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Sample records for ervilhaca comum vicia

  1. Cross-amplification of Vicia sativa subsp. sativa microsatellites across 22 other Vicia species.

    PubMed

    Raveendar, Sebastin; Lee, Gi-An; Jeon, Young-Ah; Lee, Yun Jeong; Lee, Jung-Ro; Cho, Gyu-Taek; Cho, Joon-Hyeong; Park, Jong-Hyun; Ma, Kyung-Ho; Chung, Jong-Wook

    2015-01-01

    The temperate and herbaceous genus Vicia L. is a member of the legume tribe Fabeae of the subfamily Papilionoideae. The genus Vicia comprises 166 annual or perennial species distributed mainly in Europe, Asia, and North America, but also extending to the temperate regions of South America and tropical Africa. The use of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers for Vicia species has not been investigated as extensively as for other crop species. In this study, we assessed the potential for cross-species amplification of cDNA microsatellite markers developed from common vetch (Vicia sativa subsp. sativa). For cross-species amplification of the SSRs, amplification was carried out with genomic DNA isolated from two to eight accessions of 22 different Vicia species. For individual species or subspecies, the transferability rates ranged from 33% for V. ervilia to 82% for V. sativa subsp. nigra with an average rate of 52.0%. Because the rate of successful SSR marker amplification generally correlates with genetic distance, these SSR markers are potentially useful for analyzing genetic relationships between or within Vicia species. PMID:25608853

  2. Genetic diversity of rhizobia nodulating native Vicia spp. in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Ampomah, Osei Yaw; Huss-Danell, Kerstin

    2016-05-01

    Despite the recognition that Rhizobium leguminosarum sv. viciae is the most common symbiont of Vicia species worldwide, there is no available information on rhizobia nodulating native Vicia species in Sweden. We have therefore studied the genetic diversity and phylogeny of root nodule bacteria isolated from V. cracca, V. hirsuta, V. sepium, V. tetrasperma and V. sylvatica growing in different locations in Sweden as well as an isolate each from V. cracca in Tromsø, Norway, and V. multicaulis in Siberia, Russia. Out of 25 isolates sampled from the six Vicia species in 12 different locations, there were 14 different genotypes based on the atpD, recA and nodA gene phylogenies. All isolates were classified into Rhizobium leguminosarum sv. viciae group based on the concatenated atpD and recA phylogeny and the nodA phylogeny. PMID:26924220

  3. Genetic diversity of a natural population of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae nodulating plants of Vicia faba in the Vesuvian area.

    PubMed

    Ventorino, Valeria; Chiurazzi, Mario; Aponte, Maria; Pepe, Olimpia; Moschetti, Giancarlo

    2007-12-01

    A total of 98 rhizobial strains, isolated during the winter of the years 2003 (35 isolates), 2004 (33 isolates), and 2005 (30 isolates) were analyzed to determine the genetic diversity of the natural population nodulating Vicia faba plants and to identify dominant genotypes. All isolates were identified as Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae by biovar-specific polymerase chain reaction amplification of the nodC gene. Intraspecific DNA polymorphism was evaluated through the restriction endonucleases analysis combined with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Four genotypes characterized 53% of the isolates, showing a high occurrence; moreover, they were recovered over the 3 years, thus showing a lasting persistence in the soil, which could mean a high degree of saprophytic competitiveness. The richness, diversity, and dominance indexes of genotypes were calculated to monitor the evolution of the rhizobial population during the 3 years. The genetic diversity of the analyzed strains decreased along the 3 years. In fact, the biodiversity index H' decreased from 2.6 in the first and second year to 1.9 in the third year; probably, as a result of bean monocropping, specific genotypes of Rh. leguminosarum bv. viciae were naturally selected. PMID:17899266

  4. [Studies on the chemical constitutens of Vicia amoena Fisch].

    PubMed

    Wei, F; Yan, W M

    1997-10-01

    One new flavonoide was isolated from Vicia amoena Fisch. On the basis of spectral (UV, MS, NMR) and chemical reactions, it was elucidated to be kaempferol-3-O-beta-D-mannoside, named amoenin(A3). Moreover, five known compounds have been isolated and identified as quercetin, kaempferol, quercetin-3-O-alpha-L-rhamoside, quercetin-3-O-beta-D-glucoside, kaempferol-3, 7-O-alpha-L-dirhamoside. The total flavonoides showed significant effects on inducing hyperlipidemia and increasing micro-blood vessel elasticity. PMID:11596220

  5. γ-Guanidinobutyraldehyde Dehydrogenase of Vicia faba Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Hitoshi; Suzuki, Yonezo

    1984-01-01

    γ-Guanidinobutyraldehyde dehydrogenase was purified 27-fold in 40% yield from extracts of Vicia faba leaves. High specificity exist only for γ-guanidinobutyraldehyde and γ-aminobutyraldehyde; the Km value was 3.4 micromolar for γ-guanidinobutyraldehyde, 25 micromolar for γ-aminobutyraldehyde, and 84 micromolar (case of γ-guanidinobutyraldehyde) for NAD, respectively. The enzyme had a molecular weight of approximately 83,000. Optimal pH and temperature for activity were 9.5 and 45°C, respectively. The enzyme was inhibited strongly by p-chloromercuribenzoate, N-ethylmaleimide, and zincon (2-carboxy-2′-hydroxy-5′-sulfoformazylbenzene). PMID:16663901

  6. Variability among Rhizobium Strains Originating from Nodules of Vicia faba.

    PubMed

    van Berkum, P; Beyene, D; Vera, F T; Keyser, H H

    1995-07-01

    Rhizobium strains from nodules of Vicia faba were diverse in plasmid content and serology. Results of multilocus gel electrophoresis and restriction fragment length polymorphism indicated several deep chromosomal lineages among the strains. Linkage disequilibrium among the chromosomal types was detected and may have reflected variation of Rhizobium strains in the different geographical locations from which the strains originated. An investigation of pea strains with antibodies prepared against fava bean strains and restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses, targeting DNA regions coding for rRNA and nodulation, indicated that Rhizobium strains from V. faba nodules were distinguishable from those from Pisum sativum, V. villosa, and Trifolium spp. PMID:16535075

  7. Carbon sources of natural cyanamide in Vicia villosa subsp. varia.

    PubMed

    Kamo, Tsunashi; Kasahara, Ryohei; Abe, Shun; Hirota, Mitsuru; Sugano, Mami; Yamaya, Hiroko; Hiradate, Syuntaro; Fujii, Yoshiharu

    2010-10-01

    The ¹³C labels of [¹³C]carbon dioxide and D-[¹³C₆]glucose were incorporated into cyanamide (NH₂CN) when they were administered to Vicia villosa subsp. varia shoots. In contrast, the administration of sodium [2,3-¹³C₂]pyruvate did not affect the relative area of the [M + 1]+ ion of cyanamide in the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. [2,3-¹³C₂]pyruvate was incorporated into organic acids that are part of the citric acid cycle, such as succinate and fumarate, confirming that the shoots absorbed and metabolised it. These observations demonstrated that the carbon atom of cyanamide is derived from any of the carbohydrates that are present upstream of pyruvate in the metabolic pathway. PMID:20954091

  8. Evidence of cyanamide production in hairy vetch Vicia villosa.

    PubMed

    Kamo, Tsunashi; Kato, Kenji; Hiradate, Syuntaro; Nakajima, Eri; Fujii, Yoshiharu; Hirota, Mitsuru

    2006-05-10

    Cyanamide (NH(2)CN) has recently been isolated as a plant growth inhibitor from Vicia villosa, which is the first discovery of cyanamide from natural sources. To reveal the presence of the biosynthesized cyanamide in plants, 3.4 mM potassium ((15)N)nitrate was administered to 15- to 35-day-old plants of V. villosa, from which the cyanamide was purified and subjected to GC/MS analysis. The isotopic ratio (15)N/((14)N + (15)N) of the cyanamide was calculated to be 0.143, while that of the cyanamide extracted from V. villosa grown in the presence of a natural N source was 0.0065. The (15)N-enrichment proved de novo biosynthesis of cyanamide. PMID:16644540

  9. Mathematical modeling of biological growth for some Vicia faba varieties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ionel, Samfira; Andreea, Ghica; Marius, Boldea; Monica, Butnariu; Marius, Sendroni; Andrei, M.-Kiss

    2013-10-01

    Vicia faba is one of the legume species of importance for human and animal nutrition. Over the past decade, the areas cultivated with this species have significantly increased. Given that the levels of the yield and quality obtained from this species depend largely on the specific soil and climate conditions, the present paper focuses on the study of the morpho-productive features under the conditions in Banat Plain, in the west of Romania. A collection of varieties and genetic lines was studied, with focus on the interdependence between plant height, characteristics of the foliage and in the end the foliar surface of the leaf and of the entire plant. The observations led to the conclusion that variety Melodie has the best response of biological growth on the plain.

  10. Physiological responses of Vicia faba plants to sulfur dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Nandi, P.K.; Agrawal, M.; Agrawal, S.B.; Rao, D.N. )

    1990-02-01

    Exposure of broad bean (Vicia faba L.) plants to 270 +/- 32 and 670 +/- 45 micrograms m 3SO{sub 2} for 1.5 hr daily between 40 and 85 days of their ages resulted in an increase in their transpiration rate, water saturation deficit, phenol content, and peroxidase activity and a decrease in protein content. With the increase in number of exposures of plants to SO{sub 2}, chlorotic and brown, necrotic visible injury signs were also developed in leaves. It was further noted that the magnitude of undesirable biochemical changes, which possibly helped in the formation of new pigment characteristic of necrotic tissue of SO{sub 2}-exposed plants, was not totally dependent on the pollutant concentration.

  11. Genotoxicity of hydrated sulfur dioxide on root tips of Allium sativum and Vicia faba.

    PubMed

    Yi, Huilan; Meng, Ziqiang

    2003-05-01

    Genotoxicity of sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) and its hydrates (bisulfite and sulfite) in human lymphocytes and other mammalian cells have been found earlier in our laboratory. In the present studies, we used Allium stavium and Vicia faba cytogenetic tests, which are the highly sensitive and simple plant bioassays. A mixture of sodium bisulfite and sodium sulfite (1:3), at various concentrations from 1 x 10(-4) to 2 x 10(-3)M was used for the treatment. Genotoxicity was expressed in terms of anaphase aberration (AA) frequencies in the Vicia-AA test and in terms of micronuclei (MCN) frequencies in both Vicia-MCN test and Alllium-MCN test. On average, the results showed a 1.7-3.9-fold increase of AA frequencies and a 3.5-4.5-fold increase of MCN frequencies in Vicia root tips as compared with the negative control. Similarly, results of Allium-MCN test also showed a significant increase in MCN frequencies in the treated samples. In addition, pycnotic cells (PNC) appeared in Allium root tips of treated groups. The frequencies of MCN, AA and PNC increased dose-dependently and the cell cycle delayed at the same time in bisulfite treated samples. Results of the present study suggest that the Vicia and Allium cytogenetic bioassays are efficient, simple and reproducible in genotoxicity studies of bisulfite. PMID:12742512

  12. Release of Sucrose from Vicia faba L. Leaf Discs 1

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, James Michael

    1983-01-01

    The release of sucrose from leaf discs of Vicia faba L. to a bathing medium was studied for evidence of a relationship between this release and mesophyll export of photosynthate in vivo. Sucrose was released specifically over hexoses and represented over 85% of total photosynthate released. The sucrose appeared to be derived from the mesophyll tissue directly and release did not require concurrent photosynthesis. The data indicated two separate channels for sucrose release. The first was sensitive to inhibition by 1 millimolar p-chloromercuribenzenesulfonic acid and the second was promoted by lowering the Ca2+ concentration below 0.1 millimolar. Flow through both channels was about equal when tissue that had been actively photosynthesizing for several hours was used. The rate of release was not dependent on the extracellular pH, but was inhibited by 10 micromolar carbonylcyanide p-trifluromethoxyphenylhydrazone. Lowering the Ca2+ concentration below 0.1 millimolar or raising the K+ concentration above 100 millimolar stimulated sucrose release. The stimulation by high K+ was not reversed by adding Ca2+. The data supported the postulate that Ca2+ removal or K+ addition changed the permeability of the mesophyll plasma membrane to sucrose. PMID:16662827

  13. Allyl isothiocyanate induces stomatal closure in Vicia faba.

    PubMed

    Sobahan, Muhammad Abdus; Akter, Nasima; Okuma, Eiji; Uraji, Misugi; Ye, Wenxiu; Mori, Izumi C; Nakamura, Yoshimasa; Murata, Yoshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    Isothiocyanates are enzymatically produced from glucosinolates in plants, and allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) induces stomatal closure in Arabidopsis thaliana. In this study, we investigated stomatal responses to AITC in Vicia faba. AITC-induced stomatal closure accompanied by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and NO production, cytosolic alkalization and glutathione (GSH) depletion in V. faba. GSH monoethyl ester induced stomatal reopening and suppressed AITC-induced GSH depletion in guard cells. Exogenous catalase and a peroxidase inhibitor, salicylhydroxamic acid, inhibited AITC-induced stomatal closure, unlike an NAD(P)H oxidase inhibitor, diphenylene iodonium chloride. The peroxidase inhibitor also abolished the AITC-induced ROS production, NO production, and cytosolic alkalization. AITC-induced stomatal closure was suppressed by an NO scavenger, 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide, and an agent to acidify cytosol, butyrate. These results indicate that AITC-induced stomatal closure in V. faba as well as in A. thaliana and suggest that AITC signaling in guard cells is conserved in both plants. PMID:26027691

  14. Vicia faba bioassay for environmental toxicity monitoring: A review.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Munawar

    2016-02-01

    Higher plants are recognized as excellent genetic models to detect cytogenetic and mutagenic agents and are frequently used in environmental monitoring studies. Vicia faba (V. faba) bioassay have been used to study DNA damages i.e., chromosomal and nuclear aberrations induced by metallic compounds, pesticides, complex mixtures, petroleum derivates, toxins, nanoparticles and industrial effluents. The main advantages of using V. faba is its availability round the year, economical to use, easy to grow and handle; its use does not require sterile conditions, rate of cell division is fast, chromosomes are easy to score, less expensive and more sensitive as compared to other short-term tests that require pre-preparations. The V. faba test offers evaluation of different endpoints and tested agents can be classified as cytotoxic/genotoxic/mutagenic. This test also provides understanding about mechanism of action, whether the tested agent is clastogenic or aneugenic in nature. In view of advantages offered by V. faba test system, it is used extensively to assess toxic agents and has been emerged as an important bioassay for ecotoxicological studies. Based on the applications of V. faba test to assess the environmental quality, this article offers an overview of this test system and its efficiency in assessing the cytogenetic and mutagenic agents in different classes of the environmental concerns. PMID:26414739

  15. Photosynthesis affects following night leaf conductance in Vicia faba.

    PubMed

    Easlon, Hsien Ming; Richards, James H

    2009-01-01

    Night-time stomatal opening in C(3) plants may result in significant water loss when no carbon gain is possible. The objective of this study was to determine if endogenous patterns of night-time stomatal opening, as reflected in leaf conductance, in Vicia faba are affected by photosynthetic conditions the previous day. Reducing photosynthesis with low light or low CO(2) resulted in reduced night-time stomatal opening the following night, irrespective of the effects on daytime stomatal conductance. Likewise, increasing photosynthesis with enriched CO(2) levels resulted in increased night-time stomatal opening the following night. Reduced night-time stomatal opening was not the result of an inability to regulate stomatal aperture as leaves with reduced night-time stomatal opening were capable of greater night-time opening when exposed to low CO(2). After acclimating plants to long or short days, it was found that night-time leaf conductance was greater in plants acclimated to short days, and associated with greater leaf starch and nitrate accumulation, both of which may affect night-time guard cell osmotic potential. Direct measurement of guard cell contents during endogenous night-time stomatal opening will help identify the mechanism of the effect of daytime photosynthesis on subsequent night-time stomatal regulation. PMID:19076531

  16. Hypocholesterolemic and Anticarcinogenic Effect of Vicia faba Protein Hydrolyzates.

    PubMed

    León-Espinosa, Erika B; Sánchez-Chino, Xariss; Garduño-Siciliano, Leticia; Álvarez-González, Rosa I; Dávila-Ortiz, Gloria; Madrigal-Bujaidar, Eduardo; Téllez-Medina, Darío I; Jiménez-Martínez, Cristian

    2016-07-01

    In recent years, the consumption of vegetal-source proteins has been studied to determine their preventing effect on the development of several chronic diseases. The initial purpose of this report was to determine the effect of a hypercholesterolemic diet (HCD) given to mice, alone or with azoxymethane (AOM), on various obesity biochemical biomarkers, as well as on the induction of colon aberrant crypts (aberrant crypt foci; ACF). At the end of the 5-week assay, animals fed the HCD showed alterations in the level of total cholesterol, high- and low-density lipoproteins, and in the Atherogenic Index; besides, a significant elevation was observed in the number of ACF. Our second aim was to examine the effect of a Faba Protein Hydrolyzate (FPH) on mice fed the HCD. We first obtained protein hydrolyzates from the seeds of Vicia faba, determined the in vitro antioxidant potential with two tests, and, subsequently, evaluated the effect on obesity biomarkers and on the number of ACF. In the first case, we found that, generally, the best protective effect was obtained with the low dose of FPH (10 mg/kg) administered to animals fed the HCD, and injected AOM. With respect to the number of ACF, we observed that this dose was more effective, inhibiting such lesions to almost the level determined for the normocholesterolemic diet (NCD). Therefore, our results demonstrated the relevance of a HCD to develop anomalies in obesity biomarkers in mouse, as well as to increase the number of precarcinogenic lesions. Our results also showed a protective response with the administration of FPH, particularly with a specific dose, suggesting the need for extending research on the matter by widening the spectra of doses, in order to clearly define its potential to counteract the damage induced by the HCD, as well as to confirm if antioxidation in mice was involved in such an effect. PMID:27282923

  17. Antigenic changes in lipopolysaccharide I of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae in root nodules of Vicia sativa subsp. nigra occur during release from infection threads.

    PubMed Central

    Goosen-de Roo, L; de Maagd, R A; Lugtenberg, B J

    1991-01-01

    Three different monoclonal antibodies raised against the O antigen-containing lipopolysaccharide (LPS I) of free-living cells were used in an immunocytochemical study to follow the fate of LPS I on the outer membrane of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae 248 during the nodulation of Vicia sativa subsp. nigra. After immunogold labeling, the LPS I epitopes were detected on the outer membrane of bacteria present in infection threads throughout the nodule. Epitopes were not detectable on bacteria released from the infection thread. The data show that the LPS I epitopes present on rhizobia in infection droplets disappear shortly before or during endocytosis of the bacteria into the host plant cell cytoplasm. The abruptness of the change suggests an active degradation or modification of LPS I epitopes rather than only a repression of their synthesis. Images PMID:1708764

  18. Metabolism of Abscisic Acid in Guard Cells of Vicia faba L. and Commelina communis L. 1

    PubMed Central

    Grantz, David A.; Ho, Tuan-Hua David; Uknes, Scott J.; Cheeseman, John M.; Boyer, John S.

    1985-01-01

    Metabolism of abscisic acid (ABA) was investigated in isolated guard cells and in mesophyll tissue of Vicia faba L. and Commelina communis L. After incubation in buffer containing [G-3H]±ABA, the tissue was extracted by grinding and the metabolites separated by thin layer chromatography. Guard cells of Commelina metabolized ABA to phaseic acid (PA), dihydrophaseic acid (DPA), and alkali labile conjugates. Guard cells of Vicia formed only the conjugates. Mesophyll cells of Commelina accumulated DPA while mesophyll cells of Vicia accumulated PA. Controls showed that the observed metabolism was not due to extracellular enzyme contaminants nor to bacterial action. Metabolism of ABA in guard cells suggests a mechanism for removal of ABA, which causes stomatal closure of both species, from the stomatal complex. Conversion to metabolites which are inactive in stomatal regulation, within the cells controlling stomatal opening, might precede detectable changes in levels of ABA in bulk leaf tissue. The differences observed between Commelina and Vicia in metabolism of ABA in guard cells, and in the accumulation product in the mesophyll, may be related to differences in stomatal sensitivity to PA which have been reported for these species. Images Fig. 1 PMID:16664207

  19. Rhizobium anhuiense sp. nov., isolated from effective nodules of Vicia faba and Pisum sativum.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu Jing; Zheng, Wen Tao; Everall, Isobel; Young, J Peter W; Zhang, Xiao Xia; Tian, Chang Fu; Sui, Xin Hua; Wang, En Tao; Chen, Wen Xin

    2015-09-01

    Four rhizobia-like strains, isolated from root nodules of Pisum sativum and Vicia faba grown in Anhui and Jiangxi Provinces of China, were grouped into the genus Rhizobium but were distinct from all recognized species of the genus Rhizobium by phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA and housekeeping genes. The combined sequences of the housekeeping genes atpD, recA and glnII for strain CCBAU 23252(T) showed 86.9 to 95% similarity to those of known species of the genus Rhizobium. All four strains had nodC and nifH genes and could form effective nodules with Pisum sativum and Vicia faba, and ineffective nodules with Phaseolus vulgaris, but did not nodulate Glycine max, Arachis hypogaea, Medicago sativa, Trifolium repens or Lablab purpureus in cross-nodulation tests. Fatty acid composition, DNA-DNA relatedness and a series of phenotypic tests also separated these strains from members of closely related species. Based on all the evidence, we propose a novel species, Rhizobium anhuiense sp. nov., and designate CCBAU 23252(T) ( = CGMCC 1.12621(T) = LMG 27729(T)) as the type strain. This strain was isolated from a root nodule of Vicia faba and has a DNA G+C content of 61.1 mol% (Tm). PMID:26025940

  20. Transcriptome Analysis of Two Vicia sativa Subspecies: Mining Molecular Markers to Enhance Genomic Resources for Vetch Improvement.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Sung; Raveendar, Sebastin; Suresh, Sundan; Lee, Gi-An; Lee, Jung-Ro; Cho, Joon-Hyeong; Lee, Sok-Young; Ma, Kyung-Ho; Cho, Gyu-Taek; Chung, Jong-Wook

    2015-01-01

    The vetch (Vicia sativa) is one of the most important annual forage legumes globally due to its multiple uses and high nutritional content. Despite these agronomical benefits, many drawbacks, including cyano-alanine toxin, has reduced the agronomic value of vetch varieties. Here, we used 454 technology to sequence the two V. sativa subspecies (ssp. sativa and ssp. nigra) to enrich functional information and genetic marker resources for the vetch research community. A total of 86,532 and 47,103 reads produced 35,202 and 18,808 unigenes with average lengths of 735 and 601 bp for V. sativa sativa and V. sativa nigra, respectively. Gene Ontology annotations and the cluster of orthologous gene classes were used to annotate the function of the Vicia transcriptomes. The Vicia transcriptome sequences were then mined for simple sequence repeat (SSR) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. About 13% and 3% of the Vicia unigenes contained the putative SSR and SNP sequences, respectively. Among those SSRs, 100 were chosen for the validation and the polymorphism test using the Vicia germplasm set. Thus, our approach takes advantage of the utility of transcriptomic data to expedite a vetch breeding program. PMID:26540077

  1. Transcriptome Analysis of Two Vicia sativa Subspecies: Mining Molecular Markers to Enhance Genomic Resources for Vetch Improvement

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae-Sung; Raveendar, Sebastin; Suresh, Sundan; Lee, Gi-An; Lee, Jung-Ro; Cho, Joon-Hyeong; Lee, Sok-Young; Ma, Kyung-Ho; Cho, Gyu-Taek; Chung, Jong-Wook

    2015-01-01

    The vetch (Vicia sativa) is one of the most important annual forage legumes globally due to its multiple uses and high nutritional content. Despite these agronomical benefits, many drawbacks, including cyano-alanine toxin, has reduced the agronomic value of vetch varieties. Here, we used 454 technology to sequence the two V. sativa subspecies (ssp. sativa and ssp. nigra) to enrich functional information and genetic marker resources for the vetch research community. A total of 86,532 and 47,103 reads produced 35,202 and 18,808 unigenes with average lengths of 735 and 601 bp for V. sativa sativa and V. sativa nigra, respectively. Gene Ontology annotations and the cluster of orthologous gene classes were used to annotate the function of the Vicia transcriptomes. The Vicia transcriptome sequences were then mined for simple sequence repeat (SSR) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. About 13% and 3% of the Vicia unigenes contained the putative SSR and SNP sequences, respectively. Among those SSRs, 100 were chosen for the validation and the polymorphism test using the Vicia germplasm set. Thus, our approach takes advantage of the utility of transcriptomic data to expedite a vetch breeding program. PMID:26540077

  2. FIA functions as an early signal component of abscisic acid signal cascade in Vicia faba guard cells.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Yusuke; Uraji, Misugi; Watanabe-Sugimoto, Megumi; Okuma, Eiji; Munemasa, Shintaro; Shimoishi, Yasuaki; Nakamura, Yoshimasa; Mori, Izumi C; Iwai, Sumio; Murata, Yoshiyuki

    2012-02-01

    An abscisic acid (ABA)-insensitive Vicia faba mutant, fia (fava bean impaired in ABA-induced stomatal closure) had previously been isolated. In this study, it was investigated how FIA functions in ABA signalling in guard cells of Vicia faba. Unlike ABA, methyl jasmonate (MeJA), H(2)O(2), and nitric oxide (NO) induced stomatal closure in the fia mutant. ABA did not induce production of either reactive oxygen species or NO in the mutant. Moreover, ABA did not suppress inward-rectifying K(+) (K(in)) currents or activate ABA-activated protein kinase (AAPK) in mutant guard cells. These results suggest that FIA functions as an early signal component upstream of AAPK activation in ABA signalling but does not function in MeJA signalling in guard cells of Vicia faba. PMID:22131163

  3. Identification of protein secretion systems and novel secreted proteins in Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae

    PubMed Central

    Krehenbrink, Martin; Downie, J Allan

    2008-01-01

    Background Proteins secreted by bacteria play an important role in infection of eukaryotic hosts. Rhizobia infect the roots of leguminous plants and establish a mutually beneficial symbiosis. Proteins secreted during the infection process by some rhizobial strains can influence infection and modify the plant defence signalling pathways. The aim of this study was to systematically analyse protein secretion in the recently sequenced strain Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae 3841. Results Similarity searches using defined protein secretion systems from other Gram-negative bacteria as query sequences revealed that R. l. bv. viciae 3841 has ten putative protein secretion systems. These are the general export pathway (GEP), a twin-arginine translocase (TAT) secretion system, four separate Type I systems, one putative Type IV system and three Type V autotransporters. Mutations in genes encoding each of these (except the GEP) were generated, but only mutations affecting the PrsDE (Type I) and TAT systems were observed to affect the growth phenotype and the profile of proteins in the culture supernatant. Bioinformatic analysis and mass fingerprinting of tryptic fragments of culture supernatant proteins identified 14 putative Type I substrates, 12 of which are secreted via the PrsDE, secretion system. The TAT mutant was defective for the symbiosis, forming nodules incapable of nitrogen fixation. Conclusion None of the R. l. bv. viciae 3841 protein secretion systems putatively involved in the secretion of proteins to the extracellular space (Type I, Type IV, Type V) is required for establishing the symbiosis with legumes. The PrsDE (Type I) system was shown to be the major route of protein secretion in non-symbiotic cells and to secrete proteins of widely varied size and predicted function. This is in contrast to many Type I systems from other bacteria, which typically secrete specific substrates encoded by genes often localised in close proximity to the genes encoding the

  4. Effect of sulphur dioxide exposure on chlorophyll content and nitrogenase activity of Vicia faba L. plants

    SciTech Connect

    Agrawal, S.B.; Agrawal, M. )

    1991-11-01

    The annual average concentrations of SO{sub 2} around Obra thermal power plant and nonpolluted sites in India were reported as 0.06, and 0.007 ppm, respectively. However, daily average concentrations in areas close to the emission source may be as large as 0.34 ppm. Therefore, in the present investigation an attempt has been made to determine the potential effects of such episodic and exceptionally high intermittent concentrations of SO{sub 2} on total chlorophyll content and nitrogenase activity of Vicia faba (broad bean) plants.

  5. Genotoxic effects and induction of phytochelatins in the presence of cadmium in Vicia faba roots.

    PubMed

    Béraud, Eric; Cotelle, Sylvie; Leroy, Pierre; Férard, Jean-François

    2007-10-01

    This study investigates different effects in roots of Vicia faba (broad bean) after exposure to cadmium. Genotoxic effects were assessed by use of the well-known Vicia root tip micronucleus assay. Cytotoxic effects were evaluated by determining the mitotic index in root tip cells. Finally, molecular induction mechanisms were evaluated by measuring phytochelatins with HPLC. After hydroponical exposure of V. faba roots to a range of cadmium concentrations and during different exposure times, the results of this approach showed large variations, according to the endpoint measured: after 48 h of exposure, genotoxic effects were found between 7.5 x 10(-8) and 5 x 10(-7)M CdCl(2), and cytotoxic effects were observed between 2.5 x 10(-7) and 5 x 10(-7)M CdCl(2). Statistically significant phytochelatin (PC) concentrations were measured at >or=10(-6)M CdCl(2) for PC(2), and at >or=10(-5)M CdCl(2) for PC3 and PC4. PMID:17689137

  6. Root Hair Deformation Activity of Nodulation Factors and Their Fate on Vicia sativa.

    PubMed Central

    Heidstra, R.; Geurts, R.; Franssen, H.; Spaink, H. P.; Van Kammen, A.; Bisseling, T.

    1994-01-01

    We used a semiquantitative root hair deformation assay for Vicia sativa (vetch) to study the activity of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv viciae nodulation (Nod) factors. Five to 10 min of Nod factor-root interaction appears to be sufficient to induce root hair deformation. The first deformation is visible within 1 h, and after 3 h about 80% of the root hairs in a small susceptible zone of the root are deformed. This zone encompasses root hairs that have almost reached their maximal size. The Nod factor accumulates preferentially to epidermal cells of the young part of the root, but is not restricted to the susceptible zone. In the interaction with roots, the glucosamine backbone of Nod factors is shortened, presumably by chitinases. NodRlv-IV(C18:4,Ac) is more stable than NodRlv-V(C18:4,Ac). No correlation was found between Nod factor degradation and susceptibility. Degradation occurs both in the susceptible zone and in the mature zone. Moreover, degradation is not affected by NH4NO3 and is similar in vetch and in the nonhost alfalfa (Medicago sativa). PMID:12232242

  7. Cytogenetic effects of leachates from tannery solid waste on the somatic cells of Vicia faba.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Saurabh; Chauhan, L K S; Pande, P N; Gupta, S K

    2004-04-01

    The contamination of surface- and groundwater by the leaching of solid wastes generated by industrial activities as a result of water runoff and rainfall is a matter of great concern. The leachates from tannery solid waste (TSW), a major environmental pollutant, were examined for their possible genotoxic effects on the somatic cells of Vicia faba. Leachates were prepared from solid wastes procured from leather-tanning industrial sites, and V. faba seedlings were exposed to three test concentrations, 2.5%, 5%, and 10%, through soil and aqueous media for 5 days. The root tips examined for cytogenetic damage revealed that leachate of TSW significantly inhibited the mitotic index and induced significantly frequent chromosomal and mitotic aberrations (CA/MA) in a dose-dependent manner. The chemical analysis of TSW samples revealed that the chief constituents were chromium and nickel, which may cause genetic abnormalities. The frequency of aberrations was found to be higher in the root meristematic cells of Vicia faba exposed through the aqueous medium than those exposed through the soil medium. The results of the present study indicated that contamination of potable water bodies by leachates of TSW may cause genotoxicity. For the biomonitoring of complex mixtures of toxicants with the V. faba bioassay, the use of the aqueous medium seems to be a more promising method than the use of the soil medium. PMID:15037999

  8. Extrafloral nectary phenotypic plasticity is damage- and resource-dependent in Vicia faba

    PubMed Central

    Mondor, Edward B; Tremblay, Michelle N; Messing, Russell H

    2006-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity enables many damaged plants to increase nectar secretion rates from extrafloral nectaries (EFNs), or in the case of broad bean, Vicia faba L., to produce additional EFNs, to attract natural enemies of herbivores. While plants benefit greatly from these defensive mutualisms, the costs of producing EFNs are largely unknown. We hypothesized that if EFN production is costly, then damaged plants with high resource levels would be able to produce more EFNs than plants that are resource-limited. Here, we show that this indirect inducible defence does follow this general pattern. Vicia faba enriched with 6 or 12 g of 14 : 14 : 14 NPK fertilizer increased EFN numbers after leaf damage by 46 and 60%, respectively, compared with nutrient-poor plants. Thus, EFN production is both damage- and resource-dependent. Analogous to direct defences, production of EFNs may limit the overall loss of leaf tissue when risk of herbivory increases. PMID:17148294

  9. Sugar-binding activity of pea lectin enhances heterologous infection of transgenic alfalfa plants by Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae.

    PubMed

    van Rhijn, P; Fujishige, N A; Lim, P O; Hirsch, A M

    2001-05-01

    Transgenic alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. cv Regen) roots carrying genes encoding soybean lectin or pea (Pisum sativum) seed lectin (PSL) were inoculated with Bradyrhizobium japonicum or Rhizobium leguminosarum bv viciae, respectively, and their responses were compared with those of comparably inoculated control plants. We found that nodule-like structures formed on alfalfa roots only when the rhizobial strains produced Nod factor from the alfalfa-nodulating strain, Sinorhizobium meliloti. Uninfected nodule-like structures developed on the soybean lectin-transgenic plant roots at very low inoculum concentrations, but bona fide infection threads were not detected even when B. japonicum produced the appropriate S. meliloti Nod factor. In contrast, the PSL-transgenic plants were not only well nodulated but also exhibited infection thread formation in response to R. leguminosarum bv viciae, but only when the bacteria expressed the complete set of S. meliloti nod genes. A few nodules from the PSL-transgenic plant roots were even found to be colonized by R. leguminosarum bv viciae expressing S. meliloti nod genes, but the plants were yellow and senescent, indicating that nitrogen fixation did not take place. Exopolysaccharide appears to be absolutely required for both nodule development and infection thread formation because neither occurred in PSL-transgenic plant roots following inoculation with an Exo(-) R. leguminosarum bv viciae strain that produced S. meliloti Nod factor. PMID:11351077

  10. Genetic diversity and relationship among faba bean (Vicia faba L.) germplasm entries as revealed by TRAP markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Target region amplification polymorphism (TRAP) markers were used to assess genetic diversity and relationship among 151 world-wide collected faba bean (Vicia faba L.) entries (137 accessions maintained at the USDA-ARS, Pullman, WA, two commercial varieties and 12 elite cultivars and advanced breedi...

  11. Sugar-Binding Activity of Pea Lectin Enhances Heterologous Infection of Transgenic Alfalfa Plants by Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae1

    PubMed Central

    van Rhijn, Pieternel; Fujishige, Nancy A.; Lim, Pyung Ok; Hirsch, Ann M.

    2001-01-01

    Transgenic alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. cv Regen) roots carrying genes encoding soybean lectin or pea (Pisum sativum) seed lectin (PSL) were inoculated with Bradyrhizobium japonicum or Rhizobium leguminosarum bv viciae, respectively, and their responses were compared with those of comparably inoculated control plants. We found that nodule-like structures formed on alfalfa roots only when the rhizobial strains produced Nod factor from the alfalfa-nodulating strain, Sinorhizobium meliloti. Uninfected nodule-like structures developed on the soybean lectin-transgenic plant roots at very low inoculum concentrations, but bona fide infection threads were not detected even when B. japonicum produced the appropriate S. meliloti Nod factor. In contrast, the PSL-transgenic plants were not only well nodulated but also exhibited infection thread formation in response to R. leguminosarum bv viciae, but only when the bacteria expressed the complete set of S. meliloti nod genes. A few nodules from the PSL-transgenic plant roots were even found to be colonized by R. leguminosarum bv viciae expressing S. meliloti nod genes, but the plants were yellow and senescent, indicating that nitrogen fixation did not take place. Exopolysaccharide appears to be absolutely required for both nodule development and infection thread formation because neither occurred in PSL-transgenic plant roots following inoculation with an Exo− R. leguminosarum bv viciae strain that produced S. meliloti Nod factor. PMID:11351077

  12. Photoreduction of α-Ketoglutarate to Glutamate by Vicia faba Chloroplasts 1

    PubMed Central

    Givan, Curtis V.; Givan, Alice L.; Leech, Rachel M.

    1970-01-01

    Intact chloroplasts isolated from leaves of Vicia faba L. var. the Sutton show a decline in the endogenous level of α-ketoglutarate upon illumination. α-Ketoglutarate supplied to the chloroplasts is similarly utilized in this light-dependent reaction, and its consumption is paralleled by a concomitant increase in the level of glutamate. There is no photostimulation of glutamate synthesis in chloroplasts broken by osmotic shock, but it can be somewhat restored by addition of ferredoxin and NADP. These results suggest that in the isolated chloroplast the synthesis of glutamate from α-ketoglutarate is regulated by the availability of reduced pyridine nucleotide generated by photosynthetic electron transport. This conclusion is supported by the finding of an apparent competition between the photoreduction of phosphoglycerate to triose phosphate and the photoutilization of α-ketoglutarate. PMID:16657357

  13. Sequence analysis of Vicia faba repeated DNA, the FokI repeat element.

    PubMed Central

    Kato, A; Yakura, K; Tanifuji, S

    1984-01-01

    A type of highly repeated DNA sequences present in the genome of Vicia faba was detected by digestion its nuclear DNA with FokI endonuclease and fractionating the digests on polyacrylamide gels. Four fragments of 59, 108, 177 and 246 bp of the FokI repeated sequences were collected from the gels and their primary structures were determined by the method of Maxam and Gilbert. These repeated DNA sequences were shown to be a multiple tandem array of a 59 bp sequence element. And its nucleotide sequence was almost completely conserved among all the sequence members of each the size class and also among these classes. This sequence element consists of a duplet of an about the duplet has an incomplete dyad symmetrical structure. Images PMID:6089113

  14. Vanadate Inhibits Blue Light-Stimulated Swelling of Vicia Guard Cell Protoplasts 1

    PubMed Central

    Amodeo, Gabriela; Srivastava, Alaka; Zeiger, Eduardo

    1992-01-01

    When supplied under low chloride concentrations, vanadate inhibits the blue light-stimulated swelling of Vicia faba L. guard cell protoplasts in a dose-dependent fashion. The volume of guard cell protoplasts incubated in 10 mm K-imino-diacetic acid, 0.4 m mannitol, and 1 mm CaCl2 remained essentially constant under 1000 μmol m−2 s−1 red light, but increased an average of 27% after 8 min of the addition of 50 μmol m−2 s−1 blue light to the background red light. At 500 μm, vanadate completely inhibits the response to blue light. Vanadate also inhibits the swelling of guard cell protoplasts stimulated by the H+-ATPase agonist fusicoccin. The vanadate sensitivity of the blue light-stimulated swelling implicates a proton-pumping ATPase as a component of the sensory transduction of blue light in guard cells. Images Figure 3 PMID:16653159

  15. Presence of Both Photosystems in Guard Cells of Vicia faba L

    PubMed Central

    Outlaw, William H.; Mayne, Berger C.; Zenger, Vincent E.; Manchester, Jill

    1981-01-01

    A new procedure is reported for high-yield isolation of guard cell protoplasts from Vicia faba L. Delayed light emission and P700 content plus absorption and fluorescence emission spectra of these protoplast extracts are reported. It is concluded that both photosystems are present. The presence of photosystem II and the absence of the reductive-step enzyme of the Calvin-Benson Cycle (Outlaw WH Jr, J Manchester, CH DiCamelli, DD Randall, B Rapp, GM Veith 1979 Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 76: 6371-6375) in a cell has no precedent in the literature. It is speculated that noncyclic photosynthetic electron flow is an environmental sensor which causes stomata to remain open in light. Images PMID:16661609

  16. Distribution and status of Vicia menziesii Spreng. (Leguminosae): Hawaii's first officially listed endangered plant species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warshauer, F.R.; Jacobi, J.D.

    1982-01-01

    Vicia menziesii Spreng., Hawai'i's first officially listed endangered plant species, formerly occurred across a large area in the upper montane-mesic forest habitat on the windward side of the island of Hawai'i. Until this species was `rediscovered? in 1974, it had last been seen in 1915, and it was presumed to be extinct. The population is presently thought to number 150?300 plants, most of which are seedlings. These are located within a 200 ha area on the eastern flank of Mauna Loa volcano. The primary factors responsible for the decline of V. menziesii are habitat loss and excessive predation on the plants by introduced ungulates. Continued logging and cattle grazing within its remnant range are major threats to its existence. Enhancing the survival of V. menziesii may best be accomplished by stabilizing its remaining habitat and allowing the population to reestablish itself naturally.

  17. Performance of Vicia faba plants in relation to simulated acid rain and/or endosulphan treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, N.; Yunus, M.; Singh, S.N.; Ahmad, K.J. )

    1992-02-01

    The increasing human population in India is necessitating the optimum use of cultivable land for increased food production. Eradication and control of pests and pathogens is an essential component of any strategy for increased agricultural production. In this context, the use of pesticides to control the incidence of disease in crops becomes inevitable. Most of the pesticides used for foliar spraying invariably contain surfactants in their formulation, which not only increase the surface wettability but also enhance permeability of the cuticle for more cation infusion/effusion and hence they may make the leaf more susceptible to direct effects of acid rain. To evaluate the validity of this assumption, an experiment using endosulphan, the most commonly used insecticide in India, and acid rain of different pH was conducted on Vicia faba.

  18. Soil genotoxicity assessment--results of an interlaboratory study on the Vicia micronucleus assay in the context of ISO standardization.

    PubMed

    Cotelle, Sylvie; Dhyèvre, Adrien; Muller, Serge; Chenon, Pascale; Manier, Nicolas; Pandard, Pascal; Echairi, Abdelwahad; Silvestre, Jérôme; Guiresse, Maritxu; Pinelli, Eric; Giorgetti, Lucia; Barbafieri, Meri; Silva, Valéria C; Engel, Fernanda; Radetski, Claudemir M

    2015-01-01

    The Vicia micronucleus assay was standardized in an international protocol, ISO 29200, "Assessment of genotoxic effects on higher plants-Vicia faba micronucleus test," for soil or soil materials (e.g., compost, sludge, sediment, waste, and fertilizing materials). The aim of this interlaboratory study on the Vicia micronucleus assay was to investigate the robustness of this in vivo assay in terms of its applicability in different countries where each participant were asked to use their own seeds and reference soil, in agreement with the ISO 29200 standard. The ISO 29200 standard protocol was adopted for this study, and seven laboratories from three countries (France, Italy, and Brazil) participated in the study. Negative and positive controls were correctly evaluated by 100 % of the participants. In the solid-phase test, the micronucleus frequency (number of micronuclei/1,000 cells) varied from 0.0 to 1.8 for the negative control (i.e., Hoagland's solution) and from 5.8 to 85.7 for the positive control (i.e., maleic hydrazide), while these values varied from 0.0 to 1.7 for the negative control and from 14.3 to 97.7 for the positive control in the case of liquid-phase test. The variability in the data obtained does not adversely affect the robustness of the protocol assessed, on the condition that the methodology described in the standard ISO 29200 is strictly respected. Thus, the Vicia micronucleus test (ISO 29200) is appropriate for complementing prokaryotic or in vitro tests cited in legislation related to risk assessment of genotoxicity potential. PMID:25167825

  19. Impact of dual inoculation with Rhizobium and PGPR on growth and antioxidant status of Vicia faba L. under copper stress.

    PubMed

    Fatnassi, Imen Challougui; Chiboub, Manel; Saadani, Omar; Jebara, Moez; Jebara, Salwa Harzalli

    2015-04-01

    Plant-growth-promoting bacteria (PGPR) may help reduce the toxicity of heavy metals in plants in polluted environments. In this work, the effects of dual inoculation with Rhizobium and PGPR strains on the growth of Vicia faba grown under copper stress were assessed during hydroponic culture. Growth parameters, copper (Cu) accumulation and antioxidant enzyme activities were studied. Copper concentrations above 1mM damaged plant growth, but co-inoculation reduced its harmful effect. Co-inoculation of plants treated with 1mM Cu and 2mM Cu increased the dry weights as compared with Cu-treated and uninoculated plants. However, it decreased copper uptake up to 80% in the roots of 1-mM-Cu-treated plants as compared to non-inoculated control. Copper tolerance in Vicia faba is linked to the activity of antioxidant systems that are modulated by metal concentrations: both superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were higher in the presence of Cu; a lower Cu dose of 0.5mM stimulated ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and/or peroxidase (POX) activities in shoots and roots; however in nodules CAT appeared to be the main peroxidase in H2O2 scavenging. The 1mM Cu treatment enhanced SOD, CAT and APX activities in roots and only SOD and POX were activated in shoots. All enzyme activities were inhibited by inoculation of 2mM Cu. The effect of inoculation with copper-accumulating PGPRs and the status of the antioxidant enzyme system were linked to changes in the copper tolerance status of Vicia faba. Our results suggested that Vicia faba inoculation with Rhizobium and PGPR Enterobacter clocae and Pseudomonas sp. could help to alleviate copper stress under hydroponic conditions. This result should be tested under field conditions for soil fertilization and phytostabilisation purposes. PMID:25747267

  20. Crystal Structures and Binding Dynamics of Odorant-Binding Protein 3 from two aphid species Megoura viciae and Nasonovia ribisnigri.

    PubMed

    Northey, Tom; Venthur, Herbert; De Biasio, Filomena; Chauviac, Francois-Xavier; Cole, Ambrose; Ribeiro, Karlos Antonio Lisboa; Grossi, Gerarda; Falabella, Patrizia; Field, Linda M; Keep, Nicholas H; Zhou, Jing-Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Aphids use chemical cues to locate hosts and find mates. The vetch aphid Megoura viciae feeds exclusively on the Fabaceae, whereas the currant-lettuce aphid Nasonovia ribisnigri alternates hosts between the Grossulariaceae and Asteraceae. Both species use alarm pheromones to warn of dangers. For N. ribisnigri this pheromone is a single component (E)-β-farnesene but M. viciae uses a mixture of (E)-β-farnesene, (-)-α-pinene, β-pinene, and limonene. Odorant-binding proteins (OBP) are believed to capture and transport such semiochemicals to their receptors. Here, we report the first aphid OBP crystal structures and examine their molecular interactions with the alarm pheromone components. Our study reveals some unique structural features: 1) the lack of an internal ligand binding site; 2) a striking groove in the surface of the proteins as a putative binding site; 3) the N-terminus rather than the C-terminus occupies the site closing off the conventional OBP pocket. The results from fluorescent binding assays, molecular docking and dynamics demonstrate that OBP3 from M. viciae can bind to all four alarm pheromone components and the differential ligand binding between these very similar OBP3s from the two aphid species is determined mainly by the direct π-π interactions between ligands and the aromatic residues of OBP3s in the binding pocket. PMID:27102935

  1. Population Genomics Analysis of Legume Host Preference for Specific Rhizobial Genotypes in the Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae Symbioses.

    PubMed

    Jorrin, Beatriz; Imperial, Juan

    2015-03-01

    Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae establishes root nodule symbioses with several legume genera. Although most isolates are equally effective in establishing symbioses with all host genera, previous evidence suggests that hosts select specific rhizobial genotypes among those present in the soil. We have used population genomics to further investigate this observation. Pisum sativum, Lens culinaris, Vicia sativa, and V. faba plants were used to trap rhizobia from a well-characterized soil, and pooled genomic DNA from 100 isolates from each plant were sequenced. Sequence reads were aligned to the R. leguminosarum bv. viciae 3841 reference genome. High overall conservation of sequences was observed in all subpopulations, although several multigenic regions were absent from the soil population. A large fraction (16 to 22%) of sequence reads could not be recruited to the reference genome, suggesting that they represent sequences specific to that particular soil population. Although highly conserved, the 16S to 23S ribosomal RNA gene region presented single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) regarding the reference genome, but no striking differences could be found among plant-selected subpopulations. Plant-specific SNP patterns were, however, clearly observed within the nod gene cluster, supporting the existence of a plant preference for specific rhizobial genotypes. This was also shown after genome-wide analysis of SNP patterns. PMID:25514682

  2. Crystal Structures and Binding Dynamics of Odorant-Binding Protein 3 from two aphid species Megoura viciae and Nasonovia ribisnigri

    PubMed Central

    Northey, Tom; Venthur, Herbert; De Biasio, Filomena; Chauviac, Francois-Xavier; Cole, Ambrose; Ribeiro, Karlos Antonio Lisboa; Grossi, Gerarda; Falabella, Patrizia; Field, Linda M.; Keep, Nicholas H.; Zhou, Jing-Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Aphids use chemical cues to locate hosts and find mates. The vetch aphid Megoura viciae feeds exclusively on the Fabaceae, whereas the currant-lettuce aphid Nasonovia ribisnigri alternates hosts between the Grossulariaceae and Asteraceae. Both species use alarm pheromones to warn of dangers. For N. ribisnigri this pheromone is a single component (E)-β-farnesene but M. viciae uses a mixture of (E)-β-farnesene, (−)-α-pinene, β-pinene, and limonene. Odorant-binding proteins (OBP) are believed to capture and transport such semiochemicals to their receptors. Here, we report the first aphid OBP crystal structures and examine their molecular interactions with the alarm pheromone components. Our study reveals some unique structural features: 1) the lack of an internal ligand binding site; 2) a striking groove in the surface of the proteins as a putative binding site; 3) the N-terminus rather than the C-terminus occupies the site closing off the conventional OBP pocket. The results from fluorescent binding assays, molecular docking and dynamics demonstrate that OBP3 from M. viciae can bind to all four alarm pheromone components and the differential ligand binding between these very similar OBP3s from the two aphid species is determined mainly by the direct π-π interactions between ligands and the aromatic residues of OBP3s in the binding pocket. PMID:27102935

  3. Molecular Diversity Assessment Using Sequence Related Amplified Polymorphism (SRAP) Markers in Vicia faba L.

    PubMed Central

    Alghamdi, Salem S.; Al-Faifi, Sulieman A.; Migdadi, Hussein M.; Khan, Muhammad Altaf; El-Harty, Ehab H.; Ammar, Megahed H.

    2012-01-01

    Sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) markers were used to assess the genetic diversity and relationship among 58 faba bean (Vicia faba L.) genotypes. Fourteen SRAP primer combinations amplified a total of 1036 differently sized well-resolved peaks (fragments), of which all were polymorphic with a 0.96 PIC value and discriminated all of the 58 faba bean genotypes. An average pairwise similarity of 21% was revealed among the genotypes ranging from 2% to 65%. At a similarity of 28%, UPGMA clustered the genotypes into three main groups comprising 78% of the genotypes. The local landraces and most of the Egyptian genotypes in addition to the Sudan genotypes were grouped in the first main cluster. The advanced breeding lines were scattered in the second and third main clusters with breeding lines from the ICARDA and genotypes introduced from Egypt. At a similarity of 47%, all the genotypes formed separated clusters with the exceptions of Hassawi 1 and Hassawi 2. Group analysis of the genotypes according to their geographic origin and type showed that the landraces were grouped according to their origin, while others were grouped according to their seed type. To our knowledge, this is the first application of SRAP markers for the assessment of genetic diversity in faba bean. Such information will be useful to determine optimal breeding strategies to allow continued progress in faba bean breeding. PMID:23211669

  4. Genetic diversity and relationship of global faba bean (Vicia faba L.) germplasm revealed by ISSR markers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hai-Fei; Zong, Xu-Xiao; Guan, Jian-Ping; Yang, Tao; Sun, Xue-Lian; Ma, Yu; Redden, Robert

    2012-03-01

    Genetic diversity and relationships of 802 faba bean (Vicia faba L.) landraces and varieties from different geographical locations of China and abroad were examined using ISSR markers. A total of 212 repeatable amplified bands were generated with 11 ISSR primers, of which 209 were polymorphic. Accessions from North China showed highest genetic diversity, while accessions from central China showed low level of diversity. Chinese spring faba bean germplasm was clearly separated from Chinese winter faba bean, based on principal component analysis and UPGMA clustering analysis. Winter accessions from Zhejiang (East China), Jiangxi (East China), Sichuan (Southwest China) and Guizhou (Southwest China) were quite distinct to that from other provinces in China. Great differentiation between Chinese accessions and those from rest of the world was shown with a UPGMA dendrogram. AMOVA analyses demonstrated large variation and differentiation within and among groups of accessions from China. As a continental geographic group, accessions from Europe were genetically closer to those from North Africa. Based on ISSR data, grouping results of accessions from Asia, Europe and Africa were obviously associated with their geographical origin. The overall results indicated that the genetic relationship of faba bean germplasm was closely associated with their geographical origin and their ecological habit. PMID:22204023

  5. Photosynthetic Carbon Metabolism in the Palisade Parenchyma and Spongy Parenchyma of Vicia faba L. 1

    PubMed Central

    Outlaw, William H.; Schmuck, Cheri L.; Tolbert, N. E.

    1976-01-01

    Palisade parenchyma cells and spongy parenchyma cells were isolated separately from Vicia faba L. leaflets. Extracts of the cell isolates were assayed for several enzymes involved in CO2 fixation and photorespiration. When compared on a chlorophyll basis, the levels of enzyme activities either were equal in the different cell types or were greater in the spongy parenchyma; this difference is a reflection, perhaps, of the higher protein-chlorophyll ratio in the latter tissue. The distribution of radioactivity in the products of photosynthesis by each cell type was the same at various times after exposure to NaH14CO3, and the kinetics of 14C incorporation into these compounds was similar. However, a larger percentage of radioactivity was incorporated by the cell isolates into the 80% ethanol-insoluble fraction and correspondingly less into the neutral fraction as compared to whole leaf. It was concluded that photosynthetic CO2 fixation is similar in the different mesophyll tissues from which these cells were derived. Images PMID:16659644

  6. Impact of TiO₂ nanoparticles on Vicia narbonensis L.: potential toxicity effects.

    PubMed

    Ruffini Castiglione, M; Giorgetti, L; Cremonini, R; Bottega, S; Spanò, C

    2014-11-01

    This work was aimed to provide further information about toxicology of TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) on Vicia narbonensis L., considering different endpoints. After exposure to TiO2 nanoparticle suspension (mixture of rutile and anatase, size <100 nm) at four different concentrations (0.2, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 ‰), the seeds of V. narbonensis were let to germinate in controlled environmental conditions. After 72 h, the extent of the success of the whole process (seed germination plus root elongation) was recorded as the vigour index, an indicator of possible phytotoxicity. After the characterisation of the hydric state of different materials, oxidative stress and enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant responses were considered as indicators of possible cytotoxicity and to assess if damage induced by TiO2 NPs was oxidative stress-dependent. Cytohistochemical detection of in situ DNA fragmentation as genotoxicity endpoint was monitored by TUNEL reaction. The treatments with TiO2 NPs in our system induced phytotoxic effects, ROS production and DNA fragmentation. The nonenzymatic and enzymatic antioxidant responses were gradually and differentially activated and were able to maintain the oxidative damage to levels not significantly different from the control. On the other hand, the results of DNA fragmentation suggested that the mechanisms of DNA repair were not effective enough to eliminate early genotoxicity effects. PMID:24793462

  7. DNA Damage in Vicia faba by Exposure to Agricultural Soils from Tlaxcala, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Juárez-Santacruz, L; García-Nieto, E; García-Gallegos, E; Romo-Gómez, C; Ortiz-Ortiz, E; Costilla-Salazar, R; Luna-Zendejas, H S

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this research was to quantify some POPs, such as p,p' DDT, p,p' DDE, and PCBs in agricultural soils of Tlaxcala, Mexico and evaluate their capacity for eliciting DNA damage, using Vicia faba as bioindicator. The values of ΣDDTs and ΣPCBs ranged from 8-24 to 118-26,983 µg/kg, respectively. The samples T1 (HQ = 9.3) and T2 (HQ = 53.9) showed concentrations of ΣPCBs higher than Canadian guidelines (SQGE = 500 µg/kg). The genotoxicity testing produced percentages of DNA fragmentation higher than negative control and statistically significant (p < 0.05), both in agricultural soils and organic extracts. The soils T2, T3, N4, and N5 showed a DICA from 2.6 to 3.1 times, statistically higher (p < 0.05) than negative control. In general, the agricultural soils have greater genotoxic capacity than the organic extracts, suggesting a potential risk to biota that depends upon this ecosystem. PMID:26385693

  8. Effects of negative pions and neutrons on the growth of Vicia faba bean roots.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, M; Hill, D K; Baarli, J; Sullivan, A H

    1978-02-01

    Vicia faba bean roots have been irratiated with neutrons of various energies and with negative pi-mesons, and the effect on the ten-day growth of the roots has been determened. The neutron irratiations were made in beams of 400 and 600 MeV maximum energy, as well as with neutrons from a plutonium-beryllium source (mean energy 4.4 MeV) and from a 14 MeV neutron generator. The bean roots have also been irradiated at various points along the depth-dose curve of negative pi-mesons, including the gegion where the pions annihilate on coming to rest. The results show a maximum relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of 3.7 for 50% reduction in ten days growth for stopped negative pions and values up to 3.3 for high-energy neutrons, compared to 5.5 for 14 MeV neutrons. The biological effectiveness of high-energy neutrons and stopped pions shows a more pronounced dependence on dose than does the effect with lower-energy neutrons. PMID:626812

  9. Nitric oxide mitigates arsenic-induced oxidative stress and genotoxicity in Vicia faba L.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Pratiksha; Singh, A K

    2015-09-01

    The protective effects of nitric oxide (NO) against arsenic (As)-induced structural disturbances in Vicia faba have been investigated. As treatment (0.25, 0.50, and 1 mM) resulted in a declined growth of V. faba seedlings. Arsenic treatment stimulates the activity of SOD and CAT while the activities of APX and GST content were decreased. The oxidative stress markers such as superoxide radical, hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde (lipid peroxidation) contents were enhanced by As. Overall results revealed that significant accumulation of As suppressed growth, photosynthesis, antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, APX, and GST activity), mitotic index, and induction of different chromosomal abnormalities, hence led to oxidative stress. The concentration of SNP (0.02 mM) was very effective in counteracting the adverse effect of As toxicity. These abnormalities use partially or fully reversed by a simultaneous application of As and NO donor and sodium nitroprusside and has an ameliorating effect against As-induced oxidative stress and genotoxicity in V. faba roots. PMID:25943507

  10. Cytotoxic effects of cylindrospermopsin in mitotic and non-mitotic Vicia faba cells.

    PubMed

    Garda, Tamás; Riba, Milán; Vasas, Gábor; Beyer, Dániel; M-Hamvas, Márta; Hajdu, Gréta; Tándor, Ildikó; Máthé, Csaba

    2015-02-01

    Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) is a cyanobacterial toxin known as a eukaryotic protein synthesis inhibitor. We aimed to study its effects on growth, stress responses and mitosis of a eukaryotic model, Vicia faba (broad bean). Growth responses depended on exposure time (3 or 6d), cyanotoxin concentration, culture conditions (dark or continuous light) and V. faba cultivar ("Standard" or "ARC Egypt Cross"). At 6d of exposure, CYN had a transient stimulatory effect on root system growth, roots being possibly capable of detoxification. The toxin induced nucleus fragmentation, blebbing and chromosomal breaks indicating double stranded DNA breaks and programmed cell death. Root necrotic tissue was observed at 0.1-20 μg mL(-1) CYN that probably impeded toxin uptake into vascular tissue. Growth and cell death processes observed were general stress responses. In lateral root tip meristems, lower CYN concentrations (0.01-0.1 μg mL(-1)) induced the stimulation of mitosis and distinct mitotic phases, irrespective of culture conditions or the cultivar used. Higher cyanotoxin concentrations inhibited mitosis. Short-term exposure of hydroxylurea-synchronized roots to 5 μg mL(-1) CYN induced delay of mitosis that might have been related to a delay of de novo protein synthesis. CYN induced the formation of double, split and asymmetric preprophase bands (PPBs), in parallel with the alteration of cell division planes, related to the interference of cyanotoxin with protein synthesis, thus it was a plant- and CYN specific alteration. PMID:25016338

  11. Accumulation of nickel ions in seedlings of Vicia sativa L. and manifestations of oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Ivanishchev, V V; Abramova, E A

    2015-05-01

    The accumulation of nickel ions in the roots and shoots of vetch seedlings (Vicia sativa L.) at increasing concentrations of nickel chloride in the medium was studied. It was shown that the accumulation of nickel in the shoots was increased when the concentration of nickel chloride in the medium was more than 50 μM. The bioconcentration factor and sustainability index for vetch seedlings were calculated under the experimental conditions. The obtained results were similar to parameters for other plants, grown on a nutrient medium or soil substrate. First, the obtained results allowed estimate the limits of nickel chloride concentrations for four of five zones, which correspond to the theoretical concept of dose-response curves in the studies on the influence of physiologically essential heavy metals on plants (Prasad 2010). Some parameters of oxidative stress caused by the presence of nickel chloride in the medium were shown. It seems that at low nickel concentrations in the medium in vetch seedlings the increase of several biochemical parameters (catalase activity and proline) caused by the high amylase activity in seeds. PMID:25655753

  12. Identification of Novel O-Linked Glycosylated Toxoplasma Proteins by Vicia villosa Lectin Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kevin; Peng, Eric D.; Huang, Amy S.; Xia, Dong; Vermont, Sarah J.; Lentini, Gaelle; Lebrun, Maryse; Wastling, Jonathan M.; Bradley, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii maintains its intracellular life cycle using an extraordinary arsenal of parasite-specific organelles including the inner membrane complex (IMC), rhoptries, micronemes, and dense granules. While these unique compartments play critical roles in pathogenesis, many of their protein constituents have yet to be identified. We exploited the Vicia villosa lectin (VVL) to identify new glycosylated proteins that are present in these organelles. Purification of VVL-binding proteins by lectin affinity chromatography yielded a number of novel proteins that were subjected to further study, resulting in the identification of proteins from the dense granules, micronemes, rhoptries and IMC. We then chose to focus on three proteins identified by this approach, the SAG1 repeat containing protein SRS44, the rhoptry neck protein RON11 as well as a novel IMC protein we named IMC25. To assess function, we disrupted their genes by homologous recombination or CRISPR/Cas9. The knockouts were all successful, demonstrating that these proteins are not essential for invasion or intracellular survival. We also show that IMC25 undergoes substantial proteolytic processing that separates the C-terminal domain from the predicted glycosylation site. Together, we have demonstrated that lectin affinity chromatography is an efficient method of identifying new glycosylated parasite-specific proteins. PMID:26950937

  13. Expression, detection of candidate function and homology modeling for Vicia villosa ornithine δ-aminotransferase.

    PubMed

    Nada, Ahmed M K; Abd-Elhalim, Haytham M; El-Domyati, Fotouh M; Abou-Ali, Rania M I; Bahieldin, Ahmed

    2010-01-01

    The accumulation of compatible solutes during stress in plant cell is well documented. Proline is one of these solutes which accumulate in the cytosol in response to drought or salinity stress in plants. Proline has several functions during stress just like osmotic adjustment, osmoprotection, free radical scavenger and antioxidant. Ornithine δ-aminotransferase (δ-OAT) is an important enzyme in proline biosynthetic pathway. It catalyzes the transamination of ornithine to pyrroline-5-carboxylate which can be reduced into proline. Expression of ornithine δ-aminotransferase gene isolated from Vicia villosa (VvOAT) showed protein with a molecular mass of 63 KDa which is compatible with the predicted mass and after VvOAT gene delivery into E. coli host HB101, VvOAT gene enhanced its salt tolerance. Homology modeling of VvOAT was performed based on the crystal structure of the ornithine δ-aminotransferase from humans (PDB code 2OATA). With this model, a flexible docking study with the substrate and inhibitors was performed. The results indicated that PHE170 and ASN171 in VvOAT are the important determinant residues in binding as they have strong hydrogen bonding contacts with the substrate and inhibitors. All the obtained results indicated the efficiency of utilizing this gene in conferring salt tolerance. PMID:21844680

  14. Identification of Novel O-Linked Glycosylated Toxoplasma Proteins by Vicia villosa Lectin Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kevin; Peng, Eric D; Huang, Amy S; Xia, Dong; Vermont, Sarah J; Lentini, Gaelle; Lebrun, Maryse; Wastling, Jonathan M; Bradley, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii maintains its intracellular life cycle using an extraordinary arsenal of parasite-specific organelles including the inner membrane complex (IMC), rhoptries, micronemes, and dense granules. While these unique compartments play critical roles in pathogenesis, many of their protein constituents have yet to be identified. We exploited the Vicia villosa lectin (VVL) to identify new glycosylated proteins that are present in these organelles. Purification of VVL-binding proteins by lectin affinity chromatography yielded a number of novel proteins that were subjected to further study, resulting in the identification of proteins from the dense granules, micronemes, rhoptries and IMC. We then chose to focus on three proteins identified by this approach, the SAG1 repeat containing protein SRS44, the rhoptry neck protein RON11 as well as a novel IMC protein we named IMC25. To assess function, we disrupted their genes by homologous recombination or CRISPR/Cas9. The knockouts were all successful, demonstrating that these proteins are not essential for invasion or intracellular survival. We also show that IMC25 undergoes substantial proteolytic processing that separates the C-terminal domain from the predicted glycosylation site. Together, we have demonstrated that lectin affinity chromatography is an efficient method of identifying new glycosylated parasite-specific proteins. PMID:26950937

  15. Biology and Demographic Growth Parameters of Cowpea Aphid (Aphis craccivora) on Faba Bean (Vicia faba) Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Soffan, A.; Aldawood, A. S.

