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1

Directed evolution of lectins by an improved error-prone PCR and ribosome display method.  

PubMed

Lectins are useful reagents for the structural characterization of glycans. However, currently available lectins have an apparent drawback in their "repertoire," lacking some critical probes, such as those for sulfated glycans. Thus, engineering lectins with novel specificity would be of great practical value. Here, we describe a directed evolution strategy to tailor novel lectins for novel specificity or biological functions. Our strategy uses a reinforced ribosome display-based selection combined with error-prone PCR to isolate mutants with target specificity and an evanescent-field fluorescence-assisted glycoconjugate microarray to rapidly evaluate the specificity of selected mutants. A successful case of screening a lectin, which has acquired an ability to recognize 6-sulfo-galactose-terminated glycans, is described. PMID:25117262

Hu, Dan; Tateno, Hiroaki; Hirabayashi, Jun

2014-01-01

2

[Directed evolution by error-prone PCR of Armillariella tabescens MAN47 beta-mannanase gene toward enhanced thermal resistance].  

PubMed

Firstly, We used error-prone PCR to induce mutations on Armillariella tabescens MAN47 beta-mannanase gene, Secondly, we cloned the mutated fragments into secreted expression vector pYCalpha, Then the recombinant plasmids were transformed into Saccharomyces cerevisiae BJ5465 after amplified and extracted in DH5alpha cells. Through three cycles of error-prone PCR we built a mutant database, Then we screened one optimum (named M262) from about 104 mutants. The evoluted MAN47 beta-mannanase displayed both higher thermal stability and activity than wide type. The evoluted enzyme M262 retained high activity after treatment at 80 degrees C for 30 min, whereas, the wild type nearly lost activity under this condition. Meanwhile, the activity of M262 can reach to 25 U/mL, which is 4.3 times as wide type under optimum temperature. In addition, pH stability and pH range of evoluted enzyme M262 were both improved compared with wild-type enzyme. The optimum pH was estimated to be similar to that of wild-type enzyme. The sequence comparison illustrated that there were three nucleotide substitutions (T343A/C827T/T1139C) which carried corresponding amino acid changes (Ser115Thr/Thr276Met/Val380Ala). According to homologous modeling by SWISS-MODEL Repository, three mutated amino acids located at the sixth amino acid of the fourth beta-sheet, the first amino acid of the sixth alpha-helix, the turn between the tenth and eleventh beta-sheet, respectively. PMID:20352966

Lü, Xiaohui; Hu, Yadong; Hu, Fengjuan; Liu, Daling; Yao, Dongsheng

2009-12-01

3

Estimation of the Mutation Rate during Error-prone Polymerase Chain Reaction  

E-print Network

Estimation of the Mutation Rate during Error-prone Polymerase Chain Reaction Dai Wang1 , Cheng-prone polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is widely used to introduce point mutations during in vitro evolution step of in vitro evolution is mutagenesis. Error-prone polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (Leung et al

Sun, Fengzhu - Sun, Fengzhu

4

Efficient Symbol-Level Transmission in Error-Prone  

E-print Network

and control messages Error-prone wireless links Provide reliability ARQ Hybrid-ARQ Erasure codes Fountain codes (rateless codes) #12;4444 Introduction Errors in packets Not binary Numeric data Like;12121212 Multiple Packets- with Network Coding We first find the optimal We code all of the i-th symbols of the k

Wu, Jie

5

AIDing antibody diversity by error-prone mismatch repair  

PubMed Central

The creation of a highly diverse antibody repertoire requires the synergistic activity of a DNA mutator, known as activation-induced deaminase (AID), coupled with an error-prone repair process that recognizes the DNA mismatch catalyzed by AID. Instead of facilitating the canonical error-free response, which generally occurs throughout the genome, DNA mismatch repair (MMR) participates in an error-prone repair mode that promotes A:T mutagenesis and double-strand breaks at the immunoglobulin (Ig) genes. As such, MMR is capable of compounding the mutation frequency of AID activity as well as broadening the spectrum of base mutations; thereby increasing the efficiency of antibody maturation. We here review the current understanding of this MMR-mediated process and describe how the MMR signaling cascade downstream of AID diverges in a locus dependent manner and even within the Ig locus itself to differentially promote somatic hypermutation (SHM) and class switch recombination (CSR) in B cells. PMID:22703640

Chahwan, Richard; Edelmann, Winfried; Scharff, Matthew D; Roa, Sergio

2012-01-01

6

Replicative mechanisms for CNV formation are error prone  

PubMed Central

Summary We investigated 67 breakpoint junctions of gene copy number gains (CNVs) in 31 unrelated subjects. We observed a strikingly high frequency of small deletions and insertions (29%) apparently originating from polymerase-slippage events, in addition to frameshifts and point mutations in homonucleotide runs (13%), at or flanking the breakpoint junctions of complex CNVs. These simple nucleotide variants (SNV) were generated concomitantly with the de novo complex genomic rearrangement (CGR) event. Our findings implicate a low fidelity error-prone DNA polymerase in synthesis associated with DNA repair mechanisms that leads to a local increase in point mutation burden associated with human CGR. PMID:24056715

Carvalho, Claudia M. B.; Pehlivan, Davut; Ramocki, Melissa B.; Fang, Ping; Alleva, Benjamin; Franco, Luis M.; Belmont, John W.; Hastings, P. J.; Lupski, James R.

2013-01-01

7

Error-prone translesion synthesis mediates acquired chemoresistance  

PubMed Central

The development of cancer drug resistance is a persistent clinical problem limiting the successful treatment of disseminated malignancies. However, the molecular mechanisms by which initially chemoresponsive tumors develop therapeutic resistance remain poorly understood. Error-prone translesional DNA synthesis (TLS) is known to underlie the mutagenic effects of numerous anticancer agents, but little is known as to whether mutation induced by this process is ultimately relevant to tumor drug resistance. Here, we use a tractable mouse model of B-cell lymphoma to interrogate the role of error-prone translesional DNA synthesis in chemotherapy-induced mutation and resistance to front-line chemotherapy. We find that suppression of Rev1, an essential TLS scaffold protein and dCMP transferase, inhibits both cisplatin- and cyclophosphamide-induced mutagenesis. Additionally, by performing repeated cycles of tumor engraftment and treatment, we show that Rev1 plays a critical role in the development of acquired cyclophosphamide resistance. Thus, chemotherapy not only selects for drug-resistant tumor population but also directly promotes the TLS-mediated acquisition of resistance-causing mutations. These data provide an example of an alteration that prevents the acquisition of drug resistance in tumors in vivo. Because TLS also represents a critical mechanism of DNA synthesis in tumor cells following chemotherapy, these data suggest that TLS inhibition may have dual anticancer effects, sensitizing tumors to therapy as well as preventing the emergence of tumor chemoresistance. PMID:21068378

Xie, Kun; Doles, Jason; Hemann, Michael T.; Walker, Graham C.

2010-01-01

8

Error-prone rolling circle amplification greatly simplifies random mutagenesis.  

PubMed

We describe a simple and easy protocol to introduce random mutations into plasmid DNA: error-prone rolling circle amplification. A template plasmid is amplified via rolling circle amplification with decreased fidelity in the presence of MnCl2 and is used to transform a host strain resulting in a mutant library with several random point mutations per kilobase through the entire plasmid. The primary advantage of this method is its simplicity. This protocol does not require the design of specific primers or thermal cycling. The reaction mixture can be used for direct transformation of a host strain. This method allows rapid preparation of randomly mutated plasmid libraries, enabling wider application of random mutagenesis. PMID:25055768

Fujii, Ryota; Kitaoka, Motomitsu; Hayashi, Kiyoshi

2014-01-01

9

Error-prone polymerase activity causes multinucleotide mutations in humans.  

PubMed

About 2% of human genetic polymorphisms have been hypothesized to arise via multinucleotide mutations (MNMs), complex events that generate SNPs at multiple sites in a single generation. MNMs have the potential to accelerate the pace at which single genes evolve and to confound studies of demography and selection that assume all SNPs arise independently. In this paper, we examine clustered mutations that are segregating in a set of 1092 human genomes, demonstrating that the signature of MNM becomes enriched as large numbers of individuals are sampled. We estimate the percentage of linked SNP pairs that were generated by simultaneous mutation as a function of the distance between affected sites and show that MNMs exhibit a high percentage of transversions relative to transitions, findings that are reproducible in data from multiple sequencing platforms and cannot be attributed to sequencing error. Among tandem mutations that occur simultaneously at adjacent sites, we find an especially skewed distribution of ancestral and derived alleles, with GC ? AA, GA ? TT, and their reverse complements making up 27% of the total. These mutations have been previously shown to dominate the spectrum of the error-prone polymerase Pol ?, suggesting that low-fidelity DNA replication by Pol ? is at least partly responsible for the MNMs that are segregating in the human population. We develop statistical estimates of MNM prevalence that can be used to correct phylogenetic and population genetic inferences for the presence of complex mutations. PMID:25079859

Harris, Kelley; Nielsen, Rasmus

2014-09-01

10

Preprocessing document images by resampling is error prone and unnecessary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Integrity tests are proposed for image processing algorithms that should yield essentially the same output under 90 degree rotations, edge-padding and monotonic gray-scale transformations of scanned documents. The tests are demonstrated on built-in functions of the Matlab Image Processing Toolbox. Only the routine that reports the area of the convex hull of foreground components fails the rotation test. Ensuring error-free preprocessing operations like size and skew normalization that are based on resampling an image requires more radical treatment. Even if faultlessly implemented, resampling is generally irreversible and may introduce artifacts. Fortunately, advances in storage and processor technology have all but eliminated any advantage of preprocessing or compressing document images by resampling them. Using floating point coordinate transformations instead of resampling images yields accurate run-length, moment, slope, and other geometric features.

Nagy, George

2013-01-01

11

Preferential D-loop Extension by a Translesion DNA Polymerase Underlies Error-Prone Recombination  

PubMed Central

Summary Although homologous recombination (HR) is considered an accurate form of DNA repair, genetics suggest that Escherichia coli (E. coli) translesion DNA polymerase (pol) IV (DinB) promotes error-prone recombination during stress which allows cells to overcome adverse conditions. How pol IV functions and is regulated during recombination under stress, however, is unknown. We show that pol IV is highly proficient in error-prone recombination, and is preferentially recruited to D-loops at stress-induced concentrations in vitro. Unexpectedly, we find that high-fidelity pol II switches to exonuclease mode at D-loops which is stimulated by topological stress and reduced deoxy-ribonucleotide pools observed during stationary-phase. The exonuclease activity of pol II enables it to compete with pol IV which likely suppresses error-prone recombination. These findings indicate that preferential D-loop extension by pol IV facilitates error-prone recombination and explain how pol II reduces such errors in vivo. PMID:23686288

Pomerantz, Richard T.; Kurth, Isabel; Goodman, Myron F.; O'Donnell, Mike

2013-01-01

12

Two-Step Fair Scheduling of Continuous Media Streams over Error-Prone Wireless Channels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In wireless cellular networks, streaming of continuous media (with strict QoS requirements) over wireless links is challenging due to their inherent unreliability characterized by location-dependent, bursty errors. To address this challenge, we present a two-step scheduling algorithm for a base station to provide streaming of continuous media to wireless clients over the error-prone wireless links. The proposed algorithm is capable of minimizing the packet loss rate of individual clients in the presence of error bursts, by transmitting packets in the round-robin manner and also adopting a mechanism for channel prediction and swapping.

Oh, Soohyun; Lee, Jin Wook; Park, Taejoon; Jo, Tae-Chang

13

Recovery of Arrested Replication Forks by Homologous Recombination Is Error-Prone  

PubMed Central

Homologous recombination is a universal mechanism that allows repair of DNA and provides support for DNA replication. Homologous recombination is therefore a major pathway that suppresses non-homology-mediated genome instability. Here, we report that recovery of impeded replication forks by homologous recombination is error-prone. Using a fork-arrest-based assay in fission yeast, we demonstrate that a single collapsed fork can cause mutations and large-scale genomic changes, including deletions and translocations. Fork-arrest-induced gross chromosomal rearrangements are mediated by inappropriate ectopic recombination events at the site of collapsed forks. Inverted repeats near the site of fork collapse stimulate large-scale genomic changes up to 1,500 times over spontaneous events. We also show that the high accuracy of DNA replication during S-phase is impaired by impediments to fork progression, since fork-arrest-induced mutation is due to erroneous DNA synthesis during recovery of replication forks. The mutations caused are small insertions/duplications between short tandem repeats (micro-homology) indicative of replication slippage. Our data establish that collapsed forks, but not stalled forks, recovered by homologous recombination are prone to replication slippage. The inaccuracy of DNA synthesis does not rely on PCNA ubiquitination or trans-lesion-synthesis DNA polymerases, and it is not counteracted by mismatch repair. We propose that deletions/insertions, mediated by micro-homology, leading to copy number variations during replication stress may arise by progression of error-prone replication forks restarted by homologous recombination. PMID:23093942

Pietrobon, Violena; Freon, Karine; Costes, Audrey; Lambert, Sarah A. E.

2012-01-01

14

Error-prone mammalian female meiosis from silencing the spindle assembly checkpoint without normal interkinetochore tension.  

PubMed

It is well established that chromosome segregation in female meiosis I (MI) is error-prone. The acentrosomal meiotic spindle poles do not have centrioles and are not anchored to the cortex via astral microtubules. By Cre recombinase-mediated removal in oocytes of the microtubule binding site of nuclear mitotic apparatus protein (NuMA), which is implicated in anchoring microtubules at poles, we determine that without functional NuMA, microtubules lose connection to MI spindle poles, resulting in highly disorganized early spindle assembly. Subsequently, very long spindles form with hyperfocused poles. The kinetochores of homologs make attachments to microtubules in these spindles but with reduced tension between them and accompanied by alignment defects. Despite this, the spindle assembly checkpoint is normally silenced and the advance to anaphase I and first polar body extrusion takes place without delay. Females without functional NuMA in oocytes are sterile, producing aneuploid eggs with altered chromosome number. These findings establish that in mammalian MI, the spindle assembly checkpoint is unable to sustain meiotic arrest in the presence of one or few misaligned and/or misattached kinetochores with reduced interkinetochore tension, thereby offering an explanation for why MI in mammals is so error-prone. PMID:22552228

Kolano, Agnieszka; Brunet, Stéphane; Silk, Alain D; Cleveland, Don W; Verlhac, Marie-Hélène

2012-07-01

15

Is Non-Homologous End-Joining Really an Inherently Error-Prone Process?  

PubMed Central

DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are harmful lesions leading to genomic instability or diversity. Non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) is a prominent DSB repair pathway, which has long been considered to be error-prone. However, recent data have pointed to the intrinsic precision of NHEJ. Three reasons can account for the apparent fallibility of NHEJ: 1) the existence of a highly error-prone alternative end-joining process; 2) the adaptability of canonical C-NHEJ (Ku- and Xrcc4/ligase IV–dependent) to imperfect complementary ends; and 3) the requirement to first process chemically incompatible DNA ends that cannot be ligated directly. Thus, C-NHEJ is conservative but adaptable, and the accuracy of the repair is dictated by the structure of the DNA ends rather than by the C-NHEJ machinery. We present data from different organisms that describe the conservative/versatile properties of C-NHEJ. The advantages of the adaptability/versatility of C-NHEJ are discussed for the development of the immune repertoire and the resistance to ionizing radiation, especially at low doses, and for targeted genome manipulation. PMID:24453986

Betermier, Mireille; Bertrand, Pascale; Lopez, Bernard S.

2014-01-01

16

The effectiveness of a 'Do Not Use' list and perceptions of healthcare professionals on error-prone abbreviations.  

PubMed

Background The use of error-prone abbreviations has led to medication errors. Many safety organisations have introduced 'Do Not Use' lists (lists of error-prone abbreviations that should be avoided by prescribers), but the effectiveness of these lists have not been studied. Objective We assessed the effectiveness of the 'Do Not Use' list introduced to the study hospital, and sought the attitudes of healthcare professionals on other potentially dangerous abbreviations (not included in the 'Do Not Use' list) used in prescriptions. Setting The study was conducted in a university affiliated tertiary hospital in Hong Kong. Methods An uncontrolled observational study was conducted. In-patient prescriptions were reviewed to assess the use of error-prone abbreviations included in the 'Do Not Use' list before, after its introduction, and following the first reinforcement. An on-line survey was also conducted among prescribers, pharmacists and nurses. Main outcome measure Rate of using error-prone abbreviations and other unapproved abbreviations among reviewed prescriptions. Results 3,238 prescriptions (23,398 drug items) were reviewed. The use of abbreviations in the 'Do Not Use' list decreased from 7.8 to 3.3 % after its introduction (P < 0.001) and to 1.3 % after the first reinforcement (P < 0.001). However, unapproved abbreviations were used to denote prescribing instructions in 19.2 % of the drugs prescribed. 49 different types of unapproved abbreviations were used for drug names. Conclusions A 'Do Not Use' list is effective in reducing error-prone abbreviations. Reinforcements of the 'Do Not Use' list further improves prescriber adherence. However, many other unapproved abbreviations (not included in current 'Do Not Use' lists) are used when prescribing. Periodic reminders on error-prone abbreviations and education of prescribers on associated risks may help to reduce the use of error-prone abbreviations in hospitals. PMID:25098946

Samaranayake, Nithushi R; Cheung, Dixon S T; Lam, May P S; Cheung, Tommy T; Chui, William C M; Wong, Ian C K; Cheung, Bernard M Y

2014-10-01

17

The RBE of neutrons for induced mitotic gene conversion in "error-prone repair" defective yeast.  

PubMed

Mitotic gene conversion was induced in the diploid yeast strain D7.rad6 which lacks "error-prone repair" and thus does not mutate. Neutrons (14.5 MeV), 60Co gamma rays, and 150 kVp X rays delivered under oxic or anoxic conditions were compared for their ability to induce gene conversion. Doses were chosen to minimize cell killing. A lack of induced mutation in this strain at the ilv1-92 allele was confirmed. Gene conversion of the trp5-27/trp5-12 alleles was induced with a linear dose response, and the yield of convertants per gray was significantly enhanced over yields reported previously for a wild-type stain. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of neutrons relative to low-LET radiations was found to be about 2.2 for either oxic or anoxic radiation in contrast to wild-type where the oxic RBE was 1.7 and the anoxic RBE 2.7. Absence of the rad6 function was therefore associated with an altered RBE for the conversional end point. The oxygen enhancement ratio (OER) for gene conversion was found to be about 1.7 for all radiations in contrast to the wild type where the OER for neutrons was 1.7, but for low-LET radiations it was 2.7. As repair of ionizing damage in the rad6 strain did not lead to mutation, owing to the loss of "error-prone repair," the changes in yield, RBE, and OER were consistent with the hypothesis that some of the lesions processed by wild type to generate mutations could, in the rad6 strain, lead instead to gene conversion. PMID:3299473

Unrau, P

1987-07-01

18

DNA double strand break repair in human bladder cancer is error prone and involves microhomology-associated end-joining  

Microsoft Academic Search

In human cells DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) can be repaired by the non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) pathway. In a background of NHEJ defi- ciency, DSBs with mismatched ends can be joined by an error-prone mechanism involving joining between regions of nucleotide microhomology. The majority of joins formed from a DSB with partially incompatible 30 overhangs by cell-free extracts from human

Johanne Bentley; Christine P. Diggle; Patricia Harnden; Margaret A. Knowles; Anne E. Kiltie

2004-01-01

19

Optimal design and efficiency of two-phase case-control studies with error-prone and error-free exposure measures.  

PubMed

This paper addresses optimal design and efficiency of two-phase (2P) case-control studies in which the first phase uses an error-prone exposure measure, Z, while the second phase measures true, dichotomous exposure, X, in a subset of subjects. Optimal design of a separate second phase, to be added to a preexisting study, is also investigated. Differential misclassification is assumed throughout. Results are also applicable to 2P cohort studies with error-prone and error-free measures of disease status but error-free exposure measures. While software based on the mean score method of Reilly and Pepe (1995, Biometrika 82, 299--314) can find optimal designs given pilot data, the lack of simple formulae makes it difficult to generalize about efficiency compared to one-phase (1P) studies based on X alone. Here, formulae for the optimal ratios of cases to controls and first- to second-phase sizes, and the optimal second-phase stratified sampling fractions, given a fixed budget, are given. The maximum efficiency of 2P designs compared to a 1P design is deduced and is shown to be bounded from above by a function of the sensitivities and specificities of Z. The efficiency of 'balanced' separate second-phase designs (Breslow and Cain, 1988, Biometrika 75, 11--20)-in which equal numbers of subjects are chosen from each first-phase strata-compared to optimal design is deduced, enabling situations where balanced designs are nearly optimal to be identified. PMID:15860543

McNamee, R

2005-10-01

20

Survival analysis with error-prone time-varying covariates: a risk set calibration approach  

PubMed Central

Summary Occupational, environmental, and nutritional epidemiologists are often interested in estimating the prospective effect of time-varying exposure variables such as cumulative exposure or cumulative updated average exposure, in relation to chronic disease endpoints such as cancer incidence and mortality. From exposure validation studies, it is apparent that many of the variables of interest are measured with moderate to substantial error. Although the ordinary regression calibration approach is approximately valid and efficient for measurement error correction of relative risk estimates from the Cox model with time-independent point exposures when the disease is rare, it is not adaptable for use with time-varying exposures. By re-calibrating the measurement error model within each risk set, a risk set regression calibration method is proposed for this setting. An algorithm for a bias-corrected point estimate of the relative risk using an RRC approach is presented, followed by the derivation of an estimate of its variance, resulting in a sandwich estimator. Emphasis is on methods applicable to the main study/external validation study design, which arises in important applications. Simulation studies under several assumptions about the error model were carried out, which demonstrated the validity and efficiency of the method in finite samples. The method was applied to a study of diet and cancer from Harvard’s Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS). PMID:20486928

Liao, Xiaomei; Zucker, David M.; Li, Yi; Spiegelman, Donna

2010-01-01

21

A Nucleotide-Analogue-Induced Gain of Function Corrects the Error-Prone Nature of Human DNA Polymerase iota  

SciTech Connect

Y-family DNA polymerases participate in replication stress and DNA damage tolerance mechanisms. The properties that allow these enzymes to copy past bulky adducts or distorted template DNA can result in a greater propensity for them to make mistakes. Of the four human Y-family members, human DNA polymerase iota (hpol{iota}) is the most error-prone. In the current study, we elucidate the molecular basis for improving the fidelity of hpol{iota} through use of the fixed-conformation nucleotide North-methanocarba-2{prime}-deoxyadenosine triphosphate (N-MC-dATP). Three crystal structures were solved of hpol{iota} in complex with DNA containing a template 2{prime}-deoxythymidine (dT) paired with an incoming dNTP or modified nucleotide triphosphate. The ternary complex of hpol{iota} inserting N-MC-dATP opposite dT reveals that the adenine ring is stabilized in the anti orientation about the pseudo-glycosyl torsion angle, which mimics precisely the mutagenic arrangement of dGTP:dT normally preferred by hpol{iota}. The stabilized anti conformation occurs without notable contacts from the protein but likely results from constraints imposed by the bicyclo[3.1.0]hexane scaffold of the modified nucleotide. Unmodified dATP and South-MC-dATP each adopt syn glycosyl orientations to form Hoogsteen base pairs with dT. The Hoogsteen orientation exhibits weaker base-stacking interactions and is less catalytically favorable than anti N-MC-dATP. Thus, N-MC-dATP corrects the error-prone nature of hpol{iota} by preventing the Hoogsteen base-pairing mode normally observed for hpol{iota}-catalyzed insertion of dATP opposite dT. These results provide a previously unrecognized means of altering the efficiency and the fidelity of a human translesion DNA polymerase.

Ketkar, Amit; Zafar, Maroof K.; Banerjee, Surajit; Marquez, Victor E.; Egli, Martin; Eoff, Robert L. (Cornell); (Vanderbilt); (NCI); (Arkansas)

2012-10-25

22

Mutation in Brca2 stimulates error-prone homology-directed repair of DNA double-strand breaks occurring between repeated sequences  

PubMed Central

Mutation of BRCA2 causes familial early onset breast and ovarian cancer. BRCA2 has been suggested to be important for the maintenance of genome integrity and to have a role in DNA repair by homology- directed double-strand break (DSB) repair. By studying the repair of a specific induced chromosomal DSB we show that loss of Brca2 leads to a substantial increase in error-prone repair by homology-directed single-strand annealing and a reduction in DSB repair by conservative gene conversion. These data demonstrate that loss of Brca2 causes misrepair of chromosomal DSBs occurring between repeated sequences by stimulating use of an error-prone homologous recombination pathway. Furthermore, loss of Brca2 causes a large increase in genome-wide error-prone repair of both spontaneous DNA damage and mitomycin C-induced DNA cross-links at the expense of error-free repair by sister chromatid recombination. This provides insight into the mechanisms that induce genome instability in tumour cells lacking BRCA2. PMID:11532935

Tutt, Andrew; Bertwistle, David; Valentine, Janet; Gabriel, Anastasia; Swift, Sally; Ross, Gillian; Griffin, Carol; Thacker, John; Ashworth, Alan

2001-01-01

23

Biochemical Analysis of Six Genetic Variants of Error-Prone Human DNA Polymerase ? Involved in Translesion DNA Synthesis.  

PubMed

DNA polymerase (pol) ? is the most error-prone among the Y-family polymerases that participate in translesion synthesis (TLS). Pol ? can bypass various DNA lesions, e.g., N(2)-ethyl(Et)G, O(6)-methyl(Me)G, 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxoG), and an abasic site, though frequently with low fidelity. We assessed the biochemical effects of six reported genetic variations of human pol ? on its TLS properties, using the recombinant pol ? (residues 1-445) proteins and DNA templates containing a G, N(2)-EtG, O(6)-MeG, 8-oxoG, or abasic site. The ?1-25 variant, which is the N-terminal truncation of 25 residues resulting from an initiation codon variant (c.3G > A) and also is the formerly misassigned wild-type, exhibited considerably higher polymerase activity than wild-type with Mg(2+) (but not with Mn(2+)), coinciding with its steady-state kinetic data showing a ?10-fold increase in kcat/Km for nucleotide incorporation opposite templates (only with Mg(2+)). The R96G variant, which lacks a R96 residue known to interact with the incoming nucleotide, lost much of its polymerase activity, consistent with the kinetic data displaying 5- to 72-fold decreases in kcat/Km for nucleotide incorporation opposite templates either with Mg(2+) or Mn(2+), except for that opposite N(2)-EtG with Mn(2+) (showing a 9-fold increase for dCTP incorporation). The ?1-25 variant bound DNA 20- to 29-fold more tightly than wild-type (with Mg(2+)), but the R96G variant bound DNA 2-fold less tightly than wild-type. The DNA-binding affinity of wild-type, but not of the ?1-25 variant, was ?7-fold stronger with 0.15 mM Mn(2+) than with Mg(2+). The results indicate that the R96G variation severely impairs most of the Mg(2+)- and Mn(2+)-dependent TLS abilities of pol ?, whereas the ?1-25 variation selectively and substantially enhances the Mg(2+)-dependent TLS capability of pol ?, emphasizing the potential translational importance of these pol ? genetic variations, e.g., individual differences in TLS, mutation, and cancer susceptibility to genotoxic carcinogens. PMID:25162224

Kim, Jinsook; Song, Insil; Jo, Ara; Shin, Joo-Ho; Cho, Hana; Eoff, Robert L; Guengerich, F Peter; Choi, Jeong-Yun

2014-10-20

24

Structural and Functional Elucidation of the Mechanism Promoting Error-prone Synthesis by Human DNA Polymerase [kappa] Opposite the 7,8-Dihydro-8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine Adduct  

SciTech Connect

Human polymerase kappa (hPol {kappa}) is one of four eukaryotic Y-class DNA polymerases and may be an important element in the cellular response to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzo[a]pyrene, which can lead to reactive oxygenated metabolite-mediated oxidative stress. Here, we present a detailed analysis of the activity and specificity of hPol {kappa} bypass opposite the major oxidative adduct 7,8-dihydro-8-oxo-2{prime}-deoxyguanosine (8-oxoG). Unlike its archaeal homolog Dpo4, hPol {kappa} bypasses this lesion in an error-prone fashion by inserting mainly dATP. Analysis of transient-state kinetics shows diminished 'bursts' for dATP:8-oxoG and dCTP:8-oxoG incorporation, indicative of non-productive complex formation, but dATP:8-oxoG insertion events that do occur are 2-fold more efficient than dCTP:G insertion events. Crystal structures of ternary hPol {kappa} complexes with adducted template-primer DNA reveal non-productive (dGTP and dATP) alignments of incoming nucleotide and 8-oxoG. Structural limitations placed upon the hPol {kappa} by interactions between the N-clasp and finger domains combined with stabilization of the syn-oriented template 8-oxoG through the side chain of Met-135 both appear to contribute to error-prone bypass. Mutating Leu-508 in the little finger domain of hPol {kappa} to lysine modulates the insertion opposite 8-oxoG toward more accurate bypass, similar to previous findings with Dpo4. Our structural and activity data provide insight into important mechanistic aspects of error-prone bypass of 8-oxoG by hPol {kappa} compared with accurate and efficient bypass of the lesion by Dpo4 and polymerase {eta}.

Irimia, Adriana; Eoff, Robert L.; Guengerich, F.Peter; Egli, Martin; (Vanderbilt)

2009-09-25

25

MSH2/MSH6 complex promotes error-free repair of AID-induced dU:G mispairs as well as error-prone hypermutation of A:T sites.  

PubMed

Mismatch repair of AID-generated dU:G mispairs is critical for class switch recombination (CSR) and somatic hypermutation (SHM) in B cells. The generation of a previously unavailable Msh2(-/-)Msh6(-/-) mouse has for the first time allowed us to examine the impact of the complete loss of MutSalpha on lymphomagenesis, CSR and SHM. The onset of T cell lymphomas and the survival of Msh2(-/-)Msh6(-/-) and Msh2(-/-)Msh6(-/-)Msh3(-/-) mice are indistinguishable from Msh2(-/-) mice, suggesting that MSH2 plays the critical role in protecting T cells from malignant transformation, presumably because it is essential for the formation of stable MutSalpha heterodimers that maintain genomic stability. The similar defects on switching in Msh2(-/-), Msh2(-/-)Msh6(-/-) and Msh2(-/-)Msh6(-/-)Msh3(-/-) mice confirm that MutSalpha but not MutSbeta plays an important role in CSR. Analysis of SHM in Msh2(-/-)Msh6(-/-) mice not only confirmed the error-prone role of MutSalpha in the generation of strand biased mutations at A:T bases, but also revealed an error-free role of MutSalpha when repairing some of the dU:G mispairs generated by AID on both DNA strands. We propose a model for the role of MutSalpha at the immunoglobulin locus where the local balance of error-free and error-prone repair has an impact in the spectrum of mutations introduced during Phase 2 of SHM. PMID:20567595

Roa, Sergio; Li, Ziqiang; Peled, Jonathan U; Zhao, Chunfang; Edelmann, Winfried; Scharff, Matthew D

2010-01-01

26

Two uvs genes of Aspergillus nidulans with different functions in error-prone repair: uvsI , active in mutation-specific reversion, and uvsC , a recA homolog, required for all UV mutagenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two genes of Aspergillus nidulans are known to function in UV mutagenesis, but have been assigned to different epistasis groups: uvsC, which is also required for meiosis and mitotic recombination, and uvsI, which may have no other function. To clarify their role in error-prone repair and to investigate their interaction, uvsI and uvsC single and uvsI;uvsC double mutant strains were

S.-K. Chae; E. Kafer

1997-01-01

27

Self-Regulated Exposure to Erotica, Recall Errors, and Subjective Reactions as a Function of Erotophobia and Type A Coronary-Prone Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-regulated exposure to erotic stimuli was investigated in the context of a controlled laboratory experiment. It was hypothesized that erotophiles spend more time viewing erotica and remember the content of the material more accurately than do erotophobes. It was also hypothesized that Type A coronary-prone individuals spend less time viewing erotica than Type Bs. Subjects were 36 male and 34

Michael A. Becker; Donn Byrne

1985-01-01

28

Systemic Errors In Quantitative PCR Titration of Self-Complementary AAV Vectors and Improved Alternative Methods  

PubMed Central

Self-complementary AAV (scAAV) vector genomes contain a covalently closed hairpin derived from a mutated inverted terminal repeat which connects the two monomer single stranded genomes into a head-to-head or tail-to-tail dimer. We found that during quantitative PCR (qPCR) this structure inhibits the amplification of proximal amplicons and causes the systemic underreporting of copy number by as much as 10-fold. We show that cleavage of scAAV vector genomes with restriction endonuclease to liberate amplicons from the covalently closed terminal hairpin restores quantitative amplification, and we implement this procedure in a simple, modified qPCR titration method for scAAV vectors. Additionally, we developed and present an AAV genome titration procedure based on gel electrophoresis that requires minimal sample processing and has very low inter assay variability, and as such is well suited for the rigorous quality control demands of clinical vector production facilities. PMID:22428975

Fagone, Paolo; Wright, J. Fraser; Nathwani, Amit C.; Nienhuis, Arthur W.; Davidoff, Andrew M.; Gray, John T.

2013-01-01

29

DNA double-strand-break complexity levels and their possible contributions to the probability for error-prone processing and repair pathway choice  

PubMed Central

Although the DNA double-strand break (DSB) is defined as a rupture in the double-stranded DNA molecule that can occur without chemical modification in any of the constituent building blocks, it is recognized that this form is restricted to enzyme-induced DSBs. DSBs generated by physical or chemical agents can include at the break site a spectrum of base alterations (lesions). The nature and number of such chemical alterations define the complexity of the DSB and are considered putative determinants for repair pathway choice and the probability that errors will occur during this processing. As the pathways engaged in DSB processing show distinct and frequently inherent propensities for errors, pathway choice also defines the error-levels cells opt to accept. Here, we present a classification of DSBs on the basis of increasing complexity and discuss how complexity may affect processing, as well as how it may cause lethal or carcinogenic processing errors. By critically analyzing the characteristics of DSB repair pathways, we suggest that all repair pathways can in principle remove lesions clustering at the DSB but are likely to fail when they encounter clusters of DSBs that cause a local form of chromothripsis. In the same framework, we also analyze the rational of DSB repair pathway choice. PMID:23804754

Schipler, Agnes; Iliakis, George

2013-01-01

30

errors  

E-print Network

HDOS ERROR MESSAGES Part 1. ... Not Capable of This Operation 006 Illegal Format for Device Name 007 Illegal Format for File Name 008 ... 133 Illegal Usage 134 Data Lock Engaged 135 Cant Find Variable Mentioned in NEXT Statement ...

31

Evaluating levels of PCR efficiency and genotyping error in DNA extracted from engorged and non-engorged female Dermacentor variabilis ticks.  

PubMed

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods are increasingly used to elucidate tick biology. However, DNA extracted from ticks may provide poor PCR templates as a result of PCR inhibition by mammalian blood or contamination by male DNA (in fertilized females). In this study, the effects of removing the bloodmeal and reproductive organs were evaluated through paired DNA extractions in engorged and non-engorged Dermacentor variabilis (Say) (Acari: Ixodidae), prior to PCR amplification at 12 microsatellites. The first extraction utilized only mouthparts and legs ('mouthpart' samples) and the second utilized tick bodies ('body' samples). The results indicated that contamination by male DNA was an unlikely source of genotyping error in mouthpart and body samples. Engorged females showed higher levels of PCR inhibition in body vs. mouthpart samples, with a 29% decrease in amplification success rates per PCR and a 10-fold increase in levels of missing genotypes in body samples. By contrast, non-engorged females showed little difference in amplification success rates or numbers of missing genotypes in body vs. mouthpart samples. We discuss analytical concerns related to this systematic bias in PCR problems and recommend the removal of the bloodmeal and reproductive organs prior to DNA extraction, especially in engorged female ticks. PMID:20704654

Dharmarajan, G; Rhodes, O E

2011-03-01

32

The Concept of Accident Proneness: A Review  

PubMed Central

The term accident proneness was coined by psychological research workers in 1926. Since then its concept—that certain individuals are always more likely than others to sustain accidents, even though exposed to equal risk—has been questioned but seldom seriously challenged. This article describes much of the work and theory on which this concept is based, details the difficulties encountered in obtaining valid information and the interpretative errors that can arise from the examination of imperfect data, and explains why accident proneness became so readily accepted as an explanation of the facts. A recent hypothesis of accident causation, namely that a person's accident liability may vary from time to time, is outlined, and the respective abilities of this and of accident proneness to accord with data from the more reliable literature are examined. The authors conclude that the hypothesis of individual variation in liability is more realistic and in better agreement with the data than is accident proneness. PMID:14106130

Froggatt, Peter; Smiley, James A.

1964-01-01

33

Upscaled CTAB-Based DNA Extraction and Real-Time PCR Assays for Fusarium culmorum and F. graminearum DNA in Plant Material with Reduced Sampling Error  

PubMed Central

Fusarium graminearum Schwabe (Gibberella zeae Schwein. Petch.) and F. culmorum W.G. Smith are major mycotoxin producers in small-grain cereals afflicted with Fusarium head blight (FHB). Real-time PCR (qPCR) is the method of choice for species-specific, quantitative estimation of fungal biomass in plant tissue. We demonstrated that increasing the amount of plant material used for DNA extraction to 0.5–1.0 g considerably reduced sampling error and improved the reproducibility of DNA yield. The costs of DNA extraction at different scales and with different methods (commercial kits versus cetyltrimethylammonium bromide-based protocol) and qPCR systems (doubly labeled hybridization probes versus SYBR Green) were compared. A cost-effective protocol for the quantification of F. graminearum and F. culmorum DNA in wheat grain and maize stalk debris based on DNA extraction from 0.5–1.0 g material and real-time PCR with SYBR Green fluorescence detection was developed. PMID:19330077

Brandfass, Christoph; Karlovsky, Petr

2008-01-01

34

Groundtruthing Next-Gen Sequencing for Microbial Ecology-Biases and Errors in Community Structure Estimates from PCR Amplicon Pyrosequencing  

PubMed Central

Analysis of microbial communities by high-throughput pyrosequencing of SSU rRNA gene PCR amplicons has transformed microbial ecology research and led to the observation that many communities contain a diverse assortment of rare taxa–a phenomenon termed the Rare Biosphere. Multiple studies have investigated the effect of pyrosequencing read quality on operational taxonomic unit (OTU) richness for contrived communities, yet there is limited information on the fidelity of community structure estimates obtained through this approach. Given that PCR biases are widely recognized, and further unknown biases may arise from the sequencing process itself, a priori assumptions about the neutrality of the data generation process are at best unvalidated. Furthermore, post-sequencing quality control algorithms have not been explicitly evaluated for the accuracy of recovered representative sequences and its impact on downstream analyses, reducing useful discussion on pyrosequencing reads to their diversity and abundances. Here we report on community structures and sequences recovered for in vitro-simulated communities consisting of twenty 16S rRNA gene clones tiered at known proportions. PCR amplicon libraries of the V3–V4 and V6 hypervariable regions from the in vitro-simulated communities were sequenced using the Roche 454 GS FLX Titanium platform. Commonly used quality control protocols resulted in the formation of OTUs with >1% abundance composed entirely of erroneous sequences, while over-aggressive clustering approaches obfuscated real, expected OTUs. The pyrosequencing process itself did not appear to impose significant biases on overall community structure estimates, although the detection limit for rare taxa may be affected by PCR amplicon size and quality control approach employed. Meanwhile, PCR biases associated with the initial amplicon generation may impose greater distortions in the observed community structure. PMID:22970184

Polson, Shawn W.; Wommack, K. Eric; Williamson, Shannon J.; McDonald, Ian R.; Cary, S. Craig

2012-01-01

35

Sigmoidal curve-fitting redefines quantitative real-time PCR with the prospective of developing automated high-throughput applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative real-time PCR has revolutionized many aspects of genetic research, biomedical diagnostics and pathogen detection. Nevertheless, the full poten- tial of this technology has yet to be realized, primarily due to the limitations of the threshold-based meth- odologies that are currently used for quantitative analysis. Prone to errors caused by variations in reac- tion preparation and amplification conditions, these approaches

R. G. Rutledge

2004-01-01

36

Boredom proneness and psychosocial development.  

PubMed

The effect of boredom proneness as measured by the Boredom Proneness Scale (R. F. Farmer & N. D. Sundberg, 1986) on college students' psychosocial development was investigated via the Student Developmental Task and Lifestyle Assessment (SDTLA; R. B. Winston, T. K. Miller, & J. S. Prince, 1995). Low boredom-prone students had significantly higher scores on the following SDTLA measures: career planning, lifestyle planning, peer relationships, educational involvement, instrumental autonomy, emotional autonomy, interdependence, academic autonomy, and salubrious lifestyle. Gender differences on boredom proneness and psychosocial development measures are discussed. PMID:10319449

Watt, J D; Vodanovich, S J

1999-05-01

37

Virtual PCR  

SciTech Connect

The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) stands among the keystone technologies for analysis of biological sequence data. PCR is used to amplify DNA, to generate many copies from as little as a single template. This is essential, for example, in processing forensic DNA samples, pathogen detection in clinical or biothreat surveillance applications, and medical genotyping for diagnosis and treatment of disease. It is used in virtually every laboratory doing molecular, cellular, genetic, ecologic, forensic, or medical research. Despite its ubiquity, we lack the precise predictive capability that would enable detailed optimization of PCR reaction dynamics. In this LDRD, we proposed to develop Virtual PCR (VPCR) software, a computational method to model the kinetic, thermodynamic, and biological processes of PCR reactions. Given a successful completion, these tools will allow us to predict both the sequences and concentrations of all species that are amplified during PCR. The ability to answer the following questions will allow us both to optimize the PCR process and interpret the PCR results: What products are amplified when sequence mixtures are present, containing multiple, closely related targets and multiplexed primers, which may hybridize with sequence mismatches? What are the effects of time, temperature, and DNA concentrations on the concentrations of products? A better understanding of these issues will improve the design and interpretation of PCR reactions. The status of the VPCR project after 1.5 years of funding is consistent with the goals of the overall project which was scoped for 3 years of funding. At half way through the projected timeline of the project we have an early beta version of the VPCR code. We have begun investigating means to improve the robustness of the code, performed preliminary experiments to test the code and begun drafting manuscripts for publication. Although an experimental protocol for testing the code was developed, the preliminary experiments were tainted by contaminated products received from the manufacturer. Much knowledge has been gained in the development of the code thus far, but without final debugging, increasing its robustness and verifying it against experimental results, the papers which we have drafted to share our findings still require the final data necessary for publication. The following sections summarize our final progress on VPCR as it stands after 1.5 years of effort on an ambitious project scoped for a 3 year period. We have additional details of the methods than are provided here, but would like to have legal protection in place before releasing them. The result of this project, a suite of programs that predict PCR products as a function of reaction conditions and sequences, will be used to address outstanding questions in pathogen detection and forensics at LLNL. VPCR should enable scientists to optimize PCR protocols in terms of time, temperature, ion concentration, and primer sequences and concentrations, and to estimate products and error rates in advance of performing experiments. Our proposed capabilities are well ahead of all currently available technologies, which do not model non-equilibrium kinetics, polymerase extension, or predict multiple or undesired PCR products. We are currently seeking DHS funding to complete the project, at which time licensing opportunities will be explored, an updated patent application will be prepared, and a publication will be submitted. A provisional and a full patent application have already been filed (1).

Gardner, S N; Clague, D S; Vandersall, J A; Hon, G; Williams, P L

2006-02-23

38

Comparison of Sybr Green I, ELISA and conventional agarose gel-based PCR in the detection of infectious bursal disease virus.  

PubMed

The current available molecular method to detect infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). However, the conventional PCR is time consuming, prone to error and less sensitive. In this study, the performances of Sybr Green I real-time PCR, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and conventional agarose detection methods in detecting specific IBDV PCR products were compared. We found the real-time PCR was at least 10 times more sensitive than ELISA detection method with a detection limit of 0.25pg. The latter was also at least 10 times more sensitive than agarose gel electrophoresis detection method. The developed assay detects both very virulent and vaccine strains of IBDV but not other RNA viruses such as Newcastle disease virus and infectious bronchitis virus. Hence, Sybr Green I-based real-time PCR is a highly sensitive assay for the detection of IBDV. PMID:16971101

Hairul Aini, H; Omar, A R; Hair-Bejo, M; Aini, I

2008-01-01

39

List of Error-Prone Abbreviations, Symbols, and Dose Designations  

MedlinePLUS

... unit dose (e.g., diltiazem 125 mg IV infusion “UD” misinterpreted as meaning to give the entire infusion as a unit [bolus] dose) Use “as directed” ... Drug NamesIntended Meaning Misinterpretation Correction “Nitro” drip nitroglycerin infusion Mistaken as sodium nitroprusside infusion Use complete drug ...

40

Fission Yeast Rad52 Phosphorylation Restrains Error Prone Recombination Pathways  

PubMed Central

Rad52 is a key protein in homologous recombination (HR), a DNA repair pathway dedicated to double strand breaks and recovery of blocked or collapsed replication forks. Rad52 allows Rad51 loading on single strand DNA, an event required for strand invasion and D-loop formation. In addition, Rad52 functions also in Rad51 independent pathways because of its ability to promote single strand annealing (SSA) that leads to loss of genetic material and to promote D-loops formation that are cleaved by Mus81 endonuclease. We have previously reported that fission yeast Rad52 is phosphorylated in a Sty1 dependent manner upon oxidative stress and in cells where the early step of HR is impaired because of lack of Rad51. Here we show that Rad52 is also constitutively phosphorylated in mus81 null cells and that Sty1 partially impinges on such phosphorylation. As upon oxidative stress, the Rad52 phosphorylation in rad51 and mus81 null cells appears to be independent of Tel1, Rad3 and Cdc2. Most importantly, we show that mutating serine 365 to glycine (S365G) in Rad52 leads to loss of the constitutive Rad52 phosphorylation observed in cells lacking Rad51 and to partial loss of Rad52 phosphorylation in cells lacking Mus81. Contrariwise, phosphorylation of Rad52-S365G protein is not affected upon oxidative stress. These results indicate that different Rad52 residues are phosphorylated in a Sty1 dependent manner in response to these distinct situations. Analysis of spontaneous HR at direct repeats shows that mutating serine 365 leads to an increase in spontaneous deletion-type recombinants issued from mitotic recombination that are Mus81 dependent. In addition, the recombination rate in the rad52-S365G mutant is further increased by hydroxyurea, a drug to which mutant cells are sensitive. PMID:24748152

Bellini, Angela; Girard, Pierre-Marie; Tessier, Ludovic; Sage, Evelyne; Francesconi, Stefania

2014-01-01

41

Error-prone translesion synthesis mediates acquired chemoresistance  

E-print Network

The development of cancer drug resistance is a persistent clinical problem limiting the successful treatment of disseminated malignancies. However, the molecular mechanisms by which initially chemoresponsive tumors develop ...

Xie, Kun

42

Propensity Score Weighting with Error-Prone Covariates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Inverse probability weighting (IPW) estimates are widely used in applications where data are missing due to nonresponse or censoring or in observational studies of causal effects where the counterfactuals cannot be observed. This extensive literature has shown the estimators to be consistent and asymptotically normal under very general conditions,…

McCaffrey, Daniel F.; Lockwood, J. R.; Setodji, Claude M.

2011-01-01

43

Analgesic Prescribing Errors and Associated Medication Characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medication errors involving analgesics, including mistakes in prescribing, are a major contributor to suboptimal therapeutic outcomes and preventable adverse patient events. A systematic evaluation of 2,044 prevented (near-miss) analgesic prescribing errors detected in a teaching hospital was performed to better understand these errors and contributing error-prone analgesic medication characteristics. The overall detected error rate was 2.87 errors per 1,000 analgesic

Howard S. Smith; Timothy S. Lesar

2011-01-01

44

Prone view ultrasonography for pancreatic tail neoplasms.  

PubMed

Ultrasonography was performed in the prone and supine positions in six patients with neoplasms in the tail of the pancreas. The masses were either not apparent (three cases) or less well visualized on the supine scans. The value and indications of the prone position in the ultrasonic evaluation of masses in this portion of the pancreas are documented. Prone scanning is particularly useful when malignant ascites interferes with pancreatic visualization in the supine position. PMID:98000

Goldstein, H M; Katragadda, C S

1978-08-01

45

Fantasy Proneness: Hypnosis, Developmental Antecedents, and Psychopathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a summary of the findings of our ongoing research program on the fantasy-prone person. In seven studies, nearly 6,000 college students were screened in order to obtain five samples of 156 fantasy-prone subjects. Fantasy-prone subjects (fantasizers) were selected from the upper 2%–4% of the college population on a measure of imaginative involvement and contrasted with nonfantasizers (lower

Steven Jay Lynn; Judith W. Rhue

1988-01-01

46

Error budget calculations in laboratory medicine: linking the concepts of biological variation and allowable medical errors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Random, systematic and sporadic errors, which unfortunately are not uncommon in laboratory medicine, can have a considerable impact on the well being of patients. Although somewhat difficult to attain, our main goal should be to prevent all possible errors. A good insight on error-prone steps in the laboratory process is essential to achieving a structured system for error reduction.

