregulated in all the fluconazole-resistant C. albicans isolates. There are limited data on the antifungal susceptibility of Candida spp. as well as the molecular mechanism of azole resistance in Iran, especially for isolates causing infections in children. Therefore, the surveillance of antifungal resistance patterns and investigation of other mechanisms of azole resistance in all Candida spp. isolates is recommended. PMID:25906488

  2. Epidemiology, species distribution, antifungal susceptibility, and ERG11 mutations of Candida species isolated from pregnant Chinese Han women.

    PubMed

    Yang, L; Su, M Q; Ma, Y Y; Xin, Y J; Han, R B; Zhang, R; Wen, J; Hao, X K

    2016-01-01

    The widespread use of antifungal agents has led to increasing azole resistance in Candida species. A major azole-resistance mechanism involves point mutations in the ERG11 gene, which encodes cytochrome P450 lanosterol 14a-demethylase. In this study, vaginal swabs were obtained from 657 pregnant Chinese Han women and cultured appropriately. The open reading frame of the obtained fungal species were amplified by PCR and sequenced; additionally, the ERG11 gene of the isolated Candida species was amplified and sequenced, and the antifungal susceptibility of the isolated species was determined. The vaginal swabs of 124 women produced fungal cultures; five species of Candida were isolated from the patients, among which Candida albicans was predominant. Twelve C. albicans isolates (13.8%) were resistant to fluconazole and 2 (2.2%) were resistant to itraconazole. Seventeen mutations, including 9 silent and 8 missense mutations, were identified in the ERG11 gene of 31 C. albicans isolates. Our findings suggest that infection caused by C. albicans and non-C. albicansis common in Chinese Han women of reproductive age. Moreover, the relationship between Candida infection and certain epidemiological factors emphasizes the need to educate women about the precise diagnosis and punctual treatment of vaginitis. PMID:27173274

  3. Overexpression of Both ERG11 and ABC2 Genes Might Be Responsible for Itraconazole Resistance in Clinical Isolates of Candida krusei

    PubMed Central

    He, Xiaoyuan; Zhao, Mingfeng; Chen, Jinyan; Wu, Rimao; Zhang, Jianlei; Cui, Rui; Jiang, Yanyu; Chen, Jie; Cao, Xiaoli; Xing, Yi; Zhang, Yuchen; Meng, Juanxia; Deng, Qi; Sui, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the main molecular mechanisms responsible for itraconazole resistance in clinical isolates of Candida krusei. Methods The 14α-demethylases encoded by ERG11 gene in the 16 C.krusei clinical isolates were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and their nucleotide sequences were determined to detect point mutations. Meanwhile, ERG11 and efflux transporters (ABC1 and ABC2) genes were determined by quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) for their expression in itraconazole-resistant (R), itraconazole-susceptible dose dependent (SDD) and itraconazole-susceptible (S) C.krusei at the mRNA level. Results We found 7-point mutations in ERG11 gene of all the C.krusei clinical isolates, including 6 synonymous mutations and 1 missense mutation (C44T). However, the missense mutation was found in the three groups. The mRNA levels of ERG11 gene in itraconazole-resistant isolates showed higher expression compared with itraconazole-susceptible dose dependent and itraconazole-susceptible ones (P = 0.015 and P = 0.002 respectively). ABC2 gene mRNA levels in itraconazole-resistant group was significantly higher than the other two groups, and the levels of their expression in the isolates appeared to increase with the decrease of susceptibility to itraconazole (P = 0.007 in SDD compared with S, P = 0.016 in SDD with R, and P<0.001 in S with R respectively). While ABC1 gene presented lower expression in itraconazole resistant strains. However, the mRNA levels of ERG11, ABC1 and ABC2 in a C.krusei (CK10) resistant to both itraconazole and voriconazole were expressed highest in all the itraconazole-resistant isolates. Conclusions There are ERG11 gene polymorphisms in clinical isolates of C.krusei. ERG11 gene mutations may not be involved in the development of itraconazole resistance in C.krusei. ERG11 and ABC2 overexpression might be responsible for the acquired itraconazole resistance of these clinical isolates. PMID

  4. Evaluation of the V404I and V509M amino acid substitutions of ERG11 gene in Candida albicans isolates by pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Kim, T-H; Lee, M-K

    2010-05-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying fluconazole resistance in C. albicans involve mutations and the overexpression of the ERG11 gene and membrane transport proteins. We examined the relationship between the reduced fluconazole susceptibility of C. albicans and mutations of V404I and V509M in the ERG11 gene in 182 C. albicans clinical isolates using the Pyrosequencing method. DNAs from these clinical isolates with different levels of in-vitro fluconazole susceptibility--one resistant, five susceptible dose-dependent (SDD), four trailer, and 172 susceptible--were analyzed. None of the fluconazole-susceptible, SDD, trailer or resistant isolates had mutations of V404I or V509M. Our results showed that no correlation can be found between the V404I or V509M mutation and fluconazole susceptibility in C. albicans. PMID:20526846

  5. Gain-of-function mutations in UPC2 are a frequent cause of ERG11 upregulation in azole-resistant clinical isolates of Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Flowers, Stephanie A; Barker, Katherine S; Berkow, Elizabeth L; Toner, Geoffrey; Chadwick, Sean G; Gygax, Scott E; Morschhäuser, Joachim; Rogers, P David

    2012-10-01

    In Candida albicans, Upc2 is a zinc-cluster transcription factor that targets genes, including those of the ergosterol biosynthesis pathway. To date, three documented UPC2 gain-of-function (GOF) mutations have been recovered from fluconazole-resistant clinical isolates that contribute to an increase in ERG11 expression and decreased fluconazole susceptibility. In a group of 63 isolates with reduced susceptibility to fluconazole, we found that 47 overexpressed ERG11 by at least 2-fold over the average expression levels in 3 unrelated fluconazole-susceptible strains. Of those 47 isolates, 29 contained a mutation in UPC2, whereas the remaining 18 isolates did not. Among the isolates containing mutations in UPC2, we recovered eight distinct mutations resulting in putative single amino acid substitutions: G648D, G648S, A643T, A643V, Y642F, G304R, A646V, and W478C. Seven of these resulted in increased ERG11 expression, increased cellular ergosterol, and decreased susceptibility to fluconazole compared to the results for the wild-type strain. Genome-wide transcriptional analysis was performed for the four strongest Upc2 amino acid substitutions (A643V, G648D, G648S, and Y642F). Genes commonly upregulated by all four mutations included those involved in ergosterol biosynthesis, in oxidoreductase activity, the major facilitator efflux pump encoded by the MDR1 gene, and the uncharacterized ATP binding cassette transporter CDR11. These findings demonstrate that gain-of-function mutations in UPC2 are more prevalent among clinical isolates than previously thought and make a significant contribution to azole antifungal resistance, but the findings do not account for ERG11 overexpression in all such isolates of C. albicans. PMID:22923048

  6. Analysis of the ergosterol biosynthesis pathway cloning, molecular characterization and phylogeny of lanosterol 14 α-demethylase (ERG11) gene of Moniliophthora perniciosa

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira Ceita, Geruza; Vilas-Boas, Laurival Antônio; Castilho, Marcelo Santos; Carazzolle, Marcelo Falsarella; Pirovani, Carlos Priminho; Selbach-Schnadelbach, Alessandra; Gramacho, Karina Peres; Ramos, Pablo Ivan Pereira; Barbosa, Luciana Veiga; Pereira, Gonçalo Amarante Guimarães; Góes-Neto, Aristóteles

    2014-01-01

    The phytopathogenic fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa (Stahel) Aime & Philips-Mora, causal agent of witches’ broom disease of cocoa, causes countless damage to cocoa production in Brazil. Molecular studies have attempted to identify genes that play important roles in fungal survival and virulence. In this study, sequences deposited in the M. perniciosa Genome Sequencing Project database were analyzed to identify potential biological targets. For the first time, the ergosterol biosynthetic pathway in M. perniciosa was studied and the lanosterol 14α-demethylase gene (ERG11) that encodes the main enzyme of this pathway and is a target for fungicides was cloned, characterized molecularly and its phylogeny analyzed. ERG11 genomic DNA and cDNA were characterized and sequence analysis of the ERG11 protein identified highly conserved domains typical of this enzyme, such as SRS1, SRS4, EXXR and the heme-binding region (HBR). Comparison of the protein sequences and phylogenetic analysis revealed that the M. perniciosa enzyme was most closely related to that of Coprinopsis cinerea. PMID:25505843

  7. Principles of a New Protocol for Prediction of Azole Resistance in Candida albicans Infections on the Basis of ERG11 Polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Caban, Monika; Strapagiel, Dominik; Dziadek, Jarosław; Korycka-Machała, Małgorzata; Grzelak, Agnieszka

    2016-08-01

    In recent years, Candida albicans infections treatment has become a growing problem because, among others, pathogenic strains are capable to develop resistance to the administered drugs. The elaboration of rapid and accurate method of resistance assessment is an important goal of many studies. They aim to avoid inappropriate dosage or drug choice, which may be life threatening in case of severe candidiasis. Here we propose a new protocol to predict C. albicans infections. The resistance prediction is based on high-resolution melt (HRM) analysis of ERG11 gene, especially, at the particularly unstable regions. Two statistically significant nucleotide polymorphisms were detected among twenty-seven strains isolated from saliva, one of which was silent mutation (Glu266Asp, Leu480Leu). We propose also HRM analysis as a convenient, simple and inexpensive method of preliminary selection of C. albicans DNA samples that vary in ERG11 nucleotide sequence within presumed region. Taken together, our study provides firm basis for the development of fast, simple and reliable methodology for diagnosis of C. albicans infections. PMID:27107760

  8. Up-regulation of ERG11 gene among fluconazole-resistant Candida albicans generated in vitro: is there any clinical implication?

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Mariceli Araujo; Paula, Claudete Rodrigues

    2007-01-01

    A well-characterized matched pair of fluconazole (FLU)-susceptible and FLU-resistant isolates, in addition to a clinical resistant isolate, was analyzed. It was found a differential expression of genes: the resistant strains experimentally induced after fluconazole exposure in vitro were associated mainly with up-regulation of ERG11 gene and a clear trailing growth in broth microdilution tests, whereas the isolate with clinically acquired resistance expressed constitutively high level of CDR gene and fluconazole MIC >64 mg mL(-1) within 24 h of incubation. The phenotype of resistant cells generated in vitro was reversible, implying that an induced transcriptional up-regulation of ERG genes would be one adaptive mechanism allowing the cells to grow in the presence of azole drugs. These drugs could have a potential role in modulating genes whose up-regulation would allow cells to remain in the hosts, providing a source for further development of resistance. PMID:16839736

  9. Screening for amino acid substitutions in the Candida albicans Erg11 protein of azole-susceptible and azole-resistant clinical isolates: new substitutions and a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Morio, Florent; Loge, Cedric; Besse, Bernard; Hennequin, Christophe; Le Pape, Patrice

    2010-04-01

    For several years, azole antifungal drugs have been a treatment option for potentially life-threatening Candida infections. However, azole resistance can occur through various mechanisms such as alterations in ERG11, encoding lanosterol 14alpha-demethylase (CYP51). In this study, we investigated the antifungal susceptibility to fluconazole, itraconazole, and voriconazole of 73 clinical isolates of Candida albicans. Screening for amino acid substitutions in Erg11 was performed on each of the 73 isolates. Twenty isolates displayed a marked decrease in azole susceptibility. Amino acid substitutions were detected in more than two-thirds of the strains. In all, 23 distinct substitutions were identified. Four have not been described previously, among which N136Y and Y447H are suspected to be involved in azole resistance. We suggest that the high genetic polymorphism of ERG11 must be considered in the rationale design of new azole compounds targeting lanosterol 14alpha-demethylase. A review of all Erg11 amino acid polymorphisms described to date is given. PMID:20226328

  10. Gab2-Mediated Signaling Promotes Melanoma Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Horst, Basil; Gruvberger-Saal, Sofia K.; Hopkins, Benjamin D.; Bordone, Lindsey; Yang, Ying; Chernoff, Karen A.; Uzoma, Ijeoma; Schwipper, Volker; Liebau, Jutta; Nowak, Norma J.; Brunner, Georg; Owens, David; Rimm, David L.; Parsons, Ramon; Celebi, Julide Tok

    2009-01-01

    Metastatic melanoma is a disease with a poor prognosis that currently lacks effective treatments. Critical biological features of metastasis include acquisition of migratory competence, growth factor independence, and invasive potential. In an attempt to identify genes that contribute to melanoma pathogenesis, a genome-wide search using bacterial artificial chromosome array comparative genomic hybridization and single nucleotide polymorphism arrays in a series of 64 metastatic melanoma samples and 20 melanoma cell lines identified increased copy numbers of Gab2 located on 11q14.1. Gab2 is an adaptor protein that potentiates the activation of the Ras-Erk and PI3K-Akt pathways and has recently been implicated in human cancer; however, its role in melanoma has not been explored. In this study, we found that Gab2 was either amplified (∼11%) and/or overexpressed (∼50%) in melanoma. Gab2 protein expression correlated with clinical melanoma progression, and higher levels of expression were seen in metastatic melanomas compared with primary melanoma and melanocytic nevi. We found that overexpression of Gab2 potentiates, whereas silencing of Gab2 reduces, migration and invasion of melanoma cells. Gab2 mediated the hyperactivation of Akt signaling in the absence of growth factors, whereas inhibition of the PI3K-Akt pathway decreased Gab2-mediated tumor cell migration and invasive potential. Gab2 overexpression resulted in enhanced tumor growth and metastatic potential in vivo. These studies demonstrate a previously undefined role for Gab2 in melanoma tumor progression and metastasis. PMID:19342374

  11. The generation of promoter-mediated transcriptional noise in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Mitarai, Namiko; Dodd, Ian B; Crooks, Michael T; Sneppen, Kim

    2008-01-01

    Noise in the expression of a gene produces fluctuations in the concentration of the gene product. These fluctuations can interfere with optimal function or can be exploited to generate beneficial diversity between cells; gene expression noise is therefore expected to be subject to evolutionary pressure. Shifts between modes of high and low rates of transcription initiation at a promoter appear to contribute to this noise both in eukaryotes and prokaryotes. However, models invoked for eukaryotic promoter noise such as stable activation scaffolds or persistent nucleosome alterations seem unlikely to apply to prokaryotic promoters. We consider the relative importance of the steps required for transcription initiation. The 3-step transcription initiation model of McClure is extended into a mathematical model that can be used to predict consequences of additional promoter properties. We show in principle that the transcriptional bursting observed at an E. coli promoter by Golding et al. (2005) can be explained by stimulation of initiation by the negative supercoiling behind a transcribing RNA polymerase (RNAP) or by the formation of moribund or dead-end RNAP-promoter complexes. Both mechanisms are tunable by the alteration of promoter kinetics and therefore allow the optimization of promoter mediated noise. PMID:18617999

  12. Two missense mutations, E123Q and K151E, identified in the ERG11 allele of an azole-resistant isolate of Candida kefyr recovered from a stem cell transplant patient for acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Couzigou, Célia; Gabriel, Frédéric; Biteau, Nicolas; Fitton-Ouhabi, Valérie; Noël, Thierry; Accoceberry, Isabelle

    2014-07-01

    We report on the first cloning and nucleotide sequencing of an ERG11 allele from a clinical isolate of Candida kefyr cross-resistant to azole antifungals. It was recovered from a stem cell transplant patient, in an oncohematology unit exhibiting unexpected high prevalence of C. kefyr. Two amino acid substitutions were identified: K151E, whose role in fluconazole resistance was already demonstrated in Candida albicans, and E123Q, a new substitution never described so far in azole-resistant Candida yeast. PMID:24936404

  13. Two missense mutations, E123Q and K151E, identified in the ERG11 allele of an azole-resistant isolate of Candida kefyr recovered from a stem cell transplant patient for acute myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Couzigou, Célia; Gabriel, Frédéric; Biteau, Nicolas; Fitton-Ouhabi, Valérie; Noël, Thierry; Accoceberry, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    We report on the first cloning and nucleotide sequencing of an ERG11 allele from a clinical isolate of Candida kefyr cross-resistant to azole antifungals. It was recovered from a stem cell transplant patient, in an oncohematology unit exhibiting unexpected high prevalence of C. kefyr. Two amino acid substitutions were identified: K151E, whose role in fluconazole resistance was already demonstrated in Candida albicans, and E123Q, a new substitution never described so far in azole-resistant Candida yeast. PMID:24936404

  14. A clinical isolate of Candida albicans with mutations in ERG11 (encoding sterol 14alpha-demethylase) and ERG5 (encoding C22 desaturase) is cross resistant to azoles and amphotericin B.

    PubMed

    Martel, Claire M; Parker, Josie E; Bader, Oliver; Weig, Michael; Gross, Uwe; Warrilow, Andrew G S; Kelly, Diane E; Kelly, Steven L

    2010-09-01

    A clinical isolate of Candida albicans was identified as an erg5 (encoding sterol C22 desaturase) mutant in which ergosterol was not detectable and ergosta 5,7-dienol comprised >80% of the total sterol fraction. The mutant isolate (CA108) was resistant to fluconazole, voriconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole, and clotrimazole (MIC values, 64, 8, 2, 1, and 2 microg ml(-1), respectively); azole resistance could not be fully explained by the activity of multidrug resistance pumps. When susceptibility tests were performed in the presence of a multidrug efflux inhibitor (tacrolimus; FK506), CA108 remained resistant to azole concentrations higher than suggested clinical breakpoints for C. albicans (efflux-inhibited MIC values, 16 and 4 microg ml(-1) for fluconazole and voriconazole, respectively). Gene sequencing revealed that CA108 was an erg11 erg5 double mutant harboring a single amino acid substitution (A114S) in sterol 14alpha-demethylase (Erg11p) and sequence repetition (10 duplicated amino acids), which nullified C22 desaturase (Erg5p) function. Owing to a lack of ergosterol, CA108 was also resistant to amphotericin B (MIC, 2 microg ml(-1)). This constitutes the first report of a C. albicans erg5 mutant isolated from the clinic. PMID:20547793

  15. Astrocytes Promote TNF-Mediated Toxicity to Oligodendrocyte Precursors

    PubMed Central

    Kim, SunJa; Steelman, Andrew J.; Koito, Hisami; Li, Jianrong

    2010-01-01

    Neuroinflammation and increased production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in the central nervous system have been implicated in many neurological diseases including white matter disorders periventricular leukomalacia and multiple sclerosis. However, the exact role of TNF in these diseases and how it mediates oligodendrocyte injury remain unclear. Previously we demonstrated that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) selectively kills oligodendrocyte precursors (preOLs) in a non-cell autonomous fashion through the induction of TNF in mixed glial cultures. Here we report that activation of oligodendroglial, but not astroglial and microglial, TNFR1 is required for LPS toxicity, and that astrocytes promote TNF-mediated preOL death through a cell contact-dependent mechanism. Microglia were the sole source for TNF production in LPS-treated mixed glial cultures. Ablation of TNFR1 in mixed glia completely prevented LPS-induced death of preOLs. TNFR1-expressing preOLs were similarly susceptible to LPS treatment when seeded into wildtype and TNFR1−/− mixed glial cultures, demonstrating a requirement for oligodendroglial TNFR1 in the cell death. Although exogenous TNF failed to cause significant cell death in enriched preOL cultures, it became cytotoxic when preOLs were in contact with astrocytes. Collectively, our results demonstrate oligodendroglial TNFR1 in mediating inflammatory destruction of preOLs and suggest a previously unrecognized role for astrocytes in promoting TNF toxicity to preOLs. PMID:21044081

  16. TERRA promotes telomerase-mediated telomere elongation in Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Moravec, Martin; Wischnewski, Harry; Bah, Amadou; Hu, Yan; Liu, Na; Lafranchi, Lorenzo; King, Megan C; Azzalin, Claus M

    2016-07-01

    Telomerase-mediated telomere elongation provides cell populations with the ability to proliferate indefinitely. Telomerase is capable of recognizing and extending the shortest telomeres in cells; nevertheless, how this mechanism is executed remains unclear. Here, we show that, in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, shortened telomeres are highly transcribed into the evolutionarily conserved long noncoding RNA TERRA A fraction of TERRA produced upon telomere shortening is polyadenylated and largely devoid of telomeric repeats, and furthermore, telomerase physically interacts with this polyadenylated TERRA in vivo We also show that experimentally enhanced transcription of a manipulated telomere promotes its association with telomerase and concomitant elongation. Our data represent the first direct evidence that TERRA stimulates telomerase recruitment and activity at chromosome ends in an organism with human-like telomeres. PMID:27154402

  17. RACK1-mediated translation control promotes liver fibrogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Min; Peng, Peike; Wang, Jiajun; Wang, Lan; Duan, Fangfang; Jia, Dongwei; Ruan, Yuanyuan; Gu, Jianxin

    2015-07-31

    Activation of quiescent hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is the central event of liver fibrosis. The translational machinery is an optimized molecular network that affects cellular homoeostasis and diseases, whereas the role of protein translation in HSCs activation and liver fibrosis is little defined. Our previous report suggests that up-regulation of receptor for activated C-kinase 1(RACK1) in HSCs is critical for liver fibrogenesis. In this study, we found that RACK1 promoted macrophage conditioned medium (MCM)-induced assembly of eIF4F and phosphorylation of eIF4E in primary HSCs. RACK1 enhanced the translation and expression of pro-fibrogenic factors collagen 1α1, snail and cyclin E1 induced by MCM. Administration of PP242 or knock-down of eIF4E suppressed RACK1-stimulated collagen 1α1 production, proliferation and migration in primary HSCs. In addition, depletion of eIF4E attenuated thioacetamide (TAA)-induced liver fibrosis in vivo. Our data suggest that RACK1-mediated stimulation of cap-dependent translation plays crucial roles in HSCs activation and liver fibrogenesis, and targeting translation initiation could be a promising strategy for the treatment of liver fibrosis. - Highlights: • RACK1 induces the assembly of eIF4F and phosphorylation of eIF4E in primary HSCs. • RACK1 stimulates the translation of collagen 1α1, snail and cyclin E1 in HSCs. • RACK1 promotes HSCs activation via cap-mediated translation. • Depletion of eIF4E suppresses liver fibrogenesis in vivo.

  18. Histone deacetylase 10 promotes autophagy-mediated cell survival

    PubMed Central

    Oehme, Ina; Linke, Jan-Peter; Böck, Barbara C.; Milde, Till; Lodrini, Marco; Hartenstein, Bettina; Wiegand, Inga; Eckert, Christian; Roth, Wilfried; Kool, Marcel; Kaden, Sylvia; Gröne, Hermann-Josef; Schulte, Johannes H.; Lindner, Sven; Hamacher-Brady, Anne; Brady, Nathan R.; Deubzer, Hedwig E.; Witt, Olaf

    2013-01-01

    Tumor cells activate autophagy in response to chemotherapy-induced DNA damage as a survival program to cope with metabolic stress. Here, we provide in vitro and in vivo evidence that histone deacetylase (HDAC)10 promotes autophagy-mediated survival in neuroblastoma cells. We show that both knockdown and inhibition of HDAC10 effectively disrupted autophagy associated with sensitization to cytotoxic drug treatment in a panel of highly malignant V-MYC myelocytomatosis viral-related oncogene, neuroblastoma derived-amplified neuroblastoma cell lines, in contrast to nontransformed cells. HDAC10 depletion in neuroblastoma cells interrupted autophagic flux and induced accumulation of autophagosomes, lysosomes, and a prominent substrate of the autophagic degradation pathway, p62/sequestosome 1. Enforced HDAC10 expression protected neuroblastoma cells against doxorubicin treatment through interaction with heat shock protein 70 family proteins, causing their deacetylation. Conversely, heat shock protein 70/heat shock cognate 70 was acetylated in HDAC10-depleted cells. HDAC10 expression levels in high-risk neuroblastomas correlated with autophagy in gene-set analysis and predicted treatment success in patients with advanced stage 4 neuroblastomas. Our results demonstrate that HDAC10 protects cancer cells from cytotoxic agents by mediating autophagy and identify this HDAC isozyme as a druggable regulator of advanced-stage tumor cell survival. Moreover, these results propose a promising way to considerably improve treatment response in the neuroblastoma patient subgroup with the poorest outcome. PMID:23801752

  19. Histone deacetylase 10 promotes autophagy-mediated cell survival.

    PubMed

    Oehme, Ina; Linke, Jan-Peter; Böck, Barbara C; Milde, Till; Lodrini, Marco; Hartenstein, Bettina; Wiegand, Inga; Eckert, Christian; Roth, Wilfried; Kool, Marcel; Kaden, Sylvia; Gröne, Hermann-Josef; Schulte, Johannes H; Lindner, Sven; Hamacher-Brady, Anne; Brady, Nathan R; Deubzer, Hedwig E; Witt, Olaf

    2013-07-01

    Tumor cells activate autophagy in response to chemotherapy-induced DNA damage as a survival program to cope with metabolic stress. Here, we provide in vitro and in vivo evidence that histone deacetylase (HDAC)10 promotes autophagy-mediated survival in neuroblastoma cells. We show that both knockdown and inhibition of HDAC10 effectively disrupted autophagy associated with sensitization to cytotoxic drug treatment in a panel of highly malignant V-MYC myelocytomatosis viral-related oncogene, neuroblastoma derived-amplified neuroblastoma cell lines, in contrast to nontransformed cells. HDAC10 depletion in neuroblastoma cells interrupted autophagic flux and induced accumulation of autophagosomes, lysosomes, and a prominent substrate of the autophagic degradation pathway, p62/sequestosome 1. Enforced HDAC10 expression protected neuroblastoma cells against doxorubicin treatment through interaction with heat shock protein 70 family proteins, causing their deacetylation. Conversely, heat shock protein 70/heat shock cognate 70 was acetylated in HDAC10-depleted cells. HDAC10 expression levels in high-risk neuroblastomas correlated with autophagy in gene-set analysis and predicted treatment success in patients with advanced stage 4 neuroblastomas. Our results demonstrate that HDAC10 protects cancer cells from cytotoxic agents by mediating autophagy and identify this HDAC isozyme as a druggable regulator of advanced-stage tumor cell survival. Moreover, these results propose a promising way to considerably improve treatment response in the neuroblastoma patient subgroup with the poorest outcome. PMID:23801752

  20. Interleukin-22 Promotes Intestinal Stem Cell-Mediated Epithelial Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Dudakov, Jarrod A.; Jenq, Robert R.; Velardi, Enrico; Young, Lauren F.; Smith, Odette M.; Lawrence, Gillian; Ivanov, Juliet A.; Fu, Ya-Yuan; Takashima, Shuichiro; Hua, Guoqiang; Martin, Maria L.; O'Rourke, Kevin P.; Lo, Yuan-Hung; Mokry, Michal; Romera-Hernandez, Monica; Cupedo, Tom; Dow, Lukas; Nieuwenhuis, Edward E.; Shroyer, Noah F.; Liu, Chen; Kolesnick, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial regeneration is critical for barrier maintenance and organ function after intestinal injury. The intestinal stem cell (ISC) niche provides Wnt, Notch, and epidermal growth factor (EGF) signals supporting Lgr5+ crypt base columnar ISCs for normal epithelial maintenance1,2. However, little is known about the regulation of the ISC compartment after tissue damage. Utilizing ex vivo organoid cultures, we provide evidence that innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), potent producers of Interleukin-22 (IL-22) after intestinal injury3,4, increased the growth of murine small intestine (SI) organoids in an IL-22-dependent fashion. Recombinant IL-22 directly targeted ISCs, augmenting the growth of both murine and human intestinal organoids, increasing proliferation, and promoting ISC expansion. IL-22 induced Stat3 phosphorylation in Lgr5+ ISCs, and Stat3 was critical for both organoid formation and IL-22-mediated regeneration. Treatment with IL-22 in vivo after murine allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) enhanced recovery of ISCs, increased epithelial regeneration, and reduced intestinal pathology and mortality from graft vs. host disease (GVHD). Atoh1-deficient organoid culture demonstrated that IL-22 induced epithelial regeneration independent of the Paneth cell niche. Our findings reveal a fundamental mechanism by which the immune system is able to support intestinal epithelium, activating ISCs to promote regeneration. PMID:26649819

  1. Interleukin-22 promotes intestinal-stem-cell-mediated epithelial regeneration.

    PubMed

    Lindemans, Caroline A; Calafiore, Marco; Mertelsmann, Anna M; O'Connor, Margaret H; Dudakov, Jarrod A; Jenq, Robert R; Velardi, Enrico; Young, Lauren F; Smith, Odette M; Lawrence, Gillian; Ivanov, Juliet A; Fu, Ya-Yuan; Takashima, Shuichiro; Hua, Guoqiang; Martin, Maria L; O'Rourke, Kevin P; Lo, Yuan-Hung; Mokry, Michal; Romera-Hernandez, Monica; Cupedo, Tom; Dow, Lukas E; Nieuwenhuis, Edward E; Shroyer, Noah F; Liu, Chen; Kolesnick, Richard; van den Brink, Marcel R M; Hanash, Alan M

    2015-12-24

    Epithelial regeneration is critical for barrier maintenance and organ function after intestinal injury. The intestinal stem cell (ISC) niche provides Wnt, Notch and epidermal growth factor (EGF) signals supporting Lgr5(+) crypt base columnar ISCs for normal epithelial maintenance. However, little is known about the regulation of the ISC compartment after tissue damage. Using ex vivo organoid cultures, here we show that innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), potent producers of interleukin-22 (IL-22) after intestinal injury, increase the growth of mouse small intestine organoids in an IL-22-dependent fashion. Recombinant IL-22 directly targeted ISCs, augmenting the growth of both mouse and human intestinal organoids, increasing proliferation and promoting ISC expansion. IL-22 induced STAT3 phosphorylation in Lgr5(+) ISCs, and STAT3 was crucial for both organoid formation and IL-22-mediated regeneration. Treatment with IL-22 in vivo after mouse allogeneic bone marrow transplantation enhanced the recovery of ISCs, increased epithelial regeneration and reduced intestinal pathology and mortality from graft-versus-host disease. ATOH1-deficient organoid culture demonstrated that IL-22 induced epithelial regeneration independently of the Paneth cell niche. Our findings reveal a fundamental mechanism by which the immune system is able to support the intestinal epithelium, activating ISCs to promote regeneration. PMID:26649819

  2. Neonatal Fc receptor promotes immune complex-mediated glomerular disease.

    PubMed

    Olaru, Florina; Luo, Wentian; Suleiman, Hani; St John, Patricia L; Ge, Linna; Mezo, Adam R; Shaw, Andrey S; Abrahamson, Dale R; Miner, Jeffrey H; Borza, Dorin-Bogdan

    2014-05-01

    The neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) is a major regulator of IgG and albumin homeostasis systemically and in the kidneys. We investigated the role of FcRn in the development of immune complex-mediated glomerular disease in mice. C57Bl/6 mice immunized with the noncollagenous domain of the α3 chain of type IV collagen (α3NC1) developed albuminuria associated with granular capillary loop deposition of exogenous antigen, mouse IgG, C3 and C5b-9, and podocyte injury. High-resolution imaging showed abundant IgG deposition in the expanded glomerular basement membrane, especially in regions corresponding to subepithelial electron dense deposits. FcRn-null and -humanized mice immunized with α3NC1 developed no albuminuria and had lower levels of serum IgG anti-α3NC1 antibodies and reduced glomerular deposition of IgG, antigen, and complement. Our results show that FcRn promotes the formation of subepithelial immune complexes and subsequent glomerular pathology leading to proteinuria, potentially by maintaining higher serum levels of pathogenic IgG antibodies. Therefore, reducing pathogenic IgG levels by pharmacologic inhibition of FcRn may provide a novel approach for the treatment of immune complex-mediated glomerular diseases. As proof of concept, we showed that a peptide inhibiting the interaction between human FcRn and human IgG accelerated the degradation of human IgG anti-α3NC1 autoantibodies injected into FCRN-humanized mice as effectively as genetic ablation of FcRn, thus preventing the glomerular deposition of immune complexes containing human IgG. PMID:24357670

  3. Neonatal Fc Receptor Promotes Immune Complex–Mediated Glomerular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Olaru, Florina; Luo, Wentian; Suleiman, Hani; St. John, Patricia L.; Ge, Linna; Mezo, Adam R.; Shaw, Andrey S.; Abrahamson, Dale R.; Miner, Jeffrey H.

    2014-01-01

    The neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) is a major regulator of IgG and albumin homeostasis systemically and in the kidneys. We investigated the role of FcRn in the development of immune complex–mediated glomerular disease in mice. C57Bl/6 mice immunized with the noncollagenous domain of the α3 chain of type IV collagen (α3NC1) developed albuminuria associated with granular capillary loop deposition of exogenous antigen, mouse IgG, C3 and C5b-9, and podocyte injury. High-resolution imaging showed abundant IgG deposition in the expanded glomerular basement membrane, especially in regions corresponding to subepithelial electron dense deposits. FcRn-null and -humanized mice immunized with α3NC1 developed no albuminuria and had lower levels of serum IgG anti-α3NC1 antibodies and reduced glomerular deposition of IgG, antigen, and complement. Our results show that FcRn promotes the formation of subepithelial immune complexes and subsequent glomerular pathology leading to proteinuria, potentially by maintaining higher serum levels of pathogenic IgG antibodies. Therefore, reducing pathogenic IgG levels by pharmacologic inhibition of FcRn may provide a novel approach for the treatment of immune complex–mediated glomerular diseases. As proof of concept, we showed that a peptide inhibiting the interaction between human FcRn and human IgG accelerated the degradation of human IgG anti-α3NC1 autoantibodies injected into FCRN-humanized mice as effectively as genetic ablation of FcRn, thus preventing the glomerular deposition of immune complexes containing human IgG. PMID:24357670

  4. Acidosis Promotes Bcl-2 Family-mediated Evasion of Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Ryder, Christopher; McColl, Karen; Zhong, Fei; Distelhorst, Clark W.

    2012-01-01

    Acidosis arises in solid and lymphoid malignancies secondary to altered nutrient supply and utilization. Tumor acidosis correlates with therapeutic resistance, although the mechanism behind this effect is not fully understood. Here we show that incubation of lymphoma cell lines in acidic conditions (pH 6.5) blocks apoptosis induced by multiple cytotoxic metabolic stresses, including deprivation of glucose or glutamine and treatment with dexamethasone. We sought to examine the role of the Bcl-2 family of apoptosis regulators in this process. Interestingly, we found that acidic culture causes elevation of both Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, while also attenuating glutamine starvation-induced elevation of p53-up-regulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) and Bim. We confirmed with knockdown studies that these shifts direct survival decisions during starvation and acidosis. Importantly, the promotion of a high anti- to pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family member ratio by acidosis renders cells exquisitely sensitive to the Bcl-2/Bcl-xL antagonist ABT-737, suggesting that acidosis causes Bcl-2 family dependence. This dependence appears to be mediated, in part, by the acid-sensing G protein-coupled receptor, GPR65, via a MEK/ERK pathway. PMID:22685289

  5. Casein Kinase 1 Promotes Initiation of Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Yutian; Grassart, Alexandre; Lu, Rebecca; Wong, Catherine C. L.; Yates, John; Barnes, Georjana; Drubin, David G.

    2014-01-01

    Summary In budding yeast, over 60 proteins functioning in at least 5 modules are recruited to endocytic sites with predictable order and timing. However, how sites of clathrin-mediated endocytosis are initiated and stabilized is not well understood. Here, the casein kinase 1 (CK1) Hrr25 is shown to be an endocytic protein and to be among the earliest proteins to appear at endocytic sites. Hrr25 absence or overexpression decreases or increases the rate of endocytic site initiation, respectively. Ede1, an early endocytic Eps15-like protein important for endocytic initiation, is an Hrr25 target and is required for Hrr25 recruitment to endocytic sites. Hrr25 phosphorylation of Ede1 is required for Hrr25-Ede1 interaction and promotes efficient initiation of endocytic sites. These observations indicate that Hrr25 kinase and Ede1 cooperate to initiate and stabilize endocytic sites. Analysis of the mammalian homologs CK1δ/ε suggests a conserved role for these protein kinases in endocytic site initiation and stabilization. PMID:25625208

  6. Casein kinase 1 promotes initiation of clathrin-mediated endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yutian; Grassart, Alexandre; Lu, Rebecca; Wong, Catherine C L; Yates, John; Barnes, Georjana; Drubin, David G

    2015-01-26

    In budding yeast, over 60 proteins functioning in at least five modules are recruited to endocytic sites with predictable order and timing. However, how sites of clathrin-mediated endocytosis are initiated and stabilized is not well understood. Here, the casein kinase 1 (CK1) Hrr25 is shown to be an endocytic protein and to be among the earliest proteins to appear at endocytic sites. Hrr25 absence or overexpression decreases or increases the rate of endocytic site initiation, respectively. Ede1, an early endocytic Eps15-like protein important for endocytic initiation, is an Hrr25 target and is required for Hrr25 recruitment to endocytic sites. Hrr25 phosphorylation of Ede1 is required for Hrr25-Ede1 interaction and promotes efficient initiation of endocytic sites. These observations indicate that Hrr25 kinase and Ede1 cooperate to initiate and stabilize endocytic sites. Analysis of the mammalian homologs CK1δ/ε suggests a conserved role for these protein kinases in endocytic site initiation and stabilization. PMID:25625208

  7. RACK1-mediated translation control promotes liver fibrogenesis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Min; Peng, Peike; Wang, Jiajun; Wang, Lan; Duan, Fangfang; Jia, Dongwei; Ruan, Yuanyuan; Gu, Jianxin

    2015-07-31

    Activation of quiescent hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is the central event of liver fibrosis. The translational machinery is an optimized molecular network that affects cellular homoeostasis and diseases, whereas the role of protein translation in HSCs activation and liver fibrosis is little defined. Our previous report suggests that up-regulation of receptor for activated C-kinase 1(RACK1) in HSCs is critical for liver fibrogenesis. In this study, we found that RACK1 promoted macrophage conditioned medium (MCM)-induced assembly of eIF4F and phosphorylation of eIF4E in primary HSCs. RACK1 enhanced the translation and expression of pro-fibrogenic factors collagen 1α1, snail and cyclin E1 induced by MCM. Administration of PP242 or knock-down of eIF4E suppressed RACK1-stimulated collagen 1α1 production, proliferation and migration in primary HSCs. In addition, depletion of eIF4E attenuated thioacetamide (TAA)-induced liver fibrosis in vivo. Our data suggest that RACK1-mediated stimulation of cap-dependent translation plays crucial roles in HSCs activation and liver fibrogenesis, and targeting translation initiation could be a promising strategy for the treatment of liver fibrosis. PMID:26002467

  8. Matrix cross-linking–mediated mechanotransduction promotes posttraumatic osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin-Hong; Lee, Gyuseok; Won, Yoonkyung; Lee, Minju; Kwak, Ji-Sun; Chun, Churl-Hong; Chun, Jang-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is characterized by impairment of the load-bearing function of articular cartilage. OA cartilage matrix undergoes extensive biophysical remodeling characterized by decreased compliance. In this study, we elucidate the mechanistic origin of matrix remodeling and the downstream mechanotransduction pathway and further demonstrate an active role of this mechanism in OA pathogenesis. Aging and mechanical stress, the two major risk factors of OA, promote cartilage matrix stiffening through the accumulation of advanced glycation end-products and up-regulation of the collagen cross-linking enzyme lysyl oxidase, respectively. Increasing matrix stiffness substantially disrupts the homeostatic balance between chondrocyte catabolism and anabolism via the Rho–Rho kinase–myosin light chain axis, consequently eliciting OA pathogenesis in mice. Experimental enhancement of nonenzymatic or enzymatic matrix cross-linking augments surgically induced OA pathogenesis in mice, and suppressing these events effectively inhibits OA with concomitant modulation of matrix degrading enzymes. Based on these findings, we propose a central role of matrix-mediated mechanotransduction in OA pathogenesis. PMID:26170306

  9. GAGA mediates the enhancer blocking activity of the eve promoter in the Drosophila embryo

    PubMed Central

    Ohtsuki, Sumio; Levine, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Insulator DNAs and promoter competition regulate enhancer–promoter interactions within complex genetic loci. A transgenic embryo assay was used to obtain evidence that the Drosophila eve promoter possesses an insulator activity that can be uncoupled from the core elements that mediate competition. The eve promoter contains an optimal TATA element and a GAGA sequence. The analysis of various chimeric promoters provides evidence that TATA is essential for promoter competition, whereas GAGA mediates enhancer blocking. The Trithorax-like (Trl) protein interacts with GAGA, and mutations in trl attenuate eve promoter insulator activity. We suggest that Trl–GAGA increases the stability of enhancer–promoter interactions by creating an open chromatin configuration at the core promoter. PMID:9808619

  10. Promotion of Participation and Mediation in Multicultural Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baraldi, Claudio; Rossi, Elisa

    2011-01-01

    This essay presents the theoretical framework and main results of a research on intercultural mediation which has been performed in eight multicultural classrooms of Italian secondary schools. Intercultural mediation is conceived as a form of dialogic communication which should empower empathic and equal relationships between the participants by…

  11. Transcription factors mediate long-range enhancer–promoter interactions

    PubMed Central

    Nolis, Ilias K.; McKay, Daniel J.; Mantouvalou, Eva; Lomvardas, Stavros; Merika, Menie; Thanos, Dimitris

    2009-01-01

    We examined how remote enhancers establish physical communication with target promoters to activate gene transcription in response to environmental signals. Although the natural IFN-β enhancer is located immediately upstream of the core promoter, it also can function as a classical enhancer element conferring virus infection-dependent activation of heterologous promoters, even when it is placed several kilobases away from these promoters. We demonstrated that the remote IFN-β enhancer “loops out” the intervening DNA to reach the target promoter. These chromatin loops depend on sequence-specific transcription factors bound to the enhancer and the promoter and thus can explain the specificity observed in enhancer–promoter interactions, especially in complex genetic loci. Transcription factor binding sites scattered between an enhancer and a promoter can work as decoys trapping the enhancer in nonproductive loops, thus resembling insulator elements. Finally, replacement of the transcription factor binding sites involved in DNA looping with those of a heterologous prokaryotic protein, the λ repressor, which is capable of loop formation, rescues enhancer function from a distance by re-establishing enhancer–promoter loop formation. PMID:19923429

  12. Peer-Mediated Interventions Promoting Social Skills of Children and Youth with Behavioral Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathur, Sarup R.; Rutherford, Robert B., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Twenty-one articles employing peer-mediated interventions to promote social skills of children and adolescents with behavioral disorders were analyzed on their experimental, procedural, and generalization components. The review found that peer-mediated approaches produce immediate positive treatment effects and have contributed to the…

  13. The Effects of Peer-Mediated Intervention in Promoting Social Skills for Children with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Kathleen I.