    2014-01-01

    The performance of cowpea aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch. (Hemiptera: Aphididae), on five faba bean, Vicia faba L. (Fabales: Fabaceae) cultivars was evaluated. Colony development, biology, and demographic parameters were studied to measure the cowpea aphid performance. Two methods, whole plant and detached leaf, were used in these experiments. After 14 d, the number of apterous adult, nymphs, and total cowpea aphids were significantly lower in cultivar Gazira2 and highest on cultivar Misr1. Assuming that low aphid numbers per plant represented high resistance, the order of resistant cultivars was as follows: Gazira2 > Misr > Giza3 Improved > Goff1 > Misr1. Aphid infestation significantly inhibited plant growth compared with uninfested plants, as indicated by factorial analysis using plant height (F = 41.38, P < 0.0001). The detached-leaf biological assay showed that the cultivar Gazira2 was less suitable than Misr1 because it had longer prereproductive, reproductive, and post reproductive periods, longer total longevity, and lower number of progeny. Similarly, demographic parameters also justified the suggested lower suitability of Gazira2 compared with Misr1, indicated by significantly lower net reproduction rate, intrinsic rate of increase, finite rate of increase, but longer generation time and doubling time on Gazira2. It was shown that cowpea aphid performed differently on the whole plant as compared with detached leaves. The detached-leaf biological assay is recommended for future experiments because it is more accurate and efficient and it produces reliable data. PMID:25368064

  16. Genotoxicity of Silver Nanoparticles in Vicia faba: A Pilot Study on the Environmental Monitoring of Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Patlolla, Anita K.; Berry, Ashley; May, LaBethani; Tchounwou, Paul B.

    2012-01-01

    The use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in commercial products has increased significantly in recent years. Although there have been some attempts to determine the toxic effects of AgNPs in mammalian and human cell-lines, there is little information on plants which play a vital role in ecosystems. The study reports the use of Vicia faba root-tip meristem to investigate the genotoxicity of AgNPs under modified GENE-TOX test conditions. The root tip cells of V. faba were treated with four different concentrations of engineered AgNPs dispersion to study toxicological endpoints such as mitotic index (MI), chromosomal aberrations (CA) and micronucleus induction (MN). For each concentration, five sets of microscopy observations were carried out. The results demonstrated that AgNPs exposure significantly increased (p < 0.05) the number of chromosomal aberrations, micronuclei, and decreased the MI in exposed groups compared to control. From this study we infer that AgNPs might have penetrated the plant system and may have impaired mitosis causing CA and MN. The results of this study demonstrate that AgNPs are genotoxic to plant cells. Since plant assays have been integrated as a genotoxicity component in risk assessment for detection of environmental mutagens, they should be given full consideration when evaluating the overall toxicological impact of the nanoparticles in the environment. PMID:22754463

  17. Carbon dynamics and aggregation in a Vicia faba crop: influence of management practice and cultivar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Navarro, Virginia; Zornoza, Raúl; Faz, Ángel; Fernández, Juan

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we assessed the influence of a legume crop (Vicia faba) on the soil properties related to the carbon (C) cycle and soil aggregation, taking into account two cultivars (Muchamiel and Palenca) and two different management practices (conventional and organic). The study was randomly designed in blocks with four replications, in plots of 10 m2. Faba bean crop spanned from 24 November 2014 to 2 March 2015. We took a soil sampling (0-30 cm) from each plot at the end of the cycle to measure soil organic C, recalcitrant C, labile C fractions, microbial biomass C (MBC), aggregate stability and the enzyme activities β-glucosidase, β-glucosaminidase, dehydrogenase, cellulose and arylesterase. Results showed that the cultivar and the management practice had no significant effect on any of the analyzed properties. Significant positive correlations were only observed between soil organic C and arylesterase activity, recalcitrant C and labile C fractions, and recalcitrant C with arylesterase and cellulase activities. So, it seems that the selected cultivars and management practices had similar effects on C dynamics and aggregation. Both management practices maintain the same levels of soil organic C, the different organic C pools, and aggregate stability. In addition, soil microorganisms are responding to the recalcitrant fraction of the organic carbon by release of cellulases and arylesterases. Acknowledgements: This research was financed by the FP7 European Project Eurolegume (FP7-KBBE- 613781).

  18. Exogenous application of salicylic acid to alleviate the toxic effects of insecticides in Vicia faba L.

    PubMed

    Singh, Aradhana; Srivastava, Anjil Kumar; Singh, Ashok Kumar

    2013-12-01

    The present study investigated the possible mediatory role of salicylic acid (SA) in protecting plants from insecticides toxicity. The seeds of Vicia faba var IIVR Selection-1 were treated with different concentrations (1.5, 3.0, and 6.0 ppm) of the insecticides alphamethrin (AM) and endosulfan (ES) for 6 h with and without 12 h conditioning treatment of SA (0.01 mM). Insecticides treatment caused a significant decrease in mitotic index (MI) and induction of different types of chromosomal abnormalities in the meristematic cells of broad bean roots. Pretreatment of seeds with SA resulted in increased MI and significant reduction of chromosomal abnormalities. SA application also regulated proline accumulation and carotenoid content in the leaf tissues. SA resulted in the decrement of insecticides induced increase in proline content and increased the carotenoids content. These results illustrate the ameliorating effect of SA under stress conditions and reveal that SA is more effective in alleviating the toxic effects of insecticides at higher concentrations than that at lower concentrations. PMID:21954193

  19. Cellular distribution of calmodulin and calmodulin-binding proteins in Vicia faba L

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ling, V.; Assmann, S. M.

    1992-01-01

    The distribution of calmodulin (CaM) and CaM-binding proteins within Vicia faba was investigated. Both CaM and CaM-binding proteins were found to be differentially distributed among organs, tissues, and protoplast types. CaM levels, on a per protein basis, were found to be the highest in leaf epidermis, containing 3-fold higher levels of CaM than in total leaf. Similarly, guard cell and epidermal cell protoplasts were also found to have higher levels of CaM than mesophyll cell protoplasts. 125I-CaM blot overlay assays were performed to qualitatively examine CaM-binding proteins in these protoplast types as well as in whole tissues and organs. CaM-binding proteins with Mr 52,000, 78,000, and 115,000 were common in all metabolically active plant parts. Unique CaM-binding protein bands were detected in guard cell protoplasts (Mr 39,000, 88,000), stems (Mr 45,000, 60,000, 64,000), and roots (Mr 62,000), suggesting the presence of specialized CaM-dependent processes in these cells and organs.

  20. Radiobiological intercomparison of clinical neutron beams for growth inhibition in Vicia faba bean roots

    SciTech Connect

    Beauduin, M.; Gueulette, J.; Vynckier, S.; Wambersie, A.

    1989-02-01

    Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) and oxygen enhancement ratio (OER) values of different neutron beams produced at the variable energy cyclotron Cyclone of Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium) were determined. The neutrons were obtained by bombarding a beryllium target with 34-, 45-, 65-, or 75-MeV protons or with 50-MeV deuterons. The biological system was growth inhibition in Vicia faba bean roots. Taking the p(65) + Be neutron beam as a reference, RBE values were found equal to 1.36 +/- 0.2, 1.20 +/- 0.1, 1.00 (ref), 0.98 +/- 0.1, and 1.18 +/- 0.1, respectively; the doses corresponding to 50% growth inhibition were 0.39, 0.44, 0.53, 0.54, and 0.45 Gy. For the same beams, OER values were found equal to 1.55 +/- 0.1, 1.38 +/- 0.1, 1.29 +/- 0.1, 1.41 +/- 0.1, and 1.60 +/- 0.2, respectively.

  1. [Broad beans (Vicia fava, L.) as an alternative source of protein in chick diets].

    PubMed

    Bezares, A; Cuca, M; Avila, E; Velásquez, C

    1980-03-01

    Three experiments were conducted to study the possibility of improving the nutritive value of broad beans (Vicia faba, L.) in poultry diets. In the first experiment, raw and autoclaved (1.0 kg/cm2/15 min) beans, with and without antibiotic supplementation, were studied. The results after 21 days showed no significant differences among treatments in regard to body weight. In feed conversion, however, a significant difference was observed when diets prepared with raw beans were supplemented with 20 ppm of flavomycin. In the second experiment raw and autoclaved beans were supplemented with 0, 10, and 20 ppm of virginiamycin and 200 and 400 ppm of flavomycin to study the effect of these two antibiotics. After 28 days, the results indicated no significant differences with antibiotic supplementation in either raw or autoclaved beans. However, a significant difference (P < 0.05) in body weight was found when beans were autoclaved. In the third experiment, two levels, 31 and 76% of raw and autoclaved beans, were included in the chick diets. The results in body weight, after 28 days, did not show any significant differences between raw and autoclaved beans fed at a 31% level. With the 76% level the autoclaved treatment, however, induced a significantly higher body weight than the diets containing raw beans. PMID:7447590

  2. Compatibility of rhizobial genotypes within natural populations of Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae for nodulation of host legumes.

    PubMed

    Laguerre, Gisèle; Louvrier, Philippe; Allard, Marie-Reine; Amarger, Noëlle

    2003-04-01

    Populations of Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae were sampled from two bulk soils, rhizosphere, and nodules of host legumes, fava bean (Vicia faba) and pea (Pisum sativum) grown in the same soils. Additional populations nodulating peas, fava beans, and vetches (Vicia sativa) grown in other soils and fava bean-nodulating strains from various geographic sites were also analyzed. The rhizobia were characterized by repetitive extragenomic palindromic-PCR fingerprinting and/or PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of 16S-23S ribosomal DNA intergenic spacers as markers of the genomic background and PCR-RFLP of a nodulation gene region, nodD, as a marker of the symbiotic component of the genome. Pairwise comparisons showed differences among the genetic structures of the bulk soil, rhizosphere, and nodule populations and in the degree of host specificity within the Vicieae cross-inoculation group. With fava bean, the symbiotic genotype appeared to be the preponderant determinant of the success in nodule occupancy of rhizobial genotypes independently of the associated genomic background, the plant genotype, and the soil sampled. The interaction between one particular rhizobial symbiotic genotype and fava bean seems to be highly specific for nodulation and linked to the efficiency of nitrogen fixation. By contrast with bulk soil and fava bean-nodulating populations, the analysis of pea-nodulating populations showed preferential associations between genomic backgrounds and symbiotic genotypes. Both components of the rhizobial genome may influence competitiveness for nodulation of pea, and rhizosphere colonization may be a decisive step in competition for nodule occupancy. PMID:12676710

  3. Host Specificity of Ascochyta spp. Infecting Legumes of the Viciae and Cicerae Tribes and Pathogenicity of an Interspecific Hybrid.

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Bello, M A; Chilvers, M I; Akamatsu, H; Peever, T L

    2006-10-01

    ABSTRACT Ascochyta spp. (teleomorphs: Didymella spp.) infect a number of legumes, including many economically important species, and the diseases they cause represent serious limitations of legume production worldwide. Ascochyta rabiei, A. fabae, A. pisi, A. lentis, and A. viciae-villosae are pathogens of chickpea (Cicer arietinum), faba bean (Vicia faba), pea (Pisum sativum), lentil (Lens culinaris), and hairy vetch (V. villosa), respectively. Inoculations in the greenhouse and in growth chambers demonstrated that A. fabae, A. lentis, A. pisi, A. rabiei, and A. viciae-villosae were host specific. Isolates caused no visible disease symptoms on "nonhost" plants (plants other than the hosts they were originally isolated from) but were recovered consistently from inoculated, surface-disinfested, nonhost tissues. Interspecific crosses of A. pisi x A. fabae and A. viciae-villosae x A. lentis produced pseudothecia with viable ascospores, and the hybrid status of the ascospore progeny was verified by the segregation of mating type and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. Interspecific progeny were morphologically normal in culture but exhibited more phenotypic variation compared with progeny from intraspecific crosses. Mating type and the majority of AFLP markers segregated in Mendelian 1:1 ratios in both intraspecific and interspecific crosses. A total of 11 and 7% of AFLP markers showed segregation distortion among progeny from interspecific crosses and intraspecific crosses, respectively; however, this difference was not significant (P = 0.90). Only 30 of 114 progeny isolates from the A. fabae x A. pisi cross inoculated in the greenhouse caused lesions on pea and only 4 caused disease on faba bean. In all, 15 of 110 progeny isolates were pathogenic to pea and none were pathogenic to faba bean under growth chamber conditions. Although no obvious postzygotic, intrinsic isolating barriers were identified in any of the interspecific crosses, it appears

  4. Studies on the interactions between glycosylated beta3-peptides and the lectin Vicia villosa by saturation transfer difference NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Kaszowska, Marta; Norgren, Anna S; Arvidson, Per I; Sandström, Corine

    2009-12-14

    Saturation transfer difference (STD) NMR spectroscopy was used to study the interaction of the lectin Vicia villosa (VVLB(4)) with alpha-D-GalNAc glycosylated beta(3)-peptides. The data were compared to those obtained with the monosaccharides D-Gal, D-GalNAc, and D-Glc as well as with those obtained with the Tn antigen alpha-glycopeptide (D-GalNAc-alpha-O-Ser/Thr), molecule naturally recognized by V. villosa. Evidence that the lectin also recognizes glycosylated beta(3)-peptides and has close contact with both the sugar and amino acid moieties was obtained. PMID:19863951

  5. Identification of Candidate Transcriptional Regulators of Epidermal Transfer Cell Development in Vicia faba Cotyledons

    PubMed Central

    Arun-Chinnappa, Kiruba S.; McCurdy, David W.

    2016-01-01

    Transfer cells (TCs) are anatomically-specialized cells formed at apoplasmic-symplasmic bottlenecks in nutrient transport pathways in plants. TCs form invaginated wall ingrowths which provide a scaffold to amplify plasma membrane surface area and thus increase the density of nutrient transporters required to achieve enhanced nutrient flow across these bottlenecks. Despite their importance to nutrient transport in plants, little is known of the transcriptional regulation of wall ingrowth formation. Here, we used RNA-Seq to identify transcription factors putatively involved in regulating epidermal TC development in cotyledons of Vicia faba. Comparing cotyledons cultured for 0, 3, 9, and 24 h to induce trans-differentiation of epidermal TCs identified 43 transcription factors that showed either epidermal-specific or epidermal–enhanced expression, and 10 that showed epidermal-specific down regulation. Members of the WRKY and ethylene-responsive families were prominent in the cohort of transcription factors showing epidermal-specific or epidermal–enhanced expression, consistent with the initiation of TC development often representing a response to stress. Members of the MYB family were also prominent in these categories, including orthologs of MYB genes involved in localized secondary wall deposition in Arabidopsis thaliana. Among the group of transcription factors showing down regulation were various homeobox genes and members of the MADs-box and zinc-finger families of poorly defined functions. Collectively, this study identified several transcription factors showing expression characteristics and orthologous functions that indicate likely participation in transcriptional regulation of epidermal TC development in V. faba cotyledons. PMID:27252730

  6. Exposure to 915 MHz radiation induces micronuclei in Vicia faba root tips.

    PubMed

    Gustavino, Bianca; Carboni, Giovanni; Petrillo, Roberto; Paoluzzi, Giovanni; Santovetti, Emanuele; Rizzoni, Marco

    2016-03-01

    The increasing use of mobile phones and wireless networks raised a great debate about the real carcinogenic potential of radiofrequency-electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure associated with these devices. Conflicting results are reported by the great majority of in vivo and in vitro studies on the capability of RF-EMF exposure to induce DNA damage and mutations in mammalian systems. Aimed at understanding whether less ambiguous responses to RF-EMF exposure might be evidenced in plant systems with respect to mammalian ones, in the present work the mutagenic effect of RF-EMF has been studied through the micronucleus (MN) test in secondary roots of Vicia faba seedlings exposed to mobile phone transmission in controlled conditions, inside a transverse electro magnetic (TEM) cell. Exposure of roots was carried out for 72h using a continuous wave (CW) of 915 MHz radiation at three values of equivalent plane wave power densities (23, 35 and 46W/m(2)). The specific absorption rate (SAR) was measured with a calorimetric method and the corresponding values were found to fall in the range of 0.4-1.5W/kg. Results of three independent experiments show the induction of a significant increase of MN frequency after exposure, ranging from a 2.3-fold increase above the sham value, at the lowest SAR level, up to a 7-fold increase at the highest SAR. These findings are in agreement with the limited number of data on cytogenetic effects detected in other plant systems exposed to mobile phone RF-EMF frequencies and clearly show the capability of radiofrequency exposure to induce DNA damage in this eukaryotic cell system. PMID:26476436

  7. Isolation of guard cell protoplasts from mechanically prepared epidermis of Vicia faba leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Kruse, T.; Tallman, G.; Zeiger, E. Univ. of California, Santa Cruz )

    1989-08-01

    A method for isolating guard cell protoplasts (GCP) from mechanically prepared epidermis of Vicia faba is described. Epidermis was prepared by homogenizing leaves in a Waring blender in a solution of 10% Ficoll, 5 millimolar CaCl{sub 2}, and 0.1% polyvinylpyrrolidone 40 (PVP). Attached mesophyll and epidermal cells were removed by shaking epidermis in a solution of Cellulysin, mannitol, CaCl{sub 2}, PVP, and pepstatin A. Cleaned epidermis was transferred to a solution of mannitol, CaCl{sub 2}, PVP, pepstatin A, cellulase Onozuka RS, and pectolyase Y-23 for the isolation of GCP. Preparations made by this method included both adaxial and abaxial GCP and contained {le}0.017% mesophyll protoplasts, {le}0.6% mesophyll fragments, and no epidermal cell contaminants. Yields averaged 9 {times} 10{sup 4} protoplasts/leaflet and 98 to 100% of the GCP excluded trypan blue, concentrated neutral red, and hydrolyzed fluorescein diacetate. Isolated GCP increased in diameter by 2.2 micrometers after incubation in darkness in 10 micromolar fusicoccin, 0.4 molar mannitol, 5 millimolar KCl, and 1 millimolar CaCl{sub 2}. Illumination of GCP with 800 micromoles per square meter per second of red light resulted in alkalinization of their suspension medium. When 10 micromolar per square meter per second of blue light was superimposed onto the red light background, the medium acidified. Measurements of chlorophyll a fast fluorescence transients from isolated GCP indicated that GCP were capable of electron transport, and slow transients contained the M peak usually associated with a functional photosynthetic carbon reduction pathway.

  8. Fast responses of metabolites in Vicia faba L. to moderate NaCl stress.

    PubMed

    Geilfus, Christoph-Martin; Niehaus, Karsten; Gödde, Victoria; Hasler, Mario; Zörb, Christian; Gorzolka, Karin; Jezek, Mareike; Senbayram, Mehmet; Ludwig-Müller, Jutta; Mühling, Karl H

    2015-07-01

    Salt stress impairs global agricultural crop production by reducing vegetative growth and yield. Despite this importance, a number of gaps exist in our knowledge about very early metabolic responses that ensue minutes after plants experience salt stress. Surprisingly, this early phase remains almost as a black box. Therefore, systematic studies focussing on very early plant physiological responses to salt stress (in this case NaCl) may enhance our understanding on strategies to develop crop plants with a better performance under saline conditions. In the present study, hydroponically grown Vicia faba L. plants were exposed to 90 min of NaCl stress, whereby every 15 min samples were taken for analyzing short-term physiologic responses. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-based metabolite profiles were analysed by calculating a principal component analysis followed by multiple contrast tests. Follow-up experiments were run to analyze downstream effects of the metabolic changes on the physiological level. The novelty of this study is the demonstration of complex stress-induced metabolic changes at the very beginning of a moderate salt stress in V. faba, information that are very scant for this early stage. This study reports for the first that the proline analogue trans-4-hydroxy-L-proline, known to inhibit cell elongation, was increasingly synthesized after NaCl-stress initiation. Leaf metabolites associated with the generation or scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were affected in leaves that showed a synchronized increase in ROS formation. A reduced glutamine synthetase activity indicated that disturbances in the nitrogen assimilation occur earlier than it was previously thought under salt stress. PMID:25900421

  9. Identification of Candidate Transcriptional Regulators of Epidermal Transfer Cell Development in Vicia faba Cotyledons.

    PubMed

    Arun-Chinnappa, Kiruba S; McCurdy, David W

    2016-01-01

    Transfer cells (TCs) are anatomically-specialized cells formed at apoplasmic-symplasmic bottlenecks in nutrient transport pathways in plants. TCs form invaginated wall ingrowths which provide a scaffold to amplify plasma membrane surface area and thus increase the density of nutrient transporters required to achieve enhanced nutrient flow across these bottlenecks. Despite their importance to nutrient transport in plants, little is known of the transcriptional regulation of wall ingrowth formation. Here, we used RNA-Seq to identify transcription factors putatively involved in regulating epidermal TC development in cotyledons of Vicia faba. Comparing cotyledons cultured for 0, 3, 9, and 24 h to induce trans-differentiation of epidermal TCs identified 43 transcription factors that showed either epidermal-specific or epidermal-enhanced expression, and 10 that showed epidermal-specific down regulation. Members of the WRKY and ethylene-responsive families were prominent in the cohort of transcription factors showing epidermal-specific or epidermal-enhanced expression, consistent with the initiation of TC development often representing a response to stress. Members of the MYB family were also prominent in these categories, including orthologs of MYB genes involved in localized secondary wall deposition in Arabidopsis thaliana. Among the group of transcription factors showing down regulation were various homeobox genes and members of the MADs-box and zinc-finger families of poorly defined functions. Collectively, this study identified several transcription factors showing expression characteristics and orthologous functions that indicate likely participation in transcriptional regulation of epidermal TC development in V. faba cotyledons. PMID:27252730

  10. Insect pollination reduces yield loss following heat stress in faba bean (Vicia faba L.)

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Jacob; Jones, Hannah Elizabeth; Lukac, Martin; Potts, Simon Geoffrey

    2016-01-01

    Global food security, particularly crop fertilization and yield production, is threatened by heat waves that are projected to increase in frequency and magnitude with climate change. Effects of heat stress on the fertilization of insect-pollinated plants are not well understood, but experiments conducted primarily in self-pollinated crops, such as wheat, show that transfer of fertile pollen may recover yield following stress. We hypothesized that in the partially pollinator-dependent crop, faba bean (Vicia faba L.), insect pollination would elicit similar yield recovery following heat stress. We exposed potted faba bean plants to heat stress for 5 days during floral development and anthesis. Temperature treatments were representative of heat waves projected in the UK for the period 2021–2050 and onwards. Following temperature treatments, plants were distributed in flight cages and either pollinated by domesticated Bombus terrestris colonies or received no insect pollination. Yield loss due to heat stress at 30 °C was greater in plants excluded from pollinators (15%) compared to those with bumblebee pollination (2.5%). Thus, the pollinator dependency of faba bean yield was 16% at control temperatures (18–26 °C) and extreme stress (34 °C), but was 53% following intermediate heat stress at 30 °C. These findings provide the first evidence that the pollinator dependency of crops can be modified by heat stress, and suggest that insect pollination may become more important in crop production as the probability of heat waves increases. PMID:26989276

  11. [Oxidative damage of volatile oil from Chenopodium ambrosioides on Vicia faba root tip cells].

    PubMed

    Hu, Wan-Jun; Ma, Dan-Wei; Wang, Ya-Nan; Zhang, Hong

    2012-04-01

    Chenopodium ambrosioides is an invasive species, which has strong allelopathic effect on surrounding plants. In this study, the methods of soil culture and filter paper culture were adopted to simulate the eluviation and volatilization of the volatile oil from C. ambrosioides, respectively, and to investigate the allelopathy of the volatile oil on the lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme activities of Vicia faba root tip cells, with the mechanisms of the induced tip cell apoptosis analyzed. At the early stage (24 h) of soil culture and filter paper culture, the superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and catalase activities of the tip cells decreased after an initial increase with the increasing dose of the volatile oil, and the malondialdehyde content of the tip cells increased with the increasing volatile oil dose and treated time. At the midterm (48 h) and later (72 h) stages of soil culture and filter paper culture, a typical DNA ladder strip appeared, suggesting that the volatile oil from C. ambrosioides could induce the apoptosis of the tip cells, and the apoptosis was dose- and time dependent. This study showed that the volatile oil from C. ambrosioides could act on its surrounding plants via eluviation and volatilization, making the lipid peroxidation of acceptor plants aggravated and the antioxidant enzyme activities of the plants inhibited, resulting in the oxidative damage and apoptosis of the plant root tip cells, and accordingly, the inhibition of the plant growth. Under soil culture, the root tip cells of V. faba had higher antioxidant enzyme activities and lesser DNA damage, suggesting that the volatile oil from C. ambrosioides via volatilization had stronger allelopathy on the growth of surrounding plants than via eluviation. PMID:22803477

  12. Effect of kiln dust from a cement factory on growth of Vicia faba L.

    PubMed

    Uysal, Ismet; Ozdilek, Hasan Göksel; Oztürk, Münir

    2012-04-01

    This study was undertaken to study the effects of different amounts of kiln dust mixed with soil on the seed germination, plant growth, leaf area and water content of Vicia faba cv. Eresen. The reason for this was that cement kiln dust generated as a by-product from the cement factories is rich in potassium, sulfate and other compounds. This product becomes a serious problem when it comes in contact with water. The dust was collected from a cement factory located in Canakkale. Various elements such as Al, Co, Mo, Ca, B, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Pb, S, Se and Zn were determined both in soil as well as kiln dust. Kiln dust was mixed with soil in pots (20 cm diameter) to make seven different treatments varying from 15 to 105 g kiln dust kg(-1) of soil. The experiment lasted for 4 months. Seeds of V faba were sown in the pots filled with mixtures of preanalysed kiln dust and soil. Germination was high in the pots with a lower treatment of cement kiln dust. However, lower germination rates were observed in the pots mixed with the highest and the medium amounts of cement kiln dust. Plants growing in the soil including 15 g kiln dust showed better performance in length as compared to control. Leaf area increased with increase in cement kiln dust content up to 60 g kiln dust kg(-1) of soil, but declined after 75 g kg(-1). Water content of leaves (mg cm(-2) leaf area) was found to be constantly decreasing with respect to increasing cement kiln content in the pots. Differences between the averages were evaluated by Tukey test and results were found to be significant. PMID:23424859

  13. Molecular and structural changes induced by essential oils treatments in Vicia faba roots detected by genotoxicity testing.

    PubMed

    Sturchio, Elena; Boccia, Priscilla; Zanellato, Miriam; Meconi, Claudia; Donnarumma, Lucia; Mercurio, Giuseppe; Mecozzi, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Over the last few years, there has been an increased interest in exploiting allelopathy in organic agriculture. The aim of this investigation was to examine the effects of essential oil mixtures in order to establish their allelopathic use in agriculture. Two mixtures of essential oils consisting respectively of tea tree oil (TTO) and clove plus rosemary (C + R) oils were tested. Phytotoxicity and genotoxicity tests on the root meristems of Vicia faba minor were performed. A phytotoxic influence was particularly relevant for C + R mixture, while genotoxicity tests revealed significant results with both C + R oil mixture and TTO. Phenotypic analysis on Vicia faba minor primary roots following C + R oil mixture treatment resulted in callose production, an early symptom attributed to lipid peroxidation. The approach described in this study, based on genotoxicity bioassays, might identify specific DNA damage induced by essential oil treatments. These tests may represent a powerful method to evaluate potential adverse effects of different mixtures of essential oils that might be useful in alternative agriculture. Future studies are focusing on the positive synergism of more complex mixtures of essential oils in order to reduce concentrations of potentially toxic components while at the same time maintaining efficacy in antimicrobial and antifungal management. PMID:26914511

  14. Phytostabilization of moderate copper contaminated soils using co-inoculation of Vicia faba with plant growth promoting bacteria.

    PubMed

    Fatnassi, Imen Challougui; Chiboub, Manel; Saadani, Omar; Jebara, Moez; Jebara, Salwa Harzalli

    2015-03-01

    There is a need to conduct research on the selection of microbial isolates from rhizosphere of plants growing on heavy metal contaminated soils for specific restoration programs. This article suggest a consortium of bacteria combining Rhizobium sp. CCNWSX0481, Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae, Enterobacter cloacae and Pseudomonas sp. 2(2010) that was examined for the ability to promote Vicia faba.L. growth when cultivated on the vineyard of soil moderately contaminated with copper. Data showed that inoculation was significant in nodulation; it increases the number and the weight of nodules of 50%. Co-inoculation was also found to positively influence growth and seed yield, through increasing fresh shoot and fresh root weights by 33 and 26%, respectively, and through rising numbers of seed per pod and pods per plant. In contrast, co-inoculation produced a significant reduction of accumulated copper in roots attending 35%, however, the treatment revealed no significant effects on the copper contents in pods and seeds. The tested inoculum could be an option to promote V. faba growth and to enhance soil fertilization in moderate copper contaminated soils. Further studies on the influence of co-inoculation practices on copper migration in soil-plant systems are recommended to acquire more information for evaluation of this legume safety. PMID:24338717

  15. [Influence of Four Kinds of PPCPs on Micronucleus Rate of the Root-Tip Cells of Vicia-faba and Garlic].

    PubMed

    Wang, Lan-jun; Wang, Jin-hua; Zhu, Lu-sheng; Wang, Jun; Zhao, Xiang

    2016-04-15

    In order to determine the degree of biological genetic injury induced by PPCPs, the genotoxic effects of the doxycycline (DOX), ciprofloxacin (CIP), triclocarban (TCC) and carbamazepine (CBZ) in the concentration range of 12.5-100 mg · L⁻¹ were studied using micronucleus rate and micronucleus index of Vicia-fabe and garlic. The results showed that: (1) When the Vicia-faba root- tip cells were exposed to DOX, CIP, TCC and CBZ, micronucleus rates were higher than 1.67 ‰ (CK₁), it was significantly different from that of the control group (P < 0.05), and the micronucleus index was even greater than 3.5; With the increasing concentrations of the PPCPs, the micronucleus rates first increased and then decreased. (2) When the garlic root tip cells were exposed to DOX, CIP, TCC and CBZ respectively, the micronucleus rates were less than those of the Vicia-faba, while in most treatments significantly higher than that of the control group (0.67‰). The micronucleus index was higher than 3.5 in the groups exposed to CIP with concentrations of 25, 50, 100 mg · L⁻¹ and TCC and CBZ with concentrations of 25 mg · L⁻¹; With the increase of exposure concentrations, the micronucleus rate showed a trend of first increasing and then decreasing as well. (3) Under the same experimental conditions, the cells micronucleus rates of the garlic cells caused by the four tested compounds were significantly lower than those of Vicia-faba. (4) The micronucleus index of the root tip cells of Vicia-faba and garlic treated with the four kinds of compounds followed the order of CIP > CBZ > TCC > DOX. These results demonstrated that the four compounds caused biological genetic injury to root-tip cells of Vicia-faba and garlic, and the genetic damage caused to garlic was significantly lower than that to Vicia-faba. The damages caused by the four kinds of different compounds were also different. PMID:27548984

  16. Inbreeding, outbreeding and RAPD markers studies of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) crop.

    PubMed

    Obiadalla-Ali, Hazem A; Mohamed, Naheif E M; Khaled, Abdelsabour G A

    2015-11-01

    Five faba bean genotypes (Vicia faba L.) were selfed for two cycles to produce S1 and S2 generations. A half-diallel cross was carried out among them in each level of inbreeding (S0, S1 and S2) to obtain 10 F1 hybrids. Parental materials as well as their respective F1s were evaluated during the winter season of 2012. All studied traits except total dry seed yield showed significant inbreeding depression after the first generation of selfing (S1). No further decrease was noticed at the S2 generation. In the S1 generation the degree of inbreeding depression was highest for No. of branches/plant (-14.0%) and the least for weight of 100-seeds (-2.7). Some parents showed inbreeding vigor i.e. positive difference between S2 and S1 for some traits in S2 generation. Most studied traits showed significant positive heterosis values over mid-parent. The highest value of heterosis over the mid-parent was detected for total dry seed yield (128.8) and the lowest value of hybrid vigor was shown by weight of 100-seeds (1.2%). Specific combination among the 5 parental genotypes showed the highest value for heterosis for example cross Misr 2 × Giza 429 was the best cross for total dry seed yield, cross Giza 429 × Misr 1 for No. of branches/plant. Giza 429 is the best general combiner for most traits. Some crosses showed heterosis depression i.e. negative heterosis value in some traits. Hybridization among parental genotypes is recommended to be at the S1 or S2 generation. Twelve arbitrary primers produced different degrees of genetic polymorphism among the parental genotypes. A total of 65 amplification products were scored polymorphic. The percentage of polymorphic bands detected ranged from 33% to 100% with an average of 66.47%. The average of amplified bands was 5.42 polymorphic bands per primer. A positive, but non-significant, correlation (r = 0.085) between Euclidean distance and RAPD distance was observed. PMID:26644923

  17. Nutritional response of growing rats to faba beans (Vicia faba L., minor) and faba bean fractions.

    PubMed

    Rubio, L A; Grant, G; Bardocz, S; Dewey, P; Pusztai, A

    1991-11-01

    The effects of raw faba bean (Vicia faba L., minor) meal (VFM) and its fractions on the growth and nitrogen utilization of rats have been determined in two experiments. Two commercial varieties of VFM were tested, local VFM (409-439 g/kg diet) and Troy VFM (439 g/kg diet). The bean fractions tested were V. faba lectin-depleted protein (VFDP), V. faba lectin (VFL) and V. faba cotyledon residue (VFCR). All diets were supplemented with amino acids to target requirements. Body-weight, body N and lipid contents of rats fed on VFM were reduced significantly in comparison with control rats fed on lactalbumin. This was due, in part, to the lower digestibility of the protein, lipid and dry matter (DM) of VFM diets. As a result, net protein utilization (NPU) and biological value (BV) of faba bean proteins were less than expected. Urine and urea-N outputs of the VFM-fed rats were also elevated in both experiments. Increasing the energy content of local VFM diets led to significantly higher dry body-weight, body N and lipid contents, with the result that the NPU and BV values of the protein also increased. However, the NPU values for VFM-fed rats were still significantly lower than those for the controls in both experiments. In contrast, true N, lipid and DM digestibilities in rats given local VFM were not significantly affected by the difference in the energy content of the diets. The replacement of two-thirds of the lactalbumin in the diet with VFDP (65 g/kg) reduced dry body-weight, N and lipid contents, NPU and BV compared with the control rats, even though N, lipid and DM digestibilities were not significantly different. The nutritional performance of rats fed on lactalbumin-based diets containing 7 g VFL/kg was similar to that of the controls. Similarly, the inclusion of the cotyledon residue (237 g VFCR/kg diet) had no appreciable effect on any of the variables studied. As VFL and VFCR had no antinutritional effects in these rats, it appears that the low nutritional

  18. Effect of crude seaweed extracts on seed germination, seedling growth and some metabolic processes of Vicia faba L.

    PubMed

    el-Sheekh, M M; el-Saied A el-D

    2000-01-01

    Crude extracts from three green seaweeds (Cladophora dalmatica, Enteromorpha intestinalis, Ulva lactuca) and the three red algae (Corallina mediterranea, Jania rubens, Pterocladia pinnate) were prepared. Their effects on germination, growth of seedlings, chlorophyll content and other metabolic activities of Vicia faba were investigated. The crude extract of C. dalmatica showed maximal activity, and it increased seed germination, length of main root and shoot systems and the number of lateral roots. All the crude extracts of seaweed increased protein content in both root and shoot systems, total soluble sugars and chlorophyll content in leaves. The cytokinin content of the green algae was higher than that in red algae. Growth of seedlings of V. faba was stimulated but to different degrees. PMID:10697743

  19. Effects of soil aeration, legume residue, and soil texture on transformations of macro- and micronutrients in soils. [Vicia villosa

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, D.T.; Doran, J.W. ); Aulakh, M.S. )

    1992-02-01

    Soil aeration is an important factor controlling microbial activity, nutrient availability, and plant root growth. The authors investigated the effect of hairy vetch (Vicia villosa) addition to well aerated (60% water-filled pore space (WFPS)) and poorly aerated (90% WFPS) soils of varying texture on transformations of C, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Zn, Mn, Fe, and Cu for a 30-d period. The results of this study imply that incorporation of easily decomposable residue may supply substantial amounts of nutrients to growing plants. Where soils remain wet for > 10 d, residues may create intensive reducing conditions and a several fold increase in available Fe, Mn, Cu, and P. Conversely, DTPA extractable Fe, Mn, and Cu can vary greatly within a few weeks depending on soil aeration status, residue management, time of sampling, and soil texture and may lead to erroneous indices of nutrient availability to plants.

  20. Stomatal Opening in Isolated Epidermal Strips of Vicia faba. I. Response to Light and to CO2-free Air 1

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, R. A.

    1968-01-01

    This paper reports a consistent and large opening response to light + CO2-free air in living stomata of isolated epidermal strips of Vicia faba. The response was compared to that of non-isolated stomata in leaf discs floating on water; stomatal apertures, guard cell solute potentials and starch contents were similar in the 2 situations. To obtain such stomatal behavior, it was necessary to float epidermal strips on dilute KCl solutions. This suggests that solute uptake is necessary for stomatal opening. The demonstration of normal stomatal behavior in isolated epidermal strips provides a very useful system in which to investigate the mechanism of stomatal opening. It was possible to show independent responses in stomatal aperture to light and to CO2-free air. PMID:16656995

  1. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure in Vicia faba L. Landraces and Wild Related Species Assessed by Nuclear SSRs

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Manuela; Lopes, Susana; Viegas, Wanda; Veloso, Maria Manuela

    2016-01-01

    Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is a facultative cross-pollinating legume crop with a great importance for food and feed due to its high protein content as well as the important role in soil fertility and nitrogen fixation. In this work we evaluated genetic diversity and population structure of faba bean accessions from the Western Mediterranean basin and wild related species. For that purpose we screened 53 V. faba, 2 V. johannis and 7 V. narbonensis accessions from Portugal, Spain and Morocco with 28 faba bean Single Sequence Repeats (SSR). SSR genotyping showed that the number of alleles detected per locus for the polymorphic markers ranged between 2 and 10, with Polymorphic Information Content (PIC) values between 0.662 and 0.071, and heterozygosity (HO) between 0–0.467. Heterozygosity and inbreeding coefficient levels indicate a higher level of inbreeding in wild related species than in cultivated Vicia. The analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed a superior genetic diversity within accessions than between accessions even from distant regions. These results are in accordance to population structure analysis showing that individuals from the same accession can be genetically more similar to individuals from far away accessions, than from individuals from the same accession. In all three levels of analysis (whole panel of cultivated and wild accessions, cultivated faba bean accessions and Portuguese accessions) no population structure was observed based on geography or climatic factors. Differences between V. narbonensis and V. johannis are undetectable although these wild taxa are clearly distinct from V. faba accessions. Thus, a limited gene flow occurred between cultivated accessions and wild relatives. Contrastingly, the lack of population structure seems to indicate a high degree of gene flow between V. faba accessions, possibly explained by the partially allogamous habit in association with frequent seed exchange/introduction. PMID:27168146

  2. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure in Vicia faba L. Landraces and Wild Related Species Assessed by Nuclear SSRs.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Hugo R; Tomás, Diana; Silva, Manuela; Lopes, Susana; Viegas, Wanda; Veloso, Maria Manuela

    2016-01-01

    Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is a facultative cross-pollinating legume crop with a great importance for food and feed due to its high protein content as well as the important role in soil fertility and nitrogen fixation. In this work we evaluated genetic diversity and population structure of faba bean accessions from the Western Mediterranean basin and wild related species. For that purpose we screened 53 V. faba, 2 V. johannis and 7 V. narbonensis accessions from Portugal, Spain and Morocco with 28 faba bean Single Sequence Repeats (SSR). SSR genotyping showed that the number of alleles detected per locus for the polymorphic markers ranged between 2 and 10, with Polymorphic Information Content (PIC) values between 0.662 and 0.071, and heterozygosity (HO) between 0-0.467. Heterozygosity and inbreeding coefficient levels indicate a higher level of inbreeding in wild related species than in cultivated Vicia. The analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed a superior genetic diversity within accessions than between accessions even from distant regions. These results are in accordance to population structure analysis showing that individuals from the same accession can be genetically more similar to individuals from far away accessions, than from individuals from the same accession. In all three levels of analysis (whole panel of cultivated and wild accessions, cultivated faba bean accessions and Portuguese accessions) no population structure was observed based on geography or climatic factors. Differences between V. narbonensis and V. johannis are undetectable although these wild taxa are clearly distinct from V. faba accessions. Thus, a limited gene flow occurred between cultivated accessions and wild relatives. Contrastingly, the lack of population structure seems to indicate a high degree of gene flow between V. faba accessions, possibly explained by the partially allogamous habit in association with frequent seed exchange/introduction. PMID:27168146

  3. High-quality permanent draft genome sequence of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae strain GB30; an effective microsymbiont of Pisum sativum growing in Poland

    SciTech Connect

    Mazur, Andrzej; De Meyer, Sofie E.; Tian, Rui; Wielbo, Jerzy; Zebracki, Kamil; Seshadri, Rekha; Reddy, T. B.K.; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia N.; Pati, Amrita; Woyke, Tanja; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Reeve, Wayne

    2015-07-16

    We report that Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae GB30 is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that can exist as a soil saprophyte or as a legume microsymbiont of Pisum sativum. GB30 was isolated in Poland from a nodule recovered from the roots of Pisum sativum growing at Janow. GB30 is also an effective microsymbiont of the annual forage legumes vetch and pea. Here we describe the features of R. leguminosarum bv. viciae strain GB30, together with sequence and annotation. The 7,468,464 bp high-quality permanent draft genome is arranged in 78 scaffolds of 78 contigs containing 7,227 protein-coding genes and 75 RNA-only encoding genes, and is part of the GEBA-RNB project proposal.

  4. High-quality permanent draft genome sequence of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae strain GB30; an effective microsymbiont of Pisum sativum growing in Poland

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Mazur, Andrzej; De Meyer, Sofie E.; Tian, Rui; Wielbo, Jerzy; Zebracki, Kamil; Seshadri, Rekha; Reddy, T. B.K.; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia N.; Pati, Amrita; et al

    2015-07-16

    We report that Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae GB30 is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that can exist as a soil saprophyte or as a legume microsymbiont of Pisum sativum. GB30 was isolated in Poland from a nodule recovered from the roots of Pisum sativum growing at Janow. GB30 is also an effective microsymbiont of the annual forage legumes vetch and pea. Here we describe the features of R. leguminosarum bv. viciae strain GB30, together with sequence and annotation. The 7,468,464 bp high-quality permanent draft genome is arranged in 78 scaffolds of 78 contigs containing 7,227 protein-coding genes and 75more » RNA-only encoding genes, and is part of the GEBA-RNB project proposal.« less

  5. Quantification of cyanamide in young seedlings of Vicia species, Lens culinaris, and Robinia pseudo-acacia by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kamo, Tsunashi; Takemura, Tomoko; Wasano, Naoya; Fujii, Yoshiharu; Hiradate, Syuntaro

    2012-01-01

    We quantified the cyanamide content of young leaves of nine Vicia species, Lens culinaris, and Robinia pseudo-acacia using a modified analytical procedure that made it possible to measure the cyanamide content of a single leaf. Recent molecular phylogenetic analysis suggests that cyanamide is present in V. benghalensis, which is placed in a monophyletic group with cyanamide-biosynthesizing plants, V. villosa and V. cracca; this suggestion was verified. PMID:22785492

  6. Buthionine sulfoximine prevents the reduction of the genotoxic activity of maleic hydrazide by soil humic substances in Vicia faba seedlings.

    PubMed

    De Marco, A; De Simone, C; D'Ambrosio, C; Owczarek, M

    1999-01-13

    A significant reduction of the genotoxic effects caused by herbicide maleic hydrazide (MH) in Vicia faba seedlings was observed to be induced by a growth step in an organic soil as well as by a pretreatment with highly purified humic substances. In addition, such protective activity was resulted quite similar to that observed when the conditioning pretreatment was carried out with metal salts, so suggesting the involvement of the GSH biosynthesis in determining the protective activity observed. In agreement with this hypothesis, a previous exposure to buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), an inhibitor of the phytochelatins production, through the inhibition of GSH synthesis, prevented the reduction of the genotoxic activity of MH. The findings provide evidence for the involvement of the GSH biosynthesis pathway in determining the antigenotoxic activity revealed and suggest a possible involvement of the phytochelatins in this process. However, yet to be clarified is whether the stimulation of GSH production results as a consequence of a nonspecific influence on the protein synthesis by humic substances or of its direct activation due to the presence, as contaminants, of some heavy metals in both organic soil and humic acids extracts. PMID:10036330

  7. Glucose- and mannose-induced stomatal closure is mediated by ROS production, Ca(2+) and water channel in Vicia faba.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Xu, ShanShan; Gao, Jing; Pan, Sha; Wang, GenXuan

    2016-03-01

    Sugars act as vital signaling molecules that regulate plant growth, development and stress responses. However, the effects of sugars on stomatal movement have been unclear. In our study, we explored the effects of monosaccharides such as glucose and mannose on stomatal aperture. Here, we demonstrate that glucose and mannose trigger stomatal closure in a dose- and time-dependent manner in epidermal peels of broad bean (Vicia faba). Pharmacological studies revealed that glucose- and mannose-induced stomatal closure was almost completely inhibited by two reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavengers, catalase (CAT) and reduced glutathione (GSH), was significantly abolished by an NADPH oxidase inhibitor, diphenylene iodonium chloride (DPI), whereas they were hardly affected by a peroxidase inhibitor, salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM). Furthermore, glucose- and mannose-induced stomatal closure was strongly inhibited by a Ca(2+) channel blocker, LaCl3 , a Ca(2+) chelator, ethyleneglycol-bis(beta-aminoethylether)-N,N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) and two water channel blockers, HgCl2 and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO); whereas the inhibitory effects of the water channel blockers were essentially abolished by the reversing agent β-mercaptoethanol (β-ME). These results suggest that ROS production mainly via NADPH oxidases, Ca(2+) and water channels are involved in glucose- and mannose-induced stomatal closure. PMID:26046775

  8. Response to copper bromide exposure in Vicia sativa L. seeds: analysis of genotoxicity, nucleolar activity and mineral profile.

    PubMed

    Bellani, Lorenza M; Muccifora, Simonetta; Giorgetti, Lucia

    2014-09-01

    Copper bromide (CuBr2) effects on seed germination and plantlet development of Vicia sativa L. are evaluated through mitotic index, chromosome aberrations, nucleolar activity and mineral profile. CuBr2 induces a significant presence of micronuclei, sticky and c-metaphases, anaphase bridges and chromosome breaks. Increased number of nucleoli and scattering of AgNOR proteins from the nucleolus in the nuclear surface at CuBr2 1mM and in the cytoplasm at CuBr2 5mM, goes along with the decrease of root growth. In V. sativa embryo the content of many macro and micronutrients increases up to copper 1mM in agreement with reserve mobilization while at CuBr2 5mM some elements are present in lower amount. We hypothesize that inhibitory effects observed at 5mM are due either to a nutrient shortage or to a direct influence of copper on root cell division, evidenced by low mitotic index, high occurrence of chromosome aberrations and loss of material from the nucleolus. PMID:25011121

  9. Nutritional improvement of corn pasta-like product with broad bean (Vicia faba) and quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa).

    PubMed

    Giménez, M A; Drago, S R; Bassett, M N; Lobo, M O; Sammán, N C

    2016-05-15

    In this study, the nutritional quality of pasta-like product (spaghetti-type), made with corn (Zea mays) flour enriched with 30% broad bean (Vicia faba) flour and 20% of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) flour, was determined. Proximate chemical composition and iron, zinc and dietary fiber were determined. A biological assay was performed to assess the protein value using net protein utilization (NPU), true digestibility (TD) and protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS). Iron and zinc availability were estimated by measuring dialyzable mineral fraction (%Da) resulting from in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. Nutritionally improved, gluten-free spaghetti (NIS) showed significantly increased NPU and decreased TD compared with a non-enriched control sample. One NIS-portion supplied 10-20% of recommended fiber daily intake. Addition of quinoa flour had a positive effect on the FeDa% as did broad bean flour on ZnDa%. EDTA increased Fe- and ZnDa% in all NIS-products, but it also impaired sensorial quality. PMID:26775956

  10. Factors influencing diamine oxidase activity and γ-aminobutyric acid content of fava bean (Vicia faba L.) during germination.

    PubMed

    Yang, Runqiang; Chen, Hui; Gu, Zhenxin

    2011-11-01

    Factors (germination time, spectra, temperature, pH, and chemical inhibitors) influencing diamine oxidase (DAO, EC 1.4.3.6) activity and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) content of fava bean (Vicia faba L.) during germination were investigated in this study. DAO activity significantly increased in germinating seeds but varied with different organs. The enzyme activity was higher in shoot than that in cotyledon, hypocotyl, and radicle. When seeds were germinated in the dark, DAO activity was 2.35-, 2.00-, 2.36-, 4.40-, and 1.67-fold of that under white, red, blue, green, and yellow spectra, respectively. The optimum germination temperature and pH value for increasing DAO activity were 30 °C and 3.0, respectively. The DAO activity was inhibited significantly by aminoguanidine and sodium ethylenediamine tetracetate, while it was activated by CuCl(2) and CaCl(2). Germinating at an appropriate temperature and pH, 30% of GABA formation was supplied by DAO. Calcium was related to the regulation of DAO activity and GABA accumulation. PMID:21942768

  11. Biochemical toxicity and DNA damage of imidazolium-based ionic liquid with different anions in soil on Vicia faba seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tong; Zhu, Lusheng; Wang, Jinhua; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Jun; Sun, Xi; Zhang, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the toxic effects of 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Omim]Cl), 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([Omim]Br) and 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([Omim]BF4) in soil on Vicia faba (V. faba) seedlings at 0, 100, 200, 400, 600 and 800 mg kg−1 were assessed for the first time at the cellular and molecular level. Moreover, the toxicity of these three ionic liquids (ILs) was evaluated, and the influence of anions on the toxicity of the ILs was assessed. The results showed that even at 100 mg kg−1, the growth of V. faba seedlings was inhibited after exposure to the three ILs, and the inhibitory effect was enhanced with increasing concentrations of the three ILs. The level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was increased after exposure to the three ILs, which resulted in lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and oxidative damage in the cells of the V. faba seedlings. In addition, the anion structure could influence the toxicity of ILs, and toxicity of the three tested ILs decreased in the following order: [Omim]BF4 > [Omim]Br > [Omim]Cl. Moreover, oxidative damage is the primary mechanism by which ILs exert toxic effects on crops, and ILs could reduce the agricultural productivity. PMID:26675424

  12. Biochemical toxicity and DNA damage of imidazolium-based ionic liquid with different anions in soil on Vicia faba seedlings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tong; Zhu, Lusheng; Wang, Jinhua; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Jun; Sun, Xi; Zhang, Cheng

    2015-12-01

    In the present study, the toxic effects of 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Omim]Cl), 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([Omim]Br) and 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([Omim]BF4) in soil on Vicia faba (V. faba) seedlings at 0, 100, 200, 400, 600 and 800 mg kg-1 were assessed for the first time at the cellular and molecular level. Moreover, the toxicity of these three ionic liquids (ILs) was evaluated, and the influence of anions on the toxicity of the ILs was assessed. The results showed that even at 100 mg kg-1, the growth of V. faba seedlings was inhibited after exposure to the three ILs, and the inhibitory effect was enhanced with increasing concentrations of the three ILs. The level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was increased after exposure to the three ILs, which resulted in lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and oxidative damage in the cells of the V. faba seedlings. In addition, the anion structure could influence the toxicity of ILs, and toxicity of the three tested ILs decreased in the following order: [Omim]BF4 > [Omim]Br > [Omim]Cl. Moreover, oxidative damage is the primary mechanism by which ILs exert toxic effects on crops, and ILs could reduce the agricultural productivity.

  13. Characterisation of SalRAB a Salicylic Acid Inducible Positively Regulated Efflux System of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv viciae 3841

    PubMed Central

    Tett, Adrian J.; Karunakaran, Ramakrishnan; Poole, Philip S.

    2014-01-01

    Salicylic acid is an important signalling molecule in plant-microbe defence and symbiosis. We analysed the transcriptional responses of the nitrogen fixing plant symbiont, Rhizobium leguminosarum bv viciae 3841 to salicylic acid. Two MFS-type multicomponent efflux systems were induced in response to salicylic acid, rmrAB and the hitherto undescribed system salRAB. Based on sequence similarity salA and salB encode a membrane fusion and inner membrane protein respectively. salAB are positively regulated by the LysR regulator SalR. Disruption of salA significantly increased the sensitivity of the mutant to salicylic acid, while disruption of rmrA did not. A salA/rmrA double mutation did not have increased sensitivity relative to the salA mutant. Pea plants nodulated by salA or rmrA strains did not have altered nodule number or nitrogen fixation rates, consistent with weak expression of salA in the rhizosphere and in nodule bacteria. However, BLAST analysis revealed seventeen putative efflux systems in Rlv3841 and several of these were highly differentially expressed during rhizosphere colonisation, host infection and bacteroid differentiation. This suggests they have an integral role in symbiosis with host plants. PMID:25133394

  14. Physiological impacts of soil pollution and arsenic uptake in three plant species: Agrostis capillaris, Solanum nigrum and Vicia faba.

    PubMed

    Austruy, A; Wanat, N; Moussard, C; Vernay, P; Joussein, E; Ledoigt, G; Hitmi, A

    2013-04-01

    In order to revegetate an industrial soil polluted by trace metals and metalloids (As, Pb, Cu, Cd, Sb), the impact of pollution on three plant species, Solanum nigrum and Agrostis capillaris, both native species in an industrial site, and Vicia faba, a plant model species, is studied. Following the study of soil pollution from the industrial wasteland of Auzon, it appears that the As is the principal pollutant. Particular attention is given to this metalloid, both in its content and its speciation in the soil that the level of its accumulation in plants. In V. faba and A. capillaris, the trace metals and metalloids inhibit the biomass production and involve a lipid peroxidation in the leaves. Furthermore, these pollutants cause a photosynthesis perturbation by stomatal limitations and a dysfunction of photosystem II. Whatever the plant, the As content is less than 0.1 percent of dry matter, the majority of As absorbed is stored in the roots which play the role of trap organ. In parallel, the culture of S. nigrum decreases significantly the exchangeable and weakly adsorbed fraction of As in rhizospheric soil. This study has highlighted the ability of tolerance to trace metals of S. nigrum and to a lesser extent A. capillaris. Our data indicate that V. faba is not tolerant to soil pollution and is not a metallophyte species. PMID:23321366

  15. The genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride in soil on Vicia faba seedlings.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tong; Zhu, Lusheng; Wang, Jinhua; Wang, Jun; Xie, Hui

    2015-03-21

    Although considered as "green" solvents, the toxic effects of ionic liquids (ILs) on organisms have been widely investigated in recent years. However, studies on the toxic effects of ILs on plants all focus on toxicity in nutrient solution. In the present paper, the toxic effects of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C4mim]Cl) on Vicia faba seedlings in soil at 0, 500, 1500, and 2500 mg kg(-1) on day 10 were studied. The present results showed that the growth of V. faba seedlings may be seriously inhibited when the IL concentrations were higher than 500 mg kg(-1). The EC50 values for shoot length, root length, and dry weight were 3886, 2483, and 3359 mg kg(-1), respectively. In addition, [C4mim]Cl caused lipid peroxidation and DNA damage at 500 mg kg(-1) and oxidative stress at 1500 mg kg(-1), which indicated that [C4mim]Cl may have genotoxicity and cytotoxicity on V. faba seedlings. Moreover, oxidative damage may be the main toxic mechanism of ILs. PMID:25462868

  16. Isolation of new pregnancy-associated glycoproteins from water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) placenta by Vicia villosa affinity chromatography.

    PubMed

    Barbato, O; Sousa, N M; Klisch, K; Clerget, E; Debenedetti, A; Barile, V L; Malfatti, A; Beckers, J F

    2008-12-01

    The present study describes the isolation and characterization of new pregnancy-associated glycoprotein molecules (PAG) from midpregnancy and late-pregnancy placentas in the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). After extraction, the homogenates are subjected to acid and ammonium sulfate precipitations followed by DEAE chromatography. Subsequently, the water buffalo PAG (wbPAG) from these solutions are enriched by Vicia villosa agarose (VVA) affinity chromatography. As determined by western blotting with anti-PAG sera, the apparent molecular masses of the immunoreactive bands from the VVA peaks range from 59.5 to 75.8kDa and from 57.8 to 73.3kDa in the midpregnancy and late-pregnancy placentas, respectively. Amino-terminal microsequencing of the immunoreactive proteins has allowed the identification of three distinct wbPAG sequences, which have been deposited in the SwissProt database: RGSXLTIHPLRNIRDFFYVG (acc. no. P85048), RGSXLTILPLRNIID (acc. no. P85049), and RGSXLTHLPLRNI (acc. no. P85050). Their comparison to previously identified proteins has shown that two of them are new because they have not been described before. Our results confirm the suitability of VVA chromatography for the enrichment of the multiple PAG molecules expressed in buffalo placenta. PMID:18308351

  17. Genetic diversity in Tunisian populations of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) based on morphological traits and molecular markers.

    PubMed

    Backouchi, I Z; Aouida, M; Khemiri, N; Jebara, M

    2015-01-01

    Genetic diversity within Vicia faba L. is key to the genetic improvement of this important species. In this study, morphological traits and RAPD molecular markers were used to assess the levels of polymorphism across 12 Tunisian populations, three major and nine minor from different locations. Analysis of morphological traits indicated that the three major populations showed significant differences and the nine minor populations exhibited considerable variation for most traits. The grain yield of the Alia population could be increased by inoculation. Of the seven primers tested, it was clear that the Cs12 primer would be recommend for genetic diversity analysis of V. faba.Within population genetic diversity exhibited 94% of total diversity. Intra-population genetic diversity (HS) was 0.16, which was clearly higher than between population genetic diversity (DST = 0.06) UPG-MA showed a high level of genetic variation between major and minor populations of V. faba L. Particularly the minor populations showed a high level of diversity and was divided into two subclusters. Ltaifia was separated from the other populations. In addition to a high grain yield, these populations showed the lowest Nei and Shannon indices (H = 0.08 and I = 0.13) justifying their homogeneity. For these reasons, these cultivars can be considered a selected population. However, the Takelsa population showed the highest Nei and Shannon indices (H = 0.13 and I = 0.21), indicating that this population was the most heterogeneous, which is interesting for breeding programs. PMID:26214437

  18. Physical Restriction of Pods Causes Seed Size Reduction of a Brassinosteroid-deficient Faba Bean (Vicia faba)

    PubMed Central

    FUKUTA, N.; FUKUZONO, K.; KAWAIDE, H.; ABE, H.; NAKAYAMA, M.

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims A brassinosteroid-deficient mutant faba bean (Vicia faba ‘Rinrei’) shows dwarfism in many organs including pods and seeds. ‘Rinrei’ has normal-sized seeds together with dwarf seeds, suggesting that dwarfism in the seed may be indirectly caused by brassinosteroid deficiency. The mechanism of seed size reduction in this mutant was investigated. • Methods The associations between seed orientation in the pod, seed numbers per pod and pod lengths with seed sizes were analysed in ‘Rinrei’ and the wild-type plant. • Key Results ‘Rinrei’ seeds are tightly arranged in pods containing two or three seeds. Seed size decreased as the number of seeds per pod increased or as the length of the pod decreased. Where no physical restriction occurred between seeds in a pod, the wild-type faba bean seeds had a nearly constant size regardless of seed number per pod or pod length. ‘Rinrei’ seeds in pods containing single seeds were the same size as wild-type seeds. Brassinolide treatment increased the seed size and the length of pods containing three seeds in ‘Rinrei’. • Conclusion Seed size of ‘Rinrei’ is mainly regulated through a reduction of pod length due to brassinosteroid deficiency; physical restriction within pods causes a reduction in seed size. These results suggest a possible mechanism for increasing faba bean yields to optimal levels. PMID:16303772

  19. Lead-induced genotoxicity to Vicia faba L. roots in relation with metal cell uptake and initial speciation.

    PubMed

    Shahid, M; Pinelli, E; Pourrut, B; Silvestre, J; Dumat, C

    2011-01-01

    Formation of organometallic complexes in soil solution strongly influence metals phytoavailability. However, only few studies deal with the influence of metal speciation both on plant uptake and genotoxicity. In the present study, Vicia faba seedlings were exposed for 6h in controlled hydroponic conditions to 5 μM of lead nitrate alone and chelated to varying degrees by different organic ligands. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and citric acid were, respectively, chosen as models of humic substances and low weight organic acids present in natural soil solutions. Visual Minteq software was used to estimate free lead cations concentration and ultimately to design the experimental layout. For all experimental conditions, both micronucleus test and measure of lead uptake by plants were finally performed. Chelation of Pb by EDTA, a strong chelator, dose-dependently increased the uptake in V. faba roots while its genotoxicity was significantly reduced, suggesting a protective role of EDTA. A weak correlation was observed between total lead concentration absorbed by roots and genotoxicity (r(2)=0.65). In contrast, a strong relationship (r(2)=0.93) exists between Pb(2+) concentration in exposure media and genotoxicity in the experiment performed with EDTA. Citric acid induced labile organometallic complexes did not demonstrate any significant changes in lead genotoxicity or uptake. These results demonstrate that metal speciation knowledge could improve the interpretation of V. faba genotoxicity test performed to test soil quality. PMID:20851467

  20. Biochemical toxicity and DNA damage of imidazolium-based ionic liquid with different anions in soil on Vicia faba seedlings.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tong; Zhu, Lusheng; Wang, Jinhua; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Jun; Sun, Xi; Zhang, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the toxic effects of 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Omim]Cl), 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([Omim]Br) and 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([Omim]BF4) in soil on Vicia faba (V. faba) seedlings at 0, 100, 200, 400, 600 and 800 mg kg(-1) were assessed for the first time at the cellular and molecular level. Moreover, the toxicity of these three ionic liquids (ILs) was evaluated, and the influence of anions on the toxicity of the ILs was assessed. The results showed that even at 100 mg kg(-1), the growth of V. faba seedlings was inhibited after exposure to the three ILs, and the inhibitory effect was enhanced with increasing concentrations of the three ILs. The level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was increased after exposure to the three ILs, which resulted in lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and oxidative damage in the cells of the V. faba seedlings. In addition, the anion structure could influence the toxicity of ILs, and toxicity of the three tested ILs decreased in the following order: [Omim]BF4 > [Omim]Br > [Omim]Cl. Moreover, oxidative damage is the primary mechanism by which ILs exert toxic effects on crops, and ILs could reduce the agricultural productivity. PMID:26675424

  1. Genetic diversity analysis of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) germplasms using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Hou, W W; Zhang, X J; Shi, J B; Liu, Y J

    2015-01-01

    To investigate genetic diversity and relationships of 101 faba bean (Vicia faba L.), landraces and varieties from different provinces of China and abroad were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). A total of 2625 unambiguous and stable bands from 101 germplasms were detected, and 36 different bands were classified according to the electrophoretic mobility patterns of the proteins as determined by the SDS-PAGE analysis, of which 16 were polymorphic. Besides the common bands, the protein bands of 92, 75, 62, 40, 34, 17, and 13 kDa presented the highest frequencies of 92.08, 90.10, 99.01, 95.05, 95.05, 98.02, and 95.05%, respectively. The other 29 polymorphic protein bands showed higher polymorphism with 16.09 polymorphic bands in average. The genetic similarity of the 101 genotypes tested varied from 0.6111 to 0.9722, with an average of 0.7122. Cluster analysis divided the 101 genotypes into six major clusters, which was consistent with the systematic classification of faba bean done in previous studies. The overall results indicated that SDS-PAGE was a useful tool for genetic diversity analysis and laid a solid foundation for future faba bean breeding. PMID:26535710

  2. CYTOGENETIC AND MOLECULAR RESPONSES OF AMMONIUM SULPHATE APPLICATION FOR TOLERANCE TO EXTREME TEMPERATURES IN VICIA FABA L.

