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1

Alcohol-mediated error-prone PCR.  

PubMed

The effect of urea, isopropanol, propan-1-ol, and butan-1-ol on PCR using three different DNA polymerases was investigated. In the presence of these agents, polymerases were active as expected up to a critical concentration where they became progressively inhibited. Critical concentrations of alcohols generally increased with thermoresistance of the polymerases and decreased with the hydrophobicity of the alcohols. These results indicate that an important aspect of the inhibition involved conformational loosening due to a decrease in the hydrophobic effect. A mutagenic effect occurred with Vent(r) (exo-) DNA polymerase in the presence of 7.0 to 8.0% v/v propan-1-ol, affording mutation frequencies of up to 9.8 x 10(-3) mutation/bp/PCR. Under these conditions the preferential replacement of Gs and Cs was observed, in opposition to standard error-prone PCR that favors replacement of As and Ts. Comparison of various PCR conditions indicates that propanol and MnCl2 have different modes of action, and that the decrease in fidelity promoted by propanol is due to a finely tuned partial destabilization of the polymerase. The PCR conditions developed in this study provide a useful alternative for targeting different sequence space for directed evolution experiments. PMID:15585138

Claveau, S; Sasseville, M; Beauregard, M

2004-11-01

2

One-step generation of error-prone PCR libraries using Gateway® technology  

PubMed Central

Background Error-prone PCR (epPCR) libraries are one of the tools used in directed evolution. The Gateway® technology allows constructing epPCR libraries virtually devoid of any background (i.e., of insert-free plasmid), but requires two steps: the BP and the LR reactions and the associated E. coli cell transformations and plasmid purifications. Results We describe a method for making epPCR libraries in Gateway® plasmids using an LR reaction without intermediate BP reaction. We also describe a BP-free and LR-free sub-cloning method for in-frame transferring the coding sequence of selected clones from the plasmid used to screen the library to another one devoid of tag used for screening (such as the green fluorescent protein). We report preliminary results of a directed evolution program using this method. Conclusions The one-step method enables producing epPCR libraries of as high complexity and quality as does the regular, two-step, protocol for half the amount of work. In addition, it contributes to preserve the original complexity of the epPCR product.

2012-01-01

3

Error-Prone PCR Mutagenesis Reveals Functional Domains of a Bacterial Transcriptional Activator, TraJ  

PubMed Central

TraJ is the essential activator of PY, the promoter of the F and F-like plasmid tra operon that encodes the majority of the proteins for bacterial conjugation. By combining error-prone PCR mutagenesis with a two-plasmid screen, we isolated 55 missense mutations in traJ, each affecting the ability of TraJ to activate PY. These mutations define two distinct functional clusters (amino acids [aa] 21 to 117 and aa 150 to 219). Limited proteolytic analysis of TraJ suggested that the N- and C-terminal functional clusters are two structurally distinct domains. Most TraJ mutants exhibited decreased intracellular protein levels, and the HslVU protease-chaperone pair was found to be responsible for degrading those mutants without extracytoplasmic stress-induced overexpression. In vivo cross-linking analysis of TraJ mutants indicated that the N-terminal domain is responsible for dimerization. This was confirmed by the finding that the purified N-terminal region of TraJ forms dimers in solution. The levels of dimerization and in vivo activities of TraJ mutants are well correlated, suggesting that dimerization of TraJ is required for its biological function. We propose that the regulation of TraJ dimerization and/or its susceptibility to HslVU could be a key mechanism in various signaling processes for controlling bacterial conjugation in response to physiological or environmental stimuli.

Lu, Jun; Peng, Yun; Arutyunov, Denis; Frost, Laura S.

2012-01-01

4

[Comparison of site-mutated and error-prone PCR methods for constructing the secondary phage antibody libraries].  

PubMed

Objective To compare site-mutated PCR and error-prone PCR methods in constructing the secondary phage antibody libraries derived from a primary extracellular domain of cell adhesion molecule L1 (L1-ecd) binding single-chain variable fragment (scFv) antibody. Methods Secondary mutant phage libraries were established by transfecting the mutated phage at the DNA level to E.coli TG1 with designed site-mutated PCR or error-prone PCR primers. Using the selected phagemid as the template, the mutated plasmid was amplified by PCR and then constructed with restriction enzyme cutting and ligation. Phage-based ELISA was used to calculate the ratios of the positive monoclones from the two libraries and the results were statistically compared using the Pearson x(2); method. Results The size of the two libraries were 1.4×10(6); pfu/mL (site-mutated library) and 2.5×10(6); pfu/mL (error-prone library), respectively. The ratios of positive clones were 32.5% and 35.5%, respectively. The P value was 0.67, showing no significant difference. Conclusion These two methods can be widely used to obtain antibodies with a high affinity on the basis of the existing phage antibody. PMID:24103266

Liu, Yang; Yu, Yang; Wang, Yan; Zhao, Weijiang

2013-10-01

5

Thermostable DNA ligase-mediated PCR production of circular plasmid (PPCP) and its application in directed evolution via in situ error-prone PCR.  

PubMed

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a powerful method to produce linear DNA fragments. Here we describe the Tma thermostable DNA ligase-mediated PCR production of circular plasmid (PPCP) and its application in directed evolution via in situ error-prone PCR. In this thermostable DNA ligase-mediated whole-plasmid amplification method, the resultant DNA nick between the 5' end of the PCR primer and the extended newly synthesized DNA 3' end of each PCR cycle is ligated by Tma DNA ligase, resulting in circular plasmid DNA product that can be directly transformed. The template plasmid DNA is eliminated by 'selection marker swapping' upon transformation. When performed under an error-prone condition with Taq DNA polymerase, PPCP allows one-step construction of mutagenesis libraries based on in situ error-prone PCR so that random mutations are introduced into the target gene without altering the expression vector plasmid. A significant difference between PPCP and previously published methods is that PPCP allows exponential amplification of circular DNA. We used this method to create random mutagenesis libraries of a xylanase gene and two cellulase genes. Screening of these libraries resulted in mutant proteins with desired properties, demonstrating the usefulness of in situ error-prone PPCP for creating random mutagenesis libraries for directed evolution. PMID:23633530

Le, Yilin; Chen, Huayou; Zagursky, Robert; Wu, J H David; Shao, Weilan

2013-04-30

6

[Directed evolution by error-prone PCR of Armillariella tabescens MAN47 beta-mannanase gene toward enhanced thermal resistance].  

PubMed

Firstly, We used error-prone PCR to induce mutations on Armillariella tabescens MAN47 beta-mannanase gene, Secondly, we cloned the mutated fragments into secreted expression vector pYCalpha, Then the recombinant plasmids were transformed into Saccharomyces cerevisiae BJ5465 after amplified and extracted in DH5alpha cells. Through three cycles of error-prone PCR we built a mutant database, Then we screened one optimum (named M262) from about 104 mutants. The evoluted MAN47 beta-mannanase displayed both higher thermal stability and activity than wide type. The evoluted enzyme M262 retained high activity after treatment at 80 degrees C for 30 min, whereas, the wild type nearly lost activity under this condition. Meanwhile, the activity of M262 can reach to 25 U/mL, which is 4.3 times as wide type under optimum temperature. In addition, pH stability and pH range of evoluted enzyme M262 were both improved compared with wild-type enzyme. The optimum pH was estimated to be similar to that of wild-type enzyme. The sequence comparison illustrated that there were three nucleotide substitutions (T343A/C827T/T1139C) which carried corresponding amino acid changes (Ser115Thr/Thr276Met/Val380Ala). According to homologous modeling by SWISS-MODEL Repository, three mutated amino acids located at the sixth amino acid of the fourth beta-sheet, the first amino acid of the sixth alpha-helix, the turn between the tenth and eleventh beta-sheet, respectively. PMID:20352966

Lü, Xiaohui; Hu, Yadong; Hu, Fengjuan; Liu, Daling; Yao, Dongsheng

2009-12-01

7

Inhibiting HER3-mediated tumor cell growth with affibody molecules engineered to low picomolar affinity by position-directed error-prone PCR-like diversification.  

PubMed

The HER3 receptor is implicated in the progression of various cancers as well as in resistance to several currently used drugs, and is hence a potential target for development of new therapies. We have previously generated Affibody molecules that inhibit heregulin-induced signaling of the HER3 pathways. The aim of this study was to improve the affinity of the binders to hopefully increase receptor inhibition efficacy and enable a high receptor-mediated uptake in tumors. We explored a novel strategy for affinity maturation of Affibody molecules that is based on alanine scanning followed by design of library diversification to mimic the result from an error-prone PCR reaction, but with full control over mutated positions and thus less biases. Using bacterial surface display and flow-cytometric sorting of the maturation library, the affinity for HER3 was improved more than 30-fold down to 21 pM. The affinity is among the higher that has been reported for Affibody molecules and we believe that the maturation strategy should be generally applicable for improvement of affinity proteins. The new binders also demonstrated an improved thermal stability as well as complete refolding after denaturation. Moreover, inhibition of ligand-induced proliferation of HER3-positive breast cancer cells was improved more than two orders of magnitude compared to the previously best-performing clone. Radiolabeled Affibody molecules showed specific targeting of a number of HER3-positive cell lines in vitro as well as targeting of HER3 in in vivo mouse models and represent promising candidates for future development of targeted therapies and diagnostics. PMID:23675426

Malm, Magdalena; Kronqvist, Nina; Lindberg, Hanna; Gudmundsdotter, Lindvi; Bass, Tarek; Frejd, Fredrik Y; Höidén-Guthenberg, Ingmarie; Varasteh, Zohreh; Orlova, Anna; Tolmachev, Vladimir; Ståhl, Stefan; Löfblom, John

2013-05-10

8

Error-proneness as a handicap signal.  

PubMed

This paper describes two discrete signalling models in which the error-proneness of signals can serve as a handicap signal. In the first model, the direct handicap of sending a high-quality signal is not large enough to assure that a low-quality signaller will not send it. However, if the receiver sometimes mistakes a high-quality signal for a low-quality one, then there is an indirect handicap to sending a high-quality signal. The total handicap of sending such a signal may then still be such that a low-quality signaller would not want to send it. In the second model, there is no direct handicap of sending signals, so that nothing would seem to stop a signaller from always sending a high-quality signal. However, the receiver sometimes fails to detect signals, and this causes an indirect handicap of sending a high-quality signal that still stops the low-quality signaller of sending such a signal. The conditions for honesty are that the probability of an error of detection is higher for a high-quality than for a low-quality signal, and that the signaller who does not detect a signal adopts a response that is bad to the signaller. In both our models, we thus obtain the result that signal accuracy should not lie above a certain level in order for honest signalling to be possible. Moreover, we show that the maximal accuracy that can be achieved is higher the lower the degree of conflict between signaller and receiver. As well, we show that it is the conditions for honest signalling that may be constraining signal accuracy, rather than the signaller trying to make honest signals as effective as possible given receiver psychology, or the signaller adapting the accuracy of honest signals depending on his interests. PMID:12927522

De Jaegher, Kris

2003-09-21

9

A new method for random mutagenesis by error-prone polymerase chain reaction using heavy water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Error-prone polymerase chain reactions (epPCRs) are often used to introduce mutations in random mutagenesis, which has been used as a tool in protein engineering. Here, we developed a new method of epPCR using heavy water as a solvent instead of normal water (H2O). Rhodopsin cDNA of the Ayu fish (Plecoglossus altivelis) was used as a template and was amplified using

Toshifumi Minamoto; Eitaro Wada; Isamu Shimizu

10

pol?, a remarkably error-prone human DNA polymerase  

PubMed Central

The Saccharomyces cerevisiae RAD30 gene encodes DNA polymerase ?. Humans possess two Rad30 homologs. One (RAD30A/POLH) has previously been characterized and shown to be defective in humans with the Xeroderma pigmentosum variant phenotype. Here, we report experiments demonstrating that the second human homolog (RAD30B), also encodes a novel DNA polymerase that we designate pol?. pol?, is a distributive enzyme that is highly error-prone when replicating undamaged DNA. At template G or C, the average error frequency was ?1?×?10?2. Our studies revealed, however, a striking asymmetry in misincorporation frequency at template A and T. For example, template A was replicated with the greatest accuracy, with misincorporation of G, A, or C occurring with a frequency of ?1?×?10?4 to 2?×?10?4. In dramatic contrast, most errors occurred at template T, where the misincorporation of G was, in fact, favored ?3:1 over the correct nucleotide, A, and misincorporation of T occurred at a frequency of ?6.7?×?10?1. These findings demonstrate that pol? is one of the most error-prone eukaryotic polymerases reported to date and exhibits an unusual misincorporation spectrum in vitro.

Tissier, Agnes; McDonald, John P.; Frank, Ekaterina G.; Woodgate, Roger

2000-01-01

11

A study of errors, error-proneness, and error diagnosis in Cobol  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides data on Cobol error frequency for correction of errors in student-oriented compilers, improvement of teaching, and changes in programming language. Cobol was studied because of economic importance, widespread usage, possible error-inducing design, and lack of research. The types of errors were identified in a pilot study; then, using the 132 error types found, 1,777 errors were classified

Charles R. Litecky; Gordon B. Davis

1976-01-01

12

Accurate and fast methods to estimate the population mutation rate from error prone sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The population mutation rate (?) remains one of the most fundamental parameters in genetics, ecology, and evolutionary biology. However, its accurate estimation can be seriously compromised when working with error prone data such as expressed sequence tags, low coverage draft sequences, and other such unfinished products. This study is premised on the simple idea that a random sequence error

Bjarne Knudsen; Michael M. Miyamoto

2009-01-01

13

Error-prone lesion bypass by human DNA polymerase ?  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA lesion bypass is an important cellular response to genomic damage during replication. Human DNA polymerase ? (Pol?), encoded by the Xeroderma pigmentosum variant (XPV) gene, is known for its activity of error-free translesion synthesis opposite a TT cis-syn cyclobutane dimer. Using purified human Pol?, we have examined bypass activities of this polymerase opposite several other DNA lesions. Human Pol?

Yanbin Zhang; Fenghua Yuan; Xiaohua Wu; Olga Rechkoblit; John-Stephen Taylor; Nicholas E. Geacintov; Zhigang Wang

14

Identifying Error-Prone Software - An Empirical Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major portion of the effort expended in developing commercial software today is associated with program testing. Schedule and\\/ or resource constraints frequently require that testing be conducted so as to uncover the greatest number of errors possible in the time allowed. In this paper we describe a study undertaken to assess the potential usefulness of various product-and process-related measures

Vincent Yun Shen; Tze-jie Yu; Stephen M. Thebaut; Lorri R. Paulsen

1985-01-01

15

Inducible Error-Prone Repair in B. Subtilis. Progress Report, September 1, 1981-April 30, 1985.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective was to investigate and elucidate the molecular mechanisms responsible for (i) inducible DNA repair system(s) and for (ii) error-prone repair in the gram positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis. The SOS-like system of Bacillus subtilis consists ...

R. E. Yasbin

1984-01-01

16

Accurate and fast methods to estimate the population mutation rate from error prone sequences  

PubMed Central

Background The population mutation rate (?) remains one of the most fundamental parameters in genetics, ecology, and evolutionary biology. However, its accurate estimation can be seriously compromised when working with error prone data such as expressed sequence tags, low coverage draft sequences, and other such unfinished products. This study is premised on the simple idea that a random sequence error due to a chance accident during data collection or recording will be distributed within a population dataset as a singleton (i.e., as a polymorphic site where one sampled sequence exhibits a unique base relative to the common nucleotide of the others). Thus, one can avoid these random errors by ignoring the singletons within a dataset. Results This strategy is implemented under an infinite sites model that focuses on only the internal branches of the sample genealogy where a shared polymorphism can arise (i.e., a variable site where each alternative base is represented by at least two sequences). This approach is first used to derive independently the same new Watterson and Tajima estimators of ?, as recently reported by Achaz [1] for error prone sequences. It is then used to modify the recent, full, maximum-likelihood model of Knudsen and Miyamoto [2], which incorporates various factors for experimental error and design with those for coalescence and mutation. These new methods are all accurate and fast according to evolutionary simulations and analyses of a real complex population dataset for the California seahare. Conclusion In light of these results, we recommend the use of these three new methods for the determination of ? from error prone sequences. In particular, we advocate the new maximum likelihood model as a starting point for the further development of more complex coalescent/mutation models that also account for experimental error and design.

2009-01-01

17

Inducible error-prone repair in B. subtilis. Progress report, September 1, 1979-February 28, 1981  

SciTech Connect

The mechanism of activation and the mode of action of the SOS system in Bacillus subtilis are being investigated. Interesting aspects of the SOS system in B. subtilis include: (1) the differences between the SOS functions in this bacterium and in the enteric bacteria; (2) the spontaneous activation of SOS functions in competent cells; and (3) the difficulty in establishing the presence of error-prone repair in this bacterium. In order to characterize the SOS system of B. subtilis, attempts will be made to: (1) isolate bacteria mutated in genes controlling various repair functions; (2) investigate inducible repair; (3) determine the role of endogenous prophages in DNA repair phenomena; and (4) utilize competent B. subtilis as a tester system for the detection of potential carcinogens. Data obtained during the past 18 months demonstrate: (1) the ability of the B. subtilis Comptest to detect potential environmental carcinogens; (2) the importance of DNA polymerase III in W-reactivation in B. subtilis; and (3) the control the bacteriophage SP..beta.. has over the inducible DNA modification system in B. subtilis. Furthermore, the data also suggests the lack of error-prone repair in B. subtilis, and the differences which exist between the Bacilli and the enteric bacteria with regards to SOS phenomena. In order to further characterize inducible repair functions in B. subtilis, results will also be presented on attempts to mobilize error-prone repair systems of other bacterial species.

Yasbin, R.E.

1980-10-01

18

Multiframe error concealment for MPEG-coded video delivery over error-prone networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract, Compressed video sequences are very vulnerable to channel disturbances when they are transmitted through an unre-liable medium such as a wireless channel. Transmission errors not only corrupt the current decoded frame, but they may also prop-agate to succeeding frames. A number of post-processing error concealment (ECN) methods that exploit the spatial and\\/or tem-poral redundancy in the video signal have

Yen-Chi Lee; Yucel Altunbasak; Russell M. Mersereau

2002-01-01

19

Error-prone mammalian female meiosis from silencing the spindle assembly checkpoint without normal interkinetochore tension.  

PubMed

It is well established that chromosome segregation in female meiosis I (MI) is error-prone. The acentrosomal meiotic spindle poles do not have centrioles and are not anchored to the cortex via astral microtubules. By Cre recombinase-mediated removal in oocytes of the microtubule binding site of nuclear mitotic apparatus protein (NuMA), which is implicated in anchoring microtubules at poles, we determine that without functional NuMA, microtubules lose connection to MI spindle poles, resulting in highly disorganized early spindle assembly. Subsequently, very long spindles form with hyperfocused poles. The kinetochores of homologs make attachments to microtubules in these spindles but with reduced tension between them and accompanied by alignment defects. Despite this, the spindle assembly checkpoint is normally silenced and the advance to anaphase I and first polar body extrusion takes place without delay. Females without functional NuMA in oocytes are sterile, producing aneuploid eggs with altered chromosome number. These findings establish that in mammalian MI, the spindle assembly checkpoint is unable to sustain meiotic arrest in the presence of one or few misaligned and/or misattached kinetochores with reduced interkinetochore tension, thereby offering an explanation for why MI in mammals is so error-prone. PMID:22552228

Kolano, Agnieszka; Brunet, Stéphane; Silk, Alain D; Cleveland, Don W; Verlhac, Marie-Hélène

2012-05-02

20

Inducible error-prone repair in B. subtilis. Final report, September 1, 1979-June 30, 1981  

SciTech Connect

The research performed under this contract has been concentrated on the relationship between inducible DNA repair systems, mutagenesis and the competent state in the gram positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis. The following results have been obtained from this research: (1) competent Bacillus subtilis cells have been developed into a sensitive tester system for carcinogens; (2) competent B. subtilis cells have an efficient excision-repair system, however, this system will not function on bacteriophage DNA taken into the cell via the process of transfection; (3) DNA polymerase III is essential in the mechanism of the process of W-reactivation; (4) B. subtilis strains cured of their defective prophages have been isolated and are now being developed for gene cloning systems; (5) protoplasts of B. subtilis have been shown capable of acquiring DNA repair enzymes (i.e., enzyme therapy); and (6) a plasmid was characterized which enhanced inducible error-prone repair in a gram positive organism.

Yasbin, R. E.

1981-06-01

21

Development and Use of Error-Prone Models to Supplement Pre-Established Criteria (PEC) in Selecting Pell Grant Recipients for Validation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The development of a number of error-prone models to select Pell Grant recipients for validation is discussed. The 1983-1984 Pell Grant validation strategy consists of a two-stage approach: selection using Pre-Established Criteria (PEC) followed by selection using Error Prone Modeling (EPM). The database used for model development consists of a…

Advanced Technology, Inc., Reston, VA.

22

UmuD?2C is an error-prone DNA polymerase, Escherichia coli pol V  

PubMed Central

The damage-inducible UmuD? and UmuC proteins are required for most SOS mutagenesis in Escherichia coli. Our recent assay to reconstitute this process in vitro, using a native UmuD?2C complex, revealed that the highly purified preparation contained DNA polymerase activity. Here we eliminate the possibility that this activity is caused by a contaminating DNA polymerase and show that it is intrinsic to UmuD?2C. E. coli dinB has recently been shown to have DNA polymerase activity (pol IV). We suggest that UmuD?2C, the fifth DNA polymerase discovered in E. coli, be designated as E. coli pol V. In the presence of RecA, ? sliding clamp, ? clamp loading complex, and E. coli single-stranded binding protein (SSB), pol V’s polymerase activity is highly “error prone” at both damaged and undamaged DNA template sites, catalyzing efficient bypass of abasic lesions that would otherwise severely inhibit replication by pol III holoenzyme complex (HE). Pol V bypasses a site-directed abasic lesion with an efficiency about 100- to 150-fold higher than pol III HE. In accordance with the “A-rule,” dAMP is preferentially incorporated opposite the lesion. A pol V mutant, UmuD?2C104 (D101N), has no measurable lesion bypass activity. A kinetic analysis shows that addition of increasing amounts of pol III to a fixed level of pol V inhibits lesion bypass, demonstrating that both enzymes compete for free 3?-OH template-primer ends. We show, however, that despite competition for primer-3?-ends, pol V and pol III HE can nevertheless interact synergistically to stimulate synthesis downstream from a template lesion.

Tang, Mengjia; Shen, Xuan; Frank, Ekaterina G.; O'Donnell, Mike; Woodgate, Roger; Goodman, Myron F.

1999-01-01

23

Inducible error-prone repair in B. subtilis. Progress report, September 1, 1981-April 30, 1985  

SciTech Connect

The objective was to investigate and elucidate the molecular mechanisms responsible for (i) inducible DNA repair system(s) and for (ii) error-prone repair in the gram positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis. The SOS-like system of Bacillus subtilis consists of several coordinately induced phenomena (e.g., cellular filamentation, prophage induction, and Weigle reactivation of uv-damaged bacteriophage) which are expressed after cellular insult such as DNA damage or inhibition of DNA replication. Mutagenesis of the bacterial chromosome and the development or maintenance of competence also appear to be involved in the SOS-like response in this bacterium. The genetic characterization of the SOS-like system has involved an analysis of (i) the effects of various DNA repair mutations on the expression of inducible phenomena and (ii) the tsi-23 mutation, which renders host strains thermally inducible for each of the SOS-like functions. Bacterial filamentation was unaffected by any of the DNA repair mutations studied. In contrast, the induction of prophage after thermal or uv pretreatment was abolished in strains carrying the recE4, recA1, recB2, or recG13 mutation. Weigle reactivation was also inhibited by the recE4, recA1, recB2, or recG13 mutation, whereas levels of W-reactivation were lower in strains which carried the uvrA42, polA5, or rec-961 mutation than in the DNA repair-proficient strain. Strains which carried the recE4 allele were incapable of chromosomal DNA-mediated transformation, and the frequency of this event was decreased in strains carrying the recA1, recB2, or tsi-23 mutation. Plasmid DNA transformation efficiency was decreased only in strains carrying the tsi-23 mutation in addition to the recE4, recA1, recB2, mutation. The results indicate that the SOS-like or SOB system of B. subtilis is regulated at different levels by two or more gene products.

Yasbin, R.E.

1984-12-01

24

Much of spontaneous mutagenesis in Escherichia coli is due to error-prone DNA repair: implications for spontaneous carcinogenesis.  

PubMed

The role of DNA repair genes (uvrA, uvrB, uvrD, recA, recB, lexA, and umuC) in spontaneous mutation rate per bacterium per cell division (micro) was determined for the reversion of UAA (his-4 and trpE65), UAG (lacZ53), and frameshift (trpE9777) mutations, and for the occurrence of forward mutations to valine resistance. Rich growth medium enhanced micro in a wildtype strain but not in a uvrB5 strain. In minimal growth medium, the uvrA and uvrB strains had the largest micro (1.9-6.2-fold greater than that for isogenic wild-type strains, depending on the mutation assay). The uvrB strains carrying lexA, recA, umuC, or both the uvrD and rec B mutations (in combination), i.e., mutations that inhibit error-prone DNA repair, had the lowest micro values (approximately 10-fold less than the uvrB strain). Teh recA and lexA mutations also reduced micro (by approximately 2-fold) in uvr+ strains. The genetic control of the error prone repair-dependent sector of spontaneous mutagenesis was shown to be qualitatively similar to the genetic control for u.v. radiation mutagenesis. The umuC mutation, which drastically reduced spontaneous mutagensis, had no effect on genetic recombination. It is proposed that the low level of spontaneous mutagenesis observed in the recA, lexA, umuC, and the uvrD recB strains is due to errors made during DNA replication, while the enhanced level of spontaneous mutagenesis observed in the wild type, and especially in the uvrA and uvrB strains, is due to excisable lesions that are produced in the DNA by normal metabolic reactions, and that such unexcised lesions induce mutations via error-prone DNA repair. These results are discussed in terms of their relevance to spontaneous carcinogenesis. PMID:7028309

Sargentini, N J; Smith, K C

1981-01-01

25

Increased But Error-Prone Nonhomologous End Joining in Immortalized Lymphoblastoid Cell Extracts From Adult Cancer Patients With Late Radionecrosis  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To study nonhomologous end joining in extracts of two lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from patients with late radionecrosis after radiotherapy. Both cell lines were previously shown to exhibit impaired rejoining of DNA double-strand breaks in a pulse-field gel electrophoresis assay. Methods and Materials: We used a cell-free system and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, as well as sequencing analysis of end joining products. Results: Paradoxically, extracts of the two cell lines display increased rates of in vitro end joining of noncohesive termini compared with normal cell extracts. This increase was seen in the absence of added deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates and was sensitive to inhibition by wortmannin. Sequencing of the joined products revealed that, despite increased rates of end joining, the process was error prone with a greater frequency of deletions compared with that observed in normal controls. Conclusion: These findings are consistent with the suggestion that a promiscuous, deletion-prone abnormality of nonhomologous end joining might underpin the predisposition of certain radiotherapy patients to late radionecrosis. We hypothesize that some individuals might harbor subclinical defects in nonhomologous end joining that clinically manifest on challenge with high-dose radiation. Because both quantitative and qualitative aspects of end joining have demonstrably been influenced, we recommend that the study of patient samples should involve a combination of quantitative methods (e.g., quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction), sequencing analysis, and a comparison of multiple join types.

Tan, W.-M. [Division of Cellular and Molecular Research, National Cancer Centre (Singapore); Paterson, Malcolm C. [Division of Cellular and Molecular Research, National Cancer Centre (Singapore); Division of Research, Singapore General Hospital (Singapore); Koo, Ghee Chong [Division of Cellular and Molecular Research, National Cancer Centre (Singapore); Li Huihua [Division of Clinical Trials and Epidemiology, National Cancer Centre (Singapore); Price, Allan [Division of Oncology, University of Edinburgh, Western General Hospital (Singapore); Loong, Susan L.E. [Division of Cellular and Molecular Research, National Cancer Centre (Singapore); Department of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Centre (Singapore)], E-mail: trdlle@nccs.com.sg

2008-09-01

26

A Bayesian approach to strengthen inference for case-control studies with multiple error-prone exposure assessments.  

PubMed

In case-control studies, exposure assessments are almost always error-prone. In the absence of a gold standard, two or more assessment approaches are often used to classify people with respect to exposure. Each imperfect assessment tool may lead to misclassification of exposure assignment; the exposure misclassification may be differential with respect to case status or not; and, the errors in exposure classification under the different approaches may be independent (conditional upon the true exposure status) or not. Although methods have been proposed to study diagnostic accuracy in the absence of a gold standard, these methods are infrequently used in case-control studies to correct exposure misclassification that is simultaneously differential and dependent. In this paper, we proposed a Bayesian method to estimate the measurement-error corrected exposure-disease association, accounting for both differential and dependent misclassification. The performance of the proposed method is investigated using simulations, which show that the proposed approach works well, as well as an application to a case-control study assessing the association between asbestos exposure and mesothelioma. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23661263

Zhang, Jing; Cole, Stephen R; Richardson, David B; Chu, Haitao

2013-05-10

27

A nucleotide analogue induced gain of function corrects the error-prone nature of human DNA polymerase iota  

PubMed Central

Y-family DNA polymerases participate in replication stress and DNA damage tolerance mechanisms. The properties that allow these enzymes to copy past bulky adducts or distorted template DNA can result in a greater propensity for them to make mistakes. Of the four human Y-family members, human DNA polymerase iota (hpol ?) is the most error-prone. In the current study, we elucidate the molecular basis for improving the fidelity of hpol ? through use of the fixed-conformation nucleotide North-methanocarba-2?-deoxyadenosine triphosphate (N-MC-dATP). Three crystal structures were solved of hpol ? in complex with DNA containing a template 2?-deoxythymidine (dT) paired with an incoming dNTP or modified nucleotide triphosphate. The ternary complex of hpol ? inserting N-MC-dATP opposite dT reveals that the adenine ring is stabilized in the anti orientation about the pseudo-glycosyl torsion angle (?), which mimics precisely the mutagenic arrangement of dGTP:dT normally preferred by hpol ?. The stabilized anti conformation occurs without notable contacts from the protein but likely results from constraints imposed by the bicyclo[3.1.0]hexane scaffold of the modified nucleotide. Unmodified dATP and South-MC-dATP each adopt syn glycosyl orientations to form Hoogsteen base pairs with dT. The Hoogsteen orientation exhibits weaker base stacking interactions and is less catalytically favorable than anti N-MC-dATP. Thus, N-MC-dATP corrects the error-prone nature of hpol ? by preventing the Hoogsteen base-pairing mode normally observed for hpol ?-catalyzed insertion of dATP opposite dT. These results provide a previously unrecognized means of altering the efficiency and the fidelity of a human translesion DNA polymerase.

Ketkar, Amit; Zafar, Maroof K.; Banerjee, Surajit; Marquez, Victor E.; Egli, Martin; Eoff, Robert L

2012-01-01

28

A nucleotide-analogue-induced gain of function corrects the error-prone nature of human DNA polymerase iota.  

PubMed

Y-family DNA polymerases participate in replication stress and DNA damage tolerance mechanisms. The properties that allow these enzymes to copy past bulky adducts or distorted template DNA can result in a greater propensity for them to make mistakes. Of the four human Y-family members, human DNA polymerase iota (hpol??) is the most error-prone. In the current study, we elucidate the molecular basis for improving the fidelity of hpol?? through use of the fixed-conformation nucleotide North-methanocarba-2'-deoxyadenosine triphosphate (N-MC-dATP). Three crystal structures were solved of hpol?? in complex with DNA containing a template 2'-deoxythymidine (dT) paired with an incoming dNTP or modified nucleotide triphosphate. The ternary complex of hpol?? inserting N-MC-dATP opposite dT reveals that the adenine ring is stabilized in the anti orientation about the pseudo-glycosyl torsion angle, which mimics precisely the mutagenic arrangement of dGTP:dT normally preferred by hpol??. The stabilized anti conformation occurs without notable contacts from the protein but likely results from constraints imposed by the bicyclo[3.1.0]hexane scaffold of the modified nucleotide. Unmodified dATP and South-MC-dATP each adopt syn glycosyl orientations to form Hoogsteen base pairs with dT. The Hoogsteen orientation exhibits weaker base-stacking interactions and is less catalytically favorable than anti N-MC-dATP. Thus, N-MC-dATP corrects the error-prone nature of hpol?? by preventing the Hoogsteen base-pairing mode normally observed for hpol??-catalyzed insertion of dATP opposite dT. These results provide a previously unrecognized means of altering the efficiency and the fidelity of a human translesion DNA polymerase. PMID:22632140

Ketkar, Amit; Zafar, Maroof K; Banerjee, Surajit; Marquez, Victor E; Egli, Martin; Eoff, Robert L

2012-06-14

29

The Preference for Error-Free or Error-Prone Postreplication Repair in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Exposed to Low-Dose Methyl Methanesulfonate Is Cell Cycle Dependent  

PubMed Central

Cells employ error-free or error-prone postreplication repair (PRR) processes to tolerate DNA damage. Here, we present a genome-wide screen for sensitivity to 0.001% methyl methanesulfonate (MMS). This relatively low dose is of particular interest because wild-type cells exhibit no discernible phenotypes in response to treatment, yet PRR mutants are unique among repair mutants in their exquisite sensitivity to 0.001% MMS; thus, low-dose MMS treatment provides a distinctive opportunity to study postreplication repair processes. We show that upon exposure to low-dose MMS, a PRR-defective rad18? mutant stalls into a lengthy G2 arrest associated with the accumulation of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) gaps. Consistent with previous results following UV-induced damage, reactivation of Rad18, even after prolonged G2 arrest, restores viability and genome integrity. We further show that PRR pathway preference in 0.001% MMS depends on timing and context; cells preferentially employ the error-free pathway in S phase and do not require MEC1-dependent checkpoint activation for survival. However, when PRR is restricted to the G2 phase, cells utilize REV3-dependent translesion synthesis, which requires a MEC1-dependent delay and results in significant hypermutability.

Huang, Dongqing; Piening, Brian D.

2013-01-01

30

Multiple point mutations in a shuttle vector propagated in human cells: evidence for an error-prone DNA polymerase activity  

SciTech Connect

Mutagenesis was studied at the DNA-sequence level in human fibroblast and lymphoid cells by use of a shuttle vector plasmid, pZ189, containing a suppressor tRNA marker gene. In a series of experiments, 62 plasmids were recovered that had two to six base substitutions in the 160-base-pair marker gene. Approximately 20-30% of the mutant plasmids that were recovered after passing ultraviolet-treated pZ189 through a repair-proficient human fibroblast line contained these multiple mutations. In contrast, passage of ultraviolet-treated pZ189 through an excision-repair-deficient (xeroderma pigmentosum) line yielded only 2% multiple base substitution mutants. Introducing a single-strand nick in otherwise unmodified pZ189 adjacent to the marker, followed by passage through the xeroderma pigmentosum cells, resulted in about 66% multiple base substitution mutants. The multiple mutations were found in a 160-base-pair region containing the marker gene but were rarely found in an adjacent 170-base-pair region. Passing ultraviolet-treated or nicked pZ189 through a repair-proficient human B-cell line also yielded multiple base substitution mutations in 20-33% of the mutant plasmids. An explanation for these multiple mutations is that they were generated by an error-prone polymerase while filling gaps. These mutations share many of the properties displayed by mutations in the immunoglobulin hypervariable regions.

Seidman, M.M.; Bredberg, A.; Seetharam, S.; Kraemer, K.H.

1987-07-01

31

Mutagenesis by normal metabolites in Escherichia coli: phenylalanine mutagenesis is dependent on error-prone DNA repair.  

PubMed

In search of a model for the production of 'spontaneous' mutations induced by DNA damage produced during normal metabolism, 19 amino acids were tested for mutagenicity in Escherichia coli K-12 uvrB. Cystine, and, to a lesser extent, arginine and threonine were found to be antimutagenic; only phenylalanine was found to be mutagenic. At 2 mM, phenylalanine induced mutants at 1.5-2-fold above background [lacZ53(amber)----Lac+, rifampicin resistance (missense), and bacteriophage T6 resistance]. Tyrosine and, to a lesser extent, tryptophan (each at 2 mM) inhibited the mutagenicity of phenylalanine. Phenylalanine mutagenesis was detected in the uvrB strain, but not in the wild-type, uvrB umuC or uvrB lexA strains. Thus, phenylalanine seems to cause the production of excisable lesions ('UV-like'?) in DNA, which, if not excised, can induce mutations via error-prone DNA repair. PMID:3523223

Sargentini, N J; Smith, K C

1986-07-01

32

Error-prone ZW pairing and no evidence for meiotic sex chromosome inactivation in the chicken germ line.  

PubMed

In the male mouse the X and Y chromosomes pair and recombine within the small pseudoautosomal region. Genes located on the unsynapsed segments of the X and Y are transcriptionally silenced at pachytene by Meiotic Sex Chromosome Inactivation (MSCI). The degree to which MSCI is conserved in other vertebrates is currently unclear. In the female chicken the ZW bivalent is thought to undergo a transient phase of full synapsis at pachytene, starting from the homologous ends and spreading through the heterologous regions. It has been proposed that the repair of the ZW DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) is postponed until diplotene and that the ZW bivalent is subject to MSCI, which is independent of its synaptic status. Here we present a distinct model of meiotic pairing and silencing of the ZW pair during chicken oogenesis. We show that, in most oocytes, DNA DSB foci on the ZW are resolved by the end of pachytene and that the ZW desynapses in broad synchrony with the autosomes. We unexpectedly find that ZW pairing is highly error prone, with many oocytes failing to engage in ZW synapsis and crossover formation. Oocytes with unsynapsed Z and W chromosomes nevertheless progress to the diplotene stage, suggesting that a checkpoint does not operate during pachytene in the chicken germ line. Using a combination of epigenetic profiling and RNA-FISH analysis, we find no evidence for MSCI, associated with neither the asynaptic ZW, as described in mammals, nor the synaptic ZW. The lack of conservation of MSCI in the chicken reopens the debate about the evolution of MSCI and its driving forces. PMID:22412389

Guioli, Silvana; Lovell-Badge, Robin; Turner, James M A

2012-03-08

33

Error-Prone ZW Pairing and No Evidence for Meiotic Sex Chromosome Inactivation in the Chicken Germ Line  

PubMed Central

In the male mouse the X and Y chromosomes pair and recombine within the small pseudoautosomal region. Genes located on the unsynapsed segments of the X and Y are transcriptionally silenced at pachytene by Meiotic Sex Chromosome Inactivation (MSCI). The degree to which MSCI is conserved in other vertebrates is currently unclear. In the female chicken the ZW bivalent is thought to undergo a transient phase of full synapsis at pachytene, starting from the homologous ends and spreading through the heterologous regions. It has been proposed that the repair of the ZW DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) is postponed until diplotene and that the ZW bivalent is subject to MSCI, which is independent of its synaptic status. Here we present a distinct model of meiotic pairing and silencing of the ZW pair during chicken oogenesis. We show that, in most oocytes, DNA DSB foci on the ZW are resolved by the end of pachytene and that the ZW desynapses in broad synchrony with the autosomes. We unexpectedly find that ZW pairing is highly error prone, with many oocytes failing to engage in ZW synapsis and crossover formation. Oocytes with unsynapsed Z and W chromosomes nevertheless progress to the diplotene stage, suggesting that a checkpoint does not operate during pachytene in the chicken germ line. Using a combination of epigenetic profiling and RNA–FISH analysis, we find no evidence for MSCI, associated with neither the asynaptic ZW, as described in mammals, nor the synaptic ZW. The lack of conservation of MSCI in the chicken reopens the debate about the evolution of MSCI and its driving forces.

Guioli, Silvana; Lovell-Badge, Robin; Turner, James M. A.

2012-01-01

34

Engineering of small sized DNAs by error-prone multiply-primed rolling circle amplification for introduction of random point mutations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small sized DNAs per se or their encoding peptides play various roles in biological systems and for biocatalyst development thus, engineering of those small sized DNAs\\/peptides is of great interest. By self-ligation of small sized DNAs, circular small sized DNA templates were prepared for error-prone rolling circle amplification using multiply-primed random hexamers to create tandem repeats of small sized DNAs

Annette Lin Luhe; Elane Ng Yi Ting; Lily Tan; Jinchuan Wu; Hua Zhao

2010-01-01

35

Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ku70 potentiates illegitimate DNA double-strand break repair and serves as a barrier to error-prone DNA repair pathways.  

PubMed Central

Ku, a heterodimer of polypeptides of approximately 70 kDa and 80 kDa (Ku70 and Ku80, respectively), binds avidly to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Mammalian cells defective in Ku are hypersensitive to ionizing radiation due to a deficiency in DSB repair. Here, we show that the simple inactivation of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ku70 homologue (Yku70p), does not lead to increased radiosensitivity. However, yku70 mutations enhance the radiosensitivity of rad52 strains, which are deficient in homologous recombination. Through establishing a rapid and reproducible in vivo plasmid rejoining assay, we show that Yku70p plays a crucial role in the repair of DSBs bearing cohesive termini. Whereas this damage is repaired accurately in YKU70 backgrounds, in yku70 mutant strains terminal deletions of up to several hundred bp occur before ligation ensues. Interestingly, this error-prone DNA repair pathway utilizes short homologies between the two recombining molecules and is thus highly reminiscent of a predominant form of DSB repair that operates in vertebrates. These data therefore provide evidence for two distinct and evolutionarily conserved illegitimate recombination pathways. One of these is accurate and Yku70p-dependent, whereas the other is error-prone and Yku70-independent. Furthermore, our studies suggest that Yku70 promotes genomic stability both by promoting accurate DNA repair and by serving as a barrier to error-prone repair processes. Images

Boulton, S J; Jackson, S P

1996-01-01

36

Structural and Functional Elucidation of the Mechanism Promoting Error-prone Synthesis by Human DNA Polymerase ? Opposite the 7,8-Dihydro-8-oxo-2?-deoxyguanosine Adduct*  

PubMed Central

Human polymerase kappa (hPol ?) is one of four eukaryotic Y-class DNA polymerases and may be an important element in the cellular response to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzo[a]pyrene, which can lead to reactive oxygenated metabolite-mediated oxidative stress. Here, we present a detailed analysis of the activity and specificity of hPol ? bypass opposite the major oxidative adduct 7,8-dihydro-8-oxo-2?-deoxyguanosine (8-oxoG). Unlike its archaeal homolog Dpo4, hPol ? bypasses this lesion in an error-prone fashion by inserting mainly dATP. Analysis of transient-state kinetics shows diminished “bursts” for dATP:8-oxoG and dCTP:8-oxoG incorporation, indicative of non-productive complex formation, but dATP:8-oxoG insertion events that do occur are 2-fold more efficient than dCTP:G insertion events. Crystal structures of ternary hPol ? complexes with adducted template-primer DNA reveal non-productive (dGTP and dATP) alignments of incoming nucleotide and 8-oxoG. Structural limitations placed upon the hPol ? by interactions between the N-clasp and finger domains combined with stabilization of the syn-oriented template 8-oxoG through the side chain of Met-135 both appear to contribute to error-prone bypass. Mutating Leu-508 in the little finger domain of hPol ? to lysine modulates the insertion opposite 8-oxoG toward more accurate bypass, similar to previous findings with Dpo4. Our structural and activity data provide insight into important mechanistic aspects of error-prone bypass of 8-oxoG by hPol ? compared with accurate and efficient bypass of the lesion by Dpo4 and polymerase ?.

Irimia, Adriana; Eoff, Robert L.; Guengerich, F. Peter; Egli, Martin

2009-01-01

37

Structural and functional elucidation of the mechanism promoting error-prone synthesis by human DNA polymerase kappa opposite the 7,8-dihydro-8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine adduct.  

PubMed

Human polymerase kappa (hPol kappa) is one of four eukaryotic Y-class DNA polymerases and may be an important element in the cellular response to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzo[a]pyrene, which can lead to reactive oxygenated metabolite-mediated oxidative stress. Here, we present a detailed analysis of the activity and specificity of hPol kappa bypass opposite the major oxidative adduct 7,8-dihydro-8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxoG). Unlike its archaeal homolog Dpo4, hPol kappa bypasses this lesion in an error-prone fashion by inserting mainly dATP. Analysis of transient-state kinetics shows diminished "bursts" for dATP:8-oxoG and dCTP:8-oxoG incorporation, indicative of non-productive complex formation, but dATP:8-oxoG insertion events that do occur are 2-fold more efficient than dCTP:G insertion events. Crystal structures of ternary hPol kappa complexes with adducted template-primer DNA reveal non-productive (dGTP and dATP) alignments of incoming nucleotide and 8-oxoG. Structural limitations placed upon the hPol kappa by interactions between the N-clasp and finger domains combined with stabilization of the syn-oriented template 8-oxoG through the side chain of Met-135 both appear to contribute to error-prone bypass. Mutating Leu-508 in the little finger domain of hPol kappa to lysine modulates the insertion opposite 8-oxoG toward more accurate bypass, similar to previous findings with Dpo4. Our structural and activity data provide insight into important mechanistic aspects of error-prone bypass of 8-oxoG by hPol kappa compared with accurate and efficient bypass of the lesion by Dpo4 and polymerase eta. PMID:19542228

Irimia, Adriana; Eoff, Robert L; Guengerich, F Peter; Egli, Martin

2009-06-19

38

Structural and Functional Elucidation of the Mechanism Promoting Error-prone Synthesis by Human DNA Polymerase [kappa] Opposite the 7,8-Dihydro-8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine Adduct  

SciTech Connect

Human polymerase kappa (hPol {kappa}) is one of four eukaryotic Y-class DNA polymerases and may be an important element in the cellular response to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzo[a]pyrene, which can lead to reactive oxygenated metabolite-mediated oxidative stress. Here, we present a detailed analysis of the activity and specificity of hPol {kappa} bypass opposite the major oxidative adduct 7,8-dihydro-8-oxo-2{prime}-deoxyguanosine (8-oxoG). Unlike its archaeal homolog Dpo4, hPol {kappa} bypasses this lesion in an error-prone fashion by inserting mainly dATP. Analysis of transient-state kinetics shows diminished 'bursts' for dATP:8-oxoG and dCTP:8-oxoG incorporation, indicative of non-productive complex formation, but dATP:8-oxoG insertion events that do occur are 2-fold more efficient than dCTP:G insertion events. Crystal structures of ternary hPol {kappa} complexes with adducted template-primer DNA reveal non-productive (dGTP and dATP) alignments of incoming nucleotide and 8-oxoG. Structural limitations placed upon the hPol {kappa} by interactions between the N-clasp and finger domains combined with stabilization of the syn-oriented template 8-oxoG through the side chain of Met-135 both appear to contribute to error-prone bypass. Mutating Leu-508 in the little finger domain of hPol {kappa} to lysine modulates the insertion opposite 8-oxoG toward more accurate bypass, similar to previous findings with Dpo4. Our structural and activity data provide insight into important mechanistic aspects of error-prone bypass of 8-oxoG by hPol {kappa} compared with accurate and efficient bypass of the lesion by Dpo4 and polymerase {eta}.