    2010-01-01

    Peer-mediated intervention (PMI), a strategy those working in preschool inclusive environments can use, creates opportunities for peers to assume instructional roles to promote positive social behaviors for children with disabilities. The purpose of the study was threefold: first, to examine peer mediators' use of PMI during baseline and…

  14. Mediator promotes CENP-a incorporation at fission yeast centromeres.

    PubMed

    Carlsten, Jonas O; Szilagyi, Zsolt; Liu, Beidong; Lopez, Marcela Davila; Szászi, Erzsébet; Djupedal, Ingela; Nyström, Thomas; Ekwall, Karl; Gustafsson, Claes M; Zhu, Xuefeng

    2012-10-01

    At Schizosaccharomyces pombe centromeres, heterochromatin formation is required for de novo incorporation of the histone H3 variant CENP-A(Cnp1), which in turn directs kinetochore assembly and ultimately chromosome segregation during mitosis. Noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) transcribed by RNA polymerase II (Pol II) directs heterochromatin formation through not only the RNA interference (RNAi) machinery but also RNAi-independent RNA processing factors. Control of centromeric ncRNA transcription is therefore a key factor for proper centromere function. We here demonstrate that Mediator directs ncRNA transcription and regulates centromeric heterochromatin formation in fission yeast. Mediator colocalizes with Pol II at centromeres, and loss of the Mediator subunit Med20 causes a dramatic increase in pericentromeric transcription and desilencing of the core centromere. As a consequence, heterochromatin formation is impaired via both the RNAi-dependent and -independent pathways, resulting in loss of CENP-A(Cnp1) from the core centromere, a defect in kinetochore function, and a severe chromosome segregation defect. Interestingly, the increased centromeric transcription observed in med20Δ cells appears to directly block CENP-A(Cnp1) incorporation since inhibition of Pol II transcription can suppress the observed phenotypes. Our data thus identify Mediator as a crucial regulator of ncRNA transcription at fission yeast centromeres and add another crucial layer of regulation to centromere function. PMID:22851695

  15. Mitochondria mediate septin cage assembly to promote autophagy of Shigella.

    PubMed

    Sirianni, Andrea; Krokowski, Sina; Lobato-Márquez, Damián; Buranyi, Stephen; Pfanzelter, Julia; Galea, Dieter; Willis, Alexandra; Culley, Siân; Henriques, Ricardo; Larrouy-Maumus, Gerald; Hollinshead, Michael; Sancho-Shimizu, Vanessa; Way, Michael; Mostowy, Serge

    2016-07-01

    Septins, cytoskeletal proteins with well-characterised roles in cytokinesis, form cage-like structures around cytosolic Shigella flexneri and promote their targeting to autophagosomes. However, the processes underlying septin cage assembly, and whether they influence S. flexneri proliferation, remain to be established. Using single-cell analysis, we show that the septin cages inhibit S. flexneri proliferation. To study mechanisms of septin cage assembly, we used proteomics and found mitochondrial proteins associate with septins in S. flexneri-infected cells. Strikingly, mitochondria associated with S. flexneri promote septin assembly into cages that entrap bacteria for autophagy. We demonstrate that the cytosolic GTPase dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) interacts with septins to enhance mitochondrial fission. To avoid autophagy, actin-polymerising Shigella fragment mitochondria to escape from septin caging. Our results demonstrate a role for mitochondria in anti-Shigella autophagy and uncover a fundamental link between septin assembly and mitochondria. PMID:27259462

  16. The recombination mediator RAD51D promotes geminiviral infection.

    PubMed

    Richter, Kathrin S; Serra, Heϊdi; White, Charles I; Jeske, Holger

    2016-06-01

    To study a possible role for homologous recombination in geminivirus replication, we challenged Arabidopsis recombination gene knockouts by Euphorbia yellow mosaic virus infection. Our results show that the RAD51 paralog RAD51D, rather than RAD51 itself, promotes viral replication at early stages of infection. Blot hybridization analyses of replicative intermediates using one- and two-dimensional gels and deep sequencing point to an unexpected facet of recombination-dependent replication, the repair by single-strand annealing (SSA) during complementary strand replication. A significant decrease of both intramolecular, yielding defective DNAs and intermolecular recombinant molecules between the two geminiviral DNA components (A, B) were observed in the absence of RAD51D. By contrast, DNA A and B reacted differentially with the generation of inversions. A model to implicate single-strand annealing recombination in geminiviral recombination-dependent replication is proposed. PMID:27018825

  17. AEG-1 promoter-mediated imaging of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Bhatnagar, Akrita; Wang, Yuchuan; Mease, Ronnie C; Gabrielson, Matthew; Sysa, Polina; Minn, Il; Green, Gilbert; Simmons, Brian; Gabrielson, Kathleen; Sarkar, Siddik; Fisher, Paul B; Pomper, Martin G

    2014-10-15

    We describe a new imaging method for detecting prostate cancer, whether localized or disseminated and metastatic to soft tissues and bone. The method relies on the use of imaging reporter genes under the control of the promoter of AEG-1 (MTDH), which is selectively active only in malignant cells. Through a systemic, nanoparticle-based delivery of the imaging construct, lesions can be identified through bioluminescence imaging and single-photon emission computed tomography in the PC3-ML murine model of prostate cancer at high sensitivity. This approach is applicable for the detection of prostate cancer metastases, including bone lesions for which there is no current reliable agent for noninvasive clinical imaging. Furthermore, the approach compares favorably with accepted and emerging clinical standards, including PET with [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose and [(18)F]sodium fluoride. Our results offer a preclinical proof of concept that rationalizes clinical evaluation in patients with advanced prostate cancer. PMID:25145668

  18. HDM2 promotes WIP1-mediated medulloblastoma growth

    PubMed Central

    Buss, Meghan C.; Read, Tracy-Ann; Schniederjan, Matthew J.; Gandhi, Khanjan; Castellino, Robert C.

    2012-01-01

    Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant childhood brain tumor. The protein phosphatase and oncogene WIP1 is over-expressed or amplified in a significant number of primary human medulloblastomas and cell lines. In the present study, we examine an important mechanism by which WIP1 promotes medulloblastoma growth using in vitro and in vivo models. Human cell lines and intracerebellar xenografted animal models were used to study the role of WIP1 and the major TP53 regulator, HDM2, in medulloblastoma growth. Stable expression of WIP1 enhances growth of TP53 wild-type medulloblastoma cells, compared with cells with stable expression of an empty-vector or mutant WIP1. In an animal model, WIP1 enhances proliferation and reduces the survival of immunodeficient mice bearing intracerebellar xenografted human medulloblastoma cells. Cells with increased WIP1 expression also exhibit increased expression of HDM2. HDM2 knockdown or treatment with the HDM2 inhibitor Nutlin-3a, the active enantomer of Nutlin-3, specifically inhibits the growth of medulloblastoma cells with increased WIP1 expression. Nutlin-3a does not affect growth of medulloblastoma cells with stable expression of an empty vector or of mutant WIP1. Knockdown of WIP1 or treatment with the WIP1 inhibitor CCT007093 results in increased phosphorylation of known WIP1 targets, reduced HDM2 expression, and reduced growth specifically in WIP1 wild-type and high-expressing medulloblastoma cells. Combined WIP1 and HDM2 inhibition is more effective than WIP1 inhibition alone in blocking growth of WIP1 high-expressing medulloblastoma cells. Our preclinical study supports a role for therapies that target WIP1 and HDM2 in the treatment of medulloblastoma. PMID:22379189

  19. Adenovirus-mediated expression of an elastase-specific inhibitor (elafin): a comparison of different promoters.

    PubMed

    Sallenave, J M; Xing, Z; Simpson, A J; Graham, F L; Gauldie, J

    1998-03-01

    This report describes the design and construction of three recombinant adenoviruses of serotype 5 (Ad5) expressing elafin (EL), also called elastase-specific inhibitor. Three promoters were chosen to drive the synthesis of elafin: the small (380 bp) human cytomegalovirus promoter (HCMV), the Ad2 major late promoter (MLP) and the mouse cytomegalovirus (MCMV) promoter. Human alveolar epithelial cells (A549), as well as rat and human primary pulmonary fibroblasts were infected with Ad5-HCMV-EL, Ad5-MLP-EL, Ad5-MCMV-EL and with the control Ad5-dl70/3. The MCMV promoter was the most efficient promoter in all cells studied. MLP was the least efficient promoter Intermediate between MCMV and MLP was HCMV which was able to induce significant amounts of elafin, particularly in human A549 cells. When compared in vivo in rat lungs, results were similar; MCMV was the only promoter which induced significant amounts of elafin as assessed by Northern blot analysis and ELISA, even with a low dose of virus (3 x 10(8) p.f.u.). Our data indicate that the MCMV promoter is the promoter of choice for the strong induction of adenovirus-mediated transgenes in the lung and suggest its suitability both in rodent experimental models and in humans for investigative and therapeutic purposes. PMID:9614555

  20. The MOX promoter in Hansenula polymorpha is ultrasensitive to glucose-mediated carbon catabolite repression.

    PubMed

    Dusny, Christian; Schmid, Andreas

    2016-09-01

    Redesigning biology towards specific purposes requires a functional understanding of genetic circuits. We present a quantitative in-depth study on the regulation of the methanol-specific MOX promoter system (PMOX) at the single-cell level. We investigated PMOX regulation in the methylotrophic yeast Hansenula (Ogataea) polymorpha with respect to glucose-mediated carbon catabolite repression. This promoter system is particularly delicate as the glucose as carbon and energy source in turn represses MOX promoter activity. Decoupling single cells from population activity revealed a hitherto underrated ultrasensitivity of the MOX promoter to glucose repression. Environmental control with single-cell technologies enabled quantitative insights into the balance between activation and repression of PMOX with respect to extracellular glucose concentrations. While population-based studies suggested full MOX promoter derepression at extracellular glucose concentrations of ∼1 g L(-1), we showed that glucose-mediated catabolite repression already occurs at concentrations as low as 5 × 10(-4) g L(-1) These findings demonstrate the importance of uncoupling single cells from populations for understanding the mechanisms of promoter regulation in a quantitative manner. PMID:27527102

  1. Mediation analysis of an effective sexual health promotion intervention for Spanish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Escribano, S; Espada, J P; Morales, A; Orgilés, M

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study is to determinate the factors that mediate in the self-reported consistent condom use over the 24-months post-intervention period in adolescents who received COMPAS, a sexual health promotion intervention targeted to Spanish adolescents. Twelve high schools located in Spain were randomized to an intervention or a control group with baseline, immediate-post, 12 and 24-month post-intervention assessments. Self-reported consistent condom use by 24 months post-intervention was the primary outcome. Based on the theory of planned behavior, we identified which theory-based variables mediated the intervention's effect on consistent condom use. Serial multiple mediation analysis indicated that attitudes toward condom use, when there are obstacles to use it, and self-efficacy mediated the COMPAS's effect in increasing consistent condom use. This is the first study that identifies the theoretical constructs that mediate the efficacy of a school-based intervention to promote sexual health in adolescents from Spain. PMID:26267253

  2. Linking Colleague Support to Employees’ Promotive Voice: A Moderated Mediation Model

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Promotive voice is essential for improving team and organization performance. Yet in the current literature, less was known regarding the psychological reasons why people engage in promotive voice. Through the lens of social exchange, we proposed that employees who received support from colleagues may develop higher level of felt obligation for constructive change which leads to promotive voice. Analyses of multi-source data from 51 cross-functional sources (51 team supervisors and 162 employees) showed that employees’ felt obligation for constructive change positively mediates the relationship between colleague support and promotive voice behavior. Moreover, the impact of colleague support on felt obligation for constructive change is stronger when there is a low level of subgroup formation in the team. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:26148194

  3. RNA polymerase II mediated transcription from the polymerase III promoters in short hairpin RNA expression vector

    SciTech Connect

    Rumi, Mohammad; Ishihara, Shunji . E-mail: si360405@med.shimane-u.ac.jp; Aziz, Monowar; Kazumori, Hideaki; Ishimura, Norihisa; Yuki, Takafumi; Kadota, Chikara; Kadowaki, Yasunori; Kinoshita, Yoshikazu

    2006-01-13

    RNA polymerase III promoters of human ribonuclease P RNA component H1, human U6, and mouse U6 small nuclear RNA genes are commonly used in short hairpin RNA (shRNA) expression vectors due their precise initiation and termination sites. During transient transfection of shRNA vectors, we observed that H1 or U6 promoters also express longer transcripts enough to express several reporter genes including firefly luciferase, green fluorescent protein EGFP, and red fluorescent protein JRed. Expression of such longer transcripts was augmented by upstream RNA polymerase II enhancers and completely inhibited by downstream polyA signal sequences. Moreover, the transcription of firefly luciferase from human H1 promoter was sensitive to RNA polymerase II inhibitor {alpha}-amanitin. Our findings suggest that commonly used polymerase III promoters in shRNA vectors are also prone to RNA polymerase II mediated transcription, which may have negative impacts on their targeted use.

  4. Human papillomavirus type 16 E7 oncoprotein mediates CCNA1 promoter methylation

    PubMed Central

    Chalertpet, Kanwalat; Pakdeechaidan, Watcharapong; Patel, Vyomesh; Mutirangura, Apiwat; Yanatatsaneejit, Pattamawadee

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) oncoproteins drive distinctive promoter methylation patterns in cancer. However, the underlying mechanism remains to be elucidated. Cyclin A1 (CCNA1) promoter methylation is strongly associated with HPV-associated cancer. CCNA1 methylation is found in HPV-associated cervical cancers, as well as in head and neck squamous cell cancer. Numerous pieces of evidence suggest that E7 may drive CCNA1 methylation. First, the CCNA1 promoter is methylated in HPV-positive epithelial lesions after transformation. Second, the CCNA1 promoter is methylated at a high level when HPV is integrated into the human genome. Finally, E7 has been shown to interact with DNA methyltransferase 1 (Dnmt1). Here, we sought to determine the mechanism by which E7 increases methylation in cervical cancer by using CCNA1 as a gene model. We investigated whether E7 induces CCNA1 promoter methylation, resulting in the loss of expression. Using both E7 knockdown and overexpression approaches in SiHa and C33a cells, our data showed that CCNA1 promoter methylation decreases with a corresponding increase in expression in E7 siRNA-transfected cells. By contrast, CCNA1 promoter methylation was augmented with a corresponding reduction in expression in E7-overexpressing cells. To confirm whether the binding of the E7–Dnmt1 complex to the CCNA1 promoter induced methylation and loss of expression, ChIP assays were carried out in E7-, del CR3-E7 and vector control-overexpressing C33a cells. The data showed that E7 induced CCNA1 methylation by forming a complex with Dnmt1 at the CCNA1 promoter, resulting in the subsequent reduction of expression in cancers. It is interesting to further explore the genome-wide mechanism of E7 oncoprotein-mediated DNA methylation. PMID:26250467

  5. Phenotypic consequences of promoter-mediated transcriptional noise: Experiment and computational modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balazsi, Gabor; Blake, William; Kohanski, Michael; Murphy, Kevin; Collins, James

    2007-03-01

    A more complete understanding of the causes and effects of gene expression noise is needed to elucidate whether the resulting phenotypes are disadvantageous or confer some adaptive advantage. We introduce mutations within the promoter region of an engineered, repressible Saccharomyces cerevisiae GAL1 promoter to show that the level of gene expression noise is affected by the sequence of the TATA box. Through computer simulations, we identify transcription scaffold stability as a critical noise-mediating factor. We demonstrate that TATA box-dependent, increased gene expression noise can be beneficial after an acute change in environmental conditions. First, we illustrate computationally how a stable transcription scaffold can enable increased cell-cell variability at steady state. Second, we experimentally verify our computational prediction that the increased gene expression noise enabled by TATA-containing promoters confers a clear benefit in the face of an acute environmental stress.

  6. Cell-cell contact promotes Ebola virus GP-mediated infection.

    PubMed

    Miao, Chunhui; Li, Minghua; Zheng, Yi-Min; Cohen, Fredric S; Liu, Shan-Lu

    2016-01-15

    Ebola virus (EBOV) is a highly pathogenic filovirus that causes hemorrhagic fever in humans and animals. Here we provide evidence that cell-cell contact promotes infection mediated by the glycoprotein (GP) of EBOV. Interestingly, expression of EBOV GP alone, even in the absence of retroviral Gag-Pol, is sufficient to transfer a retroviral vector encoding Tet-off from cell to cell. Cell-to-cell infection mediated by EBOV GP is blocked by inhibitors of actin polymerization, but appears to be less sensitive to KZ52 neutralization. Treatment of co-cultured cells with cathepsin B/L inhibitors, or an entry inhibitor 3.47 that targets the receptor NPC1 for virus binding, also blocks cell-to-cell infection. Cell-cell contact also enhances spread of rVSV bearing GP in monocytes and macrophages, the primary targets of natural EBOV infection. Altogether, our study reveals that cell-cell contact promotes EBOV GP-mediated infection, and provides new insight into understanding EBOV spread and viral pathogenesis. PMID:26655238

  7. Set1/COMPASS and Mediator are repurposed to promote epigenetic transcriptional memory.

    PubMed

    D'Urso, Agustina; Takahashi, Yoh-Hei; Xiong, Bin; Marone, Jessica; Coukos, Robert; Randise-Hinchliff, Carlo; Wang, Ji-Ping; Shilatifard, Ali; Brickner, Jason H

    2016-01-01

    In yeast and humans, previous experiences can lead to epigenetic transcriptional memory: repressed genes that exhibit mitotically heritable changes in chromatin structure and promoter recruitment of poised RNA polymerase II preinitiation complex (RNAPII PIC), which enhances future reactivation. Here, we show that INO1 memory in yeast is initiated by binding of the Sfl1 transcription factor to the cis-acting Memory Recruitment Sequence, targeting INO1 to the nuclear periphery. Memory requires a remodeled form of the Set1/COMPASS methyltransferase lacking Spp1, which dimethylates histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4me2). H3K4me2 recruits the SET3C complex, which plays an essential role in maintaining this mark. Finally, while active INO1 is associated with Cdk8(-) Mediator, during memory, Cdk8(+) Mediator recruits poised RNAPII PIC lacking the Kin28 CTD kinase. Aspects of this mechanism are generalizable to yeast and conserved in human cells. Thus, COMPASS and Mediator are repurposed to promote epigenetic transcriptional poising by a highly conserved mechanism. PMID:27336723

  8. Polycystin-1 promotes PKC{alpha}-mediated NF-{kappa}B activation in kidney cells

    SciTech Connect

    Banzi, Manuela; Aguiari, Gianluca; Trimi, Viky; Mangolini, Alessandra; Pinton, Paolo; Witzgall, Ralph; Rizzuto, Rosario; Senno, Laura del . E-mail: sen@unife.it

    2006-11-17

    Polycystin-1 (PC1), the PKD1 gene product, is a membrane receptor which regulates many cell functions, including cell proliferation and apoptosis, both typically increased in cyst lining cells in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. Here we show that PC1 upregulates the NF-{kappa}B signalling pathway in kidney cells to prevent cell death. Human embryonic kidney cell lines (HEK293{sup CTT}), stably expressing a PC1 cytoplasmic terminal tail (CTT), presented increased NF-{kappa}B nuclear levels and NF-{kappa}B-mediated luciferase promoter activity. This, consistently, was reduced in HEK293 cells in which the endogenous PC1 was depleted by RNA interference. CTT-dependent NF-{kappa}B promoter activation was mediated by PKC{alpha} because it was blocked by its specific inhibitor Ro-320432. Furthermore, it was observed that apoptosis, which was increased in PC1-depleted cells, was reduced in HEK293{sup CTT} cells and in porcine kidney LtTA cells expressing a doxycycline-regulated CTT. Staurosporine, a PKC inhibitor, and parthenolide, a NF-{kappa}B inhibitor, significantly reduced the CTT-dependent antiapoptotic effect. These data reveal, therefore, a novel pathway by which polycystin-1 activates a PKC{alpha}-mediated NF-{kappa}B signalling and cell survival.

  9. Set1/COMPASS and Mediator are repurposed to promote epigenetic transcriptional memory

    PubMed Central

    D'Urso, Agustina; Takahashi, Yoh-hei; Xiong, Bin; Marone, Jessica; Coukos, Robert; Randise-Hinchliff, Carlo; Wang, Ji-Ping; Shilatifard, Ali; Brickner, Jason H

    2016-01-01

    In yeast and humans, previous experiences can lead to epigenetic transcriptional memory: repressed genes that exhibit mitotically heritable changes in chromatin structure and promoter recruitment of poised RNA polymerase II preinitiation complex (RNAPII PIC), which enhances future reactivation. Here, we show that INO1 memory in yeast is initiated by binding of the Sfl1 transcription factor to the cis-acting Memory Recruitment Sequence, targeting INO1 to the nuclear periphery. Memory requires a remodeled form of the Set1/COMPASS methyltransferase lacking Spp1, which dimethylates histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4me2). H3K4me2 recruits the SET3C complex, which plays an essential role in maintaining this mark. Finally, while active INO1 is associated with Cdk8- Mediator, during memory, Cdk8+ Mediator recruits poised RNAPII PIC lacking the Kin28 CTD kinase. Aspects of this mechanism are generalizable to yeast and conserved in human cells. Thus, COMPASS and Mediator are repurposed to promote epigenetic transcriptional poising by a highly conserved mechanism. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16691.001 PMID:27336723

  10. Type III TGF-β receptor promotes FGF2-mediated neuronal differentiation in neuroblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Knelson, Erik H.; Gaviglio, Angela L.; Tewari, Alok K.; Armstrong, Michael B.; Mythreye, Karthikeyan; Blobe, Gerard C.

    2013-01-01

    Growth factors and their receptors coordinate neuronal differentiation during development, yet their roles in the pediatric tumor neuroblastoma remain unclear. Comparison of mRNA from benign neuroblastic tumors and neuroblastomas revealed that expression of the type III TGF-β receptor (TGFBR3) decreases with advancing stage of neuroblastoma and this loss correlates with a poorer prognosis. Patients with MYCN oncogene amplification and low TGFBR3 expression were more likely to have an adverse outcome. In vitro, TβRIII expression was epigenetically suppressed by MYCN-mediated recruitment of histone deacetylases to regions of the TGFBR3 promoter. TβRIII bound FGF2 and exogenous FGFR1, which promoted neuronal differentiation of neuroblastoma cells. TβRIII and FGF2 cooperated to induce expression of the transcription factor inhibitor of DNA binding 1 via Erk MAPK. TβRIII-mediated neuronal differentiation suppressed cell proliferation in vitro as well as tumor growth and metastasis in vivo. These studies characterize a coreceptor function for TβRIII in FGF2-mediated neuronal differentiation, while identifying potential therapeutic targets and clinical biomarkers for neuroblastoma. PMID:24216509

  11. Activation domains of transcription factors mediate replication dependent transcription from a minimal HIV-1 promoter.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, R D; Lee, B A; Jackson, S P; Proudfoot, N J

    1996-01-01

    Transcription from a minimal HIV-1 promoter containing the three Sp1 binding sites and TATA box can be activated without Tat by template DNA replication. Here we show that this activation can also be mediated by recombinant GAL4 fusion proteins containing the activation domains of Sp1, VP16 or CTF (or by full-length GAL4) targeted to the HIV-1 promoter by replacing the Sp1 sites with five GAL4 binding sites. Thus Sp1 is not unique in its ability to mediate replication activated transcription, although the degree of processivity elicited by the different activators varied significantly from strongly processive (GAL4-VP16) to relatively non-processive (GAL4-Sp1 or -CTF). Processive GAL4-VP16-activated transcription, but not efficient initiation, required multiple GAL4 binding sites. In the presence of Tat, transcription with GAL4-SP1 and GAL4-CTF was further activated (principally at the level of processivity) but GAL4-VP16-potentiated transcription was only slightly stimulated. The Tat-dependent switch from non-processive to fully processive transcription was particularly marked for GAL4-Sp1, an effect which may be relevant to the selection of Sp1 binding sites by the HIV-1 promoter. PMID:8604293

  12. Leukocyte accumulation promoting fibrin deposition is mediated in vivo by P-selectin on adherent platelets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palabrica, Theresa; Lobb, Roy; Furie, Barbara C.; Aronovitz, Mark; Benjamin, Christopher; Hsu, Yen-Ming; Sajer, Susan A.; Furie, Bruce

    1992-10-01

    THE glycoprotein P-selectin is a cell adhesion molecule of stimulated platelets and endothelial cells, which mediates the interaction of these cells with neutrophils and monocytes1,2. It is a membrane component of cell storage granules3-6, and is a member of the selectin family which includes E-selectin and L-selectin7,8. P-selectin recognizes both lineage-specific carbohydrate ligands on monocytes and neutrophils, including the Lewis x antigen, sialic acid, and a protein component9-12. In inflammation and thrombosis, P-selectin may mediate the interaction of leukocytes with platelets bound in the region of tissue injury and with stimulated endothelium1,2. To evaluate the role of P-selectin in platelet-leukocyte adhesion in vivo, the accumulation of leukocytes within an experimental thrombus was explored in an arteriovenous shunt model in baboons13. A Dacron graft implanted within an arteriovenous shunt is thrombogenic, accumulating platelets and fibrin within its lumen. These bound platelets express P-selectin14. Here we show that antibody inhibition of leukocyte binding to P-selectin expressed on platelets immobilized on the graft blocks leukocyte accumulation and inhibits the deposition of fibrin within the thrombus. These results indicate that P-selectin is an important adhesion molecule on platelets, mediating platelet-leukocyte binding in vivo, that the presence of leukocytes in thrombi is mediated by P-selectin, and that these leukocytes promote fibrin deposition.

  13. Stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 mediated cell apoptosis in colorectal cancer by promoting ceramide synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ling; Ren, Jie; Yang, Longhe; Li, Yanting; Fu, Jin; Li, Yuhang; Tian, Yifeng; Qiu, Funan; Liu, Zuguo; Qiu, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Inhibition of stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) has been found to effectively suppress tumor cell proliferation and induce apoptosis in numerous neoplastic lesions. However, mechanism underlying SCD1-mediated anti-tumor effect has maintained unclear. Herein, we reported endo-lipid messenger ceramides played a critical role in tumor fate modulated by SCD1 inhibition. In vitro study in colorectal cancer cells demonstrated inhibition of SCD1 activity promoted apoptosis attributed to mitochondria dysfunctions, upregulation of reaction oxygen species (ROS), alteration of mitochondrial transmembrane potential and translocation of mitochondrial protein cytochrome C. While these effects were mediated by intracellular ceramide signals through induction of ceramide biosynthesis, rather than exclusive SFA accumulation. In vivo study in xenograft colorectal cancer mice showed pharmacologic administration of SCD1 inhibitor A939 significantly delayed tumor growth, which was reversed by L-cycloserine, an inhibitor of ceramide biosynthesis. These results depicted the cross-talk of SCD1-mediated lipid pathway and endo-ceramide biosynthesis pathway, indicating roles of ceramide signals in SCD1-mediated anti-tumor property. PMID:26813308

  14. Efficient expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) mediated by a chimeric promoter in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jinxia; Hu, Zhangli; Wang, Chaogang; Li, Shuangfei; Lei, Anping

    2008-08-01

    To improve the expression efficiency of exogenous genes in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a high efficient expression vector was constructed. Green fluorescent protein (GFP) was expressed in C. reinhardtii under the control of promoters: RBCS2 and HSP70A-RBCS2. Efficiency of transformation and expression were compared between two transgenic algae: RBCS2 mediated strain Tran-I and HSP70A-RBCS2 mediated strain Tran-II. Results show that HSP70A-RBCS2 could improve greatly the transformation efficiency by approximately eightfold of RBCS2, and the expression efficiency of GFP in Tran-II was at least double of that in Tran-I. In addition, a threefold increase of GFP in Tran-II was induced by heat shock at 40°C. All of the results demonstrated that HSP70A-RBCS2 was more efficient than RBCS2 in expressing exogenous gene in C. reinhardtii.

  15. BRK Targets Dok1 for Ubiquitin-Mediated Proteasomal Degradation to Promote Cell Proliferation and Migration

    PubMed Central

    Miah, Sayem; Goel, Raghuveera Kumar; Dai, Chenlu; Kalra, Natasha; Beaton-Brown, Erika; Bagu, Edward T.; Bonham, Keith; Lukong, Kiven E.

    2014-01-01

    Breast tumor kinase (BRK), also known as protein tyrosine kinase 6 (PTK6), is a non-receptor tyrosine kinase overexpressed in more that 60% of human breast carcinomas. The overexpression of BRK has been shown to sensitize mammary epithelial cells to mitogenic signaling and to promote cell proliferation and tumor formation. The molecular mechanisms of BRK have been unveiled by the identification and characterization of BRK target proteins. Downstream of tyrosine kinases 1 or Dok1 is a scaffolding protein and a substrate of several tyrosine kinases. Herein we show that BRK interacts with and phosphorylates Dok1 specifically on Y362. We demonstrate that this phosphorylation by BRK significantly downregulates Dok1 in a ubiquitin-proteasome-mediated mechanism. Together, these results suggest a novel mechanism of action of BRK in the promotion of tumor formation, which involves the targeting of tumor suppressor Dok1 for degradation through the ubiquitin proteasomal pathway. PMID:24523872

  16. Kappa opioid receptor activation alleviates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and promotes oligodendrocyte-mediated remyelination

    PubMed Central

    Du, Changsheng; Duan, Yanhui; Wei, Wei; Cai, Yingying; Chai, Hui; Lv, Jie; Du, Xiling; Zhu, Jian; Xie, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is characterized by autoimmune damage to the central nervous system. All the current drugs for MS target the immune system. Although effective in reducing new lesions, they have limited effects in preventing the progression of disability. Promoting oligodendrocyte-mediated remyelination and recovery of neurons are the new directions of MS therapy. The endogenous opioid system, consisting of MOR, DOR, KOR and their ligands, has been suggested to participate in the pathogenesis of MS. However, the exact receptor and mechanism remain elusive. Here we show that genetic deletion of KOR exacerbates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, whereas activating KOR with agonists alleviates the symptoms. KOR does not affect immune cell differentiation and function. Instead, it promotes oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination both in vitro and in vivo. Our study suggests that targeting KOR might be an intriguing way to develop new MS therapies that may complement the existing immunosuppressive approaches. PMID:27040771

  17. Kappa opioid receptor activation alleviates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and promotes oligodendrocyte-mediated remyelination.

    PubMed

    Du, Changsheng; Duan, Yanhui; Wei, Wei; Cai, Yingying; Chai, Hui; Lv, Jie; Du, Xiling; Zhu, Jian; Xie, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is characterized by autoimmune damage to the central nervous system. All the current drugs for MS target the immune system. Although effective in reducing new lesions, they have limited effects in preventing the progression of disability. Promoting oligodendrocyte-mediated remyelination and recovery of neurons are the new directions of MS therapy. The endogenous opioid system, consisting of MOR, DOR, KOR and their ligands, has been suggested to participate in the pathogenesis of MS. However, the exact receptor and mechanism remain elusive. Here we show that genetic deletion of KOR exacerbates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, whereas activating KOR with agonists alleviates the symptoms. KOR does not affect immune cell differentiation and function. Instead, it promotes oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination both in vitro and in vivo. Our study suggests that targeting KOR might be an intriguing way to develop new MS therapies that may complement the existing immunosuppressive approaches. PMID:27040771

  18. An essential GT motif in the lamin A promoter mediates activation by CREB-binding protein

    SciTech Connect

    Janaki Ramaiah, M.; Parnaik, Veena K. . E-mail: veenap@ccmb.res.in

    2006-09-29

    Lamin A is an important component of nuclear architecture in mammalian cells. Mutations in the human lamin A gene lead to highly degenerative disorders that affect specific tissues. In studies directed towards understanding the mode of regulation of the lamin A promoter, we have identified an essential GT motif at -55 position by reporter gene assays and mutational analysis. Binding of this sequence to Sp transcription factors has been observed in electrophoretic mobility shift assays and by chromatin immunoprecipitation studies. Further functional analysis by co-expression of recombinant proteins and ChIP assays has shown an important regulatory role for CREB-binding protein in promoter activation, which is mediated by the GT motif.

  19. Triazole resistance mediated by mutations of a conserved active site tyrosine in fungal lanosterol 14α-demethylase.

    PubMed

    Sagatova, Alia A; Keniya, Mikhail V; Wilson, Rajni K; Sabherwal, Manya; Tyndall, Joel D A; Monk, Brian C

    2016-01-01

    Emergence of fungal strains showing resistance to triazole drugs can make treatment of fungal disease problematic. Triazole resistance can arise due to single mutations in the drug target lanosterol 14α-demethylase (Erg11p/CYP51). We have determined how commonly occurring single site mutations in pathogenic fungi affect triazole binding using Saccharomyces cerevisiae Erg11p (ScErg11p) as a target surrogate. The mutations Y140F/H were introduced into full-length hexahistidine-tagged ScErg11p. Phenotypes and high-resolution X-ray crystal structures were determined for the mutant enzymes complexed with short-tailed (fluconazole and voriconazole) or long-tailed (itraconazole and posaconazole) triazoles and wild type enzyme complexed with voriconazole. The mutations disrupted a water-mediated hydrogen bond network involved in binding of short-tailed triazoles, which contain a tertiary hydroxyl not present in long-tailed triazoles. This appears to be the mechanism by which resistance to these short chain azoles occurs. Understanding how these mutations affect drug affinity will aid the design of azoles that overcome resistance. PMID:27188873

  20. Triazole resistance mediated by mutations of a conserved active site tyrosine in fungal lanosterol 14α-demethylase

    PubMed Central

    Sagatova, Alia A.; Keniya, Mikhail V.; Wilson, Rajni K.; Sabherwal, Manya; Tyndall, Joel D. A.; Monk, Brian C.

