Rai, M K
Introduction Breast tumours are classified as benign, proliferative and invasive tumours. Estrogen hormone influences the proliferative activity and progression of the tumour. Estrogen Receptor (ER) status and proliferative index (Ki 67) are important histopathological factors in the development and prognosis of these tumours. Aim The present study was aimed to evaluate the variations in ER and Ki-67 expression in three broad categories of breast lesions namely benign breast disease, proliferative breast disease and malignant breast disease. Materials and Methods ER% and Ki-67% was evaluated on the histopathological tissues of 15 patients each of benign, proliferative and invasive breast tumours. The ER+/ Ki-67± ratio was calculated and the variation of expression between the three categories was analyzed using student’s t-test. Pearson’s coefficient of correlation was used to correlate ER and Ki-67 positivity within each category. Results The mean ER+/Ki-67+ in benign, proliferative and invasive tumours was 0.81, 0.87 and 1.42 respectively. A statistically significant difference in ER+/Ki-67+ proportions was observed between proliferative breast disease category and malignant breast disease category and also between benign breast disease category and malignant breast disease category (p<0.05). However, no significant difference was observed in benign breast disease category and proliferative breast disease category (p>0.05). A significant correlation was observed in proliferative breast disease and malignant breast disease categories. However, no significant correlation was observed in benign breast disease category Conclusion ER+/Ki-67+ ratio is an important determinant of the invasive breast cancer and can be used to differentiate invasive cancers from benign and proliferative breast tumours. PMID:27190810
Helle, A. M.; Pilinski, J.; Luhmann, T.
The paper gives an overview about two research projects, both dealing with optical head tracking in hearing applications. As part of the project "Development of a real-time low-cost tracking system for medical and audiological problems (ELCoT)" a cost-effective single camera 3D tracking system has been developed which enables the detection of arm and head movements of human patients. Amongst others, the measuring system is designed for a new hearing test (based on the "Mainzer Kindertisch"), which analyzes the directional hearing capabilities of children in cooperation with the research project ERKI (Evaluation of acoustic sound source localization for children). As part of the research project framework "Hearing in everyday life (HALLO)" a stereo tracking system is being used for analyzing the head movement of human patients during complex acoustic events. Together with the consideration of biosignals like skin conductance the speech comprehension and listening effort of persons with reduced hearing ability, especially in situations with background noise, is evaluated. For both projects the system design, accuracy aspects and results of practical tests are discussed.
Protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation form a major post-translation mechanism that enables a given cell to respond to ever-changing internal and external environments. Neurons, similarly to any other cells, use protein phosphorylation/dephosphorylation to maintain an internal homeostasis, but they also use it for updating the state of synaptic and intrinsic properties, following activation by neurotransmitters and growth factors. In the present review we focus on the roles of several families of kinases, phosphatases, and other synaptic-plasticity-related proteins, which activate membrane receptors and various intracellular signals to promote transcription, translation and protein degradation, and to regulate the appropriate cellular proteomes required for taste memory acquisition, consolidation and maintenance. Attention is especially focused on the protein phosphorylation state in two forebrain areas that are necessary for taste-memory learning and retrieval: the insular cortex and the amygdala. The various temporal phases of taste learning require the activation of appropriate waves of biochemical signals. These include: extracellular signal regulated kinase I and II (ERKI/II) signal transduction pathways; Ca2+-dependent pathways; tyrosine kinase/phosphatase-dependent pathways; brain-derived neurotrophicfactor (BDNF)-dependent pathways; cAMP-responsive element bindingprotein (CREB); and translation-regulation factors, such as initiation and elongation factors, and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Interestingly, coding of hedonic and aversive taste information in the forebrain requires activation of different signal transduction pathways. PMID:22792024
Liu, May-Lan; Hua, Kuo-Feng; Yang, Tzu-Jung; Chiu, Huan-Wen; Ho, Chen-Lung