Irimia, Adriana; Eoff, Robert L.; Guengerich, F.Peter; Egli, Martin; (Vanderbilt)

2009-09-25

39

[Effect of Mn(II) on the error-prone DNA polymerase iota activity in extracts from human normal and tumor cells].  

PubMed

The DNA polymerase iota (Pol iota), which has some peculiar features and is characterized by an extremely error-prone DNA synthesis, belongs to the group of enzymes preferentially activated by Mn2+ instead of Mg2+. In this work, the effect of Mn2+ on DNA synthesis in cell extracts from a) normal human and murine tissues, b) human tumor (uveal melanoma), and c) cultured human tumor cell lines SKOV-3 and HL-60 was tested. Each group displayed characteristic features of Mn-dependent DNA synthesis. The changes in the Mn-dependent DNA synthesis caused by malignant transformation of normal tissues are described. It was also shown that the error-prone DNA synthesis catalyzed by Pol iota in extracts of all cell types was efficiently suppressed by an RNA aptamer (IKL5) against Pol iota obtained in our work earlier. The obtained results suggest that IKL5 might be used to suppress the enhanced activity of Pol iota in tumor cells. PMID:23785785

Lakhin, A V; Efremova, A S; Makarova, I V; Grishina, E E; Shram, S I; Tarantul, V Z; Gening, L V

2013-01-01

40

Rapid detection of deletions in the Duchenne muscular dystrophy gene by PCR amplification of deletion-prone exon sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique, we have screened the DNA of 42 patients with Duchenne or Becker muscular dystrophy for deletions within the DMD gene. Two regions within putative deletion “hot spots” of this gene were tested, and deletions were found in 16.6% of patients. The oligonucleotide primers employed in this study initiate the amplification of exon sequences

M. Hentemann; J. Reiss; M. Wagner; D. N. Cooper

1990-01-01

41

Rapid and apparently error-prone excision repair of nonreplicating UV-irradiated plasmids in Xenopus laevis oocytes  

SciTech Connect

Repair of UV-irradiated plasmid DNA microinjected into frog oocytes was measured by two techniques: transformation of repair-deficient (delta uvrB delta recA delta phr) bacteria, and removal of UV endonuclease-sensitive sites (ESS). Transformation efficiencies relative to unirradiated plasmids were used to estimate the number of lethal lesions; the latter were assumed to be Poisson distributed. These estimates were in good agreement with measurements of ESS. By both criteria, plasmid DNA was efficiently repaired, mostly during the first 2 h, when as many as 2 x 10(10) lethal lesions were removed per oocyte. This rate is about 10(6) times the average for removal of ESS from repair-proficient human cells. Repair was slower but still significant after 2 h, but some lethal lesions usually remained after overnight incubation. Most repair occurred in the absence of light, in marked contrast to differentiated frog cells, previously shown to possess photoreactivating but no excision repair activity. There was no increase in the resistance to DpnI restriction of plasmids (methylated in Escherichia coli at GATC sites) incubated in oocytes; this implies no increase in hemimethylated GATC sites, and hence no semiconservative DNA replication. Plasmid substrates capable of either intramolecular or intermolecular homologous recombination were not recombined, whether UV-irradiated or not. Repair of Lac+ plasmids was accompanied by a significant UV-dependent increase in the frequency of Lac- mutants, corresponding to a repair synthesis error frequency on the order of 10(-4) per nucleotide.

Hays, J.B.; Ackerman, E.J.; Pang, Q.S. (Oregon State Univ., Corvallis (USA))

1990-07-01

42

Evidence from mutation spectra that the UV hypermutability of xeroderma pigmentosum variant cells reflects abnormal, error-prone replication on a template containing photoproducts.  

PubMed Central

Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) variant patients are genetically predisposed to sunlight-induced skin cancer. Fibroblasts derived from these patients are extremely sensitive to the mutagenic effect of UV radiation and are abnormally slow in replicating DNA containing UV-induced photoproducts. However, unlike cells from the majority of XP patients, XP variant cells have a normal or nearly normal rate of nucleotide excision repair of such damage. To determine whether their UV hypermutability reflected a slower rate of excision of photoproducts specifically during early S phase when the target gene for mutations, i.e., the hypoxanthine (guanine) phosphoribosyltransferase gene (HPRT), is replicated, we synchronized diploid populations of normal and XP variant fibroblasts, irradiated them in early S phase, and compared the rate of loss of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and 6-4 pyrimidine-pyrimidones from DNA during S phase. There was no difference. Both removed 94% of the 6-4 pyrimidine-pyrimidones within 8 h and 40% of the dimers within 11 h. There was also no difference between the two cell lines in the rate of repair during G1 phase. To determine whether the hypermutability resulted from abnormal error-prone replication of DNA containing photoproducts, we determined the spectra of mutations induced in the coding region of the HPRT gene of XP variant cells irradiated in early S and G1 phases and compared with those found in normal cells. The majority of the mutations in both types of cells were base substitutions, but the two types of cells differed significantly from each other in the kinds of substitutions, but the two types differed significantly from each other in the kinds of substitutions observed either in mutants from S phase (P < 0.01) or from G1 phase (P = 0.03). In the variant cells, the substitutions were mainly transversions (58% in S, 73% in G1). In the normal cells irradiated in S, the majority of the substitutions were G.C --> A.T, and most involved CC photoproducts in the transcribed strand. In the variant cells irradiated in S, substitutions involving cytosine in the transcribed strand were G.C --> T.A transversions exclusively. G.C --> A.T transitions made up a much smaller fraction of the substitutions than in normal cells (P < 0.02), and all of them involved photoproducts located in the nontranscribed strand. The data strongly suggest that XP variant cells are much less likely than normal cells to incorporate either dAMP or dGMP opposite the pyrimidines involved in photoproducts. This would account for their significantly higher frequency of mutants and might explain their abnormal delay in replicating a UV-damaged template.

Wang, Y C; Maher, V M; Mitchell, D L; McCormick, J J

1993-01-01

43

DNA double-strand-break complexity levels and their possible contributions to the probability for error-prone processing and repair pathway choice.  

PubMed

Although the DNA double-strand break (DSB) is defined as a rupture in the double-stranded DNA molecule that can occur without chemical modification in any of the constituent building blocks, it is recognized that this form is restricted to enzyme-induced DSBs. DSBs generated by physical or chemical agents can include at the break site a spectrum of base alterations (lesions). The nature and number of such chemical alterations define the complexity of the DSB and are considered putative determinants for repair pathway choice and the probability that errors will occur during this processing. As the pathways engaged in DSB processing show distinct and frequently inherent propensities for errors, pathway choice also defines the error-levels cells opt to accept. Here, we present a classification of DSBs on the basis of increasing complexity and discuss how complexity may affect processing, as well as how it may cause lethal or carcinogenic processing errors. By critically analyzing the characteristics of DSB repair pathways, we suggest that all repair pathways can in principle remove lesions clustering at the DSB but are likely to fail when they encounter clusters of DSBs that cause a local form of chromothripsis. In the same framework, we also analyze the rational of DSB repair pathway choice. PMID:23804754

Schipler, Agnes; Iliakis, George

2013-06-26

44

DNA double-strand-break complexity levels and their possible contributions to the probability for error-prone processing and repair pathway choice  

PubMed Central

Although the DNA double-strand break (DSB) is defined as a rupture in the double-stranded DNA molecule that can occur without chemical modification in any of the constituent building blocks, it is recognized that this form is restricted to enzyme-induced DSBs. DSBs generated by physical or chemical agents can include at the break site a spectrum of base alterations (lesions). The nature and number of such chemical alterations define the complexity of the DSB and are considered putative determinants for repair pathway choice and the probability that errors will occur during this processing. As the pathways engaged in DSB processing show distinct and frequently inherent propensities for errors, pathway choice also defines the error-levels cells opt to accept. Here, we present a classification of DSBs on the basis of increasing complexity and discuss how complexity may affect processing, as well as how it may cause lethal or carcinogenic processing errors. By critically analyzing the characteristics of DSB repair pathways, we suggest that all repair pathways can in principle remove lesions clustering at the DSB but are likely to fail when they encounter clusters of DSBs that cause a local form of chromothripsis. In the same framework, we also analyze the rational of DSB repair pathway choice.

Schipler, Agnes; Iliakis, George

2013-01-01

45

The reverse transcriptase encoded by the non-LTR retrotransposon R2 is as error prone as that encoded by HIV-1  

PubMed Central

Reverse transcriptases (RTs) encoded by a wide range of mobile retroelements have had major impact on the structure and function of genomes. Among the most abundant elements in eukaryotes are the non-Long Terminal Repeat (non-LTR) retrotransposons. Here we compare the dNTP concentration requirements and error rate of the RT encoded by the non-LTR retrotransposon R2 of Bombyx mori with the well-characterized RTs of retroviruses. Surprisingly, R2 was found to have properties more similar to the lentiviral RTs, such as HIV-1, than to the oncoretroviral RTs, such as MuLV. Like HIV-1 RT, R2 RT was able to synthesize DNA at low dNTP concentrations, suggesting that R2 is able to retrotranspose in non-dividing cells. R2 RT also showed levels of misincorporation in biased dNTP pools, and replication error rates in M13 lacZ? forward mutation assays, similar to HIV-1 RT. Most of the R2 base substitutions in the forward mutation assay were caused by the misincorporation of dTMP.Analogous to HIV-1, the high error rate of R2 RT appears to be a result of its ability to extend mismatches once generated. We suggest that the low fidelity of R2 RT is a by-product of the flexibility of its active site/dNTP-binding pocket required for the target-primed reverse transcription reaction used by R2 for retrotransposition. Finally, we discuss that in spite of the high R2 RT error rate, based on the frequency of R2 retrotranspositions determined in natural populations, the long term nucleotide substitution rate for R2 is not significantly above that associated with cellular DNA replication.

Jamburuthugoda, Varuni K.; Eickbush, Thomas H.

2011-01-01

46

The reverse transcriptase encoded by the non-LTR retrotransposon R2 is as error-prone as that encoded by HIV-1.  

PubMed

Reverse transcriptases (RTs) encoded by a wide range of mobile retroelements have had a major impact on the structure and function of genomes. Among the most abundant elements in eukaryotes are the non long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons. Here we compare the dNTP concentration requirements and error rates of the RT encoded by the non-LTR retrotransposon R2 of Bombyx mori with the well-characterized RTs of retroviruses. Surprisingly, R2 was found to have properties more similar to those of lentiviral RTs, such as human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), than to those of oncoretroviral RTs, such as murine leukemia virus. Like HIV-1 RT, R2 RT was able to synthesize DNA at low dNTP concentrations, suggesting that R2 is able to retrotranspose in nondividing cells. R2 RT also showed levels of misincorporation in biased dNTP pools and replication error rates in M13 lacZ? forward mutation assays, similar to HIV-1 RT. Most of the R2 base substitutions in the forward mutation assay were caused by the misincorporation of dTMP. Analogous to HIV-1, the high error rate of R2 RT appears to be a result of its ability to extend mismatches once generated. We suggest that the low fidelity of R2 RT is a by-product of the flexibility of its active site/dNTP binding pocket required for the target-primed reverse transcription reaction used by R2 for retrotransposition. Finally, we discuss that in spite of the high R2 RT error rate, the long-term nucleotide substitution rate for R2 is not significantly above that associated with cellular DNA replication, based on the frequency of R2 retrotranspositions determined in natural populations. PMID:21320510

Jamburuthugoda, Varuni K; Eickbush, Thomas H

2011-02-12

47

The Reverse Transcriptase Encoded by the Non-LTR Retrotransposon R2 Is as Error-Prone as That Encoded by HIV1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reverse transcriptases (RTs) encoded by a wide range of mobile retroelements have had a major impact on the structure and function of genomes. Among the most abundant elements in eukaryotes are the non long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons. Here we compare the dNTP concentration requirements and error rates of the RT encoded by the non-LTR retrotransposon R2 of Bombyx mori

Varuni K. Jamburuthugoda; Thomas H. Eickbush

2011-01-01

48

Somatic microindels in human cancer: the insertions are highly error-prone and derive from nearby but not adjacent sense and antisense templates  

PubMed Central

Somatic microindels (microdeletions with microinsertions) have been studied in normal mouse tissues using the Big Blue lacI transgenic mutation detection system. Here we analyze microindels in human cancers using an endogenous and transcribed gene, the TP53 gene. Microindel frequency, the enhancement of 1–2 microindels and other features are generally similar to that observed in the non-transcribed lacI gene in normal mouse tissues. The current larger sample of somatic microindels reveals recurroids: mutations in which deletions are identical and the co-localized insertion is similar. The data reveal that the inserted sequences derive from nearby but not adjacent sequences in contrast to the slippage that characterizes the great majority of pure microinsertions. The microindel inserted sequences derive from a template on the sense or antisense strand with similar frequency. The estimated error rate of the insertion process of 13% per bp is by far the largest reported in vivo, with the possible exception of somatic hypermutation in the immunoglobulin gene. The data constrain possible mechanisms of microindels and raise the question of whether microindels are ‘scars’ from the bypass of large DNA adducts by a translesional polymerase, e.g. the ‘Tarzan model’ presented herein.

Scaringe, William A.; Li, Kai; Gu, Dongqing; Gonzalez, Kelly D.; Chen, Zhenbin; Hill, Kathleen A.; Sommer, Steve S.

2008-01-01

49

Sigmoidal curve-fitting redefines quantitative real-time PCR with the prospective of developing automated high-throughput applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative real-time PCR has revolutionized many aspects of genetic research, biomedical diagnostics and pathogen detection. Nevertheless, the full poten- tial of this technology has yet to be realized, primarily due to the limitations of the threshold-based meth- odologies that are currently used for quantitative analysis. Prone to errors caused by variations in reac- tion preparation and amplification conditions, these approaches

R. G. Rutledge

2004-01-01

50

Upscaled CTAB-Based DNA Extraction and Real-Time PCR Assays for Fusarium culmorum and F. graminearum DNA in Plant Material with Reduced Sampling Error  

PubMed Central

Fusarium graminearum Schwabe (Gibberella zeae Schwein. Petch.) and F. culmorum W.G. Smith are major mycotoxin producers in small-grain cereals afflicted with Fusarium head blight (FHB). Real-time PCR (qPCR) is the method of choice for species-specific, quantitative estimation of fungal biomass in plant tissue. We demonstrated that increasing the amount of plant material used for DNA extraction to 0.5–1.0 g considerably reduced sampling error and improved the reproducibility of DNA yield. The costs of DNA extraction at different scales and with different methods (commercial kits versus cetyltrimethylammonium bromide-based protocol) and qPCR systems (doubly labeled hybridization probes versus SYBR Green) were compared. A cost-effective protocol for the quantification of F. graminearum and F. culmorum DNA in wheat grain and maize stalk debris based on DNA extraction from 0.5–1.0 g material and real-time PCR with SYBR Green fluorescence detection was developed.

Brandfass, Christoph; Karlovsky, Petr

2008-01-01

51

Upscaled CTAB-based DNA extraction and real-time PCR assays for Fusarium culmorum and F. graminearum DNA in plant material with reduced sampling error.  

PubMed

Fusarium graminearum Schwabe (Gibberella zeae Schwein. Petch.) and F. culmorum W.G. Smith are major mycotoxin producers in small-grain cereals afflicted with Fusarium head blight (FHB). Real-time PCR (qPCR) is the method of choice for species-specific, quantitative estimation of fungal biomass in plant tissue. We demonstrated that increasing the amount of plant material used for DNA extraction to 0.5-1.0 g considerably reduced sampling error and improved the reproducibility of DNA yield. The costs of DNA extraction at different scales and with different methods (commercial kits versus cetyltrimethylammonium bromide-based protocol) and qPCR systems (doubly labeled hybridization probes versus SYBR Green) were compared. A cost-effective protocol for the quantification of F. graminearum and F. culmorum DNA in wheat grain and maize stalk debris based on DNA extraction from 0.5-1.0 g material and real-time PCR with SYBR Green fluorescence detection was developed. PMID:19330077

Brandfass, Christoph; Karlovsky, Petr

2008-11-25

52

Groundtruthing next-gen sequencing for microbial ecology-biases and errors in community structure estimates from PCR amplicon pyrosequencing.  

PubMed

Analysis of microbial communities by high-throughput pyrosequencing of SSU rRNA gene PCR amplicons has transformed microbial ecology research and led to the observation that many communities contain a diverse assortment of rare taxa-a phenomenon termed the Rare Biosphere. Multiple studies have investigated the effect of pyrosequencing read quality on operational taxonomic unit (OTU) richness for contrived communities, yet there is limited information on the fidelity of community structure estimates obtained through this approach. Given that PCR biases are widely recognized, and further unknown biases may arise from the sequencing process itself, a priori assumptions about the neutrality of the data generation process are at best unvalidated. Furthermore, post-sequencing quality control algorithms have not been explicitly evaluated for the accuracy of recovered representative sequences and its impact on downstream analyses, reducing useful discussion on pyrosequencing reads to their diversity and abundances. Here we report on community structures and sequences recovered for in vitro-simulated communities consisting of twenty 16S rRNA gene clones tiered at known proportions. PCR amplicon libraries of the V3-V4 and V6 hypervariable regions from the in vitro-simulated communities were sequenced using the Roche 454 GS FLX Titanium platform. Commonly used quality control protocols resulted in the formation of OTUs with >1% abundance composed entirely of erroneous sequences, while over-aggressive clustering approaches obfuscated real, expected OTUs. The pyrosequencing process itself did not appear to impose significant biases on overall community structure estimates, although the detection limit for rare taxa may be affected by PCR amplicon size and quality control approach employed. Meanwhile, PCR biases associated with the initial amplicon generation may impose greater distortions in the observed community structure. PMID:22970184

Lee, Charles K; Herbold, Craig W; Polson, Shawn W; Wommack, K Eric; Williamson, Shannon J; McDonald, Ian R; Cary, S Craig

2012-09-06

53

Groundtruthing Next-Gen Sequencing for Microbial Ecology-Biases and Errors in Community Structure Estimates from PCR Amplicon Pyrosequencing  

PubMed Central

Analysis of microbial communities by high-throughput pyrosequencing of SSU rRNA gene PCR amplicons has transformed microbial ecology research and led to the observation that many communities contain a diverse assortment of rare taxa–a phenomenon termed the Rare Biosphere. Multiple studies have investigated the effect of pyrosequencing read quality on operational taxonomic unit (OTU) richness for contrived communities, yet there is limited information on the fidelity of community structure estimates obtained through this approach. Given that PCR biases are widely recognized, and further unknown biases may arise from the sequencing process itself, a priori assumptions about the neutrality of the data generation process are at best unvalidated. Furthermore, post-sequencing quality control algorithms have not been explicitly evaluated for the accuracy of recovered representative sequences and its impact on downstream analyses, reducing useful discussion on pyrosequencing reads to their diversity and abundances. Here we report on community structures and sequences recovered for in vitro-simulated communities consisting of twenty 16S rRNA gene clones tiered at known proportions. PCR amplicon libraries of the V3–V4 and V6 hypervariable regions from the in vitro-simulated communities were sequenced using the Roche 454 GS FLX Titanium platform. Commonly used quality control protocols resulted in the formation of OTUs with >1% abundance composed entirely of erroneous sequences, while over-aggressive clustering approaches obfuscated real, expected OTUs. The pyrosequencing process itself did not appear to impose significant biases on overall community structure estimates, although the detection limit for rare taxa may be affected by PCR amplicon size and quality control approach employed. Meanwhile, PCR biases associated with the initial amplicon generation may impose greater distortions in the observed community structure.

Polson, Shawn W.; Wommack, K. Eric; Williamson, Shannon J.; McDonald, Ian R.; Cary, S. Craig

2012-01-01

54

Prone positioning for surgery.  

PubMed

The role of the registered perioperative practitioner (Operating Department Practitioner or Registered Nurse) includes the responsibility for safely positioning patients for surgery. The prone position is in common use for a variety of surgical procedures. The formal term for this surgical position is ventral decubitus (meaning laying face down). PMID:22720505

Bowers, Mark

2012-05-01

55

Analgesic Prescribing Errors and Associated Medication Characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medication errors involving analgesics, including mistakes in prescribing, are a major contributor to suboptimal therapeutic outcomes and preventable adverse patient events. A systematic evaluation of 2,044 prevented (near-miss) analgesic prescribing errors detected in a teaching hospital was performed to better understand these errors and contributing error-prone analgesic medication characteristics. The overall detected error rate was 2.87 errors per 1,000 analgesic

Howard S. Smith; Timothy S. Lesar

2011-01-01

56

Feasibility of automated matching of supine and prone CT-colonography examinations.  

PubMed

Matching of prone and supine positions in CT colonography may improve accuracy of polyp detection. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of automatic prone-supine matching in CT-colonography using proven polyps as fixed points of reference. The method is based on similarities in the direction of centre-lines and allows for compression and extraction of the centre-lines in both positions. To illustrate the impact of the match error of the new method in practice, the visibility of the matched polyps in a primary three-dimensional unfolded cube setting was determined as well. The method was compared with a method that relies on the normalized distance along the centre-line (NDAC method). The median absolute match error was 14 mm (range 0-59 mm, average 20 mm) either proximal or distal from the actual polyp in prone position. In the observer study, 70% (26/37) of the polyps were directly visible in prone view. The overall difference in median absolute match error between both methods was small (2 mm), although half way along the centre-line there were polyps with substantial differences in match error (larger with NDAC). We concluded that automated prone-supine matching of CT-colonography studies is feasible and has a low match error. The difference with the NDAC method was small and not significant, although half way along the centre-line some differences were seen. PMID:16641418

de Vries, A H; Truyen, R; van der Peijl, J; Florie, J; van Gelder, R E; Gerritsen, F; Stoker, J

2006-04-26

57

Operationalizing Proneness to Externalizing Psychopathology as a Multivariate Psychophysiological Phenotype  

PubMed Central

The externalizing dimension is viewed as a broad dispositional factor underlying risk for numerous disinhibitory disorders. Prior work has documented deficits in event-related brain potential (ERP) responses in individuals prone to externalizing problems. Here, we constructed a direct physiological index of externalizing vulnerability from three ERP indicators and evaluated its validity in relation to criterion measures in two distinct domains: psychometric and physiological. The index was derived from three ERP measures that covaried in their relations with externalizing proneness the error-related negativity and two variants of the P3. Scores on this ERP composite predicted psychometric criterion variables and accounted for externalizing-related variance in P3 response from a separate task. These findings illustrate how a diagnostic construct can be operationalized as a composite (multivariate) psychophysiological variable (phenotype).

Nelson, Lindsay D.; Patrick, Christopher J.; Bernat, Edward M.

2010-01-01

58

Intra- and Interfractional Variations for Prone Breast Irradiation: An Indication for Image-Guided Radiotherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Intra- and interfractional errors for breast cancer patients undergoing breast irradiation in the prone position were analyzed. Methods and Materials: To assess intrafractional error resulting from respiratory motion, four-dimensional computed tomography scans were acquired for 3 prone and 3 supine patients, and the respiratory motion was compared for the two positions. To assess the interfractional error caused by daily set-up variations, daily electronic portal images of one of the treatment beams were taken for 15 prone-positioned patients. Portal images were then overlaid with images from the planning system that included the breast contour and the isocenter, treatment beam portal, and isocenter. The shift between the planned and actual isocenter was recorded for each portal image, and descriptive statistics were collected for each patient. The margins were calculated using the 2{sigma}+0.7{sigma} recipe, as well as 95% confidence interval based on the pooled standard deviation of the datasets. Results: Respiratory motion of the chest wall is drastically reduced from 2.3 {+-} 0.9 mm in supine position to -0.1 {+-} 0.4 mm in prone position. The daily set-up errors vary in magnitude from 0.0 cm to 1.65 cm and are patient dependent. The margins were defined by considering only the standard deviation to be 1.1 cm, and 2.0 cm when the systematic errors were considered using the 2{sigma}+0.7{sigma} recipe. Conclusions: Prone positioning of patients for breast irradiation significantly reduces the uncertainty introduced by intrafractional respiratory motion. The presence of large systematic error in the interfractional variations necessitates a large clinical target volume-to-planning target volume margin and indicates the importance of image guidance for partial breast irradiation in the prone position, particularly using imaging modality capable of identifying the lumpectomy cavity.

Morrow, Natalya V.; Stepaniak, Christopher; White, Julia; Wilson, J. Frank [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Li, X. Allen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States)], E-mail: ali@radonc.mcw.edu

2007-11-01

59

Evaluation of Exposure Measurement Error.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In a simple linear regression model with a latent independent random variable, the slope coefficient is smaller than it should be when a surrogate (i.e., error-prone) measure is used instead. The ratio of the slope coefficients from the regression models ...

E. Symanski M. A. Smith W. Chan

2007-01-01

60

Fashion groups, gender, and boredom proneness  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractThis study examined differences between men and women and among fashion consumer groups (fashion innovators, fashion opinion leaders, innovative communicators, and fashion followers) in propensity toward boredom. Participants (126 male, 130 female university students) completed questionnaires measuring fashion group membership, boredom proneness, and demographics. anova revealed significant effects for fashion group for two dimensions of boredom proneness: internal stimulation and

Cathryn M. Studak; Jane E. Workman

2004-01-01

61

Shame-proneness in attempted suicide patients  

PubMed Central

Background It has been suggested that shame may be an important feature in suicidal behaviors. The disposition to react with shame, “shame-proneness”, has previously not been investigated in groups of attempted suicide patients. We examined shame-proneness in two groups of attempted suicide patients, one group of non-suicidal patients and one group of healthy controls. We hypothesized that the attempted suicide patients would be more shame-prone than non-suicidal patients and healthy controls. Methods The Test of Self-Conscious Affect (TOSCA), which is the most used measure of shame-proneness, was completed by attempted suicide patients (n?=?175: 105 women and 3 men with borderline personality disorder [BPD], 45 women and 22 men without BPD), non-suicidal psychiatric patients (n?=?162), and healthy controls (n?=?161). The participants were convenience samples, with patients from three clinical research projects and healthy controls from a fourth research project. The relationship between shame-proneness and attempted suicide was studied with group comparisons and multiple regressions. Men and women were analyzed separately. Results Women were generally more shame-prone than men of the same participant group. Female suicide attempters with BPD were significantly more shame-prone than both female suicide attempters without BPD and female non-suicidal patients and controls. Male suicide attempters without BPD were significantly less shame-prone than non-suicidal male patients. In multiple regressions, shame-proneness was predicted by level of depression and BPD (but not by attempted suicide) in female patients, and level of depression and non-suicidality in male patients. Conclusions Contrary to our hypothesis and related previous research, there was no general relationship between shame-proneness and attempted suicide. Shame-proneness was differentially related to attempted suicide in different groups of suicide attempters, with significantly high shame-proneness among female suicide attempters with BPD and a negative relationship between shame-proneness and attempted suicide among male patients. More research on state and trait shame in different groups of suicidal individuals seems clinically relevant.

2012-01-01

62

Prone versus supine thallium myocardial SPECT: A method to decrease artifactual inferior wall defects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artifactual inferior wall defects as a result of diaphragmatic attenuation of activity are a frequent source of error in thallium myocardial single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) studies. Thirty-four patients and 11 clinically normal volunteers were studied prospectively to see if specificity of inferior wall defects for right coronary artery disease could be improved by scanning patients prone versus supine.

George M. Segall; Michael J. Davis

1989-01-01

63

Skin Care for Acne-Prone Skin  

MedlinePLUS

Skin Care for Acne-prone Skin What Dermatologists Recommend Skin care can be just as important as the treatment(s) you use to clear your acne. Proper skin care can reduce possible side effects from prescription medications. ...

64

Alternated Prone and Supine Whole-Breast Irradiation Using IMRT: Setup Precision, Respiratory Movement and Treatment Time  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The objective of this study was to compare setup precision, respiration-related breast movement and treatment time between prone and supine positions for whole-breast irradiation. Methods and Materials: Ten patients with early-stage breast carcinoma after breast-conserving surgery were treated with prone and supine whole breast-irradiation in a daily alternating schedule. Setup precision was monitored using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging. Respiration-related breast movement in the vertical direction was assessed by magnetic sensors. The time needed for patient setup and for the CBCT procedure, the beam time, and the length of the whole treatment slot were also recorded. Results: Random and systematic errors were not significantly different between positions in individual patients for each of the three axes (left-right, longitudinal, and vertical). Respiration-related movement was smaller in prone position, but about 80% of observations showed amplitudes <1 mm in both positions. Treatment slots were longer in prone position (21.2 {+-} 2.5 min) than in supine position (19.4 {+-} 0.8 min; p = 0.044). Conclusion: Comparison of setup precision between prone and supine position in the same patient showed no significant differences in random and systematic errors. Respiratory movement was smaller in prone position. The longer treatment slots in prone position can probably be attributed to the higher repositioning need.

Veldeman, Liv, E-mail: Liv.Veldeman@uzgent.be [Department of Radiotherapy, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium); De Gersem, Werner; Speleers, Bruno; Truyens, Bart; Van Greveling, Annick [Department of Radiotherapy, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium); Van den Broecke, Rudy [Department of Gynecology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium); De Neve, Wilfried [Department of Radiotherapy, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium)

2012-04-01

65

Medication administration errors in adult patients in the ICU  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To quantify the incidence and specify the types of medication administration errors from a list of error-prone medications and to determine if patient harm resulted from these errors. Design: An observational evaluation. Setting: Five intensive care units (ICUs) in the United States. Patients and participants: Eight hundred fifty-one patients who were at least 18 years of age and admitted

Andrea D. Calabrese; Brian L. Erstad; Katherine Brandl; Jeffrey F. Barletta; Sandra L. Kane; Deb S. Sherman

2001-01-01

66

Ethnic and gender differences in boredom proneness  

SciTech Connect

Although boredom may exhibit many shared elements, culturally specific attitudes have also been found to exist. The present paper investigated boredom proneness among African-American college students. Data from 120 participants on the Boredom Proneness (BP) Scale was analyzed and compared to cross-cultural participants. African-American females scored significantly higher than African-American males. Scores were presented from two other studies to show a comparative look at boredom proneness in five other ethnic groups. African-American females are the only female ethnic group to score higher on the BP Scale than their male counterparts. Additionally, overall African-Americans, were found to have higher BP scores than their Western counterparts.

Gibson, G.S.; Morales,

1996-02-01

67

Suffocated prone: the iatrogenic tragedy of SIDS.  

PubMed Central

Epidemiologic research has shown that prone sleeping is a major risk factor for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). In a public health review from Sweden, we explored the historical background of the SIDS epidemic, starting with the view of the Catholic Church that sudden infant deaths were infanticides and ending with the slowly disseminated recommendation of a prone sleeping position during the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s. The story of the SIDS epidemic illustrates a pitfall of preventive medicine--the translation of health care routines for patients to general health advice that targets the whole population. False advice, as well as correct advice, may have a profound effect on public health because of the many individuals concerned. Preventive measures must be based on scientific evidence, and systematic supervision and evaluations are necessary to identify the benefits or the harm of the measures. The discovery of the link between prone sleeping and SIDS has been called a success story for epidemiology, but the slow acceptance of the causal relationship between prone sleeping and SIDS illustrates the weak position of epidemiology and public health within the health care system.

Hogberg, U; Bergstrom, E

2000-01-01

68

[Hypotension after turning to the prone position].  

PubMed

Hypotension after positioning is sometimes seen especially in patients with cervical spinal lesion operated on under prone position. Patients with spinal lesion and those with brain lesion are compared in the frequency of hypotension after positioning to prone. Sixty-one cases operated on with prone position were studied. Ages ranged from 40 to 82 (mean 61) years and ASA grade was 1 or 2 in each case. Cervical laminoplasty (group C) or craniotomy (group B) are performed in 40 and 21 patients, respectively. Ephedrine was administrated when the systolic blood pressure decreased under 80 mmHg and the frequency of ephedrine use was compared. There were no differences in age and sex distribution between group C and B. The induction doses of propofol and fentanyl in group B were larger than those of group C, but ephedrine use in group C was more frequent than in group B. In T2-weighted image of the cervical cord, high signal intensity areas were depicted in cases with hypotension. The sympathetic flow descends in the medial part in the lateral funiculus. Damage of this pathway would cause autonomic dysfunction in patients with cervical spinal lesion and strict monitoring is necessary during positioning to prone. PMID:12632620

Sato, Kiyotaka; Kato, Masato

2003-01-01

69

Prone versus supine thallium myocardial SPECT: a method to decrease artifactual inferior wall defects.  

PubMed

Artifactual inferior wall defects as a result of diaphragmatic attenuation of activity are a frequent source of error in thallium myocardial single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) studies. Thirty-four patients and 11 clinically normal volunteers were studied prospectively to see if specificity of inferior wall defects for right coronary artery disease could be improved by scanning patients prone versus supine. All individuals were scanned both prone and supine, in random order, following symptom limited treadmill exercise. Images were acquired at 3 degrees steps, 25 sec per frame, in a 180 degrees elliptical orbit always beginning in the 45 degrees right anterior oblique position relative to the patient. Polar maps generated from the short axis slices were used to calculate the average regional activity. The prone studies showed consistently higher inferior wall activity compared to the supine studies on both the exercise (182 +/- 22 vs. 160 +/- 23, p less than or equal to 0.001) and 4-hr delay studies (183 +/- 20 vs. 175 +/- 21, p less than or equal to 0.001). Prone imaging resulted in a significantly higher specificity for RCA disease compared to supine imaging (90% vs. 66%, p less than 0.05) with an improvement in accuracy from 71% to 82%. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for left anterior descending and left circumflex artery disease were not significantly affected by patient position during imaging. All patients having SPECT thallium myocardial perfusion studies should be imaged prone to minimize artifactual inferior wall defects and improve accuracy. PMID:2661750

Segall, G M; Davis, M J

1989-04-01

70

Semantic Expectations Can Induce False Perceptions in Hallucination-Prone Individuals  

PubMed Central

Recently, it has been proposed that exaggerated top-down processing may generate spontaneous perceptual output, and that this may constitute a cognitive predisposition toward hallucinations. In this experiment, we investigated whether hallucination proneness would be associated with increased auditory-verbal perceptual expectations, and at which processing level this occurs. From 351 undergraduate students screened for hallucination proneness, using the Launay-Slade Hallucination Scale (LSHS), 42 subjects were recruited for participation. Two word recognition tasks were administered, in which top-down influences on perception were manipulated through sentence context (semantic task) or auditory imagery (phonological task). Results revealed that LSHS scores were correlated with the number of semantically primed errors. Subjects with higher levels of hallucination proneness were more likely to report hearing a word that fits the sentence context, when it was not actually presented. This effect remained significant after controlling for general performance on the task. In contrast, hallucination proneness was not associated with phonologically primed errors. We conclude that aberrant top-down processing, particularly in the form of strong semantic expectations, may contribute to the experience of auditory-verbal hallucinations.

Vercammen, Ans; Aleman, Andre

2010-01-01

71

Dual processing and diagnostic errors.  

PubMed

In this paper, I review evidence from two theories in psychology relevant to diagnosis and diagnostic errors. "Dual Process" theories of thinking, frequently mentioned with respect to diagnostic error, propose that categorization decisions can be made with either a fast, unconscious, contextual process called System 1 or a slow, analytical, conscious, and conceptual process, called System 2. Exemplar theories of categorization propose that many category decisions in everyday life are made by unconscious matching to a particular example in memory, and these remain available and retrievable individually. I then review studies of clinical reasoning based on these theories, and show that the two processes are equally effective; System 1, despite its reliance in idiosyncratic, individual experience, is no more prone to cognitive bias or diagnostic error than System 2. Further, I review evidence that instructions directed at encouraging the clinician to explicitly use both strategies can lead to consistent reduction in error rates. PMID:19669921

Norman, Geoff

2009-08-11

72

The accident-prone and overuse-prone profiles of the young athlete  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 1 year prospective study was done to develop an accident-prone and overuse-prone profile of young ath letes. A group of 185 freshman physical education students (118 males; 67 females) of the same age (18.3 ± 0.5 years) trained under the same conditions and were exposed to similar extrinsic risk factors.Using a descriptive statistical technique, an analysis of correspondence, the

Roeland J. Lysens; Michel S. Ostyn; Yves Vanden Auweele; Johan Lefevre; Magda Vuylsteke; Luc Renson

1989-01-01

73

Sampling Error  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This one page article, created by Statistics Canada, describes the meaning behind random sampling error. It points our the relationship of the random sampling error with the sample size, population size, variability of the characteristic, sampling plan, and measuring sampling error. While brief, this provides valuable information and also links users to additional resources concerning statistics.

2009-01-07

74

Paranormal belief and proneness to dissociation.  

PubMed

The study investigated the relationship between scores on paranormal belief and proneness to dissociation in a sample of 100 Australian students of psychology. Scores on dissociation were positively correlated with those on global paranormal belief and with belief in psi, precognition, spiritualism, and extraordinary life-forms. It is suggested that in some instances paranormal beliefs may be a component of a complex defensive framework constructed in the face of the perceived uncontrollability of life. PMID:7892403

Irwin, H J

1994-12-01

75

Potential aggregation prone regions in biotherapeutics  

PubMed Central

Aggregation of a biotherapeutic is of significant concern and judicious process and formulation development is required to minimize aggregate levels in the final product. Aggregation of a protein in solution is driven by intrinsic and extrinsic factors. In this work we have focused on aggregation as an intrinsic property of the molecule. We have studied the sequences and Fab structures of commercial and non-commercial antibody sequences for their vulnerability towards aggregation by using sequence based computational tools to identify potential aggregation-prone motifs or regions. The mAbs in our dataset contain 2 to 8 aggregation-prone motifs per heavy and light chain pair. Some of these motifs are located in variable domains, primarily in CDRs. Most aggregation-prone motifs are rich in ? branched aliphatic and aromatic residues. Hydroxyl-containing Ser/Thr residues are also found in several aggregation-prone motifs while charged residues are rare. The motifs found in light chain CDR3 are glutamine (Q)/asparagine (N) rich. These motifs are similar to the reported aggregation promoting regions found in prion and amyloidogenic proteins that are also rich in Q/N, aliphatic and aromatic residues. The implication is that one possible mechanism for aggregation of mAbs may be through formation of cross-? structures and fibrils. Mapping on the available Fab—receptor/antigen complex structures reveals that these motifs in CDRs might also contribute significantly towards receptor/antigen binding. Our analysis identifies the opportunity and tools for simultaneous optimization of the therapeutic protein sequence for potency and specificity while reducing vulnerability towards aggregation.

Wang, Xiaoling; Das, Tapan K; Singh, Satish K

2009-01-01

76

Registration of prone and supine CT colonography scans using correlation optimized warping and canonical correlation analysis  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: In computed tomographic colonography (CTC), a patient will be scanned twice--Once supine and once prone--to improve the sensitivity for polyp detection. To assist radiologists in CTC reading, in this paper we propose an automated method for colon registration from supine and prone CTC scans. Methods: We propose a new colon centerline registration method for prone and supine CTC scans using correlation optimized warping (COW) and canonical correlation analysis (CCA) based on the anatomical structure of the colon. Four anatomical salient points on the colon are first automatically distinguished. Then correlation optimized warping is applied to the segments defined by the anatomical landmarks to improve the global registration based on local correlation of segments. The COW method was modified by embedding canonical correlation analysis to allow multiple features along the colon centerline to be used in our implementation. Results: We tested the COW algorithm on a CTC data set of 39 patients with 39 polyps (19 training and 20 test cases) to verify the effectiveness of the proposed COW registration method. Experimental results on the test set show that the COW method significantly reduces the average estimation error in a polyp location between supine and prone scans by 67.6%, from 46.27{+-}52.97 to 14.98 mm{+-}11.41 mm, compared to the normalized distance along the colon centerline algorithm (p<0.01). Conclusions: The proposed COW algorithm is more accurate for the colon centerline registration compared to the normalized distance along the colon centerline method and the dynamic time warping method. Comparison results showed that the feature combination of z-coordinate and curvature achieved lowest registration error compared to the other feature combinations used by COW. The proposed method is tolerant to centerline errors because anatomical landmarks help prevent the propagation of errors across the entire colon centerline.

Wang Shijun; Yao Jianhua; Liu Jiamin; Petrick, Nicholas; Van Uitert, Robert L.; Periaswamy, Senthil; Summers, Ronald M. [Imaging Biomarkers and Computer-Aided Diagnosis Laboratory, Radiology and Imaging Sciences, National Institutes of Health Clinical Center, Building 10, Room 1C368X, MSC 1182, Bethesda, Maryland 20892-1182 (United States); NIBIB/CDRH Laboratory for the Assessment of Medical Imaging Systems, Food and Drug Administration, 10903 New Hampshire Avenue, Silver Spring, Maryland 20993-0002 (United States); iCAD Inc., 98 Spit Brook Road, Suite 100, Nashua, New Hampshire 03062 (United States); Imaging Biomarkers and Computer-Aided Diagnosis Laboratory, Radiology and Imaging Sciences, National Institutes of Health Clinical Center, Building 10, Room 1C368X, MSC 1182, Bethesda, Maryland 20892-1182 (United States)

2009-12-15

77

H.264\\/AVC error detection scheme using fragile data hiding in motion vector set  

Microsoft Academic Search

The corruption of compressed video bitstreams during transmission over error-prone communication channels leads to the degradation of visual quality. To effectively conceal the corrupted video data, an exact error detection scheme is more important than anything else. In this paper, we propose a new error detection scheme using fragile data hiding technique to improve the error detection ratio. Experimental results

Man-Geun Ko; Jang-Eui Hong; Jae-Won Suh

2012-01-01

78

Dissociative Experiences in Hypothetically Psychosis-Prone College Students (Articles)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychosis Proneness Psychometric Identification of Psychosis Proneness Dissociative Experiences Schizophrenia and Dissociation Goals and Hypotheses of the Present Study Abstract The relationship between dissociative experiences and psychosis proneness was investigated in a sample of 523 college undergraduates. Participants were administered the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES), the Perceptual Aberration Scale, the Magical Ideation Scale, the Social Anhedonia Scale, and the Physical

THOMAS KWAPIL

79

Medication errors.  

PubMed

Medication errors cause substantial harm to patients. We need good methods for counting errors, and we need to know how errors defined in different ways and ascertained by different methods are related to the harm that patients suffer. As errors arise within the complex and poorly designed systems of hospital and primary care, analysis of the factors that lead to error, for example by failure mode and effects analysis, may encourage better designs and reduce harms. There is almost no information on the best ways to train prescribers to be safe or to design effective computerized decision support to help them, although both are important in reducing medication errors and should be investigated. We also need to know how best to provide patients with the data they need to be part of initiatives for safer prescribing. PMID:22360355

Ferner, Robin E

2012-06-01

80

Medication errors  

PubMed Central

Medication errors cause substantial harm to patients. We need good methods for counting errors, and we need to know how errors defined in different ways and ascertained by different methods are related to the harm that patients suffer. As errors arise within the complex and poorly designed systems of hospital and primary care, analysis of the factors that lead to error, for example by failure mode and effects analysis, may encourage better designs and reduce harms. There is almost no information on the best ways to train prescribers to be safe or to design effective computerized decision support to help them, although both are important in reducing medication errors and should be investigated. We also need to know how best to provide patients with the data they need to be part of initiatives for safer prescribing.

Ferner, Robin E

2012-01-01

81

Reality monitoring and motor memory in checking-prone individuals.  

PubMed

Studies concerning reality monitoring and motor memory abilities in checkers have provided mixed results. The aim of this study was to re-examine this question by asking 75 undergraduate students to perform, watch the experimenter perform, imagine themselves performing, imagine the experimenter performing, or verbally repeat different daily actions. Two groups were created (checking-prone and nonchecking-prone subjects) based on participants' checking subscores on the revised version of the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory. First, results suggested that checking-prone subjects have a poorer motor memory than nonchecking-prone participants. Second, our data indicated that checking-prone participants confused actions they had performed with actions the experimenter had performed more often than nonchecking-prone participants. In other words, checking-prone participants remembered events from an observer's viewpoint. Finally, our findings suggest that dissociation could be a mediating variable between some of the reality monitoring abilities and checking. PMID:16198533

Zermatten, Ariane; Van der Linden, Martial; Larøi, Frank; Ceschi, Grazia

2005-09-29

82

Mutation-prone points in KCNQ  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND KCNQ channels play important roles in controlling membrane excitability. A reduction in KCNQ channel activity due to genetic mutation is responsible for various human diseases, including arrhythmia. METHODS A combined bioinformatics analysis was performed to study the positions that are at risk for mutation within the amino acid sequence of KCNQ. A new bioinformatics tool, namely GlobPlot, was used. RESULTS According to the present study, the positions that are resistant to mutation are predicted. CONCLUSION Several mutation-prone positions within the KCNQ sequence are reported.

Wiwanitkit, Viroj

2008-01-01

83

Medication Errors  

MedlinePLUS

Medicines cure infectious diseases, prevent problems from chronic diseases, and ease pain. But medicines can also cause harmful reactions if not used ... You can help prevent errors by Knowing your medicines. Keep a list of the names of your ...

84

A Fast and Effective Block-Matching Error Concealment Scheme  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the transport of compressed video over error prone channels. motion vectors and displaced frame differences may be lost\\u000a or received with errors. The effect of such information loss can be devastating because any damage to the motion vector may\\u000a lead to severe error propagation and significant visual distortion over several video frames at the decoder. To resolve such\\u000a problem,

Jian Wang; Chang Wen Chen

2001-01-01

85

Delusion-prone individuals: stuck in their ways?  

PubMed

Although false memories and confabulation have been linked to both executive dysfunction and greater suggestibility, similar associations with the emergence of delusional thinking remain unexamined. We therefore compared healthy individuals who scored high and low on the Peters Delusional Inventory (PDI: Peters et al., 1999) on measures of set-shifting (the intra-extradimensional set shift task: IED) planning (the Stockings of Cambridge Task: SOC). Additionally, we examined whether high delusion-prone individuals show greater suggestibility on the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale (GSS 2: Gudjonsson, 1987). On the IED task, the high group made more pre-extradimensional shift errors than the low PDI group, and this was especially notable for reversal learning. By contrast, no differences emerged on any aspect of the SOC. Finally, and intriguingly, the high PDI group was less likely than the low PDI group to change their responses after receiving suggestive negative feedback. We propose that delusional-style thinking may be underpinned by an orbitofrontal-based reversal learning difficulty affecting the flexibility to adapt responses to changing contingencies and external pressure. PMID:21035195

Laws, Keith Richard; Kondel, Tejinder Kaur; Clarke, Richard; Nillo, Anne-Marie

2010-10-28

86

Neglected Children, Shame-Proneness, and Depressive Symptoms  

PubMed Central

Neglected children may be at increased risk for depressive symptoms. This study examines shame-proneness as an outcome of child neglect and as a potential explanatory variable in the relation between neglect and depressive symptoms. Participants were 111 children (52 with a Child Protective Services [CPS] allegation of neglect) seen at age 7. Neglected children reported more shame-proneness and more depressive symptoms than comparison children. Guilt-proneness, in contrast, was unrelated to neglect and depressive symptoms, indicating specificity for shame-proneness. The potential role of shame as a process variable that can help explain how some neglected children exhibit depressive symptoms is discussed.