    2016-01-01

    Emergence of fungal strains showing resistance to triazole drugs can make treatment of fungal disease problematic. Triazole resistance can arise due to single mutations in the drug target lanosterol 14α-demethylase (Erg11p/CYP51). We have determined how commonly occurring single site mutations in pathogenic fungi affect triazole binding using Saccharomyces cerevisiae Erg11p (ScErg11p) as a target surrogate. The mutations Y140F/H were introduced into full-length hexahistidine-tagged ScErg11p. Phenotypes and high-resolution X-ray crystal structures were determined for the mutant enzymes complexed with short-tailed (fluconazole and voriconazole) or long-tailed (itraconazole and posaconazole) triazoles and wild type enzyme complexed with voriconazole. The mutations disrupted a water-mediated hydrogen bond network involved in binding of short-tailed triazoles, which contain a tertiary hydroxyl not present in long-tailed triazoles. This appears to be the mechanism by which resistance to these short chain azoles occurs. Understanding how these mutations affect drug affinity will aid the design of azoles that overcome resistance. PMID:27188873

  1. Hyperforin promotes post-stroke functional recovery through interleukin (IL)-17A-mediated angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiancheng; Yao, Chengye; Chen, Jiayi; Zhang, Yujing; Yuan, Shiying; Lin, Yun

    2016-09-01

    Hyperforin, the main active ingredient of the medicinal plant Hypericum perforatum, has been shown to be neuroprotective against acute ischemic stroke. However, the long-term actions of hyperforin on the post-stroke functional recovery and underlying mechanisms have not been investigated. C57BL/6 wild-type mice or interleukin (IL)-17A knock-out mice underwent middle cerebral artery occlusion (60min) followed by reperfusion for 28 days. Here, we found that delayed treatment with hyperforin significantly promoted functional recovery and increased IL-17A expression in the ischemic hemisphere at 28 days post-ischemia (dpi). IL-17A knock-out or anti-IL-17A monoclonal antibody (mAb) treatment significantly attenuated the promoting effects of hyperforin on functional recovery. After screening for neurotrophic factors, we revealed that blocking IL-17A significantly decreased, whereas recombinant mouse IL-17A (rIL-17A) treatment significantly increased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression. Our data also showed that rIL-17A treatment significantly increased CD34 expression and promoted functional recovery at 28dpi, and the promoting effects were attenuated by VEGF neutralizing antibody treatment. Furthermore, hyperforin treatment significantly increased the expression of VEGF and CD34 in the ischemic hemisphere at 28dpi, and the effects were attenuated by blocking IL-17A. Furthermore, VEGF neutralizing antibody significantly attenuated the promoting role of hyperforin on the cerebral CD34 expression. Thus, our results suggest that, in addition to the acute neuroprotection when delivered immediately after ischemic stroke, hyperforin could also promote functional recovery when delivered in the later phases of stroke recovery. Our results also reveal a previously uncharacterized property of IL-17A/VEGF signaling-induced angiogenesis in hyperforin-mediated functional recovery. PMID:27328426

  2. HMGA2 promotes adipogenesis by activating C/EBPβ-mediated expression of PPARγ.

    PubMed

    Xi, Yang; Shen, Wanjing; Ma, Lili; Zhao, Ming; Zheng, Jiachen; Bu, Shizhong; Hino, Shinjiro; Nakao, Mitsuyoshi

    2016-04-15

    Adipogenesis is orchestrated by a highly ordered network of transcription factors including peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ) and CCAAT-enhancer binding protein (C/EBP) family proteins. High mobility group protein AT-hook 2 (HMGA2), an architectural transcription factor, has been reported to play an essential role in preadipocyte proliferation, and its overexpression has been implicated in obesity in mice and humans. However, the direct role of HMGA2 in regulating the gene expression program during adipogenesis is not known. Here, we demonstrate that HMGA2 is required for C/EBPβ-mediated expression of PPARγ, and thus promotes adipogenic differentiation. We observed a transient but marked increase of Hmga2 transcript at an early phase of differentiation of mouse 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Importantly, Hmga2 knockdown greatly impaired adipocyte formation, while its overexpression promoted the formation of mature adipocytes. We found that HMGA2 colocalized with C/EBPβ in the nucleus and was required for the recruitment of C/EBPβ to its binding element at the Pparγ2 promoter. Accordingly, HMGA2 and C/EBPβ cooperatively enhanced the Pparγ2 promoter activity. Our results indicate that HMGA2 is an essential constituent of the adipogenic transcription factor network, and thus its function may be affected during the course of obesity. PMID:26966068

  3. Human involucrin promoter mediates repression-resistant and compartment-specific LEKTI expression.

    PubMed

    Di, Wei-Li; Semenova, Ekaterina; Larcher, Fernando; Del Rio, Marcela; Harper, John I; Thrasher, Adrian J; Qasim, Waseem

    2012-01-01

    Gene-modified skin grafts, produced through gene transfer to human keratinocyte stem cells, offer the possibility of therapeutic benefit for inherited skin diseases. We have previously described efficient lentiviral vector-mediated gene transfer to keratinocyte stem cells and the generation of human skin grafts for the inherited skin disease, Netherton syndrome, which arises due to mutations in serine protease inhibitor Kazal-type 5 (SPINK5). Vectors incorporating an internal murine retroviral-derived promoter [spleen focus-forming virus (SFFV)] in combination with a codon-optimized SPINK5 transgene supported high levels of reconstitution and robust correction of skin architecture. Subsequent longer-term experiments have uncovered unanticipated silencing phenomena, with loss of SPINK5 gene expression over time. The inadvertent introduction of CpG sites during codon optimization appears to have rendered vectors susceptible to silencing due to methylation across the promoter-transgene boundary. Substitution of the methylation-susceptible SFFV promoter with a 572-bp minimal human involucrin promoter (INVOp), which encodes very few CpG sites, prevented repression of the SPINK5 transgene and resulted in durable and highly compartment-specific reconstitution of lympho-epithelial Kazal-type-related inhibitor (LEKTI) in human skin grafted onto immunodeficient mice. We conclude that skin grafts modified with lentiviral vectors encoding INVOp offer a suitable platform for therapeutic gene therapy in Netherton syndrome, and our experience highlights unanticipated effects of transgene codon optimization. PMID:21895535

  4. TFIIH phosphorylation of the Pol II CTD stimulates Mediator dissociation from the preinitiation complex and promoter escape

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Koon Ho; Jin, Yi; Struhl, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    The transition between transcriptional initiation and elongation by RNA polymerase (Pol) II is associated with phosphorylation of its C-terminal tail (CTD). Depletion of Kin28, the TFIIH subunit that phosphorylates the CTD, does not affect elongation but causes Pol II occupancy profiles to shift upstream in a FACT-independent manner indicative of a defect in promoter escape. Stronger defects in promoter escape are linked to stronger effects on preinitiation complex formation and transcription, suggesting that impairment in promoter escape results in premature dissociation of general factors and Pol II near the promoter. Kin28 has a stronger effect on genes whose transcription is dependent on SAGA as opposed to TFIID. Strikingly, Kin28 depletion causes a dramatic increase in Mediator at the core promoter. These observations suggest that TFIIH phosphorylation of the CTD causes Mediator dissociation, thereby permitting rapid promoter escape of Pol II from the preinitiation complex. PMID:24746699

  5. Recombinant Human Myelin-Associated Glycoprotein Promoter Drives Selective AAV-Mediated Transgene Expression in Oligodendrocytes

    PubMed Central

    von Jonquieres, Georg; Fröhlich, Dominik; Klugmann, Claudia B.; Wen, Xin; Harasta, Anne E.; Ramkumar, Roshini; Spencer, Ziggy H. T.; Housley, Gary D.; Klugmann, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Leukodystrophies are hereditary central white matter disorders caused by oligodendrocyte dysfunction. Recent clinical trials for some of these devastating neurological conditions have employed an ex vivo gene therapy approach that showed improved endpoints because cross-correction of affected myelin-forming cells occurred following secretion of therapeutic proteins by transduced autologous grafts. However, direct gene transfer to oligodendrocytes is required for the majority of leukodystrophies with underlying mutations in genes encoding non-secreted oligodendroglial proteins. Recombinant adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors are versatile tools for gene transfer to the central nervous system (CNS) and proof-of-concept studies in rodents have shown that the use of cellular promoters is sufficient to target AAV-mediated transgene expression to glia. The potential of this strategy has not been exploited. The major caveat of the AAV system is its limited packaging capacity of ~5 kb, providing the rationale for identifying small yet selective recombinant promoters. Here, we characterize the human myelin associated glycoprotein (MAG) promoter for reliable targeting of AAV-mediated transgene expression to oligodendrocytes in vivo. A homology screen revealed highly conserved genomic regions among mammalian species upstream of the transcription start site. Recombinant AAV expression cassettes carrying the cDNA encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP) driven by truncated versions of the recombinant MAG promoter (2.2, 1.5 and 0.3 kb in size) were packaged as cy5 vectors and delivered into the dorsal striatum of mice. At 3 weeks post-injection, oligodendrocytes, neurons and astrocytes expressing the reporter were quantified by immunohistochemical staining. Our results revealed that both 2.2 and 1.5 kb MAG promoters targeted more than 95% of transgene expression to oligodendrocytes. Even the short 0.3 kb fragment conveyed high oligodendroglial specific transgene

  6. Recombinant Human Myelin-Associated Glycoprotein Promoter Drives Selective AAV-Mediated Transgene Expression in Oligodendrocytes.

    PubMed

    von Jonquieres, Georg; Fröhlich, Dominik; Klugmann, Claudia B; Wen, Xin; Harasta, Anne E; Ramkumar, Roshini; Spencer, Ziggy H T; Housley, Gary D; Klugmann, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Leukodystrophies are hereditary central white matter disorders caused by oligodendrocyte dysfunction. Recent clinical trials for some of these devastating neurological conditions have employed an ex vivo gene therapy approach that showed improved endpoints because cross-correction of affected myelin-forming cells occurred following secretion of therapeutic proteins by transduced autologous grafts. However, direct gene transfer to oligodendrocytes is required for the majority of leukodystrophies with underlying mutations in genes encoding non-secreted oligodendroglial proteins. Recombinant adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors are versatile tools for gene transfer to the central nervous system (CNS) and proof-of-concept studies in rodents have shown that the use of cellular promoters is sufficient to target AAV-mediated transgene expression to glia. The potential of this strategy has not been exploited. The major caveat of the AAV system is its limited packaging capacity of ~5 kb, providing the rationale for identifying small yet selective recombinant promoters. Here, we characterize the human myelin associated glycoprotein (MAG) promoter for reliable targeting of AAV-mediated transgene expression to oligodendrocytes in vivo. A homology screen revealed highly conserved genomic regions among mammalian species upstream of the transcription start site. Recombinant AAV expression cassettes carrying the cDNA encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP) driven by truncated versions of the recombinant MAG promoter (2.2, 1.5 and 0.3 kb in size) were packaged as cy5 vectors and delivered into the dorsal striatum of mice. At 3 weeks post-injection, oligodendrocytes, neurons and astrocytes expressing the reporter were quantified by immunohistochemical staining. Our results revealed that both 2.2 and 1.5 kb MAG promoters targeted more than 95% of transgene expression to oligodendrocytes. Even the short 0.3 kb fragment conveyed high oligodendroglial specific transgene

  7. MBNL1-mediated regulation of differentiation RNAs promotes myofibroblast transformation and the fibrotic response

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Jennifer; Salomonis, Nathan; Ghearing, Natasha; Lin, Suh-Chin J.; Kwong, Jennifer Q.; Mohan, Apoorva; Swanson, Maurice S.; Molkentin, Jeffery D.

    2015-01-01

    The differentiation of fibroblasts into myofibroblasts mediates tissue wound healing and fibrotic remodelling, although the molecular programme underlying this process remains poorly understood. Here we perform a genome-wide screen for genes that control myofibroblast transformation, and identify the RNA-binding protein muscleblind-like1 (MBNL1). MBNL1 overexpression promotes transformation of fibroblasts into myofibroblasts, whereas loss of Mbnl1 abrogates transformation and impairs the fibrotic phase of wound healing in mouse models of myocardial infarction and dermal injury. Mechanistically, MBNL1 directly binds to and regulates a network of differentiation-specific and cytoskeletal/matrix-assembly transcripts to promote myofibroblast differentiation. One of these transcripts is the nodal transcriptional regulator serum response factor (SRF), whereas another is calcineurin Aβ. CRISPR-Cas9-mediated gene-editing of the MBNL1-binding site within the Srf 3′UTR impairs myofibroblast differentiation, whereas in vivo deletion of Srf in fibroblasts impairs wound healing and fibrosis. These data establish a new RNA-dependent paradigm for myofibroblast formation through MBNL1. PMID:26670661

  8. PI3K regulates BMAL1/CLOCK-mediated circadian transcription from the Dbp promoter.

    PubMed

    Morishita, Yoshikazu; Miura, Daiki; Kida, Satoshi

    2016-06-01

    The circadian rhythm generated by circadian clock underlies a molecular mechanism of rhythmic transcriptional regulation by transcription factor BMAL1/CLOCK. Importantly, the circadian clock is coordinated by exogenous cues to accommodate to changes in the external environment. However, the molecular mechanisms by which intracellular-signaling pathways mediate the adjustments of the circadian transcriptional rhythms remain unclear. In this study, we found that pharmacological inhibition or shRNA-mediated knockdown of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) blocked upregulation of Dbp mRNA induced by serum shock in NIH 3T3 cells. Moreover, the inhibition of PI3K significantly reduced the promoter activity of the Dbp gene, as well as decreased the recruitment of BMAL1/CLOCK to the E-box in the Dbp promoter. Interestingly, the inhibition of PI3K blocked heterodimerization of BMAL1 and CLOCK. Our findings suggest that PI3K signaling plays a modulatory role in the regulation of the transcriptional rhythm of the Dbp gene by targeting BMAL1 and CLOCK. PMID:27022680

  9. Histone H4 Lys 20 methyltransferase SET8 promotes androgen receptor-mediated transcription activation in prostate cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, Lushuai; Li, Yanyan; Du, Fengxia; Han, Xiao; Li, Xiaohua; Niu, Yuanjie; Ren, Shancheng; Sun, Yingli

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • Dihydrotestosterone stimulates H4K20me1 enrichment at the PSA promoter. • SET8 promotes AR-mediated transcription activation. • SET8 interacts with AR and promotes cell proliferation. - Abstract: Histone methylation status in different lysine residues has an important role in transcription regulation. The effect of H4K20 monomethylation (H4K20me1) on androgen receptor (AR)-mediated gene transcription remains unclear. Here we show that AR agonist stimulates the enrichment of H4K20me1 and SET8 at the promoter of AR target gene PSA in an AR dependent manner. Furthermore, SET8 is crucial for the transcription activation of PSA. Co-immunoprecipitation analyses demonstrate that SET8 interacts with AR. Therefore, we conclude that SET8 is involved in AR-mediated transcription activation, possibly through its interaction with AR and H4K20me1 modification.

  10. Thyroid Hormone Enhances Nitric Oxide-Mediated Bacterial Clearance and Promotes Survival after Meningococcal Infection

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiao; Altenbacher, Georg; Hagner, Matthias; Berglund, Pernilla; Gao, Yumin; Lu, Ting; Jonsson, Ann-Beth; Sjölinder, Hong

    2012-01-01

    Euthyroid sick syndrome characterized by reduced levels of thyroid hormones (THs) is observed in patients with meningococcal shock. It has been found that the level of THs reflects disease severity and is predictive for mortality. The present study was conducted to investigate the impact of THs on host defense during meningococcal infection. We found that supplementation of thyroxine to mice infected with Neisseria meningitidis enhanced bacterial clearance, attenuated the inflammatory responses and promoted survival. In vitro studies with macrophages revealed that THs enhanced bacteria-cell interaction and intracellular killing of meningococci by stimulating inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNos)-mediated NO production. TH treatment did not activate expression of TH receptors in macrophages. Instead, the observed TH-directed actions were mediated through nongenomic pathways involving the protein kinases PI3K and ERK1/2 and initiated at the membrane receptor integrin αvβ3. Inhibition of nongenomic TH signaling prevented iNos induction, NO production and subsequent intracellular bacterial killing by macrophages. These data demonstrate a beneficial role of THs in macrophage-mediated N. meningitidis clearance. TH replacement might be a novel option to control meningococcal septicemia. PMID:22844479

  11. Loss of PTEN promotes resistance to T cell-mediated immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Weiyi; Chen, Jie Qing; Liu, Chengwen; Malu, Shruti; Creasy, Caitlin; Tetzlaff, Michael T; Xu, Chunyu; McKenzie, Jodi A; Zhang, Chunlei; Liang, Xiaoxuan; Williams, Leila J; Deng, Wanleng; Chen, Guo; Mbofung, Rina; Lazar, Alexander J; Torres-Cabala, Carlos A; Cooper, Zachary A; Chen, Pei-Ling; Tieu, Trang N; Spranger, Stefani; Yu, Xiaoxing; Bernatchez, Chantale; Forget, Marie-Andree; Haymaker, Cara; Amaria, Rodabe; McQuade, Jennifer L; Glitza, Isabella C; Cascone, Tina; Li, Haiyan S; Kwong, Lawrence N; Heffernan, Timothy P; Hu, Jianhua; Bassett, Roland L; Bosenberg, Marcus W; Woodman, Scott E; Overwijk, Willem W; Lizée, Gregory; Roszik, Jason; Gajewski, Thomas F; Wargo, Jennifer A; Gershenwald, Jeffrey E; Radvanyi, Laszlo; Davies, Michael A; Hwu, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    T cell-mediated immunotherapies are promising cancer treatments. However, most patients still fail to respond to these therapies. The molecular determinants of immune resistance are poorly understood. We show that loss of PTEN in tumor cells in preclinical models of melanoma inhibits T cell-mediated tumor killing and decreases T cell trafficking into tumors. In patients, PTEN loss correlates with decreased T cell infiltration at tumor sites, reduced likelihood of successful T cell expansion from resected tumors, and inferior outcomes with PD-1 inhibitor therapy. PTEN loss in tumor cells increased the expression of immunosuppressive cytokines, resulting in decreased T cell infiltration in tumors, and inhibited autophagy, which decreased T cell-mediated cell death. Treatment with a selective PI3Kβ inhibitor improved the efficacy of both anti-PD-1 and anti-CTLA4 antibodies in murine models. Together these findings demonstrate that PTEN loss promotes immune resistance and support the rationale to explore combinations of immunotherapies and PI3K-AKT pathway inhibitors. PMID:26645196

  12. H19ICR mediated transcriptional silencing does not require target promoter methylation.

    PubMed

    Gebert, Claudia; Rong, Qi; Jeong, Sangkyun; Iben, James; Pfeifer, Karl

    2016-07-29

    Transcription of the reciprocally imprinted genes Insulin-like growth factor 2 (Igf2) and H19 is orchestrated by the 2.4-kb H19 Imprinting Control Region (H19ICR) located upstream of H19. Three known functions are associated with the H19ICR: (1) it is a germline differentially methylated region, (2) it is a transcriptional insulator, and (3) it is a transcriptional silencer. The molecular mechanisms of the DMR and insulator functions have been well characterized but the basis for the ICR's silencer function is less well understood. In order to study the role the H19ICR intrinsically plays in gene silencing, we transferred the 2.4-kb H19ICR to a heterologous non-imprinted location on chromosome 5, upstream of the alpha fetoprotein (Afp) promoter. Independent of its orientation, the 2.4-kb H19ICR silences transcription from the paternal Afp promoter. Thus silencing is a function intrinsic to this DNA element. Further, ICR mediated silencing is a developmental process that, unexpectedly, does not occur through DNA methylation at the target promoter. PMID:27178213

  13. Cellular Energy Depletion Resets Whole-Body Energy by Promoting Coactivator Mediated Dietary Fuel Absorption

    PubMed Central

    Chopra, Atul R.; Kommagani, Ramakrishna; Saha, Pradip; Louet, Jean-Francois; Salazar, Christina; Song, Junghun; Jeong, Jaewook; Finegold, Milton; Viollet, Benoit; DeMayo, Franco; Chan, Lawrence; Moore, David D.; O'Malley, Bert W.

    2010-01-01

    Summary All organisms have devised strategies to counteract energy depletion in order to promote fitness for survival. We show here that cellular energy depletion puts into play a surprising strategy that leads to absorption of exogenous fuel for energy repletion. We found that the energy depletion sensing kinase AMPK, binds, phosphorylates, and activates the transcriptional coactivator SRC-2, which in a liver-specific manner, promotes absorption of dietary fat from the gut. Hepatocyte-specific deletion of SRC-2 results in intestinal fat malabsorption and attenuated entry of fat into the blood stream. This defect can be attributed to AMPK and SRC-2 mediated transcriptional regulation of hepatic bile-acid secretion into the gut, as it can be completely rescued by replenishing intestinal BA, or by genetically restoring the levels of hepatic Bile Salt Export Pump (BSEP). Our results position the hepatic AMPK-SRC-2 axis as an energy rheostat which upon cellular energy depletion resets whole-body energy by promoting absorption of dietary fuel. PMID:21195347

  14. A novel sterol regulatory element-binding protein gene (sreA) identified in penicillium digitatum is required for prochloraz resistance, full virulence and erg11 (cyp51) regulation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Yuan, Yongze; Wu, Zhi; Li, Na; Chen, Yuanlei; Qin, Tingting; Geng, Hui; Xiong, Li; Liu, Deli

    2015-01-01

    Penicillium digitatum is the most destructive postharvest pathogen of citrus fruits, causing fruit decay and economic loss. Additionally, control of the disease is further complicated by the emergence of drug-resistant strains due to the extensive use of triazole antifungal drugs. In this work, an orthologus gene encoding a putative sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) was identified in the genome of P. digitatum and named sreA. The putative SreA protein contains a conserved domain of unknown function (DUF2014) at its carboxyl terminus and a helix-loop-helix (HLH) leucine zipper DNA binding domain at its amino terminus, domains that are functionally associated with SREBP transcription factors. The deletion of sreA (ΔsreA) in a prochloraz-resistant strain (PdHS-F6) by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation led to increased susceptibility to prochloraz and a significantly lower EC50 value compared with the HS-F6 wild-type or complementation strain (COsreA). A virulence assay showed that the ΔsreA strain was defective in virulence towards citrus fruits, while the complementation of sreA could restore the virulence to a large extent. Further analysis by quantitative real-time PCR demonstrated that prochloraz-induced expression of cyp51A and cyp51B in PdHS-F6 was completely abolished in the ΔsreA strain. These results demonstrate that sreA is a critical transcription factor gene required for prochloraz resistance and full virulence in P. digitatum and is involved in the regulation of cyp51 expression. PMID:25699519

  15. A Novel Sterol Regulatory Element-Binding Protein Gene (sreA) Identified in Penicillium digitatum Is Required for Prochloraz Resistance, Full Virulence and erg11 (cyp51) Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jing; Yuan, Yongze; Wu, Zhi; Li, Na; Chen, Yuanlei; Qin, Tingting; Geng, Hui; Xiong, Li; Liu, Deli

    2015-01-01

    Penicillium digitatum is the most destructive postharvest pathogen of citrus fruits, causing fruit decay and economic loss. Additionally, control of the disease is further complicated by the emergence of drug-resistant strains due to the extensive use of triazole antifungal drugs. In this work, an orthologus gene encoding a putative sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) was identified in the genome of P. digitatum and named sreA. The putative SreA protein contains a conserved domain of unknown function (DUF2014) at its carboxyl terminus and a helix-loop-helix (HLH) leucine zipper DNA binding domain at its amino terminus, domains that are functionally associated with SREBP transcription factors. The deletion of sreA (ΔsreA) in a prochloraz-resistant strain (PdHS-F6) by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation led to increased susceptibility to prochloraz and a significantly lower EC50 value compared with the HS-F6 wild-type or complementation strain (COsreA). A virulence assay showed that the ΔsreA strain was defective in virulence towards citrus fruits, while the complementation of sreA could restore the virulence to a large extent. Further analysis by quantitative real-time PCR demonstrated that prochloraz-induced expression of cyp51A and cyp51B in PdHS-F6 was completely abolished in the ΔsreA strain. These results demonstrate that sreA is a critical transcription factor gene required for prochloraz resistance and full virulence in P. digitatum and is involved in the regulation of cyp51 expression. PMID:25699519

  16. How forgiveness promotes offender pro-relational intentions: The mediating role of offender gratitude.

    PubMed

    Mooney, Louise; Strelan, Peter; McKee, Ian

    2016-03-01

    Although relationship restoration is an important outcome of forgiveness, little is known about how forgiveness facilitates such an outcome. In addition, in forgiveness research, little attention is paid to the perspective of the offender. We address these two shortcomings simultaneously, testing the idea that forgiveness promotes offender gratitude, which in turn encourages offender pro-relational intentions. Across three experimental studies, participants were induced to believe they had transgressed; recalled a time when they had transgressed; and imagined transgressing. In studies 1 and 2, forgiveness was manipulated; in Study 3, victim motivation for forgiving was manipulated. State gratitude--in comparison with guilt, indebtedness, and positive affect--was consistently found to play the primary mediating role between forgiveness and pro-relational intentions. PMID:26150176

  17. Fipronil promotes adipogenesis via AMPKα-mediated pathway in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Sun, Quancai; Qi, Weipeng; Yang, Jeremy J; Yoon, Kyong Sup; Clark, John M; Park, Yeonhwa

    2016-06-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that organochlorine, organophosphorus and neonicotinoid insecticide exposure may be linked to the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes. However, there is no knowledge of the potential influence of fipronil, which belongs to the phenylpyrazole chemical family, on obesity. Thus, the goal of this study was to determine the role of fipronil in adipogenesis using 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Fipronil treatment, at 10 μM, increased fat accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes as well as promoted key regulators of adipocyte differentiation (CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma-γ), and key regulators of lipogenesis (acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthase). The activation of AMPKα with 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR) abolished effects of fipronil on increased adipogenesis. These results suggest that fipronil alters adipogenesis and results in increased lipid accumulation through a AMPKα-mediated pathway. PMID:27103584

  18. 25-Hydroxycholesterol promotes fibroblast-mediated tissue remodeling through NF-κB dependent pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Ichikawa, Tomohiro; Sugiura, Hisatoshi; Koarai, Akira; Kikuchi, Takashi; Hiramatsu, Masataka; Kawabata, Hiroki; Akamatsu, Keiichiro; Hirano, Tsunahiko; Nakanishi, Masanori; Matsunaga, Kazuto; Minakata, Yoshiaki; Ichinose, Masakazu

    2013-05-01

    Abnormal structural alterations termed remodeling, including fibrosis and alveolar wall destruction, are important features of the pathophysiology of chronic airway diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma. 25-hydroxycholesterol (25-HC) is enzymatically produced by cholesterol 25-hydorxylase (CH25H) in macrophages and is reported to be involved in the formation of arteriosclerosis. We previously demonstrated that the expression of CH25H and production of 25HC were increased in the lungs of COPD. However, the role of 25-HC in lung tissue remodeling is unknown. In this study, we investigated the effect of 25-HC on fibroblast-mediated tissue remodeling using human fetal lung fibroblasts (HFL-1) in vitro. 25-HC significantly augmented α-smooth muscle actin (SMA) (P<0.001) and collagen I (P<0.001) expression in HFL-1. 25-HC also significantly enhanced the release and activation of matrix metallaoproteinase (MMP)-2 (P<0.001) and MMP-9 (P<0.001) without any significant effect on the production of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 and TIMP-2. 25-HC stimulated transforming growth factor (TGF)-β{sub 1} production (P<0.01) and a neutralizing anti-TGF-β antibody restored these 25-HC-augmented pro-fibrotic responses. 25-HC significantly promoted the translocation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB p65 into the nuclei (P<0.01), but not phospholylated-c-jun, a complex of activator protein-1. Pharmacological inhibition of NF-κB restored the 25-HC-augmented pro-fibrotic responses and TGF-β{sub 1} release. These results suggest that 25-HC could contribute to fibroblast-mediated lung tissue remodeling by promoting myofibroblast differentiation and the excessive release of extracellular matrix protein and MMPs via an NF-κB-TGF-β dependent pathway.

  19. Host-mediated sugar oxidation promotes post-antibiotic pathogen expansion.

    PubMed

    Faber, Franziska; Tran, Lisa; Byndloss, Mariana X; Lopez, Christopher A; Velazquez, Eric M; Kerrinnes, Tobias; Nuccio, Sean-Paul; Wangdi, Tamding; Fiehn, Oliver; Tsolis, Renée M; Bäumler, Andreas J

    2016-06-30

    Changes in the gut microbiota may underpin many human diseases, but the mechanisms that are responsible for altering microbial communities remain poorly understood. Antibiotic usage elevates the risk of contracting gastroenteritis caused by Salmonella enterica serovars, increases the duration for which patients shed the pathogen in their faeces, and may on occasion produce a bacteriologic and symptomatic relapse. These antibiotic-induced changes in the gut microbiota can be studied in mice, in which the disruption of a balanced microbial community by treatment with the antibiotic streptomycin leads to an expansion of S. enterica serovars in the large bowel. However, the mechanisms by which streptomycin treatment drives an expansion of S. enterica serovars are not fully resolved. Here we show that host-mediated oxidation of galactose and glucose promotes post-antibiotic expansion of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium). By elevating expression of the gene encoding inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the caecal mucosa, streptomycin treatment increased post-antibiotic availability of the oxidation products galactarate and glucarate in the murine caecum. S. Typhimurium used galactarate and glucarate within the gut lumen of streptomycin pre-treated mice, and genetic ablation of the respective catabolic pathways reduced S. Typhimurium competitiveness. Our results identify host-mediated oxidation of carbohydrates in the gut as a mechanism for post-antibiotic pathogen expansion. PMID:27309805

  20. Phosphorylation-mediated EZH2 inactivation promotes drug resistance in multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Kikuchi, Jiro; Koyama, Daisuke; Wada, Taeko; Izumi, Tohru; Hofgaard, Peter O.; Bogen, Bjarne; Furukawa, Yusuke

    2015-01-01

    Alterations in chromatin modifications, such as histone methylation, have been suggested as mediating chemotherapy resistance in several cancer types; therefore, elucidation of the epigenetic mechanisms that underlie drug resistance may greatly contribute to the advancement of cancer therapies. In the present study, we identified histone H3–lysine 27 (H3K27) as a critical residue for epigenetic modification in multiple myeloma. We determined that abrogation of drug-induced H3K27 hypermethylation is associated with cell adhesion–mediated drug resistance (CAM-DR), which is the most important form of drug resistance, using a coculture system to evaluate stroma cell adhesion–dependent alterations in multiple myeloma cells. Cell adhesion counteracted anticancer drug–induced hypermethylation of H3K27 via inactivating phosphorylation of the transcription regulator EZH2 at serine 21, leading to the sustained expression of antiapoptotic genes, including IGF1, B cell CLL/lymphoma 2 (BCL2), and hypoxia inducible factor 1, α subunit (HIF1A). Pharmacological and genetic inhibition of the IGF-1R/PI3K/AKT pathway reversed CAM-DR by promoting EZH2 dephosphorylation and H3K27 hypermethylation both in vitro and in refractory murine myeloma models. Together, our findings identify and characterize an epigenetic mechanism that underlies CAM-DR and suggest that kinase inhibitors to counteract EZH2 phosphorylation should be included in combination chemotherapy to increase therapeutic index. PMID:26517694

  1. P-cadherin promotes collective cell migration via a Cdc42-mediated increase in mechanical forces.

    PubMed

    Plutoni, Cédric; Bazellieres, Elsa; Le Borgne-Rochet, Maïlys; Comunale, Franck; Brugues, Agusti; Séveno, Martial; Planchon, Damien; Thuault, Sylvie; Morin, Nathalie; Bodin, Stéphane; Trepat, Xavier; Gauthier-Rouvière, Cécile

    2016-01-18

    Collective cell migration (CCM) is essential for organism development, wound healing, and metastatic transition, the primary cause of cancer-related death, and it involves cell-cell adhesion molecules of the cadherin family. Increased P-cadherin expression levels are correlated with tumor aggressiveness in carcinoma and aggressive sarcoma; however, how P-cadherin promotes tumor malignancy remains unknown. Here, using integrated cell biology and biophysical approaches, we determined that P-cadherin specifically induces polarization and CCM through an increase in the strength and anisotropy of mechanical forces. We show that this mechanical regulation is mediated by the P-cadherin/β-PIX/Cdc42 axis; P-cadherin specifically activates Cdc42 through β-PIX, which is specifically recruited at cell-cell contacts upon CCM. This mechanism of cell polarization and migration is absent in cells expressing E- or R-cadherin. Thus, we identify a specific role of P-cadherin through β-PIX-mediated Cdc42 activation in the regulation of cell polarity and force anisotropy that drives CCM. PMID:26783302

  2. P-cadherin promotes collective cell migration via a Cdc42-mediated increase in mechanical forces

    PubMed Central

    Plutoni, Cédric; Bazellieres, Elsa; Le Borgne-Rochet, Maïlys; Comunale, Franck; Brugues, Agusti; Séveno, Martial; Planchon, Damien; Thuault, Sylvie; Morin, Nathalie; Bodin, Stéphane; Trepat, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Collective cell migration (CCM) is essential for organism development, wound healing, and metastatic transition, the primary cause of cancer-related death, and it involves cell–cell adhesion molecules of the cadherin family. Increased P-cadherin expression levels are correlated with tumor aggressiveness in carcinoma and aggressive sarcoma; however, how P-cadherin promotes tumor malignancy remains unknown. Here, using integrated cell biology and biophysical approaches, we determined that P-cadherin specifically induces polarization and CCM through an increase in the strength and anisotropy of mechanical forces. We show that this mechanical regulation is mediated by the P-cadherin/β-PIX/Cdc42 axis; P-cadherin specifically activates Cdc42 through β-PIX, which is specifically recruited at cell–cell contacts upon CCM. This mechanism of cell polarization and migration is absent in cells expressing E- or R-cadherin. Thus, we identify a specific role of P-cadherin through β-PIX–mediated Cdc42 activation in the regulation of cell polarity and force anisotropy that drives CCM. PMID:26783302

  3. A2B Adenosine Receptor–Mediated Induction of IL-6 Promotes CKD

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Yingbo; Zhang, Weiru; Wen, Jiaming; Zhang, Yujin; Kellems, Rodney E.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic elevation of adenosine, which occurs in the setting of repeated or prolonged tissue injury, can exacerbate cellular dysfunction, suggesting that it may contribute to the pathogenesis of CKD. Here, mice with chronically elevated levels of adenosine, resulting from a deficiency in adenosine deaminase (ADA), developed renal dysfunction and fibrosis. Both the administration of polyethylene glycol–modified ADA to reduce adenosine levels and the inhibition of the A2B adenosine receptor (A2BR) attenuated renal fibrosis and dysfunction. Furthermore, activation of A2BR promoted renal fibrosis in both mice infused with angiotensin II (Ang II) and mice subjected to unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). These three mouse models shared a similar profile of profibrotic gene expression in kidney tissue, suggesting that they share similar signaling pathways that lead to renal fibrosis. Finally, both genetic and pharmacologic approaches showed that the inflammatory cytokine IL-6 mediates adenosine-induced renal fibrosis downstream of A2BR. Taken together, these data suggest that A2BR-mediated induction of IL-6 contributes to renal fibrogenesis and shows potential therapeutic targets for CKD. PMID:21511827

  4. The Talin Head Domain Reinforces Integrin-Mediated Adhesion by Promoting Adhesion Complex Stability and Clustering

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Stephanie J.; Lostchuck, Emily; Goult, Benjamin T.; Bouaouina, Mohamed; Fairchild, Michael J.; López-Ceballos, Pablo; Calderwood, David A.; Tanentzapf, Guy

    2014-01-01

    Talin serves an essential function during integrin-mediated adhesion in linking integrins to actin via the intracellular adhesion complex. In addition, the N-terminal head domain of talin regulates the affinity of integrins for their ECM-ligands, a process known as inside-out activation. We previously showed that in Drosophila, mutating the integrin binding site in the talin head domain resulted in weakened adhesion to the ECM. Intriguingly, subsequent studies showed that canonical inside-out activation of integrin might not take place in flies. Consistent with this, a mutation in talin that specifically blocks its ability to activate mammalian integrins does not significantly impinge on talin function during fly development. Here, we describe results suggesting that the talin head domain reinforces and stabilizes the integrin adhesion complex by promoting integrin clustering distinct from its ability to support inside-out activation. Specifically, we show that an allele of talin containing a mutation that disrupts intramolecular interactions within the talin head attenuates the assembly and reinforcement of the integrin adhesion complex. Importantly, we provide evidence that this mutation blocks integrin clustering in vivo. We propose that the talin head domain is essential for regulating integrin avidity in Drosophila and that this is crucial for integrin-mediated adhesion during animal development. PMID:25393120

  5. Degradation of HK2 by chaperone-mediated autophagy promotes metabolic catastrophe and cell death

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Hong-guang; Najafov, Ayaz; Geng, Jiefei; Galan-Acosta, Lorena; Han, Xuemei; Guo, Yuan; Shan, Bing; Zhang, Yaoyang; Norberg, Erik; Zhang, Tao; Pan, Lifeng; Liu, Junli; Coloff, Jonathan L.; Ofengeim, Dimitry; Zhu, Hong; Wu, Kejia; Cai, Yu; Yates, John R.; Zhu, Zhengjiang; Vakifahmetoglu-Norberg, Helin

    2015-01-01

    Hexokinase II (HK2), a key enzyme involved in glucose metabolism, is regulated by growth factor signaling and is required for initiation and maintenance of tumors. Here we show that metabolic stress triggered by perturbation of receptor tyrosine kinase FLT3 in non–acute myeloid leukemia cells sensitizes cancer cells to autophagy inhibition and leads to excessive activation of chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA). Our data demonstrate that FLT3 is an important sensor of cellular nutritional state and elucidate the role and molecular mechanism of CMA in metabolic regulation and mediating cancer cell death. Importantly, our proteome analysis revealed that HK2 is a CMA substrate and that its degradation by CMA is regulated by glucose availability. We reveal a new mechanism by which excessive activation of CMA may be exploited pharmacologically to eliminate cancer cells by inhibiting both FLT3 and autophagy. Our study delineates a novel pharmacological strategy to promote the degradation of HK2 in cancer cells. PMID:26323688

  6. Methylation of miR-145a-5p promoter mediates adipocytes differentiation.

    PubMed

    Du, Jingjing; Cheng, Xiao; Shen, Linyuan; Tan, Zhendong; Luo, Jia; Wu, Xiaoqian; Liu, Chendong; Yang, Qiong; Jiang, Yanzhi; Tang, Guoqing; Li, Xuewei; Zhang, Shunhua; Zhu, Li

    2016-06-17

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs, miR) play important roles in adipocyte development. Recent studies showed that the expression of several miRNAs is closely related with promoter methylation. However, it is not known whether miRNA mediates adipocytes differentiation by means of DNA methylation. Here, we showed that miR-145a-5p was poorly expressed in adipose tissue from mice fed a high fat diet (HFD). Overexpression or inhibition of miR-145a-5p was unfavorable or beneficial, respectively, for adipogenesis, and these effects were achieved by regulating adipocyte-specific genes involved in lipogenic transcription, fatty acid synthesis, and fatty acid transportation. Particularly, we first suggested that miR-145a-5p mimics or inhibitors promoted or repressed adipocytes proliferation by regulating p53 and p21, which act as cell cycle regulating factors. Surprisingly, the miR-145a-5p-repressed adipocyte differentiation was enhanced or rescued when cells treated with 5-Aza-dC were transfected with miR-145a-5p mimics or inhibitors, respectively. These data indicated that, as a new mean to positively regulate adipocyte proliferation, the process of miR-145a-5p-inhibited adipogenesis may be regulated by DNA methylation. PMID:27179777

  7. Thyroid hormone suppresses cell proliferation through endoglin-mediated promotion of p21 stability.

    PubMed

    Lin, Y-H; Huang, Y-H; Wu, M-H; Wu, S-M; Chi, H-C; Liao, C-J; Chen, C-Y; Tseng, Y-H; Tsai, C-Y; Tsai, M-M; Lin, K-H

    2013-08-15

    Hypothyroidism has been associated with significantly elevated risk for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), although the precise underlying mechanisms remain unknown at present. Thyroid hormone (T3) and its receptor (TR) are involved in metabolism and growth. Endoglin is a T3/TR candidate target gene identified from our previous studies. Here, we demonstrated that T3 positively regulates endoglin mRNA and protein levels, both in vitro and in vivo. The thyroid hormone response elements of endoglin were identified at positions -2114/-2004 and -2032/-1973 of the promoter region using the electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Endoglin was downregulated in the subgroups of HCC patients and significantly associated with histology grade (negative association, P=0.001), and this expression level was significantly associated with TRα1 in these HCC patients. Our results clearly indicate that p21 is involved in T3-mediated suppression of cell proliferation. Knock down of endoglin expression in HCC cells facilitated p21 polyubiquitination and promoted cell proliferation in the presence of T3. The data collectively suggest that T3/TR signaling suppresses cell proliferation by upregulating endoglin, in turn, affecting p21 stability. The results indicate that endoglin has a suppressor role to inhibit cell proliferation in HCC cell lines. PMID:23376845

  8. Nanoalumina promotes the horizontal transfer of multiresistance genes mediated by plasmids across genera

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Zhigang; Yu, Yunmei; Chen, Zhaoli; Jin, Min; Yang, Dong; Zhao, Zuguo; Wang, Jingfeng; Shen, Zhiqiang; Wang, Xinwei; Qian, Di; Huang, Aihua; Zhang, Buchang; Li, Jun-Wen

    2012-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance is a worldwide public health concern. Conjugative transfer between closely related strains or species of bacteria is an important method for the horizontal transfer of multidrug-resistance genes. The extent to which nanomaterials are able to cause an increase in antibiotic resistance by the regulation of the conjugative transfer of antibiotic-resistance genes in bacteria, especially across genera, is still unknown. Here we show that nanomaterials in water can significantly promote the horizontal conjugative transfer of multidrug-resistance genes mediated by the RP4, RK2, and pCF10 plasmids. Nanoalumina can promote the conjugative transfer of the RP4 plasmid from Escherichia coli to Salmonella spp. by up to 200-fold compared with untreated cells. We also explored the mechanisms behind this phenomenon and demonstrate that nanoalumina is able to induce oxidative stress, damage bacterial cell membranes, enhance the expression of mating pair formation genes and DNA transfer and replication genes, and depress the expression of global regulatory genes that regulate the conjugative transfer of RP4. These findings are important in assessing the risk of nanomaterials to the environment, particularly from water and wastewater treatment systems, and in the estimation of the effect of manufacture and use of nanomaterials on the environment. PMID:22411796

  9. Brevundimonas diminuta mediated alleviation of arsenic toxicity and plant growth promotion in Oryza sativa L.

    PubMed

    Singh, Namrata; Marwa, Naina; Mishra, Shashank K; Mishra, Jyoti; Verma, Praveen C; Rathaur, Sushma; Singh, Nandita

    2016-03-01

    Arsenic (As), a toxic metalloid adversely affects plant growth in polluted areas. In the present study, we investigated the possibility of improving phytostablization of arsenic through application of new isolated strain Brevundimonas diminuta (NBRI012) in rice plant [Oryza sativa (L.) Var. Sarju 52] at two different concentrations [10ppm (low toxic) and 50ppm (high toxic)] of As. The plant growth promoting traits of bacterial strains revealed the inherent ability of siderophores, phosphate solubilisation, indole acetic acid (IAA), 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase production which may be associated with increased biomass, chlorophyll and MDA content of rice and thereby promoting plant growth. The study also revealed the As accumulation property of NBRI012 strain which could play an important role in As removal from contaminated soil. Furthermore, NBRI012 inoculation significantly restored the hampered root epidermal and cortical cell growth of rice plant and root hair elimination. Altogether our study highlights the multifarious role of B. diminuta in mediating stress tolerance and modulating translocation of As in edible part of rice plant. PMID:26650422