    PubMed

    Öney, S; Tabur, S; Tuna, M

    2015-01-01

    Effects of ammonium sulphate [(NH4)2SO4] on mitosis, cell cycle and chromosomes in Vicia faba L. seeds exposed to extreme temperatures were investigated using flowcytometric and cytogenetic analysis. Seeds germinated at high and low temperatures showed a signiicant decrease in mitotic index as compared to those of optimum temperature conditions. Application of 50 and 1000 µM (NH4)2SO4 were successful in alleviating the negative effects of low and high temperature on mitotic activity, respectively. 50 µM (NH4)2SO4 showed the most positive effect on cell cycle at the extreme temperatures. This concentration increased the cell division removing or decreasing the negative effects of temperature stress. Namely, the highest G2/M and S phase percentages under stress conditions were obtained with application of 50 µM (NH4)2SO4. Chromosomal aberrations were not observed in cells of seeds germinated in distilled water and also at any temperatures. However, the frequency of chromosomal aberrations increased significantly by increasing (NH4)2SO4 concentration. The highest aberration frequency in all temperature degree tested was found at 1000 µM (NH4)2SO4 concentration. PMID:26638498

  3. Characterizations of bio-accumulations, subcellular distribution and chemical forms of cesium in Brassica juncea, and Vicia faba.

    PubMed

    Fu, Qian; Lai, Jin-long; Tao, Zong-ya; Han, Na; Wu, Guo

    2016-04-01

    We aim to investigate the tolerance and enrichment mechanism of cesium (Cs) in hyperaccumulation plants. In this study, Brassica juncea and Vicia faba were subjected to varying doses of Cs for 21 days to investigate the differences in bio-accumulations, subcellular distribution and chemical forms of Cs in two cultivars by differential centrifugation, and extraction of Cs in different chemical forms, respectively. The results showed that 49.87%-61.08% of the Cs were in the leaf of B. juncea, while in V. faba, 1.58%-79.29% of the Cs was in the root. The translocation factor (TF) arrived 2.79 to 3.71 in B. juncea, while it only reached 0.26 to 0.62 in V. faba. Cs subcellular distribution of the two plants was in sequence as follows: soluble fraction > cell wall > organelles. Cs was more easily distributed to metal-sensitive fractions of V. faba. The inorganic Cs (F-ethanol), and water-soluble Cs (F-dH2O) are the main existing types of Cs in the two plants. In B. juncea, the relative content of inorganic Cs, and organic acids/CsH2PO4 (F-dH2O) were higher than that of V. faba in the stem. This suggests that Cs may induce related transporter gene expression (such as phosphate transporter, organic cation, high affinity nitrate transporter, amino acid permease, etc.) to help the transport of Cs between root to shoot. PMID:26854554

  4. Exogenous tannase improves feeding value of a diet containing field beans (Vicia faba) when fed to broilers.

    PubMed

    Abdulla, J; Rose, S P; Mackenzie, A M; Mirza, W; Pirgozliev, V

    2016-04-01

    A total of 72 male Ross 308 broilers were used in a study to investigate the effect of dietary tannase on apparent metabolisable energy (AME), coefficients of dry matter retention (DMR) and nitrogen retention (NR) and fat digestibility (FD) of a diet containing 300 g/kg field beans (Vicia faba). Growth performance variables and gastrointestinal tract development were also measured. Two treatments were used in this study: control (C) and C + 3400 tannase units (TU) per kg feed. Diets were formulated to be nutritionally adequate with the exception that the AME was lower than recommended (12.65 vs 12.97 MJ/kg, respectively). Inclusion of tannase increased AME by 0.4 MJ/kg DM. Tannase supplementation improved dietary DMR, NR and FD by 2.8%, 3.2% and 6.5%, respectively. Birds given tannase had 4.4% reduction in feed intake and 2.6% improvement in gain to feed ratio (P < 0.05). Compared to control diet, birds given tannase had reduced relative to body weight (%BW) proventriculus and gizzard and pancreas weights, 3.29% vs 3.09% and 0.47% vs 0.44%, respectively. The mechanisms of action of the studied enzyme require further elucidation. PMID:26864377

  5. Biological responses of Vicia faba seedlings to the imidazolium-based ionic liquid 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride in soil.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tong; Wang, Jinhua; Wang, Jun; Zhu, Lusheng; Zhang, Jun

    2016-06-01

    Although there are a few studies on the toxicity of ionic liquids (ILs), relatively little is known about their toxic effects on plants in soil. In the present study, the toxic effects of 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Hmim]Cl) in the soil on Vicia faba seedlings and the influences of [Hmim]Cl on the physicochemical properties of the soil were studied. Organic matter content, pH, and conductivity of the tested soil were significantly altered at [Hmim]Cl concentrations greater than 1000 mg kg(-1) . Moreover, shoot length, root length, dry weight, and pigment content of the V. faba seedlings were greatly inhibited when the [Hmim]Cl concentration was greater than 500 mg kg(-1) . The roots were the most seriously affected organ and stopped growing at 3000 mg kg(-1) . In addition, [Hmim]Cl caused an increase in the level of reactive oxygen species at [Hmim]Cl concentrations above 250 mg kg(-1) that resulted in lipid peroxidation, DNA damage, and oxidative stress in the V. faba seedlings. The present study provides information that is useful for evaluation of the environmental safety of ILs in soil. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1502-1510. © 2015 SETAC. PMID:26517735

  6. Cd-induced oxidative stress and lignification in the roots of two Vicia sativa L. varieties with different Cd tolerances.

    PubMed

    Rui, Haiyun; Chen, Chen; Zhang, Xingxing; Shen, Zhenguo; Zhang, Fenqin

    2016-01-15

    We examined the effects of Cd on growth, lipid peroxidation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, antioxidant enzymatic activity, and lignin content in the roots of two varieties of Vicia sativa. Treatment with Cd decreased plant growth and increased ROS and lipid peroxidation levels to a greater extent in the Cd-sensitive variety ZM than in the Cd-tolerant variety L3. Most hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and superoxide anion (O2(•-)) were accumulated in the cell walls and extracellular spaces in response to Cd treatments. Chemical assays and experiments using inhibitors showed that larger increases in H2O2 and O2(•-) production in ZM than in L3 were probably attributed to elevated Cd-induced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-peroxidase (NADH-POD) activity. Cd treatment increased the accumulation of lignin and the guaiacol peroxidase (GPOD) activities in the apoplast more significantly in ZM root than in L3. Howerver, root laccase activity was higher in L3 than in ZM. Thus Cd toxicity induced significant lignification in the roots of V. sativa, and increases in H2O2 accumulation and apoplastic GPOD activity were likely responsible for this effect. PMID:26372696

  7. Nucleotide sequence and characterization of four additional genes of the hydrogenase structural operon from Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae.

    PubMed Central

    Hidalgo, E; Palacios, J M; Murillo, J; Ruiz-Argüeso, T

    1992-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of a 2.5-kbp region following the hydrogenase structural genes (hupSL) in the H2 uptake gene cluster from Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae UPM791 was determined. Four closely linked genes encoding peptides of 27.9 (hupC), 22.1 (hupD), 19.0 (hupE), and 10.4 (hupF) kDa were identified immediately downstream of hupL. Proteins with comparable apparent molecular weights were detected by heterologous expression of these genes in Escherichia coli. The six genes, hupS to hupF, are arranged as an operon, and by mutant complementation analysis, it was shown that genes hupSLCD are cotranscribed. A transcription start site preceded by the -12 to -24 consensus sequence characteristic of NtrA-dependent promoters was identified upstream of hupS. On the basis of the lack of oxygen-dependent H2 uptake activity of a hupC::Tn5 mutant and on structural characteristics of the protein, we postulate that HupC is a b-type cytochrome involved in electron transfer from hydrogenase to oxygen. The product from hupE, which is needed for full hydrogenase activity, exhibited characteristics typical of a membrane protein. The features of HupC and HupE suggest that they form, together with the hydrogenase itself, a membrane-bound protein complex involved in hydrogen oxidation. Images PMID:1597428

  8. Validation of QTLs for Orobanche crenata resistance in faba bean (Vicia faba L.) across environments and generations.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Ruiz, Ramón; Torres, A M; Satovic, Z; Gutierrez, M V; Cubero, J I; Román, Belén

    2010-03-01

    Broomrape (Orobanche crenata Forsk.) is a major root-parasite of faba bean (Vicia faba L.), that seriously limits crop cultivation in the whole Mediterranean area. This parasitic weed is difficult to control, difficult to evaluate and the resistance identified so far is of polygenic nature. This study was conducted to identify genetic regions associated with broomrape resistance in recombinant inbred lines (RILs) and to validate their previous location in the original F(2) population derived from the cross between lines Vf6 and Vf136. A progeny consisting of 165 F(6) RILs was evaluated in three environments across two locations in 2003 and 2004. Two hundred seventy seven molecular markers were assigned to 21 linkage groups (9 of them assigned to specific chromosomes) that covered 2,856.7 cM of the V. faba genome. The composite interval mapping on the F(6) map detected more quantitative trait loci (QTL) than in the F(2) analysis. In this sense, four QTLs controlling O. crenata resistance (Oc2-Oc5) were identified in the RI segregant population in three different environments. Only Oc1, previously reported in the F(2) population, was not significant in the advanced lines. Oc2 and Oc3 were found to be associated with O. crenata resistance in at least two of the three environments, while the remaining two, Oc4 and Oc5, were only detected in Córdoba-04 and Mengíbar-04 and seemed to be environment dependent. PMID:19956921

  9. A genomic approach to nutritional, pharmacological and genetic issues of faba bean (Vicia faba): prospects for genetic modifications.

    PubMed

    Ray, Heather; Georges, Fawzy

    2010-01-01

    Cultivated faba bean (Vicia faba) is widely used as human food, especially in Europe, Northern Africa and China.  In view of its superior feeding value over field peas or other legumes, it is also widely used as animal feed for a variety of species.   V. faba also contains medically important components such as 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (levo-DOPA, L-DOPA), the principal treatment used for Parkinson's disease patients.  However, this species also contains several antinutritional components, including the pyrimidine glycosides vicine and convicine; phytates; and the sucrose galactosides including raffinose, stachyose and verbascose.  We have undertaken a genomic project to provide publicly available expressed sequence tag sequences (EST) prepared from early to mid developing embryo in an attempt to identify genes that are likely to be involved in the biosynthesis of L-DOPA and the vicine group of compounds.  As initial examples of the utility of this approach, we describe the complete sequence of fabatin, new defensins, type 4 metallothioneins and a variety of other key genes which were identified in this EST library. No candidate sequences corresponding to the biosynthesis of L-DOPA or the vicine group could be identified at this early stage of seed development. PMID:21865878

  10. Sieve Element Ca2+ Channels as Relay Stations between Remote Stimuli and Sieve Tube Occlusion in Vicia faba[W

    PubMed Central

    Furch, Alexandra C.U.; van Bel, Aart J.E.; Fricker, Mark D.; Felle, Hubert H.; Fuchs, Maike; Hafke, Jens B.

    2009-01-01

    Damage induces remote occlusion of sieve tubes in Vicia faba by forisome dispersion, triggered during the passage of an electropotential wave (EPW). This study addresses the role of Ca2+ channels and cytosolic Ca2+ elevation as a link between EPWs and forisome dispersion. Ca2+ channel antagonists affect the initial phase of the EPW as well as the prolonged plateau phase. Resting levels of sieve tube Ca2+ of ∼50 nM were independently estimated using Ca2+-selective electrodes and a Ca2+-sensitive dye. Transient changes in cytosolic Ca2+ were observed in phloem tissue in response to remote stimuli and showed profiles similar to those of EPWs. The measured elevation of Ca2+ in sieve tubes was below the threshold necessary for forisome dispersion. Therefore, forisomes need to be associated with Ca2+ release sites. We found an association between forisomes and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) at sieve plates and pore-plasmodesma units where high-affinity binding of a fluorescent Ca2+ channel blocker mapped an increased density of Ca2+ channels. In conclusion, propagation of EPWs in response to remote stimuli is linked to forisome dispersion through transiently high levels of parietal Ca2+, release of which depends on both plasma membrane and ER Ca2+ channels. PMID:19602624

  11. Effects of essential oil treatments on the secondary protein structure of Vicia faba: A mid-infrared spectroscopic study supported by two-dimensional correlation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mecozzi, Mauro; Sturchio, Elena

    2015-02-01

    In this study we investigated the effects of essential oil treatments on the secondary protein structure of the Vicia faba roots, a bioindicator plant, in order to obtain information for the potential allelopathic uses of these oils as alternative to the use of pesticides in agriculture. We tested two mixtures of essential oils consisting of Tween 20-emulsions of tea tree oil (TTO) and Tween 20-emulsion of Clove and Rosemary (GARROM) essential oils respectively at three different oil concentrations each. The molecular modifications caused in Vicia faba by exposure to oil emulsions were investigated by FTIR spectroscopy in diffuse reflectance (DRIFT) mode. We considered the specific Amide I, Amide II and Amide VI bands by ordinary and second derivative spectroscopy and the results showed that both Tween 20-emulsion of GARROM and Tween 20-emulsion of TTO oils cause transitions among the secondary (α-helix, β-sheet and β-turn) structures with in addition the appearance of random coil structures in exposed samples. The Amide VI bands, placed between 500 and 600 cm-1, confirmed the structural transitions observed for the Amide I bands. In addition we observed the presence of a protein oxidation effect for TTO treated samples, oxidation which resulted negligible instead for the GARROM oil samples. At last, FTIR spectra were also submitted to two-dimensional correlation analysis (2DCORR) and double two-dimensional correlation analysis (D2DCORR); the results confirmed the different effects caused by the two typologies of essential oils on the secondary protein structures of Vicia faba roots.

  12. Effects of essential oil treatments on the secondary protein structure of Vicia faba: a mid-infrared spectroscopic study supported by two-dimensional correlation analysis.

    PubMed

    Mecozzi, Mauro; Sturchio, Elena

    2015-02-25

    In this study we investigated the effects of essential oil treatments on the secondary protein structure of the Vicia faba roots, a bioindicator plant, in order to obtain information for the potential allelopathic uses of these oils as alternative to the use of pesticides in agriculture. We tested two mixtures of essential oils consisting of Tween 20-emulsions of tea tree oil (TTO) and Tween 20-emulsion of Clove and Rosemary (GARROM) essential oils respectively at three different oil concentrations each. The molecular modifications caused in Vicia faba by exposure to oil emulsions were investigated by FTIR spectroscopy in diffuse reflectance (DRIFT) mode. We considered the specific Amide I, Amide II and Amide VI bands by ordinary and second derivative spectroscopy and the results showed that both Tween 20-emulsion of GARROM and Tween 20-emulsion of TTO oils cause transitions among the secondary (α-helix, β-sheet and β-turn) structures with in addition the appearance of random coil structures in exposed samples. The Amide VI bands, placed between 500 and 600 cm(-1), confirmed the structural transitions observed for the Amide I bands. In addition we observed the presence of a protein oxidation effect for TTO treated samples, oxidation which resulted negligible instead for the GARROM oil samples. At last, FTIR spectra were also submitted to two-dimensional correlation analysis (2DCORR) and double two-dimensional correlation analysis (D2DCORR); the results confirmed the different effects caused by the two typologies of essential oils on the secondary protein structures of Vicia faba roots. PMID:25203214

  13. Characterization and functional analysis of seven flagellin genes in Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae. Characterization of R. leguminosarum flagellins

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae establishes symbiotic nitrogen fixing partnerships with plant species belonging to the Tribe Vicieae, which includes the genera Vicia, Lathyrus, Pisum and Lens. Motility and chemotaxis are important in the ecology of R. leguminosarum to provide a competitive advantage during the early steps of nodulation, but the mechanisms of motility and flagellar assembly remain poorly studied. This paper addresses the role of the seven flagellin genes in producing a functional flagellum. Results R. leguminosarum strains 3841 and VF39SM have seven flagellin genes (flaA, flaB, flaC, flaD, flaE, flaH, and flaG), which are transcribed separately. The predicted flagellins of 3841 are highly similar or identical to the corresponding flagellins in VF39SM. flaA, flaB, flaC, and flaD are in tandem array and are located in the main flagellar gene cluster. flaH and flaG are located outside of the flagellar/motility region while flaE is plasmid-borne. Five flagellin subunits (FlaA, FlaB, FlaC, FlaE, and FlaG) are highly similar to each other, whereas FlaD and FlaH are more distantly related. All flagellins exhibit conserved amino acid residues at the N- and C-terminal ends and are variable in the central regions. Strain 3841 has 1-3 plain subpolar flagella while strain VF39SM exhibits 4-7 plain peritrichous flagella. Three flagellins (FlaA/B/C) and five flagellins (FlaA/B/C/E/G) were detected by mass spectrometry in the flagellar filaments of strains 3841 and VF39SM, respectively. Mutation of flaA resulted in non-motile VF39SM and extremely reduced motility in 3841. Individual mutations of flaB and flaC resulted in shorter flagellar filaments and consequently reduced swimming and swarming motility for both strains. Mutant VF39SM strains carrying individual mutations in flaD, flaE, flaH, and flaG were not significantly affected in motility and filament morphology. The flagellar filament and the motility of 3841 strains with mutations in flaD and

  14. De novo assembly of a genome-wide transcriptome map of Vicia faba (L.) for transfer cell research

    PubMed Central

    Arun-Chinnappa, Kiruba S.; McCurdy, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Vicia faba (L.) is an important cool-season grain legume species used widely in agriculture but also in plant physiology research, particularly as an experimental model to study transfer cell (TC) development. TCs are specialized nutrient transport cells in plants, characterized by invaginated wall ingrowths with amplified plasma membrane surface area enriched with transporter proteins that facilitate nutrient transfer. Many TCs are formed by trans-differentiation from differentiated cells at apoplasmic/symplasmic boundaries in nutrient transport. Adaxial epidermal cells of isolated cotyledons can be induced to form functional TCs, thus providing a valuable experimental system to investigate genetic regulation of TC trans-differentiation. The genome of V. faba is exceedingly large (ca. 13 Gb), however, and limited genomic information is available for this species. To provide a resource for future transcript profiling of epidermal TC differentiation, we have undertaken de novo assembly of a genome-wide transcriptome map for V. faba. Illumina paired-end sequencing of total RNA pooled from different tissues and different stages, including isolated cotyledons induced to form epidermal TCs, generated 69.5 M reads, of which 65.8 M were used for assembly following trimming and quality control. Assembly using a De-Bruijn graph-based approach generated 21,297 contigs, of which 80.6% were successfully annotated against GO terms. The assembly was validated against known V. faba cDNAs held in GenBank, including transcripts previously identified as being specifically expressed in epidermal cells across TC trans-differentiation. This genome-wide transcriptome map therefore provides a valuable tool for future transcript profiling of epidermal TC trans-differentiation, and also enriches the genetic resources available for this important legume crop species. PMID:25914703

  15. De novo assembly of a genome-wide transcriptome map of Vicia faba (L.) for transfer cell research.

    PubMed

    Arun-Chinnappa, Kiruba S; McCurdy, David W

    2015-01-01

    Vicia faba (L.) is an important cool-season grain legume species used widely in agriculture but also in plant physiology research, particularly as an experimental model to study transfer cell (TC) development. TCs are specialized nutrient transport cells in plants, characterized by invaginated wall ingrowths with amplified plasma membrane surface area enriched with transporter proteins that facilitate nutrient transfer. Many TCs are formed by trans-differentiation from differentiated cells at apoplasmic/symplasmic boundaries in nutrient transport. Adaxial epidermal cells of isolated cotyledons can be induced to form functional TCs, thus providing a valuable experimental system to investigate genetic regulation of TC trans-differentiation. The genome of V. faba is exceedingly large (ca. 13 Gb), however, and limited genomic information is available for this species. To provide a resource for future transcript profiling of epidermal TC differentiation, we have undertaken de novo assembly of a genome-wide transcriptome map for V. faba. Illumina paired-end sequencing of total RNA pooled from different tissues and different stages, including isolated cotyledons induced to form epidermal TCs, generated 69.5 M reads, of which 65.8 M were used for assembly following trimming and quality control. Assembly using a De-Bruijn graph-based approach generated 21,297 contigs, of which 80.6% were successfully annotated against GO terms. The assembly was validated against known V. faba cDNAs held in GenBank, including transcripts previously identified as being specifically expressed in epidermal cells across TC trans-differentiation. This genome-wide transcriptome map therefore provides a valuable tool for future transcript profiling of epidermal TC trans-differentiation, and also enriches the genetic resources available for this important legume crop species. PMID:25914703

  16. A SNP-based consensus genetic map for synteny-based trait targeting in faba bean (Vicia faba L.).

    PubMed

    Webb, Anne; Cottage, Amanda; Wood, Thomas; Khamassi, Khalil; Hobbs, Douglas; Gostkiewicz, Krystyna; White, Mark; Khazaei, Hamid; Ali, Mohamed; Street, Daniel; Duc, Gérard; Stoddard, Fred L; Maalouf, Fouad; Ogbonnaya, Francis C; Link, Wolfgang; Thomas, Jane; O'Sullivan, Donal M

    2016-01-01

    Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is a globally important nitrogen-fixing legume, which is widely grown in a diverse range of environments. In this work, we mine and validate a set of 845 SNPs from the aligned transcriptomes of two contrasting inbred lines. Each V. faba SNP is assigned by BLAST analysis to a single Medicago orthologue. This set of syntenically anchored polymorphisms were then validated as individual KASP assays, classified according to their informativeness and performance on a panel of 37 inbred lines, and the best performing 757 markers used to genotype six mapping populations. The six resulting linkage maps were merged into a single consensus map on which 687 SNPs were placed on six linkage groups, each presumed to correspond to one of the six V. faba chromosomes. This sequence-based consensus map was used to explore synteny with the most closely related crop species, lentil and the most closely related fully sequenced genome, Medicago. Large tracts of uninterrupted colinearity were found between faba bean and Medicago, making it relatively straightforward to predict gene content and order in mapped genetic interval. As a demonstration of this, we mapped a flower colour gene to a 2-cM interval of Vf chromosome 2 which was highly colinear with Mt3. The obvious candidate gene from 78 gene models in the collinear Medicago chromosome segment was the previously characterized MtWD40-1 gene controlling anthocyanin production in Medicago and resequencing of the Vf orthologue showed a putative causative deletion of the entire 5' end of the gene. PMID:25865502

  17. Increasing phosphorus supply is not the mechanism by which arbuscular mycorrhiza increase attractiveness of bean (Vicia faba) to aphids

    PubMed Central

    Babikova, Zdenka; Gilbert, Lucy; Randall, Kate C.; Bruce, Toby J. A.; Pickett, John A.; Johnson, David

    2014-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, important plant mutualists, provide plants with nutrients such as phosphorus (P) in return for carbon. AM fungi also enhance the attractiveness of plants to aphids via effects on emissions of plant volatiles used in aphid host location. We tested whether increased P uptake by plants is the mechanism through which AM fungi alter the volatile profile of plants and aphid behavioural responses by manipulating the availability of P and AM fungi to broad beans (Vicia faba L.) in a multi-factorial design. If AM fungi affect plant volatiles only via increased P acquisition, we predicted that the emission of volatiles and the attractiveness of mycorrhizal beans to aphids would be similar to those of non-mycorrhizal beans supplied with additional P. AM fungi and P addition increased leaf P concentrations by 40 and 24%, respectively. The production of naphthalene was less in mycorrhizal plants, regardless of P addition. By contrast, production of (S)-linalool, (E)-caryophyllene and (R)-germacrene D was less in plants colonized by AM fungi but only in the absence of P additions. The attractiveness of plants to pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris) was positively affected by AM fungi and correlated with the extent of root colonization; however, attractiveness was neither affected by P treatment nor correlated with leaf P concentration. These findings suggest that increased P uptake is not the main mechanism by which mycorrhiza increase the attractiveness of plants to aphids. Instead, the mechanism is likely to operate via AM fungi-induced plant systemic signalling. PMID:25200735

  18. Comparative Transcriptional Profiling Provides Insights into the Evolution and Development of the Zygomorphic Flower of Vicia sativa (Papilionoideae)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhipeng; Ma, Lichao; Nan, Zhibiao; Wang, Yanrong

    2013-01-01

    Background Vicia sativa (the common vetch) possesses a predominant zygomorphic flower and belongs to the subfamily Papilionoideae, which is related to Arabidopsis thaliana in the eurosid II clade of the core eudicots. Each vetch flower consists of 21 concentrically arranged organs: the outermost five sepals, then five petals and ten stamens, and a single carpel in the center. Methodology/Principal Findings We explored the floral transcriptome to examine a genome-scale genetic model of the zygomorphic flower of vetch. mRNA was obtained from an equal mixture of six floral organs, leaves and roots. De novo assembly of the vetch transcriptome using Illumina paired-end technology produced 71,553 unigenes with an average length of 511 bp. We then compared the expression changes in the 71,553 unigenes in the eight independent organs through RNA-Seq Quantification analysis. We predominantly analyzed gene expression patterns specific to each floral organ and combinations of floral organs that corresponded to the traditional ABC model domains. Comparative analyses were performed in the floral transcriptomes of vetch and Arabidopsis, and genomes of vetch and Medicago truncatula. Conclusions/Significance Our comparative analysis of vetch and Arabidopsis showed that the vetch flowers conform to a strict ABC model. We analyzed the evolution and expression of the TCP gene family in vetch at a whole-genome level, and several unigenes specific to three different vetch petals, which might offer some clues toward elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying floral zygomorphy. Our results provide the first insights into the genome-scale molecular regulatory network that controls the evolution and development of the zygomorphic flower in Papilionoideae. PMID:23437373

  19. Sugar and organic acid accumulation in guard cells of Vicia faba in response to red and blue light

    SciTech Connect

    Talbott, L.D.; Zeiger, E. )

    1993-08-01

    Changes in neutral sugar and organic acid content of guard cells were quantitated by high-performance liquid chromatography during stomatal opening in different light qualities. Sonicated Vicia faba epidermal peels were irradiated with 10 [mu]mol m[sup [minus]2] s[sup [minus]1] of blue light, a fluence rate insufficient for the activation of guard cell photosynthesis, or 125 [mu]mol m[sup [minus]2] s[sup [minus]1] of red light, in the presence of 1mM KCl, 0.1 mM CaCl[sub 2]. The low-fluence-rate blue light stimulated an average net stomatal opening of 4.7 [mu]m in 2 h, whereas the saturating fluence rate of red light stimulated an average net opening of 3.8 [mu]m in 2 h. Under blue light, the malate content of guard cells increased to 173% of the initial level during the first 30 min of opening and declined as opening continued. Sucrose levels continuously rose throughout the blue light-stimulated opening, reaching 215% of the initial level after 2 h. The starch hydrolysis products maltose and maltotriose remained elevated at all times. Under red light, guard cells showed very little increase in organic acid or maltose levels, whereas sucrose levels increased to 208% of the initial level after 2 h. Total measured organic metabolite concentrations were correlated with stomatal apertures in all cases except where substantial malate increases occurred. These results support the hypothesis that light quality modulates alternative mechanisms of osmotic accumulation guard cells, including potassium uptake, photosynthetic sugar production, and starch breakdown. 29 refs., 5 figs., 2 tab.

  20. Development and molecular characterization of 55 novel polymorphic cDNA-SSR markers in faba bean (Vicia faba L.) using 454 pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Suresh, Sundan; Park, Jong-Hyun; Cho, Gyu-Taek; Lee, Ho-Sun; Baek, Hyung-Jin; Lee, Sok-Young; Chung, Jong-Wook

    2013-01-01

    Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is a major food source and fodder legume, popularly known for its high content of seed-protein. Its role is critical in crop rotation, and for fixing nitrogen effectively. Polymorphic simple sequence repeat markers from transcript sequences (cDNA; simple sequence repeat [SSR]) were developed for faba bean (Vicia faba). We found that 1,729 SSR loci from 81,333 individual sequence reads and 240 primer pairs were designed and synthesized. In total, 55 primer pairs were found to be polymorphic and scorable consistently when screened in 32 accessions. The number of alleles ranged from 2 to 15, frequency of major alleles per locus varied from 0.17 to 0.91, the genotypes number ranged from 2 to 17, observed and expected heterozycosity values ranged from 0.00 to 0.44 and 0.17 to 0.89 and overall PIC values ranged from 0.16 to 0.88 respectively. These markers will be a useful tool for assessing the genetic diversity, understanding the population structure, and breeding patterns of faba bean. PMID:23434866

  1. Genotoxicity assessment of particulate matter emitted from heavy-duty diesel-powered vehicles using the in vivo Vicia faba L. micronucleus test.

    PubMed

    Corrêa, Albertina X R; Cotelle, Sylvie; Millet, Maurice; Somensi, Cleder A; Wagner, Theodoro M; Radetski, Claudemir M

    2016-05-01

    Diesel exhaust particulate matter (PM) can have an impact on the environment due to its chemical constitution. A large number of substances such as organic compounds, sulfates, nitrogen derivatives and metals are adsorbed to the particles and desorption of these contaminants could promote genotoxic effects. The objective of this study was to assess the in vivo genotoxicity profile of diesel exhaust PM from heavy-duty engines. Extracts were obtained through leaching with pure water and chemical extraction using three organic solvents (dichloromethane, hexane, and acetone). The in vivo Vicia faba micronucleus test (ISO 29200 protocol) was used to assess the environmental impact of the samples collected from diesel exhaust PM. The solid diesel PM (soot) dissolved in water, and the different extracts, showed positive results for micronucleus formation. After the addition of EDTA, the aqueous extracts did not show a genotoxic effect. The absence of metals in the organic solvent extract indicated that organic compounds also had a genotoxic effect, which was not observed for a similar sample cleaned in a C18 column. Thus, considering the ecological importance of higher plants in relation to ecosystems (in contrast to Salmonella spp., which are commonly used in mutagenicity studies), the Vicia micronucleus test was demonstrated to be appropriate for complementing prokaryotic or in vitro tests on diesel exhaust particulate matter included in risk assessments. PMID:26866755

  2. Chlorella Induces Stomatal Closure via NADPH Oxidase-Dependent ROS Production and Its Effects on Instantaneous Water Use Efficiency in Vicia faba

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; Xu, Shan-Shan; Gao, Jing; Pan, Sha; Wang, Gen-Xuan

    2014-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been established to participate in stomatal closure induced by live microbes and microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs). Chlorella as a beneficial microorganism can be expected to trigger stomatal closure via ROS production. Here, we reported that Chlorella induced stomatal closure in a dose-and time-dependent manner in epidermal peels of Vicia faba. Using pharmacological methods in this work, we found that the Chlorella-induced stomatal closure was almost completely abolished by a hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) scavenger, catalase (CAT), significantly suppressed by an NADPH oxidase inhibitor, diphenylene iodonium chloride (DPI), and slightly affected by a peroxidase inhibitor, salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM), suggesting that ROS production involved in Chlorella-induced stomatal closure is mainly mediated by DPI-sensitive NADPH oxidase. Additionally, Exogenous application of optimal concentrations of Chlorella suspension improved instantaneous water use efficiency (WUEi) in Vicia faba via a reduction in leaf transpiration rate (E) without a parallel reduction in net photosynthetic rate (Pn) assessed by gas-exchange measurements. The chlorophyll fluorescence and content analysis further demonstrated that short-term use of Chlorella did not influence plant photosynthetic reactions center. These results preliminarily reveal that Chlorella can trigger stomatal closure via NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS production in epidermal strips and improve WUEi in leave levels. PMID:24687099

  3. A reference consensus genetic map for molecular markers and economically important traits in faba bean (Vicia faba L.)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is among the earliest domesticated crops from the Near East. Today this legume is a key protein feed and food worldwide and continues to serve an important role in culinary traditions throughout Middle East, Mediterranean region, China and Ethiopia. Adapted to a wide range of soil types, the main faba bean breeding objectives are to improve yield, resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses, seed quality and other agronomic traits. Genomic approaches aimed at enhancing faba bean breeding programs require high-quality genetic linkage maps to facilitate quantitative trait locus analysis and gene tagging for use in a marker-assisted selection. The objective of this study was to construct a reference consensus map in faba bean by joining the information from the most relevant maps reported so far in this crop. Results A combination of two approaches, increasing the number of anchor loci in diverse mapping populations and joining the corresponding genetic maps, was used to develop a reference consensus map in faba bean. The map was constructed from three main recombinant inbreed populations derived from four parental lines, incorporates 729 markers and is based on 69 common loci. It spans 4,602 cM with a range from 323 to 1041 loci in six main linkage groups or chromosomes, and an average marker density of one locus every 6 cM. Locus order is generally well maintained between the consensus map and the individual maps. Conclusion We have constructed a reliable and fairly dense consensus genetic linkage map that will serve as a basis for genomic approaches in faba bean research and breeding. The core map contains a larger number of markers than any previous individual map, covers existing gaps and achieves a wider coverage of the large faba bean genome as a whole. This tool can be used as a reference resource for studies in different genetic backgrounds, and provides a framework for transferring genetic information when using different

  4. Influence of cobalt uptake by Vicia faba seeds on chlorophyll morphosis induction, SOD polymorphism, and DNA methylation.

    PubMed

    Rancelis, Vytautas; Cesniene, Tatjana; Kleizaite, Violeta; Zvingila, Donatas; Balciuniene, Laimute

    2012-01-01

    Vicia faba plants show polymorphism to cobalt (Co) excess, expressed by a different degree of chlorophyll morphosis (CM)-from normally green (N) to yellow (Y) seedlings. For superoxide dismutase (SOD), the high V. faba polymorphism was revealed and increased by Co stress. Epigenetic mechanisms may be involved in both phenomena. For such reasons, we investigated the effect of 5-azacytosine (AzaC) and Na butyrate (NaBut) on CM induction, SOD polymorphism, and DNA methylation-demethylation events in Co(NO(3) )(2) affected plants, without or with AzaC or NaBut. CMs were induced after treatment of seeds for 8 h with 7.5 mM Co(NO(3) )(2) plus 12 h with H(2) O or 8 h with H(2) O plus 12 h with Co(NO(3) )(2) . In the same order AzaC and NaBut were applied in concentrations equimolar to Co(NO(3) )(2) . SOD isoforms were investigated electrophoretically, and for DNA methylation-demethylation events the Aina [Aina et al. (2004) Physiol Plant 121:472-480] system was applied upon using the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) method employing restrictases MspI and HpaII. The effect of AzaC and NaBut on CM induction in combination with Co was unclear. Posttreatment with Co was more effective than Co-pretreatment. SOD polymorphism was significantly strengthened by NaBut. Detection of DNA methylation-demethylation events depended on the primers used for RAPD analysis. With AP5 and MP4 primers, DNA demethylation was observed in N-seedlings after exposure to Co, AzaC or NaBut applied separately. With primer A6, only DNA methylation events were determined in N-seedlings from seeds exposed to Co or Co-AzaC, and in Y-seedlings after Co-AzaC or Co-NaBut treatment. UPGMA grouping of the results showed that all N-seedlings comprised one common cluster after Co exposure, independently of treatment combinations (Co alone, Co with AzaC, Co with NaBut). On the contrary, no significant differences were determined in SOD polymorphism among the most resistant N-seedlings and the most severely

  5. Metabolic activation of herbicide products by Vicia faba detected in human peripheral lymphocytes using alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Calderón-Segura, María Elena; Gómez-Arroyo, Sandra; Molina-Alvarez, Bertha; Villalobos-Pietrini, Rafael; Calderón-Ezquerro, Carmen; Cortés-Eslava, Josefina; Valencia-Quintana, Pedro Rafael; López-González, Lucina; Zúñiga-Reyes, Rubén; Sánchez-Rincón, José

    2007-09-01

    Ametryn and metribuzin S-triazines derivatives and EPTC thiocarbamate are herbicides used extensively in Mexican agriculture, for example in crops such as corn, sugar cane, tomato, wheat, and beans. The present study evaluated the DNA damage and cytotoxic effects of three herbicides after metabolism by Vicia faba roots in human peripheral lymphocytes using akaline single cell gel electrophoresis. Three parameters were scored as indicators of DNA damage: tail length, percentage of cells with DNA damage (with comet), and level DNA damage. The lymphocytes were treated for 2 h with 0.5-5.0 microg/ml ametryn or metribuzin and 1.5-10 microg/ml EPTC. Lymphocytes also were coincubated for 2 h with 20 microl V. faba roots extracts that had been treated for 4 h with 50-500 mg/l of the two triazines or with the thiocarbamate herbicide or with ethanol (3600 mg/l), as positive control. The lymphocytes treated with three pesticides without in vivo metabolic activation by V. faba root did not show significant differences in the mean values between genotoxic parameters compared with negative control. But when human cells were exposed to three herbicides after they had been metabolized the frequency of cell comet, tail length and level DNA damage all increased. At highest concentrations of the three herbicides produced severe DNA damage compared with S10 fraction and negative control. The linear regression analysis of the tail length values of three herbicides indicated that there was genotoxic effect concentration-response relationship with ametryn and ametribuzin but no EPTC. The ethanol induced major increase DNA damage compared with S10 fraction and the three pesticides. There were not effects in cell viability with treatment EPTC and metribuzin whether or not it had been metabolized. High concentrations of ametryn alone and after it had been metabolized decreased cell viability compared with the negative control. The results demonstrated that the three herbicides needed to be

  6. Elevated levels of both sucrose-phosphate synthase and sucrose synthase in vicia guard cells indicate cell-specific carbohydrate interconversions

    SciTech Connect

    Hite, D.R.C.; Outlaw, W.H. Jr.; Tarczynski, M.C. )

    1993-04-01

    A long series of reports correlate larger stomatal aperture size with elevated concentration of sucrose (Suc) in guard cells. To assess the role and autonomy of guard cells with respect to these changes, the authors have determined quantitatively the cellular distribution of the synthetic enzyme, Suc-phosphate synthase (SPS) and the degradative enzyme Suc synthase (SS) in Vicia leaflet. As expected for Suc-exporting cells, the photosynthetic parenchyma had a high SPS:SS ratio of approximately 45. Also as expected, in epdermal cells, which had only few and rudimentary plastids, the SPS:SS ratio was low (0.4). Of all cells and tissues measured, those that had the highest specific activity of SPS (about 4.8 [mu]mol mg[sup [minus]1] of protein h[sup [minus]1]) were guard cells. Guard cells also had a very high relative specific activity of SS. 45 refs., 3 figs.

  7. Histological alterations to the pancreas and the intestinal tract produced by raw faba bean (Vicia faba L. minor) diets in growing chicks.

    PubMed

    Rubio, L A; Brenes, A; Castaño, M

    1989-03-01

    1. Inclusion of raw faba bean (Vicia faba L., minor) in the diet of growing chickens was shown to affect the performance of the birds and to produce a significant increase in the relative weight of the pancreas. This was attributable to dietary trypsin inhibitors. 2. Trypsin inhibitors also produced degenerative changes in pancreatic acinar cells. These were observed by light and electron microscopy. 3. Progressive cytopathological changes were observed in the intestinal tract. The duodenum, jejunum and ileum were altered, with extensive erosion, shortening and atrophy of microvilli. 4. The results endorsed previous findings obtained using different legume seed lines (Phaseolus spp). Faba bean produced similar local reactions in the pancreas and the intestine. This may be caused by the presence of lectins in the seeds. PMID:2743166

  8. Similar Intracellular Location and Stimulus Reactivity, but Differential Mobility of Tailless (Vicia faba) and Tailed Forisomes (Phaseolus vulgaris) in Intact Sieve Tubes

    PubMed Central

    van Bel, Aart J. E.

    2015-01-01

    Sieve elements of legumes contain forisomes—fusiform protein bodies that are responsible for sieve-tube occlusion in response to damage or wound signals. Earlier work described the existence of tailless and tailed forisomes. This study intended to quantify and compare location and position of tailless (in Vicia faba) and tailed (in Phaseolus vulgaris) forisomes inside sieve elements and to assess their reactivity and potential mobility in response to a remote stimulus. Location (distribution within sieve elements) and position (forisome tip contacts) of more than altogether 2000 forisomes were screened in 500 intact plants by laser scanning confocal microscopy in the transmission mode. Furthermore, we studied the dispersion of forisomes at different locations in different positions and their positional behaviour in response to distant heat shocks. Forisome distribution turned out to be species-specific, whereas forisome positions at various locations were largely similar in bushbean (Phaseolus) and broadbean (Vicia). In general, the tailless forisomes had higher dispersion rates in response to heat shocks than the tailed forisomes and forisomes at the downstream (basal) end dispersed more frequently than those at the upstream end (apical). In contrast to the tailless forisomes that only oscillate in response to heat shocks, downstream-located tailed forisomes can cover considerable distances within sieve elements. This displacement was prevented by gentle rubbing of the leaf (priming) before the heat shock. Movement of these forisomes was also prohibited by Latrunculin A, an inhibitor of actin polymerization. The apparently active mobility of tailed forisomes gives credence to the idea that at least the latter forisomes are not free-floating, but connected to other sieve-element structures. PMID:26624625

  9. Similar Intracellular Location and Stimulus Reactivity, but Differential Mobility of Tailless (Vicia faba) and Tailed Forisomes (Phaseolus vulgaris) in Intact Sieve Tubes.

    PubMed

    Furch, Alexandra C U; Buxa, Stefanie V; van Bel, Aart J E

    2015-01-01

    Sieve elements of legumes contain forisomes-fusiform protein bodies that are responsible for sieve-tube occlusion in response to damage or wound signals. Earlier work described the existence of tailless and tailed forisomes. This study intended to quantify and compare location and position of tailless (in Vicia faba) and tailed (in Phaseolus vulgaris) forisomes inside sieve elements and to assess their reactivity and potential mobility in response to a remote stimulus. Location (distribution within sieve elements) and position (forisome tip contacts) of more than altogether 2000 forisomes were screened in 500 intact plants by laser scanning confocal microscopy in the transmission mode. Furthermore, we studied the dispersion of forisomes at different locations in different positions and their positional behaviour in response to distant heat shocks. Forisome distribution turned out to be species-specific, whereas forisome positions at various locations were largely similar in bushbean (Phaseolus) and broadbean (Vicia). In general, the tailless forisomes had higher dispersion rates in response to heat shocks than the tailed forisomes and forisomes at the downstream (basal) end dispersed more frequently than those at the upstream end (apical). In contrast to the tailless forisomes that only oscillate in response to heat shocks, downstream-located tailed forisomes can cover considerable distances within sieve elements. This displacement was prevented by gentle rubbing of the leaf (priming) before the heat shock. Movement of these forisomes was also prohibited by Latrunculin A, an inhibitor of actin polymerization. The apparently active mobility of tailed forisomes gives credence to the idea that at least the latter forisomes are not free-floating, but connected to other sieve-element structures. PMID:26624625

  10. [The "Em Comum-Idade" community intervention project: contributions to the promotion of health among the elderly of Viçosa in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Almeida, Luciene Fátima Fernandes; de Freitas, Edilaine Lopes; Salgado, Sara Maria Lopes; Gomes, Ivani Soleira; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro; Ribeiro, Andréia Queiroz

    2015-12-01

    Actions to promote health among the elderly are extremely important for the prevention of diseases and complications arising from the aging process. In this context, the "Em Comum-Idade" community intervention project emerged. The objective of this article was to evaluate the impact of the actions of this project on anthropometric measurements and functional physical fitness of the participants at the end of the interventions. The variables analyzed were: body mass index, waist circumference, waist hip ratio, waist height ratio, power of the lower members, flexibility of upper and lower members and agility and dynamic balance. The sample consisted of 82 participants. Most participants were female, had not completed elementary school and attended less than 50% of the activities. There were no significant changes in the values of anthropometric measurements between the initial and final evaluations of the participants. Significant improvement was found for the values of tests of functional physical fitness among those who attended most of the actions of the project. It is important to maintain health promotion actions for long periods of time in order to get results that positively impact the health status and quality of life of the elderly. PMID:26691801

  11. Local genetic structure and worldwide phylogenetic position of symbiotic Rhizobium leguminosarum strains associated with a traditional cultivated crop, Vicia ervilia, from Northern Morocco.

    PubMed

    Sbabou, Laila; Regragui, Assmaa; Filali-Maltouf, Abdelkarim; Ater, Mohammed; Béna, Gilles

    2016-09-01

    A total of 212 symbiotic bacteria were isolated from nodules of Vicia ervilia, a traditional crop cultivated in Northern Morocco. The isolates were recovered from 10 different sites, trapped each time with the local cultivar grown in the same field. Four loci were sequenced in order to characterize the isolates, including two housekeeping genes (recA and glnII), one plasmidic symbiotic gene (nodC) and one locus from another plasmid (prL11). In several isolates, two different copies of glnII were detected and sequenced, suggesting a unique duplication event, which has never been reported previously. There was no correlation between the genetic differentiation among cultivars and among bacteria, showing that the evolution of the bacterial population was independent, at least partially, from the host plant. By placing the haplotypes in a wide-ranging phylogenetic reconstruction, it was shown that the diversity detected in Morocco was spread throughout the different clades detected worldwide. The differentiation between areas relied on frequency variations of haplotypes rather than a presence/absence pattern. This finding raises new questions concerning bacterial genetic resource preservation, and confirms the old tenet "everything is everywhere but the environment selects". PMID:27394068

  12. Electrophoretic Assay for Ribulose 1,5-Bisphosphate Carboxylase/Oxygenase in Guard Cells and Other Leaf Cells of Vicia faba L. 1

    PubMed Central

    Tarczynski, Mitchell C.; Outlaw, William H.; Arold, Norbert; Neuhoff, Volker; Hampp, Rüdiger

    1989-01-01

    The ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) contents of guard cells and other cells of Vicia faba L. leaflet were determined. To prevent proteolysis, proteins of frozen protoplast preparations or of cells excised from freeze-dried leaf were extracted directly in a sodium-dodecyl-sulfate-containing solution, which was heated immediately after sample addition. Protein profiles of the different cell types were obtained by electrophoresis of the extracts and subsequent densitometry of the stained protein bands. About one-third of the protein of palisade parenchyma and of spongy parenchyma was Rubisco large subunit. Using chlorophyll (Chl):protein ratios previously obtained, we calculate mesophyll contained ca. 22 millimoles Rubisco per mole Chl. In contrast, guard-cell protoplast preparations were calculated to contain from 0.7 to 2.2 millimoles Rubisco per mole Chl. The upper end of this range is an overestimate resulting from contamination by mesophyll and to the method of peak integration. Extracts of excised guard cells were calculated to contain 0.05 to 0.17 millimole Rubisco per mole Chl. We conclude that Rubisco is absent, or virtually so, in guard cells of V. faba. PMID:16666669

  13. Treated fava bean (Vicia faba var. minor) as substitute for soybean meal in diet of early phase laying hens: egg-laying performance and egg quality.

    PubMed

    Laudadio, V; Tufarelli, V

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of dietary dehulled-micronized fava bean (Vicia faba var. minor) seed on egg production, egg weight, feed conversion ratio, eggshell quality, and egg yolk color. In this trial, 18-wk-old laying hens in the early phase of production (ISA Brown) were randomly assigned to 2 groups and fed durum wheat middlings-based diets containing soybean or micronized-dehulled fava bean meal as the main protein source. Eggs were collected and weighed daily. Laying performance, egg quality, and feed conversion ratio were evaluated for 10 wk. The only significant effect detected was for feed intake (P<0.05), which was lower in hens fed the diet containing fava bean than for hens fed soybean meal, without however any negative effects on feed efficiency. None of the egg quality parameters studied were influenced by dietary treatment, except for yolk color score that was reduced in hens fed the fava bean diet (P<0.05). We conclude that dehulled-micronized fava beans in the diet did not have a negative influence on productive performance or egg quality of young brown hens. PMID:20852122

  14. Allelopathy in the natural and agricultural ecosystems and isolation of potent allelochemicals from Velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens) and Hairy vetch (Vicia villosa).

    PubMed

    Fujii, Yoshiharu

    2003-06-01

    We have studied on allelopathy of plants and developed methods to identify the effective substances in root exudates, leaf leacheate, and volatile chemicals emitted from plants. We found traditional cover plants that show allelopathic activity are useful for weed control. It could eliminate the use of synthetic chemicals for this purpose. Allelopathy is a natural power of plants to protect themselves by producing natural organic chemicals. Some endemic plants in Asia, already known by farmers in the region, as either cover crops used in intercropping, hedgerow, or agroforestry, were found to possess strong allelopathic abilities. Our group identified several allelochemicals from these plants. These allelopathic cover crops, mostly leguminous plants, provide protein rich food, and grow easily without artificial fertilizers, herbicides, insecticides and fungicides. In this regards, these allelopathic cover crops could save food shortage in rural area, and are useful for environmental conservation. Screenings of allelopathic plants by specific bioassays and field tests have been conducted. Hairy vetch (Vicia villosa) and Velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens) are two promising species for the practical application of allelopathy. An amino acid, L-DOPA, unusual in plants, plays an important role as allelochemical in Velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens). Hairy vetch is the most promising cover plant for the weed control in orchard, vegetable and rice production and even for landscape amendment in abandoned field in Japan. We have isolated "cyanamide", a well known nitrogen fertilizer, from Hairy vetch. This is the first finding of naturally produced cyanamide in the world. PMID:12897455

  15. In vitro fermentation of lupin seeds (Lupinus albus) and broad beans (Vicia faba): dynamic modulation of the intestinal microbiota and metabolomic output.

    PubMed

    Gullón, Patricia; Gullón, Beatriz; Tavaria, Freni; Vasconcelos, Marta; Gomes, Ana Maria

    2015-10-01

    Broad beans (Vicia faba) and lupin seeds (Lupinus albus) are legumes rich in a wide range of compounds, which may represent a useful dietary approach for modulating the human gut microbiome. In this work, after in vitro digestion, legume samples were used as carbon sources in anaerobic batch cultures to evaluate their impact on the intestinal microbiota composition and on their metabolic products. The fermentations were monitored by a decrease in pH, generation of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) and lactate and the changes in the dynamic bacterial populations by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The total SCFA at the end of fermentation was 81.52 mM for lupin seeds and 78.41 mM for broad beans accompanied by a decrease of the pH for both legumes. The microbial groups that increased significantly (P < 0.05) were Bifidobacterium spp., Lactobacillus-Enterococcus, Atopobium, Bacteroides-Pretovella, Clostridium coccoides-Eubacterium rectale, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Roseburia intestinalis. This impact on the intestinal microbiota suggests that lupin seeds and broad beans may be used in the development of novel functional foods, which can be included in dietary strategies for human health promotion. PMID:26252418

  16. A study of arsenic speciation in soil, irrigation water and plant tissue: A case study of the broad bean plant, Vicia faba.

    PubMed

    Sadee, Bashdar A; Foulkes, Mike E; Hill, Steve J

    2016-11-01

    Samples of soil, the broad bean plant, Vicia faba and irrigation water were collected from the same agricultural site in Dokan, in the Kurdistan region of Iraq. Total arsenic and arsenic speciation were determined in all materials by ICP-MS and HPLC-ICP-MS, respectively. Available arsenic (11%) was also determined within the soil, together with Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn, Fe and Mn. The concentrations of total arsenic were: soil (5.32μgg(-1)), irrigation water (1.06μgL(-1)), roots (2.065μgg(-1)) and bean (0.133μgg(-1)). Stems, leaves and pods were also measured. Inorganic As(V) dominated soil (90%) and root (78%) samples. However, organo-arsenic (MMA, 48% and DMA, 19%) was the more dominant species in the edible bean. The study provides an insight into the uptake, preferred disposal route, speciation changes and loss mechanism involved for arsenic with this food source. PMID:27211659

  17. Limited distribution of natural cyanamide in higher plants: occurrence in Vicia villosa subsp. varia, V. cracca, and Robinia pseudo-acacia.

    PubMed

    Kamo, Tsunashi; Endo, Mai; Sato, Masae; Kasahara, Ryohei; Yamaya, Hiroko; Hiradate, Syuntaro; Fujii, Yoshiharu; Hirai, Nobuhiro; Hirota, Mitsuru

    2008-03-01

    Cyanamide (NH2CN) has recently been proven to be a natural product, although it has been synthesized for over 100 years for agricultural and industrial purposes. The distribution of natural cyanamide appears to be limited, as indicated by our previous investigation of 101 weed species. In the present study, to investigate the distribution of natural cyanamide in Vicia species, we monitored the cyanamide contents in V. villosa subsp. varia, V. cracca, and V. amoena during their pre-flowering and flowering seasons. It was confirmed that V. cracca was superior to V. villosa subsp. varia in accumulating natural cyanamide, and that V. amoena was unable to biosynthesize this compound under laboratory condition examined. The localization of cyanamide in the leaves of V. villosa subsp. varia seedlings was also clarified. In a screening study to find cyanamide-biosynthesizing plants, only Robinia pseudo-acacia was found to contain cyanamide among 452 species of higher plants. We have investigated 553 species to date, but have so far found the ability to biosynthesize cyanamide in only three species, V. villosa subsp. varia, V. cracca and R. pseudo-acacia. PMID:18160082

  18. Effects of Endophyte Colonization of Vicia faba (Fabaceae) Plants on the Life–History of Leafminer Parasitoids Phaedrotoma scabriventris (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and Diglyphus isaea (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae)

    PubMed Central

    Akutse, Komivi S.; Fiaboe, Komi K. M.; Van den Berg, Johnnie; Ekesi, Sunday; Maniania, Nguya K.

    2014-01-01

    Effects of the fungal endophytes Beauveria bassiana (isolates ICIPE 279, G1LU3, S4SU1) and Hypocrea lixii (isolate F3ST1) on the life-history of Phaedrotoma scabriventris and Diglyphus isaea, parasitoids of the pea leafminer Liriomyza huidobrensis, were studied in the laboratory. Parasitoids were allowed to parasitize 2nd and 3rd instar L. huidobrensis larvae reared on endophytically-inoculated faba bean, Vicia faba. In the control, parasitoids were reared on non-inoculated host plants. Parasitism, pupation, adult emergence and survival were recorded. No significant difference was observed between the control and the endophyte-inoculated plants in terms of parasitism rates of P. scabriventris (p = 0.68) and D. isaea (p = 0.45) and adult' survival times (p = 0.06). The survival period of the F1 progeny of P. scabriventris was reduced (p<0.0001) in B. bassiana S4SU1 to 28 days as compared to more than 40 days for B. bassiana G1LU3, ICIPE 279 and H. lixii F3ST1. However, no significant difference (p = 0.54) was observed in the survival times of the F1 progeny of D. isaea. This study has demonstrated that together, endophytes and parasitoids have beneficial effects in L. huidobrensis population suppression. PMID:25338084

  19. Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae 3841 Adapts to 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid with “Auxin-Like” Morphological Changes, Cell Envelope Remodeling and Upregulation of Central Metabolic Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Supriya V.; Booth, Sean C.; McGrath, Seamus G. K.; Dahms, Tanya E. S.

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing need to characterize the effects of environmental stressors at the molecular level on model organisms with the ever increasing number and variety of anthropogenic chemical pollutants. The herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), as one of the most widely applied pesticides in the world, is one such example. This herbicide is known to have non-targeted undesirable effects on humans, animals and soil microbes, but specific molecular targets at sublethal levels are unknown. In this study, we have used Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae 3841 (Rlv) as a nitrogen fixing, beneficial model soil organism to characterize the effects of 2,4-D. Using metabolomics and advanced microscopy we determined specific target pathways in the Rlv metabolic network and consequent changes to its phenotype, surface ultrastructure, and physical properties during sublethal 2,4-D exposure. Auxin and 2,4-D, its structural analogue, showed common morphological changes in vitro which were similar to bacteroids isolated from plant nodules, implying that these changes are related to bacteroid differentiation required for nitrogen fixation. Rlv showed remarkable adaptation capabilities in response to the herbicide, with changes to integral pathways of cellular metabolism and the potential to assimilate 2,4-D with consequent changes to its physical and structural properties. This study identifies biomarkers of 2,4-D in Rlv and offers valuable insights into the mode-of-action of 2,4-D in soil bacteria. PMID:25919284

  20. The Dynamic Process of Interspecific Interactions of Competitive Nitrogen Capture between Intercropped Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and Faba Bean (Vicia faba L.)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)/faba bean (Vicia faba L.) intercropping shows significant overyielding and high nitrogen (N)-use efficiency, but the dynamics of plant interactions have rarely been estimated. The objective of the present study was to investigate the temporal dynamics of competitive N acquisition between intercropped wheat and faba bean with the logistic model. Wheat and faba bean were grown together or alone with limited N supply in pots. Data of shoot and root biomass and N content measured from 14 samplings were fitted to logistic models to determine instantaneous rates of growth and N uptake. The superiority of instantaneous biomass production and N uptake shifted from faba bean to wheat with their growth. Moreover, the shift of superiority on N uptake occurred 7–12 days earlier than that of biomass production. Interspecific competition stimulated intercropped wheat to have a much earlier and stronger superiority on instantaneous N uptake compared with isolated wheat. The modeling methodology characterized the temporal dynamics of biomass production and N uptake of intercropped wheat and faba bean in different planting systems, which helps to understand the underlying process of plant interaction for intercropping plants. PMID:25541699

  1. Caffeine-Induced Premature Chromosome Condensation Results in the Apoptosis-Like Programmed Cell Death in Root Meristems of Vicia faba

    PubMed Central

    Rybaczek, Dorota; Musiałek, Marcelina Weronika; Balcerczyk, Aneta

    2015-01-01

    We have demonstrated that the activation of apoptosis-like programmed cell death (AL-PCD) was a secondary result of caffeine (CF) induced premature chromosome condensation (PCC) in hydroxyurea-synchronized Vicia faba root meristem cells. Initiation of the apoptotic-like cell degradation pathway seemed to be the result of DNA damage generated by treatment with hydroxyurea (HU) [double-stranded breaks (DSBs) mostly] and co-treatment with HU/CF [single-stranded breaks (SSBs) mainly]. A single chromosome comet assay was successfully used to study different types of DNA damage (neutral variant–DSBs versus alkaline–DSBs or SSBs). The immunocytochemical detection of H2AXS139Ph and PARP-2 were used as markers for DSBs and SSBs, respectively. Acridine orange and ethidium bromide (AO/EB) were applied for quantitative immunofluorescence measurements of dead, dying and living cells. Apoptotic-type DNA fragmentation and positive TUNEL reaction finally proved that CF triggers AL-PCD in stressed V. faba root meristem cells. In addition, the results obtained under transmission electron microscopy (TEM) further revealed apoptotic-like features at the ultrastructural level of PCC-type cells: (i) extensive vacuolization; (ii) abnormal chromatin condensation, its marginalization and concomitant degradation; (iii) formation of autophagy-like vesicles (iv) protoplast shrinkage (v) fragmentation of cell nuclei and (vi) extensive degeneration of the cells. The results obtained have been discussed with respect to the vacuolar/autolytic type of plant-specific AL-PCD. PMID:26545248

  2. Hydroxyurea-induced replication stress causes poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-2 accumulation and changes its intranuclear location in root meristems of Vicia faba.

    PubMed

    Rybaczek, Dorota

    2016-07-01

    Replication stress induced by 24 and 48h exposure to 2.5mM hydroxyurea (HU) increased the activity of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-2 (PARP-2; EC 2.4.2.30) in root meristem cells of Vicia faba. An increase in the number of PARP-2 foci was accompanied by their delocalization from peripheral areas to the interior of the nucleus. Our results indicate that the increase in PARP-2 was connected with an increase in S139-phosphorylated H2AX histones. The findings suggest the possible role of PARP-2 in replication stress. We also confirm that the intranuclear location of PARP-2 depends on the duration of HU-induced replication stress, confirming the role of PARP-2 as an indicator of stress intensity. Finally, we conclude that the more intense the HU-mediated replication stress, the greater the probability of PARP-2 activation or H2AXS139 phosphorylation, but also the greater the chance of increasing the efficiency of repair processes and a return to normal cell cycle progression. PMID:27155387

  3. Phytotoxicity of imidazolium-based ILs with different anions in soil on Vicia faba seedlings and the influence of anions on toxicity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tong; Zhu, Lusheng; Wang, Jinhua; Wang, Jun; Tan, Meiying

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate the toxic effects of ionic liquids (ILs) in soil on plants at the molecular and cellular levels and to assess the influence of anions on IL toxicity, the toxic effects of 1-decyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Demim]Cl), 1-decyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([Demim]Br) and 1-decyl-3-methylimidazolium nitrate ([Demim]NO3) in soil on Vicia faba (V. faba) seedlings were studied for the first time. Our results show that these ILs had little impact on the growth of V. faba seedlings at 1, 5 and 25 mg kg(-1); however, the shoot length, root length, dry weight and pigment contents of the seedlings were significantly affected at 50 mg kg(-1). Furthermore, the EC50 values for effects of [Demim]Cl, [Demim]Br and [Demim]NO3 on the shoot length, root length and dry weight induced were consistent, indicating that the anion may have little influence on IL toxicity. ROS levels were also significantly enhanced at 50 mg kg(-1), resulting in cellular lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and oxidative damage. PMID:26688264

  4. Caffeine-Induced Premature Chromosome Condensation Results in the Apoptosis-Like Programmed Cell Death in Root Meristems of Vicia faba.