A. K Stroobants; H. M. J Goldschmidt; M Plebani

2003-01-01

47

Fashion groups, gender, and boredom proneness  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractThis study examined differences between men and women and among fashion consumer groups (fashion innovators, fashion opinion leaders, innovative communicators, and fashion followers) in propensity toward boredom. Participants (126 male, 130 female university students) completed questionnaires measuring fashion group membership, boredom proneness, and demographics. anova revealed significant effects for fashion group for two dimensions of boredom proneness: internal stimulation and

Cathryn M. Studak; Jane E. Workman

2004-01-01

48

Shame-proneness in attempted suicide patients  

PubMed Central

Background It has been suggested that shame may be an important feature in suicidal behaviors. The disposition to react with shame, “shame-proneness”, has previously not been investigated in groups of attempted suicide patients. We examined shame-proneness in two groups of attempted suicide patients, one group of non-suicidal patients and one group of healthy controls. We hypothesized that the attempted suicide patients would be more shame-prone than non-suicidal patients and healthy controls. Methods The Test of Self-Conscious Affect (TOSCA), which is the most used measure of shame-proneness, was completed by attempted suicide patients (n?=?175: 105 women and 3 men with borderline personality disorder [BPD], 45 women and 22 men without BPD), non-suicidal psychiatric patients (n?=?162), and healthy controls (n?=?161). The participants were convenience samples, with patients from three clinical research projects and healthy controls from a fourth research project. The relationship between shame-proneness and attempted suicide was studied with group comparisons and multiple regressions. Men and women were analyzed separately. Results Women were generally more shame-prone than men of the same participant group. Female suicide attempters with BPD were significantly more shame-prone than both female suicide attempters without BPD and female non-suicidal patients and controls. Male suicide attempters without BPD were significantly less shame-prone than non-suicidal male patients. In multiple regressions, shame-proneness was predicted by level of depression and BPD (but not by attempted suicide) in female patients, and level of depression and non-suicidality in male patients. Conclusions Contrary to our hypothesis and related previous research, there was no general relationship between shame-proneness and attempted suicide. Shame-proneness was differentially related to attempted suicide in different groups of suicide attempters, with significantly high shame-proneness among female suicide attempters with BPD and a negative relationship between shame-proneness and attempted suicide among male patients. More research on state and trait shame in different groups of suicidal individuals seems clinically relevant. PMID:22632273

2012-01-01

49

Fully automated prone-supine coregistration in computed tomographic colonography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fully automated, anatomically-based procedure is developed for the coregistration of prone and supine scans in computed tomographic colonography (CTC). Haustral folds, teniae coli and other anatomic landmarks are extracted from the segmented colonic lumen and serve as the basis for iterative optimization-based matching of the colonic surfaces. The three-dimensional coregistration is computed efficiently using a two-dimensional filet representation of the colon. The circumferential positions of longitudinal structures such as teniae coli are used to estimate a rotational prone-to-supine deformation, haustral folds give a longitudinal (stretching) deformation, while other landmarks and anatomical considerations are used to constrain the allowable deformations. The proposed method is robust to changes in the detected anatomical landmarks such as the obscuration or apparent bifurcation of teniae coli. Preliminary validation in the Walter Reed CTC data set shows excellent coregistration accuracy-57 manually identified features (such as polyps and diverticula) are automatically coregistered with a mean three-dimensional error of 16.4 mm. In phantom studies, 210 fiducial pairs are coregistered to a mean three-dimensional error of 8.6 mm. The coregistration allows points of interest in one scan to be automatically located in the other, leading to an expected improvement in per-patient read time and a significant reduction in the cost of CTC.

Davis, Brynmor J.; Norris, James A.; Bieszczad, Jerry Y.; Soto, Jorge A.; Kynor, David B.

2011-03-01

50

Ethnic and gender differences in boredom proneness  

SciTech Connect

Although boredom may exhibit many shared elements, culturally specific attitudes have also been found to exist. The present paper investigated boredom proneness among African-American college students. Data from 120 participants on the Boredom Proneness (BP) Scale was analyzed and compared to cross-cultural participants. African-American females scored significantly higher than African-American males. Scores were presented from two other studies to show a comparative look at boredom proneness in five other ethnic groups. African-American females are the only female ethnic group to score higher on the BP Scale than their male counterparts. Additionally, overall African-Americans, were found to have higher BP scores than their Western counterparts.

Gibson, G.S.; Morales,

1996-02-01

51

Medication Errors  

MedlinePLUS

... Coordinating Council for Medication Error Reporting and Prevention Medication Errors Within the Center for Drug Evaluation and ... broader product safety issues. Drug Products Associated with Medication Errors FDA Drug Safety Communication: Serious medication errors ...

52

Associations between intrusive thoughts, reality discrimination and hallucination-proneness in healthy young adults.  

PubMed

Introduction. People who experience intrusive thoughts are at increased risk of developing hallucinatory experiences, as are people who have weak reality discrimination skills. No study has yet examined whether these two factors interact to make a person especially prone to hallucinatory experiences. The present study examined this question in a non-clinical sample. Methods. Participants were 160 students, who completed a reality discrimination task, as well as self-report measures of cannabis use, negative affect, intrusive thoughts and auditory hallucination-proneness. The possibility of an interaction between reality discrimination performance and level of intrusive thoughts was assessed using multiple regression. Results. The number of reality discrimination errors and level of intrusive thoughts were independent predictors of hallucination-proneness. The reality discrimination errors × intrusive thoughts interaction term was significant, with participants who made many reality discrimination errors and reported high levels of intrusive thoughts being especially prone to hallucinatory experiences. Conclusions. Hallucinatory experiences are more likely to occur in people who report high levels of intrusive thoughts and have weak reality discrimination skills. If applicable to clinical samples, these findings suggest that improving patients' reality discrimination skills and reducing the number of intrusive thoughts they experience may reduce the frequency of hallucinatory experiences. PMID:25345759

Smailes, David; Meins, Elizabeth; Fernyhough, Charles

2015-01-01

53

Identifying violence-proneness in sex offenders  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 118 sex offenders were compared on two measures of violence-proneness (the Clarke Violence Scale or CVS and the Forensic Assessment of Violence or FAV) and the AECOM Coping Scales. The sex offenders were divided into 29 violent and 89 nonviolent cases, based on their criminal histories of sexual and assault offences. Both the CVS and FAV discriminated

Ron Langevin; Reuben A. Lang; Percy Wright; Lorraine Handy; Vicky Majpruz

1989-01-01

54

The Detection of Fault-Prone Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of the statistical technique of discriminant analysis as a tool for the detection of fault-prone programs is explored. A principal-components procedure was employed to reduce simple multicollinear complexity metrics to uncorrelated measures on orthogonal complexity domains. These uncorrelated measures were then used to classify programs into alternate groups, depending on the metric values of the program. The criterion

John C. Munson; Taghi M. Khoshgoftaar

1992-01-01

55

Recovering Connected Error Region Based on Adaptive Error Concealment Order Determination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parts of compressed video streams may be lost or corrupted when being transmitted over bandwidth limited networks and wireless communication networks with error-prone channels. Error concealment (EC) techniques are often adopted at the decoder side to improve the quality of the reconstructed video. Under the conditions of a high rate of data packets that arrives at the decoder corrupted, it

Xueming Qian; Guizhong Liu; Huan Wang

2009-01-01

56

Adaptive joint spatio-temporal error concealment for video communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past years, video communication has found its application in an increasing number of environments. Unfor- tunately, some of them are error-prone and the risk of block losses caused by transmission errors is ubiquitous. To reduce the effects of these block losses, a new spatio-temporal error concealment algorithm is presented. The algorithm uses spatial as well as temporal information

Jürgen Seiler; André Kaup

2008-01-01

57

Medication administration errors in adult patients in the ICU  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To quantify the incidence and specify the types of medication administration errors from a list of error-prone medications and to determine if patient harm resulted from these errors. Design: An observational evaluation. Setting: Five intensive care units (ICUs) in the United States. Patients and participants: Eight hundred fifty-one patients who were at least 18 years of age and admitted

Andrea D. Calabrese; Brian L. Erstad; Katherine Brandl; Jeffrey F. Barletta; Sandra L. Kane; Deb S. Sherman

2001-01-01

58

Current Suicide Proneness and Past Suicidal Behavior in Adjudicated Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Youth recently assigned to probation (n = 233) were assessed for current suicide proneness, depression, and hopelessness, as well as for recent suicide ideation, previous suicide ideation, or suicide attempt(s). The Life Attitudes Schedule-Short Form (LAS-SF) was used to assess suicide proneness. As per the LAS-SF, suicide proneness was defined…

Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer; Lamis, Dorian A.

2008-01-01

59

PCR thermocycler  

DOEpatents

A sleeve-type silicon polymerase chain reaction (PCR) chamber or thermocycler having improved thermal performance. The silicon sleeve reaction chamber is improved in thermal performance by etched features therein that reduce thermal mass and increase the surface area of the sleeve for cooling. This improved thermal performance of the thermocycler enables an increase in speed and efficiency of the reaction chamber. The improvement is accomplished by providing grooves in the faces of the sleeve and a series of grooves on the interior surfaces that connect with grooves on the faces of the sleeve. The grooves can be anisotropically etched in the silicon sleeve simultaneously with formation of the chamber.

Benett, William J. (Livermore, CA); Richards, James B. (Danville, CA)

2003-01-01

60

Registration of prone and supine CT colonography scans using correlation optimized warping and canonical correlation analysis  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: In computed tomographic colonography (CTC), a patient will be scanned twice--Once supine and once prone--to improve the sensitivity for polyp detection. To assist radiologists in CTC reading, in this paper we propose an automated method for colon registration from supine and prone CTC scans. Methods: We propose a new colon centerline registration method for prone and supine CTC scans using correlation optimized warping (COW) and canonical correlation analysis (CCA) based on the anatomical structure of the colon. Four anatomical salient points on the colon are first automatically distinguished. Then correlation optimized warping is applied to the segments defined by the anatomical landmarks to improve the global registration based on local correlation of segments. The COW method was modified by embedding canonical correlation analysis to allow multiple features along the colon centerline to be used in our implementation. Results: We tested the COW algorithm on a CTC data set of 39 patients with 39 polyps (19 training and 20 test cases) to verify the effectiveness of the proposed COW registration method. Experimental results on the test set show that the COW method significantly reduces the average estimation error in a polyp location between supine and prone scans by 67.6%, from 46.27{+-}52.97 to 14.98 mm{+-}11.41 mm, compared to the normalized distance along the colon centerline algorithm (p<0.01). Conclusions: The proposed COW algorithm is more accurate for the colon centerline registration compared to the normalized distance along the colon centerline method and the dynamic time warping method. Comparison results showed that the feature combination of z-coordinate and curvature achieved lowest registration error compared to the other feature combinations used by COW. The proposed method is tolerant to centerline errors because anatomical landmarks help prevent the propagation of errors across the entire colon centerline.

Wang Shijun; Yao Jianhua; Liu Jiamin; Petrick, Nicholas; Van Uitert, Robert L.; Periaswamy, Senthil; Summers, Ronald M. [Imaging Biomarkers and Computer-Aided Diagnosis Laboratory, Radiology and Imaging Sciences, National Institutes of Health Clinical Center, Building 10, Room 1C368X, MSC 1182, Bethesda, Maryland 20892-1182 (United States); NIBIB/CDRH Laboratory for the Assessment of Medical Imaging Systems, Food and Drug Administration, 10903 New Hampshire Avenue, Silver Spring, Maryland 20993-0002 (United States); iCAD Inc., 98 Spit Brook Road, Suite 100, Nashua, New Hampshire 03062 (United States); Imaging Biomarkers and Computer-Aided Diagnosis Laboratory, Radiology and Imaging Sciences, National Institutes of Health Clinical Center, Building 10, Room 1C368X, MSC 1182, Bethesda, Maryland 20892-1182 (United States)

2009-12-15

61

Sampling Error  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This one page article, created by Statistics Canada, describes the meaning behind random sampling error. It points our the relationship of the random sampling error with the sample size, population size, variability of the characteristic, sampling plan, and measuring sampling error. While brief, this provides valuable information and also links users to additional resources concerning statistics.

2009-01-07

62

Errors of Inference in Structural Equation Modeling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although structural equation modeling (SEM) is one of the most comprehensive and flexible approaches to data analysis currently available, it is nonetheless prone to researcher misuse and misconceptions. This article offers a brief overview of the unique capabilities of SEM and discusses common sources of user error in drawing conclusions from…

McCoach, D. Betsy; Black, Anne C.; O'Connell, Ann A.

2007-01-01

63

Skills, rules and knowledge in aircraft maintenance: errors in context  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automatic or skill-based behaviour is generally considered to be less prone to error than behaviour directed by conscious control. However, researchers who have applied Rasmussen's skill-rule-knowledge human error framework to accidents and incidents have sometimes found that skill-based errors appear in significant numbers. It is proposed that this is largely a reflection of the opportunities for error which workplaces present

Alan Hobbs; Ann Williamson

2002-01-01

64

Medication errors.  

PubMed

Medication errors cause substantial harm to patients. We need good methods for counting errors, and we need to know how errors defined in different ways and ascertained by different methods are related to the harm that patients suffer. As errors arise within the complex and poorly designed systems of hospital and primary care, analysis of the factors that lead to error, for example by failure mode and effects analysis, may encourage better designs and reduce harms. There is almost no information on the best ways to train prescribers to be safe or to design effective computerized decision support to help them, although both are important in reducing medication errors and should be investigated. We also need to know how best to provide patients with the data they need to be part of initiatives for safer prescribing. PMID:22360355

Ferner, Robin E

2012-06-01

65

Neglected children, shame-proneness, and depressive symptoms.  

PubMed

Neglected children may be at increased risk for depressive symptoms. This study examines shame-proneness as an outcome of child neglect and as a potential explanatory variable in the relation between neglect and depressive symptoms. Participants were 111 children (52 with a Child Protective Services [CPS] allegation of neglect) seen at age 7. Neglected children reported more shame-proneness and more depressive symptoms than comparison children. Guilt-proneness, in contrast, was unrelated to neglect and depressive symptoms, indicating specificity for shame-proneness. The potential role of shame as a process variable that can help explain how some neglected children exhibit depressive symptoms is discussed. PMID:20724372

Bennett, David S; Sullivan, Margaret Wolan; Lewis, Michael

2010-11-01

66

Pathogenesis of A??? ketosis-prone diabetes.  

PubMed

A??? ketosis-prone diabetes (KPD) is an emerging syndrome of obesity, unprovoked ketoacidosis, reversible ?-cell dysfunction, and near-normoglycemic remission. We combined metabolomics with targeted kinetic measurements to investigate its pathophysiology. Fasting plasma fatty acids, acylcarnitines, and amino acids were quantified in 20 KPD patients compared with 19 nondiabetic control subjects. Unique signatures in KPD--higher glutamate but lower glutamine and citrulline concentrations, increased ?-hydroxybutyryl-carnitine, decreased isovaleryl-carnitine (a leucine catabolite), and decreased tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates--generated hypotheses that were tested through stable isotope/mass spectrometry protocols in nine new-onset, stable KPD patients compared with seven nondiabetic control subjects. Free fatty acid flux and acetyl CoA flux and oxidation were similar, but KPD had slower acetyl CoA conversion to ?-hydroxybutyrate; higher fasting ?-hydroxybutyrate concentration; slower ?-hydroxybutyrate oxidation; faster leucine oxidative decarboxylation; accelerated glutamine conversion to glutamate without increase in glutamate carbon oxidation; and slower citrulline flux, with diminished glutamine amide-nitrogen transfer to citrulline. The confluence of metabolomic and kinetic data indicate a distinctive pathogenic sequence: impaired ketone oxidation and fatty acid utilization for energy, leading to accelerated leucine catabolism and transamination of ?-ketoglutarate to glutamate, with impaired TCA anaplerosis of glutamate carbon. They highlight a novel process of defective energy production and ketosis in A??? KPD. PMID:23160531

Patel, Sanjeet G; Hsu, Jean W; Jahoor, Farook; Coraza, Ivonne; Bain, James R; Stevens, Robert D; Iyer, Dinakar; Nalini, Ramaswami; Ozer, Kerem; Hampe, Christiane S; Newgard, Christopher B; Balasubramanyam, Ashok

2013-03-01

67

Predicting aggregation-prone sequences in proteins.  

PubMed

Owing to its association with a diverse range of human diseases, the determinants of protein aggregation are studied intensively. It is generally accepted that the effective aggregation tendency of a protein depends on many factors such as folding efficiency towards the native state, thermodynamic stability of that conformation, intrinsic aggregation propensity of the polypeptide sequence and its ability to be recognized by the protein quality control system. The intrinsic aggregation propensity of a polypeptide sequence is related to the presence of short APRs (aggregation-prone regions) that self-associate to form intermolecular ?-structured assemblies. These are typically short sequence segments (5-15 amino acids) that display high hydrophobicity, low net charge and a high tendency to form ?-structures. As the presence of such APRs is a prerequisite for aggregation, a plethora of methods have been developed to identify APRs in amino acid sequences. In the present chapter, the methodological basis of these approaches is discussed, as well as some practical applications. PMID:25131585

De Baets, Greet; Schymkowitz, Joost; Rousseau, Frederic

2014-01-01

68

Genome sequencing accuracy by RCA-seq versus long PCR template cloning and sequencing in identification of human papillomavirus type 58  

PubMed Central

Background Genome variations in human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are common and have been widely investigated in the past two decades. HPV genotyping depends on the finding of the viral genome variations in the L1 ORF. Other parts of the viral genome variations have also been implicated as a possible genetic factor in viral pathogenesis and/or oncogenicity. Results In this study, the HPV58 genome in cervical lesions was completely sequenced both by rolling-circle amplification of total cell DNA and deep sequencing (RCA-seq) and by long PCR template cloning and sequencing. By comparison of three HPV58 genome sequences decoded from three clinical samples to reference HPV-58, we demonstrated that RCA-seq is much more accurate than long-PCR template cloning and sequencing in decoding HPV58 genome. Three HPV58 genomes decoded by RCA-seq displayed a total of 52 nucleotide substitutions from reference HPV58, which could be verified by long PCR template cloning and sequencing. However, the long PCR template cloning and sequencing led to additional nucleotide substitutions, insertions, and deletions from an authentic HPV58 genome in a clinical sample, which vary from one cloned sequence to another. Because the inherited error-prone nature of Tgo DNA polymerase used in preparation of the long PCR templates of HPV58 genome from the clinical samples, the measurable error rate in incorporation of nucleotide into an elongating DNA template was about 0.149% ±0.038% in our studies. Conclusions Since PCR template cloning and sequencing is widely used in identification of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), our data indicate that a serious caution should be taken in finding of true SNPs in various genetic studies. PMID:24410913

2014-01-01

69

Parent Proneness to Shame and the Use of Psychological Control  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined the link between parent proneness to shame and two forms of psychological control, overprotection and critical/rejecting behavior, in parents of preschoolers. Because shame is self-condemning, proneness to shame affects intrapersonal and interpersonal functioning. We hypothesized that parents' emotion-regulatory responses to shame…

Mills, Rosemary S. L.; Freeman, Wendy S.; Clara, Ian P.; Elgar, Frank J.; Walling, Bobbi R.; Mak, Leanne

2007-01-01

70

FLOOD-PLAIN DELINEATION IN ICE JAM PRONE REGIONS  

E-print Network

Flood Insurance Program. However, unique causes of flooding, such as ice jams, have riot receivedFLOOD-PLAIN DELINEATION IN ICE JAM PRONE REGIONS By Richard M. Vogel,1 S. M. ASCE and Jery R. Stedinger,2 A. M. ASCE ABSTRACT:Flood-plain delineation in ice jam prone regions is in its infancy .A

Vogel, Richard M.

71

Medication Errors  

MedlinePLUS

Medicines cure infectious diseases, prevent problems from chronic diseases, and ease pain. But medicines can also cause harmful reactions if not used ... You can help prevent errors by Knowing your medicines. Keep a list of the names of your ...

72

Sex Determination Using PCR  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

PCR has revolutionized many aspects of biochemistry and molecular biology research. In the following exercise, students learn PCR by isolating their own DNA, amplifying specific segments of the X and Y chromosomes, and estimating the sizes of the PCR products using agarose gel electrophoresis. Based on the pattern of PCR products, students can…

Kima, Peter E.; Rasche, Madeline E.

2004-01-01

73

Why dynamos are prone to reversals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a recent paper [F. Stefani, G. Gerbeth. Asymmetric polarity reversals, bimodal field distribution, and coherence resonance in a spherically symmetric mean-field dynamo model. Phys. Rev. Lett. 94 (2005) 184506] it was shown that a simple mean-field dynamo model with a spherically symmetric helical turbulence parameter ? can exhibit a number of features which are typical for Earth's magnetic field reversals. In particular, the model produces asymmetric reversals (with a slow decay of the dipole of one polarity and a fast recreation of the dipole with opposite polarity), a positive correlation of field strength and interval length, and a bimodal field distribution. All these features are attributable to the magnetic field dynamics in the vicinity of an exceptional point of the spectrum of the non-selfadjoint dynamo operator where two real eigenvalues coalesce and continue as a complex conjugated pair of eigenvalues. Usually, this exceptional point is associated with a nearby local maximum of the growth rate dependence on the magnetic Reynolds number. The negative slope of this curve between the local maximum and the exceptional point makes the system unstable and drives it to the exceptional point and beyond into the oscillatory branch where the sign change happens. A weakness of this reversal model is the apparent necessity to fine-tune the magnetic Reynolds number and/or the radial profile of ? in order to adjust the operator spectrum in an appropriate way. In the present paper, it is shown that this fine-tuning is not necessary in the case of higher supercriticality of the dynamo. Numerical examples and physical arguments are compiled to show that, with increasing magnetic Reynolds number, there is strong tendency for the exceptional point and the associated local maximum to move close to the zero growth rate line where the indicated reversal scenario can be actualized. Although exemplified again by the spherically symmetric ?2 dynamo model, the main idea of this "self-tuning" mechanism of saturated dynamos into a reversal-prone state seems well transferable to other dynamos. As a consequence, reversing dynamos might be much more typical and may occur much more frequently in nature than what could be expected from a purely kinematic perspective.

Stefani, F.; Gerbeth, G.; Günther, U.; Xu, M.

2006-03-01

74

Parent Proneness to Shame and the Use of Psychological Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the link between parent proneness to shame and two forms of psychological control, overprotection and critical\\/rejecting\\u000a behavior, in parents of preschoolers. Because shame is self-condemning, proneness to shame affects intrapersonal and interpersonal\\u000a functioning. We hypothesized that parents’ emotion-regulatory responses to shame would increase the likelihood of psychological\\u000a control: anxiety by leading to overprotection mediated by a worrisome approach

Rosemary S. L. Mills; Wendy S. Freeman; Ian P. Clara; Frank J. Elgar; Bobbi R. Walling; Leanne Mak

2007-01-01

75

Ventilatory sensitivity to mild asphyxia: prone versus supine sleep position  

PubMed Central

AIMS—To compare the effects of prone and supine sleep position on the main physiological responses to mild asphyxia: increase in ventilation and arousal.?METHODS—Ventilatory and arousal responses to mild asphyxia (hypercapnia/hypoxia) were measured in 53 healthy infants at newborn and 3 months of age, during quiet sleep (QS) and active sleep (AS), and in supine and prone sleep positions. The asphyxial test mimicked face down rebreathing by slowly altering the inspired air: CO2, maximum 5% and O2, minimum 13.5%. The change in ventilation with inspired CO2 was measured over 5-6 minutes of the test. The slope of a linear curve fit relating inspired CO2 to the logarithm of ventilation was taken as a quantitative measure of ventilatory asphyxial sensitivity (VAS). Sleep state and arousal were determined by behavioural criteria.?RESULTS—At 3 months of age, prone positioning in AS lowered VAS (0.184 prone v 0.269 supine, p = 0.050). At newborn age, sleep position had no effect on VAS. Infants aged 3 months were twice as likely to arouse to the test than newborns (p = 0.013). Placing infants prone as opposed to supine increased the chances of arousal 1.57-fold (p = 0.035).?CONCLUSION—Our findings show 3 month old babies sleeping prone compared to supine have poorer ventilatory responses to mild asphyxia, particularly in AS, but the increased prevalence of arousal is a protective factor.?? PMID:11040153

Galland, B; Bolton, D; Taylor, B; Sayers, R; Williams, S

2000-01-01

76

CS-WFQ: A Wireless Fair Scheduling Algorithm for Error-Prone Wireless Channels  

E-print Network

.L. Ding, K.C. Chua Department of Electrical Engineering National University of Singapore Department guarantee sense and maintain a reasonable system throughput. We present both the numerical and simulation

Srinivasan, Vikram

77

Inducible error-prone repair in Bacillus subtilis. Progress report, May 1, 1985-April 30, 1986  

SciTech Connect

DNA damage-inducible star operon fusions were generated in B. subtilis by transpositional mutagenesis. These fusion isolates produce increased beta-galactosidase when exposed to mitomycin C, uv radiation, or ethyl methanesulfonate, indicating that the lacZ structural gene had inserted into host transcriptional units that are induced by a variety of DNA damaging agents. One of the fusion strains was DNA-repair deficient and phenotypically resembled a uv-sensitive excision-repair deficient mutant of B. subtilis. Induction of beta-galactosidase also occurred in the competent subpopulation of each of the din fusion strains, independent of exposure to DNA-damaging agents. Both the DNA-damage-inducible and competence-inducible components of beta-galactosidase expression were abolished by the recE4 mutation, which inhibits SOS-like (SOB) induction but does not interfere with the development of the competent state. The results indicate that gene expression is stimulated at specific loci within the B. subtilis chromosome both by DNA-damaging agents and by the development of competence and this response is under the control of the SOB regulon. Furthermore, they demonstrated that at the molecular level SOB induction and the development of competence are interrelated cellular events.

Yasbin, R.E.

1986-06-01

78

Error Concealment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In distributed and network speech recognition the actual recognition task is not carried out on the user’s terminal but rather\\u000a on a remote server in the network. While there are good reasons for doing so, a disadvantage of this client-server architecture\\u000a is clearly that the communication medium may introduce errors, which then impairs speech recognition accuracy. Even sophisticated\\u000a channel coding

Reinhold Haeb-Umbach; Valentin Ion

79

Pattern recognition of earthquake prone area in North China  

E-print Network

PATTERN RECOGNITIOV OF EARTHQUAKE PRONE AREA IV NORTH CHINA A Thesis JI-XiiiV GU Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas AkM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of XIASTER OF SCIE'VCE August 1989... ( Xlember) J. E. Russell (lvtember) Joel S. Watkins (Head of Department) August 1989 ABSTRACT Pattern Recognition of Earthquake-Prone Areas in North China, ( August 1989) Ji-min Gu Shanghai University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, China Co...

Gu, Ji-Min

2012-06-07

80

PCR Project: Making PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Paul Rabinow, professor of Anthropology at the University of California Berkeley; Suzanne Calpestri, Head of the George and Mary Foster Anthropology Library at UC Berkeley; and Soren Germer, a recent PhD from the UC Berkeley Anthropology Department, developed this site with a grant from the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation's Science and Technology in the Making (STIM) initiative. STIM encourages "use [of] an innovative approach to investigating and documenting recent/contemporary events in science and technology." Making PCR does this by furnishing over thirty "foundational papers" on the topic, in three major subject categories (foundations, applications, and technological variations of the basics). In addition, users can access Cetus' 1989 39 page PCR bibliography. These full texts are available as page images and come from several different scholarly journals. Interested users can submit their thoughts about the past and future of PCR through interactive discussion forums.

1998-01-01

81

Distributed Computing in Fault-Prone Dynamic Networks Philipp Brandes  

E-print Network

Distributed Computing in Fault-Prone Dynamic Networks Philipp Brandes Computer Engineering & Department of Computer Science University of Paderborn fmadh@upb.de ABSTRACT Dynamics in networks is caused and Networks Lab (TIK) ETH Zurich pbrandes@ethz.ch Friedhelm Meyer auf der Heide Heinz Nixdorf Institute

82

Fantasy proneness and cognitive failures as correlates of dissociative experiences  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES) is a widely used instrument for screening dissociative psychopathology. Yet, some authors have argued that dissociation is a poorly defined concept and that the experiences tapped by the DES may well be related to everyday cognitive failures and\\/or fantasy proneness. To examine this issue, two independent studies were conducted. In study 1, a sample of

Harald Merckelbach; Peter Muris; Eric Rassin

1999-01-01

83

Distributed Computing in Fault-Prone Dynamic Networks  

E-print Network

Distributed Computing in Fault-Prone Dynamic Networks Philipp Brandes, Friedhelm Meyer auf der in a dynamic network with changing connections #12;Introduction Moving nodes in a dynamic network with changing connections Given highly dynamic network with n nodes But n unknown Needed for many basic tasks all

84

The Social Antecedents of Anger Proneness in Young Adulthood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Anger has been shown to be an important factor in occupational maladjustment, family conflict, physical and sexual assault, criminal behavior, and substance abuse. It has also been linked with such adverse health outcomes as hypertension, heart disease, and cancer. Focusing on anger proneness, conceptualized as a relatively enduring propensity to…

Turner, R. Jay; Russell, David; Glover, Regan; Hutto, Pamela

2007-01-01

85

Putatively Psychosis-Prone Subjects 10 Years Later  

Microsoft Academic Search

The predictive validities of several indicators of psychosis proneness were evaluated in a 10-year longitudinal study (N = 508). As hypothesized, high scores on the Perceptual Aberration Scale, Magical Ideation Scale, or both (n = 182), especially those who initially reported psychoticlike experiences of at least moderate deviance, exceeded control subjects (n = 153) on psychoses (revised 3rd edition of

Loren J. Chapman; Jean P. Chapman; Thomas R. Kwapil; Mark Eckblad; Michael C. Zinser

1994-01-01

86

Real-Time PCR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past few years there has been a considerable development of DNA amplification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and real-time PCR has now superseded conventional PCR techniques in many areas, e.g., the quantification of nucleic acids and genotyping. This new approach is based on the detection and quantification of a fluorescent signal proportional to the amount of amplicons generated by PCR. Real-time detection is achieved by coupling a thermocycler with a fluorimeter. This chapter discusses the general principles of quantitative real-time PCR, the different steps involved in implementing the technique, and some examples of applications in medicine. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) provides a way of obtaining a large number of copies of a double-stranded DNA fragment of known sequence. This DNA amplification technique, developed in 1985 by K. Mullis (Cetus Corporation), saw a spectacular development over the space of a few years, revolutionising the methods used up to then in molecular biology. Indeed, PCR has many applications, such as the detection of small amounts of DNA, cloning, and quantitative analysis (assaying), each of which will be discussed further below.

Evrard, A.; Boulle, N.; Lutfalla, G. S.

87

Enhancing disaster management by mapping disaster proneness and preparedness.  

PubMed

The focus of most disaster management programmes is to deploy resources-physical and human-from outside the disaster zone. This activity can produce a delay in disaster mitigation and recovery efforts, and a consequent loss of human lives and economic resources. It may be possible to expedite recovery and prevent loss of life by mapping out disaster proneness and the availability of resources in advance. This study proposes the development of two indices to do so. The Indian census data of 2001 is used to develop a methodology for creating one index on disaster proneness and one on resourcefulness for administrative units (tehsils). Findings reveal that tehsil residents face an elevated risk of disaster and that they are also grossly under-prepared for such events. The proposed indices can be used to map regional service provision facilities and to assist authorities in evaluating immediate, intermediate, and long-term disaster recovery needs and resource requirements. PMID:22092572

Mishra, Vishal; Fuloria, Sanjay; Bisht, Shailendra Singh

2012-07-01

88

Political Engineering and Party Politics in Conflict-Prone Societies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparative scholarship suggests that democracy in ethnically-diverse societies is likely to be fostered by the development of broad-based, aggregative, and multi-ethnic political parties, rather than fragmented, personalised, or ethnically-based party systems. However, surprisingly little scholarly attention has been given to how party fragmentation can be addressed or how broad-based parties can be sustained, despite some remarkable recent experiments in conflict-prone

Benjamin Reilly

2006-01-01

89

Evaluating fatigue in lupus-prone mice: preliminary assessments.  

PubMed

Fatigue is a debilitating condition suffered by many as the result of chronic disease, yet relatively little is known about its biological basis or how to effectively manage its effects. This study sought to evaluate chronic fatigue by using lupus-prone mice and testing them at three different time periods. Lupus-prone mice were chosen because fatigue affects over half of patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. Eleven MLR?/(+) (genetic controls) and twelve MLR/MpJ-Fas/J (MRL/lpr; lupus-prone) mice were tested three times: once at 12, 16 and 20 weeks of age. All mice were subjected to a variety of behavioral tests including: forced swim, post-swim grooming, running wheel, and sucrose consumption; five of the MLR?/(+) and five of the MLR/lpr mice were also tested on a fixed ratio-25 operant conditioning task. MRL/lpr mice showed more peripheral symptoms of lupus than controls, particularly lymphadenopathy and proteinuria. Lupus mice spent more time floating during the forced swim test and traveled less distance in the running wheel at each testing period. There were no differences between groups in post-swim grooming or in number of reinforcers earned in the operant conditioning task indicating the behavioral changes were not likely due simply to muscle weakness or motivation. Correlations between performance in the running wheel, forced swim test and sucrose consumption were conducted and distance traveled in the running wheel was consistently negatively correlated with time spent floating. Based on these data, we conclude that the lupus-prone mice were experiencing chronic fatigue and that running wheel activity and floating during a forced swim test can be used to evaluate fatigue, although these data cannot rule out the possibility that both fatigue and a depressive-like state were mediating these effects. PMID:21989254

Meeks, Allison; Larson, Susan J

2012-01-01

90

Reverse Transcription-PCR  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Flash animation shows how the method of reverse transcription-PCR is performed and some sample data are produced. It uses sound and mouse-over identification to help students learn more and retain the information.

American Society For Microbiology;

2003-05-12

91

Quantitative PCR Protocol  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This protocol describes how to genotype mice using Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). The protocol focuses specifically on Ts65Dn mice, but can be used as a basis for genotyping ohter strains.

The Jackson Laboratory (The Jackson Laboratory)

2012-01-06

92

Breakdown-prone volume in terahertz wave beams  

SciTech Connect

This study was motivated by the recently proposed concept of remote detection of concealed radioactive materials by a focused terahertz (THz) radiation [V. L. Granatstein and G. S. Nusinovich, J. Appl. Phys. 108, 063304 (2010)]. According to this concept, a high-power THz radiation should be focused in a small spot where the field intensity exceeds the breakdown threshold. In the presence of free electrons in such a breakdown-prone volume, a THz discharge will occur there. However, this volume should be so small that in the absence of ionizing sources in its vicinity the probability to have there any free electrons is low. Then, the increased breakdown rate in a series of THz pulses would indicate the presence of hidden radioactive materials in the vicinity of the focused spot. For this concept, it is important to accurately determine the breakdown-prone volume created by a focused THz radiation. This problem is analyzed in this paper, first, for the case of a single wave beam and, then, for the case of crossing wave beams of different polarizations. The problem is studied first ignoring the diffraction spread of wave beams in the vicinity of the focal plane and, then, with the account for the diffraction spreading. Then, relations between the THz wave power, the range of such a system and the breakdown-prone volume are analyzed. Finally, the effect of the atmospheric turbulence on propagation and focusing of THz wave beams in air is considered.

Nusinovich, G. S.; Qiao, F.; Kashyn, D. G.; Pu, R. [Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-3511 (United States)] [Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-3511 (United States); Dolin, L. S. [Institute of Applied Physics, Nizhny Novgorod 603600 (Russian Federation)] [Institute of Applied Physics, Nizhny Novgorod 603600 (Russian Federation)

2013-06-21

93

Uneasy lies the head that wears the crown: the link between guilt proneness and leadership.  

PubMed

We propose that guilt proneness is a critical characteristic of leaders and find support for this hypothesis across 3 studies. Participants in the first study rated a set of guilt-prone behaviors as more indicative of leadership potential than a set of less guilt-prone behaviors. In a follow-up study, guilt-prone participants in a leaderless group task engaged in more leadership behaviors than did less guilt-prone participants. In a third, and final, study, we move to the field and analyze 360° feedback from a group of young managers working in a range of industries. The results indicate that highly guilt-prone individuals were rated as more capable leaders than less guilt-prone individuals and that a sense of responsibility for others underlies the positive relationship between guilt proneness and leadership evaluations. PMID:22545748

Schaumberg, Rebecca L; Flynn, Francis J

2012-08-01

94

Heritable change caused by transient transcription errors.  

PubMed

Transmission of cellular identity relies on the faithful transfer of information from the mother to the daughter cell. This process includes accurate replication of the DNA, but also the correct propagation of regulatory programs responsible for cellular identity. Errors in DNA replication (mutations) and protein conformation (prions) can trigger stable phenotypic changes and cause human disease, yet the ability of transient transcriptional errors to produce heritable phenotypic change ('epimutations') remains an open question. Here, we demonstrate that transcriptional errors made specifically in the mRNA encoding a transcription factor can promote heritable phenotypic change by reprogramming a transcriptional network, without altering DNA. We have harnessed the classical bistable switch in the lac operon, a memory-module, to capture the consequences of transient transcription errors in living Escherichia coli cells. We engineered an error-prone transcription sequence (A9 run) in the gene encoding the lac repressor and show that this 'slippery' sequence directly increases epigenetic switching, not mutation in the cell population. Therefore, one altered transcript within a multi-generational series of many error-free transcripts can cause long-term phenotypic consequences. Thus, like DNA mutations, transcriptional epimutations can instigate heritable changes that increase phenotypic diversity, which drives both evolution and disease. PMID:23825966

Gordon, Alasdair J E; Satory, Dominik; Halliday, Jennifer A; Herman, Christophe

2013-06-01

95

Denoising PCR-amplified metagenome data  

PubMed Central

Background PCR amplification and high-throughput sequencing theoretically enable the characterization of the finest-scale diversity in natural microbial and viral populations, but each of these methods introduces random errors that are difficult to distinguish from genuine biological diversity. Several approaches have been proposed to denoise these data but lack either speed or accuracy. Results We introduce a new denoising algorithm that we call DADA (Divisive Amplicon Denoising Algorithm). Without training data, DADA infers both the sample genotypes and error parameters that produced a metagenome data set. We demonstrate performance on control data sequenced on Roche’s 454 platform, and compare the results to the most accurate denoising software currently available, AmpliconNoise. Conclusions DADA is more accurate and over an order of magnitude faster than AmpliconNoise. It eliminates the need for training data to establish error parameters, fully utilizes sequence-abundance information, and enables inclusion of context-dependent PCR error rates. It should be readily extensible to other sequencing platforms such as Illumina. PMID:23113967

2012-01-01

96

Telling a good story: Fantasy proneness and the quality of fabricated memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

In two studies, we examined whether fantasy prone people are superior storytellers. In study 1, participants high or low on fantasy proneness (N=25) were instructed to fabricate a memory about an aversive childhood event. Independent judges rated stories of high fantasy prones as more emotional, more plausible, and richer in Criteria Based Content Analysis (CBCA) elements than those of low

Harald Merckelbach

2004-01-01

97

Individual Positioning: A Comparative Study of Adjuvant Breast Radiotherapy in the Prone Versus Supine Position  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To study breast radiotherapy in the prone vs. supine positions through dosimetry and clinical implementation. Methods and Materials: Conformal radiotherapy plans in 61 patients requiring only breast irradiation were developed for both the prone and supine positions. After evaluation of the of the first 20 plan pairs, the patients were irradiated in the prone or supine position in a

Zoltán Varga; Katalin Hideghéty; Tamás Mez?; Alíz Nikolényi; László Thurzó; Zsuzsanna Kahán

2009-01-01

98

Role of the error-free damage bypass postreplication repair pathway in the maintenance of genomic stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The postreplication repair pathway (PRR) is composed of error-free and error-prone sub-pathways that allow bypass of DNA damage-induced replication-blocking lesions. The error-free sub-pathway is also used for bypass of spontaneous DNA damage and functions in cooperation with recombination pathways. In diploid yeast cells, error-free PRR is needed to prevent genomic instability, which is manifest as loss of heterozygosity (LOH) events

Marina Smirnova; Hannah L. Klein

2003-01-01

99

Remediating Common Math Errors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explanations and remediation suggestions for five types of mathematics errors due either to perceptual or cognitive difficulties are given. Error types include directionality problems, mirror writing, visually misperceived signs, diagnosed directionality problems, and mixed process errors. (CL)

Wagner, Rudolph F.

1981-01-01

100

Help prevent hospital errors  

MedlinePLUS

A hospital error is when there is a mistake in your medical care. Errors can be made in your: ... Surgery Diagnosis Equipment Lab and other test reports Hospital errors are a leading cause of death. Doctors ...

101

Programming errors in traversal programs over structured data  

E-print Network

Traversal strategies \\'a la Stratego (also \\'a la Strafunski and 'Scrap Your Boilerplate') provide an exceptionally versatile and uniform means of querying and transforming deeply nested and heterogeneously structured data including terms in functional programming and rewriting, objects in OO programming, and XML documents in XML programming. However, the resulting traversal programs are prone to programming errors. We are specifically concerned with errors that go beyond conservative type errors; examples we examine include divergent traversals, prematurely terminated traversals, and traversals with dead code. Based on an inventory of possible programming errors we explore options of static typing and static analysis so that some categories of errors can be avoided. This exploration generates suggestions for improvements to strategy libraries as well as their underlying programming languages. Haskell is used for illustrations and specifications with sufficient explanations to make the presentation comprehens...

Laemmel, Ralf; Kaiser, Markus

2012-01-01

102

Numerical error in groundwater flow and solute transport simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Models of groundwater flow and solute transport may be affected by numerical error, leading to quantitative and qualitative changes in behavior. In this paper we compare and combine three methods of assessing the extent of numerical error: grid refinement, mathematical analysis, and benchmark test problems. In particular, we assess the popular solute transport code SUTRA [Voss, 1984] as being a typical finite element code. Our numerical analysis suggests that SUTRA incorporates a numerical dispersion error and that its mass-lumped numerical scheme increases the numerical error. This is confirmed using a Gaussian test problem. A modified SUTRA code, in which the numerical dispersion is calculated and subtracted, produces better results. The much more challenging Elder problem [Elder, 1967; Voss and Souza, 1987] is then considered. Calculation of its numerical dispersion coefficients and numerical stability show that the Elder problem is prone to error. We confirm that Elder problem results are extremely sensitive to the simulation method used.

Woods, Juliette A.; Teubner, Michael D.; Simmons, Craig T.; Narayan, Kumar A.

2003-06-01

103

Digital PCR and Quantitation  

E-print Network

Group Forensics@NIST 2012 Meeting Gaithersburg, MD November 28, 2012 #12;Applied Genetics Agenda · Why with qPCR · Forensic samples often have non-human DNA ­ Forensic standards require human specific DNA solutions for critical and sensitive processes · E.g. Next Generation Sequencing #12;Applied Genetics q

Perkins, Richard A.

104

QUALITY ASSURANCE FOR PCR  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) held a workshop in January 2003 on the detection of viruses in water using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods. Speakers were asked to address a series of specific questions, including whether a single standard method coul...

105

[Reactance proneness, collectivism, uniqueness, and resistance to persuasion].  

PubMed

This study examined the reliability and validity of Japanese psychological reactance scales. A total of 167 undergraduates completed a questionnaire of Therapeutic Reactance Scale (TRS), the Hong Reactance Scale (HRS), the Uniqueness Scale, and the Collectivism Scale. They also received messages involving three persuasion situations that were either high or low in terms of threat, and were asked to describe their reactions to them. The author categorized the reactions into three: acceptance, indirect resistance, and direct resistance. Reliabilities of the reactance scales were satisfactory. Their scores positively correlated with uniqueness scores, and negatively with collectivism scores. Those high on reactance proneness were less persuaded in two of the three situations. But in the third, an HRS by threat interaction was observed, indicating that only those who were high on reactance proneness under the high-threat condition showed resistance to persuasion. These results suggest that the Japanese versions of reactance scale were reliable and valid. However, the assertiveness aspect of TRS may not be appropriate for the definition of reactance. The influence of culture on psychological reactance was also discussed. PMID:12516187

Imajo, Shuzo

2002-10-01

106

Dysregulation of cadherins in the intercalated disc of the spontaneously hypertensive stroke-prone rat  

PubMed Central

The structural integrity of cardiac cells is maintained by the Ca2+-dependent homophilic cell–cell adhesion of cadherins. N-cadherin is responsible for this adhesion under normal physiological conditions. The role of cadherins in adverse cardiac pathology is less clear. We studied the hearts of the stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive (SHRSP) rat as a genetic model of cardiac hypertrophy and compared them to Wistar–Kyoto control animals. Western blotting of protein homogenates from 12-week old SHRSP animals indicated that similar levels of ?, ?-, and ?-catenin and T, N and R-cadherin were expressed in the control and SHRSP animals. However, dramatically higher levels of E-cadherin were detected in SHRSP animals compared to controls at 6, 12 and 18 weeks of age. This was confirmed by quantitative Taqman PCR and immunohistochemistry. E-cadherin was located at the intercalated disc of the myocytes in co-localisation with connexin 43. Adenoviral overexpression of E-cadherin in rat H9c2 cells and primary rabbit myocytes resulted in a significant reduction in myocyte cell diameter and breadth. E-cadherin overexpression resulted in re-localisation of ?-catenin to the cell surface particularly to cell–cell junctions. Subsequent immunohistochemistry of the hearts of WKY and SHRSP animals also revealed increased levels of ?-catenin in the intercalated disc in the SHRSP compared to WKY. Therefore, remodelling of the intercalated disc in the hearts of SHRSP animals may contribute to the altered function observed in these animals. PMID:20138888

Craig, Margaret Anne; McBride, Martin W.; Smith, Godfrey; George, Sarah J.; Baker, Andrew

2010-01-01

107

Topological quantum computing with a very noisy network and local error rates approaching one percent.  

PubMed

A scalable quantum computer could be built by networking together many simple processor cells, thus avoiding the need to create a single complex structure. The difficulty is that realistic quantum links are very error prone. A solution is for cells to repeatedly communicate with each other and so purify any imperfections; however prior studies suggest that the cells themselves must then have prohibitively low internal error rates. Here we describe a method by which even error-prone cells can perform purification: groups of cells generate shared resource states, which then enable stabilization of topologically encoded data. Given a realistically noisy network (?10% error rate) we find that our protocol can succeed provided that intra-cell error rates for initialisation, state manipulation and measurement are below 0.82%. This level of fidelity is already achievable in several laboratory systems. PMID:23612297

Nickerson, Naomi H; Li, Ying; Benjamin, Simon C

2013-01-01

108

Topological quantum computing with a very noisy network and local error rates approaching one percent  

E-print Network

A scalable quantum computer could be built by networking together many simple processor cells, thus avoiding the need to create a single complex structure. The difficulty is that realistic quantum links are very error prone. A solution is for cells to repeatedly communicate with each other and so 'purify' any imperfections; however prior studies suggest that the cells themselves must then have prohibitively low internal error rates. Here we describe a method by which even error-prone cells can perform purification: groups of cells generate shared resource states, which then enable stabilization of topologically encoded data. Given a realistically noisy network (>=10% error rate) we find that our protocol can succeed provided that intra-cell error rates for initialisation, state manipulation and measurement are below 0.82%. This level of fidelity is already achievable in several laboratory systems.

Naomi H. Nickerson; Ying Li; Simon C. Benjamin

2012-11-09

109

Towards error-free profiling of immune repertoires.  

PubMed

Deep profiling of antibody and T cell-receptor repertoires by means of high-throughput sequencing has become an attractive approach for adaptive immunity studies, but its power is substantially compromised by the accumulation of PCR and sequencing errors. Here we report MIGEC (molecular identifier groups-based error correction), a strategy for high-throughput sequencing data analysis. MIGEC allows for nearly absolute error correction while fully preserving the natural diversity of complex immune repertoires. PMID:24793455

Shugay, Mikhail; Britanova, Olga V; Merzlyak, Ekaterina M; Turchaninova, Maria A; Mamedov, Ilgar Z; Tuganbaev, Timur R; Bolotin, Dmitriy A; Staroverov, Dmitry B; Putintseva, Ekaterina V; Plevova, Karla; Linnemann, Carsten; Shagin, Dmitriy; Pospisilova, Sarka; Lukyanov, Sergey; Schumacher, Ton N; Chudakov, Dmitriy M

2014-06-01

110

UNIVERSAL ERROR PROPAGATION LAW  

Microsoft Academic Search

As an ubiquitous statistical theory, Gaussian Distribution (GD) or Gaussian Error Propagation Law (GEPL) has been widely used for modelling random errors in many engineering and application fields since 1809. In recent years, this theory has been extended to handle the uncertainties of spatial data in GIS, such as positional error modelling. But most of the results for spatial error

Xiaoyong CHEN; Shunji MURAI

111

Errors in autobiographical memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Memory is always constructive. People create the past based on the information that remains in memory, their general knowledge, and the social demands of the retrieval situation. Thus, memories will often contain some small errors and occasionally some large errors. In this article, we describe several different types of memory errors and consider how these errors may influence therapy.