  10. Long form collapsin response mediator protein-1 promotes the migration and invasion of osteosarcoma cells

    PubMed Central

    HOU, HUIGE; CHEN, LIN; ZHA, ZHENGANG; CAI, SHAOHUI; TAN, MINGHUI; GUO, GUOQING; LIU, NING; SHE, GUORONG; XUN, SONGWEI

    2016-01-01

    It has been reported that long form collapsin response mediator protein-1 (LCRMP-1) promotes the metastasis of non-small cell lung cancer. Osteosarcoma (OS) is a human cancer with a high potential for metastasis. The present study aimed to investigate the role of LCRMP-1 in OS metastasis. The expression of LCRMP-1 in OS specimens and cell lines was evaluated using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and western blot analysis. Furthermore, the migration and invasion of OS cells with LCRMP-1-knockdown was investigated to examine the role of LCRMP-1 in OS metastasis. In addition, the expression of N-cadherin and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), which are involved in cell migration, was evaluated using RT-qPCR. Increased expression of LCRMP-1 was observed in the OS tissues and cell lines, accompanied by the enhanced migration and invasion of the OS cells. LCRMP-1-knockdown resulted in a significant decrease in the expression of N-cadherin and MMPs, as well as inhibition of the migration and invasion of the OS cells. Overexpression of LCRMP-1 promoted OS metastasis. Therefore, LCRMP-1 may be a promising target for the effective treatment of OS. PMID:27347094

  11. Myeloperoxidase-mediated Methionine Oxidation Promotes an Amyloidogenic Outcome for Apolipoprotein A-I*

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Gary K. L.; Witkowski, Andrzej; Gantz, Donald L.; Zhang, Tianqi O.; Zanni, Martin T.; Jayaraman, Shobini; Cavigiolio, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    High plasma levels of apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) correlate with cardiovascular health, whereas dysfunctional apoA-I is a cause of atherosclerosis. In the atherosclerotic plaques, amyloid deposition increases with aging. Notably, apoA-I is the main component of these amyloids. Recent studies identified high levels of oxidized lipid-free apoA-I in atherosclerotic plaques. Likely, myeloperoxidase (MPO) secreted by activated macrophages in atherosclerotic lesions is the promoter of such apoA-I oxidation. We hypothesized that apoA-I oxidation by MPO levels similar to those present in the artery walls in atherosclerosis can promote apoA-I structural changes and amyloid fibril formation. ApoA-I was exposed to exhaustive chemical (H2O2) oxidation or physiological levels of enzymatic (MPO) oxidation and incubated at 37 °C and pH 6.0 to induce fibril formation. Both chemically and enzymatically oxidized apoA-I produced fibrillar amyloids after a few hours of incubation. The amyloid fibrils were composed of full-length apoA-I with differential oxidation of the three methionines. Met to Leu apoA-I variants were used to establish the predominant role of oxidation of Met-86 and Met-148 in the fibril formation process. Importantly, a small amount of preformed apoA-I fibrils was able to seed amyloid formation in oxidized apoA-I at pH 7.0. In contrast to hereditary amyloidosis, wherein specific mutations of apoA-I cause protein destabilization and amyloid deposition, oxidative conditions similar to those promoted by local inflammation in atherosclerosis are sufficient to transform full-length wild-type apoA-I into an amyloidogenic protein. Thus, MPO-mediated oxidation may be implicated in the mechanism that leads to amyloid deposition in the atherosclerotic plaques in vivo. PMID:25759391

  12. Promoting effect of neutrophils on lung tumorigenesis is mediated by CXCR2 and neutrophil elastase

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Tumor cells produce various cytokines and chemokines that attract leukocytes. Leukocytes can amplify parenchymal innate immune responses, and have been shown to contribute to tumor promotion. Neutrophils are among the first cells to arrive at sites of inflammation, and the increased number of tumor-associated neutrophils is linked to poorer outcome in patients with lung cancer. Results We have previously shown that COPD-like airway inflammation promotes lung cancer in a K-ras mutant mouse model of lung cancer (CC-LR). This was associated with severe lung neutrophilic influx due to the increased level of neutrophil chemoattractant, KC. To further study the role of neutrophils in lung tumorigenesis, we depleted neutrophils in CC-LR mice using an anti-neutrophil antibody. This resulted in a significant reduction in lung tumor number. We further selectively inhibited the main receptor for neutrophil chemo-attractant KC, CXCR2. Similarly, this resulted in suppression of neutrophil recruitment into the lung of CC-LR mice followed by significant tumor reduction. Neutrophil elastase (NE) is a potent elastolytic enzyme produced by neutrophils at the site of inflammation. We crossed the CC-LR mice with NE knock-out mice, and found that lack of NE significantly inhibits lung cancer development. These were associated with significant reduction in tumor cell proliferation and angiogenesis. Conclusion We conclude that lung cancer promotion by inflammation is partly mediated by activation of the IL-8/CXCR2 pathway and subsequent recruitment of neutrophils and release of neutrophil elastase. This provides a baseline for future clinical trials using the IL-8/CXCR2 pathway or NE inhibitors in patients with lung cancer. PMID:24321240

  13. High-fat diet-mediated dysbiosis promotes intestinal carcinogenesis independent of obesity

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Manon D.; Atay, Çigdem; Heringer, Jessica; Romrig, Franziska K.; Schwitalla, Sarah; Aydin, Begüm; Ziegler, Paul K.; Varga, Julia; Reindl, Wolfgang; Pommerenke, Claudia; Salinas-Riester, Gabriela; Böck, Andreas; Alpert, Carl; Blaut, Michael; Polson, Sara C.; Brandl, Lydia; Kirchner, Thomas; Greten, Florian R.; Polson, Shawn W.; Arkan, Melek C.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Several aspects common to a Western lifestyle, including obesity and decreased physical activity, are known risks for gastrointestinal cancers1. There is substantial evidence suggesting that diet profoundly affects the composition of the intestinal microbiota2. Moreover, there is now unequivocal evidence linking dysbiosis to cancer development3. Yet the mechanisms through which high-fat diet (HFD)-mediated changes in the microbial community impact the severity of tumorigenesis in the gut remain to be determined. Here we demonstrate that HFD promotes tumor progression in the small intestine of genetically susceptible K-rasG12Dint mice independently of obesity. HFD consumption in conjunction with K-Ras mutation mediates a shift in the composition of gut microbiota, which is associated with a decrease in Paneth cell antimicrobial host defense that compromises dendritic cell (DC) recruitment and MHC-II presentation in the gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALTs). DC recruitment in GALTs can be normalized, and tumor progression attenuated, when K-rasG12Dint mice are supplemented with butyrate. Importantly, Myd88-deficiency blocks tumor progression. Transfer of fecal samples from diseased donors into healthy adult K-rasG12Dint mice is sufficient to transmit disease in the absence of HFD. Furthermore, treatment with antibiotics completely blocks HFD-induced tumor progression suggesting a pivotal role for distinct microbial shifts in aggravating disease. Collectively, these data underscore the importance of the reciprocal interaction between host and environmental factors in selecting microbiota that favor carcinogenesis, and suggest tumorigenesis may be transmissible among genetically predisposed individuals. PMID:25174708

  14. IL-17 Promotes Neutrophil-Mediated Immunity by Activating Microvascular Pericytes and Not Endothelium.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rebecca; Lauridsen, Holly M; Amezquita, Robert A; Pierce, Richard W; Jane-Wit, Dan; Fang, Caodi; Pellowe, Amanda S; Kirkiles-Smith, Nancy C; Gonzalez, Anjelica L; Pober, Jordan S

    2016-09-15

    A classical hallmark of acute inflammation is neutrophil infiltration of tissues, a multistep process that involves sequential cell-cell interactions of circulating leukocytes with IL-1- or TNF-activated microvascular endothelial cells (ECs) and pericytes (PCs) that form the wall of the postcapillary venules. The initial infiltrating cells accumulate perivascularly in close proximity to PCs. IL-17, a proinflammatory cytokine that acts on target cells via a heterodimeric receptor formed by IL-17RA and IL-17RC subunits, also promotes neutrophilic inflammation but its effects on vascular cells are less clear. We report that both cultured human ECs and PCs strongly express IL-17RC and, although neither cell type expresses much IL-17RA, PCs express significantly more than ECs. IL-17, alone or synergistically with TNF, significantly alters inflammatory gene expression in cultured human PCs but not ECs. RNA sequencing analysis identifies many IL-17-induced transcripts in PCs encoding proteins known to stimulate neutrophil-mediated immunity. Conditioned media from IL-17-activated PCs, but not ECs, induce pertussis toxin-sensitive neutrophil polarization, likely mediated by PC-secreted chemokines, and they also stimulate neutrophil production of proinflammatory molecules, including TNF, IL-1α, IL-1β, and IL-8. Furthermore, IL-17-activated PCs, but not ECs, can prolong neutrophil survival by producing G-CSF and GM-CSF, delaying the mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization and caspase-9 activation. Importantly, neutrophils exhibit enhanced phagocytic capacity after activation by conditioned media from IL-17-treated PCs. We conclude that PCs, not ECs, are the major target of IL-17 within the microvessel wall and that IL-17-activated PCs can modulate neutrophil functions within the perivascular tissue space. PMID:27534549

  15. p75NTR-mediated signaling promotes the survival of myoblasts and influences muscle strength.

    PubMed

    Reddypalli, Shailaja; Roll, Kristin; Lee, Hyung-Kook; Lundell, Martha; Barea-Rodriguez, Edwin; Wheeler, Esther F

    2005-09-01

    During muscle development, the p75(NTR) is expressed transiently on myoblasts. The temporal expression pattern of the receptor raises the possibility that the receptor is influencing muscle development. To test this hypothesis, p75(NTR)-deficient mutant mice were tested for muscle strength by using a standard wire gripe strength test and were found to have significantly decreased strength relative to that of normal mice. When normal mybolasts were examined in vivo for expression of NGF receptors, p75(NTR) was detected on myoblasts but the high affinity NGF receptor, trk A, was not co-expressed with p75(NTR). In vitro, proliferating C2C12 and primary myoblasts co-expressed the p75(NTR) and MyoD, but immunofluorescent analysis of primary myoblasts and RT-PCR analysis of C2C12 mRNA revealed that myoblasts were devoid of trk A. In contrast to the cell death functions that characterize the p75(NTR) in neurons, p75(NTR)-positive primary and C2C12 myoblasts did not differentiate or undergo apoptosis in response to neurotrophins. Rather, myoblasts survived and even proliferated when grown at subconfluent densities in the presence of the neurotrophins. Furthermore, when myoblasts treated with NGF were lysed and immunoprecipitated with antibodies against phosphorylated I-kappaB and AKT, the cells contained increased levels of both phospho-proteins, both of which promote cell survival. By contrast, neurotrophin-treated myoblasts did not induce phosphorylation of Map Kinase p42/44 or p38, indicating the survival was not mediated by the trk A receptor. Taken together, the data indicate that the p75(NTR) mediates survival of myoblasts prior to differentiation and that the activity of this receptor during myogenesis is important for developing muscle. PMID:15754321

  16. A Scabies Mite Serpin Interferes with Complement-Mediated Neutrophil Functions and Promotes Staphylococcal Growth

    PubMed Central

    Swe, Pearl M.; Fischer, Katja

    2014-01-01

    Background Scabies is a contagious skin disease caused by the parasitic mite Sarcoptes scabiei. The disease is highly prevalent worldwide and known to predispose to secondary bacterial infections, in particular by Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. Reports of scabies patients co-infected with methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) pose a major concern for serious down-stream complications. We previously reported that a range of complement inhibitors secreted by the mites promoted the growth of S. pyogenes. Here, we show that a recently characterized mite serine protease inhibitor (SMSB4) inhibits the complement-mediated blood killing of S. aureus. Methodology/Principal Findings Blood killing of S. aureus was measured in whole blood bactericidal assays, counting viable bacteria recovered after treatment in fresh blood containing active complement and phagocytes, treated with recombinant SMSB4. SMSB4 inhibited the blood killing of various strains of S. aureus including methicillin-resistant and methicillin-sensitive isolates. Staphylococcal growth was promoted in a dose-dependent manner. We investigated the effect of SMSB4 on the complement-mediated neutrophil functions, namely phagocytosis, opsonization and anaphylatoxin release, by flow cytometry and in enzyme linked immuno sorbent assays (ELISA). SMSB4 reduced phagocytosis of S. aureus by neutrophils. It inhibited the deposition of C3b, C4b and properdin on the bacteria surface, but did not affect the depositions of C1q and MBL. SMSB4 also inhibited C5 cleavage as indicated by a reduced C5b-9 deposition. Conclusions/Significance We postulate that SMSB4 interferes with the activation of all three complement pathways by reducing the amount of C3 convertase formed. We conclude that SMSB4 interferes with the complement-dependent killing function of neutrophils, thereby reducing opsonization, phagocytosis and further recruitment of neutrophils to the site of infection. As a consequence secreted scabies

  17. Integrin-mediated cell surface recruitment of autotaxin promotes persistent directional cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Tao; Kooi, Craig Vander; Shah, Pritom; Charnigo, Richard; Huang, Cai; Smyth, Susan S.; Morris, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Autotaxin (ATX) is a secreted lysophospholipase D (lysoPLD) that binds to integrin adhesion receptors. We dissected the roles of integrin binding and lysoPLD activity in stimulation of human breast cancer and mouse aortic vascular smooth muscle cell migration by ATX. We compared effects of wild-type human ATX, catalytically inactive ATX, an integrin binding-defective ATX variant with wild-type lysoPLD activity, the isolated ATX integrin binding N-terminal domain, and a potent ATX selective lysoPLD inhibitor on cell migration using transwell and single-cell tracking assays. Stimulation of transwell migration was reduced (18 or 27% of control, respectively) but not ablated by inactivation of integrin binding or inhibition of lysoPLD activity. The N-terminal domain increased transwell migration (30% of control). ATX lysoPLD activity and integrin binding were necessary for a 3.8-fold increase in the fraction of migrating breast cancer cell step velocities >0.7 μm/min. ATX increased the persistent directionality of single-cell migration 2-fold. This effect was lysoPLD activity independent and recapitulated by the integrin binding N-terminal domain. Integrin binding enables uptake and intracellular sequestration of ATX, which redistributes to the front of migrating cells. ATX binding to integrins and lysoPLD activity therefore cooperate to promote rapid persistent directional cell migration.—Wu, T., Kooi, C. V., Shah, P., Charnigo, R., Huang, C., Smyth, S. S., Morris, A. J. Integrin-mediated cell surface recruitment of autotaxin promotes persistent directional cell migration. PMID:24277575

  18. Sestrin2 promotes LKB1-mediated AMPK activation in the ischemic heart

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Alex; Chen, Li; Wang, Jinli; Zhang, Ming; Yang, Hui; Ma, Yina; Budanov, Andrei; Lee, Jun Hee; Karin, Michael; Li, Ji

    2015-01-01

    The regulation of AMPK in the ischemic heart remains incompletely understood. Recent evidence implicates the role of Sestrin2 in the AMPK signaling pathway, and it is hypothesized that Sestrin2 plays an influential role during myocardial ischemia to promote AMPK activation. Sestrin2 protein was found to be expressed in adult cardiomyocytes and accumulated in the heart during ischemic conditions. Sestrin2 knockout (KO) mice were used to determine the importance of Sestrin2 during ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury. When wild-type (WT) and Sestrin2 KO mice were subjected to in vivo I/R, myocardial infarct size was significantly greater in Sestrin2 KO compared with WT hearts. Similarly, Langendorff perfused hearts indicated exacerbated postischemic contractile function in Sestrin2 KO hearts compared with WT. Ischemic AMPK activation was found to be impaired in the Sestrin2 KO hearts. Immunoprecipitation of Sestrin2 demonstrated an association with AMPK. Moreover, liver kinase B1 (LKB1), a major AMPK upstream kinase, was associated with the Sestrin2-AMPK complex in a time-dependent manner during ischemia, whereas this interaction was nearly abolished in Sestrin2 KO hearts. Thus, Sestrin2 plays an important role in cardioprotection against I/R injury, serving as an LKB1-AMPK scaffold to initiate AMPK activation during ischemic insults.—Morrison, A., Chen, L. Wang, J., Zhang, M., Yang, H., Ma, Y., Budanov, A., Lee, J. H., Karin, M., Li, J. Sestrin2 promotes LKB1-mediated AMPK activation in the ischemic heart. PMID:25366347

  19. Activation of HIPK2 Promotes ER Stress-Mediated Neurodegeneration in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sebum; Shang, Yulei; Redmond, Stephanie A; Urisman, Anatoly; Tang, Amy A; Li, Kathy H; Burlingame, Alma L; Pak, Ryan A; Jovičić, Ana; Gitler, Aaron D; Wang, Jinhua; Gray, Nathanael S; Seeley, William W; Siddique, Teepu; Bigio, Eileen H; Lee, Virginia M-Y; Trojanowski, John Q; Chan, Jonah R; Huang, Eric J

    2016-07-01

    Persistent accumulation of misfolded proteins causes endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, a prominent feature in many neurodegenerative diseases including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Here we report the identification of homeodomain interacting protein kinase 2 (HIPK2) as the essential link that promotes ER-stress-induced cell death via the IRE1α-ASK1-JNK pathway. ER stress, induced by tunicamycin or SOD1(G93A), activates HIPK2 by phosphorylating highly conserved serine and threonine residues (S359/T360) within the activation loop of the HIPK2 kinase domain. In SOD1(G93A) mice, loss of HIPK2 delays disease onset, reduces cell death in spinal motor neurons, mitigates glial pathology, and improves survival. Remarkably, HIPK2 activation positively correlates with TDP-43 proteinopathy in NEFH-tTA/tetO-hTDP-43ΔNLS mice, sporadic ALS and C9ORF72 ALS, and blocking HIPK2 kinase activity protects motor neurons from TDP-43 cytotoxicity. These results reveal a previously unrecognized role of HIPK2 activation in ER-stress-mediated neurodegeneration and its potential role as a biomarker and therapeutic target for ALS. VIDEO ABSTRACT. PMID:27321923

  20. Neocortical Tet3-mediated accumulation of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine promotes rapid behavioral adaptation.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Wei, Wei; Zhao, Qiong-Yi; Widagdo, Jocelyn; Baker-Andresen, Danay; Flavell, Charlotte R; D'Alessio, Ana; Zhang, Yi; Bredy, Timothy W

    2014-05-13

    5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC) is a novel DNA modification that is highly enriched in the adult brain and dynamically regulated by neural activity. 5-hmC accumulates across the lifespan; however, the functional relevance of this change in 5-hmC and whether it is necessary for behavioral adaptation have not been fully elucidated. Moreover, although the ten-eleven translocation (Tet) family of enzymes is known to be essential for converting methylated DNA to 5-hmC, the role of individual Tet proteins in the adult cortex remains unclear. Using 5-hmC capture together with high-throughput DNA sequencing on individual mice, we show that fear extinction, an important form of reversal learning, leads to a dramatic genome-wide redistribution of 5-hmC within the infralimbic prefrontal cortex. Moreover, extinction learning-induced Tet3-mediated accumulation of 5-hmC is associated with the establishment of epigenetic states that promote gene expression and rapid behavioral adaptation. PMID:24757058

  1. Anti-IL-20 monoclonal antibody promotes bone fracture healing through regulating IL-20-mediated osteoblastogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Yu-Hsiang; Chiu, Yi-Shu; Chen, Wei-Yu; Huang, Kuo-Yuan; Jou, I-Ming; Wu, Po-Tin; Wu, Chih-Hsing; Chang, Ming-Shi

    2016-01-01

    Bone loss and skeletal fragility in bone fracture are caused by an imbalance in bone remodeling. The current challenge in bone fracture healing is to promote osteoblastogenesis and bone formation. We aimed to explore the role of IL-20 in osteoblastogenesis, osteoblast differentiation and bone fracture. Serum IL-20 was significantly correlated with serum sclerostin in patients with bone fracture. In a mouse model, anti-IL-20 monoclonal antibody (mAb) 7E increased bone formation during fracture healing. In vitro, IL-20 inhibited osteoblastogenesis by upregulating sclerostin, and downregulating osterix (OSX), RUNX2, and osteoprotegerin (OPG). IL-20R1 deficiency attenuated IL-20-mediated inhibition of osteoblast differentiation and maturation and reduced the healing time after a bone fracture. We conclude that IL-20 affects bone formation and downregulates osteoblastogenesis by modulating sclerostin, OSX, RUNX2, and OPG on osteoblasts. Our results demonstrated that IL-20 is involved in osteoregulation and anti-IL-20 mAb is a potential therapeutic for treating bone fracture or metabolic bone diseases. PMID:27075747

  2. Mechanism of Microhomology-Mediated End-Joining Promoted by Human DNA Polymerase Theta

    PubMed Central

    Kent, Tatiana; Chandramouly, Gurushankar; McDevitt, Shane Michael; Ozdemir, Ahmet Y.; Pomerantz, Richard T.

    2014-01-01

    Microhomology-mediated end-joining (MMEJ) is an error-prone alternative double-strand break repair pathway that utilizes sequence microhomology to recombine broken DNA. Although MMEJ is implicated in cancer development, the mechanism of this pathway is unknown. We demonstrate that purified human DNA polymerase θ (Polθ) performs MMEJ of DNA containing 3’ single-strand DNA overhangs with two or more base-pairs of homology, including DNA modeled after telomeres, and show that MMEJ is dependent on Polθ in human cells. Our data support a mechanism whereby Polθ facilitates end-joining and microhomology annealing then utilizes the opposing overhang as a template in trans which stabilizes the DNA synapse. Polθ exhibits a preference for DNA containing a 5’-terminal phosphate, similar to polymerases involved in non-homologous end-joining. Lastly, we identify a conserved loop domain that is essential for MMEJ and higher-order structures of Polθ which likely promote DNA synapse formation. PMID:25643323

  3. TRIM32 promotes neural differentiation through retinoic acid receptor-mediated transcription.

    PubMed

    Sato, Tomonobu; Okumura, Fumihiko; Kano, Satoshi; Kondo, Takeshi; Ariga, Tadashi; Hatakeyama, Shigetsugu

    2011-10-15

    Retinoic acid (RA), a metabolite of vitamin A, plays versatile roles in development, differentiation, cell cycles and regulation of apoptosis by regulating gene transcription through nuclear receptor activation. Ubiquitinylation, which is one of the post-translational modifications, appears to be involved in the transcriptional activity of intranuclear receptors including retinoic acid receptor α (RARα). Mutations in the tripartite motif-containing protein 32 gene (TRIM32; also known as E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase) have been reported to be responsible for limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2H in humans, and its encoded protein has been shown to interact with several other important proteins. In this study, we found that TRIM32 interacts with RARα and enhances its transcriptional activity in the presence of RA. We also found that overexpression of TRIM32 in mouse neuroblastoma cells and embryonal carcinoma cells promoted stability of RARα, resulting in enhancement of neural differentiation. These findings suggest that TRIM32 functions as one of the co-activators for RARα-mediated transcription, and thereby TRIM32 is a potential therapeutic target for developmental disorders and RA-dependent leukemias. PMID:21984809

  4. Mechanical signals promote osteogenic fate through a primary cilia-mediated mechanism.

    PubMed

    Chen, Julia C; Hoey, David A; Chua, Mardonn; Bellon, Raymond; Jacobs, Christopher R

    2016-04-01

    It has long been suspected, but never directly shown, that bone formed to accommodate an increase in mechanical loading is related to the creation of osteoblasts from skeletal stem cells. Indeed, biophysical stimuli potently regulate osteogenic lineage commitmentin vitro In this study, we transplanted bone marrow cells expressing green fluorescent protein, to enable lineage tracing, and subjected mice to a biophysical stimulus, to elicit a bone-forming response. We detected cells derived from transplanted progenitors embedded within the bone matrix near active bone-forming surfaces in response to loading, demonstrating for the first time, that mechanical signals enhance the homing and attachment of bone marrow cells to bone surfaces and the commitment to an osteogenic lineage of these cellsin vivo Furthermore, we used an inducible Cre/Lox recombination system to delete kinesin family member 3A (Kif3a), a gene that is essential for primary cilia formation, at will in transplanted cells and their progeny, regardless of which tissue may have incorporated them. Disruption of the mechanosensing organelle, the primary cilium in a progenitor population, significantly decreased the amount of bone formed in response to mechanical stimulation. The collective results of our study directly demonstrate that, in a novel experimental stem cell mechanobiology model, mechanical signals enhance osteogenic lineage commitmentin vivoand that the primary cilium contributes to this process.-Chen, J. C., Hoey, D. A., Chua, M., Bellon, R., Jacobs, C. R. Mechanical signals promote osteogenic fate through a primary cilia-mediated mechanism. PMID:26675708

  5. Lamin A Is an Endogenous SIRT6 Activator and Promotes SIRT6-Mediated DNA Repair.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Shrestha; Liu, Baohua; Wang, Yi; Hao, Quan; Zhou, Zhongjun

    2015-11-17

    The nuclear lamins are essential for various molecular events in the nucleus, such as chromatin organization, DNA replication, and provision of mechanical support. A specific point mutation in the LMNA gene creates a truncated prelamin A termed progerin, causing Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS). SIRT6 deficiency leads to defective genomic maintenance and accelerated aging similar to HGPS, suggesting a potential link between lamin A and SIRT6. Here, we report that lamin A is an endogenous activator of SIRT6 and facilitates chromatin localization of SIRT6 upon DNA damage. Lamin A promotes SIRT6-dependent DNA-PKcs (DNA-PK catalytic subunit) recruitment to chromatin, CtIP deacetylation, and PARP1 mono-ADP ribosylation in response to DNA damage. The presence of progerin jeopardizes SIRT6 activation and compromises SIRT6-mediated molecular events in response to DNA damage. These data reveal a critical role for lamin A in regulating SIRT6 activities, suggesting that defects in SIRT6 functions contribute to impaired DNA repair and accelerated aging in HGPS. PMID:26549451

  6. Promotion

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Hasan B.

    2013-01-01

    This article gives an overview of the promotion process in an academic medical center. A description of different promotional tracks, tenure and endowed chairs, and the process of submitting an application is provided. Finally, some practical advice about developing skills and attributes that can help with academic growth and promotion is dispensed. PMID:24436683

  7. Heat shock stimulation of a tilapia heat shock protein 70 promoter is mediated by a distal element.

    PubMed Central

    Molina, A; Di Martino, E; Martial, J A; Muller, M

    2001-01-01

    We reported previously that a tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) promoter is able to confer heat shock response on a reporter gene after transient expression both in cell culture and in microinjected zebrafish embryos. Here we present the first functional analysis of a fish HSP70 promoter, the tiHSP70 promoter. Using transient expression experiments in carp EPC (epithelioma papulosum cyprini) cells and in microinjected zebrafish embryos, we show that a distal heat shock response element (HSE1) at approx. -800 is predominantly responsible for the heat shock response of the tiHSP70 promoter. This element specifically binds an inducible transcription factor, most probably heat shock factor, and a constitutive factor. The constitutive complex is not observed with the non-functional, proximal HSE3 sequence, suggesting that both factors are required for the heat shock response mediated by HSE1. PMID:11368761

  8. Mediator subunit MED1 is a T3-dependent and T3-independent coactivator on the thyrotropin β gene promoter

    SciTech Connect

    Matsui, Keiji; Oda, Kasumi; Mizuta, Shumpei; Ishino, Ruri; Urahama, Norinaga; Hasegawa, Natsumi; Roeder, Robert G.; Ito, Mitsuhiro

    2013-10-11

    Highlights: •MED1 is a bona fide T3-dependent coactivator on TSHB promoter. •Mice with LxxLL-mutant MED1 have attenuated TSHβ mRNA and thyroid hormone levels. •MED1 activates TSHB promoter T3-dependently in cultured cells. •T3-dependent MED1 action is enhanced when SRC1/SRC2 or HDAC2 is downregulated. •MED1 is also a T3-independent GATA2/Pit1 coactivator on TSHB promoter. -- Abstract: The MED1 subunit of the Mediator transcriptional coregulator complex is a nuclear receptor-specific coactivator. A negative feedback mechanism of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, or thyrotropin) expression in the thyrotroph in the presence of triiodothyronine (T3) is employed by liganded thyroid hormone receptor β (TRβ) on the TSHβ gene promoter, where conventional histone-modifying coactivators act as corepressors. We now provide evidence that MED1 is a ligand-dependent positive cofactor on this promoter. TSHβ gene transcription was attenuated in MED1 mutant mice in which the nuclear receptor-binding ability of MED1 was specifically disrupted. MED1 stimulated GATA2- and Pit1-mediated TSHβ gene promoter activity in a ligand-independent manner in cultured cells. MED1 also stimulated transcription from the TSHβ gene promoter in a T3-dependent manner. The transcription was further enhanced when the T3-dependent corepressors SRC1, SRC2, and HDAC2 were downregulated. Hence, MED1 is a T3-dependent and -independent coactivator on the TSHβ gene promoter.

  9. Cl− uptake promoting depolarizing GABA actions in immature rat neocortical neurones is mediated by NKCC1

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Junko; Okabe, Akihito; Toyoda, Hiroki; Kilb, Werner; Luhmann, Heiko J; Fukuda, Atsuo

    2004-01-01

    GABA is the principal inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mature brain, but during early postnatal development the elevated [Cl−]i in immature neocortical neurones causes GABAA receptor activation to be depolarizing. The molecular mechanisms underlying this intracellular Cl− accumulation remain controversial. Therefore, the GABA reversal potential (EGABA) or [Cl−]i in early postnatal rat neocortical neurones was measured by the gramicidin-perforated patch-clamp method, and the relative expression levels of the cation−Cl− cotransporter mRNAs (in the same cells) were examined by semiquantitative single-cell multiplex RT-PCR to look for statistical correlations with [Cl−]i. The mRNA expression levels were positively (the Cl− accumulating Na+,K+−2Cl− cotransporter NKCC1) or negatively (the Cl− extruding K+−Cl− cotransporter KCC2) correlated with [Cl−]i. NKCC1 mRNA expression was high in early postnatal days, but decreased during postnatal development, whereas KCC2 mRNA expression displayed the opposite pattern. [Cl−]i and NKCC1 mRNA expression were each higher in cortical plate (CP) neurones than in the presumably older layer V/VI pyramidal neurones in a given slice. The pharmacological effects of bumetanide on EGABA were consistent with the different expression levels of NKCC1 mRNA. These data suggest that NKCC1 may play a pivotal role in the generation of GABA-mediated depolarization in immature CP cells, while KCC2 promotes the later maturation of GABAergic inhibition in the rat neocortex. PMID:15090604

  10. Extracellular signal regulated kinase 5 mediates signals triggered by the novel tumor promoter palytoxin

    SciTech Connect

    Charlson, Aaron T.; Zeliadt, Nicholette A.; Wattenberg, Elizabeth V.

    2009-12-01

    Palytoxin is classified as a non-12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-type skin tumor because it does not bind to or activate protein kinase C. Palytoxin is thus a novel tool for investigating alternative signaling pathways that may affect carcinogenesis. We previously showed that palytoxin activates three major members of the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) family, extracellular signal regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38. Here we report that palytoxin also activates another MAPK family member, called ERK5, in HeLa cells and in keratinocytes derived from initiated mouse skin (308 cells). By contrast, TPA does not activate ERK5 in these cell lines. The major cell surface receptor for palytoxin is the Na+,K+-ATPase. Accordingly, ouabain blocked the ability of palytoxin to activate ERK5. Ouabain alone did not activate ERK5. ERK5 thus represents a divergence in the signaling pathways activated by these two agents that bind to the Na+,K+-ATPase. Cycloheximide, okadaic acid, and sodium orthovanadate did not mimic the effect of palytoxin on ERK5. These results indicate that the stimulation of ERK5 by palytoxin is not simply due to inhibition of protein synthesis or inhibition of serine/threonine or tyrosine phosphatases. Therefore, the mechanism by which palytoxin activates ERK5 differs from that by which it activates ERK1/2, JNK, and p38. Finally, studies that used pharmacological inhibitors and shRNA to block ERK5 action indicate that ERK5 contributes to palytoxin-stimulated c-Fos gene expression. These results suggest that ERK5 can act as an alternative mediator for transmitting diverse tumor promoter-stimulated signals.

  11. Loss of CD73-mediated actin polymerization promotes endometrial tumor progression

    PubMed Central

    Bowser, Jessica L.; Blackburn, Michael R.; Shipley, Gregory L.; Molina, Jose G.; Dunner, Kenneth; Broaddus, Russell R.

    2015-01-01

    Ecto-5′-nucleotidase (CD73) is central to the generation of extracellular adenosine. Previous studies have highlighted a detrimental role for extracellular adenosine in cancer, as it dampens T cell–mediated immune responses. Here, we determined that, in contrast to other cancers, CD73 is markedly downregulated in poorly differentiated and advanced-stage endometrial carcinoma compared with levels in normal endometrium and low-grade tumors. In murine models, CD73 deficiency led to a loss of endometrial epithelial barrier function, and pharmacological CD73 inhibition increased in vitro migration and invasion of endometrial carcinoma cells. Given that CD73-generated adenosine is central to regulating tissue protection and physiology in normal tissues, we hypothesized that CD73-generated adenosine in endometrial carcinoma induces an innate reflex to protect epithelial integrity. CD73 associated with cell-cell contacts, filopodia, and membrane zippers, indicative of involvement in cell-cell adhesion and actin polymerization–dependent processes. We determined that CD73-generated adenosine induces cortical actin polymerization via adenosine A1 receptor (A1R) induction of a Rho GTPase CDC42–dependent conformational change of the actin-related proteins 2 and 3 (ARP2/3) actin polymerization complex member N-WASP. Cortical F-actin elevation increased membrane E-cadherin, β-catenin, and Na+K+ ATPase. Together, these findings reveal that CD73-generated adenosine promotes epithelial integrity and suggest why loss of CD73 in endometrial cancer allows for tumor progression. Moreover, our data indicate that the role of CD73 in cancer is more complex than previously described. PMID:26642367

  12. Six1 overexpression at early stages of HPV16-mediated transformation of human keratinocytes promotes differentiation resistance and EMT

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Hanwen; Pirisi, Lucia; Creek, Kim E.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies in our laboratory discovered that SIX1 mRNA expression increased during in vitro progression of HPV16-immortalized human keratinocytes (HKc/HPV16) toward a differentiation-resistant (HKc/DR) phenotype. In this study, we explored the role of Six1 at early stages of HPV16-mediated transformation by overexpressing Six1 in HKc/HPV16. We found that Six1 overexpression in HKc/HPV16 increased cell proliferation and promoted cell migration and invasion by inducing epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT). Moreover, the overexpression of Six1 in HKc/HPV16 resulted in resistance to serum and calcium-induced differentiation, which is the hallmark of the HKc/DR phenotype. Activation of MAPK in HKc/HPV16 overexpressing Six1 is linked to resistance to calcium-induced differentiation. In conclusion, this study determined that Six1 overexpression resulted in differentiation resistance and promoted EMT at early stages of HPV16-mediated transformation of human keratinocytes. - Highlights: • Six1 expression increases during HPV16-mediated transformation. • Six1 overexpression causes differentiation resistance in HPV16-immortalized cells. • Six1 overexpression in HPV16-immortalized keratinocytes activates MAPK. • Activation of MAPK promotes EMT and differentiation resistance. • Six1 overexpression reduces Smad-dependent TGF-β signaling.

  13. HOXA4 Gene Promoter Hypermethylation as an Epigenetic Mechanism Mediating Resistance to Imatinib Mesylate in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Elias, Marjanu Hikmah; Baba, Abdul Aziz; Husin, Azlan; Sulong, Sarina; Hassan, Rosline; Sim, Goh Ai; Abdul Wahid, S. Fadilah; Ankathil, Ravindran

    2013-01-01

    Development of resistance to imatinib mesylate (IM) in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients has emerged as a significant clinical problem. The observation that increased epigenetic silencing of potential tumor suppressor genes correlates with disease progression in some CML patients treated with IM suggests a relationship between epigenetic silencing and resistance development. We hypothesize that promoter hypermethylation of HOXA4 could be an epigenetic mechanism mediating IM resistance in CML patients. Thus a study was undertaken to investigate the promoter hypermethylation status of HOXA4 in CML patients on IM treatment and to determine its role in mediating resistance to IM. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples of 95 CML patients (38 good responders and 57 resistant) and 12 normal controls. All samples were bisulfite treated and analysed by methylation-specific high-resolution melt analysis. Compared to the good responders, the HOXA4 hypermethylation level was significantly higher (P = 0.002) in IM-resistant CML patients. On comparing the risk, HOXA4 hypermethylation was associated with a higher risk for IM resistance (OR 4.658; 95% CI, 1.673–12.971; P = 0.003). Thus, it is reasonable to suggest that promoter hypermethylation of HOXA4 gene could be an epigenetic mechanism mediating IM resistance in CML patients. PMID:23484077

  14. Bicarbonate promotes BK-α/β4-mediated K excretion in the renal distal nephron

    PubMed Central

    Cornelius, Ryan J.; Wen, Donghai; Hatcher, Lori I.