    PubMed

    Rybaczek, Dorota; Musiałek, Marcelina Weronika; Balcerczyk, Aneta

    2015-01-01

    We have demonstrated that the activation of apoptosis-like programmed cell death (AL-PCD) was a secondary result of caffeine (CF) induced premature chromosome condensation (PCC) in hydroxyurea-synchronized Vicia faba root meristem cells. Initiation of the apoptotic-like cell degradation pathway seemed to be the result of DNA damage generated by treatment with hydroxyurea (HU) [double-stranded breaks (DSBs) mostly] and co-treatment with HU/CF [single-stranded breaks (SSBs) mainly]. A single chromosome comet assay was successfully used to study different types of DNA damage (neutral variant-DSBs versus alkaline-DSBs or SSBs). The immunocytochemical detection of H2AXS139Ph and PARP-2 were used as markers for DSBs and SSBs, respectively. Acridine orange and ethidium bromide (AO/EB) were applied for quantitative immunofluorescence measurements of dead, dying and living cells. Apoptotic-type DNA fragmentation and positive TUNEL reaction finally proved that CF triggers AL-PCD in stressed V. faba root meristem cells. In addition, the results obtained under transmission electron microscopy (TEM) further revealed apoptotic-like features at the ultrastructural level of PCC-type cells: (i) extensive vacuolization; (ii) abnormal chromatin condensation, its marginalization and concomitant degradation; (iii) formation of autophagy-like vesicles (iv) protoplast shrinkage (v) fragmentation of cell nuclei and (vi) extensive degeneration of the cells. The results obtained have been discussed with respect to the vacuolar/autolytic type of plant-specific AL-PCD. PMID:26545248

  5. The comparative genotoxicological study of new local anesthetics, 3-(2-alkoxyphenylcarbamoyloxy)quinuclidium chlorides, on Salmonella typhimurium, Saccharromyces cerevisiae, Vicia faba, Hordeum vulgare and Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Miadoková, E; Vlcková, V; Dúhová, V; Trebatická, M; Grolmus, J; Bohmová, B; Podstavková, S; Rauko, P; Plesníková, I; Vlcek, D

    1996-06-01

    Potential gentoxicity of five new local anesthetics, derivatives of phenylcarbamic acid differing in the length of the alkyl chain of the alkoxy substituent, was studied on five test systems. There was a direct relationship with increased toxic effect in bacteria and yeast as a function of the elongation of the alkyl chain of the alkoxy substituents of the phenylcarbamic acid esters. On the other hand, no structure-toxicity relationship was found after application of 3-(2-alkoxyphenylcarbamoyloxy)-quinuclidium chlorides on plants and Drosophila. All anesthetics were nonmutagenic to Salmonella typhimurium strains TA97, TA98, TA100, and TA102 in the absence and in the presence of S9 mix. Pentyloxy and heptyloxy derivatives increased rates of genetic changes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, mainly revertants at the isoleucine locus. Pentyloxy and hexyloxy derivatives increased the frequency of chromosome aberrations in Vicia faba root-tip meristems. No chlorophyll mutations were detected after treatment of Hordeum vulgare with pentyloxy, hexyloxy and heptyloxy derivatives. No sex-linked recessive lethals were scored in Drosphila melanogaster males. The rates of aneuploids induced in their germ cells were significantly increased after treatment with butoxy and octyloxy derivatives. However, the local toxic and genotoxic effects of test anesthetics on the microorganisms of the anesthetized tissues may be of some importance. In particular, the genotoxic effect exhibited in fungi by the heptyloxy derivative, a potent local anesthetic, was remarkable. PMID:8817059

  6. Extracellular hydrogen peroxide, produced through a respiratory burst oxidase/superoxide dismutase pathway, directs ingrowth wall formation in epidermal transfer cells of Vicia faba cotyledons.

    PubMed

    Xia, Xue; Zhang, Hui-Ming; Andriunas, Felicity A; Offler, Christina E; Patrick, John W

    2012-09-01

    The intricate, and often polarized, ingrowth walls of transfer cells (TCs) amplify their plasma membrane surface areas to confer a transport function of supporting high rates of nutrient exchange across apo-/symplasmic interfaces. The TC ingrowth wall comprises a uniform wall layer on which wall ingrowths are deposited. Signals and signal cascades inducing trans-differentiation events leading to formation of TC ingrowth walls are poorly understood. Vicia faba cotyledons offer a robust experimental model to examine TC induction as, when placed into culture, their adaxial epidermal cells rapidly (h) and synchronously form polarized ingrowth walls accessible for experimental observations. Using this model, we recently reported findings consistent with extracellular hydrogen peroxide, produced through a respiratory burst oxidase homolog/superoxide dismutase pathway, initiating cell wall biosynthetic activity and providing directional information guiding deposition of the polarized uniform wall. Our conclusions rested on observations derived from pharmacological manipulations of hydrogen peroxide production and correlative gene expression data sets. A series of additional studies were undertaken, the results of which verify that extracellular hydrogen peroxide contributes to regulating ingrowth wall formation and is generated by a respiratory burst oxidase homolog/superoxide dismutase pathway. PMID:22899058

  7. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity evaluation of urban surface waters using freshwater luminescent bacteria Vibrio-qinghaiensis sp.-Q67 and Vicia faba root tip.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaoyan; Wang, Xiaochang; Liu, Yongjun

    2012-01-01

    The freshwater luminescent bacteria Vibrio-qinghaiensis sp.-Q67 test and the Vicia faba root tip test associated with solid-phase extraction were applied for cytotoxicity and genotoxicity assessment of organic substances in three rivers, two lakes and effluent flows from two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Xi'an, China. Although the most seriously polluted river with high chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total organic carbon (TOC) showed high cytotoxicity (expressed as TII50, the toxicity impact index) and genotoxicity (expressed as RMCN, the relative frequency of micronucleus), no correlative relation was found between the ecotoxicity and organic content of the water samples. However, there was a linear correlative relation between TII50 and RMCN for most water samples except that from the Zaohe River, which receives discharge from WWTP and untreated industrial wastewaters. The ecotoxicity of the organic toxicants in the Chanhe River and Zaohe River indicated that cytotoxic and genotoxic effects were related to the pollutant source. The TII50 and RMCN were also found to correlate roughly to the dissolved oxygen concentration of the water. Sufficient dissolved oxygen in surface water is thus proved to be an indicator of a healthy water environmental condition. PMID:23520857

  8. Three major nucleolar proteins migrate from nucleolus to nucleoplasm and cytoplasm in root tip cells of Vicia faba L. exposed to aluminum.

    PubMed

    Qin, Rong; Zhang, Huaning; Li, Shaoshan; Jiang, Wusheng; Liu, Donghua

    2014-09-01

    Results from our previous investigation indicated that Al could affect the nucleolus and induce extrusion of silver-staining nucleolar particles containing argyrophilic proteins from the nucleolus into the cytoplasm in root tip cells of Vicia faba L. So far, the nucleolar proteins involved have not been identified. It is well known that nucleophosmin (B23), nucleolin (C23), and fibrillarin are three major and multifunctional nucleolar proteins. Therefore, effects of Al on B23, C23, and fibrillarin in root tip cells of V. faba exposed to 100 μM Al for 48 h were observed and analyzed using indirect immunofluorescence microscopy and Western blotting. The results from this work demonstrated that after 100 μM of Al treatment for 48 h, B23 and C23 migrated from the nucleolus to the cytoplasm and fibrillarin from the nucleolus to the nucleoplasm. In some cells, fibrillarin was present only in the cytoplasm. Western blotting data revealed higher expression of the three major nucleolar proteins in Al-treated roots compared with the control and that the B23 content increased markedly. These findings confirmed our previous observations. PMID:24870286

  9. Contributions of photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic cell types to leaf respiration in Vicia faba L. and their responses to growth temperature.

    PubMed

    Long, Benedict M; Bahar, Nur H A; Atkin, Owen K

    2015-11-01

    In intact leaves, mitochondrial populations are highly heterogeneous among contrasting cell types; how such contrasting populations respond to sustained changes in the environment remains, however, unclear. Here, we examined respiratory rates, mitochondrial protein composition and response to growth temperature in photosynthetic (mesophyll) and non-photosynthetic (epidermal) cells from fully expanded leaves of warm-developed (WD) and cold-developed (CD) broad bean (Vicia faba L.). Rates of respiration were significantly higher in mesophyll cell protoplasts (MCPs) than epidermal cell protoplasts (ECPs), with both protoplast types exhibiting capacity for cytochrome and alternative oxidase activity. Compared with ECPs, MCPs contained greater relative quantities of porin, suggesting higher mitochondrial surface area in mesophyll cells. Nevertheless, the relative quantities of respiratory proteins (normalized to porin) were similar in MCPs and ECPs, suggesting that ECPs have lower numbers of mitochondria yet similar protein complement to MCP mitochondria (albeit with lower abundance serine hydroxymethyltransferase). Several mitochondrial proteins (both non-photorespiratory and photorespiratory) exhibited an increased abundance in response to cold in both protoplast types. Based on estimates of individual protoplast respiration rates, combined with leaf cell abundance data, epidermal cells make a small but significant (2%) contribution to overall leaf respiration which increases twofold in the cold. Taken together, our data highlight the heterogeneous nature of mitochondrial populations in leaves, both among contrasting cell types and in how those populations respond to growth temperature. PMID:25828647

  10. Chloride-inducible transient apoplastic alkalinizations induce stomata closure by controlling abscisic acid distribution between leaf apoplast and guard cells in salt-stressed Vicia faba.

    PubMed

    Geilfus, Christoph-Martin; Mithöfer, Axel; Ludwig-Müller, Jutta; Zörb, Christian; Muehling, Karl H

    2015-11-01

    Chloride stress causes the leaf apoplast transiently to alkalize, an event that is presumed to contribute to the ability of plants to adapt to saline conditions. However, the initiation of coordinated processes downstream of the alkalinization is unknown. We hypothesize that chloride-inducible pH dynamics are a key chemical feature modulating the compartmental distribution of abscisic acid (ABA) and, as a consequence, affecting stomata aperture. Apoplastic pH and stomata aperture dynamics in intact Vicia faba leaves were monitored by microscopy-based ratio imaging and porometric measurements of stomatal conductance. ABA concentrations in leaf apoplast and guard cells were compared with pH dynamics by gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Results demonstrate that, upon chloride addition to roots, an alkalizing factor that initiates the pH dynamic propagates from root to leaf in a way similar to xylem-distributed water. In leaves, it induces a systemic transient apoplastic alkalinization that causes apoplastic ABA concentration to increase, followed by an elevation of endogenous guard cell ABA. We conclude that the transient alkalinization, which is a remote effect of chloride stress, modulates the compartmental distribution of ABA between the leaf apoplast and the guard cells and, in this way, is instrumental in inducing stomata closure during the beginning of salinity. PMID:26096890

  11. Hyperpolization-activated Ca(2+) channels in guard cell plasma membrane are involved in extracellular ATP-promoted stomatal opening in Vicia faba.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang; Jia, Juanjuan; Wang, Yufang; Wang, Weixia; Chen, Yuling; Liu, Ting; Shang, Zhonglin

    2014-09-01

    Extracellular ATP (eATP) plays essential roles in plant growth, development, and stress tolerance. Extracellular ATP-regulated stomatal movement of Arabidopsis thaliana has been reported. Here, ATP was found to promote stomatal opening of Vicia faba in a dose-dependent manner. Three weakly hydrolysable ATP analogs (adenosine 5'-O-(3-thio) triphosphate (ATPγS), 3'-O-(4-benzoyl) benzoyl adenosine 5'-triphosphate (Bz-ATP) and 2-methylthio-adenosine 5'-triphosphate (2meATP)) showed similar effects, indicating that ATP acts as a signal molecule rather than an energy charger. ADP promoted stomatal opening, while AMP and adenosine did not affect stomatal movement. An ATP-promoted stomatal opening was blocked by the NADPH oxidase inhibitor diphenylene iodonium (DPI), the reductant dithiothreitol (DTT) or the Ca(2+) channel blockers GdCl3 and LaCl3. A hyperpolarization-activated Ca(2+) channel was detected in plasma membrane of guard cell protoplast. Extracellular ATP and weakly hydrolyzable ATP analogs activated this Ca(2+) channel significantly. Extracellular ATP-promoted Ca(2+) channel activation was markedly inhibited by DPI or DTT. These results indicated that eATP may promote stomatal opening via reactive oxygen species that regulate guard cell plasma membrane Ca(2+) channels. PMID:25014259

  12. A new mechanism for the regulation of stomatal aperture size in intact leaves: Accumulation of mesophyll-derived sucrose in the guard-cell wall of Vicia faba

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Ping; Outlaw, W.H. Jr.; Smith, B.G.; Freed, G.A.

    1997-05-01

    At various times after pulse-labeling broad bean (Vicia faba L.) leaflets with {sup 14}CO{sub 2}, whole-leaf pieces and rinsed epidermal peels were harvested and subsequently processed for histochemical analysis. Cells dissected from whole leaf retained apoplastic contents, whereas those from rinsed peels contained only symplastic contents. Sucrose (Suc)-specific radioactivity peaked (111 GBq mol{sup -1}) in palisade cells at 20 min. In contrast, the {sup 14}C content and Suc-specific radioactivity were very low in guard cells for 20 min, implying little CO, incorporation; both then peaked at 40 min. The guard-cell apoplast had a high maximum Suc-specific radioactivity (204 GBq mol{sup -1}) and a high Suc influx rate (0.05 pmol stoma{sup -1} min{sup -1}). These and other comparisons implied the presence of (a) multiple Suc pools in mesophyll cells, M a localized mesophyll-apoplast region that exchanges with phloem and stomata, and mesophyll-derived Suc in guard-cell walls sufficient to diminish stomatal opening by approximately 3 pm. Factors expected to enhance Suc accumulation in guard-cell walls are (a) high transpiration rate, which closes stomata, and N high apoplastic Suc concentration, which is elevated when mesophyll Suc efflux exceeds translocation. Therefore, multiple physiological factors are integrated in the attenuation of stomatal aperture size by this previously unrecognized mechanism. 50 refs., 9 figs.

  13. The effect of proanthocyanidin-rich hulls and proanthocyanidin extracts from bean (Vicia faba L.) hulls on nutrient digestibility and digestive enzyme activities in young chicks.

    PubMed

    Yuste, P; Longstaff, M; McCorquodale, C

    1992-01-01

    Proanthocyanidins were prepared from three bean (Vicia faba L.) varieties by extracting hulls in aqueous acetone. The amounts of freeze-dried extracts recovered were 74, 89 and 97 g/kg hull for the varieties Brunette, Statissa and Minica respectively. Chicks (3 weeks old) were fed on a maize-soya-bean control diet or the same control diet substituted with either 30 g proanthocyanidin extracts/kg or 300 g proanthocyanidin-rich hulls/kg. Chicks were tube-fed diets twice daily for 4 d. Nutrient digestibilities were calculated from amounts present in diets and freeze-dried excreta with the aid of titanium dioxide as a marker. Enzyme activities were measured in digesta removed from the jejunum. Extracts of proanthocyanidins depressed the digestibility of protein by 34%, starch by 3% and had no effect on the digestibility of lipid. Proanthocyanidin-rich hulls depressed the digestibility of protein by 62%, starch by 6% and lipid by 4%. Digestive enzyme activities were depressed to the same extent by extracts and hulls, trypsin (EC 3.4.21.4) by 55 and 62%, alpha-amylase (EC 3.2.1.1) by 75 and 78% and lipase (EC 3.1.1.3) by 31 and 32% for proanthocyanidin-extract and proanthocyanidin-rich-hull diets respectively. The susceptibility of substrates as well as enzymes to the effects of proanthocyanidins is discussed. PMID:1547203

  14. The acquisition of desiccation tolerance in developing Vicia hirsuta seeds coincides with an increase in galactinol synthase expression and soluble α-D-galactosides accumulation.

    PubMed

    Gojło, Ewa; Pupel, Piotr; Lahuta, Lesław B; Podliński, Paweł; Kucewicz, Magdalena; Górecki, Ryszard J

    2015-07-20

    Galactinol is the galactosyl donor for the biosynthesis of both the raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs) and galactosyl cyclitols (Gal-C). Its synthesis by galactinol synthase (GolS, EC 2.4.1.123) is the first committed step of the soluble α-D-galactosides biosynthetic pathway in orthodox seeds. The deposition of galactosides in seeds is suggested to be associated with desiccation tolerance (DT). In this work, for the first time, we cloned and characterized two Vicia hirsuta (L.) S.F. Gray galactinol synthase genes (VhGolS1, VhGolS2), analyzed galactinol synthase activity and measured the accumulation of galactosides of both sucrose and D-pinitol in relation to the acquisition of DT in developing seeds of this wild species. A developmentally induced increase of VhGolS1 expression preceded the rise of GolS activity in crude protein extract from maturing seeds, while the expression of the VhGolS2 gene remained low. GolS activity peaked just after the beginning of the maturation drying phase. The increase of GolS activity was not followed by galactinol accumulation, instead the high enzyme activity was related to high levels of galactose bound in soluble galactosides of the RFO and galactosyl pinitol series. Acquisition of DT coincided with an increase of VhGolS1 expression, high galactinol synthase activity and the accumulation of oligogalactosides in seeds. DT was positively correlated with the high content of soluble α-D-galactosides of both the RFO and galactosyl pinitol series as well as with the amount of galactose bound in these galactosides. PMID:26210320

  15. Toxicological effects, mechanisms, and implied toxicity thresholds in the roots of Vicia faba L. seedlings grown in copper-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xianghua; Huang, Zhicheng; Wang, Chengrun; Zhong, Li; Tian, Yuan; Li, Dongdong; Zhang, Gaojian; Shi, Jian

    2015-09-01

    Copper (Cu) contamination has become a global concern because of industrial, agricultural, and other anthropogenic activities. In the present experiments, the toxicological effects, mechanisms, and potential toxicity thresholds were investigated in the roots of Vicia faba L. seedlings that were cultivated in Cu-amended soils (0, 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50, 100, 200, 400, and 600 mg kg(-1)) for 20 days, based on an analysis of the soil physicochemical properties, native Cu, available Cu, and root-enriched Cu contents. The superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and guaiacol peroxidase (POD) isozymes and activities, as well as glutathione (GSH) and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), changed like biphasic dose-response curves, cooperating to control the redox homeostasis. The APX and POD enzymes exhibited enhanced activities and became H2O2 scavengers primarily when the catalase (CAT) activities tended to decrease. Endoprotease (EP) isozymes and activities might be enhanced to degrade carbonylated proteins and alleviate metabolic disturbance in the roots. Additionally, HSP70 may not be suitable as a biomarker for relatively higher soil Cu concentrations and relatively longer exposure times for the roots. As a result, the isozymes and activities of SOD, CAT, and EP, as well as GSH, can be adopted as the most sensitive biomarkers. The toxicity threshold is estimated as 0.76-1.21 mg kg(-1) of available Cu in the soils or 25.04-36.65 μg Cu g(-1) dry weights (DW) in the roots. PMID:26208663

  16. Determination of ACC-induced cell-programmed death in roots of Vicia faba ssp. minor seedlings by acridine orange and ethidium bromide staining.

    PubMed

    Byczkowska, Anna; Kunikowska, Anita; Kaźmierczak, Andrzej

    2013-02-01

    Fluorescence staining with acridine orange (AO) and ethidium bromide (EB) showed that nuclei of cortex root cells of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC)-treated Vicia faba ssp. minor seedlings differed in color. Measurement of resultant fluorescence intensity (RFI) showed that it increased when the color of nuclear chromatin was changed from green to red, indicating that EB moved to the nuclei via the cell membrane which lost its integrity and stained nuclei red. AO/EB staining showed that changes in color of the nuclear chromatin were accompanied by DNA condensation, nuclei fragmentation, and chromatin degradation which were also shown after 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindol staining. These results indicate that ACC induced programmed cell death. The increasing values of RFI together with the corresponding morphological changes of nuclear chromatin were the basis to prepare the standard curve; cells with green unchanged nuclear chromatin were alive while those with dark orange and bright red nuclei were dead. The cells with nuclei with green-yellow, yellow-orange, and bright orange chromatin with or without their condensation and fragmentation chromatin were dying. The prepared curve has became the basis to draw up the digital method for detection and determination of the number of living, dying, and dead cells in an in planta system and revealed that ACC induced death in about 20% of root cortex cells. This process was accompanied by increase in ion leakage, shortening of cells and whole roots, as well as by increase in weight and width of the apical part of roots and appearance of few aerenchymatic spaces while not by internucleosomal DNA degradation. PMID:22350735

  17. ABA induces H2O2 production in guard cells, but does not close the stomata on Vicia faba leaves developed at high air humidity

    PubMed Central

    Arve, Louise E; Carvalho, Dália RA; Olsen, Jorunn E; Torre, Sissel

    2014-01-01

    Plants developed under constant high (> 85%) relative air humidity (RH) have larger stomata that are unable to close completely. One of the hypotheses for the less responsive stomata is that the plants have reduced sensitivity to abscisic acid (ABA). Both ABA and darkness are signals for stomatal closure and induce the production of the secondary messenger hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). In this study, the ability of Vicia faba plants developed in moderate or high RH to close the stomata in response to darkness, ABA and H2O2 was investigated. Moreover, the ability of the plants to produce H2O2 when treated with ABA or transferred to darkness was also assessed. Our results show that the ABA concentration in moderate RH is not increased during darkness even though the stomata are closing. This indicates that stomatal closure in V. faba during darkness is independent of ABA production. ABA induced both H2O2 production and stomatal closure in stomata formed at moderate RH. H2O2 production, as a result of treatment with ABA, was also observed in stomata formed at high RH, though the closing response was considerably smaller as compared with moderate RH. In either RH, leaf ABA concentration was not affected by darkness. Similarly to ABA treatment, darkness elicited both H2O2 production and stomatal closure following plant cultivation at moderate RH. Contrary to this, neither H2O2 production nor stomatal closure took place when stomata were formed at high RH. These results suggest that the reduced stomatal response in plants developed in continuous high RH is caused by one or more factors downstream of H2O2 in the signaling pathway toward stomatal closure. PMID:25763494

  18. Microcystin-LR induces mitotic spindle assembly disorders in Vicia faba by protein phosphatase inhibition and not reactive oxygen species induction.

    PubMed

    Garda, Tamás; Kónya, Zoltán; Tándor, Ildikó; Beyer, Dániel; Vasas, Gábor; Erdődi, Ferenc; Vereb, György; Papp, Georgina; Riba, Milán; M-Hamvas, Márta; Máthé, Csaba

    2016-07-20

    We aimed to reveal the mechanisms of mitotic spindle anomalies induced by microcystin-LR (MCY-LR), a cyanobacterial toxin in Vicia faba, a well-known model in plant cell and molecular biology. MCY-LR inhibits type 1 and 2A phosphoserine/threonine specific protein phosphatases (PP1 and PP2A) and induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. The cytoskeleton is one of the main targets of the cyanotoxin during cytopathogenesis. Histochemical-immunohistochemical and biochemical methods were used. A significant number of MCY-LR induced spindle alterations are described for the first time. Disrupted, multipolar spindles and missing kinetochore fibers were detected both in metaphase and anaphase cells. Additional polar microtubule (MT) bundles, hyperbundling of spindle MTs, monopolar spindles, C-S- shaped, additional and asymmetric spindles were detected in metaphase, while midplane kinetochore fibers were detected in anaphase cells only. Several spindle anomalies induced mitotic disorders, i.e. they occurred concomitantly with altered sister chromatid separation. Alterations were dependent on the MCY-LR dose and exposure time. Under long-term (2 and mainly 6 days') exposure they were detected in the concentration range of 0.1-20μgmL(-1) MCY-LR that inhibited PP1 and PP2A significantly without significant ROS induction. Elevated peroxidase/catalase activities indicated that MCY-LR treated V. faba plants showed efficient defense against oxidative stress. Thus, although the elevation of ROS is known to induce cytoskeletal aberrations in general, this study shows that long-term protein phosphatase inhibition is the primary cause of MCY-LR induced spindle disorders. PMID:27186862

  19. Feeding of Dehulled-micronized Faba Bean (Vicia faba var. minor) as Substitute for Soybean Meal in Guinea Fowl Broilers: Effect on Productive Performance and Meat Quality.

    PubMed

    Tufarelli, Vincenzo; Laudadio, Vito

    2015-10-01

    The present study aimed to assess the effect of dietary substitution of soybean meal (SBM) with dehulled-micronized faba bean (Vicia faba var. minor) in guinea fowl broilers on their growth traits, carcass quality, and meat fatty acids composition. In this trial, 120 day-old guinea fowl keets were randomly assigned to two treatments which were fed from hatch to 12 weeks of age. Birds were fed two wheat middlings-based diets comprising of a control treatment which contained SBM (78.3 g/kg) and a test diet containing dehulled-micronized faba bean (130 g/kg) as the main protein source. Substituting SBM with faba bean had no adverse effect on growth traits, dressing percentage, or breast and thigh muscles relative weight of the guinea fowls. Conversely, a decrease (p<0.05) of abdominal fat was found in guinea fowls fed the faba bean-diet. Breast muscle of birds fed faba bean had higher L* score (p<0.05) and water-holding capacity (p<0.05) than the SBM control diet. Meat from guinea fowls fed faba bean had less total lipids (p<0.05) and cholesterol (p<0.01), and higher concentrations of phospholipids (p<0.01). Feeding faba bean increased polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrations in breast meat and decreased the saturated fatty acid levels. Moreover, dietary faba bean improved the atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes in guinea fowl breast meat. Results indicated that substitution of SBM with faba bean meal in guinea fowl diet can improve carcass qualitative traits, enhancing also meat lipid profile without negatively affecting growth performance. PMID:26323403

  20. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-contaminated soils: bioaugmentation of autochthonous bacteria and toxicological assessment of the bioremediation process by means of Vicia faba L.

    PubMed

    Ruffini Castiglione, Monica; Giorgetti, Lucia; Becarelli, Simone; Siracusa, Giovanna; Lorenzi, Roberto; Di Gregorio, Simona

    2016-04-01

    Two bacterial strains, Achromobacter sp. (ACH01) and Sphingomonas sp. (SPH01), were isolated from a heavily polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soil (5431.3 ± 102.3 ppm) for their capacity to use a mixture of anthracene, pyrene, phenanthrene and fluorene as sole carbon sources for growth and for the capacity to produce biosurfactants. The two strains were exploited for bioaugmentation in a biopile pilot plant to increase the bioavailability and the degradation of the residual PAH contamination (99.5 ± 7.1 ppm) reached after 9 months of treatment. The denaturing gel gradient electrophoresis (DGGE) profile of the microbial ecology of the soil during the experimentation showed that the bioaugmentation approach was successful in terms of permanence of the two strains in the soil in treatment. The bioaugmentation of the two bacterial isolates positively correlated with the PAH depletion that reached 7.9 ± 2 ppm value in 2 months of treatment. The PAH depletion was assessed by the loss of the phyto-genotoxicity of soil elutriates on the model plant Vicia faba L., toxicological assessment adopted also to determine the minimum length of the decontamination process for obtaining both the depletion of the PAH contamination and the detoxification of the soil at the end of the process. The intermediate phases of the bioremediation process were the most significant in terms of toxicity, inducing genotoxic effects and selective DNA fragmentation in the stem cell niche of the root tip. The selective DNA fragmentation can be related to the selective induction of cell death of mutant stem cells that can compromise offsprings. PMID:26769476

  1. Autotetraploids of Vicia cracca show a higher allelic richness in natural populations and a higher seed set after artificial selfing than diploids

    PubMed Central

    Eliášová, Anežka; Trávníček, Pavel; Mandák, Bohumil; Münzbergová, Zuzana

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Despite the great importance of autopolyploidy in the evolution of angiosperms, relatively little attention has been devoted to autopolyploids in natural polyploid systems. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain why autopolyploids are so common and successful, for example increased genetic diversity and heterozygosity and the transition towards selfing. However, case studies on patterns of genetic diversity and on mating systems in autopolyploids are scarce. In this study allozymes were employed to investigate the origin, population genetic diversity and mating system in the contact zone between diploid and assumed autotetraploid cytotypes of Vicia cracca in Central Europe. Methods Four enzyme systems resolved in six putative loci were investigated in ten diploid, ten tetraploid and five mixed-ploidy populations. Genetic diversity and heterozygosity, partitioning of genetic diversity among populations and cytotypes, spatial genetic structure and fixed heterozygosity were analysed. These studies were supplemented by a pollination experiment and meiotic chromosome observation. Key Results and Conclusions Weak evidence of fixed heterozygosity, a low proportion of unique alleles and genetic variation between cytotypes similar to the variation among populations within cytotypes supported the autopolyploid origin of tetraploids, although no multivalent formation was observed. Tetraploids possessed more alleles than diploids and showed higher observed zygotic heterozygosity than diploids, but the observed gametic heterozygosity was similar to the value observed in diploids and smaller than expected under panmixis. Values of the inbreeding coefficient and differentiation among populations (ρST) suggested that the breeding system in both cytotypes of V. cracca is mixed mating with prevailing outcrossing. The reduction in seed production of tetraploids after selfing was less than that in diploids. An absence of correlation between genetic and

  2. Feeding of Dehulled-micronized Faba Bean (Vicia faba var. minor) as Substitute for Soybean Meal in Guinea Fowl Broilers: Effect on Productive Performance and Meat Quality

    PubMed Central

    Tufarelli, Vincenzo; Laudadio, Vito

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to assess the effect of dietary substitution of soybean meal (SBM) with dehulled-micronized faba bean (Vicia faba var. minor) in guinea fowl broilers on their growth traits, carcass quality, and meat fatty acids composition. In this trial, 120 day-old guinea fowl keets were randomly assigned to two treatments which were fed from hatch to 12 weeks of age. Birds were fed two wheat middlings-based diets comprising of a control treatment which contained SBM (78.3 g/kg) and a test diet containing dehulled-micronized faba bean (130 g/kg) as the main protein source. Substituting SBM with faba bean had no adverse effect on growth traits, dressing percentage, or breast and thigh muscles relative weight of the guinea fowls. Conversely, a decrease (p<0.05) of abdominal fat was found in guinea fowls fed the faba bean-diet. Breast muscle of birds fed faba bean had higher L* score (p<0.05) and water-holding capacity (p<0.05) than the SBM control diet. Meat from guinea fowls fed faba bean had less total lipids (p<0.05) and cholesterol (p<0.01), and higher concentrations of phospholipids (p<0.01). Feeding faba bean increased polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrations in breast meat and decreased the saturated fatty acid levels. Moreover, dietary faba bean improved the atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes in guinea fowl breast meat. Results indicated that substitution of SBM with faba bean meal in guinea fowl diet can improve carcass qualitative traits, enhancing also meat lipid profile without negatively affecting growth performance. PMID:26323403

  3. Analysis of inhibition of photosynthesis due to water stress in the C3 species Hordeum vulgare and Vicia faba: Electron transport, CO 2 fixation and carboxylation capacity.

    PubMed

    Lal, A; Ku, M S; Edwards, G E

    1996-07-01

    A C3 monocot, Hordeum vulgare and C3 dicot, Vicia faba, were studied to evaluate the mechanism of inhibition of photosynthesis due to water stress. The net rate of CO2 fixation (A) and transpiration (E) were measured by gas exchange, while the true rate of O2 evolution (J O2) was calculated from chlorophyll fluorescence analysis through the stress cycle (10 to 11 days). With the development of water stress, the decrease in A was more pronounced than the decrease in J O2 resulting in an increased ratio of Photosystem II activity per CO2 fixed which is indicative of an increase in photorespiration due to a decrease in supply of CO2 to Rubisco. Analyses of changes in the J O2 A ratios versus that of CO2 limited photosynthesis in well watered plants, and RuBP pool/RuBP binding sites on Rubisco and RuBP activity, indicate a decreased supply of CO2 to Rubisco under both mild and severe stress is primarily responsible for the decrease in CO2 fixation. In the early stages of stress, the decrease in C i (intercellular CO2) due to stomatal closure can account for the decrease in photosynthesis. Under more severe stress, CO2 supply to Rubisco, calculated from analysis of electron flow and CO2 exchange, continued to decrease. However, C i, calculated from analysis of transpiration and CO2 exchange, either remained constant or increased which may be due to either a decrease in mesophyll conductance or an overestimation of C i by this method due to patchiness in conductance of CO2 to the intercellular space. When plants were rewatered after photosynthesis had dropped to 10-30% of the original rate, both species showed near full recovery within two to four days. PMID:24271534

  4. Effect of several germination treatments on phosphatases activities and degradation of phytate in faba bean (Vicia faba L.) and azuki bean (Vigna angularis L.).

    PubMed

    Luo, Yuwei; Xie, Weihua; Luo, Fengxia

    2012-10-01

    Two assays were conducted to investigate the changes of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) and azuki bean (Vigna angularis L.) phosphatases (phytase [Phy] and acid phosphatase [AcPh]) and the degradation of its substrates (inositol phosphate esters) during seed germination. The 1st assay was to establish the optimal germination conditions of faba bean and azuki bean to improve the endogenous phosphatases and increase the hydrolysis of phytate and, in the second assay, to determine the different lower phosphate esters of myo-inositol produced during the germination process. In the 1st assay, seeds were soaked for 12 and 24 h and germinated for 3 and 5 d with and without the addition of gibberellic acid (GA(3) ). In the second assay, seeds were soaked for 12 h and germinated for 1, 3, and 5 d with GA(3) . Phy (up to 3625 and 1340 U/kg) and AcPh (up to 9456 and 2740 U/g) activities, and inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) (8.23 and 7.46 mg/g), inositol pentaphosphate (IP5) (0.55 and 0.82 mg/g), and inositol tetraphosphate (IP4) (0.26 and 0.01 mg/g) were detected in ungerminated faba bean and azuki bean, respectively. The germination process caused a significant increase of Phy and AcPh activities in faba bean (up to 147% and 210%) and azuki bean (up to 211% and 596%) and a reduction in the phytate phosphorus content (up to 81% and 63%, respectively). Phytate phosphorus content was affected only by soaking time in the case of faba bean. Finally, during the course of germination, IP6 and IP5 were rapidly degraded in faba bean (88% and 39%) and azuki bean (55% and 56%), and IP4 was only a short-living intermediate, which was increased during hydrolysis and degraded to inositol triphosphate. In this manner we could obtain a low-phytate, endogenous phosphatase-rich ingredient for enhancing human nutrition. PMID:22938099

  5. The utilization of raw and autoclaved faba beans (Vicia faba L., var. minor) and faba bean fractions in diets for growing boiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Rubio, L A; Brenes, A; Castaño, M

    1990-05-01

    The effects of the inclusion of raw and autoclaved whole faba beans (Vicia faba; RFB and AFB respectively) or faba bean fractions (cotyledons and hulls) in diets for growing broiler chickens (0-4 weeks of age) on performance, intestinal physiology and jejunal histological structure have been studied in three experiments. Significant decreases in body-weight as well as lower food consumption and higher food intake:weight gain ratio were observed in those animals fed on diets containing 250, 350 and 500 RFB/kg in the diet. Birds fed on AFB diets (500 g/kg) had significantly greater body-weights than chicks fed on RFB or raw faba bean cotyledons (RC). Significant increases in the relative lengths of duodenum, jejunum, ileum and caeca, pancreas relative weight, and intestinal transit time of birds fed on diets containing 250, 350 and 500 g RFB/kg compared with control birds were observed. Including AFB (500 g/kg) in the diet significantly increased body-weight and significantly decreased pancreas weight compared with RFB (500 g/kg)-fed birds. The inclusion of RFB hulls had no effect on these variables. Dehulling or autoclaving of faba beans, or both, proved to have no significant effect on relative lengths of duodenum, jejunum, ileum and caeca, nor on caecal volatile fatty acid concentration in birds fed on 500 g faba beans/kg diet. Electron microscopy of the jejunal mucosa revealed discrete hyperplasia of polysomes and mitochondrial swelling in those animals fed on AFB (500 g/kg) or AC (426.4 g/kg). Pronounced strangulations were also observed along the microvilli, whose length was similar to that of control birds. The inclusion of RFB hulls, either autoclaved or raw, led to no ultrastructural changes in the enterocytes, as detected by electron microscopy. Birds fed on diets containing the cotyledons of RFB (RC, 426.4 g/kg) rather than whole RFB showed the same ultrastructural disorders as RFB (500 g/kg)-fed birds. The present study shows that factors other than those

  6. HPLC analysis of Vicia guard cells indicates that products from photosynthetic carbon fixation and starch hydrolysis have an osmotic role during stomatal opening under blue (BL) and red (RL) light

    SciTech Connect

    Talbott, L.D.; Zeiger, E. )

    1991-05-01

    HPLC was used to quantify neutral sugars and organic acids in guard cells of sonicated Vicia faba epidermal peels irradiated with BL or RL in the presence of 1 mM KCl. Under photosynthetically inactive, low fluence-rates of BL, guard cells initially accumulate malate and citrate. At later times, sucrose and starch breakdown products such as maltose predominate. Guard cells opening under saturating fluence rates of RL show very little organic acid or maltose accumulation, and accumulate mainly sucrose. Changes in metabolite concentrations were correlated with stomatal apertures in both light treatments. These results support previous observations that light quality modulated alternative mechanisms of osmotic accumulation in guard cells, including K{sup +} uptake, photosynthesis and starch hydrolysis. At 5 mM, KCl suppresses RL but not BL-induced opening. These contrasting KCl treatments can be used to investigate osmoregulatory features in guard cells.

  7. Determination of β-Cyano-L-alanine, γ-Glutamyl-β-cyano-L-alanine, and Common Free Amino Acids in Vicia sativa (Fabaceae) Seeds by Reversed-Phase High-Performance Liquid Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Megías, Cristina; Cortés-Giraldo, Isabel; Girón-Calle, Julio; Vioque, Javier; Alaiz, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    A method for determination of β-cyano-L-alanine, γ-glutamyl-β-cyano-L-alanine and other free amino acids in Vicia sativa is presented. Seed extracts were derivatized by reaction with diethyl ethoxymethylenemalonate and analyzed by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Calibration curves showed very good linearity of the response. The limit of detection and quantification was 0.15 and 0.50 μM, respectively. The method has high intra- (RSD = 0.28–0.31%) and interrepeatability (RSD = 2.76–3.08%) and remarkable accuracy with a 99% recovery in spiked samples. The method is very easy to carry out and allows for ready analysis of large number of samples using very basic HPLC equipment because the derivatized samples are very stable and have very good chromatographic properties. The method has been applied to the determination of γ-glutamyl-β-cyano-L-alanine, β-cyano-L-alanine, and common free amino acids in eight wild populations of V. sativa from southwestern Spain. PMID:25587488

  8. Quantification of canavanine, 2-aminoethanol, and cyanamide in Aphis craccivora and its host plants, Robinia pseudoacacia and Vicia angustifolia: effects of these compounds on larval survivorship of Harmonia axyridis.

    PubMed

    Kamo, Tsunashi; Tokuoka, Yoshinori; Miyazaki, Masahisa

    2012-12-01

    The cowpea aphid Aphis craccivora that infests the black locust Robinia pseudoacacia shows toxicity to its predator, the multicolored Asian ladybird beetle, Harmonia axyridis. In contrast, the same aphid species that infests the common vetch, Vicia angustifolia, is suitable prey for H. axyridis larvae. Previously, it was reported that the toxicity of A. craccivora infesting R. pseudoacacia was due to canavanine and 2-aminoethanol, but there was some doubt about the toxicity of these compounds and their concentrations in the aphids. In the present study, we determined the concentrations of cyanamide, canavanine, and 2-aminoethanol in A. craccivora infesting the two host plants. In the extracts of A. craccivora that infested either of the host plants, canavanine was undetectable, and 2-aminoethanol was detected at the concentration of 3.0-4.0 μg/g fresh weight. Cyanamide was detected in the extract of A. craccivora that infested R. pseudoacacia (7.7 μg/g fresh weight) but not in that infesting V. angustifolia. The toxicity of canavanine, 2-aminoethanol, and cyanamide was evaluated against H. axyridis larvae in a bioassay by using an artificial diet containing these compounds at various concentrations. Cyanamide exhibited 10-100 times stronger toxicity than canavanine and 2-aminoethanol. These results indicate that the toxicity is at least partly due to cyanamide, which is present in the toxic A. craccivora that infests R. pseudoacacia but absent from the non-toxic A. craccivora that infests V. angustifolia. PMID:23179101

  9. Phosphorylation of H2AX histones in response to double-strand breaks and induction of premature chromatin condensation in hydroxyurea-treated root meristem cells of Raphanus sativus, Vicia faba, and Allium porrum.

    PubMed

    Rybaczek, Dorota; Maszewski, Janusz

    2007-01-01

    Histone H2A variant H2AX is rapidly phosphorylated on the induction of DNA double-strand breaks by ionizing radiation and hydroxyurea-mediated replication arrest, resulting in the formation of gamma-H2AX foci along megabase chromatin domains nearby the sites of incurred DNA damage. In an attempt to establish a relationship between species-specific nuclear architecture and H2AX phosphorylation in S/G(2) phase-arrested root meristem cells, immunocytochemical comparisons using an antibody raised against human gamma-H2AX were made among three plants differing with respect to DNA contents: Allium porrum, representing a reticulate type of DNA package, Vicia faba, having semireticulate cell nuclei, and Raphanus sativus, characterised by a chromocentric type of chromatin. Another approach was aimed at determining possible correlations between the extent of hydroxyurea-induced phosphorylation of H2AX histones and the quantities of root meristem cells induced by caffeine to enter aberrant mitotic division (premature chromosome condensation). It was concluded that the higher-order structure of chromatin may contribute to the accessibility of molecular factors engaged in the recognition and repair of genetic lesions. Consequently, in contrast to A. porrum and V. faba, a diffuse chromatin in chromocentric cell nuclei of R. sativus may become more vulnerable both to generate DNA double-strand breaks and to recruit molecular elements needed to arrange the cell cycle checkpoint functions, and thus, more resistant to factors which allow the cells to enter premature chromosome condensation spontaneously. On the other hand, however, caffeine-mediated overriding of the S-M checkpoint control system resulted in the typical appearance of premature chromosome condensation, irrespective of the genomic content of DNA. PMID:17111099

  10. Expression of Vicia villosa agglutinin (VVA)-binding glycoprotein in primary breast cancer cells in relation to lymphatic metastasis: is atypical MUC1 bearing Tn antigen a receptor of VVA?

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Takanori; Takazawa, Hiroshi; Imai, Shunsuke; Morimoto, Junji; Watanabe, Takanori; Kanno, Masahiko; Igarashi, Seiji

    2006-07-01

    Aberrant carbohydrate expression frequently occurs in breast cancer and may endow cells with metastatic potential. Here we first studied the relationship between expression of Vicia villosa agglutinin (lectin) (VVA)-binding carbohydrates and aggressive breast cancer. We then investigated the molecular characteristics of these glycoproteins and compared them with those of glycoproteins recognized by the mouse anti-Tn monoclonal antibody (MAb) HB-Tn1. Histochemical studies of samples from 322 cases of invasive ductal carcinoma demonstrated that VVA-binding carbohydrate expression correlated with tumor stage, lymphatic invasion, and lymph node metastasis (p=0.0385, p=0.0019, and p=0.0430. respectively). Western blotting analysis of frozen materials from 39 cases, under denaturing and reducing conditions, revealed that the major cancer cell-specific VVA-binding proteins were molecules of about 30, 33, and >200 kDa. Cases expressing the approximately 33 kDa molecule had significant lymphatic invasion more frequently than did cases not expressing this molecule (p=0.0076). Binding of VVA to the approximately 30 and approximately 33 kDa molecules was completely lost by preincubation of VVA with 1 mM Tn antigen (N-acetylgalactosamine alpha1-O-serine). The VVA-binding molecules appeared to react with VU-3C6 anti-MUC1 MAb. Expression of HB-Tn1 in breast cancer cells showed significant correlation with expression of VVA-binding carbohydrate(s) (p<0.0001) but HB-Tn1 reactivity was not clearly related to breast cancer aggressiveness. Because anti-Tn MAbs bound to Tn antigen clusters, we concluded that atypical MUC1 bearing the noncluster form of Tn antigen is implicated in aggressive growth of primary breast cancer cells, particularly in lymphatic metastasis. PMID:16752227

  11. Protein quality in cereals and pulses. 1. Application of microbiological and other in vitro methods in the evaluation of rice (Oryza sativa L.), sorghum (Sorghum vulgare Pers.), barley and field beans (Vicia faba L.).

    PubMed

    Ford, J E; Hewitt, D

    1979-03-01

    1. The Streptococcus zymogenes assay procedure was modified and used in the estimation of available methionine and relative nutritional value in rice (Oryza sativa L.), sorghum (Sorghum vulgare Pers.), barley and field beans (Vicia faba L.). The results were assessed in relation to the content of tannins and 'dye-binding lysine', and to published information on the nutritional quality of some of the test samples. 2. In grain of ten varieties of sorghum, for which other workers had reported a correlation (r -0.82; P less than 0.01) between tannin content and amino acid digestibility in chicks, the available methionine content ranged from 6.3 to 17.7 g/kg protein (nitrogen x 6.25) and was highly correlated with tannin content (r -0.97; P less than 0.001). The content of total methionine and dye-binding lysine varied little between varieties and was not related to tannin content. 3. In nine samples of rice the availability of methionine was uniformly high, in accordance with literature values for true digestibility of the N. 4. In field beans the presence of tammins in the seed coat was associated with a significant (P less than 0.001) reduction in the availability of methionine. In eleven tannin-free varieties the coefficient of availability averaged 0.791, compared with 0.685 in eleven tannin-containing varieties. The standard deviation associated with both values was 0.04. There was no such difference between the corresponding dye-binding lysine values. 5. Thirty-three samples of barley were examined, representing fourteen varieties, four of which had been grown at several widely different latitudes in England and Sweden. There was little difference in methionine content between samples. The average availability coefficient for eighteen samples grown in England was 0.995+/-0.044, and for fifteen varieties grown in Sweden it was 0.851+/-0.042. The difference was not associated with any difference in tannin content, which was uniformly low. The findings contradict

  12. Plant, cell, and molecular mechanisms of abscisic-acid regulation of stomatal apertures. A new mechanism for the regulation of stomatal-aperture size in intact leaves: Accumulation of mesophyll-derived sucrose in the guard-cell wall of Vicia faba L.

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, P.; Outlaw, W.H. Jr.; Smith, B.G.; Freed, G.A.

    1996-12-31

    At various times after pulse labeling Vicia faba L. leaflets with {sup 14}CO{sub 2}, whole-leaf pieces and rinsed epidermal peels were harvested and subsequently processed for histochemical analysis. Cells dissected from whole leaf retained apoplastic contents whereas those from rinsed peels contained only cytoplastic contents. Sucrose specific radioactivity peaked in palisade cells, 111 GBq{center_dot}mol{sup {minus}1}, at 20 min. In contrast, the {sup 14}C content and sucrose specific radioactivity were very low in guard cells for 20 min, implying little CO{sub 2} incorporation; both then peaked at 40 min. The guard-cell apoplast had a high maximum sucrose specific radioactivity and a high sucrose influx rate. These and other comparisons implied the presence of (a) multiple sucrose pools in mesophyll cells, (b) a localized mesophyll-apoplast region that exchanges with phloem and stomata, and (c) mesophyll-derived sucrose in guard-cell walls sufficient to diminish stomatal opening by {approximately} 4 {micro}m. Factors expected to enhance sucrose accumulation in guard-cell walls are (a) high transpiration rate, which closes stomata, and (b) high apoplastic sucrose concentration, which is elevated when mesophyll-sucrose efflux exceeds translocation. Therefore, multiple physiological factors are integrated in the attenuation of stomatal-aperture size by this previously unrecognized mechanism.

  13. Characterization of swarming motility in Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae.

    PubMed

    Tambalo, Dinah D; Yost, Christopher K; Hynes, Michael F

    2010-06-01

    We have characterized swarming motility in Rhizobium leguminosarum strains 3841 and VF39SM. Swarming was dependent on growth on energy-rich media, and both agar concentration and incubation temperature were critical parameters for surface migration. A cell density-dependent lag period was observed before swarming motility was initiated. Surface migration began 3-5 days after inoculation and a full swarming phenotype was observed 3 weeks after inoculation. The swarming front was preceded by a clear extracellular matrix, from which we failed to detect surfactants. The edge of the swarming front formed by VF39SM was characterized by hyperflagellated cells arranged in rafts, whereas the cells at the point of inoculation were indistinguishable from vegetative cells. Swarmer cells formed by 3841, in contrast, showed a minor increase in flagellation, with each swarmer cell exhibiting an average of three flagellar filaments, compared with an average of two flagella per vegetative cell. Reflective of their hyperflagellation, the VF39SM swarmer cells demonstrated an increased expression of flagellar genes. VF39SM swarmed better than 3841 under all the conditions tested, and the additional flagellation in VF39SM swarm cells may contribute to this difference. Metabolism of the supplemented carbon source appeared to be necessary for surface migration as strains incapable of utilizing the carbon source failed to swarm. We also observed that swarmer cells have increased resistance to several antibiotics. PMID:20455952

  14. A hemolysis trigger in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase enzyme deficiency. Vicia sativa (Vetch).

    PubMed

    Bicakci, Zafer

    2009-02-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is an enzyme, playing an important role in the redox metabolism of all aerobic cells. It was reported that certain medications, fava beans, and infections can trigger acute hemolytic anemia in patients with G6PD deficiency. An 8-year-old male patient was admitted to the hospital with blood in the urine, headache, dizziness, fatigue, loss of appetite, and jaundice in the eyes, 24 hours after eating large amounts of fresh, vetch grains. Laboratory investigation revealed hemolytic anemia, hyperbilirubinemia, and G6PD deficiency. Approximately 0.5% of fava bean seeds have 2 pyrimidine beta-glycosides called, vicine and convicine. Vetch has 0.731% vicine, 0.081% convicine, and 0.530% beta cyanoalanine glycosides. The aim of this case report is to emphasize the importance of vetch seeds as a cause for hemolytic crisis in our country, where approximately one million tons of vetch is produced per year, especially in the agricultural regions. PMID:19198723

  15. Hairy vetch (Vicia villosa) seed size affects germination response to coumarin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The inhibition of seed germination by an allelochemical is generally greater in small seeds than in large seeds. This response may have significant impact on weed control by allelopathic cover crops where the small-seeded weeds would be more effectively controlled than large-seeded species. The stu...

  16. Nutritional and antinutritional attributes of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) germplasms growing in Bihar, India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Amresh; Nidhi; Prasad, N; Sinha, Subodh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Eleven germplasms of faba bean seeds from four agroclimatic regions of Bihar, India, have been investigated to estimate their nutritional (soluble protein, free amino acids, starch, reducing and non reducing sugar, total soluble sugar) and antinutritional (total extractable phenol and condensed tannin/proanthocyanidin) parameters. These parameters were found in varying concentration in all genotypes studied. The highest concentration of total extractable phenol and proanthocyanidin (condensed tannin) (2.56 and 1.59 % leucocyanidin equivalents respectively on dry matter basis) were found in Samastipur while the lowest from Patna (0.95 and 0.426 % leucocyanidin equivalent on dry matter basis). The different nutritional parameters were also found to be in variable concentration among different germplasms viz. total soluble protein ≈ 20-32 %, free amino acids ≈ 188-348 mg/100 g, starch ≈ 27-33 %, reducing sugars ≈ 85-188 mg/100 g, non reducing sugars ≈ 0.7-1.7 % and total soluble sugars ≈ 0.8-1.9 %. PMID:25650087

  17. Large-Scale Transcriptome Analysis in Faba Bean (Vicia faba L.) under Ascochyta fabae Infection.

    PubMed

    Ocaña, Sara; Seoane, Pedro; Bautista, Rocio; Palomino, Carmen; Claros, Gonzalo M; Torres, Ana M; Madrid, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Faba bean is an important food crop worldwide. However, progress in faba bean genomics lags far behind that of model systems due to limited availability of genetic and genomic information. Using the Illumina platform the faba bean transcriptome from leaves of two lines (29H and Vf136) subjected to Ascochyta fabae infection have been characterized. De novo transcriptome assembly provided a total of 39,185 different transcripts that were functionally annotated, and among these, 13,266 were assigned to gene ontology against Arabidopsis. Quality of the assembly was validated by RT-qPCR amplification of selected transcripts differentially expressed. Comparison of faba bean transcripts with those of better-characterized plant genomes such as Arabidopsis thaliana, Medicago truncatula and Cicer arietinum revealed a sequence similarity of 68.3%, 72.8% and 81.27%, respectively. Moreover, 39,060 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and 3,669 InDels were identified for genotyping applications. Mapping of the sequence reads generated onto the assembled transcripts showed that 393 and 457 transcripts were overexpressed in the resistant (29H) and susceptible genotype (Vf136), respectively. Transcripts involved in plant-pathogen interactions such as leucine rich proteins (LRR) or plant growth regulators involved in plant adaptation to abiotic and biotic stresses were found to be differently expressed in the resistant line. The results reported here represent the most comprehensive transcript database developed so far in faba bean, providing valuable information that could be used to gain insight into the pathways involved in the resistance mechanism against A. fabae and to identify potential resistance genes to be further used in marker assisted selection. PMID:26267359

  18. Effectiveness of herbicides for control of hairy vetch (Vicia villosa) in winter wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We conducted a field experiment in 2009-10 at Pennsylvania and Maryland locations, and repeated it in 2010-11, to test the effectiveness of post-emergent herbicides applied at fall and spring timings on seeded hairy vetch in winter wheat. We tested 16 herbicide treatment combinations that included ...

  19. Large-Scale Transcriptome Analysis in Faba Bean (Vicia faba L.) under Ascochyta fabae Infection

    PubMed Central

    Ocaña, Sara; Seoane, Pedro; Bautista, Rocio; Palomino, Carmen; Claros, Gonzalo M.; Torres, Ana M.; Madrid, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Faba bean is an important food crop worldwide. However, progress in faba bean genomics lags far behind that of model systems due to limited availability of genetic and genomic information. Using the Illumina platform the faba bean transcriptome from leaves of two lines (29H and Vf136) subjected to Ascochyta fabae infection have been characterized. De novo transcriptome assembly provided a total of 39,185 different transcripts that were functionally annotated, and among these, 13,266 were assigned to gene ontology against Arabidopsis. Quality of the assembly was validated by RT-qPCR amplification of selected transcripts differentially expressed. Comparison of faba bean transcripts with those of better-characterized plant genomes such as Arabidopsis thaliana, Medicago truncatula and Cicer arietinum revealed a sequence similarity of 68.3%, 72.8% and 81.27%, respectively. Moreover, 39,060 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and 3,669 InDels were identified for genotyping applications. Mapping of the sequence reads generated onto the assembled transcripts showed that 393 and 457 transcripts were overexpressed in the resistant (29H) and susceptible genotype (Vf136), respectively. Transcripts involved in plant-pathogen interactions such as leucine rich proteins (LRR) or plant growth regulators involved in plant adaptation to abiotic and biotic stresses were found to be differently expressed in the resistant line. The results reported here represent the most comprehensive transcript database developed so far in faba bean, providing valuable information that could be used to gain insight into the pathways involved in the resistance mechanism against A. fabae and to identify potential resistance genes to be further used in marker assisted selection. PMID:26267359

  20. Genetic variability on seed yield and related traits of elite faba bean (Vicia faba L.) genotypes.

    PubMed

    Fikreselassie, Million; Seboka, Habtamu

    2012-04-15

    Faba bean is one of the most important cool season crops in the highlands of Ethiopia and the country is considered as the secondary center of diversity. This study was conducted at Haramaya, Boreda and Hirna districts of Eastern Hararghe from 2006 to 2008 cropping season using twenty five elite genotypes of faba bean to determine the extent and pattern of genetic diversity for seed yield and related traits. The treatments were arranged in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The data were subjected to the analyses of variance using the SAS program. The mean squares due to genotypes were highly significant for seed yield (p < 0.01) indicating the existence of sufficient genetic variability for seed yield. Mean squares due to the interaction between year and location were highly significant for all the traits studied (p < 0.01). High genotypic coefficient of variation (10093.53%) was observed for seed yield followed by number of seeds per plant (325.45%). The estimated values of phenotypic variances were in the range of 0.60 for number of seeds per pods to 196564.64 for seed yield. Genetic gains that expected from selecting the top 5% of the genotypes, as a percent of the mean, varied from 12.32% for number of seeds per plant to 35.46% for seed yield. The average linkage technique of clustering produced a more understandable portrayal of the 25 faba bean genotypes by grouping them into five clusters. The maximum distance was found between cluster three and five (D2 = 691.47). Thus, the materials tested in the entire experiment will be maintained for further breeding program. PMID:24199467

  1. Allelopathic effects of Medicago sativa L. and Vicia cracca L. leaf and root extracts on weeds.

    PubMed

    Koloren, Onur

    2007-05-15

    In this study, the allelopathic potential of different concentration (5, 25 and 50%) of M. sativa and V. cracca leaf and root extracts were evaluated on germination and radicle length of four weed species (Amaranthus retroflexus L., Lolium perenne L., Ipomoea hederacea L. and Portulaca oleracea L.) in laboratory condition. As a result, germination and radicle length of all species were reduced by the extract from M. sativa and V. cracca leaf and root at different percentage. Increasing the water extract concentrations from 5 to 50% of test plants parts significantly increased the inhibition of all weed species germination and radicle length. PMID:19086510

  2. Development of EST-SSR markers and construction of a linkage map in faba bean (Vicia faba)

    PubMed Central

    El-Rodeny, Walid; Kimura, Mitsuhiro; Hirakawa, Hideki; Sabah, Attia; Shirasawa, Kenta; Sato, Shusei; Tabata, Satoshi; Sasamoto, Shigemi; Watanabe, Akiko; Kawashima, Kumiko; Kato, Midori; Wada, Tsuyuko; Tsuruoka, Hisano; Takahashi, Chika; Minami, Chiharu; Nanri, Keiko; Nakayama, Shinobu; Kohara, Mitsuyo; Yamada, Manabu; Kishida, Yoshie; Fujishiro, Tsunakazu; Isobe, Sachiko

    2014-01-01

    To develop a high density linkage map in faba bean, a total of 1,363 FBES (Faba bean expressed sequence tag [EST]-derived simple sequence repeat [SSR]) markers were designed based on 5,090 non-redundant ESTs developed in this study. A total of 109 plants of a ‘Nubaria 2’ × ‘Misr 3’ F2 mapping population were used for map construction. Because the parents were not pure homozygous lines, the 109 F2 plants were divided into three subpopulations according to the original F1 plants. Linkage groups (LGs) generated in each subpopulation were integrated by commonly mapped markers. The integrated ‘Nubaria 2’ × ‘Misr 3’ map consisted of six LGs, representing a total length of 684.7 cM, with 552 loci. Of the mapped loci, 47% were generated from multi-loci diagnostic (MLD) markers. Alignment of homologous sequence pairs along each linkage group revealed obvious syntenic relationships between LGs in faba bean and the genomes of two model legumes, Lotus japonicus and Medicago truncatula. In a polymorphic analysis with ten Egyptian faba bean varieties, 78.9% (384/487) of the FBES markers showed polymorphisms. Along with the EST-SSR markers, the dense map developed in this study is expected to accelerate marker assisted breeding in faba bean. PMID:25320560

  3. Symbiotic effectiveness and phylogeny of rhizobia isolated from faba bean (Vicia faba L.) in Sichuan hilly areas, China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Kai Wei; Zou, Lan; Penttinen, Petri; Wang, Ke; Heng, Nan Nan; Zhang, Xiao Ping; Chen, Qiang; Zhao, Ke; Chen, Yuan Xue

    2015-10-01

    A total of 54 rhizobial strains were isolated from faba bean root nodules in 21 counties of Sichuan hilly areas in China, and their symbiotic effectiveness, genetic diversity and phylogeny were assessed. Only six strains increased the shoot dry mass of the host plant significantly (P ≤ 0.05). Based on the cluster analysis of combined 16S rDNA and intergenic spacer region (IGS) PCR-RFLP, the strains were divided into 31 genotypes in 11 groups, indicating a high degree of genetic diversity among the strains. The sequence analysis of three housekeeping genes (atpD, glnII and recA) and 16S rDNA indicated that the strains represented two R. leguminosarum, two Rhizobium spp., R. mesosinicum, Agrobacterium sp. and A. tumefaciens. The strains representing four Rhizobium species were divided into two distinct nodC and nifH genotypes. However, the phylogeny of housekeeping genes and symbiotic genes was not congruent, implying that the strains had been shaped by vertical evolution of the housekeeping genes and lateral evolution of the symbiotic genes. PMID:26242694

  4. Functional and expression analysis of the metal-inducible dmeRF system from Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae.

    PubMed

    Rubio-Sanz, L; Prieto, R I; Imperial, J; Palacios, J M; Brito, B

    2013-10-01

    A gene encoding a homolog to the cation diffusion facilitator protein DmeF from Cupriavidus metallidurans has been identified in the genome of Rhizobium leguminosarum UPM791. The R. leguminosarum dmeF gene is located downstream of an open reading frame (designated dmeR) encoding a protein homologous to the nickel- and cobalt-responsive transcriptional regulator RcnR from Escherichia coli. Analysis of gene expression showed that the R. leguminosarum dmeRF genes are organized as a transcriptional unit whose expression is strongly induced by nickel and cobalt ions, likely by alleviating the repressor activity of DmeR on dmeRF transcription. An R. leguminosarum dmeRF mutant strain displayed increased sensitivity to Co(II) and Ni(II), whereas no alterations of its resistance to Cd(II), Cu(II), or Zn(II) were observed. A decrease of symbiotic performance was observed when pea plants inoculated with an R. leguminosarum dmeRF deletion mutant strain were grown in the presence of high concentrations of nickel and cobalt. The same mutant induced significantly lower activity levels of NiFe hydrogenase in microaerobic cultures. These results indicate that the R. leguminosarum DmeRF system is a metal-responsive efflux mechanism acting as a key element for metal homeostasis in R. leguminosarum under free-living and symbiotic conditions. The presence of similar dmeRF gene clusters in other Rhizobiaceae suggests that the dmeRF system is a conserved mechanism for metal tolerance in legume endosymbiotic bacteria. PMID:23934501

  5. Genetic linkage map of Chinese native variety faba bean (Vicia faba L.) based on simple sequence repeat markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Simple sequence repeat (SSR) marker is a powerful tool for construction of genetic linkage map which can be applied for locating quantitative trait loci (QTL) and marker-assisted selection (MAS). In this study, a genetic map of faba bean was constructed with SSR markers using a population of 129 F2 ...