Ira E. Hyman; Elizabeth F. Loftus

1998-01-01

112

[PCR: basics and new developments].  

PubMed

Since its discovery 10 years ago PCR has been introduced for a variety of practical applications. PCR has opened new dimensions particularly in laboratory diagnostics because of its sensitivity, accuracy and speed. In spite of the availability of user friendly kits, basic knowledge is of great importance for the user especially if PCR has to be optimized for special needs or when specific problems arise. The general mechanism of the reaction and the significance of the reaction components and the PCR conditions are discussed initially. Several recent developments in PCR (new enzymes, RNA-PCR, improvements of the specificity, prevention of contamination and development of new equipment) that are critical for the user are shortly introduced. Finally, "long PCR" is discussed in order to demonstrate that even 10 years after the invention of PCR significant new breakthroughs in the PCR technology are still possible. PMID:8720727

Berchtold, M W; Hübscher, U

1996-01-01

113

PCR-amplification of GC-rich regions: 'slowdown PCR'  

Microsoft Academic Search

The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique has become an indispensable method in molecular research. However, PCR-amplification of GC-rich templates is often hampered by the formation of secondary structures like hairpins and higher melting temperatures. We present a novel method termed 'Slowdown PCR', which allows the successful PCR-amplification of extremely GC-rich (>83%) DNA targets. The protocol relies on the addition of

Hagen S Bachmann; Jürgen Peters; Winfried Siffert; Ulrich H Frey

2008-01-01

114

PCR in forensic genetics.  

PubMed

Since the introduction in the mid-1980s of analyses of minisatellites for DNA analyses, a revolution has taken place in forensic genetics. The subsequent invention of the PCR made it possible to develop forensic genetics tools that allow both very informative routine investigations and still more and more advanced, special investigations in cases concerning crime, paternity, relationship, disaster victim identification etc. The present review gives an update on the use of DNA investigations in forensic genetics. PMID:19290877

Morling, Niels

2009-04-01

115

MAMMALIAN DNA IN PCR REAGENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Ancient DNA analysis is becoming widespread. These studies use polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to amplify minute quantities of heavily damaged template. Unusual steps are taken to achieve the sensitivity necessary to detect ancient DNA, including high- cycle PCR amplification t...

116

Determining Error Management Strategies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A statistical model has been designed to interpret experimental burst error data in determining an optimal error management strategy for optical media. The model is based on the theory of a Non-homogeneous Poisson Point Process. The assumptions for the evaluation of defects capable of causing error bursts in a user's data stream (burst starts and burst lengths) will be discussed. With this model it is possible to determine the optimal error management strategy to achieve any desired system performance, including depth of interleaving, error correcting capability and certification fencing for excessively long error bursts.

Brown, Winton E.; Earman, Allen M.

1988-06-01

117

The relationship of factorially validated measures of anger-proneness and irrational beliefs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive-behavioral formulations have proposed that anger disorders are mediated by irrational beliefs. The modification of irrational beliefs has been followed by reduction in anger-proneness. Determination of a causal relationship, however, requires at least a correlation between irrational beliefs and proneness to anger arousal. Subjects completed a validated measure of self-reported anger-proneness and of irrational beliefs. Multiple regression analyses showed significant

Jeffrey M. Lohr; L. Kevin Hamberger; Dennis Bonge

1988-01-01

118

Field error lottery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The level of field errors in a free electron laser (FEL) is an important determinant of its performance. We have computed 3D performance of a large laser subsystem subjected to field errors of various types. These calculations have been guided by simple models such as SWOOP. The technique of choice is use of the FELEX free electron laser code that now possesses extensive engineering capabilities. Modeling includes the ability to establish tolerances of various types: fast and slow scale field bowing, field error level, beam position monitor error level, gap errors, defocusing errors, energy slew, displacement and pointing errors. Many effects of these errors on relative gain and relative power extraction are displayed and are the essential elements of determining an error budget. The random errors also depend on the particular random number seed used in the calculation. The simultaneous display of the performance versus error level of cases with multiple seeds illustrates the variations attributable to stochasticity of this model. All these errors are evaluated numerically for comprehensive engineering of the system. In particular, gap errors are found to place requirements beyond convenient mechanical tolerances of ± 25 ?m, and amelioration of these may occur by a procedure using direct measurement of the magnetic fields at assembly time.

James Elliott, C.; McVey, Brian D.; Quimby, David C.

1991-07-01

119

Field error lottery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The level of field errors in an FEL is an important determinant of its performance. We have computed 3D performance of a large laser subsystem subjected to field errors of various types. These calculations have been guided by simple models such as SWOOP. The technique of choice is utilization of the FELEX free electron laser code that now possesses extensive engineering capabilities. Modeling includes the ability to establish tolerances of various types: fast and slow scale field bowing, field error level, beam position monitor error level, gap errors, defocusing errors, energy slew, displacement, and pointing errors. Many effects of these errors on relative gain and relative power extraction are displayed and are the essential elements of determining an error budget. The random errors also depend on the particular random number seed used in the calculation. The simultaneous display of the performance versus error level of cases with multiple seeds illustrates the variations attributable to stochasticity of this model. All these errors are evaluated numerically for comprehensive engineering of the system. In particular, gap errors are found to place requirements beyond mechanical tolerances of (plus minus)25(mu)m, and amelioration of these may occur by a procedure utilizing direct measurement of the magnetic fields at assembly time.

Elliott, C. James; McVey, Brian D.; Quimby, David C.

1990-11-01

120

Field error lottery  

SciTech Connect

The level of field errors in an FEL is an important determinant of its performance. We have computed 3D performance of a large laser subsystem subjected to field errors of various types. These calculations have been guided by simple models such as SWOOP. The technique of choice is utilization of the FELEX free electron laser code that now possesses extensive engineering capabilities. Modeling includes the ability to establish tolerances of various types: fast and slow scale field bowing, field error level, beam position monitor error level, gap errors, defocusing errors, energy slew, displacement and pointing errors. Many effects of these errors on relative gain and relative power extraction are displayed and are the essential elements of determining an error budget. The random errors also depend on the particular random number seed used in the calculation. The simultaneous display of the performance versus error level of cases with multiple seeds illustrates the variations attributable to stochasticity of this model. All these errors are evaluated numerically for comprehensive engineering of the system. In particular, gap errors are found to place requirements beyond mechanical tolerances of {plus minus}25{mu}m, and amelioration of these may occur by a procedure utilizing direct measurement of the magnetic fields at assembly time. 4 refs., 12 figs.

Elliott, C.J.; McVey, B. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Quimby, D.C. (Spectra Technology, Inc., Bellevue, WA (USA))

1990-01-01

121

Cross-Cultural Differences and Similarities in Proneness to Shame: An Adaptationist and Ecological Approach  

PubMed Central

People vary in how easily they feel ashamed, that is, in their shame proneness. According to the information threat theory of shame, variation in shame proneness should, in part, be regulated by features of a person’s social ecology. On this view, shame is an emotion program that evolved to mitigate the likelihood or costs of reputation-damaging information spreading to others. In social environments where there are fewer possibilities to form new relationships (i.e., low relational mobility), there are higher costs to damaging or losing existing ones. Therefore, shame proneness toward current relationship partners should increase as perceived relational mobility decreases. In contrast, individuals with whom one has little or no relationship history are easy to replace, and so shame-proneness towards them should not be modulated by relational mobility. We tested these predictions cross-culturally by measuring relational mobility and shame proneness towards friends and strangers in Japan, the United States, and the United Kingdom. Japanese subjects were more shame-prone than their British and American counterparts. Critically, lower relational mobility was associated with greater shame proneness towards friends (but not strangers), and this relationship partially mediated the cultural differences in shame proneness. Shame proneness appears tailored to respond to relevant features of one’s social ecology. PMID:22947644

Takemura, Kosuke; Delton, Andrew W.; Sato, Kosuke; Robertson, Theresa; Cosmides, Leda; Tooby, John

2013-01-01

122

Errors Affect Hypothetical Intertemporal Food Choice in Women  

PubMed Central

Growing evidence suggests that the ability to control behavior is enhanced in contexts in which errors are more frequent. Here we investigated whether pairing desirable food with errors could decrease impulsive choice during hypothetical temporal decisions about food. To this end, healthy women performed a Stop-signal task in which one food cue predicted high-error rate, and another food cue predicted low-error rate. Afterwards, we measured participants’ intertemporal preferences during decisions between smaller-immediate and larger-delayed amounts of food. We expected reduced sensitivity to smaller-immediate amounts of food associated with high-error rate. Moreover, taking into account that deprivational states affect sensitivity for food, we controlled for participants’ hunger. Results showed that pairing food with high-error likelihood decreased temporal discounting. This effect was modulated by hunger, indicating that, the lower the hunger level, the more participants showed reduced impulsive preference for the food previously associated with a high number of errors as compared with the other food. These findings reveal that errors, which are motivationally salient events that recruit cognitive control and drive avoidance learning against error-prone behavior, are effective in reducing impulsive choice for edible outcomes. PMID:25244534

Sellitto, Manuela; di Pellegrino, Giuseppe

2014-01-01

123

Skills, rules and knowledge in aircraft maintenance: errors in context  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Automatic or skill-based behaviour is generally considered to be less prone to error than behaviour directed by conscious control. However, researchers who have applied Rasmussen's skill-rule-knowledge human error framework to accidents and incidents have sometimes found that skill-based errors appear in significant numbers. It is proposed that this is largely a reflection of the opportunities for error which workplaces present and does not indicate that skill-based behaviour is intrinsically unreliable. In the current study, 99 errors reported by 72 aircraft mechanics were examined in the light of a task analysis based on observations of the work of 25 aircraft mechanics. The task analysis identified the opportunities for error presented at various stages of maintenance work packages and by the job as a whole. Once the frequency of each error type was normalized in terms of the opportunities for error, it became apparent that skill-based performance is more reliable than rule-based performance, which is in turn more reliable than knowledge-based performance. The results reinforce the belief that industrial safety interventions designed to reduce errors would best be directed at those aspects of jobs that involve rule- and knowledge-based performance.

Hobbs, Alan; Williamson, Ann

2002-01-01

124

Megapixel digital PCR.  

PubMed

We present a microfluidic 'megapixel' digital PCR device that uses surface tension-based sample partitioning and dehydration control to enable high-fidelity single DNA molecule amplification in 1,000,000 reactors of picoliter volume with densities up to 440,000 reactors cm(-2). This device achieves a dynamic range of 10(7), single-nucleotide-variant detection below one copy per 100,000 wild-type sequences and the discrimination of a 1% difference in chromosome copy number. PMID:21725299

Heyries, Kevin A; Tropini, Carolina; Vaninsberghe, Michael; Doolin, Callum; Petriv, Oleh I; Singhal, Anupam; Leung, Kaston; Hughesman, Curtis B; Hansen, Carl L

2011-08-01

125

Drug Errors in Anaesthesiology  

PubMed Central

Summary Medication errors are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. The incidence of these drug errors during anaesthesia is not certain. They impose a considerable financial burden to health care systems apart from the patient losses. Common causes of these errors and their prevention is discussed. PMID:20640103

Jain, Rajnish Kumar; Katiyar, Sarika

2009-01-01

126

Dysregulation of cadherins in the intercalated disc of the spontaneously hypertensive stroke-prone rat.  

PubMed

The structural integrity of cardiac cells is maintained by the Ca(2+)-dependent homophilic cell-cell adhesion of cadherins. N-cadherin is responsible for this adhesion under normal physiological conditions. The role of cadherins in adverse cardiac pathology is less clear. We studied the hearts of the stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive (SHRSP) rat as a genetic model of cardiac hypertrophy and compared them to Wistar-Kyoto control animals. Western blotting of protein homogenates from 12-week old SHRSP animals indicated that similar levels of beta, gamma-, and alpha-catenin and T, N and R-cadherin were expressed in the control and SHRSP animals. However, dramatically higher levels of E-cadherin were detected in SHRSP animals compared to controls at 6, 12 and 18 weeks of age. This was confirmed by quantitative Taqman PCR and immunohistochemistry. E-cadherin was located at the intercalated disc of the myocytes in co-localisation with connexin 43. Adenoviral overexpression of E-cadherin in rat H9c2 cells and primary rabbit myocytes resulted in a significant reduction in myocyte cell diameter and breadth. E-cadherin overexpression resulted in re-localisation of beta-catenin to the cell surface particularly to cell-cell junctions. Subsequent immunohistochemistry of the hearts of WKY and SHRSP animals also revealed increased levels of beta-catenin in the intercalated disc in the SHRSP compared to WKY. Therefore, remodelling of the intercalated disc in the hearts of SHRSP animals may contribute to the altered function observed in these animals. PMID:20138888

Craig, Margaret Anne; McBride, Martin W; Smith, Godfrey; George, Sarah J; Baker, Andrew

2010-06-01

127

How do eubacterial organisms manage aggregation-prone proteome?  

PubMed Central

Eubacterial genomes vary considerably in their nucleotide composition. The percentage of genetic material constituted by guanosine and cytosine (GC) nucleotides ranges from 20% to 70%.  It has been posited that GC-poor organisms are more dependent on protein folding machinery. Previous studies have ascribed this to the accumulation of mildly deleterious mutations in these organisms due to population bottlenecks. This phenomenon has been supported by protein folding simulations, which showed that proteins encoded by GC-poor organisms are more prone to aggregation than proteins encoded by GC-rich organisms. To test this proposition using a genome-wide approach, we classified different eubacterial proteomes in terms of their aggregation propensity and chaperone-dependence using multiple machine learning models. In contrast to the expected decrease in protein aggregation with an increase in GC richness, we found that the aggregation propensity of proteomes increases with GC content. A similar and even more significant correlation was obtained with the GroEL-dependence of proteomes: GC-poor proteomes have evolved to be less dependent on GroEL than GC-rich proteomes. We thus propose that a decrease in eubacterial GC content may have been selected in organisms facing proteostasis problems. PMID:25339987

Das Roy, Rishi; Bhardwaj, Manju; Bhatnagar, Vasudha; Chakraborty, Kausik; Dash, Debasis

2014-01-01

128

Shame proneness in symptom dimensions of obsessive-compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

Although one study has noted that shame may play a significant role in anxiety disorders (Fergus, Valentiner, McGratch, & Jencius, 2010), the literature does not address the appearance of shame within specific dimensions of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). In this study, shame is assessed within four common symptom dimensions of OCD: contamination, harm, unacceptable thoughts, and symmetry. The authors hypothesized that shame would be significantly related to unacceptable thoughts and harm, but not other dimensions. Ninety-one individuals with OCD completed the Dimensional Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (measuring severity of OCD symptom dimensions) and the Test of Self-Conscious Affect (assessing shame proneness). Results indicated a positive significant relationship between shame and harm, but not unacceptable thoughts. Additionally, a significant correlation was found between shame and symmetry. This is possibly due to a relationship between perfectionism and symmetry (Wu & Cortesi, 2009). These findings suggest that shame is related to certain dimensions of OCD and may deserve consideration in relation to treatment. PMID:24870849

Wetterneck, Chad T; Singh, Sonia; Hart, John

2014-01-01

129

Assistant-based standardization of prone position thoracoscopic esophagectomy.  

PubMed

Thoracoscopic esophagectomy in the prone position (TEPP) might enable solo-surgery in cases requiring resection of the esophagus and the surrounding lymph nodes due to the associated advantages of good exposure of the surgical field and ergonomic considerations for the surgeon. However, no one approach can be for all patients requiring extensive lymphadenectomy. We recently developed an assistant-based procedure to standardize exposure of the surgical field. Patients were divided into 1 of 2 groups:a pre-standardization group (n=37) and a post-standardization group (n=28). The thoracoscopic operative time was significantly shorter (p=0.0037) in the post-standardization group (n=28; 267 ± 31 min) than in the pre-standardization group (n=37;301 ± 53 min). Further, learning curve analysis using the moving average method showed stabilization of the thoracoscopic operative time after the standardization. No significant differences were found in the number of mediastinal lymph nodes dissected or intraoperative blood loss between the 2 groups. There were also no significant differences in the complication rate. Assistant-based surgery and standardization of the procedure resulted in a well-exposed and safe surgical field. TEPP decreased the operative time, even in patients requiring extensive lymphadenectomy. PMID:24743786

Shirakawa, Yasuhiro; Noma, Kazuhiro; Maeda, Naoaki; Katsube, Ryoichi; Tanabe, Shunsuke; Ohara, Toshiaki; Sakurama, Kazufumi; Fujiwara, Toshiyoshi

2014-01-01

130

Development of Korean Smartphone addiction proneness scale for youth.  

PubMed

This study developed a Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale (SAPS) based on the existing internet and cellular phone addiction scales. For the development of this scale, 29 items (1.5 times the final number of items) were initially selected as preliminary items, based on the previous studies on internet/phone addiction as well as the clinical experience of involved experts. The preliminary scale was administered to a nationally representative sample of 795 students in elementary, middle, and high schools across South Korea. Then, final 15 items were selected according to the reliability test results. The final scale consisted of four subdomains: (1) disturbance of adaptive functions, (2) virtual life orientation, (3) withdrawal, and (4) tolerance. The final scale indicated a high reliability with Cronbach's ? of .880. Support for the scale's criterion validity has been demonstrated by its relationship to the internet addiction scale, KS-II (r ?=? .49). For the analysis of construct validity, we tested the Structural Equation Model. The results showed the four-factor structure to be valid (NFI ?=? .943, TLI ?=? .902, CFI ?=? .902, RMSEA ?=? .034). Smartphone addiction is gaining a greater spotlight as possibly a new form of addiction along with internet addiction. The SAPS appears to be a reliable and valid diagnostic scale for screening adolescents who may be at risk of smartphone addiction. Further implications and limitations are discussed. PMID:24848006

Kim, Dongil; Lee, Yunhee; Lee, Juyoung; Nam, JeeEun Karin; Chung, Yeoju

2014-01-01

131

Medical errors in neurosurgery  

PubMed Central

Background: Medical errors cause nearly 100,000 deaths per year and cost billions of dollars annually. In order to rationally develop and institute programs to mitigate errors, the relative frequency and costs of different errors must be documented. This analysis will permit the judicious allocation of scarce healthcare resources to address the most costly errors as they are identified. Methods: Here, we provide a systematic review of the neurosurgical literature describing medical errors at the departmental level. Eligible articles were identified from the PubMed database, and restricted to reports of recognizable errors across neurosurgical practices. We limited this analysis to cross-sectional studies of errors in order to better match systems-level concerns, rather than reviewing the literature for individually selected errors like wrong-sided or wrong-level surgery. Results: Only a small number of articles met these criteria, highlighting the paucity of data on this topic. From these studies, errors were documented in anywhere from 12% to 88.7% of cases. These errors had many sources, of which only 23.7-27.8% were technical, related to the execution of the surgery itself, highlighting the importance of systems-level approaches to protecting patients and reducing errors. Conclusions: Overall, the magnitude of medical errors in neurosurgery and the lack of focused research emphasize the need for prospective categorization of morbidity with judicious attribution. Ultimately, we must raise awareness of the impact of medical errors in neurosurgery, reduce the occurrence of medical errors, and mitigate their detrimental effects. PMID:25371849

Rolston, John D.; Zygourakis, Corinna C.; Han, Seunggu J.; Lau, Catherine Y.; Berger, Mitchel S.; Parsa, Andrew T.

2014-01-01

132

Up-Regulation of the Error-Prone DNA Polymerase K Promotes Pleiotropic Genetic Alterations and Tumorigenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is currently widely accepted that genetic instability is key to cancer development. Many types of cancers arise as a consequence of a gradual accumulation of nucleotide aberra- tions, each mutation conferring growth and\\/or survival advantage. Genetic instability could also proceed in sudden bursts leading to a more drastic upheaval of structure and organization of the genome. Genetic instability, as

Clarisse Bavoux; Andreia Machado Leopoldino; Valerie Bergoglio; Jiyang O-Wang; Tomoo Ogi; Anne Bieth; Jean-Gabriel Judde; Marie-France Poupon; Thomas Helleday; Masatoshi Tagawa; CarlosRenato Machado; Jean-Sebastien Hoffmann; Christophe Cazaux

2005-01-01

133

Protein folding in living cells is acomplex, error-prone process.Numerous mechanisms arein place to ensure  

E-print Network

in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The addition of oligo- saccharides can be beneficial during maturation by making are molecular chaperones in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). They are lectins that interact with newly isolated oligo- saccharides has confirmed that they are a new type of lectin and that they bind

Hebert, Daniel N.

134

In vitro characterization of pol I*, an SOS inducible, error-prone from of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I  

SciTech Connect

E. coli strains carrying mutations in the SOS regulon were screened for the presence of pol I*. Use of pol I* in assays of polymerase fidelity and selectivity has been limited by the low concentration and purity of the enzyme. Therefore, attempts were made to further concentrate and purify pol I*. The template selectivity of pol I* was compared to that of pol I using three models of damaged DNA. UV-irradiated M13 DNA was used in a two-stage termination reaction to determine if pol I* could bypass putative pyrimidine dimers to a greater extent than pol I. In the gel system no reproducibly significant bypass could be detected by either pol I* or pol I. However, the degree of replication by pol I* utilizing UV-irradiated M13 DNA template, was up to 5-fold greater than for pol I. OsO{sub 4}-oxidized M13 DNA was used as a model substrate for oxidative DNA damage. Opposite this substrate incorporation by pol I* is less inhibited than incorporation by pol I. However, in a test of nucleotide selectivity neither pol I*, pol I, nor terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase will incorporate ({alpha}-{sup 32}P)thymine glycol deoxyribonucleotide. The activity of pol I* was compared to that of pol I on the synthetic templates, poly (dA) and poly((dA)+2-AP). Pol I* misincorporated both dCMP and dGMP to a greater extent than pol I when utilizing templates containing 2-aminopurine deoxyribonucleotide.

Hodes, C.S.

1987-01-01

135

Body Image, Self-Esteem, and Depression-Proneness: Closing the Gender Gap.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines gender differences in body image and its relationship to depression-proneness and self-esteem. Findings indicate a preoccupation with body weight and appearance for both men and women, and a relationship between body satisfaction and depression-proneness. (FMW)

McCaulay, Marci; And Others

1988-01-01

136

Suicide Proneness in College Students: Relationships with Gender, Procrastination, and Achievement Motivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the relationships between 2 academic dispositions (i.e., procrastination and achievement motivation) and 2 indices of suicidal proneness in college women and men. The degree these 2 academic dispositions could predict unique variance in suicide proneness scores, above and beyond the influence of depression and self-esteem was also examined for each gender. Participants included 475 (336 women, 139

Jeffrey Klibert; Jennifer Langhinrichsen-Rohling; Amy Luna; Michelle Robichaux

2011-01-01

137

Intra-Patient Supine-Prone Colon Registration in CT Colonography Using Shape Spectrum  

Microsoft Academic Search

CT colonography (CTC) is a minimally invasive screening technique for colorectal polyps and colon cancer. Since electronic colon cleansing (ECC) cannot completely remove the presence of pseudo-polyps, most CTC protocols acquire both prone and supine im- ages to improve the visualization of the lumen wall and to reduce false positives. Comparisons between the prone and supine images can be facil-

Zhaoqiang Lai; Jiaxi Hu; Chang Liu; Vahid Taimouri; Darshan Pai; Jiong Zhu; Jianrong Xu; Jing Hua

2010-01-01

138

The Relationship of Stress Arousal and Stress Prone Personality Traits to Menstrual Distress.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The various relationships of stress arousal and stress-prone personality traits to menstrual distress were investigated in order to quantify psychophysiological arousal differences between high and low menstrual distress symptom reporters and examine differences in stress-prone personality traits between high and low menstrual distress symptom…

Marini, David C.

139

A Comparison of Three Face Pillows While in the Prone Position for Spinal Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study Design. This is a prospective, randomized study. Objective. The purpose was to compare the tissue- pillow interface pressures at the forehead and chin in patients positioned in the prone fashion for spinal surgery on each of 3 facial positioners. Summary of Background Data. Facial pressure ulcers have been infrequently observed after spinal surgery re- quiring prone positioning. This requires

Margaret Grisell

140

Leadership attributes, masculinity and risk taking as predictors of crisis proneness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the extent to which leadership attributes, masculinity, risk taking and decision making affect perceived crisis proneness. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper draws mainly on the literature about gender, leadership and organizational crisis to explore whether masculinity predicts crisis proneness, and the extent to which leadership attributes as well as risk-taking and

Zachary Sheaffer; Ronit Bogler; Samuel Sarfaty

2011-01-01

141

An Exploratory Study of the Impact of Code Smells on Software Change-proneness  

E-print Network

An Exploratory Study of the Impact of Code Smells on Software Change-proneness Foutse Khomh Ptidej-gael.gueheneuc@polymtl.ca Abstract--Code smells are poor implementation choices, thought to make object-oriented systems hard to maintain. In this study, we investigate if classes with code smells are more change-prone than classes

Di Penta, Massimiliano

142

Coronary Prone Behavior Pattern in Women Preparing for Traditionally Male Professions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although coronary prone, or Type A behavior, appears to predict coronary heart disease in women, as it does in men, little research has compared men and women in the same life circumstances. To determine if there is a coronary prone behavior pattern in women preparing for traditionally male professionals, two studies were conducted. In the first…

Gerdes, Eugenia Proctor; Sidler, John P.

143

Preliminary Results on Setup Precision of Prone-Lateral Patient Positioning for Whole Breast Irradiation  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The aim of this study was to develop a rapid and reproducible technique for prone positioning and to compare dose-volume indices in prone and supine positions. Methods and Materials: Eighteen patients underwent computed tomography imaging for radiotherapy planning in prone and supine position. Experience was gained in the first eight patients, which lead to modifications of the Horizon prone breast board (Civco Medical Solutions, Orange City, Iowa, USA) and the patient setup technique. A unilateral breast holder (U-BH) was developed (Van de Velde, Schellebelle, Belgium) to retract the contralateral breast away from the treated breast. The technique was then applied to an additional 10 patients. The setup precision was evaluated using daily cone-beam CT. Results: Modifications to the breast board were made to secure a prone-lateral rather then a pure prone position. We evolved from a classical setup using laser marks on the patients' body to a direct breast setup using marks on the breast only. The setup precision of the direct positioning procedure with the modified breast board and the U-BH is comparable to supine setup data in the literature. Dose-volume indices for heart and lung show significantly better results for prone than for supine position, and dose homogeneity within the treated breast did not differ according to the treatment position. Conclusions: The setup precision of our prone-lateral positioning technique is comparable to supine data in literature. Our data show the advantage of prone radiotherapy to spare the lung and heart. Further research is necessary to reduce the duration of prone setup.

Veldeman, Liv, E-mail: Liv.Veldeman@uzgent.b [Department of Radiotherapy, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium); Speleers, Bruno; Bakker, Marlies; Jacobs, Filip; Coghe, Marc; De Gersem, Werner; Impens, Aline; Nechelput, Sarah; De Wagter, Carlos [Department of Radiotherapy, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium)

2010-09-01

144

Effects of the supine and prone position on diaphragm thickness in healthy term infants  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND—The physiological basis underlying the decline in the incidence of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) associated with changing the sleep position from prone to supine remains unknown.?AIMS—To evaluate diaphragm thickness (tdi) and shortening in healthy term infants in the prone and supine positions in order to determine whether changes in body position would affect diaphragm resting length and the degree of diaphragm shortening during inspiration.?METHODS—In 16 healthy term infants, diaphragm thickness at the level of the zone of apposition on the right side was measured using ultrasonography. Heart rate (HR), breathing frequency (f), and transcutaneous oxyhaemoglobin saturation (SaO2) were recorded simultaneously during diaphragm imaging with the infants in the supine and prone positions during quiet sleep.?RESULTS—At end expiratory (EEV) and at end inspiratory lung volumes (EIV), tdi increased significantly in the prone position. The change in tdi during tidal breathing was also greater when the infant was prone. SaO2, HR, and f were not significantly different at EEV and at EIV in both positions.?CONCLUSION—In healthy term infants, placed in the prone position, the diaphragm is significantly thicker and, therefore, shorter, both at EEV and EIV. Diaphragm shortening during tidal breathing is greater when the infant is prone. In the prone position, the decreased diaphragm resting length would impair diaphragm strength, and the additional diaphragm shortening during tidal breathing represents added work performed by the diaphragm. This may compromise an infant's capacity to respond to stressful situations when placed in the prone position and may contribute to the association of SIDS with prone position.?? PMID:10952643

Rehan, V.; Nakashima, J.; Gutman, A.; Rubin, L.; McCool, F

2000-01-01

145

ExCyto PCR Amplification  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundExCyto PCR cells provide a novel and cost effective means to amplify DNA transformed into competent bacterial cells. ExCyto PCR uses host E. coli with a chromosomally integrated gene encoding a thermostable DNA polymerase to accomplish robust, hot-start PCR amplification of cloned sequences without addition of exogenous enzyme.ResultsBecause the thermostable DNA polymerase is stably integrated into the bacterial chromosome, ExCyto

Vinay Dhodda; Ronald Godiska; Jeffrey D. Vanwye; David Mead; Rebecca Hochstein; Lynne Sheets; Sarah Vande Zande; Chris Niebauer; Douglas L. Crawford; Marjorie F. Oleksiak; Ching-Hong Yang

2010-01-01

146

Everyday scale errors.  

PubMed

Young children occasionally make scale errors- they attempt to fit their bodies into extremely small objects or attempt to fit a larger object into another, tiny, object. For example, a child might try to sit in a dollhouse-sized chair or try to stuff a large doll into it. Scale error research was originally motivated by parents' and researchers' informal accounts of these behaviors. However, scale errors have only been documented using laboratory procedures designed to promote their occurrence. To formally document the occurrence of scale errors in everyday settings, we posted a survey on the internet. Across two studies, participants reported many examples of everyday scale errors that are similar to those observed in our labs and were committed by children of the same age. These findings establish that scale errors occur in the course of children's daily lives, lending further support to the account that these behaviors stem from general aspects of visual processing. PMID:20121860

Ware, Elizabeth A; Uttal, David H; DeLoache, Judy S

2010-01-01

147

Error detection method  

DOEpatents

An apparatus, program product, and method that run an algorithm on a hardware based processor, generate a hardware error as a result of running the algorithm, generate an algorithm output for the algorithm, compare the algorithm output to another output for the algorithm, and detect the hardware error from the comparison. The algorithm is designed to cause the hardware based processor to heat to a degree that increases the likelihood of hardware errors to manifest, and the hardware error is observable in the algorithm output. As such, electronic components may be sufficiently heated and/or sufficiently stressed to create better conditions for generating hardware errors, and the output of the algorithm may be compared at the end of the run to detect a hardware error that occurred anywhere during the run that may otherwise not be detected by traditional methodologies (e.g., due to cooling, insufficient heat and/or stress, etc.).

Olson, Eric J.

2013-06-11

148

Role of the gonads in hypertension-prone rats.  

PubMed

In a genetically hypertension-prone (S) strain of rats it was observed previously that males generally developed hypertension more rapidly on a high salt diet than did females although final pressure ultimately were similar in both sexes. A genetic study had shown that there was no sex-linkage involved in setting blood pressure levels, so it was thought that the gonads might be involved. In the present work, castration of males had no effect on blood pressure but in the females it caused a rise in pressure that could not be distinguished from that in males, both on a high and low salt diet. Castration resulted in greater growth in females than in controls, whereas it had the opposite effect in males. It was speculated that these changes were due to influences on pituitary growth hormone with castration increasing the net output of growth hormone (or enhancing receptor sensitivity to it) in the female and the opposite in the male. From the work of others, there are some data compatible with such an interpretation. Experimentally, growth hormone will induce hypertension in rats. Therefore, it is conceivable that growth hormone is involved in the increment in hypertension observed in these castrate females. Because the effect on blood pressure was observed in castrate females on both high and low NaCl diets, it was considered unlikely that the blood pressure effect was simply due to increased NaCl intake in the food associated with greater growth. It was suggested that this rise in blood pressure with cessation of ovarian function might bear on the unsettled question of "menopausal" hypertension in women: in the genetically susceptible individual an increase in growth hormone associated with declining ovarian funtion in the menopause could provide the stimulus for the appearance of hypertension some years earlier than would otherwise have been the case. PMID:1165474

Dahl, L K; Knudsen, K D; Ohanian, E V; Muirhead, M; Tuthill, R

1975-09-01

149

Science Shorts: Experimental Error  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

One of the most challenging components of science inquiry is getting students to understand the fundamentally important concept of experimental error. While this concept can be tricky for children, there are straightforward lessons that can go a long way in getting students to think about and control for error. This month's activity leads students through a purposely flawed investigation of popcorn, allowing them to point out the potential sources of error.

Davis, Kimberly J.; Coskie, Tracy L.

2008-10-01

150

Probabilistic quantum error correction  

E-print Network

There are well known necessary and sufficient conditions for a quantum code to correct a set of errors. We study weaker conditions under which a quantum code may correct errors with probabilities that may be less than one. We work with stabilizer codes and as an application study how the nine qubit code, the seven qubit code, and the five qubit code perform when there are errors on more than one qubit. As a second application, we discuss the concept of syndrome quality and use it to suggest a way that quantum error correction can be practically improved.

Jesse Fern; John Terilla

2002-09-06

151

Model Error Budgets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An error budget is a commonly used tool in design of complex aerospace systems. It represents system performance requirements in terms of allowable errors and flows these down through a hierarchical structure to lower assemblies and components. The requirements may simply be 'allocated' based upon heuristics or experience, or they may be designed through use of physics-based models. This paper presents a basis for developing an error budget for models of the system, as opposed to the system itself. The need for model error budgets arises when system models are a principle design agent as is increasingly more common for poorly testable high performance space systems.

Briggs, Hugh C.

2008-01-01

152

Individual Positioning: A Comparative Study of Adjuvant Breast Radiotherapy in the Prone Versus Supine Position  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To study breast radiotherapy in the prone vs. supine positions through dosimetry and clinical implementation. Methods and Materials: Conformal radiotherapy plans in 61 patients requiring only breast irradiation were developed for both the prone and supine positions. After evaluation of the of the first 20 plan pairs, the patients were irradiated in the prone or supine position in a randomized fashion. These cases were analyzed for repositioning accuracy and skin reactions related to treatment position and patient characteristics. Results: The planning target volume covered with 47.5-53.5 Gy in the prone vs. the supine position was 85.1% {+-} 4.2% vs. 89.2 {+-} 2.2%, respectively (p < 0.0001). Radiation exposure of the ipsilateral lung, expressed in terms of the mean lung dose and the V{sub 20Gy}, was dramatically lower in the prone vs. supine position (p < 0.0001), but the doses to the heart did not differ. There was no difference in the need to correct positioning during radiotherapy, but the extent of displacement was significantly higher in the prone vs. supine position (p = 0.021). The repositioning accuracy in the prone position exhibited an improvement over time and did not depend on any patient-related parameters. Significantly more radiodermatitis of Grade 1-2 developed following prone vs. supine irradiation (p = 0.025). Conclusions: Conformal breast radiotherapy is feasible in the prone position. Its primary advantage is the substantially lower radiation dose to the ipsilateral lung. The higher dose inhomogeneity and increased rate of Grade 1-2 skin toxicity, however, may be of concern.

Varga, Zoltan; Hideghety, Katalin; Mezo, Tamas; Nikolenyi, Aliz; Thurzo, Laszlo [Department of Oncotherapy, University of Szeged, Szeged (Hungary); Kahan, Zsuzsanna [Department of Oncotherapy, University of Szeged, Szeged (Hungary)], E-mail: kahan@onko.szote.u-szeged.hu

2009-09-01

153

Effect of Head Rotation on Cerebral Blood Velocity in the Prone Position  

PubMed Central

Background. The prone position is applied to facilitate surgery of the back and to improve oxygenation in the respirator-treated patient. In particular, with positive pressure ventilation the prone position reduces venous return to the heart and in turn cardiac output (CO) with consequences for cerebral blood flow. We tested in healthy subjects the hypothesis that rotating the head in the prone position reduces cerebral blood flow. Methods. Mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), stroke volume (SV), and CO were determined, together with the middle cerebral artery mean blood velocity (MCA Vmean) and jugular vein diameters bilaterally in 22 healthy subjects in the prone position with the head centered, respectively, rotated sideways, with and without positive pressure breathing (10?cmH2O). Results. The prone position reduced SV (by 5.4 ± 1.5%; P < 0.05) and CO (by 2.3 ± 1.9 %), and slightly increased MAP (from 78 ± 3 to 80 ± 2?mmHg) as well as bilateral jugular vein diameters, leaving MCA Vmean unchanged. Positive pressure breathing in the prone position increased MAP (by 3.6 ± 0.8?mmHg) but further reduced SV and CO (by 9.3 ± 1.3 % and 7.2 ± 2.4 % below baseline) while MCA Vmean was maintained. The head-rotated prone position with positive pressure breathing augmented MAP further (87 ± 2?mmHg) but not CO, narrowed both jugular vein diameters, and reduced MCA Vmean (by 8.6 ± 3.2 %). Conclusion. During positive pressure breathing the prone position with sideways rotated head reduces MCA Vmean ~10% in spite of an elevated MAP. Prone positioning with rotated head affects both CBF and cerebrovenous drainage indicating that optimal brain perfusion requires head centering. PMID:22988456

H?jlund, Jakob; Sandmand, Marie; Sonne, Morten; Mantoni, Teit; J?rgensen, Henrik L.; Belhage, Bo; van Lieshout, Johannes J.; Pott, Frank C.

2012-01-01

154

Field error lottery.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The level of field errors in an FEL is an important determinant of its performance. We have computed 3D performance of a large laser subsystem subjected to field errors of various types. These calculations have been guided by simple models such as SWOOP. ...

C. J. Elliott, B. McVey, D. C. Quimby

1990-01-01

155

Duration response measurement error  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of response measurement error in duration data is investigated using small parameter asymptotic approximations and compared with the effect of hazard function heterogeneity. The approximations lead to a specification test to detect measurement error which is shown to be related to the class of Information Matrix tests. It is shown that in a commonly used class of models

Andrew Chesher; Montezuma Dumangane; Richard J. Smith

2002-01-01

156

Everyday Scale Errors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Young children occasionally make "scale errors"--they attempt to fit their bodies into extremely small objects or attempt to fit a larger object into another, tiny, object. For example, a child might try to sit in a dollhouse-sized chair or try to stuff a large doll into it. Scale error research was originally motivated by parents' and…

Ware, Elizabeth A.; Uttal, David H.; DeLoache, Judy S.

2010-01-01

157

Everyday scale errors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Young children occasionally make scale errors - they attempt to fit their bodies into extremely small objects or attempt to fit a larger object into another, tiny, object. For example, a child might try to sit in a dollhouse-sized chair or try to stuff a large doll into it. Scale error research was originally motivated by parents' and researchers' informal

Elizabeth A. Ware; David H. Uttal; Judy S. DeLoache

2010-01-01

158

Medication error prevalence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Healthcare risk epidemiology identifies medication error as the commonest cause of adverse effects on patients. Medication error can occur at any phase of the complex medication process so prevalence rates need to be estimated at each drug treatment phase: prescription, transcription and administration along with their clinical repercussions. This paper aims to investigate this issue. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Medication

Ana Belén Jiménez Muñoz; Antonio Muiño Miguez; María Paz Rodriguez Pérez; María Dolores Vigil Escribano; María Esther Durán Garcia; María Sanjurjo Saez

2010-01-01

159

Refractive error blindness.  

PubMed Central

Recent data suggest that a large number of people are blind in different parts of the world due to high refractive error because they are not using appropriate refractive correction. Refractive error as a cause of blindness has been recognized only recently with the increasing use of presenting visual acuity for defining blindness. In addition to blindness due to naturally occurring high refractive error, inadequate refractive correction of aphakia after cataract surgery is also a significant cause of blindness in developing countries. Blindness due to refractive error in any population suggests that eye care services in general in that population are inadequate since treatment of refractive error is perhaps the simplest and most effective form of eye care. Strategies such as vision screening programmes need to be implemented on a large scale to detect individuals suffering from refractive error blindness. Sufficient numbers of personnel to perform reasonable quality refraction need to be trained in developing countries. Also adequate infrastructure has to be developed in underserved areas of the world to facilitate the logistics of providing affordable reasonable-quality spectacles to individuals suffering from refractive error blindness. Long-term success in reducing refractive error blindness worldwide will require attention to these issues within the context of comprehensive approaches to reduce all causes of avoidable blindness. PMID:11285669

Dandona, R.; Dandona, L.

2001-01-01

160

Boredom Proneness: Its Relationship with Subjective Underemployment, Perceived Organizational Support, and Job Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  The current study examined the relationship between trait boredom (i.e., boredom proneness), subjective underemployment, perceived\\u000a organizational support, and job performance.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Design\\/methodology\\/approach  Self-reported levels of boredom proneness, subjective underemployment, and perceived organizational support were collected\\u000a from a sample of healthcare employees (N = 110). Job performance data were obtained from archival performance ratings provided by supervisors.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Findings  Consistent with expectations, boredom-prone workers viewed themselves as

John D. WattMichael; Michael B. Hargis

2010-01-01

161

Molecular detection of Mycoplasma pneumoniae by quantitative real-time PCR in patients with community acquired pneumonia  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: Mycoplasma pneumoniae is the most important and common cause of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). The conventional detection methods (culture and serology) lack sensitivity. PCR offers a better approach for rapid detection but is prone to carry over contamination during manipulation of amplification products. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) method offers an attractive alternative detection method. In the present study, qRT-PCR, PCR and serology methods were used to detect M. pneumoniae infection in cases of pneumonias and findings compared. Methods: A total of 134 samples consisting of blood (for serology) and respiratory secretions (for PCR and qRT-PCR) from 134 patients were collected. The blood samples were tested for IgG, IgM and IgA using commercially available kits. For standardization of PCR of M. pneumoniae P1 gene was cloned in pGEMTEasy vector. Specific primers and reporter sequence were designed and procured for this fragment. The qRT-PCR assay was performed to prepare the standard curve for M. pneumoniae positive control DNA template and detection in patient samples. Results: Of the 134 patients, 26 (19%) were positive for antibodies against M. pneumoniae. IgG was positive in 14.92 per cent (20) cases, IgM in 4.47 per cent (6) and IgA was positive in 5.22 per cent (7) cases. In the qRT-PCR assay 19 per cent (26) samples were positive. Of the 26 qRT-PCR positive samples, nine could be detected by serology. PCR was positive for 25 samples. An extra sample negative by PCR was detected by qRT-PCR. Thus, real-time PCR assay, PCR and serology in combination could detect M. pneumoniae infection in 43 patients. Interpretation & conclusions: The study shows that 17 patients were detected by serology alone, 17 were detected by qRT-PCR only and nine patients were positive by both serology and real-time PCR. Of the 134 samples tested, 25 were positive by conventional PCR, but qRT-PCR could detect one more sample that was negative by PCR and serology. These results suggest that a combination of two or three methods may be required for reliable identification of CAP due to M. pneumoniae. PMID:24056602

Chaudhry, Rama; Sharma, Sutikshan; Javed, Sabah; Passi, Kapil; Dey, A.B.; Malhotra, Pawan

2013-01-01

162

Enhanced analysis of real-time PCR data by using a variable efficiency model: FPK-PCR  

PubMed Central

Current methodology in real-time Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis performs well provided PCR efficiency remains constant over reactions. Yet, small changes in efficiency can lead to large quantification errors. Particularly in biological samples, the possible presence of inhibitors forms a challenge. We present a new approach to single reaction efficiency calculation, called Full Process Kinetics-PCR (FPK-PCR). It combines a kinetically more realistic model with flexible adaptation to the full range of data. By reconstructing the entire chain of cycle efficiencies, rather than restricting the focus on a ‘window of application’, one extracts additional information and loses a level of arbitrariness. The maximal efficiency estimates returned by the model are comparable in accuracy and precision to both the golden standard of serial dilution and other single reaction efficiency methods. The cycle-to-cycle changes in efficiency, as described by the FPK-PCR procedure, stay considerably closer to the data than those from other S-shaped models. The assessment of individual cycle efficiencies returns more information than other single efficiency methods. It allows in-depth interpretation of real-time PCR data and reconstruction of the fluorescence data, providing quality control. Finally, by implementing a global efficiency model, reproducibility is improved as the selection of a window of application is avoided. PMID:22102586

Lievens, Antoon; Van Aelst, S.; Van den Bulcke, M.; Goetghebeur, E.

2012-01-01

163

44 CFR 60.22 - Planning considerations for flood-prone areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01...flood-prone areas. 60.22 Section 60.22 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY...

2012-10-01

164

44 CFR 60.22 - Planning considerations for flood-prone areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01...flood-prone areas. 60.22 Section 60.22 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY...

2013-10-01

165

44 CFR 60.22 - Planning considerations for flood-prone areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01...flood-prone areas. 60.22 Section 60.22 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY...

2010-10-01

166

Modeling interactions betweenspotted owl and barred owl populations in fire-prone forests  

EPA Science Inventory

Background / Question / Methods Efforts to conserve northern spotted owls (Strix occidentalis caurina) in the eastern Cascades of Washington must merge the challenges of providing sufficient structurally complex forest habitat in a fire-prone landscape with the limitations impos...

167

Genes May Make Some More Prone to Heart Disease When Under Stress  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Genes May Make Some More Prone to Heart Disease ... Preidt Wednesday, October 1, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Genes and Gene Therapy Heart Diseases WEDNESDAY, Oct. 1, ...

168

When feeling bad leads to feeling good: guilt-proneness and affective organizational commitment.  

PubMed

The authors posit that higher levels of guilt-proneness are associated with higher levels of affective organizational commitment. To explain this counterintuitive link, the authors suggest that a dispositional tendency to feel guilt motivates individuals to exert greater effort on their work-related tasks that, in turn, strengthens their affinity for the organization. The authors tested this idea using a laboratory study and field data from 2 samples of working adults. Individuals who are more guilt-prone reported higher levels of organizational attachment compared with less guilt-prone individuals. Furthermore, mediation analyses indicate that the link between guilt-proneness and affective commitment is driven by greater task effort. The authors discuss the implications of these findings for understanding the affective drivers of commitment in organizations. PMID:21728398

Flynn, Francis J; Schaumberg, Rebecca L

2012-01-01

169

Error Prevention Aid  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In a complex computer environment there is ample opportunity for error, a mistake by a programmer, or a software-induced undesirable side effect. In insurance, errors can cost a company heavily, so protection against inadvertent change is a must for the efficient firm. The data processing center at Transport Life Insurance Company has taken a step to guard against accidental changes by adopting a software package called EQNINT (Equations Interpreter Program). EQNINT cross checks the basic formulas in a program against the formulas that make up the major production system. EQNINT assures that formulas are coded correctly and helps catch errors before they affect the customer service or its profitability.

1987-01-01

170

Body image, self-esteem, and depression-proneness: Closing the gender gap  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gender differences in body image and related correlates have received increasing attention in recent psychological research. The purposes of the present study were to further examine gender differences in body image and its relationship to depression-proneness and self-esteem. The Body Cathexis Scale, the Depression-Proneness Inventory, the Janis-Field Feelings of Inadequacy Scale, and a background questionnaire were administered to 176 female

Marci McCaulay; Laurie Mintz; Audrey A. Glenn

1988-01-01

171

Prone versus supine position for adjuvant breast radiotherapy: a prospective study in patients with pendulous breasts  

PubMed Central

Purpose To analyze dosimetric parameters of patients receiving adjuvant breast radiotherapy (RT) in the prone versus supine position. Methods and materials Forty-one out of 55 patients with pendulous breasts and candidates for adjuvant RT were enrolled in the study after informed consent. They underwent computed tomography (CT)-simulation in both prone and supine position. Target and non target volumes were outlined on CT images. Prescribed dose was 50 Gy delivered by two tangential photon fields followed by 10 Gy electron boost. Target coverage and dose homogeneity to clinical target volume (CTV) and planning target volume (PTV) were assessed by V95, V105 and V107 and dose to lung, heart and left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) by V5, V10, V20, and mean and maximum dose. Data were analyzed by Student’s t-test. Results CTV and PTV coverage was significantly better in supine than in prone position. Lung V5, V10, and V20 were significantly lower in prone than in supine position. Heart V5, V10, V20, and LAD mean and maximum dose, in the 17 patients with left breast tumor, were lower in prone than in supine position, but without statistical significance. Based on treatment planning data and on treatment feasibility, 29/41 patients (70.7%) were treated in prone position. Acute and late toxicities of patients treated in prone and in supine position were not statistically different. Conclusion Prone position is a favorable alternative for irradiation of mammary gland in patients with pendulous breasts and in our series was adopted in 71% of the cases. PMID:24103708

2013-01-01

172

Using product, process, and execution metrics to predict fault-prone software modules with classification trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Software-quality classification models can make predictions to guide improvement efforts to those modules that need it the most. Based on software metrics, a model can predict which modules will be considered fault-prone, or not. We consider a module fault-prone if any faults were discovered by customers. Useful predictions are contingent on the availability of candidate predictors that are actually related

Taghi M. Khoshgoftaar; Ruqun Shan; E. B. Allen

2000-01-01

173

Effect of Prone Position on Regional Shunt, Aeration and Perfusion in Experimental Acute Lung Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale: The prone position is used to improve gas exchange in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. However, the regional mechanism by which the prone position improves gas ex- change in acutely injured lungs is still incompletely defined. Methods:Weusedpositronemissiontomographyimagingof( 13 N)nitro- gen to assess the regional distribution of pulmonary shunt, aeration, perfusion, and ventilation in seven surfactant-depleted sheep in supineandpronepositions.Results:Inthesupineposition,thedorsal

Torsten Richter; Giacomo Bellani; R. Scott Harris; Marcos F. Vidal Melo; Tilo Winkler; Jose G. Venegas; Guido Musch

2005-01-01

174

The Creative Experiences Questionnaire (CEQ): a brief self-report measure of fantasy proneness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current article describes the psychometric qualities of the Creative Experiences Questionnaire (CEQ), a brief 25-item self-report measure of fantasy proneness. Findings indicate that the CEQ demonstrates adequate test-retest stability and internal consistency. CEQ scores appear not to be related to social desirability. The CEQ was found to be strongly correlated with a concurrent measure of fantasy proneness. Furthermore, there

Harald Merckelbach; Robert Horselenberg; Peter Muris

2001-01-01

175

Software Metrics Reduction for Fault-Proneness Prediction of Software Modules  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a It would be valuable to use metrics to identify the fault-proneness of software modules. However, few research works are on\\u000a how to select appropriate metrics for fault-proneness prediction currently. We conduct a large-scale comparative experiment\\u000a of nine different software metrics reduction methods over eleven public-domain data sets from the NASA metrics data repository.\\u000a The Naive Bayes data miner, with a

Yunfeng Luo; Kerong Ben; Lei Mi

2010-01-01

176

CyberKnife robotic spinal radiosurgery in prone position: dosimetric advantage due to posterior radiation access?  