Bennett, David S.; Sullivan, Margaret Wolan; Lewis, Michael

2013-01-01

87

Neglected children, shame-proneness, and depressive symptoms.  

PubMed

Neglected children may be at increased risk for depressive symptoms. This study examines shame-proneness as an outcome of child neglect and as a potential explanatory variable in the relation between neglect and depressive symptoms. Participants were 111 children (52 with a Child Protective Services [CPS] allegation of neglect) seen at age 7. Neglected children reported more shame-proneness and more depressive symptoms than comparison children. Guilt-proneness, in contrast, was unrelated to neglect and depressive symptoms, indicating specificity for shame-proneness. The potential role of shame as a process variable that can help explain how some neglected children exhibit depressive symptoms is discussed. PMID:20724372

Bennett, David S; Sullivan, Margaret Wolan; Lewis, Michael

2010-08-19

88

Simplified primer design for PCR-based gene targeting and microarray primer database: two web tools for fission yeast  

PubMed Central

PCR-based gene targeting is a popular method for manipulating yeast genes in their normal chromosomal locations. The manual design of primers, however, can be cumbersome and error-prone. We have developed a straightforward web-based tool that applies user-specified inputs to automate and simplify the task of primer selection for deletion, tagging and/or regulated expression of genes in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. This tool, named PPPP (for Pombe PCR Primer Programs), is available at http://www.sanger.ac.uk/PostGenomics/S_pombe/software/. We also present a searchable Microarray Primer Database to retrieve the sequences and accompanying information for primers and PCR products used to build our in-house Sz. pombe microarrays. This database contains information on both coding and intergenic regions to provide context for the microarray data, and it should be useful also for other applications, such as quantitative PCR. The database can be accessed at http://www.sanger.ac.uk/PostGenomics/S_pombe/microarray/. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Penkett, Christopher J; Birtle, Zoe E; Bahler, Jurg

2006-01-01

89

Patient evaluation of prone carts used in spinal cord injury.  

PubMed

Prone carts are used for mobility by individuals with spinal cord injury who cannot use a wheelchair due to the risk of aggravating existing pressure ulcers. A prone cart is a flat/horizontal cart with a fixed height, propelled by the user while laying in a prone position. Patients reported that prolonged use of a prone cart resulted in chronic neck, shoulder and back pain. Additionally the existing prone carts lack user accessible angle adjustability, chest support area, as well as a storage, eating or working area. An interdisciplinary research team collaborated to address these concerns. Three prone carts were evaluated: E&J, Gendron, and a newly developed prototype, MIAD/PVA. Questionnaires were administered to caregivers and patients regarding usage and effectiveness of the prone carts as well as the features of an ideal cart. This data led to the design and refinement of a prototype prone cart which was tested on 20 patients and 19 caregivers at the SCI Centers of the Milwaukee and Tampa VAMC's from 1994-1995. The new prone cart enables the user to lie at an angle rather than laying flat. This position has been found to relieve back and neck pressure. With an hydraulic system, the the user can adjust both the front and rear angles of the cart to achieve desired comfort. In addition, a front deck provides an eating and working area. This study resulted in research-based information and criteria for the design of new prone carts. Findings of this pilot study will be incorporated in a development merit review proposal to the VA Rehabilitation Research & Development service for the design of a new manual and motorized prone cart. The researchers are collaborating with Ortho-Kinetics Inc. to promote ease in manufacturing. PMID:8900708

Nelson, A; Malassigné, P; Cors, M; Amerson, T L; Bonifay, R; Schnurr, E

1996-06-01

90

Empirical evaluation of humpback whale telomere length estimates; quality control and factors causing variability in the singleplex and multiplex qPCR methods  

PubMed Central

Background Telomeres, the protective cap of chromosomes, have emerged as powerful markers of biological age and life history in model and non-model species. The qPCR method for telomere length estimation is one of the most common methods for telomere length estimation, but has received recent critique for being too error-prone and yielding unreliable results. This critique coincides with an increasing awareness of the potentials and limitations of the qPCR technique in general and the proposal of a general set of guidelines (MIQE) for standardization of experimental, analytical, and reporting steps of qPCR. In order to evaluate the utility of the qPCR method for telomere length estimation in non-model species, we carried out four different qPCR assays directed at humpback whale telomeres, and subsequently performed a rigorous quality control to evaluate the performance of each assay. Results Performance differed substantially among assays and only one assay was found useful for telomere length estimation in humpback whales. The most notable factors causing these inter-assay differences were primer design and choice of using singleplex or multiplex assays. Inferred amplification efficiencies differed by up to 40% depending on assay and quantification method, however this variation only affected telomere length estimates in the worst performing assays. Conclusion Our results suggest that seemingly well performing qPCR assays may contain biases that will only be detected by extensive quality control. Moreover, we show that the qPCR method for telomere length estimation can be highly precise and accurate, and thus suitable for telomere measurement in non-model species, if effort is devoted to optimization at all experimental and analytical steps. We conclude by highlighting a set of quality controls which may serve for further standardization of the qPCR method for telomere length estimation, and discuss some of the factors that may cause variation in qPCR experiments.

2012-01-01

91

Controlling misdiagnosis errors in preimplantation genetic diagnosis: a comprehensive model encompassing extrinsic and intrinsic sources of error  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a mathematical model to explore accuracy of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) using single cell polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The model encompasses both extrinsic technical errors and intrinsic errors related to nuclear and chromosomal abnormalities. Using estimates for these errors, we have calculated the probability of a serious error (affected embryo diagnosed as unaffected) using a variety of

C. M. Lewis; T. Pinel; J. C. Whittaker; A. H. Handyside

2001-01-01

92

Characterization of genetic deletions in Becker muscular dystrophy using monoclonal antibodies against a deletion-prone region of dystrophin  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have produced a new panel of 20 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against a region of the dystrophin protein corresponding to a deletion-prone region of the Duchenne muscular dystrophy gene (exons 45-50). We show that immunohistochemistry or Western blotting with these {open_quotes}exon-specific{close_quotes} mAbs can provide a valuable addition to Southern blotting or PCR methods for the accurate identification of genetic deletions

Le Thiet Thanh; Nguyen Thi Man; G. E. Morris; C. A. Sewry; V. Dubowitz

1995-01-01

93

FANTASY PRONENESS AND OTHER PSYCHOLOGICAL CORRELATES OF UFO EXPERIENCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the psychological variables that underpin the reporting of UFO (unidentified flying objects) experiences of 198 subjects (155 controls, 19 UFO sightees, 12 UFO contactees, and 12 UFO abductees). Findings demonstrate that reporting of UFO experiences is related to heightened levels of fantasy proneness and paranormal belief and that the relationship between fantasy proneness and UFO experiences is

Kathryn Gow; Janine Lurie; Stuart Coppin; Ari Popper; Anthony Powell; Keith Basterfield

94

Applying Sampling Methods to Fault-Prone Module Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

To improve the prediction performance of fault-proneness models, this paper experimentally evaluates the effect of over and under sampling methods, which are preprocessing procedures for a fit dataset. The sampling methods are expected to improve the prediction performance when the fit dataset is imbalanced, i.e. there exists a large bias between the number of fault- prone modules and the number

Yasutaka Kamei; Shinsuke Matsumoto; Takeshi Kakimoto; Akito Monden; Ken-ichi Matsumoto

2007-01-01

95

Pathogenesis of A??? ketosis-prone diabetes.  

PubMed

A??? ketosis-prone diabetes (KPD) is an emerging syndrome of obesity, unprovoked ketoacidosis, reversible ?-cell dysfunction, and near-normoglycemic remission. We combined metabolomics with targeted kinetic measurements to investigate its pathophysiology. Fasting plasma fatty acids, acylcarnitines, and amino acids were quantified in 20 KPD patients compared with 19 nondiabetic control subjects. Unique signatures in KPD--higher glutamate but lower glutamine and citrulline concentrations, increased ?-hydroxybutyryl-carnitine, decreased isovaleryl-carnitine (a leucine catabolite), and decreased tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates--generated hypotheses that were tested through stable isotope/mass spectrometry protocols in nine new-onset, stable KPD patients compared with seven nondiabetic control subjects. Free fatty acid flux and acetyl CoA flux and oxidation were similar, but KPD had slower acetyl CoA conversion to ?-hydroxybutyrate; higher fasting ?-hydroxybutyrate concentration; slower ?-hydroxybutyrate oxidation; faster leucine oxidative decarboxylation; accelerated glutamine conversion to glutamate without increase in glutamate carbon oxidation; and slower citrulline flux, with diminished glutamine amide-nitrogen transfer to citrulline. The confluence of metabolomic and kinetic data indicate a distinctive pathogenic sequence: impaired ketone oxidation and fatty acid utilization for energy, leading to accelerated leucine catabolism and transamination of ?-ketoglutarate to glutamate, with impaired TCA anaplerosis of glutamate carbon. They highlight a novel process of defective energy production and ketosis in A??? KPD. PMID:23160531

Patel, Sanjeet G; Hsu, Jean W; Jahoor, Farook; Coraza, Ivonne; Bain, James R; Stevens, Robert D; Iyer, Dinakar; Nalini, Ramaswami; Ozer, Kerem; Hampe, Christiane S; Newgard, Christopher B; Balasubramanyam, Ashok

2012-11-16

96

Evening types are prone to depression.  

PubMed

Certain preferences for the timing of daily activities (chronotype) may predispose an individual to sleep problems and mood disorders. In this study, we have examined the link between chronotypes and depression. Participants (N = 6071) were recruited from a random sample of the general population aged 25 to 74 yrs living in defined geographical areas, as part of the National FINRISK Study in 2007 in Finland. Chronotype assessment was based on six items from the original Horne-Östberg Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire. Depression was assessed with four self-reported items, including two probes for a diagnosis of a major depressive episode, diagnosed or treated depression, and use of antidepressants. We also analyzed correlations between chronotype and several health indicators, such as systolic and diastolic blood pressures, resting heart rate, weight, and waist circumference. The odds ratios for a range of indicators of depression were higher for evening types (2.7- to 4.1-fold) and intermediate types (1.5- to 1.9-fold) than for morning types. Our results suggest that individuals having a preference for evening hours to carry out their daily activities are prone to depression. PMID:23688117

Merikanto, Ilona; Lahti, Tuuli; Kronholm, Erkki; Peltonen, Markku; Laatikainen, Tiina; Vartiainen, Erkki; Salomaa, Veikko; Partonen, Timo

2013-05-20

97

MRI Guidance for Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation in Prone Position: Imaging Protocol Design and Evaluation  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To design and evaluate a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol to be incorporated in the simulation process for external beam accelerated partial breast irradiation. Methods and Materials: An imaging protocol was developed based on an existing breast MRI technique with the patient in the prone position on a dedicated coil. Pulse sequences were customized to exploit T1 and T2 contrast mechanisms characteristic of lumpectomy cavities. A three-dimensional image warping algorithm was included to correct for geometric distortions related to nonlinearity of spatially encoding gradients. Respiratory motion, image distortions, and susceptibility artifacts of 3.5-mm titanium surgical clips were examined. Magnetic resonance images of volunteers were acquired repeatedly to analyze residual setup deviations resulting from breast tissue deformation. Results: The customized sequences generated high-resolution magnetic resonance images emphasizing lumpectomy cavity morphology. Respiratory motion was negligible with the subject in the prone position. The gradient-induced nonlinearity was reduced to less than 1 mm in a region 15 cm away from the isocenter of the magnet. Signal-void regions of surgical clips were 4 mm and 8 mm for spin echo and gradient echo images, respectively. Typical residual repositioning errors resulting from breast deformation were estimated to be 3 mm or less. Conclusions: MRI guidance for accelerated partial breast irradiation with the patient in the prone position with adequate contrast, spatial fidelity, and resolution is possible.

Ahn, Kang-Hyun [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States)], E-mail: ahn.2007@stanford.edu; Hargreaves, Brian A.; Alley, Marcus T. [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Horst, Kathleen C.; Luxton, Gary [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Daniel, Bruce L. [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Hristov, Dimitre [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States)

2009-09-01

98

CT Colonography: External Clinical Validation of an Algorithm for Computer-assisted Prone and Supine Registration.  

PubMed

Purpose: To perform external validation of a computer-assisted registration algorithm for prone and supine computed tomographic (CT) colonography and to compare the results with those of an existing centerline method. Materials and Methods: All contributing centers had institutional review board approval; participants provided informed consent. A validation sample of CT colonographic examinations of 51 patients with 68 polyps (6-55 mm) was selected from a publicly available, HIPAA compliant, anonymized archive. No patients were excluded because of poor preparation or inadequate distension. Corresponding prone and supine polyp coordinates were recorded, and endoluminal surfaces were registered automatically by using a computer algorithm. Two observers independently scored three-dimensional endoluminal polyp registration success. Results were compared with those obtained by using the normalized distance along the colonic centerline (NDACC) method. Pairwise Wilcoxon signed rank tests were used to compare gross registration error and McNemar tests were used to compare polyp conspicuity. Results: Registration was possible in all 51 patients, and 136 paired polyp coordinates were generated (68 polyps) to test the algorithm. Overall mean three-dimensional polyp registration error (mean ± standard deviation, 19.9 mm ± 20.4) was significantly less than that for the NDACC method (mean, 27.4 mm ± 15.1; P = .001). Accuracy was unaffected by colonic segment (P = .76) or luminal collapse (P = .066). During endoluminal review by two observers (272 matching tasks, 68 polyps, prone to supine and supine to prone coordinates), 223 (82%) polyp matches were visible (120° field of view) compared with just 129 (47%) when the NDACC method was used (P < .001). By using multiplanar visualization, 48 (70%) polyps were visible after scrolling ± 15 mm in any multiplanar axis compared with 16 (24%) for NDACC (P < .001). Conclusion: Computer-assisted registration is more accurate than the NDACC method for mapping the endoluminal surface and matching the location of polyps in corresponding prone and supine CT colonographic acquisitions. © RSNA, 2013 Supplemental material: http://radiology.rsna.org/lookup/suppl/doi:10.1148/radiol.13122083/-/DC1. PMID:23687175

Boone, Darren J; Halligan, Steve; Roth, Holger R; Hampshire, Tom E; Helbren, Emma; Slabaugh, Greg G; McQuillan, Justine; McClelland, Jamie R; Hu, Mingxing; Punwani, Shonit; Taylor, Stuart A; Hawkes, David J

2013-05-17

99

Hematopoietic stem cell quiescence promotes error prone DNA repair and mutagenesis  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Most adult stem cells, including hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), are maintained in a quiescent or resting state in vivo. Quiescence is widely considered to be an essential protective mechanism for stem cells that minimizes endogenous stress caused by cellular respiration and DNA replication. Here, we demonstrate that HSC quiescence can also have detrimental effects. We found that HSCs have unique cell-intrinsic mechanisms ensuring their survival in response to ionizing irradiation (IR), which include enhanced pro-survival gene expression and strong activation of p53-mediated DNA damage response. We show that quiescent and proliferating HSCs are equally radioprotected but use different types of DNA repair mechanisms. We describe how nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ)-mediated DNA repair in quiescent HSCs is associated with acquisition of genomic rearrangements, which can persist in vivo and contribute to hematopoietic abnormalities. Our results demonstrate that quiescence is a double-edged sword that renders HSCs intrinsically vulnerable to mutagenesis following DNA damage.

Mohrin, Mary; Bourke, Emer; Alexander, David; Warr, Matthew R.; Barry-Holson, Keegan; Le Beau, Michelle M.; Morrison, Ciaran G.; Passegue, Emmanuelle

2010-01-01

100

Detecting Possibly Fraudulent or Error-Prone Survey Data Using Benford's Law.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Consumer Expenditure Survey (CE) is a nationwide household survey conducted by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) to find out how Americans spend their money. As with any survey, the accuracy of CEs published expenditure estimates depends on th...

D. Swanson J. Eltinge M. Jung

2003-01-01

101

Helping Audio Sound Better when listened to over Error Prone Wireless Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Streaming media across the Internet is still an unreliable and poor quality medium. Services such as audio-on-demand drastically increase the load on the networks therefore new, robust and highly efficient coding algorithms will be necessary. When receiving streaming media over a low bandwidth wireless connection, users can experience not only packet losses but also extended service interruptions. These dropouts can

Jonathan Doherty; Kevin Curran; Paul Mc Kevitt

102

Inducible Error-Prone Repair in Bacillus Subtilis. Progress Report, May 1, 1985-April 30, 1986.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

DNA damage-inducible star operon fusions were generated in B. subtilis by transpositional mutagenesis. These fusion isolates produce increased beta-galactosidase when exposed to mitomycin C, uv radiation, or ethyl methanesulfonate, indicating that the lac...

R. E. Yasbin

1986-01-01

103

Inducible error-prone repair in Bacillus subtilis. Progress report, May 1, 1985-April 30, 1986  

SciTech Connect

DNA damage-inducible star operon fusions were generated in B. subtilis by transpositional mutagenesis. These fusion isolates produce increased beta-galactosidase when exposed to mitomycin C, uv radiation, or ethyl methanesulfonate, indicating that the lacZ structural gene had inserted into host transcriptional units that are induced by a variety of DNA damaging agents. One of the fusion strains was DNA-repair deficient and phenotypically resembled a uv-sensitive excision-repair deficient mutant of B. subtilis. Induction of beta-galactosidase also occurred in the competent subpopulation of each of the din fusion strains, independent of exposure to DNA-damaging agents. Both the DNA-damage-inducible and competence-inducible components of beta-galactosidase expression were abolished by the recE4 mutation, which inhibits SOS-like (SOB) induction but does not interfere with the development of the competent state. The results indicate that gene expression is stimulated at specific loci within the B. subtilis chromosome both by DNA-damaging agents and by the development of competence and this response is under the control of the SOB regulon. Furthermore, they demonstrated that at the molecular level SOB induction and the development of competence are interrelated cellular events.

Yasbin, R.E.

1986-06-01

104

Cdk1 phosphorylation of the kinetochore protein Nsk1 prevents error-prone chromosome segregation  

PubMed Central

Cdk1 controls many aspects of mitotic chromosome behavior and spindle microtubule (MT) dynamics to ensure accurate chromosome segregation. In this paper, we characterize a new kinetochore substrate of fission yeast Cdk1, Nsk1, which promotes proper kinetochore–MT (k-MT) interactions and chromosome movements in a phosphoregulated manner. Cdk1 phosphorylation of Nsk1 antagonizes Nsk1 kinetochore and spindle localization during early mitosis. A nonphosphorylatable Nsk1 mutant binds prematurely to kinetochores and spindle, cementing improper k-MT attachments and leading to high rates of lagging chromosomes that missegregate. Accordingly, cells lacking nsk1 exhibit synthetic growth defects with mutations that disturb MT dynamics and/or kinetochore structure, and lack of proper phosphoregulation leads to even more severe defects. Intriguingly, Nsk1 is stabilized by binding directly to the dynein light chain Dlc1 independently of the dynein motor, and Nsk1–Dlc1 forms chainlike structures in vitro. Our findings establish new roles for Cdk1 and the Nsk1–Dlc1 complex in regulating the k-MT interface and chromosome segregation.

Chen, Jun-Song; Lu, Lucy X.; Ohi, Melanie D.; Creamer, Kevin M.; English, Chauca; Partridge, Janet F.; Ohi, Ryoma

2011-01-01

105

Stochastic and Deterministic Models of Targeting, with Dynamic and Error-Prone BDA.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Deep precision strike is a generic military operation that depends importantly on C4/ISR system contributions. Information from the latter is realistically subject to chance influences: targets are found and correctly identified generally at rates proport...

D. P. Baver P. A. Jacobs

1997-01-01

106

Software errors and complexity: an empirical investigation0  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis of the distributions and relationships derived from the change data collected during development of a medium-scale software project produces some surprising insights into the factors influencing software development. Among these are the tradeoffs between modifying an existing module as opposed to creating a new one, and the relationship between module size and error proneness.

Victor R. Basili; Barry T. Perricone

1984-01-01

107

A Comparative Analysis of Practitioners' Errors on WIS CR and WIS C-III  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation of the difference in school psychologists' clerial error rates between WISC-R and WISC-III showed that WISC-III appears no less prone to examiner errors than WISC-R. Errors were found on 38% of WISC-R protocols and 42% of WISC-III protocols. On WISC-III, the decline in Full Scale IQ-changing errors over a period of 18 months was statistically reliable.

Robert M. Klassen; Nand Kishor

1996-01-01

108

Proneness to eating disorders: weightlifters compared to exercisers.  

PubMed

Previous findings were confirmed suggesting that weightlifters may be more prone to eating disorders than are casual exercisers. 25 weightlifters' mean eating disorder score was significantly higher than that of 25 casual exercisers when contrasted for practical difference. PMID:10883776

Brooks, C; Taylor, R D; Hardy, C A; Lass, T

2000-06-01

109

Kids with Head Injuries May Be Prone to Depression  

MedlinePLUS

... Kids With Head Injuries May Be Prone to Depression Study found they were more likely to be ... 25, 2013 Related MedlinePlus Pages Child Mental Health Depression Head Injuries FRIDAY, Oct. 25 (HealthDay News) -- Children ...

110

The Role of a Prone Setup in Breast Radiation Therapy  

PubMed Central

Most patients undergoing breast conservation therapy receive radiotherapy in the supine position. Historically, prone breast irradiation has been advocated for women with large pendulous breasts in order to decrease acute and late toxicities. With the advent of CT planning, the prone technique has become both feasible and reproducible. It was shown to be advantageous not only for women with larger breasts but in most patients since it consistently reduces, if not eliminates, the inclusion of heart and lung within the field. The prone setup has been accepted as the best localizing position for both MRI and stereotactic biopsy, but its adoption has been delayed in radiotherapy. New technological advances including image-modulated radiation therapy and image-guided radiation therapy have made possible the exploration of accelerated fractionation schemes with a concomitant boost to the tumor bed in the prone position, along with better imaging and verification of reproducibility of patient setup. This review describes some of the available techniques for prone breast radiotherapy and the available experience in their application. The NYU prone breast radiotherapy approach is discussed, including a summary of the results from several prospective trials.

Huppert, Nelly; Jozsef, Gabor; DeWyngaert, Keith; Formenti, Silvia Chiara

2011-01-01

111

Better postoperative oxygenation in thoracoscopic esophagectomy in prone positioning.  

PubMed

Intrathoracic procedures can be performed with thoracoscopy in esophagectomy because the laparoscopic technique has recently been developed. During intrathoracic procedures, prone positioning of the patient allows gravity to facilitate optimal exposure of the esophagus, thereby affording a superb surgical view. In the current study, we compared the influence of prone positioning with lateral decubitus positioning on oxygenation in esophagectomy. We enrolled 18 patients and divided them into two groups: patients who underwent esophagectomy via thoracoscopy in the prone position (group P) and patients who underwent thoracotomy in the lateral decubitus position (control group, group L). Arterial blood gas analyses were performed before the operation was started (T1), 20 min after the initiation of one-lung ventilation (OLV) (T2), and two other points. The P/F ratio at T2 in group P was higher. Further, percent (%) change of the P/F ratios from T1 and thereafter in group P was higher at all points. We thought the reason why the prone position had contributed to maintenance oxygenation was as follows. First, the functional residual capacity and ventilation/perfusion matching in the prone position are satisfactory. Second, a bronchial blocker might contribute to reduction of atelectasis. Third, minimally invasive esophagectomy might reduce respiratory complications and blood loss because this procedure reduces edema and inflammation in the lung. In conclusion, the oxygenation provided by prone positioning is better than that provided by the lateral decubitus position during OLV in esophagectomy. PMID:20526722

Yatabe, Tomoaki; Kitagawa, Hiroyuki; Yamashita, Koichi; Akimori, Toyokazu; Hanazaki, Kazuhiro; Yokoyama, Masataka

2010-06-05

112

Design and Optimization of Reverse-Transcription Quantitative PCR Experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Quantitative PCR (qPCR) is a valuable technique for accurately and reliably profiling and quantifying gene expression. Typically, samples ob- tainedfromtheorganismofstudyhavetobeprocessed via several preparative steps before qPCR. METHOD: We estimated the errors of sample with- drawal and extraction, reverse transcription (RT), and qPCR that are introduced into measurements of mRNA concentrations. We performed hierarchically arranged experiments with 3 animals, 3

Ales Tichopad; Rob Kitchen; Irmgard Riedmaier; Christiane Becker; Anders Ståhlberg; Mikael Kubista

2009-01-01

113

Hemispheric Asymmetries in the Activation and Monitoring of Memory Errors  

PubMed Central

Previous research on the lateralization of memory errors suggests that the right hemisphere’s tendency to produce more memory errors than the left hemisphere reflects hemispheric differences in semantic activation. However, all prior research that has examined the lateralization of memory errors has used self-paced recognition judgments. Because activation occurs early in memory retrieval, with more time to make a decision, other memory processes, like strategic monitoring processes, may affect memory errors. By manipulating the time subjects were given to make memory decisions, this study separated the influence of automatic memory processes (activation) from strategic memory processes (monitoring) on the production of false memories. The results indicated that when retrieval was fast, the right hemisphere produced more memory errors than the left hemisphere. However, when retrieval was slow, the left hemisphere’s error-proneness increased compared to the fast retrieval condition, while the right hemisphere’s error-proneness remained the same. These results suggest that the right hemisphere’s errors are largely due to activation, while the left hemisphere’s errors are influenced by both activation and monitoring.

Giammattei, Jeannette; Arndt, Jason

2012-01-01

114

Spatial-temporal error concealment with side information for standard video codecs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Error concealment (EC) is important for transmitting video over error prone networks such as the Internet or wireless networks. Different EC strategies have their own advantages for different scenarios. However, it is generally difficult for the decoder to figure out which strategy works the best for a specific case. This paper proposes to use data embedding to convey the necessary

Wenjun Zeng

2003-01-01

115

44 CFR 60.24 - Planning considerations for flood-related erosion-prone areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Planning considerations for flood-related erosion-prone areas. 60.24 Section...Mudflow)-Prone and Flood-Related Erosion-Prone Areas § 60.24 Planning considerations for flood-related erosion-prone areas. The planning...

2009-10-01

116

44 CFR 60.24 - Planning considerations for flood-related erosion-prone areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Planning considerations for flood-related erosion-prone areas. 60.24 Section...Mudflow)-Prone and Flood-Related Erosion-Prone Areas § 60.24 Planning considerations for flood-related erosion-prone areas. The planning...

2010-10-01

117

Duplication of CXC chemokine genes on chromosome 4q13 in a melanoma-prone family  

PubMed Central

Summary Copy number variations (CNVs) have been shown to contribute substantially to disease susceptibility in several inherited diseases including cancer. We conducted a genome-wide search for CNVs in blood-derived DNA from 79 individuals (62 melanoma patients and 17 spouse controls) of 30 high-risk melanoma-prone families without known segregating mutations using genome-wide comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) tiling arrays. We identified a duplicated region on chromosome 4q13 in germline DNA of all melanoma patients in a melanoma-prone family with three affected siblings. We confirmed the duplication using quantitative PCR and a custom-made CGH array design spanning the 4q13 region. The duplicated region contains 10 genes, most of which encode CXC chemokines. Among them, CXCL1 (melanoma growth-stimulating activity ?) and IL8 (interleukin 8) have been shown to stimulate melanoma growth in vitro and in vivo. Our data suggests that the alteration of CXC chemokine genes may confer susceptibility to melanoma.

Yang, Xiaohong R.; Brown, Kevin; Landi, Maria T.; Ghiorzo, Paola; Badenas, Celia; Xu, Mai; Hayward, Nicholas K.; Calista, Donato; Landi, Giorgio; Bruno, William; Bianchi-Scarra, Giovanna; Aguilera, Paula; Puig, Susana; Goldstein, Alisa M.; Tucker, Margaret A.

2012-01-01

118

Sex Determination Using PCR  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

PCR has revolutionized many aspects of biochemistry and molecular biology research. In the following exercise, students learn PCR by isolating their own DNA, amplifying specific segments of the X and Y chromosomes, and estimating the sizes of the PCR products using agarose gel electrophoresis. Based on the pattern of PCR products, students can…

Kima, Peter E.; Rasche, Madeline E.

2004-01-01

119

Sex Determination Using PCR  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|PCR has revolutionized many aspects of biochemistry and molecular biology research. In the following exercise, students learn PCR by isolating their own DNA, amplifying specific segments of the X and Y chromosomes, and estimating the sizes of the PCR products using agarose gel electrophoresis. Based on the pattern of PCR products, students can…

Kima, Peter E.; Rasche, Madeline E.

2004-01-01

120

Heritable Change Caused by Transient Transcription Errors  

PubMed Central

Transmission of cellular identity relies on the faithful transfer of information from the mother to the daughter cell. This process includes accurate replication of the DNA, but also the correct propagation of regulatory programs responsible for cellular identity. Errors in DNA replication (mutations) and protein conformation (prions) can trigger stable phenotypic changes and cause human disease, yet the ability of transient transcriptional errors to produce heritable phenotypic change (‘epimutations’) remains an open question. Here, we demonstrate that transcriptional errors made specifically in the mRNA encoding a transcription factor can promote heritable phenotypic change by reprogramming a transcriptional network, without altering DNA. We have harnessed the classical bistable switch in the lac operon, a memory-module, to capture the consequences of transient transcription errors in living Escherichia coli cells. We engineered an error-prone transcription sequence (A9 run) in the gene encoding the lac repressor and show that this ‘slippery’ sequence directly increases epigenetic switching, not mutation in the cell population. Therefore, one altered transcript within a multi-generational series of many error-free transcripts can cause long-term phenotypic consequences. Thus, like DNA mutations, transcriptional epimutations can instigate heritable changes that increase phenotypic diversity, which drives both evolution and disease.

Halliday, Jennifer A.; Herman, Christophe

2013-01-01

121

Heritable change caused by transient transcription errors.  

PubMed

Transmission of cellular identity relies on the faithful transfer of information from the mother to the daughter cell. This process includes accurate replication of the DNA, but also the correct propagation of regulatory programs responsible for cellular identity. Errors in DNA replication (mutations) and protein conformation (prions) can trigger stable phenotypic changes and cause human disease, yet the ability of transient transcriptional errors to produce heritable phenotypic change ('epimutations') remains an open question. Here, we demonstrate that transcriptional errors made specifically in the mRNA encoding a transcription factor can promote heritable phenotypic change by reprogramming a transcriptional network, without altering DNA. We have harnessed the classical bistable switch in the lac operon, a memory-module, to capture the consequences of transient transcription errors in living Escherichia coli cells. We engineered an error-prone transcription sequence (A9 run) in the gene encoding the lac repressor and show that this 'slippery' sequence directly increases epigenetic switching, not mutation in the cell population. Therefore, one altered transcript within a multi-generational series of many error-free transcripts can cause long-term phenotypic consequences. Thus, like DNA mutations, transcriptional epimutations can instigate heritable changes that increase phenotypic diversity, which drives both evolution and disease. PMID:23825966

Gordon, Alasdair J E; Satory, Dominik; Halliday, Jennifer A; Herman, Christophe

2013-06-27

122

Single error correction and errors detection system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A system for correcting single bit error and detecting burst errors is provided. A check bit generator generates partition check bits and burst check bits based on a H-parity matrix data regeneration scheme which provides an error correction and multiple bit error detection code which is linear and has the property of mutual orthogonality within a subclass of mutually orthogonal codes exclusive of Latin square codes. These check bits provide two independent sources for ascertaining the correct value for any given data bit. An error corrector and detector takes as input the data bits and check bits and provides a corrected data bit output as well as a set of error status lines. The error corrector and detector consists of error corrector, error corrector/detector, and error status modules. The error corrector and error corrector/detector modules run in parallel providing a high speed error correction and detection implementation, and providing a simplicity of logic structure compatible with application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) design and production processes.

Williams, Everett L.; Lo, Jien

1993-11-01

123

A framework and methodology for studying the causes of software errors in programming systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract An essential aspect of programmers’,workis,the correctness,of their code. This mak es current HCI techniques,ill-suited to analyze,and,design,the programming,systems,that programmers use everyday, since these techniques focus more on problems with learnability and efficiency of use, and less on error-proneness. We propose a frameworkand methodology that focuses specifically on errors by supporting,the description and identification of the causes of software,errors in terms

Andrew Jensen Ko; Brad A. Myers

2005-01-01

124

Keypad: an auditing file system for theft-prone devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents Keypad, an auditing file system for theft-prone devices, such as laptops and USB sticks. Keypad provides two important properties. First, Keypad supports fine-grained file auditing: a user can obtain explicit evidence that no files have been accessed after a device's loss. Second, a user can disable future file access after a device's loss, even in the absence

Roxana Geambasu; John P. John; Steven D. Gribble; Tadayoshi Kohno; Henry M. Levy

2011-01-01

125

Keypad: An Auditing File System for Theft-Prone Devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents Keypad, an auditingfile system for theft- prone devices, such as laptops and USB sticks. Keypad pro- vides two important properties. First, Keypad supports fine- grained file auditing: a user can obtain explicit evidence that no files have been accessed after a device's loss. Second, a user can disable future file access after a device's loss, even in

Roxana Geambasu; John P. John; Steven D. Gribble; Tadayoshi Kohno; Henry M. Levy

2011-01-01

126

Managing fire-prone forests in the western United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

5 The management of fire-prone forests is one of the most controversial natural resource issues in the US today, particularly in the west of the country. Although vegetation and wildlife in these forests are adapted to fire, the historical range of fire frequency and severity was huge. When fire regimes are altered by human activity, major effects on biodiversity and

Reed F. Noss; Jerry F. Franklin; William L. Baker; Tania Schoennagel; Peter B. Moyle

2006-01-01

127

Childhood Parentification and Shame-Proneness: A Preliminary Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Utilizing data from undergraduate students (N=197), research determined that childhood parentification is associated with shame-proneness in adults. Findings theoretically link to an earlier study that found a relationship between childhood parentification and both narcissistic and masochistic personality characteristics. Discusses implications…

Wells, Marolyn; Jones, Rebecca

2000-01-01

128

Pathogenesis of A-beta+ ketosis-prone diabetes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A-beta+ ketosis-prone diabetes (KPD) is an emerging syndrome of obesity, unprovoked ketoacidosis, reversible beta-cell dysfunction, and near-normoglycemic remission. We combined metabolomics with targeted kinetic measurements to investigate its pathophysiology. Fasting plasma fatty acids, acylcarnit...

129

Failure-prone production systems with uncertain demand  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider a failure-prone manufacturing system with bursty demand arrivals. We prove that the hedging-point policy is optimal for this problem and provide analytical expressions to compute the hedging point. This allows us to compare our exact results to simpler approximations. We also show that our result leads to the solution for the constant demand rate problem, under an appropriate

James R. Perkins; R. Srikant

2001-01-01

130

The Social Antecedents of Anger Proneness in Young Adulthood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Anger has been shown to be an important factor in occupational maladjustment, family conflict, physical and sexual assault, criminal behavior, and substance abuse. It has also been linked with such adverse health outcomes as hypertension, heart disease, and cancer. Focusing on anger proneness, conceptualized as a relatively enduring propensity to…

Turner, R. Jay; Russell, David; Glover, Regan; Hutto, Pamela

2007-01-01

131

PREDICTION OF PSYCHIATRIC HOSPITALIZATION: I. THE MEASUREMENT OF HOSPITALIZATION PRONENESS  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE HOSPITALIZATION PRONENESS SCALE (HPS) IS AN EMPIRICALLY DEVELOPED SCALE DESIGNED TO PREDICT PSYCHIATRIC HOSPITALIZATION FROM A COMMUNITY CLINIC. THE PREDICTION WAS MADE FROM VARIABLES DEFINING THE PATIENT'S EFFECTIVENESS IN SOCIAL INTERACTIONS, COGNITIVE PERFORMANCE, AND SOCIAL ATTAINMENT, AS ASSESSED AT INTAKE. THE SCALE WAS DEVELOPED ON A GROUP OF 45 HOSPITALIZED AND 97 NONHOSPITALIZED SCHIZOPHRENIC OUTPATIENTS TREATED WITH PLACEBO FROM

NORBERT FREEDMAN; BERNARD ROSEN; DAVID M. ENGELHARDT

1967-01-01

132

Uncertain Classification of Fault-Prone Software Modules  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many development organizations try to minimize faults in software as a means for improving customer satisfaction. Assuring high software quality often entails time-consuming and costly development processes. A software quality model based on software metrics can be used to guide enhancement efforts by predicting which modules are fault-prone. This paper presents statistical techniques to determine which predictions by a classification

Taghi M. Khoshgoftaar; Xiaojing Yuan; Edward B. Allen; Wendell D. Jones; John P. Hudepohl

2002-01-01

133

[Survey in hospitals. Nursing errors, error culture and error management].  

PubMed

Knowledge on errors is important to design safe nursing practice and its framework. This article presents results of a survey on this topic, including data of a representative sample of 724 nurses from 30 German hospitals. Participants predominantly remembered medication errors. Structural and organizational factors were rated as most important causes of errors. Reporting rates were considered low; this was explained by organizational barriers. Nurses in large part expressed having suffered from mental problems after error events. Nurses' perception focussing on medication errors seems to be influenced by current discussions which are mainly medication-related. This priority should be revised. Hospitals' risk management should concentrate on organizational deficits and positive error cultures. Decision makers are requested to tackle structural problems such as staff shortage. PMID:20922982

Habermann, Monika; Cramer, Henning

2010-09-01

134

Help prevent hospital errors  

MedlinePLUS

A hospital error is when there is a mistake in your medical care. Errors can be made in your: ... Surgery Diagnosis Equipment Lab and other test reports Hospital errors are a leading cause of death. Doctors ...

135

Development and application of a PCR diagnostic assay for the accurate and rapid identification of the nematophagous fungus Duddingtonia flagrans.  

PubMed

The nematophagous fungus, Duddingtonia flagrans is a potential biocontrol agent against nematode parasites of ruminants. Improved methods for the rapid and accurate detection of D. flagrans would aid the evaluation of this fungus as a biocontrol agent and its suitability for environmental release. To date, detection and identification of D. flagrans is reliant on morphological methods, which can be laborious, time-consuming, and error prone. In this study, a PCR assay using species-specific primers located in the ITS regions was developed for the rapid and accurate identification of D. flagrans. The PCR assay was specific to five different isolates of D. flagrans and was capable of detecting a minimum concentration of 100 chlamydospores per gram of soil. In contrast to cultured-based detection and identification methods, this assay is amenable to high throughput screening of environmental samples. The assay detected D. flagrans in faecal, leaf litter, and soil samples collected from 80% of the Irish farms tested indicating that the fungus is abundant in Ireland. PMID:18692372

Kelly, Paula; Good, Barbara; Fitzpatrick, Richard; Hanrahan, J P; de Waal, Theo D T

2008-03-25

136

Tri-Level Study: Modification. Task 5: An Examination of Driver Characteristics and Collision Producing Errors of Accident and Traffic Violation Repeaters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Under a modification to the 'Tri-level Study of the Causes of Traffic Accidents,' a separate analysis was conducted to examine the characteristics and collision producing errors of accident and traffic violation prone drivers. Statistical tests were emplo...

S. T. McDonald

1977-01-01

137

Pre-PCR processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is recognized as a rapid, sensitive, and specific molecular diagnostic tool for the analysis\\u000a of nucleic acids. However, the sensitivity and kinetics of diagnostic PCR may be dramatically reduced when applied directly\\u000a to biological samples, such as blood and feces, owing to PCR-inhibitory components. As a result, pre-PCR processing procedures\\u000a have been developed to remove or

Peter Rådström; Rickard Knutsson; Petra Wolffs; Maria Lövenklev; Charlotta Löfström

2004-01-01

138

An evaluation of four CT-MRI co-registration techniques for radiotherapy treatment planning of prone rectal cancer patients  

PubMed Central

Objectives MRI is the preferred staging modality for rectal carcinoma patients. This work assesses the CT–MRI co-registration accuracy of four commercial rigid-body techniques for external beam radiotherapy treatment planning for patients treated in the prone position without fiducial markers. Methods 17 patients with biopsy-proven rectal carcinoma were scanned with CT and MRI in the prone position without the use of fiducial markers. A reference co-registration was performed by consensus of a radiologist and two physicists. This was compared with two automated and two manual techniques on two separate treatment planning systems. Accuracy and reproducibility were analysed using a measure of target registration error (TRE) that was based on the average distance of the mis-registration between vertices of the clinically relevant gross tumour volume as delineated on the CT image. Results An automated technique achieved the greatest accuracy, with a TRE of 2.3 mm. Both automated techniques demonstrated perfect reproducibility and were significantly faster than their manual counterparts. There was a significant difference in TRE between registrations performed on the two planning systems, but there were no significant differences between the manual and automated techniques. Conclusion For patients with rectal cancer, MRI acquired in the prone treatment position without fiducial markers can be accurately registered with planning CT. An automated registration technique offered a fast and accurate solution with associated uncertainties within acceptable treatment planning limits.

Dean, C J; Sykes, J R; Cooper, R A; Hatfield, P; Carey, B; Swift, S; Bacon, S E; Thwaites, D; Sebag-Montefiore, D; Morgan, A M

2012-01-01

139

Topological quantum computing with a very noisy network and local error rates approaching one percent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A scalable quantum computer could be built by networking together many simple processor cells, thus avoiding the need to create a single complex structure. The difficulty is that realistic quantum links are very error prone. A solution is for cells to repeatedly communicate with each other and so purify any imperfections; however prior studies suggest that the cells themselves must then have prohibitively low internal error rates. Here we describe a method by which even error-prone cells can perform purification: groups of cells generate shared resource states, which then enable stabilization of topologically encoded data. Given a realistically noisy network (>=10% error rate) we find that our protocol can succeed provided that intra-cell error rates for initialisation, state manipulation and measurement are below 0.82%. This level of fidelity is already achievable in several laboratory systems.

Nickerson, Naomi H.; Li, Ying; Benjamin, Simon C.

2013-04-01

140

Topological quantum computing with a very noisy network and local error rates approaching one percent.  

PubMed

A scalable quantum computer could be built by networking together many simple processor cells, thus avoiding the need to create a single complex structure. The difficulty is that realistic quantum links are very error prone. A solution is for cells to repeatedly communicate with each other and so purify any imperfections; however prior studies suggest that the cells themselves must then have prohibitively low internal error rates. Here we describe a method by which even error-prone cells can perform purification: groups of cells generate shared resource states, which then enable stabilization of topologically encoded data. Given a realistically noisy network (?10% error rate) we find that our protocol can succeed provided that intra-cell error rates for initialisation, state manipulation and measurement are below 0.82%. This level of fidelity is already achievable in several laboratory systems. PMID:23612297

Nickerson, Naomi H; Li, Ying; Benjamin, Simon C

2013-01-01

141

Enhancing disaster management by mapping disaster proneness and preparedness.  

PubMed

The focus of most disaster management programmes is to deploy resources-physical and human-from outside the disaster zone. This activity can produce a delay in disaster mitigation and recovery efforts, and a consequent loss of human lives and economic resources. It may be possible to expedite recovery and prevent loss of life by mapping out disaster proneness and the availability of resources in advance. This study proposes the development of two indices to do so. The Indian census data of 2001 is used to develop a methodology for creating one index on disaster proneness and one on resourcefulness for administrative units (tehsils). Findings reveal that tehsil residents face an elevated risk of disaster and that they are also grossly under-prepared for such events. The proposed indices can be used to map regional service provision facilities and to assist authorities in evaluating immediate, intermediate, and long-term disaster recovery needs and resource requirements. PMID:22092572

Mishra, Vishal; Fuloria, Sanjay; Bisht, Shailendra Singh

2011-11-17

142

Cognitive modification with depression-prone psychiatric patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research examined modifying specific maladaptive covert language patterns in depression-prone psychiatric outpatients. Five cognitive processes that seemed to activate depressive covert and overt language patterns were defined. These processes were (1) self-evaluation, (2) self-reporting of affect, (3) reaction to stress, (4) choice making, and (5) assuming nonpunitive responsibility for behavior. Patients were taught to reduce maladaptive covert language patterns

1979-01-01

143

Reduced Electrodermal Activity in Psychopathy-Prone Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study tests the hypothesis that psychopathy-prone adolescents show reduced anticipatory skin conductance responding. Electrodermal activity was recorded while participants anticipated and responded to a 105dB signaled or unsignaled white-noise burst. Using an extreme groups design, the authors used Child Psychopathy Scale (D. R. Lynam, 1997) scores from a community sample of 335 male adolescents (age 16) to form control

Michelle T. Fung; Adrian Raine; Rolf Loeber; Donald R. Lynam; Stuart R. Steinhauer; Peter H. Venables; Magda Stouthamer-Loeber

2005-01-01

144

Preliminary results for prone-position breast irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To evaluate an alternative prone-position technique for breast irradiation after conservative surgery.Methods and materials: A plexiglas platform with a circular opening for the breast and a double 30° craniocaudal and 10° transverse (left-right for the right breast and right-left for the left breast) slope was evaluated for positioning, the possible use of CT, and dosimetric study in 35 patients

Marc-André Mahe; Jean-Marc Classe; François Dravet; Agnès Cussac; Jean-Claude Cuilliere

2002-01-01

145

A General Software Defect-Proneness Prediction Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND—Predicting defect-prone software components is an economically important activity and so has received a good deal of attention. However, making sense of the many, and sometimes seemingly inconsistent, results is difficult. OBJECTIVE—We propose and evaluate a general framework for software defect prediction that supports 1) unbiased and 2) comprehensive comparison between competing prediction systems. METHOD—The framework is comprised of 1)

Qinbao Song; Zihan Jia; Martin J. Shepperd; Shi Ying; Jin Liu

2011-01-01

146

Political Engineering and Party Politics in Conflict-Prone Societies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparative scholarship suggests that democracy in ethnically-diverse societies is likely to be fostered by the development of broad-based, aggregative, and multi-ethnic political parties, rather than fragmented, personalised, or ethnically-based party systems. However, surprisingly little scholarly attention has been given to how party fragmentation can be addressed or how broad-based parties can be sustained, despite some remarkable recent experiments in conflict-prone

Benjamin Reilly

2006-01-01

147

44 CFR 60.22 - Planning considerations for flood-prone areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 false Planning considerations for flood-prone areas. 60.22 Section 60...INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program CRITERIA FOR LAND MANAGEMENT... Additional Considerations in Managing Flood-Prone, Mudslide (i.e.,...

2009-10-01

148

44 CFR 60.22 - Planning considerations for flood-prone areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Planning considerations for flood-prone areas. 60.22 Section 60...INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program CRITERIA FOR LAND MANAGEMENT... Additional Considerations in Managing Flood-Prone, Mudslide (i.e.,...