  6. Multiplicity of Sulfate and Molybdate Transporters and Their Role in Nitrogen Fixation in Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae Rlv3841.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Guojun; Karunakaran, Ramakrishnan; East, Alison K; Poole, Philip S

    2016-02-01

    Rhizobium leguminosarum Rlv3841 contains at least three sulfate transporters, i.e., SulABCD, SulP1 and SulP2, and a single molybdate transporter, ModABC. SulABCD is a high-affinity transporter whose mutation prevented growth on a limiting sulfate concentration, while SulP1 and SulP2 appear to be low-affinity sulfate transporters. ModABC is the sole high-affinity molybdate transport system and is essential for growth with NO3(-) as a nitrogen source on limiting levels of molybdate (<0.25 μM). However, at 2.5 μM molybdate, a quadruple mutant with all four transporters inactivated, had the longest lag phase on NO3(-), suggesting these systems all make some contribution to molybdate transport. Growth of Rlv3841 on limiting levels of sulfate increased sulB, sulP1, modB, and sulP2 expression 313.3-, 114.7-, 6.2-, and 4.0-fold, respectively, while molybdate starvation increased only modB expression (three- to 7.5-fold). When grown in high-sulfate but not low-sulfate medium, pea plants inoculated with LMB695 (modB) reduced acetylene at only 14% of the wild-type rate, and this was not further reduced in the quadruple mutant. Overall, while modB is crucial to nitrogen fixation at limiting molybdate levels in the presence of sulfate, there is an unidentified molybdate transporter also capable of sulfate transport. PMID:26812045

  7. Micronucleus induction in Vicia faba roots. Part 2. Biological effects of neutrons below 1 cGy.

    PubMed

    Marshall, I; Bianchi, M

    1983-08-01

    A dose-effect relationship has been established for high-energy neutrons (maximum energy 600 MeV) within a dose range of 0.2 to 80 cGy and for low-energy neutrons produced by a 252Cf source (mean energy 2.35 MeV) for doses between 0.2 and 5 cGy. The frequency of micronuclei was found to increase linearly with dose. The relative biological effectiveness (r.b.e) values calculated using 60Co radiation as a reference were, in the high-dose region, 4.7 +/- 0.4 and 11.8 +/- 1.3 for the high- and low-energy neutrons, respectively. At doses below 1 cGy constant values of 25.4 +/- 4.4 and 63.7 +/- 12 were reached for the respective neutron energies. PMID:6603437

  8. Folate content in faba beans (Vicia faba L.)-effects of cultivar, maturity stage, industrial processing, and bioprocessing.

    PubMed

    Hefni, Mohammed E; Shalaby, Mohamed T; Witthöft, Cornelia M

    2015-01-01

    Faba beans are an important source of folate and commonly consumed in Egypt. This study examined the effects of Egyptian industrial food processing (e.g., canning and freezing), germination, cultivar, and maturity stages on folate content, with the aim to develop a candidate functional canned faba bean food with increased folate content. The folate content in four cultivars of green faba beans ranged from 110 to 130 μg 100 g(-1) fresh weight (535-620 μg 100 g(-1) dry matter [DM]), which was four- to sixfold higher than in dried seeds. Industrial canning of dried seeds resulted in significant folate losses of ∼20% (P = 0.004), while industrial freezing had no effect. Germination of faba beans increased the folate content by >40% (P < 0.0001). A novel industrial canning process involving pregermination of dried faba beans resulted in a net folate content of 194 μg 100 g(-1) DM, which is 52% more than in conventional canned beans. The consumption of green faba beans should be recommended, providing ∼120 μg dietary folate equivalents per 100 g/portion. PMID:25650294

  9. Effects of roasting on phenolic composition and in vitro antioxidant capacity of Australian grown faba beans (Vicia faba L.).

    PubMed

    Siah, Siem; Konczak, Izabela; Wood, Jennifer A; Agboola, Samson; Blanchard, Christopher L

    2014-03-01

    Faba bean phenolic compounds encompassed phenolic acids, flavonols, proanthocyanidins and anthocyanins. Roasting faba beans for 120 min decreased the total phenolic, flavonoid and proanthocyanidin contents by 42, 42 and 30%, respectively. Roasting beans for 120 min decreased the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity, total equivalent antioxidant capacity and ferric reducing antioxidant power by 48, 15 and 8%, respectively. High performance liquid chromatography-post column derivatisation revealed the generation of new phenolic compounds as a result of roasting. Antioxidant mechanism of bean less-polar phenolic compounds was largely based on free radical scavenging activity. The bean phenolic compounds with reducing capability were heat stable. Roasted faba bean extracts (70% acetone, v/v) were fractionated into relatively polar and non-polar fractions; the latter contributed the majority of the antioxidant capacity. The extracts from beans with different seed coat colours differed in their phenolic compositions, which suggest different levels of potential benefits to health. Although roasting initially lowers the bean antioxidant capacity, prolonged roasting at 150 °C for 60 min and longer causes generation of new phenolic compounds and an increased antioxidant capacity. The findings encourage a wider ultilisation of faba beans for human foods particularly in baked/roasted products. PMID:24414090

  10. Folate content in faba beans (Vicia faba L.)—effects of cultivar, maturity stage, industrial processing, and bioprocessing

    PubMed Central

    Hefni, Mohammed E; Shalaby, Mohamed T; Witthöft, Cornelia M

    2015-01-01

    Faba beans are an important source of folate and commonly consumed in Egypt. This study examined the effects of Egyptian industrial food processing (e.g., canning and freezing), germination, cultivar, and maturity stages on folate content, with the aim to develop a candidate functional canned faba bean food with increased folate content. The folate content in four cultivars of green faba beans ranged from 110 to 130 μg 100 g−1 fresh weight (535–620 μg 100 g−1 dry matter [DM]), which was four- to sixfold higher than in dried seeds. Industrial canning of dried seeds resulted in significant folate losses of ∼20% (P = 0.004), while industrial freezing had no effect. Germination of faba beans increased the folate content by >40% (P < 0.0001). A novel industrial canning process involving pregermination of dried faba beans resulted in a net folate content of 194 μg 100 g−1 DM, which is 52% more than in conventional canned beans. The consumption of green faba beans should be recommended, providing ∼120 μg dietary folate equivalents per 100 g/portion. PMID:25650294

  11. Measuring and modeling three-dimensional water uptake of a growing faba bean (Vicia faba) within a soil column

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Katrin; Koebernick, Nicolai; Kerkhofs, Elien; Vanderborght, Jan; Javaux, Mathieu; Vetterlein, Doris; Vereecken, Harry

    2014-05-01

    A faba bean was grown in a column filled with a sandy soil, which was initially close to saturation and then subjected to a single drying cycle of 30 days. The column was divided in four hydraulically separated compartments using horizontal paraffin layers. Paraffin is impermeable to water but penetrable by roots. Thus by growing deeper, the roots can reach compartments that still contain water. The root architecture was measured every second day by X-ray CT. Transpiration rate, soil matric potential in four different depths, and leaf area were measured continously during the experiment. To investigate the influence of the partitioning of available soil water in the soil column on water uptake, we used R-SWMS, a fully coupled root and soil water model [1]. We compared a scenario with and without the split layers and investigated the influence on root xylem pressure. The detailed three-dimensional root architecture was obtained by reconstructing binarized root images manually with a virtual reality system, located at the Juelich Supercomputing Centre [2]. To verify the properties of the root system, we compared total root lengths, root length density distributions and root surface with estimations derived from Minkowski functionals [3]. In a next step, knowing the change of root architecture in time, we could allocate an age to each root segment and use this information to define age dependent root hydraulic properties that are required to simulate water uptake for the growing root system. The scenario with the split layers showed locally much lower pressures than the scenario without splits. Redistribution of water within the unrestricted soil column led to a more uniform distribution of water uptake and lowers the water stress in the plant. However, comparison of simulated and measured pressure heads with tensiometers suggested that the paraffin layers were not perfectly hydraulically isolating the different soil layers. We could show compensation efficiency of water uptake by the roots in the lower and wetter compartments. By comparing transpiration rates of experiments with and without additional paraffin layers, we were able to quantify restrictions of plant growth to available soil water. [1] Javaux, M., T. Schröder, J. Vanderborght, and H. Vereecken (2008), Use of a Three-Dimensional Detailed Modeling Approach for Predicting Root Water Uptake, Vadose Zone Journal, 7(3), 1079-1079. [2] Stingaciu, L., H. Schulz, A. Pohlmeier, S. Behnke, H. Zilken, M. Javaux, H. Vereecken (2013), In Situ Root System Architecture Extraction from Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Water Uptake Modeling, Vadose Zone Journal, 12(1). [3] Koebernick, N., U. Weller, K. Huber, S. Schlüter, H.-J. Vogel, R. Jahn; H. Vereecken, D. Vetterlein, In situ visualisation and quantification of root-system architecture and growth with X-ray CT, Manuscript submitted for publication.

  12. Effect of extrusion conditions on physicochemical and sensorial properties of corn-broad beans (Vicia faba) spaghetti type pasta.

    PubMed

    Giménez, M A; González, R J; Wagner, J; Torres, R; Lobo, M O; Samman, N C

    2013-01-15

    Corn-broad bean spaghetti type pasta was made with a corn/broad bean flour blend in a 70:30 ratio, through an extrusion-cooking process (Brabender 10 DN single-screw extruder with a 3:1 compression ratio). The effect of temperature (T=80, 90 and 100°C) and moisture (M=28%, 31% and 34%) on the extrusion responses (specific consumption of mechanical energy and pressure) and the quality of this pasta-like product (expansion, cooking-related losses, water absorption, firmness and stickiness) was assessed. The structural changes of starch were studied by means of DSC and XRD. The extrusion-cooking process, at M=28% and T=100°C, is appropriate to obtain corn-broad bean spaghetti-type pasta with high protein and dietary fibre content and adequate quality. The cooking characteristics and resistance to overcooking depended on the degree of gelatinisation and formation of amylose-lipid complexes. The critical gelatinisation point was 46.55%; beyond that point, the quality of the product declines. PMID:23122095

  13. Microcystin-tolerant Rhizobium protects plants and improves nitrogen assimilation in Vicia faba irrigated with microcystin-containing waters.

    PubMed

    Lahrouni, Majida; Oufdou, Khalid; El Khalloufi, Fatima; Benidire, Loubna; Albert, Susann; Göttfert, Michael; Caviedes, Miguel A; Rodriguez-Llorente, Ignacio D; Oudra, Brahim; Pajuelo, Eloísa

    2016-05-01

    Irrigation of crops with microcystins (MCs)-containing waters-due to cyanobacterial blooms-affects plant productivity and could be a way for these potent toxins entering the food chain. This study was performed to establish whether MC-tolerant rhizobia could benefit growth, nodulation, and nitrogen metabolism of faba bean plants irrigated with MC-containing waters. For that, three different rhizobial strains-with different sensitivity toward MCs-were used: RhOF96 (most MC-sensitive strain), RhOF125 (most MC-tolerant strain), or Vicz1.1 (reference strain). As a control, plants grown without rhizobia and fertilized by NH4NO3 were included in the study. MC exposure decreased roots (30-37 %) and shoots (up to 15 %) dry weights in un-inoculated plants, whereas inoculation with rhizobia protects plants toward the toxic effects of MCs. Nodulation and nitrogen content were significantly impaired by MCs, with the exception of plants inoculated with the most tolerant strain RhOF125. In order to deep into the effect of inoculation on nitrogen metabolism, the nitrogen assimilatory enzymes (glutamine synthetase (GS) and glutamate synthase (GOGAT)) were investigated: Fertilized plants showed decreased levels (15-30 %) of these enzymes, both in shoots and roots. By contrast, inoculated plants retained the levels of these enzymes in shoots and roots, as well as the levels of NADH-GOGAT activity in nodules. We conclude that the microcystin-tolerant Rhizobium protects faba bean plants and improves nitrogen assimilation when grown in the presence of MCs. PMID:26865488

  14. Linking a Germplasm Collection of the Cover Crop Hairy Vetch (Vicia villosa Roth) to Traits Related to Improved Nitrogen Fixation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hairy vetch is used as a leguminous cover crop throughout the United States providing important ecosystem services in agro-ecosystems (Abdul-Baki et al., 2002; Mohler and Teasdale, 1993; Puget and Drinkwater, 2001; Seo et al., 2006; Stute and Posner, 1995). Many traits found in hairy vetch have pro...

  15. Ethanol, feed components and fungal biomass production from field bean (Vicia faba var. equina) seeds in an integrated process.

    PubMed

    Pietrzak, Witold; Kawa-Rygielska, Joanna; Król, Barbara; Lennartsson, Patrik R; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2016-09-01

    The use of field beans, a non-food leguminous crop, was studied for ethanol, feed components and fungal biomass production. The seeds were hydrolyzed using enzymes or with combination of acid (H3PO4) and alkaline (Ca(OH)2) pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. Fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with or without removal of suspended solids, yielded 38.3-42.5gL(-1) ethanol (71.3-79.2% efficiency). The filtration residues contained ca. 247-326gkg(-1) crude protein, 10.6-15.5% acid detergent fiber and 19.9-29.1% neutral detergent fiber. They were enriched in phenolics (by up to 93.4%) and depleted in condensed tannin (by up to 59.3%) in comparison to the raw material. The thin stillages were used for cultivation of edible fungus Neurospora intermedia which produced 8.5-15.9gL(-1) ethanol and 4.8-16.2gL(-1) biomass containing over 62% protein. The mass balances showed that fermentation of unfiltered mashes was more efficient yielding up to 195.9gkg(-1) ethanol and 84.4% of protein recovery. PMID:27233099

  16. Rainfastness of Poly(vinyl alcohol) Deposits on Vicia faba Leaf Surfaces: From Laboratory-Scale Washing to Simulated Rain.

    PubMed

    Symonds, Brett L; Thomson, Niall R; Lindsay, Christopher I; Khutoryanskiy, Vitaliy V

    2016-06-01

    Rainfastness is the ability of agrochemical deposits to resist wash-off by rain and other related environmental phenomena. This work reports laboratory-scale and raintower studies of the rainfastness of fluorescently labeled poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) using fluorescent microscopy combined with image analysis. Samples of hydrolyzed PVA exhibit improved rainfastness over a threshold molecular weight, which correlates with PVA film dissolution, swelling, and crystalline properties. It was also established that the rainfastness of PVA scaled with the molecular weight over this threshold. These PVA samples were further characterized in order to determine the effect of the crystallinity on rainfastness. The quantification of rainfastness is of great interest to the field of agrochemical formulation development in order to improve the efficacy of pesticides and their adjuvants. PMID:27070864

  17. IPCS COLLABORATIVE STUDY ON PLANT SYSTEMS TO DETECT GENOTOXIC EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICALS: VICIA FABA CHROMOSOMAL ABERRATION ASSAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A collaborative study involving laboratories in six countries was initiated under the auspices of the International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the International Labour Organization (ILO) and the World Health Organization ...

  18. Genetic Characterization of a Novel Rhizobial Plasmid Conjugation System in Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae Strain VF39SM

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Hao; Yip, Cynthia B.

    2013-01-01

    Rhizobium leguminosarum strain VF39SM contains two plasmids that have previously been shown to be self-transmissible by conjugation. One of these plasmids, pRleVF39b, is shown in this study to carry a set of plasmid transfer genes that differs significantly from conjugation systems previously studied in the rhizobia but is similar to an uncharacterized set of genes found in R. leguminosarum bv. trifolii strain WSM2304. The entire sequence of the transfer region on pRleVF39b was determined as part of a genome sequencing project, and the roles of the various genes were examined by mutagenesis. The transfer region contains a complete set of mating pair formation (Mpf) genes, a traG gene, and a relaxase gene, traA, all of which appear to be necessary for plasmid transfer. Experimental evidence suggested the presence of two putative origins of transfer within the gene cluster. A regulatory gene, trbR, was identified in the region between traA and traG and was mutated. TrbR was shown to function as a repressor of both trb gene expression and plasmid transfer. PMID:23144250

  19. Use of SIMS microscopy and electron probe X-ray microanalysis to study the subcellular localization of aluminium in Vicia faba roots cells.

    PubMed

    Mangabeira, P; Mushrifah, I; Escaig, F; Laffray, D; França, M G; Galle, P

    1999-06-01

    Received January 4, 1999; Accepted March 25, 1999 Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), electron probe X-ray microanalysis (EPMA) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to study the tissular distribution and subcellular localization of aluminium (Al) precipitate in roots of Viciafaba. The broad bean plant, grown in nitrate solution with 193 microM Al3+ at pH 4.8, for 15 days showed Al deposits in the roots. Al accumulation was not detected in the stems nor in the leaves. Al was found mainly localized on the root's surfaces and within the cell walls of the cortical cells. Al signal was not detected in the vascular tissues. Two weeks exposure to Al caused ultrastructural changes in cortical cells and sometimes a complete disruption of these cells. Deposition of Al in form of insoluble complexes associated with phosphorus, appeared as electron opaque materials in the vacuoles of disrupted cortex cells and in the intercellular inclusions. The leaves turned yellowish at the end of 15 days exposure. The use of electron microprobe, to investigate the same tissues as the ones investigated by SIMS, provided complementary results on aluminium allocation. PMID:10432188

  20. GABA shunt and polyamine degradation pathway on γ-aminobutyric acid accumulation in germinating fava bean (Vicia faba L.) under hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Yang, Runqiang; Guo, Qianghui; Gu, Zhenxin

    2013-01-01

    GABA shunt and polyamine degradation pathway on γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) accumulation in germinating fava bean under hypoxia was investigated. GABA content, GAD and DAO activity were significantly increased under hypoxia treatment. Glu and polyamine contents enhanced largely and thus supplied as sufficient substrates for GABA formation. In contrast, GABA content decreased, mainly in the embryo, after removing the hypoxia stress. DAO activity, Glu and polyamines contents decreased, while an increment of GAD activity was observed. This indicated that GAD activity can be not only regulated by hypoxia, but by the rapid growth of embryo after the recovery from hypoxia stress. When treated with AG, DAO activity was almost inhibited completely, and the GABA content decreased by 32.96% and 32.07% after treated for 3 and 5 days, respectively. Hence, it can be inferred that about 30% of GABA formed in germinating fava bean under hypoxia was supplied by polyamine degradation pathway. PMID:23017406

  1. First-year results of evaluating winter-hardiness of 55 faba bean (Vicia faba L.) accessions from the NPGS collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A two-location, replicated field trial was conducted to study the winterhardiness of 55 faba bean accessions maintained by the USDA-ARS Western Regional Plant Introduction Station in Pullman, WA. Thirty seeds from each entry were planted in single row plot (3.05 m long with 1.52 m between rows) in ...

  2. Effect of air classification and fermentation by Lactobacillus plantarum VTT E-133328 on faba bean (Vicia faba L.) flour nutritional properties.

    PubMed

    Coda, Rossana; Melama, Leena; Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Curiel, José Antonio; Sibakov, Juhani; Holopainen, Ulla; Pulkkinen, Marjo; Sozer, Nesli

    2015-01-16

    The effects of air classification and lactic acid bacteria fermentation on the reduction of anti-nutritional factors (vicine and convicine, trypsin inhibitor activity, condensed tannins and phytic acid) and in vitro protein and starch digestibility of faba bean flour were studied. Free amino acid (FAA) profile analysis was also carried out. Air classification allowed the separation of the flour into protein and starch rich fractions, showing different chemical compositions and microstructures. Lactobacillus plantarum growth and acidification in faba bean flour and its fractions were assessed. The anti-nutritional compounds were separated mostly to the fine protein-rich fraction. Fermentation caused the decrease of vicine and convicine contents by more than 91% and significantly reduced trypsin inhibitor activity and condensed tannins (by more than 40% in the protein-rich fraction). No significant (P>0.05) variation was observed for total phenols and phytic acid content. Fermentation increased the amount of FAA, especially of the essential amino acids and γ-aminobutyric acid, enhanced the in vitro protein digestibility and significantly lowered the hydrolysis index. This work showed that the combination of air classification and fermentation improved nutritional functionality of faba bean flour which could be utilized in various food applications. PMID:25462921

  3. SOME ASPECTS OF THE NATURAL CONTROL OF PLANT PARASITIC NEMATODES IN SOIL UNDER BROAD BEAN VICIA FABA L. CULTIVATED IN CROP ROTATION AND LONG-TERM MONOCULTURE.

    PubMed

    Skwiercz, A T; Damszel, M; Stefanovska, T; Rychcik, B

    2015-01-01

    Observations on population density of plant parasitic nematodes occurring in rhizosphere of broad bean cultivated in the crop rotation and long-term monoculture were performed during 2013-2014. 13 species were observed: Trichodorus primitivus, T. viruliferus, Paratrichodorus pachydermus, Criconema annuliferum, Paratylenchus projectus, Bitylenchus dubius, Merlinius brevidens, Pratylenchus fallax, P. flakkensis, P. neglectus, Heterodera triffolii, H. goettingiana, and Ditylenchus dipsaci. In monoculture plots 70-80% of eggs inside Heterodera cysts were colonized by pathogenic fungi (v.s. 50-62% of cysts from crop rotation). 12-18% of specimens of Pratylenchus species were colonized by the nematode-pathogenic bacteria: Bacillus penetrans. PMID:27145570

  4. Effects of soaking, boiling and autoclaving on the phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of faba beans (Vicia faba L.) differing in seed coat colours.

    PubMed

    Siah, Siem; Wood, Jennifer A; Agboola, Samson; Konczak, Izabela; Blanchard, Christopher L

    2014-01-01

    The Australian grown faba beans of different seed coat colours were either soaked, boiled or autoclaved, and analysed for phenolic contents and antioxidant activity using an array of reagent-based assays. Soaking, boiling and autoclaving were shown to lower the level of active compounds in faba beans. A significant amount of active compounds was leached to the soaking and cooking medium. Boiling was a better method in retaining active compounds in beans than autoclaving. The boiled beans had more active compounds than those of resulting cooking broths, which was the opposite observation when autoclaving. The buff-genotypes had a similar level of active compounds to red- and green-genotypes. The high performance liquid chromatography-post column derivatisation (HPLC-PCD) system detected a dense collection of high antioxidant HPLC peaks ('humps') in extracts of raw, soaked and boiled beans. The present findings encouraged consumption of faba beans together with cooking broth for the maximum potential health benefits. PMID:24001866

  5. Screening of Rhizobacteria for Their Plant Growth Promotion Ability and Antagonism Against Damping off and Root Rot Diseases of Broad Bean (Vicia faba L.).

    PubMed

    Indira Devi, S; Talukdar, N C; Chandradev Sharma, K; Jeyaram, K; Rohinikumar, M

    2011-01-01

    Development of microbial inoculants from rhizobacterial isolates with potential for plant growth promotion and root disease suppression require rigorous screening. Fifty-four (54) fluorescent pseudomonads, out of a large collection of rhizobacteria from broad bean fields of 20 different locations within Imphal valley of Manipur, were initially screened for antifungal activity against Macrophomina phaseolina and Rhizoctonia solani, of diseased roots of broad bean and also three other reference fungal pathogens of plant roots. Fifteen fluorescent pseudomonas isolates produced inhibition zone (8-29 mm) of the fungal growth in dual plate assay and IAA like substances (24.1-66.7 μg/ml) and soluble P (12.7-56.80 μg/ml) in broth culture. Among the isolates, RFP 36 caused a marked increase in seed germination, seedling biomass and control of the root borne pathogens of broad bean. PCR-RAPD analysis of these isolates along with five MTCC reference fluorescent pseudomonas strains indicated that the RFP-36 belonged to a distinct cluster and the PCR of its genomic DNA with antibiotic specific primers Phenazine-1-carboxylic acid and 2, 4-diacetyl phloroglucinol suggested possible occurrence of gene for the potent antibiotics. Overall, the result of the study indicated the potential of the isolate RFP 36 as a microbial inoculant with multiple functions for broad bean. PMID:22282623

  6. Nutritional value of raw and micronised field beans (Vicia faba L. var. minor) with and without enzyme supplementation containing tannase for growing chickens.

    PubMed

    Abdulla, Jalil Mahmwd; Rose, Stephen Paul; Mackenzie, Alexander Mackay; Ivanova, Sonya Georgieva; Staykova, Genoveva Petrova; Pirgozliev, Vasil Radoslavov

    2016-10-01

    An experiment examined the effects of two field bean cultivar samples with different tannin contents, the effect of heat treatment (micronising) and the effect of dietary supplementation of a proprietary enzyme preparation containing tannase, pectinase, and xylanase activities on metabolisable energy (ME), total tract dry matter digestibility (DMD) and ether extract digestibility (EED), nitrogen retention (NR), tannin degradability, gastrointestinal tract (GIT) development, and endogenous mucin losses excretion in broiler chickens. The Control diet contained per kg 221 g crude protein and 12.83 MJ ME. Four additional diets contained 300 g/kg of each of the two untreated or micronised experimental field bean cultivar samples. Each diet was then split into two batches and one of them was supplemented with 3400 units tannase per kg diet resulting in 10 diets in total. Each diet was fed to seven pens with two randomly selected male broilers each. Birds fed the high tannin bean sample had a lower weight gain (p < 0.001), and a lower determined apparent ME (p < 0.05), and DMD (p < 0.001) but a higher tannin degradability (p < 0.001). Compared to the Control diet, feeding field beans increased (p < 0.001) the weights of the proventriculus and gizzard of the birds, and also increased endogenous mucin losses (p < 0.05). Supplementing diets with the tannase-containing enzyme preparation improved dietary ME (p < 0.001), DMD (p < 0.001), NR (p < 0.001) and DEE (p < 0.05), but did not change tannin degradability. Heat treatment of the beans reduced the degradability of condensed tannins and increased endogenous mucin losses (p < 0.05). The differences in the feeding value of the different field bean samples were not improved by heat treatment, but enzyme supplementation improved the feeding value of all diets regardless of the bean samples or heat treatment. Further research is warranted to study the effectiveness of tannase supplementation in poultry diet formulations by dose response trials with purified tannase preparations. PMID:27494637

  7. Association mapping for frost tolerance using multi-parent advanced generation inter-cross (MAGIC) population in faba bean (Vicia faba L.).

    PubMed

    Sallam, Ahmed; Martsch, Regina

    2015-08-01

    A multi-parent advanced generation inter-cross (MAGIC) derived from 11 founder lines in faba bean was used in this study to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for frost tolerance traits using the association mapping method with 156 SNP markers. This MAGIC population consists of a set of 189 genotypes from the Göttingen Winter Bean Population. The association panel was tested in two different experiments, i.e. a frost and a hardening experiment. Six morphological traits, leaf fatty acid composition, relative water content in shoots were scored in this study. The genotypes presented a large genetic variation for all traits that were highly heritable after frost and after hardening. High phenotypic significant correlations were established between traits. The principal coordinates analysis resulted in no clear structure in the current population. Association mapping was performed using a general linear model and mixed linear model with kinship. A False discovery rate of 0.20 (and 0.05) was used to test the significance of marker-trait association. As a result, many putative QTLs for 13 morphological and physiological traits were detected using both models. The results reveal that QTL mapping by association analysis is a powerful method of detecting the alleles associated with frost tolerance in the winter faba bean which can be used in accelerating breeding programs. PMID:26041397

  8. Expression analysis of ClpB/Hsp100 gene in faba bean (Vicia faba L.) plants in response to heat stress.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ritesh; Singh, Amit Kumar; Lavania, Dhruv; Siddiqui, Manzer H; Al-Whaibi, Mohamed H; Grover, Anil

    2016-03-01

    Heat stress adversely affects the growth and yield of faba bean crop. Accumulation of ClpB/Hsp100 class of proteins is a critical parameter in induction of acquired heat stress tolerance in plants. Heat-induced expression of ClpB/Hsp100 genes has been noted in diverse plant species. Using primers complementary to soybean ClpB/Hsp100 gene, we analyzed the transcript expression profile of faba bean ClpB/Hsp100 gene in leaves of seedlings and flowering plants and in pollen grains. ClpB/Hsp100 protein accumulation profile was analyzed in leaves of faba bean seedlings using Arabidopsis thaliana cytoplasmic Hsp101 antibodies. The transcript and protein levels of faba bean ClpB/Hsp100 were significantly induced in response to heat stress. PMID:26981006

  9. Comparative Analysis of Defense Responses in Chocolate Spot-Resistant and -Susceptible Faba Bean (Vicia faba) Cultivars Following Infection by the Necrotrophic Fungus Botrytis fabae

    PubMed Central

    El-Komy, Mahmoud H.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, resistance responses were investigated during the interaction of Botrytis fabae with two faba bean cultivars expressing different levels of resistance against this pathogen, Nubaria (resistant) and Giza 40 (susceptible). Disease severity was assessed on leaves using a rating scale from 1 to 9. Accumulation levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase) were measured in leaf tissues at different times of infection. The expression profiles of two pathogenesis-related proteins (PRPs) encoded by the genes PR-1 and β-1,3-glucanase were also investigated using reverse transcription RT-PCR analysis. The accumulation of these defense responses was induced significantly in both cultivars upon infection with B. fabae compared with un-inoculated controls. The resistant cultivar showed weaker necrotic symptom expression, less ROS accumulation, a lower rate of lipid peroxidation and higher activity of the enzymatic ROS scavenging system compared with susceptible cultivar. Interestingly, ROS accumulated rapidly in the resistant leaf tissues and peaked during the early stages of infection, whereas accumulation was stronger and more intense in the susceptible tissues in later stages. Moreover, the response of the resistant cultivar to infection was earlier and stronger, exhibiting high transcript accumulation of the PR genes. These results indicated that the induction of oxidant/antioxidant responses and the accumulation of PRPs are part of the faba bean defense mechanism against the necrotrophic fungus B. fabae with a different intensity and timing of induction, depending on the resistance levels. PMID:25506300

  10. Stability of Lead Immobilized by Apatite in Lead-Containing Rhizosphere Soil of Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) and Hairy Vetch (Vicia villosa).

    PubMed

    Katoh, Masahiko; Matsuoka, Hideaki; Sato, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    This study conducted plant growth experiments using a rhizobox system to understand the growth of buckwheat and hairy vetch as well as the stability of lead immobilized by hydroxyapatite (HAP) in the lead-containing rhizosphere soil. The shoot dry weight of buckwheat did not significantly differ between the lead-containing rhizosphere soil with and without HAP, whereas that of hairy vetch with rhizosphere soil without HAP was reduced. Lead was not accumulated from the rhizosphere soil to the shoots of either plant when HAP was added. The percentage of each lead fraction in sequential extraction was approximately the same through the 3 mm of rhizosphere soils from the root surface and non-planted soil, with and without the addition of HAP. For hairy vetch, the amount of water-soluble lead in the HAP-added rhizosphere soil within 3 mm thickness from the root surface did not increase. However, for buckwheat, the amount of water-soluble lead in the HAP-added rhizosphere soil 1 mm from the root surface increased to the same level as that in the non-planted soil without HAP. Our results suggest that when applying phytostabilization combined with apatite to lead-contaminated soil, the plant that cannot re-mobilize lead should be selected. PMID:25747247

  11. Plant, cell, and molecular mechanisms of abscisic-acid regulation of stomatal apertures. In vivo phosphorylation of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase in guard cells of Vicia faba L. is enhanced by fusicoccin and suppressed by abscisic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Z.; Aghoram, K.; Outlaw, W.H. Jr.

    1996-12-31

    Plants regulate water loss and CO{sub 2} gain by modulating the aperture sizes of stomata that penetrate the epidermis. Aperture size itself is increased by osmolyte accumulation and consequent turgor increase in the pair of guard cells that flank each stoma. Guard-cell phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, which catalyzes the regulated step leading to malate synthesis, is crucial for charge and pH maintenance during osmolyte accumulation. Regulation of this cytosolic enzyme by effectors is well documented, but additional regulation by posttranslational modification is predicted by the alteration of PEPC kinetics during stomatal opening. In this study, the authors have investigated whether this alteration is associated with the phosphorylation status of this enzyme. Using sonicated epidermal peels (isolated guard cells) pre-loaded with {sub 32}PO{sub 4}, the authors induced stomatal opening and guard-cell malate accumulation by incubation with 5 {micro}M fusicoccin (FC). In corroboratory experiments, guard cells were incubated with 5 {micro}M fusicoccin (FC). In corroboratory experiments, guard cells were incubated with the FC antagonist, 10 {micro}M abscisic acid (ABA). The phosphorylation status of PEPC was assessed by immunoprecipitation, electrophoresis, immunoblotting, and autoradiography. PEPC was phosphorylated when stomata were stimulated to open, and phosphorylation was lessened by incubation with ABA.

  12. Phosphorylation and Interaction with the 14-3-3 Protein of the Plasma Membrane H+-ATPase are Involved in the Regulation of Magnesium-Mediated Increases in Aluminum-Induced Citrate Exudation in Broad Bean (Vicia faba. L).

    PubMed

    Chen, Qi; Kan, Qi; Wang, Ping; Yu, Wenqian; Yu, Yuzhen; Zhao, Yan; Yu, Yongxiong; Li, Kunzhi; Chen, Limei

    2015-06-01

    Several studies have shown that external application of micromolar magnesium (Mg) can increase the resistance of legumes to aluminum (Al) stress by enhancing Al-induced citrate exudation. However, the exact mechanism underlying this regulation remains unknown. In this study, the physiological and molecular mechanisms by which Mg enhances Al-induced citrate exudation to alleviate Al toxicity were investigated in broad bean. Micromolar concentrations of Mg that alleviated Al toxicity paralleled the stimulation of Al-induced citrate exudation and increased the activity of the plasma membrane (PM) H(+)-ATPase. Northern blot analysis shows that a putative MATE-like gene (multidrug and toxic compound extrusion) was induced after treatment with Al for 4, 8 and 12 h, whereas the mRNA abundance of the MATE-like gene showed no significant difference between Al plus Mg and Al-only treatments during the entire treatment period. Real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and Western blot analyses suggest that the transcription and translation of the PM H(+)-ATPase were induced by Al but not by Mg. In contrast, immunoprecipitation suggests that Mg enhanced the phosphorylation levels of VHA2 and its interaction with the vf14-3-3b protein under Al stress. Taken together, our results suggest that micromolar concentrations of Mg can alleviate the Al rhizotoxicity by increasing PM H(+)-ATPase activity and Al-induced citrate exudation in YD roots. This enhancement is likely to be attributable to Al-induced increases in the expression of the MATE-like gene and vha2 and Mg-induced changes in the phosphorylation levels of VHA2, thus changing its interaction with the vf14-3-3b protein. PMID:25745032

  13. In vitro investigations of the potential health benefits of Australian-grown faba beans (Vicia faba L.): chemopreventative capacity and inhibitory effects on the angiotensin-converting enzyme, α-glucosidase and lipase.

    PubMed

    Siah, Siem D; Konczak, Izabela; Agboola, Samson; Wood, Jennifer A; Blanchard, Christopher L

    2012-08-01

    The functional properties, including antioxidant and chemopreventative capacities as well as the inhibitory effects on angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), α-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase, of three Australian-grown faba bean genotypes (Nura, Rossa and TF(Ic*As)*483/13) were investigated using an array of in vitro assays. Chromatograms of on-line post column derivatisation assay coupled with HPLC revealed the existence of active phenolics (hump) in the coloured genotypes, which was lacking in the white-coloured breeding line, TF(Ic*As)*483/13. Roasting reduced the phenolic content, and diminished antioxidant activity by 10-40 % as measured by the reagent-based assays (diphenylpicrylhydrazyl, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity) in all genotypes. Cell culture-based antioxidant activity assay (cellular antioxidant activity) showed an increase of activity in the coloured genotypes after roasting. Faba bean extracts demonstrated cellular protection ability against H₂O₂-induced DNA damage (assessed using RAW264.7 cells), and inhibited the proliferation of all human cancer cell lines (BL13, AGS, Hep G2 and HT-29) evaluated. However, the effect of faba bean extracts on the non-transformed human cells (CCD-18Co) was negligible. Flow cytometric analyses showed that faba bean extracts successfully induced apoptosis of HL-60 (acute promyelocytic leukaemia) cells. The faba bean extracts also exhibited ACE, α-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase inhibitory activities. Overall, extracts from Nura (buff-coloured) and Rossa (red-coloured) were comparable, while TF(Ic*As)*483/13 (white-coloured) contained the lowest phenolic content and exhibited the least antioxidant and enzyme inhibition activities. These results are important to promote the utilisation of faba beans in human diets for various health benefits. PMID:22916808

  14. [Evaluation of the partial contribution of naturally occurring radionuclides and nonradioactive chemically toxic elements in formation of biological effects within the Vicia cracca population inhabiting the area contaminated with uranium-radium production wastes in the Komi Republic].

    PubMed

    Evseeva, T I; Geras'kin, S A; Vakhrusheva, O M

    2014-01-01

    The site contaminated with uranium-radium production wastes in the Komi Republic was studied. The activity concentration of naturally occurring radionuclides (226Ra, 228Th, 238U, 230Th, 232Th, 210Po, and 210Pb), as well as concentrations of nonradioactive chemically toxic elements (Pb, Zn, Cu, As, V, Mo, Sr, Y, and Ba) in the soil samples from the experimental site is 10-183 times higher than reference levels. A chronic exposure to alpha-emitters and nonradioactive chemically toxic elements causes adverse effects in tufted vetch (Vacia cracca L.) both at the cellular (aberration of chromosomes) and population (decrease in the reproductive ability) levels. Radionuclides are the main contributors to the decrease in the reproductive capacity and an increase in the level of the cytogenetic damage in root tip cells of tufted vetch seedlings. As and Pb significantly influence the reproductive capacity of plants. Sr, Zn, Y and P modify the biological effects caused by exposure to radionuclides. Moreover, P and Zn reduce the adverse effects of radionuclides; however, Sr and Y enhance these effects. PMID:25764850

  15. Genetic diversity of resident soil rhizobia isolated from nodules of distinct hairy vetch genotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth) is widely grown as a legume cover crop throughout the U.S.A., with biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) through symbiosis with Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae (Rlv) being one of the most sought after benefits of its cultivation. This study determined if HV culti...

  16. Phylogeny, phylogeography and genetic diversity of Pisum genus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tribe Fabeae (formerly Vicieae) contains some of humanity's most important grain legume crops, namely Lathyrus; Lens; Pisum; Vicia and the monotypic genus Vavilovia. Our study based on molecular data, have positioned Pisum between Vicia and Lathyrus and being closely allied to Vavilovia. Study of p...

  17. Evaluating a core germplasm collection of the cover crop hairy vetch for use in sustainable farming systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding linkage between genotype and agronomically important phenotypes (early flowering, hard seed and winter hardiness) will facilitate cultivar selection and inform breeding programs concerned with the cover crop hairy vetch (Vicia villosa). . We used molecular and biochemical techniques to...

  18. Diseases and Their Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Important diseases and their management practices of lentil were reviewed. The diseases reveiwed include Ascochyta blight (Ascochyta lentis), Anthracnose (Colletotrichum truncatum), White mold (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum), rust (Uromyces viciae-fabae), Botrytis gray mold (Botrytis cinerea and B. faba...

  19. Variation of L-DOPA in the leaf and flower tissues of seven faba bean accessions with different flower colors.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) has been selected to adapt to a wide range of environments worldwide and is grown for different end-uses such as food, feed, forage and green manure. Particularly noteworthy in faba bean is the medicinally important component L-3,4-dihydroxy phenylalanine (L-DOPA), the majo...

  20. Effects of nano-ZnO on the agronomically relevant Rhizobium-legume symbiosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The impact of nano-ZnO (nZnO) on Rhizobium-legume symbiosis was studied with garden pea and its compatible bacterial partner Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae 3841. Exposure of peas to nZnO had no impact on germination, but significantly affected root length. Chronic exposure of plant to nZnO impac...

  1. Effects of nano-TiO2 on the agronomically-relevant Rhizobium-legume symbiosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The impact of nano-TiO2 on Rhizobium-legume symbiosis was studied using garden peas and the compatible bacterial partner Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae 3841. Exposure to nano-TiO2 did not affect the germination of peas grown aseptically, nor did it impact the gross root structure. However, nano-...

  2. Legume proportions, poultry litter, and tillage effects on cover crop decomposition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth.)–cereal rye (Secale cereale L.) cover crop mixtures can provide N scavenging and N provisioning benefits in grain cropping systems. The objectives of this research were to determine, under field conditions, the effects of species proportions, tillage, and pelletized...

  3. Adaptation of autumn-sown faba bean germplasm to southeastern Washington

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Information regarding the suitability of autumn-sown faba bean (Vicia faba L.) in southeastern Washington is lacking. Therefore, a variety trial testing the effects of two sowing dates was conducted for two seasons (2011-12 and 2012-13) at three locations, Central Ferry Research Farm (CF), Pomeroy, ...

  4. Can leguminous cover crops partially replace nitrogen fertilization in Mississippi delta cotton production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Petroleum prices impacts cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) N fertilization cost. A 3-year field study was conducted on a Dundee silt loam to assess the interactions of leguminous cover crops [none, Austrian winter field pea (Pisum sativum L.) or hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth] and N fertilization rate...

  5. Meloidogyne Incognita Host Suitability and Benzoxazinoid Content of Rye (secale cereale) Cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This research was conducted to investigate factors which may aid in the selection of a rye cultivar for plant-parasitic nematode management. Six geographically diverse cultivars of rye (Secale cereale) wheat (Triticum aestivum) and hairy vetch (Vicia villosa), were screened for Meloidogyne incognit...

  6. Soil and crop nitrogen as influenced by tillage, cover crops, and nitrogen fertilization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil and crop management practices may influence soil mineral N, crop N uptake, and N leaching. We evaluated the effects of three tillage practices [no-till (NT), strip till (ST), and chisel till (CT)], four cover crops {legume [hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth)], nonlegume [rye (Secale cereale L.)],...

  7. [The protective action of a natural preparation of anthocyan (pelargonidin-3,5-diglucoside)].

    PubMed

    Akhmadieva, A Kh; Zaichkina, S I; Ruzieva, R Kh; Ganassi, E E

    1993-01-01

    The effect of an anthocyan preparation isolated from flower petals of Pelargonium roseum and Rosa canina was studied in the Chinese hamster fibroblasts and Vicia faba seedlings in respect of cytogenetic damage and mouse survival. The pronounced radioprotective effect and the absence of the toxic effect were observed. PMID:8332723

  8. Mechanism of disease suppression of Fusarium wilt of watermelon by cover crop green manures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A fall planted Vicia villosa cover crop incorporated in spring as a green manure can suppress Fusarium wilt [Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (FON)] of watermelon in Maryland and Delaware. Experiments were conducted to determine whether the mechanism of this suppression was general or specific, and ...

  9. Progress report on enhancing faba bean germplasm for improved winter-hardiness at Pullman, Washington

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) has been cultivated from early Neolithic times. Numerous varieties have been selected for adaptation to a wide range of environments worldwide and for different end-uses such as dry grain, vegetable, feed, forage and green manure. The USDA faba bean germplasm collection con...

  10. Variation of L-DOPA in the leaf and flower tissues of seven faba bean accessions with different flower colors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) has been selected to adapt to a wide range of environments worldwide and is grown for different end-uses such as food, feed, forage and green manure. Particularly noteworthy in faba bean is the medicinally important component L-3,4-dihydroxy phenylalanine (L-DOPA), the majo...

  11. INTERNATIONAL PROGRAM ON CHEMICAL SAFETY'S COLLABORATIVE STUDY ON PLANT TEST SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This article presents the status report on the International Program's Collaborative Study on Plant Test Systems. n the first phase of this program, 16 laboratories submitted data on the genetic effects of EMS evaluated in three bioassays; i.e., Vicia faba root hair, Tradescantia...

  12. Microbial community structure and abundance in the rhizosphere and bulk soil of a tomato cropping system that includes cover crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this report we use Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms (TRFLP) in a tomato production system to “finger printing” the soil microbial community structure with Phylum specific primer sets. Factors influencing the soil microbes are a cover crop of Hairy Vetch (Vicia villosa) or Rye (...

  13. Hairy vetch seedbank persistence and implications for cover crop management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth) is a fast growing, winter hardy annual legume that can produce shoot biomass levels upwards of 6500 kg ha-1. This cover crop is well suited for summer annual grain rotations, as it fixes considerable amounts of nitrogen, reduces erosion through rapid ground cover, an...

  14. Cropping history affects nodulation and symbiotic efficiency of distinct hairy vetch genotypes with resident soil rhizobia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Presence of compatible rhizobia strains is essential for nodulation and BNF of hairy vetch (Vicia villosa, HV). We evaluated how past HV cultivation affects nodulation and nitrogen fixation across host genotypes. Five groups of HV genotypes were inoculated with soil dilutions from six paired fields,...

  15. Biomass and nitrogen accumulation of hairy vetch-cereal rye cover crop mixtures as influenced by species proportions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The performance and suitability of a legume-grass cover crop mixture for specific functions may be influenced by the proportions of each species in the mixture. The objectives of this study were to: 1) evaluate aboveground biomass and species biomass proportions at different hairy vetch (Vicia villo...

  16. ACCUMULATION AND CROP UPTAKE OF SOIL MINERAL NITROGEN AS INFLUEMCED BY TILLAGE, COVER CROPS, AND NITROGEN FERTILIZATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil and crop management practices may influence soil mineral N, crop N uptake, and N leaching. We evaluated the effects of three tillage practices [no-till (NT), strip till (ST), and chisel till (CT)], four cover crops {legume [hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth)], nonlegume [rye (Secaele cereale L.)]...

  17. Registration of four winter-hardy faba bean germplasm lines for use in winter pulse and cover crop development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is a versatile crop grown for food, feed, vegetable, or cover crop purposes in many countries. In response to the growing demand for winter annual legumes for cover crop development in the United States, we developed four winter-hardy faba bean germplasm lines, WH-1 (Reg. N...

  18. Identification of markers associated with genes for rust resistance in lens culinaris medik

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lentil rust caused by Uromyces vicia-fabae (Pers.) Schroet is one of the most important diseases of lentil in South Asia, North Africa and East Africa. This disease is usually observed during late flowering and early podding stages. Early infection accompanied by favorable environmental conditions c...

  19. Pulse diversity for polyphenolic secondary metabolites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pulse species including guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L. Taub.), Lablab purpureus L. Sweet, Macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam.) Verdc., Teramnus labialis (L.f.) Spreng, alfalfa (Medicago sativa ssp. sativa), green beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), fava beans (Vicia faba L.), blackeye pea (Vigna unguiculat...

  20. Agronomic performance of spring-sown Faba bean in Southeastern Washington

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is the world’s third most important cool-season pulse crop. Currently, no commercial faba bean cultivars are available in the United States specifically selected for grain production. Therefore, a spring planted variety trial with eleven entries was conducted at two contras...

  1. Winter Cover Crops and Vinegar for Early-Season Weed Control in Sustainable Cotton.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weeds in cotton may be suppressed by winter cover crops and the use of organic herbicides such as vinegar. Black oat (Avena strigosa), and hairy vetch (Vicia villosa), winter cover crops were planted in a sustainable production field in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas and were tilled prior to ...

  2. PLANT PROTECTIVE RESPONSE TO ENHANCED UV-B RADIATION UNDER FIELD CONDITIONS: LEAF OPTICAL PROPERTIES AND PHOTOSYNTHESIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Plants of Vicia faba were grown in the field during early to midsummer while receiving two levels of supplemental UV-B radiation. Light-saturated photosynthesis and stomatal diffusive conductance of intact leaves did not show any indications of UV-radiation damage. Supplemental U...

  3. Cover crops effectiveness for soil erosion control in Sicilian vineyard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gristina, L.; Novara, A.; Saladino, S.; Santoro, A.

    2009-04-01

    In vineyards, which are very common in Mediterranean area, cover crops are becoming increasingly used to reduce soil erosion. Cover crops reduce runoff by increasing infiltration and increasing roughness and then reducing the ovelandflow velocity. The aim of the present study was to quantify soil and water losses under different soil managements systems on vineyards. The study site was a Sauvignon blanc winegrape vineyard located in Southwestern Sicily. Vineyards were managed both traditionally (conventional tillage) and alternative management using cover crops: 1) Vicia faba ; 2) Vicia faba and Vicia sativa; 3) Trifolium subterraneum, Lolium perenne, Festuca rubra; 4)Trifolium subterraneum, Festuca rubra and Festuca ovina, 5) Triticum durum, 6) Triticum durum and Vicia sativa. To monitor water and sediment yield, a Gerlach trough was installed at each treatment on the vineyard inter-row, with the row vineyard used as a border (topographical border). Runoff was measured after each rainfall event (raingauge 0.2 mm accuracy) from November 2005 to April 2007. And sediments were measured after desiccation. The results show that runoff and erosion were reduced considerably under the treatments with Trifolium subterraneum, Lolium perenne, Festuca rubra and Trifolium subterraneum, Festuca rubra and Festuca ovina (treatments 3 and 4). The soil losses were reduced by 73% under treatment 4 compared to the tillage plot. Conventional tillage and alternative management using Vicia faba cover crop (treatment 1) result the most ineffective treatment to soil erosion. These results show that the use of a cover crop can be a simple soil and water conservation practice in Sicilian vineyards. Key words: soil erosion, cover crops, vineyard, Mediterranean area.

  4. Seed development and differentiation: a role for metabolic regulation.

    PubMed

    Borisjuk, L; Rolletschek, H; Radchuk, R; Weschke, W; Wobus, U; Weber, H

    2004-07-01

    During seed growth, the filial organs, Vicia embryos and barley endosperm, differentiate into highly specialized storage tissues. Differentiation is evident on structural and morphological levels and is reflected by the spatial distribution of metabolites. In Vicia embryos, glucose is spatially correlated to mitotic activity whereas elongating and starch accumulating cells contain high levels of sucrose. Seed development is also regulated by phytohormones. In pea seeds, GA-deficiency stops seed growth before maturation. In Arabidopsis seeds, ABA regulates differentiation and inhibits cell division activity. The ABA pathway, in turn, is linked to sugar responses. In young Vicia embryos, invertases in maternal tissues control both concentration and composition of sugars. Embryonic and endospermal transfer cell formation represents an early differentiation step. Establishing an epidermis-localised sucrose uptake system renders the embryo independent from maternal control. cDNA array analysis in barley seeds revealed a massive transcriptional re-programming of gene expression during the transition stage, when gene clusters related to transport and energy metabolism are highly transcribed. Sucrose represents a signal for differentiation and up-regulates storage-associated gene expression. Sucrose signalling involves protein phosphorylation. Sucrose non-fermenting-1-related protein kinases are apparently induced in response to high cellular sucrose, and could act as mediators of sucrose-specific signals. Energy metabolism changes during seed development. In Vicia embryos metabolic responses upon hypoxia and low energy charge levels are characteristic for young undifferentiated stages when energy demand and respiration are high. During the transition stage, the embryo becomes adapted to low energy availability and metabolism becomes energetically more economic and tightly controlled. These adaptations are embedded in the embryo's differentiation program and coupled with

  5. Occurrence of lipid A variants with 27-hydroxyoctacosanoic acid in lipopolysaccharides from members of the family Rhizobiaceae

    SciTech Connect

    Bhat, U.R.; Carlson, R.W. ); Mayer, H. ); Yokota, A. ); Hollingsworth, R.I. )

    1991-04-01

    Lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) isolated from several strains of Rhizobium, Bradyrhizobium, Agrobacterium, and Azorhizobium were screened for the presence of 27-hydroxyoctacosanoic acid. The LPSs from all strains, with the exception of Azorhizobium caulinodans, contained various amounts of this long-chain hydroxy fatty acid in the lipid A fractions. Analysis of the lipid A sugars revealed three types of backbones: those containing glucosamine (as found in Rhizobium meliloti and Thizobium fredii), those containing glucosamine and galacturonic acid (as found in Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. phaseoli, trifolii, and viciae), and those containing clucosamine and galacturonic acid (as found in Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. phaseoli, trifolii, and viciae), and those containing 2,3-diamino-2,3-dideoxyglucose either alone or in combination with glucosamine (as found in Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Bradyrhizobium sp. (Lupinus) strain DSM 30140). The distribution of 27-hydroxyoctacosamoic acid as well as analysis of lipid A backbone sugars revealed the taxonomic relatedness of various strains of the Rhizobiaceae.

  6. [Characteristics of Natural Selection in Populations of Nodule Bacteria (Rhizobium leguminosarum) Interacting With Different Host Plants].

    PubMed

    Andronov, E E; Igolkina, A A; Kimeklis, A K; Vorobyov, N I; Provorov, N A

    2015-10-01

    Using high throughput sequencing of the nodA gene, we studied the population dynamics of Rhizobium leguminosarum (bv. viciae, bv. trifolii) in rhizospheric and nodular subpopulations associated with the leguminous plants representing different cross-inoculation groups (Vicia sativa, Lathyrus pratensis of the vetch/vetchling/pea group and Trifolium hybridum of the clover group). The "rhizosphere-nodules" transitions result in either an increase or decrease in the frequencies of 10 of the 23 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) (which were identified with 95% similarity) depending on the symbiotic specificity and phylogenetic positions of OTUs. Statistical and bioinformatical analysis of the population structures suggest that the type of natural selection responsible for these changes may be diversifying at the whole-population level and frequency-dependent at the OTU-specific level, ensuring the divergent evolution of rhizobia interacting with different host species. PMID:27169225

  7. A comparative survey of leguminous plants as sources of the isoflavones, genistein and daidzein: implications for human nutrition and health.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, P B; Duke, J A; Brielmann, H; Boik, J; Hoyt, J E

    1997-01-01

    Over 80 taxa of mostly agriculturally important legumes were surveyed as sources of the metabolites, genistein and daidzein. Remarkably high concentrations (over 2 g.kg-1 dry weight) of the anticancer metabolite, genistein, were found in the leaves of Psoralea corylifolia (Indian bread root). All other legumes, with the exception of fermented soybean miso, had genistein levels < 400 mg.kg-1 dry weight. Concentrations of over 1 g.kg-1 dry weight and 0.95 g.kg-1 dry weight of the anticancer metabolite, daidzein, were found in the stems of the fava bean (Vicia faba) and roots of kudzu vine (Pueraria lobata), respectively. From this survey, our results indicate that the legumes, lupine (Lupinus spp.), fava bean, (Vicia faba), soybeans (Glycine max), kudzu (Pueraria lobata), and psoralea (Psoralea corylifolia), are excellent food sources for both genistein and daidzein. Miso, a fermented soybean product, is also a rich source of both isoflavones. PMID:9395689

  8. Cyanamide is biosynthesized from L-canavanine in plants.

    PubMed

    Kamo, Tsunashi; Sakurai, Sakae; Yamanashi, Tatsuya; Todoroki, Yasushi

    2015-01-01

    Cyanamide had long been recognized as a synthetic compound but more recently has been found as a natural product from several leguminous plants. This compound's biosynthetic pathway, as yet unelaborated, has attracted attention because of its utility in many domains, such as agriculture, chemistry, and medicine. We noticed that the distribution of L-canavanine in the plant kingdom appeared to include that of cyanamide and that the guanidino group structure in L-canavanine contained the cyanamide skeleton. Here, quantification of these compounds in Vicia species suggested that cyanamide was biosynthesized from L-canavanine. Subsequent experiments involving L-[guanidineimino-(15)N2]canavanine addition to young Vicia villosa seedlings resulted in significant incorporation of (15)N-label into cyanamide, verifying its presumed biosynthetic pathway. PMID:26013398

  9. The onset of faba bean farming in the Southern Levant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caracuta, Valentina; Barzilai, Omry; Khalaily, Hamudi; Milevski, Ianir; Paz, Yitzhak; Vardi, Jacob; Regev, Lior; Boaretto, Elisabetta

    2015-10-01

    Even though the faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is among the most ubiquitously cultivated crops, very little is known about its origins. Here, we report discoveries of charred faba beans from three adjacent Neolithic sites in the lower Galilee region, in the southern Levant, that offer new insights into the early history of this species. Biometric measurements, radiocarbon dating and stable carbon isotope analyses of the archaeological remains, supported by experiments on modern material, date the earliest farming of this crop to ~10,200 cal BP. The large quantity of faba beans found in these adjacent sites indicates intensive production of faba beans in the region that can only have been achieved by planting non-dormant seeds. Selection of mutant-non-dormant stock suggests that the domestication of the crop occurred as early as the 11th millennium cal BP. Plant domestication| Vicia faba L.| Pre-Pottery Neolithic B| radiocarbon dating| Δ13C analysis.

  10. Comparative Studies on Plastoquinones. III. Distribution of Plastoquinones in Higher Plants 1

    PubMed Central

    Barr, Rita; Crane, F. L.

    1967-01-01

    The distribution of plastoquinones A 45, B and C was studied in representatives from 34 different plant families beginning with liverworts and mosses to higher plants. All of these species, including many monocots and dicots, contained significant amounts of the 3 quinones. Two species of Aesculus contained plastoquinone A 20 in addition to plastoquinone A 45, B, and C. Many dicots, such as Aesculus, watermelon, tobacco and tomato accumulated increasing quantities of plastoquinones A and C1-C4 during the growing season. The concentrations of plastoquinones B and C5-C6 tended to remain at a constant low level during the season (<0.01 μmole per mg chlorophyll). Preliminary studies with bean plants (Vicia faba and Phaseolus sp.) indicate that the levels of quinones varied little under different growth conditions (day length and temp.) although Vicia faba tended to have higher PQ A values with increased temperature. PMID:16656647

  11. MgtE From Rhizobium leguminosarum Is a Mg²⁺ Channel Essential for Growth at Low pH and N2 Fixation on Specific Plants.

    PubMed

    Hood, Graham; Karunakaran, Ramakrishnan; Downie, J Allan; Poole, Philip

    2015-12-01

    MgtE is predicted to be a Rhizobium leguminosarum channel and is essential for growth when both Mg²⁺ is limiting and the pH is low. N₂was only fixed at 8% of the rate of wild type when the crop legume Pisum sativum was inoculated with an mgtE mutant of R. leguminosarum and, although bacteroids were present, they were few in number and not fully developed. R. leguminosarum MgtE was also essential for N₂fixation on the native legume Vicia hirsuta but not when in symbiosis with Vicia faba. The importance of MgtE and the relevance of the contrasting phenotypes is discussed. PMID:26422403

  12. The onset of faba bean farming in the Southern Levant.

    PubMed

    Caracuta, Valentina; Barzilai, Omry; Khalaily, Hamudi; Milevski, Ianir; Paz, Yitzhak; Vardi, Jacob; Regev, Lior; Boaretto, Elisabetta

    2015-01-01

    Even though the faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is among the most ubiquitously cultivated crops, very little is known about its origins. Here, we report discoveries of charred faba beans from three adjacent Neolithic sites in the lower Galilee region, in the southern Levant, that offer new insights into the early history of this species. Biometric measurements, radiocarbon dating and stable carbon isotope analyses of the archaeological remains, supported by experiments on modern material, date the earliest farming of this crop to ~10,200 cal BP. The large quantity of faba beans found in these adjacent sites indicates intensive production of faba beans in the region that can only have been achieved by planting non-dormant seeds. Selection of mutant-non-dormant stock suggests that the domestication of the crop occurred as early as the 11(th) millennium cal BP. Plant domestication| Vicia faba L.| Pre-Pottery Neolithic B| radiocarbon dating| Δ(13)C analysis. PMID:26458981

  13. The onset of faba bean farming in the Southern Levant

    PubMed Central

    Caracuta, Valentina; Barzilai, Omry; Khalaily, Hamudi; Milevski, Ianir; Paz, Yitzhak; Vardi, Jacob; Regev, Lior; Boaretto, Elisabetta

    2015-01-01

    Even though the faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is among the most ubiquitously cultivated crops, very little is known about its origins. Here, we report discoveries of charred faba beans from three adjacent Neolithic sites in the lower Galilee region, in the southern Levant, that offer new insights into the early history of this species. Biometric measurements, radiocarbon dating and stable carbon isotope analyses of the archaeological remains, supported by experiments on modern material, date the earliest farming of this crop to ~10,200 cal BP. The large quantity of faba beans found in these adjacent sites indicates intensive production of faba beans in the region that can only have been achieved by planting non-dormant seeds. Selection of mutant-non-dormant stock suggests that the domestication of the crop occurred as early as the 11th millennium cal BP. Plant domestication| Vicia faba L.| Pre-Pottery Neolithic B| radiocarbon dating| Δ13C analysis. PMID:26458981

  14. The mutagenicity of Gramoxone (paraquat) on different eukaryotic systems.

    PubMed

    el-Abidin Salam, A Z; Hussein, E H; el-Itriby, H A; Anwar, W A; Mansour, S A

    1993-10-01

    The possible mutagenicity of the herbicide Gramoxone was evaluated using five different living systems: Allium cepa, Vicia faba, yeast, Drosophila melanogaster and human lymphocytes. The results indicate that Gramoxone has mutagenic activity at the cytological level in Allium cepa, Vicia faba and human lymphocytes. All doses were effective in inducing chromosomal abnormalities and a clear dose-response relationship was observed in the various cytological tests. Analysis of chromosomal abnormalities revealed that this herbicide displays clastogenic and turbagenic activities. At the gene mutation level Gramoxone induced gene conversion at the trp-5 locus and reversion at the ilv locus in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In Drosophila melanogaster, Gramoxone proved to be mutagenic to germ cells and induced a high frequency of sex-linked recessive lethals (SLRL). At the protein level, Gramoxone had detectable mutagenic effects on the genetic background of two enzymes, Adh and Est-6. Gramoxone should be considered a mutagenic herbicide. PMID:7692291

  15. Effects of ZnO nanoparticles in plants: Cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, deregulation of antioxidant defenses, and cell-cycle arrest.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Manosij; Jana, Aditi; Sinha, Sonali; Jothiramajayam, Manivannan; Nag, Anish; Chakraborty, Anirban; Mukherjee, Amitava; Mukherjee, Anita

    2016-09-01

    Cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and biochemical effects were evaluated in the plants Allium cepa, Nicotiana tabacum, and Vicia faba following exposure to ZnO nanoparticles (np; diameter, ∼85nm). In the root meristems of Allium cepa cells, we observed loss of membrane integrity, increased chromosome aberrations, micronucleus formation, DNA strand breaks, and cell-cycle arrest at the G2/M checkpoint. In Vicia faba and Nicotiana tabacum, we observed increased intracellular ROS production, lipid peroxidation, and activities of some antioxidant enzymes. TEM images revealed gross morphological alterations and internalization of the np. Our findings provide evidence of ZnO np toxicity, characterized by deregulation of components of ROS-antioxidant machinery, leading to DNA damage, cell-cycle arrest, and cell death. These plants, especially Allium cepa, are reliable systems for assessment of np toxicology. PMID:27542712

  16. Cyanamide is biosynthesized from l-canavanine in plants

    PubMed Central

    Kamo, Tsunashi; Sakurai, Sakae; Yamanashi, Tatsuya; Todoroki, Yasushi

    2015-01-01

    Cyanamide had long been recognized as a synthetic compound but more recently has been found as a natural product from several leguminous plants. This compound’s biosynthetic pathway, as yet unelaborated, has attracted attention because of its utility in many domains, such as agriculture, chemistry, and medicine. We noticed that the distribution of L-canavanine in the plant kingdom appeared to include that of cyanamide and that the guanidino group structure in L-canavanine contained the cyanamide skeleton. Here, quantification of these compounds in Vicia species suggested that cyanamide was biosynthesized from L-canavanine. Subsequent experiments involving L-[guanidineimino-15N2]canavanine addition to young Vicia villosa seedlings resulted in significant incorporation of 15N-label into cyanamide, verifying its presumed biosynthetic pathway. PMID:26013398

  17. C-value paradox in angiosperm plant species. I. Sensitivity to DNase I in species with different 2C DNA content.

    PubMed

    Olszewska, M J

    1992-01-01

    The experimental conditions for DNAase I digestion in situ for plant nuclei have been presented. Cytophotometric measurements of DNA loss performed on Feulgen-stained nuclei of three species differing in 2C DNA, heterochromatin and condensed euchromatin contents have shown that the lower 2C DNA amount the higher is DNase I sensitivity. Heterochromatin and some fractions of euchromatin are DNase I resistant. Microdensitometric measurements along M chromosome in Vicia faba have demonstrated the sites hypersensitive to DNase I. PMID:1483532

  18. Rhizobium meliloti produces a family of sulfated lipo-oligosaccharides exhibiting different degrees of plant host specificity

    SciTech Connect

    Schultze, M.; Kondorosi, E.; Quiclet-Sire, B.; Gero, S.D. ); Virelizier, H. ); Glushka, J.N. ); Endre, G.; Kondorosi, A. Inst. of Genetics, Szeged )

    1992-01-01

    The authors have shown that a Rhizobium meliloti strain over expressing nodulation genes excreted high amounts of a family of N-acylated and 6-O-sulfated N-acetyl-{beta}-1,4-D-glucosamine penta-, tetra-, and trisaccharide Nod factors. Either a C{sub 16:2} or a C{sub 16:3} acyl chain is attached to the nonreducing end subunit, whereas the sulfate group is bound to the reducing glucosamine. In the root hair deformation assay the pentasaccharides show similar activities on the host plants Medicago sativa and Melilotus albus and on the non-host plant Vicia sativa at a dilution of up to 0.01-0.001 {mu}M, in contrast to NodRm-1, which displays a much higher specific activity for Medicago and melilotus than for Vicia. The active concentration range of the pentasaccharides is more narrow on medicago than on Melilotus and Vicia. In addition to root hair deformation, the different Nod factors were shown to induce nodule formation on M. sativa. They suggest that the production of a series of active signal molecules with different degrees of specificity might be important in controlling the symbiosis of R. meliloti with several different host plants or under different environmental conditions.