PubMed

CyberKnife spinal radiosurgery suffers from a lack of posterior beams due to workspace limitations. This is remedied by a newly available tracking modality for fiducial-free, respiration-compensated spine tracking in prone patient position. We analyzed the potential dosimetric benefit in a planning study. Fourteen exemplary cases were compared in three scenarios: supine (PTV=CTV), prone (PTV=CTV), and prone position with an additional margin (PTV=CTV+2 mm), to incorporate reduced accuracy of respiration-compensated tracking. Target and spinal cord constraints were chosen according to RTOG 0631 protocol for spinal metastases. Plan quality was scored based on four predefined parameters: dose to cord (D0.1cc and D1cc), high dose (V10Gy), and low dose (V4Gy) volume of healthy tissue. Prescription dose was 16 Gy to the highest isodose line encompassing 90% of the target. Results were related to target size and position. All plans fulfilled RTOG 0631 constraints for coverage and dose to cord. When no additional margin was applied, a majority of eight cases benefitted from prone position, mainly due to a reduction of V4Gy by 23% ± 26%. In the 2 mm prone scenario, the benefit was nullified by an average increase of V10Gy by 43% ± 24%, and an increase of D1cc to cord (four cases). Spinal cord D0.1cc was unchanged (< ± 1 Gy) in all but two cases for both prone scenarios. Conformity (nCI) and number of beams were equivalent in all scenarios, but supine plans used a significantly higher number of monitor units (+16%) than prone. Posterior beam access can reduce dose to healthy tissue in CyberKnife spinal radiosurgery when no additional margin is applied. When a target margin of 2 mm is added, this potential gain is lost. Relative anterior-posterior position and size of the target are selection criteria for prone treatment. PMID:25207392

Fürweger, Christoph; Drexler, Christian; Muacevic, Alexander; Wowra, Berndt; de Klerck, Erik C; Hoogeman, Mischa S

2014-01-01

177

"I'd only let you down": Guilt proneness and the avoidance of harmful interdependence.  

PubMed

Five studies demonstrated that highly guilt-prone people may avoid forming interdependent partnerships with others whom they perceive to be more competent than themselves, as benefitting a partner less than the partner benefits one's self could trigger feelings of guilt. Highly guilt-prone people who lacked expertise in a domain were less willing than were those low in guilt proneness who lacked expertise in that domain to create outcome-interdependent relationships with people who possessed domain-specific expertise. These highly guilt-prone people were more likely than others both to opt to be paid on their performance alone (Studies 1, 3, 4, and 5) and to opt to be paid on the basis of the average of their performance and that of others whose competence was more similar to their own (Studies 2 and 5). Guilt proneness did not predict people's willingness to form outcome-interdependent relationships with potential partners who lacked domain-specific expertise (Studies 4 and 5). It also did not predict people's willingness to form relationships when poor individual performance would not negatively affect partner outcomes (Study 4). Guilt proneness therefore predicts whether, and with whom, people develop interdependent relationships. The findings also demonstrate that highly guilt-prone people sacrifice financial gain out of concern about how their actions would influence others' welfare. As such, the findings demonstrate a novel way in which guilt proneness limits free-riding and therefore reduces the incidence of potentially unethical behavior. Lastly, the findings demonstrate that people who lack competence may not always seek out competence in others when choosing partners. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25133718

Wiltermuth, Scott S; Cohen, Taya R

2014-11-01

178

Interexaminer reliability of activator method's relative leg-length evaluation in the prone extended position  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To investigate the interexaminer reliability of the prone extended relative leg-length check as described by Activator Methods, Inc. Subjects: Thirty-four subjects were selected from a pool of 52 consecutive patients visiting a private chiropractic office. Methods: Exclusion criteria included congenital or acquired conditions known to affect lower extremity length and inability to lie prone for a 10-minute period. Two

Hang T. Nguyen; Diane N. Resnick; Sylvia G. Caldwell; Ernest W. Elston; Bart B. Bishop; Joseph B. Steinhouser; Terry J. Gimmillaro; Joseph C. Keating

1999-01-01

179

Athero-Prone Flow Activation of the SREBP2-NLRP3 Inflammasome Mediates Focal Atherosclerosis  

PubMed Central

Athero-prone flow promotes inflammation in endothelial cells, and this process is critical for pathogenesis of many chronic inflammatory conditions such as coronary and carotid artery atherosclerosis, as well as abdominal aortic aneurysm. Signal mediators activated by athero-prone (disturbed) flow that have been described include NF-?B and protein kinase C, which is very different from athero-protective (steady laminar) flow1. In this issue a publication from Shyy’s lab shows the critical role of sterol regulatory element binding protein 2 (SREBP2) on athero-prone flow-mediated NLRP3 inflammasome activation2. In particular, they showed that athero-prone flow induced both mature form of SREBP2 (SREBP2-N) and SREBP2 mRNA induction, which transcriptionally increase NADPH oxidase 2 (Nox2) and NLRP3 expression, thereby leading to IL-1? expression and endothelial inflammation (Figure 1). In this editorial, we will briefly review the NLRP3 inflammasome and SREBP activation system, which play a key role in modulating athero-prone flow-mediated EC inflammation. We will also discuss the following important questions for the future; the role of local NLRP3 and IL-1? expression, mechanisms for two different types of flow (athero-prone flow vs. athero-protective flow) on SREBP2 activation, and other NLRP3 activators including thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP). PMID:23838164

Abe, Jun-ichi; Berk, Bradford C.

2013-01-01

180

Design and Evaluation of a Stand-Up Motorized Prone Cart  

PubMed Central

Background/Objective: Prone carts are used for mobility by individuals with spinal cord injury in whom seated mobility (wheelchair) is contraindicated due to ischial or sacral pressure ulcers. Currently available prone carts are uncomfortable, subjecting the user to neck and shoulder strain, and make social interaction and performing activities of daily living difficult. A better design of prone carts is needed. In addition, standing devices have shown some medical benefits. The objective was to design and evaluate an improved prone cart that facilitates standing. Design: Engineering development project with user feedback through questionnaire. Users selected by convenience sampling. Methods: A marketing survey was performed of nurse managers of spinal cord injury units. Then 2 prototype carts were designed and built. These carts are able to tilt up to 45° and have a joystick-controlled motor for propulsion and other design features, including a workspace storage shelf and rearview mirrors. The carts were evaluated by both patients and caregivers at 2 Veteran's Administration hospitals. Outcome Measures: Questionnaire of subjects, both patients and caregivers, who used the cart. Findings: Both patients and caregivers liked the carts and the ability to assume a nonhorizontal body angle. The major complaint about the cart was that it seemed too long when it came to making turns. Conclusion: This prone cart design is an improvement over the standard, flat variety. However, further design changes will be necessary. This study provided valuable information that will be useful in the next-generation prone cart design project. PMID:17385270

Harrow, Jeffrey J; Malassigne, Pascal; Nelson, Audrey L; Jensen, Robert P; Amato, Margaret; Palacios, Polly L

2007-01-01

181

Estimating Bias Error Distributions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper formulates the general methodology for estimating the bias error distribution of a device in a measuring domain from less accurate measurements when a minimal number of standard values (typically two values) are available. A new perspective is that the bias error distribution can be found as a solution of an intrinsic functional equation in a domain. Based on this theory, the scaling- and translation-based methods for determining the bias error distribution arc developed. These methods are virtually applicable to any device as long as the bias error distribution of the device can be sufficiently described by a power series (a polynomial) or a Fourier series in a domain. These methods have been validated through computational simulations and laboratory calibration experiments for a number of different devices.

Liu, Tian-Shu; Finley, Tom D.

2001-01-01

182

Measurement Error Webinar Series  

Cancer.gov

Concepts related to accounting for complex survey methods, estimating total intakes from diet and supplements, and the use of multiple dietary assessment instruments and self-report data along with biomarker data to reduce measurement error are also addressed.

183

Apologies and Medical Error  

Microsoft Academic Search

One way in which physicians can respond to a medical error is to apologize. Apologies—statements that acknowledge an error\\u000a and its consequences, take responsibility, and communicate regret for having caused harm—can decrease blame, decrease anger,\\u000a increase trust, and improve relationships. Importantly, apologies also have the potential to decrease the risk of a medical\\u000a malpractice lawsuit and can help settle claims

Jennifer K. Robbennolt

2009-01-01

184

Quantum error control codes  

E-print Network

QUANTUM ERROR CONTROL CODES A Dissertation by SALAH ABDELHAMID AWAD ALY AHMED Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY May 2008 Major... Subject: Computer Science QUANTUM ERROR CONTROL CODES A Dissertation by SALAH ABDELHAMID AWAD ALY AHMED Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY...

Abdelhamid Awad Aly Ahmed, Sala

2008-10-10

185

Quantum Error Correction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prologue; Preface; Part I. Background: 1. Introduction to decoherence and noise in open quantum systems Daniel Lidar and Todd Brun; 2. Introduction to quantum error correction Dave Bacon; 3. Introduction to decoherence-free subspaces and noiseless subsystems Daniel Lidar; 4. Introduction to quantum dynamical decoupling Lorenza Viola; 5. Introduction to quantum fault tolerance Panos Aliferis; Part II. Generalized Approaches to Quantum Error Correction: 6. Operator quantum error correction David Kribs and David Poulin; 7. Entanglement-assisted quantum error-correcting codes Todd Brun and Min-Hsiu Hsieh; 8. Continuous-time quantum error correction Ognyan Oreshkov; Part III. Advanced Quantum Codes: 9. Quantum convolutional codes Mark Wilde; 10. Non-additive quantum codes Markus Grassl and Martin Rötteler; 11. Iterative quantum coding systems David Poulin; 12. Algebraic quantum coding theory Andreas Klappenecker; 13. Optimization-based quantum error correction Andrew Fletcher; Part IV. Advanced Dynamical Decoupling: 14. High order dynamical decoupling Zhen-Yu Wang and Ren-Bao Liu; 15. Combinatorial approaches to dynamical decoupling Martin Rötteler and Pawel Wocjan; Part V. Alternative Quantum Computation Approaches: 16. Holonomic quantum computation Paolo Zanardi; 17. Fault tolerance for holonomic quantum computation Ognyan Oreshkov, Todd Brun and Daniel Lidar; 18. Fault tolerant measurement-based quantum computing Debbie Leung; Part VI. Topological Methods: 19. Topological codes Héctor Bombín; 20. Fault tolerant topological cluster state quantum computing Austin Fowler and Kovid Goyal; Part VII. Applications and Implementations: 21. Experimental quantum error correction Dave Bacon; 22. Experimental dynamical decoupling Lorenza Viola; 23. Architectures Jacob Taylor; 24. Error correction in quantum communication Mark Wilde; Part VIII. Critical Evaluation of Fault Tolerance: 25. Hamiltonian methods in QEC and fault tolerance Eduardo Novais, Eduardo Mucciolo and Harold Baranger; 26. Critique of fault-tolerant quantum information processing Robert Alicki; References; Index.

Lidar, Daniel A.; Brun, Todd A.

2013-09-01

186

FastPCR software for PCR, in silico PCR, and oligonucleotide assembly and analysis.  

PubMed

This chapter introduces the software FastPCR as an integrated tools environment for PCR primer and probe design. It also predicts oligonucleotide properties based on experimental studies of PCR efficiency. The software provides comprehensive facilities for designing primers for most PCR applications and their combinations, including standard, multiplex, long-distance, inverse, real-time, group-specific, unique, and overlap extension PCR for multi-fragment assembly in cloning, as well as bisulphite modification assays. It includes a program to design oligonucleotide sets for long sequence assembly by the ligase chain reaction. The in silico PCR primer or probe search includes comprehensive analyses of individual primers and primer pairs. It calculates the melting temperature for standard and degenerate oligonucleotides including LNA and other modifications, provides analyses for a set of primers with prediction of oligonucleotide properties, dimer and G/C-quadruplex detection, and linguistic complexity, and provides a dilution and resuspension calculator. The program includes various bioinformatics tools for analysis of sequences with CG or AT skew, of CG content and purine-pyrimidine skew, and of linguistic sequence complexity. It also permits generation of random DNA sequence and analysis of restriction enzymes of all types. It finds or creates restriction enzyme recognition sites for coding sequences and supports the clustering of sequences. It generates consensus sequences and analyzes sequence conservation. It performs efficient and complete detection of various repeat types and displays them. FastPCR allows for sequence file batch processing, which is essential for automation. The FastPCR software is available for download at http://primerdigital.com/fastpcr.html and online version at http://primerdigital.com/tools/pcr.html . PMID:24395370

Kalendar, Ruslan; Lee, David; Schulman, Alan H

2014-01-01

187

Prospective pilot intervention study to prevent medication errors in drugs administered to children by mouth or gastric tube: a programme for nurses, physicians and parents  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundDrug administration in children is an error-prone task for nurses and parents because individual dose adjustment is often necessary, and suitable formulations for children are frequently lacking. Hence, in the absence of measures for their prevention, medication errors are likely to occur.ObjectiveTo assess the error prevalence in drug administration by mouth or gastric tube before and after implementing a programme

T. Bertsche; A. Bertsche; E. M. Krieg; N. Kunz; K. Bergmann; G. Hanke; T. Hoppe-Tichy; F. Ebinger

2010-01-01

188

Errata: Papers in Error Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Papers presented at the symposium of error analysis in Lund, Sweden, in September 1972, approach error analysis specifically in its relation to foreign language teaching and second language learning. Error analysis is defined as having three major aspects: (1) the description of the errors, (2) the explanation of errors by means of contrastive…

Svartvik, Jan, Ed.

189

Likelihood-based genetic mark–recapture estimates when genotype samples are incomplete and contain typing errors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genotypes produced from samples collected non-invasively in harsh field conditions often lack the full complement of data from the selected microsatellite loci. The application to genetic mark–recapture methodology in wildlife species can therefore be prone to misidentifications leading to both ‘true non-recaptures’ being falsely accepted as recaptures (Type I errors) and ‘true recaptures’ being undetected (Type II errors). Here we

Gilbert M. Macbeth; Damien Broderick; Jennifer R. Ovenden; Rik C. Buckworth

2011-01-01

190

Error monitoring in musicians.  

PubMed

To err is human, and hence even professional musicians make errors occasionally during their performances. This paper summarizes recent work investigating error monitoring in musicians, i.e., the processes and their neural correlates associated with the monitoring of ongoing actions and the detection of deviations from intended sounds. Electroencephalography (EEG) studies reported an early component of the event-related potential (ERP) occurring before the onsets of pitch errors. This component, which can be altered in musicians with focal dystonia, likely reflects processes of error detection and/or error compensation, i.e., attempts to cancel the undesired sensory consequence (a wrong tone) a musician is about to perceive. Thus, auditory feedback seems not to be a prerequisite for error detection, consistent with previous behavioral results. In contrast, when auditory feedback is externally manipulated and thus unexpected, motor performance can be severely distorted, although not all feedback alterations result in performance impairments. Recent studies investigating the neural correlates of feedback processing showed that unexpected feedback elicits an ERP component after note onsets, which shows larger amplitudes during music performance than during mere perception of the same musical sequences. Hence, these results stress the role of motor actions for the processing of auditory information. Furthermore, recent methodological advances like the combination of 3D motion capture techniques with EEG will be discussed. Such combinations of different measures can potentially help to disentangle the roles of different feedback types such as proprioceptive and auditory feedback, and in general to derive at a better understanding of the complex interactions between the motor and auditory domain during error monitoring. Finally, outstanding questions and future directions in this context will be discussed. PMID:23898255

Maidhof, Clemens

2013-01-01

191

Error monitoring in musicians  

PubMed Central

To err is human, and hence even professional musicians make errors occasionally during their performances. This paper summarizes recent work investigating error monitoring in musicians, i.e., the processes and their neural correlates associated with the monitoring of ongoing actions and the detection of deviations from intended sounds. Electroencephalography (EEG) studies reported an early component of the event-related potential (ERP) occurring before the onsets of pitch errors. This component, which can be altered in musicians with focal dystonia, likely reflects processes of error detection and/or error compensation, i.e., attempts to cancel the undesired sensory consequence (a wrong tone) a musician is about to perceive. Thus, auditory feedback seems not to be a prerequisite for error detection, consistent with previous behavioral results. In contrast, when auditory feedback is externally manipulated and thus unexpected, motor performance can be severely distorted, although not all feedback alterations result in performance impairments. Recent studies investigating the neural correlates of feedback processing showed that unexpected feedback elicits an ERP component after note onsets, which shows larger amplitudes during music performance than during mere perception of the same musical sequences. Hence, these results stress the role of motor actions for the processing of auditory information. Furthermore, recent methodological advances like the combination of 3D motion capture techniques with EEG will be discussed. Such combinations of different measures can potentially help to disentangle the roles of different feedback types such as proprioceptive and auditory feedback, and in general to derive at a better understanding of the complex interactions between the motor and auditory domain during error monitoring. Finally, outstanding questions and future directions in this context will be discussed. PMID:23898255

Maidhof, Clemens

2013-01-01

192

Angiotensin-converting enzyme insertion/deletion polymorphism genotyping error: the cause and a possible solution to the problem.  

PubMed

Rigat and colleagues were the first ones to develop a rapid PCR-based assay for identifying the angiotensin converting enzyme insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism. Due to a big difference between the length of the wild-type and mute alleles the PCR method is prone to mistyping because of preferential amplification of the D allele causing depicting I/D heterozygotes as D/D homozygotes. The aim of this study was to investigate whether this preferential amplification can be repressed by amplifying a longer DNA fragment in a so called Long PCR protocol. We also aimed to compare the results of genotyping using five different PCR protocols and to estimate the mistyping rate. The study included 200 samples which were genotyped using standard method used in our laboratory, a stepdown PCR, PCR protocol with the inclusion of 4 % DMSO, PCR with the use of insertion specific primers and new Long PCR method. The results of this study have shown that accurate ACE I/D polymorphism genotyping can be accomplished with the standard and the Long PCR method. Also, as of our results, accurate ACE I/D polymorphism genotyping can be accomplished regardless of the method used. Therefore, if the standard method is optimized more cautiously, accurate results can be obtained by this simple, inexpensive and rapid PCR protocol. PMID:23657592

Saracevic, Andrea; Simundic, Ana-Maria; Celap, Ivana; Luzanic, Valentina

2013-07-01

193

Smoothing error pitfalls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The difference due to the content of a priori information between a constrained retrieval and the true atmospheric state is usually represented by a diagnostic quantity called smoothing error. In this paper it is shown that, regardless of the usefulness of the smoothing error as a diagnostic tool in its own right, the concept of the smoothing error as a component of the retrieval error budget is questionable because it is not compliant with Gaussian error propagation. The reason for this is that the smoothing error does not represent the expected deviation of the retrieval from the true state but the expected deviation of the retrieval from the atmospheric state sampled on an arbitrary grid, which is itself a smoothed representation of the true state; in other words, to characterize the full loss of information with respect to the true atmosphere, the effect of the representation of the atmospheric state on a finite grid also needs to be considered. The idea of a sufficiently fine sampling of this reference atmospheric state is problematic because atmospheric variability occurs on all scales, implying that there is no limit beyond which the sampling is fine enough. Even the idealization of infinitesimally fine sampling of the reference state does not help, because the smoothing error is applied to quantities which are only defined in a statistical sense, which implies that a finite volume of sufficient spatial extent is needed to meaningfully discuss temperature or concentration. Smoothing differences, however, which play a role when measurements are compared, are still a useful quantity if the covariance matrix involved has been evaluated on the comparison grid rather than resulting from interpolation and if the averaging kernel matrices have been evaluated on a grid fine enough to capture all atmospheric variations that the instruments are sensitive to. This is, under the assumptions stated, because the undefined component of the smoothing error, which is the effect of smoothing implied by the finite grid on which the measurements are compared, cancels out when the difference is calculated. If the effect of a retrieval constraint is to be diagnosed on a grid finer than the native grid of the retrieval by means of the smoothing error, the latter must be evaluated directly on the fine grid, using an ensemble covariance matrix which includes all variability on the fine grid. Ideally, the averaging kernels needed should be calculated directly on the finer grid, but if the grid of the original averaging kernels allows for representation of all the structures the instrument is sensitive to, then their interpolation can be an adequate approximation.

von Clarmann, T.

2014-09-01

194

Alcohol Use, Depressive Symptoms, and Impulsivity as Risk Factors for Suicide Proneness among College Students  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Alcohol use, depression, and suicide are significant public health problems, particularly among college students. Impulsivity is associated with all of these factors. Additionally, impulsivity increases the effects of negative mood and alcohol use on maladaptive behavior. METHODS The current cross-sectional study examined the association between the four-factor model of impulsivity (urgency, (lack of) perseverance, (lack of) premeditation, and sensation seeking), depressive symptoms, and alcohol use as predictors of suicide proneness among college students. Participants (n =1100) completed online assessments of demographics, impulsivity, depressive symptoms, and suicide proneness. RESULTS All predictors were positively related to suicide proneness. The relation between depressive symptoms and suicide proneness was moderated by (lack of) perseverance, alcohol use, and joint interactions of urgency × alcohol use and sensation seeking × alcohol use. Despite some paradoxical findings regarding the depressive symptoms-suicide proneness relation when only one risk factor was elevated, the average level of suicide proneness increased as risk factors increased. LIMITATIONS This cross-sectional self-report data comes from a non-clinical sample of college students from a homogeneous background, limiting generalizability and causal predictions. CONCLUSIONS Overall, these findings indicate that the association between depressive symptoms and suicide proneness varies considerably by different facets of impulsivity and alcohol use. The results suggest that clinical risk-assessments should weigh two forms of impulsivity (urgency and sensation seeking) as particularly vital in the presence of heavy alcohol use. These findings highlight the importance of considering and exploring moderators of the mood-suicide relationship. PMID:23474093

Dvorak, Robert D.; Lamis, Dorian A.; Malone, Patrick S.

2013-01-01

195

Effect of Prone Position on Regional Shunt, Aeration, and Perfusion in Experimental Acute Lung Injury  

PubMed Central

Rationale: The prone position is used to improve gas exchange in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. However, the regional mechanism by which the prone position improves gas exchange in acutely injured lungs is still incompletely defined. Methods: We used positron emission tomography imaging of [13N]nitrogen to assess the regional distribution of pulmonary shunt, aeration, perfusion, and ventilation in seven surfactant-depleted sheep in supine and prone positions. Results: In the supine position, the dorsal lung regions had a high shunt fraction, high perfusion, and poor aeration. The prone position was associated with an increase in lung gas content and with a more uniform distribution of aeration, as the increase in aeration in dorsal lung regions was not offset by loss of aeration in ventral regions. Consequently, the shunt fraction decreased in dorsal regions in the prone position without a concomitant impairment of gas exchange in ventral regions, thus leading to a significant increase in the fraction of pulmonary perfusion participating in gas exchange. In addition, the vertical distribution of specific alveolar ventilation became more uniform in the prone position. A biphasic relation between regional shunt fraction and gas fraction showed low shunt for values of gas fraction higher than a threshold, and a steep linear increase in shunt for lower values of gas fraction. Conclusion: In a surfactant-deficient model of lung injury, the prone position improved gas exchange by restoring aeration and decreasing shunt while preserving perfusion in dorsal lung regions, and by making the distribution of ventilation more uniform. PMID:15901611

Richter, Torsten; Bellani, Giacomo; Harris, R. Scott; Melo, Marcos F. Vidal; Winkler, Tilo; Venegas, Jose G.; Musch, Guido

2005-01-01

196

Does Prone or Supine Position Influence Pain Responses in Preterm Infants at 32 Weeks Gestational Age?  

PubMed Central

Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of prone and supine position in preterm infants during acute pain of blood collection. Setting: Level III Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). Study Design: Thirty-eight preterm infants (birthweight 1339 [590–2525] g, GA 29 [25–32] wks) were in 2 groups depending on their position in the isolette prior to and during heel lance at 32 weeks post-conceptional age. The study design was a comparison between groups (Prone, Supine) during 2 events (Baseline, Heel lance). Outcome Measure: Pain measures were multidimensional, including behavioral (sleep–wake state and facial activity) and physiological (heart rate) responses measured continuously prior to (Baseline) and during blood collection (Lance). Results: Both groups of infants displayed statistically significant shifts in sleep–wake state to greater arousal, and increased facial activity and heart rate, from Baseline to Lance. Prone position was associated with significantly more deep sleep during Baseline, compared with Supine position, but there were no differences in sleep-wake state during Lance. Minor increased facial activity was shown in some time segments of Baseline for infants in Supine compared with Prone, but did not differ overall between positions. Prone and Supine position did not affect heart rate significantly during Baseline or Lance events. Conclusions: Prone position promotes deep sleep in preterm neonates at 32 weeks post-conceptional age when they are undisturbed. However, placement in prone position is not a sufficient environmental comfort intervention for painful invasive procedures such as heel lance for blood sampling in the NICU. Neonates require other environmental supports to promote coping with this stressful event. PMID:14770046

Linhares, Maria Beatriz Martins; Holsti, Liisa; Oberlander, Tim F.; Whitfield, Michael F.

2005-01-01

197

Prone positioning improves pulmonary function in obese patients during general anesthesia.  

PubMed

We investigated the effects of prone position on functional residual capacity (FRC), the mechanical properties (compliance and resistance) of the total respiratory system, lung and chest wall, and the gas exchange in 10 anesthetized and paralyzed obese (body mass index more than 30 kg/m2) patients, undergoing elective surgery. We used the esophageal balloon technique together with rapid airway occlusions during constant inspiratory flow to partition the mechanics of the respiratory system into its pulmonary and chest wall components. FRC was measured by the helium dilution technique. Measurements were taken in the supine position and after 15-30 min of prone position maintaining the same respiratory pattern (tidal volume 12 mL/kg ideal body weight, respiratory rate 14 breaths/ min, fraction of inspired oxygen [FIO2]0.4). We found that FRC and lung compliance significantly (P < 0.01) increased from the supine to prone position (0.894 +/- 0.327 L vs 1.980 +/- 0.856 L and 91.4 +/- 55.2 mL/cm H2O vs 109.6 +/- 52.4 mL/cm H2O, respectively). On the contrary, the prone position reduced chest wall compliance (199.5 +/- 58.7 mL/cm H2O vs 160.5 +/- 45.4 mL/cm H2O, P < 0.01), thus total respiratory system compliance did not change. Resistance of the total respiratory system, lung, and chest wall were not modified on turning the patients prone. The increase in FRC and lung compliance was paralleled by a significant (P < 0.01) improvement of PaO2 from supine to prone position (130 +/- 31 vs 181 +/- 28 mm Hg, P < 0.01), while PaCO2 was unchanged. We conclude that, in anesthetized and paralyzed obese subjects, the prone position improves pulmonary function, increasing FRC, lung compliance, and oxygenation. PMID:8780285

Pelosi, P; Croci, M; Calappi, E; Mulazzi, D; Cerisara, M; Vercesi, P; Vicardi, P; Gattinoni, L

1996-09-01

198

Whole-breast irradiation: a subgroup analysis of criteria to stratify for prone position treatment  

SciTech Connect

To select among breast cancer patients and according to breast volume size those who may benefit from 3D conformal radiotherapy after conservative surgery applied with prone-position technique. Thirty-eight patients with early-stage breast cancer were grouped according to the target volume (TV) measured in the supine position: small ({<=}400 mL), medium (400-700 mL), and large ({>=}700 ml). An ad-hoc designed and built device was used for prone set-up to displace the contralateral breast away from the tangential field borders. All patients underwent treatment planning computed tomography in both the supine and prone positions. Dosimetric data to explore dose distribution and volume of normal tissue irradiated were calculated for each patient in both positions. Homogeneity index, hot spot areas, the maximum dose, and the lung constraints were significantly reduced in the prone position (p < 0.05). The maximum heart distance and the V{sub 5Gy} did not vary consistently in the 2 positions (p = 0.06 and p = 0.7, respectively). The number of necessary monitor units was significantly higher in the supine position (312 vs. 232, p < 0.0001). The subgroups analysis pointed out the advantage in lung sparing in all TV groups (small, medium and large) for all the evaluated dosimetric constraints (central lung distance, maximum lung distance, and V{sub 5Gy}, p < 0.0001). In the small TV group, a dose reduction in nontarget areas of 22% in the prone position was detected (p = 0.056); in the medium and high TV groups, the difference was of about -10% (p = NS). The decrease in hot spot areas in nontarget tissues was 73%, 47%, and 80% for small, medium, and large TVs in the prone position, respectively. Although prone breast radiotherapy is normally proposed in patients with breasts of large dimensions, this study gives evidence of dosimetric benefit in all patient subgroups irrespective of breast volume size.

Ramella, Sara, E-mail: s.ramella@unicampus.it [Radiation Oncology, Campus Bio-Medico University, Rome (Italy); Trodella, Lucio; Ippolito, Edy; Fiore, Michele; Cellini, Francesco; Stimato, Gerardina; Gaudino, Diego; Greco, Carlo [Radiation Oncology, Campus Bio-Medico University, Rome (Italy); Ramponi, Sara; Cammilluzzi, Eugenio; Cesarini, Claudio [Breast Unit, S. Pertini Hospital, Rome (Italy); Piermattei, Angelo [Department of Physics, Catholic University, Rome (Italy); Cesario, Alfredo [CdC San Raffaele Velletri (Italy); Department of Thoracic Surgery, Catholic University, Rome (Italy); D'Angelillo, Rolando Maria [Radiation Oncology, Campus Bio-Medico University, Rome (Italy)

2012-07-01

199

Cerebrovascular Control is Altered in Healthy Term Infants When They Sleep Prone  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is a leading cause of infant death, and prone sleeping is the major risk factor. Prone sleeping impairs arousal from sleep and cardiovascular control in infants at 2-3 months, coinciding with the highest risk period for SIDS. We hypothesized that prone sleeping would also alter cerebrovascular control, and aimed to test this hypothesis by examining responses of cerebral oxygenation to head-up tilts (HUTs) over the first 6 months after birth. Study Design and Participants: Seventeen healthy full-term infants were studied at 2-4 weeks, 2-3 months, and 5-6 months of age using daytime polysomnography, with the additional measurements of blood pressure (BP, FinometerTM, Finometer Medical Systems, The Netherlands) and cerebral tissue oxygenation index (TOI, NIRO 200, Hamamatsu Photonics KK, Japan). HUTs were performed in active sleep (AS) and quiet sleep (QS) in both prone and supine positions. Results: When infants slept in the prone position, a sustained increase in TOI (P < 0.05) occurred following HUTs, except in QS at 2-3 months when TOI was unchanged. BP was either unchanged or fell below baseline during the sustained TOI increase, signifying cerebro-vasodilatation. In contrast, when infants slept supine, TOI did not change after HUTs, except in QS at 2-3 and 5-6 months when TOI dropped below baseline (P < 0.05). Conclusions: When infants slept in the prone position, cerebral arterial vasodilation and increased cerebral oxygenation occurred during head-up tilts, possibly as a protection against cerebral hypoxia. Absence of the vasodilatory response during quiet sleep at 2-3 months possibly underpins the decreased arousability from sleep and increased risk for sudden infant death syndrome at this age. Citation: Wong F; Yiallourou SR; Odoi A; Browne P; Walker AM; Horne RSC. Cerebrovascular control is altered in healthy term infants when they sleep prone. SLEEP 2013;36(12):1911-1918. PMID:24293766

Wong, Flora; Yiallourou, Stephanie R.; Odoi, Alexsandria; Browne, Pamela; Walker, Adrian M.; Horne, Rosemary S. C.

2013-01-01

200

Droplet-based micro oscillating-flow PCR chip  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polymerase chain reactions (PCR), thermally activated chemical reactions which are widely used for nucleic acid amplification, have recently received much attention in microelectromechanical systems and micro total analysis systems because a wide variety of DNA/RNA molecules can be enriched by PCR for further analyses. In the present work, a droplet-based micro oscillating-flow PCR chip was designed and fabricated by the silicon microfabrication technique. Three different temperature zones, which were stable at denaturation, extension and annealing temperatures and isolated from each other by a thin-wall linkage, were integrated with a single, simple and straight microchannel to form the chip's basic functional structure. The PCR mixture was injected into the chip as a single droplet and flowed through the three temperature zones in the main microchannel in an oscillating manner to achieve the temperature maintenance and transitions. The chip's thermal performance was theoretically analyzed and numerically simulated. The results indicated that the time needed for the temperature of the droplet to change to the target value is less than 1 s, and the root mean square error of temperature is less than 0.2 °C. A droplet of 1 µl PCR mixture with standard HPV (Human Papilloma Virus)-DNA sample inside was amplified by the present chip and the results were analyzed by slab gel electrophoresis with separation of DNA markers in parallel. The electrophoresis results demonstrated that the micro oscillating-flow PCR chip successfully amplified the HPV-DNA, with a processing time of about 15 min which is significantly reduced compared to that for the conventional PCR instrument.

Wang, Wei; Li, Zhi-Xin; Luo, Rong; Lü, Shu-Hai; Xu, Ai-Dong; Yang, Yong-Jun

2005-08-01

201

E-prescribing errors identified in a compounding pharmacy: a quality-improvement project.  

PubMed

Errors during the prescribing process can cause problems for patients. When the pharmacist intercepts a prescribing error, it can cause a delay, as the patient may not receive the medication until the problem is resolved. Electronic prescriptions are purported to reduce prescribing errors. However, studies have shown that electronic prescriptions can be prone to certain types of errors. Compounding pharmacies may present an additional obstacle for e-prescribing, as the prescribed medications are not commercially available and may not be listed in the e-prescribing software. The objectives of this study were to estimate the electronic prescription error rate in a compounding pharmacy, determine the most common error types, list the most common interventions pharmacists made, and estimate how long it took to resolve these errors. The study design was quality improvement with descriptive data. During the four weeks of data collection, the pharmacists were trained to complete a standardized data collection form when they identified an electronic prescription error. Percentages were calculated for new prescriptions, electronic prescriptions with errors, error types, and error resolution methods. In the four-week period of the study, there were 982 new prescriptions, 111 of which were electronic prescriptions. Of those 111 electronic prescriptions, 70 had errors. The electronic prescriptions error rate was 63%. The most common type of error was wrong entry field (70.3%). For this project, wrong entry field was defined to mean that the drug name was in the wrong field (81%) or that multiple entries were in the wrong field (7%). Pharmacists usually used their own judgment to resolve an error (67%). Many e-prescription errors were identified in this compounding pharmacy. When prescription errors happen, workflow and patient care are disrupted. Our goal is to discuss these findings with Surescripts and e-prescribing software companies to seek systems-based solutions. PMID:24881345

Reed-Kane, Dana; Kittell, Katrina; Adkins, Jacquelyn; Flocks, Sarah; Nguyen, Thu

2014-01-01

202

Estimating GPS Positional Error  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

After instructing students on basic receiver operation, each student will make many (10-20) position estimates of 3 benchmarks over a week. The different benchmarks will have different views of the skies or vegetation cover. Each student will download their data into a spreadsheet and calculate horizontal and vertical errors which are collated into a class spreadsheet. The positions are sorted by error and plotted in a cumulative frequency plot. The students are encouraged to discuss the distribution, sources of error, and estimate confidence intervals. This exercise gives the students a gut feeling for confidence intervals and the accuracy of data. Students are asked to compare results from different types of data and benchmarks with different views of the sky. Uses online and/or real-time data Has minimal/no quantitative component Addresses student fear of quantitative aspect and/or inadequate quantitative skills Addresses student misconceptions

Witte, Bill

203

Decomposing model systematic error  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seasonal forecasts made with a single model are generally overconfident. The standard approach to improve forecast reliability is to account for structural uncertainties through a multi-model ensemble (i.e., an ensemble of opportunity). Here we analyse a multi-model set of seasonal forecasts available through ENSEMBLES and DEMETER EU projects. We partition forecast uncertainties into initial value and structural uncertainties, as function of lead-time and region. Statistical analysis is used to investigate sources of initial condition uncertainty, and which regions and variables lead to the largest forecast error. Similar analysis is then performed to identify common elements of model error. Results of this analysis will be used to discuss possibilities to reduce forecast uncertainty and improve models. In particular, better understanding of error growth will be useful for the design of interactive multi-model ensembles.

Keenlyside, Noel; Shen, Mao-Lin

2014-05-01

204

Disclosure of medical errors  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Disclosure of medical errors is encouraged, but research on how patients respond to specific practices is limited.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a OBJECTIVE: This study sought to determine whether full disclosure, an existing positive physician-patient relationship, an offer to\\u000a waive associated costs, and the severity of the clinical outcome influenced patients’ responses to medical errors.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a PARTICIPANTS: Four hundred and seven health plan members participated

Kathleen M. Mazor; George W. Reed; Robert A. Yood; Melissa A. Fischer; Joann Baril; Jerry H. Gurwitz

2006-01-01

205

Individual differences in posterior cortical volume correlate with proneness to pride and gratitude.  

PubMed

Proneness to specific moral sentiments (e.g. pride, gratitude, guilt, indignation) has been linked with individual variations in functional MRI (fMRI) response within anterior brain regions whose lesion leads to inappropriate behaviour. However, the role of structural anatomical differences in rendering individuals prone to particular moral sentiments relative to others is unknown. Here, we investigated grey matter volumes (VBM8) and proneness to specific moral sentiments on a well-controlled experimental task in healthy individuals. Individuals with smaller cuneus, and precuneus volumes were more pride-prone, whereas those with larger right inferior temporal volumes experienced gratitude more readily. Although the primary analysis detected no associations with guilt- or indignation-proneness, subgenual cingulate fMRI responses to guilt were negatively correlated with grey matter volumes in the left superior temporal sulcus and anterior dorsolateral prefrontal cortices (right >left). This shows that individual variations in functional activations within critical areas for moral sentiments were not due to grey matter volume differences in the same areas. Grey matter volume differences between healthy individuals may nevertheless play an important role by affecting posterior cortical brain systems that are non-critical but supportive for the experience of specific moral sentiments. This may be of particular relevance when their experience depends on visuo-spatial elaboration. PMID:24106333

Zahn, Roland; Garrido, Griselda; Moll, Jorge; Grafman, Jordan

2014-11-01

206

Assessing Jail Inmates' Proneness to Shame and Guilt: Feeling Bad About the Behavior or the Self?  

PubMed Central

This study of 550 jail inmates (379 male and 171 female) held on felony charges examines the reliability and validity of the Test of Self Conscious Affect –Socially Deviant Version (TOSCA-SD; Hanson & Tangney, 1996) as a measure of offenders’ proneness to shame and proneness to guilt. Discriminant validity (e.g., vis-à-vis self-esteem, negative affect, social desirability/impression management) and convergent validity (e.g., vis-à-vis correlations with empathy, externalization of blame, anger, psychological symptoms, and substance use problems) was supported, paralleling results from community samples. Further, proneness to shame and guilt were differentially related to widely used risk measures from the field of criminal justice (e.g., criminal history, psychopathy, violence risk, antisocial personality). Guilt-proneness appears to be a protective factor, whereas there was no evidence that shame-proneness serves an inhibitory function. Subsequent analyses indicate these findings generalize quite well across gender and race. Implications for intervention and sentencing practices are discussed. PMID:21743757

Tangney, June P.; Stuewig, Jeffrey; Mashek, Debra; Hastings, Mark

2011-01-01

207

Aggregate-prone desmin mutations impair mitochondrial calcium uptake in primary myotubes.  

PubMed

Desmin, being a major intermediate filament of mature muscle cell, interacts with mitochondria within the cell and participates in mitochondria proper localization. The goal of the present study was to assess the effect of aggregate-prone and non-aggregate-prone desmin mutations on mitochondrial calcium uptake. Primary murine satellite cells were transduced with lentiviruses carrying desmin in wild type or mutant form, and were induced to differentiate into myotubes. Four mutations resulting in different degree of desmin aggregates formation were analyzed. Tail domain mutation Asp399Tyr has the mildest impact on desmin filament polymerization, rod domain mutation Ala357Pro causes formation of large aggregates composed of filamentous material, and Leu345Pro and Leu370Pro are considered to be the most severest in their impact on desmin polymerization and structure. For mitochondrial calcium measurement cells were loaded with rhod 2-AM. We found that aggregate-prone mutations significantly decreased [Ca(2+)]mit, whereas non-aggregate-prone mutations did not decrease [Ca(2+)]mit. Moreover aggregate-prone desmin mutations resulted in increased resting cytosolic [Ca(2+)]. However this increase was not accompanied by any alterations in sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium release. We suggest that the observed decline in [Ca(2+)]mit was due to desmin aggregate accumulation resulting in the loss of desmin mitochondria interactions. PMID:25171807

Smolina, Natalia; Bruton, Joseph; Sjoberg, Gunnar; Kostareva, Anna; Sejersen, Thomas

2014-10-01

208

Effect of the Chinese traditional medicine "Bushen Yinao Pian" on the cerebral gene expression of the senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8/ta.  

PubMed

The effect of Chinese traditional medicine "Bushen Yinao Pian," a complex prescription used for anti-aging, on the cerebral gene expression of the senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8/Ta (SAMP8/Ta) had been studied with messenger ribonuclear acids reverse transcription differential display polymerase chain reaction (mRNA DDRT-PCR). Eight differential displayed bands had been discerned and sequenced. The sequences of those fragments are matched to adipocyte-specific protein-5; low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein associated protein-1; reticulon-3; cysteine and histidine-rich domain (CHORD)-containing, zinc-binding protein-1; cytochrome c oxidase subunit-2 (Cox-2); cytochrome c gene, MC1; DNA sequence from clone RP23-72M11 on chromosome X, respectively and a novel sequence fragment. Most of these genes are aging-related. It can be proved that the "Bushen Yinao Pian" truly has anti-aging function. PMID:16173537

Zhang, Chong; Wang, Jingang; Liu, Guisheng; Chen, Qingxuan

2005-01-01

209

Orwell's Instructive Errors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author talks about George Orwell, his instructive errors, and the manner in which Orwell pierced worthless theory, faced facts and defended decency (with fluctuating success), and largely ignored the tradition of accumulated wisdom that has rendered him a timeless teacher--one whose inadvertent lessons, while infrequently…

Julian, Liam

2009-01-01

210

Registration of prone and supine colons in the presence of topological changes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CT colonography is a minimally-invasive screening technique for colorectal polyps in which X-ray CT images of the distended colon are acquired, usually in the prone and supine positions. Registration of segmented colons from both images will be useful for computer-assisted polyp detection. We have previously presented algorithms for registration of the prone and supine colon when both are well distended and there is a single connected lumen. However due to inadequate bowel preparation or peristalsis there may be collapsed segments in one or both of the colons resulting in a topological change in the images. Such changes make deformable registrations of the colons difficult, and at present there are no registration algorithms which can accommodate them. In this paper we present an algorithm which can perform volume registration of prone/supine colon images in the presence of a topological change.

Suh, Jung W.; Wyatt, Christopher L.

2008-03-01

211

Deep vein thrombosis after spine operation in prone position with subclavian venous catheterization: a case report.  

PubMed

We experienced a case of deep vein thrombosis after spine surgery in the prone position with a central venous catheter (CVC). Posterior lumbar interbody fusion was performed on a 73-year-old female patient who was diagnosed with spinal stenosis. Accordingly, in the operation room under general anesthesia, two-lumen CVC were inserted into the left subclavian vein. The surgery was performed in the prone position with a Wilson frame. On the next day, there was a sudden occurrence of severe edema in the patient's left arm. By ultrasonography and computed tomography scanning, extensive deep vein thrombosis was observed in the left subclavian vein. The existence of a factor affecting blood flow such as the prone position may increase the risk of thrombus formation. Therefore, careful perioperative evaluation should be implemented. PMID:25097742

Cho, Jae Kyung; Han, Jin Hee; Park, Sung Wook; Kim, Keon Sik

2014-07-01

212

Deep vein thrombosis after spine operation in prone position with subclavian venous catheterization: a case report  

PubMed Central

We experienced a case of deep vein thrombosis after spine surgery in the prone position with a central venous catheter (CVC). Posterior lumbar interbody fusion was performed on a 73-year-old female patient who was diagnosed with spinal stenosis. Accordingly, in the operation room under general anesthesia, two-lumen CVC were inserted into the left subclavian vein. The surgery was performed in the prone position with a Wilson frame. On the next day, there was a sudden occurrence of severe edema in the patient's left arm. By ultrasonography and computed tomography scanning, extensive deep vein thrombosis was observed in the left subclavian vein. The existence of a factor affecting blood flow such as the prone position may increase the risk of thrombus formation. Therefore, careful perioperative evaluation should be implemented. PMID:25097742

Cho, Jae Kyung; Han, Jin Hee; Kim, Keon Sik

2014-01-01

213

Boredom proneness--the development and correlates of a new scale.  

PubMed

This article reports the development, validation, and correlates of a self-report measure of boredom proneness. The 28-item Boredom Proneness (BP) Scale demonstrates satisfactory levels of internal consistency (coefficient alpha = .79) and test-retest reliability (r = .83) over a 1-week interval. Evidence of validity for the BP is supported by correlations with other boredom measures and from a set of studies evaluating interest and attention in the classroom. Other hypothesized relationships with boredom were tested, with significant positive associations found with depression, hopelessness, perceived effort, loneliness, and amotivational orientation. Additional findings indicate boredom proneness to be negatively related to life satisfaction and autonomy orientation. The relationship of boredom to other affective states is discussed, and directions for future research are outlined. PMID:3723312

Farmer, R; Sundberg, N D

1986-01-01

214

Sexual attraction status and adolescent suicide proneness: the roles of hopelessness, depression, and social support.  

PubMed

This study explored the relationship between sexual attraction status (same-sex, both-sex, and opposite-sex) and suicidal behavior in a diverse sample of adolescents (N = 1,533 youth). Adolescents with attractions to both sexes reported greater suicide proneness, recent and lifetime suicidal ideation, and past suicide attempts than those with exclusively opposite-sex attractions; individuals reporting same-sex attractions generally demonstrated moderate elevations on these variables. As hypothesized, both hopelessness and depression mediated the relationship between sexual attraction status and suicide proneness. Social support moderated the mediating effect of depression but not hopelessness in the sexual attraction status-suicide proneness link. Targeting the distress that can be associated with experiencing same-sex or both-sex attractions may enhance suicide prevention efforts, particularly in U.S. youth with reduced social support. PMID:21213175

Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer; Lamis, Dorian A; Malone, Patrick S

2011-01-01

215

Comparative Analysis of Decision Trees with Logistic Regression in Predicting Fault-Prone Classes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are available metrics for predicting fault prone classes, which may help software organizations for planning and performing testing activities. This may be possible due to proper allocation of resources on fault prone parts of the design and code of the software. Hence, importance and usefulness of such metrics is understandable, but empirical validation of these metrics is always a great challenge. Decision Tree (DT) methods have been successfully applied for solving classification problems in many applications. This paper evaluates the capability of three DT methods and compares its performance with statistical method in predicting fault prone software classes using publicly available NASA data set. The results indicate that the prediction performance of DT is generally better than statistical model. However, similar types of studies are required to be carried out in order to establish the acceptability of the DT models.

Singh, Yogesh; Takkar, Arvinder Kaur; Malhotra, Ruchika

216

Suicide proneness in college students: relationships with gender, procrastination, and achievement motivation.  

PubMed

This study examined the relationships between 2 academic dispositions (i.e., procrastination and achievement motivation) and 2 indices of suicidal proneness in college women and men. The degree these 2 academic dispositions could predict unique variance in suicide proneness scores, above and beyond the influence of depression and self-esteem was also examined for each gender. Participants included 475 (336 women, 139 men) undergraduates from a southeastern university. For both genders, procrastination and achievement motivation were significantly correlated at the univarate level with the suicide proneness indices. However, for college women, but not men, procrastination significantly accounted for unique amounts of variance in both suicide indices above and beyond the influence of depression and self-esteem. Implications for suicide intervention efforts directed toward college women and men are offered. PMID:24501841

Klibert, Jeffrey; Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer; Luna, Amy; Robichaux, Michelle

2011-08-01

217

Flexible bronchoscopy during mechanical ventilation in the prone position to treat acute lung injury.  