2010-10-01

149

Expressing Error Gravity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Proposes an error gravity/distribution factor to give a mathematically consistent evaluation method to error analysis. Such an approach assumes that "seriousness" of error is related to frequency of output and not to notions of degree of communicative difficulty. Distribution of error type is also taken into account. (PJM)|

Palmer, David

1980-01-01

150

Learning From Performance Errors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A theory of how people detect and correct their own performance errors during skill practice is proposed. The basic principles of the theory are that errors are caused by overly general knowledge structures, that error detection requires domain-specific declarative knowledge, that errors are experienced as conflicts between what the learner believes ought to be true and what he or she

Stellan Ohlsson

1996-01-01

151

Errors in autobiographical memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Memory is always constructive. People create the past based on the information that remains in memory, their general knowledge, and the social demands of the retrieval situation. Thus, memories will often contain some small errors and occasionally some large errors. In this article, we describe several different types of memory errors and consider how these errors may influence therapy.

Ira E. Hyman; Elizabeth F. Loftus

1998-01-01

152

A Simple PCR-RFLP Method for Genetic Phase Determination in Compound Heterozygotes  

PubMed Central

When susceptibility to diseases is caused by cis-effects of multiple alleles at adjacent polymorphic sites, it may be difficult to assess with confidence the genetic phase and identify individuals carrying the risk haplotype. Experimental assessment of genetic phase is still challenging and most population studies use statistical approaches to infer haplotypes given the observed genotypes. While these statistical approaches are powerful and have been proven very useful in large scale genetic population studies, they may be prone to errors in studies with small sample size, especially in the presence of compound heterozygotes. Here, we describe a simple and novel approach using the popular PCR–RFLP based strategy to assess the genetic phase in compound heterozygotes. We apply this method to two extensively studied SNPs in two clustered immune-related genes: The ?308 (G?>?A) and the +252 (A?>?G) SNPs of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha and the lymphotoxin alpha (LTA) genes, respectively. Using this method, we successfully determined the genetic phase of these two SNPs in known compound heterozygous individuals and in every sample tested. We show that the A allele of TNF ?308 is carried on the same chromosome as the LTA +252(G) allele.

Perry, Rodney T.; Dwivedi, Harsh; Aissani, Brahim

2011-01-01

153

Dynamic stability differences in fall-prone and healthy adults  

PubMed Central

Typical stability assessments characterize performance in standing balance despite the fact that most falls occur during dynamic activities such as walking. The objective of this study was to identify dynamic stability differences between fall-prone elderly individuals, healthy age-matched adults, and young adults. Three-dimensional video-motion analysis kinematic data were recorded for 35 contiguous steps while subjects walked on a treadmill at three speeds. From this data, we estimated the vector from the center-of-mass to the center of pressure at each foot-strike. Dynamic stability of walking was computed by methods of Poincare analyses of these vectors. Results revealed that the fall-prone group demonstrated poorer dynamic stability than the healthy elderly and young adult groups. Stability was not influenced by walking velocity, indicating that group differences in walking speed could not fully explain the differences in stability. This pilot study supports the need for future investigations using larger population samples to study fall-prone individuals using nonlinear dynamic analyses of movement kinematics.

Granata, Kevin P.; Lockhart, Thurmon E.

2010-01-01

154

Paediatric prescribing errors.  

PubMed

Prescribing errors are particularly important in paediatrics where dose calculations are complicated and small errors can cause significant harm. Unfortunately, there is no generally agreed definition of what constitutes an error, so studies often use differing criteria. In addition to this, obtaining statistics on rates of error is problematic as staff may be reluctant to report errors or may not include errors that were corrected before any harm occurred. Prescribing errors can be reduced by improving training, using computerised systems and involving pharmacists in checking drug charts. PMID:21109509

Davis, Tessa

2010-11-24

155

CODEHOP PCR and CODEHOP PCR primer design.  

PubMed

While PCR primer design for the amplification of known sequences is usually quite straightforward, the design, and successful application of primers aimed at the detection of as yet unknown genes is often not. The search for genes that are presumed to be distantly related to a known gene sequence, such as homologous genes in different species, paralogs in the same genome, or novel pathogens in diverse hosts, often turns into the proverbial search for the needle in the haystack. PCR-based methods commonly used to address this issue involve the use of either consensus primers or degenerate primers, both of which have significant shortcomings regarding sensitivity and specificity. We have developed a novel primer design approach that diminishes these shortcomings and instead takes advantage of the strengths of both consensus and degenerate primer designs, by combining the two concepts into a Consensus-Degenerate Hybrid Oligonucleotide Primer (CODEHOP) approach. CODEHOP PCR primers contain a relatively short degenerate 3' core and a 5' nondegenerate clamp. The 3' degenerate core consists of a pool of primers containing all possible codons for a 3-4 aminoacid motif that is highly conserved in multiply aligned sequences from known members of a protein family. Each primer in the pool also contains a single 5' nondegenerate nucleotide sequence derived from a codon consensus across the aligned aminoacid sequences flanking the conserved motif. During the initial PCR amplification cycles, the degenerate core is responsible for specific binding to sequences encoding the conserved aminoacid motif. The longer consensus clamp region serves to stabilize the primer and allows the participation of all primers in the pool in the efficient amplification of products during later PCR cycles. We have developed an interactive web site and algorithm (iCODEHOP) for designing CODEHOP PCR primers from multiply aligned protein sequences, which is freely available online. Here, we describe the workflow of a typical CODEHOP PCR assay design and optimization and give a specific implementation example along with "best-practice" advice. PMID:20967601

Staheli, Jeannette P; Boyce, Richard; Kovarik, Dina; Rose, Timothy M

2011-01-01

156

Diagnosing diagnostic error.  

PubMed

Diagnostic errors are the most common errors in primary care. Diagnostic errors have been found to be the leading cause of malpractice litigation, accounting for twice as many claims and settled cases as medication errors. Diagnostic error is common, harmful, costly, and very critical to the patient-safety issues in health care. Diagnostic errors have received relatively little attention, however. Of what is known, diagnostic errors are an important source of preventable harm. Focused research in this area is highly needed because the causes of diagnostic errors are subtle and solutions are less obvious than for other types of errors. As opposed to medication errors, where the factors predisposing to their occurrence and the resultant preventive strategies are better defined, the relationship between factors influencing the diagnostic reasoning or decision making and a diagnostic error are not as clear. This may include any failure in timely access to care; elicitation or interpretation of symptoms, signs, or laboratory results, formulation and weighing of differential diagnosis; and timely follow-up and specialty referral or evaluation. The literature reveals that diagnostic errors are often caused by the combination of cognitive errors and system failure. Increased understanding about diagnostic decision making, sources of errors, and applying some existing strategies into clinical practice would help clinicians reduce these types of errors and encourage more optimal diagnostic processes. PMID:24070579

Thammasitboon, Satid; Thammasitboon, Supat; Singhal, Geeta

2013-10-01

157

Critical evaluation of HPV16 gene copy number quantification by SYBR green PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Human papilloma virus (HPV) load and physical status are considered useful parameters for clinical evaluation of cervical squamous cell neoplasia. However, the errors implicit in HPV gene quantification by PCR are not well documented. We have undertaken the first rigorous evaluation of the errors that can be expected when using SYBR green qPCR for quantification of HPV type 16

Ian Roberts; Grace Ng; Nicola Foster; Margaret Stanley; Michael T Herdman; Mark R Pett; Andrew Teschendorff; Nicholas Coleman

2008-01-01

158

Improved oxygenation utilizing a prone positioner in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: (a) To deter- mine whether placing patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome in the prone position by a light- weight portable support frame im- proves oxygenation, (b) whether one can determine which patients benefit from prone positioning, and (c) to determine an effective tech- nique for prone positioning of pa- tients. Design: Prospective, controlled trial without blinding. Setting: Medical

K. M. Vollman; J. J. Bander

1996-01-01

159

When soft controls get slippery: User interfaces and human error  

SciTech Connect

Many types of products and systems that have traditionally featured physical control devices are now being designed with soft controls--input formats appearing on computer-based display devices and operated by a variety of input devices. A review of complex human-machine systems found that soft controls are particularly prone to some types of errors and may affect overall system performance and safety. This paper discusses the application of design approaches for reducing the likelihood of these errors and for enhancing usability, user satisfaction, and system performance and safety.

Stubler, W.F.; O`Hara, J.M.

1998-12-01

160

Reducing chimera formation during PCR amplification to ensure accurate genotyping.  

PubMed

Measurements of population diversity are fundamental to the reconstruction of the evolutionary and epidemiological history of organisms. Commonly used protocols to measure population diversity using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) are prone to the introduction of artificial chimeras. These are often difficult to detect and can confound the correct interpretation of results due to the false generation of recombinants when the underlying DNA sample contains multiple distinct templates. This study presents a standardised procedure to suppress the formation of artificial chimeras during PCR amplification. The solution is based on the accurate determination of the efficiency and end point of the log-linear phase of a PCR. This procedure will facilitate the generation of data sets that more accurately reflect the underlying population diversity rather than artifacts introduced by the process itself. PMID:20833233

Smyth, R P; Schlub, T E; Grimm, A; Venturi, V; Chopra, A; Mallal, S; Davenport, M P; Mak, J

2010-09-15

161

Nicotine effects on affective response in depression-prone smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale  Comorbidity between cigarette smoking and depression is thought to arise because depression-prone smokers self-administer\\u000a nicotine to improve mood. Yet little evidence supports this view, and nicotine’s effect on positive affect deficiency in depression\\u000a remains largely unstudied.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objectives  We hypothesized that (1) nicotine would dispel negative affect and enhance positive affect and (2) effects would be stronger\\u000a for smokers vulnerable to depression,

Bonnie Spring; Jessica Werth Cook; Bradley Appelhans; Anne Maloney; Malia Richmond; Jocelyn Vaughn; Joseph Vanderveen; Donald Hedeker

2008-01-01

162

Prone position and recruitment manoeuvre: the combined effect improves oxygenation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Among the various methods for improving oxygenation while decreasing the risk of ventilation-induced lung injury in patients\\u000a with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), a ventilation strategy combining prone position (PP) and recruitment manoeuvres\\u000a (RMs) can be practiced. We studied the effects on oxygenation of both RM and PP applied in early ARDS patients.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We conducted a prospective study. Sixteen consecutive

Gilles Rival; Cyrille Patry; Nathalie Floret; Jean Christophe Navellou; Evelyne Belle; Gilles Capellier

2011-01-01

163

When errors are rewarding.  

PubMed

For social beings like humans, detecting one's own and others' errors is essential for efficient goal-directed behavior. Although one's own errors are always negative events, errors from other persons may be negative or positive depending on the social context. We used neuroimaging to disentangle brain activations related to error and reward processing, by manipulating the social context (cooperation or competition). Activation in posterior medial frontal cortex (pMFC) was increased for all errors, independent of who made the error or the reward outcome. Conversely, activity in striatum was modulated by reward, independent of whether the action was erroneous or not. The results demonstrate a clear distinction between error and reward processing in the human brain. Importantly, the current study indicates that error detection in pMFC is independent of reward and generalizes beyond our own actions, highlighting its role in optimizing performance in both individual and joint action. PMID:19793976

de Bruijn, Ellen R A; de Lange, Floris P; von Cramon, D Yves; Ullsperger, Markus

2009-09-30

164

Zidovudine Medication Errors  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... Division of Medication Errors Prevention and Analysis Page 2. Method for Identification of Cases • AERS database query – Medication error HLGT ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

165

GM\\/LM Based Error Concealment for MPEG4 Video Transmission over High Lossy and Noisy Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Error concealment (EC) techniques are often adopted at the decoder side to improve the reconstructed video quality, in case of some information is lost during transmission on a bandwidth limited wired networks or wireless networks with error-prone channels. In this paper, a global motion\\/local motion (GM\\/LM) based error concealment technique is proposed for transporting MPEG-4 advanced simple profile (ASP) coded

Xumeing Qian; Guizhong Liu; Huan Wang

2008-01-01

166

Learning from Error,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Most studies of error focus on its reduction or elimination. Clearly, there are many steps that can be taken to avoid or prevent the occurrence of errors. Yet in human systems, error is inevitable. This is commonly argued on the grounds that people can be...

C. M. Seifert E. L. Hutchins

1988-01-01

167

PEC: Period Error Calculator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The PEC (Period Error Calculator) algorithm estimates the period error for eclipsing binaries observed by the Kepler Mission. The algorithm is based on propagation of error theory and assumes that observation of every light curve peak/minimum in a long time-series observation can be unambiguously identified. A simple C implementation of the PEC algorithm is available.

Mighell, Kenneth J.

2013-04-01

168

A theory of error  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ideas developed in A Theory of Error explore notions of art and corporality, and in particular art representing the brain and mechanisms of thought, reflections about exploring the creative process and considering thought when the brain is simulated through digital imaging.Using personal thought processes as a model, this project explores the creative process resulting from error. Error, not in the

Kellyann Geurts

2005-01-01

169

Sources of Model Error  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This undergraduate meteorology tutorial from Texas A&M University describes the common sources of weather forecasting computer model error, ways to identify model error, and how to correct a forecast for some simple types of error. Model sensitivity to parameterization and topography are covered.

Nielsen-Gammon, John

1996-01-01

170

Project Pathogens: The Anatomy of Omission Errors in Construction and Resource Engineering Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Construction and engineering projects are typically complex in nature and are prone to cost and schedule overruns. A significant factor that often contributes to these overruns is rework. Omissions errors, in particular, have been found to account for as much as 38% of the total rework costs experienced. To date, there has been limited research that has sought to determine

Peter E. D. Love; David J. Edwards; Zahir Irani; Derek H. T. Walker

2009-01-01

171

An effective error concealment method used in multi-view video coding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multi-view video coding (MVC) is one of the newest video compression standards, which has better compression efficiency than single view video coding. As the coding scheme exploits spatial, temporal and inter-view dependability for this scope, it leads the reconstructed multi-view video (MVV) become worse when transmitted in error-prone networks. To solve this problem, an effective error concealment (EC) method for

Liang Liang; Ran Ma; Ping An; Chang Liu

2011-01-01

172

Identification of flood prone locations along railway tracks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In August 2002 a flood wave stopped a passenger train on an overflown track in the Austrian state of Salzburg. No flood warning was issued to the railway operator. This event was the main reason that caused the Austrian railway company to commission the development of a flood warning concept. A very important part of this flood warning concept was the identification of flood prone locations along the railway tracks. The Austrian railway network includes more than 5800 kilometres of tracks. Therefore, the knowledge of flood prone locations along the tracks is of great importance. In the case of a flood, forces can be concentrated on only a few locations. Data from a national flood mapping project in Austria provided flooding maps for return periods T = 30, 100 and 200 years. These flooding maps were combined with data from the railway company such as tracks and building. The results of the intersection were verified with flood damage data. This paper shows some results of the combination of the data and addresses some of the problems we experienced during the project.

Nester, T.; Drabek, U.; Kirnbauer, R.

2009-04-01

173

Utility of PCR in diagnosing pulmonary tuberculosis.  

PubMed Central

At present, the rapid diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis rests with microscopy. However, this technique is insensitive and many cases of pulmonary tuberculosis cannot be initially confirmed. Nucleic acid amplification techniques are extremely sensitive, but when they are applied to tuberculosis diagnosis, they have given variable results. Investigators at six centers in Europe compared a standardized PCR system (Amplicor; Roche) against conventional culture methods. Defined clinical information was collected. Discrepant samples were retested, and inhibition assays and backup amplification with a separate primer pair were performed. Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex organisms were recovered from 654 (9.1%) of 7,194 samples and 293 (7.8%) of 3,738 patients. Four hundred fifty-two of the M. tuberculosis isolates from 204 patients were smear positive and culture positive. Among the culture-positive specimens, PCR had a sensitivity of 91.4% for smear-positive specimens and 60.9% for smear-negative specimens, with a specificity of 96.1%. Analysis of 254 PCR-positive, culture-negative specimens with discrepant results revealed that 130 were from patients with recently diagnosed tuberculosis and 94 represented a presumed laboratory error. Similar analysis of 118 PCR-negative, culture-positive specimens demonstrated that 27 discrepancies were due to presumed uneven aliquot distribution and 11 were due to presumed laboratory error; PCR inhibitors were detected in 8 specimens. Amplicor enables laboratories with little previous experience with nucleic acid amplification to perform PCR. Disease in more than 60% of the patients with tuberculosis with smear-negative, culture-positive specimens can be diagnosed at the time of admission, and potentially all patients with smear-positive specimens can immediately be confirmed as being infected with M. tuberculosis, leading to improved clinical management.

Bennedsen, J; Thomsen, V O; Pfyffer, G E; Funke, G; Feldmann, K; Beneke, A; Jenkins, P A; Hegginbothom, M; Fahr, A; Hengstler, M; Cleator, G; Klapper, P; Wilkins, E G

1996-01-01

174

Systematic error revisited  

SciTech Connect

The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) defines systematic error as An error which remains constant over replicative measurements. It would seem from the ANSI definition that a systematic error is not really an error at all; it is merely a failure to calibrate the measurement system properly because if error is constant why not simply correct for it? Yet systematic errors undoubtedly exist, and they differ in some fundamental way from the kind of errors we call random. Early papers by Eisenhart and by Youden discussed systematic versus random error with regard to measurements in the physical sciences, but not in a fundamental way, and the distinction remains clouded by controversy. The lack of a general agreement on definitions has led to a plethora of different and often confusing methods on how to quantify the total uncertainty of a measurement that incorporates both its systematic and random errors. Some assert that systematic error should be treated by non- statistical methods. We disagree with this approach, and we provide basic definitions based on entropy concepts, and a statistical methodology for combining errors and making statements of total measurement of uncertainty. We illustrate our methods with radiometric assay data.

Glosup, J.G.; Axelrod, M.C.

1996-08-05

175

Characterization and prevalence of a circular mitochondrial plasmid in senescence-prone isolates of Neurospora intermedia.  

PubMed

Genetic and molecular analyses of the phenomenon of senescence-i.e., irreversible loss of growth and reproductive potential upon subculturing-in Neurospora intermedia strain M1991-60A, collected from Maddur in southern India, showed the presence of plasmid pMaddur1, which is homologous to the senescence-inducing circular mitochondrial plasmid, pVarkud. Maternal inheritance of senescence in M1991-60A correlated to the formation of variant pMaddur1, its subsequent insertion into mitochondrial (mt)DNA and the accumulation of defective mtDNA with the pMaddur1insert. PCR-based analyses for similar plasmids in 147 natural isolates of Neurospora from Maddur showed that nearly 40% of the strains had pMaddur1 or pMaddur2 that shared 97-98% sequence homology with pVarkud and pMauriceville. Nearly 50% of the strains that harbored either pMaddur1 or pMaddur2, also contained a circular Varkud satellite plasmid (pVS). Size polymorphism maps to the cluster of PstI sites in the non-coding region. Whereas senescence of nearly 40% of N. intermedia strains may be due to pMaddur, the presence in seven strains of pVS but not pMaddur and the absence of either of these two plasmids in other senescence-prone isolates suggests yet undiscovered mechanisms of senescence in the Maddur strains. PMID:15700140

D'Souza, Anthony D; Sultana, Shahana; Maheshwari, Ramesh

2005-02-08

176

Arginine vasopressin (AVP) expressional changes in the hypothalamic paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats  

PubMed Central

Arginine vasopressin (AVP) is a neuropeptide with vasoconstrictive, antidiuretic, cardiovascular regulative and hepatic glycogenolysis effects, that also affects other behaviors including modulating learning. A number of studies on AVP regulation have been conducted in various metabolic diseases (disorders). In this study, the immunoreactivities of AVP in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and supraoptic nucleus (SON) and mRNA expressions in the hypothalamus were investigated by immunohistochemistry and quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats at different ages (i.e., at postnatal months [PM] 1, 8, and 12). Blood glucose levels in the PM 8 group were higher than in the other groups. However, cresyl violet positive neurons were detected in the PVN and SON of all animals, and numbers of cresyl violet positive neurons were similar in all aged groups. In addition, AVP immunoreactivity was detected in the PVN and SON of all age groups, and AVP immunoreactivity and mRNA expression levels were found to be increased in proportion to age by immunohistochemistry and RT-qPCR. These results suggest that the diabetic condition is temporally generated after hypertension has developed. Furthermore, our findings suggest that increased AVP expressions in the hypothalamic PVN and SON are associated with hypertension by age.

Yi, Sun Shin; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Do, Seon-Gil; Lee, Yoon-Bok; Ahn, Hee Jin; Hwang, In Koo

2012-01-01

177

Characterization of genetic deletions in Becker muscular dystrophy using monoclonal antibodies against a deletion-prone region of dystrophin  

SciTech Connect

We have produced a new panel of 20 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against a region of the dystrophin protein corresponding to a deletion-prone region of the Duchenne muscular dystrophy gene (exons 45-50). We show that immunohistochemistry or Western blotting with these {open_quotes}exon-specific{close_quotes} mAbs can provide a valuable addition to Southern blotting or PCR methods for the accurate identification of genetic deletions in Becker muscular dystrophy patients. The antibodies were mapped to the following exons: exon 45 (2 mAbs), exon 46 (6), exon 47 (1), exons 47/48 (4), exons 48-50 (6), and exon 50 (1). PCR amplification of single exons or groups of exons was used both to produce specific dystrophin immunogens and to map the mAbs obtained. PCR-mediated mutagenesis was also used to identify regions of dystrophin important for mAb binding. Because the mAbs can be used to characterize the dystrophin produced by individual muscle fibres, they will also be useful for studying {open_quotes}revertant{close_quotes} fibres in Duchenne muscle and for monitoring the results of myoblast therapy trials in MD patients with deletions in this region of the dystrophin gene. 27 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

Thanh, L.T.; Man, Nguyen Thi; Morris, G.E. [Wales Institute, Clwyd (United Kingdom)] [and others

1995-08-28

178

Medication errors: analysis not blame.  

PubMed

This article summarizes current knowledge regarding neonatal medication errors and explicates the key concepts of human error and system error. A case report illustrates the sources of error. Medication error analysis must go beyond the blaming of individuals for active errors and explore the latent errors that exist in a complex health care environment. Using correct language to describe and define medication error may facilitate the development of a nonpunitive culture and enable effective evaluation of the causes of error. PMID:12033548

Horns, Kimberly M; Loper, Donna Lee

179

Absolute reliability of isokinetic knee flexion and extension measurements adopting a prone position.  

PubMed

The main purpose of this study was to determine the absolute and relative reliability of isokinetic peak torque (PT), angle of peak torque (APT), average power (PW) and total work (TW) for knee flexion and extension during concentric and eccentric actions measured in a prone position at 60, 180 and 240° s(-1). A total of 50 recreational athletes completed the study. PT, APT, PW and TW for concentric and eccentric knee extension and flexion were recorded at three different angular velocities (60, 180 and 240° s(-1)) on three different occasions with a 72- to 96-h rest interval between consecutive testing sessions. Absolute reliability was examined through typical percentage error (CV(TE)), percentage change in the mean (ChM) and relative reliability with intraclass correlations (ICC(3,1)). For both the knee extensor and flexor muscle groups, all strength data (except APT during knee flexion movements) demonstrated moderate absolute reliability (ChM < 3%; ICCs > 0·70; and CV(TE) < 20%) independent of the knee movement (flexion and extension), type of muscle action (concentric and eccentric) and angular velocity (60, 180 and 240° s(-1)). Therefore, the current study suggests that the CV(TE) values reported for PT (8-20%), APT (8-18%) (only during knee extension movements), PW (14-20%) and TW (12-28%) may be acceptable to detect the large changes usually observed after rehabilitation programmes, but not acceptable to examine the effect of preventative training programmes in healthy individuals. PMID:23216765

Ayala, F; De Ste Croix, M; Sainz de Baranda, P; Santonja, F

2012-08-08

180

A confirmatory factor analysis of the Boredom Proneness Scale.  

PubMed

Researchers have extensively investigated the factor structure of the Boredom Proneness Scale (BPS; R. Farmer & N. D. Sundberg, 1986) using exploratory factor analyses (EFAs), with inconsistent methodology and results. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to perform confirmatory factor analyses on the BPS to better determine the nature and extent of its underlying factor structure. Participants were 279 undergraduate students majoring in psychology at a university in the southern United States. None of the tested models derived from earlier studies was a reasonable fit to the present data; therefore, the present authors performed an EFA. Although 2 factors were revealed, these results, coupled with markedly different results from previous factor analytic studies of the BPS, suggest it is unlikely that the present factor structure is replicable. The BPS does not appear to have a replicable factor structure. PMID:19943400

Melton, Amanda M A; Schulenberg, Stefan E

2009-10-01

181

An Integrated Approach to Detect Fault-Prone Modules Using Complexity and Text Feature Metrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Early detection of fault-prone products is necessary to assure the quality of software product. Therefore, fault-prone module\\u000a detection is one of the major and traditional area of software engineering. Although there are many approaches to detect fault-prone\\u000a modules, they have their own pros and cons. Consequently, it is recommended to use appropriate approach on the various situations.\\u000a This paper tries

Osamu Mizuno; Hideaki Hata

2010-01-01

182

Science Shorts: Experimental Error  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

One of the most challenging components of science inquiry is getting students to understand the fundamentally important concept of experimental error. While this concept can be tricky for children, there are straightforward lessons that can go a long way in getting students to think about and control for error. This month's activity leads students through a purposely flawed investigation of popcorn, allowing them to point out the potential sources of error.

Davis, Kimberly J.; Coskie, Tracy L.

2008-10-01

183

BATSE GRB location errors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We characterize the error distribution of BATSE GRB locations by modeling the distribution of separations between BATSE locations and IPN annuli. We determine error model parameters by maximizing likelihood and rank the models by their Bayesian odds ratios. The best models have several systematic error terms. The simplest good model has a 1.9 degree systematic error with probability 73% and 5.4 degrees with probability 27%. A more complex model adds a dependence on the datatype used to derive the location.

Briggs, M. S.; Pendleton, G. N.; Brainerd, J. J.; Connaughton, V.; Kippen, R. M.; Meegan, C.; Hurley, K.

1998-05-01

184

Crestor: Medication Error Review  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... Subject: BPCA / PREA: Postmarketing Medication Error Review Drug Name(s): Crestor (Rosuvastatin Calcium) Tablets ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

185

Post-Error Adjustments  

PubMed Central

When our brain detects an error, this process changes how we react on ensuing trials. People show post-error adaptations, potentially to improve their performance in the near future. At least three types of behavioral post-error adjustments have been observed. These are post-error slowing (PES), post-error reduction of interference, and post-error improvement in accuracy (PIA). Apart from these behavioral changes, post-error adaptations have also been observed on a neuronal level with functional magnetic resonance imaging and electroencephalography. Neuronal post-error adaptations comprise activity increase in task-relevant brain areas, activity decrease in distracter-encoding brain areas, activity modulations in the motor system, and mid-frontal theta power increases. Here, we review the current literature with respect to these post-error adjustments, discuss under which circumstances these adjustments can be observed, and whether the different types of adjustments are linked to each other. We also evaluate different approaches for explaining the functional role of PES. In addition, we report reanalyzed and follow-up data from a flanker task and a moving dots interference task showing (1) that PES and PIA are not necessarily correlated, (2) that PES depends on the response–stimulus interval, and (3) that PES is reliable on a within-subject level over periods as long as several months.

Danielmeier, Claudia; Ullsperger, Markus

2011-01-01

186

Challenge and error: Critical events and attention-related errors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attention lapses resulting from reactivity to task challenges and their consequences constitute a pervasive factor affecting everyday performance errors and accidents. A bidirectional model of attention lapses (error?attention-lapse: Cheyne, Solman, Carriere, & Smilek, 2009) argues that errors beget errors by generating attention lapses; resource-depleting cognitions interfering with attention to subsequent task challenges. Attention lapses lead to errors, and errors themselves

James Allan Cheyne; Jonathan S. A. Carriere; Grayden J. F. Solman; Daniel Smilek

2011-01-01

187

Effect of changing patient position from supine to prone on the accuracy of a Cosman-Roberts-Wells (CRW) stereotactic head frame system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite the growing popularity of frameless image-guided surgery systems, stereotactic head frame systems are widely accepted by neurosurgeons and are still commonly used to perform stereotactic biopsy, functional procedures, and stereotactic radiosurgery. In this study, we investigate the accuracy of the Cosman-Roberts-Wells (CRW) stereotactic frame system when the mechanical load on the frame changes between pre-operative imaging and the intervention due to different patient position - supine during imaging, prone during intervention. We analyze CT images acquired from 12 patients who underwent stereotactic biopsy or stereotactic radiosurgery. Two CT images were acquired for each patient, one with the patient in the supine position and one in the prone position. The prone images were registered to the respective supine images using an intensity-based registration algorithm, once using only the frame and once using only the head. The difference between the transformations produced by these two registrations describes the movement of the patient's head with respect to the frame due to mechanical distortion of the latter. The maximum frame-based registration error between supine and prone positions was 2.8 mm, greater than 2 mm in two patients, and greater than 1.5 mm in five patients. Anterior-posterior translation is the dominant component of the difference transformation for most of these patients. In general, the magnitude of the movement increased with brain volume, which is an index of head weight. We conclude that in order to minimize frame-based registration error due to a change in the mechanical load on the frame, frame-based stereotactic procedures should be performed with the patient in the identical position during imaging and intervention.

Rohlfing, Torsten; Maurer, Calvin R.; Dean, David; Maciunas, Robert J.

2002-05-01

188

Cross-Cultural Differences and Similarities in Proneness to Shame: An Adaptationist and Ecological Approach  

PubMed Central

People vary in how easily they feel ashamed, that is, in their shame proneness. According to the information threat theory of shame, variation in shame proneness should, in part, be regulated by features of a person’s social ecology. On this view, shame is an emotion program that evolved to mitigate the likelihood or costs of reputation-damaging information spreading to others. In social environments where there are fewer possibilities to form new relationships (i.e., low relational mobility), there are higher costs to damaging or losing existing ones. Therefore, shame proneness toward current relationship partners should increase as perceived relational mobility decreases. In contrast, individuals with whom one has little or no relationship history are easy to replace, and so shame-proneness towards them should not be modulated by relational mobility. We tested these predictions cross-culturally by measuring relational mobility and shame proneness towards friends and strangers in Japan, the United States, and the United Kingdom. Japanese subjects were more shame-prone than their British and American counterparts. Critically, lower relational mobility was associated with greater shame proneness towards friends (but not strangers), and this relationship partially mediated the cultural differences in shame proneness. Shame proneness appears tailored to respond to relevant features of one’s social ecology.

Takemura, Kosuke; Delton, Andrew W.; Sato, Kosuke; Robertson, Theresa; Cosmides, Leda; Tooby, John

2013-01-01

189

Taking qPCR to a higher level: Analysis of CNV reveals the power of high throughput qPCR to enhance quantitative resolution.  

PubMed

This paper assesses the quantitative resolution of qPCR using copy number variation (CNV) as a paradigm. An error model is developed for real-time qPCR data showing how the precision of CNV determination varies with the number of replicates. Using samples with varying numbers of X chromosomes, experimental data demonstrates that real-time qPCR can readily distinguish four copes from five copies, which corresponds to a 1.25-fold difference in relative quantity. Digital PCR is considered as an alternative form of qPCR. For digital PCR, an error model is shown that relates the precision of CNV determination to the number of reaction chambers. The quantitative capability of digital PCR is illustrated with an experiment distinguishing four and five copies of the human gene MRGPRX1. For either real-time qPCR or digital PCR, practical application of these models to achieve enhanced quantitative resolution requires use of a high throughput PCR platform that can simultaneously perform thousands of reactions. Comparing the two methods, real-time qPCR has the advantage of throughput and digital PCR has the advantage of simplicity in terms of the assumptions made for data analysis. PMID:20079846

Weaver, Suzanne; Dube, Simant; Mir, Alain; Qin, Jian; Sun, Gang; Ramakrishnan, Ramesh; Jones, Robert C; Livak, Kenneth J

2010-01-15

190

Medication error prevalence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Healthcare risk epidemiology identifies medication error as the commonest cause of adverse effects on patients. Medication error can occur at any phase of the complex medication process so prevalence rates need to be estimated at each drug treatment phase: prescription, transcription and administration along with their clinical repercussions. This paper aims to investigate this issue. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Medication

Ana Belén Jiménez Muñoz; Antonio Muiño Miguez; María Paz Rodriguez Pérez; María Dolores Vigil Escribano; María Esther Durán Garcia; María Sanjurjo Saez

2010-01-01

191

Errors in abductive reasoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of efforts to extract knowledge for an expert whose job is to detect the errors made by practicing technologies are examined. These errors are discussed in terms of possible cognitive biases. The example examined involves students, technologies, and experts performing antibody identification tasks in order to construct a critiquing and intelligent tutoring system

Jane M. Fraser; Pat Strohm; J. R. Svirbely; S. Rudmann; T. E. Miller; J. Blazina; M. Kennedy; P. J. Smith

1989-01-01

192

Error-prone nonhomologous end joining repair operates in human pluripotent stem cells during late G2  

PubMed Central

Genome stability of human embryonic stem cells (hESC) is an important issue because even minor genetic alterations can negatively impact cell functionality and safety. The incorrect repair of DNA double-stranded breaks (DSBs) is the ultimate cause of the formation of chromosomal aberrations. Using G2 radiosensitivity assay, we analyzed chromosomal aberrations in pluripotent stem cells and somatic cells. The chromatid exchange aberration rates in hESCs increased manifold 2 hours after irradiation as compared with their differentiated derivatives, but the frequency of radiation-induced chromatid breaks was similar. The rate of radiation-induced chromatid exchanges in hESCs and differentiated cells exhibited a quadratic dose response, revealing two-hit mechanism of exchange formation suggesting that a non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) repair may contribute to their formation. Inhibition of DNA-PK, a key NHEJ component, by NU7026 resulted in a significant decrease in radiation-induced chromatid exchanges in hESCs but not in somatic cells. In contrast, NU7026 treatment increased the frequency of radiation-induced breaks to a similar extent in pluripotent and somatic cells. Thus, DNA-PK dependent NHEJ efficiently participates in the elimination of radiation-induced chromatid breaks during the late G2 in both cell types and DNA-PK activity leads to a high level of misrejoining specifically in pluripotent cells.

Bogomazova, Alexandra N.; Lagarkova, Maria A.; Tskhovrebova, Leyla V.; Shutova, Maria V.; Kiselev, Sergey L.

2011-01-01

193

Increased error-prone non homologous DNA end-joining – a proposed mechanism of chromosomal instability in Bloom's syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

BS is an inherited cancer predisposition disorder caused by inactivation of the RecQ family helicase, BLM. One of the defining features of cells from BS individuals is chromosomal instability, characterized by elevated sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs), as well as chromosomal breaks, deletions, and rearrangements. Although the basis for chromosomal instability is poorly understood, there is evidence that chromosomal abnormalities can

Terry J Gaymes; Phillip S North; Nicola Brady; Ian D Hickson; Ghulam J Mufti; Feyruz V Rassool

2002-01-01

194

Rapid and apparently error-prone excision repair of nonreplicating UV-irradiated plasmids in Xenopus laevis oocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Repair of UV-irradiated plasmid DNA microinjected into frog oocytes was measured by two techniques: transformation of repair-deficient (delta uvrB delta recA delta phr) bacteria, and removal of UV endonuclease-sensitive sites (ESS). Transformation efficiencies relative to unirradiated plasmids were used to estimate the number of lethal lesions; the latter were assumed to be Poisson distributed. These estimates were in good agreement

J. B. Hays; E. J. Ackerman; Q. S. Pang

1990-01-01

195

Critical evaluation of random mutagenesis by error-prone polymerase chain reaction protocols, Escherichia coli mutator strain, and hydroxylamine treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Random mutagenesis methods constitute a valuable protein modification toolbox with applications ranging from protein engineering to directed protein evolution studies. Although a variety of techniques are currently available, the field is lacking studies that would directly compare the performance parameters and operational range of different methods. In this study, we have scrutinized several of the most commonly used random mutagenesis

Tiina S. Rasila; Maria I. Pajunen; Harri Savilahti

2009-01-01

196

Overlap extension PCR cloning.  

PubMed

Rising demand for recombinant proteins has motivated the development of efficient and reliable cloning methods. Here we show how a beginner can clone virtually any DNA insert into a plasmid of choice without the use of restriction endonucleases or T4 DNA ligase. Chimeric primers encoding plasmid sequence at the 5' ends and insert sequence at the 3' ends are designed and synthesized. Phusion(®) DNA polymerase is utilized to amplify the desired insert by PCR. The double-stranded product is subsequently employed as a pair of mega-primers in a PCR-like reaction with circular plasmids. The original plasmids are then destroyed in restriction digests with Dpn I. The product of the overlap extension PCR is used to transform competent Escherichia coli cells. Phusion(®) DNA polymerase is used for both the amplification and fusion reactions, so both steps can be monitored and optimized in the same way. PMID:23996437

Bryksin, Anton; Matsumura, Ichiro

2013-01-01

197

Roundness Error Prediction with a Volumetric Error Model Including Spindle Error Motions of a Machine Tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a modified volumetric error model that includes spindle error motions as well as geometric errors. The model is constructed using rigid-body kinematics and homogeneous transformation matrices and an additional error matrix describing spindle error motions is included. The suggested model predicts the positioning errors at a given axis position as a function of both the axis position

J.-P. Choi; S.-J. Lee; H.-D. Kwon

2003-01-01

198

Taking qPCR to a higher level: Analysis of CNV reveals the power of high throughput qPCR to enhance quantitative resolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper assesses the quantitative resolution of qPCR using copy number variation (CNV) as a paradigm. An error model is developed for real-time qPCR data showing how the precision of CNV determination varies with the number of replicates. Using samples with varying numbers of X chromosomes, experimental data demonstrates that real-time qPCR can readily distinguish four copes from five copies,

Suzanne Weaver; Simant Dube; Alain Mir; Jian Qin; Gang Sun; Ramesh Ramakrishnan; Robert C. Jones; Kenneth J. Livak

2010-01-01

199

The Relationship of Stress Arousal and Stress Prone Personality Traits to Menstrual Distress.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The various relationships of stress arousal and stress-prone personality traits to menstrual distress were investigated in order to quantify psychophysiological arousal differences between high and low menstrual distress symptom reporters and examine differences in stress-prone personality traits between high and low menstrual distress symptom…

Marini, David C.

200

Critical Differences between the Type-A Prone and Type-A Personalitites.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Type-A Prone and Type-A personalities were assessed on the basis of the Cassel Type-A Personality Assessment Profile. Statistical data analysis indicated differences in positive lifestyle, blood pressure, and self-control and no differences in negative lifestyle, pulse rate, or peripheral temperature. Type-A Prone and Type-A norm profiles were…

Cassel, Russell N.; Cassel, Susie L.

1984-01-01

201

Suicide Proneness in College Students: Relationships with Gender, Procrastination, and Achievement Motivation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the relationships between 2 academic dispositions (i.e., procrastination and achievement motivation) and 2 indices of suicidal proneness in college women and men. The degree these 2 academic dispositions could predict unique variance in suicide proneness scores, above and beyond the influence of depression and self-esteem was…

Klibert, Jeffrey; Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer; Luna, Amy; Robichaux, Michelle

2011-01-01

202

Differential salt-sensitivity in the pathogenesis of renal damage in SHR and stroke prone SHR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) and the stroke prone SHR (SHRsp) display contrasting susceptibilities to the development of the severe hypertensive lesions of malignant nephrosclerosis, both with aging and after the provision of a high salt intake on the background of a Japanese style “stroke prone” rodent diet. The SHR is relatively resistant, whereas the SHRsp is markedly susceptible. The

Karen A. Griffin; Paul C. Churchill; Maria Picken; R. Clinton Webb; Theodore W. Kurtz; Anil K. Bidani

2001-01-01

203

Coronary Prone Behavior Pattern in Women Preparing for Traditionally Male Professions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although coronary prone, or Type A behavior, appears to predict coronary heart disease in women, as it does in men, little research has compared men and women in the same life circumstances. To determine if there is a coronary prone behavior pattern in women preparing for traditionally male professionals, two studies were conducted. In the first…

Gerdes, Eugenia Proctor; Sidler, John P.

204

Prone positioning does not affect cannula function during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation or continuous renal replacement therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Prone positioning in respiratory failure has been shown to be a useful adjunct in the treatment of severe hypoxia. However, the prone position can result in dislodgment or malfunction of tubes and cannulae. Certain patients receiving extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) or continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) may also benefit from positional therapy. The impact of cannula-related complications in these

Claudia E Goettler; John P Pryor; Brian A Hoey; JoAnne K Phillips; Michelle C Balas; Michael B Shapiro

2002-01-01

205

Suicide Proneness in College Students: Relationships with Gender, Procrastination, and Achievement Motivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the relationships between 2 academic dispositions (i.e., procrastination and achievement motivation) and 2 indices of suicidal proneness in college women and men. The degree these 2 academic dispositions could predict unique variance in suicide proneness scores, above and beyond the influence of depression and self-esteem was also examined for each gender. Participants included 475 (336 women, 139

Jeffrey Klibert; Jennifer Langhinrichsen-Rohling; Amy Luna; Michelle Robichaux

2011-01-01

206

The Relationship of Stress Arousal and Stress Prone Personality Traits to Menstrual Distress.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The various relationships of stress arousal and stress-prone personality traits to menstrual distress were investigated in order to quantify psychophysiological arousal differences between high and low menstrual distress symptom reporters and examine differences in stress-prone personality traits between high and low menstrual distress symptom…

Marini, David C.

207

Prone position reverses gravitational distribution of perfusion in dog lungs with oleic acid-induced injury  

SciTech Connect

Although oxygenation improves in patients with the adult respiratory distress syndrome and in animals with oleic acid- (OA) induced acute lung injury when they are turned from the supine to the prone position, the mechanism(s) by which this improvement occurs is not known. Several groups have speculated that this improvement results from preferential edema accumulation in the dorsal lung regions and redistribution of perfusion away from these regions when the patients are turned to the prone position. We used radiolabeled microspheres to measure the regional distribution of perfusion (Qr) to the dorsal, mid, and ventral lungs of eight dogs in vivo in the supine and prone positions, before and after inducing acute lung injury with OA, and correlated the Qr observed after injury with the degree of regional extravascular lung water (EVLWr). Before OA, Qr increased along the gravitational gradient when the animals were supine but was more uniformly distributed when they were prone. After OA, Qr again followed a gravitational gradient when the animals were supine but was preferentially distributed to the nondependent regions when they were prone. EVLWr was similar in all regions, regardless of whether OA was injected when the animals were supine or prone. The gravitational Qr gradient is markedly reduced in the prone position, both before and after lung injury. The prone position-induced improvement in oxygenation is not the result of redistribution of Qr away from areas in which edema preferentially develops.

Wiener, C.M.; Kirk, W.; Albert, R.K. (Veterans Administration Medical Center, Seattle, WA (USA))

1990-04-01

208

Comparison of Dose Decrement from Intrafraction Motion for Prone and Supine Prostate Radiotherapy  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose Dose effects of intrafraction motion during prone prostate radiotherapy are unknown. We compared prone and supine treatment using real-time tracking data to model dose coverage. Material and Methods Electromagnetic tracking data was analyzed for 10 patients treated prone, and 15 treated supine, with IMRT for localized prostate cancer. Plans were generated using 0, 3, and 5 mm PTV expansions. Manual beam-hold interventions were applied to reposition the patient when translations exceeded a predetermined threshold. A custom software application (SWIFTER) used intrafraction tracking data acquired during beam-on to model delivered prostate dose, by applying rigid body transformations to the prostate structure contoured at simulation within the planned dose cloud. The delivered minimum prostate dose as a percentage of planned dose (Dmin%), and prostate volume covered by the prescription dose as a percentage of the planned volume (VRx%) were compared for prone and supine treatment. Results Dmin% was reduced for prone treatment for 0 (p=0.02) and 3 mm (p=0.03) PTV margins. VRx% was reduced for prone treatment only for 0 mm margins (p=0.002). No significant differences were found using 5 mm margins. Conclusions Intrafraction motion has a greater impact on target coverage for prone compared to supine prostate radiotherapy. PTV margins of 3 mm or less correlate with a significant decrease in delivered dose for prone treatment.

Olsen, Jeffrey; Parikh, Parag J; Watts, Michael; Noel, Camille E; Baker, Kenneth W; Santanam, Lakshmi; Michalski, Jeff M

2012-01-01

209

Ketosis-Onset Diabetes and Ketosis-Prone Diabetes: Same or Not?  

PubMed Central

Objective. To compare clinical characteristics, immunological markers, and ?-cell functions of 4 subgroups (“A?” classification system) of ketosis-onset diabetes and ketosis prone diabetes patients without known diabetes, presenting with ketosis or diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and admitted to our department from March 2011 to December 2011 in China, with 50 healthy persons as control group. Results. ?-cell functional reserve was preserved in 63.52% of patients. In almost each subgroup (except A????? subgroup of ketosis prone group), male patients were more than female ones. The age of the majority of patients in ketosis prone group was older than that of ketosis-onset group, except A????? subgroup of ketosis prone group. The durations from the patient first time ketosis or DKA onset to admitting to the hospital have significant difference, which were much longer for the ketosis prone group except the A+ ?+ subgroup. BMI has no significant difference among subgroups. FPG of ketosis prone group was lower than that of A????+ subgroup and A+ ?+ subgroup in ketosis-onset group. A????? subgroup and A+ ?+ subgroup of ketosis prone group have lower HbA1c than ketosis-onset group. Conclusions. Ketosis-onset diabetes and ketosis prone diabetes do not absolutely have the same clinical characteristics. Each subgroup shows different specialty.

Liu, Beiyan; Yu, Changhua; Li, Qiang; Li, Lin

2013-01-01

210

Uncorrected refractive errors  

PubMed Central

Global estimates indicate that more than 2.3 billion people in the world suffer from poor vision due to refractive error; of which 670 million people are considered visually impaired because they do not have access to corrective treatment. Refractive errors, if uncorrected, results in an impaired quality of life for millions of people worldwide, irrespective of their age, sex and ethnicity. Over the past decade, a series of studies using a survey methodology, referred to as Refractive Error Study in Children (RESC), were performed in populations with different ethnic origins and cultural settings. These studies confirmed that the prevalence of uncorrected refractive errors is considerably high for children in low-and-middle-income countries. Furthermore, uncorrected refractive error has been noted to have extensive social and economic impacts, such as limiting educational and employment opportunities of economically active persons, healthy individuals and communities. The key public health challenges presented by uncorrected refractive errors, the leading cause of vision impairment across the world, require urgent attention. To address these issues, it is critical to focus on the development of human resources and sustainable methods of service delivery. This paper discusses three core pillars to addressing the challenges posed by uncorrected refractive errors: Human Resource (HR) Development, Service Development and Social Entrepreneurship.

Naidoo, Kovin S; Jaggernath, Jyoti

2012-01-01

211

Uncorrected refractive errors.  