    2012-01-01

    Ca-activated K channels (BK), which are stimulated by high distal nephron flow, are utilized during high-K conditions to remove excess K. Because BK predominantly reside with BK-β4 in acid/base-transporting intercalated cells (IC), we determined whether BK-β4 knockout mice (β4KO) exhibit deficient K excretion when consuming a high-K alkaline diet (HK-alk) vs. high-K chloride diet (HK-Cl). When wild type (WT) were placed on HK-alk, but not HK-Cl, renal BK-β4 expression increased (Western blot). When WT and β4KO were placed on HK-Cl, plasma K concentration ([K]) was elevated compared with control K diets; however, K excretion was not different between WT and β4KO. When HK-alk was consumed, the plasma [K] was lower and K clearance was greater in WT compared with β4KO. The urine was alkaline in mice on HK-alk; however, urinary pH was not different between WT and β4KO. Immunohistochemical analysis of pendrin and V-ATPase revealed the same increases in β-IC, comparing WT and β4KO on HK-alk. We found an amiloride-sensitive reduction in Na excretion in β4KO, compared with WT, on HK-alk, indicating enhanced Na reabsorption as a compensatory mechanism to secrete K. Treating mice with an alkaline, Na-deficient, high-K diet (LNaHK) to minimize Na reabsorption exaggerated the defective K handling of β4KO. When WT on LNaHK were given NH4Cl in the drinking water, K excretion was reduced to the magnitude of β4KO on LNaHK. These results show that WT, but not β4KO, efficiently excretes K on HK-alk but not on HK-Cl and suggest that BK-α/β4-mediated K secretion is promoted by bicarbonaturia. PMID:22993067

  15. Diquafosol promotes corneal epithelial healing via intracellular calcium-mediated ERK activation.

    PubMed

    Byun, Yong-Soo; Yoo, Young-Sik; Kwon, Ji-Young; Joo, Jong-Soo; Lim, Sung-A; Whang, Woong-Joo; Mok, Jee-Won; Choi, Jun-Sub; Joo, Choun-Ki

    2016-02-01

    ). Likewise, diquafosol-treated cells showed acceleration of gap closure in cell migration assay, which was inhibited by suramin, BAPTA/AM, AG1478, and U0126 (MEK inhibitor). These studies demonstrate that diquafosol is effective in promoting corneal epithelial wound healing and that this effect may result from ERK-stimulated cell proliferation and migration via P2Y2R-mediated [Ca(2+)]i elevation. PMID:26505315

  16. Peer-mediated approaches to promoting children's social interaction: a review.

    PubMed

    Odom, S L; Strain, P S

    1984-10-01

    The literature on peer-mediated treatment approaches is reviewed, and three types of peer-mediated treatment--proximity, prompt/reinforce, and peer initiation interventions--are identified. The relative efficacy of these interventions is examined, treatment issues are discussed, and directions for future research are considered. PMID:6391193

  17. Regulatory elements mediating transcription from the Drosophila melanogaster actin 5C proximal promoter.

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Y T; Keller, E B

    1990-01-01

    The major cytoskeletal actin gene of Drosophila melanogaster, the actin 5C gene, has two promoters, the proximal one of which controls constitutive synthesis of actin in all growing tissues. To locate regulatory elements required for constitutive activity of the proximal promoter, mutants of this promoter were fused to the bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene and assayed for transient expression activity in cultured Drosophila embryonic Schneider line 2 cells. An essential regulatory element has been located 313 base pairs upstream from the cap site. Deletion of this element lowered expression to one-third of the wild-type level. The element has the sequence AAGTTGTAGTTG, as shown by protein-binding footprinting with the reagent methidiumpropyl-EDTA-Fe(II). This element is probably not a general one, since it was not detected in a search of the published 5'-flanking sequences of 27 Drosophila genes. In addition to this regulatory element, there are five GAGA elements in the actin 5C proximal promoter, some or all of which are essential for the promoter activity as shown by an in vivo competition assay. Although this promoter has no classical TATA element, there is an essential promoter region about 35 base pairs upstream from the cap site that could be a TATA surrogate. The promoter also shows sequences homologous to the alcohol dehydrogenase factor 1-binding site and to the core of the vertebrate serum response element, but mutations of these sites did not affect promoter activity in transient expression assays. Images PMID:2104658

  18. How attempts to meet others' unrealistic expectations affect health: health-promoting behaviours as a mediator between perfectionism and physical health.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Fleur; Craddock, Alan E

    2016-01-01

    The traits of perfectionism have been associated with health and longevity. Theoretically and empirically, health behaviours are considered a primary mechanism through which such associations of personality and health occur. However, scant evidence to date indicates behaviours did not mediate between perfectionism and health as anticipated. The aim of the current research was therefore to rigorously examine whether health behaviours mediated associations of perfectionism and physical health-related quality of life (HRQL). A sample of 263 students completed questionnaires measuring subtypes of perfectionism, HRQL, self-efficacy and health-promoting behaviours. Hierarchical regression analyses investigated predictors of physical HRQL and health-promoting behaviours. Non-parametric bootstrapping techniques assessed whether health-promoting behaviours mediated significant associations between perfectionism and physical HRQL. Socially prescribed perfectionism (SPP) significantly predicted poorer physical HRQL, and this association was mediated by health-promoting behaviours, a unique finding. Self-oriented perfectionism did not significantly predict physical HRQL, but was linked with more numerous health-promoting behaviours. In conclusion, results suggest that individuals higher in SPP, who are overly concerned with evaluation by others and with meeting perceived unrealistically high standards of performance, performed fewer health-promoting behaviours, and this mediated the association between SPP and poorer physical HRQL. More broadly, perfectionism predicted physical HRQL and engagement or lack thereof in health-promoting behaviours and should be considered as part of health promotion strategies. PMID:26167729

  19. Cancer cell specific cytotoxic gene expression mediated by ARF tumor suppressor promoter constructs.

    PubMed

    Kurayoshi, Kenta; Ozono, Eiko; Iwanaga, Ritsuko; Bradford, Andrew P; Komori, Hideyuki; Ohtani, Kiyoshi

    2014-07-18

    In current cancer treatment protocols, such as radiation and chemotherapy, side effects on normal cells are major obstacles to radical therapy. To avoid these side effects, a cancer cell-specific approach is needed. One way to specifically target cancer cells is to utilize a cancer specific promoter to express a cytotoxic gene (suicide gene therapy) or a viral gene required for viral replication (oncolytic virotherapy). For this purpose, the selected promoter should have minimal activity in normal cells to avoid side effects, and high activity in a wide variety of cancers to obtain optimal therapeutic efficacy. In contrast to the AFP, CEA and PSA promoters, which have high activity only in a limited spectrum of tumors, the E2F1 promoter exhibits high activity in wide variety of cancers. This is based on the mechanism of carcinogenesis. Defects in the RB pathway and activation of the transcription factor E2F, the main target of the RB pathway, are observed in almost all cancers. Consequently, the E2F1 promoter, which is mainly regulated by E2F, has high activity in wide variety of cancers. However, E2F is also activated by growth stimulation in normal growing cells, suggesting that the E2F1 promoter may also be highly active in normal growing cells. In contrast, we found that the tumor suppressor ARF promoter is activated by deregulated E2F activity, induced by forced inactivation of pRB, but does not respond to physiological E2F activity induced by growth stimulation. We also found that the deregulated E2F activity, which activates the ARF promoter, is detected only in cancer cell lines. These observations suggest that ARF promoter is activated by E2F only in cancer cells and therefore may be more cancer cell-specific than E2F1 promoter to drive gene expression. We show here that the ARF promoter has lower activity in normal growing fibroblasts and shows higher cancer cell-specificity compared to the E2F1 promoter. We also demonstrate that adenovirus expressing HSV

  20. Cancer cell specific cytotoxic gene expression mediated by ARF tumor suppressor promoter constructs

    SciTech Connect

    Kurayoshi, Kenta; Ozono, Eiko; Iwanaga, Ritsuko; Bradford, Andrew P.; Komori, Hideyuki; Ohtani, Kiyoshi

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • ARF promoter showed higher responsiveness to deregulated E2F activity than the E2F1 promoter. • ARF promoter showed higher cancer cell-specificity than E2F1 promoter to drive gene expression. • HSV-TK driven by ARF promoter showed higher cancer cell-specific cytotoxicity than that driven by E2F1 promoter. - Abstract: In current cancer treatment protocols, such as radiation and chemotherapy, side effects on normal cells are major obstacles to radical therapy. To avoid these side effects, a cancer cell-specific approach is needed. One way to specifically target cancer cells is to utilize a cancer specific promoter to express a cytotoxic gene (suicide gene therapy) or a viral gene required for viral replication (oncolytic virotherapy). For this purpose, the selected promoter should have minimal activity in normal cells to avoid side effects, and high activity in a wide variety of cancers to obtain optimal therapeutic efficacy. In contrast to the AFP, CEA and PSA promoters, which have high activity only in a limited spectrum of tumors, the E2F1 promoter exhibits high activity in wide variety of cancers. This is based on the mechanism of carcinogenesis. Defects in the RB pathway and activation of the transcription factor E2F, the main target of the RB pathway, are observed in almost all cancers. Consequently, the E2F1 promoter, which is mainly regulated by E2F, has high activity in wide variety of cancers. However, E2F is also activated by growth stimulation in normal growing cells, suggesting that the E2F1 promoter may also be highly active in normal growing cells. In contrast, we found that the tumor suppressor ARF promoter is activated by deregulated E2F activity, induced by forced inactivation of pRB, but does not respond to physiological E2F activity induced by growth stimulation. We also found that the deregulated E2F activity, which activates the ARF promoter, is detected only in cancer cell lines. These observations suggest that ARF promoter

  1. HuR represses Wnt/β-catenin-mediated transcriptional activity by promoting cytoplasmic localization of β-catenin

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Inae; Hur, Jung; Jeong, Sunjoo

    2015-01-30

    Highlights: • Wnt signaling as well as β-catenin overexpression enhance HuR cytoplasmic export. • HuR overexpression promotes cytoplasmic localization of β-catenin from the perinuclear fraction. • Wnt/β-catenin-mediated transcriptional activity is repressesed by HuR. - Abstract: β-Catenin is the key transcriptional activator of canonical Wnt signaling in the nucleus; thus, nuclear accumulation of β-catenin is a critical step for expressing target genes. β-Catenin accumulates in the nucleus of cancer cells where it activates oncogenic target genes. Hu antigen R (HuR) is a RNA binding protein that regulates multiple post-transcriptional processes including RNA stability. Thus, cytoplasmic HuR protein may be involved in tumorigenesis by stabilizing oncogenic transcripts, but the molecular mechanism remains unclear. Here, we observed that Wnt/β-catenin signaling induced export of the HuR protein, whereas HuR overexpression promoted accumulation of the β-catenin protein in the cytoplasm. Thus, Wnt/β-catenin-mediated transcriptional activity in the nucleus was reduced by overexpressing HuR. These results suggest novel and uncharacterized cytoplasmic β-catenin functions related to HuR-mediated RNA metabolism in cancer cells.

  2. DCAF4L2 promotes colorectal cancer invasion and metastasis via mediating degradation of NFκb negative regulator PPM1B

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haiyu; Chen, Yusheng; Han, Jun; Meng, Qingyang; Xi, Qiulei; Wu, Guohao; Zhang, Bo

    2016-01-01

    DCAF4L2 is a member of WD-repeat proteins, which commonly serve as mediators of protein-protein interplay. In this study, we reported that elevated DCAF4L2 expression in human colorectal cancer (CRC) significantly correlated with a more advanced clinical stage as in lymphatic and distant metastasis. More importantly, elevated DCAF4L2 expression is an independent prognosis factor for survival. Genetic perturbations demonstrated that DCAF4L2 overexpression in CRC cells promoted cell migration and invasion, whereas knockdown of which had opposing effects. Moreover we discovered that DCAF4L2 overexpression could promote epithelial-mesenchymal-transition (EMT) through activating NFκB signal pathway. Mass spectrometry analysis showed that DCAF4L2 could form an E3 ligase complex with Cul4A and DDB1 thus mediated degradation of PPM1B, which has been reported to negatively regulate NFκB signaling. We identified PPM1B as a substrate of Cul4A-DDB1-DCAF4L2 E3 ligase complex, as knockdown of PPM1B abrogated shDCAF4L2 mediated inhibition of cell invasion in CRC cells. For further verification, DCAF4L2 expression inversely correlated with PPM1B expression in a cohort of 87 CRC patients. These findings may provide insight into the understanding of DCAF4L2 as a novel critical factor and a candidate target for CRC treatment. PMID:27158335

  3. Mesenchymal stem cells promote colorectal cancer progression through AMPK/mTOR-mediated NF-κB activation

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiao-Bing; Liu, Yang; Wang, Gui-Hua; Xu, Xiao; Cai, Yang; Wang, Hong-Yi; Li, Yan-Qi; Meng, Hong-Fang; Dai, Fu; Jin, Ji-De

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) exert a tumor-promoting effect in a variety of human cancers. This study was designed to identify the molecular mechanisms related to the tumor-promoting effect of MSCs in colorectal cancer. In vitro analysis of colorectal cancer cell lines cultured in MSC conditioned media (MSC-CM) showed that MSC-CM significantly promoted the progression of the cancer cells by enhancing cell proliferation, migration and colony formation. The tumorigenic effect of MSC-CM was attributed to altered expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins and inhibition of apoptosis. Furthermore, MSC-CM induced high level expression of a number of pluripotency factors in the cancer cells. ELISAs revealed MSC-CM contained higher levels of IL-6 and IL-8, which are associated with the progression of cancer. Moreover, MSC-CM downregulated AMPK mRNA and protein phosphorylation, but upregulated mTOR mRNA and protein phosphorylation. The NF-κB pathway was activated after addition of MSC-CM. An in vivo model in Balb/C mice confirmed the ability of MSC-CM to promote the invasion and proliferation of colorectal cancer cells. This study indicates that MSCs promote the progression of colorectal cancer via AMPK/mTOR-mediated NF-κB activation. PMID:26892992

  4. Co-expression of interleukin 12 enhances antitumor effects of a novel chimeric promoter-mediated suicide gene therapy in an immunocompetent mouse model

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Yu; Liu, Zhengchun; Kong, Haiyan; Sun, Wenjie; Liao, Zhengkai; Zhou, Fuxiang; Xie, Conghua; and others

    2011-09-09

    Highlights: {yields} A novel chimeric promoter consisting of CArG element and hTERT promoter was developed. {yields} The promoter was characterized with radiation-inducibility and tumor-specificity. {yields} Suicide gene system driven by the promoter showed remarkable cytotoxicity in vitro. {yields} Co-expression of IL12 enhanced the promoter mediated suicide gene therapy in vivo. -- Abstract: The human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) promoter has been widely used in target gene therapy of cancer. However, low transcriptional activity limited its clinical application. Here, we designed a novel dual radiation-inducible and tumor-specific promoter system consisting of CArG elements and the hTERT promoter, resulting in increased expression of reporter genes after gamma-irradiation. Therapeutic and side effects of adenovirus-mediated horseradish peroxidase (HRP)/indole-3-acetic (IAA) system downstream of the chimeric promoter were evaluated in mice bearing Lewis lung carcinoma, combining with or without adenovirus-mediated interleukin 12 (IL12) gene driven by the cytomegalovirus promoter. The combination treatment showed more effective suppression of tumor growth than those with single agent alone, being associated with pronounced intratumoral T-lymphocyte infiltration and minor side effects. Our results suggest that the combination treatment with HRP/IAA system driven by the novel chimeric promoter and the co-expression of IL12 might be an effective and safe target gene therapy strategy of cancer.

  5. I will speak up if my voice is socially desirable: A moderated mediating process of promotive versus prohibitive voice.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xin; Zhang, Zhi-Xue; Chen, Xiao-Ping

    2015-09-01

    Employees are likely to speak up if they perceive high efficacy and low risk associated with such behavior, that is, if they perceive voice is socially desirable. Drawing on socially desirable responding (SDR) theory, we reason that individual value on power distance and supervisory delegation are related to the agentic motive for SDR, and that these 2 factors interact to influence employees' perceived efficacy of voice. We also identify individual value on superficial harmony and group voice climate, which are both relevant to the communal motive for SDR, jointly affect perceived risk of voice. Furthermore, by influencing perceived efficacy and perceived risk, these interactive forces would be differentially related to promotive versus prohibitive voice. Data from 66 middle managers and 262 of their direct reports in 5 high-tech firms provide considerable support for our hypothesized moderated mediation model. Supervisory delegation weakens the negative relationship between power distance and perceived efficacy of promotive voice, and the indirect relationship between power distance and promotive voice via perceived efficacy. In contrast, group voice climate weakens the positive relationship between superficial harmony and perceived risk of prohibitive voice, which mediates the indirect relationship between superficial harmony and prohibitive voice. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of our findings in organizational settings. PMID:25844927

  6. Positive and negative regulatory elements mediating transcription from the Drosophila melanogaster actin 5C distal promoter.

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Y T; Keller, E B

    1990-01-01

    The major cytoskeletal actin gene of Drosophila melanogaster, the actin 5C gene, has two promoters, the distal one of which controls synthesis of actin in a tissue- and developmental stage-specific manner. This very strong promoter has widely been used for expression of heterologous genes in cultured cells. To locate functional regulatory elements in this distal promoter, mutants of the promoter were fused to the bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene and assayed for transient expression activity in cultured Drosophila embryonic Schneider line 2 cells. The results showed that the upstream end of the promoter extends to 522 bp from the transcription start site. In addition, there are two remote activating regions about 2 kb upstream. Between -522 and -379 are two regions that exert a strong negative effect. Downstream from these negative regions are at least six positive regions and a TATA element. The strongest positive determinant of the promoter was identified at -320 as AAAATGTG by footprinting and by a replacement experiment. When the relevant region was replaced by a synthetic sequence containing this element in a random context, the transient expression activity was restored. The sequence TGTATG located at -355 was also identified as a positive element by a similar replacement approach. Apparently the very high activity of this promoter is the result of the combined activities of multiple factors. Images PMID:2123290

  7. Effects of gamma rays, ultraviolet radiation, sunlight, microwaves and electromagnetic fields on gene expression mediated by human immunodeficiency virus promoter

    SciTech Connect

    Libertin, C.R.; Woloschak, G.E. |; Panozzo, J.; Groh, K.R.; Chang-Liu, Chin-Mei; Schreck, S.

    1994-10-01

    Previous work by our group and others has shown the modulation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) promoter or long terminal repeat (LTR) after exposure to neutrons and ultraviolet radiations. Using HeLa cells stably transfected with a construct containing the chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) gene, the transcription of which is mediated by the HIV-LTR, we designed experiments to examine the effects of exposure to different types of radiation (such as {gamma} rays, ultraviolet and sunlight irradiations, electromagnetic fields and microwaves) in HIV-LTR-driven expression of CAT. These results demonstrated ultraviolet-light-induced transcription from the HIV promoter, as has been shown by others. Exposure to other DNA-damaging agents such as {gamma} rays and sunlight (with limited exposures) had no significant effect on transcription mediated by HIV-LTR, suggesting that induction of HIV is not mediated by just any type of DNA damage but rather may require specific types of DNA damage. Microwaves did not cause cell killing when cells in culture were exposed in high volumes of medium, and the same cells showed no changes in expression. When microwave exposure was carried out in low volumes of medium (so that excessive heat was generated) induction of HIV-LTR transcription (as assayed by CAT activity) was evident. Electromagnetic field exposures had no effect on expression of HIV-LTR. These results demonstrate that not all types of radiation and not all DNA-damaging agents are capable of inducing HIV. We hypothesize that induction of HIV transcription may be mediated by several different signals exposure to radiation. 22 refs., 8 figs.

  8. Invasive plants may promote predator-mediated feedback that inhibits further invasion.

    PubMed

    Smith, Lauren M; Schmitz, Oswald J

    2015-06-01

    Understanding the impacts of invasive species requires placing invasion within a full community context. Plant invaders are often considered in the context of herbivores that may drive invasion by avoiding invaders while consuming natives (enemy escape), or inhibit invasion by consuming invaders (biotic resistance). However, predators that attack those herbivores are rarely considered as major players in invasion. Invasive plants often promote predators, generally by providing improved habitat. Here, we show that predator-promoting invaders may initiate a negative feedback loop that inhibits invasion. By enabling top-down control of herbivores, predator-promoting invaders lose any advantage gained through enemy escape, indirectly favoring natives. In cases where palatable invaders encounter biotic resistance, predator promotion may allow an invader to persist, but not dominate. Overall, results indicate that placing invaders in a full community context may reveal reduced impacts of invaders compared to expectations based on simple plant-plant or plant-herbivore subsystems. PMID:26120430

  9. Invasive plants may promote predator-mediated feedback that inhibits further invasion

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Lauren M; Schmitz, Oswald J

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the impacts of invasive species requires placing invasion within a full community context. Plant invaders are often considered in the context of herbivores that may drive invasion by avoiding invaders while consuming natives (enemy escape), or inhibit invasion by consuming invaders (biotic resistance). However, predators that attack those herbivores are rarely considered as major players in invasion. Invasive plants often promote predators, generally by providing improved habitat. Here, we show that predator-promoting invaders may initiate a negative feedback loop that inhibits invasion. By enabling top-down control of herbivores, predator-promoting invaders lose any advantage gained through enemy escape, indirectly favoring natives. In cases where palatable invaders encounter biotic resistance, predator promotion may allow an invader to persist, but not dominate. Overall, results indicate that placing invaders in a full community context may reveal reduced impacts of invaders compared to expectations based on simple plant–plant or plant–herbivore subsystems. PMID:26120430

  10. Acetylation Targets the M2 Isoform of Pyruvate Kinase for Degradation through Chaperone-Mediated Autophagy and Promotes Tumor Growth

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Lei; Li, Dong; Zhao, Di; Lin, Ruiting; Chu, Yajing; Zhang, Heng; Zha, Zhengyu; Liu, Ying; Li, Zi; Xu, Yanping; Wang, Gang; Huang, Yiran; Xiong, Yue; Guan, Kun-Liang; Lei, Qun-Ying

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Most tumor cells take up more glucose than normal cells but metabolize glucose via glycolysis even in the presence of normal levels of oxygen, a phenomenon known as the Warburg effect. Tumor cells commonly express the embryonic M2 isoform of pyruvate kinase (PKM2) that may contribute to the metabolism shift from oxidative phosphorylation to aerobic glycolysis and tumorigenesis. Here we show that PKM2 is acetylated on lysine 305 and that this acetylation is stimulated by high glucose concentration. PKM2 K305 acetylation decreases PKM2 enzyme activity and promotes its lysosomal-dependent degradation via chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA). Acetylation increases PKM2 interaction with HSC70, a chaperone for CMA, and association with lysosomes. Ectopic expression of an acetylation mimetic K305Q mutant accumulates glycolytic intermediates and promotes cell proliferation and tumor growth. These results reveal an acetylation regulation of pyruvate kinase and the link between lysine acetylation and CMA. PMID:21700219

  11. Twist-mediated Epithelial-mesenchymal Transition Promotes Breast Tumor Cell Invasion via Inhibition of Hippo Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yifan; Liu, Jingyi; Ying, Xuhua; Lin, Pengnian Charles; Zhou, Binhua P.

    2016-01-01

    Twist is a key transcription factor for Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which is a cellular de-differentiation program that promotes invasion and metastasis, confers tumor cells with cancer stem cell (CSC)-like characteristics, and increases therapeutic resistance. However, the mechanisms that facilitate the functions of Twist remain unclear. Here we report that Twist overexpression increased expression of PAR1, an upstream regulator of the Hippo pathway; PAR1 promotes invasion, migration, and CSC-like properties in breast cancer by activating the transcriptional co-activator TAZ. Our study indicates that Hippo pathway inhibition is required for the increased migratory and invasiveness ability of breast cancer cells in Twist-mediated EMT. PMID:27094683

  12. Twist-mediated Epithelial-mesenchymal Transition Promotes Breast Tumor Cell Invasion via Inhibition of Hippo Pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yifan; Liu, Jingyi; Ying, Xuhua; Lin, Pengnian Charles; Zhou, Binhua P

    2016-01-01

    Twist is a key transcription factor for Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which is a cellular de-differentiation program that promotes invasion and metastasis, confers tumor cells with cancer stem cell (CSC)-like characteristics, and increases therapeutic resistance. However, the mechanisms that facilitate the functions of Twist remain unclear. Here we report that Twist overexpression increased expression of PAR1, an upstream regulator of the Hippo pathway; PAR1 promotes invasion, migration, and CSC-like properties in breast cancer by activating the transcriptional co-activator TAZ. Our study indicates that Hippo pathway inhibition is required for the increased migratory and invasiveness ability of breast cancer cells in Twist-mediated EMT. PMID:27094683

  13. The kinase LMTK3 promotes invasion in breast cancer through GRB2-mediated induction of integrin β₁.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yichen; Zhang, Hua; Lit, Lei C; Grothey, Arnhild; Athanasiadou, Maria; Kiritsi, Marianna; Lombardo, Ylenia; Frampton, Adam E; Green, Andrew R; Ellis, Ian O; Ali, Simak; Lenz, Heinz-Josef; Thanou, Maya; Stebbing, Justin; Giamas, Georgios

    2014-06-17

    Lemur tyrosine kinase 3 (LMTK3) is associated with cell proliferation and endocrine resistance in breast cancer. We found that, in cultured breast cancer cell lines, LMTK3 promotes the development of a metastatic phenotype by inducing the expression of genes encoding integrin subunits. Invasive behavior in various breast cancer cell lines positively correlated with the abundance of LMTK3. Overexpression of LMTK3 in a breast cancer cell line with low endogenous LMTK3 abundance promoted actin cytoskeleton remodeling, focal adhesion formation, and adhesion to collagen and fibronectin in culture. Using SILAC (stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture) proteomic analysis, we found that LMTK3 increased the abundance of integrin subunits α5 and β1, encoded by ITGA5 and ITGB1. This effect depended on the CDC42 Rho family guanosine triphosphatase, which was in turn activated by the interaction between LMTK3 and growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 (GRB2), an adaptor protein that mediates receptor tyrosine kinase-induced activation of RAS and downstream signaling. Knockdown of GRB2 suppressed LMTK3-induced CDC42 activation, blocked ITGA5 and ITGB1 expression promoted by the transcription factor serum response factor (SRF), and reduced invasive activity. Furthermore, abundance of LMTK3 positively correlated with that of the integrin β1 subunit in breast cancer patient's tumors. Our findings suggest a role for LMTK3 in promoting integrin activity during breast cancer progression and metastasis. PMID:24939894

  14. Computer-Mediated Communication: Promoting Learner Autonomy and Intercultural Understanding at Secondary Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Linda; Evans, Michael; Esch, Edith

    2004-01-01

    The use of Computer-Mediated Communication (CMC) has been hailed as a solution to the problem of access to native speakers for language learners. This project was devised to investigate whether regular and structured use of email, here via a bulletin board, might enhance learners' study of French, with regard to developing learner autonomy and…

  15. Perilipin Promotes HSL-Mediated Adipocyte Lipolysis via Phosphorylation-dependent and Independent Mechanisms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) is the predominant lipase effector of catecholamine-stimulated lipolysis in adipocytes. HSL-dependent lipolysis, in response to catecholamines, is mediated by protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent phosphorylation of perilipin A (Peri A), an essential lipid droplet (LD)-ass...

  16. Phosphorylation of CHIP at Ser20 by Cdk5 promotes tAIF-mediated neuronal death.

    PubMed

    Kim, C; Yun, N; Lee, J; Youdim, M B H; Ju, C; Kim, W-K; Han, P-L; Oh, Y J

    2016-02-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) is a proline-directed serine/threonine kinase and its dysregulation is implicated in neurodegenerative diseases. Likewise, C-terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein (CHIP) is linked to neurological disorders, serving as an E3 ubiquitin ligase for targeting damaged or toxic proteins for proteasomal degradation. Here, we demonstrate that CHIP is a novel substrate for Cdk5. Cdk5 phosphorylates CHIP at Ser20 via direct binding to a highly charged domain of CHIP. Co-immunoprecipitation and ubiquitination assays reveal that Cdk5-mediated phosphorylation disrupts the interaction between CHIP and truncated apoptosis-inducing factor (tAIF) without affecting CHIP's E3 ligase activity, resulting in the inhibition of CHIP-mediated degradation of tAIF. Lentiviral transduction assay shows that knockdown of Cdk5 or overexpression of CHIP(S20A), but not CHIP(WT), attenuates tAIF-mediated neuronal cell death induced by hydrogen peroxide. Thus, we conclude that Cdk5-mediated phosphorylation of CHIP negatively regulates its neuroprotective function, thereby contributing to neuronal cell death progression following neurotoxic stimuli. PMID:26206088

  17. Mediators of Positive Youth Development Intervention Change: Promoting Change in Positive "and" Problem Outcomes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eichas, Kyle; Albrecht, Richard E.; Garcia, Arlen J.; Ritchie, Rachel A.; Varela, Aida; Garcia, Arlene; Rinaldi, Roberto; Wang, Rebecca; Montgomery, Marilyn J.; Silverman, Wendy K.; Jaccard, James; Kurtines, William M.

    2010-01-01

    Advances in applied developmental science have contributed to the large literature on positive youth development (PYD) interventions. This study reports an investigation of a PYD program using an outcome-mediation evaluation model that drew on the treatment intervention science literature. The Changing Lives Program (CLP) is a community supported…

  18. Promoting Early Literacy via Practicing Invented Spelling: A Comparison of Different Mediation Routines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Iris; Aram, Dorit

    2013-01-01

    The present study compared the effects of different mediation routines provided to kindergartners from families of low socioeconomic status on the students' invented spelling attempts and on their gains obtained on spelling and other early literacy skills (letter naming, sounds of letters, word segmentation, and word decoding). The effects of…

  19. Semantic Feature Analysis: Incorporating Typicality Treatment and Mediating Strategy Training to Promote Generalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wambaugh, Julie L.; Mauszycki, Shannon; Cameron, Rosalea; Wright, Sandra; Nessler, Christina

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This investigation was designed to examine the generalization effects of semantic treatment for word retrieval deficits in people with aphasia. Semantic feature analysis (SFA; Boyle & Coelho, 1995), typicality treatment (Kiran & Thompson, 2003), and mediating strategy training were combined to maximize potential generalization effects.…

  20. RNase L Cleavage Products Promote Switch from Autophagy to Apoptosis by Caspase-Mediated Cleavage of Beclin-1

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Mohammad Adnan; Mukherjee, Sushovita; Manivannan, Praveen; Malathi, Krishnamurthy

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy and apoptosis share regulatory molecules enabling crosstalk in pathways that affect cellular homeostasis including response to viral infections and survival of tumor cells. Ribonuclease L (RNase L) is an antiviral endonuclease that is activated in virus-infected cells and cleaves viral and cellular single-stranded RNAs to produce small double-stranded RNAs with roles in amplifying host responses. Activation of RNase L induces autophagy and apoptosis in many cell types. However, the mechanism by which RNase L mediates crosstalk between these two pathways remains unclear. Here we show that small dsRNAs produced by RNase L promote a switch from autophagy to apoptosis by caspase-mediated cleavage of Beclin-1, terminating autophagy. The caspase 3-cleaved C-terminal fragment of Beclin-1 enhances apoptosis by translocating to the mitochondria along with proapoptotic protein, Bax, and inducing release of cytochrome C to the cytosol. Cleavage of Beclin-1 determines switch to apoptosis since expression of caspase-resistant Beclin-1 inhibits apoptosis and sustains autophagy. Moreover, inhibiting RNase L-induced autophagy promotes cell death and inhibiting apoptosis prolongs autophagy in a cross-inhibitory mechanism. Our results demonstrate a novel role of RNase L generated small RNAs in cross-talk between autophagy and apoptosis that impacts the fate of cells during viral infections and cancer. PMID:26263979

  1. RNase L Cleavage Products Promote Switch from Autophagy to Apoptosis by Caspase-Mediated Cleavage of Beclin-1.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Mohammad Adnan; Mukherjee, Sushovita; Manivannan, Praveen; Malathi, Krishnamurthy

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy and apoptosis share regulatory molecules enabling crosstalk in pathways that affect cellular homeostasis including response to viral infections and survival of tumor cells. Ribonuclease L (RNase L) is an antiviral endonuclease that is activated in virus-infected cells and cleaves viral and cellular single-stranded RNAs to produce small double-stranded RNAs with roles in amplifying host responses. Activation of RNase L induces autophagy and apoptosis in many cell types. However, the mechanism by which RNase L mediates crosstalk between these two pathways remains unclear. Here we show that small dsRNAs produced by RNase L promote a switch from autophagy to apoptosis by caspase-mediated cleavage of Beclin-1, terminating autophagy. The caspase 3-cleaved C-terminal fragment of Beclin-1 enhances apoptosis by translocating to the mitochondria along with proapoptotic protein, Bax, and inducing release of cytochrome C to the cytosol. Cleavage of Beclin-1 determines switch to apoptosis since expression of caspase-resistant Beclin-1 inhibits apoptosis and sustains autophagy. Moreover, inhibiting RNase L-induced autophagy promotes cell death and inhibiting apoptosis prolongs autophagy in a cross-inhibitory mechanism. Our results demonstrate a novel role of RNase L generated small RNAs in cross-talk between autophagy and apoptosis that impacts the fate of cells during viral infections and cancer. PMID:26263979

  2. Endothelial Dicer promotes atherosclerosis and vascular inflammation by miRNA-103-mediated suppression of KLF4

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, Petra; Zhou, Zhe; Natarelli, Lucia; Wei, Yuanyuan; Nazari-Jahantigh, Maliheh; Zhu, Mengyu; Grommes, Jochen; Steffens, Sabine; Weber, Christian; Schober, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs regulate the maladaptation of endothelial cells (ECs) to naturally occurring disturbed blood flow at arterial bifurcations resulting in arterial inflammation and atherosclerosis in response to hyperlipidemic stress. Here, we show that reduced endothelial expression of the RNAse Dicer, which generates almost all mature miRNAs, decreases monocyte adhesion, endothelial C–X–C motif chemokine 1 (CXCL1) expression, atherosclerosis and the lesional macrophage content in apolipoprotein E knockout mice (Apoe−/−) after exposure to a high-fat diet. Endothelial Dicer deficiency reduces the expression of unstable miRNAs, such as miR-103, and promotes Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4)-dependent gene expression in murine atherosclerotic arteries. MiR-103 mediated suppression of KLF4 increases monocyte adhesion to ECs by enhancing nuclear factor-κB-dependent CXCL1 expression. Inhibiting the interaction between miR-103 and KLF4 reduces atherosclerosis, lesional macrophage accumulation and endothelial CXCL1 expression. Overall, our study suggests that Dicer promotes endothelial maladaptation and atherosclerosis in part by miR-103-mediated suppression of KLF4. PMID:26837267

  3. IQGAP1 mediates the disruption of adherens junctions to promote Escherichia coli K1 invasion of brain endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Subramanian; Fernandez, G. Esteban; Sacks, David B.; Prasadarao, Nemani V.

    2012-01-01

    The transcellular entry of E. coli K1 through human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC) is responsible for tight junction disruption, leading to brain edema in neonatal meningitis. Previous studies demonstrated that outer membrane protein A (OmpA) of E. coli K1 interacts with its receptor, Ecgp96 to induce PKC-α phosphorylation, adherens junction (AJ) disassembly (by dislodging β-catenin from VE-cadherin), and remodeling of actin in HBMEC. We report here that IQGAP1 mediates β-catenin dissociation from AJs to promote actin polymerization required for E. coli K1 invasion of HBMEC. Overexpression of C-terminal truncated IQGAP1 (IQΔC) that cannot bind β-catenin prevents both AJ disruption and E. coli K1 entry. Of note, phospho-PKC-α interacts with the C-terminal portion of Ecgp96 as well as with VE-cadherin after IQGAP1 mediated AJ disassembly. HBMEC overexpressing either C-terminal truncated Ecgp96 (Ecgp96Δ200) or IQΔC upon infection with E. coli showed no interaction of phospho-PKC-α with Ecgp96. These data indicate that the binding of OmpA to Ecgp96 induces PKC-α phosphorylation and association of phospho-PKC-α with Ecgp96, and then signals IQGAP1 to detach β-catenin from AJs. Subsequently, IQGAP1/β-catenin bound actin translocates to the site of E. coli K1 attachment to promote invasion. PMID:22519731

  4. Eosinophilia of dystrophin-deficient muscle is promoted by perforin-mediated cytotoxicity by T cell effectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cai, B.; Spencer, M. J.; Nakamura, G.; Tseng-Ong, L.; Tidball, J. G.

    2000-01-01

    Previous investigations have shown that cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) contribute to muscle pathology in the dystrophin-null mutant mouse (mdx) model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy through perforin-dependent and perforin-independent mechanisms. We have assessed whether the CTL-mediated pathology includes the promotion of eosinophilia in dystrophic muscle, and thereby provides a secondary mechanism through which CTLs contribute to muscular dystrophy. Quantitative immunohistochemistry confirmed that eosinophilia is a component of the mdx dystrophy. In addition, electron microscopic observations show that eosinophils traverse the basement membrane of mdx muscle fibers and display sites of close apposition of eosinophil and muscle membranes. The close membrane apposition is characterized by impingement of eosinophilic rods of major basic protein into the muscle cell membrane. Transfer of mdx splenocytes and mdx muscle extracts to irradiated C57 mice by intraperitoneal injection resulted in muscle eosinophilia in the recipient mice. Double-mutant mice lacking dystrophin and perforin showed less eosinophilia than was displayed by mdx mice that expressed perforin. Finally, administration of prednisolone, which has been shown previously to reduce the concentration of CTLs in dystrophic muscle, produced a significant reduction in eosinophilia. These findings indicate that eosinophilia is a component of the mdx pathology that is promoted by perforin-dependent cytotoxicity of effector T cells. However, some eosinophilia of mdx muscle is independent of perforin-mediated processes.

  5. Natural Environments and Childhood Experiences Promoting Physical Activity, Examining the Mediational Effects of Feelings about Nature and Social Networks.

    PubMed

    Calogiuri, Giovanna

    2016-01-01

    The importance of natural environments (NEs) for physical activity (PA) has been studied extensively. However, there is scant evidence to explain the motivational processes underlying the NE-PA relation. The aim of this study was to investigate the NE-PA relation using an ecological framework, focusing on perception of NEs, childhood experiences and possible intra- and inter-individual mediators. Data were retrieved from a cross-sectional survey among 2168 adults from all over Norway. In addition, the coverage of NEs by municipalities was retrieved from national registers. Logistic regression showed that, unlike the self-reported proximity to NEs, higher ratings of perceived supportiveness of NEs for PA predicted participation in NE-based PA for at least 60 min/week or 150 min/week, before and after controlling for socio-demographic characteristics. Reporting frequent experiences in nature during childhood was also an important predictor of higher levels of NE-based PA. Furthermore, a mediational analysis showed that the effect of both predictors was mediated by "feelings about nature" and "social networks". These findings indicate that to encourage the use of local NE for PA, not only should environmental perceptions be taken into account, positive feelings towards nature alongside opportunities to share activity in nature with others should also be promoted. PMID:27110802

  6. Natural Environments and Childhood Experiences Promoting Physical Activity, Examining the Mediational Effects of Feelings about Nature and Social Networks

    PubMed Central

    Calogiuri, Giovanna

    2016-01-01

    The importance of natural environments (NEs) for physical activity (PA) has been studied extensively. However, there is scant evidence to explain the motivational processes underlying the NE-PA relation. The aim of this study was to investigate the NE-PA relation using an ecological framework, focusing on perception of NEs, childhood experiences and possible intra- and inter-individual mediators. Data were retrieved from a cross-sectional survey among 2168 adults from all over Norway. In addition, the coverage of NEs by municipalities was retrieved from national registers. Logistic regression showed that, unlike the self-reported proximity to NEs, higher ratings of perceived supportiveness of NEs for PA predicted participation in NE-based PA for at least 60 min/week or 150 min/week, before and after controlling for socio-demographic characteristics. Reporting frequent experiences in nature during childhood was also an important predictor of higher levels of NE-based PA. Furthermore, a mediational analysis showed that the effect of both predictors was mediated by “feelings about nature” and “social networks”. These findings indicate that to encourage the use of local NE for PA, not only should environmental perceptions be taken into account, positive feelings towards nature alongside opportunities to share activity in nature with others should also be promoted. PMID:27110802

  7. Auxin promotes susceptibility to Pseudomonas syringae via a mechanism independent of suppression of salicylic acid-mediated defenses.

    PubMed

    Mutka, Andrew M; Fawley, Stephen; Tsao, Tiffany; Kunkel, Barbara N

    2013-06-01

    Auxin is a key plant growth regulator that also impacts plant-pathogen interactions. Several lines of evidence suggest that the bacterial plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae manipulates auxin physiology in Arabidopsis thaliana to promote pathogenesis. Pseudomonas syringae strategies to alter host auxin biology include synthesis of the auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and production of virulence factors that alter auxin responses in host cells. The application of exogenous auxin enhances disease caused by P. syringae strain DC3000. This is hypothesized to result from antagonism between auxin and salicylic acid (SA), a major regulator of plant defenses, but this hypothesis has not been tested in the context of infected plants. We further investigated the role of auxin during pathogenesis by examining the interaction of auxin and SA in the context of infection in plants with elevated endogenous levels of auxin. We demonstrated that elevated IAA biosynthesis in transgenic plants overexpressing the YUCCA 1 (YUC1) auxin biosynthesis gene led to enhanced susceptibility to DC3000. Elevated IAA levels did not interfere significantly with host defenses, as effector-triggered immunity was active in YUC1-overexpressing plants, and we observed only minor effects on SA levels and SA-mediated responses. Furthermore, a plant line carrying both the YUC1-overexpression transgene and the salicylic acid induction deficient 2 (sid2) mutation, which impairs SA synthesis, exhibited additive effects of enhanced susceptibility from both elevated auxin levels and impaired SA-mediated defenses. Thus, in IAA overproducing plants, the promotion of pathogen growth occurs independently of suppression of SA-mediated defenses. PMID:23521356

  8. Wnt5a promotes cancer cell invasion and proliferation by receptor-mediated endocytosis-dependent and -independent mechanisms, respectively

    PubMed Central

    Shojima, Kensaku; Sato, Akira; Hanaki, Hideaki; Tsujimoto, Ikuko; Nakamura, Masahiro; Hattori, Kazunari; Sato, Yuji; Dohi, Keiji; Hirata, Michinari; Yamamoto, Hideki; Kikuchi, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Wnt5a activates the Wnt/β-catenin-independent pathway and its overexpression is associated with tumor aggressiveness enhancing invasive activity. For this action, Wnt5a-induced receptor endocytosis with clathrin is required. Wnt5a expression was previously believed to be associated with cancer cell motility but not proliferation. Recently, it was reported that Wnt5a is also implicated in cancer cell proliferation, but the mechanism was not clear. In this study, we generated a neutralizing anti-Wnt5a monoclonal antibody (mAb5A16) to investigate the mechanism by which Wnt5a regulates cancer cell proliferation. Wnt5a stimulated both invasion and proliferation of certain types of cancer cells, including HeLaS3 cervical cancer cells and A549 lung cancer cells although Wnt5a promoted invasion but not proliferation in other cancer cells such as KKLS gastric cancer cells. mAb5A16 did not affect the binding of Wnt5a to its receptor, but it suppressed Wnt5a-induced receptor-mediated endocytosis. mAb5A16 inhibited invasion but not proliferation of HeLaS3 and A549 cells. Wnt5a activated Src family kinases (SFKs) and Wnt5a-dependent cancer cell proliferation was dependent on SFKs, yet blockade of receptor-mediated endocytosis did not affect cancer cell proliferation and SFK activity. These results suggest that Wnt5a promotes invasion and proliferation of certain types of cancer cells through receptor-mediated endocytosis-dependent and -independent mechanisms, respectively. PMID:25622531

  9. Natural products for treatment of osteoporosis: The effects and mechanisms on promoting osteoblast-mediated bone formation.