PubMed

In patients with severe acute lung injury (ALI) or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) the prone position has been shown to improve survival of patients who are severely hypoxemic with an arterial oxygen tension to inspiratory oxygen fraction ratio (PaO(2)/FiO(2))<100. In those patients tracheobronchial toilette is crucial in preventing or treating airways obstructed by secretions and deterioration of oxygenation. Flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy is widely recognized as an effective technique to perform bronchial toilette in the intensive care unit (ICU). Flexible bronchoscopy performed during prone mechanical ventilation in two cardiosurgical patients who developed ALI after complex surgery, proved feasible and safe and helped to avoid undesirable earlier cessation of prone mechanical ventilation. However decision making about bronchoscopy in severe hypoxia should be even more cautious than in the supine patient, as dangerous delay in resuscitation manoeuvres due to postponed switching the patient to the supine position should always be prevented. PMID:22868006

Guarracino, F; Bertini, P; Bortolotti, U; Stefani, M; Ambrosino, N

2013-01-01

218

Effects of the prone position on respiratory mechanics and gas exchange during acute lung injury.  

PubMed

We studied 16 patients with acute lung injury receiving volume-controlled ventilation to assess the relationships between gas exchange and respiratory mechanics before, during, and after 2 h in the prone position. We measured the end-expiratory lung volume (EELV, helium dilution), the total respiratory system (Cst,rs), the lung (Cst,L) and the thoracoabdominal cage (Cst,w) compliances (end-inspiratory occlusion technique and esophageal balloon), the hemodynamics, and gas exchange. In the prone position, PaO2 increased from 103.2 +/- 23.8 to 129.3 +/- 32.9 mm Hg (p < 0.05) without significant changes of Cst,rs and EELV. However, Cst,w decreased from 204.8 +/- 97.4 to 135.9 +/- 52.5 ml/cm H2O (p < 0.01) and the decrease was correlated with the oxygenation increase (r = 0.62, p < 0.05). Furthermore, the greater the baseline supine Cst,w, the greater its decrease in the prone position (r = 0.82, p < 0.01). Consequently, the oxygenation changes in the prone position were predictable from baseline supine Cst,w (r = 0.80, p < 0.01). Returning to the supine position, Cst,rs increased compared with baseline (42.3 +/- 14.4 versus 38.4 +/- 13.7 ml/cm H2O; p < 0.01), mainly because of the lung component (57.5 +/- 25.1 versus 52.4 +/- 23.3 ml/cm H2O; p < 0.01). Thus, (1) baseline Cst,w and its changes may play a role in determining the oxygenation response in the prone position; (2) the prone position improves Cst,rs and Cst,L when the supine position is resumed. PMID:9476848

Pelosi, P; Tubiolo, D; Mascheroni, D; Vicardi, P; Crotti, S; Valenza, F; Gattinoni, L

1998-02-01

219

Validity and internal consistency reliability of a computerized test to assess prone extension in children ages four to six years.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to develop a computerized test of prone extension to measure performance of prone extension in children 4 to 6 years of age. The participants were selected from kindergartens, comprising 132 boys and 107 girls with a mean age of 5 yr. 2 mo. (SD = 6 mo.). Sensitivity and specificity of the computerized test of prone extension were assessed by comparison with the judgments of an expert, an occupational therapist with more than 20 yr. of pediatric experience, as the criterion standard. The computerized test of prone extension identified children with poor outcomes with a sensitivity of 0.83, a specificity of 0.88, and an accuracy of 0.87. The internal reliability index was 0.81. The computerized test of prone extension could be of value in detecting problems of antigravity posture in prone extension and permitting early intervention to correct it. PMID:21058600

Lin, Chin-Kai; Wu, Huey-Min; Kuo, Bor-Chen; Li, Cheng-Hsaun

2010-08-01

220

Control by model error estimation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Modern control theory relies upon the fidelity of the mathematical model of the system. Truncated modes, external disturbances, and parameter errors in linear system models are corrected by augmenting to the original system of equations an 'error system' which is designed to approximate the effects of such model errors. A Chebyshev error system is developed for application to the Large Space Telescope (LST).

Likins, P. W.; Skelton, R. E.

1976-01-01

221

Automatic Error Analysis Using Intervals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A technique for automatic error analysis using interval mathematics is introduced. A comparison to standard error propagation methods shows that in cases involving complicated formulas, the interval approach gives comparable error estimates with much less effort. Several examples are considered, and numerical errors are computed using the INTLAB…

Rothwell, E. J.; Cloud, M. J.

2012-01-01

222

Medical errors in primary care  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVET o describe errors Canadian family physicians found in their practices and reported to study investigators. Tocompare errors reported by Canadian family physicians with those reported by physicians in fi ve other countries. DESIGN Analytical study of reports of errors. The Linnaeus Collaboration was formed to study medical errors in primary care. General practitioners in six countries, including a

David White; Fcfp Eric Crighton; Msc Neil Drummond

223

Quantification Bias Caused by Plasmid DNA Conformation in Quantitative Real-Time PCR Assay  

PubMed Central

Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is the gold standard for the quantification of specific nucleic acid sequences. However, a serious concern has been revealed in a recent report: supercoiled plasmid standards cause significant over-estimation in qPCR quantification. In this study, we investigated the effect of plasmid DNA conformation on the quantification of DNA and the efficiency of qPCR. Our results suggest that plasmid DNA conformation has significant impact on the accuracy of absolute quantification by qPCR. DNA standard curves shifted significantly among plasmid standards with different DNA conformations. Moreover, the choice of DNA measurement method and plasmid DNA conformation may also contribute to the measurement error of DNA standard curves. Due to the multiple effects of plasmid DNA conformation on the accuracy of qPCR, efforts should be made to assure the highest consistency of plasmid standards for qPCR. Thus, we suggest that the conformation, preparation, quantification, purification, handling, and storage of standard plasmid DNA should be described and defined in the Minimum Information for Publication of Quantitative Real-Time PCR Experiments (MIQE) to assure the reproducibility and accuracy of qPCR absolute quantification. PMID:22194997

Lin, Chih-Hui; Chen, Yu-Chieh; Pan, Tzu-Ming

2011-01-01

224

Telomere measurement by quantitative PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has long been presumed impossible to measure telomeres in vertebrate DNA by PCR amplification with oligonucleotide primers designed to hybridize to the TTAGGG and CCCTAA repeats, because only primer dimer-derived products are expected. Here we present a primer pair that eliminates this problem, allowing simple and rapid measurement of telomeres in a closed tube, fluorescence-based assay. This assay will

Richard M. Cawthon

2002-01-01

225

Error-Free Software  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

001 is an integrated tool suited for automatically developing ultra reliable models, simulations and software systems. Developed and marketed by Hamilton Technologies, Inc. (HTI), it has been applied in engineering, manufacturing, banking and software tools development. The software provides the ability to simplify the complex. A system developed with 001 can be a prototype or fully developed with production quality code. It is free of interface errors, consistent, logically complete and has no data or control flow errors. Systems can be designed, developed and maintained with maximum productivity. Margaret Hamilton, President of Hamilton Technologies, also directed the research and development of USE.IT, an earlier product which was the first computer aided software engineering product in the industry to concentrate on automatically supporting the development of an ultrareliable system throughout its life cycle. Both products originated in NASA technology developed under a Johnson Space Center contract.

1989-01-01

226

Error-correction coding  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report describes the progress made towards the completion of a specific task on error-correcting coding. The proposed research consisted of investigating the use of modulation block codes as the inner code of a concatenated coding system in order to improve the overall space link communications performance. The study proposed to identify and analyze candidate codes that will complement the performance of the overall coding system which uses the interleaved RS (255,223) code as the outer code.

Hinds, Erold W. (Principal Investigator)

1996-01-01

227

Text Indexing with Errors  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this paper we address the problem of constructing an index for a text document or a collection of documents to answer various\\u000a questions about the occurrences of a pattern when allowing a constant number of errors. In particular, our index can be built\\u000a to report all occurrences, all positions, or all documents where a pattern occurs in time linear

Moritz G. Maaß; Johannes Nowak

2005-01-01

228

Embedded multilevel error diffusion.  

PubMed

We present an algorithm for image browsing systems that embeds the output of binary Floyd-Steinberg (1975) error diffusion, or a low bit-depth gray-scale or color error diffused image into higher bit-depth gray-scale or color error diffused images. The benefits of this algorithm are that a low bit-depth halftoned image can be directly obtained from a higher bit-depth halftone for printing or progressive transmission simply by masking one or more bits off of the higher bit-depth image. The embedding can be done in any bits of the output, although the most significant or the least significant bits are most convenient. Due to constraints on the palette introduced by embedding, the image quality for the higher bit-depth halftone may be reduced. To preserve the image quality, we present algorithms for color palette organization, or binary index assignment, to be used as a preprocessing step to the embedding algorithm. PMID:18282986

Goldschneider, J R; Riskin, E A; Wong, P W

1997-01-01

229

Critical appraisal of quantitative PCR results in colorectal cancer research: can we rely on published qPCR results?  

PubMed

The use of real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in cancer research has become ubiquitous. The relative simplicity of qPCR experiments, which deliver fast and cost-effective results, means that each year an increasing number of papers utilizing this technique are being published. But how reliable are the published results? Since the validity of gene expression data is greatly dependent on appropriate normalisation to compensate for sample-to-sample and run-to-run variation, we have evaluated the adequacy of normalisation procedures in qPCR-based experiments. Consequently, we assessed all colorectal cancer publications that made use of qPCR from 2006 until August 2013 for the number of reference genes used and whether they had been validated. Using even these minimal evaluation criteria, the validity of only three percent (6/179) of the publications can be adequately assessed. We describe common errors, and conclude that the current state of reporting on qPCR in colorectal cancer research is disquieting. Extrapolated to the study of cancer in general, it is clear that the majority of studies using qPCR cannot be reliably assessed and that at best, the results of these studies may or may not be valid and at worst, pervasive incorrect normalisation is resulting in the wholesale publication of incorrect conclusions. This survey demonstrates that the existence of guidelines, such as MIQE, is necessary but not sufficient to address this problem and suggests that the scientific community should examine its responsibility and be aware of the implications of these findings for current and future research. PMID:24423493

Dijkstra, J R; van Kempen, L C; Nagtegaal, I D; Bustin, S A

2014-06-01

230

Differential Effects of Value Consciousness and Coupon Proneness on Consumers’ Persuasion Knowledge of Pricing Tactics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pricing tactics persuasion knowledge (PTPK) is a relatively new concept that seeks to extend the research on persuasion knowledge to the pricing domain. Pricing tactics persuasion knowledge refers to the persuasion knowledge of consumers about marketers’ pricing tactics. Employing an acquisition–transaction utility theoretic perspective, this study examines the differential effects of value consciousness and coupon proneness on the accuracy, confidence,

Kishore Gopalakrishna Pillai; V. Kumar

231

An Empirical Study of the Fault-Proneness of Clone Mutation and Clone Migration  

E-print Network

An Empirical Study of the Fault-Proneness of Clone Mutation and Clone Migration Shuai Xie1, Foutse of the type of a clone during the evolution of a system, and the migration of clone segments across the repositories of a software system. Results show that 1) mutation and migration occur frequently in software

Zou, Ying

232

Binge Eating Proneness Emerges during Puberty in Female Rats: A Longitudinal Study  

PubMed Central

Puberty is a critical risk period for binge eating and eating disorders characterized by binge eating. Previous research focused almost entirely on psychosocial risk factors during puberty to the relative exclusion of biological influences. The current study addressed this gap by examining the emergence of binge eating during puberty in a rat model. We predicted that there would be minimal differences in binge eating proneness during pre-early puberty, but significant differences would emerge during puberty. Two independent samples of female Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 30 and n = 36) were followed longitudinally across pre-early puberty, mid-late puberty, and adulthood. Binge eating proneness was defined using the binge eating resistant (BER)/binge eating prone (BEP) model of binge eating that identifies BER and BEP rats in adulthood. Across two samples of rats, binge eating proneness emerged during puberty. Mixed linear models showed little difference in palatable food intake between BER and BEP rats during pre-early puberty, but significant group differences emerged during mid-late puberty and adulthood. Group differences could not be accounted for by changes in non-palatable food intake or body weight. Similar to patterns in humans, individual differences in binge eating emerge during puberty in female rats. Findings provide strong confirming evidence for the importance of biological risk factors in developmental trajectories of binge eating risk across adolescence. PMID:21574664

Klump, Kelly L.; Suisman, Jessica L.; Culbert, Kristen M.; Kashy, Deborah A.; Sisk, Cheryl L.

2013-01-01

233

Applied Ergonomics 38 (2007) 549555 Comparison of stoop versus prone postures for a simulated  

E-print Network

). Average hamstrings localized discomfort (0�10 scale) was 6.17 (SD � 2.9) for the stoop posture and 0.67 (SD � 1.29) for the prone posture. Erector spinae and hamstring EMG RMS increased 68% and 18%, respectively, while mean power frequency for the hamstrings decreased 13% for the stoop task. Mean power

Radwin, Robert G.

234

Dynamic testing of the motor stereotype in prone hip extension from neutral position  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. The purpose of the study was to identify a sequential activation of lumbar and hip muscles in active prone hip extension from neutral position in subjects without a history of low back pain.Design. Using surface electromyography, the myoelectric activity onsets of agonistic and antagonistic hip muscles were recorded.Background. The development of low back pain is ascribed to changes of

L Vogt; W Banzer

1997-01-01

235

Lumbar intersegmental spacing and angulation in the modified lateral decubitus position versus variants of prone positioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background ContextInterspinous process devices represent an emerging treatment for neurogenic intermittent claudication resulting from lumbar spinal stenosis. Most published descriptions of the operative technique involve treatment of patients in the modified lateral decubitus knee-chest position (modified lateral decubitus), and yet many surgeons have begun to perform the procedure in various prone positions. The patient's positioning on the operating room table

Vijay Agarwal; Michael Wildstein; John B. Tillman; William L. Pelkey; Todd F. Alamin

2009-01-01

236

Wortmannin Reduces Insulin Signaling and Death in Seizure-Prone Pcmt12/2  

E-print Network

, Clarke SG (2012) Wortmannin Reduces Insulin Signaling and Death in Seizure-Prone Pcmt12/2 Mice. PLoS ONEKay, Jonathan D. Lowenson, Steven G. Clarke* Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry and the Molecular Biology, United States of America Received July 20, 2012; Accepted September 1, 2012; Published October 5, 2012

Clarke, Steven

237

A Modified Obesity Proneness Model Predicts Adolescent Weight Concerns and Inability to Self-Regulate Eating  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The prevalence of obesity among high school students has risen in recent decades. Many high school students report trying to lose weight and some engage in disordered eating to do so. The obesity proneness model suggests that parents may influence their offspring's development of disordered eating. This study examined the…

Nickelson, Jen; Bryant, Carol A.; McDermott, Robert J.; Buhi, Eric R.; DeBate, Rita D.

2012-01-01

238

ECG Segmentation and P-Wave Feature Extraction: Application to Patients Prone to Atrial Fibrillation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper presents an automatic analysis method of the P-wave, based on lead II of a 12 lead standard ECG, which will be applied to the detection of patients prone to atrial fibrillation (AF), one of the most frequent arrhythmias. It focuses first on the...

R. Lepage, J. Boucher, J. Blanc, J. Cornilly

2001-01-01

239

Flood-prone area maps of three sites along the Trans-Alaska Pipeline, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Flood-prone areas in Alaska are delineated on aerial photographs for the Sagavanirktok River near Pump Station 3, Middle Fork Koyukuk River at Coldfoot, and Jim River near Pump Station 5. An analysis of available flood data and a description of recent flood evidence and maximum evident flood marks are included. (Kosco-USGS)

Lamke, Robert D.; Jones, Stanley H.

1980-01-01

240

Caffeine, stress, and proneness to psychosis-like experiences: A preliminary investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In diathesis–stress models of psychosis, cortisol released in response to stressors is proposed to play a role in the development of psychotic experiences. Individual differences in cortisol response to stressors are therefore likely to play a role in proneness to psychotic experiences. As caffeine has been found to increase cortisol response to a given stressor, we proposed that, when levels

Simon R. Jones; Charles Fernyhough

2009-01-01

241

Doppler sensor placement during neurosurgical procedures for children in the prone position.  

PubMed

Precordial ultrasonic Doppler devices are effective monitors for detecting venous air emboli (VAE). However, placing an ultrasonic probe on the anterior part of the chest of a prone patient can lead to dislodgment or pressure sores and makes the probe inaccessible to the anesthesiologist. The purpose of this study was to compare placement of a Doppler probe on the patient's back with the traditional precordial site for the ability to detect VAE. We enrolled infants and children undergoing neurosurgical procedures in the prone position in the study. After establishment of general anesthesia and endotracheal intubation, we applied an ultrasonic Doppler probe to the right sternal border of the patient's chest. Anterior insonation was performed with the patient in the supine position. Saline was rapidly injected to verify the efficacy of the monitor (injection test). The patient was turned to the prone position and we placed the Doppler probe between the right scapula and spine. Posterior insonation with saline injection was performed with the patient in the prone position. We obtained positive tests in all patients from the anterior site. Positive tests were obtained from the posterior site in 23 of 24 (96%) children < 10 kilograms (group I), 28 of 39 (72%) children between 10 and 20 kg (group II), and 6 of 22 (27%) children > 20 kilograms (group III). This study demonstrates that a posterior Doppler probe can be effective for monitoring infants at risk of VAE. However, this method is not reliable in children weighting > 10 kg. PMID:8081094

Soriano, S G; McManus, M L; Sullivan, L J; Scott, R M; Rockoff, M A

1994-07-01

242

A Proposed Model for Determining and Giving Priority to Accident Prone Zones (Black Spot)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Safety topic as the same as many topics in transportation system, impresses many factors and is influenced by the other factors. In Iran the most attention was concentrated in executive engineering activities and it was conceived that with only physical adjustments, accident rate will be reduced. In recently years identification and remedying of Accident prone zones was considered by experts,

Hasan Zoghi; Mojtaba Hajali; Meisam Dirin

2010-01-01

243

Identifying Fault-Prone Files Using Static Analysis Alerts Through Singular Value Decomposition  

E-print Network

1 Identifying Fault-Prone Files Using Static Analysis Alerts Through Singular Value Decomposition to generate more alerts than a development team can reasonably examine without some form of guidance which sets of alerts are often associated with a field fail- ure using singular value decomposition. We

Sherriff, Mark S.

244

Assessing UML design metrics for predicting fault-prone classes in a Java system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identifying and fixing software problems before implementation are believed to be much cheaper than after implementation. Hence, it follows that predicting fault-proneness of software modules based on early software artifacts like software design is beneficial as it allows software engineers to perform early predictions to anticipate and avoid faults early enough. Taking this motivation into consideration, in this paper we

Ariadi Nugroho; Michel R. V. Chaudron; Erik Arisholm

2010-01-01

245

Nicotine dependence, PTSD symptoms, and depression proneness among male and female smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several studies have linked posttraumatic stress disorder with heavy smoking. It is not known to what extent this association is specific, as opposed to being a function of a joint association of PTSD and heavy smoking with a third variable such as depression proneness. In a cross-sectional study of 157 current regular smokers, severity of nicotine dependence (but not cigarettes

Frances P. Thorndike; Rachel Wernicke; Michelle Y. Pearlman; David A. F. Haaga

2006-01-01

246

Relation of social competence to scores on two scales of psychosis proneness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Predicted that college students who were high on physical anhedonia and perceptual aberration would have poor social competence. The prediction followed from clinical reports that these characteristics are found in psychosis-prone individuals, a group also described as having poor social competence. Anhedonia and perceptual aberration were measured by the true–false scales of L. J. Chapman et al (1976), and social

Mark C. Haberman; Loren J. Chapman; Janet S. Numbers; Richard M. McFall

1979-01-01

247

Objective characterisation of fire regimes for science-based management of fire-prone landscapes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In fire-prone landscapes many of the ecosystem properties that land managers aim to maintain or enhance are closely linked to the incidence and patterning of fire, particularly of fire intensity, extent, season, and frequency of burning. Characteristic combinations of these attributes are often referred to as fire regimes. The term fire regime is mostly used as a qualitative descriptor rather

Matthias Boer; Rohan Sadler; Pauline Grierson

248

Elementary and Middle School Students' Perceptions of Violence-Prone School Subcontexts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined student views regarding violence-prone subcontexts in their schools, contrasting elementary and middle schools, grade levels, and different public locations at school. Found organization and social dynamics of the middle school likely influenced students' perceptions, and students in different grades within elementary and middle schools…

Astor, Ron Avi; Meyer, Heather Ann; Pitner, Ronald O.

2001-01-01

249

Is homologous recombination really an error-free process?  

PubMed

Homologous recombination (HR) is an evolutionarily conserved process that plays a pivotal role in the equilibrium between genetic stability and diversity. HR is commonly considered to be error-free, but several studies have shown that HR can be error-prone. Here, we discuss the actual accuracy of HR. First, we present the product of genetic exchanges (gene conversion, GC, and crossing over, CO) and the mechanisms of HR during double strand break repair and replication restart. We discuss the intrinsic capacities of HR to generate genome rearrangements by GC or CO, either during DSB repair or replication restart. During this process, abortive HR intermediates generate genetic instability and cell toxicity. In addition to genome rearrangements, HR also primes error-prone DNA synthesis and favors mutagenesis on single stranded DNA, a key DNA intermediate during the HR process. The fact that cells have developed several mechanisms protecting against HR excess emphasize its potential risks. Consistent with this duality, several pro-oncogenic situations have been consistently associated with either decreased or increased HR levels. Nevertheless, this versatility also has advantages that we outline here. We conclude that HR is a double-edged sword, which on one hand controls the equilibrium between genome stability and diversity but, on the other hand, can jeopardize the maintenance of genomic integrity. Therefore, whether non-homologous end joining (which, in contrast with HR, is not intrinsically mutagenic) or HR is the more mutagenic process is a question that should be re-evaluated. Both processes can be "Dr. Jekyll" in maintaining genome stability/variability and "Mr. Hyde" in jeopardizing genome integrity. PMID:24966870

Guirouilh-Barbat, Josée; Lambert, Sarah; Bertrand, Pascale; Lopez, Bernard S

2014-01-01

250

Error propagation properties for ICBM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the error propagation properties of IGS (Inertial Guidance System) for ICBM. The transition matrix analytic solution of IGS is derived. By means of the Regression Analysis technique, the perturbance model is set up. Based upon this, the analytic solutions of impact position error is obtained. Using the analytic solution, the error analysis of IGS can be complete without integrating differential equations. For calculating impact position error, it is only necessary to determine the perturbance parameters and error propagation parameters by means of the algebraic method. Finally, the numerical results calculated for 42 trajectories show that the maximum error due to the analytic solution is less than 10 meters.

Chen, G.

1984-07-01

251

Radiation dose to the nodal regions during prone versus supine breast irradiation  

PubMed Central

Background Prone positioning for breast radiotherapy is preferable when the aim is a reduction of the dose to the ipsilateral lung or the heart in certain left-sided cases. Materials and methods In 100 breast cancer cases awaiting postoperative whole-breast radiotherapy, conformal radiotherapy plans were prospectively generated in both prone and supine positions. The axillary nodal region (levels I–III) and internal mammary (IM) lymph-node region in the upper three intercostal spaces were retrospectively contoured. The mean doses to the nodal regions and the volume receiving 25 Gy (V25Gy), V45Gy, and V47.5Gy were compared between the two treatment positions. Results In most cases, the doses to axillary levels I–III and the IM lymph nodes were inadequate, regardless of the treatment position. The nodal doses were significantly lower in the prone than in the supine position. The radiation doses to levels II–III and IM nodes were especially low. The V45Gy and V47.5Gy of the level I axillary lymph nodes were 54.6% and 40.2%, respectively, in the supine, and 3.0% and 1.7%, respectively, in the prone position. In the supine position, only 17 patients (17%) received a mean dose of 45 Gy to the axillary level I nodes. Conclusion The radiation dose to the axillary and IM lymph nodes during breast radiotherapy is therapeutically insufficient in most cases, and is significantly lower in the prone position than in the supine position. PMID:24876782

Csenki, Melinda; Újhidy, Dóra; Cserháti, Adrienn; Kahán, Zsuzsanna; Varga, Zoltán

2014-01-01

252

Perceived threat mediates the relationship between psychosis proneness and aggressive behavior  

PubMed Central

Psychotic symptoms are associated with aggressive tendencies, but this relationship is both complex and imperfect. In contrast to psychotic disorders, little is known about aggressive behavior and sub-clinical psychotic symptoms (e.g., “psychosis proneness”), which are relatively common in the general population. Threat/control-override (TCO), which is the propensity to overestimate the likelihood that an outside agent will (1) inflict harm (threat) or (2) control one’s behaviors (control-override), has been associated with aggression in both psychiatric and community samples. The purpose of this study was to determine if psychosis proneness is related to aggression, and if one or both aspects of TCO mediate this relationship. We hypothesized that the propensity to overestimate threat would mediate this relationship, but control-override would not. Sixty men and sixty women (mean age = 20.00 years, sd = 3.00) with no history of psychotic disorder completed measures assessing psychosis proneness, threat control/override, aggressive history, aggressive ideation, and aggressive behavior. Three structural equation models were tested: (1) Threat and control-override modeled as separate mediating variables, (2) TCO as a unitary mediating latent construct, and (3) TCO considered as part of a psychosis-proneness latent variable. Results indicated that psychosis proneness is positively related to aggression and that the best model fit was obtained when threat and control-override were modeled as separate variables, with mediation through threat alone. The utility of TCO for explaining the relation between psychosis spectrum symptoms and aggression is discussed. PMID:20965573

Fanning, Jennifer Renee; Berman, Mitchell Eric; Mohn, Richard Samuel; McCloskey, Michael Sean

2010-01-01

253

Evaluation of PCR and nested PCR assays currently used for detection of Coxiella burnetii in Japan.  

PubMed

Detection of Coxiella burnetii, the etiologic agent of Q fever, is important for diagnosis of Q fever. PCR-based methods have been widely used for the detection mostly because isolation of C. bumetii is time-consuming. Recent reports showed that PCR-positive rates of Q fever infection widely differed. We have evaluated the PCR and nested PCR assays currently used in Japan. The nested PCR assay detected as few as 6 microorganisms and was 10 times more sensitive than the regular PCR assay. The nested PCR assay did not show any non-specific bands with 12 other bacteria, whereas the PCR assay showed some extra bands for 5 of the 12 bacteria. These results suggest that the nested PCR is more sensitive and specific than the PCR in the detection of C. burnetii. However, nested PCR generally has a risk of cross-contamination during preparation of the 2nd PCR. Using blood specimens serially collected from an acute Q fever patient, the PCR and the nested PCR assays gave very similar results, suggesting that sensitivity of the PCR assay is at an achieved level of the detection for clinical specimens although the nested PCR assay is more sensitive. It is recommended that both the PCR and nested PCR assays should be performed for the detection of C. burnetii to obtain reliable results. PMID:15916080

Ogawa, Motohiko; Setiyono, Agus; Sato, Kozue; Cai, Yan; Shiga, Sadashi; Kishimoto, Toshio

2004-12-01

254

A water-vapor radiometer error model. [for ionosphere in geodetic microwave techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The water-vapor radiometer (WVR) is used to calibrate unpredictable delays in the wet component of the troposphere in geodetic microwave techniques such as very-long-baseline interferometry (VLBI) and Global Positioning System (GPS) tracking. Based on experience with Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) instruments, the current level of accuracy in wet-troposphere calibration limits the accuracy of local vertical measurements to 5-10 cm. The goal for the near future is 1-3 cm. Although the WVR is currently the best calibration method, many instruments are prone to systematic error. In this paper, a treatment of WVR data is proposed and evaluated. This treatment reduces the effect of WVR systematic errors by estimating parameters that specify an assumed functional form for the error. The assumed form of the treatment is evaluated by comparing the results of two similar WVR's operating near each other. Finally, the observability of the error parameters is estimated by covariance analysis.

Beckman, B.

1985-01-01

255

Oxygenation Response to a Recruitment Maneuver during Supine and Prone Positions in an Oleic Acid-Induced Lung Injury Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prone position and recruitment maneuvers (RM) are proposed as adjuncts to mechanical ventilation to open up the lung and keep it open. We studied the oxygenation response to a RM (composed of a 30-s sustained inflation at 60 cm H 2 O airway pressure) per- formed in prone and supine positions in dogs after oleic acid- induced lung injury using

NAHIT CAKAR; THOMAS VAN der KLOOT; MELYNNE YOUNGBLOOD; ALEX ADAMS; AVI NAHUM

2000-01-01

256

Associations between Delusion Proneness and Personality Structure in Non-Clinical Participants: Comparison between Young and Elderly Samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Few studies have explored the prevalence of delusions in the non-clinical, elderly population. In addition, the association between personality structure and delusions remains poorly investigated. The aims of the present study were, first, to explore the relation between age and the prevalence of delusion proneness and, second, to examine the association between personality and delusion proneness in young and

Frank Larøi; Martial Van der Linden; Filip DeFruyt; Jim van Os; André Aleman

2006-01-01

257

Skylab water balance error analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Estimates of the precision of the net water balance were obtained for the entire Skylab preflight and inflight phases as well as for the first two weeks of flight. Quantitative estimates of both total sampling errors and instrumentation errors were obtained. It was shown that measurement error is minimal in comparison to biological variability and little can be gained from improvement in analytical accuracy. In addition, a propagation of error analysis demonstrated that total water balance error could be accounted for almost entirely by the errors associated with body mass changes. Errors due to interaction between terms in the water balance equation (covariances) represented less than 10% of the total error. Overall, the analysis provides evidence that daily measurements of body water changes obtained from the indirect balance technique are reasonable, precise, and relaible. The method is not biased toward net retention or loss.

Leonard, J. I.

1977-01-01

258

Error Correcting Codes Probability Propagation  

E-print Network

communication? We would like to achieve virtually error-free communication. e.g., an error probability of #24 by Gallager, but were then generally forgotten by the coding theory community. #12; Theoretical result: Low

MacKay, David J.C.

259

Improved error-tradeoff and error-disturbance relations in terms of measurement error components  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heisenberg's uncertainty principle is quantified by error-disturbance tradeoff relations, which have been tested experimentally in various scenarios. Here we shall report various error-disturbance tradeoff relations by decomposing the measurement errors and disturbance into two different components, namely, operator bias and fuzziness. Our uncertainty relations reveal the tradeoffs between these two components of errors, and imply various conditionally valid error-tradeoff relations for the unbiased and projective measurements. We also design a quantum circuit to measure the two components of the error and disturbance.

Lu, Xiao-Ming; Yu, Sixia; Fujikawa, Kazuo; Oh, C. H.

2014-10-01

260

Zonal Error Propagation for JMAPS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Propagation of accidental zonal errors of parallax is analyzed for J-MAPS. A method based on orthogonal spherical functions and a simplified setup of observational grid equations is proposed. Using this method, a full-scale simulation can be performed for a limited number of large-scale zonal errors, including the zero-point error, on a regular personal computer. Covariances of parallax zonal errors and

Gregory S. Hennessy; V. Makarov

2009-01-01

261

Error Sources in Asteroid Astrometry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Asteroid astrometry, like any other scientific measurement process, is subject to both random and systematic errors, not all of which are under the observer's control. To design an astrometric observing program or to improve an existing one requires knowledge of the various sources of error, how different errors affect one's results, and how various errors may be minimized by careful observation or data reduction techniques.

Owen, William M., Jr.

2000-01-01

262

Error propagation properties for ICBM  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the error propagation properties of IGS (Inertial Guidance System) for ICBM. The transition matrix analytic solution of IGS is derived. By means of the Regression Analysis technique, the perturbance model is set up. Based upon this, the analytic solutions of impact position error is obtained. Using the analytic solution, the error analysis of IGS can be complete

G. Chen

1984-01-01

263

Bootstrap Techniques for Error Estimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design of a pattern recognition system requires careful attention to error estimation. The error rate is the most important descriptor of a classifier's performance. The commonly used estimates of error rate are based on the holdout method, the resubstitution method, and the leave-one-out method. All suffer either from large bias or large variance and their sample distributions are not

Anil K. Jain; Richard C. Dubes; Chaur-Chin Chen

1987-01-01

264

Prone Positioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

areas of the lung are more atelectatic and likely to endure collapse and infl ation (atelectrauma) during mechanical ventilation at low PEEP. Meanwhile, perfusion to the lung units progressively increases from the nondependent to the dependent regions, with preferential perfusion of the dependent atelectatic lung regions [4]. Thus, in supine patients with ARDS, lung ventilation is preferentially shifted to the

Nilesh M. Mehta; Martha A. Q. Curley

265

PALATAL DYSMORPHOGENESIS: QUANTITATIVE RT-PCR  

EPA Science Inventory

ABSTRACT Palatal Dysmorphogenesis : Quantitative RT-PCR Gary A. Held and Barbara D. Abbott Reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) is a very sensitive method for detecting mRNA in tissue samples. However, as it is usually performed it is does not yield quantitativ...

266

International Conference on Dependable Systems & Networks: Yokohama, Japan, 28 June -01 July 2005 User Interface Dependability through Goal-Error Prevention  

E-print Network

operating sys- tem, which uses Microsoft's NT file system (NTFS). A sig- nificant amount of anecdotal evidence suggests that setting NTFS file permissions is a particularly error-prone task. For example NTFS server. The theft was possible in part because an in- experienced system administrator had failed

Maxion, Roy

267

Experimental repetitive quantum error correction.  

PubMed

The computational potential of a quantum processor can only be unleashed if errors during a quantum computation can be controlled and corrected for. Quantum error correction works if imperfections of quantum gate operations and measurements are below a certain threshold and corrections can be applied repeatedly. We implement multiple quantum error correction cycles for phase-flip errors on qubits encoded with trapped ions. Errors are corrected by a quantum-feedback algorithm using high-fidelity gate operations and a reset technique for the auxiliary qubits. Up to three consecutive correction cycles are realized, and the behavior of the algorithm for different noise environments is analyzed. PMID:21617070

Schindler, Philipp; Barreiro, Julio T; Monz, Thomas; Nebendahl, Volckmar; Nigg, Daniel; Chwalla, Michael; Hennrich, Markus; Blatt, Rainer

2011-05-27

268

Real-Time PCR (qPCR) Primer Design Using Free Online Software  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Real-time PCR (quantitative PCR or qPCR) has become the preferred method for validating results obtained from assays which measure gene expression profiles. The process uses reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), coupled with fluorescent chemistry, to measure variations in transcriptome levels between samples. The four most…

Thornton, Brenda; Basu, Chhandak

2011-01-01

269

PCR Template preparation Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a versatile tool for screening M. tuberculosis clones.  

E-print Network

PCR Template preparation Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a versatile tool for screening M for each 100 µl PCR reaction. ALTERNATE PROTOCOL: 1. After Step 2 in main protocol, spin cells in microcentrifuge for 2 minutes then use 10 to 20 µL of the supernatant in a 100 µL PCR reaction. #12;

270

Multimodal nonlinear optical imaging of atherosclerotic plaque development in myocardial infarction-prone rabbits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Label-free imaging of bulk arterial tissue is demonstrated using a multimodal nonlinear optical microscope based on a photonic crystal fiber and a single femtosecond oscillator operating at 800 nm. Colocalized imaging of extracellular elastin fibers, fibrillar collagen, and lipid-rich structures within aortic tissue obtained from atherosclerosis-prone myocardial infarction-prone Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHLMI) rabbits is demonstrated through two-photon excited fluorescence, second harmonic generation, and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering, respectively. These images are shown to differentiate healthy arterial wall, early atherosclerotic lesions, and advanced plaques. Clear pathological changes are observed in the extracellular matrix of the arterial wall and correlated with progression of atherosclerotic disease as represented by the age of the WHHLMI rabbits.

Ko, Alex C. T.; Ridsdale, Andrew; Smith, Michael S. D.; Mostaço-Guidolin, Leila B.; Hewko, Mark D.; Pegoraro, Adrian F.; Kohlenberg, Elicia K.; Schattka, Bernie; Shiomi, Masashi; Stolow, Albert; Sowa, Michael G.

2010-03-01

271

Extraperitoneal laparoscopic paraaortic lymph node sampling in prone position: development of a technique.  

PubMed

Paraaortic lymph node sampling has been found to be efficient in the staging of genitourinary cancers. However, the complications associated with this procedure using the traditional transperitoneal or extraperitoneal approach are considerable. Developments in endoscopic technology and instrumentation have allowed an extraperitoneal approach. Presented is a porcine model for extraperitoneal endoscopic paraaortic lymph node dissection as a staging procedure for genitourinary cancers. The pig is placed in a prone position, and an extraperitoneal pneumoperitoneum is created. Using a three-port technique, we were able to remove almost 95% of all paraaortic lymph nodes laparoscopically without any complications. The prone position allows for a fast and safe procedure because it minimizes the need for extra entry ports and gives a clear view, unobstructed by the bowel, of the back wall of the abdomen. PMID:7766928

Bannenberg, J J; Meijer, D W; Klopper, P J

1995-02-01

272

Gut microbiome in sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) differs from that in healthy comparison babies and offers an explanation for the risk factor of prone position.  

PubMed

The role of bacteria in the causation of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is gaining acceptance. Mainstream research favouring respiratory compromise has failed to provide a plausible pathogenetic mechanism despite many years of investigation and thousands of research papers. Bacterial colonisation of the colon of the human infant is influenced by many factors including age, mode of delivery, diet, environment, and antibiotic exposure. The gut microbiome influences development of the immune system. The gut microflora could be important in protection against the bacteria and/or their toxins purportedly involved in SIDS pathogenesis. The aim was to perform a preliminary investigation of the gut microflora in sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) compared with live comparison babies. The intestinal contents from 52 SIDS, and 102 faecal samples from age-matched live comparison infants were screened by PCR to target 16s RNA genes of Clostridium innocuum, Cl. Perfringens, Cl. difficile, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron and Staphylococcus aureus. Gut colonisation of the babies with these bacteria was analysed in relation to age, gender and type of feeding; and for SIDS babies sleeping position. Cl. difficile, Cl. innocuum and B. thetaiotaomicron were significantly associated with SIDS with 25%, 46% and 30% of cases PCR positive for these respective bacteria compared with only 6%, 23% and 8.8% respectively in the comparison group. SIDS babies had dual colonisation by both Cl. perfringens and Cl. difficile significantly more often than comparison babies and also with triple colonisation by Cl. perfringens, Cl. difficile and Cl. innocuum. SIDS babies were more often colonised by S. aureus than comparison babies. In addition, SIDS babies found prone were significantly more likely to be colonised by S. aureus than for other positions recorded (OR = ?; CI = 2·04 - ?). No significant differences between breast and bottle-fed SIDS babies was observed in regard to each clostridial bacterium, or S. aureus, however Cl. innocuum was found to be significantly associated with formula feeding in the comparison cohort. Comparison of breast and formula feeding of SIDS babies with live comparison babies revealed significant differences with regards to some of the clostridial bacteria. Age-specific differences in gut bacterial microbiome were observed in both SIDS and comparison healthy babies. This study gives an insight into differences in the gut bacterial microbiome of SIDS babies compared with healthy babies. These differences could be important in contributing to a baby's susceptibility to infection and therefore to SIDS. The association of S. aureus colonisation with prone sleep position supports the hypothesis that prone sleep position could increase the risk of ingestion/inhalation of bacteria contaminating the sleeping surface and could account for the increased risk of SIDS in babies who are put to sleep prone. The study provides impetus for broader studies into the gut microbiome of babies and could lead to effective approaches to SIDS prevention. PMID:24951305

Highet, Amanda R; Berry, Anne M; Bettelheim, Karl A; Goldwater, Paul N

2014-07-01

273

Sexual Attraction Status and Adolescent Suicide Proneness: The Roles of Hopelessness, Depression, and Social Support  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explored the relationship between sexual attraction status (same-sex, both-sex, and opposite-sex) and suicidal behavior in a diverse sample of adolescents (N = 1,533 youth). Adolescents with attractions to both sexes reported greater suicide proneness, recent and lifetime suicidal ideation, and past suicide attempts than those with exclusively opposite-sex attractions; individuals reporting same-sex attractions generally demonstrated moderate elevations on

Jennifer Langhinrichsen-Rohling; Dorian A. Lamis; Patrick S. Malone

2010-01-01

274

A delayed Boerhaave's syndrome diagnosis treated by thoracoscopy in prone position.  

PubMed

Boerhaave's syndrome or postemetic rupture of the esophagus, carries a high morbidity and mortality. The authors report a delayed Boerhaave's syndrome diagnosis (3 days), successfully treated by right thoracoscopic debridement in prone position. Thanks to gravity the cardiopulmonary bloc drops back and the access to the esophagus is direct allowing for accurate placement of the chest tubes near the perforation. The procedure is completed by laparoscopic placement of a feeding jejunostomy with the patient supine. PMID:18577910

Dapri, G; Dumont, H; Roman, A; Stevens, E; Himpens, J; Cadiere, G B

2008-06-01

275

Prone position improves mechanics and alveolar ventilation in acute respiratory distress syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveWe tested the hypothesis that ventilation in the prone position might improve homogenization of tidal ventilation by reducing time-constant inequalities, and thus improving alveolar ventilation. We have recently reported in ARDS patients that these inequalities are responsible for the presence of a “slow compartment,” excluded from tidal ventilation at supportive respiratory rate.DesignIn 11 ARDS patients treated by ventilation in the

Antoine Vieillard-Baron; Anne Rabiller; Karin Chergui; Olivier Peyrouset; Bernard Page; Alain Beauchet; François Jardin

2005-01-01

276

Genetic and Environmental Influences on the Relationship between Flow Proneness, Locus of Control and Behavioral Inhibition  

PubMed Central

Flow is a psychological state of high but subjectively effortless attention that typically occurs during active performance of challenging tasks and is accompanied by a sense of automaticity, high control, low self-awareness, and enjoyment. Flow proneness is associated with traits and behaviors related to low neuroticism such as emotional stability, conscientiousness, active coping, self-esteem and life satisfaction. Little is known about the genetic architecture of flow proneness, behavioral inhibition and locus of control – traits also associated with neuroticism – and their interrelation. Here, we hypothesized that individuals low in behavioral inhibition and with an internal locus of control would be more likely to experience flow and explored the genetic and environmental architecture of the relationship between the three variables. Behavioral inhibition and locus of control was measured in a large population sample of 3,375 full twin pairs and 4,527 single twins, about 26% of whom also scored the flow proneness questionnaire. Findings revealed significant but relatively low correlations between the three traits and moderate heritability estimates of .41, .45, and .30 for flow proneness, behavioral inhibition, and locus of control, respectively, with some indication of non-additive genetic influences. For behavioral inhibition we found significant sex differences in heritability, with females showing a higher estimate including significant non-additive genetic influences, while in males the entire heritability was due to additive genetic variance. We also found a mainly genetically mediated relationship between the three traits, suggesting that individuals who are genetically predisposed to experience flow, show less behavioral inhibition (less anxious) and feel that they are in control of their own destiny (internal locus of control). We discuss that some of the genes underlying this relationship may include those influencing the function of dopaminergic neural systems. PMID:23133606

Mosing, Miriam A.; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Cesarini, David; Johannesson, Magnus; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Nakamura, Jeanne; Madison, Guy; Ullen, Fredrik

2012-01-01

277

An exploratory study of the impact of antipatterns on class change- and fault-proneness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antipatterns are poor design choices that are conjectured to make object-oriented systems harder to maintain. We investigate\\u000a the impact of antipatterns on classes in object-oriented systems by studying the relation between the presence of antipatterns\\u000a and the change- and fault-proneness of the classes. We detect 13 antipatterns in 54 releases of ArgoUML, Eclipse, Mylyn, and\\u000a Rhino, and analyse (1) to

Foutse Khomh; Massimiliano Di Penta; Yann-Gaël Guéhéneuc; Giuliano Antoniol

278

Investigation of the use of strip-prone aggregates in hydraulic asphalt concrete  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study is made of the suitability of strip-prone aggregates for use in asphalt concrete water barriers in embankment dams. Standard boiling tests were used for ranking various aggregate types with respect to water susceptibility and aggregate-bitumen adhesion. Indirect tension tests (splitting tests) were used to study the effects of aggregate-bitumen adhesion on asphalt concrete tensile strength. The test results

Weibiao Wang; Yingbo Zhang; Kaare Höeg; Yue Zhu

2010-01-01

279

Clinical review: Intra-abdominal hypertension: does it influence the physiology of prone ventilation?  

PubMed Central

Prone ventilation (PV) is a ventilatory strategy that frequently improves oxygenation and lung mechanics in critical illness, yet does not consistently improve survival. While the exact physiologic mechanisms related to these benefits remain unproven, one major theoretical mechanism relates to reducing the abdominal encroachment upon the lungs. Concurrent to this experience is increasing recognition of the ubiquitous role of intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) in critical illness, of the relationship between IAH and intra-abdominal volume or thus the compliance of the abdominal wall, and of the potential difference in the abdominal influences between the extrapulmonary and pulmonary forms of acute respiratory distress syndrome. The present paper reviews reported data concerning intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) in association with the use of PV to explore the potential influence of IAH. While early authors stressed the importance of gravitationally unloading the abdominal cavity to unencumber the lung bases, this admonition has not been consistently acknowledged when PV has been utilized. Basic data required to understand the role of IAP/IAH in the physiology of PV have generally not been collected and/or reported. No randomized controlled trials or meta-analyses considered IAH in design or outcome. While the act of proning itself has a variable reported effect on IAP, abundant clinical and laboratory data confirm that the thoracoabdominal cavities are intimately linked and that IAH is consistently transmitted across the diaphragm - although the transmission ratio is variable and is possibly related to the compliance of the abdominal wall. Any proning-related intervention that secondarily influences IAP/IAH is likely to greatly influence respiratory mechanics and outcomes. Further study of the role of IAP/IAH in the physiology and outcomes of PV in hypoxemic respiratory failure is thus required. Theories relating inter-relations between prone positioning and the abdominal condition are presented to aid in designing these studies. PMID:20804560

2010-01-01

280

Prone position reduces lung stress and strain in severe acute respiratory distress syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present authors hypothesised that in severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), pronation may reduce ventilator-induced overall stress (i.e. transpulmonary pressure (PL)) and strain of lung parenchyma (i.e. tidal volume (VT)\\/end-expiratory lung volume (EELV) ratio), which constitute major ventilator-induced lung injury determinants. The authors sought to determine whether potential pronation benefits are maintained in post-prone semirecumbent (SRPP) posture under pressure-volume

S. D. Mentzelopoulos; C. Roussos; S. G. Zakynthinos

2005-01-01

281

Shame Aversion and Shame-Proneness in Cluster C Personality Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The associations between shame and Cluster C personality disorders (PDs) were examined in 237 undergraduates, 35 of whom met at least subthreshold criteria for Cluster C PDs assessed using the Personality Disorder Interview–IV. Shame-proneness (the propensity to experience shame across many situations) was measured using the Test of Self-Conscious Affect–3, and shame aversion (the tendency to perceive shame as especially

Michelle Schoenleber; Howard Berenbaum

2010-01-01

282

Cognitive correlates of the Type A Coronary-Prone Behavior Pattern  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated the relationship between the Type A Coronary-Prone Behavior Pattern and two measures of self-relevant cognitions: Ellis's (1962) irrational beliefs, and private and public self-consciousness (Fenigstein, Scheier, & Buss, 1975). The Type A pattern was found consistently to be negatively correlated with a belief in the value of avoiding problems and responsibilities. For males, the Type A

Timothy W. Smith; Sharon S. Brehm

1981-01-01

283

The DNA Polymerase Replication Error Spectrum in the Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Gene Contains Human Colon Tumor Mutational Hotspots1  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have found a significant concordance between the in vitro replica- tion errors of human DNA polymerase and in vivo point mutations of the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene that leads to colon cancer. We determined the error spectrum of DNA polymerase in the human APC gene under PCR conditions and compared it with the set of mutations reported in

Brindha P. Muniappan; William G. Thilly

2002-01-01

284

Rosuvastatin Treatment Prevents Progressive Kidney Inflammation and Fibrosis in Stroke-Prone Rats  

PubMed Central

Salt-loaded, spontaneously hypertensive stroke-prone rats show progressive increases in blood pressure and proteinuria and accumulate acute-phase proteins in body fluids, modeling events during renal damage. The aim of this study was to assess the pathological events occurring in the kidney of spontaneously hypertensive stroke-prone rats over time and evaluate the effects of statin treatment, which is known to improve renal and cardiovascular outcomes. Kidneys of male spontaneously hypertensive stroke-prone rats euthanized at different stages of proteinuria showed progressive inflammatory cell infiltration, the accumulation of ?-smooth muscle actin-positive cells, degenerative changes in podocytes, and severe fibrosis. These were accompanied by an imbalance in the plasminogen/plasmin and metalloprotease systems characterized by the increased renal expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, tissue plasminogen activator, and urokinase plasminogen activator; the net result was an increase in plasmin and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and a reduction in MMP-9 activity. Chronic treatment with the hydrophilic rosuvastatin had renoprotective effects in terms of morphology and inflammation and prevented the changes in plasmin, MMP-2, and MMP-9 activity. These effects were independent of the changes in blood pressure and plasma lipid levels. Treatment with the lipophilic simvastatin was not renoprotective. These data suggest that rosuvastatin may have potential utility as a therapeutic option in renal diseases that are characterized by inflammation and fibrosis. PMID:17392157

Gianella, Anita; Nobili, Elena; Abbate, Mauro; Zoja, Carla; Gelosa, Paolo; Mussoni, Luciana; Bellosta, Stefano; Canavesi, Monica; Rottoli, Daniela; Guerrini, Uliano; Brioschi, Maura; Banfi, Cristina; Tremoli, Elena; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Sironi, Luigi

2007-01-01

285

Non-invasive ventilation in prone position for refractory hypoxemia after bilateral lung transplantation.  