PubMed

Global estimates indicate that more than 2.3 billion people in the world suffer from poor vision due to refractive error; of which 670 million people are considered visually impaired because they do not have access to corrective treatment. Refractive errors, if uncorrected, results in an impaired quality of life for millions of people worldwide, irrespective of their age, sex and ethnicity. Over the past decade, a series of studies using a survey methodology, referred to as Refractive Error Study in Children (RESC), were performed in populations with different ethnic origins and cultural settings. These studies confirmed that the prevalence of uncorrected refractive errors is considerably high for children in low-and-middle-income countries. Furthermore, uncorrected refractive error has been noted to have extensive social and economic impacts, such as limiting educational and employment opportunities of economically active persons, healthy individuals and communities. The key public health challenges presented by uncorrected refractive errors, the leading cause of vision impairment across the world, require urgent attention. To address these issues, it is critical to focus on the development of human resources and sustainable methods of service delivery. This paper discusses three core pillars to addressing the challenges posed by uncorrected refractive errors: Human Resource (HR) Development, Service Development and Social Entrepreneurship. PMID:22944755

Naidoo, Kovin S; Jaggernath, Jyoti

212

Comparison of real-time and end-point PCR for analysis of gene ex- pression in preimplantation embryos  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of our study was to compare real-time PCR and end-point PCR with respect to their suitability for the analysis of gene expression in samples in which the number of cells is limited, for example, in studies of preimplantation embryonic development. The sensitivity, dynamic range and standard error of both PCR systems were compared using a single stock solution

J. W. Carnwath; A. DinnyØs; D. Herrmann; H. Niemann; C. Wrenzycki

213

QUALITY CONTROLS FOR PCR  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this presentation is to present an overview of the quality control (QC) sections of a draft EPA document entitled, "Quality Assurance/Quality Control Guidance for Laboratories Performing PCR Analyses on Environmental Samples." This document has been prepared by th...

214

QUALITY ASSURANCE FOR PCR  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) held a workshop in January 2003 on the detection of viruses in water using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods. Speakers were asked to address a series of specific questions, including whether a single standard method coul...

215

Systematic Procedural Error.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Even when executing routine procedures with relatively simple devices, people make nonrandom errors. Consequences range from the trivial to the fatal, with Navy personnel often operating at the more extreme end of this range. This problem has received sur...

M. D. Byrne

2006-01-01

216

Medical Errors Reduction Initiative.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Valley Hospital of Ridgewood, New Jersey, is proposing to extend a limited but highly successful specimen management and medication administration medical errors reduction initiative on a hospital-wide basis. The program designed to reduce specimen co...

M. L. Mutter

2005-01-01

217

Effects of time and rainfall on PCR success using DNA extracted ...  

Treesearch

Title: Effects of time and rainfall on PCR success using DNA extracted from deer ... Source: Conservation Genetics. doi: 10.1007/s10592-009-9928-7. ... errors ( dropout and false alleles) were recorded to determine extent of DNA degradation .

218

Apologies and Medical Error  

Microsoft Academic Search

One way in which physicians can respond to a medical error is to apologize. Apologies—statements that acknowledge an error\\u000a and its consequences, take responsibility, and communicate regret for having caused harm—can decrease blame, decrease anger,\\u000a increase trust, and improve relationships. Importantly, apologies also have the potential to decrease the risk of a medical\\u000a malpractice lawsuit and can help settle claims

Jennifer K. Robbennolt

2009-01-01

219

PIV error correction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A non-post-interrogation method of reducing subpixel errors and eliminating spurious vectors from particle image velocimetry\\u000a (PIV) results is presented. Unlike methods that rely on the accuracy or similarity of neighboring vectors, errors are eliminated\\u000a before correlation information is discarded using available spatial and\\/or temporal data. Anomalies are removed from the data\\u000a set through direct element-by-element comparison of the correlation tables

D. P. Hart

2000-01-01

220

Prospective pilot intervention study to prevent medication errors in drugs administered to children by mouth or gastric tube: a programme for nurses, physicians and parents  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundDrug administration in children is an error-prone task for nurses and parents because individual dose adjustment is often necessary, and suitable formulations for children are frequently lacking. Hence, in the absence of measures for their prevention, medication errors are likely to occur.ObjectiveTo assess the error prevalence in drug administration by mouth or gastric tube before and after implementing a programme

T. Bertsche; A. Bertsche; E. M. Krieg; N. Kunz; K. Bergmann; G. Hanke; T. Hoppe-Tichy; F. Ebinger

2010-01-01

221

Imagery of errors in typing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a typing task we investigated whether insufficient imagination of errors and error corrections is related to duration differences between execution and imagination. In Experiment 1 spontaneous error imagination was investigated, whereas in Experiment 2 participants were specifically instructed to imagine errors. Further, in Experiment 2 we manipulated correction instructions (whether or not to correct errors) and controlled for visual

Martina Rieger; Fanny Martinez; Dorit Wenke

2011-01-01

222

Effect of head rotation on cerebral blood velocity in the prone position.  

PubMed

Background. The prone position is applied to facilitate surgery of the back and to improve oxygenation in the respirator-treated patient. In particular, with positive pressure ventilation the prone position reduces venous return to the heart and in turn cardiac output (CO) with consequences for cerebral blood flow. We tested in healthy subjects the hypothesis that rotating the head in the prone position reduces cerebral blood flow. Methods. Mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), stroke volume (SV), and CO were determined, together with the middle cerebral artery mean blood velocity (MCA V(mean)) and jugular vein diameters bilaterally in 22 healthy subjects in the prone position with the head centered, respectively, rotated sideways, with and without positive pressure breathing (10?cmH(2)O). Results. The prone position reduced SV (by 5.4 ± 1.5%; P < 0.05) and CO (by 2.3 ± 1.9 %), and slightly increased MAP (from 78 ± 3 to 80 ± 2?mmHg) as well as bilateral jugular vein diameters, leaving MCA V(mean) unchanged. Positive pressure breathing in the prone position increased MAP (by 3.6 ± 0.8?mmHg) but further reduced SV and CO (by 9.3 ± 1.3 % and 7.2 ± 2.4 % below baseline) while MCA V(mean) was maintained. The head-rotated prone position with positive pressure breathing augmented MAP further (87 ± 2?mmHg) but not CO, narrowed both jugular vein diameters, and reduced MCA V(mean) (by 8.6 ± 3.2 %). Conclusion. During positive pressure breathing the prone position with sideways rotated head reduces MCA V(mean) ~10% in spite of an elevated MAP. Prone positioning with rotated head affects both CBF and cerebrovenous drainage indicating that optimal brain perfusion requires head centering. PMID:22988456

Højlund, Jakob; Sandmand, Marie; Sonne, Morten; Mantoni, Teit; Jørgensen, Henrik L; Belhage, Bo; van Lieshout, Johannes J; Pott, Frank C

2012-09-05

223

Effect of Head Rotation on Cerebral Blood Velocity in the Prone Position  

PubMed Central

Background. The prone position is applied to facilitate surgery of the back and to improve oxygenation in the respirator-treated patient. In particular, with positive pressure ventilation the prone position reduces venous return to the heart and in turn cardiac output (CO) with consequences for cerebral blood flow. We tested in healthy subjects the hypothesis that rotating the head in the prone position reduces cerebral blood flow. Methods. Mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), stroke volume (SV), and CO were determined, together with the middle cerebral artery mean blood velocity (MCA Vmean) and jugular vein diameters bilaterally in 22 healthy subjects in the prone position with the head centered, respectively, rotated sideways, with and without positive pressure breathing (10?cmH2O). Results. The prone position reduced SV (by 5.4 ± 1.5%; P < 0.05) and CO (by 2.3 ± 1.9 %), and slightly increased MAP (from 78 ± 3 to 80 ± 2?mmHg) as well as bilateral jugular vein diameters, leaving MCA Vmean unchanged. Positive pressure breathing in the prone position increased MAP (by 3.6 ± 0.8?mmHg) but further reduced SV and CO (by 9.3 ± 1.3 % and 7.2 ± 2.4 % below baseline) while MCA Vmean was maintained. The head-rotated prone position with positive pressure breathing augmented MAP further (87 ± 2?mmHg) but not CO, narrowed both jugular vein diameters, and reduced MCA Vmean (by 8.6 ± 3.2 %). Conclusion. During positive pressure breathing the prone position with sideways rotated head reduces MCA Vmean ~10% in spite of an elevated MAP. Prone positioning with rotated head affects both CBF and cerebrovenous drainage indicating that optimal brain perfusion requires head centering.

H?jlund, Jakob; Sandmand, Marie; Sonne, Morten; Mantoni, Teit; J?rgensen, Henrik L.; Belhage, Bo; van Lieshout, Johannes J.; Pott, Frank C.

2012-01-01

224

Random errors in anthropometry.  

PubMed

In order to present basic information on the magnitude of and variance due to the random error in anthropometry, 219 measurement items were taken on 12 subjects twice by the same observer. The precision (i.e., consistency between the repeated measurements) was investigated for these measurement items. The reliability was quantified using mean absolute difference (MAD), technical error of measurement (TEM), and reliability coefficient (R). MAD and TEM are highly correlated with each other and both represent the magnitude of error. They are not correlated with R, which represents the proportion of error-free variance. Larger measurements tend to have absolutely larger but relatively smaller random errors and higher reliability in the size range of 1-10 cm. Imprecision is inherent in anthropometry of the living because of the fact that the human body is not rigid. This may be responsible for the above tendency. Relatively large MAD and low R may be due to small absolute size, landmarks difficult to locate precisely, soft tissue deformation, and the inconsistency of the posture of the subject. PMID:9735595

Kouchi, M; Mochimaru, M; Tsuzuki, K; Yokoi, T

1996-12-01

225

Blinded by an error.  

PubMed

Errors are typically followed by a series of behavioural changes. Although most of these changes are well understood, accuracy changes following errors are not. A new paradigm is presented where participants performed a flanker task followed by a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) of numbers (1-9). In most trials, a letter was presented on three possible positions of the RSVP (1-3-6). This was done with and without immediate feedback on the flanker task. In both experiments participants had worse target detection after an error in the flanker task. These findings support non-functional accounts for error monitoring that predict decreased post-error performance (Dudschig & Jentzsch, 2009; Jentzsch & Dudschig, 2009; Notebaert et al., 2009). In a third experiment we tried to dissociate between a bottleneck and an orienting account and showed decreased target detection after irrelevant red signals, irrespective of frequency. This result is interpreted in support for the bottleneck account (Dudschig & Jentzsch, 2009; Jentzsch & Dudschig, 2009). PMID:23688649

Houtman, Femke; Notebaert, Wim

2013-05-18

226

Mapping radon-prone areas using ?-radiation dose rate and geological information.  

PubMed

Identifying radon-prone areas is key to policies on the control of this environmental carcinogen. In the current paper, we present the methodology followed to delineate radon-prone areas in Spain. It combines information from indoor radon measurements with ?-radiation and geological maps. The advantage of the proposed approach is that it lessens the requirement for a high density of measurements by making use of commonly available information. It can be applied for an initial definition of radon-prone areas in countries committed to introducing a national radon policy or to improving existing radon maps in low population regions. PMID:23803560

García-Talavera, M; García-Pérez, A; Rey, C; Ramos, L

2013-06-27

227

Estimating GPS Positional Error  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

After instructing students on basic receiver operation, each student will make many (10-20) position estimates of 3 benchmarks over a week. The different benchmarks will have different views of the skies or vegetation cover. Each student will download their data into a spreadsheet and calculate horizontal and vertical errors which are collated into a class spreadsheet. The positions are sorted by error and plotted in a cumulative frequency plot. The students are encouraged to discuss the distribution, sources of error, and estimate confidence intervals. This exercise gives the students a gut feeling for confidence intervals and the accuracy of data. Students are asked to compare results from different types of data and benchmarks with different views of the sky. Uses online and/or real-time data Has minimal/no quantitative component Addresses student fear of quantitative aspect and/or inadequate quantitative skills Addresses student misconceptions

Witte, Bill

228

MAMMALIAN DNA IN PCR REAGENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Ancient DNA analysis is becoming widespread. These studies use polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to amplify minute quantities of heavily damaged template. Unusual steps are taken to achieve the sensitivity necessary to detect ancient DNA, including high- cycle PCR amplification t...

229

Evolution of error diffusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As we approach the new millennium, error diffusion is approaching the 25th anniversary of its invention. Because of its exceptionally high image quality, it continues to be a popular choice among digital halftoning algorithms. Over the last 24 years, many attempts have been made to modify and improve the algorithm - to eliminate unwanted textures and to extend it to printing media and color. Some of these modifications have been very successful and are in use today. This paper will review the history of the algorithm and its modifications. Three watershed events in the development of error diffusion will be described, together with the lesions learned along the way.

Knox, Keith T.

1998-12-01

230

Evolution of error diffusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As we approach the new millennium, error diffusion is approaching the 25th anniversary of its invention. Because of its exceptionally high image quality, it continues to be a popular choice among digital halftoning algorithms. Over the last 24 years, many attempts have been made to modify and improve the algorithm--to eliminate unwanted textures and to extend it to printing media and color. Some of these modifications have been very successful and are in use today. This paper will review the history of the algorithm and its modifications. Three watershed events in the development of error diffusion will be described, together with the lessons learned along the way.

Knox, Keith T.

1999-10-01

231

Disclosure of medical errors  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Disclosure of medical errors is encouraged, but research on how patients respond to specific practices is limited.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a OBJECTIVE: This study sought to determine whether full disclosure, an existing positive physician-patient relationship, an offer to\\u000a waive associated costs, and the severity of the clinical outcome influenced patients’ responses to medical errors.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a PARTICIPANTS: Four hundred and seven health plan members participated

Kathleen M. Mazor; George W. Reed; Robert A. Yood; Melissa A. Fischer; Joann Baril; Jerry H. Gurwitz

2006-01-01

232

Prone position and recruitment manoeuvre: the combined effect improves oxygenation  

PubMed Central

Introduction Among the various methods for improving oxygenation while decreasing the risk of ventilation-induced lung injury in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), a ventilation strategy combining prone position (PP) and recruitment manoeuvres (RMs) can be practiced. We studied the effects on oxygenation of both RM and PP applied in early ARDS patients. Methods We conducted a prospective study. Sixteen consecutive patients with early ARDS fulfilling our criteria (ratio of arterial oxygen partial pressure to fraction of inspired oxygen (PaO2/FiO2) 98.3 ± 28 mmHg; positive end expiratory pressure, 10.7 ± 2.8 cmH2O) were analysed. Each patient was ventilated in both the supine position (SP) and the PP (six hours in each position). A 45 cmH2O extended sigh in pressure control mode was performed at the beginning of SP (RM1), one hour after turning to the PP (RM2) and at the end of the six-hour PP period (RM3). Results The mean arterial oxygen partial pressure (PaO2) changes after RM1, RM2 and RM3 were 9.6%, 15% and 19%, respectively. The PaO2 improvement after a single RM was significant after RM3 only (P < 0.05). Improvements in PaO2 level and PaO2/FiO2 ratio were transient in SP but durable during PP. PaO2/FiO2 ratio peaked at 218 mmHg after RM3. PaO2/FiO2 changes were significant only after RM3 and in the pulmonary ARDS group (P = 0.008). This global strategy had a benefit with regard to oxygenation: PaO2/FiO2 ratio increased from 98.3 mmHg to 165.6 mmHg 13 hours later at the end of the study (P < 0.05). Plateau airway pressures decreased after each RM and over the entire PP period and significantly after RM3 (P = 0.02). Some reversible side effects such as significant blood arterial pressure variations were found when extended sighs were performed. Conclusions In our study, interventions such as a 45 cmH2O extended sigh during PP resulted in marked oxygenation improvement. Combined RM and PP led to the highest increase in PaO2/FiO2 ratio without major clinical side effects.

2011-01-01

233

Error Correction Capability of Random Network Error Correction Codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we study the error correction capability of random linear network error correction codes [7]. We derive bounds on the probability mass function of the minimum distance of a random network error correction code and the field size required for the existence of a network error correction code with a given degradation, which is the difference between the

Huseyin Balli; Xijin Yan; Zhen Zhang

2007-01-01

234

Challenge and Error: Critical Events and Attention-Related Errors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Attention lapses resulting from reactivity to task challenges and their consequences constitute a pervasive factor affecting everyday performance errors and accidents. A bidirectional model of attention lapses (error [image omitted] attention-lapse: Cheyne, Solman, Carriere, & Smilek, 2009) argues that errors beget errors by generating attention…

Cheyne, James Allan; Carriere, Jonathan S. A.; Solman, Grayden J. F.; Smilek, Daniel

2011-01-01

235

Modeling interactions betweenspotted owl and barred owl populations in fire-prone forests  

EPA Science Inventory

Background / Question / Methods Efforts to conserve northern spotted owls (Strix occidentalis caurina) in the eastern Cascades of Washington must merge the challenges of providing sufficient structurally complex forest habitat in a fire-prone landscape with the limitations impos...

236

44 CFR 60.3 - Flood plain management criteria for flood-prone areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 1 2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Flood plain management criteria for flood-prone areas. 60.3 Section 60.3 Emergency...SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program CRITERIA FOR LAND...

2009-10-01

237

44 CFR 60.3 - Flood plain management criteria for flood-prone areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flood plain management criteria for flood-prone areas. 60.3 Section 60.3 Emergency...SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program CRITERIA FOR LAND...

2010-10-01

238

Reducing Medication Errors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes initiatives one institution developed to improve systems for detecting and preventing adverse medication events. Our discussion focuses on issues regarding the frequency and incidence of medication errors, the trials of traditional versus anonymous incident reporting, and the efforts to improve systems rather than placing blame and punishment on individuals. Initiatives such as improved documentation of pediatric patient

Paul M. Cox; Steven DAmato; Debra J. Tillotson

2001-01-01

239

Minimum Tracking Error Volatility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investors assign part of their funds to asset managers that are given the task of beating a benchmark. The risk management department usually imposes a maximum value of the tracking error volatility (TEV) in order to keep the risk of the portfolio near to that of the selected benchmark. However, risk management does not establish a rule on TEV which

Luca RICCETTI

2010-01-01

240

Probabilistic Error Checkers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This final report summaries the progress made in during the areas of research supported by AFOSR. During the contract, (a) the PI implemented and deployed two probabilistic error checkers, one for the domain name system and the other in an application tha...

P. B. Danzig

1996-01-01

241

Orwell's Instructive Errors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author talks about George Orwell, his instructive errors, and the manner in which Orwell pierced worthless theory, faced facts and defended decency (with fluctuating success), and largely ignored the tradition of accumulated wisdom that has rendered him a timeless teacher--one whose inadvertent lessons, while infrequently…

Julian, Liam

2009-01-01

242

Strapdown Guidance Error Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A crucial part of so-called ¿strapdown¿ techniques for inertial guidance systems is the generation of the matrix of direction cosines relating the body axes to the reference axes. This is generally done by direct integration of a set of differential equations having the body angular velocities as inputs. This paper is devoted to an error analysis of two commonly used

R. E. Mortensen

1974-01-01

243

Cardiac evaluation in hypotension-prone and hypotension-resistant hemodialysis patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiac evaluation in hypotension-prone and hypotension-resistant hemodialysis patients.BackgroundHypotension during hemodialysis occurs frequently, but the precise mechanism remains unclear. In this study, the presence of myocardial ischemia and myocardial contractile reserve during infusions of the ?-adrenergic receptor agonist dobutamine was assessed by means of dobutamine-atropine stress echocardiography (DSE) in hypotension-prone (HP) and hypotension-resistant (HR) hemodialysis patients.MethodsEighteen HP patients (age 53 ±

Don Poldermans; Riccardo Rambaldi; Anton H. Van Den Meiracker; Marinus A. Van Den Dorpel; Guido Rocchi; Eric Boersma; Jeroen J. Bax; Willem Weimar; Jos R. T. C. Roelandt; Robert Zietse; Don Poldermans

1999-01-01

244

Body image, self-esteem, and depression-proneness: Closing the gender gap  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gender differences in body image and related correlates have received increasing attention in recent psychological research. The purposes of the present study were to further examine gender differences in body image and its relationship to depression-proneness and self-esteem. The Body Cathexis Scale, the Depression-Proneness Inventory, the Janis-Field Feelings of Inadequacy Scale, and a background questionnaire were administered to 176 female

Marci McCaulay; Laurie Mintz; Audrey A. Glenn

1988-01-01

245

Dosimetric effects of prone and supine positions on post-implant assessments for prostate brachytherapy  

PubMed Central

Purpose Post-implant dosimetric assessment is essential for optimal care of patients receiving prostate brachytherapy. In most institutions, post-implant computed tomography (CT) is performed in the supine position. This study aimed to assess variability in dosimetric parameters with postural changes during acquisition of post-implant CT scans. Material and methods In total, 85 consecutive patients were enrolled in this study. Fifty-three patients underwent seed implantation alone, and the remaining 32 received a combination of seed implantation and external beam radiotherapy. For post-implant analyses, CT scans were obtained in two patient positions, supine and prone. To evaluate differences in dosimetric parameters associated with postural change, the dosimetric data obtained in the supine position were defined as the standard. Results The median prostate volume was 22.4 ml in the supine and 22.5 ml in the prone position (p = 0.51). The median prostate D90 was 120.1% in the supine and 120.3% in the prone position, not significantly different. The mean prostate V100 was 97.1% in the supine and 97.0% in the prone position, again not significantly different. Median rectal V100 in supine and prone positions were 0.42 ml and 0.33 ml, respectively (p < 0.01). Rectal D2cc was also significantly decreased in the prone as compared with the supine position (median, 59.1% vs. 63.6%; p < 0.01). A larger post-implant prostate volume was associated with decreased rectal doses in the prone position. Conclusions Though there were no significant differences among prostate D90 assessments according to postural changes, our results suggest that post-implant rectal doses decreased in the prone position.

Momma, Tetsuo; Yamashita, Shoji; Kanai, Kunimitsu; Watanabe, Yusuke; Hanada, Takashi; Shigematsu, Naoyuki

2013-01-01

246

Kidney displacement in complete supine PCNL is lower than prone PCNL  

Microsoft Academic Search

To compare the amount of the kidney displacement in the complete supine percutaneous nephrolithotripsy (PCNL) to the prone\\u000a PCNL during getting renal access. Thirty-three patients were randomly divided into two groups. The patients in group A were\\u000a placed in the complete supine position and the patients in group B in the prone position. Amounts of the kidney displacement\\u000a in three

Siavash Falahatkar; Seyyed Alaeddin Asgari; Hamidreza Nasseh; Aliakbar Allahkhah; Fatemeh Jafari Farshami; Maryam Shakiba; Samaneh Esmaeili

2011-01-01

247

Investigation of Helical Tomotherapy for Partial-Breast Irradiation of Prone-Positioned Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To investigate whether helical tomotherapy can provide conformal, uniform target-dose coverage for partial-breast irradiation (PBI) of patients positioned prone while achieving organ-at-risk sparing compliant with National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP) B-39\\/Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 0413 guidelines; and to report our initial experience with the delivery of prone-breast PBI treatments using tomotherapy. Methods and Materials: For

Kristofer Kainz; Julia White; Joann Herman; X. Allen Li

2009-01-01

248

Need for Closure, Jumping to Conclusions, and Decisiveness in Delusion-Prone Individuals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Need for closure refers to a motivated need for certainty. Jumping-to-conclusions bias refers to the gathering of minimal data when making overconfident probabilistic judgments. Both constructs have been associated independently with delusion-proneness. Fifty- eight nonclinical adults were assessed for jumping-to-conclusions bias using an experimental reasoning task, and need for closure, decisive- ness concerning real-life dilemmas, and delusion-proneness using ques- tionnaires.

Ryan McKay; Robyn Langdon; Max Coltheart

2006-01-01

249

Short-term effects of prone position in critically ill patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  \\u000a \\u000a Objective: Changing the position from supine to prone is an emerging strategy to improve gas exchange in patients with the acute respiratory\\u000a distress syndrome (ARDS). The aim of this study was to evaluate the acute effects on gas exchange, hemodynamics, and respiratory\\u000a system mechanics of turning critically ill patients with ARDS from supine to prone. Design: Open, prospective study.

L. Blanch; J. Mancebo; M. Perez; M. Martinez; A. Mas; A. J. Betbese; D. Joseph; J. Ballús; U. Lucangelo; E. Bak

1997-01-01

250

Neural Correlates of Reach Errors  

PubMed Central

Reach errors may be broadly classified into errors arising from unpredictable changes in target location, called target errors, and errors arising from miscalibration of internal models, called execution errors. Execution errors may be caused by miscalibration of dynamics (e.g.. when a force field alters limb dynamics) or by miscalibration of kinematics (e.g., when prisms alter visual feedback). While all types of errors lead to similar online corrections, we found that the motor system showed strong trial-by-trial adaptation in response to random execution errors but not in response to random target errors. We used fMRI and a compatible robot to study brain regions involved in processing each kind of error. Both kinematic and dynamic execution errors activated regions along the central and the post-central sulci and in lobules V, VI, and VIII of the cerebellum, making these areas possible sites of plastic changes in internal models for reaching. Only activity related to kinematic errors extended into parietal area 5. These results are inconsistent with the idea that kinematics and dynamics of reaching are computed in separate neural entities. In contrast, only target errors caused increased activity in the striatum and the posterior superior parietal lobule. The cerebellum and motor cortex were as strongly activated as with execution errors. These findings indicate a neural and behavioral dissociation between errors that lead to switching of behavioral goals, and errors that lead to adaptation of internal models of limb dynamics and kinematics.

Hashambhoy, Yasmin; Rane, Tushar; Shadmehr, Reza

2005-01-01

251

Automatic Error Analysis Using Intervals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A technique for automatic error analysis using interval mathematics is introduced. A comparison to standard error propagation methods shows that in cases involving complicated formulas, the interval approach gives comparable error estimates with much less effort. Several examples are considered, and numerical errors are computed using the INTLAB…

Rothwell, E. J.; Cloud, M. J.

2012-01-01

252

Speech Errors across the Lifespan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Dell, Burger, and Svec (1997) proposed that the proportion of speech errors classified as anticipations (e.g., "moot and mouth") can be predicted solely from the overall error rate, such that the greater the error rate, the lower the anticipatory proportion (AP) of errors. We report a study examining whether this effect applies to changes in…

Vousden, Janet I.; Maylor, Elizabeth A.

2006-01-01

253

Realization of quantum error correction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scalable quantum computation and communication require error control to protect quantum information against unavoidable noise. Quantum error correction protects information stored in two-level quantum systems (qubits) by rectifying errors with operations conditioned on the measurement outcomes. Error-correction protocols have been implemented in nuclear magnetic resonance experiments, but the inherent limitations of this technique prevent its application to quantum information processing.

J. Chiaverini; D. Leibfried; T. Schaetz; M. D. Barrett; R. B. Blakestad; J. Britton; W. M. Itano; J. D. Jost; E. Knill; C. Langer; R. Ozeri; D. J. Wineland

2004-01-01

254

Imagery of Errors in Typing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using a typing task we investigated whether insufficient imagination of errors and error corrections is related to duration differences between execution and imagination. In Experiment 1 spontaneous error imagination was investigated, whereas in Experiment 2 participants were specifically instructed to imagine errors. Further, in Experiment 2 we…

Rieger, Martina; Martinez, Fanny; Wenke, Dorit

2011-01-01

255

Design and Evaluation of a Stand-Up Motorized Prone Cart  

PubMed Central

Background/Objective: Prone carts are used for mobility by individuals with spinal cord injury in whom seated mobility (wheelchair) is contraindicated due to ischial or sacral pressure ulcers. Currently available prone carts are uncomfortable, subjecting the user to neck and shoulder strain, and make social interaction and performing activities of daily living difficult. A better design of prone carts is needed. In addition, standing devices have shown some medical benefits. The objective was to design and evaluate an improved prone cart that facilitates standing. Design: Engineering development project with user feedback through questionnaire. Users selected by convenience sampling. Methods: A marketing survey was performed of nurse managers of spinal cord injury units. Then 2 prototype carts were designed and built. These carts are able to tilt up to 45° and have a joystick-controlled motor for propulsion and other design features, including a workspace storage shelf and rearview mirrors. The carts were evaluated by both patients and caregivers at 2 Veteran's Administration hospitals. Outcome Measures: Questionnaire of subjects, both patients and caregivers, who used the cart. Findings: Both patients and caregivers liked the carts and the ability to assume a nonhorizontal body angle. The major complaint about the cart was that it seemed too long when it came to making turns. Conclusion: This prone cart design is an improvement over the standard, flat variety. However, further design changes will be necessary. This study provided valuable information that will be useful in the next-generation prone cart design project.

Harrow, Jeffrey J; Malassigne, Pascal; Nelson, Audrey L; Jensen, Robert P; Amato, Margaret; Palacios, Polly L

2007-01-01

256

Delusion proneness in nonclinical individuals and cognitive insight: the contributions of rumination and reflection.  

PubMed

Although previous research demonstrates that clinical individuals with delusions score low on one of the facets of cognitive insight, self-reflection, and high on the other facet, self-certainty, analogous studies of delusion proneness in nonclinical individuals have found that delusion proneness in nonclinical individuals associates with higher levels of both self-certainty and self-reflection. The present study sought to reconcile these inconsistent results by examining the contributions of different facets of self-reflection, rumination and reflection, to delusion proneness. One hundred fifty-two individuals completed three questionnaires: the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale (BCIS), the Peters et al. Delusions Inventory (PDI), and the Rumination-Reflection Questionnaire (RRQ). The results showed that the individuals scoring higher on delusion proneness demonstrated higher levels of both self-certainty and self-reflection on the BCIS as well as higher levels of rumination and reflection on the RRQ. As predicted, the strength of the relationship between BCIS self-reflection and delusion proneness was diminished when rumination was controlled for. These findings suggest that the previously observed positive relation between BCIS self-reflection and nonclinical delusion proneness might be driven, in part, by the ruminative aspect of self-reflection. PMID:23896846

Carse, Traci; Langdon, Robyn

2013-08-01

257

Medical errors in primary care  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To describe errors Canadian family physicians found in their practices and reported to study investigators. To compare errors reported by Canadian family physicians with those reported by physicians in five other countries. DESIGN Analytical study of reports of errors. The Linnaeus Collaboration was formed to study medical errors in primary care. General practitioners in six countries, including a new Canadian family practice research network (Nortren), anonymously reported errors in their practices between June and December 2001. An evolving taxonomy was used to describe the types of errors reported. SETTING Practices in Canada, Australia, England, the Netherlands, New Zealand, and the United States. PARTICIPANTS Family physicians in the six countries. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Types of errors reported. Differences in errors reported in different countries. RESULTS In Canada, 15 family doctors reported 95 errors. In the other five countries, 64 doctors reported 413 errors. Although the absence of a denominator made it impossible to calculate rates of errors, Canadian doctors and doctors from the other countries reported similar proportions of errors arising from health system dysfunction and gaps in knowledge or skills. All countries reported similar proportions of laboratory and prescribing errors. Canadian doctors reported harm to patients from 39.3% of errors; other countries reported harm from 29.3% of errors. Canadian physicians considered errors “very serious” in 5.8% of instances; other countries thought them very serious in 7.1% of instances. Hospital admissions and death were among the consequences of errors reported in other countries, but these consequences were not reported in Canada. CONCLUSION Serious errors occur in family practice and affect patients in similar ways in Canada and other countries. Validated studies that analyze errors and record error rates are needed to better understand ways of improving patient safety in family practice.

Rosser, Walter; Dovey, Susan; Bordman, Risa; White, David; Crighton, Eric; Drummond, Neil

2005-01-01

258

Modular error embedding  

SciTech Connect

A method of embedding auxiliary information into the digital representation of host data containing noise in the low-order bits. The method applies to digital data representing analog signals, for example digital images. The method reduces the error introduced by other methods that replace the low-order bits with auxiliary information. By a substantially reverse process, the embedded auxiliary data can be retrieved easily by an authorized user through use of a digital key. The modular error embedding method includes a process to permute the order in which the host data values are processed. The method doubles the amount of auxiliary information that can be added to host data values, in comparison with bit-replacement methods for high bit-rate coding. The invention preserves human perception of the meaning and content of the host data, permitting the addition of auxiliary data in the amount of 50% or greater of the original host data.

Sandford, II, Maxwell T. (Los Alamos, NM); Handel, Theodore G. (Los Alamos, NM); Ettinger, J. Mark (Los Alamos, NM)

1999-01-01

259

Modular error embedding  

SciTech Connect

A method of embedding auxiliary information into the digital representation of host data containing noise in the low-order bits is disclosed. The method applies to digital data representing analog signals, for example digital images. The method reduces the error introduced by other methods that replace the low-order bits with auxiliary information. By a substantially reverse process, the embedded auxiliary data can be retrieved easily by an authorized user through use of a digital key. The modular error embedding method includes a process to permute the order in which the host data values are processed. The method doubles the amount of auxiliary information that can be added to host data values, in comparison with bit-replacement methods for high bit-rate coding. The invention preserves human perception of the meaning and content of the host data, permitting the addition of auxiliary data in the amount of 50% or greater of the original host data.

Sandford, M.T. II; Handel, T.G.; Ettinger, J.M.

1999-10-19

260

Error Approximation and Minimum Phone Error Acoustic Model Estimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Minimum phone error (MPE) acoustic parameter estimation involves calculation\\u000a\\u0009of edit distances (errors) between correct and incorrect hypotheses.\\u000a\\u0009In the context of large-vocabulary continuous-speech recognition,\\u000a\\u0009this error calculation becomes prohibitively expensive and so errors\\u000a\\u0009are approximated. This paper introduces a novel error approximation\\u000a\\u0009technique. Analysis shows that this approximation yields a higher\\u000a\\u0009correlation to the Levenshtein error metric than a

Matthew Gibson; Thomas Hain

2010-01-01

261

Perceptual errors and negligence.  

PubMed

Radiologic errors continue to be made at a rate that has changed little over the past 50 years, despite a variety of methods that have been proposed to reduce such errors. Many of these methods, as well as other steps that can be taken to decrease errors, are described elsewhere [6, 31, 32]. However, the question of whether a missed radiographic diagnosis constitutes malpractice has confounded radiologists, patients, referring physicians, attorneys, jurors, and judges for decades, and it is not likely that the question will be resolved to the satisfaction of any of these parties in the foreseeable future. Against this backdrop, radiologists continue to be subjected to malpractice litigation more for missing radiographic diagnoses than for any other reason. Moreover, radiologists who are sued for missing diagnoses are likely to have more indemnification paid on their behalf to satisfy a settlement or adverse jury verdict than for any other malpractice allegation. Assuredly, it is difficult to defend a radiologist who has failed to perceive a radiographic abnormality that in retrospect can be readily perceived by medical and nonmedical observers alike. Nonetheless, solid defense-supporting data are available that, at times, can be presented to a jury successfully to achieve vindication for a defendant radiologist. These data include statistics regarding the frequency of errors committed by radiologists and other physicians during the course of ordinary everyday practice, the factors that cause varying conspicuity of radiographic densities, the limitations of normal human visual perception, and evidence that the process by which the radiologist originally rendered the interpretation was free of deficiency. PMID:9530024

Berlin, L; Hendrix, R W

1998-04-01

262

Tone errors in Taiwanese  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis on speech errors provides different evidence to investigate the psychological reality of phonological units, syllable structures and phonological rules. However, most of the previous studies are based on Indo-European languages and focused on phonological segments such as consonants and vowels. Hence, studies on non-Indo-European languages and on suprasegmental units such as tone are practically few. In this study, we

Joyce H.-C. Liu

263

DecGPU: distributed error correction on massively parallel graphics processing units using CUDA and MPI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Next-generation sequencing technologies have led to the high-throughput production of sequence data (reads) at low cost. However,\\u000a these reads are significantly shorter and more error-prone than conventional Sanger shotgun reads. This poses a challenge\\u000a for the de novo assembly in terms of assembly quality and scalability for large-scale short read datasets.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  We present DecGPU, the first parallel and distributed error

Yongchao Liu; Bertil Schmidt; Douglas L. Maskell

2011-01-01

264

Pharmacy drug error awareness program.  

PubMed

Medication errors are a major concern in hospital pharmacy practice. The prevention of medication errors involves mainly the departments of pharmacy and nursing. Though there are many safeguards used to prevent medication errors, they still occur, posing potential harm to patients. To decrease the chance for medication errors to occur pharmacists must take the responsibility to expand their knowledge and teach others about frequent errors. In an effort to decrease medication errors during 1990 at Fresno Community Hospital and Medical Center, Fresno, California, the pharmacy department evaluated the errors made during the calendar year 1989. This evaluation provided information concerning the most frequently occurring medication errors. This information was used to initiate a drug error awareness program (DEAP). PMID:10114822

Weber, J N; Hatai, J K

1991-11-01

265

Medication errors in the PACU.  

PubMed

A collaborative research group examined seven years of PACU medication errors from the MEDMARX database. Descriptive statistics showed a comparison of medication errors in all ages from pediatric to adult to geriatric groups. Nine categories of medication errors were noted and a total of 3,023 errors were attributed to errors in prescribing, transcribing, dispensing, administering, and monitoring. Harmful errors were present in 5.8% of the sample, which included two patient deaths. Results indicated that errors can occur in any age group. Organizations and institutions should be aware of these occurrences to ensure vigilance at all times and to focus efforts toward avoiding or decreasing such errors. Patient safety and error prevention recommendations are provided. PMID:18039513

Hicks, Rodney W; Becker, Shawn C; Windle, Pamela E; Krenzischek, Dina A

2007-12-01

266

Prescribing errors in hospital practice  

PubMed Central

Prescribing errors that occur in hospitals have been a source of concern for decades. This narrative review describes some of the recent work in this field. There is considerable heterogeneity in definitions and methods used in research on prescribing errors. There are three definitions that are used most frequently (one for prescribing errors specifically and two for the broader arena of medication errors), although many others have also been used. Research methods used focus primarily on investigating either the prescribing process (such as errors in the dose prescribed) or the outcomes for the patient (such as preventable adverse drug events). This complicates attempts to calculate the overall prevalence or incidence of errors. Errors have been reported in handwritten descriptions of almost 15% and with electronic prescribing of up to 8% of orders. Errors are more likely to be identified on admission to hospital than at any other time (usually failure to continue ongoing medication) and errors of dose occur most commonly throughout the patients' stay. Although there is evidence that electronic prescribing reduces the number of errors, new types of errors also occur. The literature on causes of error shows some commonality with both handwritten and electronic prescribing but there are also causes that are unique to each. A greater understanding of the prevalence of the complex causal pathways found and the differences between the pathways of minor and severe errors is necessary. Such an understanding would underpin theoretically-based interventions to reduce the occurrence of prescribing errors.

Tully, Mary P

2012-01-01

267

Whole-breast irradiation: a subgroup analysis of criteria to stratify for prone position treatment  

SciTech Connect

To select among breast cancer patients and according to breast volume size those who may benefit from 3D conformal radiotherapy after conservative surgery applied with prone-position technique. Thirty-eight patients with early-stage breast cancer were grouped according to the target volume (TV) measured in the supine position: small ({<=}400 mL), medium (400-700 mL), and large ({>=}700 ml). An ad-hoc designed and built device was used for prone set-up to displace the contralateral breast away from the tangential field borders. All patients underwent treatment planning computed tomography in both the supine and prone positions. Dosimetric data to explore dose distribution and volume of normal tissue irradiated were calculated for each patient in both positions. Homogeneity index, hot spot areas, the maximum dose, and the lung constraints were significantly reduced in the prone position (p < 0.05). The maximum heart distance and the V{sub 5Gy} did not vary consistently in the 2 positions (p = 0.06 and p = 0.7, respectively). The number of necessary monitor units was significantly higher in the supine position (312 vs. 232, p < 0.0001). The subgroups analysis pointed out the advantage in lung sparing in all TV groups (small, medium and large) for all the evaluated dosimetric constraints (central lung distance, maximum lung distance, and V{sub 5Gy}, p < 0.0001). In the small TV group, a dose reduction in nontarget areas of 22% in the prone position was detected (p = 0.056); in the medium and high TV groups, the difference was of about -10% (p = NS). The decrease in hot spot areas in nontarget tissues was 73%, 47%, and 80% for small, medium, and large TVs in the prone position, respectively. Although prone breast radiotherapy is normally proposed in patients with breasts of large dimensions, this study gives evidence of dosimetric benefit in all patient subgroups irrespective of breast volume size.

Ramella, Sara, E-mail: s.ramella@unicampus.it [Radiation Oncology, Campus Bio-Medico University, Rome (Italy); Trodella, Lucio; Ippolito, Edy; Fiore, Michele; Cellini, Francesco; Stimato, Gerardina; Gaudino, Diego; Greco, Carlo [Radiation Oncology, Campus Bio-Medico University, Rome (Italy); Ramponi, Sara; Cammilluzzi, Eugenio; Cesarini, Claudio [Breast Unit, S. Pertini Hospital, Rome (Italy); Piermattei, Angelo [Department of Physics, Catholic University, Rome (Italy); Cesario, Alfredo [CdC San Raffaele Velletri (Italy); Department of Thoracic Surgery, Catholic University, Rome (Italy); D'Angelillo, Rolando Maria [Radiation Oncology, Campus Bio-Medico University, Rome (Italy)

2012-07-01

268

Dosimetric and toxicity comparison between prone and supine position IMRT for endometrial cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine the dosimetric and toxicity differences between prone and supine position intensity-modulate radiotherapy in endometrial cancer patients treated with adjuvant radiotherapy. Methods: Forty-seven consecutive endometrial cancer patients treated with adjuvant RT were analyzed. Of these, 21 were treated in prone position and 26 in the supine position. Dose-volume histograms for normal tissue structures and targets were compared between the two groups. Acute and chronic toxicity were also compared between the cohorts. Results: The percentage of volume receiving 10, 20, 30, 40, 45, and 50 Gy for small bowel was 89.5%, 69%, 33%, 12.2%, 5%, and 0% in the prone group and 87.5%, 62.7%, 26.4%, 8%, 4.3%, and 0% in the supine group, respectively. The difference was not statistically significant. The dose-volume histograms for bladder and rectum were also comparable, except for a slightly greater percentage of volume receiving 10 Gy (1.5%) and 20 Gy (5%) for the rectum in the prone group. Acute small bowel toxicities were Grade 1 in 7 patients and Grade 2 in 14 patients in the prone group vs. Grade 1 in 6 patients and Grade 2 in 19 patients in the supine group. Chronic toxicity was Grade 1 in 7 patients and Grade 3 in 1 patient in the prone group and Grade 1 in 5 patients in the supine group. Conclusion: These preliminary results suggest that no difference exists in the dose to the normal tissue and toxicity between prone and supine intensity-modulated radiotherapy for endometrial cancer. Longer follow-up and more outcome studies are needed to determine whether any differences exist between the two approaches.

Beriwal, Sushil [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, PA (United States) and University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)]. E-mail: beriwals@upmc.edu; Jain, Sheena K. [University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Heron, Dwight E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); De Andrade, Regiane S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Lin, Chyonghiou J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Kim, Hayeon [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

2007-02-01

269

PCR detection of Tritrichomonas foetus in preputial bull fluid without prior DNA isolation.  

PubMed

Tritrichomonosis is a widespread, economically important venereal disease caused by Tritrichomonas foetus. The traditional diagnosis of this disease, which causes infertility and abortion in cattle, is based on the culture of the parasite. This process is time consuming, has low sensitivity, and is prone to contamination with intestinal or coprophilic trichomonadid protozoa, resulting in false positive diagnostics of T. foetus. In order to avoid the shortcomings of the traditional method, we developed a simple PCR assay based on TFR3 and TFR4 primers, which does not require parasite culturing. The sensitivity of the PCR assay resulted comparable to that of the classical method, being able to detect as few as five T. foetus parasites. In addition the method is highly specific. The analysis of preputial fluid washing samples showed that 58 out of 203 samples were positive by both, the PCR and the culture method (+/+), 9 samples were positive by PCR and negative by the traditional method (+/-) and only one sample resulted negative by PCR and negative by culture (-/+). The samples for the PCR assay can be stored for a week at 4 degrees C or 72h at room temperature. In summary, our study demonstrated that the PCR assay is an effective method for the diagnosis of T. foetus from preputial samples, and that it compares advantageously to the classical method. PMID:16386373

Mutto, A A; Giambiaggi, S; Angel, S O

2005-12-28

270

ExCyto PCR Amplification  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundExCyto PCR cells provide a novel and cost effective means to amplify DNA transformed into competent bacterial cells. ExCyto PCR uses host E. coli with a chromosomally integrated gene encoding a thermostable DNA polymerase to accomplish robust, hot-start PCR amplification of cloned sequences without addition of exogenous enzyme.ResultsBecause the thermostable DNA polymerase is stably integrated into the bacterial chromosome, ExCyto

Vinay Dhodda; Ronald Godiska; Jeffrey D. Vanwye; David Mead; Rebecca Hochstein; Lynne Sheets; Sarah Vande Zande; Chris Niebauer; Douglas L. Crawford; Marjorie F. Oleksiak; Ching-Hong Yang

2010-01-01

271

Short-term effects of combining upright and prone positions in patients with ARDS: a prospective randomized study  

PubMed Central

Introduction Prone position is known to improve oxygenation in patients with acute lung injury (ALI) and the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Supine upright (semirecumbent) position also exerts beneficial effects on gas exchange in this group of patients. We evaluated the effect of combining upright and prone position on oxygenation and respiratory mechanics in patients with ALI or ARDS in a prospective randomized cross-over study. Methods After turning them prone from a supine position, we randomized the patients to a prone position or combined prone and upright position. After 2 hours, the position was changed to the other one for another 6 hours. The gas exchange and static compliance of the respiratory system, lungs, and chest wall were assessed in the supine position as well as every hour in the prone position. Results Twenty patients were enrolled in the study. The PaO2/FiO2 ratio improved significantly from the supine to the prone position and further significantly increased with additional upright position. Fourteen (70%) patients were classified as responders to the prone position, whereas 17 (85%) patients responded to the prone plus upright position compared with the supine position (P = n.s.). No statistically significant changes were found with respect to compliance. Conclusions Combining the prone position with the upright position in patients with ALI or ARDS leads to further improvement of oxygenation. Trial registration Clinical Trials No. NCT00753129

2011-01-01

272

Modeling and error analysis for assessing spindle radial error motions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rotating accuracy of a machine tool spindle directly affects the roundness of machined parts. Commonly, a precision arbor and one or two probes are used to inspect the spindle axis error motion. When the spindle error motion is in the same order of magnitude as the accuracy of the reference arbor, it is desirable to separate the roundness error

Jay F. Tu; Bernd Bossmanns; Spring C. C. Hung

1997-01-01

273

Discrete-error transport equation for error estimation in CFD  

Microsoft Academic Search

With computational fluid dynamics (CFD) becoming more accepted and more widely used in industry for design and analysis, there is increasing demand for not just more accurate solutions, but also error bounds on the solutions. One major source of error is from the grid or mesh. A number of methods have been developed to quantify errors in solutions of partial

Yuehui Qin

2004-01-01

274

Anxiety and error monitoring: Increased error sensitivity or altered expectations?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study tested the prediction that the error-related negativity (ERN), a physiological measure of error monitoring, would be enhanced in anxious individuals, particularly in conditions with threatening cues. Participants made gender judgments about faces whose expressions were either happy, angry, or neutral. Replicating prior studies, midline scalp negativities were greater following errors than following correct responses. In addition, state anxiety

Rebecca J. Compton; Joshua Carp; Laura Chaddock; Stephanie L. Fineman; Lorna C. Quandt; Jeffrey B. Ratliff

2007-01-01

275

Standard Deviation and Intra Prediction Mode Based Adaptive Spatial Error Concealment (SEC) in H.264/AVC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transmission of compressed video over error prone channels may result in packet losses or errors, which can significantly degrade the image quality. Therefore an error concealment scheme is applied at the video receiver side to mask the damaged video. Considering there are 3 types of MBs (Macro Blocks) in natural video frame, i. e., Textural MB, Edged MB, and Smooth MB, this paper proposes an adaptive spatial error concealment which can choose 3 different methods for these 3 different MBs. For criteria of choosing appropriate method, 2 factors are taken into consideration. Firstly, standard deviation of our proposed edge statistical model is exploited. Secondly, some new features of latest video compression standard H.264/AVC, i. e., intra prediction mode is also considered for criterion formulation. Compared with previous works, which are only based on deterministic measurement, proposed method achieves the best image recovery. Subjective and objective image quality evaluations in experiments confirmed this.