  19. UV-B absorbance and UV-B absorbing compounds (para-coumaric acid) in pollen and sporopollenin: the perspective to track historic UV-B levels.

    PubMed

    Rozema, J; Broekman, R A; Blokker, P; Meijkamp, B B; de Bakker, N; van de Staaij, J; van Beem, A; Ariese, F; Kars, S M

    2001-09-01

    UV-B absorbance and UV-B absorbing compounds (UACs) of the pollen of Vicia faba, Betula pendula, Helleborus foetidus and Pinus sylvestris were studied. Sequential extraction demonstrated considerable UV-B absorbance both in the soluble (acid methanol) and insoluble sporopollenin (acetolysis resistant residue) fractions of UACs, while the wall-bound fraction of UACs was small. The UV-B absorbance of the soluble and sporopollenin fraction of pollen of Vicia faba plants exposed to enhanced UV-B (10 kJ m(-2) day(-1) UV-B(BE)) was higher than that of plants that received 0 kJ m(-2) day(-1) UV-B(BB). Pyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (py-GC-MS) analysis of pollen demonstrated that p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid formed part of the sporopollenin fraction of the pollen. The amount of these aromatic monomers in the sporopollenin of Vicia faba appeared to increase in response to enhanced UV-B (10 kJ m(-2) day(-1) UV-B(BE)). The detection limit of pyGC-MS was sufficiently low to quantify these phenolic acids in ten pollen grains of Betula and Pinus. The experimental data presented provide evidence for the possibility that polyphenolic compounds in pollen of plants are indicators of solar UV-B and may be applied as a new proxy for the reconstruction of historic variation in solar UV-B levels. PMID:11693361

  20. The center for plant and microbial complex carbohydrates at the University of Georgia Complex Carbohydrate Research Center

    SciTech Connect

    Albersheim, P.; Darvill, A.

    1991-08-01

    Research from the Complex Carbohydrates Research Center at the University of Georgia is presented. Topics include: Structural determination of soybean isoflavones which specifically induce Bradyrhizobium japonicum nodD1 but not the nodYABCSUIJ operon; structural analysis of the lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) from symbiotic mutants of Bradyrhizobium japonicum; structural characterization of lipooligosaccharides from Bradyrhizobium japonicum that are required for the specific nodulation of soybean; structural characterization of the LPSs from R. Leguminosarum biovar phaseoli, the symbiont of bean; characterization of bacteroid-specific LPS epitopes in R. leguminosarum biovar viciae; analysis of the surface polysaccharides of Rhizobium meliloti mutants whose lipopolysaccharides and extracellular polysaccharides can have the same function in symbiosis; characterization of a polysaccharide produced by certain Bradyrhizobium japonicum strains within soybean nodules; structural analysis of a streptococcal adhesin polysaccharide receptor; conformational studies of xyloglucan, the role of the fucosylated side chain in surface-specific cellulose-xyloglucan interactions; the structure of an acylated glucosamine oligosaccharide signal molecule (nod factor) involved in the symbiosis of Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae with its host Vicia sativa; investigating membrane responses induced by oligogalacturonides in cultured cells; the polygalacturonase inhibitor protein; characterization of the self-incompatability glycoproteins from Petunia hybrida; investigation of the cell wall polysaccharide structures of Arabidopsis thaliana; and the glucan inhibition of virus infection of tabacco.

  1. The center for plant and microbial complex carbohydrates at the University of Georgia Complex Carbohydrate Research Center. Annual report, September 15, 1990--December 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Albersheim, P.; Darvill, A.

    1991-08-01

    Research from the Complex Carbohydrates Research Center at the University of Georgia is presented. Topics include: Structural determination of soybean isoflavones which specifically induce Bradyrhizobium japonicum nodD1 but not the nodYABCSUIJ operon; structural analysis of the lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) from symbiotic mutants of Bradyrhizobium japonicum; structural characterization of lipooligosaccharides from Bradyrhizobium japonicum that are required for the specific nodulation of soybean; structural characterization of the LPSs from R. Leguminosarum biovar phaseoli, the symbiont of bean; characterization of bacteroid-specific LPS epitopes in R. leguminosarum biovar viciae; analysis of the surface polysaccharides of Rhizobium meliloti mutants whose lipopolysaccharides and extracellular polysaccharides can have the same function in symbiosis; characterization of a polysaccharide produced by certain Bradyrhizobium japonicum strains within soybean nodules; structural analysis of a streptococcal adhesin polysaccharide receptor; conformational studies of xyloglucan, the role of the fucosylated side chain in surface-specific cellulose-xyloglucan interactions; the structure of an acylated glucosamine oligosaccharide signal molecule (nod factor) involved in the symbiosis of Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae with its host Vicia sativa; investigating membrane responses induced by oligogalacturonides in cultured cells; the polygalacturonase inhibitor protein; characterization of the self-incompatability glycoproteins from Petunia hybrida; investigation of the cell wall polysaccharide structures of Arabidopsis thaliana; and the glucan inhibition of virus infection of tabacco.

  2. Rhizobium meliloti produces a family of sulfated lipooligosaccharides exhibiting different degrees of plant host specificity.

    PubMed Central

    Schultze, M; Quiclet-Sire, B; Kondorosi, E; Virelizer, H; Glushka, J N; Endre, G; Géro, S D; Kondorosi, A

    1992-01-01

    We have shown that a Rhizobium meliloti strain overexpressing nodulation genes excreted high amounts of a family of N-acylated and 6-O-sulfated N-acetyl-beta-1,4-D-glucosamine penta-, tetra-, and trisaccharide Nod factors. Either a C(16:2) or a C(16:3) acyl chain is attached to the nonreducing end subunit, whereas the sulfate group is bound to the reducing glucosamine. One of the tetrasaccharides is identical to the previously described NodRm-1 factor. The two pentasaccharides as well as NodRm-1 were purified and tested for biological activity. In the root hair deformation assay the pentasaccharides show similar activities on the host plants Medicago sativa and Melilotus albus and on the non-host plant Vicia sativa at a dilution of up to 0.01-0.001 microM, in contrast to NodRm-1, which displays a much higher specific activity for Medicago and Melilotus than for Vicia. The active concentration range of the pentasaccharides is more narrow on Medicago than on Melilotus and Vicia. In addition to root hair deformation, the different Nod factors were shown to induce nodule formation on M. sativa. We suggest that the production of a series of active signal molecules with different degrees of specificity might be important in controlling the symbiosis of R. meliloti with several different host plants or under different environmental conditions. Images PMID:1729688

  3. Detection of Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) in pea field in Iran.

    PubMed

    Esfandiari, N; Kohi Habibi, M; Mosahebi, G H; Mozafari, J

    2005-01-01

    During the spring and summer, in 2003-2004, pea viruses were identified in twenty pea fields of Tehran. Some leaf samples were collected randomly from pea fields of Tehran. Samples were tested by Double Antibody Sandwich Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (DAS-ELISA) technique using polyclonal antiserum of Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV), AS-0001, DSMZ, Braunschweig, Germany). The samples were extracted in 0.1 M Phosphate buffer pH 7 to 7.5 and inoculated on Chenopodium amaranticolor, Chenopodium quina, Phaseolus valgaris, Vicia faba, Vignia unguiculata. Pea cultivars were infected by AMV, causing mild mosaic, translucent veins and a diffuse green-yellow of tender parts and spots may also was involved necrosis of tissue. Infected plants grow slowly and malformed pods produce fewer ovules. In Chenopodium amranticolor, C. quina chlorotic and necrotic flecks, and Vicia faba systemic mosaic had produced. Phaselous vulgaris and Viginia unguiculata are good assay hosts for strains that produce local lesions after 3-5 days in these plants. Back inoculated on Pisum sativum and Vicia faba and tested with DAS-ELISA that had been confirmed the results. This is the first report of AMV on pea from Iran. PMID:16637206

  4. Leachates of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash from Macao: heavy metal concentrations and genotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shaolong; Wang, Xinming; Wei, Gangjian; Peng, Pingan; Yang, Yun; Cao, Zhaohui

    2007-04-01

    Heavy metals in municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash (MSWIBA) may leach into soil and groundwater and pose long-term risks to the environment. In this study, toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) was carried out on the MSWIBA from Macao. Heavy metals in leachates were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), and genotoxicity of leachates was also evaluated by micronucleus (MN) assay with Vicia faba root tip cells. The results showed that the concentrations of aluminium (Al), manganese (Mn), cobalt (Co), cadmium (Cd) and mercury (Hg) in the leachates were less than 0.01 mg l(-1), and those of iron (Fe), copper (Cu) and molybdenum (Mo) were less than 0.1 mg l(-1). The concentrations of chromium (Cr), zinc (Zn), selemium (Se), strontium (Sr), barium (Ba) and caesium (Cs) were between 0.11 mg l(-1) and 2.19 mg l(-1). Lead (Pb) concentrations, in particular, reached as high as 19.6 mg l(-1), significantly exceeding the maximum concentration limit (5 mg l(-1) for lead by TCLP). Compared with the negative group, a significant increase of MN frequencies was observed in the leachate-exposed groups (P<0.05). With the increase of heavy metals in the leachates, the toxic effects on the Vicia faba root tip cells increased, implying that heavy metals were the main factors causing the genotoxic effects. Our results suggested that apart from chemical analysis, bioassays like the MN assay of Vicia faba root tip cells should also be included in a battery of tests to assess the eco-environmental risks of bottom ashes before decisions can be made on the utilization, treatment or disposal. PMID:17217988

  5. Diurnal changes in epidermal UV transmittance of plants in naturally high UV environments.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Paul W; Flint, Stephan D; Slusser, James R; Gao, Wei; Ryel, Ronald J

    2008-06-01

    Studies were conducted on three herbaceous plant species growing in naturally high solar UV environments in the subalpine of Mauna Kea, Hawaii, USA, to determine if diurnal changes in epidermal UV transmittance (T(UV)) occur in these species, and to test whether manipulation of the solar radiation regime could alter these diurnal patterns. Additional field studies were conducted at Logan, Utah, USA, to determine if solar UV was causing diurnal T(UV) changes and to evaluate the relationship between diurnal changes in T(UV) and UV-absorbing pigments. Under clear skies, T(UV), as measured with a UV-A-pulse amplitude modulation fluorometer for leaves of Verbascum thapsus and Oenothera stricta growing in native soils and Vicia faba growing in pots, was highest at predawn and sunset and lowest at midday. These patterns in T(UV) closely tracked diurnal changes in solar radiation and were the result of correlated changes in fluorescence induced by UV-A and blue radiation but not photochemical efficiency (F(v)/F(m)) or initial fluorescence yield (F(o)). The magnitude of the midday reduction in T(UV) was greater for young leaves than for older leaves of Verbascum. Imposition of artificial shade eliminated the diurnal changes in T(UV) in Verbascum, but reduction in solar UV had no effect on diurnal T(UV) changes in Vicia. In Vicia, the diurnal changes in T(UV) occurred without detectable changes in the concentration of whole-leaf UV-absorbing compounds. Results suggest that plants actively control diurnal changes in UV shielding, and these changes occur in response to signals other than solar UV; however, the underlying mechanisms responsible for rapid changes in T(UV) remain unclear. PMID:18346077

  6. The effect of acidity on the distribution and symbiotic efficiency of rhizobia in Lithuanian soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapinskas, E. B.

    2007-04-01

    The distribution and symbiotic efficiency of nodule bacteria Rhizobium leguminosarum_bv. trifolii F., Sinorhizobium meliloti D., Rhizobium galegae L., and Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae F. in Lithuanian soils as dependent on the soil acidity were studied in the long-term field, pot, and laboratory experiments. The critical and optimal pH values controlling the distribution of rhizobia and the symbiotic nitrogen fixation were determined for every bacterial species. The relationship was found between the soil pH and the nitrogen-fixing capacity of rhizobia. A positive effect of liming of acid soils in combination with inoculation of legumes on the efficiency of symbiotic nitrogen fixation was demonstrated.

  7. Analyzing plant signaling phospholipids through 32Pi-labeling and TLC.

    PubMed

    Munnik, Teun; Zarza, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Lipidomic analyses through LC-, GC-, and ESI-MS/MS can detect numerous lipid species based on headgroup and fatty acid compositions but usually miss the minor phospholipids involved in cell signaling because of their low chemical abundancy. Due to their high turnover, these signaling lipids are, however, readily picked up by labeling plant material with (32)P-orthophosphate and subsequent analysis of the lipid extracts by thin layer chromatography. Here, protocols are described for suspension-cultured tobacco BY-2 cells, young Arabidopsis seedlings, Vicia faba roots, and Arabidopsis leaf disks, which can easily be modified for other plant species and tissues. PMID:23681518

  8. Lightcurve Results for Eleven Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gartrelle, Gordon M.

    2012-04-01

    Differential photometry techniques were used to develop lightcurves, rotation periods and amplitudes for eleven main-belt asteroids: 833 Monica, 962 Aslog, 1020 Arcadia, 1082 Pirola, 1097 Vicia, 1122 Lugduna, 1145 Robelmonte, 1253 Frisia, 1256 Normannia, 1525 Savolinna, and 2324 Janice. Ground-based observations from Badlands Observatory (BLO) in Quinn, SD, as well as the University of North Dakota Observatory (UND) in Grand Forks, ND, provided the data for the project. A search of the asteroid lightcurve database (LCDB) did not reveal any previously reported results for seven of the eleven targets in this study.

  9. Brain alpha-dystroglycan displays unique glycoepitopes and preferential binding to laminin-10/11.

    PubMed

    McDearmon, Erin L; Combs, Ariana C; Sekiguchi, Kiyotoshi; Fujiwara, Hironobu; Ervasti, James M

    2006-06-12

    alpha-Dystroglycan was quantitatively enriched from mammalian brain based on its uniform reactivity with Vicia villosa agglutinin and resolved into sub-populations possessing or lacking the sulfated glucuronic acid epitope recognized by monoclonal antibody HNK-1. We generated a new monoclonal antibody specific for a glycoepitope on brain alpha-dystroglycan but absent from alpha-dystroglycan expressed in all other tissues examined. Finally, we found that laminin-10/11 preferentially bound to brain alpha-dystroglycan compared to skeletal muscle alpha-dystroglycan. Our results suggest that tissue-specific glycosylation modifies the laminin binding specificity of alpha-dystroglycan. PMID:16709410

  10. Absorption and translocation of 4-(trifluoromethyl)chlorobenzene in soil and crops

    SciTech Connect

    Cacco, G.; Ferrari, G.

    1982-01-01

    Water containing 1 mg/L 4-(trifluoro(/sup 14/C)methyl)chlorobenzene (TFCB) was supplied to pot cultures of three grass (Zea mays L.; Festuca rubra L.; Lolium multiflorum L.) and three legume (Vicia sativa L.; Trifolium perenne L.; Medicago sativa L.) species. The chemical was absorbed by soil and subsequently translocated to plant leaves at increasing amounts for maize to ryegrass, clover, alfalfa, red fescue, and vetch. Legumes showed a high capacity of degradation of the contaminant, suggesting their utilization to reclaim soil and water contaminated by TFCB.

  11. Nitrogen mineralization from selected /sup 15/N-labelled crop residues and humus as affected by inorganic nitrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Santos, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    The use of cover crops or crop residues as a source of N to succeeding crops has become a matter of increasing importance for economic and environmental reason. Greenhouse and field studies were conducted to determine the N contribution of four /sup 15/N labelled crop residues, rye (Secale cereale L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), crimson clover (Trifolium encarnatum L.), and hairy vetch (Vicia sativa L.), to successive crops and to evaluate the effect of different organic (ON) and inorganic N (IN) combinations on mineralization of the above residues. Total /sup 15/N recovery from the residues ranged from 51% to 85% and 4% to 74% for the greenhouse and field studies, respectively.

  12. Effects of supercypermethrin, a synthetic developmental pyrethroid, on four biological test systems.

    PubMed

    Miadoková, E; Vlcková, V; Dúhová, V; Trebatická, M; Garajová, L; Grolmus, J; Podstavková, S; Vlcek, D

    1992-01-01

    The genotoxic potential of the insecticide supercypermethrin, a second-generation pyrethroid, was studied on four different test systems. It was non-mutagenic to Salmonella typhimurium strains TA1535, TA100, TA1538, TA98 and TA97 in the presence and absence of S9 mixture. It induced gene conversion at the tryptophan locus and induced point mutations at the isoleucine locus in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. A slight increase in the frequency of aberrant anaphases and telophases in root tips of Hordeum vulgare and Vicia faba was observed, but no genotoxic effects were detected in Drosophila melanogaster. PMID:1381478

  13. Systematics, biogeography, and character evolution of the legume tribe Fabeae with special focus on the middle-Atlantic island lineages

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Tribe Fabeae comprises about 380 legume species, including some of the most ancient and important crops like lentil, pea, and broad bean. Breeding efforts in legume crops rely on a detailed knowledge of closest wild relatives and geographic origin. Relationships within the tribe, however, are incompletely known and previous molecular results conflicted with the traditional morphology-based classification. Here we analyse the systematics, biogeography, and character evolution in the tribe based on plastid and nuclear DNA sequences. Results Phylogenetic analyses including c. 70% of the species in the tribe show that the genera Vicia and Lathyrus in their current circumscription are not monophyletic: Pisum and Vavilovia are nested in Lathyrus, the genus Lens is nested in Vicia. A small, well-supported clade including Vicia hirsuta, V. sylvatica, and some Mediterranean endemics, is the sister group to all remaining species in the tribe. Fabeae originated in the East Mediterranean region in the Miocene (23–16 million years ago (Ma)) and spread at least 39 times into Eurasia, seven times to the Americas, twice to tropical Africa and four times to Macaronesia. Broad bean (V. faba) and its sister V. paucijuga originated in Asia and might be sister to V. oroboides. Lentil (Lens culinaris ssp. culinaris) is of Mediterranean origin and together with eight very close relatives forms a clade that is nested in the core Vicia, where it evolved c. 14 Ma. The Pisum clade is nested in Lathyrus in a grade with the Mediterranean L. gloeosperma, L. neurolobus, and L. nissolia. The extinct Azorean endemic V. dennesiana belongs in section Cracca and is nested among Mediterranean species. According to our ancestral character state reconstruction results, ancestors of Fabeae had a basic chromosome number of 2n=14, an annual life form, and evenly hairy, dorsiventrally compressed styles. Conclusions Fabeae evolved in the Eastern Mediterranean in the middle Miocene and spread

  14. Impact of Faba Bean-Seed Rhizobial Inoculation on Microbial Activity in the Rhizosphere Soil during Growing Season.

    PubMed

    Siczek, Anna; Lipiec, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    Inoculation of legume seeds with Rhizobium affects soil microbial community and processes, especially in the rhizosphere. This study aimed at assessing the effect of Rhizobium inoculation on microbial activity in the faba bean rhizosphere during the growing season in a field experiment on a Haplic Luvisol derived from loess. Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) seeds were non-inoculated (NI) or inoculated (I) with Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae and sown. The rhizosphere soil was analyzed for the enzymatic activities of dehydrogenases, urease, protease and acid phosphomonoesterase, and functional diversity (catabolic potential) using the Average Well Color Development, Shannon-Weaver, and Richness indices following the community level physiological profiling from Biolog EcoPlate™. The analyses were done on three occasions corresponding to the growth stages of: 5-6 leaf, flowering, and pod formation. The enzymatic activities were higher in I than NI (p < 0.05) throughout the growing season. However, none of the functional diversity indices differed significantly under both treatments, regardless of the growth stage. This work showed that the functional diversity of the microbial communities was a less sensitive tool than enzyme activities in assessment of rhizobial inoculation effects on rhizosphere microbial activity. PMID:27213363

  15. Performances of survival, feeding behavior, and gene expression in aphids reveal their different fitness to host alteration

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Hong; Yang, Pengcheng; Xu, Yongyu; Luo, Lan; Zhu, Junjie; Cui, Na; Kang, Le; Cui, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Insect populations feeding on different plant species are under selection pressure to adapt to these differences. A study integrating elements of the ecology, behavior, and gene expression of aphids on different host plants has not yet been well-explored. The present study explores the relationship between host fitness and survival, feeding behavior, and salivary gland gene expression of a pea (Pisum sativum) host race of Acyrthosiphon pisum feeding on a common host Vicia faba and on three genetically-related hosts (Vicia villosa, Medicago truncatula, and Medicago sativa). Life table data indicated that aphids on non-favored hosts exhibited small size, low reproduction rate, slow population increase and individual development, and long lifespan. Electrical penetration graph results showed that the aphids spent significantly less time in passive ingestion of phloem sap on all non-preferred host plants before acclimation. After a period of acclimation on M. truncatula and V. villosa, pea host race individuals showed improved feeding behavior. No individuals of the pea host race completed its life history on M. sativa. Interestingly, the number of host-specific differentially-expressed salivary gland genes was negatively correlated with the fitness of aphids on this host plant. This study provided important cues in host plant specialization in aphids. PMID:26758247

  16. Effects of nano-TiO₂ on the agronomically-relevant Rhizobium-legume symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Fan, Ruimei; Huang, Yu Chu; Grusak, Michael A; Huang, C P; Sherrier, D Janine

    2014-01-01

    The impact of nano-TiO₂ on Rhizobium-legume symbiosis was studied using garden peas and the compatible bacterial partner Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae 3841. Exposure to nano-TiO₂ did not affect the germination of peas grown aseptically, nor did it impact the gross root structure. However, nano-TiO₂ exposure did impact plant development by decreasing the number of secondary lateral roots. Cultured R. leguminosarum bv. viciae 3841 was also impacted by exposure to nano-TiO₂, resulting in morphological changes to the bacterial cells. Moreover, the interaction between these two organisms was disrupted by nano-TiO₂ exposure, such that root nodule development and the subsequent onset of nitrogen fixation were delayed. Further, the polysaccharide composition of the walls of infected cells of nodules was altered, suggesting that the exposure induced a systemic response in host plants. Therefore, nano-TiO₂ contamination in the environment is potentially hazardous to the Rhizobium-legume symbiosis system. PMID:23933452

  17. Nitric oxide regulates K+ and Cl- channels in guard cells through a subset of abscisic acid-evoked signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Mata, Carlos; Gay, Robert; Sokolovski, Sergei; Hills, Adrian; Lamattina, Lorenzo; Blatt, Michael R.

    2003-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) triggers a complex sequence of signaling events that lead to concerted modulation of ion channels at the plasma membrane of guard cells and solute efflux to drive stomatal closure in plant leaves. Recent work has indicated that nitric oxide (NO) and its synthesis are a prerequisite for ABA signal transduction in Arabidopsis and Vicia guard cells. Its mechanism(s) of action is not well defined in guard cells and, generally, in higher plants. Here we show directly that NO selectively regulates Ca2+-sensitive ion channels of Vicia guard cells by promoting Ca2+ release from intracellular stores to raise cytosolic-free [Ca2+]. NO-sensitive Ca2+ release was blocked by antagonists of guanylate cyclase and cyclic ADP ribose-dependent endomembrane Ca2+ channels, implying an action mediated via a cGMP-dependent cascade. NO did not recapitulate ABA-evoked control of plasma membrane Ca2+ channels and Ca2+-insensitive K+ channels, and NO scavengers failed to block the activation of these K+ channels evoked by ABA. These results place NO action firmly within one branch of the Ca2+-signaling pathways engaged by ABA and define the boundaries of parallel signaling events in the control of guard cell movements. PMID:12949257

  18. Impact of Faba Bean-Seed Rhizobial Inoculation on Microbial Activity in the Rhizosphere Soil during Growing Season

    PubMed Central

    Siczek, Anna; Lipiec, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    Inoculation of legume seeds with Rhizobium affects soil microbial community and processes, especially in the rhizosphere. This study aimed at assessing the effect of Rhizobium inoculation on microbial activity in the faba bean rhizosphere during the growing season in a field experiment on a Haplic Luvisol derived from loess. Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) seeds were non-inoculated (NI) or inoculated (I) with Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae and sown. The rhizosphere soil was analyzed for the enzymatic activities of dehydrogenases, urease, protease and acid phosphomonoesterase, and functional diversity (catabolic potential) using the Average Well Color Development, Shannon-Weaver, and Richness indices following the community level physiological profiling from Biolog EcoPlate™. The analyses were done on three occasions corresponding to the growth stages of: 5–6 leaf, flowering, and pod formation. The enzymatic activities were higher in I than NI (p < 0.05) throughout the growing season. However, none of the functional diversity indices differed significantly under both treatments, regardless of the growth stage. This work showed that the functional diversity of the microbial communities was a less sensitive tool than enzyme activities in assessment of rhizobial inoculation effects on rhizosphere microbial activity. PMID:27213363

  19. Managing soil nitrate with cover crops and buffer strips in Sicilian vineyards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novara, A.; Gristina, L.; Guaitoli, F.; Santoro, A.; Cerdà, A.

    2013-08-01

    When soil nitrate levels are low, plants suffer nitrogen (N) deficiency but when the levels are excessive, soil nitrates can pollute surface and subsurface waters. Strategies to reduce the nitrate pollution are necessary to reach a sustainable use of resources such as soil, water and plant. Buffer strips and cover crops can contribute to the management of soil nitrates, but little is known of their effectiveness in semiarid vineyards plantations. The research was carried out in the south coast of Sicily (Italy) to evaluate nitrate trends in a vineyard managed both conventionally and using two different cover crops (Triticum durum and Vicia sativa cover crop). A 10 m-wide buffer strip was seeded with Lolium perenne at the bottom of the vineyard. Soil nitrate was measured monthly and nitrate movement was monitored by application of a 15N tracer to a narrow strip between the bottom of vineyard and the buffer and non-buffer strips. Lolium perenne biomass yield in the buffer strips and its isotopic nitrogen content were monitored. Vicia sativa cover crop management contributed with an excess of nitrogen, and the soil management determined the nitrogen content at the buffer areas. A 6 m buffer strip reduced the nitrate by 42% with and by 46% with a 9 m buffer strip. Thanks to catch crops, farmers can manage the N content and its distribution into the soil over the year, can reduced fertilizer wastage and reduce N pollution of surface and groundwater.

  20. Plant-uptake of uranium: Hydroponic and soil system studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramaswami, A.; Carr, P.; Burkhardt, M.

    2001-01-01

    Limited information is available on screening and selection of terrestrial plants for uptake and translocation of uranium from soil. This article evaluates the removal of uranium from water and soil by selected plants, comparing plant performance in hydroponic systems with that in two soil systems (a sandy-loam soil and an organic-rich soil). Plants selected for this study were Sunflower (Helianthus giganteus), Spring Vetch (Vicia sativa), Hairy Vetch (Vicia villosa), Juniper (Juniperus monosperma), Indian Mustard (Brassica juncea), and Bush Bean (Phaseolus nanus). Plant performance was evaluated both in terms of the percent uranium extracted from the three systems, as well as the biological absorption coefficient (BAC) that normalized uranium uptake to plant biomass. Study results indicate that uranium extraction efficiency decreased sharply across hydroponic, sandy and organic soil systems, indicating that soil organic matter sequestered uranium, rendering it largely unavailable for plant uptake. These results indicate that site-specific soils must be used to screen plants for uranium extraction capability; plant behavior in hydroponic systems does not correlate well with that in soil systems. One plant species, Juniper, exhibited consistent uranium extraction efficiencies and BACs in both sandy and organic soils, suggesting unique uranium extraction capabilities.

  1. Fluorescence Properties of Guard Cell Chloroplasts

    PubMed Central

    Zeiger, Eduardo; Armond, Paul; Melis, Anastasios

    1981-01-01

    The presence of chloroplasts in guard cells from leaf epidermis, coleoptile, flowers, and albino portions of variegated leaves was established by incident fluorescence microscopy, thus confirming the notion that guard cell chloroplasts are remarkably conserved. Room temperature emission spectra from a few chloroplasts in a single guard cell of Vicia faba showed one major peak at around 683 nanometers. Low-temperature (77 K) emission spectra from peels of albino portions of Chlorophytum comosum leaves and from mesophyll chloroplasts of green parts of the same leaves showed major peaks at around 687 and 733 nanometers, peaks usually attributed to photosystem II and photosystem I pigment systems, respectively. Spectra of peels of V. faba leaves showed similar peaks. However, fluorescence microscopy revealed that the Vicia peels, as well as those from Allium cepa and Tulipa sp., were contaminated with non-guard cell chloroplasts which were practically undetectable under bright field illumination. These observations pose restrictions on the use of epidermal peels as a source of isolated guard cell chloroplasts. Studies on the 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea-sensitive variable fluorescence kinetics of uncontaminated epidermal peels of C. comosum indicated that guard cell chloroplasts operate a normal, photosystem II-dependent, linear electron transport. The above properties in combination with their reported inability to fix CO2 photosynthetically may render the guard cell chloroplasts optimally suited to supply the reducing and high-energy phosphate equivalents needed to sustain active ion transport during stomatal opening in daylight. PMID:16661620

  2. USE OF COVER CROPS FOR WEED SUPPRESSION IN HAZELNUT (CORYLUS AVELLANA L.) IN TURKEY.

    PubMed

    Isik, D; Dok, M; Ak, K; Macit, I; Demir, Z; Mennan, H

    2014-01-01

    Weed management is critical in hazelnut (Corylus avellana) production. Weeds reduce nutrient availability, interfere with tree growth, and reduce hand-harvesting efficiency. Field experiments were conducted to test effects of cover crops as alternative weed management strategies in hazelnut. The cover crop treatments consisted of Trifolium repens L., Festuca rubra subsp. rubra L., Festuca arundinacea Schreb., Vicia villosa Roth. And Trifolium meneghinianum Celmand fallow with no cover crop. Control plots such as weedy control, herbicide control and mechanical control were added as reference plots. The lowest weed dry biomass was obtained from Vicia villosa plots, and there were no significant differences among all other cover crop treatments. The highest cover crop dry biomass was measured in the Trifolium meneghinianum plots. Regarding the effect of cover crops on hazelnut yields, the lowest yield was ob- tained from weedy control plots, while the highest yield was obtained from F. arundinacea plots. This research indicated that cover crops could be used as living mulch in integrated weed management programs to manage weeds in the hazelnut orchards. PMID:26084088

  3. Do cancer cells in human and meristematic cells in plant exhibit similar responses toward plant extracts with cytotoxic activities?

    PubMed

    Khalifa, Noha S; Barakat, Hoda S; Elhallouty, Salwa; Salem, Dina

    2015-01-01

    We examined the effect of water extracts of Persea americana fruit, and of the leaves of Tabernamontana divericata, Nerium oleander and Annona cherimolia (positive control) on Vicia faba root cells. We had confirmed in our previously published data the cytotoxicity of these plant extracts on four human cancer cell lines: liver (HepG-2), lung (A549), colon (HT-29) and breast (MCF-7). Vicia faba roots were soaked in plant extracts at dilutions of 100, 1,250, 2,500, 5,000, 10,000, 20,000 ppm for 4 and 24 h. All treatments resulted in a significant reduction in the mitotic index in a dose dependant manner. Root cells treated with T. divericata, N. oleander and A. cherimolia exhibited a decrease in prophase cell percentage, increase in micronuclei and chromosomal abnormalities as concentration increased. The P. americana treatment showed the highest cytotoxic effect on cancer cells, prophase cell percentage increased linearly with the applied concentration and no micronuclei were detected. This study shows that root tip assay of beans can be used in initial screening for new plant extracts to validate their use as candidates for containing active cytotoxic agents against malignant cells. This will greatly help in exploring new plant extracts as drugs for cancer treatment. PMID:24705601

  4. Simple and rapid method for the differentiation of Lens culinaris Medik. from false lentil species.

    PubMed

    Piergiovanni, Angela R; Taranto, Giovanni

    2005-08-24

    The practice of using both common vetch (Vicia sativa L.) and single-flower vetch (Vicia articulata Hornem.) seeds as food or feed is encouraged by the very high resemblance of their seeds with those of small-seeded lentil cultivars. Among the Vicieae, antinutritional and toxic factors are particularly important, because many species, containing high levels of these compounds, are not safe. A simple and fast capillary electrophoresis (CE) method was proposed for the differentiation of lentil cultivars from false lentil species (i.e., single-flour vetch and common vetch). Proteins were extracted from defatted milled seeds with an alcoholic/saline solution. Extracts were separated in an uncoated fused-silica capillary with iminodiacetic acid (IDA) isolectric buffer containing 0.05% hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) and 20% acetonitrile. The presented method is useful also for the detection of contamination of whole or split seeds of lentil by vetch species. With respect to alternative techniques, such as DNA-based markers or thin-layer chromatography (TLC), CE has the advantages of being less expensive, faster, and fully automated. PMID:16104771

  5. Performances of survival, feeding behavior, and gene expression in aphids reveal their different fitness to host alteration.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hong; Yang, Pengcheng; Xu, Yongyu; Luo, Lan; Zhu, Junjie; Cui, Na; Kang, Le; Cui, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Insect populations feeding on different plant species are under selection pressure to adapt to these differences. A study integrating elements of the ecology, behavior, and gene expression of aphids on different host plants has not yet been well-explored. The present study explores the relationship between host fitness and survival, feeding behavior, and salivary gland gene expression of a pea (Pisum sativum) host race of Acyrthosiphon pisum feeding on a common host Vicia faba and on three genetically-related hosts (Vicia villosa, Medicago truncatula, and Medicago sativa). Life table data indicated that aphids on non-favored hosts exhibited small size, low reproduction rate, slow population increase and individual development, and long lifespan. Electrical penetration graph results showed that the aphids spent significantly less time in passive ingestion of phloem sap on all non-preferred host plants before acclimation. After a period of acclimation on M. truncatula and V. villosa, pea host race individuals showed improved feeding behavior. No individuals of the pea host race completed its life history on M. sativa. Interestingly, the number of host-specific differentially-expressed salivary gland genes was negatively correlated with the fitness of aphids on this host plant. This study provided important cues in host plant specialization in aphids. PMID:26758247

  6. Muscle and liver protein synthesis in growing rats fed diets containing raw legumes as the main source of protein

    SciTech Connect

    Goena, M.; Santidrian, S.; Cuevillas, F.; Larralde, J.

    1986-03-01

    Although legumes are widely used as protein sources, their effects on protein metabolism remain quite unexplored. The authors have measured the rates of gastrocnemius muscle and liver protein synthesis in growing rats fed ad libitum over periods of 12 days on diets containing raw field bean (Vicia faba L.), raw kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), and raw bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia L.) as the major sources of protein. Diets were isocaloric and contained about 12% protein. Protein synthesis was evaluated by the constant-intravenous-infusion method, using L-//sup 14/C/-tyrosine, as well as by the determination of the RNA-activity (g of newly synthesized protein/day/g RNA). Results showed that, as compared to well-fed control animals, those fed the raw legume diets exhibited a marked reduction in the rate of growth with no changes in the amount of food intake (per 100 g b.wt.). These changes were accompanied by a significant reduction in the rate of muscle protein synthesis in all legume-treated rats, being this reduction greater in the animals fed the Ph. vulgaris and V. ervilia diets. Liver protein synthesis was slightly higher in the rats fed the V. faba and V. ervilia diets, and smaller in the Ph. vulgaris-fed rats. It is suggested that both sulfur amino acid deficiency and the presence of different anti-nutritive factors in raw legumes may account for these effects.

  7. Systematics and biology of some species of Micrurapteryx Spuler (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae) from the Holarctic Region, with re-description of M. caraganella (Hering) from Siberia.

    PubMed

    Kirichenko, Natalia; Triberti, Paolo; Mutanen, Marko; Magnoux, Emmanuelle; Landry, Jean-François; Lopez-Vaamonde, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    During a DNA barcoding campaign of leaf-mining insects from Siberia, a genetically divergent lineage of a gracillariid belonging to the genus Micrurapteryx was discovered, whose larvae developed on Caragana Fabr. and Medicago L. (Fabaceae). Specimens from Siberia showed similar external morphology to the Palearctic Micrurapteryx gradatella and the Nearctic Parectopa occulta but differed in male genitalia, DNA barcodes, and nuclear genes histone H3 and 28S. Members of this lineage are re-described here as Micrurapteryx caraganella (Hering, 1957), comb. n., an available name published with only a brief description of its larva and leaf mine. Micrurapteryx caraganella is widely distributed throughout Siberia, from Tyumen oblast in the West to Transbaikalia in the East. Occasionally it may severely affect its main host, Caragana arborescens Lam. This species has been confused in the past with Micrurapteryx gradatella in Siberia, but field observations confirm that Micrurapteryx gradatella exists in Siberia and is sympatric with Micrurapteryx caraganella, at least in the Krasnoyarsk region, where it feeds on different host plants (Vicia amoena Fisch. and Vicia sp.). In addition, based on both morphological and molecular evidence as well as examination of type specimens, the North American Parectopa occulta Braun, 1922 and Parectopa albicostella Braun, 1925 are transferred to Micrurapteryx as Micrurapteryx occulta (Braun, 1922), comb. n. with albicostella as its junior synonym (syn. n.). Characters used to distinguish Micrurapteryx from Parectopa are presented and illustrated. These findings provide another example of the potential of DNA barcoding to reveal overlooked species and illuminate nomenclatural problems. PMID:27110203

  8. Assessment of genotoxicity of Lannate-90® and its plant and animal metabolites in human lymphocyte cultures.

    PubMed

    Valencia-Quintana, Rafael; Gómez-Arroyo, Sandra; Sánchez-Alarcón, Juana; Milić, Mirta; Olivares, José Luis Gómez; Waliszewski, Stefan M; Cortés-Eslava, Josefina; Villalobos-Pietrini, Rafael; Calderón-Segura, María Elena

    2016-06-01

    This study evaluated direct and metabolic genotoxic effects caused by Lannate-90®, a methomyl-based formulation (90 % active ingredient), in human lymphocyte cultures using sister chromatid exchange assay (SCE). Two processes were used for the plant promutagens evaluation: in vivo activation, applying the insecticide systemically in plants for 4 h and subsequently adding plant metabolites containing extracts to lymphocyte cultures; and in vitro activation, where the insecticide was incubated with Vicia faba S10 mix plus human lymphocyte culture. Direct treatment with the insecticide significantly increased SCE frequency in human lymphocytes (250-750 mgL-1), with cellular death observed at 1000 mgL-1 concentration. Using the extracts of Vicia faba treated with Lannate-90® to treat human lymphocytes, a dose-response relationship was observed. In lymphocyte cultures treated directly with the insecticide for 2 h, a negative response was obtained. When S10 mix was added, SCE frequency did not change significantly. Meanwhile, a mixture of S9 mammalian metabolic mix and Lannate-90® increased the SCE frequency, with an observed concentration-dependent response. Although Lannate-90® induced cellular death at the highest concentrations, it did not cause a delay in cell proliferation in any of the treatments, confirming its genotoxic action. This study is one of the first to evaluate and compare the direct effect of Lannate-90® in two bioassays, animal and vegetal, and the effect of plant and animal metabolism on its genotoxic potential. PMID:27331299

  9. The effects of cover crop on weed control in collard (Brassica olerecea var acephala) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Mennan, H; Ngouajio, M; Isik, D; Kose, B; Kaya, E

    2006-01-01

    Leafy vegetables are not very competitive and weed interference can cause considerable yield losses in collard (Brassica olerecea var acephala) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). Currently there are no pre or post emergence herbicides registered for weed control in these vegetables in Turkey. For this reason, alternative weed control strategies need to be developed. Cover crop residue could represent an alternative method of weed management in these crops. Field studies were conducted in 2004 at the Black Sea Agricultural Research Institute experimental field in Samsun, Turkey. The cover crop treatments consisted of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench, Sorghum vulgare Pers., Vicia villosa L., Amaranthus cruentus L., Pisum sativum L. and the bare ground with no cover crop. All cover crops were seeded by hand and incorporated into the soil on 11 May, 2004. Each plot was 10 m2 (2 x 5 m) and arranged in a randomized complete block design with four replications. All cover crops were incorporated into the soil by discing on 1 September 2004 at flowering stage of the cover crops. Broadleaved weed species were dominant in the experimental area. Most cover crops established well and S. bicolor biomass was the highest. The number of weed species emerging in all treatments was different at 14 DAD (days after desiccation). Similar results were observed at 28 and 56 DAD. Treatments with Vicia villosa residues had fewer weed species and lower total weed densities than other treatments. PMID:17390812

  10. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and heavy metals (HMs) as well as their genotoxicity in soil after long-term wastewater irrigation.

    PubMed

    Song, Y F; Wilke, B-M; Song, X Y; Gong, P; Zhou, Q X; Yang, G F

    2006-12-01

    A study was carried out on the residue level of major concern pollutants (PAHs, PCBs and HMs) and the assessment of their genotoxicity in soils obtained from Shenyang, northeast of China which had been subjected to wastewater irrigation for more than 40 years. Topsoils (0-20cm) in paddy fields were sampled along the upper, middle and lower reaches of the wastewater disposal channel. Sixteen USEPA PAHs were determined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detector, eight PCBs were detected by Gas Chromatography (GC) with electron capture detector, and six heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, and Cr) were measured by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The genotoxicity effect of soils was examined by Vicia faba micronucleus (MN) test. Archived soils that had undergone a similar history of wastewater irrigation provided by Technical University of Berlin, Germany were subjected to analysis of the above pollutants and Vicia faba/MN test for comparison. Results indicated elevated residues of the studied pollutants (PAHs, especially benzo (a) pyrene, the eight PCB congeners and heavy metals) in both tested and archived soils. The MN frequencies were 2.2-48.4 times higher compared with the control. However, there was no correlation between the MN frequencies and the concentration of pollutants detected. This investigation suggested a potential ecological risk even with a lower level of residual pollutants in soil matrix after long-term wastewater irrigation. PMID:16707147

  11. Evaluating legume species as alternative trap crops to chickpea for management of Helicoverpa spp. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in central Queensland cotton cropping systems.

    PubMed

    Grundy, P R; Sequeira, R V; Short, K S

    2004-12-01

    Mounting levels of insecticide resistance within Australian Helicoverpa spp. populations have resulted in the adoption of non-chemical IPM control practices such as trap cropping with chickpea, Cicer arietinum (L.). However, a new leaf blight disease affecting chickpea in Australia has the potential to limit its use as a trap crop. Therefore this paper evaluates the potential of a variety of winter-active legume crops for use as an alternative spring trap crop to chickpea as part of an effort to improve the area-wide management strategy for Helicoverpa spp. in central Queensland's cotton production region. The densities of Helicoverpa eggs and larvae were compared over three seasons on replicated plantings of chickpea, Cicer arietinum (L.), field pea Pisum sativum (L), vetch, Vicia sativa (L.) and faba bean, Vicia faba (L.). Of these treatments, field pea was found to harbour the highest densities of eggs. A partial life table study of the fate of eggs oviposited on field pea and chickpea suggested that large proportions of the eggs laid on field pea suffered mortality due to dislodgment from the plants after oviposition. Plantings of field pea as a replacement trap crop for chickpea under commercial conditions confirmed the high level of attractiveness of this crop to ovipositing moths. The use of field pea as a trap crop as part of an area-wide management programme for Helicoverpa spp. is discussed. PMID:15541187

  12. Virulence and genetic diversity among isolates of Mycosphaerella fijiensis in two regions of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, G F; Santos, V S; Sousa, N R; Hanada, R E; Gasparotto, L

    2016-01-01

    Black sigatoka, caused by the fungus Mycosphaerella fijiensis (anamorphic stage: Paracercospora fijiensis), was first detected in Brazil in early 1998 in the Benjamin Constant and Tabatinga municipalities in the State of Amazonas, near to where the borders of Brazil, Colombia, and Peru converge. Understanding how cultivars react to the pathogen, and characterizing the genetic variability of isolates from two distant and distinct banana-producing regions, are important for determining the virulence of M. fijiensis. In the present study, the genetic diversity of 22 M. fijiensis isolates was assessed using simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers, and their virulence was determined following inoculation on three different banana tree cultivars. All 22 isolates caused symptoms of the disease in the Maçã and Prata Comum cultivars 45 days after inoculation, and at least two virulence groups were identified for the Maçã and Prata Comum cultivars. For the D'Angola cultivars, two virulence groups were observed only after 60 days post-inoculation, and three of the isolates were not virulent. Using SSR markers, the isolates from two different regions of Brazil were placed into two genetic groups, both genetically distant from the Mf 138 isolate collected in Leticia, Colombia. There was no evidence of correlation between the virulence groups and the genetic diversity groups. These results demonstrate variability in virulence between isolates as measured by the severity of black sigatoka in the analyzed cultivars. PMID:27173264

  13. Genotoxicity evaluation of effluents from textile industries of the region Fez-Boulmane, Morocco: a case study.

    PubMed

    Giorgetti, Lucia; Talouizte, Hakima; Merzouki, Mohammed; Caltavuturo, Leonardo; Geri, Chiara; Frassinetti, Stefania

    2011-11-01

    In order to investigate the biological hazard of effluents from textile industries of Fez-Boulmane region in Morocco, mutagenicity and phytotoxicity tests were performed on different biological systems. Moreover, the efficiency of a Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) system, working by activated sludge on a laboratory scale, was estimated by comparing the ecotoxicity results observed before and after wastewater treatment. Evaluation of the genotoxic potential was investigated by means of classic mutagenicity tests on D7 strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and by phytotoxicity tests on Allium sativum L., Vicia faba L. and Lactuca sativa L., estimating micronuclei presence, mitotic index and cytogenetic anomalies. The results obtained by testing untreated wastewater demonstrated major genotoxicity effects in S. cerevisiae and various levels of phytotoxicity in the three plant systems, while after SBR treatment no more ecotoxicological consequences were observed. These data confirm the effectiveness of the SBR system in removing toxic substances from textile wastewaters in Fez-Boulmane region. PMID:21840051

  14. Molecular and biological characterization of highly infectious transcripts from full-length cDNA clones of broad bean wilt virus 1.

    PubMed

    Ferriol, Inmaculada; Ambrós, Silvia; da Silva, Dorivaldo M; Falk, Bryce W; Rubio, Luis

    2016-06-01

    Broad bean wilt virus 1 (BBWV-1), genus Fabavirus, has a genome composed of two single-stranded positive-sense RNAs of ∼5.8 (RNA1) and 3.4kb (RNA2). Full-length cDNA clones of both genomic RNAs (pBenR1 and pBenR2) from BBWV-1 isolate Ben were constructed under the control of the T7 promoter. In vitro derived capped transcripts were infectious in Nicotiana benthamiana, Chenopodium quinoa and Vicia faba plants. The biological activity of viral transcripts was not affected by extra bases at the 5'-terminus introduced during in vitro transcription. Virions derived from the infectious cDNA clones displayed similar viral infectivity and accumulation, as well as symptom induction as the wild-type BBWV-1 isolate. PMID:26951858

  15. Mechanical defenses of plant extrafloral nectaries against herbivory.

    PubMed

    Gish, Moshe; Mescher, Mark C; De Moraes, Consuelo M

    2016-01-01

    Extrafloral nectaries play an important role in plant defense against herbivores by providing nectar rewards that attract ants and other carnivorous insects. However, extrafloral nectaries can themselves be targets of herbivory, in addition to being exploited by nectar-robbing insects that do not provide defensive services. We recently found that the extrafloral nectaries of Vicia faba plants, as well as immediately adjacent tissues, exhibit high concentrations of chemical toxins, apparently as a defense against herbivory. Here we report that the nectary tissues of this plant also exhibit high levels of structural stiffness compared to surrounding tissues, likely due to cell wall lignification and the concentration of calcium oxalate crystals in nectary tissues, which may provide an additional deterrent to herbivore feeding on nectary tissues. PMID:27489584

  16. Cytochemical and cytofluorometric evidence for guard cell photosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Vaughn, K.C.; Outlaw, W.H. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Evidence for photosynthetic linear electron transport in guard cells was obtained with two sensitive methods of high spacial resolution. Light-dependent diaminobenzidine oxidation (an indicator of PSI) and DCMU-sensitive, light-dependent thiocarbamyl nitroblue tetrazolium reduction (an indicator of PSII) were observed in guard cell plastids of Hordeum vulgare L. cv Himalaya using electron microscopic cytochemical procedures. DCMU-sensitive Chl a fluorescence induction (an indicator of PSII) was detected in individual guard cell pairs of Vicia faba L. cv Longpod using an ultramicrofluorometer. At least for these species, we conclude these results are proof for the presence of PSII in guard cell chloroplasts, which until now has been somewhat controversial. 31 references, 2 figures.

  17. Purification of pea nodule symbiosomes using an aqueous polymer two-phase system.

    PubMed

    Hernández, L E; Rojas-Ojeda, P; Cooke, D T; Carpena-Ruiz, R

    1996-05-17

    Symbiosomes were obtained from mature pea (Pisum sativum cv. Argona) root nodules infected with Rhizobium leguminosarum strain (biov. viciae 3841) and purified using an aqueous polymer two-phase system (APS). The APS consists of a mixture of polymers, usually dextran T500 and poly(ethylene glycol) 3350, prepared as aqueous solutions on a weight per weight basis, where each fraction distributes according to their surface characteristics. Results of ATPase activity, cytochrome c oxidase activity, glucan synthase II activity, NAD(P)H-cytochrome c reductase activity, NO3(-)-sensitive ATPase activity, transport of [14C]malate vs. [14C]glutamate and MAC 57 antigen analysis showed that the APS method provided intact symbiosomes with low bacteroid, plasma membrane, endoplasmic reticulum and/or mitochondria contamination. No complicated equipment is needed and the method was simple and fast, compared with other purification techniques. PMID:8798895

  18. Quantification of phytochelatins in plants by reversed-phase HPLC-ESI-MS-MS.

    PubMed

    El-Zohri, M H A; Cabala, R; Frank, H

    2005-08-01

    An on-line HPLC-ESI-MS-MS method has been developed for determination of glutathione and phytochelatins (PC) in plant tissues. For sample pretreatment, dithiothreitol (DTT) must be added at the very beginning, as an anti-oxidant. Optimization of instrumental conditions i.e. composition of HPLC mobile phase, ionization efficiency of the electrospray interface, and MS-MS detection in the multiple ion-monitoring mode, are the central aspects of this work. A polystyrene-packed column was found to be superior to a standard silica-packed reversed-phase column. A concave quadratic gradient of ammonium formate buffer and acetonitrile was found to be optimum. The limits of quantitation were 0.2 micromol kg(-1) plant tissue for glutathione and PC. The method has been applied to analysis of tissue samples from Vicia faba grown in Cd-containing nutrient solutions. PMID:16001238

  19. Adsorption at the air-water interface and emulsification properties of grain legume protein derivatives from pea and broad bean.

    PubMed

    Tsoukala, A; Papalamprou, E; Makri, E; Doxastakis, G; Braudo, E E

    2006-12-01

    Functional properties of native and modified (through induced autolysis) pea (Pisum sativum L.) and broad bean (Vicia faba L.) protein derivatives are studied. In specific, protein solubility and behavior at the air-water interface through surface pressure measurements are investigated. Furthermore the ability of the protein products to act as emulsifying agents and to stabilize emulsions is studied through oil droplet size distribution measurements and by the protein adsorbed at the oil-water interface. The data reveal that the ability of the proteins to act as surfactants and build up a rigid film around the oil droplets, mainly depends on their suitable molecular configuration and structure. Hydrolysis did not promote the functionality of the legume proteins. Broad bean exhibited better functionality than pea, before and after hydrolysis. Some comparisons were also made with lupin (Lupinus albus L.) protein isolate. PMID:17049437

  20. [Characteristic of one-paired pea virus].

    PubMed

    Kakareka, N N; Kozlovskaia, Z N; Volkov, Iu G

    2010-01-01

    The new virus isolated from Vicia unijuga A.Br. with filament particles with size 1000-1200 x 10-12 nm is revealed. A thermal inactivation point is 55 degrees C; dilution end point - 10(-5)-10(-6) longevity in vitro in broad bean sap--less than one day. It is transferred by aphids and by pea, bean and broad bean seeds. The plants of Fabaceae, Solanaceae and Chenopodiaceae fam. were affected by this virus isolate. The virus yield was 40-50 mg per 100 g of leaves. The ratio of absorption E260/E280 corresponded to 1.4-1.5. The molecular mass of a core protein of the virus was 34 kD. The virus has a high immunogenic properties--titer is 1:256000 (indirect method of ELISA). It is presumably identified as a member of Closteroviridae. PMID:20695230

  1. Ozone inhibits guard cell K+ channels implicated in stomatal opening

    PubMed Central

    Torsethaugen, Gro; Pell, Eva J.; Assmann, Sarah M.

    1999-01-01

    Ozone (O3) deleteriously affects organisms ranging from humans to crop plants, yet little is understood regarding the underlying mechanisms. In plants, O3 decreases CO2 assimilation, but whether this could result from direct O3 action on guard cells remained unknown. Potassium flux causes osmotically driven changes in guard cell volume that regulate apertures of associated microscopic pores through which CO2 is supplied to the photosynthetic mesophyll tissue. We show in Vicia faba that O3 inhibits (i) guard cell K+ channels that mediate K+ uptake that drives stomatal opening; (ii) stomatal opening in isolated epidermes; and (iii) stomatal opening in leaves, such that CO2 assimilation is reduced without direct effects of O3 on photosynthetic capacity. Direct O3 effects on guard cells may have ecological and agronomic implications for plant productivity and for response to other environmental stressors including drought. PMID:10557363

  2. Fatty acid, amino acid, and mineral composition of four common vetch seeds on Qinghai-Tibetan plateau.

    PubMed

    Mao, Zhuxin; Fu, Hua; Nan, Zhibiao; Wan, Changgui

    2015-03-15

    The chemical composition of four common vetch (Vicia sativa L.) seeds was investigated to determine their nutrition value. The result shows that the seeds are low in lipid (1.55-2.74% of dry weight), and high in the unsaturated fatty acid (74.51-77.36% of total fatty acid). The ratio of essential amino acid to non-essential amino acid (0.62-0.69) is even higher than the amount (0.38) recommended by World Health Organization. Besides, the seeds are also found rich in Mg, Mn and Cu, but with a low ratio of Ca to P (0.24-0.73), which may increase the risk of the mineral element toxicity. The results indicate that the four common vetch seeds could be taken as an alternative food source, but the possible toxic effect should be taken into consideration. PMID:25308636

  3. Favism, with special reference to Iran*

    PubMed Central

    Donoso, G.; Hedayat, H.; Khayatian, H.

    1969-01-01

    Fava beans (Vicia fava) are cultivated rather widely in most countries of the Eastern Mediterranean area and provide a cheap but protein-rich food that can be eaten alone, in various culinary preparations, including bread, or as a dietary supplement. However, the ingestion of fava beans may induce a haemolytic disease—favism—in some susceptible individuals and this might appear to limit the use of this pulse crop in those regions where favism occurs frequently. The uses of fava beans in Iran, the characteristics of favism and the present state of knowledge of the pathology of the disease are reviewed in this paper. Although some progress has been made in identifying the toxic substances and in explaining their mode of action, our understanding of favism is still limited. It appears that the disease is seen particularly in young children and is associated with a deficiency of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) in the blood. PMID:5306718

  4. A double diastereoselective Michael-type addition as an entry to conformationally restricted tn antigen mimics.

    PubMed

    Aydillo, Carlos; Navo, Claudio D; Busto, Jesús H; Corzana, Francisco; Zurbano, María M; Avenoza, Alberto; Peregrina, Jesús M

    2013-11-01

    A totally stereocontrolled C-Michael addition of serine-equivalent C-nucleophiles to tri-O-benzyl-2-nitro-d-galactal was used as the key step to synthesize several pyrano[3,2-b]pyrrole structures. These scaffolds could be regarded as conformationally restricted Tn antigen mimics, as we have demonstrated by biological assays. The pyranose rings retain their (4)C1 chair conformation, as shown by molecular modeling and NMR spectroscopy. The expected bioactivity was established by a competition-tailored enzyme-linked lectin assay using both soybean and Vicia villosa agglutinins as model lectins. The facile described synthetic route and the strategic combination of computational and experimental techniques to reveal conformational features and bioactivity demonstrate the prepared glycomimics to be promising candidates for further exploitation of this scaffold to give glycans for lectin blocking and vaccination. PMID:24083620

  5. Chemical modification of carbohydrates in tissue sections may unmask mucin antigens.

    PubMed

    Kirkeby, S

    2013-01-01

    Expression of mucins in cells and tissues is of great diagnostic and prognostic importance, and immunohistochemistry frequently is used to detect them. Reports concerning mucin localization in sections sometimes are conflicting, however, partly because immunogenic regions of the mucin molecule may be masked and thus not available for binding to an antibody. We modified carbohydrates in tissue sections chemically to enhance the binding of monoclonal mucin antibodies and of the lectin, Vicia villosa B4, to human tissue. The immunohistochemical localization of MUC1 and the simple mucin-type antigens, Tn and sialyl-Tn, was influenced by oxidation with periodic acid and by β-elimination before incubation. In some epithelial cells the staining was prevented by these procedures while in other cells it was evident. It appears that chemical modification can either destroy some antigen binding sites or unmask cryptic antigen binding sites in the mucin molecule and thereby make them accessible for immunohistochemical detection. PMID:22998734

  6. Cyanamide mode of action during inhibition of onion (Allium cepa L.) root growth involves disturbances in cell division and cytoskeleton formation.

    PubMed

    Soltys, Dorota; Rudzińska-Langwald, Anna; Kurek, Wojciech; Gniazdowska, Agnieszka; Sliwinska, Elwira; Bogatek, Renata

    2011-09-01

    Cyanamide is an allelochemical produced by hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth.). Its phyotoxic effect on plant growth was examined on roots of onion (Allium cepa L.) bulbs. Water solution of cyanamide (2-10 mM) restricted growth of onion roots in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment of onion roots with cyanamide resulted in a decrease in root growth rate accompanied by a decrease in accumulation of fresh and dry weight. The inhibitory effect of cyanamide was reversed by its removal from the environment, but full recovery was observed only for tissue treated with this chemical at low concentration (2-6 mM). Cytological observations of root tip cells suggest that disturbances in cell division may explain the strong cyanamide allelopathic activity. Moreover, in cyanamide-treated onion the following changes were detected: reduction of mitotic cells, inhibition of proliferation of meristematic cells and cell cycle, and modifications of cytoskeleton arrangement. PMID:21573814

  7. The new face of nucleolin in human melanoma.

    PubMed

    Hoja-Łukowicz, Dorota; Przybyło, Małgorzata; Pocheć, Ewa; Drabik, Anna; Silberring, Jerzy; Kremser, Marcelina; Schadendorf, Dirk; Laidler, Piotr; Lityńska, Anna

    2009-09-01

    Nucleolin is multifunctional protein mainly present in nucleoli but also detected in cytoplasm and plasma membranes. Extranuclear nucleolin differs from the nuclear form by its glycosylation. Studies on expression of nucleolin in breast cancer suggest a possible association to the metastatic cascade. In the present study, Vicia villosa lectin (VVL) precipitation followed by subsequent polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry analysis demonstrates nucleolin as a VVL-positive glycoprotein expressed in melanoma. The presence of VVL-positive nucleolin in the melanoma cell membrane and cytoplasm was confirmed by confocal microscopy. Using bioinformatic peptide prediction programs, nucleolin was shown to contain multiple possible MHC class-I binding peptides in its sequence which makes nucleolin an interesting melanoma marker and target for immunodiagnostic and possibly therapeutic purposes. PMID:19363676

  8. Serine versus threonine glycosylation with α-O-GalNAc: unexpected selectivity in their molecular recognition with lectins.

    PubMed

    Madariaga, David; Martínez-Sáez, Nuria; Somovilla, Víctor J; García-García, Laura; Berbis, M Álvaro; Valero-Gónzalez, Jessika; Martín-Santamaría, Sonsoles; Hurtado-Guerrero, Ramon; Asensio, Juan L; Jiménez-Barbero, Jesús; Avenoza, Alberto; Busto, Jesús H; Corzana, Francisco; Peregrina, Jesús M

    2014-09-22

    The molecular recognition of several glycopeptides bearing Tn antigen (α-O-GalNAc-Ser or α-O-GalNAc-Thr) in their structure by three lectins with affinity for this determinant has been analysed. The work yields remarkable results in terms of epitope recognition, showing that the underlying amino acid of Tn (serine or threonine) plays a key role in the molecular recognition. In fact, while Soybean agglutinin and Vicia villosa agglutinin lectins prefer Tn-threonine, Helix pomatia agglutinin shows a higher affinity for the glycopeptides carrying Tn-serine. The different conformational behaviour of the two Tn biological entities, the residues of the studied glycopeptides in the close proximity to the Tn antigen and the topology of the binding site of the lectins are at the origin of these differences. PMID:25111627

  9. Inhibition of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) root growth by cyanamide is due to altered cell division, phytohormone balance and expansin gene expression.

    PubMed

    Soltys, Dorota; Rudzińska-Langwald, Anna; Gniazdowska, Agnieszka; Wiśniewska, Anita; Bogatek, Renata

    2012-11-01

    Cyanamide (CA) has been reported as a natural compound produced by hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth.) and it was shown also to be an allelochemical, responsible for strong allelopathic potential in this species. CA phytotoxicity has been demonstrated on various plant species, but to date little is known about its mode of action at cellular level. Treatment of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) roots with CA (1.2 mM) resulted in inhibition of growth accompanied by alterations in cell division, and imbalance of plant hormone (ethylene and auxin) homeostasis. Moreover, the phytotoxic effect of CA was also manifested by modifications in expansin gene expression, especially in expansins responsible for cell wall remodeling after the cytokinesis (LeEXPA9, LeEXPA18). Based on these results the phytotoxic activity of CA on growth of roots of tomato seedlings is likely due to alterations associated with cell division. PMID:22847024

  10. Quantification of cyanamide contents in herbaceous plants.

    PubMed

    Kamo, Tsunashi; Sato, Masae; Kato, Kenji; Hiradate, Syuntaro; Nakajima, Eri; Fujii, Yoshiharu; Hirota, Mitsuru

    2006-09-01

    Cyanamide (NH2CN) is found in nature, although it has long been recognized as an industrial product. Distribution of cyanamide in the plant kingdom was investigated using a direct quantitative determination method to detect and measure cyanamide by stable isotope dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (the SID-GC-MS method). The SID-GC-MS method proved to be a robust way to quantify cyanamide contents in the extracts of 101 species of herbaceous plants. The average recovery of cyanamide from all plants tested was 55.6+/-20.3%. Vicia villosa and V. cracca contained cyanamide at 369-498 microg/gFW and 3,460-3,579 microg/gFW respectively, while the other 99 species contained no detectable cyanamide (<1 microg/gFW). This result suggests that distribution of cyanamide in the plant kingdom is limited and uneven. PMID:16960361

  11. Versican in the developing brain: lamina-specific expression in interneuronal subsets and role in presynaptic maturation.