PubMed

Temporary graft dysfunction with gas exchange abnormalities is a common finding during the postoperative course of a lung transplant and is often determined by the post-reimplantation syndrome. Supportive measures including oxygen by mask, inotropes, diuretics, and pulmonary vasodilators are usually effective in non-severe post-reimplantation syndromes. However, in less-responsive clinical pictures, tracheal intubation with positive pressure ventilation, or non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NIV), is necessary. We report on the clinical course of two patients suffering from refractory hypoxemia due to post-reimplantation syndrome treated with NIV in the prone and Trendelenburg positions. NIV was well tolerated and led to resolution of atelectactic areas and dishomogeneous lung infiltrates. Repeated turning from supine to prone under non invasive ventilation determined a stable improvement of gas exchange and prevented a more invasive approach. Even though NIV in the prone position has not yet entered into clinical practice, it could be an interesting option to achieve a better match between ventilation and perfusion. This technique, which we successfully applied in lung transplantation, can be easily extended to other lung diseases with non-recruitable dorso-basal areas. PMID:19637990

Feltracco, Paolo; Serra, Eugenio; Barbieri, Stefania; Persona, Paolo; Rea, Federico; Loy, Monica; Ori, Carlo

2009-01-01

286

Abortion-prone mating influences placental antioxidant status and adversely affects placental and foetal development.  

PubMed

Abstract Oxidative stress is associated with decreased female fertility and adversely affects prenatal development. Mammalian cells have developed a network of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant defence systems to prevent oxidative stress. Little attention has been paid to the antioxidative pathways in placentas of normal and disturbed pregnancies, leaving a gap in our knowledge about the role of antioxidants in the control of foeto-placental development. The challenges in studying early human pregnancy can partly be overcome by designing animal models of abnormal pregnancy. We aimed to determine whether the antioxidant status of placentas from the CBA/J × DBA/2 abortion-prone pregnant mice differed from that of normal pregnant mice. The foetal/placental weight ratio was lower in abortion-prone matings compared with that in non-abortion-prone matings. The increased placental malondialdehyde (MDA) content, the end products of lipid peroxidation, with concomitants alterations in placental antioxidants, namely copper-zinc containing superoxide dismutase (SOD1), manganese containing (SOD2), glutathione peroxidases (GPX), glutathione reductase (GR) and catalase (CAT) activities may be involved in placental and foetal growth restriction. We show that placental oxidative stress is linked with poor prenatal development and pregnancy losses in CBA/J × DBA/2 mice matings. This animal model may be useful in the evaluation of nutritional antioxidant therapies for oxidative stress and associated prenatal developmental disorders. PMID:25263566

Al-Gubory, K H; Krawiec, A; Grange, S; Faure, P; Garrel, C

2014-12-01

287

Emerging and reemerging epidemic-prone diseases among settling nomadic pastoralists in Uganda.  

PubMed

Epidemic-prone diseases have traditionally been uncommon among nomadic pastoralists as mobility allows already dispersed populations to migrate away from epidemic threats. In the Karamoja region of Uganda, nomadic pastoralists are transitioning to an increasingly settled lifestyle due to cattle raiding and associated civil insecurity. In attempts to reduce conflict in the region, the Ugandan government has instituted disarmament campaigns and encouraged sedentism in place of mobility. In Karamoja, this transition to sedentism has contributed to the emergence and reemergence of epidemic-prone diseases such as cholera, hepatitis E, yellow fever, and meningococcal meningitis. The incidence of these diseases remains difficult to measure and several challenges exist to their control. Challenges to communicable disease surveillance and control among settling nomadic pastoralists are related to nomadic mobility, remote geography, vaccination and immunity, and poor sanitation and safe water access. In addition to improving gaps in infrastructure, attracting well-trained government health workers to Karamoja and similar areas with longstanding human resource limitations is critical to address the challenges to epidemic-prone disease surveillance and control among settling nomadic pastoralists. In conjunction with government health workers, community health teams provide a sustainable method by which public health programs can be improved in the austere environments inhabited by mobile and settling pastoralists. PMID:24784434

Cummings, Matthew J; Wamala, Joseph F; Komakech, Innocent; Malimbo, Mugagga; Lukwago, Luswa

2014-09-01

288

Factors Associated with Larval Control Practices in a Dengue Outbreak Prone Area  

PubMed Central

In order to reduce the risk of dengue outbreak recurrence in a dengue outbreak prone area, the members of the community need to sustain certain behavior to prevent mosquito from breeding. Our study aims to identify the factors associated with larval control practices in this particular community. A cross-sectional study involves 322 respondents living in a dengue outbreak prone area who were interviewed using a pretested questionnaire. The level of knowledge about Aedes mosquitoes, dengue transmission, its symptoms, and personal preventive measures ranges from fair to good. The level of attitude towards preventive measures was high. However, reported level of personal larval control practices was low (33.2%). Our multiple logistic regression analysis showed that only those with a good level of attitude towards personal preventive measure and frequent attendance to health campaigns were significantly associated with the good larval control practices. We conclude that, in a dengue outbreak prone area, having a good attitude towards preventive measures and frequent participation in health campaigns are important factors to sustain practices on larval control. PMID:25309602

Mohamad, Mariam; Selamat, Mohamad Ikhsan; Ismail, Zaliha

2014-01-01

289

Lupus-Prone Mice Fail to Raise Antigen-Specific T Cell Responses to Intracellular Infection  

PubMed Central

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is characterized by multiple cellular abnormalities culminating in the production of autoantibodies and immune complexes, resulting in tissue inflammation and organ damage. Besides active disease, the main cause of morbidity and mortality in SLE patients is infections, including those from opportunistic pathogens. To understand the failure of the immune system to fend off infections in systemic autoimmunity, we infected the lupus-prone murine strains B6.lpr and BXSB with the intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii and survival was monitored. Furthermore, mice were sacrificed days post infection and parasite burden and cellular immune responses such as cytokine production and cell activation were assessed. Mice from both strains succumbed to infection acutely and we observed greater susceptibility to infection in older mice. Increased parasite burden and a defective antigen-specific IFN-gamma response were observed in the lupus-prone mice. Furthermore, T cell:dendritic cell co-cultures established the presence of an intrinsic T cell defect responsible for the decreased antigen-specific response. An antigen-specific defect in IFN- gamma production prevents lupus-prone mice from clearing infection effectively. This study reveals the first cellular insight into the origin of increased susceptibility to infections in SLE disease and may guide therapeutic approaches. PMID:25360768

Lieberman, Linda A.; Tsokos, George C.

2014-01-01

290

Origin of intra-individual variation in PCR-amplified mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I of Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae): mitochondrial heteroplasmy or nuclear integration?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mitochondrial genome is increasingly being used as a species diagnostic marker in insects. Typically, genomic DNA is PCR amplified and then analysed by restriction analyses or sequencing. This analysis system may cause some serious problems for molecular diagnosis. Besides the errors introduced by the PCR process, mtDNA sequence variation of amplified fragments may originate from mtDNA heteroplasmy or from

JUERG E. FREY; BEATRICE FREY

2004-01-01

291

A comparative study of hemodynamic changes between prone and supine emergence from anesthesia in lumbar disc surgery  

PubMed Central

Background: Supine emergence from anesthesia in patients undergoing lumbar surgery in prone position leads to tachycardia, hypertension, coughing, laryngospasm and loss of monitoring as the patients are rolled back to supine position at the end of surgery. The prone extubation might facilitate a smoother emergence because the patients are not disturbed during emergence and secretions are drained away from patient's airway. Materials and Methods: The patients were randomly allocated to one of the two groups of 30 each at conclusion of surgery. First group was extubated in prone position and second in supine position at conclusion of surgery. Supine group patients were rolled back and prone group patients were left undisturbed. Extubation was done after complete reversal of neuromuscular block. Heart rates (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP) were noted at various points of time. Coughing, laryngospasm, vomiting, monitor disconnection if any were also noted. Results: During emergence from anesthesia heart rate was significantly more in group S than group P at all intervals (P < 0.001). Mean arterial pressure was significantly higher in the supine group at 2, 3, and 4 min compared to prone group (P = 0.003). Compared to supine patients, prone patients had fewer incidences of coughing (P = 0. 0004), laryngospasm, vomiting and monitor disconnection. Conclusion: In healthy normotensive patients, emergence from anesthesia in the prone position is associated with minimal hemodynamic change, and fewer incidences of coughing, laryngospasm, and monitor disconnections.

Channabasappa, Shivakumar M.; Shankarnarayana, P

2013-01-01

292

Random errors in egocentric networks  

PubMed Central

The systematic errors that are induced by a combination of human memory limitations and common survey design and implementation have long been studied in the context of egocentric networks. Despite this, little if any work exists in the area of random error analysis on these same networks; this paper offers a perspective on the effects of random errors on egonet analysis, as well as the effects of using egonet measures as independent predictors in linear models. We explore the effects of false-positive and false-negative error in egocentric networks on both standard network measures and on linear models through simulation analysis on a ground truth egocentric network sample based on facebook-friendships. Results show that 5–20% error rates, which are consistent with error rates known to occur in ego network data, can cause serious misestimation of network properties and regression parameters. PMID:23878412

Almquist, Zack W.

2013-01-01

293

Comparative Study of Hemodynamics Electrolyte and Metabolic Changes During Prone and Complete Supine Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy  

PubMed Central

Background Nowadays Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy (PCNL) is performed in prone and supine positions. Physiologic solutions should be used to irrigate during PCNL. Irrigation can cause hemodynamic, electrolyte and acid-base changes during PCNL. Objectives The current study aimed to compare the electrolyte, hemodynamic and metabolic changes of prone and complete supine PCNL. Patients and Methods It was a randomized clinical trial study on 40 ASA class I and II patients. Twenty of patients underwent prone PCNL (Group A) and the other twenty underwent complete supine PCNL (Group B). The two groups received the same premedication and induction of anesthesia. Blood pressure (systolic, diastolic and mean) and pulse rate were recorded before, during and after anesthesia and Hb, Hct, BUN, Cr, Na, and K were also measured before and after operation in the two groups. The volume of irrigation fluid, total effluent fluid (the fluid in the bucket and the gazes) and volume of absorbed fluid were measured. Results There were no significant differences in Na, K, BUN, Cr, Hb and Hct between the two groups. Absorption volume was significantly different between the two groups (335 ± 121.28 mL in group A and 159.45 ± 73.81 mL in group B, respectively) (P = 0.0001). The mean anesthesia time was significantly different between the two groups (P = 0.012). There was a significant difference in bleeding volume between supine and prone PCNL (270.4 ± 229.14 in group A and 594.2 ± 290 in group B, respectively) (P = 0.0001). Mean systolic blood pressure during operation and recovery was 120.2 ± 10.9 and 140.7 ± 25.1 in group B, and 113.4 ± 6.4 and 126.2 ± 12.7 in group A, respectively. Systolic blood pressure between the two groups during operation and recovery was significantly different (P = 0.027 and P = 0.022, respectively). Mean diastolic blood pressure in supine group during operation and recovery was 80.53 ± 7.57 and 95.75 ± 17.48, and 73.95 ± 3.94 and 83.4 ± 12.54 in prone group, respectively. Diastolic blood pressure was significantly different between the two groups. It was 80.55 ± 7.57 and 95.75 ± 17.48, respectively during operation and recoveryin the supine group and 73.95 ± 3.94 and 83.4 ± 12.54 in the prone group, respectively (P = 0.001 and P = 0.014, respectively), but there was no significant difference between the pulse rate mean value of the two groups. Conclusions The electrolyte and metabolic changes were not significantly different between the two groups, and although fluid absorption in prone group was more than that of the complete supine group, there was no significant difference between the two groups. Considering advantages of complete supine PCNL such as less hemodynamic changes (less hypotension, less fluid absorption and less duration of operation) this kind of PCNL was recommended. PMID:23573503

Khoshrang, Hosein; Falahatkar, Siavash; Ilat, Sara; Akbar, Manzar Hossein; Shakiba, Maryam; Farzan, Alireza; Herfeh, Nadia Rastjou; Allahkhah, Aliakbar

2012-01-01

294

Medication errors in paediatric outpatients  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundMedication errors are common in many settings and have important ramifications. Although there is growing research on rates and characteristics of medication errors in adult ambulatory settings, less is known about the paediatric ambulatory setting.ObjectiveTo assess medication error rates in paediatric patients in ambulatory settings.MethodsThe authors conducted a prospective cohort study of paediatric patients in six outpatient offices in Massachusetts.

Rainu Kaushal; Donald A Goldmann; Carol A Keohane; Erika L Abramson; Seth Woolf; Catherine Yoon; Katherine Zigmont; David W Bates

2010-01-01

295

A theory of human error  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Human error, a significant contributing factor in a very high proportion of civil transport, general aviation, and rotorcraft accidents is investigated. Correction of the sources of human error requires that one attempt to reconstruct underlying and contributing causes of error from the circumstantial causes cited in official investigative reports. A validated analytical theory of the input-output behavior of human operators involving manual control, communication, supervisory, and monitoring tasks which are relevant to aviation operations is presented. This theory of behavior, both appropriate and inappropriate, provides an insightful basis for investigating, classifying, and quantifying the needed cause-effect relationships governing propagation of human error.

Mcruer, D. T.; Clement, W. F.; Allen, R. W.

1980-01-01

296

Data& Error Analysis 1 DATA and ERROR ANALYSIS  

E-print Network

Data& Error Analysis 1 DATA and ERROR ANALYSIS Performing the experiment and collecting data learned, you might get a better grade.) Data analysis should NOT be delayed until all of the data. This will help one avoid the problem of spending an entire class collecting bad data because of a mistake

Mukasyan, Alexander

297

ERROR CORRELATION AND ERROR REDUCTION IN ENSEMBLE CLASSIFIERS  

E-print Network

ERROR CORRELATION AND ERROR REDUCTION IN ENSEMBLE CLASSIFIERS Kagan Tumer and Joydeep Ghosh generalizations by realizing different decision boundaries (Ghosh and Tumer, 1994). For example, when values (Lincoln and Skrzypek, 1990; Perrone and Cooper, 1993b; Tumer and Ghosh, 1996). Weighted averaging

Tumer, Kagan

298

MUST: A Scalable Approach to Runtime Error Detection in MPI Programs  

SciTech Connect

The Message-Passing Interface (MPI) is large and complex. Therefore, programming MPI is error prone. Several MPI runtime correctness tools address classes of usage errors, such as deadlocks or nonportable constructs. To our knowledge none of these tools scales to more than about 100 processes. However, some of the current HPC systems use more than 100,000 cores and future systems are expected to use far more. Since errors often depend on the task count used, we need correctness tools that scale to the full system size. We present a novel framework for scalable MPI correctness tools to address this need. Our fine-grained, module-based approach supports rapid prototyping and allows correctness tools built upon it to adapt to different architectures and use cases. The design uses PnMPI to instantiate a tool from a set of individual modules. We present an overview of our design, along with first performance results for a proof of concept implementation.

Hilbrich, T; Schulz, M; de Supinski, B R; Muller, M

2010-03-24

299

44 CFR 60.5 - Flood plain management criteria for flood-related erosion-prone areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Flood plain management criteria for flood-related erosion-prone... 60.5 Section 60.5 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL...

2013-10-01

300

44 CFR 60.5 - Flood plain management criteria for flood-related erosion-prone areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Flood plain management criteria for flood-related erosion-prone... 60.5 Section 60.5 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL...

2011-10-01

301

44 CFR 60.4 - Flood plain management criteria for mudslide (i.e., mudflow)-prone areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program CRITERIA FOR...prone areas. The Federal Insurance Administrator will provide the data upon which flood plain management...

2013-10-01

302

Understanding Change-proneness in OO Software through Visualization James M. Bieman Anneliese A. Andrews Helen J. Yang  

E-print Network

Understanding Change-proneness in OO Software through Visualization James M. Bieman Anneliese A. Andrews Helen J. Yang Computer Science Department School of EE and CS Computer Science Department Colorado

Bieman, James M.

303

44 CFR 60.5 - Flood plain management criteria for flood-related erosion-prone areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flood plain management criteria for flood-related erosion-prone... 60.5 Section 60.5 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL...

2010-10-01

304

Decreasing scoring errors on Wechsler Scale Vocabulary, Comprehension, and Similarities subtests: a preliminary study.  

PubMed

Studies of graduate students learning to administer the Wechsler scales have generally shown that training is not associated with the development of scoring proficiency. Many studies report on the reduction of aggregated administration and scoring errors, a strategy that does not highlight the reduction of errors on subtests identified as most prone to error. This study evaluated the development of scoring proficiency specifically on the Wechsler (WISC-IV and WAIS-III) Vocabulary, Comprehension, and Similarities subtests during training by comparing a set of 'early test administrations' to 'later test administrations.' Twelve graduate students enrolled in an intelligence-testing course participated in the study. Scoring errors (e.g., incorrect point assignment) were evaluated on the students' actual practice administration test protocols. Errors on all three subtests declined significantly when scoring errors on 'early' sets of Wechsler scales were compared to those made on 'later' sets. However, correcting these subtest scoring errors did not cause significant changes in subtest scaled scores. Implications for clinical instruction and future research are discussed. PMID:18175510

Linger, Michele L; Ray, Glen E; Zachar, Peter; Underhill, Andrea T; LoBello, Steven G

2007-10-01

305

Real-time PCR in microfluidic devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A central method in a standard biochemical laboratory is represented by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), therefore many attempts have been performed so far to implement this technique in lab-on-a-chip (LOC) devices. PCR is an ideal candidate for miniaturization because of a reduction of assay time and decreased costs for expensive bio-chemicals. In case of the "classical" PCR, detection is done by identification of DNA fragments electrophoretically separated in agarose gels. This method is meanwhile frequently replaced by the so-called Real-Time-PCR because here the exponential increase of amplificates can be observed directly by measurement of DNA interacting fluorescent dyes. Two main methods for on-chip PCRs are available: traditional "batch" PCR in chambers on a chip using thermal cycling, requiring about 30 minutes for a typical PCR protocol and continuous-flow PCR, where the liquid is guided over stationary temperature zones. In the latter case, the PCR protocol can be as fast as 5 minutes. In the presented work, a proof of concept is demonstrated for a real-time-detection of PCR products in microfluidic systems.

Becker, Holger; Hlawatsch, Nadine; Klemm, Richard; Moche, Christian; Hansen-Hagge, Thomas; Gärtner, Claudia

2014-03-01

306

Quantum error correction for continuously detected errors with any number of error channels per qubit  

E-print Network

It was shown by Ahn, Wiseman, and Milburn [PRA {\\bf 67}, 052310 (2003)] that feedback control could be used as a quantum error correction process for errors induced by weak continuous measurement, given one perfectly measured error channel per qubit. Here we point out that this method can be easily extended to an arbitrary number of error channels per qubit. We show that the feedback protocols generated by our method encode $n-2$ logical qubits in $n$ physical qubits, thus requiring just one more physical qubit than in the previous case.

Charlene Ahn; H. M. Wiseman; Kurt Jacobs

2004-02-10

307

An alteration in the host-parasite relationship in subjects with chronic bronchitis prone to recurrent episodes of acute bronchitis.  

PubMed

Acute episodes of bronchitis have been shown to be unequally distributed within a population of subjects with chronic bronchitis. Two groups were identified based on incidence of acute bronchitis--subjects who were 'infection-prone' (2-5 infections per year) and those who were 'non-infection-prone' (0-1 infections per year). Minor differences in clinical parameters existed, except for smoking experience. The non-infection-prone group included more current smokers, and the total smoking experience (in 'pack years') was significantly greater in this group. Between-year analysis demonstrated a stability of classification, established after a minimum of two years' prospective observation. Parameters of the host-parasite relationship were assessed in both groups. A significantly greater polybacterial colonization of the oropharynx was observed for chronic bronchitics, both infection-prone (P < 0.0001) and non-infection-prone (P < 0.001), compared with control subjects. Infection-prone chronic bronchitics had significantly greater total bacteria cultured from the oropharynx compared to the non-infection-prone group (P < 0.05); adherence of indigenous microflora to buccal epithelial cells, in particular Gram-positive cocci (P < 0.01) and in vitro adherence of non-serotypable Haemophilus influenzae to buccal cells (P < 0.05) compared with the control and non-infection-prone groups. These studies suggest that an important variation in subjects with chronic bronchitis is the binding capacity of epithelial cells for bacteria, which when increased enhances susceptibility to colonization and clinical infection. PMID:8200689

Taylor, D C; Clancy, R L; Cripps, A W; Butt, H; Bartlett, L; Murree-Allen, K

1994-04-01

308

Unilateral visual loss after spine surgery in the prone position for extradural haematoma in a healthy young man.  

PubMed

This case reports a patient who developed central retinal artery occlusion following spinal surgery in the prone position. When placed in this position, especially as a result of malposition of the head, the patient may develop external compression of the eye which leads to central retinal artery occlusion. Therefore, a special precaution must be given for adequate eye protection during prolonged prone-positioned spine surgery. PMID:24334521

Ooi, Edwin Inn Loon; Ahem, Amin; Zahidin, Aida Zairani; Bastion, Mae-Lynn Catherine

2013-01-01

309

Prevent medication errors on admission  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to quantify prescribing errors relating to pre-admission medication in patients admitted to hospital. It also assesses the impact of a hospital pharmacist in identifying and correcting these errors. Standard prescription monitoring by the pharmacist took place on admission in phase 1 (526 patients). This was compared with an extension of the pharmacist’s role in

Karen Dutton; Neil Hedger; Simon Wills; Pauline Davies

2003-01-01

310

Christopher Monckton Gore's 10 Errors  

E-print Network

by Christopher Monckton Gore's 10 Errors Old and New Scientific mistakes and exaggerations in an interview in India Today, 17 March 2008 #12;2 It is wrong always, everywhere, and for anyone, to believe anything upon insufficient evidence. W. K. Clifford #12;3 Gore's 10 errors old and new Scientific mistakes

311

Eliminating US hospital medical errors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Healthcare costs in the USA have continued to rise steadily since the 1980s. Medical errors are one of the major causes of deaths and injuries of thousands of patients every year, contributing to soaring healthcare costs. The purpose of this study is to examine what has been done to deal with the medical-error problem in the last two

Sameer Kumar; Marc Steinebach

2008-01-01

312

Error concealment by data partitioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an error concealment strategy for improving the quality of compressed video data when transmitted over noisy communication channels. Data partitioning is used to enable the recovery of motion information when the compressed bit stream is corrupted by channel errors. At low bit-rates the motion data is a significant part of the entire video stream and its recovery

Raj Talluri; Iole Moccagatta; Yashoda Nag; Gene Cheung

1999-01-01

313

Determination of PCR efficiency in chelex-100 purified clinical samples and comparison of real-time quantitative PCR and conventional PCR for detection of Chlamydia pneumoniae  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Chlamydia pneumoniae infection has been detected by serological methods, but PCR is gaining more interest. A number of different PCR assays have been developed and some are used in combination with serology for diagnosis. Real-time PCR could be an attractive new PCR method; therefore it must be evaluated and compared to conventional PCR methods. RESULTS: We compared the performance

Tina Mygind; Svend Birkelund; Niels H Birkebæk; Lars Østergaard; Jørgen Skov Jensen; Gunna Christiansen

2002-01-01

314

Prenatal diagnosis of fetal aneuploidies using QF-PCR: the egyptian study  

PubMed Central

Background The most common chromosomal abnormalities identified at birth are aneuploidies of chromosome 21, 18, 13, X and Y. Prenatal diagnosis of fetal aneuploidies is routinely done by traditional cytogenetic culture; a major drawback of this technique is the long period of time required to reach a diagnosis. In this study we evaluated the QF-PCR as a rapid technique for prenatal diagnosis of common aneuploidies. Method This work was carried out on Sixty amniotic fluid samples taken from patients with one or more of the following indications: advanced maternal age (3 case), abnormal biochemical markers (6 cases), abnormal ultrasound (12 cases) or previous history of abnormal child (39 cases). Each sample was tested by QF-PCR and traditional cytogenetic. Aneuploidy screenings were performed amplifying four STRs on chromosomes 21, 18, 13, two pseudoautosomal, one X linked, as well as the AMXY and SRY. Markers were distributed in two multiplex QFPCR assays (S1 and S2) in order to reduce the risk of sample mishandling. Results All the QF-PCR results were successful, while there were two culture failures, only one of them was repeated. No discrepancy was seen between the results of both techniques. Fifty six samples showed normal patterns, three samples showed trisomy 21, successfully detected by both techniques and one sample showed normal pattern by QF-PCR but could not be compared to the cytogenetic due to culture failure, the pregnancy outcome of this case was a normal baby. Conclusion Our study concluded that QF-PCR is a reliable technique for prenatal diagnosis of the common chromosomal aneuploidies. It has the advantages over the cytogenetic culture of being faster with the results appearing within 24–48 hours, simpler, doesn’t need a highly qualified staff, less prone to failure and more cost effective. PMID:22905299

Atef, Shereen H.; Hafez, Sawsan S.; Mahmoud, Nermein H.; Helmy, Sanaa M.

2011-01-01

315

Reducing latent errors, drift errors, and stakeholder dissonance.  

PubMed

Healthcare information technology (HIT) is being offered as a transformer of modern healthcare delivery systems. Some believe that it has the potential to improve patient safety, increase the effectiveness of healthcare delivery, and generate significant cost savings. In other industrial sectors, information technology has dramatically influenced quality and profitability - sometimes for the better and sometimes not. Quality improvement efforts in healthcare delivery have not yet produced the dramatic results obtained in other industrial sectors. This may be that previously successful quality improvement experts do not possess the requisite domain knowledge (clinical experience and expertise). It also appears related to a continuing misconception regarding the origins and meaning of work errors in healthcare delivery. The focus here is on system use errors rather than individual user errors. System use errors originate in both the development and the deployment of technology. Not recognizing stakeholders and their conflicting needs, wants, and desires (NWDs) may lead to stakeholder dissonance. Mistakes translating stakeholder NWDs into development or deployment requirements may lead to latent errors. Mistakes translating requirements into specifications may lead to drift errors. At the sharp end, workers encounter system use errors or, recognizing the risk, expend extensive and unanticipated resources to avoid them. PMID:22317001

Samaras, George M

2012-01-01

316

Noninvasive high-frequency percussive ventilation in the prone position after lung transplantation.  

PubMed

Noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation (NIV), which represents a consolidated treatment of both acute and chronic respiratory failure, is increasingly being used to maintain spontaneous ventilation in lung transplant patients with impending pulmonary complications. Adding a noninvasive inspiratory support plus positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) has proven to be useful in preventing endotracheal mechanical ventilation, airway injury, and infections. Lung recipients with closure of the small airways in the dependent regions may also benefit from the prone position, which is helpful to promote recruitment of nonaerated alveoli and faster healing of consolidated atelectatic areas. In patients with localized or diffuse lung infiltrates, high-frequency percussive ventilation (HFPV), by either an invasive airway or a facial mask, has been adopted as an alternative ventilatory mode to enhance airway opening, limit potential respirator-associated lung injury, and improve mucus clearance. In nonintubated lung recipients at risk for volubarotrauma with conventional mechanical ventilation, it allows oxygen diffusion into the distal airways at lower mean airway pressures while avoiding repetitive cyclical opening and closing of the terminal airways. We summarize the clinical course of 3 patients with post-lung transplantation respiratory complications who were noninvasively ventilated with HFPV in the prone position. Major advantages of this treatment included gradual improvement of spontaneous clearance of bronchial secretions, significant attenuation of graft infiltrates and consolidations, a reduction in the number of bronchoscopies required, a decrease in spontaneous respiratory rate and work of breathing, and a significant improvement in gas exchange. The patients found HFPV with either standard facial mask or total mask interface to be comfortable or only mildly uncomfortable, and after the sessions they felt more restored. HFPV by facial mask in the prone position may be an interesting and attractive alternative to standard NIV, one that is more useful when implemented before full-blown respiratory failure is established. PMID:22974896

Feltracco, P; Serra, E; Barbieri, S; Milevoj, M; Michieletto, E; Carollo, C; Rea, F; Zanus, G; Boetto, R; Ori, C

2012-09-01

317

Errors as allies: error management training in health professions education.  

PubMed

This paper adopts methods from the organisational team training literature to outline how health professions education can improve patient safety. We argue that health educators can improve training quality by intentionally encouraging errors during simulation-based team training. Preventable medical errors are inevitable, but encouraging errors in low-risk settings like simulation can allow teams to have better emotional control and foresight to manage the situation if it occurs again with live patients. Our paper outlines an innovative approach for delivering team training. PMID:23293120

King, Aimee; Holder, Michael G; Ahmed, Rami A

2013-06-01

318

Anesthesia management of a morbidly obese patient in prone position for lumbar spine surgery  

PubMed Central

A morbidly obese, 45-year-old woman with a body mass index of 47 kg/m2 , presented with a prolapsed intervertebral disc of the lumbar spine for decompression and fixation. Anesthesia and surgical positioning of morbidly obese patient carries 3 main hazards, namely, morbid obesity, prone position, and airway preservation problems. Morbid obesity has its own hazards of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolus. Here we describe anesthetic management, successfully dealing with the specific problems of this patient due to obesity. PMID:20890416

Baxi, Vaibhavi; Budhakar, Shashank

2010-01-01

319

Short-term absence from industry: III The inference of `proneness' and a search for causes  

PubMed Central

Froggatt, P. (1970).Brit. J. industr. Med.,27, 297-312. Short-term absence from industry. III. The inference of `proneness' and a search for causes. The abilities of five hypotheses (`chance', `proneness', and three of `true contagion' - as defined in the text) to explain the distributions of one-day and two-day absences among groups of male and female industrial personnel and clerks in government service are examined by curve-fitting and correlation methods. The five hypotheses generate (in order) the Poisson, negative binomial, Neyman type A, Short, and Hermite (two-parameter form) distributions which are fitted to the data using maximum-likelihood estimates. The conclusion is drawn that `proneness', i.e., a stable `liability', compounded from several though unquantifiable factors, and constant for each individual over the period of the study, is markedly successful in explaining the data. It is emphasized that some of the other hypotheses under test cannot be unequivocably rejected; and there is in theory an infinite number, still unformulated or untested, which may be acceptable or even fit the data better. Correlation coefficients for the numbers of one-day (and two-day) absences taken by the same individuals in two equal non-overlapping periods of time are of the order 0·5 to 0·7 (0·3 to 0·5 for two-day absences) and the corresponding regressions fulfil linear requirements. These correlations are higher than any between `personal characteristics' and their overt consequence in contingent fields of human enquiry. For one-day absences the predictive power for the future from the past record could in some circumstances justify executive action. When freely available, overtime was greatest among junior married men and least among junior married women. The validity of the inference of `proneness' and the implications of its acceptance are fully discussed. While interpretation is not unequivocal, one-day absences seemingly have many causes; two-day absences are also heterogeneous but in some ways resemble longer certified absence. It is concluded that short-term absence, particularly of one day, may be largely the overt expression of a traditional desire, even need, to work discontinuously which, though it can be mitigated by often identifiable general and individual circumstances, is consistently more marked in some individuals than in others. PMID:5488689

Froggatt, P.

1970-01-01

320

Statistical mechanics of error exponents for error-correcting codes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Error exponents characterize the exponential decay, when increasing message length, of the probability of error of many error-correcting codes. To tackle the long-standing problem of computing them exactly, we introduce a general, thermodynamic, formalism that we illustrate with maximum-likelihood decoding of low-density parity-check codes on the binary erasure channel and the binary symmetric channel. In this formalism, we apply the cavity method for large deviations to derive expressions for both the average and typical error exponents, which differ by the procedure used to select the codes from specified ensembles. When decreasing the noise intensity, we find that two phase transitions take place, at two different levels: a glass to ferromagnetic transition in the space of codewords and a paramagnetic to glass transition in the space of codes.

Mora, Thierry; Rivoire, Olivier

2006-11-01

321

Quantum rms error and Heisenberg's error-disturbance relation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reports on experiments recently performed in Vienna [Erhard et al, Nature Phys. 8, 185 (2012)] and Toronto [Rozema et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 100404 (2012)] include claims of a violation of Heisenberg's error-disturbance relation. In contrast, a Heisenberg-type tradeoff relation for joint measurements of position and momentum has been formulated and proven in [Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 160405 (2013)]. Here I show how the apparent conflict is resolved by a careful consideration of the quantum generalization of the notion of root-mean-square error. The claim of a violation of Heisenberg's principle is untenable as it is based on a historically wrong attribution of an incorrect relation to Heisenberg, which is in fact trivially violated. We review a new general trade-off relation for the necessary errors in approximate joint measurements of incompatible qubit observables that is in the spirit of Heisenberg's intuitions. The experiments mentioned may directly be used to test this new error inequality.

Busch, Paul

2014-09-01

322

[Medication errors: who is responsible?].  

PubMed

New diagnostic and therapeutic technologies are used with growing frequency, improving the quality of medical assistance and increasing life expectancy. Health care, however, is becoming progressively more expensive and complex. Adverse events related to medical assistance, particularly errors, are becoming public, being debated and judged in courts. Given their training, health workers are not prepared to deal with errors, which are associated with shame, fear and punishment. The approach to errors in the health system is usually individualistic, considering such events as acts of insecurity performed by careless, non-motivated and ill-trained persons. The tendency is to hide errors when they occur, with the result that an important learning opportunity is lost. There is another way to deal with errors, a systemic view that has obtained positive results in sectors such as aviation, anesthesiology and unit-dose drug distribution systems. These systems have varied degrees of safety and should take into account human limitations when designed and applied. A change in paradigm is needed when dealing with drugs, as it is not enough for a drug to have quality assurance, but the complete process of drug use should be safe. Medication errors, avoidable by definition, are at present a serious public health issue, leading to loss of lives and significant financial losses. A systemic approach to medication errors may disclose failures in the process as a whole, and improvements can be implemented to reduce their occurrence. PMID:14666362

Rosa, Mário Borges; Perini, Edson

2003-01-01

323

Testing for Genetically Modified Foods Using PCR  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a Nobel Prize-winning technique that amplifies a specific segment of DNA and is commonly used to test for the presence of genetic modifications. Students use PCR to test corn meal and corn-muffin mixes for the presence of a promoter commonly used in genetically modified foods, the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S…

Taylor, Ann; Sajan, Samin

2005-01-01

324

PCR and recombinant DNA Cristiano V. Bizarro  

E-print Network

PCR and recombinant DNA techniques Cristiano V. Bizarro Joan Camuñas Felix Ritort Group Small enzymes) PCR DNA Electrophoresis Recombinant DNA technology Applications in single-molecule biophysics:Chloroform extraction Ethanol precipitationIsolated plasmid 4. 5. 6. #12;Recombinant DNA technology Source:Color Atlas

Ritort, Felix

325

Error compensation for thermally induced errors on a machine tool  

SciTech Connect

Heat flow from internal and external sources and the environment create machine deformations, resulting in positioning errors between the tool and workpiece. There is no industrially accepted method for thermal error compensation. A simple model has been selected that linearly relates discrete temperature measurements to the deflection. The biggest problem is how to locate the temperature sensors and to determine the number of required temperature sensors. This research develops a method to determine the number and location of temperature measurements.

Krulewich, D.A.

1996-11-08

326

Errors, error detection, error correction and hippocampal-region damage: data and theories.  

PubMed

This review and perspective article outlines 15 observational constraints on theories of errors, error detection, and error correction, and their relation to hippocampal-region (HR) damage. The core observations come from 10 studies with H.M., an amnesic with cerebellar and HR damage but virtually no neocortical damage. Three studies examined the detection of errors planted in visual scenes (e.g., a bird flying in a fish bowl in a school classroom) and sentences (e.g., I helped themselves to the birthday cake). In all three experiments, H.M. detected reliably fewer errors than carefully matched memory-normal controls. Other studies examined the detection and correction of self-produced errors, with controls for comprehension of the instructions, impaired visual acuity, temporal factors, motoric slowing, forgetting, excessive memory load, lack of motivation, and deficits in visual scanning or attention. In these studies, H.M. corrected reliably fewer errors than memory-normal and cerebellar controls, and his uncorrected errors in speech, object naming, and reading aloud exhibited two consistent features: omission and anomaly. For example, in sentence production tasks, H.M. omitted one or more words in uncorrected encoding errors that rendered his sentences anomalous (incoherent, incomplete, or ungrammatical) reliably more often than controls. Besides explaining these core findings, the theoretical principles discussed here explain H.M.'s retrograde amnesia for once familiar episodic and semantic information; his anterograde amnesia for novel information; his deficits in visual cognition, sentence comprehension, sentence production, sentence reading, and object naming; and effects of aging on his ability to read isolated low frequency words aloud. These theoretical principles also explain a wide range of other data on error detection and correction and generate new predictions for future test. PMID:23999403

MacKay, Donald G; Johnson, Laura W

2013-11-01

327

Synthetic aperture interferometry: error analysis.  

PubMed

Synthetic aperture interferometry (SAI) is a novel way of testing aspherics and has a potential for in-process measurement of aspherics [Appl. Opt. 42, 701 (2003)]. A method to measure steep aspherics using the SAI technique has been previously reported [Appl. Opt. 47, 1705 (2008)]. Here we investigate the computation of surface form using the SAI technique in different configurations and discuss the computational errors. A two-pass measurement strategy is proposed to reduce the computational errors, and a detailed investigation is carried out to determine the effect of alignment errors on the measurement process. PMID:20648161

Biswas, Amiya; Coupland, Jeremy

2010-07-10

328

Stochastic Models of Human Errors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Humans play an important role in the overall reliability of engineering systems. More often accidents and systems failure are traced to human errors. Therefore, in order to have meaningful system risk analysis, the reliability of the human element must be taken into consideration. Describing the human error process by mathematical models is a key to analyzing contributing factors. Therefore, the objective of this research effort is to establish stochastic models substantiated by sound theoretic foundation to address the occurrence of human errors in the processing of the space shuttle.

Elshamy, Maged; Elliott, Dawn M. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

329

Genetic analysis with nanoPCR.  

PubMed

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has become a standard and important molecular biological technique with numerous applications in genetic analysis, forensics and in vitro diagnostics. Since its invention in the 1980s, there has been dramatic performance improvement arising from long-lasting efforts to optimize amplification conditions in both academic studies and commercial applications. More recently, a range of nanometer-sized materials including metal nanoparticles, semiconductor quantum dots, carbon nanomaterials and polymer nanoparticles, have shown unique effects in tuning amplification processes of PCR. It is proposed that these artificial nanomaterials mimic protein components in the natural DNA replication machinery in vivo. These so-called nanomaterials-assisted PCR (nanoPCR) strategies shed new light on powerful PCR with unprecedented sensitivity, selectivity and extension rate. In this review, we aim to summarize recent progress in this direction and discuss possible mechanisms for such performance improvement and potential applications in genetic analysis (particularly gene typing and haplotyping) and diagnostics. PMID:22907590

Pan, Dun; Mi, Lijuan; Huang, Qing; Hu, Jun; Fan, Chunhai

2012-10-01

330

The Effects of Ovariectomy on Binge Eating Proneness in Adult Female Rats  

PubMed Central

Ovarian hormones are associated with binge eating in women, however findings are limited by the lack of experimental control inherent in human studies. Animal research that manipulates ovarian hormone status and examines individual differences in extreme binge eating proneness are needed to model clinical phenotypes in humans and to confirm causal effects. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of adult ovariectomy on overall binge eating risk and extreme binge eating phenotypes using the binge eating resistant (BER)/ binge eating prone (BEP) rat model. We predicted that palatable food consumption would significantly increase after ovariectomy in all rats because ovarian hormones generally suppress food intake. If differences in responsiveness to ovarian hormones underlie BER/BEP phenotypes, then differences in binge eating between BER and BEP rats would be eliminated or diminished after ovariectomy. Changes in palatable food (PF) intake were compared in BER and BEP rats before and after ovariectomy in two samples of adult females. Findings were highly similar in the two samples. PF intake increased significantly following ovariectomy in all rats. However, BEP rats consistently consumed larger amounts of PF than BER rats, both before and after ovariectomy. The consistency of findings across two samples of rats provides strong support for activational effects of ovarian hormones on binge eating. However, the immunity of extreme binge eating phenotypes to ovarian hormone ablation suggests that other, earlier mechanisms (e.g., organizational hormone effects or hormone-independent effects) determine the expression of binge eating phenotypes. PMID:21376721

Klump, Kelly L.; Suisman, Jessica L.; Culbert, Kristen M.; Kashy, Deborah A.; Keel, Pamela K.; Sisk, Cheryl L.

2011-01-01

331

Detection of individuals prone to develop hypertension in their future life.  

PubMed

Hypertension is a global burning health problem. Early detection of proneness to hypertension may help an individual to lead a healthy life by altering the life style (by diet restriction, exercise etc.). Subjects at high risk of future hypertension e.g. the persons of hypertensive family and/or having high resting heart rate etc. show blood pressure hyper-responsiveness to stress. Elevated blood pressure due to sympathetic stimulation prevailed longer time in susceptible persons. In the present study sympathetic stimulation exerted through cold pressor test (hand immersion up to the wrist in 4 degrees C water) resulted in elevation of blood pressure and heart rate in all young male normotensive individuals (age 18-35 years, n=72). Nevertheless, blood pressure and heart rate returned to baseline, following 5 minutes of withdrawal of the stressor, in case of volunteers from normotensive families. On the other hand, the subjects whose parents, either or both were reported to be hypertensive showed elevated diastolic blood pressure even after 5 minutes of withdrawal of the said stressor- indicating that the autonomic nervous system in them was not competent enough for lowering the diastolic pressure quickly to baseline as observed in the volunteers from the normotensive families. The present study revealed that the young subjects who showed greater and prolonged responsiveness to diastolic blood pressure due to sympathetic stimulation through cold pressor test are prone to develop hypertension in future. PMID:18700629

Pramanik, T; Regmi, P; Shrestha, P

2008-03-01

332

Use of thermal inertia determined by HCMM to predict nocturnal cold prone areas in Florida  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pairs of HCMM day-night thermal infrared (IR) data were selected during the 1978-79 winter to examine patterns of surface temperature and thermal inertia (TI) of peninsular Florida. The GOES and NOAA-6 thermal IR, as well as National Climatic Center temperatures and rainfall, were also used. The HCMM apparent thermal inertia (ATI) images closely corresponded to the general soil map of Florida, based on soil drainage classes. Areas with low ATI overlay well-drained soils, such as deep sands and drained organic soils, whereas with high ATI overlay areas with wetlands and bodies of water. The HCMM ATI images also corresponded well with GOES-detected winter nocturnal cold-prone areas. Use of HCMM data with Carlson's energy balance model showed both high moisture availability (MA) and high thermal inertia (TI) of wetland-type surfaces and low MA and low TI of upland, well-drained soils. Since soil areas with low TI develop higher temperatures during the day, then antecedent patterns of highest maximum daytime surface temperature can also be used to predict nocturnal cold-prone areas in Florida.

Allen, L. H., Jr. (principal investigator)

1983-01-01

333

Irradiation of true pelvis for bladder and prostatic carcinoma in supine, prone or Trendelenburg position  

SciTech Connect

Small bowel transit was performed in 50 patients with bladder or prostatic carcinoma. The patients were all examined in supine and prone positions; some were also studied in 25 degrees Trendelenburg position and 25 degree inclined procubitus to investigate the effect of the various positions on the dispacement of the small bowel loops out of the true pelvis. The prone position proved to be superior to the supine position in 78% of patients. A mean displacement of 0.9 cm was displacement of 1.9 and 2.0 cm, respectively. The patients' height, weight, maximal abdominal circumference and Queetelet's index were analyzed with regard to the shifts of bowel loops under the various conditions. Only weight and Quetelet's index were correlated with the shifts in the Trendelenburg and inclined procubitus positions. The shifts were generally larger in case of heavier patients. It was concluded that pelvic irradiation should preferably be done in the Trendelenburg or inclined procubitus position, especially in case of obesity.

Caspers, R.J.L.; Hop, W.C.J.

1983-04-01

334

A 1-D mechanistic model for the evolution of earthflow-prone hillslopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In mountainous terrain, deep-seated landslides transport large volumes of material on hillslopes, exerting a dominant control on erosion rates and landscape form. Here, we develop a mathematical landscape evolution model to explore interactions between deep-seated earthflows, soil creep, and gully processes at the drainage basin scale over geomorphically relevant (>103 year) timescales. In the model, sediment flux or incision laws for these three geomorphic processes combine to determine the morphology of actively uplifting and eroding steady state topographic profiles. We apply the model to three sites, one in the Gabilan Mesa, California, with no earthflow activity, and two along the Eel River, California, with different lithologies and varying levels of historic earthflow activity. Representative topographic profiles from these sites are consistent with model predictions in which the magnitude of a dimensionless earthflow number, based on a non-Newtonian flow rheology, reflects the magnitude of recent earthflow activity on the different hillslopes. The model accurately predicts the behavior of earthflow collection and transport zones observed in the field and estimates long-term average sediment fluxes that are due to earthflows, in agreement with historical rates at our field sites. Finally, our model predicts that steady state hillslope relief in earthflow-prone terrain increases nonlinearly with the tectonic uplift rate, suggesting that the mean hillslope angle may record uplift rate in earthflow-prone landscapes even at high uplift rates, where threshold slope processes normally limit further topographic development.

Booth, Adam M.; Roering, Josh J.

2011-12-01

335

Safe Sedation and Hypnosis using Dexmedetomidine for Minimally Invasive Spine Surgery in a Prone Position.  

PubMed

Dexmedetomidine, an imidazoline compound, is a highly selective ?2-adrenoceptor agonist with sympatholytic, sedative, amnestic, and analgesic properties. In order to minimize the patients' pain and anxiety during minimally invasive spine surgery (MISS) when compared to conventional surgery under general anesthesia, an adequate conscious sedation (CS) or monitored anesthetic care (MAC) should be provided. Commonly used intravenous sedatives and hypnotics, such as midazolam and propofol, are not suitable for operations in a prone position due to undesired respiratory depression. Dexmedetomidine converges on an endogenous non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep-promoting pathway to exert its sedative effects. The great merit of dexmedetomidine for CS or MAC is the ability of the operator to recognize nerve damage during percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy, a representative MISS. However, there are 2 shortcomings for dexmedetomidine in MISS: hypotension/bradycardia and delayed emergence. Its hypotension/bradycardiac effects can be prevented by ketamine intraoperatively. Using atipamezole (an ?2-adrenoceptor antagonist) might allow doctors to control the rate of recovery from procedural sedation in the future. MAC, with other analgesics such as ketorolac and opioids, creates ideal conditions for MISS. In conclusion, dexmedetomidine provides a favorable surgical condition in patients receiving MISS in a prone position due to its unique properties of conscious sedation followed by unconscious hypnosis with analgesia. However, no respiratory depression occurs based on the dexmedetomidine-related endogenous sleep pathways involves the inhibition of the locus coeruleus in the pons, which facilitates VLPO firing in the anterior hypothalamus. PMID:25317279

Kim, Kyung Hoon

2014-10-01

336

A Consensus Method for the Prediction of ‘Aggregation-Prone’ Peptides in Globular Proteins  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this work was to construct a consensus prediction algorithm of ‘aggregation-prone’ peptides in globular proteins, combining existing tools. This allows comparison of the different algorithms and the production of more objective and accurate results. Eleven (11) individual methods are combined and produce AMYLPRED2, a publicly, freely available web tool to academic users (http://biophysics.biol.uoa.gr/AMYLPRED2), for the consensus prediction of amyloidogenic determinants/‘aggregation-prone’ peptides in proteins, from sequence alone. The performance of AMYLPRED2 indicates that it functions better than individual aggregation-prediction algorithms, as perhaps expected. AMYLPRED2 is a useful tool for identifying amyloid-forming regions in proteins that are associated with several conformational diseases, called amyloidoses, such as Altzheimer's, Parkinson's, prion diseases and type II diabetes. It may also be useful for understanding the properties of protein folding and misfolding and for helping to the control of protein aggregation/solubility in biotechnology (recombinant proteins forming bacterial inclusion bodies) and biotherapeutics (monoclonal antibodies and biopharmaceutical proteins). PMID:23326595

Tsolis, Antonios C.; Papandreou, Nikos C.; Iconomidou, Vassiliki A.; Hamodrakas, Stavros J.