Wang, Jun; Wang, Lei; Ikenaga, Takeshi; Goto, Satoshi

276

Prone versus Modified Supine Position in Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy: a Prospective Randomized Study.  

PubMed

Objective: To perform a prospective randomized trial comparing the efficacy and safety of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) in the prone and modified supine positions. Methods: Between August 2010 and August 2011, 102 patients with renal calculi and 20 patients with ureteral calculi were randomized to undergo fluoroscopy and ultrasound-guided PCNL procedures in the prone or modified supine position. Baseline characteristics, puncture position, numbers of punctures, operation time, stone free rate, loss of blood, hospital stay and second phase PCNL were compared in the two groups. Results: There were no significant differences in gender, age, body mass index, stone location, stone size and the presence of hydronephrosis between the two groups. The rate of second PCNL was significantly higher and the stone clearance rate was significantly lower in the modified supine than in the prone position group. Mean operation time was significantly lower in the prone than in the modified supine position group (78 min vs 88 min, P<0.05). There were no significant differences in rates of rib and calyx puncture, numbers of punctures, mean blood loss, and mean hospital stay between the two groups. Conclusions: Both the prone and modified supine positions are effective and safe for PCNL. Operation time was longer in the modified supine group, and patients undergoing PCNL in the modified supine position more frequently required a second operation due to a lower stone clearance rate. PMID:24046526

Wang, Yanbo; Wang, Yan; Yao, Yunming; Xu, Ning; Zhang, Haifeng; Chen, Qihui; Lu, Zhihua; Hu, Jinghai; Wang, Xiaoqing; Lu, Ji; Hao, Yuanyuan; Jiang, Fengming; Hou, Yuchuan; Wang, Chunxi

2013-08-31

277

Assessing Jail Inmates' Proneness to Shame and Guilt: Feeling Bad About the Behavior or the Self?  

PubMed Central

This study of 550 jail inmates (379 male and 171 female) held on felony charges examines the reliability and validity of the Test of Self Conscious Affect –Socially Deviant Version (TOSCA-SD; Hanson & Tangney, 1996) as a measure of offenders’ proneness to shame and proneness to guilt. Discriminant validity (e.g., vis-à-vis self-esteem, negative affect, social desirability/impression management) and convergent validity (e.g., vis-à-vis correlations with empathy, externalization of blame, anger, psychological symptoms, and substance use problems) was supported, paralleling results from community samples. Further, proneness to shame and guilt were differentially related to widely used risk measures from the field of criminal justice (e.g., criminal history, psychopathy, violence risk, antisocial personality). Guilt-proneness appears to be a protective factor, whereas there was no evidence that shame-proneness serves an inhibitory function. Subsequent analyses indicate these findings generalize quite well across gender and race. Implications for intervention and sentencing practices are discussed.

Tangney, June P.; Stuewig, Jeffrey; Mashek, Debra; Hastings, Mark

2011-01-01

278

The Role of Depression, Shame-Proneness, and Guilt-Proneness in Predicting Criticism of Relatives Towards People With Bipolar Disorder  

PubMed Central

Expressed emotion (EE) has been associated with poor patient outcomes in many different psychiatric disorders. Given its robust association with relapse, EE has become a major target of family psychoeducational interventions. Most psychoeducational interventions to date have failed to change EE levels among families of those with bipolar disorder. Better intervention strategies, then, may depend on an increased understanding of the predictors of EE. Although EE has traditionally included many facets, criticism appears to be the most robust predictor of outcome within bipolar disorder. The present study tested three primary predictors of criticism among family members of people with bipolar disorder: shame-proneness, guilt-proneness, and depression. Depressive symptoms were significantly associated with EE. Discussion focuses on limitations and implications of the study and suggestions for future research.

McMurrich, Stephanie L.; Johnson, Sheri L.

2010-01-01

279

Neural correlates of error awareness.  

PubMed

Error processing results in a number of consequences on multiple levels. The posterior frontomedian cortex (pFMC) is involved in performance monitoring and signalling the need for adjustments, which can be observed as post-error speed-accuracy shifts at the behavioural level. Furthermore autonomic reactions to an error have been reported. The role of conscious error awareness for this processing cascade has received little attention of researchers so far. We examined the neural correlates of conscious error perception in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study. An antisaccade task known to yield sufficient numbers of aware and unaware errors was used. Results from a metaanalysis were used to guide a region of interest (ROI) analysis of the fMRI data. Consistent with previous reports, error-related activity in the rostral cingulate zone (RCZ), the pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA) and the insular cortex bilaterally was found. Whereas the RCZ activity did not differentiate between aware and unaware errors, activity in the left anterior inferior insular cortex was stronger for aware as compared to unaware errors. This could be due to increased awareness of the autonomic reaction to an error, or the increased autonomic reaction itself. Furthermore, post-error adjustments were only observed after aware errors and a correlation between post-error slowing and the hemodynamic activity in the RCZ was revealed. The data suggest that the RCZ activity alone is insufficient to drive error awareness. Its signal appears to be useful for post-error speed-accuracy adjustments only when the error is consciously perceived. PMID:17185003

Klein, Tilmann A; Endrass, Tanja; Kathmann, Norbert; Neumann, Jane; von Cramon, D Yves; Ullsperger, Markus

2006-12-20

280

Medication errors in the neonate.  

PubMed

Critically ill patients are a high risk population for medication errors and neonates represent a more vulnerable group. Errors can occur in each step of the path from prescription to administration and their rate varies widely due to the error definition and identification methods used in the different studies. Identifying medication errors is a challenge in neonatal care and should be a priority among care-givers in order to prevent future incidents and to improve patient safety. PMID:22958031

Sorrentino, Elena; Alegiani, Caterina

2012-10-01

281

Onorbit IMU Alignment Error Budget.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Star Tracker, Crew Optical Alignment Sight (COAS), and Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) from a complex navigation system with a multitude of error sources were combined. A complete list of the system errors is presented. The errors were combined in a r...

R. W. Corson

1980-01-01

282

Teamwork Errors in Trauma Resuscitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human errors in trauma resuscitation can have cascading effects leading to poor patient outcomes. To determine the nature of teamwork errors, we conducted an observational study in a trauma center over a two-year period. While eventually successful in treating the patients, trauma teams had problems tracking and integrating information in a longitudinal trajectory, which resulted in inefficiencies and near-miss errors.

Aleksandra Sarcevic; Ivan Marsic; Randal S. Burd

283

Reduction of interindividual-intergroup discontinuity: the role of leader accountability and proneness to guilt.  

PubMed

Two experiments contrasted interactions between group leaders with interactions between individuals in a mixed-motive setting. Consistent with the idea that being accountable to the in-group implies normative pressure to benefit the in-group, Experiment 1 found that accountable leaders were more competitive than individuals. Consistent with the idea that being unaccountable to the in-group implies normative pressure to be cooperative and that high guilt proneness provides motivation to be moral, Experiment 2 found that when guilt proneness was high, unaccountable leaders were less competitive than accountable leaders and did not differ significantly from individuals. In other words, the robust interindividual-intergroup discontinuity effect was eliminated when groups had unaccountable leaders who were high in guilt proneness. PMID:17645398

Pinter, Brad; Insko, Chester A; Wildschut, Tim; Kirchner, Jeffrey L; Montoya, R Matthew; Wolf, Scott T

2007-08-01

284

Sexual attraction status and adolescent suicide proneness: the roles of hopelessness, depression, and social support.  

PubMed

This study explored the relationship between sexual attraction status (same-sex, both-sex, and opposite-sex) and suicidal behavior in a diverse sample of adolescents (N = 1,533 youth). Adolescents with attractions to both sexes reported greater suicide proneness, recent and lifetime suicidal ideation, and past suicide attempts than those with exclusively opposite-sex attractions; individuals reporting same-sex attractions generally demonstrated moderate elevations on these variables. As hypothesized, both hopelessness and depression mediated the relationship between sexual attraction status and suicide proneness. Social support moderated the mediating effect of depression but not hopelessness in the sexual attraction status-suicide proneness link. Targeting the distress that can be associated with experiencing same-sex or both-sex attractions may enhance suicide prevention efforts, particularly in U.S. youth with reduced social support. PMID:21213175

Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer; Lamis, Dorian A; Malone, Patrick S

2011-01-01

285

Driving anger, sensation seeking, impulsiveness, and boredom proneness in the prediction of unsafe driving.  

PubMed

The present study investigated the potential contribution of sensation seeking, impulsiveness, and boredom proneness to driving anger in the prediction of aggressive and risky driving. Two hundred and twenty-four college student participants completed measures of trait driving anger, aggressive and risky driving, driving anger expression, sensation seeking, impulsiveness, and boredom proneness. Findings provided additional support for the utility of the Driving Anger Scale (DAS; Deffenbacher, J.L., Oetting, E.R., Lynch, R.S., Development of a driving anger scale, Psychological Reports, 74, 1994, 83-91.) in predicting unsafe driving. In addition, hierarchical multiple regression analyses demonstrated that sensation seeking, impulsiveness, and boredom proneness provided incremental improvements beyond the DAS in the prediction of crash-related conditions, aggressive driving, risky driving, and driving anger expression. Results support the use of multiple predictors in understanding unsafe driving behavior. PMID:15667821

Dahlen, Eric R; Martin, Ryan C; Ragan, Katie; Kuhlman, Myndi M

2005-03-01

286

Registration of prone and supine colons in the presence of topological changes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CT colonography is a minimally-invasive screening technique for colorectal polyps in which X-ray CT images of the distended colon are acquired, usually in the prone and supine positions. Registration of segmented colons from both images will be useful for computer-assisted polyp detection. We have previously presented algorithms for registration of the prone and supine colon when both are well distended and there is a single connected lumen. However due to inadequate bowel preparation or peristalsis there may be collapsed segments in one or both of the colons resulting in a topological change in the images. Such changes make deformable registrations of the colons difficult, and at present there are no registration algorithms which can accommodate them. In this paper we present an algorithm which can perform volume registration of prone/supine colon images in the presence of a topological change.

Suh, Jung W.; Wyatt, Christopher L.

2008-04-01

287

Contextual memory, psychosis-proneness, and the experience of intrusive imagery.  

PubMed

This study tested the hypothesis that the presence and characteristics of naturally occurring involuntary imagery would be related to poorer context-dependent spatial memory and higher levels of proneness to psychotic experiences. Poorer contextual memory was also predicted to be associated with a greater sense of "nowness". Participants completed a virtual environment task that assessed contextual memory through responses that required allocentric and egocentric processing of virtual stimuli. Two questionnaires assessing predisposition to psychotic experiences were employed. Finally, participants completed an interview that required details of recent, naturally occurring involuntary images. Reports of involuntary imagery were associated with greater proneness to psychotic experiences but not with memory. In those participants who reported imagery, however, poorer memory performance was associated with more vivid and detailed intrusive imagery. Poorer contextual memory was specifically associated with a greater sense of "nowness". Possible links between contextual memory and proneness to psychosis are discussed. PMID:22712454

Glazer, Daniel A; Mason, Oliver; King, John A; Brewin, Chris R

2012-06-19

288

Molecular detection of Mycoplasma pneumoniae by quantitative real-time PCR in patients with community acquired pneumonia  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: Mycoplasma pneumoniae is the most important and common cause of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). The conventional detection methods (culture and serology) lack sensitivity. PCR offers a better approach for rapid detection but is prone to carry over contamination during manipulation of amplification products. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) method offers an attractive alternative detection method. In the present study, qRT-PCR, PCR and serology methods were used to detect M. pneumoniae infection in cases of pneumonias and findings compared. Methods: A total of 134 samples consisting of blood (for serology) and respiratory secretions (for PCR and qRT-PCR) from 134 patients were collected. The blood samples were tested for IgG, IgM and IgA using commercially available kits. For standardization of PCR of M. pneumoniae P1 gene was cloned in pGEMTEasy vector. Specific primers and reporter sequence were designed and procured for this fragment. The qRT-PCR assay was performed to prepare the standard curve for M. pneumoniae positive control DNA template and detection in patient samples. Results: Of the 134 patients, 26 (19%) were positive for antibodies against M. pneumoniae. IgG was positive in 14.92 per cent (20) cases, IgM in 4.47 per cent (6) and IgA was positive in 5.22 per cent (7) cases. In the qRT-PCR assay 19 per cent (26) samples were positive. Of the 26 qRT-PCR positive samples, nine could be detected by serology. PCR was positive for 25 samples. An extra sample negative by PCR was detected by qRT-PCR. Thus, real-time PCR assay, PCR and serology in combination could detect M. pneumoniae infection in 43 patients. Interpretation & conclusions: The study shows that 17 patients were detected by serology alone, 17 were detected by qRT-PCR only and nine patients were positive by both serology and real-time PCR. Of the 134 samples tested, 25 were positive by conventional PCR, but qRT-PCR could detect one more sample that was negative by PCR and serology. These results suggest that a combination of two or three methods may be required for reliable identification of CAP due to M. pneumoniae.

Chaudhry, Rama; Sharma, Sutikshan; Javed, Sabah; Passi, Kapil; Dey, A.B.; Malhotra, Pawan

2013-01-01

289

Molecular detection of Mycoplasma pneumoniae by quantitative real-time PCR in patients with community acquired pneumonia.  

PubMed

Background & objectives: Mycoplasma pneumoniae is the most important and common cause of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). The conventional detection methods (culture and serology) lack sensitivity. PCR offers a better approach for rapid detection but is prone to carry over contamination during manipulation of amplification products. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) method offers an attractive alternative detection method. In the present study, qRT-PCR, PCR and serology methods were used to detect M. pneumoniae infection in cases of pneumonias and findings compared. Methods: A total of 134 samples consisting of blood (for serology) and respiratory secretions (for PCR and qRT-PCR) from 134 patients were collected. The blood samples were tested for IgG, IgM and IgA using commercially available kits. For standardization of PCR of M. pneumoniae P1 gene was cloned in pGEMTEasy vector. Specific primers and reporter sequence were designed and procured for this fragment. The qRT-PCR assay was performed to prepare the standard curve for M. pneumoniae positive control DNA template and detection in patient samples. Results: Of the 134 patients, 26 (19%) were positive for antibodies against M. pneumoniae. IgG was positive in 14.92 per cent (20) cases, IgM in 4.47 per cent (6) and IgA was positive in 5.22 per cent (7) cases. In the qRT-PCR assay 19 per cent (26) samples were positive. Of the 26 qRT-PCR positive samples, nine could be detected by serology. PCR was positive for 25 samples. An extra sample negative by PCR was detected by qRT-PCR. Thus, real-time PCR assay, PCR and serology in combination could detect M. pneumoniae infection in 43 patients. Interpretation & conclusions: The study shows that 17 patients were detected by serology alone, 17 were detected by qRT-PCR only and nine patients were positive by both serology and real-time PCR. Of the 134 samples tested, 25 were positive by conventional PCR, but qRT-PCR could detect one more sample that was negative by PCR and serology. These results suggest that a combination of two or three methods may be required for reliable identification of CAP due to M. pneumoniae. PMID:24056602

Chaudhry, Rama; Sharma, Sutikshan; Javed, Sabah; Passi, Kapil; Dey, A B; Malhotra, Pawan

2013-08-01

290

PCR amplification reactions in parasitology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of PCR systems for the detection and identification of pathogenic human parasites has only recently started. Evaluation of most of these methods is still lacking. Most likely these methods will need considerable improvement before reliable diagnostic methods become available. Only for some parasitic diseases, such as cutaneous leishmaniasis, PCR has already proven to be of potential diagnostic value,

Henk L. Smits; Rudy A. Hartskeerl

1995-01-01

291

An alteration in the host-parasite relationship in subjects with chronic bronchitis prone to recurrent episodes of acute bronchitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute episodes of bronchitis have been shown to be unequally distributed within a population of subjects with chronic bronchitis. Two groups were identified based on incidence of acute bronchitis — subjects who were ‘infection-prone’ (2–5 infections per year) and those who were ‘non-infection- prone’ (0–1 infections per year). Minor differences in clinical parameters existed, except for smoking experience. The non-infection-prone

Diana C Taylor; Robert L Clancy; Allan W Cripps; Henry Butt; Lawrence Bartlett; Keith Murree-allen

1994-01-01

292

Evolution and obesity: resistance of obese-prone rats to a challenge of food restriction and wheel running  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adaptive hypothesis that an obese-prone genotype confers a fitness advantage when challenged with food restriction and food-related locomotion was tested using a rat model. Juvenile (35–40 days) and adolescent (45–50 days) JCR:LA-cp rats, obese prone (cp\\/cp) and lean prone (+\\/?), were exposed to 1.5 h daily meals and 22.5 h of voluntary wheel running, a procedure that normally leads

W D Pierce; A Diane; C D Heth; J C Russell; S D Proctor

2010-01-01

293

Development of clinical guidelines for prone positioning in critically ill adults.  

PubMed

Literature reveals evidence that prone positioning can improve the oxygenation of critically ill patients suffering from acute lung injury or acute respiratory distress syndrome. Multicentre evidence, however, does not support the claim that it improves patients' outcome. The implementation of multiprofessional guidelines by which to direct the manoeuvre will facilitate the safe and effective management of patients in the prone position. They will thus heighten multiprofessional awareness of the technique and promote its proactive use at such time so as to achieve maximum clinical benefit. PMID:15068054

Rowe, Catherine

294

Flood-prone areas and waterways, Edwards Air Force Base, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Edwards Air Force Base (EAFB) is in the Mojave Desert region of southern California. Although the climate in the study area is arid, occasional intense storms result in flooding on the base, damaging roads and buildings. To plan for anticipated development at EAFB, the U.S. Department of the Air Force (USAF) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began a cooperative study to locate flood-prone areas on the base. This report describes flood hazards and shows flood-prone areas of the base.

Meyer, Robert W.; Bowers, James C.

2002-01-01

295

Space saving statistics: An introduction to constant error, variable error, and absolute error  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research results in the field of orientation and mobility (O&M) and in related fields are increasingly being reported in terms of subjects’ constant error, variable error, and absolute error. These three descriptive statistics are used to quantify fundamentally different characteristics of distributions of spatially directed behavior. This article introduces the three statistics, illustrates them with examples, and argues that their

David Guth

1990-01-01

296

A simple, universal, efficient PCR-based gene synthesis method: sequential OE-PCR gene synthesis.  

PubMed

Herein we present a simple, universal, efficient gene synthesis method based on sequential overlap extension polymerase chain reactions (OE-PCRs). This method involves four key steps: (i) the design of paired complementary 54-mer oligonucleotides with 18 bp overlaps, (ii) the utilisation of sequential OE-PCR to synthesise full-length genes, (iii) the cloning and sequencing of four positive T-clones of the synthesised genes and (iv) the resynthesis of target genes by OE-PCR with correct templates. Mispriming and secondary structure were found to be the principal obstacles preventing successful gene synthesis and were easily identified and solved in this method. Compensating for the disadvantages of being laborious and time-consuming, this method has many attractive advantages, such as the ability to guarantee successful gene synthesis in most cases and good allowance for Taq polymerase, oligonucleotides, PCR conditions and a high error rate. Thus, this method provides an alternative tool for individual gene synthesis without strict needs of the high-specialised experience. PMID:23597923

Zhang, Pingping; Ding, Yingying; Liao, Wenting; Chen, Qiuli; Zhang, Huaqun; Qi, Peipei; He, Ting; Wang, Jinhong; Deng, Songhua; Pan, Tianyue; Ren, Hao; Pan, Wei

2013-04-15

297

Error mechanisms of the oscillometric fixed-ratio blood pressure measurement method.  

PubMed

The oscillometric fixed-ratio method is widely employed for non-invasive measurement of systolic and diastolic pressures (SP and DP) but is heuristic and prone to error. We investigated the accuracy of this method using an established mathematical model of oscillometry. First, to determine which factors materially affect the errors of the method, we applied a thorough parametric sensitivity analysis to the model. Then, to assess the impact of the significant parameters, we examined the errors over a physiologically relevant range of those parameters. The main findings of this model-based error analysis of the fixed-ratio method are that: (1) SP and DP errors drastically increase as the brachial artery stiffens over the zero trans-mural pressure regime; (2) SP and DP become overestimated and underestimated, respectively, as pulse pressure (PP) declines; (3) the impact of PP on SP and DP errors is more obvious as the brachial artery stiffens over the zero trans-mural pressure regime; and (4) SP and DP errors can be as large as 58 mmHg. Our final and main contribution is a comprehensive explanation of the mechanisms for these errors. This study may have important implications when using the fixed-ratio method, particularly in subjects with arterial disease. PMID:23180030

Liu, Jiankun; Hahn, Jin-Oh; Mukkamala, Ramakrishna

2012-11-21

298

Multibit Error Tolerant Caches Using Two-Dimensional Error Coding  

Microsoft Academic Search

In deep sub-micron ICs, growing amounts of on-die memory and scaling effects make embedded memories increasingly vulnerable to reliability and yield problems. As scaling progresses, soft and hard errors in the memory system will increase and single error events are more likely to cause large-scale multi- bit errors. However, conventional memory protection techniques can neither detect nor correct large-scale multi-bit

Jangwoo Kim; Nikos Hardavellas; Ken Mai; Babak Falsafi; James C. Hoe

2007-01-01

299

Multibit Error Tolerant Caches Using Two-Dimensional Error Coding  

Microsoft Academic Search

In deep sub-micron ICs, growing amounts of on- die memory and scaling effects make embedded memories increasingly vulnerable to reliability and yield problems. As scaling progresses, soft and hard errors in the memory system will increase and single error events are more likely to cause large-scale multi- bit errors. However, conventional memory protection techniques can neither detect nor correct large-scale

Jangwoo Kim; Nikos Hardavellas; Ken Mai; Babak Falsafi; James C. Hoe

2007-01-01

300

DNA methylation errors in imprinting disorders and assisted reproductive technology.  

PubMed

There have been increased incident reports of rare imprinting disorders associated with assisted reproductive technology (ART). ART is an important treatment for infertile people of reproductive age and is increasingly common. The identification of epigenetic changes at imprinted loci in ART infants has led to the suggestion that the techniques themselves may predispose embryos to acquisition of imprinting errors and disease. It is still unknown, however, at what point(s) these imprinting errors arise, or the risk factors. In this review it was hypothesized that the particular steps of the ART process may be prone to induction of imprinting methylation errors during gametogenesis, fertilization and early embryonic development. In addition, imprinting diseases and their causes are explained. Moreover, using a Japanese nationwide epidemiological study of imprinting diseases, their association with ART is determined. Epigenetic studies are required to understand the pathogenesis of this association; the ART-related risk factor(s); and the precautions that can be taken to prevent the occurrence of these syndromes. It is hoped that the constitution of children born after ART will indicate the safest and most ethical approach to use, which will be invaluable for the future development of standard ART treatment. PMID:23919517

Chiba, Hatsune; Hiura, Hitoshi; Okae, Hiroaki; Miyauchi, Naoko; Sato, Fumi; Sato, Akiko; Arima, Takahiro

2013-10-01

301

A Geomagnetic Reference Error Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The accuracy of geomagnetic field models, such as the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) and the World Magnetic Model (WMM), has benefitted tremendously from the ongoing series of satellite magnetic missions. However, what do we mean by accuracy? When comparing a geomagnetic reference model with a magnetic field measurement (for example of an electronic compass), three contributions play a role: (1) The instrument error, which is not subject of this discussion, (2) the error of commission, namely the error of the model coefficients themselves in representing the geomagnetic main field, and (3) the error of omission, comprising contributions to the geomagnetic field which are not represented in the reference model. The latter can further be subdivided into the omission of the crustal field and the omission of the disturbance field. Several factors have a strong influence on these errors: The error of commission primarily depends on the time elapsed since the last update of the reference model. The omission error for the crustal field depends on altitude of the measurement, while the omission error for the disturbance field has a strong latitudinal dependence, peaking under the auroral electrojets. A further complication arises for the uncertainty in magnetic declination, which is directly dependent on the strength of the horizontal field. Here, we present an error model which takes all of these factors into account. This error model will be implemented as an online-calculator, providing the uncertainty of the magnetic elements at the entered location and time.

Maus, S.; Woods, A. J.; Nair, M. C.

2011-12-01

302

An updated study-level meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials on proning in ARDS and acute lung injury  

PubMed Central

Introduction In patients with acute lung injury (ALI) and/or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), recent randomised controlled trials (RCTs) showed a consistent trend of mortality reduction with prone ventilation. We updated a meta-analysis on this topic. Methods RCTs that compared ventilation of adult patients with ALI/ARDS in prone versus supine position were included in this study-level meta-analysis. Analysis was made by a random-effects model. The effect size on intensive care unit (ICU) mortality was computed in the overall included studies and in two subgroups of studies: those that included all ALI or hypoxemic patients, and those that restricted inclusion to only ARDS patients. A relationship between studies' effect size and daily prone duration was sought with meta-regression. We also computed the effects of prone positioning on major adverse airway complications. Results Seven RCTs (including 1,675 adult patients, of whom 862 were ventilated in the prone position) were included. The four most recent trials included only ARDS patients, and also applied the longest proning durations and used lung-protective ventilation. The effects of prone positioning differed according to the type of study. Overall, prone ventilation did not reduce ICU mortality (odds ratio = 0.91, 95% confidence interval = 0.75 to 1.2; P = 0.39), but it significantly reduced the ICU mortality in the four recent studies that enrolled only patients with ARDS (odds ratio = 0.71; 95% confidence interval = 0.5 to 0.99; P = 0.048; number needed to treat = 11). Meta-regression on all studies disclosed only a trend to explain effect variation by prone duration (P = 0.06). Prone positioning was not associated with a statistical increase in major airway complications. Conclusions Long duration of ventilation in prone position significantly reduces ICU mortality when only ARDS patients are considered.

2011-01-01

303

Personality traits and the process of store loyalty in a transactional prone context  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This study sets out to replicate Garbarino and Johnson's paper, where the effects of trust, commitment and satisfaction towards service provider loyalty were examined. However, whereby Garbarino and Johnson tested their model in a relationship prone environment, i.e. a theatre company, this study was set in a retail context where transactional customers are more likely. Personality traits as

Liliana Bove; Betty Mitzifiris

2007-01-01

304

Relationship of absorption, depersonalisation, and self-focused attention in subjects with and without hallucination proneness.  

PubMed

Introduction The purpose of this work was to study the relationship of absorption, depersonalisation, and self-focused attention in subjects prone to hallucination. Methods A sample of 218 healthy subjects was given the LSHS-R Hallucination Scale (Bentall & Slade, 1985). Three groups, subjects with high, medium, and low hallucination proneness, were formed from this sample. The Tellegen Absorption Scale (TAS; Tellegen & Atkinson, 1974), Cambridge Depersonalisation Scale (CDS; Sierra & Berrios, 2000), and Self-Absorption Scale (SAS; McKenzie & Hoyle, 2008) were also given to all the participants. The Metacognitions Questionnaire (MCQ-30; Wells & Cartwright-Hatton, 2004) was used as a covariant to control for the effects of emotional vulnerability on the dependent variables studied. Results The results showed that subjects highly prone to hallucinations had significantly higher absorption, depersonalisation, and self-focused attention than the subjects in the other two groups. A hierarchical regression analysis showed that absorption and depersonalisation predict hallucination proneness. Conclusions The importance of the absorption, depersonalisation, and self-focused attention variables for understanding the aetiology of hallucinations is discussed in the Conclusions, where some approaches to its treatment are also suggested. PMID:23082781

Perona-Garcelán, Salvador; García-Montes, José M; Rodríguez-Testal, Juan Francisco; Ruiz-Veguilla, Miguel; Benítez-Hernández, María Del Mar; López-Jiménez, Ana María; Arias-Velarde, María Ángeles; Ductor-Recuerda, María Jesús; Gómez-Gómez, María Teresa; Pérez-Álvarez, Marino

2012-10-22

305

Evidence for defective mesolimbic dopamine exocytosis in obesity-prone rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The association between dietary obesity and mesolimbic systems that regulate hedonic aspects of feeding is currently unresolved. In the present study, we examined differences in baseline and stimulated central dopamine levels in obesity-prone (OP) and obesity-resistant (OR) rats. OP rats were hyperphagic and showed a 20% weight gain over OR rats at wk 15 of age, when fed a standard

Brenda M. Geiger; Gerald G. Behr; Lauren E. Frank; Angela D. Caldera-Siu; Margery C. Beinfeld; Efi G. Kokkotou; Emmanuel N. Pothos

2008-01-01

306

Body Investment, Depression, and Alcohol Use as Risk Factors for Suicide Proneness in College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Individuals who are less invested in their bodies, experiencing symptoms of depression, and consuming alcohol are at increased risk for engaging in suicidal behaviors. Aims: This study examined the relationships among three risk factors – body investment, depression, and alcohol use – and suicide proneness as measured by the Life Attitudes Schedule – Short Form (LAS-SF) in college students

Dorian A. Lamis; Patrick S. Malone; Jennifer Langhinrichsen-Rohling; Thomas E. Ellis

2010-01-01

307

Predicting Abuse-Prone Parental Attitudes and Discipline Practices in a Nationally Representative Sample.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A study involving 1,000 parents examined factors that place parents at risk of abusing their children. Results found that examining parental attitudes, history, and personality characteristics, as well as religion and ideology, were important in predicting abuse proneness. Child age was also an important predictor. (Author/CR)|

Jackson, Shelly; Thompson, Ross A.; Christiansen, Elaine H.; Colman, Rebecca A.; Wyatt, Jennifer; Buckendahl, Chad W.; Wilcox, Brian L.; Peterson, Reece

1999-01-01

308

Binge eating proneness emerges during puberty in female rats: a longitudinal study.  

PubMed

Puberty is a critical risk period for binge eating and eating disorders characterized by binge eating. Previous research focused almost entirely on psychosocial risk factors during puberty to the relative exclusion of biological influences. The current study addressed this gap by examining the emergence of binge eating during puberty in a rat model. We predicted that there would be minimal differences in binge eating proneness during pre-early puberty, but significant differences would emerge during puberty. Two independent samples of female Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 30 and n = 36) were followed longitudinally across pre-early puberty, mid-late puberty, and adulthood. Binge eating proneness was defined using the binge eating resistant (BER)/binge eating prone (BEP) model of binge eating that identifies BER and BEP rats in adulthood. Across two samples of rats, binge eating proneness emerged during puberty. Mixed linear models showed little difference in palatable food intake between BER and BEP rats during pre-early puberty, but significant group differences emerged during mid-late puberty and adulthood. Group differences could not be accounted for by changes in nonpalatable food intake or body weight. Similar to patterns in humans, individual differences in binge eating emerge during puberty in female rats. These findings provide strong confirming evidence for the importance of biological risk factors in developmental trajectories of binge eating risk across adolescence. PMID:21574664

Klump, Kelly L; Suisman, Jessica L; Culbert, Kristen M; Kashy, Deborah A; Sisk, Cheryl L

2011-05-16

309

Soil degradation and nutrient availability in fire?prone Mediterranean shrublands of southeastern Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical properties and nutrient availability were measured in soil profiles of fire?prone, semiarid, Mediterranean?type shrublands in Sierra de Almijara (SE Spain). The area is steep and has a xeric moisture regime. In such conditions, soils developed on kakiritized (sugarlike microstructure) dolomitic marble have distinctive features such as a very coarse texture, extremely high carbonate content, and low nutrient availability. These

J. A. Carreira; J. R. Arevalo; F. X. Niell

1996-01-01

310

SIDS risk factors and factors associated with prone sleeping in Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To compare the current prevalence of risk factors for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) in Sweden with a decade earlier, and assess factors associated with prone sleeping.Methods: The results of a cohort study (Infants of Western Sweden) and a population based case-control study (Nordic Epidemiological SIDS Study) were examined. Subjects were 5600 healthy 6 month old infants born in

B Alm; P Mo?llborg; L Erdes; R Pettersson; N A?berg; G Norvenius; G Wennergren

2006-01-01

311

Reported physical symptoms elicited by unpredictable events and the Type A coronary-prone behavior pattern  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypothesized that unpredictable aversive events are causally linked to physical symptom reporting and that the Type A coronary-prone behavior pattern affects symptom reporting, such that Type A individuals fail to report symptoms when they expect to continue working on a task as compared to when they believe they have completed it. In the present study, 120 Type A and Type

Gerdi Weidner; Karen A. Matthews

1978-01-01

312

The Effect of consumer's psychological characteristics on general deal-proneness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although sales promotions have great effects on the consumers, not all the consumers respond to them and different consumers have different reactions to the same promotion. In this paper, we take Chinese women clothing consumers as the research object and apply structural equation model to empirically research the effects of consumer's psychological characteristics on general deal-proneness. The findings indicate that

Ye Nan; Liu Jia; Zhou Meihua

2010-01-01

313

Towards an appropriate fatigue loading sequence for roof claddings in cyclone prone areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently two different fatigue tests are being used to investigate the fatigue susceptibility of roof claddings in the cyclone prone areas of Australia. In order to resolve this issue a detailed investigation was conducted to study the nature of cyclonic wind forces using wind tunnel testing and computer modelling and the fatigue behaviour of metal roof claddings using structural testing.

M. Mahendran

1995-01-01

314

Detection of individuals prone to develop hypertension in their future life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypertension is a global burning health problem. Early detection of proneness to hypertension may help an individual to lead a healthy life by altering the life style (by diet restriction, exercise etc.). Subjects at high risk of future hypertension e.g. the persons of hypertensive family and \\/ or having high resting heart rate etc. show blood pressure hyper-responsiveness to stress.

T Pramanik; P Regmi; P Shrestha

315

Female Coronary-Prone Behaviors: Relationship to Alpha and Self-Concept.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Researchers have been working toward isolating a set of psychological risk factors that would reliably predict coronary problems. This coronary-prone behavior pattern, Type A, is characterized by extremes of competitiveness, striving for achievement, impatience, and hostility. Differences were examined between 20 Type A and 20 Type B…

Comer, David W.; And Others

316

Structural properties of optimal production controllers in failure-prone manufacturing systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A failure-prone manufacturing system with one part-type and multiple machine states is considered. Each machine state has a given production capacity but is associated with several possible failure stages. Although transition times between failure stages are assumed exponential, the existence of multiple stages within each machine state allows failure times to have a distribution more general than the exponential distribution.

Jian-Qiang Hu; Dong Xiang

1994-01-01

317

Use of prone positioning in a patient with acute respiratory distress syndrome: a case review.  

PubMed

The care of a patient with acute respiratory distress syndrome is complex. The nurse must not only concentrate on the physical demands of the patient but also on the emotional demands of the patient and family. Understanding the disease process can aid the nurse in understanding the treatment options including the use of prone positioning for this patient population. PMID:18360148

Laux, Lori; McGonigal, Michelle; Thieret, Terri; Weatherby, Laurie

318

Dissociative symptoms and how they relate to fantasy proneness in women reporting repressed or recovered memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women with repressed or recovered memories have raised levels of dissociative symptoms. There are two interpretations of this. One emphasizes the defensive function of dissociation, while the other emphasizes the overlap between dissociation and fantasy proneness. This study aimed to investigate these two interpretations. Women with repressed (n=16), recovered (n=23), and continuous memories (n=55) of childhood sexual abuse (CSA), and

Elke Geraerts; Harald Merckelbach; Marko Jelicic; Elke Smeets; Jaap van Heerden

2006-01-01

319

"Deviance Proneness" and Adolescent Smoking 1980 versus 2001: Has There Been a "Hardening" of Adolescent Smoking?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In a midwestern community sample, we tested for evidence of "hardening" of adolescent cigarette smoking between 1980 and 2001 by comparing adolescent smokers and nonsmokers at these two times on measures indicative of "deviance proneness" in Jessor and Jessor's [Jessor, R., & Jessor, S. L. (1977). "Problem behavior and psychosocial development: A…

Chassin, Laurie; Presson, Clark; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio; Sherman, Steven J.

2007-01-01

320

Electromagnetic radiation method water-infusion control in rockburst-prone strata  

Microsoft Academic Search

An electromagnetic radiation (EMR) method associated with rock fracture was employed to study water infusion in rockburst-prone coal strata. Measurements of EMR activity during borehole drilling revealed that a hole nearing a stress peak excites a sharp increase in EMR activity. Water pressure increase\\/decrease excited EMR activity up to the coal stratum transition to residual stress. An absence of EMR

V. Frid

2000-01-01

321

Fantasy proneness, reported childhood abuse, and the relevance of reported abuse onset  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the relationship between fantasy proneness and the age at which reported childhood sexual abuse occurs. Seventeen adult females who reported having been sexually abused before the age of 7 years, 20 females who reported having been abused after the age of 7 years, and 20 females who reported having never been abused were administered two measures of

Richard A. Bryant

1995-01-01

322

Detection of Fault-Prone Software Modules During a Spiral Life Cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article is an experience report on identifying fault prone modules in a subsystem of the Joint Surveillance Target Attack Radar System, JSTARS, a large tactical military system. The project followed the spiral life cycle model. The iterations of the system were developed in FORTRAN about one year apart. We developed a discriminant analysis model using software metrics from one

Taghi M. Khoshgoftaar; Edward B. Allen; Robert Halstead; Gary P. Trio

1996-01-01

323

Cyst formation and glial response in the brain lesions of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The brain lesions in spontaneously hypertensive stroke-prone rats (SHRSP) are characterised by multifocal microvascular damage, breakdown of the blood-brain barrier, massive extravasation of plasma constitutents and severe brain oedema, with consequent spongy and cystic tissue destruction in the cerebral cortex and basal ganglia as well as loosening of the white matter. In this paper we analyse in greater detail the

K. Fredriksson; H. Kalimo; C. Nordborg; Y. Olsson; B. B. Johansson

1988-01-01

324

A modified obesity proneness model in the prediction of weight status among high school students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The health and well-being of U.S. children is challenged by the immense crisis of obesity. The obesity proneness model, first described by Costanzo and Woody (1985), describes one mechanism by which parents influence obesity development. This model suggests that parents become concerned about their children's weight if their children show signs of becoming overweight and parents value weight highly. Parents

Joyce E Nickelson

2008-01-01

325

Prone Positioning Improves Pulmonary Function in Obese Patients During General Anesthesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the effects of prone position on func- tional residual capacity (FRC), the mechanical proper- ties (compliance and resistance) of the total respiratory system, lung and chest wall, and the gas exchange in 10 anesthetized and paralyzed obese (body mass index more than 30 kg\\/m*) patients, undergoing elective sur- gery. We used the esophageal balloon technique to- gether with

Paolo Pelosi; Massimo Croci; Emiliana Calappi; Davide Mulazzi; Marco Cerisara; Paola Vercesi; Pierluigi Vicardi; Luciano Gattinoni

1996-01-01

326

New Insights Into Brain Damage in Stroke-Prone Rats A Nuclear Magnetic Imaging Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Purpose—The spontaneously hypertensive stroke-prone rat (SHRSP) is an animal model for a complex form of cerebrovascular pathology. MRI provides an efficient and noninvasive tool for studying the time course of brain damage. The aim of this study was to gain new insights into the pathological phenomena responsible for the occurrence of brain injury in SHRSP with the use

Uliano Guerrini; Luigi Sironi; Elena Tremoli; Mauro Cimino; Bianca Pollo; Anna Maria Calvio; Rodolfo Paoletti; Maria Asdente

327

Vulnerability and Coping to Disasters: A Study of Household Behaviour in Flood Prone Region of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper attempts to understand the various risks faced by households living in disaster prone regions of rural India and specifically examine the effectiveness of coping mechanisms adopted by households living in these areas to hedge against the risks. The study area (districts of eastern Uttar Pradesh, India) is highly susceptible to floods with a major flood occurring every ten

Unmesh Patnaik

2010-01-01

328

The effects of ovariectomy on binge eating proneness in adult female rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ovarian hormones are associated with binge eating in women, however findings are limited by the lack of experimental control inherent in human studies. Animal research that manipulates ovarian hormone status and examines individual differences in extreme binge eating proneness is needed to model clinical phenotypes in humans and to confirm causal effects. The purpose of this study was to examine

Kelly L. Klump; Jessica L. Suisman; Kristen M. Culbert; Deborah A. Kashy; Pamela K. Keel; Cheryl L. Sisk

2011-01-01

329

Binge Eating Proneness Emerges during Puberty in Female Rats: A Longitudinal Study  

PubMed Central

Puberty is a critical risk period for binge eating and eating disorders characterized by binge eating. Previous research focused almost entirely on psychosocial risk factors during puberty to the relative exclusion of biological influences. The current study addressed this gap by examining the emergence of binge eating during puberty in a rat model. We predicted that there would be minimal differences in binge eating proneness during pre-early puberty, but significant differences would emerge during puberty. Two independent samples of female Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 30 and n = 36) were followed longitudinally across pre-early puberty, mid-late puberty, and adulthood. Binge eating proneness was defined using the binge eating resistant (BER)/binge eating prone (BEP) model of binge eating that identifies BER and BEP rats in adulthood. Across two samples of rats, binge eating proneness emerged during puberty. Mixed linear models showed little difference in palatable food intake between BER and BEP rats during pre-early puberty, but significant group differences emerged during mid-late puberty and adulthood. Group differences could not be accounted for by changes in non-palatable food intake or body weight. Similar to patterns in humans, individual differences in binge eating emerge during puberty in female rats. Findings provide strong confirming evidence for the importance of biological risk factors in developmental trajectories of binge eating risk across adolescence.

Klump, Kelly L.; Suisman, Jessica L.; Culbert, Kristen M.; Kashy, Deborah A.; Sisk, Cheryl L.

2013-01-01

330

Generators and Interpretors in a Performing Arts Population: Dissociation, Trauma, Fantasy Proneness, and Affective States  

Microsoft Academic Search

An international sample of 130 working artists was divided into two domains: generators (writers, designers, choreographers, one composer) and interpreters (directors, actors, opera singers, dancers). The correlations between dissociation, trauma experiences, fantasy proneness, and affective states were examined, followed by a regression analysis to predict elevated levels of dissociation. Artists, regardless of creative domain, scored in the moderate range for

Paula Thomson; E. B. Keehn; Thomas P. Gumpel

2009-01-01

331

Error rates in a clinical data repository: lessons from the transition to electronic data transfer--a descriptive study  

PubMed Central

Objective Data errors are a well-documented part of clinical datasets as is their potential to confound downstream analysis. In this study, we explore the reliability of manually transcribed data across different pathology fields in a prostate cancer database and also measure error rates attributable to the source data. Design Descriptive study. Setting Specialist urology service at a single centre in metropolitan Victoria in Australia. Participants Between 2004 and 2011, 1471 patients underwent radical prostatectomy at our institution. In a large proportion of these cases, clinicopathological variables were recorded by manual data-entry. In 2011, we obtained electronic versions of the same printed pathology reports for our cohort. The data were electronically imported in parallel to any existing manual entry record enabling direct comparison between them. Outcome measures Error rates of manually entered data compared with electronically imported data across clinicopathological fields. Results 421 patients had at least 10 comparable pathology fields between the electronic import and manual records and were selected for study. 320 patients had concordant data between manually entered and electronically populated fields in a median of 12 pathology fields (range 10–13), indicating an outright accuracy in manually entered pathology data in 76% of patients. Across all fields, the error rate was 2.8%, while individual field error ranges from 0.5% to 6.4%. Fields in text formats were significantly more error-prone than those with direct measurements or involving numerical figures (p<0.001). 971 cases were available for review of error within the source data, with figures of 0.1–0.9%. Conclusions While the overall rate of error was low in manually entered data, individual pathology fields were variably prone to error. High-quality pathology data can be obtained for both prospective and retrospective parts of our data repository and the electronic checking of source pathology data for error is feasible.

Hong, Matthew K H; Yao, Henry H I; Pedersen, John S; Peters, Justin S; Costello, Anthony J; Murphy, Declan G; Hovens, Christopher M; Corcoran, Niall M

2013-01-01

332

Random errors in egocentric networks  

PubMed Central

The systematic errors that are induced by a combination of human memory limitations and common survey design and implementation have long been studied in the context of egocentric networks. Despite this, little if any work exists in the area of random error analysis on these same networks; this paper offers a perspective on the effects of random errors on egonet analysis, as well as the effects of using egonet measures as independent predictors in linear models. We explore the effects of false-positive and false-negative error in egocentric networks on both standard network measures and on linear models through simulation analysis on a ground truth egocentric network sample based on facebook-friendships. Results show that 5–20% error rates, which are consistent with error rates known to occur in ego network data, can cause serious misestimation of network properties and regression parameters.

Almquist, Zack W.

2013-01-01

333

A Prospective Study of Intrafraction Prostate Motion in the Prone vs. Supine Position  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To prospectively analyze prostate intrafraction motion in the prone vs. supine position and to assess patient satisfaction with these two positions. Methods and Materials: Fifteen prostate cancer patients underwent implantation of five fiducial gold seeds in their prostate for localization. Patients were treated with high-dose-rate brachytherapy to 2,200 cGy followed by intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) to 5,040 cGy. Patients underwent computed tomography simulation and IMRT in the prone position. For the first five IMRT treatments, an electronic portal imaging system was used to acquire anteroposterior (AP) and lateral images pretreatment and posttreatment. We then repositioned each patient supine and repeated the process, resulting in 600 images. Results: Mean +- standard deviation intrafraction prostate motion was 2.1 +- 1.2 mm and 1.7 +- 1.4 mm (AP, p = 0.47), 2.2 +- 2.0 mm and 1.6 +- 1.8 mm (superoinferior, p = 0.16), and 1.0 +- 1.2 mm and 0.6 +- 0.9 mm (left-right, p = 0.03) in the prone and supine positions, respectively. Eighty percent of patients stated that they were more comfortable in the supine position (p = 0.02). Conclusions: Prone and supine positions resulted in a similar magnitude of AP and superoinferior intrafraction prostate motion (2 mm). Because there was no significant difference in the magnitude of AP and superoinferior prostate motion prone vs. supine and patients were more comfortable in the supine position, patients now undergo IMRT to the prostate and seminal vesicles at our center in the supine position.