    PubMed

    Yamagata, Masahito; Sanes, Joshua R

    2005-09-14

    Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) of the extracellular matrix help stabilize synaptic connections in the postnatal brain and impede regeneration after injury. Here, we show that a CSPG of the lectican family, versican, also promotes presynaptic maturation in the developing brain. In the embryonic chick optic tectum, versican is expressed selectively by subsets of interneurons confined to the retinorecipient laminae, in which retinal axons arborize and form synapses. It is a major receptor for the Vicia villosa B4 lectin (VVA), shown previously to inhibit invasion of the retinorecipient lamina by retinal axons (Inoue and Sanes, 1997). In vitro, versican promotes enlargement of presynaptic varicosities in retinal axons. Depletion of versican in ovo, by RNA interference, results in retinal arbors with smaller than normal varicosities. We propose that versican provides a lamina-specific cue for presynaptic maturation and discuss the related but distinct effects of versican depletion and VVA blockade. PMID:16162928

  12. Mechanical defenses of plant extrafloral nectaries against herbivory

    PubMed Central

    Gish, Moshe; Mescher, Mark C.; De Moraes, Consuelo M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Extrafloral nectaries play an important role in plant defense against herbivores by providing nectar rewards that attract ants and other carnivorous insects. However, extrafloral nectaries can themselves be targets of herbivory, in addition to being exploited by nectar-robbing insects that do not provide defensive services. We recently found that the extrafloral nectaries of Vicia faba plants, as well as immediately adjacent tissues, exhibit high concentrations of chemical toxins, apparently as a defense against herbivory. Here we report that the nectary tissues of this plant also exhibit high levels of structural stiffness compared to surrounding tissues, likely due to cell wall lignification and the concentration of calcium oxalate crystals in nectary tissues, which may provide an additional deterrent to herbivore feeding on nectary tissues. PMID:27489584

  13. Nonphysiological binding of ethylene by plants.

    PubMed

    Abeles, F B

    1984-03-01

    Ethylene binding to seedling tissue of Vicia faba, Phaseolus vulgaris, Glycine max, and Triticum aestivum was demonstrated by determining transit time required for ethylene to move through a glass tube filled with seedling tissue. Transit time for ethylene was greater than that for methane indicating that these tissues had an affinity for ethylene. However, the following observations suggest that the binding was not physiological. Inhibitors of ethylene action such as Ag(+) ions and CO(2) did not decrease binding. Mushrooms which have no known sites of ethylene action also demonstrated ethylene binding. The binding of acetylene, propylene, ethylene, propane, and ethane more closely followed their solubility in water than any known physiological activity. PMID:16663455

  14. Nonphysiological Binding of Ethylene by Plants

    PubMed Central

    Abeles, Fred B.

    1984-01-01

    Ethylene binding to seedling tissue of Vicia faba, Phaseolus vulgaris, Glycine max, and Triticum aestivum was demonstrated by determining transit time required for ethylene to move through a glass tube filled with seedling tissue. Transit time for ethylene was greater than that for methane indicating that these tissues had an affinity for ethylene. However, the following observations suggest that the binding was not physiological. Inhibitors of ethylene action such as Ag+ ions and CO2 did not decrease binding. Mushrooms which have no known sites of ethylene action also demonstrated ethylene binding. The binding of acetylene, propylene, ethylene, propane, and ethane more closely followed their solubility in water than any known physiological activity. PMID:16663455

  15. Stable Carbon Isotope Evidence for Neolithic and Bronze Age Crop Water Management in the Eastern Mediterranean and Southwest Asia

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Michael P.; Jones, Glynis; Charles, Michael; Fraser, Rebecca; Heaton, Tim H. E.; Bogaard, Amy

    2015-01-01

    In a large study on early crop water management, stable carbon isotope discrimination was determined for 275 charred grain samples from nine archaeological sites, dating primarily to the Neolithic and Bronze Age, from the Eastern Mediterranean and Western Asia. This has revealed that wheat (Triticum spp.) was regularly grown in wetter conditions than barley (Hordeum sp.), indicating systematic preferential treatment of wheat that may reflect a cultural preference for wheat over barley. Isotopic analysis of pulse crops (Lens culinaris, Pisum sativum and Vicia ervilia) indicates cultivation in highly varied water conditions at some sites, possibly as a result of opportunistic watering practices. The results have also provided evidence for local land-use and changing agricultural practices. PMID:26061494

  16. Complete genome sequences of a putative new alphapartitivirus detected in Rosa spp.

    PubMed

    Phelan, James; James, Delano

    2016-09-01

    A putative new alphapartitivirus was detected by next-generation sequencing (NGS) in Rosa spp. and identified as rose partitivirus isolate Phyllis Bide (RoPV-PB). The virus is bipartite with a dsRNA1 fragment (1937 bp) encoding a putative RdRp and a dsRNA2 fragment (1811 bp) encoding the putative CP subunit of the virus. dsRNA1 of RoPV-BP is closely related to Vicia faba partitivirus 1, with identities of 67 % and 72 % for the nucleotide (nt) and deduced amino acid (aa) sequences, respectively. In NGS analysis of RoPV-BP, coverage was uneven across both dsRNA fragments, with GC/AT content appearing to be a major determinant of depth of coverage. PMID:27368993

  17. Content of Zinc and Copper in Selected Plants Growing Along a Motorway.

    PubMed

    Malinowska, Elżbieta; Jankowski, Kazimierz; Wiśniewska-Kadżajan, Beata; Sosnowski, Jacek; Kolczarek, Roman; Jankowska, Jolanta; Ciepiela, Grażyna A

    2015-11-01

    In 2011 a study was carried out analyzing the effects of road traffic on bioaccumulation of zinc and copper in selected species of dicotyledonous plants growing on adjacent grasslands. To do the research the plants were sampled from the 9-km-long Siedlce bypass, a part of the international route E-30. They were collected during the flowering stage, at following distances from the road: 1, 5, 10, 15 m. The content of zinc and copper was determined with the AAS method, with dry mineralisation done before. The highest concentration of the elements, regardless of the distance from the road, was found in Taraxacum spec. Among the tested plants, the lowest zinc content was in Vicia cracca, and the lowest copper content in Rumex acetosa. The limit for copper content was exceeded in Taraxacum spec. and, slightly, in Achillea millefolium growing at the roadside, closest to the roadway. PMID:26364030

  18. Molecular characterization of a GA-inducible gene, Cvsus1, in developing watermelon seeds.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joonyul; Jun, Sung-Hoon; Kang, Hong-Gyu; Lee, Jinwon; An, Gynheung

    2002-10-31

    To understand the molecular mechanisms that control seed development, we isolated a seed-preferential gene from ESTs of developing watermelon seeds. The gene Cvsus1 encodes a protein that is 86% identical to the Vicia faba sucrose synthase expressed in developing seeds. RNA blot analysis showed that Cvsus1 was preferentially expressed in watermelon seeds. We also investigated gene expression levels both in pollinated seeds and in parthenocarpic seeds, which lack zygotic tissues. Whereas the transcript level of Cvsus1 was rapidly increased during normal seed development, the expression was not significantly increased in the parthenocarpic seeds. However, treating the parthenocarpic fruits with GA3 strongly induced Cvsus1 expression, up to the level accumulated in pollinated seeds. These results suggest that Cvsus1 is induced in maternal tissues via signals from the zygotic tissues, and that GA may be one of those signals. PMID:12442898

  19. Effects of phaseic acid and dihydrophaseic acid on stomata and the photosynthetic apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Sharkey, T.D.; Raschke, K.

    1980-02-01

    Plant extracts containing phaseic acid (PA), as well as solutions of purified PA and dihydrophaseic acid (DPA) were applied to leaves, isolated mesophyll cells, and isolated epidermal strips. In Commelina communis, stomatal closure began 4 minutes after the addition of either 20 micromolar (+-)-abscisic acid or 10 micromolar PA. Stomata closed less rapidly after treatment with 10 micromolar PA than after treatment with 10 micromolar (+-)-abscisic acid in Amaranthus powelli, Hordeum vulgare, Xanthium strumarium, and Zea mays and did not respond at all to PA in Vicia faba. DPA (10 micromolar) did not cause stomatal closure in any species. Plant extracts containing PA reduced photosynthesis. Subsequent experiments with PA purified by crystallization and with residues of solvents employed in the extraction of PA proved that it was not PA that impaired photosynthetic O/sub 2/ evolution or CO/sub 2/ uptake but unidentified contaminants of the allegedly pure solvents.

  20. A slow anion channel in guard cells, activating at large hyperpolarization, may be principal for stomatal closing.

    PubMed

    Linder, B; Raschke, K

    1992-11-16

    Slowly activating anion channel currents were discovered at micromolar 'cytoplasmic' Ca2+ during patch-clamp measurements on guard-cell protoplasts of Vicia faba and Xanthium strumarium. They activated at potentials as low as -200 mV, with time constants between 5 and 60 s, and no inactivation. The broad voltage dependence exhibited a current maximum near -40 mV. The single-channel open time was in the order of seconds, and the unitary conductance was 33 ps, similar to that of the already described 'quick' anion channel of guard cells. Because of its activity at low potentials, the slow anion channel may be essential for the depolarization of the plasmalemma that is required for salt efflux during stomatal closing. PMID:1385219

  1. Effects of Mg{sup 2+}, Co{sup 2+}, and Hg{sup 2+} on the nucleus and nucleolus in root tip cells of allium cepa

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, D.; Jiang, W.; Wang, W.; Zhai, L.

    1995-11-01

    Metal toxicity in plants has been known for a long time. Much importance has increasingly been attached to the problems of metal pollution with the development of modern industry and agriculture. If metals in plants are accumulated to a large extent, it might seriously affect them. The cytological effects of cobalt and mercury have been studied in Allium cepa by documentation of c-mitosis. Also, the quantification of chromosome aberration in Vicia faba root-tip cells treated by magnesium sulphate and in Allium cepa by metyl mercury chloride and mercuric chloride has been reported. Cytological research on the poisoning effects of Mg, Co and Hg on the nuclei and nucleoli in root-tip cells of plants has hardly been reported. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of different concentrations of magnesium, cobalt and mercury ions on root growth, and on the nuclei and nucleoli of root tip cells of Allium-cepa. 20 refs., 3 figs.

  2. [Relationship between an organism's radiosensitivity and its level of repair processes].

    PubMed

    Tikhomirova, M M

    1980-04-01

    Radioresistance and repair intensity were simultaneously studied in 13 stocks of Drosophila melanogaster. The frequency of exceptional males in the progeny of X-irradiated females was used as radioresistance criterion. Repair intensity was estimated by the radiation after-effect which was determined under successive action of the radiation and elevated temperature (37 degrees C). It has been shown that the higher is the stock radioresistance, the higher are repair capacity of the stock. However, it has been revealed that relatively independent combining of radioresistance and repair intensity is possible, excluding one, "forbidden" combination: there are no organisms which are sensitive to radiation and have a high repair level. The last law appears to have a general biological nature, it is characteristic for microorganisms (Escherichia coli), plants (Vicia faba) and insects (D. melanogaster). PMID:6777252

  3. Underground signals carried through common mycelial networks warn neighbouring plants of aphid attack.

    PubMed

    Babikova, Zdenka; Gilbert, Lucy; Bruce, Toby J A; Birkett, Michael; Caulfield, John C; Woodcock, Christine; Pickett, John A; Johnson, David

    2013-07-01

    The roots of most land plants are colonised by mycorrhizal fungi that provide mineral nutrients in exchange for carbon. Here, we show that mycorrhizal mycelia can also act as a conduit for signalling between plants, acting as an early warning system for herbivore attack. Insect herbivory causes systemic changes in the production of plant volatiles, particularly methyl salicylate, making bean plants, Vicia faba, repellent to aphids but attractive to aphid enemies such as parasitoids. We demonstrate that these effects can also occur in aphid-free plants but only when they are connected to aphid-infested plants via a common mycorrhizal mycelial network. This underground messaging system allows neighbouring plants to invoke herbivore defences before attack. Our findings demonstrate that common mycorrhizal mycelial networks can determine the outcome of multitrophic interactions by communicating information on herbivore attack between plants, thereby influencing the behaviour of both herbivores and their natural enemies. PMID:23656527

  4. Herbicidal activity of volatiles from coriander, winter savory, cotton lavender, and thyme isolated by hydrodistillation and supercritical fluid extraction.

    PubMed

    Grosso, Clara; Coelho, José A; Urieta, José S; Palavra, António M F; Barroso, José G

    2010-10-27

    The volatiles from Coriandrum sativum L., Satureja montana L., Santolina chamaecyparissus L., and Thymus vulgaris L. were isolated by hydrodistillation (essential oil) and supercritical fluid extraction (volatile oil). Their effect on seed germination and root and shoot growth of the surviving seedlings of four crops ( Zea mays L., Triticum durum L., Pisum sativum L., and Lactuca sativa L.) and two weeds ( Portulaca oleracea L. and Vicia sativa L.) was investigated and compared with those of two synthetic herbicides, Agrocide and Prowl. The volatile oils of thyme and cotton lavender seemed to be promising alternatives to the synthetic herbicides because they were the least injurious to the crop species. The essential oil of winter savory, on the other hand, affected both crop and weeds and can be appropriate for uncultivated fields. PMID:20886818

  5. Centromeres Off the Hook: Massive Changes in Centromere Size and Structure Following Duplication of CenH3 Gene in Fabeae Species

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, Pavel; Pavlíková, Zuzana; Koblížková, Andrea; Fuková, Iva; Jedličková, Veronika; Novák, Petr; Macas, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    In most eukaryotes, centromere is determined by the presence of the centromere-specific histone variant CenH3. Two types of chromosome morphology are generally recognized with respect to centromere organization. Monocentric chromosomes possess a single CenH3-containing domain in primary constriction, whereas holocentric chromosomes lack the primary constriction and display dispersed distribution of CenH3. Recently, metapolycentric chromosomes have been reported in Pisum sativum, representing an intermediate type of centromere organization characterized by multiple CenH3-containing domains distributed across large parts of chromosomes that still form a single constriction. In this work, we show that this type of centromere is also found in other Pisum and closely related Lathyrus species, whereas Vicia and Lens genera, which belong to the same legume tribe Fabeae, possess only monocentric chromosomes. We observed extensive variability in the size of primary constriction and the arrangement of CenH3 domains both between and within individual Pisum and Lathyrus species, with no obvious correlation to genome or chromosome size. Search for CenH3 gene sequences revealed two paralogous variants, CenH3-1 and CenH3-2, which originated from a duplication event in the common ancestor of Fabeae species. The CenH3-1 gene was subsequently lost or silenced in the lineage leading to Vicia and Lens, whereas both genes are retained in Pisum and Lathyrus. Both of these genes appear to have evolved under purifying selection and produce functional CenH3 proteins which are fully colocalized. The findings described here provide the first evidence for a highly dynamic centromere structure within a group of closely related species, challenging previous concepts of centromere evolution. PMID:25771197

  6. Systematics and biology of some species of Micrurapteryx Spuler (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae) from the Holarctic Region, with re-description of M. caraganella (Hering) from Siberia

    PubMed Central

    Kirichenko, Natalia; Triberti, Paolo; Mutanen, Marko; Magnoux, Emmanuelle; Landry, Jean-François; Lopez-Vaamonde, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Abstract During a DNA barcoding campaign of leaf-mining insects from Siberia, a genetically divergent lineage of a gracillariid belonging to the genus Micrurapteryx was discovered, whose larvae developed on Caragana Fabr. and Medicago L. (Fabaceae). Specimens from Siberia showed similar external morphology to the Palearctic Micrurapteryx gradatella and the Nearctic Parectopa occulta but differed in male genitalia, DNA barcodes, and nuclear genes histone H3 and 28S. Members of this lineage are re-described here as Micrurapteryx caraganella (Hering, 1957), comb. n., an available name published with only a brief description of its larva and leaf mine. Micrurapteryx caraganella is widely distributed throughout Siberia, from Tyumen oblast in the West to Transbaikalia in the East. Occasionally it may severely affect its main host, Caragana arborescens Lam. This species has been confused in the past with Micrurapteryx gradatella in Siberia, but field observations confirm that Micrurapteryx gradatella exists in Siberia and is sympatric with Micrurapteryx caraganella, at least in the Krasnoyarsk region, where it feeds on different host plants (Vicia amoena Fisch. and Vicia sp.). In addition, based on both morphological and molecular evidence as well as examination of type specimens, the North American Parectopa occulta Braun, 1922 and Parectopa albicostella Braun, 1925 are transferred to Micrurapteryx as Micrurapteryx occulta (Braun, 1922), comb. n. with albicostella as its junior synonym (syn. n.). Characters used to distinguish Micrurapteryx from Parectopa are presented and illustrated. These findings provide another example of the potential of DNA barcoding to reveal overlooked species and illuminate nomenclatural problems. PMID:27110203

  7. Host-plant dependent population genetics of the invading weevil Hypera postica.

    PubMed

    Iwase, S-I; Nakahira, K; Tuda, M; Kagoshima, K; Takagi, M

    2015-02-01

    Population genetics of invading pests can be informative for understanding their ecology. In this study, we investigated population genetics of the invasive alfalfa weevil Hypera postica in Fukuoka Prefecture, Japan. We analyzed mitochondrial tRNALeu-COII, nuclear EF-1α gene fragments, and Wolbachia infection in relation to three leguminous host plants: Vicia angustifolia, Vicia villosa, and a new host Astragalus sinicus cultivated as a honey source and green manure crop. A parsimony network generated from mitochondrial gene sequences uncovered two major haplotypic groups, Western and Egyptian. In contrast to reported Wolbachia infection of the Western strain in the United States, none of our analyzed individuals were infected. The absence of Wolbachia may contribute to the stable coexistence of mitochondrial strains through inter-strain reproductive compatibility. Hypera postica genetic variants for the mitochondrial and nuclear genes were associated neither with host plant species nor with two geographic regions (Hisayama and Kama) within Fukuoka. Mitochondrial haplogroups were incongruent with nuclear genetic variants. Genetic diversity at the nuclear locus was the highest for the populations feeding on V. angustifolia. The nuclear data for A. sinicus-feeding populations indicated past sudden population growth and extended Bayesian skyline plot analysis based on the mitochondrial and nuclear data showed that the growth of A. sinicus-feeding population took place within the past 1000 years. These results suggest a shorter history of A. sinicus as a host plant compared with V. angustifolia and a recent rapid growth of H. postica population using the new host A. sinicus. PMID:25336385

  8. Nutrient limitation of native and invasive N2-fixing plants in northwest prairies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorpe, Andrea S.; Perakis, Steven S.; Catricala, Christina; Kaye, Thomas N.

    2013-01-01

    Nutrient rich conditions often promote plant invasions, yet additions of non-nitrogen (N) nutrients may provide a novel approach for conserving native symbiotic N-fixing plants in otherwise N-limited ecosystems. Lupinus oreganus is a threatened N-fixing plant endemic to prairies in western Oregon and southwest Washington (USA). We tested the effect of non-N fertilizers on the growth, reproduction, tissue N content, and stable isotope δ15N composition of Lupinus at three sites that differed in soil phosphorus (P) and N availability. We also examined changes in other Fabaceae (primarily Vicia sativa and V. hirsuta) and cover of all plant species. Variation in background soil P and N availability shaped patterns of nutrient limitation across sites. Where soil P and N were low, P additions increased Lupinus tissue N and altered foliar δ15N, suggesting P limitation of N fixation. Where soil P was low but N was high, P addition stimulated growth and reproduction in Lupinus. At a third site, with higher soil P, only micro- and macronutrient fertilization without N and P increased Lupinus growth and tissue N. Lupinus foliar δ15N averaged −0.010‰ across all treatments and varied little with tissue N, suggesting consistent use of fixed N. In contrast, foliar δ15N of Vicia spp. shifted towards 0‰ as tissue N increased, suggesting that conditions fostering N fixation may benefit these exotic species. Fertilization increased cover, N fixation, and tissue N of non-target, exotic Fabaceae, but overall plant community structure shifted at only one site, and only after the dominant Lupinus was excluded from analyses. Our finding that non-N fertilization increased the performance of Lupinus with few community effects suggests a potential strategy to aid populations of threatened legume species. The increase in exotic Fabaceae species that occurred with fertilization further suggests that monitoring and adaptive management should accompany any large scale applications.

  9. Morphological and physiological changes in esterase and lipid peroxidation of two bean cultivars pre-soaked with potassium nitrate under salt stress.

    PubMed

    Shaddad, Mohamed A K; Abd El-Baki, Gaber K; Doaa, Mostafa; Al-Shimaa, Rafat

    2015-12-01

    Two broad bean cultivars (Vicia faba CV Nobaria3 and Vicia faba CV Sakha3) were obtained from Mallwi Agriculture Research Center, El Minia Governorate, Egypt. The seeds were divided into two groups, the first group soaked with distilled water, while the second group were soaked with 3 mM KNO₃, respectively, for 4 hours. Seeds were sown and left to grow for 3 weeks then treated with different concentrations of NaCl (0.0, 40, 80, 120 and 160 mM) by top irrigation, then they left to grow further for 65 days from sowing. Plant samples were collected for some measurements: leaf area, plant height, root length, fresh and dry weight, photosynthetic pigments, carotenoids, soluble sugars, soluble proteins, total free amino acids, esterase enzyme, as well as MDA (malondialdehyde) content. Salinity reduced both fresh and dry weight in two broad bean cultivars, this reduction were more pronounced in Sakha3 than Nobaria3. Seed pre-soaking with KNO₃resulted in enhancement of fresh and dry weight production in both cultivars especially at 40 mM NaCl. Photosynthetic pigments were substantially affected by salt treatment while the carotenoids were increased, seed pre-soaking with KNO₃improved these components. The soluble sugars, amino acids as well as soluble proteins showed various responses with increasing salinity in the cultivars, seed pre-soaking with KNO₃has improved these parameters to some extent. The shoots of two cultivars exhibited significant accumulation of MDA, compared to roots exposed to the highest salinity levels. Pre-soaking seeds with KNO₃did not improve MDA in shoots but enhanced it in roots, however, in most cases still lower than the absolute control. The assessment of the esterase isozyme profiles on 7.5% native polyacrylamide gel revealed the presence of 13 isoforms in two faba bean plants in response to KNO₃pre-soaking and treatments with different concentrations of NaCl. PMID:26616374

  10. Effects of urbanization on direct and indirect interactions in a tri-trophic system.

    PubMed

    Tabea, Turrini; Dirk, Sanders; Eva, Knop

    2016-04-01

    While effects of urbanization on species assemblages are receiving increasing attention, effects on ecological interactions remain largely unexplored. We investigated how urbanization influences the strength of direct and indirect trophic interactions in a tri- trophic system. In a field experiment including five cities and nearby farmed areas, we used potted Vicia faba plants and manipulated the presence of Megoura viciae aphids and that of naturally occurring aphid predators. When predators could access aphids, they reduced their abundance less in the urban than in the agricultural ecosystem. Compared to aphid abundance on plants without predator access, abundance on plants with predator access was 2.58 times lower in urban and 5.27 times lower in agricultural areas. This indicates that urbanization limited top-down control of aphids by predators. In both ecosystems, plant biomass was negatively affected by herbivores and positively affected by predators, but the positive indirect predator effect was weaker in cities. Compared to aphid-infested plants without predator access, plants with predator access were 1.89 times heavier in urban and 2.12 times heavier in agricultural areas. Surprisingly, differences between ecosystems regarding the indirect predator effect on plants were not explained by the differentially strong herbivore suppression. Instead, the urban environment limited plant biomass per se, thereby mitigating the scope of a positive predator effect. Our results show that urbanization can influence direct and indirect trophic interactions through effects on biotic top-down forces and on plant growth. In order to understand how urbanization affects biodiversity and ecosystem functioning, it is fundamental to not only consider species assemblages, but also species interactions. PMID:27411241

  11. Characterization of rhizobia from legumes of agronomic interest grown in semi-arid areas of Central Spain relates genetic differences to soil properties.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Díez, Beatriz; Fajardo, Susana; Felipe, María del Rosario de; Fernández-Pascual, Mercedes

    2012-02-01

    A study of symbiotic bacteria from traditional agricultural legumes from Central Spain was performed to create a collection of rhizobia from soils differing in physicochemical, analytical and/or agroecological properties which could be well-adapted to the environmental conditions of this region, and be used for sustainable agricultural practices. Thirty-six isolates were obtained from root-nodules of fifteen legume species (including Cicer arietinum, Lathyrus sativus, Lens culinaris, Lupinus spp., Medicago sativa, Phaseolus vulgaris, Pisum sativum, and Vicia spp.) from three agriculture areas with soils of different pHs and from a forest area with undisturbed soils. Phenotypical characterization revealed uniformity across the thirty-six isolates, with important exceptions in terms of environmental tolerance (three isolates survived at high temperatures, three at high salinity and three at acid pH). The molecular analysis of 16S rRNA gene showed a close relationship of twenty-nine isolates to Rhizobium leguminosarum, one to Rhizobium gallicum, one to Mesorhizobium ciceri, two to Sinorhizobium (Ensifer) meliloti and three to Bradyrhizobium canariense. The sequence analysis of a symbiosis-specific gene, nod C, showed a correlation with the plant host and grouped twenty-six isolates with Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae, establishing the diversity in relation to legume-host. The 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer (IGS) region allowed for intraspecific differentiation, so that strains with equal 16S rRNA were grouped by means of their soil origin. These results indicated that phenotypical and genetically related strains may be widely distributed in this region and that soil abiotic characteristics could have a substantial bearing on the selection of the strains living in each environment. PMID:21953333

  12. Centromeres Off the Hook: Massive Changes in Centromere Size and Structure Following Duplication of CenH3 Gene in Fabeae Species.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Pavel; Pavlíková, Zuzana; Koblížková, Andrea; Fuková, Iva; Jedličková, Veronika; Novák, Petr; Macas, Jiří

    2015-07-01

    In most eukaryotes, centromere is determined by the presence of the centromere-specific histone variant CenH3. Two types of chromosome morphology are generally recognized with respect to centromere organization. Monocentric chromosomes possess a single CenH3-containing domain in primary constriction, whereas holocentric chromosomes lack the primary constriction and display dispersed distribution of CenH3. Recently, metapolycentric chromosomes have been reported in Pisum sativum, representing an intermediate type of centromere organization characterized by multiple CenH3-containing domains distributed across large parts of chromosomes that still form a single constriction. In this work, we show that this type of centromere is also found in other Pisum and closely related Lathyrus species, whereas Vicia and Lens genera, which belong to the same legume tribe Fabeae, possess only monocentric chromosomes. We observed extensive variability in the size of primary constriction and the arrangement of CenH3 domains both between and within individual Pisum and Lathyrus species, with no obvious correlation to genome or chromosome size. Search for CenH3 gene sequences revealed two paralogous variants, CenH3-1 and CenH3-2, which originated from a duplication event in the common ancestor of Fabeae species. The CenH3-1 gene was subsequently lost or silenced in the lineage leading to Vicia and Lens, whereas both genes are retained in Pisum and Lathyrus. Both of these genes appear to have evolved under purifying selection and produce functional CenH3 proteins which are fully colocalized. The findings described here provide the first evidence for a highly dynamic centromere structure within a group of closely related species, challenging previous concepts of centromere evolution. PMID:25771197

  13. Environmental assay on the effect of poultry manure application on soil organisms in agroecosystems.

    PubMed

    Delgado, M; Rodríguez, C; Martín, J V; Miralles de Imperial, R; Alonso, F

    2012-02-01

    This paper reports the effects produced on the organisms of the soil (plants, invertebrates and microorganisms), after the application of two types of poultry manure (sawdust and straw bed) on an agricultural land. The test was made using a terrestrial microcosm, Multi-Species Soil System (MS3) developed in INIA. There was no difference in the germination for any of the three species of plants considered in the study. The biomass was increased in the wheat (Triticum aestivum) coming from ground treated with both kinds of poultry manure. Oilseed rape (Brasica rapa) was not affected and regarding vetch (Vicia sativa) only straw poultry manure showed significant difference. For length only Vicia sativa was affected showing a reduction when straw was exposed to poultry manure. When the effect on invertebrates was studied, we observed a reduction in the number of worms during the test, especially from the ground control (13.7%), higher than in the ground with sawdust poultry manure (6.7%), whereas in the ground with straw poultry manure, there was no reduction. The biomass was affected and at the end of the test it was observed that while the reduction of worms in the ground control was about 48%, the number of those that were in the ground with sawdust poultry manure or straw poultry manure decreased by 41% and 22% respectively. Finally, the effects on microorganisms showed that the enzymatic activities: dehydrogenase (DH) and phosphatase and basal respiration rate increased at the beginning of the test, and the differences were statistically significant compared with the values of the control group. During the test, all these parameters decreased (except DH activities) but they were always higher than in the ground control. This is why it is possible to deduce that the contribution of poultry manure caused an improvement in the conditions of fertilization and also for the soil. PMID:22154182

  14. Nutrient Limitation of Native and Invasive N2-Fixing Plants in Northwest Prairies

    PubMed Central

    Thorpe, Andrea S.; Perakis, Steven; Catricala, Christina; Kaye, Thomas N.

    2013-01-01

    Nutrient rich conditions often promote plant invasions, yet additions of non-nitrogen (N) nutrients may provide a novel approach for conserving native symbiotic N-fixing plants in otherwise N-limited ecosystems. Lupinus oreganus is a threatened N-fixing plant endemic to prairies in western Oregon and southwest Washington (USA). We tested the effect of non-N fertilizers on the growth, reproduction, tissue N content, and stable isotope δ15N composition of Lupinus at three sites that differed in soil phosphorus (P) and N availability. We also examined changes in other Fabaceae (primarily Vicia sativa and V. hirsuta) and cover of all plant species. Variation in background soil P and N availability shaped patterns of nutrient limitation across sites. Where soil P and N were low, P additions increased Lupinus tissue N and altered foliar δ15N, suggesting P limitation of N fixation. Where soil P was low but N was high, P addition stimulated growth and reproduction in Lupinus. At a third site, with higher soil P, only micro- and macronutrient fertilization without N and P increased Lupinus growth and tissue N. Lupinus foliar δ15N averaged −0.010‰ across all treatments and varied little with tissue N, suggesting consistent use of fixed N. In contrast, foliar δ15N of Vicia spp. shifted towards 0‰ as tissue N increased, suggesting that conditions fostering N fixation may benefit these exotic species. Fertilization increased cover, N fixation, and tissue N of non-target, exotic Fabaceae, but overall plant community structure shifted at only one site, and only after the dominant Lupinus was excluded from analyses. Our finding that non-N fertilization increased the performance of Lupinus with few community effects suggests a potential strategy to aid populations of threatened legume species. The increase in exotic Fabaceae species that occurred with fertilization further suggests that monitoring and adaptive management should accompany any large scale applications. PMID

  15. M S MOLECULARES Rumo aos limites da miniaturiza o - (Molecular Magnets - towards the limits of miniaturization)

    SciTech Connect

    Reis, Mario S; Moreira Dos Santos, Antonio F

    2010-01-01

    Por s culos, acreditou-se que o magnetismo s se manifestava em metais, como aqueles contendo ferro; hoje, a imagem mais comum de um m talvez seja a daquelas plaquinhas flex veis coladas geladeira com propagandas dos mais diversos tipos. O leitor conseguiria imaginar um material puramente org nico daqueles que formam os seres vivos como magn tico? E m s do tamanho de mol culas? fato: ambos existem. Esses novos materiais, conhecidos como magnetos moleculares, descobertos e desenvolvidos em v rios laborat rios do mundo, j re nem longa lista de aplica es, do tratamento do c ncer a refrigeradores ecol gicos, passando pela transmiss o de eletricidade sem perda de calor e a fabrica o de computadores extremamente velozes.

  16. Genetic Structure and Molecular Diversity of Cacao Plants Established as Local Varieties for More than Two Centuries: The Genetic History of Cacao Plantations in Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, Elisa S L; Cerqueira-Silva, Carlos Bernard M; Mori, Gustavo M; Ahnert, Dário; Mello, Durval L N; Pires, José Luis; Corrêa, Ronan X; de Souza, Anete P

    2015-01-01

    Bahia is the most important cacao-producing state in Brazil, which is currently the sixth-largest country worldwide to produce cacao seeds. In the eighteenth century, the Comum, Pará and Maranhão varieties of cacao were introduced into southern Bahia, and their descendants, which are called 'Bahian cacao' or local Bahian varieties, have been cultivated for over 200 years. Comum plants have been used to start plantations in African countries and extended as far as countries in South Asia and Oceania. In Brazil, two sets of clones selected from Bahian varieties and their mutants, the Agronomic Institute of East (SIAL) and Bahian Cacao Institute (SIC) series, represent the diversity of Bahian cacao in germplasm banks. Because the genetic diversity of Bahian varieties, which is essential for breeding programs, remains unknown, the objective of this work was to assess the genetic structure and diversity of local Bahian varieties collected from farms and germplasm banks. To this end, 30 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were used to genotype 279 cacao plants from germplasm and local farms. The results facilitated the identification of 219 cacao plants of Bahian origin, and 51 of these were SIAL or SIC clones. Bahian cacao showed low genetic diversity. It could be verified that SIC and SIAL clones do not represent the true diversity of Bahian cacao, with the greatest amount of diversity found in cacao trees on the farms. Thus, a core collection to aid in prioritizing the plants to be sampled for Bahian cacao diversity is suggested. These results provide information that can be used to conserve Bahian cacao plants and applied in breeding programs to obtain more productive Bahian cacao with superior quality and tolerance to major diseases in tropical cacao plantations worldwide. PMID:26675449

  17. Genetic Structure and Molecular Diversity of Cacao Plants Established as Local Varieties for More than Two Centuries: The Genetic History of Cacao Plantations in Bahia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Elisa S. L.; Cerqueira-Silva, Carlos Bernard M.; Mori, Gustavo M.; Ahnert, Dário; Mello, Durval L. N.; Pires, José Luis; Corrêa, Ronan X.; de Souza, Anete P.

    2015-01-01

    Bahia is the most important cacao-producing state in Brazil, which is currently the sixth-largest country worldwide to produce cacao seeds. In the eighteenth century, the Comum, Pará and Maranhão varieties of cacao were introduced into southern Bahia, and their descendants, which are called ‘Bahian cacao’ or local Bahian varieties, have been cultivated for over 200 years. Comum plants have been used to start plantations in African countries and extended as far as countries in South Asia and Oceania. In Brazil, two sets of clones selected from Bahian varieties and their mutants, the Agronomic Institute of East (SIAL) and Bahian Cacao Institute (SIC) series, represent the diversity of Bahian cacao in germplasm banks. Because the genetic diversity of Bahian varieties, which is essential for breeding programs, remains unknown, the objective of this work was to assess the genetic structure and diversity of local Bahian varieties collected from farms and germplasm banks. To this end, 30 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were used to genotype 279 cacao plants from germplasm and local farms. The results facilitated the identification of 219 cacao plants of Bahian origin, and 51 of these were SIAL or SIC clones. Bahian cacao showed low genetic diversity. It could be verified that SIC and SIAL clones do not represent the true diversity of Bahian cacao, with the greatest amount of diversity found in cacao trees on the farms. Thus, a core collection to aid in prioritizing the plants to be sampled for Bahian cacao diversity is suggested. These results provide information that can be used to conserve Bahian cacao plants and applied in breeding programs to obtain more productive Bahian cacao with superior quality and tolerance to major diseases in tropical cacao plantations worldwide. PMID:26675449

  18. Clarification on Host Range of Didymella pinodes the Causal Agent of Pea Ascochyta Blight

    PubMed Central

    Barilli, Eleonora; Cobos, Maria José; Rubiales, Diego

    2016-01-01

    Didymella pinodes is the principal causal agent of ascochyta blight, one of the most important fungal diseases of pea (Pisum sativum) worldwide. Understanding its host specificity has crucial implications in epidemiology and management; however, this has not been clearly delineated yet. In this study we attempt to clarify the host range of D. pinodes and to compare it with that of other close Didymella spp. D. pinodes was very virulent on pea accessions, although differences in virulence were identified among isolates. On the contrary, studied isolates of D. fabae, D. rabiei, and D. lentil showed a reduced ability to infect pea not causing macroscopically visible symptoms on any of the pea accessions tested. D. pinodes isolates were also infective to some extend on almost all species tested including species such as Hedysarum coronarium, Lathyrus sativus, Lupinus albus, Medicago spp., Trifolium spp., Trigonella foenum-graecum, and Vicia articulata which were not mentioned before as hosts of D. pinodes. On the contrary, D. lentil and D. rabiei were more specific, infecting only lentil and chickpea, respectively. D. fabae was intermediate, infecting mainly faba bean, but also slightly other species such as Glycine max, Phaseolus vulgaris, Trifolium spp., Vicia sativa, and V. articulata. DNA sequence analysis of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) was performed to confirm identity of the isolates studies and to determine phylogenetic relationship among the Didymella species, revealing the presence of two clearly distinct clades. Clade one was represented by two supported subclusters including D. fabae isolates as well as D. rabiei with D. lentil isolates. Clade two was the largest and included all the D. pinodes isolates as well as Phoma medicaginis var. pinodella. Genetic distance between D. pinodes and the other Didymella spp. isolates was not correlated with overall differences in pathogenicity. Based on evidences presented here, D

  19. Clarification on Host Range of Didymella pinodes the Causal Agent of Pea Ascochyta Blight.

    PubMed

    Barilli, Eleonora; Cobos, Maria José; Rubiales, Diego

    2016-01-01

    Didymella pinodes is the principal causal agent of ascochyta blight, one of the most important fungal diseases of pea (Pisum sativum) worldwide. Understanding its host specificity has crucial implications in epidemiology and management; however, this has not been clearly delineated yet. In this study we attempt to clarify the host range of D. pinodes and to compare it with that of other close Didymella spp. D. pinodes was very virulent on pea accessions, although differences in virulence were identified among isolates. On the contrary, studied isolates of D. fabae, D. rabiei, and D. lentil showed a reduced ability to infect pea not causing macroscopically visible symptoms on any of the pea accessions tested. D. pinodes isolates were also infective to some extend on almost all species tested including species such as Hedysarum coronarium, Lathyrus sativus, Lupinus albus, Medicago spp., Trifolium spp., Trigonella foenum-graecum, and Vicia articulata which were not mentioned before as hosts of D. pinodes. On the contrary, D. lentil and D. rabiei were more specific, infecting only lentil and chickpea, respectively. D. fabae was intermediate, infecting mainly faba bean, but also slightly other species such as Glycine max, Phaseolus vulgaris, Trifolium spp., Vicia sativa, and V. articulata. DNA sequence analysis of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) was performed to confirm identity of the isolates studies and to determine phylogenetic relationship among the Didymella species, revealing the presence of two clearly distinct clades. Clade one was represented by two supported subclusters including D. fabae isolates as well as D. rabiei with D. lentil isolates. Clade two was the largest and included all the D. pinodes isolates as well as Phoma medicaginis var. pinodella. Genetic distance between D. pinodes and the other Didymella spp. isolates was not correlated with overall differences in pathogenicity. Based on evidences presented here, D

  20. Serum galactose-deficient IgA1 levels in children with IgA nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Mengjie; Jiang, Xiaoyun; Rong, Liping; Xu, Yuanyuan; Chen, Lizhi; Qiu, Zeting; Mo, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) is an immunopathologic diagnosis based on a renal biopsy, it is characterized by deposits of IgA-containing immune complexes in the mesangium. Adults with IgAN have a galactose-deficient IgA1 in the circulation and glomerular deposition. There are few studies on the glycosylation of serum IgA1 in children with IgAN. To measure the serum levels of galactose-deficient IgA1 in pediatric patients with IgAN, 72 biopsy-proven IgAN children were divided into 3 groups based on the clinical features: isolated hematuria group (24 patients), hematuria and proteinuria group (22 patients), and nephritic syndrome group (26 patients). They were also divided into 3 groups according to pathologic grading: grade I + II group (25 patients), grade III group (33 patients) and grade IV + V group (14 patients). 30 healthy children were recruited as a control group. We used vicia villosa lectin binding enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to measure the serum levels of galactose-deficient IgA1 in all groups and controls. Serum levels of galactose-deficient IgA1 in children with IgAN were higher than controls (P < 0.01). There were no significant differences in serum levels of galactose-deficient IgA1 among the different clinical and pathologic grading groups. The values of the area under the curve for galactose-deficient IgA1 levels were 0.976 (95% CI, 0.953-1.000). The cutoff point for galactose-deficient IgA1 levels was 0.125, with a sensitivity of 87.5% and a specificity of 83.3%, with a positive predictive value of 92.6% and a negative predictive value of 73.5% (P < 0.01). Children with IgAN presented serum galactose-deficient IgA1, which has shown no relationship with the clinical manifestations and pathologic grading of the disease. Detection of serum galactose-deficient IgA1 levels by vicia villosa lectin binding enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay has a certain clinical value in diagnosis of children with IgAN. PMID:26221341

  1. Serum galactose-deficient IgA1 levels in children with IgA nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Mengjie; Jiang, Xiaoyun; Rong, Liping; Xu, Yuanyuan; Chen, Lizhi; Qiu, Zeting; Mo, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) is an immunopathologic diagnosis based on a renal biopsy, it is characterized by deposits of IgA-containing immune complexes in the mesangium. Adults with IgAN have a galactose-deficient IgA1 in the circulation and glomerular deposition. There are few studies on the glycosylation of serum IgA1 in children with IgAN. To measure the serum levels of galactose-deficient IgA1 in pediatric patients with IgAN, 72 biopsy-proven IgAN children were divided into 3 groups based on the clinical features: isolated hematuria group (24 patients), hematuria and proteinuria group (22 patients), and nephritic syndrome group (26 patients). They were also divided into 3 groups according to pathologic grading: grade I + II group (25 patients), grade III group (33 patients) and grade IV + V group (14 patients). 30 healthy children were recruited as a control group. We used vicia villosa lectin binding enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to measure the serum levels of galactose-deficient IgA1 in all groups and controls. Serum levels of galactose-deficient IgA1 in children with IgAN were higher than controls (P < 0.01). There were no significant differences in serum levels of galactose-deficient IgA1 among the different clinical and pathologic grading groups. The values of the area under the curve for galactose-deficient IgA1 levels were 0.976 (95% CI, 0.953-1.000). The cutoff point for galactose-deficient IgA1 levels was 0.125, with a sensitivity of 87.5% and a specificity of 83.3%, with a positive predictive value of 92.6% and a negative predictive value of 73.5% (P < 0.01). Children with IgAN presented serum galactose-deficient IgA1, which has shown no relationship with the clinical manifestations and pathologic grading of the disease. Detection of serum galactose-deficient IgA1 levels by vicia villosa lectin binding enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay has a certain clinical value in diagnosis of children with IgAN. PMID:26221341

  2. Effect of silage from ryegrass intercropped with winter or common vetch for grazing dairy cows in small-scale dairy systems in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Ortega, Martha; Heredia-Nava, Darwin; Espinoza-Ortega, Angelica; Sánchez-Vera, Ernesto; Arriaga-Jordán, Carlos M

    2011-06-01

    The objective was to determine the effect of including silages of annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) intercropped with winter vetch (Vicia villosa) (ARG-VV) or with common vetch (Vicia sativa) (ARG-VS) compared with maize silage (MS) on milk yield and milk composition of dairy cows grazing cultivated perennial ryegrass-white clover pastures with supplemented concentrate during the dry season. Six Holstein dairy cows with a mean yield of 19.0 kg/cow/day at the beginning of the experiment were randomly assigned to a 3 × 3 repeated Latin square. Treatments were: 8 h/day intensive grazing, 3.6 kg of dry matter (DM) per cow per day of concentrate plus MS, and ARG-VV or ARG-VS ad libitum at a stocking rate of 3.0 cows/ha for three experimental periods of 3 weeks each. Milk yield (MY) and milk composition, live weight and body condition score as well as silage and concentrate intakes were recorded during the third week of each experimental period, and pasture intake was estimated indirectly from utilised metabolisable energy. Economic analysis was obtained by preparing partial budgets. There were no statistical differences (P > 0.10) in MY, milk fat or protein content nor for live weight, but there was significant difference (P < 0.10) in body condition score. There were non-statistical differences in silage DM intake (P < 0.11); however, significant differences (P < 0.10) were obtained for estimated grazed herbage intake whilst no differences for total DM intake. Slightly higher economic returns (10%) were obtained with ARG-VS over MS, and this was 7% higher than ARG-VV. It is concluded that ARG-VS could be an option for complementing grazing for small-scale dairy production systems in the dry season as it is comparable to MS in animal performance and slightly better in economic terms. PMID:21327716

  3. Advances in Faba Bean Genetics and Genomics.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, Donal M; Angra, Deepti

    2016-01-01

    Vicia faba L, is a globally important grain legume whose main centers of diversity are the Fertile Crescent and Mediterranean basin. Because of its small number (six) of exceptionally large and easily observed chromosomes it became a model species for plant cytogenetics the 70s and 80s. It is somewhat ironic therefore, that the emergence of more genomically tractable model plant species such as Arabidopsis and Medicago coincided with a marked decline in genome research on the formerly favored plant cytogenetic model. Thus, as ever higher density molecular marker coverage and dense genetic and even complete genome sequence maps of key crop and model species emerged through the 1990s and early 2000s, genetic and genome knowledge of Vicia faba lagged far behind other grain legumes such as soybean, common bean and pea. However, cheap sequencing technologies have stimulated the production of deep transcriptome coverage from several tissue types and numerous distinct cultivars in recent years. This has permitted the reconstruction of the faba bean meta-transcriptome and has fueled development of extensive sets of Simple Sequence Repeat and Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) markers. Genetics of faba bean stretches back to the 1930s, but it was not until 1993 that DNA markers were used to construct genetic maps. A series of Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA-based genetic studies mainly targeted at quantitative loci underlying resistance to a series of biotic and abiotic stresses were conducted during the 1990's and early 2000s. More recently, SNP-based genetic maps have permitted chromosome intervals of interest to be aligned to collinear segments of sequenced legume genomes such as the model legume Medicago truncatula, which in turn opens up the possibility for hypotheses on gene content, order and function to be translated from model to crop. Some examples of where knowledge of gene content and function have already been productively exploited are discussed. The

  4. Advances in Faba Bean Genetics and Genomics

    PubMed Central

    O'Sullivan, Donal M.; Angra, Deepti

    2016-01-01

    Vicia faba L, is a globally important grain legume whose main centers of diversity are the Fertile Crescent and Mediterranean basin. Because of its small number (six) of exceptionally large and easily observed chromosomes it became a model species for plant cytogenetics the 70s and 80s. It is somewhat ironic therefore, that the emergence of more genomically tractable model plant species such as Arabidopsis and Medicago coincided with a marked decline in genome research on the formerly favored plant cytogenetic model. Thus, as ever higher density molecular marker coverage and dense genetic and even complete genome sequence maps of key crop and model species emerged through the 1990s and early 2000s, genetic and genome knowledge of Vicia faba lagged far behind other grain legumes such as soybean, common bean and pea. However, cheap sequencing technologies have stimulated the production of deep transcriptome coverage from several tissue types and numerous distinct cultivars in recent years. This has permitted the reconstruction of the faba bean meta-transcriptome and has fueled development of extensive sets of Simple Sequence Repeat and Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) markers. Genetics of faba bean stretches back to the 1930s, but it was not until 1993 that DNA markers were used to construct genetic maps. A series of Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA-based genetic studies mainly targeted at quantitative loci underlying resistance to a series of biotic and abiotic stresses were conducted during the 1990's and early 2000s. More recently, SNP-based genetic maps have permitted chromosome intervals of interest to be aligned to collinear segments of sequenced legume genomes such as the model legume Medicago truncatula, which in turn opens up the possibility for hypotheses on gene content, order and function to be translated from model to crop. Some examples of where knowledge of gene content and function have already been productively exploited are discussed. The

  5. Transcriptome sequencing of field pea and faba bean for discovery and validation of SSR genetic markers

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Field pea (Pisum sativum L.) and faba bean (Vicia faba L.) are cool-season grain legume species that provide rich sources of food for humans and fodder for livestock. To date, both species have been relative 'genomic orphans' due to limited availability of genetic and genomic information. A significant enrichment of genomic resources is consequently required in order to understand the genetic architecture of important agronomic traits, and to support germplasm enhancement, genetic diversity, population structure and demographic studies. Results cDNA samples obtained from various tissue types of specific field pea and faba bean genotypes were sequenced using 454 Roche GS FLX Titanium technology. A total of 720,324 and 304,680 reads for field pea and faba bean, respectively, were de novo assembled to generate sets of 70,682 and 60,440 unigenes. Consensus sequences were compared against the genome of the model legume species Medicago truncatula Gaertn., as well as that of the more distantly related, but better-characterised genome of Arabidopsis thaliana L.. In comparison to M. truncatula coding sequences, 11,737 and 10,179 unique hits were obtained from field pea and faba bean. Totals of 22,057 field pea and 18,052 faba bean unigenes were subsequently annotated from GenBank. Comparison to the genome of soybean (Glycine max L.) resulted in 19,451 unique hits for field pea and 16,497 unique hits for faba bean, corresponding to c. 35% and 30% of the known gene space, respectively. Simple sequence repeat (SSR)-containing expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were identified from consensus sequences, and totals of 2,397 and 802 primer pairs were designed for field pea and faba bean. Subsets of 96 EST-SSR markers were screened for validation across modest panels of field pea and faba bean cultivars, as well as related non-domesticated species. For field pea, 86 primer pairs successfully obtained amplification products from one or more template genotypes, of which 59

  6. Morphological and physiological characterization of different genotypes of faba bean under heat stress.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Manzer H; Al-Khaishany, Mutahhar Y; Al-Qutami, Mohammed A; Al-Whaibi, Mohamed H; Grover, Anil; Ali, Hayssam M; Al-Wahibi, Mona Suliman

    2015-09-01

    Heat stress (HS) is the major constraint to crop productivity worldwide. The objective of the present experiment was to select the tolerant and sensitive genotype(s) on the basis of morpho-physiological and biochemical characteristics of ten Vicia faba genotypes. These genotypes were as follows: Zafar 1, Zafar 2, Shebam 1, Makamora, Espan, Giza Blanka, Giza 3, C4, C5 and G853. The experimental work was undertaken to study the effects of different levels of temperature (control, mild, and modest) on plant height (PH) plant(-1), fresh weight (FW) and dry weight (DW) plant(-1), area leaf(-1), content of leaf relative water (RWC), proline content (Pro) and total chlorophyll (Total Chl), electrolyte leakage (EL), malondialdehyde level (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and activities of catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzymes. HS significantly affected growth performance of all genotypes. However, the magnitude of reduction in genotypes 'C5' was relatively low, possibly due to its better antioxidant activities (CAT, POD and SOD), and accumulation of Pro and Total Chl, and leaf RWC. In the study, 'C5' was noted to be the most HS tolerant and 'Espan' most HS sensitive genotypes. It was concluded that the heat-tolerant genotypes may have better osmotic adjustment and protection from free radicals by increasing the accumulation of Pro content with increased activities of antioxidant enzyme. PMID:26288573

  7. Morphological and physiological characterization of different genotypes of faba bean under heat stress

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Manzer H.; Al-Khaishany, Mutahhar Y.; Al-Qutami, Mohammed A.; Al-Whaibi, Mohamed H.; Grover, Anil; Ali, Hayssam M.; Al-Wahibi, Mona Suliman

    2015-01-01

    Heat stress (HS) is the major constraint to crop productivity worldwide. The objective of the present experiment was to select the tolerant and sensitive genotype(s) on the basis of morpho-physiological and biochemical characteristics of ten Vicia faba genotypes. These genotypes were as follows: Zafar 1, Zafar 2, Shebam 1, Makamora, Espan, Giza Blanka, Giza 3, C4, C5 and G853. The experimental work was undertaken to study the effects of different levels of temperature (control, mild, and modest) on plant height (PH) plant−1, fresh weight (FW) and dry weight (DW) plant−1, area leaf−1, content of leaf relative water (RWC), proline content (Pro) and total chlorophyll (Total Chl), electrolyte leakage (EL), malondialdehyde level (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and activities of catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzymes. HS significantly affected growth performance of all genotypes. However, the magnitude of reduction in genotypes ‘C5’ was relatively low, possibly due to its better antioxidant activities (CAT, POD and SOD), and accumulation of Pro and Total Chl, and leaf RWC. In the study, ‘C5’ was noted to be the most HS tolerant and ‘Espan’ most HS sensitive genotypes. It was concluded that the heat-tolerant genotypes may have better osmotic adjustment and protection from free radicals by increasing the accumulation of Pro content with increased activities of antioxidant enzyme. PMID:26288573

  8. Leachates from solid wastes: chemical and eco(geno)toxicological differences between leachates obtained from fresh and stabilized industrial organic sludge.

    PubMed

    Chiochetta, Claudete G; Goetten, Luís C; Almeida, Sônia M; Quaranta, Gaetana; Cotelle, Sylvie; Radetski, Claudemir M

    2014-01-01

    The chemical and ecotoxicological characteristics of fresh and stabilized industrial organic sludge leachates were compared to obtain information regarding how the stabilization process can influence the ecotoxic potential of this industrial waste, which could be used for the amendment of degraded soil. Physicochemical analysis of the sludge leachates, as well as a battery of eco(geno)toxicity tests on bacteria, algae, daphnids, and higher plants (including Vicia faba genotoxicity test) and the determination of hydrolytic enzyme activity, was performed according to standard methods. The chemical comparison of the two types of leachate showed that the samples obtained from stabilized sludge had a lower organic content and higher metal content than leachates of the fresh sludge. The eco(geno)toxicological results obtained with aquatic organisms showed that the stabilized sludge leachate was more toxic than the fresh sludge leachate, both originating from the same industrial organic sludge sample. Nevertheless, phytotoxicity tests carried out with a reference peat soil irrigated with stabilized sludge leachate showed the same toxicity as the fresh sludge leachate. In the case of the industrial solid organic sludge studied, stabilization through a biodegradation process promoted a higher metal mobility/bioavailability/eco(geno)toxicity in the stabilized sludge leachate compared to the fresh sludge leachate. PMID:23872895

  9. The effect of some non-protein amino acids on pollen germination and pollen-tube growth in five species of the Vicieae.

    PubMed

    Simola, L K

    1967-12-01

    The effects of canavanine, α,γ-diaminobutyric acid, homoarginine and lathyrine on the germination of pollen and on in-vitro growth of pollen tubes were studied in the following species: Lathyrus niger, L. silvestris, Vicia unijuga, Pisum sativum and Cicer arietinum.The effects of these non-protein amino acids depended on their quantity and on the plant species. Every amino acid had a promoting effect on germination and growth at some concentration in some species. Inhibition or promotion of pollen germination and pollen-tube growth were usually parallel. The stronger influence of some amino acid on growth than on germination may be due to slow penetration of the acid into the cell.Homoarginine and lathyrine had a promoting effect at all concentrations in L. niger, a species in which these amino acids occur naturally. In most other species they had, if anything, a very slight inhibitory effect, α,γ-Diaminobutyric acid and canavanine had the strongest inhibitory effects on the species studied. It seems possible that these amino acids are antimetabolites of common amino acids.It is obvious that non-protein amino acids can form effective hybridization barries, although the conditions in nature are more complex than in vitro. The ability to synthesize a new amino acid may therefore be of evolutionary significance in the isolation of new species and genera. PMID:24522605

  10. Polysaccharide synthesis in relation to nodulation behavior of Rhizobium leguminosarum.

    PubMed Central

    Breedveld, M W; Cremers, H C; Batley, M; Posthumus, M A; Zevenhuizen, L P; Wijffelman, C A; Zehnder, A J

    1993-01-01

    In this study, we characterized four Tn5 mutants derived from Rhizobium leguminosarum RBL5515 with respect to synthesis and secretion of cellulose fibrils, extracellular polysaccharides (EPS), capsular polysaccharides, and cyclic beta-(1,2)-glucans. One mutant, strain RBL5515 exo-344::Tn5, synthesizes residual amounts of EPS, the repeating unit of which lacks the terminal galactose molecule and the substituents attached to it. On basis of the polysaccharide production pattern of strain RBL5515 exo-344::Tn5, the structural features of the polysaccharides synthesized, and the results of an analysis of the enzyme activities involved, we hypothesize that this strain is affected in a galactose transferase involved in the synthesis of EPS only. All four mutants failed to nodulate plants belonging to the pea cross-inoculation group; on Vicia sativa they induced root hair deformation and rare abortive infection threads. All of the mutants appeared to be pleiotropic, since in addition to defects in the synthesis of EPS, lipopolysaccharide, and/or capsular polysaccharides significant increases in the synthesis and secretion of cyclic beta-(1,2)-glucans were observed. We concluded that it is impossible to correlate a defect in the synthesis of a particular polysaccharide with nodulation characteristics. Images PMID:8423148

  11. Lipid A biosynthesis in Rhizobium leguminosarum: Role of a 2-keto-3-deoxyoctulosonate-activated 4{prime} phosphatase

    SciTech Connect

    Price, N.P.J.; Jeyaretnam, B.; Carlson, R.W.

    1995-08-01

    Lipid A from several strains of the N{sub 2}-fixing bacterium Rhizobium leguminosarum displays significant structural differences from Escherichia coli lipid A, one of which is the complete absence of phosphate groups. However, the first seven enzymes of E. coli lipid A biosynthesis, leading from UDP-GlcNAc to the phosphorylated intermediate, 2-keto-3-deoxyoctulosonate (Kdo{sub 2})-lipid IV{sub A}, are present in R. leguminosarum. We now describe a membrane-bound phosphatase in R. leguminosarum extracts that removes the 4{prime} phosphate of Kdo{sub 2}-lipid IV{sub A}. The 4{prime} phosphatase is selective for substrates containing the Kdo domain. It is present in extracts of R. leguminosarum biovars phaseoli, viciae, and trifolii but is not detectable in E. coli and Rhizobium meliloti. A nodulation-defective strain (24AR) of R. leguminosarum bovar trifolii, known to contain a 4{prime} phosphate residue on its lipid A, also lacks measurable 4{prime} phosphatase activity. the Kdo-dependent 4{prime} phosphatase appears to be a key reaction in a pathway for generating phosphate-deficient lipid A.

  12. Symbiont abundance is more important than pre-infection partner choice in a Rhizobium - legume mutualism.

    PubMed

    Van Cauwenberghe, Jannick; Lemaire, Benny; Stefan, Andrei; Efrose, Rodica; Michiels, Jan; Honnay, Olivier

    2016-07-01

    It is known that the genetic diversity of conspecific rhizobia present in root nodules differs greatly among populations of a legume species, which has led to the suggestion that both dispersal limitation and the local environment affect rhizobial genotypic composition. However, it remains unclear whether rhizobial genotypes residing in root nodules are representative of the entire population of compatible symbiotic rhizobia. Since symbiotic preferences differ among legume populations, the genetic composition of rhizobia found within nodules may reflect the preferences of the local hosts, rather than the full diversity of potential nodulating rhizobia present in the soil. Here, we assessed whether Vicia cracca legume hosts of different provenances select different Rhizobium leguminosarum genotypes than sympatric V. cracca hosts, when presented a natural soil rhizobial population. Through combining V. cracca plants and rhizobia from adjacent and more distant populations, we found that V. cracca hosts are relatively randomly associated with rhizobial genotypes. This indicates that pre-infection partner choice is relatively weak in certain legume hosts when faced with a natural population of rhizobia. PMID:27269381

  13. Genetic Diversity and Symbiotic Phenotype of Hairy Vetch Rhizobia in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Kun; Miwa, Hiroki; Iizuka, Maki; Yokoyama, Tadashi; Fujii, Yoshiharu; Okazaki, Shin

    2016-06-25

    Hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth) is a leguminous crop widely used as green manure and a cover crop in Japan. It exhibits strong weed-suppressing activity, high resistance to insect pests, and the ability to fix nitrogen through symbiotic interactions with soil bacteria known as rhizobia. Few studies have investigated the rhizobia that form nodules on hairy vetch in Japan, and the biological resources available for selecting high nitrogen-fixing rhizobia are limited. In the present study, we isolated 110 hairy vetch rhizobia from 13 different areas in Japan. Based on their 16S rRNA gene sequences, 73% of the isolates were identified as Rhizobium leguminosarum. A comparative analysis of nodC and 16S rRNA gene phylogenies revealed that several isolates possessed congruent nodC sequences despite having divergent 16S rRNA gene sequences, suggesting that the horizontal transfer of nod genes occurred during the evolution of rhizobia. Inoculation tests showed that isolates closely related to R. leguminosarum had better plant growth-promoting effects than other strains, thereby providing a promising agricultural resource for inoculating crops. PMID:27151657

  14. Phenotypic and biochemical characterization of root nodule bacteria naturally associated with woody tree legumes in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Alshaharani, Thobayet Safar; Shetta, Nader Desouky

    2015-03-01

    Thirty root-nodulating bacteria isolates were obtained from the roots of Acacia ampliceps (Maslin), A. ehrenbergiana (Hayne.), A. saligna (Labill.), A. seyal (Del.), A. tortilis (Forssk.), A. tortilis subsp. raddiana (Savi.), Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) and Vicia faba (L.) trees growing in the Riyadh region. The isolates' phenotypic and biochemical properties were characterized by assessing colony appearance, growth rate, resistance to antibiotics and heavy metals, and tolerance to salinity, elevated temperature and pH. All isolates had same colony morphology and grew on yeast extract mannitol and tryptone yeast agar, but not MGS media. The results also revealed considerable diversity among the isolates, which exhibited different patterns of resistance to abiotic stresses. Most isolates tolerated temperatures up to 37 degrees C and could grow from pH 5.5-8.5 and at a high NaCl concentration (2% w/v). The majority of isolates could utilize a variety of carbohydrates. Most of the isolates displayed resistance to antibiotics in the 75 microg ml(-1) range, with approximately 100 pg ml(-1) the maximum concentration at which growth was observed. All isolates were sensitive to aluminum and resistant to other heavy metals tested, and they were able to reduce nitrate and hydrolyze urea. PMID:25895257

  15. Biological and Molecular Variability of Alfalfa mosaic virus Affecting Alfalfa Crop in Riyadh Region.

    PubMed

    Al-Saleh, Mohammed A; Amer, Mahmoud A

    2013-12-01

    In 2011-2012, sixty nine samples were collected from alfalfa plants showing viral infection symptoms in Riyadh region. Mechanical inoculation with sap prepared from two collected samples out of twenty five possitive for Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) by ELISA were produced systemic mosaic on Vigna unguiculata and Nicotiana tabacum, local lesion on Chenopodium amaranticolor and C. quinoa. Vicia faba indicator plants that induce mosaic and mottle with AMV-Sagir isolate and no infection with AMV-Wadi aldawasser isolate. Approximately 700-bp was formed by RT-PCR using AMV coat protein specific primer. Samples from infected alfalfa gave positive results, while healthy plant gave negative result using dot blot hybridization assay. The nucleotide sequences of the Saudi isolates were compared with corresponding viral nucleotide sequences reported in GenBank. The obtained results showed that the AMV from Australia, Brazil, Puglia and China had the highest similarity with AMV-Sajer isolate. While, the AMV from Spain and New Zealaland had the lowest similarity with AMV-Sajer and Wadi aldawasser isolates. The data obtained in this study has been deposited in the GenBank under the accession numbers KC434083 and KC434084 for AMV-Sajer and AMV- Wadialdawasser respectively. This is the first report regarding the gnetic make up of AMV in Saudi Arabia. PMID:25288969

  16. Recommendations for increasing alkaline comet assay reliability in plants.

    PubMed

    Pourrut, Bertrand; Pinelli, Eric; Celiz Mendiola, Vanessa; Silvestre, Jérôme; Douay, Francis

    2015-01-01

    In plants, an increasing interest for the comet assay was shown in the last decade. This versatile technique appears to be promising to detect the genotoxic effect of pollutants and to monitor the environment. However, the lack of a standardised protocol and the low throughput of the assay limit its use in plants. The aims of this paper are to identify key factors affecting comet assay performance and to improve its reliability and reproducibility. We examined the effect of varying several parameters on four different plant species: broad bean (Vicia faba), white clover (Trifolium repens), English ryegrass (Lolium perenne) and miscanthus (Miscanthus x giganteus). The influence of both internal (different nucleus isolation methods, presence or absence of filtration and lysis steps) and external (room temperature, light intensity) parameters were evaluated. Results clearly indicate that short chopping is more efficient to isolate nuclei than the standard slicing method. Filtration and lysis steps were shown to be unnecessary and thus should be skipped. Data also demonstrate that high room temperatures and light could induce DNA damage in isolated nuclei. Calibration tests with H2O2 or ethyl methanesulfonate revealed that a special attention should be paid to plant growing stage, leaf position and exposure duration. PMID:25527726

  17. Involvement of the sieve element cytoskeleton in electrical responses to cold shocks.

    PubMed

    Hafke, Jens B; Ehlers, Katrin; Föller, Jens; Höll, Sabina-Roxana; Becker, Stefanie; van Bel, Aart J E

    2013-06-01

    This study dealt with the visualization of the sieve element (SE) cytoskeleton and its involvement in electrical responses to local cold shocks, exemplifying the role of the cytoskeleton in Ca(2+)-triggered signal cascades in SEs. High-affinity fluorescent phalloidin as well as immunocytochemistry using anti-actin antibodies demonstrated a fully developed parietal actin meshwork in SEs. The involvement of the cytoskeleton in electrical responses and forisome conformation changes as indicators of Ca(2+) influx was investigated by the application of cold shocks in the presence of diverse actin disruptors (latrunculin A and cytochalasin D). Under control conditions, cold shocks elicited a graded initial voltage transient, ΔV1, reduced by external La(3+) in keeping with the involvement of Ca(2+) channels, and a second voltage transient, ΔV2. Cytochalasin D had no effect on ΔV1, while ΔV1 was significantly reduced with 500 nm latrunculin A. Forisome dispersion was triggered by cold shocks of 4°C or greater, which was indicative of an all-or-none behavior. Forisome dispersion was suppressed by incubation with latrunculin A. In conclusion, the cytoskeleton controls cold shock-induced Ca(2+) influx into SEs, leading to forisome dispersion and sieve plate occlusion in fava bean (Vicia faba). PMID:23624858

  18. Chemical analysis and hemolytic activity of the fava bean aglycon divicine.

    PubMed

    McMillan, D C; Schey, K L; Meier, G P; Jollow, D J

    1993-01-01

    Divicine is an unstable aglycon metabolite of the fava bean pyrimidine beta-glucoside vicine. Divicine has long been thought to be a mediator of an acute hemolytic crisis, known as favism, in susceptible individuals who ingest fava beans (Vicia faba). However, a recent report has questioned the chemical identity of the divicine that was used in most of the studies on divicine hemotoxicity. The present study was undertaken to examine the hemolytic potential of synthetic divicine. Divicine was synthesized and its identity and purity were confirmed by HPLC, mass spectrometry, and NMR spectroscopy. The stability and redox behavior of divicine, under physiological conditions, were examined by HPLC and cyclic voltammetry. The data indicate that divicine is readily oxidized under aerobic conditions; however, it was sufficiently stable at pH 7.4 to permit its experimental manipulation. When 51Cr-labeled rat erythrocytes were exposed in vitro to the parent glucoside, vicine (5 mM), and then readministered to rats, no decrease in erythrocyte survival was observed. In contrast, erythrocyte survival was dramatically reduced by in vitro exposure to divicine (1.5 mM). These data demonstrate that divicine is a direct-acting hemolytic agent and thus may be a mediator of the hemolytic crisis induced by fava bean ingestion. PMID:8374040

  19. Examination of bioaffinity immobilization by precipitation of mannan and mannan-containing enzymes with legume lectins.