    PubMed

    An, Jing; Yang, Hao; Zhang, Qian; Liu, Cuicui; Zhao, Jingjing; Zhang, Lingling; Chen, Bo

    2016-02-15

    Osteoporosis is a systemic metabolic bone disease characterized by a reduction in bone mass, bone quality, and microarchitectural deterioration. An imbalance in bone remodeling that is caused by more osteoclast-mediated bone resorption than osteoblast-mediated bone formation results in such pathologic bone disorder. Traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) have long been used to prevent and treat osteoporosis and have received extensive attentions and researches at home and abroad, because they have fewer adverse reactions and are more suitable for long-term use compared with chemically synthesized medicines. Here, we put the emphasis on osteoblasts, summarized the detailed research progress on the active compounds derived from TCM with potential anti-osteoporosis effects and their molecular mechanisms on promoting osteoblast-mediated bone formation. It could be concluded that TCM with kidney-tonifying, spleen-tonifying, and stasis-removing effects all have the potential effects on treating osteoporosis. The active ingredients derived from TCM that possess effects on promoting osteoblasts proliferation and differentiation include flavonoids, glycosides, coumarins, terpenoids (sesquiterpenoids, monoterpenoids, diterpenoids), phenolic acids, phenols and others (tetrameric stilbene, anthraquinones, diarylheptanoids). And it was confirmed that the bone formation effect induced by the above natural products was regulated by the expressions of bone specific matrix proteins (ALP, BSP, OCN, OPN, COL I), transcription factor (Runx2, Cbfa1, Osx), signal pathways (MAPK, BMP), local factors (ROS, NO), OPG/RANKL system of osteoblasts and estrogen-like biological activities. All the studies provided theoretical basis for clinical application, as well as new drug research and development on treating osteoporosis. PMID:26796578

  10. LKB1 promotes cell survival by modulating TIF-IA-mediated pre-ribosomal RNA synthesis under uridine downregulated conditions

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiuju; Huang, Henry; Wilkinson, Scott C.; Zhong, Diansheng; Khuri, Fadlo R.; Fu, Haian; Marcus, Adam; He, Yulong; Zhou, Wei

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed the mechanism underlying 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside (AICAR) mediated apoptosis in LKB1-null non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. Metabolic profile analysis revealed depletion of the intracellular pyrimidine pool after AICAR treatment, but uridine was the only nucleotide precursor capable of rescuing this apoptosis, suggesting the involvement of RNA metabolism. Because half of RNA transcription in cancer is for pre-ribosomal RNA (rRNA) synthesis, which is suppressed by over 90% after AICAR treatment, we evaluated the role of TIF-IA-mediated rRNA synthesis. While the depletion of TIF-IA by RNAi alone promoted apoptosis in LKB1-null cells, the overexpression of a wild-type or a S636A TIF-IA mutant, but not a S636D mutant, attenuated AICAR-induced apoptosis. In LKB1-null H157 cells, pre-rRNA synthesis was not suppressed by AICAR when wild-type LKB1 was present, and cellular fractionation analysis indicated that TIF-IA quickly accumulated in the nucleus in the presence of a wild-type LKB1 but not a kinase-dead mutant. Furthermore, ectopic expression of LKB1 was capable of attenuating AICAR-induced death in AMPK-null cells. Because LKB1 promotes cell survival by modulating TIF-IA-mediated pre-rRNA synthesis, this discovery suggested that targeted depletion of uridine related metabolites may be exploited in the clinic to eliminate LKB1-null cancer cells. PMID:26506235

  11. Sumoylation of Rap1 mediates the recruitment of TFIID to promote transcription of ribosomal protein genes.

    PubMed

    Chymkowitch, Pierre; Nguéa, Aurélie P; Aanes, Håvard; Koehler, Christian J; Thiede, Bernd; Lorenz, Susanne; Meza-Zepeda, Leonardo A; Klungland, Arne; Enserink, Jorrit M

    2015-06-01

    Transcription factors are abundant Sumo targets, yet the global distribution of Sumo along the chromatin and its physiological relevance in transcription are poorly understood. Using Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we determined the genome-wide localization of Sumo along the chromatin. We discovered that Sumo-enriched genes are almost exclusively involved in translation, such as tRNA genes and ribosomal protein genes (RPGs). Genome-wide expression analysis showed that Sumo positively regulates their transcription. We also discovered that the Sumo consensus motif at RPG promoters is identical to the DNA binding motif of the transcription factor Rap1. We demonstrate that Rap1 is a molecular target of Sumo and that sumoylation of Rap1 is important for cell viability. Furthermore, Rap1 sumoylation promotes recruitment of the basal transcription machinery, and sumoylation of Rap1 cooperates with the target of rapamycin kinase complex 1 (TORC1) pathway to promote RPG transcription. Strikingly, our data reveal that sumoylation of Rap1 functions in a homeostatic feedback loop that sustains RPG transcription during translational stress. Taken together, Sumo regulates the cellular translational capacity by promoting transcription of tRNA genes and RPGs. PMID:25800674

  12. RIPK1 mediates axonal degeneration by promoting inflammation and necroptosis in ALS.

    PubMed

    Ito, Yasushi; Ofengeim, Dimitry; Najafov, Ayaz; Das, Sudeshna; Saberi, Shahram; Li, Ying; Hitomi, Junichi; Zhu, Hong; Chen, Hongbo; Mayo, Lior; Geng, Jiefei; Amin, Palak; DeWitt, Judy Park; Mookhtiar, Adnan Kasim; Florez, Marcus; Ouchida, Amanda Tomie; Fan, Jian-bing; Pasparakis, Manolis; Kelliher, Michelle A; Ravits, John; Yuan, Junying

    2016-08-01

    Mutations in the optineurin (OPTN) gene have been implicated in both familial and sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, the role of this protein in the central nervous system (CNS) and how it may contribute to ALS pathology are unclear. Here, we found that optineurin actively suppressed receptor-interacting kinase 1 (RIPK1)-dependent signaling by regulating its turnover. Loss of OPTN led to progressive dysmyelination and axonal degeneration through engagement of necroptotic machinery in the CNS, including RIPK1, RIPK3, and mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL). Furthermore, RIPK1- and RIPK3-mediated axonal pathology was commonly observed in SOD1(G93A) transgenic mice and pathological samples from human ALS patients. Thus, RIPK1 and RIPK3 play a critical role in mediating progressive axonal degeneration. Furthermore, inhibiting RIPK1 kinase may provide an axonal protective strategy for the treatment of ALS and other human degenerative diseases characterized by axonal degeneration. PMID:27493188

  13. The regulation of the Oct-1 gene transcription is mediated by two promoters.

    PubMed

    Pankratova, Elizaveta V; Sytina, Elena V; Luchina, Nadejda N; Krivega, Ivan V

    2003-07-01

    The ubiquitous transcription factor Oct-1 is a member of the POU domain family of regulatory proteins. Target genes controlled by Oct-1 include housekeeping genes, e.g. the genes encoding histon H2B or snRNAs, as well as tissue-specific genes, e.g. the genes encoding the light and heavy chains of immunoglobulines, some interleukins, and others. Oct-1 pre-mRNA may be spliced in several ways, resulting in production of several protein isoforms that may differ functionally. The 5'-end of the Oct-1 gene contains two exons-exon 1U and exon 1L that alternatively present in Oct-1 mRNA. We studied regulation of transcription of the Oct-1 gene using reporter gene assays of promoter-luciferase gene-constructs. It was shown that transcription of the Oct-1 gene is regulated by two promoters located upstream of the exon 1U and upstream of the exon 1L. The promoter located upstream of the exon 1U contains G/C-rich sequences and multiple Sp1 sites, while the promoter located upstream of the exon 1L contains A/T-rich motifs and autoregulation-related cis-elements: two octamer sites ATGCAAAT, two octamer related sites and multiple TAAT-core sites. Exons 1U and 1L in the human OTF-1 locus encoding the Oct-1 gene are located at the distance of 108 kbp. In the murine locus otf-1 the distance between exons 1U and 1L is 67 kbp. We suggest that the two promoters can differ functionally. PMID:12853155

  14. MAPK-mediated phosphorylation of GATA-1 promotes Bcl-XL expression and cell survival.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yung-Luen; Chiang, Yun-Jung; Chen, Yu-Chun; Papetti, Michael; Juo, Chiun-Gung; Skoultchi, Arthur I; Yen, Jeffrey J Y

    2005-08-19

    In the interleukin 3-dependent hematopoietic cell line Ba/F3, inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase, a member of the MAPK/c-Jun N-terminal kinase/stress-activated protein kinase kinase family that plays an important role in cell growth and death control, rapidly leads to severe apoptosis. However, most of the antiapoptotic substrates of MAPK remain to be identified. Here we report that, upon interleukin-3 stimulation of Ba/F3 cells, the transcription factor GATA-1 is strongly phosphorylated at residue serine 26 by a MAPK-dependent pathway. Phosphorylation of GATA-1 increases GATA-1-mediated transcription of the E4bp4 survival gene without significantly changing the DNA-binding affinity of GATA-1. Further characterization of GATA-1 phosphorylation site mutants revealed that the antiapoptotic function of GATA-1 is strongly dependent upon its phosphorylation at the Ser-26 position and is probably mediated through its up-regulation of Bcl-X(L) expression. Taken together, our data demonstrate that MAPK-dependent GATA-1 phosphorylation is important for its transactivation of the E4bp4 gene, Bcl-X(L) expression and cell survival. Therefore, GATA-1 may represent a novel MAPK substrate that plays an essential role in a cytokine-mediated antiapoptotic response. PMID:15967790

  15. DNMT1 mediates chemosensitivity by reducing methylation of miRNA-20a promoter in glioma cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Daoyang; Wan, Yingfeng; Xie, Dajiang; Wang, Yirong; Wei, Junhua; Yan, Qingfeng; Lu, Peng; Mo, Lianjie; Xie, Jixi; Yang, Shuxu; Qi, Xuchen

    2015-01-01

    Although methyltransferase has been recognized as a major element that governs the epigenetic regulation of the genome during temozolomide (TMZ) chemotherapy in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patients, its regulatory effect on glioblastoma chemoresistance has not been well defined. This study investigated whether DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) expression was associated with TMZ sensitivity in glioma cells and elucidated the underlying mechanism. DNMT expression was analyzed by western blotting. miR-20a promoter methylation was evaluated by methylation-specific PCR. Cell viability and apoptosis were assessed using the 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling assays, respectively. The results showed that compared with parental U251 cells, DNMT1 expression was downregulated, miR-20a promoter methylation was attenuated and miR-20a levels were elevated in TMZ-resistant U251 cells. Methyltransferase inhibition by 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine treatment reduced TMZ sensitivity in U251 cells. In U251/TM cells, DNMT1 expression was negatively correlated with miR-20a expression and positively correlated with TMZ sensitivity and leucine-rich repeats and immunoglobulin-like domains 1 expression; these effects were reversed by changes in miR-20a expression. DNMT1 overexpression induced an increase in U251/TM cell apoptosis that was inhibited by the miR-20a mimic, whereas DNMT1 silencing attenuated U251/TM cell apoptosis in a manner that was abrogated by miR-20a inhibitor treatment. Tumor growth of the U251/TM xenograft was inhibited by pcDNA-DNMT1 pretreatment and boosted by DNMT1-small hairpin RNA pretreatment. In summary, DNMT1 mediated chemosensitivity by reducing methylation of the microRNA-20a promoter in glioma cells. PMID:26337869

  16. Gene expression analysis using strains constructed by NHEJ-mediated one-step promoter cloning in the yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Ayako; Fujii, Hiroshi; Hoshida, Hisashi; Akada, Rinji

    2015-09-01

    Gene expression analysis provides valuable information to evaluate cellular state. Unlike quantitative mRNA analysis techniques like reverse-transcription PCR and microarray, expression analysis using a reporter gene has not been commonly used for multiple-gene analysis, probably due to the difficulty in preparing multiple reporter-gene constructs. To circumvent this problem, we developed a novel one-step reporter-gene construction system mediated by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) in the yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus. As a selectable reporter gene, the ScURA3 selection marker was fused in frame with a red fluorescent gene yEmRFP (ScURA3:yEmRFP). The N-terminally truncated ScURA3:yEmRFP fragment was prepared by PCR. Promoter sequences were also prepared by PCR using primers containing the sequence of the deleted ScURA3 N-terminus to attach at their 3(') ends. The two DNA fragments were used for the transformation of a ura3(-) strain of K. marxianus, in which two DNA fragments are randomly joined and integrated into the chromosome through NHEJ. Only the correctly aligned fragments produced transformants on uracil-deficient medium and expressed red fluorescence under the control of the introduced promoters. A total of 36 gene promoters involved in glycolysis and other pathways were analyzed. Fluorescence measurements of these strains allowed real-time gene expression analysis in different culture conditions. PMID:26136515

  17. Radiation Exposure Promotes Hepatocarcinoma Cell Invasion through Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition Mediated by H2S/CSE Pathway.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yan; Zhou, Cuiping; Yuan, Dexiao; Zhang, Jianghong; Shao, Chunlin

    2016-01-01

    There is growing evidence to suggest that radiotherapy can paradoxically promote tumor invasion and metastatic processes, however, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain obscure. In this study, we found that exposure to X rays promoted cell invasion by triggering the epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) in two hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines, HepG2 and PLC/PRF/5. This was made evident by a reduced expression of E-cadherin and enhanced expressions of N-cadherin, Vimentin and Snail. Moreover, exposure to radiation stimulated the signaling of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a newly found gas transmitter, by upregulating the expressions of H2S-producing proteins of cysthionine-γ-lyase (CSE), cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS). Inhibition of CSE by siRNA or inhibitor not only increased the radiosensitivity but also strongly suppressed radiation-enhanced invasive properties of HCC cells. Interestingly, we found that H2S/CSE inhibition attenuated radiation-enhanced EMT, and the above effect was an end result of blockage of the radiation-activated pathway of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK). Collectively, our findings indicate that radiation could promote HCC cell invasion through EMT mediated by endogenous H2S/CSE signaling via the p38MAPK pathway. PMID:26727544

  18. BCL6 induces EMT by promoting the ZEB1-mediated transcription repression of E-cadherin in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jin-Mei; Sun, Wei; Hua, Fang; Xie, Jing; Lin, Heng; Zhou, Dan-Dan; Hu, Zhuo-Wei

    2015-09-01

    B-cell CLL/lymphoma 6 (BCL6), a transcriptional repressor, is involved in the development and progression of breast cancers with uncertain mechanism. The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential effect and mechanism of BCL6 in the regulation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a critical cellular process for controlling the development and progression of breast cancers. We found that BCL6 promoted invasion, migration and growth by stimulating EMT in breast cancer cells. BCL6 induced EMT by enhancing the expression of transcriptional repressor ZEB1 which bound to the E-cadherin promoter and repressing the E-cadherin transcription. Deletion of ZEB1 protected against the pro-EMT roles of BCL6 by restoring the expression of E-cadherin in these cells. Moreover, inhibition of BCL6 with BCL6 inhibitor 79-6 suppressed these functions of BCL6 in breast cancer cells. These findings indicate that BCL6 promotes EMT via enhancing the ZEB1-mediated transcriptional repression of E-cadherin in breast cancer cells. Targeting BCL6 has therapeutic potential against the development and progression of breast cancer. PMID:26049022

  19. MEIS1-mediated transactivation of synaptotagmin-like 1 promotes CXCL12/CXCR4 signaling and leukemogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Yokoyama, Takashi; Nakatake, Mayuka; Kuwata, Takeshi; Couzinet, Arnaud; Goitsuka, Ryo; Tsutsumi, Shuichi; Aburatani, Hiroyuki; Valk, Peter J.M.; Delwel, Ruud

    2016-01-01

    The TALE-class homeoprotein MEIS1 specifically collaborates with HOXA9 to drive myeloid leukemogenesis. Although MEIS1 alone has only a moderate effect on cell proliferation in vitro, it is essential for the development of HOXA9-induced leukemia in vivo. Here, using murine models of leukemogenesis, we have shown that MEIS1 promotes leukemic cell homing and engraftment in bone marrow and enhances cell-cell interactions and cytokine-mediated cell migration. We analyzed global DNA binding of MEIS1 in leukemic cells as well as gene expression alterations in MEIS1-deficent cells and identified synaptotagmin-like 1 (Sytl1, also known as Slp1) as the MEIS1 target gene that cooperates with Hoxa9 in leukemogenesis. Replacement of SYTL1 in MEIS1-deficent cells restored both cell migration and engraftment. Further analysis revealed that SYTL1 promotes cell migration via activation of the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis, as SYTL1 determines intracellular trafficking of CXCR4. Together, our results reveal that MEIS1, through induction of SYTL1, promotes leukemogenesis and supports leukemic cell homing and engraftment, facilitating interactions between leukemic cells and bone marrow stroma. PMID:27018596

  20. Loss of p53-mediated cell-cycle arrest, senescence and apoptosis promotes genomic instability and premature aging

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tongyuan; Liu, Xiangyu; Jiang, Le; Manfredi, James; Zha, Shan; Gu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Although p53-mediated cell cycle arrest, senescence and apoptosis are well accepted as major tumor suppression mechanisms, the loss of these functions does not directly lead to tumorigenesis, suggesting that the precise roles of these canonical activities of p53 need to be redefined. Here, we report that the cells derived from the mutant mice expressing p533KR, an acetylation-defective mutant that fails to induce cell-cycle arrest, senescence and apoptosis, exhibit high levels of aneuploidy upon DNA damage. Moreover, the embryonic lethality caused by the deficiency of XRCC4, a key DNA double strand break repair factor, can be fully rescued in the p533KR/3KR background. Notably, despite high levels of genomic instability, p533KR/3KRXRCC4−/− mice, unlike p53−/− XRCC4−/− mice, are not succumbed to pro-B-cell lymphomas. Nevertheless, p533KR/3KR XRCC4−/− mice display aging-like phenotypes including testicular atrophy, kyphosis, and premature death. Further analyses demonstrate that SLC7A11 is downregulated and that p53-mediated ferroptosis is significantly induced in spleens and testis of p533KR/3KRXRCC4−/− mice. These results demonstrate that the direct role of p53-mediated cell cycle arrest, senescence and apoptosis is to control genomic stability in vivo. Our study not only validates the importance of ferroptosis in p53-mediated tumor suppression in vivo but also reveals that the combination of genomic instability and activation of ferroptosis may promote aging-associated phenotypes. PMID:26943586

  1. Human eosinophil major basic protein, a mediator of allergic inflammation, is expressed by alternative splicing from two promoters.

    PubMed Central

    Li, M S; Sun, L; Satoh, T; Fisher, L M; Spry, C J

    1995-01-01

    Human eosinophil major basic protein (MBP) is one of the principal mediators of injury to parasites and tissues in allergic inflammation. MBP is stored in eosinophil crystalloid granules and released with other granule constituents during eosinophil action. Previous studies have identified an MBP gene promoter that generates a 1.0 kb mRNA transcript encoding MBP preproprotein which undergoes processing to the mature storage form. To investigate how the MBP gene is regulated, we have examined the identity and levels of the MBP transcripts both in precursor cells and in blood eosinophils. It was found that the gene was expressed from two upstream promoters, a distal promoter P1 in addition to the previously described promoter P2. Evidence for the second promoter was initially provided by isolation from a human HL-60 leukaemic cell cDNA library of a novel 1.6 kb MBP cDNA that was distinct from the known 1.0 kb cDNA. The complete nucleotide sequence of the 1.6 kb cDNA was determined, and showed that the two cDNAs had identical coding and 3' untranslated regions but differed in their 5' sequences. By isolating and sequencing MBP genomic clones from an arrayed chromosome 11 library, it was demonstrated that the MBP gene is composed of nine upstream exons and five coding exons. The 1.6 and 1.0 kb cDNAs arise by differential splicing of alternate MBP transcripts from promoters P1 and P2 respectively, located 32 kb apart in the genomic DNA. Primer extension analysis identified two transcription start sites at P1, neither associated with a typical TATA box motif. Northern blotting and reverse-transcription PCR analysis showed that the 1.0 kb mRNA was present at higher levels than the 1.6 kb species in immature cells including HL-60 and bone-marrow cells. By contrast, low levels of 1.6 kb mRNA transcripts predominated in differentiated blood eosinophils. The results are compatible with differential use of P1 and P2 promoters as a mechanism for regulation of MBP expression

  2. Use of liposome-mediated DNA transfection to determine promoter activity in smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Fabunmi, R P

    1999-01-01

    The transfer and expression of DNA plasmids containing promoter fragments of heterologous genes linked to reporter cDNAs in mammalian cells has become an invaluable technique for studying the regulation of gene expression. Several reporter genes such as luciferase, β-galactosidase, chloramphenicol acetyl transferase, and green flourescent protein are ideal to study promoter activities as their gene products are not endogenous to smooth muscle cells (SMC) and their expression can be readily detected using convenient assays (1). Among these genes, a popular choice is the firefly luciferase, as its expression can be easily detected in cells using a highly sensitive chemiluminescent assay (2). The firefly luciferase catalyses a rapid, ATP-dependent oxidation of the substrate, luciferin, which then emits light. Reactions catalyzed by firefly luciferase are: [Formula: see text]. PMID:21341022

  3. Promotion of a Ti-Mediated Mannich Reaction by a Proton Source.

    PubMed

    Limanto, John; Yoshikawa, Naoki; Reamer, Robert A; Tan, Lushi; Brunskill, Andrew; Reibarkh, Mikhail

    2016-01-15

    Low temperature NMR studies revealed that a diastereoselective Mannich reaction between a phenyl oxazolidone-derived titanium enolate and an aromatic aldimine was found to occur only after introduction of a proton source. While various protic additives could be used to promote the transformation, the best results were obtained using AcOH to afford the corresponding Mannich products in high diastereoselectivities and yields. PMID:26656787

  4. Microvesicle-mediated Transfer of MicroRNA-150 from Monocytes to Endothelial Cells Promotes Angiogenesis*

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing; Zhang, Yujing; Liu, Yuchen; Dai, Xin; Li, Wenyang; Cai, Xing; Yin, Yuan; Wang, Qiang; Xue, Yunxing; Wang, Cheng; Li, Dameng; Hou, Dongxia; Jiang, Xiaohong; Zhang, Junfeng; Zen, Ke; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Chen-Yu

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies by our group and others show that microRNAs can be actively secreted into the extracellular environment through microvesicles (MVs) and function as secretory signaling molecules that influence the recipient cell phenotypes. Here we investigate the role of monocyte-secreted miR-150 in promoting the capillary tube formation of endothelial cells and in enhancing angiogenesis. In vitro capillary tube formation and in vivo angiogenesis assays showed that monocyte-derived MVs have strong pro-angiogenic activities. By depleting miR-150 from monocytic MVs and increasing miR-150 in MVs derived from cells that normally contain low levels of miR-150, we further demonstrated that the miR-150 content accounted for the pro-angiogenic activity of monocytic MVs in these assays. Using tumor-implanted mice and ob/ob mice as models, we revealed that miR-150 secretion, which is increased for diseases such as cancers and diabetes, significantly promotes angiogenesis. The delivery of anti-miR-150 antisense oligonucleotides into tumor-implanted mice and ob/ob mice via MVs, however, strongly reduced angiogenesis in both types of mice. Our results collectively demonstrate that secretion of miR-150 via MVs can promote angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo, and we also present a novel microRNA-based therapeutic approach for disease treatment. PMID:23766514

  5. NCYM promotes calpain-mediated Myc-nick production in human MYCN-amplified neuroblastoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Shoji, Wataru; Suenaga, Yusuke; Kaneko, Yoshiki; Islam, S.M. Rafiqul; Alagu, Jennifer; Yokoi, Sana; Nio, Masaki; Nakagawara, Akira

    2015-06-05

    NCYM is a cis-antisense gene of MYCN and is amplified in human neuroblastomas. High NCYM expression is associated with poor prognoses, and the NCYM protein stabilizes MYCN to promote proliferation of neuroblastoma cells. However, the molecular mechanisms of NCYM in the regulation of cell survival have remained poorly characterized. Here we show that NCYM promotes cleavage of MYCN to produce the anti-apoptotic protein, Myc-nick, both in vitro and in vivo. NCYM and Myc-nick were induced at G2/M phase, and NCYM knockdown induced apoptotic cell death accompanied by Myc-nick downregulation. These results reveal a novel function of NCYM as a regulator of Myc-nick production in human neuroblastomas. - Highlights: • NCYM promotes cleavages of MYC and MYCN to produce Myc-nick in vitro. • NCYM increases Myc-nick production in MYCN-amplified neuroblastoma cells. • NCYM knockdown decreases Myc-nick production and induces apoptosis at G2/M phase.

  6. Epithelial IL-22RA1-Mediated Fucosylation Promotes Intestinal Colonization Resistance to an Opportunistic Pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Tu Anh N.; Clare, Simon; Goulding, David; Arasteh, Julia M.; Stares, Mark D.; Browne, Hilary P.; Keane, Jacqueline A.; Page, Andrew J.; Kumasaka, Natsuhiko; Kane, Leanne; Mottram, Lynda; Harcourt, Katherine; Hale, Christine; Arends, Mark J.; Gaffney, Daniel J.; Dougan, Gordon; Lawley, Trevor D.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Our intestinal microbiota harbors a diverse microbial community, often containing opportunistic bacteria with virulence potential. However, mutualistic host-microbial interactions prevent disease by opportunistic pathogens through poorly understood mechanisms. We show that the epithelial interleukin-22 receptor IL-22RA1 protects against lethal Citrobacter rodentium infection and chemical-induced colitis by promoting colonization resistance against an intestinal opportunistic bacterium, Enterococcus faecalis. Susceptibility of Il22ra1−/− mice to C. rodentium was associated with preferential expansion and epithelial translocation of pathogenic E. faecalis during severe microbial dysbiosis and was ameloriated with antibiotics active against E. faecalis. RNA sequencing analyses of primary colonic organoids showed that IL-22RA1 signaling promotes intestinal fucosylation via induction of the fucosyltransferase Fut2. Additionally, administration of fucosylated oligosaccharides to C. rodentium-challenged Il22ra1−/− mice attenuated infection and promoted E. faecalis colonization resistance by restoring the diversity of anaerobic commensal symbionts. These results support a model whereby IL-22RA1 enhances host-microbiota mutualism to limit detrimental overcolonization by opportunistic pathogens. PMID:25263220

  7. CCL5-Mediated Th2 Immune Polarization Promotes Metastasis in Luminal Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qianfei; Qin, Jilong; Zhong, Lin; Gong, Lei; Zhang, Bing; Zhang, Yan; Gao, Wei-Qiang

    2015-10-15

    The tumor-promoting chemokine CCL5 has been implicated in malignant transformation of breast epithelial cells, with studies to date focusing mainly on basal-type breast cancers. In this study, we investigated the consequences of CCL5 deletion in the MMTV-PyMT transgenic mouse model of luminal breast cancer. In this model, primary tumor burden and pulmonary metastases were reduced significantly in CCL5-deficient subjects, an effect found to be associated with a deficit of Th2 (IL4⁺CD4⁺ T) cells. Mechanistic investigations revealed that CCL5 activates CCR3, a highly expressed chemokine receptor on CD4⁺ T cells, and also boosts Gfi1 expression to promote the differentiation of Th2 cells, which enhance the prometastatic activity of tumor-associated myeloid cells. Clinically, polarization toward this immunosuppressive Th2 phenotype was also evident in patients with advanced luminal breast cancer. Thus, our findings showed that CCL5/CCR3 signaling promotes metastasis by inducing Th2 polarization of CD4⁺ T cells, with implications for prognosis and immunotherapy of luminal breast cancer. PMID:26249173

  8. A short upstream promoter region mediates transcriptional regulation of the mouse doublecortin gene in differentiating neurons

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Doublecortin (Dcx), a MAP (Microtubule-Associated Protein), is transiently expressed in migrating and differentiating neurons and thereby characterizes neuronal precursors and neurogenesis in developing and adult neurogenesis. In addition, reduced Dcx expression during development has been related to appearance of brain pathologies. Here, we attempt to unveil the molecular mechanisms controlling Dcx gene expression by studying its transcriptional regulation during neuronal differentiation. Results To determine and analyze important regulatory sequences of the Dcx promoter, we studied a putative regulatory region upstream from the mouse Dcx coding region (pdcx2kb) and several deletions thereof. These different fragments were used in vitro and in vivo to drive reporter gene expression. We demonstrated, using transient expression experiments, that pdcx2kb is sufficient to control specific reporter gene expression in cerebellar cells and in the developing brain (E14.5). We determined the temporal profile of Dcx promoter activity during neuronal differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESC) and found that transcriptional activation of the Dcx gene varies along with neuronal differentiation of mESC. Deletion experiments and sequence comparison of Dcx promoters across rodents, human and chicken revealed the importance of a highly conserved sequence in the proximal region of the promoter required for specific and strong expression in neuronal precursors and young neuronal cells. Further analyses revealed the presence in this short sequence of several conserved, putative transcription factor binding sites: LEF/TCF (Lymphoid Enhancer Factor/T-Cell Factor) which are effectors of the canonical Wnt pathway; HNF6/OC2 (Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor-6/Oncecut-2) members of the ONECUT family and NF-Y/CAAT (Nuclear Factor-Y). Conclusions Studies of Dcx gene regulatory sequences using native, deleted and mutated constructs suggest that fragments located upstream of the

  9. Nucleobase-mediated, photocatalytic production of amphiphiles to promote the self-assembly of a simple self-replicating protocell.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monnard, Pierre-Alain; Maurer, Sarah, E.; Albertsen, Anders, N.; Boncella, James, M.; Cape, Jonathan, L.

    Living cells are in many respects the ultimate nanoscale chemical system. Within a very small volume they can produce highly specific useful products by extracting resources and free energy from the environment. They are also self-organized, self-controlled, and capable of self-repair and self-replication. Designing artificial chemical systems (artificial cells or protocells) that would be endowed with these powerful capabilities has been investigated extensively in the recent years. Chemical systems usually studied were based on the encapsulation of a set of genes along with catalytic protein machinery within the self-assembled boundaries of liposome/vesicles. The generated systems have many of the characteristics of a living system, but lack the regulation by genetic information of all protocell functions. Departing from these encapsulated models, we have been attempting to implement a simple, chemical system in which the regulation of the metabolism is truly mediated by information molecules. Our proposed system is composed of a chemical mixture composed of fatty acids that form bilayers (compartment), amphiphilic information molecules (nucleic acids -NA), and metabolic complexes (photosensitizers). Due to the intrinsic properties of all its components, a chemical system will self-assemble into aqueous, colloid mixtures that will be conducive to the metabolic steps, the non-enzymatic polymerization of the information, and the photochemical fatty acid production from its oil-like precursor. The reaction products (e.g., the container molecules) will in turn promote system growth and replication. In this scheme, the NA acts as an information molecule mediating the metabolic catalysis (electron donor/relay system) with a ruthenium metal complex as a cofactor and sensitizer, which is used to convert the hydrophobic precursor container molecules into amphiphiles, thus directly linking protocell metabolism with information. In a first experimental design, NA has been

  10. C/EBPβ promotes BCR-ABL-mediated myeloid expansion and leukemic stem cell exhaustion.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Y; Hirai, H; Kamio, N; Yao, H; Yoshioka, S; Miura, Y; Ashihara, E; Fujiyama, Y; Tenen, D G; Maekawa, T

    2013-03-01

    The BCR-ABL fusion oncoprotein accelerates differentiation and proliferation of myeloid cells during the chronic phase of chronic myeloid leukemia (CP-CML). Here, the role of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein β (C/EBPβ), a regulator for 'emergency granulopoiesis,' in the pathogenesis of CP-CML was examined. C/EBPβ expression was upregulated in Lineage(-) CD34(+) CD38(-) hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and myeloid progenitors isolated from bone marrow of patients with CP-CML. In EML cells, a mouse HSC line, BCR-ABL upregulated C/EBPβ, at least in part, through the activation of STAT5. Myeloid differentiation and proliferation induced by BCR-ABL was significantly impaired in C/EBPβ-deficient bone marrow cells in vitro. Mice that were transplanted with BCR-ABL-transduced C/EBPβ knockout bone marrow cells survived longer than mice that received BCR-ABL-transduced wild-type (WT) bone marrow cells. Significantly higher levels of leukemic stem cells were maintained in BCR-ABL-transduced C/EBPβ-deficient cells than in BCR-ABL-transduced WT cells. These results suggest that C/EBPβ is involved in BCR-ABL-mediated myeloid expansion. Further elucidation of the molecular mechanisms underlying the C/EBPβ-mediated stem cell loss might reveal a novel therapeutic strategy for eradication of CML stem cells. PMID:22948537

  11. Resolution mediator chemerin15 reprograms the wound microenvironment to promote repair and reduce scarring.

    PubMed

    Cash, Jenna L; Bass, Mark D; Campbell, Jessica; Barnes, Matthew; Kubes, Paul; Martin, Paul

    2014-06-16

    Disorders of cutaneous repair can cause disability or death given that skin functions as a protective barrier against the external environment. The inflammatory response triggered by tissue damage is thought to play both positive (e.g., pathogen-killing) and negative (e.g., scarring) roles in repair. Inflammatory resolution mediators such as chemerin15 (C15) control the magnitude and duration of the inflammatory response; however, their role in wound repair and scarring is unknown. Here, we show that the C15 precursor, chemerin, and its receptor, ChemR23, are both upregulated after skin damage and that the receptor is expressed by macrophages, neutrophils, and keratinocytes. Dynamic live-imaging studies of murine cutaneous wounds demonstrate that C15 delivery dampens the immediate intravascular inflammatory events, including platelet adhesion to neutrophils, an important event in driving leukocyte recruitment. C15 administration indirectly accelerates wound closure while altering fibroblast-mediated collagen deposition and alignment to reduce scarring. Macrophage recruitment is restricted to the immediate wound site rather than spilling extensively into the adjacent tissue as in control wounds, and macrophage phenotype in C15-treated wounds is skewed toward a less inflammatory phenotype with reduced iNOS, increased Arginase-1, and lower wound tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) expression. Modulation of inflammatory resolution pathways in acute and chronic wounds may therefore provide a novel therapeutic avenue to improve repair and reduce scarring. PMID:24881877

  12. ATM/ATR-mediated phosphorylation of PALB2 promotes RAD51 function.

    PubMed

    Ahlskog, Johanna K; Larsen, Brian D; Achanta, Kavya; Sørensen, Claus S

    2016-05-01

    DNA damage activates the ATM and ATR kinases that coordinate checkpoint and DNA repair pathways. An essential step in homology-directed repair (HDR) of DNA breaks is the formation of RAD51 nucleofilaments mediated by PALB2-BRCA2; however, roles of ATM and ATR in this critical step of HDR are poorly understood. Here, we show that PALB2 is markedly phosphorylated in response to genotoxic stresses such as ionizing radiation and hydroxyurea. This response is mediated by the ATM and ATR kinases through three N-terminal S/Q-sites in PALB2, the consensus target sites for ATM and ATR Importantly, a phospho-deficient PALB2 mutant is unable to support proper RAD51 foci formation, a key PALB2 regulated repair event, whereas a phospho-mimicking PALB2 version supports RAD51 foci formation. Moreover, phospho-deficient PALB2 is less potent in HDR than wild-type PALB2. Further, this mutation reveals a separation in PALB2 function, as the PALB2-dependent checkpoint response is normal in cells expressing the phospho-deficient PALB2 mutant. Collectively, our findings highlight a critical importance of PALB2 phosphorylation as a novel regulatory step in genome maintenance after genotoxic stress. PMID:27113759

  13. Tetherin promotes the innate and adaptive cell-mediated immune response against retrovirus infection in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Li, Sam X.; Barrett, Bradley S.; Heilman, Karl J.; Messer, Ronald J.; Liberatore, Rachel A.; Bieniasz, Paul D.; Kassiotis, George; Hasenkrug, Kim J.; Santiago, Mario L.

    2014-01-01

    Tetherin/BST-2 is a host restriction factor that could directly inhibit retroviral particle release by tethering nascent virions to the plasma membrane. However, the immunological impact of Tetherin during retrovirus infection remains unknown. We now show that Tetherin influences antiretroviral cell-mediated immune responses. In contrast to the direct antiviral effects of Tetherin, which are dependent on cell surface expression, the immunomodulatory effects are linked to the endocytosis of the molecule. Mice encoding endocytosis-competent C57BL/6 Tetherin exhibited lower viremia and pathology at 7 days post-infection with Friend retrovirus (FV) compared to mice encoding endocytosis-defective NZW/LacJ Tetherin. Notably, antiretroviral protection correlated with stronger NK cell responses. In addition, FV infection levels were significantly lower in wild-type C57BL/6 mice than in Tetherin knock-out mice at 2 weeks post-infection, and antiretroviral protection correlated with stronger NK cell and virus-specific CD8+ T cell responses. The results demonstrate that Tetherin acts as a modulator of the cell-mediated immune response against retrovirus infection in vivo. PMID:24872193

  14. Programmed cell death 5 mediates HDAC3 decay to promote genotoxic stress response.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyo-Kyoung; Choi, Youngsok; Park, Eun Sung; Park, Soo-Yeon; Lee, Seung-Hyun; Seo, Jaesung; Jeong, Mi-Hyeon; Jeong, Jae-Wook; Jeong, Jae-Ho; Lee, Peter C W; Choi, Kyung-Chul; Yoon, Ho-Geun

    2015-01-01

    The inhibition of p53 activity by histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) has been reported, but the precise molecular mechanism is unknown. Here we show that programmed cell death 5 (PDCD5) selectively mediates HDAC3 dissociation from p53, which induces HDAC3 cleavage and ubiquitin-dependent proteasomal degradation. Casein kinase 2 alpha phosphorylates PDCD5 at Ser-119 to enhance its stability and importin 13-mediated nuclear translocation of PDCD5. Genetic deletion of PDCD5 abrogates etoposide (ET)-induced p53 stabilization and HDAC3 cleavage, indicating an essential role of PDCD5 in p53 activation. Restoration of PDCD5(WT) in PDCD5(-/-) MEFs restores ET-induced HDAC3 cleavage. Reduction of both PDCD5 and p53, but not reduction of either protein alone, significantly enhances in vivo tumorigenicity of AGS gastric cancer cells and correlates with poor prognosis in gastric cancer patients. Our results define a mechanism for p53 activation via PDCD5-dependent HDAC3 decay under genotoxic stress conditions. PMID:26077467

  15. Tumor suppressor BTG1 promotes PRMT1-mediated ATF4 function in response to cellular stress

    PubMed Central

    Tijchon, Esther; van Ingen Schenau, Dorette; van Emst, Liesbeth; Levers, Marloes; Palit, Sander A.L.; Rodenbach, Caroline; Poelmans, Geert; Hoogerbrugge, Peter M.; Shan, Jixiu; Kilberg, Michael S.; Scheijen, Blanca; van Leeuwen, Frank N.

    2016-01-01

    Cancer cells are frequently exposed to physiological stress conditions such as hypoxia and nutrient limitation. Escape from stress-induced apoptosis is one of the mechanisms used by malignant cells to survive unfavorable conditions. B-cell Translocation Gene 1 (BTG1) is a tumor suppressor that is frequently deleted in acute lymphoblastic leukemia and recurrently mutated in diffuse large B cell lymphoma. Moreover, low BTG1 expression levels have been linked to poor outcome in several solid tumors. How loss of BTG1 function contributes to tumor progression is not well understood. Here, using Btg1 knockout mice, we demonstrate that loss of Btg1 provides a survival advantage to primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) under stress conditions. This pro-survival effect involves regulation of Activating Transcription Factor 4 (ATF4), a key mediator of cellular stress responses. We show that BTG1 interacts with ATF4 and positively modulates its activity by recruiting the protein arginine methyl transferase PRMT1 to methylate ATF4 on arginine residue 239. We further extend these findings to B-cell progenitors, by showing that loss of Btg1 expression enhances stress adaptation of mouse bone marrow-derived B cell progenitors. In conclusion, we have identified the BTG1/PRMT1 complex as a new modifier of ATF4 mediated stress responses. PMID:26657730

  16. Paclitaxel promotes a caspase 8-mediated apoptosis via death effector domain association with microtubules

    PubMed Central

    Mielgo, Ainhoa; Torres, Vicente A.; Clair, Kiran; Barbero, Simone; Stupack, Dwayne G.