Wilder, Richard B.; Chittenden, Lucy; Mesa, Albert V.; Bunyapanasarn, Jane; Agustin, Jeff; Lizarde, Jessica; Ravera, John; Tokita, Kenneth M. [Cancer Center of Irvine, 16100 Sand Canyon Ave., Ste. 130, Irvine, CA 92618 (United States)

2010-05-01

334

Evaluation of local invasion by oesophageal carcinoma--a prospective study of prone computed tomography scanning  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to assess the value of prone computed tomography compared with the traditional supine position, in the assessment of invasion of adjacent mediastinal structures by oesophageal cancer. A prospective, single blind case-case comparative study of signs of local tumour invasion was conducted. Sixty nine consecutive patients undergoing computed tomography for preoperative staging of oesophageal carcinoma were studied. Computed tomography scanning of the thorax was performed in the standard supine followed by prone position; in 39 patients the computed tomography findings were correlated with the surgical findings. Four established radiological signs used to assess mediastinal invasion were scored in each case.?Based on the radiological scoring system, there was a significant down staging in the probability of aortic invasion in 12 of the 69 cases (p<0.05). A similar improvement in accuracy was seen in the cases undergoing surgery; of the 38 cases who did not have aortic invasion at operation, 10 cases were scored as high for aortic invasion on the supine scans compared with only three on the prone position (p<0.05). Prone scanning was not of significant additional value in the assessment of major airway or pericardial invasion.?Modification of the computed tomography protocol to include scanning in the prone position will improve the accuracy of the preoperative staging of patients with oesophageal malignancy and reduce the chance of overstaging disease. Especially in centres where endoscopic ultrasound is not available, our modification may reduce the chance of denying patients potentially curative operations.???Keywords: computed tomography; neoplasm staging; oesophageal neoplasm; local invasion

Wayman, J; Chakraverty, S; Griffin, S; Doyle, G; Keir, M; Simpson, W

2001-01-01

335

Investigation of Helical Tomotherapy for Partial-Breast Irradiation of Prone-Positioned Patients  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To investigate whether helical tomotherapy can provide conformal, uniform target-dose coverage for partial-breast irradiation (PBI) of patients positioned prone while achieving organ-at-risk sparing compliant with National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP) B-39/Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 0413 guidelines; and to report our initial experience with the delivery of prone-breast PBI treatments using tomotherapy. Methods and Materials: For our pilot study, we generated helical tomotherapy plans upon the images of 10 prone-positioned patients previously treated using conventional techniques. We also generated plans for 4 left-breast prone-positioned PBI patients who were treated using helical tomotherapy, and recalculated the planned sinograms upon the pretreatment megavoltage computed tomographic images. Of the planning target volume (PTV), 95% was prescribed to receive 38.5 Gy, administered twice daily for 5 days. Results: For our pilot study, on average the maximum point dose to the PTV was 41.3 Gy, and 99% or more of the PTV received 90% or more of the prescribed dose. RTOG 0413 dose-volume histogram objectives were fulfilled for all organs at risk except the contralateral breast, which received a maximum point dose as high as 3.2 Gy in 1 case. For the prospective prone-positioned tomotherapy PBI plans, all objectives were met except the contralateral-breast maximum dose, which was 3.7 Gy on average. Dose calculation using the planned sinogram upon the pretreatment megavoltage computed tomographic images indicated consistency with the planned dose distributions. Conclusions: Helical tomotherapy can provide conformal and uniform target-dose coverage simultaneous with adequate sparing of critical structures; in this study only the contralateral breast dose exceeded RTOG 0413 guidelines. Dosimetric results for our 4 prospective patient cases were consistent with those for our 10-case pilot study.

Kainz, Kristofer [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States)], E-mail: kkainz@mcw.edu; White, Julia; Herman, Joann; Li, X. Allen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States)

2009-05-01

336

Sequetyping: Serotyping Streptococcus pneumoniae by a Single PCR Sequencing Strategy  

PubMed Central

The introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines necessitates continued monitoring of circulating strains to assess vaccine efficacy and replacement serotypes. Conventional serological methods are costly, labor-intensive, and prone to misidentification, while current DNA-based methods have limited serotype coverage requiring multiple PCR primers. In this study, a computer algorithm was developed to interrogate the capsulation locus (cps) of vaccine serotypes to locate primer pairs in conserved regions that border variable regions and could differentiate between serotypes. In silico analysis of cps from 92 serotypes indicated that a primer pair spanning the regulatory gene cpsB could putatively amplify 84 serotypes and differentiate 46. This primer set was specific to Streptococcus pneumoniae, with no amplification observed for other species, including S. mitis, S. oralis, and S. pseudopneumoniae. One hundred thirty-eight pneumococcal strains covering 48 serotypes were tested. Of 23 vaccine serotypes included in the study, most (19/22, 86%) were identified correctly at least to the serogroup level, including all of the 13-valent conjugate vaccine and other replacement serotypes. Reproducibility was demonstrated by the correct sequetyping of different strains of a serotype. This novel sequence-based method employing a single PCR primer pair is cost-effective and simple. Furthermore, it has the potential to identify new serotypes that may evolve in the future.

Leung, Marcus H.; Bryson, Kevin; Freystatter, Kathrin; Pichon, Bruno; Edwards, Giles; Gillespie, Stephen H.

2012-01-01

337

Central interference in error processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study dealt with capacity limitations in error processing. Participants classified digits into three arbitrary categories\\u000a (initial response). Half were required to correct their errors if an error was detected (correction response), and half were\\u000a required to produce a second response, regardless of the correctness of the initial response (approval response). Auditory\\u000a interference was introduced before, during, or after the

Eldad Yitzhak Hochman; Nachshon Meiran

2005-01-01

338

Mycoplasma detection by PCR analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method was used to detect mycoplasma contamination in a panel of 42 continuous cell lines.\\u000a According to the microbiological cultivation assay on agar, 29 cell lines were chronically infected and 13 cell lines were\\u000a negative. Sets of outer and inner primers (nested double-step PCR) were applied which anneal to DNA sequences coding for conserved\\u000a regions

Anne Hopert; Cord C. Uphoff; Manfred Wirth; Hansjörg Hauser; Hans G. Drexler

1993-01-01

339

[Dealing with error in cardiology].  

PubMed

A commonly used definition describes an error as a harmful or potentially harmful occurrence for the patient. Although over the last years the evolution of medicine has been characterized by remarkable technological advances, the percentage of errors in clinical practice has not changed since the '40s. In this setting, the aim of our review is to assess how errors develop in real life in modern cardiology and how they can be identified early, corrected, and possibly prevented. In our opinion, the more a healthcare system (i.e., a cardiology ward or a hospital) is capable of facing its error, the safer it is. In our daily practice, errors can be distinguished in "clinical errors" (mainly related to knowledge) and "system errors" (mainly referring to healthcare organization; i.e., the integrated cardiac network). Bearing in mind the high frequency and consequences, cardiologists should consider errors as among the main determinants of quality of care, which the whole team has to deal with. Time and resources should be spent to identify the best approaches to cope with errors, tailored for each cardiology team. Ultimately, the care of a patient with heart disease should be viewed holistically and not as the afinalistic sum of procedures, no matter how technically developed. PMID:20408475

Tarquini, Roberto; Lazzeri, Chiara; Gensini, Gian Franco

2010-02-01

340

Finding beam focus errors automatically  

SciTech Connect

An automated method for finding beam focus errors using an optimization program called COMFORT-PLUS. The steps involved in finding the correction factors using COMFORT-PLUS has been used to find the beam focus errors for two damping rings at the SLAC Linear Collider. The program is to be used as an off-line program to analyze actual measured data for any SLC system. A limitation on the application of this procedure is found to be that it depends on the magnitude of the machine errors. Another is that the program is not totally automated since the user must decide a priori where to look for errors. (LEW)

Lee, M.J.; Clearwater, S.H.; Kleban, S.D.

1987-01-01

341

Criminal prosecution for nursing errors.  

PubMed

Headlines describing nurses being prosecuted for crimes related to nursing errors raise numerous questions for nurses and their managers. Nurse managers need to be aware of situations in which nurses may be subject to criminal prosecution to assist staff in educating themselves and acting to minimize risk. After reading this article, the reader should be able to (a) identify the legal basis for criminal charges for nursing errors, (b) list 3 errors likely to result in criminal prosecution, and (c) discuss licensure implications of criminal charges for nursing errors. PMID:19265338

Cady, Rebecca F

342

Associations between Delusion Proneness and Personality Structure in Non-Clinical Participants: Comparison between Young and Elderly Samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Few studies have explored the prevalence of delusions in the non-clinical, elderly population. In addition, the association between personality structure and delusions remains poorly investigated. The aims of the present study were, first, to explore the relation between age and the prevalence of delusion proneness and, second, to examine the association between personality and delusion proneness in young and

Frank Larøi; Martial Van der Linden; Filip DeFruyt; Jim van Os; André Aleman

2006-01-01

343

Exceptional error minimization in putative primordial genetic codes  

PubMed Central

Background The standard genetic code is redundant and has a highly non-random structure. Codons for the same amino acids typically differ only by the nucleotide in the third position, whereas similar amino acids are encoded, mostly, by codon series that differ by a single base substitution in the third or the first position. As a result, the code is highly albeit not optimally robust to errors of translation, a property that has been interpreted either as a product of selection directed at the minimization of errors or as a non-adaptive by-product of evolution of the code driven by other forces. Results We investigated the error-minimization properties of putative primordial codes that consisted of 16 supercodons, with the third base being completely redundant, using a previously derived cost function and the error minimization percentage as the measure of a code's robustness to mistranslation. It is shown that, when the 16-supercodon table is populated with 10 putative primordial amino acids, inferred from the results of abiotic synthesis experiments and other evidence independent of the code's evolution, and with minimal assumptions used to assign the remaining supercodons, the resulting 2-letter codes are nearly optimal in terms of the error minimization level. Conclusion The results of the computational experiments with putative primordial genetic codes that contained only two meaningful letters in all codons and encoded 10 to 16 amino acids indicate that such codes are likely to have been nearly optimal with respect to the minimization of translation errors. This near-optimality could be the outcome of extensive early selection during the co-evolution of the code with the primordial, error-prone translation system, or a result of a unique, accidental event. Under this hypothesis, the subsequent expansion of the code resulted in a decrease of the error minimization level that became sustainable owing to the evolution of a high-fidelity translation system. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Paul Higgs (nominated by Arcady Mushegian), Rob Knight, and Sandor Pongor. For the complete reports, go to the Reviewers' Reports section.

2009-01-01

344

Numerical Errors in DNS: Total Run-Time Error  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding numerical errors in simulations is critical for many reasons. First and foremost, one must some estimate concerning the reliability of the final result. Simply put, numerical errors add up over time and in most cases the increase is a linear process. It is quite possible that running a code for a very long time can lead to a solution

2000-01-01

345

Developing an error prevention methodology based on cognitive error models  

Microsoft Academic Search

A long-term program is in progress at JPL to reduce cost and risk of flight mission operations through a defect\\/error prevention program. The goal of this program is the reduction and ultimately the prevention of human errors. The main thrust of this program is to create an environment in which the performance of both the human operator and the computer

Kristin J. Bruno; Linda L. Welz; Josef Sherif

1992-01-01

346

Ultraspectral sounder data compression using error-detecting reversible variable-length coding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nonreversible variable-length codes (e.g. Huffman coding, Golomb-Rice coding, and arithmetic coding) have been used in source coding to achieve efficient compression. However, a single bit error during noisy transmission can cause many codewords to be misinterpreted by the decoder. In recent years, increasing attention has been given to the design of reversible variable-length codes (RVLCs) for better data transmission in error-prone environments. RVLCs allow instantaneous decoding in both directions, which affords better detection of bit errors due to synchronization losses over a noisy channel. RVLCs have been adopted in emerging video coding standards--H.263+ and MPEG-4--to enhance their error-resilience capabilities. Given the large volume of three-dimensional data that will be generated by future space-borne ultraspectral sounders (e.g. IASI, CrIS, and HES), the use of error-robust data compression techniques will be beneficial to satellite data transmission. In this paper, we investigate a reversible variable-length code for ultraspectral sounder data compression, and present its numerical experiments on error propagation for the ultraspectral sounder data. The results show that the RVLC performs significantly better error containment than JPEG2000 Part 2.

Huang, Bormin; Ahuja, Alok; Huang, Hung-Lung; Schmit, Timothy J.; Heymann, Roger W.

2005-08-01

347

Spatial frequency domain error budget  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this paper is to describe a methodology for designing and characterizing machines used to manufacture or inspect parts with spatial-frequency-based specifications. At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, one of our responsibilities is to design or select the appropriate machine tools to produce advanced optical and weapons systems. Recently, many of the component tolerances for these systems have been specified in terms of the spatial frequency content of residual errors on the surface. We typically use an error budget as a sensitivity analysis tool to ensure that the parts manufactured by a machine will meet the specified component tolerances. Error budgets provide the formalism whereby we account for all sources of uncertainty in a process, and sum them to arrive at a net prediction of how "precisely" a manufactured component can meet a target specification. Using the error budget, we are able to minimize risk during initial stages by ensuring that the machine will produce components that meet specifications before the machine is actually built or purchased. However, the current error budgeting procedure provides no formal mechanism for designing machines that can produce parts with spatial-frequency-based specifications. The output from the current error budgeting procedure is a single number estimating the net worst case or RMS error on the work piece. This procedure has limited ability to differentiate between low spatial frequency form errors versus high frequency surface finish errors. Therefore the current error budgeting procedure can lead us to reject a machine that is adequate or accept a machine that is inadequate. This paper will describe a new error budgeting methodology to aid in the design and characterization of machines used to manufacture or inspect parts with spatial-frequency-based specifications. The output from this new procedure is the continuous spatial frequency content of errors that result on a machined part. If the machine does not meet specifications, the procedure identifies the sources of the critical errors. We would then evaluate these errors and either reduce the errors through design improvements or modifications to cutting parameters (spindle speed, feed, etc.) or select a different candidate machine if improvements were not practical.

Hauschildt, H; Krulewich, D

1998-08-27

348

Dietary ?-carotene regulates interleukin-1?-induced expression of apolipoprotein E in astrocytes isolated from stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats.  

PubMed

Stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) have an abnormality in cholesterol synthesis, but the pathological relevance of this to stroke and related neuronal disorders is not yet clear. The induction of astrocyte-derived cholesterol transportation to neurons by apolipoprotein E (apoE) promotes neuronal repair after brain injuries such as stroke. Such repair is reduced by interleukin-1 beta (IL-1?) and stroke conditions. Furthermore, fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1) regulates the production of apoE-cholesterol-rich high density lipoproteins (HDL) and induces gliosis of astrocytes. On the other hand, high levels of plasma carotenoids reduce the risk of ischemic stroke. Thus, we investigated the expression of apoE in primary astrocytes that had been treated with IL-1? or ?-carotene. In addition, we compared the expression levels of Apoe genes in astrocytes from SHRSP/Izm and normal control rats, Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY/Izm) following hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R). The expression levels of genes and proteins were investigated by RT-PCR, Western blotting (WB), and immunofluorescence analysis. IL-1? decreased the expression levels of the Apoe gene. Conversely, ?-carotene significantly enhanced the expression levels of genes related to cholesterol regulation, including Abca1, Abcg1, Hmgcr as well as Apoe. During H/R, the gene expression levels of Apoe were decreased in the SHRSP/Izm rats in comparison with the WKY/Izm rats. These results suggest that IL-1? decreases Apoe expression levels, whereas ?-carotene strongly elevates Apoe levels and inhibits FGF1-mediated gliosis of astrocytes. Furthermore, under hypoxic stress, astrocytes isolated from SHRSP/Izm rats displayed altered regulation of Apoe compared with those from WKY/Izm rats. PMID:23147682

Yamagata, Kazuo; Nakayama, Chika; Suzuki, Koichi

2012-11-09

349

Erasure Error Correction with Hardware Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Error-control coding methods have been the primary method used to protect digital communications from transmission errors. Such codes are well understood and their capabilities for error detection and correction clearly established in the literature. For correction purposes, error location is required; for this reason error-control codes' detection capabilities significantly exceed their correction capabilities. If error location information can be determined

William D. Armitage; Jien-chung Lo

1999-01-01

350

Omega Wind-Error Estimation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The estimation of winds and their errors for Omega radiosonde soundings has been addressed by several authors in the past years. Major improvements over an earlier wind error model have been in modeling VLF propagation for estimation of phase variances of...

M. L. Olson R. M. Passi A. Schumann

1978-01-01

351

Human error in recreational boating  

Microsoft Academic Search

Each year over 600 people die and more than 4000 are reported injured in recreational boating accidents. As with most other accidents, human error is the major contributor. U.S. Coast Guard reports of 3358 accidents were analyzed to identify errors in each of the boat types by which statistics are compiled: auxiliary (motor) sailboats, cabin motorboats, canoes and kayaks, house

A. James McKnight; Wayne W. Becker; Anthony J. Pettit; A. Scott McKnight

2007-01-01

352

Numerical Errors: Reliable Numerical Simulations  

SciTech Connect

Understanding numerical errors in long calculations is a very subtle science and is critical to understanding the reliability of the final answer. We will carefully examine the accumulation of numerical errors over time and discuss how these can lead to reliability estimates. The primary focus will be on a newly uncovered understanding of mode resolution which is at the heart of all numerical computations.

Jameson, L

2001-07-27

353

Inborn errors of neurotransmitter receptors.  

PubMed

Inborn errors of neurotransmitter receptors are recently described gene mutations that directly affect receptor function. Currently three conditions are known to be caused by this mechanism: hyperekplexia; two forms of congenital inherited myasthenic syndromes; and autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy. Here, neurotransmitters, their receptors and known inborn errors of receptor function are reviewed. PMID:10407774

Surtees, R

1999-06-01

354

Syllogistic reasoning errors in schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Schizophrenic Ss and normals were given a multiple-choice syllogism test. The results did not support the predictions of Von Domarus and Arieti. Schizophrenics showed similar error patterns to normals, but did not exceed normals in error preferences. (15 ref.)

L. Gottesman; L. J. Chapman

1960-01-01

355

When are synchronization errors small?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We address the question of bounds on the synchronization error for the case of nearly identical nonlinear systems. It is pointed out that negative largest conditional Lyapunov exponents of the synchronization manifold are not sufficient to guarantee a small synchronization error and that one has to find bounds for the deformation of the manifold due to perturbations. We present an

Lucas Illing; Jochen Bröcker; Ljupco Kocarev; Ulrich Parlitz; Henry D. Abarbanel

2002-01-01

356

Dual Processing and Diagnostic Errors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this paper, I review evidence from two theories in psychology relevant to diagnosis and diagnostic errors. "Dual Process" theories of thinking, frequently mentioned with respect to diagnostic error, propose that categorization decisions can be made with either a fast, unconscious, contextual process called System 1 or a slow, analytical,…

Norman, Geoff

2009-01-01

357

Twenty questions about student errors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Errors in science learning (errors in expression of organized, purposeful thought within the domain of science) provide a window through which glimpses of mental functioning can be obtained. Errors are valuable and normal occurrences in the process of learning science. A student can use his/her errors to develop a deeper understanding of a concept as long as the error can be recognized and appropriate, informative feedback can be obtained. A safe, non-threatening, and nonpunitive environment which encourages dialogue helps students to express their conceptions and to risk making errors. Pedagogical methods that systematically address common student errors produce significant gains in student learning. Just as the nature-nurture interaction is integral to the development of living things, so the individual-environment interaction is basic to thought processes. At a minimum, four systems interact: (1) the individual problem solver (who has a worldview, relatively stable cognitive characteristics, relatively malleable mental states and conditions, and aims or intentions), (2) task to be performed (including relative importance and nature of the task), (3) knowledge domain in which task is contained, and (4) the environment (including orienting conditions and the social and physical context).Several basic assumptions underlie research on errors and alternative conceptions. Among these are: Knowledge and thought involve active, constructive processes; there are many ways to acquire, organize, store, retrieve, and think about a given concept or event; and understanding is achieved by successive approximations. Application of these ideas will require a fundamental change in how science is taught.

Fisher, Kathleen M.; Lipson, Joseph Isaac

358

Quantifying error distributions in crowding.  

PubMed

When multiple objects are in close proximity, observers have difficulty identifying them individually. Two classes of theories aim to account for this crowding phenomenon: spatial pooling and spatial substitution. Variations of these accounts predict different patterns of errors in crowded displays. Here we aim to characterize the kinds of errors that people make during crowding by comparing a number of error models across three experiments in which we manipulate flanker spacing, display eccentricity, and precueing duration. We find that both spatial intrusions and individual letter confusions play a considerable role in errors. Moreover, we find no evidence that a naïve pooling model that predicts errors based on a nonadditive combination of target and flankers explains errors better than an independent intrusion model (indeed, in our data, an independent intrusion model is slightly, but significantly, better). Finally, we find that manipulating trial difficulty in any way (spacing, eccentricity, or precueing) produces homogenous changes in error distributions. Together, these results provide quantitative baselines for predictive models of crowding errors, suggest that pooling and spatial substitution models are difficult to tease apart, and imply that manipulations of crowding all influence a common mechanism that impacts subject performance. PMID:23525133

Hanus, Deborah; Vul, Edward

2013-03-22

359

Theory Testing and Measurement Error.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents simple and direct demonstrations showing why basic measurement principles require that biases in data created by measurement error be removed. Refutes common objections to the correction for these biases. Also describes substantive psychological processes responsible for some types of measurement error. (SLD)|

Schmidt, Frank L.; Hunter, John E.

1999-01-01

360

Group Communication Protocols under Errors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Group communication protocols constitute a basic building block for highly dependable distributed applications. Design- ing and correctly implementing a group communication system (GCS) is a difficult task. While many theoretical algorithms have been formalized and proved for correctness, only few research projects have experimentally assessed the dependability of GCS implementations under complex error scenarios. This paper describes a thorough error-injection

Claudio Basile; Long Wang; Zbigniew Kalbarczyk; Ravishankar K. Iyer

2003-01-01

361

Error Derivatives for Elliptic Orbits.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

When an increment of velocity is applied to an orbiting vehicle in an attempt to bring it to earth, errors will exist in the assumed position and velocity of the vehicle and in the applied velocity increment. If these errors are sufficiently small, a line...

E. R. Lancaster

1964-01-01

362

Prone Positioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

areas of the lung are more atelectatic and likely to endure collapse and infl ation (atelectrauma) during mechanical ventilation at low PEEP. Meanwhile, perfusion to the lung units progressively increases from the nondependent to the dependent regions, with preferential perfusion of the dependent atelectatic lung regions [4]. Thus, in supine patients with ARDS, lung ventilation is preferentially shifted to the

Nilesh M. Mehta; Martha A. Q. Curley

363

Efficient error correction for next-generation sequencing of viral amplicons  

PubMed Central

Background Next-generation sequencing allows the analysis of an unprecedented number of viral sequence variants from infected patients, presenting a novel opportunity for understanding virus evolution, drug resistance and immune escape. However, sequencing in bulk is error prone. Thus, the generated data require error identification and correction. Most error-correction methods to date are not optimized for amplicon analysis and assume that the error rate is randomly distributed. Recent quality assessment of amplicon sequences obtained using 454-sequencing showed that the error rate is strongly linked to the presence and size of homopolymers, position in the sequence and length of the amplicon. All these parameters are strongly sequence specific and should be incorporated into the calibration of error-correction algorithms designed for amplicon sequencing. Results In this paper, we present two new efficient error correction algorithms optimized for viral amplicons: (i) k-mer-based error correction (KEC) and (ii) empirical frequency threshold (ET). Both were compared to a previously published clustering algorithm (SHORAH), in order to evaluate their relative performance on 24 experimental datasets obtained by 454-sequencing of amplicons with known sequences. All three algorithms show similar accuracy in finding true haplotypes. However, KEC and ET were significantly more efficient than SHORAH in removing false haplotypes and estimating the frequency of true ones. Conclusions Both algorithms, KEC and ET, are highly suitable for rapid recovery of error-free haplotypes obtained by 454-sequencing of amplicons from heterogeneous viruses. The implementations of the algorithms and data sets used for their testing are available at: http://alan.cs.gsu.edu/NGS/?q=content/pyrosequencing-error-correction-algorithm

2012-01-01

364

Neuroprotective effects of forsythiaside on learning and memory deficits in senescence-accelerated mouse prone (SAMP8) mice.  

PubMed

Forsythiaside (3,4-dihydroxy-?-phenethyl-O-?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?6)-4-O-caffeo yl-?-d-glucopyranoside, C29H36O15), which is isolated from air-dried fruits of Forsythia suspensa, has been shown to possess anti-oxidant, anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory activities. The aim of this study is to investigate the neuroprotective effects of forsythiaside on learning and memory deficits in the senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8, a model of age-dependent neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease). Forsythiaside (60, 120 and 240mg/kg) was orally administered to aged (8months old) SAMP8 mice for 45days followed by evaluating cognitive impairment (Morris water maze and step-through passive avoidance), inflammation (interleukin-1? (IL-1?) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels), oxidative stress (glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) activities; malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) contents) and neurotransmitter such as norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), glutamate (GLU) gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and acetyl choline (ACh). In Morris water maze, forsythiaside had significantly reduced the latency time, the crossing numbers and time spent in target quadrant compared to aged SAMP8 mice. In passive avoidance test, a significant decline in number of errors while increase in latency was observed when compared with aged SAMP8 mice. Furthermore, a significant decrease in IL-1?, NO, MDA and NE levels, and an increase in T-SOD and GSH-Px activities and GLU and Ach levels were evident in the brain homogenates of forsythiaside-treated mice compared to aged SAMP8 mice. These findings demonstrated that forsythiaside may be a useful treatment against amnesia. PMID:23290932

Wang, Hong-Mei; Wang, Li-Wei; Liu, Xin-Min; Li, Chang-Lu; Xu, Shu-Ping; Farooq, Ahsana-Dar

2013-01-02

365

Multimodal nonlinear optical imaging of atherosclerotic plaque development in myocardial infarction-prone rabbits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Label-free imaging of bulk arterial tissue is demonstrated using a multimodal nonlinear optical microscope based on a photonic crystal fiber and a single femtosecond oscillator operating at 800 nm. Colocalized imaging of extracellular elastin fibers, fibrillar collagen, and lipid-rich structures within aortic tissue obtained from atherosclerosis-prone myocardial infarction-prone Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHLMI) rabbits is demonstrated through two-photon excited fluorescence, second harmonic generation, and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering, respectively. These images are shown to differentiate healthy arterial wall, early atherosclerotic lesions, and advanced plaques. Clear pathological changes are observed in the extracellular matrix of the arterial wall and correlated with progression of atherosclerotic disease as represented by the age of the WHHLMI rabbits.

Ko, Alex C. T.; Ridsdale, Andrew; Smith, Michael S. D.; Mostaço-Guidolin, Leila B.; Hewko, Mark D.; Pegoraro, Adrian F.; Kohlenberg, Elicia K.; Schattka, Bernie; Shiomi, Masashi; Stolow, Albert; Sowa, Michael G.

2010-03-01

366

Anesthetist to patient transmission of hepatitis C virus associated with non exposure-prone procedures.  

PubMed

A 44-year-old lady was diagnosed with acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection 8 weeks after hysterectomy at which the attending anesthetist was known to be hepatitis C seropositive. Comparative nucleotide sequence analysis and phylogenetic comparison proved that transmission had occurred from the anesthetist to the patient. The patient had received general anesthesia with endotracheal intubation and peripheral intravenous cannulation. No exposure-prone anesthetic procedures had been performed. This is the first case described in UK involving transmission from an anesthetist to a patient during anesthesia where no exposure prone procedures were carried out. It is the first example in which the anesthetist was known to be seropositive for hepatitis C prior to the operation. PMID:15648071

Mawdsley, J; Teo, C G; Kyi, M; Anderson, M

2005-03-01

367

Phenotypic expression of the systemic toxicity of cocaine in genetically epilepsy-prone rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present investigation was to determine whether the sensitivity to systemic toxic effects of cocaine is altered in genetically epilepsy-prone rats (GEPRs). Moderate seizure (GEPR-3) and severe seizure (GEPR-9) rats, and the control strain, Sprague-Dawley rats, 10 weeks of age, were lightly anesthetized with halothane and nitrous oxide. Following surgical preparation and stabilization, the animals were given

Bing Shi; James E. Heavner; Charles E. Reigel; Y. James Kao; Alan D. Kaye

2000-01-01

368

Tamm-Horsfall protein knockout mice are more prone to urinary tract infection Rapid Communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tamm-Horsfall protein knockout mice are more prone to urinary tract infection.BackgroundHuman colon contains many bacteria that commonly colonize the perineum and frequently enter the urinary tract. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli are the most common cause of urinary tract infection. Type 1 fimbriated E. coli have been associated with cystitis, and P fimbriated E. coli with pyelonephritis. Factors involved in clearing bacteria

James M. Bates; HAJA MOHIDEEN RAFFI; KRISHNA PRASADAN; RANJAN MASCARENHAS; ZOLTAN LASZIK; NOBUYO MAEDA; Scott J. Hultgren; SATISH KUMAR

2004-01-01

369

Introducing the GASP Scale: A New Measure of Guilt and Shame Proneness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although scholars agree that moral emotions are critical for deterring unethical and antisocial behavior, there is disagreement about how 2 prototypical moral emotions—guilt and shame—should be defined, differentiated, and measured. We addressed these issues by developing a new assessment—the Guilt and Shame Proneness scale (GASP)—that measures individual differences in the propensity to experience guilt and shame across a range of

Taya R. Cohen; Scott T. Wolf; A. T. Panter; Chester A. Insko

2011-01-01

370

Candesartan and amlodipine combination therapy provides powerful vascular protection in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vascular protective effects of placebo, candesartan (1 mg kg?1 per day) monotherapy, candesartan (1 mg kg?1 per day) and amlodipine (1 mg kg?1 per day) combination therapy, and candesartan (1 mg kg?1 per day) and hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) (10 mg kg?1 per day) combination therapy for 2 weeks were compared in stroke-prone, spontaneously hypertensive rats. Candesartan monotherapy significantly reduced blood

Shinji Takai; Denan Jin; Takashi Shimosato; Hiroshi Sakonjo; Mizuo Miyazaki; S Takai

2011-01-01

371

Development of kindling-prone and kindling-resistant rats: selective breeding and electrophysiological studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of the growing need for an animal model of complex partial seizures based on a genetic predisposition, we combined the kindling model of epilepsy with selective-breeding procedures to develop two new lines (or strains) of rats that are kindling-prone or kindling-resistant. The selection of these strains was based on their rates of amygdala kindling. From a parent population of

Ronald J Racine; Madoka Steingart; Dan C McIntyre

1999-01-01

372

The proseal laryngeal mask airway in prone patients: a retrospective audit of 245 patients.  

PubMed

The use of the classic laryngeal mask airway (classic LMA) in the prone position is controversial, but the ProSeal laryngeal mask airway (ProSeal LMA) may be more suitable as it forms a better seal and provides access to the stomach. In the following retrospective audit, we describe our experience with the insertion of and maintenance of anaesthesia with, the ProSeal LMA in 245 healthy adults in the prone position by experienced users. The technique involved (1) the patient adopting the prone position with the head to the side and the table tilted laterally; (2) pre-oxygenation to end-tidal oxygen >90%; (3) induction of anaesthesia with midazolam/alfentanil/propofol; (4) facemask ventilation (5) a single attempt at digital insertion and if unsuccessful a single attempt at laryngoscope-guided, gum elastic bougie-guided insertion; (6) gastric tube insertion; (7) maintenance of anaesthesia with sevoflurane/O/N2O; (8) volume controlled ventilation at 8-12 ml/kg; (9) emergence from anaesthesia in the supine position; and (10) removal ofthe ProSeal LMA when awake. Facemask ventilation was always successful. ProSealLMA insertion was successful in all patients: 237 with digital insertion and eight with bougie-guided insertion. Ventilation was successful in all patients. Gastric tube insertion was successful in all patients. Correctable partial airway obstruction occurred in three patients, but there was no hypoxia, hypercapnoea, displacement, regurgitation, gastric insufflation or airway reflex activation. Our findings suggest that the insertion of and maintenance of anaesthesia with the ProSeal LMA is feasible in the prone position by experienced users. PMID:17444312

Brimacombe, J R; Wenzel, V; Keller, C

2007-04-01

373

Long-term Clinical Outcomes of Whole-Breast Irradiation Delivered in the Prone Position  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate retrospectively the effectiveness and toxicity of post-lumpectomy whole-breast radiation therapy delivered with prone positioning. Methods and Materials: Between September 1992 and August 2004, 245 women with 248 early-stage invasive or in situ breast cancers were treated using a prone breast board. Photon fields treated the whole breast to 46 to 50.4 Gy with standard fractionation. The target volume was clinically palpable breast tissue; no attempt was made to irradiate chest wall lymphatics. Tumor bed boosts were delivered in 85% of cases. Adjuvant chemotherapy and hormonal therapy were administered to 42% and 62% of patients, respectively. Results: After a median follow-up of 4.9 years, the 5 year actuarial true local and elsewhere ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence rates were 4.8% and 1.3%, respectively. The 5-year actuarial rates of regional nodal recurrence and distant metastases were 1.6% and 7.4%. Actuarial disease-free, disease-specific, and overall survival rates at 5 years were 89.4%, 97.3%, and 93%, respectively. Treatment breaks were required by 2.4% of patients. Grade 3 acute dermatitis and edema were each limited to 2% of patients. Only 4.9% of patients complained of acute chest wall discomfort. Chronic Grade 2 to 3 skin and subcutaneous tissue toxicities were reported in 4.4% and 13.7% of patients, respectively. Conclusions: Prone position breast radiation results in similar long-term disease control with a favorable toxicity profile compared with standard supine tangents. The anatomic advantages of prone positioning may contribute to improving the therapeutic ratio of post-lumpectomy radiation by improving dose homogeneity and minimizing incidental cardiac and lung dose.

Stegman, Lauren D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Beal, Katherine P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Hunt, Margie A. [Department of Medical Physics, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Fornier, Monica N. [Department of Breast Cancer Medicine Service, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); McCormick, Beryl [Department of Radiation Oncology, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)]. E-mail: mccormib@mskcc.org

2007-05-01

374

Self-Reflection and the Psychosis-Prone Brain: An fMRI Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The Cortical Midline Structures (CMS) play a critical role in self-reflection, together with the insula. Abnormalities in self-referential processing and its neural underpinnings have been reported in schizophrenia and at-risk populations, suggesting they might be markers of psychotic vulnerability. Psychometric measures of schizotypal traits may be used to index psychosis proneness (PP) in nonclinical samples. It remains an unresolved

Gemma Modinos; Remco Renken; Johan Ormel; André Aleman

2011-01-01

375

Convulsant effects of some xanthine derivatives in genetically epilepsy-prone rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The behavioural and electrocorticographic (ECoG) convulsant effects of several xanthine derivatives injected intraperitoneally\\u000a (i.p.) were studied in genetically-epilepsy prone rats. The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship among convulsant\\u000a potency, molecular structure and lipophilicity of some xanthines. Animals were injected i.p. with various doses (250-1000\\u000a mmol\\/kg) and a different convulsant potency was observed among the various xanthines

Angela De Sarro; Silvana Grasso; Maria Zappalà; Felice Nava; Giovambattista De Sarro

1997-01-01

376

Sexual Attraction Status and Adolescent Suicide Proneness: The Roles of Hopelessness, Depression, and Social Support  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explored the relationship between sexual attraction status (same-sex, both-sex, and opposite-sex) and suicidal behavior in a diverse sample of adolescents (N = 1,533 youth). Adolescents with attractions to both sexes reported greater suicide proneness, recent and lifetime suicidal ideation, and past suicide attempts than those with exclusively opposite-sex attractions; individuals reporting same-sex attractions generally demonstrated moderate elevations on

Jennifer Langhinrichsen-Rohling; Dorian A. Lamis; Patrick S. Malone

2010-01-01

377

Predicting Fault Prone Modules by the Dempster-Shafer Belief Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a novel methodology for predicting fault prone modules. The methodology is based on Dempster-Shafer (D-S) belief networks. Our approach consists of three steps: First, building the Dempster- Shafer network by the induction algorithm; Second, selecting the predictors (attributes) by the logistic procedure; Third, feeding the predictors describing the modules of the current project into the inducted Dempster-Shafer

Lan Guo; Bojan Cukic; Harshinder Singh

2003-01-01

378

Intrinsically Disordered and Aggregation Prone Regions Underlie ?-Aggregation in S100 Proteins  

PubMed Central

S100 proteins are small dimeric calcium-binding proteins which control cell cycle, growth and differentiation via interactions with different target proteins. Intrinsic disorder is a hallmark among many signaling proteins and S100 proteins have been proposed to contain disorder-prone regions. Interestingly, some S100 proteins also form amyloids: S100A8/A9 forms fibrils in prostatic inclusions and S100A6 fibrillates in vitro and seeds SOD1 aggregation. Here we report a study designed to investigate whether ?-aggregation is a feature extensive to more members of S100 family. In silico analysis of seven human S100 proteins revealed a direct correlation between aggregation and intrinsic disorder propensity scores, suggesting a relationship between these two independent properties. Averaged position-specific analysis and structural mapping showed that disorder-prone segments are contiguous to aggregation-prone regions and that whereas disorder is prominent on the hinge and target protein-interaction regions, segments with high aggregation propensity are found in ordered regions within the dimer interface. Acidic conditions likely destabilize the seven S100 studied by decreasing the shielding of aggregation-prone regions afforded by the quaternary structure. In agreement with the in silico analysis, hydrophobic moieties become accessible as indicated by strong ANS fluorescence. ATR-FTIR spectra support a structural inter-conversion from ?-helices to intermolecular ?-sheets, and prompt ThT-binding takes place with no noticeable lag phase. Dot blot analysis using amyloid conformational antibodies denotes a high diversity of conformers; subsequent analysis by TEM shows fibrils as dominant species. Altogether, our data suggests that ?-aggregation and disorder-propensity are related properties in S100 proteins, and that the onset of aggregation is likely triggered by loss of protective tertiary and quaternary interactions.

Carvalho, Sofia B.; Botelho, Hugo M.; Leal, Sonia S.; Cardoso, Isabel; Fritz, Gunter; Gomes, Claudio M.

2013-01-01

379

Comparison of cardioprotective effects of mibefradil and ramipril in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: To elucidate the cardioprotective effects of T-type calcium channel blocker mibefradil and compare with that of the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor ramipril in a stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR- SP) model of congestive heart failure (CHF) after myocardial infarction (MI). METHODS: SHR-SP rats were subjected to permanent ligation of the left anterior decending coronary artery. Treatment with mibefradil (10 mg·kg-1·d-1),

Qin-gui XIA; Alexander REINECKE; Marc DORENKAMP; Christain STORZ; Havvo BITTERLING; Susanne PENZ; Jack CLEUTJENS; Mat JAP DAEMEN; Reichiger SIMON; Thomas UNGER

380

Low Dose Poly I:C Prevents Diabetes in the Diabetes Prone BB Rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poly I:C, an inducer of IFN-? and other cytokines, has been used to study the development of diabetes in both the BioBreeding (BB) diabetes prone rat and non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse animal models of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). Surprisingly, poly I:C accelerates the disease in the BB rat while inhibiting it in the NOD mouse. Since cytokines can have dose

Douglas O Sobel; Deepshika Goyal; Behrouz Ahvazi; Ji-Won Yoon; Young Hwa Chung; Adam Bagg; David M Harlan

1998-01-01

381

Intrinsically Disordered and Aggregation Prone Regions Underlie ?-Aggregation in S100 Proteins.  

PubMed

S100 proteins are small dimeric calcium-binding proteins which control cell cycle, growth and differentiation via interactions with different target proteins. Intrinsic disorder is a hallmark among many signaling proteins and S100 proteins have been proposed to contain disorder-prone regions. Interestingly, some S100 proteins also form amyloids: S100A8/A9 forms fibrils in prostatic inclusions and S100A6 fibrillates in vitro and seeds SOD1 aggregation. Here we report a study designed to investigate whether ?-aggregation is a feature extensive to more members of S100 family. In silico analysis of seven human S100 proteins revealed a direct correlation between aggregation and intrinsic disorder propensity scores, suggesting a relationship between these two independent properties. Averaged position-specific analysis and structural mapping showed that disorder-prone segments are contiguous to aggregation-prone regions and that whereas disorder is prominent on the hinge and target protein-interaction regions, segments with high aggregation propensity are found in ordered regions within the dimer interface. Acidic conditions likely destabilize the seven S100 studied by decreasing the shielding of aggregation-prone regions afforded by the quaternary structure. In agreement with the in silico analysis, hydrophobic moieties become accessible as indicated by strong ANS fluorescence. ATR-FTIR spectra support a structural inter-conversion from ?-helices to intermolecular ?-sheets, and prompt ThT-binding takes place with no noticeable lag phase. Dot blot analysis using amyloid conformational antibodies denotes a high diversity of conformers; subsequent analysis by TEM shows fibrils as dominant species. Altogether, our data suggests that ?-aggregation and disorder-propensity are related properties in S100 proteins, and that the onset of aggregation is likely triggered by loss of protective tertiary and quaternary interactions. PMID:24098542

Carvalho, Sofia B; Botelho, Hugo M; Leal, Sónia S; Cardoso, Isabel; Fritz, Günter; Gomes, Cláudio M

2013-10-01

382

Rainwater management for increased productivity among small-holder farmers in drought prone environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

A critical analysis of conventional water resources assessments and re-visiting the on-farm water balance suggests large scopes for water productivity improvements in small-holder rainfed farming systems in drought prone environments of Eastern and Southern Africa. The paper addresses key management challenges in trying to upgrade rainfed agriculture, and presents a set of field experiences on system options for increased water

Johan Rockström; Jennie Barron; Patrick Fox

2002-01-01

383

Health Departments Do It Better: Prenatal Care Site and Prone Infant Sleep Position  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Reduction of prone infant sleep position has been the main public health effort to reduce the incidence of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). Methods: Oregon Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) surveys a stratified random sample of women after a live birth. In 1998–1999, 1867 women completed the survey (64.0% unweighted response; 73.5% weighted response). Results: Overall, 9.2% of

Martin B. Lahr; Kenneth D. Rosenberg; Jodi A. Lapidus

2005-01-01

384

The ability of object-oriented metrics to predict change-proneness: a meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many studies have investigated the relationships between object-oriented (OO) metrics and change-proneness and conclude that\\u000a OO metrics are able to predict the extent of change of a class across the versions of a system. However, there is a need to\\u000a re-examine this subject for two reasons. First, most studies only analyze a small number of OO metrics and, therefore, it

Hongmin Lu; Yuming Zhou; Baowen Xu; Hareton Leung; Lin Chen

385

Early mortality effect of partially hydrogenated vegetable oils in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Partially hydrogenated vegetable oils have been suspected to have potential adverse health effects but no definitive conclusions about their safety have been reached. Instead, beneficial effects have been reported in animal experiments (e.g., hypotensive, anti-atherogenic and anti-thrombotic activities of hydrogenated corn oil as compared with olive oil in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP)). However, we have found that both partially

Makoto Miyazaki; Min-Zhao Huang; Shiro Watanabe; Tetsuyuki Kobayashi; Harumi Okuyama

1998-01-01

386

Effect of heat treatment on the proneness of low-alloy steel to hot embrittlement  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Normalization, and to an even greater extent temper hardening, increases the resistance of low alloy steel 12G2MFT to brittle failure.2.Steel 12G2MFT in the hot-rolled and the temper hardened state is more prone to hot embrittlement than in the normalized state.3.The development of hot embrittlement in steel 12G2MFT in the temper hardened state is accompanied by an increase of the proportion

V. M. Goritskii; G. R. Shneiderov; T. N. Ul'yanova; T. G. Zaitseva; V. I. Nosenko

1988-01-01

387

Stability of slopes in a fire-prone mine in Jharia Coalfield, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stability of slope in an opencast mine is always associated with safety and economics. The steeper slope is always preferred\\u000a from economic point of view but prone to failure, whereas flatter slopes are uneconomical. A proper understanding of slope\\u000a which will be a steep enough to be stable is required for safety, economy, and stability of men and machineries. The

T. N. Singh; S. P. Pradhan; V. Vishal

388

Genetic and Environmental Influences on the Relationship between Flow Proneness, Locus of Control and Behavioral Inhibition  

PubMed Central

Flow is a psychological state of high but subjectively effortless attention that typically occurs during active performance of challenging tasks and is accompanied by a sense of automaticity, high control, low self-awareness, and enjoyment. Flow proneness is associated with traits and behaviors related to low neuroticism such as emotional stability, conscientiousness, active coping, self-esteem and life satisfaction. Little is known about the genetic architecture of flow proneness, behavioral inhibition and locus of control – traits also associated with neuroticism – and their interrelation. Here, we hypothesized that individuals low in behavioral inhibition and with an internal locus of control would be more likely to experience flow and explored the genetic and environmental architecture of the relationship between the three variables. Behavioral inhibition and locus of control was measured in a large population sample of 3,375 full twin pairs and 4,527 single twins, about 26% of whom also scored the flow proneness questionnaire. Findings revealed significant but relatively low correlations between the three traits and moderate heritability estimates of .41, .45, and .30 for flow proneness, behavioral inhibition, and locus of control, respectively, with some indication of non-additive genetic influences. For behavioral inhibition we found significant sex differences in heritability, with females showing a higher estimate including significant non-additive genetic influences, while in males the entire heritability was due to additive genetic variance. We also found a mainly genetically mediated relationship between the three traits, suggesting that individuals who are genetically predisposed to experience flow, show less behavioral inhibition (less anxious) and feel that they are in control of their own destiny (internal locus of control). We discuss that some of the genes underlying this relationship may include those influencing the function of dopaminergic neural systems.