2013-01-01

337

Genome-Wide Profiling of Yeast DNA:RNA Hybrid Prone Sites with DRIP-Chip  

PubMed Central

DNA:RNA hybrid formation is emerging as a significant cause of genome instability in biological systems ranging from bacteria to mammals. Here we describe the genome-wide distribution of DNA:RNA hybrid prone loci in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by DNA:RNA immunoprecipitation (DRIP) followed by hybridization on tiling microarray. These profiles show that DNA:RNA hybrids preferentially accumulated at rDNA, Ty1 and Ty2 transposons, telomeric repeat regions and a subset of open reading frames (ORFs). The latter are generally highly transcribed and have high GC content. Interestingly, significant DNA:RNA hybrid enrichment was also detected at genes associated with antisense transcripts. The expression of antisense-associated genes was also significantly altered upon overexpression of RNase H, which degrades the RNA in hybrids. Finally, we uncover mutant-specific differences in the DRIP profiles of a Sen1 helicase mutant, RNase H deletion mutant and Hpr1 THO complex mutant compared to wild type, suggesting different roles for these proteins in DNA:RNA hybrid biology. Our profiles of DNA:RNA hybrid prone loci provide a resource for understanding the properties of hybrid-forming regions in vivo, extend our knowledge of hybrid-mitigating enzymes, and contribute to models of antisense-mediated gene regulation. A summary of this paper was presented at the 26th International Conference on Yeast Genetics and Molecular Biology, August 2013. PMID:24743342

Lu, Phoebe Y. T.; Luo, Zongli; Hamza, Akil; Kobor, Michael S.; Stirling, Peter C.; Hieter, Philip

2014-01-01

338

Acute Exacerbations of Asthma: Epidemiology, Biology and the Exacerbation-Prone Phenotype  

PubMed Central

Asthma is a highly prevalent chronic respiratory disease affecting 300 million people worldwide. A significant fraction of the cost and morbidity of asthma derives from acute care for asthma exacerbations. In the United States alone, there are approximately 15.0 million outpatient visits, 2 million emergency room visits, and 500,000 hospitalizations each year for management of acute asthma. Common respiratory viruses, especially rhinoviruses, cause the majority of exacerbations in children and adults. Infection of airway epithelial cells with rhinovirus causes the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, as well as recruitment of inflammatory cells, particularly neutrophils, lymphocytes, and eosinophils. The host response to viral infection is likely to influence susceptibility to asthma exacerbation. Having had at least one exacerbation is an important risk factor for recurrent exacerbations suggesting an “exacerbation-prone” subset of asthmatics. Factors underlying for the “exacerbation-prone” phenotype are incompletely understood but include extrinsic factors: cigarette smoking, medication noncompliance, psychosocial factors, and co-morbidities such as gastroesophageal reflux disease, rhinosinusitis, obesity, and intolerance to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medications; as well as intrinsic factors such as deficient epithelial cell production of the anti-viral type I interferons (IFN-? and IFN-?). A better understanding of the biologic mechanisms of host susceptibility to recurrent exacerbations will be important for developing more effective preventions and treatments aimed at reducing the significant cost and morbidity associated with this important global health problem. PMID:19187331

Dougherty, RH; Fahy, John V

2009-01-01

339

Tolerability and cosmetic acceptability of a body wash in atopic dermatitis-prone subjects.  

PubMed

Atopic dermatitis is a common skin disease characterized by eczematous eruptions and impaired skin barrier function. Patients, as well as their families, frequently report reductions in quality of life. Pruritus, lack of sleep, and impaired social functioning all contribute to this reduction. A skincare regimen of gentle cleansing and daily moisturization is integral to managing atopic dermatitis. While there are a multitude of reports supporting the use of moisturizers, there is a paucity regarding the use of cleansers, especially cleansers formulated with ingredients known to improve skin hydration. A clinical study was conducted to assess the tolerability and cosmetic acceptability of a body wash formulated with the filaggrin break-down products arginine and pyrrolidone carboxylic acid in subjects with atopic dermatitis-prone skin (Cetaphil® RestoraDerm® Body Wash). The results of this study indicate that Cetaphil RestoraDerm Body Wash was well tolerated, reduced itch, improved quality of life, and was well-liked by subjects with atopic dermatitis-prone skin.

J Drugs Dermatol. 2014;13(9):1108-1111. PMID:25226012

Brandt, Staci; Meckfessel, Matthew H; Lio, Peter A

2014-09-01

340

Clearance of senescent hepatocytes in a neoplastic-prone microenvironment delays the emergence of hepatocellular carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Increasing evidence indicates that carcinogenesis is dependent on the tissue context in which it occurs, implying that the latter can be a target for preventive or therapeutic strategies. We tested the possibility that re-normalizing a senescent, neoplastic-prone tissue microenvironment would exert a modulatory effect on the emergence of neoplastic disease. Rats were exposed to a protocol for the induction of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Using an orthotopic and syngeneic system for cell transplantation, one group of animal was then delivered 8 million normal hepatocytes, via the portal circulation. Hepatocytes transplantation resulted in a prominent decrease in the incidence of both pre-neoplastic and neoplastic lesions. At the end of 1 year 50% of control animals presented with HCC, while no HCC were observed in the transplanted group. Extensive hepatocyte senescence was induced by the carcinogenic protocol in the host liver; however, senescent cells were largely cleared following infusion of normal hepatocytes. Furthermore, levels of Il-6 increased in rats exposed to the carcinogenic protocol, while they returned to near control values in the group receiving hepatocyte transplantation. These results support the concept that strategies aimed at normalizing a neoplastic-prone tissue landscape can modulate progression of neoplastic disease. PMID:24464501

Sini, Marcella; Angius, Fabrizio; Laconi, Ezio

2014-01-01

341

Safe Sedation and Hypnosis using Dexmedetomidine for Minimally Invasive Spine Surgery in a Prone Position  

PubMed Central

Dexmedetomidine, an imidazoline compound, is a highly selective ?2-adrenoceptor agonist with sympatholytic, sedative, amnestic, and analgesic properties. In order to minimize the patients' pain and anxiety during minimally invasive spine surgery (MISS) when compared to conventional surgery under general anesthesia, an adequate conscious sedation (CS) or monitored anesthetic care (MAC) should be provided. Commonly used intravenous sedatives and hypnotics, such as midazolam and propofol, are not suitable for operations in a prone position due to undesired respiratory depression. Dexmedetomidine converges on an endogenous non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep-promoting pathway to exert its sedative effects. The great merit of dexmedetomidine for CS or MAC is the ability of the operator to recognize nerve damage during percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy, a representative MISS. However, there are 2 shortcomings for dexmedetomidine in MISS: hypotension/bradycardia and delayed emergence. Its hypotension/bradycardiac effects can be prevented by ketamine intraoperatively. Using atipamezole (an ?2-adrenoceptor antagonist) might allow doctors to control the rate of recovery from procedural sedation in the future. MAC, with other analgesics such as ketorolac and opioids, creates ideal conditions for MISS. In conclusion, dexmedetomidine provides a favorable surgical condition in patients receiving MISS in a prone position due to its unique properties of conscious sedation followed by unconscious hypnosis with analgesia. However, no respiratory depression occurs based on the dexmedetomidine-related endogenous sleep pathways involves the inhibition of the locus coeruleus in the pons, which facilitates VLPO firing in the anterior hypothalamus. PMID:25317279

2014-01-01

342

Differences in Irradiated Lung Gene Transcription Between Fibrosis-Prone C57BL/6NHsd and Fibrosis-Resistant C3H/HeNHsd Mice  

PubMed Central

Background/Aim We compared pulmonary irradiation-induced whole lung, gene transcripts, over 200 days after 20 Gy thoracic irradiation in fibrosis-prone C57BL/6NHsd with fibrosis-resistant C3H/HeNHsd female mice. Materials and Methods Lung specimens were analyzed by rt-PCR and changes over time in representative gene transcript levels were correlated with protein levels using Western Blot. Results C3H/HeNHsd mice showed a significantly longer duration of elevation of gene transcripts for stress-response genes (NFk?, Nrf2, Sp1, Ap1), radioprotection gene (SOD2), and endothelial cell associated genes (vWF, VEGFa). C57BL/6NHsd mice showed acute elevation then downregulation and a second elevation in gene transcripts for NFk?, CTGF, IGFbp7, TNF?, collagen1a, and TLR4. There were reciprocal patterns of elevation and decrease in levels of transcripts for epigenetic reader proteins Brd1, 2, 3, and 4 between mouse strains. Conclusions Regulatory pathways linked to radiation pulmonary fibrosis may identify new targets for anti-fibrotic radiation mitigators. PMID:24632969

Kalash, Ronny; Berhane, Hebist; Au, Jeremiah; Rhieu, Byung Han; Epperly, Michael W.; Goff, Julie; Dixon, Tracy; Wang, Hong; Zhang, Xichen; Franicola, Darcy; Shinde, Ashwin; Greenberger, Joel S.

2014-01-01

343

Real-time PCR in virology  

PubMed Central

The use of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in molecular diagnostics has increased to the point where it is now accepted as the gold standard for detecting nucleic acids from a number of origins and it has become an essential tool in the research laboratory. Real-time PCR has engendered wider acceptance of the PCR due to its improved rapidity, sensitivity, reproducibility and the reduced risk of carry-over contamination. There are currently five main chemistries used for the detection of PCR product during real-time PCR. These are the DNA binding fluorophores, the 5? endonuclease, adjacent linear and hairpin oligoprobes and the self-fluorescing amplicons, which are described in detail. We also discuss factors that have restricted the development of multiplex real-time PCR as well as the role of real-time PCR in quantitating nucleic acids. Both amplification hardware and the fluorogenic detection chemistries have evolved rapidly as the understanding of real-time PCR has developed and this review aims to update the scientist on the current state of the art. We describe the background, advantages and limitations of real-time PCR and we review the literature as it applies to virus detection in the routine and research laboratory in order to focus on one of the many areas in which the application of real-time PCR has provided significant methodological benefits and improved patient outcomes. However, the technology discussed has been applied to other areas of microbiology as well as studies of gene expression and genetic disease. PMID:11884626

Mackay, Ian M.; Arden, Katherine E.; Nitsche, Andreas

2002-01-01

344

Seismic hazard assessment and pattern recognition of earthquake prone areas in the Po Plain (Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A systematic and quantitative assessment, capable of providing first-order consistent information about the sites where large earthquakes may occur, is crucial for the knowledgeable seismic hazard evaluation. The methodology for the pattern recognition of areas prone to large earthquakes is based on the morphostructural zoning method (MSZ), which employs topographic data and present-day tectonic structures for the mapping of earthquake-controlling structures (i.e. the nodes formed around lineaments intersections) and does not require the knowledge about past seismicity. The nodes are assumed to be characterized by a uniform set of topographic, geologic, and geophysical parameters; on the basis of such parameters the pattern recognition algorithm defines a classification rule to discriminate seismogenic and non-seismogenic nodes. This methodology has been successfully applied since the early 1970s in a number of regions worldwide, including California, where it permitted the identification of areas that have been subsequently struck by strong events and that previously were not considered prone to strong earthquakes. Recent studies on the Iberian Peninsula and the Rhone Valley, have demonstrated the applicability of MSZ to flat basins, with a relatively flat topography. In this study, the analysis is applied to the Po Plain (Northern Italy), an area characterized by a flat topography, to allow for the systematic identification of the nodes prone to earthquakes with magnitude larger or equal to M=5.0. The MSZ method differs from the standard morphostructural analysis where the term "lineament" is used to define the complex of alignments detectable on topographic maps or on satellite images. According to that definition the lineament is locally defined and the existence of the lineament does not depend on the surrounding areas. In MSZ, the primary element is the block - a relatively homogeneous area - while the lineament is a secondary element of the morphostructure. The identified earthquake prone areas provide first-order systematic information that may significantly contribute to seismic hazard assessment in the Italian territory. The information about the possible location of strong earthquakes provided by the morphostructural analysis, in fact, can be naturally incorporated in the neo-deterministic procedure for seismic hazard assessment (NDSHA), so as to fill in possible gaps in known seismicity. Moreover, the space information about earthquake prone areas can be fruitfully combined with the space-time information provided by the quantitative analysis of the seismic flow, so as to identify the priority areas (with linear dimensions of few tens kilometers), where the probability of a strong earthquake is relatively high, for detailed local scale studies. The new indications about the seismogenic potential obtained from this study, although less accurate than detailed fault studies, have the advantage of being independent on past seismicity information, since they rely on the systematic and quantitative analysis of the available geological and morphostructural data. Thus, this analysis appears particularly useful in areas where historical information is scarce; special attention should be paid to seismogenic nodes that are not related with known active faults or past earthquakes.

Gorshkov, Alexander; Peresan, Antonella; Soloviev, Alexander; Panza, Giuliano F.

2014-05-01

345

Clinical Trial Design - Effect of prone positioning on clinical outcomes in infants and children with acute respiratory distress syndrome  

PubMed Central

Purpose This paper describes the methodology of an ongoing clinical trial of prone positioning in pediatric patients with acute lung injury (ALI). Nonrandomized studies suggest that prone positioning improves oxygenation in patients with ALI/ARDS without the risk of serious iatrogenic injury. It is not known if these improvements in oxygenation result in improvements in clinical outcomes. A clinical trial was needed to answer this question. Materials and Methods The pediatric prone study is a multi-center, randomized, non-crossover, controlled clinical trial. The trial is designed to test the hypothesis that at the end of 28 days, children with ALI treated with prone positioning will have more ventilator free days than children treated with supine positioning. Secondary endpoints include the time to recovery of lung injury, organ failure free days, functional outcome, adverse events, and mortality from all causes. Pediatric patients, 42 weeks post-conceptual age to 18 years of age, are enrolled within 48 hours of meeting ALI criteria. Patients randomized to the prone group are positioned prone within 4 hours of randomization and remain prone for 20 hours each day during the acute phase of their illness for a maximum of 7 days. Both groups are managed according to ventilator protocol, extubation readiness testing, and sedation protocols and hemodynamic, nutrition and skin care guidelines. Conclusions This paper describes the process, multidisciplinary input, and procedures used to support the design of the clinical trial, as well as the challenges faced by the clinical scientists during the conduct of the clinical trial. PMID:16616620

Curley, Martha A.Q.; Arnold, John H.; Thompson, John E.; Fackler, James C.; Grant, Mary Jo; Fineman, Lori D.; Cvijanovich, Natalie; Barr, Frederick E.; Molitor-Kirsch, Shirley; Steinhorn, David M.; Matthay, Michael A.; Hibberd, Patricia L.

2006-01-01

346

Prone Positioning Causes the Heart To Be Displaced Anteriorly Within the Thorax: Implications for Breast Cancer Treatment  

SciTech Connect

Introduction: Prone positioning has been suggested as an alternative to the conventional supine position for patients receiving breast radiotherapy, but few data exist on how this may alter heart location. We herein quantitatively compare the intrathoracic location of the heart in the prone and supine positions in patients treated for breast cancer. Methods and Materials: In 16 patients treated with tangent photons for breast cancer, the computed tomography planning images (obtained in the supine position) and diagnostic magnetic resonance images (obtained in the prone position) were studied. For each case, the distance between the anterior pericardium and the anterior chest wall was measured at nine specific points; three points at each of three axial levels. The differences in the measurements between the prone and supine positions were compared with the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Results: There is a systematic displacement of the lateral and superior aspect of the heart closer to the chest wall in the prone vs. supine position (mean displacement 19 mm (95% confidence interval 13.7-25.1 mm, p < 0.001); the medial and inferior aspects remain fixed. There was also a reduction in volume of lung interposed between the heart and chest wall when prone (mean decrease of 22 mL, p < 0.001 for difference). Conclusions: The superior and lateral aspects of the heart typically move anteriorly during prone positioning compared with the supine position. This may have negative consequences in situations in which the high-risk target tissues include the chest wall or deep breast.

Chino, Junzo P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)], E-mail: chino001@mc.duke.edu; Marks, Lawrence B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

2008-03-01

347

Unskilled, unaware, or both? The better-than-average heuristic and statistical regression predict errors in estimates of own performance.  

PubMed

People who score low on a performance test overestimate their own performance relative to others, whereas high scorers slightly underestimate their own performance. J. Kruger and D. Dunning (1999) attributed these asymmetric errors to differences in metacognitive skill. A replication study showed no evidence for mediation effects for any of several candidate variables. Asymmetric errors were expected because of statistical regression and the general better-than-average (BTA) heuristic. Consistent with this parsimonious model, errors were no longer asymmetric when either regression or the BTA effect was statistically removed. In fact, high rather than low performers were more error prone in that they were more likely to neglect their own estimates of the performance of others when predicting how they themselves performed relative to the group. PMID:11831408

Krueger, Joachim; Mueller, Ross A

2002-02-01

348

Abnormal, Error-Prone Bypass of Photoproducts by Xeroderma Pigmentosum Variant Cell Extracts Results in Extreme Strand Bias for the Kinds of Mutations Induced by UV Light  

Microsoft Academic Search

Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is a rare genetic disease characterized by a greatly increased susceptibility to sunlight-induced skin cancer. Cells from the majority of patients are defective in nucleotide excision repair. However, cells from one set of patients, XP variants, exhibit normal repair but are abnormally slow in replicating DNA containing UV photoproducts. The frequency of UV radiation-induced mutations in the

W. GLENN MCGREGOR; DONG WEI; VERONICA M. MAHER; J. JUSTIN MCCORMICK

1999-01-01

349

Allelism of PSO4 and PRP19 links pre-mRNA processing with recombination and error-prone DNA repair in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed Central

The radiation-sensitive mutant pso4-1 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae shows a pleiotropic phenotype, including sensitivity to DNA cross-linking agents, nearly blocked sporulation and reduced mutability. We have cloned the putative yeast DNA repair gene PSO4 from a genomic library by complementation of the blocked UV-induced mutagenesis and of sporulation in diploids homozygous for pso4-1. Sequence analysis revealed that gene PSO4 consists of 1512 bp located upstream of UBI4 on chromosome XII and encodes a putative protein of 56.7 kDa. PSO4 is allelic to PRP19, a gene encoding a spliceosome-associated protein, but shares no significant homology with other yeast genes. Gene disruption with a destroyed reading frame of our PSO4 clone resulted in death of haploid cells, confirming the finding that PSO4/PRP19 is an essential gene. Thus, PSO4 is the third essential DNA repair gene found in the yeast S.cerevisiae. PMID:8918805

Grey, M; Dusterhoft, A; Henriques, J A; Brendel, M

1996-01-01

350

ITU-T EV-VBR: A ROBUST 8-32 KBIT\\/S SCALABLE CODER FOR ERROR PRONE TELECOMMUNICATIONS CHANNELS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents ITU-T Embedded Variable Bit-Rate (EV-VBR) codec being standardized by Question 9 of Study Group 16 (Q9\\/16) as recommendation G.718. The codec provides a scalable solution for compression of 16 kHz sampled speech and audio signals at rates between 8 kbit\\/s and 32 kbit\\/s, robust to significant rates of frame erasures or packet losses. It comprises 5 layers

Tommy Vaillancourt; Milan Jelínek; A. Erdem Ertan; Jacek Stachurski; Anssi Rämö; Lasse Laaksonen; Jon Gibbs; Udar Mittal; Stefan Bruhn; Volodya Grancharov; Masahiro Oshikiri; Hiroyuki Ehara; Dejun Zhang; Fuwei Ma

2008-01-01

351

Dual processing and diagnostic errors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, I review evidence from two theories in psychology relevant to diagnosis and diagnostic errors. “Dual Process”\\u000a theories of thinking, frequently mentioned with respect to diagnostic error, propose that categorization decisions can be\\u000a made with either a fast, unconscious, contextual process called System 1 or a slow, analytical, conscious, and conceptual\\u000a process, called System 2. Exemplar theories of

Geoff Norman

2009-01-01

352

Quantum error correction for beginners.  

PubMed

Quantum error correction (QEC) and fault-tolerant quantum computation represent one of the most vital theoretical aspects of quantum information processing. It was well known from the early developments of this exciting field that the fragility of coherent quantum systems would be a catastrophic obstacle to the development of large-scale quantum computers. The introduction of quantum error correction in 1995 showed that active techniques could be employed to mitigate this fatal problem. However, quantum error correction and fault-tolerant computation is now a much larger field and many new codes, techniques, and methodologies have been developed to implement error correction for large-scale quantum algorithms. In response, we have attempted to summarize the basic aspects of quantum error correction and fault-tolerance, not as a detailed guide, but rather as a basic introduction. The development in this area has been so pronounced that many in the field of quantum information, specifically researchers who are new to quantum information or people focused on the many other important issues in quantum computation, have found it difficult to keep up with the general formalisms and methodologies employed in this area. Rather than introducing these concepts from a rigorous mathematical and computer science framework, we instead examine error correction and fault-tolerance largely through detailed examples, which are more relevant to experimentalists today and in the near future. PMID:23787909

Devitt, Simon J; Munro, William J; Nemoto, Kae

2013-07-01

353

Delineation of flood-prone areas and the identification of residential hotspots for two African cities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work employs two GIS-based frameworks for identifying the urban residential hot spots. This is done by overlaying a map of potentially flood prone areas (the topographic wetness index, TWI) and a map of urban morphology types (UMT) classified as residential. The topographic wetness index (TWI, Qin et al. 2011) allows for the delineation of a portion of a hydrographic basin potentially exposed to flood inundation by identifying all the areas characterized by a topographic index that exceeds a given threshold. The urban morphological types (Pauleit and Duhme 2000, Gill et al. 2008, Cavan et al. 2012) form the foundation of a classification scheme which brings together facets of urban form and function. The application of the UMTs allows the delineation of geographical units. The distinction of UMTs at a 'meso'-scale (i.e. between the city level and that of the individual units) makes a suitable basis for the spatial analysis of cities. The TWI threshold value depends on the resolution of the digital elevation model (DEM), topology of the hydrographic basin (i.e. urban, peri-urban or rural) and the constructed infrastructure (Manfreda et al. 2011). This threshold value is usually calibrated based on the results of detailed delineation of the inundation profile for selected zones. In this study, the TWI threshold is calibrated based on the calculated inundation profiles for various return periods for selected zones within the basin through a Bayesian framework. The Bayesian framework enables the probabilistic characterization of the threshold value by calculating the complementary probability of false delineation of flood prone zones as a function of various threshold values. For a given return period, the probability of false delineation is calculated as the sum of the probability of indicating a zone flood prone which is not indicated as such by the inundation profile and the probability that a zone is indicated as not flood prone but indicated as flood prone by the inundation profile. Applying the above-mentioned procedure, taking into account all available information on the inundation profiles for various zones within the basin, leads to a probability distribution for the TWI threshold value. In the next step, the urban residential hot spots to flooding are delineated in the GIS environment by overlaying the map of TWI and the UMT units classified as residential for various percentiles of the TWI threshold. Differences in exposure characteristics can be assessed for a range of different residential types, including for example between condominium/multi-storey, single storey stone/concrete and areas predominantly associated with mud/wood construction. For each percentile value considered, the delineated flood-prone residential areas and the number of people potentially affected to flooding are calculated. Moreover, the potential dependence of the estimated threshold percentiles on the flooding return period is investigated. As a demonstration, the urban residential hotspots to flooding are delineated for 16th, 50th and 84th percentiles of the TWI value for the cities of Dar es Salaam and Addis Ababa. References Qin C.Z., Zhu A.X., Pei T., Li B.L., Scholten T., Behrens T., Zhou C.H.. An approach to computing topographic wetness index based on maximum downslope gradient. Precision Agric, 12:32-43, DOI 10.1007/s11119-009-9152-y, 2011. Manfreda S., Di Leo M., Sole A. Detection of Flood-Prone Areas Using Digital Elevation Models. Journal of Hydrologic Engineering, 16 (10):781-790, 2011. Pauleit, S. and Duhme, F. (2000). Assessing the environmental performance of land cover types for urban planning. Landscape and Urban Planning, 52 (1): 1-20. Gill, S.E., Handley, J.F., Ennos, A.R. Pauleit, S., Theuray, N., and Lindley, S.J. (2008). Characterising the urban environment of UK cities and towns: a template for landscape planning in a changing climate. Landscape and Urban Planning, 87: 210-222. Cavan, G., Lindley, S., Yeshitela, K., Nebebe, A., Woldegerima, T., Shemdoe, R., Kibassa, D., Pauleit, S., Renner, R., Printz, A., Buc

De Risi, Raffaele; Jalayer, Fatemeh; De Paola, Francesco; Iervolino, Iunio; Giugni, Maurizio; Topa, Maria Elena; Yonas, Nebyou; Nebebe, Alemu; Woldegerima, Tekle; Yeshitela, Kumelachew; Kibassa, Deusdedit; Shemdoe, Riziki; Cavan, Gina; Lindley, Sarah; Renner, Florian; Printz, Andreas

2013-04-01

354

Errordiary: Support for Teaching Human Error  

E-print Network

human errors that happen on a daily basis. Students engage with these real-life cases of human error an overview of the human error literature; beginning with Reason's work on slips and mistakes [2], movingErrordiary: Support for Teaching Human Error Abstract Understanding human error is an important

Blandford, Ann

355

Medication error reporting in long term care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Medication errors are common causes of medical error in the long-term care (LTC) setting. Despite their frequency and potential clinical impact, most medication errors in LTC facilities remain unreported. Before better reporting systems can be developed to reduce clinically significant medication errors, it is necessary to understand how current medication error reporting systems function.

Steven M. Handler; David A. Nace; Stephanie A. Studenski; Douglas B. Fridsma

2004-01-01

356

Errors in Infrared Thermometry and Radiometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an error apparently unrecognized among atmospheric scientists engaged in infrared thermometry and radiometry. The error results from multiple reflections between the target environment viewed by a thermometer or radiometer and the background environment. The difference between the sum of this error and other known errors, on the one hand, and only the other known errors, on the

William P. Lowry; Llyod W. Gay

1970-01-01

357

Design risk assessment for burst-prone mines: Application in a Canadian mine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A proactive stance towards improving the effectiveness and consistency of risk assessments has been adopted recently by mining companies and industry. The next 10-20 years forecasts that ore deposits accessible using shallow mining techniques will diminish. The industry continues to strive for success in "deeper" mining projects in order to keep up with the continuing demand for raw materials. Although the returns are quite profitable, many projects have been sidelined due to high uncertainty and technical risk in the mining of the mineral deposit. Several hardrock mines have faced rockbursting and seismicity problems. Within those reported, mines in countries like South Africa, Australia and Canada have documented cases of severe rockburst conditions attributed to the mining depth. Severe rockburst conditions known as "burst-prone" can be effectively managed with design. Adopting a more robust design can ameliorate the exposure of workers and equipment to adverse conditions and minimize the economic consequences, which can hinder the bottom line of an operation. This thesis presents a methodology created for assessing the design risk in burst-prone mines. The methodology includes an evaluation of relative risk ratings for scenarios with options of risk reduction through several design principles. With rockbursts being a hazard of seismic events, the methodology is based on research in the area of mining seismicity factoring in rockmass failure mechanisms, which results from a combination of mining induced stress, geological structures, rockmass properties and mining influences. The methodology was applied to case studies at Craig Mine of Xstrata Nickel in Sudbury, Ontario, which is known to contain seismically active fault zones. A customized risk assessment was created and applied to rockburst case studies, evaluating the seismic vulnerability and consequence for each case. Application of the methodology to Craig Mine demonstrates that changes in the design can reduce both exposure risk (personnel and equipment), and economical risk (revenue and costs). Fatal and catastrophic consequences can be averted through robust planning and design. Two customized approaches were developed to conduct risk assessment of case studies at Craig Mine. Firstly, the Brownfield Approach utilizes the seismic database to determine the seismic hazard from a rating system that evaluates frequency-magnitude, event size, and event-blast relation. Secondly, the Greenfield Approach utilizes the seismic database, focusing on larger magnitude events, rocktype, and geological structure. The customized Greenfield Approach can also be applied in the evaluation of design risk in deep mines with the same setting and condition as Craig Mine. Other mines with different settings and conditions can apply the principles in the methodology to evaluate design alternatives and risk reduction strategies for burst-prone mines.

Cheung, David J.

358

Exercise commitment and proneness to eating disorders in a group of physical education teachers.  

PubMed

The study examined the association of exercise commitment with proneness to eating disorders in 50 physical education teachers who had been practicing various aerobic sports at least three times a week for at least 5 years. Significant coefficients were found between Commitment to Exercise Scale scores, the number of weekly training sessions, and scores on the Eating Disorders Inventory-2 scales measuring Maturity Fears, Social Insecurity, Perfectionism, and Asceticism. However, no relationship was found between the Commitment to Exercise Scale and the Eating Disorders Inventory-2 variables measuring anorexic tendencies (such as Drive for Thinness, Body Dissatisfaction, and Bulimia). Findings suggest the presence of some psychological factors common to both anorexic tendencies and excessive exercising but not complete overlap, so a rather more complex pattern of relationships appears to be mediated by sex and personality characteristics. PMID:18065086

Pini, Mauro; Calamari, Elena; Puleggio, Antonio; Pullerà, Michela

2007-10-01

359

Can perspective-taking reduce crime? Examining a pathway through empathic-concern and guilt-proneness.  

PubMed

We describe and appraise a theoretical model in which individual differences in perspective-taking eventuate in crime reduction. Specifically, it is hypothesized that perspective-taking propensities influence the tendency to feel empathic-concern, thereby heightening proneness for guilt, which ultimately inhibits criminal behavior (perspective-taking ? empathic-concern ? guilt-proneness ? crime desistance). Data from two sources were analyzed: (a) a cross-sectional college sample and (b) a longitudinal sample of jail inmates. Overall, results lend credence to this theoretical model: Perspective-taking propensities ultimately "put the brakes" on criminal behavior-via an emotional pathway of empathic-concern and then guilt-proneness. Discussion focuses on the nature of perspective-taking, its generative role for moral emotion and behavior, as well as potential applications for crime reduction. PMID:25324328

Martinez, Andres G; Stuewig, Jeffrey; Tangney, June P

2014-12-01

360

Real time PCR measurement by fluorescence anisotropy  

E-print Network

Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is the gold-standard for quantitation in both mutation and gene expression analyses. Already this technique has found valuable clinical application in disease diagnosis and progression ...

Crane, Bryan Lee, 1976-

2005-01-01

361

[Quantitative PCR in the diagnosis of Leishmania].  

PubMed

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a sensitive and rapid method for the diagnosis of canine Leishmania infection and can be performed on a variety of biological samples, including peripheral blood, lymph node, bone marrow and skin. Standard PCR requires electrophoretic analysis of the amplification products and is usually not suitable for quantification of the template DNA (unless competitor-based or other methods are developed), being of reduced usefulness when accurate monitoring of target DNA is required. Quantitative real-time PCR allows the continuous monitoring of the accumulation of PCR products during the amplification reaction. This allows the identification of the cycle of near-logarithmic PCR product generation (threshold cycle) and, by inference, the relative quantification of the template DNA present at the start of the reaction. Since the amplification product are monitored in "real-time" as they form cycle-by-cycle, no post-amplification handling is required. The absolute quantification is performed according either to an internal standard co-amplified with the sample DNA, or to an external standard curve obtained by parallel amplification of serial known concentrations of a reference DNA sequence. From the quantification of the template DNA, an estimation of the relative load of parasites in the different samples can be obtained. The advantages compared to standard and semi-quantitative PCR techniques are reduction of the assay's time and contamination risks, and improved sensitivity. As for standard PCR, the minimal components of the quantitative PCR reaction mixture are the DNA target of the amplification, an oligonucleotide primer pair flanking the target sequence, a suitable DNA polymerase, deoxynucleotides, buffer and salts. Different technologies have been set up for the monitoring of amplification products, generally based on the use of fluorescent probes. For instance, SYBR Green technology is a non-specific detection system based on a fluorescent dsDNA intercalator and it is applicable to all potential targets. TaqMan technology is more specific since performs the direct assessment of the amount of amplified DNA using a fluorescent probe specific for the target sequence flanked by the primer pair. This probe is an oligonucleotide labelled with a reporter dye (fluorescent) and a quencher (which absorbs the fluorescent signal generated by the reporter). The thermic protocol of amplification allows the binding of the fluorescent probe to the target sequence before the binding of the primers and the starting of the polymerization by Taq polymerase. During polymerization, 5'-3' exonuclease activity of Taq polymerase digests the probe and in this way the reporter dye is released from the probe and a fluorescent signal is detected. The intensity of the signal accumulates at the end of each cycle and is related to the amount of the amplification product. In recent years, quantitative PCR methods based either on SYBR Green or TaqMan technology have been set up for the quantification of Leishmania in mouse liver, mouse skin and human peripheral blood, targeting either single-copy chromosomal or multi-copy minicircle sequences with high sensitivity and reproducibility. In particular, real-time PCR seems to be a reliable, rapid and noninvasive method for the diagnosis and follow up of visceral leishmaniasis in humans. At present, the application of real-time PCR for research and clinical diagnosis of Leishmania infection in dogs is still foreseable. As for standard PCR, the high sensitivity of real-time PCR could allow the use of blood sampling that is less invasive and easily performed for monitoring the status of the dogs. The development of a real-time PCR assay for Leishmania infantum infection in dogs could support the standard and optimized serological and PCR methods currenly in use for the diagnosis and follow-up of canine leishmaniasis, and perhaps prediction of recurrences associated with tissue loads of residual pathogens after treatment. At this regard, a TaqMan Real Time PCR method dev

Mortarino, M; Franceschi, A; Mancianti, F; Bazzocchi, C; Genchi, C; Bandi, C

2004-06-01

362

DIRECT DNA SEQUENCING OF PCR PRODUCTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Experiments are described which elucidate some of the technical problems associated with the direct sequencing of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplified DNA. Sequencing primer purity, labeling methodology, and template preparation were explored. onditions are presented for the...

363

Decomposition and humification of soil organic carbon after land use change on erosion prone slopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil organic carbon decline after land use change from forest to maize usually lead to soil degradation and elevated CO2 emissions. However, limited knowledge is available on the interactions between rates of SOC change and soil erosion and how SOC dynamics vary with soil depth and clay contents. The 13C isotope based CIDE approach (Carbon Input, Decomposition and Erosion) was developed to determine SOC dynamics on erosion prone slopes. The aims of the present study were: (1) to test the applicability of the CIDE approach to determine rates of decomposition and SOC input under particular considerations of concurrent erosion events on three soil types (Alisol, Luvisol, Vertisol), (2) to adapt the CIDE approach to deeper soil layers (10-20 and 20-30 cm) and (3) to determine the variation of decomposition and SOC input with soil depth and soil texture. SOC dynamics were determined for bulk soil and physically separated SOC fractions along three chronosequences after land use change from forest to maize (up to 21 years) in northwestern Vietnam. Consideration of the effects of soil erosion on SOC dynamics by the CIDE approach yielded a higher total SOC loss (6 to 32%), a lower decomposition (13 to 40%) and a lower SOC input (14 to 31%) relative to the values derived from a commonly applied 13C isotope based mass balance approach. Comparison of decomposition between depth layers revealed that tillage accelerated decomposition in the plough layer (0-10 cm), accounting for 3 to 34% of total decomposition. With increasing clay contents SOC input increased. In addition, decomposition increased with increasing clay contents, too, being attributed to decomposition of exposed labile SOC which was attached to clay particles in the sand sized stable aggregate fraction. This study suggests that in situ SOC dynamics on erosion prone slopes are commonly misrepresented by erosion unadjusted approaches.

Häring, Volker; Fischer, Holger; Cadisch, Georg; Stahr, Karl

2014-05-01

364

The Effects of Overfeeding on Spontaneous Physical Activity in Obesity Prone and Obesity Resistant Humans  

PubMed Central

Despite living in an environment that promotes weight gain in many individuals, some individuals maintain a thin phenotype while self-reporting expending little or no effort to control their weight. When compared with obesity prone (OP) individuals, we wondered if obesity resistant (OR) individuals would have higher levels of spontaneous physical activity (SPA) or respond to short-term overfeeding by increasing their level of SPA in a manner that could potentially limit future weight gain. SPA was measured in 55 subjects (23 OP and 32 OR) using a novel physical activity monitoring system (PAMS) that measured body position and movement while subjects were awake for 6 days, either in a controlled eucaloric condition or during 3 days of overfeeding (1.4× basal energy) and for the subsequent 3 days (ad libitum recovery period). Pedometers were also used before and during use of the PAMS to provide an independent measure of SPA. SPA was quantified by the PAMS as fraction of recording time spent lying, sitting, or in an upright posture. Accelerometry, measured while subjects were in an upright posture, was used to categorize time spent in different levels of movement (standing, walking slowly, quickly, etc.). There were no differences in SPA between groups when examined across all study periods (P > 0.05). However, 3 days following overfeeding, OP subjects significantly decreased the amount of time they spent walking (?2.0% of time, P = 0.03), whereas OR subjects maintained their walking (+0.2%, P > 0.05). The principle findings of this study are that increased levels of SPA either during eucaloric feeding or following short term overfeeding likely do not significantly contribute to obesity resistance although a decrease in SPA following overfeeding may contribute to future weight gain in individuals prone to obesity. PMID:22522883

Schmidt, Stacy L.; Harmon, Kristin A.; Sharp, Teresa A.; Kealey, Elizabeth H.; Bessesen, Daniel H.

2013-01-01

365

Sodium balance during U. S. football training in the heat: cramp-prone vs. reference players.  

PubMed

U. S. football players with a history of heat cramps were evaluated for the effect of physical training, sodium intake, and loss of sweat sodium on whole blood sodium concentration (BNa). Athletes (n=14 males, 24+/-1 y) were recruited and studied based on medical history, age, and position. The reference group (R, n=8 without a cramping history) and cramp-prone group (C, n=6, history of whole-body cramps associated with extensive sweat loss during exercise in the heat) were measured for body mass and BNa (ISTAT) before and after team training of 2.2 h in hot conditions (WBGT=29-32 degrees C). Intake and loss of fluid and sodium were also measured to determine respective acute balance. In R, BNa was stable pre- to post-training (138.9+/-1.8 to 139.0+/-2.0 mmol/L) while it tended to decline in C (137.8+/-2.3 to 135.7+/-4.9 mmol/L), and three subjects in C had BNa values below 135 mmol/L (131.7+/-2.9 mmol/L). C consumed a greater percentage of total fluid as water (p<0.05). Mean sweat sodium concentration was (52.6+/-29.2 mmol/L for C and 38.3+/-18.3 mmol/L for R (p>0.05). Compared to R, C tended to experience a decline in BNa and greater acute sodium imbalance. These changes may place cramp-prone players at greater risks for developing acute sodium deficits during training. PMID:19777422

Horswill, C A; Stofan, J R; Lacambra, M; Toriscelli, T A; Eichner, E R; Murray, R

2009-11-01

366

Efficacy of fixed daily 20 mg of isotretinoin in moderate to severe scar prone acne  

PubMed Central

Background: Despite advances in acne therapy in recent years, treatment failure is common. Isotretinoin is the only drug that affects almost all factors in acne pathogenesis, but side-effects are common at the doses reported in published studies in the literature. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of low daily dose isotretinoin in moderate to severe acne patients. The secondary objective was to measure the rate of relapse 5 years after the completion of therapy. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective, noncomparative study, 146 patients with moderate to severe scare prone acne. Treatment regimen consisted of isotretinoin, fixed 20 mg daily, and duration of treatment-based on the weight of patient, until total cumulative dose of 120 mg/kg of body weight is achieved. No topical or other systemic therapy was allowed during the trial. Liver function tests (serum glutamic-oxalocetic transaminase, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase, direct and total bilirubin), and lipid profiles (total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein, triglyceride) were evaluated for all patients, before the initiation of treatment and again after the 2nd month of treatment. All data analyzed by Microsoft Office Excel 2007; in descriptive statics frequency and SPSS.18 software. Results: At the end of treatment course, (96.4%) demonstrated complete clearing of their acne, defined as no acne or occasional isolated lesions. In 5-year follow-up, relapse accrued in 11 (7.9%) of patients. All adverse effects were mild, and discontinuation of treatment was not necessary. Conclusion: Low dose isotretinoin was found to be a safe and effective choice for patients with moderate to severe scar prone acne vulgaris. PMID:24804178

Rasi, Abbas; Behrangi, Elham; Rohaninasab, Masoumeh; Nahad, Zahra Mehr

2014-01-01

367

Unequal error protection of subband coded bits  

E-print Network

Source coded data can be separated into different classes based on their susceptibility to channel errors. Errors in the Important bits cause greater distortion in the reconstructed signal. This thesis presents an Unequal Error Protection scheme...

Devalla, Badarinath

2012-06-07

368

Crowdsourcing Correction of Speech Recognition Captioning Errors  

E-print Network

Crowdsourcing Correction of Speech Recognition Captioning Errors M Wald, University of Southampton crowdsourcing correction of speech recognition captioning errors to provide a sustainable method of making using speech recognition technologies but this results in many recognition errors requiring manual

Southampton, University of

369

Transgene Detection by Digital Droplet PCR  

PubMed Central

Somatic gene therapy is a promising tool for the treatment of severe diseases. Because of its abuse potential for performance enhancement in sports, the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) included the term ‘gene doping’ in the official list of banned substances and methods in 2004. Several nested PCR or qPCR-based strategies have been proposed that aim at detecting long-term presence of transgene in blood, but these strategies are hampered by technical limitations. We developed a digital droplet PCR (ddPCR) protocol for Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 (IGF1) detection and demonstrated its applicability monitoring 6 mice injected into skeletal muscle with AAV9-IGF1 elements and 2 controls over a 33-day period. A duplex ddPCR protocol for simultaneous detection of Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 (IGF1) and Erythropoietin (EPO) transgenic elements was created. A new DNA extraction procedure with target-orientated usage of restriction enzymes including on-column DNA-digestion was established. In vivo data revealed that IGF1 transgenic elements could be reliably detected for a 33-day period in DNA extracted from whole blood. In vitro data indicated feasibility of IGF1 and EPO detection by duplex ddPCR with high reliability and sensitivity. On-column DNA-digestion allowed for significantly improved target detection in downstream PCR-based approaches. As ddPCR provides absolute quantification, it ensures excellent day-to-day reproducibility. Therefore, we expect this technique to be used in diagnosing and monitoring of viral and bacterial infection, in detecting mutated DNA sequences as well as profiling for the presence of foreign genetic material in elite athletes in the future. PMID:25375130

Moser, Dirk A.; Braga, Luca; Raso, Andrea; Zacchigna, Serena; Giacca, Mauro; Simon, Perikles

2014-01-01

370

Typing of Mycobacterium avium isolates by PCR.  

PubMed Central

A Mycobacterium avium typing method based on PCR amplification of genomic sequences located between the recently described repetitive elements IS1245 and IS1311 was developed. This method was applied to a set of epidemiologically related and unrelated strains and compared with restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis with IS1245 as the probe. This PCR typing consists of a rapid and simple technique, providing a reproducible M. avium characterization as discriminant as restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. PMID:8789021

Picardeau, M; Vincent, V

1996-01-01

371

Transgene detection by digital droplet PCR.  

PubMed

Somatic gene therapy is a promising tool for the treatment of severe diseases. Because of its abuse potential for performance enhancement in sports, the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) included the term 'gene doping' in the official list of banned substances and methods in 2004. Several nested PCR or qPCR-based strategies have been proposed that aim at detecting long-term presence of transgene in blood, but these strategies are hampered by technical limitations. We developed a digital droplet PCR (ddPCR) protocol for Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 (IGF1) detection and demonstrated its applicability monitoring 6 mice injected into skeletal muscle with AAV9-IGF1 elements and 2 controls over a 33-day period. A duplex ddPCR protocol for simultaneous detection of Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 (IGF1) and Erythropoietin (EPO) transgenic elements was created. A new DNA extraction procedure with target-orientated usage of restriction enzymes including on-column DNA-digestion was established. In vivo data revealed that IGF1 transgenic elements could be reliably detected for a 33-day period in DNA extracted from whole blood. In vitro data indicated feasibility of IGF1 and EPO detection by duplex ddPCR with high reliability and sensitivity. On-column DNA-digestion allowed for significantly improved target detection in downstream PCR-based approaches. As ddPCR provides absolute quantification, it ensures excellent day-to-day reproducibility. Therefore, we expect this technique to be used in diagnosing and monitoring of viral and bacterial infection, in detecting mutated DNA sequences as well as profiling for the presence of foreign genetic material in elite athletes in the future. PMID:25375130

Moser, Dirk A; Braga, Luca; Raso, Andrea; Zacchigna, Serena; Giacca, Mauro; Simon, Perikles

2014-01-01

372

Enumeration of verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC) O157 and O26 in milk by quantitative PCR.  

PubMed

Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) can be a convenient alternative to the Most Probable Number (MPN) methods to count VTEC in milk. The number of VTEC is normally very low in milk; therefore with the aim of increasing the method sensitivity a qPCR protocol that relies on preliminary enrichment was developed. The growth pattern of six VTEC strains (serogroups O157 and O26) was studied using enrichment in Buffered Peptone Water (BPW) with or without acriflavine for 4-24h. Milk samples were inoculated with these strains over a five Log concentration range between 0.24-0.50 and 4.24-4.50 Log CFU/ml. DNA was extracted from the enriched samples in duplicate and each extract was analysed in duplicate by qPCR using pairs of primers specific for the serogroups O157 and O26. When samples were pre-enriched in BPW at 37°C for 8h, the relationship between threshold cycles (CT values) and VTEC Log numbers was linear over a five Log concentration range. The regression of PCR threshold cycle numbers on VTEC Log CFU/ml had a slope coefficient equal to -3.10 (R(2)=0.96) which is indicative of a 10-fold difference of the gene copy numbers between samples (with a 100 ± 10% PCR efficiency). The same 10-fold proportion used for inoculating the milk samples with VTEC was observed, therefore, also in the enriched samples at 8h. A comparison of the CT values of milk samples and controls revealed that the strains inoculated in milk grew with 3 Log increments in the 8h enrichment period. Regression lines that fitted the qPCR and MPN data revealed that the error of the qPCR estimates is lower than the error of the estimated MPN (r=0.982, R(2)=0.965 vs. r=0.967, R(2)=0.935). The growth rates of VTEC strains isolated from milk should be comparatively assessed before qPCR estimates based on the regression model are considered valid. Comparative assessment of the growth rates can be done using spectrophotometric measurements of standardized cultures of isolates and reference strains cultured in BPW at 37°C for 8h. The method developed for the serogroups O157 and O26 can be easily adapted to the other VTEC serogroups that are relevant for human health. The qPCR method is less laborious and faster than the standard MPN method and has been shown to be a good technique for quantifying VTEC in milk. PMID:24713473

Mancusi, Rocco; Trevisani, Marcello

2014-08-01

373

A simulation test of the effectiveness of several methods for error-checking non-invasive genetic data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Non-invasive genetic sampling (NGS) is becoming a popular tool for population estimation. However, multiple NGS studies have demonstrated that polymerase chain reaction (PCR) genotyping errors can bias demographic estimates. These errors can be detected by comprehensive data filters such as the multiple-tubes approach, but this approach is expensive and time consuming as it requires three to eight PCR replicates per locus. Thus, researchers have attempted to correct PCR errors in NGS datasets using non-comprehensive error checking methods, but these approaches have not been evaluated for reliability. We simulated NGS studies with and without PCR error and 'filtered' datasets using non-comprehensive approaches derived from published studies and calculated mark-recapture estimates using CAPTURE. In the absence of data-filtering, simulated error resulted in serious inflations in CAPTURE estimates; some estimates exceeded N by ??? 200%. When data filters were used, CAPTURE estimate reliability varied with per-locus error (E??). At E?? = 0.01, CAPTURE estimates from filtered data displayed < 5% deviance from error-free estimates. When E?? was 0.05 or 0.09, some CAPTURE estimates from filtered data displayed biases in excess of 10%. Biases were positive at high sampling intensities; negative biases were observed at low sampling intensities. We caution researchers against using non-comprehensive data filters in NGS studies, unless they can achieve baseline per-locus error rates below 0.05 and, ideally, near 0.01. However, we suggest that data filters can be combined with careful technique and thoughtful NGS study design to yield accurate demographic information. ?? 2005 The Zoological Society of London.

Roon, D. A.; Waits, L. P.; Kendall, K. C.

2005-01-01

374

The prone positioning during general anesthesia minimally affects respiratory mechanics while improving functional residual capacity and increasing oxygen tension.  