    2009-01-01

    Microtubule-perturbing drugs have become front line chemotherapeutics, inducing cell cycle crisis as a major mechanism of action. However, these agents exhibit pleiotropic effects on cells, and can induce apoptosis via other means. Paclitaxel, a microtubule-stabilizing agent, induces a caspase-dependent apoptosis, though the precise mechanism(s) remain unclear. Here, we used genetic approaches to evaluate the role of caspase 8 in paclitaxel-mediated apoptosis. We observed that caspase 8-expressing cells are more sensitive to paclitaxel than caspase 8-deficient cells. Mechanistically, caspase 8 was found associated with microtubules, and this interaction increased following paclitaxel-treatment. The prodomains (DEDs) of caspase 8 were sufficient for interaction with microtubules, but the caspase 8 holoprotein was required for apoptosis. DED-only forms of caspase 8 were found in both primary and tumor cell lines, associating with perinuclear microtubules and the centrosome. Microtubule-association, and paclitaxel-sensitivity, depends upon a critical lysine (K156) within a microtubule-binding motif (KLD) in DED-b of caspase 8. The results reveal an unexpected pathway of apoptosis mediated by caspase 8. PMID:19668227

  17. GGA3 mediates TrkA endocytic recycling to promote sustained Akt phosphorylation and cell survival

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xuezhi; Lavigne, Pierre; Lavoie, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Although TrkA postendocytic sorting significantly influences neuronal cell survival and differentiation, the molecular mechanism underlying TrkA receptor sorting in the recycling or degradation pathways remains poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that Golgi-localized, γ adaptin-ear–containing ADP ribosylation factor-binding protein 3 (GGA3) interacts directly with the TrkA cytoplasmic tail through an internal DXXLL motif and mediates the functional recycling of TrkA to the plasma membrane. We find that GGA3 depletion by siRNA delays TrkA recycling, accelerates TrkA degradation, attenuates sustained NGF-induced Akt activation, and reduces cell survival. We also show that GGA3’s effect on TrkA recycling is dependent on the activation of Arf6. This work identifies GGA3 as a key player in a novel DXXLL-mediated endosomal sorting machinery that targets TrkA to the plasma membrane, where it prolongs the activation of Akt signaling and survival responses. PMID:26446845

  18. Programmed cell death 5 mediates HDAC3 decay to promote genotoxic stress response

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hyo-Kyoung; Choi, Youngsok; Park, Eun Sung; Park, Soo-Yeon; Lee, Seung-Hyun; Seo, Jaesung; Jeong, Mi-Hyeon; Jeong, Jae-Wook; Jeong, Jae-Ho; Lee, Peter C. W.; Choi, Kyung-Chul; Yoon, Ho-Geun

    2015-01-01

    The inhibition of p53 activity by histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) has been reported, but the precise molecular mechanism is unknown. Here we show that programmed cell death 5 (PDCD5) selectively mediates HDAC3 dissociation from p53, which induces HDAC3 cleavage and ubiquitin-dependent proteasomal degradation. Casein kinase 2 alpha phosphorylates PDCD5 at Ser-119 to enhance its stability and importin 13-mediated nuclear translocation of PDCD5. Genetic deletion of PDCD5 abrogates etoposide (ET)-induced p53 stabilization and HDAC3 cleavage, indicating an essential role of PDCD5 in p53 activation. Restoration of PDCD5WT in PDCD5−/− MEFs restores ET-induced HDAC3 cleavage. Reduction of both PDCD5 and p53, but not reduction of either protein alone, significantly enhances in vivo tumorigenicity of AGS gastric cancer cells and correlates with poor prognosis in gastric cancer patients. Our results define a mechanism for p53 activation via PDCD5-dependent HDAC3 decay under genotoxic stress conditions. PMID:26077467

  19. Why and How to Promote Adolescents' Prosocial Behaviors: Direct, Mediated and Moderated Effects of the CEPIDEA School-Based Program.

    PubMed

    Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Luengo Kanacri, Bernadette Paula; Zuffianò, Antonio; Gerbino, Maria; Pastorelli, Concetta

    2015-12-01

    Prosocial behaviors are considered integral to intervention goals that seek to promote successful youth development. This study examines the effect of a school-based intervention program entirely designed to promote prosocial behaviors called Promoting Prosocial and Emotional Skills to Counteract Externalizing Problems in Adolescence (Italian acronym CEPIDEA). The CEPIDEA curriculum was incorporated into routine educational practices and included five major components that reflect the personal determinants of prosocial behavior during adolescence. The present study assessed 151 students (48.7% female; M(age) = 12.4) of the intervention school and 140 students (51.2% female; M(age) = 13.0) of the control school at three points. A multi-group latent curve analysis revealed that the intervention group, compared with the control group, showed an increase in prosocial behavior, interpersonal self-efficacy beliefs, and agreeableness along with a decrease in physical aggression above and beyond the normative developmental trend of the these variables. Participants of the intervention also obtained higher grades than the control group at the end of middle school. Moderation effects for prosocial behavior and agreeableness evidenced that those who benefited most from the intervention were those adolescents with lower normative development of prosocial behavior, low initial level of agreeableness, and high initial level of physical aggression. The results also showed that the increase of prosocial behaviors mediated the decline of verbal aggression in adolescents who had attended the intervention. These findings suggest that interventions aimed at promoting prosocial behaviors while having the potential to support positive outcomes may also counteract or redirect negative trajectories of functioning. PMID:25963445

  20. Transcriptional activation of human 12-lipoxygenase gene promoter is mediated through Sp1 consensus sites in A431 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Y W; Arakawa, T; Yamamoto, S; Chang, W C

    1997-01-01

    The functional 5' flanking region of the human 12-lipoxygenase in epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells was characterized. By a primer extension method, the transcription initiation sites were mapped at -47 adenosine, -48 guanosine and -55 guanosine upstream of the ATG translation start codon. Transient transfection with a series of 5' and 3' deletion constructs showed that the 5' flanking region spanning from -224 to -100 bp was important for the basal expression of 12-lipoxygenase gene. Gel mobility shift assays with antibodies of transcription factors showed that both Sp1 and Sp3 required highly GC-rich Sp1 sites within this region for binding. Disruption of two Sp1 recognition motifs residing at -158 to -150 bp and -123 to -114 bp by site-directed mutagenesis markedly reduced the basal 12-lipoxygenase promoter activity and abolished the retarded bands in a gel-shift assay, indicating that these two Sp1-binding sites were essential for gene expression. The same two Sp1-binding sites in this promoter region were also responsible for epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced expression of 12-lipoxygenase gene. Moreover, EGF also induced the transcriptional activation of luciferase driven by SV40 early promoter, which contained rich Sp1-binding sites. Taken together, the results suggest that two specific Sp1 consensus sites are involved in the mediation of the basal promoter activity as well as EGF induction of the 12-lipoxygenase gene and that Sp1 and Sp3 transcription factors might have a role in their regulation. PMID:9164849

  1. Acetate mediates a microbiome-brain-β-cell axis to promote metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Perry, Rachel J; Peng, Liang; Barry, Natasha A; Cline, Gary W; Zhang, Dongyan; Cardone, Rebecca L; Petersen, Kitt Falk; Kibbey, Richard G; Goodman, Andrew L; Shulman, Gerald I

    2016-06-01

    Obesity, insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome are associated with changes to the gut microbiota; however, the mechanism by which modifications to the gut microbiota might lead to these conditions is unknown. Here we show that increased production of acetate by an altered gut microbiota in rodents leads to activation of the parasympathetic nervous system, which, in turn, promotes increased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, increased ghrelin secretion, hyperphagia, obesity and related sequelae. Together, these findings identify increased acetate production resulting from a nutrient-gut microbiota interaction and subsequent parasympathetic activation as possible therapeutic targets for obesity. PMID:27279214

  2. Plasmonic Nanorattles as Next-Generation Catalysts for Surface Plasmon Resonance-Mediated Oxidations Promoted by Activated Oxygen.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Anderson G M; Rodrigues, Thenner S; Correia, Valquírio G; Alves, Tiago V; Alves, Rafael S; Ando, Rômulo A; Ornellas, Fernando R; Wang, Jiale; Andrade, Leandro H; Camargo, Pedro H C

    2016-06-13

    Nanorattles, comprised of a nanosphere inside a nanoshell, were employed as the next generation of plasmonic catalysts for oxidations promoted by activated O2 . After investigating how the presence of a nanosphere inside a nanoshell affected the electric-field enhancements in the nanorattle relative to a nanoshell and a nanosphere, the SPR-mediated oxidation of p-aminothiophenol (PATP) functionalized at their surface was investigated to benchmark how these different electric-field intensities affected the performances of Au@AgAu nanorattles, AgAu nanoshells and Au nanoparticles having similar sizes. The high performance of the nanorattles enabled the visible-light driven synthesis of azobenzene from aniline under ambient conditions. As the nanorattles allow the formation of electromagnetic hot spots without relying on the uncontrolled aggregation of nanostructures, it enables their application as catalysts in liquid phase under mild conditions using visible light as the main energy input. PMID:27159199

  3. CDK11{sup p58} represses vitamin D receptor-mediated transcriptional activation through promoting its ubiquitin-proteasome degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Chi, Yayun; Hong, Yi; Zong, Hongliang; Wang, Yanlin; Zou, Weiying; Yang, Junwu; Kong, Xiangfei; Yun, Xiaojing; Gu, Jianxin

    2009-08-28

    Vitamin D receptor (VDR) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily and regulates transcription of target genes. In this study, we identified CDK11{sup p58} as a novel protein involved in the regulation of VDR. CDK11{sup p58}, a member of the large family of p34cdc2-related kinases, is associated with cell cycle progression, tumorigenesis, and apoptotic signaling. Our study demonstrated that CDK11{sup p58} interacted with VDR and repressed VDR-dependent transcriptional activation. Furthermore, overexpression of CDK11{sup p58} decreased the stability of VDR through promoting its ubiquitin-proteasome-mediated degradation. Taken together, these results suggest that CDK11{sup p58} is involved in the negative regulation of VDR.

  4. A novel combination of promoter and enhancers increases transgene expression in vascular smooth muscle cells in vitro and coronary arteries in vivo after adenovirus-mediated gene transfer

    PubMed Central

    Appleby, CE; Kingston, PA; David, A; Gerdes, CA; Umaña, P; Castro, MG; Lowenstein, PR; Heagerty, AM

    2010-01-01

    Recombinant adenoviruses are employed widely for vascular gene transfer. Vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) are a relatively poor target for transgene expression after adenovirus-mediated gene delivery, however, even when expression is regulated by powerful, constitutive viral promoters. The major immediate-early murine cytomegalovirus enhancer/promoter (MIEmCMV) elicits substantially greater transgene expression than the human cytomegalovirus promoter (MIEhCMV) in all cell types in which they have been compared. The Woodchuck hepatitis virus post-transcriptional regulatory element (WPRE) increases transgene expression in numerous cell lines, and fragments of the smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (SMMHC) promoter increase expression within SMC from heterologous promoters. We therefore, compared the expression of β-galactosidase after adenovirus-mediated gene transfer of lacZ under the transcriptional regulation of a variety of combinations of the promoters and enhancers described, in vitro and in porcine coronary arteries. We demonstrate that inclusion of WPRE and a fragment of the rabbit SMMHC promoter along with MIEmCMV increases β-galactosidase expression 90-fold in SMC in vitro and ≈40-fold in coronary arteries, compared with vectors in which expression is regulated by MIEhCMV alone. Expression cassette modification represents a simple method of improving adenovirus-mediated vascular gene transfer efficiency and has important implications for the development of efficient cardiovascular gene therapy strategies. PMID:12907954

  5. Bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein promotes complement activation for neutrophil-mediated phagocytosis on bacterial surface

    PubMed Central

    Nishimura, H; Gogami, A; Miyagawa, Y; Nanbo, A; Murakami, Y; Baba, T; Nagasawa, S

    2001-01-01

    The neutrophil bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI) has both bactericidal and lipopolysaccharide-neutralizing activities. The present study suggests that BPI also plays an important role in phagocytosis of Escherichia coli by neutrophils through promotion of complement activation on the bacterial surface. Flow cytometric analysis indicated that fluorescein-labelled E. coli treated with BPI were phagocytosed in the presence of serum at two- to five-fold higher levels than phagocytosis of the bacteria without the treatment. In contrast, phagocytosis of the fluoresceined bacteria with or without treatment by BPI did not occur at all in the absence of serum. The phagocytosis stimulated by BPI and serum was dose-dependent. The effect of BPI on phagocytosis in the presence of serum was not observed on Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus). Interestingly, the complement C3b/iC3b fragments were deposited onto the bacterial surface also as a function of the BPI concentration under conditions similar to those for phagocytosis. Furthermore, the BPI-promoted phagocytosis was blocked completely by anti-C3 F(ab′)2 and partially by anti-complement receptor (CR) type 1 and/or anti-CR type 3. These findings suggest that BPI accelerates complement activation to opsonize bacteria with complement-derived fragments, leading to stimulation of phagocytosis by neutrophils via CR(s). PMID:11529944

  6. Altering genomic integrity: heavy metal exposure promotes trans-posable element-mediated damage

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Maria E.; Servant, Geraldine; Ade, Catherine; Roy-Enge, Astrid M.

    2015-01-01

    Maintenance of genomic integrity is critical for cellular homeostasis and survival. The active transposable elements (TEs) composed primarily of three mobile element lineages LINE-1, Alu, and SVA comprise approximately 30% of the mass of the human genome. For the past two decades, studies have shown that TEs significantly contribute to genetic instability and that TE-caused damages are associated with genetic diseases and cancer. Different environmental exposures, including several heavy metals, influence how TEs interact with its host genome increasing their negative impact. This mini-review provides some basic knowledge on TEs, their contribution to disease and an overview of the current knowledge on how heavy metals influence TE-mediated damage. PMID:25774044

  7. Fasting-Mimicking Diet Reduces HO-1 to Promote T Cell-Mediated Tumor Cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Di Biase, Stefano; Lee, Changhan; Brandhorst, Sebastian; Manes, Brianna; Buono, Roberta; Cheng, Chia-Wei; Cacciottolo, Mafalda; Martin-Montalvo, Alejandro; de Cabo, Rafael; Wei, Min; Morgan, Todd E; Longo, Valter D

    2016-07-11

    Immune-based interventions are promising strategies to achieve long-term cancer-free survival. Fasting was previously shown to differentially sensitize tumors to chemotherapy while protecting normal cells, including hematopoietic stem and immune cells, from its toxic side effects. Here, we show that the combination of chemotherapy and a fasting-mimicking diet (FMD) increases the levels of bone marrow common lymphoid progenitor cells and cytotoxic CD8(+) tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), leading to a major delay in breast cancer and melanoma progression. In breast tumors, this effect is partially mediated by the downregulation of the stress-responsive enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). These data indicate that FMD cycles combined with chemotherapy can enhance T cell-dependent targeted killing of cancer cells both by stimulating the hematopoietic system and by enhancing CD8(+)-dependent tumor cytotoxicity. PMID:27411588

  8. Bioglass promotes wound healing by affecting gap junction connexin 43 mediated endothelial cell behavior.

    PubMed

    Li, Haiyan; He, Jin; Yu, Hongfei; Green, Colin R; Chang, Jiang

    2016-04-01

    It is well known that gap junctions play an important role in wound healing, and bioactive glass (BG) has been shown to help healing when applied as a wound dressing. However, the effects of BG on gap junctional communication between cells involved in wound healing is not well understood. We hypothesized that BG may be able to affect gap junction mediated cell behavior to enhance wound healing. Therefore, we set out to investigate the effects of BG on gap junction related behavior of endothelial cells in order to elucidate the mechanisms through which BG is operating. In in vitro studies, BG ion extracts prevented death of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) following hypoxia in a dose dependent manner, possibly through connexin hemichannel modulation. In addition, BG showed stimulatory effects on gap junction communication between HUVECs and upregulated connexin43 (Cx43) expression. Furthermore, BG prompted expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor as well as their receptors, and vascular endothelial cadherin in HUVECs, all of which are beneficial for vascularization. In vivo wound healing results showed that the wound closure of full-thickness excisional wounds of rats was accelerated by BG with reduced inflammation during initial stages of healing and stimulated angiogenesis during the proliferation stage. Therefore, BG can stimulate wound healing through affecting gap junctions and gap junction related endothelial cell behaviors, including prevention of endothelial cell death following hypoxia, stimulation of gap junction communication and upregulation of critical vascular growth factors, which contributes to the enhancement of angiogenesis in the wound bed and finally to accelerate wound healing. Although many studies have reported that BG stimulates angiogenesis and wound healing, this work reveals the relationship between BG and gap junction connexin 43 mediated endothelial cell behavior and elucidates

  9. Cdt2-mediated XPG degradation promotes gap-filling DNA synthesis in nucleotide excision repair.

    PubMed

    Han, Chunhua; Wani, Gulzar; Zhao, Ran; Qian, Jiang; Sharma, Nidhi; He, Jinshan; Zhu, Qianzheng; Wang, Qi-En; Wani, Altaf A

    2015-01-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum group G (XPG) protein is a structure-specific repair endonuclease, which cleaves DNA strands on the 3' side of the DNA damage during nucleotide excision repair (NER). XPG also plays a crucial role in initiating DNA repair synthesis through recruitment of PCNA to the repair sites. However, the fate of XPG protein subsequent to the excision of DNA damage has remained unresolved. Here, we show that XPG, following its action on bulky lesions resulting from exposures to UV irradiation and cisplatin, is subjected to proteasome-mediated proteolytic degradation. Productive NER processing is required for XPG degradation as both UV and cisplatin treatment-induced XPG degradation is compromised in NER-deficient XP-A, XP-B, XP-C, and XP-F cells. In addition, the NER-related XPG degradation requires Cdt2, a component of an E3 ubiquitin ligase, CRL4(Cdt2). Micropore local UV irradiation and in situ Proximity Ligation assays demonstrated that Cdt2 is recruited to the UV-damage sites and interacts with XPG in the presence of PCNA. Importantly, Cdt2-mediated XPG degradation is crucial to the subsequent recruitment of DNA polymerase δ and DNA repair synthesis. Collectively, our data support the idea of PCNA recruitment to damage sites which occurs in conjunction with XPG, recognition of the PCNA-bound XPG by CRL4(Cdt2) for specific ubiquitylation and finally the protein degradation. In essence, XPG elimination from DNA damage sites clears the chromatin space needed for the subsequent recruitment of DNA polymerase δ to the damage site and completion of gap-filling DNA synthesis during the final stage of NER. PMID:25483071

  10. Leptin as a mediator of tumor-stromal interactions promotes breast cancer stem cell activity.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Cinzia; Chemi, Francesca; Panza, Salvatore; Barone, Ines; Bonofiglio, Daniela; Lanzino, Marilena; Cordella, Angela; Campana, Antonella; Hashim, Adnan; Rizza, Pietro; Leggio, Antonella; Győrffy, Balázs; Simões, Bruno M; Clarke, Robert B; Weisz, Alessandro; Catalano, Stefania; Andò, Sebastiano

    2016-01-12

    Breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) play crucial roles in tumor initiation, metastasis and therapeutic resistance. A strict dependency between BCSCs and stromal cell components of tumor microenvironment exists. Thus, novel therapeutic strategies aimed to target the crosstalk between activated microenvironment and BCSCs have the potential to improve clinical outcome. Here, we investigated how leptin, as a mediator of tumor-stromal interactions, may affect BCSC activity using patient-derived samples (n = 16) and breast cancer cell lines, and determined the potential benefit of targeting leptin signaling in these model systems. Conditioned media (CM) from cancer-associated fibroblasts and breast adipocytes significantly increased mammosphere formation in breast cancer cells and depletion of leptin from CM completely abrogated this effect. Mammosphere cultures exhibited increased leptin receptor (OBR) expression and leptin exposure enhanced mammosphere formation. Microarray analyses revealed a similar expression profile of genes involved in stem cell biology among mammospheres treated with CM and leptin. Interestingly, leptin increased mammosphere formation in metastatic breast cancers and expression of OBR as well as HSP90, a target of leptin signaling, were directly correlated with mammosphere formation in metastatic samples (r = 0.68/p = 0.05; r = 0.71/p = 0.036, respectively). Kaplan-Meier survival curves indicated that OBR and HSP90 expression were associated with reduced overall survival in breast cancer patients (HR = 1.9/p = 0.022; HR = 2.2/p = 0.00017, respectively). Furthermore, blocking leptin signaling by using a full leptin receptor antagonist significantly reduced mammosphere formation in breast cancer cell lines and patient-derived samples. Our results suggest that leptin/leptin receptor signaling may represent a potential therapeutic target that can block the stromal-tumor interactions driving BCSC-mediated disease progression. PMID:26556856

  11. Abscisic acid-induced gene expression in the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha is mediated by evolutionarily conserved promoter elements.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Totan K; Kaneko, Midori; Akter, Khaleda; Murai, Shuhei; Komatsu, Kenji; Ishizaki, Kimitsune; Yamato, Katsuyuki T; Kohchi, Takayuki; Takezawa, Daisuke

    2016-04-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is a phytohormone widely distributed among members of the land plant lineage (Embryophyta), regulating dormancy, stomata closure and tolerance to environmental stresses. In angiosperms (Magnoliophyta), ABA-induced gene expression is mediated by promoter elements such as the G-box-like ACGT-core motifs recognized by bZIP transcription factors. In contrast, the mode of regulation by ABA of gene expression in liverworts (Marchantiophyta), representing one of the earliest diverging land plant groups, has not been elucidated. In this study, we used promoters of the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha dehydrin and the wheat Em genes fused to the β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene to investigate ABA-induced gene expression in liverworts. Transient assays of cultured cells of Marchantia indicated that ACGT-core motifs proximal to the transcription initiation site play a role in the ABA-induced gene expression. The RY sequence recognized by B3 transcriptional regulators was also shown to be responsible for the ABA-induced gene expression. In transgenic Marchantia plants, ABA treatment elicited an increase in GUS expression in young gemmalings, which was abolished by simultaneous disruption of the ACGT-core and RY elements. ABA-induced GUS expression was less obvious in mature thalli than in young gemmalings, associated with reductions in sensitivity to exogenous ABA during gametophyte growth. In contrast, lunularic acid, which had been suggested to function as an ABA-like substance, had no effect on GUS expression. The results demonstrate the presence of ABA-specific response mechanisms mediated by conserved cis-regulatory elements in liverworts, implying that the mechanisms had been acquired in the common ancestors of embryophytes. PMID:26456006

  12. MicroRNA-138 promotes acquired alkylator resistance in glioblastoma by targeting the Bcl-2-interacting mediator BIM

    PubMed Central

    Stojcheva, Nina; Schechtmann, Gennadi; Sass, Steffen; Roth, Patrick; Florea, Ana-Maria; Stefanski, Anja; Stühler, Kai; Wolter, Marietta; Müller, Nikola S.; Theis, Fabian J.; Weller, Michael; Reifenberger, Guido; Happold, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma is the most aggressive brain tumor in adults with a median survival below 12 months in population-based studies. The main reason for tumor recurrence and progression is constitutive or acquired resistance to the standard of care of surgical resection followed by radiotherapy with concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide (TMZ/RT→TMZ). Here, we investigated the role of microRNA (miRNA) alterations as mediators of alkylator resistance in glioblastoma cells. Using microarray-based miRNA expression profiling of parental and TMZ-resistant cultures of three human glioma cell lines, we identified a set of differentially expressed miRNA candidates. From these, we selected miR-138 for further functional analyses as this miRNA was not only upregulated in TMZ-resistant versus parental cells, but also showed increased expression in vivo in recurrent glioblastoma tissue samples after TMZ/RT→TMZ treatment. Transient transfection of miR-138 mimics in glioma cells with low basal miR-138 expression increased glioma cell proliferation. Moreover, miR-138 overexpression increased TMZ resistance in long-term glioblastoma cell lines and glioma initiating cell cultures. The apoptosis regulator BIM was identified as a direct target of miR-138, and its silencing mediated the induced TMZ resistance phenotype. Altered sensitivity to apoptosis played only a minor role in this resistance mechanism. Instead, we identified the induction of autophagy to be regulated downstream of the miR-138/BIM axis and to promote cell survival following TMZ exposure. Our data thus define miR-138 as a glioblastoma cell survival-promoting miRNA associated with resistance to TMZ therapy in vitro and with tumor progression in vivo. PMID:26887050

  13. MicroRNA-138 promotes acquired alkylator resistance in glioblastoma by targeting the Bcl-2-interacting mediator BIM.

    PubMed

    Stojcheva, Nina; Schechtmann, Gennadi; Sass, Steffen; Roth, Patrick; Florea, Ana-Maria; Stefanski, Anja; Stühler, Kai; Wolter, Marietta; Müller, Nikola S; Theis, Fabian J; Weller, Michael; Reifenberger, Guido; Happold, Caroline

    2016-03-15

    Glioblastoma is the most aggressive brain tumor in adults with a median survival below 12 months in population-based studies. The main reason for tumor recurrence and progression is constitutive or acquired resistance to the standard of care of surgical resection followed by radiotherapy with concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide (TMZ/RT→TMZ). Here, we investigated the role of microRNA (miRNA) alterations as mediators of alkylator resistance in glioblastoma cells. Using microarray-based miRNA expression profiling of parental and TMZ-resistant cultures of three human glioma cell lines, we identified a set of differentially expressed miRNA candidates. From these, we selected miR-138 for further functional analyses as this miRNA was not only upregulated in TMZ-resistant versus parental cells, but also showed increased expression in vivo in recurrent glioblastoma tissue samples after TMZ/RT→TMZ treatment. Transient transfection of miR-138 mimics in glioma cells with low basal miR-138 expression increased glioma cell proliferation. Moreover, miR-138 overexpression increased TMZ resistance in long-term glioblastoma cell lines and glioma initiating cell cultures. The apoptosis regulator BIM was identified as a direct target of miR-138, and its silencing mediated the induced TMZ resistance phenotype. Altered sensitivity to apoptosis played only a minor role in this resistance mechanism. Instead, we identified the induction of autophagy to be regulated downstream of the miR-138/BIM axis and to promote cell survival following TMZ exposure. Our data thus define miR-138 as a glioblastoma cell survival-promoting miRNA associated with resistance to TMZ therapy in vitro and with tumor progression in vivo. PMID:26887050

  14. ENO1 promotes tumor proliferation and cell adhesion mediated drug resistance (CAM-DR) in Non-Hodgkin's Lymphomas

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Xinghua; Miao, Xiaobing; Wu, Yaxun; Li, Chunsun; Guo, Yan; Liu, Yushan; Chen, Yali; Lu, Xiaoyun; Wang, Yuchan; He, Song

    2015-07-15

    Enolases are glycolytic enzymes responsible for the ATP-generated conversion of 2-phosphoglycerate to phosphoenolpyruvate. In addition to the glycolytic function, Enolase 1 (ENO1) has been reported up-regulation in several tumor tissues. In this study, we investigated the expression and biologic function of ENO1 in Non-Hodgkin's Lymphomas (NHLs). Clinically, by western blot analysis we observed that ENO1 expression was apparently higher in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma than in the reactive lymphoid tissues. Subsequently, immunohistochemical staining of 144 NHLs suggested that the expression of ENO1 was significantly lower in the indolent lymphomas compared with the progressive lymphomas. Further, we identified ENO1 as an independent prognostic factor, and it was significantly correlated with overall survival of NHL patients. In addition, we found that ENO1 could promote cell proliferation, regulate cell cycle associated gene and PI3K/AKT signaling pathway in NHLs. Finally, we verified that ENO1 participated in the process of lymphoma cell adhesion mediated drug resistance (CAM-DR). Adhesion to FN or HS5 cells significantly protected OCI-Ly8 and Daudi cells from cytotoxicity compared with those cultured in suspension, and these effects were attenuated when transfected with ENO1-siRNA. Based on the study, we propose that inhibition of ENO1 expression may be a novel strategy for therapy for NHLs patients, and it may be a target for drug resistance. - Highlights: • ENO1 expression is reversely correlated with clinical outcomes of patients with NHLs. • ENO1 promotes the proliferation of NHL cells. • ENO1 regulates cell adhesion mediated drug resistance.

  15. ICOS Promotes the Function of CD4+ Effector T Cells during Anti-OX40-Mediated Tumor Rejection.

    PubMed

    Metzger, Todd C; Long, Hua; Potluri, Shobha; Pertel, Thomas; Bailey-Bucktrout, Samantha L; Lin, John C; Fu, Tihui; Sharma, Padmanee; Allison, James P; Feldman, Reid M R

    2016-07-01

    ICOS is a T-cell coregulatory receptor that provides a costimulatory signal to T cells during antigen-mediated activation. Antitumor immunity can be improved by ICOS-targeting therapies, but their mechanism of action remains unclear. Here, we define the role of ICOS signaling in antitumor immunity using a blocking, nondepleting antibody against ICOS ligand (ICOS-L). ICOS signaling provided critical support for the effector function of CD4(+) Foxp3(-) T cells during anti-OX40-driven tumor immune responses. By itself, ICOS-L blockade reduced accumulation of intratumoral T regulatory cells (Treg), but it was insufficient to substantially inhibit tumor growth. Furthermore, it did not impede antitumor responses mediated by anti-4-1BB-driven CD8(+) T cells. We found that anti-OX40 efficacy, which is based on Treg depletion and to a large degree on CD4(+) effector T cell (Teff) responses, was impaired with ICOS-L blockade. In contrast, the provision of additional ICOS signaling through direct ICOS-L expression by tumor cells enhanced tumor rejection and survival when administered along with anti-OX40 therapy. Taken together, our results showed that ICOS signaling during antitumor responses acts on both Teff and Treg cells, which have opposing roles in promoting immune activation. Thus, effective therapies targeting the ICOS pathway should seek to promote ICOS signaling specifically in effector CD4(+) T cells by combining ICOS agonism and Treg depletion. Cancer Res; 76(13); 3684-9. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27197182

  16. Salmonid Tollip and MyD88 factors can functionally replace their mammalian orthologues in TLR-mediated trout SAA promoter activation.

    PubMed

    Rebl, Alexander; Rebl, Henrike; Liu, Shuzhen; Goldammer, Tom; Seyfert, Hans-Martin

    2011-01-01

    Many functional details of the piscine Toll-like receptor (TLR) signal-mediated activation of immune defense are still elusive. We used an established reconstitution system of mammalian TLR signaling to examine if this system would allow for pathogen-dependent promoter activation of the serum amyloid A (SAA)-encoding gene from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and if the key mediators MyD88 and Tollip from trout can functionally substitute for their mammalian orthologues. Cells of the established human embryonic kidney line HEK-293 were transiently co-transfected with vectors expressing bovine TLR2 or TLR4 factors and a reporter gene driven by the promoter of the trout SAA gene. Escherichia coli stimulation increased reporter gene expression more than 3-fold. Deletion series and point mutations identified in the proximal SAA promoter a composite overlapping binding site for NF-κB and CEBP factors as crucial for promoter activation. Overexpression of NF-κB p65, but not of p50 or different members of the CEBP factor family proved this factor as an essential driver for SAA expression. Overexpression of a transdominant-negative mutant of the trout MyD88 factor reduced TLR-mediated SAA promoter activation confirming functional conservation of its TIR domain. Overexpression of the Tollip factor from trout also quenched TLR-mediated NF-κB and TLR4-mediated SAA promoter activation. The MyD88 mutant and Tollip expression studies confirm the functional homology of both piscine factors and their mammalian counterparts. We provide for the first time evidence that also the Tollip-mediated negative loop of TLR signaling may be conserved in non-mammalian organisms. PMID:20813127

  17. Urea retranslocation from senescing Arabidopsis leaves is promoted by DUR3-mediated urea retrieval from leaf apoplast

    PubMed Central

    Bohner, Anne; Kojima, Soichi; Hajirezaei, Mohammad; Melzer, Michael; von Wirén, Nicolaus

    2015-01-01

    In plants, urea derives either from root uptake or protein degradation. Although large quantities of urea are released during senescence, urea is mainly seen as a short-lived nitrogen (N) catabolite serving urease-mediated hydrolysis to ammonium. Here, we investigated the roles of DUR3 and of urea in N remobilization. During natural leaf senescence urea concentrations and DUR3 transcript levels showed a parallel increase with senescence markers like ORE1 in a plant age- and leaf age-dependent manner. Deletion of DUR3 decreased urea accumulation in leaves, whereas the fraction of urea lost to the leaf apoplast was enhanced. Under natural and N deficiency-induced senescence DUR3 promoter activity was highest in the vasculature, but was also found in surrounding bundle sheath and mesophyll cells. An analysis of petiole exudates from wild-type leaves revealed that N from urea accounted for >13% of amino acid N. Urea export from senescent leaves further increased in ureG-2 deletion mutants lacking urease activity. In the dur3 ureG double insertion line the absence of DUR3 reduced urea export from leaf petioles. These results indicate that urea can serve as an early metabolic marker for leaf senescence, and that DUR3-mediated urea retrieval contributes to the retranslocation of N from urea during leaf senescence. PMID:25440717

  18. A family of conserved bacterial effectors inhibits salicylic acid-mediated basal immunity and promotes disease necrosis in plants.

    PubMed

    DebRoy, Sruti; Thilmony, Roger; Kwack, Yong-Bum; Nomura, Kinya; He, Sheng Yang

    2004-06-29

    Salicylic acid (SA)-mediated host immunity plays a central role in combating microbial pathogens in plants. Inactivation of SA-mediated immunity, therefore, would be a critical step in the evolution of a successful plant pathogen. It is known that mutations in conserved effector loci (CEL) in the plant pathogens Pseudomonas syringae (the Delta CEL mutation), Erwinia amylovora (the dspA/E mutation), and Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii (the wtsE mutation) exert particularly strong negative effects on bacterial virulence in their host plants by unknown mechanisms. We found that the loss of virulence in Delta CEL and dspA/E mutants was linked to their inability to suppress cell wall-based defenses and to cause normal disease necrosis in Arabidopsis and apple host plants. The Delta CEL mutant activated SA-dependent callose deposition in wild-type Arabidopsis but failed to elicit high levels of callose-associated defense in Arabidopsis plants blocked in SA accumulation or synthesis. This mutant also multiplied more aggressively in SA-deficient plants than in wild-type plants. The hopPtoM and avrE genes in the CEL of P. syringae were found to encode suppressors of this SA-dependent basal defense. The widespread conservation of the HopPtoM and AvrE families of effectors in various bacteria suggests that suppression of SA-dependent basal immunity and promotion of host cell death are important virulence strategies for bacterial infection of plants. PMID:15210989

  19. Granzyme B-activated p53 interacts with Bcl-2 to promote cytotoxic lymphocyte-mediated apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Ben Safta, Thouraya; Ziani, Linda; Favre, Loetitia; Lamendour, Lucille; Gros, Gwendoline; Mami-Chouaib, Fathia; Martinvalet, Denis; Chouaib, Salem; Thiery, Jerome

    2015-01-01

    Granzyme B (GzmB) plays a major role in CTLs and NK cell-mediated elimination of virus-infected cells and tumors. Human GzmB preferentially induces target cell apoptosis by cleaving the proapoptotic Bcl-2 family member Bid, which, together with Bax, induces mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization. We previously showed that GzmB also induces a rapid accumulation of the tumor-suppressor protein p53 within target cells, which seems to be involved in GzmB-induced apoptosis. In this article, we show that GzmB-activated p53 accumulates on target cell mitochondria and interacts with Bcl-2. This interaction prevents Bcl-2 inhibitory effect on both Bax and GzmB-truncated Bid, and promotes GzmB-induced mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization. Consequently, blocking p53-Bcl-2 interaction decreases GzmB-induced Bax activation, cytochrome c release from mitochondria, and subsequent effector caspases activation leading to a decreased sensitivity of target cells to both GzmB and CTL/NK-mediated cell death. Together, our results define p53 as a new important player in the GzmB apoptotic signaling pathway and in CTL/NK-induced apoptosis. PMID:25404359

  20. Bacillus anthracis Spore Surface Protein BclA Mediates Complement Factor H Binding to Spores and Promotes Spore Persistence

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Chunfang; Martinez-Moczygemba, Margarita; Herold, Jennifer; Botto, Marina; Wetsel, Rick A.; Xu, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Spores of Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, are known to persist in the host lungs for prolonged periods of time, however the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. In this study, we demonstrated that BclA, a major surface protein of B. anthracis spores, mediated direct binding of complement factor H (CFH) to spores. The surface bound CFH retained its regulatory cofactor activity resulting in C3 degradation and inhibition of downstream complement activation. By comparing results from wild type C57BL/6 mice and complement deficient mice, we further showed that BclA significantly contributed to spore persistence in the mouse lungs and dampened antibody responses to spores in a complement C3-dependent manner. In addition, prior exposure to BclA deletion spores (ΔbclA) provided significant protection against lethal challenges by B. anthracis, whereas the isogenic parent spores did not, indicating that BclA may also impair protective immunity. These results describe for the first time an immune inhibition mechanism of B. anthracis mediated by BclA and CFH that promotes spore persistence in vivo. The findings also suggested an important role of complement in persistent infections and thus have broad implications. PMID:27304426

  1. Bacillus anthracis Spore Surface Protein BclA Mediates Complement Factor H Binding to Spores and Promotes Spore Persistence.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanyu; Jenkins, Sarah A; Gu, Chunfang; Shree, Ankita; Martinez-Moczygemba, Margarita; Herold, Jennifer; Botto, Marina; Wetsel, Rick A; Xu, Yi

    2016-06-01

    Spores of Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, are known to persist in the host lungs for prolonged periods of time, however the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. In this study, we demonstrated that BclA, a major surface protein of B. anthracis spores, mediated direct binding of complement factor H (CFH) to spores. The surface bound CFH retained its regulatory cofactor activity resulting in C3 degradation and inhibition of downstream complement activation. By comparing results from wild type C57BL/6 mice and complement deficient mice, we further showed that BclA significantly contributed to spore persistence in the mouse lungs and dampened antibody responses to spores in a complement C3-dependent manner. In addition, prior exposure to BclA deletion spores (ΔbclA) provided significant protection against lethal challenges by B. anthracis, whereas the isogenic parent spores did not, indicating that BclA may also impair protective immunity. These results describe for the first time an immune inhibition mechanism of B. anthracis mediated by BclA and CFH that promotes spore persistence in vivo. The findings also suggested an important role of complement in persistent infections and thus have broad implications. PMID:27304426

  2. MUC1 upregulation promotes immune resistance in tumor cells undergoing brachyury-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    David, Justin M.; Hamilton, Duane H.; Palena, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a molecular and cellular program in which epithelial cells lose their well-differentiated phenotype and adopt mesenchymal characteristics. This process, which occurs naturally during embryogenesis, has also been shown to be associated with cancer progression and with tumor recurrence following conventional therapies. Brachyury is a transcription factor that mediates EMT during development, and is aberrantly expressed in various human cancers where it promotes tumor cell EMT, metastatic dissemination, and resistance to conventional therapies. We have recently shown that very high expression of brachyury can protect tumor cells against immune cell-mediated cytotoxicity. In seeking to elucidate mechanisms of immunotherapy resistance, we have discovered a novel positive association between brachyury and mucin-1 (MUC1). MUC1 is overexpressed in the majority of carcinomas, and it has been shown to mediate oncogenic signaling and confer resistance to genotoxic agents. We found that MUC1 is concomitantly upregulated in tumor cell lines that highly express brachyury due to an enhancement of MUC1 mRNA stability. Analysis of patient lung tumor tissues also identified a positive association between these two proteins in the majority of samples. Inhibition of MUC1 by siRNA-based gene silencing markedly enhanced the susceptibility of brachyury-expressing cancer cells to killing by tumor necrosis-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and to perforin/granzyme-dependent lysis by immune cytotoxic cells. These studies confirm a protective role for MUC1 in brachyury-expressing cancer cells, and suggest that inhibition of MUC1 can restore the susceptibility of mesenchymal-like cancer cells to immune attack. PMID:27141403

  3. Fibroadipogenic progenitors mediate the ability of HDAC inhibitors to promote regeneration in dystrophic muscles of young, but not old Mdx mice

    PubMed Central

    Mozzetta, Chiara; Consalvi, Silvia; Saccone, Valentina; Tierney, Matthew; Diamantini, Adamo; Mitchell, Kathryn J; Marazzi, Giovanna; Borsellino, Giovanna; Battistini, Luca; Sassoon, David; Sacco, Alessandra; Puri, Pier Lorenzo

    2013-01-01

    HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) exert beneficial effects in mdx mice, by promoting endogenous regeneration; however, the cellular determinants of HDACi activity on dystrophic muscles have not been determined. We show that fibroadipogenic progenitors (FAP) influence the regeneration potential of satellite cells during disease progression in mdx mice and mediate HDACi ability to selectively promote regeneration at early stages of disease. FAPs from young mdx mice promote, while FAPs from old mdx mice repress, satellite cell-mediated formation of myotubes. In young mdx mice HDACi inhibited FAP adipogenic potential, while enhancing their ability to promote differentiation of adjacent satellite cells, through upregulation of the soluble factor follistatin. By contrast, FAPs from old mdx mice were resistant to HDACi-mediated inhibition of adipogenesis and constitutively repressed satellite cell-mediated formation of myotubes. We show that transplantation of FAPs from regenerating young muscles restored HDACi ability to increase myofibre size in old mdx mice. These results reveal that FAPs are key cellular determinants of disease progression in mdx mice and mediate a previously unappreciated stage-specific beneficial effect of HDACi in dystrophic muscles. PMID:23505062

  4. Targeting a Rate-Promoting Vibration with an Allosteric Mediator in Lactate Dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Dzierlenga, Michael W; Schwartz, Steven D

    2016-07-01

    We present a new type of allosteric modulation in which a molecule bound outside the active site modifies the chemistry of an enzymatic reaction through rapid protein dynamics. As a test case for this type of allostery, we chose an enzyme with a well-characterized rate-promoting vibration, lactate dehydrogenase; identified a suitable small molecule for binding; and used transition path sampling to obtain ensembles of reactive trajectories. We found that the small molecule significantly affected the reaction by changing the position of the transition state and, through applying committor distribution analysis, showed that it removed the protein component from the reaction coordinate. The ability of a small-molecule to disrupt enzymatic reactions through alteration of subpicosecond protein motion opens the door for new experimental studies on protein motion coupled to enzymatic reactions and possibly the design of drugs to target these enzymes. PMID:27327209

  5. The Forkhead Transcription Factor FOXK2 Promotes AP-1-Mediated Transcriptional Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Zongling; Donaldson, Ian J.; Liu, Jingru; Hayes, Andrew; Zeef, Leo A. H.