Mosing, Miriam A.; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Cesarini, David; Johannesson, Magnus; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Nakamura, Jeanne; Madison, Guy; Ullen, Fredrik

2012-01-01

389

Mechanisms of phytosterolemia in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive and WKY rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of sterol composition in serum, liver, adipose tissue, adrenals, and abdominal aorta demonstrated that the contents of plant sterols, campesterol and sitosterol, were evidently higher in WKY and stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive (SHRSP) rats than in Wistar and WKA rats fed a diet containing a 0.5% plant sterol mixture. Lymphatic 24-hour recovery of 3H-sitosterol was about 2-fold higher in the

Ikuo Ikeda; Hideaki Nakagiri; Michihiro Sugano; Sumiko Ohara; Tadateru Hamada; Megumi Nonaka; Katsumi Imaizumi

2001-01-01

390

Prediction of psychiatric hospitalization: II. The Hospitalization Proneness Scale: A cross-validation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examined the relationship between the Hospitalization Proneness Scale (HPS) and incidence of hospitalization in 2 successive clinic samples of 446 and 149 schizophrenic outpatients. Ss had been randomly assigned to either placebo, chlorpromazine, or promazine and treated under double-blind conditions. The HPS predicted hospitalization for placebo- and chlorpromazine-treated groups in both clinic samples (p < .01). For the 2 promazine-treated

Bernard Rosen

1972-01-01

391

Influences of income change and parental acceptance on adolescent transgression proneness and peer relations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present investigation examined whether the adolescent's involvement in a deviant peer context, proneness to commit transgressions,\\u000a and perceived peer rejection were influenced by family income change (loss, gain, or no change) and adolescent perceptions\\u000a of parental acceptance. The sample consisted of 110 families selected from a longitudinal study of adolescents in Berlin,\\u000a West Germany. A multivariate analysis of covariance,

Nancy L. Galambos; Rainer K. Silbereisen

1987-01-01

392

Minimally invasive esophagectomy for cancer: laparoscopic transhiatal procedure or thoracoscopy in prone position followed by laparoscopy?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Minimally invasive esophagectomy is rapidly emerging as a suitable surgical alternative to the open technique. This retrospective\\u000a comparative study aimed to compare two minimally invasive techniques for esophagectomy: transhiatal laparoscopy with intrathoracic\\u000a or cervical anastomosis (group A) and right thoracoscopy in prone position followed by laparoscopy and left cervicotomy (group\\u000a B) performed by the same surgeon (G.B.C.). The operative time,

G. Dapri; J. Himpens; G. B. Cadière

2008-01-01

393

The value of sequential dialysis, mannitol and midodrine in managing children prone to dialysis failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The uremic state impairs compensatory responses to ultrafiltration (UF). Intradialytic symptoms and hypotension can result\\u000a and lead to premature discontinuation of treatment and sub-optimal dialysis. We report the benefits of mannitol, sequential\\u000a dialysis and midodrine in reducing dialysis failures in those children prone to intradialytic hypotension. Prophylactic mannitol\\u000a halved the odds of intradialytic symptoms and hypotension and increased UF volumes.

Daljit K. Hothi; Elizabeth Harvey; Cristina M. Goia; Denis Geary

2009-01-01

394

Requirements for Success in Marker-Assisted Breeding for Drought-Prone Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The challenge that commercial breeders have in improving the yield of crops in drought-prone environments is to produce cultivars\\u000a that capture more of the water supply for use in transpiration; exchange transpired water for CO2 more effectively in producing biomass; and convert more of the biomass into grain. Many traits affect these requirements,\\u000a and assume greater or lesser importance depending

J. B. Passioura; W. Spielmeyer; D. G. Bonnett

395

Effects of prone position on alveolar recruitment and oxygenation in acute lung injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To investigate the effects of prone position (PP) on alveolar recruitment and oxygenation in acute respiratory failure.¶Design: Prospective physiologic study.¶Setting: Medical ICU two in a university hospital.¶Patients: Twelve adult patients intubated and mechanically ventilated with medical primary acute lung injury\\/adult respiratory distress\\u000a syndrome (ALI\\/ARDS) in whom PP was indicated.¶Measurements and results: We constructed the static inflation volume-pressure curves (V-P)

C. Guerin; M. Badet; S. Rosselli; L. Heyer; J.-M. Sab; B. Langevin; F. Philit; G. Fournier; D. Robert

1999-01-01

396

The omega project: An empirical study of the NDE-prone personality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seventy-four near-death experiencers (NDErs) and 54 persons interested in near-death experiences (NDEs) participated in a mail questionnaire survey to assess the role of psychological factors in influencing susceptibility to NDEs and to measure aftereffects stemming from such events. NDErs, while not more fantasy-prone than control subjects, reported greater sensitivity to nonordinary realities as children and a higher incidence of child

Kenneth Ring; Christopher J. Rosing

1990-01-01

397

Impaired Functional Recovery After Stroke in the Stroke-Prone Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Purpose—To identify if the stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHRSP) exhibits impaired functional recovery after stroke compared with its normotensive reference strain, the Wistar Kyoto rat (WKY). Methods—In study 1, a 2-mm distal middle cerebral artery occlusion (middle cerebral artery occlusion) was performed in both strains and recovery assessed using a 33-point neurological score. Because SHRSPs displayed much larger

J. K. McGill; L. Gallagher; H. V. O. Carswell; E. A. Irving; A. F. Dominiczak; I. M. Macrae

2010-01-01

398

Clinical review: Intra-abdominal hypertension: does it influence the physiology of prone ventilation?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prone ventilation (PV) is a ventilatory strategy that frequently improves oxygenation and lung mechanics in critical illness,\\u000a yet does not consistently improve survival. While the exact physiologic mechanisms related to these benefits remain unproven,\\u000a one major theoretical mechanism relates to reducing the abdominal encroachment upon the lungs. Concurrent to this experience\\u000a is increasing recognition of the ubiquitous role of intra-abdominal

Andrew W Kirkpatrick; Paolo Pelosi; Jan J De Waele; Manu LNG Malbrain; Chad G Ball; Maureen O Meade; Henry T Stelfox; Kevin B Laupland

2010-01-01

399

Quantification Bias Caused by Plasmid DNA Conformation in Quantitative Real-Time PCR Assay  

PubMed Central

Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is the gold standard for the quantification of specific nucleic acid sequences. However, a serious concern has been revealed in a recent report: supercoiled plasmid standards cause significant over-estimation in qPCR quantification. In this study, we investigated the effect of plasmid DNA conformation on the quantification of DNA and the efficiency of qPCR. Our results suggest that plasmid DNA conformation has significant impact on the accuracy of absolute quantification by qPCR. DNA standard curves shifted significantly among plasmid standards with different DNA conformations. Moreover, the choice of DNA measurement method and plasmid DNA conformation may also contribute to the measurement error of DNA standard curves. Due to the multiple effects of plasmid DNA conformation on the accuracy of qPCR, efforts should be made to assure the highest consistency of plasmid standards for qPCR. Thus, we suggest that the conformation, preparation, quantification, purification, handling, and storage of standard plasmid DNA should be described and defined in the Minimum Information for Publication of Quantitative Real-Time PCR Experiments (MIQE) to assure the reproducibility and accuracy of qPCR absolute quantification.

Lin, Chih-Hui; Chen, Yu-Chieh; Pan, Tzu-Ming

2011-01-01

400

Numerical Errors in DNS: Total Run-Time Error  

SciTech Connect

Understanding numerical errors in simulations is critical for many reasons. First and foremost, one must some estimate concerning the reliability of the final result. Simply put, numerical errors add up over time and in most cases the increase is a linear process. It is quite possible that running a code for a very long time can lead to a solution which is completely meaningless even though it may look reasonable. This manuscript will begin a technical discussion on these issues.

Jameson, L.

2000-06-06

401

Error compensation for thermally induced errors on a machine tool  

SciTech Connect

Heat flow from internal and external sources and the environment create machine deformations, resulting in positioning errors between the tool and workpiece. There is no industrially accepted method for thermal error compensation. A simple model has been selected that linearly relates discrete temperature measurements to the deflection. The biggest problem is how to locate the temperature sensors and to determine the number of required temperature sensors. This research develops a method to determine the number and location of temperature measurements.

Krulewich, D.A.

1996-11-08

402

Aversion and proneness to shame in self- and informant-reported personality disorder symptoms.  

PubMed

The present study examined the specificity and extent of relationships between shame and symptoms of five personality disorders (PDs), as they are apparent to both the self and others. Borderline, narcissistic, avoidant, dependent, and obsessive-compulsive PD symptoms were assessed in a sample of 367 undergraduates that evidenced a wide range of symptom levels (25.6% endorsed threshold or greater severity of symptoms on the Schedule of Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality-2). Importantly, for both conceptual and methodological reasons, information about PD symptoms was also obtained from friends/family of 45.2% of the sample. Shame aversion (the tendency to perceive shame as a particularly painful and unwanted emotion) was assessed using the Shame-Aversive Reactions Questionnaire, and shame-proneness (the propensity to experience shame across situations) was assessed using the Test of Self-Conscious Affect-3. Shame aversion displayed the most consistent relationship with PD symptoms, being associated with self-reports of symptoms of all five PDs and informant-reports of symptoms of three PDs, over and above experiential avoidance, trait affect, and guilt. A significant Shame Aversion × Shame-Proneness interaction further revealed that shame-proneness was associated with symptoms of avoidant and dependent PDs among individuals with high but not low levels of shame aversion. Thus, these findings highlight shame aversion's specific importance in PD symptoms and suggest important future research directions. PMID:22452760

Schoenleber, Michelle; Berenbaum, Howard

2011-10-10

403

Rupture of the internal elastic lamina and vascular fragility in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats.  

PubMed

We studied a possible relation between stroke and an enhanced susceptibility to rupture of the arterial internal elastic lamina by comparing stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats with spontaneously hypertensive rats, which have a very low incidence of stroke. We quantified interruptions in the internal elastic lamina in certain arteries and studied the effect of beta-aminopropionitrile, an inhibitor of cross-link formation in collagen and elastic fibers, on rupture of the internal elastic lamina and on mortality in these two substrains. To eliminate any influence of higher blood pressure in the stroke-prone rats on the parameters studied, we used antihypertensive treatment to obtain equivalent blood pressures in the two substrains. Results showed that stroke sensitivity was associated with an enhanced early spontaneous rupture of the internal elastic lamina in the caudal artery, an increased susceptibility to beta-aminopropionitrile-induced rupture of the internal elastic lamina, and earlier mortality, mainly from aortic rupture, under beta-aminopropionitrile treatment. These findings suggest that stroke-prone rats have an enhanced minor connective tissue defect that is expressed by rupture of the internal elastic lamina and may be related, at least in part, to their greater vascular fragility and increased susceptibility to stroke. PMID:2024280

Coutard, M; Osborne-Pellegrin, M

1991-04-01

404

Accelerated partial breast irradiation in the prone position with helical tomotherapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new method for treating early stage breast cancer, called accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI), is described. This method is mostly being accomplished through the use of brachytherapy, whether it be interstitial or using the Mammosite(c) devise. APBI has proven to be effective but costly in a fiscal and physical sense. APBI is more time intensive for the staff and requires an extra operation. Brachytherapy is used instead of external beam partially because of a lack of image guidance and the inability to easily set up the patient in the prone position. In order to perform high precision IMRT on the breast image guidance and delivery verification is necessary. With the advent of helical tomotherapy, another external beam approach is now possible. Tomotherapy allows for an easier method of setting up the patient and verifying her location in the prone position, and it has the ability to track the position of the target on a daily basis. These and other aspects of external beam APBI such as breathing motion, dosimetry differences, and setup differences have been explored. Results show that treating APBI with external beam is not only possible but may be beneficial. Also an entire new modality based on the helical tomotherapy machine is explored. This would specialize the tomotherapy machine for use on the prone breast taking advantage of its unique geometry.

Becker, Stewart J.

405

Deformable mirrors correct wavefront errors.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Adaptive optics have become indispensable elements of high-performance optical systems that image through the atmosphere, compensating for image degradation caused by atmospheric turbulence. A typical system includes a wavefront sensor, a deformable mirror consisting of a reflective membrane backed by precision actuators, and support hardware and software. The sensor detects errors in the incoming wavefront; the computer quantifies these errors and commands the actuators to distort the deformable mirror to induce an equal and opposite wavefront error in near real time. The author describes how precision actuators improve imaging capabilities of ground-base monitoring systems and telescopes by distorting deformable mirrors to compensate for atmospheric turbulence.

Ealey, M. A.

1996-12-01

406

Quantifying potential error in painting breast excision specimens.  

PubMed

Aim. When excision margins are close or involved following breast conserving surgery, many surgeons will attempt to reexcise the corresponding cavity margin. Margins are ascribed to breast specimens such that six faces are identifiable to the pathologist, a process that may be prone to error at several stages. Methods. An experimental model was designed according to stated criteria in order to answer the research question. Computer software was used to measure the surface areas of experimental surfaces to compare human-painted surfaces with experimental controls. Results. The variability of the hand-painted surfaces was considerable. Thirty percent of hand-painted surfaces were 20% larger or smaller than controls. The mean area of the last surface painted was significantly larger than controls (mean 58996 pixels versus 50096 pixels, CI 1477-16324, P = 0.014). By chance, each of the six volunteers chose to paint the deep surface last. Conclusion. This study is the first to attempt to quantify the extent of human error in marking imaginary boundaries on a breast excision model and suggests that humans do not make these judgements well, raising questions about the safety of targeting single margins at reexcision. PMID:23762569

Fysh, Thomas; Boddy, Alex; Godden, Amy

2013-05-23

407

Quantifying Potential Error in Painting Breast Excision Specimens  

PubMed Central

Aim. When excision margins are close or involved following breast conserving surgery, many surgeons will attempt to reexcise the corresponding cavity margin. Margins are ascribed to breast specimens such that six faces are identifiable to the pathologist, a process that may be prone to error at several stages. Methods. An experimental model was designed according to stated criteria in order to answer the research question. Computer software was used to measure the surface areas of experimental surfaces to compare human-painted surfaces with experimental controls. Results. The variability of the hand-painted surfaces was considerable. Thirty percent of hand-painted surfaces were 20% larger or smaller than controls. The mean area of the last surface painted was significantly larger than controls (mean 58996 pixels versus 50096 pixels, CI 1477–16324, P = 0.014). By chance, each of the six volunteers chose to paint the deep surface last. Conclusion. This study is the first to attempt to quantify the extent of human error in marking imaginary boundaries on a breast excision model and suggests that humans do not make these judgements well, raising questions about the safety of targeting single margins at reexcision.

Godden, Amy

2013-01-01

408

Real-time PCR measurement by fluorescence anisotropy.  

PubMed

We have developed an instrument for monitoring real-time PCR using fluorescence anisotropy, enabling an assay chemistry in which the fluorescence from a labeled primer elucidates amplification. The instrument holds the sample temperature constant to within +/-0.03 degrees C during measurement in the extension phase of each PCR cycle and achieves 0.116 mP FA resolution. Primer conjugation with Alexa-Fluor 488, when compared with other fluorophores, is shown to provide the greatest FA range between primer and product. Comparable reproducibility and linearity of the crossing point for a range of target copy numbers is observed between the FA-based assay run in our instrument and the SYBR green assay run in commercial instrumentation. Reproducibility is also consistent with Poisson-distributed experimental error in aliquoting starting copies, a theoretical limit to instrument/assay performance. PMID:16097749

Crane, Bryan L; Hogan, N Catherine; Sudo, Hiroko; Thilly, William G; Hunter, Ian W

2005-08-15

409

Inspection Errors in Link Sampling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Results of an investigation into the sensitivity to two types of inspection error of link sampling procedures described by Harishchandra and Srivenkataramana are reported. Relevant compound distributions are derived. Some comparisons with results obtained...

S. Kotz N. L. Johnson R. N. Rodriquez

1983-01-01

410

Data Base Error Correction (DBEC).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report contains correctional errors and omissions in a combat data base completed in 1984 and 1985 by the Historical Research and Evaluation Organization(HERO) for the U.S. Army Concepts Analysis Agency.

B. R. Bader T. N. Dupuy C. C. Johnson

1987-01-01

411

Error exponents of expander codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that expander codes attain the capacity of the binary symmetric channel under iterative decoding. The error probability has a positive exponent for all rates between 0 and channel capacity. The decoding complexity grows linearly with code length

Alexander Barg; G. Zemor

2001-01-01

412

Measurement Error Webinar Series: Dedication  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Content Cancer Control and Population Sciences Home Applied Research Home Risk Factor Monitoring and Methods Home Measurement Error Webinar Series: Home Glossary of Key Terms & Notation (PDF) Recommended Resources (PDF) Dedication This page links

413

Nursing management of medication errors.  

PubMed

Medication error is the most common and consistent type of error occurring in hospitals. This article attempts to explore the ethical issues relating to the nursing management of medication errors in clinical areas in Macau, China. A qualitative approach was adopted. Seven registered nurses who were involved in medication errors were recruited for in-depth interviews. The interviews were transcribed and analyzed using content analysis. Regarding the management of patients, the nurses acknowledged the mistakes but did not disclose the incidents to patients and relatives. Concerning management of the nurses involved by senior staff, most participants experienced fairness, comfort and understanding during the process of reporting and investigation. The ethical issues relating to the incidents were discussed, particularly in the Chinese context. There is a need for further study relating to the disclosure of medication incidents to patients and some suggestions were made. PMID:18096579

Luk, Leung Andrew; Ng, Wai I Milly; Ko, Kam Ki Stanley; Ung, Vai Ha

2008-01-01

414

Neurocryptococcosis: diagnosis by PCR method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cryptococcus neoformans detection was optimized using PCR technique with the objective of application in the clinical laboratory diagnosis. The amplification area was ITS and 5,6S which encodes the ribosomal RNA (rRNA). A total of 72 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were used, obtained from cases with and without AIDS. The patients had cryptococcal meningitis (n = 56) and meningitis caused by

Regina Célia Paschoal; Mário Hiroyuki Hirata; Rosário Crespo Hirata; Márcia de Souza Carvalho Melhem; Amanda Latercia Tranches Dias; Claudete Rodrigues Paula

2004-01-01

415

What is a prescribing error?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective—To develop a practitioner led definition of a prescribing error for use in quantitative studies of their incidence.Design—Two stage Delphi technique.Subjects—A panel of 34 UK judges, which included physicians, surgeons, pharmacists, nurses and risk managers.Main outcome measures—The extent to which judges agreed with a general definition of a prescribing error, and the extent to which they agreed that each of

B Dean; N Barber; M Schachter

2000-01-01

416

Block Interlaced Pinwheel Error Diffusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Error diffusion is a popular halftoning algorithm that in its most widely used form, is inherently serial. As a se- rial algorithm, error diffusion offers limited opportunity for large-scale parallelism. In some implementations, it may result in excessive bus traffic between the on-chip pro- cessor and the off-chip memory used to store the modified continuous-tone image and the halftone image.

Pingshan Li; Jan P. Allebach

2002-01-01

417

Error-specific medial cortical and subcortical activity during the stop signal task: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.  

PubMed

The ability to detect errors and adjust behavior accordingly is essential for maneuvering in an uncertain environment. Errors are particularly prone to occur when multiple, conflicting responses are registered in a situation that requires flexible behavioral outputs. Previous studies have provided evidence indicating the importance of the medial cortical brain regions including the cingulate cortex in processing conflicting information. However, conflicting situations can be successfully resolved, or lead to errors, prompting a behavioral change in the observers. In particular, how does the brain use error signals specifically to adjust behavior on the fly? Here we employ a stop signal task (SST) to elicit errors approximately half of the time in high-conflict trials despite constant behavioral adjustment of the observers. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we show greater and, sequentially, less activation in the medial cortical regions when observers made an error, compared with when they successfully resolved high-conflict responses. Errors also evoked greater activity in the cuneus, retrosplenial cortex, insula, and subcortical structures including the thalamus and the region of the epithalamus (the habenula). We further showed that the error-related medial cortical activities are not correlated with post-error behavioral adjustment, as indexed by post-error slowing (PES) in go trial reaction time. These results delineate an error-specific pattern of brain activation during the SST. The results also suggest that the relationship between error-related activity and post-error behavioral adjustment may be more complicated than has been conceptualized by the conflict monitoring hypothesis. PMID:18674592

Li, C-S R; Yan, P; Chao, H H-A; Sinha, R; Paliwal, P; Constable, R T; Zhang, S; Lee, T-W

2008-07-08

418

Accurate quantification of microorganisms in PCR-inhibiting environmental DNA extracts by a novel Internal Amplification Control approach using Biotrove OpenArrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

PCR-based detection assays are prone to inhibition by substances present in environmental samples, thereby potentially leading to inaccurate target quantification or false-negative results. Internal amplification controls (IACs) have been developed to help alleviate this problem but are generally applied in a single concentration, thereby yielding less-than-optimal results across the wide range of microbial gene target concentrations possible in environmental samples

R. Van Doorn; M. Klerks; Gent-Pelzer van M; A. G. C. L. Speksnijder; G. A. Kowalchuk; C. D. Schoen

2009-01-01

419

Accurate Quantification of Microorganisms in PCR-Inhibiting Environmental DNA Extracts by a Novel Internal Amplification Control Approach Using Biotrove OpenArrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

PCR-based detection assays are prone to inhibition by substances present in environmental samples, thereby potentially leading to inaccurate target quantification or false-negative results. Internal amplification controls (IACs) have been developed to help alleviate this problem but are generally applied in a single concentration, thereby yielding less-than-optimal results across the wide range of microbial gene target concentrations possible in environmental samples

Doorn van R; M. M. Klerks; Gent-Pelzer van M. P. E; A. Speksnijder; G. A. Kowalchuk; C. D. Schoen

2009-01-01

420

Quantum error correction for beginners  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum error correction (QEC) and fault-tolerant quantum computation represent one of the most vital theoretical aspects of quantum information processing. It was well known from the early developments of this exciting field that the fragility of coherent quantum systems would be a catastrophic obstacle to the development of large-scale quantum computers. The introduction of quantum error correction in 1995 showed that active techniques could be employed to mitigate this fatal problem. However, quantum error correction and fault-tolerant computation is now a much larger field and many new codes, techniques, and methodologies have been developed to implement error correction for large-scale quantum algorithms. In response, we have attempted to summarize the basic aspects of quantum error correction and fault-tolerance, not as a detailed guide, but rather as a basic introduction. The development in this area has been so pronounced that many in the field of quantum information, specifically researchers who are new to quantum information or people focused on the many other important issues in quantum computation, have found it difficult to keep up with the general formalisms and methodologies employed in this area. Rather than introducing these concepts from a rigorous mathematical and computer science framework, we instead examine error correction and fault-tolerance largely through detailed examples, which are more relevant to experimentalists today and in the near future.

Devitt, Simon J.; Munro, William J.; Nemoto, Kae

2013-07-01

421

Medication errors: definitions and classification  

PubMed Central

To understand medication errors and to identify preventive strategies, we need to classify them and define the terms that describe them. The four main approaches to defining technical terms consider etymology, usage, previous definitions, and the Ramsey–Lewis method (based on an understanding of theory and practice). A medication error is ‘a failure in the treatment process that leads to, or has the potential to lead to, harm to the patient’. Prescribing faults, a subset of medication errors, should be distinguished from prescription errors. A prescribing fault is ‘a failure in the prescribing [decision-making] process that leads to, or has the potential to lead to, harm to the patient’. The converse of this, ‘balanced prescribing’ is ‘the use of a medicine that is appropriate to the patient's condition and, within the limits created by the uncertainty that attends therapeutic decisions, in a dosage regimen that optimizes the balance of benefit to harm’. This excludes all forms of prescribing faults, such as irrational, inappropriate, and ineffective prescribing, underprescribing and overprescribing. A prescription error is ‘a failure in the prescription writing process that results in a wrong instruction about one or more of the normal features of a prescription’. The ‘normal features’ include the identity of the recipient, the identity of the drug, the formulation, dose, route, timing, frequency, and duration of administration. Medication errors can be classified, invoking psychological theory, as knowledge-based mistakes, rule-based mistakes, action-based slips, and memory-based lapses. This classification informs preventive strategies.

Aronson, Jeffrey K

2009-01-01

422

Error Correcting Codes for Compound Channels.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Cyclic codes of known classes today are either for burst error correction only or for random error correction only. By careful observation, a typical communication channel is disturbed by both types of errors, burst errors and random errors, but not simul...

H. T. Hsu

1966-01-01

423

Speech Errors of Tone in Taiwanese  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we analyze tone errors of Taiwanese spontaneous speech to tackle three issues. The first is to make a comparison between segmental errors and tone errors in Taiwanese to see if these two kinds of errors behave similarly. The second is to investigate the role of language-specific tone rules in the occurrence of tone errors. Taiwanese, with a

Joyce H.-C. Liu; Samuel Wang

424

77 FR 41881 - Safety Advisory 2012-03; Buckling-Prone Conditions in Continuous Welded Rail Track  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Buckling-Prone Conditions in Continuous Welded Rail Track AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration...complying with their continuous welded rail (CWR) plan procedures and reviewing their...respective railroads to be caused by the rail buckling under extreme heat...

2012-07-16

425

The relationship between acculturation and problem behavior proneness in a Hispanic youth sample: a longitudinal mediation model.  

PubMed

This study, using secondary data analysis, examined prospectively a mediation model of the relationship between acculturation and problem behavior proneness among 330 Hispanic children and adolescents from an urban school district in the southwest region of the United States. Acculturation was predicted to have an indirect, but positive, relationship to problem behavior proneness through parental involvement and self-esteem. The results partially supported the model and indicated that parental involvement, but not self-esteem, played a significant mediational role in children's problem behavior proneness. The individual indicators of problem behavior proneness among Hispanic youth were significantly interrelated, which is consistent with problem behavior theory as conceptualized by R. Jessor (1984) and R. Jessor and S. L. Jessor (1977). Findings from this study provide implications for future research and intervention designs. PMID:12041714

Dinh, Khanh T; Roosa, Mark W; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Lopez, Vera A

2002-06-01

426

Process for preventing encrustations on surfaces which are in constant contact with aqueous solutions containing matter prone to crystallize  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present invention is a process for preventing incrustations of surfaces which are in contact with aqueous solutions containing material prone to crystallize by forming a thin, protective film on the surface to be protected.

F. Hofmann; G. Scholl

1981-01-01

427

Grey matter volume in early human visual cortex predicts proneness to the sound-induced flash illusion  

PubMed Central

Visual perception can be modulated by sounds. A drastic example of this is the sound-induced flash illusion: when a single flash is accompanied by two bleeps, it is sometimes perceived in an illusory fashion as two consecutive flashes. However, there are strong individual differences in proneness to this illusion. Some participants experience the illusion on almost every trial, whereas others almost never do. We investigated whether such individual differences in proneness to the sound-induced flash illusion were reflected in structural differences in brain regions whose activity is modulated by the illusion. We found that individual differences in proneness to the illusion were strongly and significantly correlated with local grey matter volume in early retinotopic visual cortex. Participants with smaller early visual cortices were more prone to the illusion. We propose that strength of auditory influences on visual perception is determined by individual differences in recurrent connections, cross-modal attention and/or optimal weighting of sensory channels.

de Haas, Benjamin; Kanai, Ryota; Jalkanen, Lauri; Rees, Geraint

2012-01-01

428

Investigation of the Causes of the Coronary-Prone (Type A) Behavior Pattern and Coronary Heart Disease.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study investigates the relationships between the coronary-prone (Type A) behavior pattern, coronary heart disease (CHD), and stress. Behavioral and organizational data were obtained from 204 respondents; physiological data were obtained from 184 resp...

M. S. Kalna

1983-01-01

429

Science Findings, Issue 154, July 2013. Managing Wildfire Risk in Fire-Prone Landscapes: How Are Private Landowners Contributing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The fire-prone landscapes of the West include both public and private lands. Wildfire burns indiscriminately across property boundaries, which means that the way potential fuels are managed on one piece of property can affect wildfire risk on neighboring ...

A. P. Fischer S. Charnley

2013-01-01

430

Relationship between C-reactive protein concentration and cytokine responses to exercise in healthy and illness-prone runners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differences in the immune and inflammatory response to exercise between healthy and illness-prone athletes may be one explanation\\u000a why some athletes experience a greater incidence of upper respiratory symptoms than others. The aim of this study was to compare\\u000a the C-reactive protein (CRP) response to acute exercise between healthy and illness-prone trained distance runners. Runners\\u000a were classified as healthy (?2

Amanda J. Cox; David B. Pyne; Maree Gleeson; Robin Callister

2009-01-01

431

The effects of angry and happy expressions on recognition memory for unfamiliar faces in delusion-prone individuals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous studies suggest a cognitive bias for threat-related material in delusional ideation. However, few studies have examined this bias using a memory task. We investigated the influence of delusion-proneness on identity and expression memory for angry and happy faces. Participants high and low in delusion-proneness were presented with happy and angry faces and were later asked to recognise the same

Frank Larøi; Arnaud D’Argembeau; Martial Van der Linden

2006-01-01

432

The relation between social behavior and negative affect in psychosis-prone individuals: an experience sampling investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Daily social behavior and negative affect were examined in a sample of individuals with a wide spectrum of psychosis-proneness scores. Using the experience sampling method, participants were signaled five times per day for a 1-week period to provide naturalistic reports of location, activity, and social behavior. Little evidence was found for a direct association between psychosis-proneness and specific behavioral profiles,

Mathilde M Husky; Olivier S Grondin; Joel D Swendsen

2004-01-01

433

Assessing Jail Inmates’ Proneness To Shame and GuiltFeeling Bad About the Behavior or the Self?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study of 550 jail inmates (379 male and 171 female) held on felony charges examines the reliability and validity of the Test of Self Conscious Affect—Socially Deviant Version as a measure of offenders’ proneness to shame and proneness to guilt. Discriminant validity (e.g., vis-à-vis self-esteem, negative affect, social desirability\\/impression management) and convergent validity (e.g., vis-à-vis correlations with empathy; externalization

June P. Tangney; Jeffrey Stuewig; Debra Mashek; Mark Hastings

2011-01-01

434

Axillary lymph node dose with tangential whole breast radiation in the prone versus supine position: a dosimetric study  

PubMed Central

Background Prone breast positioning reduces skin reaction and heart and lung dose, but may also reduce radiation dose to axillary lymph nodes (ALNs). Methods Women with early stage breast cancer treated with whole breast irradiation (WBI) in the prone position were identified. Patients treated in the supine position were matched for treating physician, laterality, and fractionation. Ipsilateral breast, tumor bed, and Level I, II, and III ALNs were contoured according to the RTOG breast atlas. Clips marking surgically removed sentinel lymph nodes (SLN)s were contoured. Treatment plans developed for each patient were retrospectively analyzed. V90% and V95% was calculated for each axillary level. When present, dose to axillary surgical clips was calculated. Results Treatment plans for 46 women (23 prone and 23 supine) were reviewed. The mean V90% and V95% of ALN Level I was significantly lower for patients treated in the prone position (21% and 14%, respectively) than in the supine position (50% and 37%, respectively) (p?prone position (p?prone position. Conclusions Standard tangential breast irradiation in the prone position results in substantially reduced dose to the Level I axilla as compared with treatment in the supine position. For women in whom axillary coverage is indicated such as those with positive sentinel lymph node biopsy who do not undergo completion axillary dissection, treatment in the prone position may be inappropriate.

2012-01-01

435

Comparison of CT Myelography Performed in the Prone and Supine Positions in the Detection of Cervical Spinal Stenosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: To quantify the change in the cross-sectional area of the cervical spinal cord and subarachnoid space (SAS) in the supine neutral vs prone extension positions in patients with myelopathy undergoing cervical CT myelography.MATERIAL AND METHODS: Axial CT myelgrams of 21 myelopathic patients were performed in both the supine neutral and prone extension positions. The SAS and cord cross-sectional areas

COLE BLEASE GRAHAM III; FRANZ J. WIPPOLD II; KYONGTAE T. BAE; THOMAS K. PILGRAM; ALI SHAIBANI; DANIEL K. KIDO

2001-01-01

436

Explaining errors in children's questions.  

PubMed

The ability to explain the occurrence of errors in children's speech is an essential component of successful theories of language acquisition. The present study tested some generativist and constructivist predictions about error on the questions produced by ten English-learning children between 2 and 5 years of age. The analyses demonstrated that, as predicted by some generativist theories [e.g. Santelmann, L., Berk, S., Austin, J., Somashekar, S. & Lust. B. (2002). Continuity and development in the acquisition of inversion in yes/no questions: dissociating movement and inflection, Journal of Child Language, 29, 813-842], questions with auxiliary DO attracted higher error rates than those with modal auxiliaries. However, in wh-questions, questions with modals and DO attracted equally high error rates, and these findings could not be explained in terms of problems forming questions with why or negated auxiliaries. It was concluded that the data might be better explained in terms of a constructivist account that suggests that entrenched item-based constructions may be protected from error in children's speech, and that errors occur when children resort to other operations to produce questions [e.g. Dabrowska, E. (2000). From formula to schema: the acquisition of English questions. Cognitive Liguistics, 11, 83-102; Rowland, C. F. & Pine, J. M. (2000). Subject-auxiliary inversion errors and wh-question acquisition: What children do know? Journal of Child Language, 27, 157-181; Tomasello, M. (2003). Constructing a language: A usage-based theory of language acquisition. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press]. However, further work on constructivist theory development is required to allow researchers to make predictions about the nature of these operations. PMID:16839536

Rowland, Caroline F

2006-07-12

437

Sensitivity to prediction error in reach adaptation  

PubMed Central

It has been proposed that the brain predicts the sensory consequences of a movement and compares it to the actual sensory feedback. When the two differ, an error signal is formed, driving adaptation. How does an error in one trial alter performance in the subsequent trial? Here we show that the sensitivity to error is not constant but declines as a function of error magnitude. That is, one learns relatively less from large errors compared with small errors. We performed an experiment in which humans made reaching movements and randomly experienced an error in both their visual and proprioceptive feedback. Proprioceptive errors were created with force fields, and visual errors were formed by perturbing the cursor trajectory to create a visual error that was smaller, the same size, or larger than the proprioceptive error. We measured single-trial adaptation and calculated sensitivity to error, i.e., the ratio of the trial-to-trial change in motor commands to error size. We found that for both sensory modalities sensitivity decreased with increasing error size. A reanalysis of a number of previously published psychophysical results also exhibited this feature. Finally, we asked how the brain might encode sensitivity to error. We reanalyzed previously published probabilities of cerebellar complex spikes (CSs) and found that this probability declined with increasing error size. From this we posit that a CS may be representative of the sensitivity to error, and not error itself, a hypothesis that may explain conflicting reports about CSs and their relationship to error.

Haith, Adrian M.; Harran, Michelle D.; Shadmehr, Reza

2012-01-01

438

Accuracy in Copy Number Calling by qPCR and PRT: A Matter of DNA  

PubMed Central

The possible implication of copy number variation (CNV) in the genetic susceptibility to human disease needs to be assessed using robust methods that can be applied at a population scale. In this report, we analyze the performance of the two major techniques, quantitative PCR (qPCR) and paralog ratio test (PRT), and investigate the influence of input DNA amount and template integrity on the reliability of both methods. Analysis of three genes (PRELID1, SYNPO and DEFB4) in a large sample set showed that both methods are prone to false copy number assignments if sufficient attention is not paid to DNA concentration and quality. Accurate normalization of samples is essential for reproducible qPCR because it avoids the effect of differential amplification efficiencies between target and control assays, whereas PRT is generally more sensitive to template degradation due to the fact that longer amplicons are usually needed to optimize sensitivity and specificity of paralog sequence PCR. The use of normalized, high quality genomic DNA yields comparable results with both methods.

Fernandez-Jimenez, Nora; Castellanos-Rubio, Ainara; Plaza-Izurieta, Leticia; Gutierrez, Galder; Irastorza, Inaki; Castano, Luis; Vitoria, Juan Carlos; Bilbao, Jose Ramon

2011-01-01

439

Least Absolute Relative Error Estimation  

PubMed Central

Multiplicative regression model or accelerated failure time model, which becomes linear regression model after logarithmic transformation, is useful in analyzing data with positive responses, such as stock prices or life times, that are particularly common in economic/financial or biomedical studies. Least squares or least absolute deviation are among the most widely used criterions in statistical estimation for linear regression model. However, in many practical applications, especially in treating, for example, stock price data, the size of relative error, rather than that of error itself, is the central concern of the practitioners. This paper offers an alternative to the traditional estimation methods by considering minimizing the least absolute relative errors for multiplicative regression models. We prove consistency and asymptotic normality and provide an inference approach via random weighting. We also specify the error distribution, with which the proposed least absolute relative errors estimation is efficient. Supportive evidence is shown in simulation studies. Application is illustrated in an analysis of stock returns in Hong Kong Stock Exchange.

CHEN, Kani; GUO, Shaojun; YING, Zhiliang

2013-01-01

440

Refractive errors in twin studies.  

PubMed

It is estimated that 1.6 billion people worldwide have myopia, a refractive error, and this number is expected to increase to approximately 2.5 billion by the year 2020. It is now well established that both the environment and genetics play a role in the development of myopia. However, the exact contribution of each of these components to myopia development has yet to be completely determined. Twin studies (classical twin model) are commonly used to determine the weighting of genetic and environmental components in disease. Over the last century, twin studies have investigated the heritability of refractive errors in different sample populations and have collectively supported a genetic basis to refractive errors. However, different sample populations and methods of data collection have produced a wide range of heritability estimates ranging from .5 to .9. This article will review those twin studies that have investigated refractive error, particularly myopia, as well as biometric measures linked to refractive error, to compare heritability estimates and methodology designs. PMID:16899164

Dirani, Mohamed; Chamberlain, Matthew; Garoufalis, Pam; Chen, Christine; Guymer, Robyn H; Baird, Paul N

2006-08-01

441

Accelerated Whole Breast Irradiation With Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy to the Prone Breast  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Whole breast irradiation (WBI) is the standard of care for patients with early-stage breast cancer who opt for breast conservation. After a randomized trial demonstrated equivalent cosmesis and disease control with accelerated WBI (AWBI), our institution began to offer AWBI to appropriate patients. The aim of this study was to examine our unique experience with AWBI using prone positioning and simplified intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) planning with a sequential boost to the tumor bed. Methods and Materials: We identified 356 patients who had been treated with prone WBI using IMRT in our department between January 2004 and December 2006. Of these, 128 (36%) patients had received AWBI (representing 131 treated breasts), consisting of 16 daily fractions of 265 cGy to a total dose of 4,240 cGy followed by a conventionally fractionated boost. Results: Patients who opted for AWBI were similar demographically to the patients undergoing conventional WBI. In the AWBI cohort, 83% of the patients had Stage T1 disease and 22% had nodal involvement (N1). The tumors were estrogen receptor-positive, progesterone receptor-positive and Her-2/Neu-amplified in 82%, 69%, and 11%, respectively. The median duration of AWBI plus a boost was 29 days, and no patient required a toxicity-related treatment break. No Grade 3 or greater acute toxicity developed. At a median follow-up of 18 months, one ipsilateral breast recurrence developed that was salvaged with mastectomy and immediate reconstruction. Conclusion: AWBI to the prone breast using simplified IMRT with a sequential boost offers women requiring breast-only adjuvant radiotherapy an abbreviated treatment with early tumor control and cosmesis comparable to that with standard fractionation.

Croog, Victoria J.; Wu, Abraham J.; McCormick, Beryl [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Beal, Kathryn P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)], E-mail: bealk@mskcc.org

2009-01-01

442

Noninvasive high-frequency percussive ventilation in the prone position after lung transplantation.  

PubMed

Noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation (NIV), which represents a consolidated treatment of both acute and chronic respiratory failure, is increasingly being used to maintain spontaneous ventilation in lung transplant patients with impending pulmonary complications. Adding a noninvasive inspiratory support plus positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) has proven to be useful in preventing endotracheal mechanical ventilation, airway injury, and infections. Lung recipients with closure of the small airways in the dependent regions may also benefit from the prone position, which is helpful to promote recruitment of nonaerated alveoli and faster healing of consolidated atelectatic areas. In patients with localized or diffuse lung infiltrates, high-frequency percussive ventilation (HFPV), by either an invasive airway or a facial mask, has been adopted as an alternative ventilatory mode to enhance airway opening, limit potential respirator-associated lung injury, and improve mucus clearance. In nonintubated lung recipients at risk for volubarotrauma with conventional mechanical ventilation, it allows oxygen diffusion into the distal airways at lower mean airway pressures while avoiding repetitive cyclical opening and closing of the terminal airways. We summarize the clinical course of 3 patients with post-lung transplantation respiratory complications who were noninvasively ventilated with HFPV in the prone position. Major advantages of this treatment included gradual improvement of spontaneous clearance of bronchial secretions, significant attenuation of graft infiltrates and consolidations, a reduction in the number of bronchoscopies required, a decrease in spontaneous respiratory rate and work of breathing, and a significant improvement in gas exchange. The patients found HFPV with either standard facial mask or total mask interface to be comfortable or only mildly uncomfortable, and after the sessions they felt more restored. HFPV by facial mask in the prone position may be an interesting and attractive alternative to standard NIV, one that is more useful when implemented before full-blown respiratory failure is established. PMID:22974896

Feltracco, P; Serra, E; Barbieri, S; Milevoj, M; Michieletto, E; Carollo, C; Rea, F; Zanus, G; Boetto, R; Ori, C

2012-09-01

443

Depression is an Early Disease Manifestation in Lupus-Prone MRL/lpr Mice  

PubMed Central

Many lupus patients develop neuropsychiatric manifestations, including cognitive dysfunction, depression, and anxiety. However, it is not clear if neuropsychiatric lupus is a primary disease manifestation, or is secondary to non-CNS disease. We found that MRL/lpr lupus-prone mice exhibited significant depression-like behavior already at 8 weeks of age, despite normal visual working memory, locomotor coordination and social preference. Moreover, depression was significantly correlated with titers of autoantibodies against DNA, NMDA receptors and cardiolipin. Our results indicate that lupus mice develop depression and CNS dysfunction very early in the course of disease, in the absence of substantial pathology involving other target organs.

Gao, Hua-Xin; Campbell, Sean R.; Cui, Min-Hui; Zong, Pu; Hwang, Jong hee; Gulinello, Maria; Putterman, Chaim

2009-01-01

444

On the relationship between meaning in life and boredom proneness: examining a logotherapy postulate.  

PubMed

Logotherapy, developed by Viktor Frankl, posits that when one lacks meaning in life, boredom can result. Thus, the two constructs should be inversely related. To examine this relationship, 279 students (M = 19.8 yr., SD = 2.6; 179 women, 98 men) from a university in the southern United States were administered the Purpose of Life test and the Boredom Proneness Scale. As expected, a statistically significant negative correlation was found between the scores on the two scales (r = -.71). Directions for research are offered. PMID:18361113

Melton, Amanda M A; Schulenberg, Stefan E

2007-12-01

445

An immunoglobulin light chain from a lupus-prone mouse induces autoantibodies in normal mice  

PubMed Central

Autoantibodies against the 70-kD U1 RNP nucleoprotein autoantigen and DNA were elicited in normal BALB/c mice with a purified Ig light chain. This light chain, derived from a lupus-prone MRL-lpr/lpr mouse, has two distinctive properties: it contains an idiotypic marker recognized by a monoclonal MRL-lpr/lpr anti-snRNP autoantibody, and the amino acid sequence of its third hypervariable region (CDR3) is homologous to a sequence in an antigenic region of the 70-kD U1 RNP polypeptide. The results demonstrate that an Ig idiotype that mimics an autoantigen can induce autoimmunization.

1990-01-01

446

Error Field Correction in ITER  

SciTech Connect

A new method for correcting magnetic field errors in the ITER tokamak is developed using the Ideal Perturbed Equilibrium Code (IPEC). The dominant external magnetic field for driving islands is shown to be localized to the outboard midplane for three ITER equilibria that represent the projected range of operational scenarios. The coupling matrices between the poloidal harmonics of the external magnetic perturbations and the resonant fields on the rational surfaces that drive islands are combined for different equilibria and used to determine an ordered list of the dominant errors in the external magnetic field. It is found that efficient and robust error field correction is possible with a fixed setting of the correction currents relative to the currents in the main coils across the range of ITER operating scenarios that was considered.

Jong-kyu Park, Allen H. Boozer, Jonathan E. Menard, and Michael J. Schaffer

2008-05-22

447

Crediting errors: Credit, liquidity, performance and The Comedy of Errors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spectre of the market is a predictable end of teleological economic criticism, which promotes a play like TheComedy of Errors for anticipating and neatly illustrating the bewildering liquidity of the capitalist market. But looking to its pre-classical source and not only to a putative future, the play seems to reject cash liquidity – a striking choice given the much

Colette Gordon

2010-01-01

448

Assessing circular error probable when the errors are elliptical normal  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important problem of continuing interest to engineers is the need to assess the circular error probable (CEP), a measure of the impact accuracy of a projectile or a measure of GPS point positioning accuracy. One of the challenges in addressing this problem is to construct some accurate confidence bounds or intervals for CEP in the small sample settings, where

Jian Zhang; Weilian An

2011-01-01

449

Assessing circular error probable when the errors are elliptical normal  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important problem of continuing interest to engineers is the need to assess the circular error probable (CEP), a measure of the impact accuracy of a projectile or a measure of GPS point positioning accuracy. One of the challenges in addressing this problem is to construct some accurate confidence bounds or intervals for CEP in the small sample settings, where

Jian Zhang; Weilian An

2012-01-01

450

Analysis of Medication Error Reports  

SciTech Connect

In medicine, as in many areas of research, technological innovation and the shift from paper based information to electronic records has created a climate of ever increasing availability of raw data. There has been, however, a corresponding lag in our abilities to analyze this overwhelming mass of data, and classic forms of statistical analysis may not allow researchers to interact with data in the most productive way. This is true in the emerging area of patient safety improvement. Traditionally, a majority of the analysis of error and incident reports has been carried out based on an approach of data comparison, and starts with a specific question which needs to be answered. Newer data analysis tools have been developed which allow the researcher to not only ask specific questions but also to “mine” data: approach an area of interest without preconceived questions, and explore the information dynamically, allowing questions to be formulated based on patterns brought up by the data itself. Since 1991, United States Pharmacopeia (USP) has been collecting data on medication errors through voluntary reporting programs. USP’s MEDMARXsm reporting program is the largest national medication error database and currently contains well over 600,000 records. Traditionally, USP has conducted an annual quantitative analysis of data derived from “pick-lists” (i.e., items selected from a list of items) without an in-depth analysis of free-text fields. In this paper, the application of text analysis and data analysis tools used by Battelle to analyze the medication error reports already analyzed in the traditional way by USP is described. New insights and findings were revealed including the value of language normalization and the distribution of error incidents by day of the week. The motivation for this effort is to gain additional insight into the nature of medication errors to support improvements in medication safety.

Whitney, Paul D.; Young, Jonathan; Santell, John; Hicks, Rodney; Posse, Christian; Fecht, Barbara A.

2004-11-15

451

The prevalence and nature of errors and near errors reported by hospital staff nurses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this article is to describe the nature and prevalence of errors and near errors reported by 393 full-time hospital staff nurses. One hundred nineteen nurses (30%) reported making at least one error, and 127 nurses (33%) reported at least one near error, for a total of 199 errors and 213 near errors in the 28-day data collection

Michele C. Balas; Linda D. Scott; Ann E. Rogers

2004-01-01

452

Quality Indicators to Detect Pre-Analytical Errors in Laboratory Testing  

PubMed Central

Pre-analytical steps, the major source of mistakes in laboratory diagnostics, arise during patient preparation, sample collection, sample transportation, sample preparation, and sample storage. However, while it has been reported that the pre-analytical phase is error-prone, only recently has it been demonstrated that most errors occur in the ‘pre-pre-analytical phase’. This comprises the initial procedures of the testing process performed by healthcare personnel outside the laboratory walls and outside the direct control of the clinical laboratory. Quality indicators (QIs) should therefore cover all steps in the pre-analytical phase, from test requesting to sample storage. In the present paper, the state-of-the-art of QIs in laboratory testing is described. The focus is on the experience of a working group of the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medi