The essential oil from the heartwood of Taiwan fir (EOTC) was demonstrated to exhibit anti-inflammatory activity in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated mouse macrophages. EOTC reduced nitrite oxide levels and inducible nitrite oxide synthase expression in, and tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 secretion by, LPS-activated macrophages without affecting cyclooxygenase-2 expression. EOTC reduced the levels of interleukin-lβ precursor induced by LPS and decreased the NLRP3 inflammasome-derived interleukin-lβ secretion induced by LPS and adenosine triphosphate. In addition, the phosphorylation levels of ERKI/2, JNK1/2, and p38 in LPS-activated macrophages were reduced by EOTC. Furthermore, EOTC was composed of oxygenated sesquiterpenes (68.4%), sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (28.9%) and diterpenes (0.9%). The major compounds of the oxygenated sesquiterpenes were τ-cadinol (23.9%), α-cadinol (21.1%) and cedrol (16.9%). These findings suggest that EOTC may be a candidate for the development of anti-inflammatory agents for preventing and ameliorating inflammation-related diseases. PMID:25522551
The recent work is based on collections, which were sampled in 1980-th by soviet geologists and preserving now in funds of Vernadsky State Geological Museum. They include litological samples with larger foraminifera (LF) and separated tests of LF from Paleogene of Atag area and Hadramaut plateau (Souternn Yemen). The planctonic foraminifera are very rare in considered samples. According to lithological and foraminiferal composition all samples (about 100 numbers) are divided into three parts. The first one includes the LF tests, washed from sandy marls and shales of wells. The second unit represented by bioclastic limestones, partly silicified and dolomitized and rare marls, collected from the exposed sections. These units belong to Umm er Radhuma formation, which in Yemen dated by Paleocene-Eocene (Pignatti et al., 1998) or only Eocene (Ismail and Boukhary, 2008). The third, Lower Eocene unit in collections (Jeza formation) represented mainly by non carbonatic, gypsiferous argillaceous papery shales and marls. The most lower, marly part of section is opened by wells. The LF assemblages from marls of wells include the next rotaliids in lower part: Lokhartia lobulata Sander, L. haimei spirahordata Sander, L. cf. conditi Smout, Rotalia sp., Diktiokathina sp. The rests of Saudia tests are rare. In upper part Kathina erki (Sirel), Rotalia dukhani Smout and first small nummulites are marked. The lasts belong to Nummulites deserti group, having smaller protoconch and more compressed spire. Due to absence of true Eocene forms we consider these assemblages as paleocenic. The next association, represented by abundant Lockhartia sp., Lockhartia diversa Smout, Sakesaria sp. and rare Daviesina khatyahi Smout, Operculina cf. ornata Hott. and established in hard limestones of Umm er Radhuma formation, identified as transitional from Paleocene to Eocene (Lower Ilerdian). In marls and shales, alternated with limestones in upper part of this formation the middle Ilerdian assemblage
Pollen-inferred quantitative reconstructions of Holocene land-cover in NW Europe for the evaluation of past climate-vegetation feedbacks - The Swedish LANDCLIM project and the NordForsk LANDCLIM network
Gaillard, Marie-Jose; Sugita, Shinya; Rundgren, Mats; Smith, Benjamin; Mazier, Florence; Trondman, Anna-Kari; Fyfe, Ralph; Kokfelt, Ulla; Nielsen, Anne-Birgitte; Strandberg, Gustav
of ca. 1o x 1o. The REVEALS estimates of the past cover of PFTs will be 1) compared with the outputs of the LPJ-GUESS (10 PFTs), a widely-used dynamic vegetation model and 2) used as an alternative to the LPJ-GUESS-simulated vegetation (3 PFTs) to run for the past the regional climate model RCA3 developed at the Rossby Centre, Norrköping, Sweden. The study will evaluate and further refine these models (RCA3 and LPJ-GUESS) using a data-model comparison approach that incorporates new syntheses of palaeoclimatic data as well. It will lead to new assessments of the possible effect of various factors on climate, such as deforestations and afforestations, and changes in vegetation composition and spatial patterns of land cover/land use. Refined climate models and empirical land-cover reconstructions will shed new light on controversial hypotheses of past climate change and human impacts, such as the "Ruddiman hypothesis". First maps of REVEALS estimates of plant functional types (PFTs) are now available for Sweden, Norway, Finland, Denmark, Estonia, Poland, Germany, The Czech Republic, Switzerland and Britain (see Mazier et al. C1.21 and Trondman et al. C1.22). Correlation tests show that the REVEALS estimates are robust in terms of ranking of the PFTs' abundance (see Mazier et al, C1.21). The LANDCLIM project and network are a contribution to the IGBP-PAGES-Focus 4 PHAROS programme on human impact on environmental changes in the past. The following LANDCLIM members are acknowledged for providing pollen records, for help with pollen databases, and for providing results to the project: Mihkel Kangur and Tiiu Koff (Univ. Tallinn, Tallinn); Erik Kjellström (SMHI, Norrköping), Anna Broström, Lena Barnekow and Thomas Persson (GeoBiosphere Science Centre, Lund University); Anneli Poska (Physical Geography and Ecosystems Analysis, Lund University); Thomas Giesecke (Albrecht-von-Haller-Institute for Plant Sciences, University of Göttingen), Anne Bjune and John Birks (Dept. of