    2012-01-01

    The transcriptional control circuitry in eukaryotic cells is complex and is orchestrated by combinatorially acting transcription factors. Forkhead transcription factors often function in concert with heterotypic transcription factors to specify distinct transcriptional programs. Here, we demonstrate that FOXK2 participates in combinatorial transcriptional control with the AP-1 transcription factor. FOXK2 binding regions are widespread throughout the genome and are often coassociated with AP-1 binding motifs. FOXK2 acts to promote AP-1-dependent gene expression changes in response to activation of the AP-1 pathway. In this context, FOXK2 is required for the efficient recruitment of AP-1 to chromatin. Thus, we have uncovered an important new molecular mechanism that controls AP-1-dependent gene expression. PMID:22083952

  6. Cytoplasmic STAT4 Promotes Antiviral Type I IFN Production by Blocking CHIP-Mediated Degradation of RIG-I.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Kai; Zhang, Qian; Li, Xia; Zhao, Dezhi; Liu, Yiqi; Shen, Qicong; Yang, Mingjin; Wang, Chunmei; Li, Nan; Cao, Xuetao

    2016-02-01

    Retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) signaling is critical to host innate immune response against RNA virus infection. Numerous factors use different mechanisms to regulate RIG-I signaling. In this study, we report that STAT family member STAT4 promotes RIG-I-triggered type I IFN production in antiviral innate immunity. Silencing of STAT4 impaired IFN-β production in macrophages upon RNA virus infection, whereas overexpression of STAT4 enhanced RIG-I-induced IFN-β promoter activation and IFN-stimulated response element activity. Silencing of STAT4 increased degradation of RIG-I. Interestingly, during RNA virus infection STAT4 was found to be constantly present in cytoplasm of macrophages without Tyr(693) phosphorylation, which is required for its classical activation and nuclear translocation. Mechanistically, cytoplasmic STAT4 could interact with E3 ligase CHIP and block RIG-I and CHIP association, preventing CHIP-mediated proteasomal degradation of RIG-I via K48-linked ubiquitination. Our study provides a new manner for posttranslational regulation of RIG-I signaling and identifies a previously unknown function of cytoplasm-localized STAT4 in antiviral innate immunity. PMID:26695369

  7. OXPHOS-Mediated Induction of NAD+ Promotes Complete Oxidation of Fatty Acids and Interdicts Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Minwoo; Lei, Shi; Cooper, Marcus P.

    2015-01-01

    OXPHOS is believed to play an important role in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), however, precise mechanisms whereby OXPHOS influences lipid homeostasis are incompletely understood. We previously reported that ectopic expression of LRPPRC, a protein that increases cristae density and OXPHOS, promoted fatty acid oxidation in cultured primary hepatocytes. To determine the biological significance of that observation and define underlying mechanisms, we have ectopically expressed LRPPRC in mouse liver in the setting of NAFLD. Interestingly, ectopic expression of LRPPRC in mouse liver completely interdicted NAFLD, including inflammation. Consistent with mitigation of NAFLD, two markers of hepatic insulin resistance—ROS and PKCε activity—were both modestly reduced. As reported by others, improvement of NAFLD was associated with improved whole-body insulin sensitivity. Regarding hepatic lipid homeostasis, the ratio of NAD+ to NADH was dramatically increased in mouse liver replete with LRPPRC. Pharmacological activators and inhibitors of the cellular respiration respectively increased and decreased the [NAD+]/[NADH] ratio, indicating respiration-mediated control of the [NAD+]/[NADH] ratio. Supporting a prominent role for NAD+, increasing the concentration of NAD+ stimulated complete oxidation of fatty acids. Importantly, NAD+ rescued impaired fatty acid oxidation in hepatocytes deficient for either OXPHOS or SIRT3. These data are consistent with a model whereby augmented hepatic OXPHOS increases NAD+, which in turn promotes complete oxidation of fatty acids and protects against NAFLD. PMID:25933096

  8. Smc5/6 Mediated Sumoylation of the Sgs1-Top3-Rmi1 Complex Promotes Removal of Recombination Intermediates.

    PubMed

    Bonner, Jaclyn N; Choi, Koyi; Xue, Xiaoyu; Torres, Nikko P; Szakal, Barnabas; Wei, Lei; Wan, Bingbing; Arter, Meret; Matos, Joao; Sung, Patrick; Brown, Grant W; Branzei, Dana; Zhao, Xiaolan

    2016-07-12

    Timely removal of DNA recombination intermediates is critical for genome stability. The DNA helicase-topoisomerase complex, Sgs1-Top3-Rmi1 (STR), is the major pathway for processing these intermediates to generate conservative products. However, the mechanisms that promote STR-mediated functions remain to be defined. Here we show that Sgs1 binds to poly-SUMO chains and associates with the Smc5/6 SUMO E3 complex in yeast. Moreover, these interactions contribute to the sumoylation of Sgs1, Top3, and Rmi1 upon the generation of recombination structures. We show that reduced STR sumoylation leads to accumulation of recombination structures, and impaired growth in conditions when these structures arise frequently, highlighting the importance of STR sumoylation. Mechanistically, sumoylation promotes STR inter-subunit interactions and accumulation at DNA repair centers. These findings expand the roles of sumoylation and Smc5/6 in genome maintenance by demonstrating that they foster STR functions in the removal of recombination intermediates. PMID:27373152

  9. The promoting effects of alginate oligosaccharides on root development in Oryza sativa L. mediated by auxin signaling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yunhong; Yin, Heng; Zhao, Xiaoming; Wang, Wenxia; Du, Yuguang; He, Ailing; Sun, Kegang

    2014-11-26

    Alginate oligosaccharides (AOS), which are marine oligosaccharides, are involved in regulating plant root growth, but the promotion mechanism for AOS remains unclear. Here, AOS (10-80 mg/L) induced the expression of auxin-related gene (OsYUCCA1, OsYUCCA5, OsIAA11 and OsPIN1) in rice (Oryza sativa L.) tissues to accelerate auxin biosynthesis and transport, and reduced indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) oxidase activity in rice roots. These changes resulted in the increase of 37.8% in IAA concentration in rice roots, thereby inducing the expression of root development-related genes, promoting root growth in a dose-dependent manner, which were inhibited by auxin transport inhibitor 2,3,5-triiodo benzoic acid (TIBA) and calcium-chelating agent ethylene glycol bis (2-aminoethyl) tetraacetic acid (EGTA). AOS also induced calcium signaling generation in rice roots. Those results indicated that auxin mediated AOS regulation of root development, and calcium signaling may act mainly in the upstream of auxin in the regulation of AOS on rice root development. PMID:25256506

  10. Requirement of kinesin-mediated membrane transport of WAVE2 along microtubules for lamellipodia formation promoted by hepatocyte growth factor.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kazuhide; Suzuki, Katsuo

    2008-07-01

    Lamellipodia formation necessary for epithelial cell migration and invasion is accomplished by rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton at the leading edge through membrane transport of WAVE2. However, how WAVE2 is transported to the cell periphery where lamellipodia are formed remains to be established. We report here that hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) promoted lamellipodia formation and intracellular transport of WAVE2 to the cell periphery, depending on Rac1 activity, in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. Immunoblot analyses indicating the coimmunoprecipitation of WAVE2 with kinesin heavy chain KIF5B, one of the motor proteins, and IQGAP1 suggest that KIF5B and IQGAP1 formed a complex with WAVE2 in serum-starved cells and increased in their amount after HGF stimulation. Both downregulation of KIF5B by the small interfering RNA and depolymerization of microtubules with nocodazole abrogated the HGF-induced lamellipodia formation and WAVE2 transport. Therefore, we propose here that the promotion of lamellipodia formation by HGF in MDA-MB-231 cells is Rac1-dependent and requires KIF5B-mediated transport of WAVE2 and IQGAP1 to the cell periphery along microtubules. PMID:18514191

  11. OXPHOS-Mediated Induction of NAD+ Promotes Complete Oxidation of Fatty Acids and Interdicts Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Akie, Thomas E; Liu, Lijun; Nam, Minwoo; Lei, Shi; Cooper, Marcus P

    2015-01-01

    OXPHOS is believed to play an important role in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), however, precise mechanisms whereby OXPHOS influences lipid homeostasis are incompletely understood. We previously reported that ectopic expression of LRPPRC, a protein that increases cristae density and OXPHOS, promoted fatty acid oxidation in cultured primary hepatocytes. To determine the biological significance of that observation and define underlying mechanisms, we have ectopically expressed LRPPRC in mouse liver in the setting of NAFLD. Interestingly, ectopic expression of LRPPRC in mouse liver completely interdicted NAFLD, including inflammation. Consistent with mitigation of NAFLD, two markers of hepatic insulin resistance--ROS and PKCε activity--were both modestly reduced. As reported by others, improvement of NAFLD was associated with improved whole-body insulin sensitivity. Regarding hepatic lipid homeostasis, the ratio of NAD+ to NADH was dramatically increased in mouse liver replete with LRPPRC. Pharmacological activators and inhibitors of the cellular respiration respectively increased and decreased the [NAD+]/[NADH] ratio, indicating respiration-mediated control of the [NAD+]/[NADH] ratio. Supporting a prominent role for NAD+, increasing the concentration of NAD+ stimulated complete oxidation of fatty acids. Importantly, NAD+ rescued impaired fatty acid oxidation in hepatocytes deficient for either OXPHOS or SIRT3. These data are consistent with a model whereby augmented hepatic OXPHOS increases NAD+, which in turn promotes complete oxidation of fatty acids and protects against NAFLD. PMID:25933096

  12. Adenovirus-mediated HIF-1α gene transfer promotes repair of mouse airway allograft microvasculature and attenuates chronic rejection.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xinguo; Khan, Mohammad A; Tian, Wen; Beilke, Joshua; Natarajan, Ramesh; Kosek, Jon; Yoder, Mervin C; Semenza, Gregg L; Nicolls, Mark R

    2011-06-01

    Chronic rejection, manifested as small airway fibrosis (obliterative bronchiolitis [OB]), is the main obstacle to long-term survival in lung transplantation. Recent studies demonstrate that the airways involved in a lung transplant are relatively hypoxic at baseline and that OB pathogenesis may be linked to ischemia induced by a transient loss of airway microvasculature. Here, we show that HIF-1α mediates airway microvascular repair in a model of orthotopic tracheal transplantation. Grafts with a conditional knockout of Hif1a demonstrated diminished recruitment of recipient-derived Tie2⁺ angiogenic cells to the allograft, impaired repair of damaged microvasculature, accelerated loss of microvascular perfusion, and hastened denudation of epithelial cells. In contrast, graft HIF-1α overexpression induced via an adenoviral vector prolonged airway microvascular perfusion, preserved epithelial integrity, extended the time window for the graft to be rescued from chronic rejection, and attenuated airway fibrotic remodeling. HIF-1α overexpression induced the expression of proangiogenic factors such as Sdf1, Plgf, and Vegf, and promoted the recruitment of vasoreparative Tie2⁺ cells. This study demonstrates that a therapy that enhances vascular integrity during acute rejection may promote graft health and prevent chronic rejection. PMID:21606594

  13. Mapping the subgenomic RNA promoter of the Citrus leaf blotch virus coat protein gene by Agrobacterium-mediated inoculation.

    PubMed

    Renovell, Agueda; Gago, Selma; Ruiz-Ruiz, Susana; Velázquez, Karelia; Navarro, Luis; Moreno, Pedro; Vives, Mari Carmen; Guerri, José

    2010-10-25

    Citrus leaf blotch virus has a single-stranded positive-sense genomic RNA (gRNA) of 8747 nt organized in three open reading frames (ORFs). The ORF1, encoding a polyprotein involved in replication, is translated directly from the gRNA, whereas ORFs encoding the movement (MP) and coat (CP) proteins are expressed via 3' coterminal subgenomic RNAs (sgRNAs). We characterized the minimal promoter region critical for the CP-sgRNA expression in infected cells by deletion analyses using Agrobacterium-mediated infection of Nicotiana benthamiana plants. The minimal CP-sgRNA promoter was mapped between nucleotides -67 and +50 nt around the transcription start site. Surprisingly, larger deletions in the region between the CP-sgRNA transcription start site and the CP translation initiation codon resulted in increased CP-sgRNA accumulation, suggesting that this sequence could modulate the CP-sgRNA transcription. Site-specific mutational analysis of the transcription start site revealed that the +1 guanylate and the +2 adenylate are important for CP-sgRNA synthesis. PMID:20708769

  14. T cell-intrinsic ASC critically promotes TH17-mediated experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Martin, Bradley N; Wang, Chenhui; Zhang, Cun-Jin; Kang, Zizhen; Gulen, Muhammet Fatih; Zepp, Jarod A; Zhao, Junjie; Bian, Guanglin; Do, Jeong-Su; Min, Booki; Pavicic, Paul G; El-Sanadi, Caroline; Fox, Paul L; Akitsu, Aoi; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Sarkar, Anasuya; Wewers, Mark D; Kaiser, William J; Mocarski, Edward S; Rothenberg, Marc E; Hise, Amy G; Dubyak, George R; Ransohoff, Richard M; Li, Xiaoxia

    2016-05-01

    Interleukin 1β (IL-1β) is critical for the in vivo survival, expansion and effector function of IL-17-producing helper T (TH17) cells during autoimmune responses, including experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). However, the spatiotemporal role and cellular source of IL-1β during EAE pathogenesis are poorly defined. In the present study, we uncovered a T cell-intrinsic inflammasome that drives IL-1β production during TH17-mediated EAE pathogenesis. Activation of T cell antigen receptors induced expression of pro-IL-1β, whereas ATP stimulation triggered T cell production of IL-1β via ASC-NLRP3-dependent caspase-8 activation. IL-1R was detected on TH17 cells but not on type 1 helper T (TH1) cells, and ATP-treated TH17 cells showed enhanced survival compared with ATP-treated TH1 cells, suggesting autocrine action of TH17-derived IL-1β. Together these data reveal a critical role for IL-1β produced by a TH17 cell-intrinsic ASC-NLRP3-caspase-8 inflammasome during inflammation of the central nervous system. PMID:26998763

  15. CXCR1-mediated neutrophil degranulation and fungal killing promote Candida clearance and host survival.

    PubMed

    Swamydas, Muthulekha; Gao, Ji-Liang; Break, Timothy J; Johnson, Melissa D; Jaeger, Martin; Rodriguez, Carlos A; Lim, Jean K; Green, Nathaniel M; Collar, Amanda L; Fischer, Brett G; Lee, Chyi-Chia Richard; Perfect, John R; Alexander, Barbara D; Kullberg, Bart-Jan; Netea, Mihai G; Murphy, Philip M; Lionakis, Michail S

    2016-01-20

    Systemic Candida albicans infection causes high morbidity and mortality and is now the leading cause of nosocomial bloodstream infection in the United States. Neutropenia is a major risk factor for poor outcome in infected patients; however, the molecular factors that mediate neutrophil trafficking and effector function during infection are poorly defined. Using a mouse model of systemic candidiasis, we found that the neutrophil-selective CXC chemokine receptor Cxcr1 and its ligand, Cxcl5, are highly induced in the Candida-infected kidney, the target organ in the model. To investigate the role of Cxcr1 in antifungal host defense in vivo, we generated Cxcr1(-/-) mice and analyzed their immune response to Candida. Mice lacking Cxcr1 exhibited decreased survival with enhanced Candida growth in the kidney and renal failure. Increased susceptibility of Cxcr1(-/-) mice to systemic candidiasis was not due to impaired neutrophil trafficking from the blood into the infected kidney but was the result of defective killing of the fungus by neutrophils that exhibited a cell-intrinsic decrease in degranulation. In humans, the mutant CXCR1 allele CXCR1-T276 results in impaired neutrophil degranulation and fungal killing and was associated with increased risk of disseminated candidiasis in infected patients. Together, our data demonstrate a biological function for mouse Cxcr1 in vivo and indicate that CXCR1-dependent neutrophil effector function is a critical innate protective mechanism of fungal clearance and host survival in systemic candidiasis. PMID:26791948

  16. 5-Azacytidine Promotes an Inhibitory T-Cell Phenotype and Impairs Immune Mediated Antileukemic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Stübig, Thomas; Luetkens, Tim; Hildebrandt, York; Atanackovic, Djordje; Binder, Thomas M. C.; Fehse, Boris; Kröger, Nicolaus

    2014-01-01

    Demethylating agent, 5-Azacytidine (5-Aza), has been shown to be active in treatment of myeloid malignancies. 5-Aza enhances anticancer immunity, by increasing expression of tumor-associated antigens. However, the impact of 5-Aza immune responses remains poorly understood. Here, T-cell mediated tumor immunity effects of 5-Aza, are investigated in vitro and in vivo. T-cells from healthy donors were treated with 5-Aza and analyzed by qRT-PCR and flow cytometry for changes in gene expression and phenotype. Functionality was assessed by a tumor lysis assay. Peripheral blood from patients treated with 5-Aza after alloSCT was monitored for changes in T-cell subpopulations. 5-Aza treatment resulted in a decrease in CD8+ T-cells, whereas CD4+ T-cells increased. Furthermore, numbers of IFN-γ+ T-helper 1 cells (Th1) were reduced, while Treg-cells showed substantial increase. Additionally, CD8+ T-cells exhibited limited killing capacity against leukemic target cells. In vivo data confirm the increase of Treg compartment, while CD8+ T-effector cell numbers were reduced. 5-Aza treatment results in a shift from cytotoxic to regulatory T-cells with a functional phenotype and a major reduction in proinflammatory Th1-cells, indicating a strong inhibition of tumor-specific T-cell immunity by 5-Aza. PMID:24757283

  17. 5-azacytidine promotes an inhibitory T-cell phenotype and impairs immune mediated antileukemic activity.

    PubMed

    Stübig, Thomas; Badbaran, Anita; Luetkens, Tim; Hildebrandt, York; Atanackovic, Djordje; Binder, Thomas M C; Fehse, Boris; Kröger, Nicolaus

    2014-01-01

    Demethylating agent, 5-Azacytidine (5-Aza), has been shown to be active in treatment of myeloid malignancies. 5-Aza enhances anticancer immunity, by increasing expression of tumor-associated antigens. However, the impact of 5-Aza immune responses remains poorly understood. Here, T-cell mediated tumor immunity effects of 5-Aza, are investigated in vitro and in vivo. T-cells from healthy donors were treated with 5-Aza and analyzed by qRT-PCR and flow cytometry for changes in gene expression and phenotype. Functionality was assessed by a tumor lysis assay. Peripheral blood from patients treated with 5-Aza after alloSCT was monitored for changes in T-cell subpopulations. 5-Aza treatment resulted in a decrease in CD8+ T-cells, whereas CD4+ T-cells increased. Furthermore, numbers of IFN-γ + T-helper 1 cells (Th1) were reduced, while Treg-cells showed substantial increase. Additionally, CD8+ T-cells exhibited limited killing capacity against leukemic target cells. In vivo data confirm the increase of Treg compartment, while CD8+ T-effector cell numbers were reduced. 5-Aza treatment results in a shift from cytotoxic to regulatory T-cells with a functional phenotype and a major reduction in proinflammatory Th1-cells, indicating a strong inhibition of tumor-specific T-cell immunity by 5-Aza. PMID:24757283

  18. Suppression of PKR Promotes Network Excitability and Enhanced Cognition by Interferon-γ-Mediated Disinhibition

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Ping Jun; Huang, Wei; Kalikulov, Djanenkhodja; Yoo, Jong W.; Placzek, Andon N.; Stoica, Loredana; Zhou, Hongyi; Bell, John C.; Friedlander, Michael J.; Krnjević, Krešimir; Noebels, Jeffrey L.; Costa-Mattioli, Mauro

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR) was originally identified as a sensor of virus infection, but its function in the brain remains unknown. Here, we report that the lack of PKR enhances learning and memory in several behavioral tasks while increasing network excitability. In addition, loss of PKR increases the late phase of long-lasting synaptic potentiation (L-LTP) in hippocampal slices. These effects are caused by an interferon-γ (IFN-γ)-mediated selective reduction in GABAergic synaptic action. Together, our results reveal that PKR finely tunes the network activity that must be maintained while storing a given episode during learning. Because PKR activity is altered in several neurological disorders, this kinase presents a promising new target for the treatment of cognitive dysfunction. As a first step in this direction, we show that a selective PKR inhibitor replicates the Pkr−/− phenotype in WT mice, enhancing long-term memory storage and L-LTP. PMID:22153080

  19. Hijacking the Hexosamine Biosynthetic Pathway to Promote EMT-Mediated Neoplastic Phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Taparra, Kekoa; Tran, Phuoc T; Zachara, Natasha E

    2016-01-01

    The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a highly conserved program necessary for orchestrating distant cell migration during embryonic development. Multiple studies in cancer have demonstrated a critical role for EMT during the initial stages of tumorigenesis and later during tumor invasion. Transcription factors (TFs) such as SNAIL, TWIST, and ZEB are master EMT regulators that are aberrantly overexpressed in many malignancies. Recent evidence correlates EMT-related transcriptomic alterations with metabolic reprograming in cancer. Metabolic alterations may allow cancer to adapt to environmental stressors, supporting the irregular macromolecular demand of rapid proliferation. One potential metabolic pathway of increasing importance is the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway (HBP). The HBP utilizes glycolytic intermediates to generate the metabolite UDP-GlcNAc. This and other charged nucleotide sugars serve as the basis for biosynthesis of glycoproteins and other glycoconjugates. Recent reports in the field of glycobiology have cultivated great curiosity within the cancer research community. However, specific mechanistic relationships between the HBP and fundamental pathways of cancer, such as EMT, have yet to be elucidated. Altered protein glycosylation downstream of the HBP is well positioned to mediate many cellular changes associated with EMT including cell-cell adhesion, responsiveness to growth factors, immune system evasion, and signal transduction programs. Here, we outline some of the basics of the HBP and putative roles the HBP may have in driving EMT-related cancer processes. With novel appreciation of the HBP's connection to EMT, we hope to illuminate the potential for new therapeutic targets of cancer. PMID:27148477

  20. Hijacking the Hexosamine Biosynthetic Pathway to Promote EMT-Mediated Neoplastic Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Taparra, Kekoa; Tran, Phuoc T.; Zachara, Natasha E.

    2016-01-01

    The epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a highly conserved program necessary for orchestrating distant cell migration during embryonic development. Multiple studies in cancer have demonstrated a critical role for EMT during the initial stages of tumorigenesis and later during tumor invasion. Transcription factors (TFs) such as SNAIL, TWIST, and ZEB are master EMT regulators that are aberrantly overexpressed in many malignancies. Recent evidence correlates EMT-related transcriptomic alterations with metabolic reprograming in cancer. Metabolic alterations may allow cancer to adapt to environmental stressors, supporting the irregular macromolecular demand of rapid proliferation. One potential metabolic pathway of increasing importance is the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway (HBP). The HBP utilizes glycolytic intermediates to generate the metabolite UDP–GlcNAc. This and other charged nucleotide sugars serve as the basis for biosynthesis of glycoproteins and other glycoconjugates. Recent reports in the field of glycobiology have cultivated great curiosity within the cancer research community. However, specific mechanistic relationships between the HBP and fundamental pathways of cancer, such as EMT, have yet to be elucidated. Altered protein glycosylation downstream of the HBP is well positioned to mediate many cellular changes associated with EMT including cell–cell adhesion, responsiveness to growth factors, immune system evasion, and signal transduction programs. Here, we outline some of the basics of the HBP and putative roles the HBP may have in driving EMT-related cancer processes. With novel appreciation of the HBP’s connection to EMT, we hope to illuminate the potential for new therapeutic targets of cancer. PMID:27148477

  1. REDD2-mediated inhibition of mTOR promotes dendrite retraction induced by axonal injury.

    PubMed

    Morquette, B; Morquette, P; Agostinone, J; Feinstein, E; McKinney, R A; Kolta, A; Di Polo, A

    2015-04-01

    Dendritic defects occur in neurodegenerative diseases accompanied by axonopathy, yet the mechanisms that regulate these pathologic changes are poorly understood. Using Thy1-YFPH mice subjected to optic nerve axotomy, we demonstrate early retraction of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) dendrites and selective loss of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activity, which precede soma loss. Axonal injury triggered rapid upregulation of the stress-induced protein REDD2 (regulated in development and DNA damage response 2), a potent inhibitor of mTOR. Short interfering RNA-mediated REDD2 knockdown restored mTOR activity and rescued dendritic length, area and branch complexity in a rapamycin-dependent manner. Whole-cell recordings demonstrated that REDD2 depletion leading to mTOR activation in RGCs restored their light response properties. Lastly, we show that REDD2-dependent mTOR activity extended RGC survival following axonal damage. These results indicate that injury-induced stress leads to REDD2 upregulation, mTOR inhibition and dendrite pathology causing neuronal dysfunction and subsequent cell death. PMID:25257176

  2. Clitocine potentiates TRAIL-mediated apoptosis in human colon cancer cells by promoting Mcl-1 degradation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jian-Guo; Ruan, Feng; Zeng, Xue-Li; Xiang, Jun; Li, Xia; Wu, Ping; Fung, Kwok Pui; Liu, Fei-Yan

    2016-10-01

    Among anti-cancer candidate drugs, TRAIL might be the most specific agent against cancer cells due to its low toxicity to normal cells. Unfortunately, cancer cells usually develop drug resistance to TRAIL, which is a major obstacle for its clinical application. One promising strategy is co-administrating with sensitizer to overcome cancer cells resistance to TRAIL. Clitocine, a natural amino nucleoside purified from wild mushroom, is recently demonstrated that can induce apoptosis in multidrug-resistant human cancer cells by targeting Mcl-1. In the present study,we found that pretreatment with clitocine dramatically enhances TRAIL lethality in its resistant human colon cancer cells by inducing apoptosis. More importantly, combination of clitocine and TRAIL also effectively inhibits xenograft growth and induces tumor cells apoptosis in athymic mice. The disruption of the binding between Mcl-1 and Bak as well as mitochondrial translocation of Bax mediated by clitocine are identified as the key underlying mechanisms, which leading to mitochondrial membrane permeabilization. Enforced exogenous Mcl-1 can effectively attenuate clitocine/TRAIL-induced apoptosis by suppressing the activation of intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Furthermore, clitocine regulates Mcl-1 expression at the posttranslational level as no obvious change is observed on mRNA level and proteasome inhibitor MG132 almost blocks the Mcl-1 suppression by clitocine. In fact, more ubiquitinated Mcl-1 was detected under clitocine treatment. Our findings indicate that clitocine is potentially an effective adjuvant agent in TRAIL-based cancer therapy. PMID:27421828

  3. Uracil-DNA Glycosylase UNG Promotes Tet-mediated DNA Demethylation.

    PubMed

    Xue, Jian-Huang; Xu, Gui-Fang; Gu, Tian-Peng; Chen, Guo-Dong; Han, Bin-Bin; Xu, Zhi-Mei; Bjørås, Magnar; Krokan, Hans E; Xu, Guo-Liang; Du, Ya-Rui

    2016-01-01

    In mammals, active DNA demethylation involves oxidation of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) into 5-formylcytosine (5fC) and 5-carboxylcytosine (5caC) by Tet dioxygenases and excision of these two oxidized bases by thymine DNA glycosylase (TDG). Although TDG is essential for active demethylation in embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells, it is hardly expressed in mouse zygotes and dispensable in pronuclear DNA demethylation. To search for other factors that might contribute to demethylation in mammalian cells, we performed a functional genomics screen based on a methylated luciferase reporter assay. UNG2, one of the glycosylases known to excise uracil residues from DNA, was found to reduce DNA methylation, thus activating transcription of a methylation-silenced reporter gene when co-transfected with Tet2 into HEK293T cells. Interestingly, UNG2 could decrease 5caC from the genomic DNA and a reporter plasmid in transfected cells, like TDG. Furthermore, deficiency in Ung partially impaired DNA demethylation in mouse zygotes. Our results suggest that UNG might be involved in Tet-mediated DNA demethylation. PMID:26620559

  4. A mediated modelling approach to promote collaborative learning in Andean rural micro-catchments in Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gowing, John; Dominguez, Isabel

    2013-04-01

    In rural catchments of developing countries water-related diseases, due to land use patterns (agriculture and livestock), microbial pollution, inadequate sanitation systems, access to water of poor quality, and lack of institutional support are common problems which disproportionally affect poor and vulnerable people. This research aims at developing a system dynamic model to improve the understanding of the macro and micro factors that influence human health and environmental health in rural micro-catchments in Valle del Cauca, Colombia. In this catchment livelihoods for most people depend on agriculture, particularly coffee. The research uses a mediated modeling approach, in which different stakeholders in modeling sessions, develop a STELLA model that allows them to identify relations between the economic, social and environmental factors and driving forces over the performance of their system. Stakeholders jointly develop the model structure in sessions facilitated by the researcher and the data required is gathered using secondary information from the different relevant institutions and primary information from field surveys that cover socioeconomic and environmental aspects that has not been previously collected by any institution or organization (i.e. household survey, stream water survey, and drinking water survey). Representation and understanding of their system will allow the stakeholders to test the effect of different management strategies in the micro-catchment and their associated socioeconomic, environmental and human health outcomes.

  5. Heme-mediated SPI-C induction promotes monocyte differentiation into iron-recycling macrophages.

    PubMed

    Haldar, Malay; Kohyama, Masako; So, Alex Yick-Lun; Kc, Wumesh; Wu, Xiaodi; Briseño, Carlos G; Satpathy, Ansuman T; Kretzer, Nicole M; Arase, Hisashi; Rajasekaran, Namakkal S; Wang, Li; Egawa, Takeshi; Igarashi, Kazuhiko; Baltimore, David; Murphy, Theresa L; Murphy, Kenneth M

    2014-03-13

    Splenic red pulp macrophages (RPM) degrade senescent erythrocytes and recycle heme-associated iron. The transcription factor SPI-C is selectively expressed by RPM and is required for their development, but the physiologic stimulus inducing Spic is unknown. Here, we report that Spic also regulated the development of F4/80(+)VCAM1(+) bone marrow macrophages (BMM) and that Spic expression in BMM and RPM development was induced by heme, a metabolite of erythrocyte degradation. Pathologic hemolysis induced loss of RPM and BMM due to excess heme but induced Spic in monocytes to generate new RPM and BMM. Spic expression in monocytes was constitutively inhibited by the transcriptional repressor BACH1. Heme induced proteasome-dependent BACH1 degradation and rapid Spic derepression. Furthermore, cysteine-proline dipeptide motifs in BACH1 that mediate heme-dependent degradation were necessary for Spic induction by heme. These findings are the first example of metabolite-driven differentiation of a tissue-resident macrophage subset and provide new insights into iron homeostasis. PMID:24630724

  6. Heme-mediated SPI-C induction promotes monocyte differentiation into iron-recycling macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Haldar, Malay; Kohyama, Masako; So, Alex Yick-Lun; Wumesh, KC; Wu, Xiaodi; Briseno, Carlos G.; Satpathy, Ansuman T.; Kretzer, Nicole M.; Rajasekaran, Namakkal Soorappan; Wang, Li; Egawa, Takeshi; Igarashi, Kazuhiko; Baltimore, David; Murphy, Theresa L.; Murphy, Kenneth M.

    2014-01-01

    Splenic red pulp macrophages (RPM) degrade senescent erythrocytes and recycle heme-associated iron. The transcription factor Spic is selectively expressed by RPM and is required for their development, but the physiologic stimulus inducing Spic is unknown. Here, we report that Spic also regulated the development of F4/80+VCAM1+ bone marrow macrophages (BMM) and that Spic expression in BMM and RPM development was induced by heme, a metabolite of erythrocyte degradation. Pathologic hemolysis induced loss of RPM and BMM due to excess heme but induced Spic in monocytes to generate new RPM and BMM. Spic expression in monocytes was constitutively inhibited by the transcriptional repressor Bach1. Heme induced proteasome-dependent BACH1 degradation and rapid Spic derepression. Furthermore, cysteine-proline dipeptide motifs in BACH1 that mediate heme-dependent degradation were necessary for Spic induction by heme. These findings are the first example of metabolite-driven differentiation of a tissue-resident macrophage subset and provide new insights into iron homeostasis. PMID:24630724

  7. JNK-mediated phosphorylation of DLK suppresses its ubiquitination to promote neuronal apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Huntwork-Rodriguez, Sarah; Wang, Bei; Watkins, Trent; Ghosh, Arundhati Sengupta; Pozniak, Christine D.; Bustos, Daisy; Newton, Kim; Kirkpatrick, Donald S.

    2013-01-01

    Neurons are highly polarized cells that often project axons a considerable distance. To respond to axonal damage, neurons must transmit a retrograde signal to the nucleus to enable a transcriptional stress response. Here we describe a mechanism by which this signal is propagated through injury-induced stabilization of dual leucine zipper-bearing kinase (DLK/MAP3K12). After neuronal insult, specific sites throughout the length of DLK underwent phosphorylation by c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs), which have been shown to be downstream targets of DLK pathway activity. These phosphorylation events resulted in increased DLK abundance via reduction of DLK ubiquitination, which was mediated by the E3 ubiquitin ligase PHR1 and the de-ubiquitinating enzyme USP9X. Abundance of DLK in turn controlled the levels of downstream JNK signaling and apoptosis. Through this feedback mechanism, the ubiquitin–proteasome system is able to provide an additional layer of regulation of retrograde stress signaling to generate a global cellular response to localized external insults. PMID:23979718

  8. Erlotinib promotes endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated injury in the intestinal epithelium

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, Lu; Hu, Lingna; Yang, Baofang; Fang, Xianying; Gao, Zhe; Li, Wanshuai; Sun, Yang; Shen, Yan; Wu, Xuefeng; Shu, Yongqian; Gu, Yanhong; Wu, Xudong; Xu, Qiang

    2014-07-01

    Erlotinib, a popular drug for treating non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), causes diarrhea in approximately 55% of patients receiving this drug. In the present study, we found that erlotinib induced barrier dysfunction in rat small intestine epithelial cells (IEC-6) by increasing epithelial permeability and down-regulating E-cadherin. The mRNA levels of various pro-inflammatory cytokines (Il-6, Il-25 and Il-17f) were increased after erlotinib treatment in IEC-6 cells. Erlotinib concentration- and time-dependently induced apoptosis and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in both IEC-6 and human colon epithelial cells (CCD 841 CoN). Intestinal epithelial injury was also observed in male C57BL/6J mice administrated with erlotinib. Knockdown of C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) with small interference RNA partially reversed erlotinib-induced apoptosis, production of IL-6 and down-regulation of E-cadherin in cultured intestinal epithelial cells. In conclusion, erlotinib caused ER stress-mediated injury in the intestinal epithelium, contributing to its side effects of diarrhea in patients. - Highlights: • Erlotinib destroyed barrier integrity both in vitro and in vivo. • Erlotinib induced inflammation both in vitro and in vivo. • Erlotinib induced apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo. • ER stress contributed to erlotinib-induced barrier dysfunction.

  9. Negative regulation of the rat stromelysin gene promoter by retinoic acid is mediated by an AP1 binding site.

    PubMed Central

    Nicholson, R C; Mader, S; Nagpal, S; Leid, M; Rochette-Egly, C; Chambon, P

    1990-01-01

    Stromelysin is a member of the metalloproteinase family which plays an important role in extracellular matrix remodelling during many normal and disease processes. We show here that in polyomavirus-transformed rat embryo fibroblast cells (PyT21), the transcription from the stromelysin gene is repressed by the vitamin A derivative retinoic acid (RA). Furthermore, expression vectors encoding the human RA receptors hRAR-alpha, hRAR-beta and hRAR-gamma repress chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) expression from stromelysin promoter-CAT gene expression vectors in RA-treated PyT21 and human HeLa cells, as determined by transient transfection assays. Through mutation and deletion analysis, we show that the RA dependent repression is mediated by a 25 bp region from nucleotide positions -72 to -48 of the rat stromelysin 5'-flanking DNA sequence. Further mutation analysis of this region indicates that the DNA sequence required for RA dependent repression colocalizes with an AP1 binding site which is essential for promoter activity. We show also that RA represses the transcriptional activity of a reporter gene containing a TPA responding AP1 binding site driving the HSV tk promoter. Thus the RAR-RA complex appears to repress transcription of the stromelysin gene by blocking activation by positive regulatory factors. However, we found no evidence supporting the possibility that the RA dependent repression could be due to RAR binding to the AP1 binding site or to the AP1 components c-fos and c-jun. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 4. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:2176152

  10. Looping Mediated Interaction between the Promoter and 3′ UTR Regulates Type II Collagen Expression in Chondrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Jash, Arijita; Yun, Kangsun; Sahoo, Anupama; So, Jae-Seon; Im, Sin-Hyeog

    2012-01-01

    Type II collagen is the major component of articular cartilage and is mainly synthesized by chondrocytes. Repeated sub-culturing of primary chondrocytes leads to reduction of type II collagen gene (Col2a1) expression, which mimics the process of chondrocyte dedifferentiation. Although the functional importance of Col2a1 expression has been extensively investigated, mechanism of transcriptional regulation during chondrocyte dedifferentiation is still unclear. In this study, we have investigated the crosstalk between cis-acting DNA element and transcription factor on Col2a1 expression in primary chondrocytes. Bioinformatic analysis revealed the potential regulatory regions in the Col2a1 genomic locus. Among them, promoter and 3′ untranslated region (UTR) showed highly accessible chromatin architecture with enriched recruitment of active chromatin markers in primary chondrocytes. 3′ UTR has a potent enhancer function which recruits Lef1 (Lymphoid enhancer binding factor 1) transcription factor, leading to juxtaposition of the 3′ UTR with the promoter through gene looping resulting in up-regulation of Col2a1 gene transcription. Knock-down of endogenous Lef1 level significantly reduced the gene looping and subsequently down-regulated Col2a1 expression. However, these regulatory loci become inaccessible due to condensed chromatin architecture as chondrocytes dedifferentiate which was accompanied by a reduction of gene looping and down-regulation of Col2a1 expression. Our results indicate that Lef1 mediated looping between promoter and 3′ UTR under the permissive chromatin architecture upregulates Col2a1 expression in primary chondrocytes. PMID:22815835