PubMed

We investigated the effects of the prone position on the mechanical properties (compliance and resistance) of the total respiratory system, the lung, and the chest wall, and the functional residual capacity (FRC) and gas exchange in 17 normal, anesthetized, and paralyzed patients undergoing elective surgery. We used the esophageal balloon technique together with rapid airway occlusions during constant inspiratory flow to partition the mechanics of the respiratory system into its pulmonary and chest wall components. FRC was measured by the helium dilution technique. Measurements were taken in the supine position and after 20 min in the prone position maintaining the same respiratory pattern (tidal volume 10 mL/kg, respiratory rate 14 breaths/min, FIO2 0.4). We found that the prone position did not significantly affect the respiratory system compliance (80.9 +/- 16.6 vs 75.9 +/- 13.2 mL/cm H2O) or the lung and chest wall compliance. Respiratory resistance slightly increased in the prone position (4.8 +/- 2.5 vs 5.4 +/- 2.7 cm H2O.L-1.s,P < 0.05), mainly due to the chest wall resistance (1.3 +/- 0.6 vs 1.9 +/- 0.8 cm H2O.L-1.s, P < 0.05). Both FRC and PaO2 markedly (P < 0.01) increased from the supine to the prone position (1.9 +/- 0.6 vs 2.9 +/- 0.7 L, P < 0.01, and 160 +/- 37 vs 199 +/- 16 mm Hg, P < 0.01, respectively), whereas PaCO2 was unchanged. In conclusion, the prone position during general anesthesia does not negatively affect respiratory mechanics and improves lung volumes and oxygenation. PMID:7726438

Pelosi, P; Croci, M; Calappi, E; Cerisara, M; Mulazzi, D; Vicardi, P; Gattinoni, L

1995-05-01

375

Error analysis using organizational simulation.  

PubMed Central

Organizational simulations have been used by project organizations in civil and aerospace industries to identify work processes and organizational structures that are likely to fail under certain conditions. Using a simulation system based on Galbraith's information-processing theory and Simon's notion of bounded-rationality, we retrospectively modeled a chemotherapy administration error that occurred in a hospital setting. Our simulation suggested that when there is a high rate of unexpected events, the oncology fellow was differentially backlogged with work when compared with other organizational members. Alternative scenarios suggested that providing more knowledge resources to the oncology fellow improved her performance more effectively than adding additional staff to the organization. Although it is not possible to know whether this might have prevented the error, organizational simulation may be an effective tool to prospectively evaluate organizational "weak links", and explore alternative scenarios to correct potential organizational problems before they generate errors. PMID:11079885

Fridsma, D. B.

2000-01-01

376

Spacecraft and propulsion technician error  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Commercial aviation and commercial space similarly launch, fly, and land passenger vehicles. Unlike aviation, the U.S. government has not established maintenance policies for commercial space. This study conducted a mixed methods review of 610 U.S. space launches from 1984 through 2011, which included 31 failures. An analysis of the failure causal factors showed that human error accounted for 76% of those failures, which included workmanship error accounting for 29% of the failures. With the imminent future of commercial space travel, the increased potential for the loss of human life demands that changes be made to the standardized procedures, training, and certification to reduce human error and failure rates. Several recommendations were made by this study to the FAA's Office of Commercial Space Transportation, space launch vehicle operators, and maintenance technician schools in an effort to increase the safety of the space transportation passengers.

Schultz, Daniel Clyde

377

A web server for performing electronic PCR.  

PubMed

'Electronic PCR' (e-PCR) refers to a computational procedure that is used to search DNA sequences for sequence tagged sites (STSs), each of which is defined by a pair of primer sequences and an expected PCR product size. To gain speed, our implementation extracts short 'words' from the 3' end of each primer and stores them in a sorted hash table that can be accessed efficiently during the search. One recent improvement is the use of overlapping discontinuous words to allow matches to be found despite the presence of a mismatch. Moreover, it is possible to allow gaps in the alignment between the primer and the sequence. The effect of these changes is to improve sensitivity without significantly affecting specificity. The new software provides a search mode using a query STS against a sequence database to augment the previously available mode using a query sequence against an STS database. Finally, e-PCR may now be used through a web service, with search results linked to other web resources such as the UniSTS database and the MapViewer genome browser. The e-PCR web server may be found at www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sutils/e-pcr. PMID:15215361

Rotmistrovsky, Kirill; Jang, Wonhee; Schuler, Gregory D

2004-07-01

378

Direct PCR analysis for toxigenic Pasteurella multocida.  

PubMed Central

A more rapid, accurate method to detect toxigenic Pasteurella multocida is needed for improved clinical diagnosis, farm biosecurity, and epidemiological studies. Toxigenic and nontoxigenic P. multocida isolates cannot be differentiated by morphology or standard biochemical reactions. The feasibility of using PCR for accurate, rapid detection of toxigenic P. multocida from swabs was investigated. A PCR protocol which results in amplification of an 846-nucleotide segment of the toxA gene was developed. The PCR amplification protocol is specific for toxigenic P. multocida and can detect fewer than 100 bacteria. There was concordance of PCR results with (i) detection of toxA gene with colony blot hybridization, (ii) detection of ToxA protein with colony immunoblot analysis, and (iii) lethal toxicity of sonicate in mice in a test set of 40 swine diagnostic isolates. Results of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for ToxA agreed with the other assays except for a negative reaction in one of the 19 isolates that the other assays identified as toxigenic. In addition to accuracy, as required for a rapid direct specimen assay, toxigenic P. multocida was recovered efficiently from inoculated swabs without inhibition of the PCR. The results show that PCR detection of toxigenic P. multocida directly from clinical swab specimens should be feasible. PMID:8940444

Lichtensteiger, C A; Steenbergen, S M; Lee, R M; Polson, D D; Vimr, E R

1996-01-01

379

Automatic-repeat-request error control schemes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Error detection incorporated with automatic-repeat-request (ARQ) is widely used for error control in data communication systems. This method of error control is simple and provides high system reliability. If a properly chosen code is used for error detection, virtually error-free data transmission can be attained. Various types of ARQ and hybrid ARQ schemes, and error detection using linear block codes are surveyed.

Lin, S.; Costello, D. J., Jr.; Miller, M. J.

1983-01-01

380

Error-Based Software Testing and Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

An approach to error-based testing is described that uses simple programmer error models and focus- directed methods for detecting the effects of errors. Errors are associated with forgetting, ignorance, bandwidth and perversity. The focus-directed approach was motivated by the observation that focus is more important than methodology in detecting such errors. The strengths and weaknesses of error-based versus more methodological

William E. Howden

2011-01-01

381

SIMEX and standard error estimation in semiparametric measurement error models  

PubMed Central

SIMEX is a general-purpose technique for measurement error correction. There is a substantial literature on the application and theory of SIMEX for purely parametric problems, as well as for purely non-parametric regression problems, but there is neither application nor theory for semiparametric problems. Motivated by an example involving radiation dosimetry, we develop the basic theory for SIMEX in semiparametric problems using kernel-based estimation methods. This includes situations that the mismeasured variable is modeled purely parametrically, purely non-parametrically, or that the mismeasured variable has components that are modeled both parametrically and nonparametrically. Using our asymptotic expansions, easily computed standard error formulae are derived, as are the bias properties of the nonparametric estimator. The standard error method represents a new method for estimating variability of nonparametric estimators in semiparametric problems, and we show in both simulations and in our example that it improves dramatically on first order methods. We find that for estimating the parametric part of the model, standard bandwidth choices of order O(n?1/5) are sufficient to ensure asymptotic normality, and undersmoothing is not required. SIMEX has the property that it fits misspecified models, namely ones that ignore the measurement error. Our work thus also more generally describes the behavior of kernel-based methods in misspecified semiparametric problems. PMID:19609371

Apanasovich, Tatiyana V.; Carroll, Raymond J.; Maity, Arnab

2009-01-01

382

Crediting errors: Credit, liquidity, performance and The Comedy of Errors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spectre of the market is a predictable end of teleological economic criticism, which promotes a play like TheComedy of Errors for anticipating and neatly illustrating the bewildering liquidity of the capitalist market. But looking to its pre-classical source and not only to a putative future, the play seems to reject cash liquidity – a striking choice given the much

Colette Gordon

2010-01-01

383

Supine and prone differences in regional lung density and pleural pressure gradients in the human lung with constant shape  

PubMed Central

The explanation for prone and supine differences in tissue density and pleural pressure gradients in the healthy lung has been inferred from several studies as compression of dependent tissue by the heart in the supine posture; however, this hypothesis has not been directly confirmed. Differences could also arise from change in shape of the chest wall and diaphragm, and because of shape with respect to gravity. The contribution of this third mechanism is explored here. Tissue density and static elastic recoil were estimated in the supine and prone left human lung at functional residual capacity using a finite-element analysis. Supine model geometries were derived from multidetector row computed tomography imaging of two subjects: one normal (subject 1), and one with small airway disease (subject 2). For each subject, the prone model was the supine lung shape with gravity reversed; therefore, the prone model was isolated from the influence of displacement of the diaphragm, chest wall, or heart. Model estimates were validated against multidetector row computed tomography measurement of regional density for each subject supine and an independent study of the prone and supine lung. The magnitude of the gradient in density supine (?4.33%/cm for subject 1, and ?4.96%/cm for subject 2) was nearly twice as large as for the prone lung (?2.72%/cm for subject 1, and ?2.51%/cm for subject 2), consistent with measurements in dogs. The corresponding pleural pressure gradients were 0.54 cmH2O/cm (subject 1) and 0.56 cmH2O/cm (subject 2) for supine, and 0.29 cmH2O/cm (subject 1) and 0.27 cmH2O/cm (subject 2) for prone. A smaller prone gradient was predicted without shape change of the “container” or support of the heart by the lung. The influence of the heart was to constrain the shape in which the lung deformed. PMID:19589959

Tawhai, Merryn H.; Nash, Martyn P.; Lin, Ching-Long; Hoffman, Eric A.

2009-01-01

384

Medication errors: definitions and classification.  

PubMed

1. To understand medication errors and to identify preventive strategies, we need to classify them and define the terms that describe them. 2. The four main approaches to defining technical terms consider etymology, usage, previous definitions, and the Ramsey-Lewis method (based on an understanding of theory and practice). 3. A medication error is 'a failure in the treatment process that leads to, or has the potential to lead to, harm to the patient'. 4. Prescribing faults, a subset of medication errors, should be distinguished from prescription errors. A prescribing fault is 'a failure in the prescribing [decision-making] process that leads to, or has the potential to lead to, harm to the patient'. The converse of this, 'balanced prescribing' is 'the use of a medicine that is appropriate to the patient's condition and, within the limits created by the uncertainty that attends therapeutic decisions, in a dosage regimen that optimizes the balance of benefit to harm'. This excludes all forms of prescribing faults, such as irrational, inappropriate, and ineffective prescribing, underprescribing and overprescribing. 5. A prescription error is 'a failure in the prescription writing process that results in a wrong instruction about one or more of the normal features of a prescription'. The 'normal features' include the identity of the recipient, the identity of the drug, the formulation, dose, route, timing, frequency, and duration of administration. 6. Medication errors can be classified, invoking psychological theory, as knowledge-based mistakes, rule-based mistakes, action-based slips, and memory-based lapses. This classification informs preventive strategies. PMID:19594526

Aronson, Jeffrey K

2009-06-01

385

Analysis of Medication Error Reports  

SciTech Connect

In medicine, as in many areas of research, technological innovation and the shift from paper based information to electronic records has created a climate of ever increasing availability of raw data. There has been, however, a corresponding lag in our abilities to analyze this overwhelming mass of data, and classic forms of statistical analysis may not allow researchers to interact with data in the most productive way. This is true in the emerging area of patient safety improvement. Traditionally, a majority of the analysis of error and incident reports has been carried out based on an approach of data comparison, and starts with a specific question which needs to be answered. Newer data analysis tools have been developed which allow the researcher to not only ask specific questions but also to “mine” data: approach an area of interest without preconceived questions, and explore the information dynamically, allowing questions to be formulated based on patterns brought up by the data itself. Since 1991, United States Pharmacopeia (USP) has been collecting data on medication errors through voluntary reporting programs. USP’s MEDMARXsm reporting program is the largest national medication error database and currently contains well over 600,000 records. Traditionally, USP has conducted an annual quantitative analysis of data derived from “pick-lists” (i.e., items selected from a list of items) without an in-depth analysis of free-text fields. In this paper, the application of text analysis and data analysis tools used by Battelle to analyze the medication error reports already analyzed in the traditional way by USP is described. New insights and findings were revealed including the value of language normalization and the distribution of error incidents by day of the week. The motivation for this effort is to gain additional insight into the nature of medication errors to support improvements in medication safety.

Whitney, Paul D.; Young, Jonathan; Santell, John; Hicks, Rodney; Posse, Christian; Fecht, Barbara A.

2004-11-15

386

Communication error detection using facial expressions  

E-print Network

Automatic detection of communication errors in conversational systems typically rely only on acoustic cues. However, perceptual studies have indicated that speakers do exhibit visual communication error cues passively ...

Wang, Sy Bor, 1976-

2008-01-01

387

A parallel algorithm for error correction in high-throughput short-read data on CUDA-enabled graphics hardware.  

PubMed

Emerging DNA sequencing technologies open up exciting new opportunities for genome sequencing by generating read data with a massive throughput. However, produced reads are significantly shorter and more error-prone compared to the traditional Sanger shotgun sequencing method. This poses challenges for de novo DNA fragment assembly algorithms in terms of both accuracy (to deal with short, error-prone reads) and scalability (to deal with very large input data sets). In this article, we present a scalable parallel algorithm for correcting sequencing errors in high-throughput short-read data so that error-free reads can be available before DNA fragment assembly, which is of high importance to many graph-based short-read assembly tools. The algorithm is based on spectral alignment and uses the Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) programming model. To gain efficiency we are taking advantage of the CUDA texture memory using a space-efficient Bloom filter data structure for spectrum membership queries. We have tested the runtime and accuracy of our algorithm using real and simulated Illumina data for different read lengths, error rates, input sizes, and algorithmic parameters. Using a CUDA-enabled mass-produced GPU (available for less than US$400 at any local computer outlet), this results in speedups of 12-84 times for the parallelized error correction, and speedups of 3-63 times for both sequential preprocessing and parallelized error correction compared to the publicly available Euler-SR program. Our implementation is freely available for download from http://cuda-ec.sourceforge.net . PMID:20426693

Shi, Haixiang; Schmidt, Bertil; Liu, Weiguo; Müller-Wittig, Wolfgang

2010-04-01

388

Error and its meaning in forensic science.  

PubMed

The discussion of "error" has gained momentum in forensic science in the wake of the Daubert guidelines and has intensified with the National Academy of Sciences' Report. Error has many different meanings, and too often, forensic practitioners themselves as well as the courts misunderstand scientific error and statistical error rates, often confusing them with practitioner error (or mistakes). Here, we present an overview of these concepts as they pertain to forensic science applications, discussing the difference between practitioner error (including mistakes), instrument error, statistical error, and method error. We urge forensic practitioners to ensure that potential sources of error and method limitations are understood and clearly communicated and advocate that the legal community be informed regarding the differences between interobserver errors, uncertainty, variation, and mistakes. PMID:24111751

Christensen, Angi M; Crowder, Christian M; Ousley, Stephen D; Houck, Max M

2014-01-01

389

Standard Error of Sample Means  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page, created by Richard Lowry of Vassar College, calculates the standard error of a sampling distribution of sample means when users input the mean and standard deviation of the population and the sample size. This is a great interactive resource to help reinforce many statistical theories.

Lowry, Richard

2009-01-09

390

Multichannel error correction code decoder  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A brief overview of a processing satellite for a mesh very-small-aperture (VSAT) communications network is provided. The multichannel error correction code (ECC) decoder system, the uplink signal generation and link simulation equipment, and the time-shared decoder are described. The testing is discussed. Applications of the time-shared decoder are recommended.

Wagner, Paul K.; Ivancic, William D.

1993-01-01

391

Visualizing Errors and Its Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of our research is to realize a system for supporting English composition in second language learning which allows learners to compose some sentences and gain appropriate awareness of their errors in the sentences with indirect information from the system. This paper proposes a method when and how the system provides stimuli to the learners, describes its implementation briefly,

Hidenobu Kunichika; Tsukasa Hirashima; Akira Takeuchi

2006-01-01

392

Amplify Errors to Minimize Them  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author offers her experience of modeling mistakes and writing spontaneously in the computer classroom to get students' attention and elicit their editorial response. She describes how she taught her class about major sentence errors--comma splices, run-ons, and fragments--through her Sentence Meditation exercise, a rendition…

Stewart, Maria Shine

2009-01-01

393

DATA COMPRESSION USING WAVELETS: ERROR ...  

E-print Network

fense Advanced Research Projects Agency, and the Army High Performance .... to choose an error metric that parallels the human visual system, so that image ... ?j,k, the optimal selection of coefficients for a given ? results in the same smoothness ..... amblyopia: Evidence for a two type classification, Vision Research, ...

1910-90-11

394

ISMP Medication Error Report Analysis  

PubMed Central

These medication errors have occurred in health care facilities at least once. They will happen again—perhaps where you work. Through education and alertness of personnel and procedural safeguards, they can be avoided. You should consider publishing accounts of errors in your newsletters and/or presenting them at your inservice training programs. Your assistance is required to continue this feature. The reports described here were received through the Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP) Medication Errors Reporting Program. Any reports published by ISMP will be anonymous. Comments are also invited; the writers’ names will be published if desired. ISMP may be contacted at the address shown below. Errors, close calls, or hazardous conditions may be reported directly to ISMP through the ISMP Web site (www.ismp.org), by calling 800-FAIL-SAFE, or via e-mail at ismpinfo@ismp.org. ISMP guarantees the confidentiality and security of the information received and respects reporters’ wishes as to the level of detail included in publications. PMID:24474828

2013-01-01

395

ISMP Medication Error Report Analysis  

PubMed Central

These medication errors have occurred in health care facilities at least once. They will happen again—perhaps where you work. Through education and alertness of personnel and procedural safeguards, they can be avoided. You should consider publishing accounts of errors in your newsletters and/or presenting them at your inservice training programs. Your assistance is required to continue this feature. The reports described here were received through the Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP) Medication Errors Reporting Program. Any reports published by ISMP will be anonymous. Comments are also invited; the writers’ names will be published if desired. ISMP may be contacted at the address shown below. Errors, close calls, or hazardous conditions may be reported directly to ISMP through the ISMP Web site (www.ismp.org), by calling 800-FAIL-SAFE, or via e-mail at ismpinfo@ismp.org. ISMP guarantees the confidentiality and security of the information received and respects reporters’ wishes as to the level of detail included in publications. PMID:24421529

2013-01-01

396

Reduced discretization error in HZETRN  

SciTech Connect

The deterministic particle transport code HZETRN is an efficient analysis tool for studying the effects of space radiation on humans, electronics, and shielding materials. In a previous work, numerical methods in the code were reviewed, and new methods were developed that further improved efficiency and reduced overall discretization error. It was also shown that the remaining discretization error could be attributed to low energy light ions (A < 4) with residual ranges smaller than the physical step-size taken by the code. Accurately resolving the spectrum of low energy light particles is important in assessing risk associated with astronaut radiation exposure. In this work, modifications to the light particle transport formalism are presented that accurately resolve the spectrum of low energy light ion target fragments. The modified formalism is shown to significantly reduce overall discretization error and allows a physical approximation to be removed. For typical step-sizes and energy grids used in HZETRN, discretization errors for the revised light particle transport algorithms are shown to be less than 4% for aluminum and water shielding thicknesses as large as 100 g/cm{sup 2} exposed to both solar particle event and galactic cosmic ray environments.

Slaba, Tony C., E-mail: Tony.C.Slaba@nasa.gov [NASA Langley Research Center, 2 West Reid St., MS 188E, Hampton, VA 23681 (United States); Blattnig, Steve R., E-mail: Steve.R.Blattnig@nasa.gov [NASA Langley Research Center, 2 West Reid St., MS 188E, Hampton, VA 23681 (United States); Tweed, John, E-mail: jtweed@odu.edu [Old Dominion University, Hampton Blvd., Norfolk, VA 23508 (United States)] [Old Dominion University, Hampton Blvd., Norfolk, VA 23508 (United States)

2013-02-01

397

Reduced discretization error in HZETRN  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The deterministic particle transport code HZETRN is an efficient analysis tool for studying the effects of space radiation on humans, electronics, and shielding materials. In a previous work, numerical methods in the code were reviewed, and new methods were developed that further improved efficiency and reduced overall discretization error. It was also shown that the remaining discretization error could be attributed to low energy light ions (A < 4) with residual ranges smaller than the physical step-size taken by the code. Accurately resolving the spectrum of low energy light particles is important in assessing risk associated with astronaut radiation exposure. In this work, modifications to the light particle transport formalism are presented that accurately resolve the spectrum of low energy light ion target fragments. The modified formalism is shown to significantly reduce overall discretization error and allows a physical approximation to be removed. For typical step-sizes and energy grids used in HZETRN, discretization errors for the revised light particle transport algorithms are shown to be less than 4% for aluminum and water shielding thicknesses as large as 100 g/cm2 exposed to both solar particle event and galactic cosmic ray environments.

Slaba, Tony C.; Blattnig, Steve R.; Tweed, John

2013-02-01

398

Error Patterns of Bilingual Readers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a study of developmental reading behaviors, errors of 75 Spanish-English bilingual students (grades 2-9) on the McLeod GAP Comprehension Test were categorized in an attempt to ascertain a pattern of language difficulties. Contrary to previous research, bilingual readers minimally used native language cues in reading second language materials.…

Gonzalez, Phillip C.; Elijah, David V.

1979-01-01

399

Greenland accumulation: An error model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total surface accumulation (total snowfall minus total sublimation) on the Greenland Ice Sheet is estimated as 299 +\\/- 23 kg m-2 yr-1 for an assumed 30-year span, the uncertainty being quoted as twice the standard error. The estimate is very similar to earlier estimates because it relies largely on the same compiled observations, but it is the first to be

J. Graham Cogley

2004-01-01

400

Greenland accumulation: An error model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total surface accumulation (total snowfall minus total sublimation) on the Greenland Ice Sheet is estimated as 299 ± 23 kg m?2 yr?1 for an assumed 30-year span, the uncertainty being quoted as twice the standard error. The estimate is very similar to earlier estimates because it relies largely on the same compiled observations, but it is the first to be

J. Graham Cogley

2004-01-01

401

Having Fun with Error Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We present a fun activity that can be used to introduce students to error analysis: the M&M game. Students are told to estimate the number of individual candies plus uncertainty in a bag of M&M's. The winner is the group whose estimate brackets the actual number with the smallest uncertainty. The exercise produces enthusiastic discussions and…

Siegel, Peter

2007-01-01

402

Exterminator: Automatically Correcting Memory Errors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Programs written in C and C++ are susceptible to memory er- rors, including buffer overflows and dangling pointers. These er- rors, which can lead to crashes, erroneous execution, and security vulnerabilities, are notoriously costly to repair. Tracking down their location in the source code is difficult, even when the full memory state of the program is available. Once the errors

Gene Novark; Emery D. Berger; Benjamin G. Zorn

403

Intersymbol interference and error probability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a criterion of minimum average error probability we derive a method for specifying an optimum linear, time invariant receiving filter for a digital data transmission system. The transmitted data are binary and coded into pulses of shapepm s(t). The linear transmission medium introduces intersymbol interference and additive Gaussian noise. Because the intersymbol interference is not Gaussian and can be

M. Aaron; D. Tufts

1966-01-01

404

Development of one novel multiple-target plasmid for duplex quantitative PCR analysis of roundup ready soybean.  

PubMed

To enforce the labeling regulations of genetically modified organisms (GMOs), the application of reference molecules as calibrators is becoming essential for practical quantification of GMOs. However, the reported reference molecules with tandem marker multiple targets have been proved not suitable for duplex PCR analysis. In this study, we developed one unique plasmid molecule based on one pMD-18T vector with three exogenous target DNA fragments of Roundup Ready soybean GTS 40-3-2 (RRS), that is, CaMV35S, NOS, and RRS event fragments, plus one fragment of soybean endogenous Lectin gene. This Lectin gene fragment was separated from the three exogenous target DNA fragments of RRS by inserting one 2.6 kb DNA fragment with no relatedness to RRS detection targets in this resultant plasmid. Then, we proved that this design allows the quantification of RRS using the three duplex real-time PCR assays targeting CaMV35S, NOS, and RRS events employing this reference molecule as the calibrator. In these duplex PCR assays, the limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were 10 and 50 copies, respectively. For the quantitative analysis of practical RRS samples, the results of accuracy and precision were similar to those of simplex PCR assays, for instance, the quantitative results were at the 1% level, the mean bias of the simplex and duplex PCR were 4.0% and 4.6%, respectively, and the statistic analysis ( t-test) showed that the quantitative data from duplex and simplex PCR had no significant discrepancy for each soybean sample. Obviously, duplex PCR analysis has the advantages of saving the costs of PCR reaction and reducing the experimental errors in simplex PCR testing. The strategy reported in the present study will be helpful for the development of new reference molecules suitable for duplex PCR quantitative assays of GMOs. PMID:18570432

Zhang, Haibo; Yang, Litao; Guo, Jinchao; Li, Xiang; Jiang, Lingxi; Zhang, Dabing

2008-07-23

405

Linking Self-Regulation and Risk Proneness to Risky Sexual Behavior: Pathways through Peer Pressure and Early Substance Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The linkages between self-regulation in childhood, risk proneness in early adolescence, and risky sexual behavior in mid-adolescence were examined in a cohort of children (N=518) from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. The possible mediating role of two early adolescent variables (substance use and negative peer pressure) was also…

Crockett, Lisa J.; Raffaelli, Marcela; Shen, Yuh-Ling

2006-01-01

406

Diesel Exhaust-Induced Cardiac Dysfunction Is Mediated by Sympathetic Dominance in Heart Failure-Prone Rats  

EPA Science Inventory

Short-term exposure to vehicular emissions is associated with adverse cardiac events. Diesel exhaust (DE) may provoke cardiac events through defective co-ordination of the two main autonomic nervous system (ANS) branches. We exposed heart failure-prone rats once to DE (500 ¿g/m3 ...

407

Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy in Patients with Cervical Cancer. An intra-individual Comparison of Prone and Supine Positioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Chemoradiation for cervical cancer patients is associated with considerable gastrointestinal toxicity. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) has demonstrated superiority in terms of target coverage and normal tissue sparing in comparison to conventional 3D planning in gynaecological malignancies. Whether IMRT in prone (PP) or supine position (SP) might be beneficial for cervical cancer patients remains partially unanswered. METHODS: 10 patients on FIGO

Carmen Stromberger; Yves Kom; Michael Kawgan-Kagan; Tristan Mensing; Ulrich Jahn; Achim Schneider; Volker Budach; Christhardt Köhler; Simone Marnitz

2010-01-01

408

Breast tumor PDXs are genetically plastic and correspond to a subset of aggressive cancers prone to relapse.  

E-print Network

1 Breast tumor PDXs are genetically plastic and correspond to a subset of aggressive cancers prone are genetically dynamic and susceptible to slow drift. Keywords: breast cancer, patient derived xenografts derived xenografts (PDXs) are increasingly appreciated models in cancer research, particularly

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

409

Brain death due to fat embolism -- could moderate hypercapnia and prone position be blamed for the tonsillar herniation?  

PubMed Central

Fat embolism to the systemic circulation in polytrauma patients is very common. The fat embolism syndrome (FES), however, is a rare condition. We describe a case of traumatic femur fracture with FES that was presented as acute tonsillar herniation (coning) and brain death postoperatively. We believe that in this case the prone position and moderate hypercapnia contributed to the acute coning. PMID:23977867

Larsson, Anders

2013-01-01

410

A Trio of Turmoil for Internet Sexually Addicted Men Who Have Sex with Men: Boredom Proneness, Social Connectedness, and Dissociation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the impact of boredom proneness, social connectedness, and online dissociation in Internet sexually addicted men who have sex with men (MSM). Increased levels of boredom, diminished social connections, and dissociative symptoms while engaged in excessive online sexual activities are conceptualized as components that facilitate and maintain Internet sexual addiction. An overview of the literature pertaining to extreme

MICHAEL P. CHANEY; CATHERINE Y. CHANG

2005-01-01

411

Green water security for the food makers of tomorrow: windows of opportunity in drought-prone savannahs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The largest remaining biophysical water challenge is whether there is enough fresh water to sustain global food production and service natural ecosytems. Focussing on the drought-prone savannahs and small-scale farming, this paper argues that the crucial resource is vapour flow, not \\

Johan Rockström

412

Oxidative stress as a mechanism of diabetes in diabetic BB prone rats: Effect of secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) isolated from flaxseed has antioxidant activity and has been shown to prevent hypercholesterolemic atherosclerosis. An investigation was made of the effects of SDG on the development of diabetes in diabetic prone BioBreeding rats (BBdp rats), a model of human type I diabetes [insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM)] to determine if this type of diabetes is due to

Kailash Prasad

2000-01-01

413

Positioning a proned patient with cauda equina syndrome who presents at 15 weeks gestation: a case report  

PubMed Central

Cauda equina syndrome is a neurosurgical emergency that requires prompt intervention to prevent irreversible spinal cord paralysis. This article describes how we managed a case of an obese pregnant patient who was placed in the prone position for surgery. We discuss the evidence behind the management options and choice of operating tables available. PMID:25110580

Speirs, Elizabeth; Wiles, Matthew; Bacon, Andrew; Radley, Stephen

2014-01-01

414

Identification of “binge-prone” women: An experimentally and psychometrically validated cluster analysis in a college population  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the escape model of binge eating through a cluster analysis using standardized measures. A sample of 126 undergraduate women underwent a manipulation of their level of cognition and were asked to “taste-test” several flavors of ice cream. Questionnaire data from these women were entered into a cluster analysis. Two groups emerged: women in the “binge-prone” group were

Dean W. Beebe; Grayson N. Holmbeck; Jeanne S. Albright; Kimberly Noga; Bea Decastro

1995-01-01

415

Injury-Proneness of Youth with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A National Clinical Data Analysis in Taiwan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Limited literature documents injury-proneness of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in western population. However, only a few studies prospectively investigated the prediction of ADHD to injuries without considering other psychiatric and physical conditions and there is lack of such data in Asian population. To prospectively examine the…

Tai, Yueh-Ming; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Gau, Churn-Shiouh

2013-01-01

416

Effects of Early Motor Intervention in the Prone Position of Full-Term Infants through the First Year of Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Full-term infants who had slept in the prone position since birth were followed to detect early postural abnormalities and differentiate potential peripheral abnormality from abnormalities of a central origin. Results showed that disappearance of initial signs of abnormality appeared to be muscular, and symptoms disappeared faster when a motor…

Douret, L.

1993-01-01

417

Gender Differences in Depression and Anxiety among Victims of Intimate Partner Violence: The Moderating Effect of Shame Proneness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study examined the moderating role of shame proneness on the association between physical, psychological, and sexual intimate partner violence victimization and depressive and anxious symptoms among male and female college students (N = 967). Students completed self-report measures of dating violence, depression, anxiety, and shame…

Shorey, Ryan C.; Sherman, Amanda E.; Kivisto, Aaron J.; Elkins, Sara R.; Rhatigan, Deborah L.; Moore, Todd M.

2011-01-01

418

Optimal PHP control of multiple part-types on a failure-prone machine with quadratic buffer costs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider a single, failure-prone machine, producing multiple part-types. The goal is to minimize the expected sum of quadratic buffer costs. In general, the optimal solution to this problem is unknown. However, by restricting the allowable set of control policies to the class of prioritized hedging point policies, we are able to determine simple, analytical expressions for the optimal hedging

Chang Shu; James R. Perkins

1998-01-01

419

Optimal PHP production of multiple part-types on a failure-prone machine with quadratic buffer costs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider a single, failure-prone machine, producing multiple part-types The objective is to minimize the expected sum of quadratic buffer costs. In general, the optimal solution to this problem is unknown. However, by restricting the allowable set of control policies to the class of prioritized hedging point (PHP) policies, we are able to determine simple, analytical expressions for the optimal

Chang Shu; James R. Perkins

2001-01-01

420

Factors affecting PCR-mediated recombination.  

PubMed

In the past decade, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has become an important tool for the identification of previously unknown microorganisms and the analysis of environmental microbial diversity. Several studies published during recent years, however, have demonstrated that products obtained after PCR using Taq or Vent DNA polymerases will contain hybrid molecules when several homologous target sequences such as multigene families, alleles, or RNA viruses are co-amplified. In this report, we examined the recombination frequency and the extent of template switching during PCR using Taq, Pfu and RTth/Vent DNA polymerases. As a test system we constructed a series of plasmids carrying between one and three frame shift mutations in the gene coding for the protease subtilisin or deletions of approximately 100 bp in the lacZ alpha. Highest recombination frequencies were observed when these mutants were co-amplified with Taq followed by RTth/Vent DNA polymerases. Pfu DNA polymerase displayed no discernable recombination activity under normal PCR conditions. Data also suggest that in vivo repair of heteroduplex DNA molecules in Escherichia coli by a RecA-independent mechanism, perhaps the mismatch repair, results in the formation of chimeric molecules. Using Bacillus subtilis as the host, however, can significantly diminish non-PCR RecA-independent in vivo recombination, owing to the fact that transforming DNA molecules enter B. subtilis as single strands. Combined, these results suggest that using Pfu DNA polymerase for amplification and B. subtilis as the host for transformation may significantly reduce chimera formation. PMID:12153589

Shafikhani, Sasha

2002-08-01

421

Error-Related Psychophysiology and Negative Affect  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The error-related negativity (ERN/Ne) and error positivity (Pe) have been associated with error detection and response monitoring. More recently, heart rate (HR) and skin conductance (SC) have also been shown to be sensitive to the internal detection of errors. An enhanced ERN has consistently been observed in anxious subjects and there is some…

Hajcak, G.; McDonald, N.; Simons, R.F.

2004-01-01

422

ACS calibration pipeline testing: error propagation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report details how CALACS, the calibration software pipeline for the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS), produces ERR (error) array output. From a standard error analysis text we derive the equations which CALACS should use to propagate errors. Tests are then run to verify the actual CALACS error array output equals the expected values from our derived equtions. CALACS thereby

Doug van Orsow; Max Mutchler; Warren Hack; Robert Jedrzejewski

1999-01-01

423

The Sources of Error in Spanish Writing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Determines the pattern of errors in Spanish spelling. Analyzes and proposes a classification system for the errors made by children in the initial stages of the acquisition of spelling skills. Finds the diverse forms of only 20 Spanish words produces 36% of the spelling errors in Spanish; and substitution is the most frequent type of error. (RS)

Justicia, Fernando; Defior, Sylvia; Pelegrina, Santiago; Martos, Francisco J.

1999-01-01

424

Reducing prescribing error: competence, control, and culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medication errors are probably the most prevalent form of medical error, and prescribing errors are the most important source of medication errors. In this article we suggest interventions are needed at three levels to improve prescribing: (1) improve the training, and test the competence, of prescribers; (2) control the environment in which prescribers perform in order to standardise it, have

N Barber; M Rawlins; B Dean Franklin

2003-01-01

425

A cognitive taxonomy of medical errors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. Propose a cognitive taxonomy of medical errors at the level of individuals and their interactions with technology.Design. Use cognitive theories of human error and human action to develop the theoretical foundations of the taxonomy, develop the structure of the taxonomy, populate the taxonomy with examples of medical error cases, identify cognitive mechanisms for each category of medical error under

Jiajie Zhang; Vimla L. Patel; Todd R. Johnson; Edward H. Shortliffe

2004-01-01

426

Error handling in the NSLS control system  

SciTech Connect

The error handling software is an important component of the NSLS control system and has been in use since 1982. Following the major control system upgrade, the error processing software has been improved at both micro and workstation levels. This note describes strategies used in error detection and reporting and the workstation software used for display and analysis of error messages.

Ramamoorthy, S.; Pearson, P.; Smith, J.

1995-05-01

427

Are transported soil aggregates prone to flocculation and/or disaggregation during a flood event?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particles eroded from hillslopes and exported to rivers are recognized to be composite particles of high internal complexity. Their structure and composition are known to influence their transport behaviour within the water column relative to discrete particles. However, to-date, hillslope erosion studies consider aggregates to be stable once they are detached from the soil matrix. Alternatively lowland rivers and estuaries studies often suggest that particle structure and dynamics are controlled by flocculation within the water column. These conceptualisations led to different modelling strategies. In order to improve the understanding of particles dynamics along the continuum from hillslopes to lowland rivers, soil particle behaviour was tested under controlled laboratory conditions. Seven flume erosion and deposition experiments, designed to simulate a natural erosive event, and five shear cell experiments were performed using three contrasting materials: two of them were ill-developed and as such cannot be considered as soils, whilst the third one was a calcareous brown soil. Particle size distributions were measured using a CILAS 930 laser sizer which allowed for the real-time assessment of aggregate breakdown dynamics. When applied to suspended particles sampled from the flume, it was found that soil aggregates were prone to flocculation. The combined used of an optical backscatter sensor, manual sampling and particle size measurement during the flume experiments also revealed that soil particles were prone to disaggregation. Flocculation and disaggregation were not previously demonstrated to be important for soil aggregates, and may have large consequences on suspended solids modelling. Moreover, large variations in particle size were found between soil types. Indeed, at the maximum applied bed shear stress, the median diameter was found to be three times higher for the well-developed soil than for the two others. Differences were smaller in the falling limb, suggesting that soil aggregates underwent structural changes during transport. However, characterization of particles strength parameters showed that these changes did not fully turn soil aggregates into flocs as defined in estuaries for instance, but rather into hybrid soil aggregates-flocs particles. While particle characteristics changed once introduced within the water column, there is still an underlying need to clearly define the way eroded soil aggregates may modify/integrate into riverine flocs during their transport.

Grangeon, Thomas; Droppo, Ian; Legout, Cédric; Esteves, Michel

2013-04-01

428

Assessment of Prone Positioning of Restrained, Seated Crewmembers in a Post Landing Stable 2 Orion Configuration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the Orion landing and recovery subsystem design review, June 2009, it was noted that the human system and various vehicle systems, the environmental control and life support (ECLSS) and guidance, navigation and control (GN&C) systems for example, are negatively affected by Orion assuming a stable 2 (upside down; Figure A) configuration post landing. The stable 2 configuration is predicted to occur about 50% of the time based on Apollo landing data and modeling of the current capsule. The stable 2 configuration will be countered by an active up-righting system (crew module up-righting system; CMUS). Post landing balloons will deploy and inflate causing the vehicle to assume or maintain the stable 1 (up-right; Figure B) configuration. During the design review it was proposed that the up-righting system could be capable of righting the vehicle within 60 seconds. However, this time limit posed a series of constraints on the design which made it less robust than desired. The landing and recovery subsystem team requested an analysis of Orion vehicle systems as well as the human system with regard to the effect of stable 2 in order to determine if an up-righting response time greater than 60 seconds could be tolerated. The following report focuses on the assessment of the human system in the posture assumed when Orion is in the stable 2 configuration. Stable 2 will place suited, seated, and restrained crewmembers in a prone (facedown), head-up position for a period of time dependent on the functionality of the up-righting systems, ability of the crew to release themselves from the seat and restraints, and/or time to arrival of rescue forces. Given that the Orion seat and restraint system design is not complete and therefore, not available for evaluation, Space Medicine assessed how long a healthy but deconditioned crewmember could stay in this prone, restrained position and the physiological consequences of this posture by researching terrestrial analogs and considered the known physiological alterations and deconditioning experienced by long duration crewmembers.

Barr, Yael; Fogarty, Jennifer

2010-01-01

429

Error analysis for Mueller matrix measurement.  

PubMed

The linear errors of Mueller matrix measurements are formulated for misalignment, depolarization, and incorrect retardation of the polarimetric components. The measured errors of a Mueller matrix depend not only on the imperfections of the measuring system but also on the Mueller matrix itself. The error matrices for different polarimetric systems are derived and also evaluated for the straight-through case. The error matrix for a polarizer-sample-analyzer system is much simpler than those for more complicated systems. The general error matrix is applied to null ellipsometry, and the obtained errors in ellipsometric parameters psi and delta are identical to the errors specifically derived for null ellipsometry with depolarization. PMID:12938923

Nee, Soe-Mie F

2003-08-01

430

ERROR ANALYSIS OF COMPOSITE SHOCK INTERACTION PROBLEMS.  

SciTech Connect

We propose statistical models of uncertainty and error in numerical solutions. To represent errors efficiently in shock physics simulations we propose a composition law. The law allows us to estimate errors in the solutions of composite problems in terms of the errors from simpler ones as discussed in a previous paper. In this paper, we conduct a detailed analysis of the errors. One of our goals is to understand the relative magnitude of the input uncertainty vs. the errors created within the numerical solution. In more detail, we wish to understand the contribution of each wave interaction to the errors observed at the end of the simulation.

LEE,T.MU,Y.ZHAO,M.GLIMM,J.LI,X.YE,K.

2004-07-26

431

PCR melting profile (PCR MP) - a new tool for differentiation of Candida albicans strains  

PubMed Central

Background We have previously reported the use of PCR Melting Profile (PCR MP) technique based on using low denaturation temperatures during ligation mediated PCR (LM PCR) for bacterial strain differentiation. The aim of the current study was to evaluate this method for intra-species differentiation of Candida albicans strains. Methods In total 123 Candida albicans strains (including 7 reference, 11 clinical unrelated, and 105 isolates from patients of two hospitals in Poland) were examined using three genotyping methods: PCR MP, macrorestriction analysis of the chromosomal DNA by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (REA-PFGE) and RAPD techniques. Results The genotyping results of the PCR MP were compared with results from REA-PFGE and RAPD techniques giving 27, 26 and 25 unique types, respectively. The results showed that the PCR MP technique has at least the same discriminatory power as REA-PFGE and RAPD. Conclusion Data presented here show for the first time the evaluation of PCR MP technique for candidial strains differentiation and we propose that this can be used as a relatively simple and cheap technique for epidemiological studies in short period of time in hospital. PMID:19906294

2009-01-01

432

Dopaminergic basis of the psychosis-prone personality investigated with functional magnetic resonance imaging of procedural learning  

PubMed Central

Previous evidence shows a reliable association between psychosis-prone (especially schizotypal) personality traits and performance on dopamine (DA)-sensitive tasks (e.g., prepulse inhibition and antisaccade). Here, we used blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) fMRI and an established procedural learning (PL) task to examine the dopaminergic basis of two aspects of psychosis-proneness (specific schizotypy and general psychoticism). Thirty healthy participants (final N = 26) underwent fMRI during a blocked, periodic sequence-learning task which, in previous studies, has been shown to reveal impaired performance in schizophrenia patients given drugs blocking the DA D2 receptor subtype (DRD2), and to correspond with manipulation of DA activity and elicit fronto-striatal-cerebellar activity in healthy people. Psychosis-proneness was indexed by the Psychoticism (P) scale of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised (EPQ-R; 1991) and the Schizotypal Personality Scale (STA; 1984). EPQ-R Extraversion and Neuroticism scores were also examined to establish discriminant validity. We found a positive correlation between the two psychosis-proneness measures (r = 0.43), and a robust and unique positive association between EPQ-R P and BOLD signal in the putamen, caudate, thalamus, insula, and frontal regions. STA schizotypy score correlated positively with activity in the right middle temporal gyrus. As DA is a key transmitter in the basal ganglia, and the thalamus contains the highest levels of DRD2 receptors of all extrastriatal regions, our results support a dopaminergic basis of psychosis-proneness as measured by the EPQ-R Psychoticism. PMID:23596404

Ettinger, Ulrich; Corr, Philip J.; Mofidi, Ardeshier; Williams, Steven C. R.; Kumari, Veena

2013-01-01

433

Prospective Assessment of Optimal Individual Position (Prone Versus Supine) for Breast Radiotherapy: Volumetric and Dosimetric Correlations in 100 Patients  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Damage to heart and lung from breast radiotherapy is associated with increased cardiovascular mortality and lung cancer development. We conducted a prospective study to evaluate which position is best to spare lung and heart from radiotherapy exposure. Methods and Materials: One hundred consecutive Stage 0-IIA breast cancer patients consented to participate in a research trial that required two computed tomography simulation scans for planning both supine and prone positions. The optimal position was defined as that which best covered the contoured breast and tumor bed while it minimized critical organ irradiation, as quantified by the in-field heart and lung volume. The trial was designed to plan the first 100 patients in each position to study correlations between in-field volumes of organs at risk and dose. Results: Fifty-three left and 47 right breast cancer patients were consecutively accrued to the trial. In all patients, the prone position was optimal for sparing lung volume compared to the supine setup (mean lung volume reduction was 93.5 cc for right and 103.6 cc for left breast cancer patients). In 46/53 (87%) left breast cancer patients best treated prone, in-field heart volume was reduced by a mean of 12 cc and by 1.8 cc for the other 7/53 (13%) patients best treated supine. As predicted, supine-prone differences in in-field volume and mean dose of heart and lung were highly correlated (Spearman's correlation coefficient for left breast cancer patients was 0.90 for heart and 0.94 for lung and 0.92 for right breast cancer patients for lung). Conclusions: Prone setup reduced the amount of irradiated lung in all patients and reduced the amount of heart volume irradiated in 87% of left breast cancer patients. In-field organ volume is a valid surrogate for predicting dose; the trial continued to the planned target of 400.

Lymberis, Stella C.; Wyngaert, John Keith de; Parhar, Preeti; Chhabra, Arpit M.; Fenton-Kerimian, Maria; Chang Jengwha [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University School of Medicine and Langone Medical Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University School of Medicine and Langone Medical Center, New York, New York (United States); Hochman, Tsivia [Division of Biostatistics, New York University School of Medicine and Langone Medical Center, New York, New York (United States) [Division of Biostatistics, New York University School of Medicine and Langone Medical Center, New York, New York (United States); Department of Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine and Langone Medical Center, New York, New York (United States); Guth, Amber; Roses, Daniel [Department of Surgery, New York University School of Medicine and Langone Medical Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Surgery, New York University School of Medicine and Langone Medical Center, New York, New York (United States); Goldberg, Judith D. [Division of Biostatistics, New York University School of Medicine and Langone Medical Center, New York, New York (United States) [Division of Biostatistics, New York University School of Medicine and Langone Medical Center, New York, New York (United States); Department of Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine and Langone Medical Center, New York, New York (United States); Formenti, Silvia C., E-mail: silvia.formenti@nyumc.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University School of Medicine and Langone Medical Center, New York, New York (United States)

2012-11-15

434

Registration of central paths and colonic polyps between supine and prone scans in computed tomography colonography: Pilot study  

SciTech Connect

Computed tomography colonography (CTC) is a minimally invasive method that allows the evaluation of the colon wall from CT sections of the abdomen/pelvis. The primary goal of CTC is to detect colonic polyps, precursors to colorectal cancer. Because imperfect cleansing and distension can cause portions of the colon wall to be collapsed, covered with water, and/or covered with retained stool, patients are scanned in both prone and supine positions. We believe that both reading efficiency and computer aided detection (CAD) of CTC images can be improved by accurate registration of data from the supine and prone positions. We developed a two-stage approach that first registers the colonic central paths using a heuristic and automated algorithm and then matches polyps or polyp candidates (CAD hits) by a statistical approach. We evaluated the registration algorithm on 24 patient cases. After path registration, the mean misalignment distance between prone and supine identical anatomic landmarks was reduced from 47.08 to 12.66 mm, a 73% improvement. The polyp registration algorithm was specifically evaluated using eight patient cases for which radiologists identified polyps separately for both supine and prone data sets, and then manually registered corresponding pairs. The algorithm correctly matched 78% of these pairs without user input. The algorithm was also applied to the 30 highest-scoring CAD hits in the prone and supine scans and showed a success rate of 50% in automatically registering corresponding polyp pairs. Finally, we computed the average number of CAD hits that need to be manually compared in order to find the correct matches among the top 30 CAD hits. With polyp registration, the average number of comparisons was 1.78 per polyp, as opposed to 4.28 comparisons without polyp registration.

Li Ping; Napel, Sandy; Acar, Burak; Paik, David S.; Jeffrey, R. Brooke Jr.; Beaulieu, Christopher F. [Department of Statistics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Electrical and Electronics Engineering Department, Bogazici University 34342 Bebek, Istanbul (Turkey); Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

2004-10-01

435

[Identification of genital papillomavirus using PCR].  

PubMed

Over 20 different types of human papillomaviruses (HPV) are associated with tumoral lesions of the anogenital tract. Some of these lesions may become cancerous at a frequency which depends, among other risk factors, upon the type of HPV. Genital papillomaviruses with high oncogenic risk (HPV16, 18, 31, 33, 35 ...) are associated with the majority of cervical cancers and to a high proportion of high grade anogenital lesions, while HPV6 and HPV11 are most often associated with benign condylomas. The recently introduced PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) has distinctly simplified and improved detection and typing of genital HPVs. PCR detection of HPV has its place in epidemiologic studies and basic research, its application in daily clinical practise is, however, still controversial. For routine analysis, PCR serves more as a complementary tool to cytology. PMID:8209133

Sahli, R; Spuhler, S

1994-05-17

436

ACS calibration pipeline testing: error propagation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report details how CALACS, the calibration software pipeline for the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS), produces ERR (error) array output. From a standard error analysis text we derive the equations which CALACS should use to propagate errors. Tests are then run to verify the actual CALACS error array output equals the expected values from our derived equtions. CALACS thereby propagates the errors to a final statistical uncertainty for each pixel in the calibrated SCI (science) array.

van Orsow, Doug; Mutchler, Max; Hack, Warren; Jedrzejewski, Robert

1999-08-01

437

Medical errors: legal and ethical responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liability to err is a human, often unavoidable, characteristic. Errors can be classified as skill-based, rule-based, knowledge-based and other errors, such as of judgment. In law, a key distinction is between negligent and non-negligent errors. To describe a mistake as an error of clinical judgment is legally ambiguous, since an error that a physician might have made when acting with

B. M. Dickens

2003-01-01