    PubMed

    Mislovicová, D; Gemeiner, P; Sandula, J; Masárová, J; Vikartovská, A; Docolomanský, P

    2000-04-01

    The interaction of four lectins from crops of the legume family with Saccharomyces cerevisiae alpha-mannan, and also with two glycoenzymes containing mainly alpha-mannan moieties, has been studied. The interaction was characterized by a quantitative precipitation assay. The results of precipitation differ with respect to both quality (the point of maximum precipitation) and of the quantity (the amount of aggregated lectin and saccharide). The lectin concanavalin A [Con A, from jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis)] was observed to form more extensive precipitates with Saccharomyces cerevisiae mannan and glycoenzymes than did lectins from Lens culinaris (lentil) and Pisum sativum (garden pea), while in the case of Vicia faba (broad or fava bean) no interaction was found with either the examined mannans or with glycosylated enzymes. The complete precipitation of invertase and glucoamylase with Con A (enzymes and also Con A; up to 100%) was achieved at a Con A glycoenzyme molar ratio of 20.2 and 2.3 respectively, whereby about 85% of precipitated and also of initial activities of glycoenzymes were determined in the aggregates. More valuable results were achieved by the technique of enzyme immobilization called 'multiple bioaffinity layering' which is based on the stepwise biospecific adsorption of the glycosylated enzymes and Con A on a matrix precoupled with Con A. A 3-fold repetition of the layering procedure afforded up to a 10-fold increase in catalytic activity of the immobilized invertase, in contrast with a 2.1-fold increase in catalytic activity of the immobilized glucoamylase. PMID:10744960

  20. Rapid structural changes and acidification of guard cell vacuoles during stomatal closure require phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate.

    PubMed

    Bak, Gwangbae; Lee, Eun-Jung; Lee, Yuree; Kato, Mariko; Segami, Shoji; Sze, Heven; Maeshima, Masayoshi; Hwang, Jae-Ung; Lee, Youngsook

    2013-06-01

    Rapid stomatal closure is essential for water conservation in plants and is thus critical for survival under water deficiency. To close stomata rapidly, guard cells reduce their volume by converting a large central vacuole into a highly convoluted structure. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this change are poorly understood. In this study, we used pH-indicator dyes to demonstrate that vacuolar convolution is accompanied by acidification of the vacuole in fava bean (Vicia faba) guard cells during abscisic acid (ABA)-induced stomatal closure. Vacuolar acidification is necessary for the rapid stomatal closure induced by ABA, since a double mutant of the vacuolar H(+)-ATPase vha-a2 vha-a3 and vacuolar H(+)-PPase mutant vhp1 showed delayed stomatal closure. Furthermore, we provide evidence for the critical role of phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate [PtdIns(3,5)P2] in changes in pH and morphology of the vacuole. Single and double Arabidopsis thaliana null mutants of phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate 5-kinases (PI3P5Ks) exhibited slow stomatal closure upon ABA treatment compared with the wild type. Moreover, an inhibitor of PI3P5K reduced vacuolar acidification and convolution and delayed stomatal closure in response to ABA. Taken together, these results suggest that rapid ABA-induced stomatal closure requires PtdIns(3,5)P2, which is essential for vacuolar acidification and convolution. PMID:23757398

  1. First Report of Cucumber mosaic virus Isolated from Wild Vigna angularis var. nipponensis in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mi-Kyeong; Jeong, Rae-Dong; Kwak, Hae-Ryun; Lee, Su-Heon; Kim, Jeong-Soo; Kim, Kook-Hyung; Cha, Byeongjin; Choi, Hong-Soo

    2014-01-01

    A viral disease causing severe mosaic, necrotic, and yellow symptoms on Vigna angularis var. nipponensis was prevalent around Suwon area in Korea. The causal virus was characterized as Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) on the basis of biological and nucleotide sequence properties of RNAs 1, 2 and 3 and named as CMV-wVa. CMV-wVa isolate caused mosaic symptoms on indicator plants, Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi-nc, Petunia hybrida, and Cucumis sativus. Strikingly, CMV-wVa induced severe mosaic and malformation on Cucurbita pepo, and Solanum lycopersicum. Moreover, it caused necrotic or mosaic symptoms on V. angularis and V. radiate of Fabaceae. Symptoms of necrotic local or pin point were observed on inoculated leaves of V. unguiculata, Vicia fava, Pisum sativum and Phaseolus vulgaris. However, CMV-wVa isolate failed to infect in Glycine max cvs. ‘Sorok’, ‘Sodam’ and ‘Somyeong’. To assess genetic variation between CMV-wVa and the other known CMV isolates, phylogenetic analysis using 16 complete nucleotide sequences of CMV RNA1, RNA2, and RNA3 including CMV-wVa was performed. CMV-wVa was more closely related to CMV isolates belonging to CMV subgroup I showing about 85.1–100% nucleotide sequences identity to those of subgroup I isolates. This is the first report of CMV as the causal virus infecting wild Vigna angularis var. nipponensis in Korea. PMID:25289004

  2. Distinct abscisic acid signaling pathways for modulation of guard cell versus mesophyll cell potassium channels revealed by expression studies in Xenopus laevis oocytes.

    PubMed

    Sutton, F; Paul, S S; Wang, X Q; Assmann, S M

    2000-09-01

    Regulation of guard cell ion transport by abscisic acid (ABA) and in particular ABA inhibition of a guard cell inward K(+) current (I(Kin)) is well documented. However, little is known concerning ABA effects on ion transport in other plant cell types. Here we applied patch clamp techniques to mesophyll cell protoplasts of fava bean (Vicia faba cv Long Pod) plants and demonstrated ABA inhibition of an outward K(+) current (I(Kout)). When mesophyll cell protoplast mRNA (mesophyll mRNA) was expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, I(Kout) was generated that displayed similar properties to I(Kout) observed from direct analysis of mesophyll cell protoplasts. I(Kout) expressed by mesophyll mRNA-injected oocytes was inhibited by ABA, indicating that the ABA signal transduction pathway observed in mesophyll cells was preserved in the frog oocytes. Co-injection of oocytes with guard cell protoplast mRNA and cRNA for KAT1, an inward K(+) channel expressed in guard cells, resulted in I(Kin) that was similarly inhibited by ABA. However, oocytes co-injected with mesophyll mRNA and KAT1 cRNA produced I(Kin) that was not inhibited by ABA. These results demonstrate that the mesophyll-encoded signaling mechanism could not substitute for the guard cell pathway. These findings indicate that mesophyll cells and guard cells use distinct and different receptor types and/or signal transduction pathways in ABA regulation of K(+) channels. PMID:10982437

  3. New fava bean guard cell signaling mutant impaired in ABA-induced stomatal closure.

    PubMed

    Iwai, Sumio; Shimomura, Naoki; Nakashima, Atsushi; Etoh, Takeomi

    2003-09-01

    We isolated a mutant from Vicia faba L. cv. House Ryousai. It wilts easily under strong light and high temperature conditions, suggesting that its stomatal movement may be disturbed. We determined responses of mutant guard cells to some environmental stimuli. Mutant guard cells demonstrated an impaired ability to respond to ABA in 0.1 mM CaCl(2) and stomata did not close in the presence of up to 1 mM ABA, whereas wild-type stomata closed when exposed to 10 micro M ABA. Elevating external Ca(2+) caused a similar degree of stomatal closure in the wild type and the mutant. A high concentration of CO(2) (700 micro l liter(-1)) induced stomatal closure in the wild type, but not in the mutant. On the basis of these results, we propose the working hypothesis that the mutation occurs in the region downstream of CO(2) and ABA sensing and in the region upstream of Ca(2+) elevation. The mutant is named fia (fava bean impaired in ABA-induced stomatal closure). PMID:14519772

  4. Levansucrase and sucrose phoshorylase contribute to raffinose, stachyose, and verbascose metabolism by lactobacilli.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Januana S; McNeill, Victoria; Gänzle, Michael G

    2012-09-01

    Raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs) in food are considered anti-nutritional factors. This study elucidated the role of α-galactosidase (α-Gal), levansucrase, and sucrose phosphorylase for conversion of RFOs by lactobacilli. Quantification of gene expression by reverse-transcriptase quantitative PCR revealed that expression of levansucrase and sucrose phosphorylase by Lactobacillus reuteri is increased more than 100 fold when sucrose or raffinose are available. Fava bean (Vicia faba) or field pea (Pisum sativum) flours were fermented with α-Gal positive L. reuteri or α-Gal negative Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis. Isogenic strains lacking levansucrase activity, a L. reuteri ftfA mutant and a L. sanfranciscensis levS mutant, were used for comparison. During growth in pulse flours, L. sanfranciscensis accumulated melibiose and α-galactooligosaccharides (α-GOSs); the levansucrase-negative strain did not grow. L. reuteri metabolized raffinose, stachyose, and verbascose by levansucrase activity and accumulated α-GOSs as metabolic intermediates. Oligosaccharide metabolism in the levansucrase-negative mutant was slower, and accumulation of α-GOSs was not observed. The use of sorghum sourdough fermented with L. reuteri LTH5448 and bean flour in gluten-free baking converted RFOs to α-GOSs by levansucrase and invertase activities. In conclusion, the elucidation of the role levansucrase in RFO metabolism by lactobacilli allowed the conversion or hydrolysis of RFOs in food fermentations. PMID:22608234

  5. Host suitability and gas exchange response of grapevines to potato leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae).

    PubMed

    Lamp, William O; Miranda, Daniel; Culler, Lauren E; Alexander, Laurie C

    2011-08-01

    Although potato leafhopper, Empoasca fabae (Harris) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), is highly polyphagous, classic host studies do not recognize grapevines (Vitis spp.), as suitable hosts. Recently, injury has been reported and reproduction documented within grape vineyards, suggesting a host expansion for the leafhopper. To document this apparent expansion in host use, we determined whether grape plants were suitable hosts for potato leafhopper reproduction, measured the consequence of feeding injury on gas exchange rates of grape leaves, and compared the susceptibility to feeding injury among cultivars. We found that potato leafhopper adults survived equally well on grape (Vitis vinifera L.), alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), and fava bean (Vicia faba L.). The total number of offspring was greater on fava bean but did not differ between alfalfa and grape. Injury to grapevines was assessed by measuring gas exchange responses of leaves in field cages and in greenhouse tests. We found marginally significant declines in photosynthesis and transpiration rates in the field (9.6 and 13.2%, respectively), and much stronger effects in greenhouse tests (ranging between 22 and 52%). Our results verify that Vitis is a suitable host, and that potato leafhopper is capable of injuring its gas exchange physiology. We discuss possible explanations for the host expansion, and its potential to damage commercial grapevines. PMID:21882698

  6. Effect of sodium hexanitrocobaltate (III) decomposition on its staining of intracellular potassium ions.

    PubMed

    Green, D B; Dodge, S M; Lee, J R; Tallman, G

    1990-01-01

    The effect was examined of the chemical decomposition of the potassium stain sodium hexanitrocobaltate (III) (SHC), on its ability to produce stain granules of consistent size that could be used to estimate the K+ contents of stomatal guard cells. Stomata in detached epidermis from leaves of Vicia faba (fava bean) were stimulated to accumulate K+ by treating them with fusicoccin. Stomatal apertures and the fraction of guard cell area covered by K+ precipitate granules (K+ score) were measured by digitizing photographic enlargements, and K+ scores were correlated with the age of stain that had been stored either in open or closed containers. The ability of stain aged in open containers to produce consistent fractional cell coverage was compared to 1) the ability of identically treated stain to precipitate K+ from solutions of KCI, and to 2) the kinetics of decomposition of SHC. It was found that the fractional coverage of guard cells of stomata opened to the same apertures decreased with a first order rate constant of 2.3 x 10(-5)/sec. The mass of precipitate formed by treatment of KCl solutions was unchanged for 2 hr after initial preparation of the SHC, and decreased thereafter with a first order rate constant of 1.0 x 10(-5)/sec. When stored in tightly sealed containers, nearly 100 hr were required for an occasionally opened bottle of SHC to decay to the same efficacy as a solution left open to the air for 8 hr. PMID:1694311

  7. The binucleate cell of okapi and giraffe placenta shows distinctive glycosylation compared with other ruminants: a lectin histochemical study.

    PubMed

    Jones, Carolyn J P; Wilsher, Sandra A; Wooding, F B P; Benirschke, K; Allen, W R

    2015-02-01

    The placenta of ruminants contains characteristic binucleate cells (BNC) with a highly conserved glycan structure which evolved early in Ruminant phylogenesis. Giraffe and Okapi placentae also contain these cells and it is not known whether they have a similar glycan array. We have used lectin histochemistry to examine the glycosylation of these cells in these species and compare them with bovine BNC which have a typical ruminant glycan composition. Two placentae, mid and near term, from Giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) and two term placenta of Okapi (Okapia johnstoni) were embedded in resin and stained with a panel of 23 lectins and compared with near-term bovine (Bos taurus) placenta. Significant differences were found in the glycans of Giraffe and Okapi BNC compared with those from the bovine, with little or no expression of terminal αN-acetylgalactosamine bound by Dolichos biflorus and Vicia villosa agglutinins which instead bound to placental blood vessels. Higher levels of N-acetylglucosamine bound by Lycopersicon esculentum and Phytolacca americana agglutinins were also apparent. Some differences between Okapi and Giraffe were evident. Most N-linked glycans were similarly expressed in all three species as were fucosyl residues. Interplacentomal areas in Giraffe and Bovine showed differences from the placentomal cells though no intercotyledonary BNC were apparent in Okapi. In conclusion, Giraffidae BNC developed different glycan biosynthetic pathways following their split from the Bovidae with further differences evolving as Okapi and Giraffe diverged from each other, affecting both inter and placentomal BNC which may have different functions during development. PMID:25527317

  8. Genetic Diversity and Symbiotic Phenotype of Hairy Vetch Rhizobia in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Kun; Miwa, Hiroki; Iizuka, Maki; Yokoyama, Tadashi; Fujii, Yoshiharu; Okazaki, Shin

    2016-01-01

    Hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth) is a leguminous crop widely used as green manure and a cover crop in Japan. It exhibits strong weed-suppressing activity, high resistance to insect pests, and the ability to fix nitrogen through symbiotic interactions with soil bacteria known as rhizobia. Few studies have investigated the rhizobia that form nodules on hairy vetch in Japan, and the biological resources available for selecting high nitrogen-fixing rhizobia are limited. In the present study, we isolated 110 hairy vetch rhizobia from 13 different areas in Japan. Based on their 16S rRNA gene sequences, 73% of the isolates were identified as Rhizobium leguminosarum. A comparative analysis of nodC and 16S rRNA gene phylogenies revealed that several isolates possessed congruent nodC sequences despite having divergent 16S rRNA gene sequences, suggesting that the horizontal transfer of nod genes occurred during the evolution of rhizobia. Inoculation tests showed that isolates closely related to R. leguminosarum had better plant growth-promoting effects than other strains, thereby providing a promising agricultural resource for inoculating crops. PMID:27151657

  9. The decisive step in betaxanthin biosynthesis is a spontaneous reaction1

    PubMed

    Schliemann; Kobayashi; Strack

    1999-04-01

    Experiments were performed to confirm that the aldimine bond formation is a spontaneous reaction, because attempts to find an enzyme catalyzing the last decisive step in betaxanthin biosynthesis, the aldimine formation, failed. Feeding different amino acids to betalain-forming hairy root cultures of yellow beet (Beta vulgaris L. subsp. vulgaris "Golden Beet") showed that all amino acids (S- and R-forms) led to the corresponding betaxanthins. We observed neither an amino acid specificity nor a stereoselectivity in this process. In addition, increasing the endogenous phenylalanine (Phe) level by feeding the Phe ammonia-lyase inhibitor 2-aminoindan 2-phosphonic acid yielded the Phe-derived betaxanthin. Feeding amino acids or 2-aminoindan 2-phosphonic acid to hypocotyls of fodder beet (B. vulgaris L. subsp. vulgaris "Altamo") plants led to the same results. Furthermore, feeding cyclo-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-alanine (cyclo-Dopa) to these hypocotyls resulted in betanidin formation, indicating that the decisive step in betacyanin formation proceeds spontaneously. Finally, feeding betalamic acid to broad bean (Vicia faba L.) seedlings, which are known to accumulate high levels of Dopa but do not synthesize betaxanthins, resulted in the formation of dopaxanthin. These results indicate that the condensation of betalamic acid with amino acids (possibly including cyclo-Dopa or amines) in planta is a spontaneous, not an enzyme-catalyzed reaction. PMID:10198080

  10. The use of comet assay in plant toxicology: recent advances

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Conceição L. V.; Pourrut, Bertrand; Ferreira de Oliveira, José M. P.

    2015-01-01

    The systematic study of genotoxicity in plants induced by contaminants and other stress agents has been hindered to date by the lack of reliable and robust biomarkers. The comet assay is a versatile and sensitive method for the evaluation of DNA damages and DNA repair capacity at single-cell level. Due to its simplicity and sensitivity, and the small number of cells required to obtain robust results, the use of plant comet assay has drastically increased in the last decade. For years its use was restricted to a few model species, e.g., Allium cepa, Nicotiana tabacum, Vicia faba, or Arabidopsis thaliana but this number largely increased in the last years. Plant comet assay has been used to study the genotoxic impact of radiation, chemicals including pesticides, phytocompounds, heavy metals, nanoparticles or contaminated complex matrices. Here we will review the most recent data on the use of this technique as a standard approach for studying the genotoxic effects of different stress conditions on plants. Also, we will discuss the integration of information provided by the comet assay with other DNA-damage indicators, and with cellular responses including oxidative stress, cell division or cell death. Finally, we will focus on putative relations between transcripts related with DNA damage pathways, DNA replication and repair, oxidative stress and cell cycle progression that have been identified in plant cells with comet assays demonstrating DNA damage. PMID:26175750

  11. Structure of the developing pea seed coat and the post-phloem transport pathway of nutrients.

    PubMed

    Van Dongen, Joost T; Ammerlaan, Ankie M H; Wouterlood, Medleine; Van Aelst, Adriaan C; Borstlap, Adrianus C

    2003-05-01

    An important function of the seed coat is to deliver nutrients to the embryo. To relate this function to anatomical characteristics, the developing seed coat of pea (Pisum sativum L.) was examined by light- and cryo-scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM) from the late pre-storage phase until the end of seed filling. During this time the apparently undifferentiated seed coat tissues evolve into the epidermal macrosclereids, the hypodermal hourglass cells, chlorenchyma, ground parenchyma and branched parenchyma. Using the fluorescent symplast tracer 8-hydroxypyrene-1,3,6-trisulfonic acid, it could be demonstrated that solutes imported by the phloem move into the chlorenchyma and ground parenchyma, but not into the branched parenchyma. From a comparison with literature data of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and broad bean (Vicia faba L.), it is concluded that in the three species different parenchyma layers, but not the branched parenchyma, may be involved in the post-phloem symplasmic transport of nutrients in the seed coat. In pea, the branched parenchyma dies during the storage phase, and its cell wall remnants then form the boundary layer between the living seed coat parenchyma cells and the cotyledons. Using cryo-SEM, clear images were obtained of this boundary layer which showed that many intracellular spaces in the seed coat parenchyma are filled with an aqueous solution. This is suggested to facilitate the diffusion of nutrients from the site of unloading towards the cotyledons. PMID:12714370

  12. Targeted predation of extrafloral nectaries by insects despite localized chemical defences.

    PubMed

    Gish, Moshe; Mescher, Mark C; De Moraes, Consuelo M

    2015-10-01

    Extrafloral (EF) nectaries recruit carnivorous arthropods that protect plants from herbivory, but they can also be exploited by nectar thieves. We studied the opportunistic, targeted predation (and destruction) of EF nectaries by insects, and the localized chemical defences that plants presumably use to minimize this effect. In field and laboratory experiments, we identified insects that were possibly responsible for EF nectary predation in Vicia faba (fava bean) and determined the extent and accuracy of the feeding damage done to the EF nectaries by these insects. We also performed biochemical analyses of plant tissue samples in order to detect microscale distribution patterns of chemical defences in the area of the EF nectary. We observed selective, targeted feeding on EF nectaries by several insect species, including some that are otherwise not primarily herbivorous. Biochemical analyses revealed high concentrations of l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine, a non-protein amino acid that is toxic to insects, near and within the EF nectaries. These results suggest that plants allocate defences to the protection of EF nectaries from predation, consistent with expectations of optimal defence theory, and that this may not be entirely effective, as insects limit their exposure to these defences by consuming only the secreting tissue of the nectary. PMID:26446809

  13. Reproduction of Pratylenchus penetrans on 24 Common Weeds in Potato Fields in Québec

    PubMed Central

    Bélair, G.; Dauphinais, N.; Benoit, D. L.; Fournier, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Twenty-four weeds commonly found in commercial potato fields in Quebec were evaluated for their host suitability to the root-lesion nematode, Pratylenchus penetrans, under greenhouse conditions. Brown mustard (Brassica juncea) and rye (Secale cereale) were included as susceptible controls and forage pearl millet hyb. CFPM 101 (Pennisetum glaucum) as a poor host. Pratylenchus penetrans multiplied well on 22 of the 24 weed species tested (Pf/Pi ≥ rye or brown mustard). Cirsium arvense, Leucanthemum vulgare and Matricaria discoida were classified as very good hosts with a Pf/Pi ranging from 1.60 to 2.54, while Ambrosia artemisiifolia and Cyperus esculentus were classified as poor hosts with a Pf/Pi from 0.01 to 0.15. Amaranthus powellii, A. retrqflexus, Raphanus raphanistrum, Rorippa palustris, Cerastium fontanum, Spergula arvensis, Stellaria media, Chenopodium album, Vicia cracca, Elytrigia repens, Digitaria ischaemum, Echinochloa crusgalli, Panicum capillare, Setaria faberii, S. pumila, S. viridis, Polygonum convolvulus, P. scabrum and P. persicaria were intermediate hosts with Pf/Pi values ranging from 0.33 to 2.01. The plant species and the botanical family had a significant impact on nematode reproduction. The Brassicaceae family resulted in the greatest reproduction of P. penetrans, and the Cyperaceae resulted in the least. The plant life-cycle (annual vs. perennial) had no impact on nematode population. PMID:19259506

  14. Screening and analysis of genes expressed upon infection of broad bean with Clover yellow vein virus causing lethal necrosis.

    PubMed

    Nakahara, Kenji S; Kitazawa, Hiroaki; Atsumi, Go; Choi, Sun Hee; Suzuki, Yuji; Uyeda, Ichiro

    2011-01-01

    Clover yellow vein virus (ClYVV) causes lethal systemic necrosis in legumes, including broad bean (Vicia faba) and pea (Pisum sativum). To identify host genes involved in necrotic symptom expression after ClYVV infection, we screened cDNA fragments in which expression was changed in advance of necrotic symptom expression in broad bean (V. faba cv. Wase) using the differential display technique and secondarily with Northern blot analysis. Expression changes were confirmed in 20 genes, and the six that exhibited the most change were analyzed further. These six genes included a gene that encodes a putative nitrate-induced NOI protein (VfNOI), and another was homologous to an Arabidopsis gene that encodes a glycine- and proline-rich protein GPRP (VfGPRP). We recently reported that necrotic symptom development in ClYVV-infected pea is associated with expression of salicylic acid (SA)-dependent pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins and requires SA-dependent host responses. Interestingly, VfNOI and VfGPRP expression was correlated with that of the putative SA-dependent PR proteins in ClYVV-infected broad bean. However, broad bean infected with a recombinant ClYVV expressing the VfGPRP protein showed weaker symptoms and less viral multiplication than that infected with ClYVV expressing the GFP protein. These results imply that VfGPRP plays a role in defense against ClYVV rather than in necrotic symptom expression. PMID:21767375

  15. Do plant viruses facilitate their aphid vectors by inducing symptoms that alter behavior and performance?

    PubMed

    Hodge, Simon; Powell, Glen

    2008-12-01

    Aphids can respond both positively and negatively to virus-induced modifications of the shared host plant. It can be speculated that viruses dependent on aphids for their transmission might evolve to induce changes in the host plant that attract aphids and improve their performance, subsequently enhancing the success of the pathogen itself. We studied how pea aphids [Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris)] responded to infection of tic beans (Vicia faba L.) by three viruses with varying degrees of dependence on this aphid for their transmission: pea enation mosaic virus (PEMV), bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV), and broad bean mottle virus (BBMV). BYMV has a nonpersistent mode of transmission by aphids, whereas PEMV is transmitted in a circulative-persistent manner. BBMV is not aphid transmitted. When reared on plants infected by PEMV, no changes in aphid survival, growth, or reproductive performance were observed, whereas infection of beans by the other aphid-dependent virus, BYMV, actually caused a reduction in aphid survival in some assays. None of the viruses induced A. pisum to increase production of winged progeny, and aphids settled preferentially on leaf tissue from plants infected by all three viruses, the likely mechanism being visual responses to yellowing of foliage. Thus, in this system, the attractiveness of an infected host plant and its quality in terms of aphid growth and reproduction were not related to the pathogen's dependence on the aphid for transmission to new hosts. PMID:19161702

  16. Removal of benzoylecgonine from water matrices through UV254/H2O2 process: Reaction kinetic modeling, ecotoxicity and genotoxicity assessment.

    PubMed

    Spasiano, D; Russo, D; Vaccaro, M; Siciliano, A; Marotta, R; Guida, M; Reis, N M; Li Puma, G; Andreozzi, R

    2016-11-15

    Benzoylecgonine (BE), the main cocaine metabolite, has been detected in numerous surface water and treatment plants effluents in Europe and there is urgent need for effective treatment methods. In this study, the removal of BE by the UV254/H2O2 process from different water matrices was investigated. By means of competition kinetics method, the kinetic constant of reaction between BE and the photogenerated hydroxyl radicals (OH) was estimated resulting in kOH/BE=5.13×10(9)M(-1)s(-1). By-products and water matrices scavengers effects were estimated by numerical modeling of the reaction kinetics for the UV254/H2O2 process and validated in an innovative microcapillary film (MCF) array photoreactor and in a conventional batch photoreactor. The ecotoxicity of the water before and after treatment was evaluated with four organisms Raphidocelis subcapitata, Daphnia magna, Caenorhabditis elegans, and Vicia faba. The results provided evidence that BE and its transformation by-products do not have significant adverse effects on R. subcapitata, while D. magna underwent an increase of lipid droplets. C. elegans was the most sensitive to BE and its by-products. Furthermore, a genotoxicity assay, using V. faba, showed cytogenic damages during the cell mitosis of primary roots. PMID:27450344

  17. Evaluation of zinc oxide nanoparticle toxicity in sludge products applied to agricultural soil using multispecies soil systems.

    PubMed

    Fernández, María Dolores; Alonso-Blázquez, María Nieves; García-Gómez, Concepción; Babin, Mar

    2014-11-01

    To study the environmental impact of nanoparticles, the sludges of wastewater (WWTS) and water treatment (WTS) plants enriched with ZnO nanoparticles were added to agricultural soil, and the toxic effects of the nanoparticles were studied using a microcosm system based on the soil. The WWTS treated soils were characterised by statistically significant decreases (p<0.05) in Vicia sativa germination at the lowest (76.2%) and medium (95.2%) application rates, decreases in the fresh biomass for Triticum aestivum (19.5%), Raphanus sativus (64.1%), V. sativa (37.4%) and Eisenia fetida (33.6%) at the highest application rate and a dose-related significant increase (p<0.05) in earthworm mortality. In WTS amended soils, significant reductions (p<0.05) of the fresh biomass (17.2%) and the chlorophyll index (24.4%) for T. aestivum and the fresh biomass for R. sativus (31.4%) were only recorded at the highest application doses. In addition, the soil phosphatase enzymatic activity decreased significantly (p<0.05) in both WWTS (dose related) and WTS treatments. For water organisms, a slight inhibition of the growth of Chlorella vulgaris was observed (WWTS treated soils), along with statistically significant dose-related inhibition responses on total glutathione cell content, and statistically significant dose-related induction responses on the glutathione S-transferase enzyme activity and the reactive oxygen species generation on the RTG-2 fish cell line. PMID:25194764

  18. Arabidopsis OST1 protein kinase mediates the regulation of stomatal aperture by abscisic acid and acts upstream of reactive oxygen species production.

    PubMed

    Mustilli, Anna-Chiara; Merlot, Sylvain; Vavasseur, Alain; Fenzi, Francesca; Giraudat, Jérôme

    2002-12-01

    During drought, the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) triggers stomatal closure, thus reducing water loss. Using infrared thermography, we isolated two allelic Arabidopsis mutants (ost1-1 and ost1-2) impaired in the ability to limit their transpiration upon drought. These recessive ost1 mutations disrupted ABA induction of stomatal closure as well as ABA inhibition of light-induced stomatal opening. By contrast, the ost1 mutations did not affect stomatal regulation by light or CO(2), suggesting that OST1 is involved specifically in ABA signaling. The OST1 gene was isolated by positional cloning and was found to be expressed in stomatal guard cells and vascular tissue. In-gel assays indicated that OST1 is an ABA-activated protein kinase related to the Vicia faba ABA-activated protein kinase (AAPK). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were shown recently to be an essential intermediate in guard cell ABA signaling. ABA-induced ROS production was disrupted in ost1 guard cells, whereas applied H(2)O(2) or calcium elicited the same degree of stomatal closure in ost1 as in the wild type. These results suggest that OST1 acts in the interval between ABA perception and ROS production. The relative positions of ost1 and the other ABA-insensitive mutations in the ABA signaling network (abi1-1, abi2-1, and gca2) are discussed. PMID:12468729

  19. Production of diagnostic pigment by phenoloxidase activity of cryptococcus neoformans.

    PubMed

    Shaw, C E; Kapica, L

    1972-11-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans produces brown pigmented colonies when grown on agar media made from an extract of potatoes and carrots, broad beans (Vicia faba), or Guizotia abyssinica seeds. Since other yeasts do not produce the pigment, these media are useful as differential isolation media for C. neoformans. Similar specific pigment was produced by C. neoformans on chemically defined agar media which contained six different substrates of phenoloxidase (o-diphenol: oxygen oxidoreductase EC 1.10.3.1) an enzyme which catalyses the oxidation of o-diphenols to melanin. Substrates were incorporated singly into the media and included L-3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA), chlorogenic acid, protocatechuic acid, catechol, norepinephrine, and 3-hydroxytyramine hydrochloride (dopamine). No pigment was produced on media without substrate. Phenoloxidase activity in (NH(4))(2)SO(4) precipitates of C. neoformans cell-free extract was assayed by measuring increases in absorbance at 480 nm produced in solutions of L-DOPA. This reaction showed oxygen uptake and was effectively inhibited by copper chelators, but not by catalase. The enzyme also oxidized the five other substrates which induced pigment formation. Electron micrographs of cells incubated in L-DOPA showed deposition of the pigment in the cell wall. PMID:4118328

  20. High-throughput novel microsatellite marker of faba bean via next generation sequencing

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is an important food legume crop, grown for human consumption globally including in China, Turkey, Egypt and Ethiopia. Although genetic gain has been made through conventional selection and breeding efforts, this could be substantially improved through the application of molecular methods. For this, a set of reliable molecular markers representative of the entire genome is required. Results A library with 125,559 putative SSR sequences was constructed and characterized for repeat type and length from a mixed genome of 247 spring and winter sown faba bean genotypes using 454 sequencing. A suit of 28,503 primer pair sequences were designed and 150 were randomly selected for validation. Of these, 94 produced reproducible amplicons that were polymorphic among 32 faba bean genotypes selected from diverse geographical locations. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 8, the expected heterozygocities ranged from 0.0000 to 1.0000, and the observed heterozygosities ranged from 0.0908 to 0.8410. The validation by UPGMA cluster analysis of 32 genotypes based on Nei's genetic distance, showed high quality and effectiveness of those novel SSR markers developed via next generation sequencing technology. Conclusions Large scale SSR marker development was successfully achieved using next generation sequencing of the V. faba genome. These novel markers are valuable for constructing genetic linkage maps, future QTL mapping, and marker-assisted trait selection in faba bean breeding efforts. PMID:23137291

  1. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Ascochlorin in LPS-Stimulated RAW 264.7 Macrophage Cells Is Accompanied With the Down-Regulation of iNOS, COX-2 and Proinflammatory Cytokines Through NF-κB, ERK1/2, and p38 Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sook-Hyun; Kwak, Choong-Hwan; Lee, Sung-Kyun; Ha, Sun-Hyung; Park, Junyoung; Chung, Tae-Wook; Ha, Ki-Tae; Suh, Suk-Jong; Chang, Young-Chae; Chang, Hyeun Wook; Lee, Young-Choon; Kang, Bong-Seok; Magae, Junji; Kim, Cheorl-Ho

    2016-04-01

    A natural compound C23 H32 O4 Cl, ascochlorin (ASC) isolated from an incomplete fungus, Ascochyta viciae has been known to have several biological activities as an antibiotic, antifungal, anti-cancer, anti-hypolipidemic, and anti-hypertension agent. In this study, anti-inflammatory activity has been investigated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells, since ASC has not been observed on the inflammatory events. The present study has clearly shown that ASC (1-50 μM) significantly suppressed the production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) and decreased the gene expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, ASC inhibited the mRNA expression and the protein secretion of interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 but not tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. In addition, ASC suppressed nuclear translocation and DNA binding affinity of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). Furthermore, ASC down-regulated phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (p-ERK1/2) and p-p38. These results demonstrate that ASC exhibits anti-inflammatory effects in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. PMID:26399466

  2. Environmental and Genotypic Effects on the Respiration Associated with Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation in Peas 1

    PubMed Central

    Mahon, John D.

    1979-01-01

    Estimated values for the respiration associated with symbiotic nitrogen fixation in Pisum sativum L. were independent of irradiance, temperature, plant age, and CO2 concentration, despite large variation in the total rates of C2H2 reduction and root + nodule respiration. Similar values were also found in Phaseolus vulgaris L., Vicia faba L. and Glycine max (L.) Merr. Among all combinations of four Pisum cultivars with four Rhizobium leguminosarum inoculants only the plant genotype significantly affected the fixation-linked respiration, although both plant and bacterial types significantly influenced the total rate of C2H2 reduction. On the basis of measured rates of H2 evolution and C2H2 reduction, or total nitrogen gain in the same system, the least respiration per unit of ammonia produced symbiotically was estimated as 4.8 to 6.9 moles CO2 (mole NH3)−1 in Laxton's Progress and the greatest as 9.3 to 13.3 moles CO2 (mole NH3)−1 in an Indian cultivar, as compared to a theoretical minimum respiration requirement of 4.7 moles CO2 (mole NH3)−1 in peas. PMID:16660833

  3. Biosynthesis of Jasmonic Acid by Several Plant Species 1

    PubMed Central

    Vick, Brady A.; Zimmerman, Don C.

    1984-01-01

    Six plant species metabolized 18O-labeled 12-oxo-cis,cis-10,15-phytodienoic acid (12-oxo-PDA) to short chain cyclic fatty acids. The plant species were corn (Zea mays L.), eggplant (Solanum melongena L.), flax (Linum usitatissimum L.), oat (Avena sativa L.), sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Among the products was jasmonic acid, a natural plant constituent with growth-regulating properties. The pathway is the same as the one recently reported by us for jasmonic acid synthesis in Vicia faba L. pericarp. First, the ring double bond of 12-oxo-PDA is saturated; then β-oxidation enzymes remove six carbons from the carboxyl side chain of the ring. Substrate specificity studies indicated that neither the stereochemistry of the side chain at carbon 13 of 12-oxo-PDA nor the presence of the double bond at carbon 15 was crucial for either enzyme step. The presence of enzymes which convert 12-oxo-PDA to jasmonic acid in several plant species indicates that this may be a general metabolic pathway in plants. PMID:16663643

  4. Assessment of the possible reuse of MSW coming from landfill mining of old open dumpsites.

    PubMed

    Masi, S; Caniani, D; Grieco, E; Lioi, D S; Mancini, I M

    2014-03-01

    The present study addresses the theme of recycling potential of old open dumpsites by using landfill mining. Attention is focused on the possible reuse of the residual finer fraction (<4 mm), which constitutes more than 60% of the total mined material, sampled in the old open dumpsite of Lavello (Southern Italy). We propose a protocol of analysis of the landfill material that links chemical analyses and environmental bioassays. This protocol is used to evaluate the compatibility of the residual matrix for the disposal in temporary storages and the formation of "bio-soils" to be used in geo-environmental applications, such as the construction of barrier layers of landfills, or in environmental remediation activities. Attention is mainly focused on the presence of heavy metals and on the possible interaction with test organisms. Chemical analyses of the residual matrix and leaching tests showed that the concentration of heavy metals is always below the legislation limits. Biological acute tests (with Lepidum sativum, Vicia faba and Lactuca sativa) do not emphasize adverse effects to the growth of the plant species, except the bioassay with V. faba, which showed a dose-response effect. The new developed chronic bioassay test with Spartium junceum showed a good adaptation to stress conditions induced by the presence of the mined landfill material. In conclusion, the conducted experimental activities demonstrated the suitability of the material to be used for different purposes. PMID:24412012

  5. Nod factor-induced phosphatidic acid and diacylglycerol pyrophosphate formation: a role for phospholipase C and D in root hair deformation.

    PubMed

    den Hartog, M; Musgrave, A; Munnik, T

    2001-01-01

    Rhizobium-secreted nodulation factors are lipochitooligosaccharides that trigger the initiation of nodule formation on host legume roots. The first visible effect is root hair deformation, but the perception and signalling mechanisms that lead to this response are still unclear. When we treated Vicia sativa seedlings with mastoparan root hairs deformed, suggesting that G proteins are involved. To investigate whether mastoparan and Nod factor activate lipid signalling pathways initiated by phospholipase C (PLC) and D (PLD), seedlings were radiolabelled with [(32)P]orthophosphate prior to treatment. Mastoparan stimulated increases in phosphatidic acid (PA) and diacylglycerol pyrophosphate, indicative of PLD or PLC activity in combination with diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) and PA kinase. Treatment with Nod factor had similar effects, although less pronounced. The inactive mastoparan analogue Mas17 had no effect. The increase in PA was partially caused by the activation of PLD that was monitored by its in vivo transphosphatidylation activity. The application of primary butyl alcohols, inhibitors of PLD activity, blocked root hair deformation. Using different labelling strategies, evidence was provided for the activation of DGK. Since the PLC antagonist neomycin inhibited root hair deformation and the formation of PA, we propose that PLC activation produced diacylglycerol (DAG), which was subsequently converted to PA by DGK. The roles of PLC and PLD in Nod factor signalling are discussed. PMID:11169182

  6. Identification and localization of transformed cells in agrobacterium tumefaciens-induced plant tumors

    PubMed

    Rezmer; Schlichting; Wachter; Ullrich

    1999-10-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens-induced tumors of dicotyledonous plants consist of well-defined vascular bundle-like structures originating from transformed cells. The current view that 25% of the tumor cells are transformed has been re-investigated by using beta-glucuronidase (gus)-gene-containing wild-type bacteria (A281 p35S gus-int). Regularly growing stem and leaf tumors showed irregular GUS-staining patterns in the different plant species, Ricinus communis L., Cucurbita maxima L., Vicia faba L. and Kalanchoe daigremontiana Hamet et Perrier. Variable staining and inconsistency between staining and tumor growth suggested an inhibition of gus expression. By polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse transcriptase-PCR analyses it became evident that gus is also integrated into the DNA of unstainable tumor parts but not expressed. These results and area calculations of tissues unable to contain the bacterial transferred-DNA with gus provide strong evidence that in A. tumefaciens-induced tumors most cells, or even all, are transformed, i.e. ca. 100%. PMID:10550620

  7. Photosynthesis in lightfleck areas of homobaric and heterobaric leaves

    PubMed Central

    Pieruschka, Roland; Chavarría-Krauser, Andrés; Schurr, Ulrich; Jahnke, Siegfried

    2010-01-01

    Leaves within a canopy are exposed to a spatially and temporally fluctuating light environment which may cause lateral gradients in leaf internal CO2 concentration and diffusion between shaded and illuminated areas. In previous studies it was hypothesized that lateral CO2 diffusion may support leaf photosynthesis, but the magnitude of this effect is still not well understood. In the present study homobaric leaves of Vicia faba or heterobaric leaves of Glycine max were illuminated with lightflecks of different sizes, mimicking sunflecks. Photosynthetic properties of the lightfleck areas were assessed with combined gas exchange measurements and chlorophyll fluorescence imaging. Lateral diffusion in homobaric leaves with an interconnected intercellular air space stimulated photosynthesis and the effect was largest in small lightfleck areas, in particular when plants were under drought stress. Such effects were not observed in the heterobaric leaves with strongly compartmented intercellular gas spaces. It is concluded that lateral diffusion may significantly contribute to photosynthesis of lightfleck areas of homobaric leaves depending on lightfleck size, lateral diffusivity, and stomatal conductance. Since homobaric leaf structures have been reported for many plant species, it is hypothesized that leaf homobary may have an impact on overall plant performance under conditions with a highly heterogeneous light environment. PMID:20008895

  8. Anion channel sensitivity to cytosolic organic acids implicates a central role for oxaloacetate in integrating ion flux with metabolism in stomatal guard cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yizhou; Blatt, Michael R.

    2011-01-01

    Stomatal guard cells play a key role in gas exchange for photosynthesis and in minimizing transpirational water loss from plants by opening and closing the stomatal pore. The bulk of the osmotic content driving stomatal movements depends on ionic fluxes across both the plasma membrane and tonoplast, the metabolism of organic acids, primarily Mal (malate), and its accumulation and loss. Anion channels at the plasma membrane are thought to comprise a major pathway for Mal efflux during stomatal closure, implicating their key role in linking solute flux with metabolism. Nonetheless, little is known of the regulation of anion channel current (ICl) by cytosolic Mal or its immediate metabolite OAA (oxaloacetate). In the present study, we have examined the impact of Mal, OAA and of the monocarboxylic acid anion acetate in guard cells of Vicia faba L. and report that all three organic acids affect ICl, but with markedly different characteristics and sidedness to their activities. Most prominent was a suppression of ICl by OAA within the physiological range of concentrations found in vivo. These findings indicate a capacity for OAA to co-ordinate organic acid metabolism with ICl through the direct effect of organic acid pool size. The findings of the present study also add perspective to in vivo recordings using acetate-based electrolytes. PMID:21745184

  9. The Role of Potassium Channels in the Temperature Control of Stomatal Aperture.

    PubMed Central

    Ilan, N.; Moran, N.; Schwartz, A.

    1995-01-01

    We used the patch-clamp technique to examine the effect of temperature (13-36[deg]C) on the depolarization-activated K channels (KD channels) and on the hyperpolarization-activated channels (KH channels) in the plasma membrane of Vicia faba guard-cell protoplasts. The steady-state whole-cell conductance of both K channel types increased with temperature up to 20[deg]C. However, whereas the whole-cell conductance of the KH channels increased further and saturated at 28[deg]C, that of KD channels decreased at higher temperatures. The unitary conductance of both channel types increased with temperature like the rate of diffusion in water (temperature quotient of approximately 1.5), constituting the major contribution to the conductance increase in the whole cells. The mean number of available KH channels was not affected significantly by temperature, but the mean number of available KD channels increased significantly between 13 and 20[deg]C and declined drastically above 20[deg]C. This decrease and the reduced steady-state voltage-dependent probability of opening of the KD channels above 28[deg]C (because of a shift of voltage dependence by +21 mV) account for the depression of the whole-cell KD conductance at the higher temperatures. This may be a basic mechanism by which leaves of well-watered plants keep their stomata open during heat stress to promote cooling by transpiration. PMID:12228534

  10. Partly transparent young legume pods: Do they mimic caterpillars for defense and simultaneously enable better photosynthesis?

    PubMed Central

    Lev-Yadun, Simcha

    2015-01-01

    Being partly or fully transparent as a defense from predation is mostly known in various groups of aquatic animals and various terrestrial arthropods. Plants, being photosynthetic and having cell walls made of various polymers, cannot be wholly transparent. In spite of these inherent limitations, some succulent plant species of arid zones have partially transparent “windows” in order to perform photosynthesis in their below-ground leaves, as defense from herbivores as well as for protection from harsh environmental conditions. Similarly, transparent “windows” or even wholly transparent leaves are found in certain thick or thin, above-ground organs irrespective of aridity. The young pods of various wild annual Mediterranean legume species belonging to the genera Lathyrus, Pisum and Vicia are partly transparent and may therefore look like caterpillars when viewed with back illumination. I propose that this character serves 2 functions: (1) being a type of defensive caterpillar mimicry that may reduce their consumption by various herbivores in that very sensitive stage, and (2) simultaneously allowing better photosynthesis in the rapidly growing seeds and pods. Unlike animals that are transparent for either defensive or aggressive crypsis, in the case of young legume pods it allows them to visually mimic caterpillars for defense. PMID:26633565

  11. Soil genotoxicity induced by successive applications of chlorothalonil under greenhouse conditions.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xiangxiang; Cui, Ning; Zhou, Wei; Khorram, Mahdi Safaei; Wang, Donghong; Yu, Yunlong

    2014-05-01

    Greenhouse production of vegetables has been developed rapidly in China. High temperature and humidity inside the greenhouse make this environment more suitable for fast reproduction of fungal diseases. Fungicides are among the chemicals used extensively in the greenhouse to prevent crops from invasive infections by phytopathogens; however, little is known about the accumulation of fungicides in soil and their effect on soil quality under greenhouse conditions. In the present study, the accumulation of the fungicide chlorothalonil (CT) and its toxic metabolite hydroxy-chlorothalonil (HCT) in soil as well as their related soil genotoxicity under greenhouse conditions was investigated. The results indicated that both CT and HCT accumulated in soil with repeated applications of CT, and the accumulation level was strongly correlated to application dosage and its frequency. In addition, soil genotoxicity, which was measured by Vicia faba, also increased with the accumulation of CT and HCT, and the main contributor to this phenomenon was CT rather than HCT. The data demonstrated that successive applications of fungicides may result in their accumulation in soil and thus a decline in soil quality. PMID:24478244

  12. Host Suitability of Twelve Leguminosae Species to Populations of Meloidogyne hapla and M. chitwoodi.

    PubMed

    Griffin, G D; Rumbaugh, M D

    1996-09-01

    Legumes of the genera Astragalus (milkvetch), Coronilla (crownvetch), Lathyrus (pea vine), Lotus (birdsfoot trefoil), Medicago (alfalfa), Melilotus (clover), Trifolium (clover), and Vicia (common vetch) were inoculated with a population of Melaidogyne chitwoodi from Utah or with one of three M. hapla populations from California, Utah, and Wyoming.Thirty-nine percent to 86% of alfalfa (M. scutellata) and 10% to 55% of red clover (T. pratense) plants survived inoculation with the nematode populations at a greenhouse temperature of 24 +/- 3 degrees C. All plants of the other legume species survived all nematode populations, except 4% of the white clover (T. repens) plants inoculated with the California M. hapla population. Entries were usually more susceptible to the M. hapla populations than to M. chitwoodi. Galling of host roots differed between nematode populations and species. Root-galling indices (1 = none, 6 = severely galled) ranged from 1 on pea vine inoculated with the California population of M. hapla to 6 on yellow sweet clover inoculated with the Wyoming population of M. hapla. The nematode reproductive factor (Rf = final nematode population/initial nematode population) ranged from 0 for all nematode populations on pea vine to 35 for the Wyoming population of M. hapla on alfalfa (M. sativa). PMID:19277158

  13. Encounters with aphid predators or their residues impede searching and oviposition by the aphid parasitoid Aphidius ervi (Hymenoptera: Aphidiinae).

    PubMed

    Almohamad, Raki; Hance, Thierry

    2014-04-01

    Intraguild predation (IGP) can be an important factor influencing the effectiveness of aphid natural enemies in biological control. In particular, aphid parasitoid foraging could be influenced by the presence of predators. This study investigated the effect of larvae of the predatory hoverfly Episyrphus balteatus DeGeer (Diptera: Syrphidae) and the multicolored Asian ladybird Harmonia axyridis Pallas (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) on the foraging behavior of the aphid parasitoid, Aphidius ervi Haliday (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) in choice experiments using a leaf disc bioassay. Wasp response to chemical tracks left by those predator larvae was also tested. Parasitoid behavior was recorded using the Observer (Noldus Information Technology, version 5.0, Wageningen, the Netherlands). The experiments were conducted under controlled environmental conditions using leaves of the broad bean plant, Vicia faba L. (Fabaceae) with Myzus persicae Sulzer (Homoptera: Aphididae) as the host complex. A. ervi females avoided aphid patches when larvae of either predator were present. A similar avoidance response was shown by A. ervi to aphid patches with E. balteatus larval tracks, whereas no significant response was observed to tracks left by H. axyridis larvae. It was concluded that IG predator avoidance shown by the aphid parasitoid A. ervi may be a factor affecting their distribution among host patches. PMID:23955963

  14. In situ phytostabilisation capacity of three legumes and their associated Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria (PGPBs) in mine tailings of northern Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Saadani, Omar; Fatnassi, Imen Challougui; Chiboub, Manel; Abdelkrim, Souhir; Barhoumi, Fathi; Jebara, Moez; Jebara, Salwa Harzalli

    2016-08-01

    PGPBs-legumes associations represent an alternative procedure for phytostabilisation of heavy metals polluted soils mainly generated by industrial and agricultural practices. In this study we evaluated the capacity of Vicia faba, Lens culinaris and Sulla coronaria, inoculated in situ by specific heavy metals resistant inocula, for the phytostabilisation of copper, lead and cadmium respectively. The experimentation was performed in mine tailings of northern Tunisia. Results proved that inoculation enhanced roots and shoots biomass production of faba bean by 14% and 12%, respectively, and significantly improved pods yield by 91%. In lentil, the inoculation ameliorated shoot biomass up to 27%. The highest nitrogen fixation was recorded by Sulla coronaria. The three symbioses accumulated heavy metals essentially in roots, and poorly in shoots. In addition, cadmium accumulation in roots of inoculated sulla was enhanced by 39%. Furthermore, inoculations decreased heavy metals availability in the soil up to -10% of Cu and -47% of Pb respectively in roots of faba bean and lentil. Our results suggested a positive effect of co-inoculation of legumes by appropriate heavy metals resistant PGPBs for the phytostabilisation of mine tailings. Elsewhere, the enhancement in the antioxidant enzymes activities demonstrated the role of the three inocula to alleviate the heavy metals induced stress. PMID:27151677

  15. Effect of phlorizin on sugar uptake by broadbean leaf discs. [Vica faba L

    SciTech Connect

    Lemoine, R.; Delrot, S.

    1986-04-01

    Phlorizin is a competitive inhibitor of Na/sup +//glucose symport in animal cells and of H/sup +//3-O-methylglucose (3-O-MeG) symport in liverworts. The effects of this compound on the uptake of (U-/sup 14/C) sucrose and of (/sup 14/C) 3-O-MeG by broadbean (Vicia faba L.) leaf discs were studied. Leaf discs without lower epidermis were preincubated in the dark for 30 min (fresh discs) or for 12 h (aged discs) on a medium buffered at pH 5.0 containing mannitol as an osmoticum. They were then incubated for 30 min in the light on a similar solution added with 1 mM (/sup 14/C) sucrose or (/sup 14/C) 3-O-MeG and 5 mM phlorizin. Phlorizin inhibited uptake of 3-O-MeG by 37 and 50% respectively in fresh and aged discs. Sucrose uptake was more sensitive to the inhibitor than 3-O-MeG uptake and was also more inhibited in aged than in fresh discs (76% inhibition vs 54%). Kinetic studies showed that the inhibition exerted by phlorizin in fresh material is of competitive type both for sucrose and for 3-O-MeG uptake. Electrophysiological measurements indicated that the inhibitor did not affect the transmembrane potential difference of parenchyma cells within 30 min. The data suggest that phlorizin can be recognized by the hexose and by the sucrose carrier of leaf cells.

  16. Changes in nuclear and nucleolar protein content during the growth and differentiation of root parenchyma cells in plant species with different DNA-endoreplication dynamics.

    PubMed

    Marciniak, K; Bilecka, A

    1986-01-01

    Using cytophotometric procedures, we measured the nuclear and nucleolar protein content of successive zones of growth and differentiation in consecutive (1-7 mm) root segments obtained from eight species of the Angiospermae after staining the preparations with Feulgen-Naphthol Yellow S (F-NYS). In meristematic cells the nuclear and nucleolar protein content was found to double during the cell cycle. In species in which differentiation occurs at the same time as nuclear DNA endoreplication, i.e. Vicia faba subsp. minor, V. faba subsp. major, Pisum sativum, Hordeum vulgare and Amaryllis belladonna, the pool of nuclear proteins observed during the G2 phase of the cell cycle was seen in the differentiated zone in nuclei containing 8C DNA. Species in which differentiation is not accompanied by the process of nuclear DNA endoreplication, i.e. Levisticum officinale, Tulipa kaufmanniana and Haemanthus katharinae, exhibited the highest nuclear proteins content during the G2 phase of the cell cycle; comparably high values were not found in the differentiated zone. A decrease in nucleolar protein content was observed during the process of differentiation, this tendency being more evident in the studied species that do not exhibit endoreplication. PMID:3733472

  17. Rapid modulation of ultraviolet shielding in plants is influenced by solar ultraviolet radiation and linked to alterations in flavonoids.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Paul W; Tobler, Mark A; Keefover-Ring, Ken; Flint, Stephan D; Barkley, Anne E; Ryel, Ronald J; Lindroth, Richard L

    2016-01-01

    The accumulation of ultraviolet (UV)-absorbing compounds (flavonoids and related phenylpropanoids) and the resultant decrease in epidermal UV transmittance (TUV ) are primary protective mechanisms employed by plants against potentially damaging solar UV radiation and are critical components of the overall acclimation response of plants to changing solar UV environments. Whether plants can adjust this UV sunscreen protection in response to rapid changes in UV, as occurs on a diurnal basis, is largely unexplored. Here, we use a combination of approaches to demonstrate that plants can modulate their UV-screening properties within minutes to hours, and these changes are driven, in part, by UV radiation. For the cultivated species Abelmoschus esculentus, large (30-50%) and reversible changes in TUV occurred on a diurnal basis, and these adjustments were associated with changes in the concentrations of whole-leaf UV-absorbing compounds and several quercetin glycosides. Similar results were found for two other species (Vicia faba and Solanum lycopersicum), but no such changes were detected in Zea mays. These findings reveal a much more dynamic UV-protection mechanism than previously recognized, raise important questions concerning the costs and benefits of UV-protection strategies in plants and have practical implications for employing UV to enhance crop vigor and quality in controlled environments. PMID:26177782

  18. Camelid nanobodies with high affinity for broad bean mottle virus: a possible promising tool to immunomodulate plant resistance against viruses.

    PubMed

    Ghannam, Ahmed; Kumari, Safa; Muyldermans, Serge; Abbady, Abdul Qader

    2015-03-01

    Worldwide, plant viral infections decrease seriously the crop production yield, boosting the demand to develop new strategies to control viral diseases. One of these strategies to prevent viral infections, based on the immunomodulation faces many problems related to the ectopic expression of specific antibodies in planta. Camelid nanobodies, expressed in plants, may offer a solution as they are an attractive tool to bind efficiently to viral epitopes, cryptic or not accessible to conventional antibodies. Here, we report a novel, generic approach that might lead to virus resistance based on the expression of camelid specific nanobodies against Broad bean mottle virus (BBMV). Eight nanobodies, recognizing BBMV with high specificity and affinity, were retrieved after phage display from a large 'immune' library constructed from an immunized Arabic camel. By an in vitro assay we demonstrate how three nanobodies attenuate the BBMV spreading in inoculated Vicia faba plants. Furthermore, the in planta transient expression of these three selected nanobodies confirms their virus neutralizing capacity. In conclusion, this report supports that plant resistance against viral infections can be achieved by the in vivo expression of camelid nanobodies. PMID:25648551

  19. Angiotensin-converting enzymes modulate aphid-plant interactions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Luo, Lan; Lu, Hong; Chen, Shaoliang; Kang, Le; Cui, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzymes (ACEs) are key components of the renin-angiotensin system in mammals. However, the function of ACE homologs in insect saliva is unclear. Aphids presumably deliver effector proteins via saliva into plant cells to maintain a compatible insect-plant interaction. In this study, we showed that ACE modulates aphid-plant interactions by affecting feeding behavior and survival of aphids on host plants. Three ACE genes were identified from the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum genome. ACE1 and ACE2 were highly expressed in the salivary glands and are predicted to function as secretory proteins. The ACE2 transcript level decreased in aphids fed on artificial diet compared with aphids fed on Vicia faba. The knockdown of the expression of each ACE by RNAi failed to affect aphid survival. When ACE1 and ACE2 were simultaneously knocked down, aphid feeding was enhanced. Aphids required less time to find the phloem sap and showed longer passive ingestion. However, the simultaneous knockdown of ACE1 and ACE2 resulted in a higher mortality rate than the control group when aphids were fed on plants. These results indicated that ACE1 and ACE2 function together to modulate A. pisum feeding and survival on plants. PMID:25744345

  20. Calcium-dependent depletion zones in the cortical microtubule array coincide with sites of, but do not regulate, wall ingrowth papillae deposition in epidermal transfer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui-ming; Talbot, Mark J; McCurdy, David W; Patrick, John W; Offler, Christina E

    2015-09-01

    Trans-differentiation to a transfer-cell morphology is characterized by the localized deposition of wall ingrowth papillae that protrude into the cytosol. Whether the cortical microtubule array directs wall ingrowth papillae formation was investigated using a Vicia faba cotyledon culture system in which their adaxial epidermal cells were spontaneously induced to trans-differentiate to transfer cells. During deposition of wall ingrowth papillae, the aligned cortical microtubule arrays in precursor epidermal cells were reorganized into a randomized array characterized by circular depletion zones. Concurrence of the temporal appearance, spatial pattern, and size of depletion zones and wall ingrowth papillae was consistent with each papilla occupying a depletion zone. Surprisingly, microtubules appeared not to regulate construction of wall ingrowth papillae, as neither depolymerization nor stabilization of cortical microtubules changed their deposition pattern or morphology. Moreover, the size and spatial pattern of depletion zones was unaltered when the formation of wall ingrowth papillae was blocked by inhibiting cellulose biosynthesis. In contrast, the depletion zones were absent when the cytosolic calcium plumes, responsible for directing wall ingrowth papillae formation, were blocked or dissipated. Thus, we conclude that the depletion zones within the cortical microtubule array result from localized depolymerization of microtubules initiated by elevated cytosolic Ca(2+) levels at loci where wall ingrowth papillae are deposited. The physiological significance of the depletion zones as a mechanism to accommodate the construction of wall ingrowth papillae without compromising maintenance of the plasma membrane-microtubule inter-relationship is discussed. PMID:26136268

  1. Live Single-Cell Plant Hormone Analysis by Video-Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Takafumi; Miyakawa, Shinya; Esaki, Tsuyoshi; Mizuno, Hajime; Masujima, Tsutomu; Koshiba, Tomokazu; Seo, Mitsunori

    2015-07-01

    Studies have indicated that endogenous concentrations of plant hormones are regulated very locally within plants. To understand the mechanisms underlying hormone-mediated physiological processes, it is indispensable to know the exact hormone concentrations at cellular levels. In the present study, we established a system to determine levels of ABA and jasmonoyl-isoleucine (JA-Ile) from single cells. Samples taken from a cell of Vicia faba leaves using nano-electrospray ionization (ESI) tips under a microscope were directly introduced into mass spectrometers by infusion and subjected to tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) analysis. Stable isotope-labeled [D(6)]ABA or [(13)C(6)]JA-Ile was used as an internal standard to compensate ionization efficiencies, which determine the amount of ions introduced into mass spectrometers. We detected ABA and JA-Ile from single cells of water- and wound-stressed leaves, whereas they were almost undetectable in non-stressed single cells. The levels of ABA and JA-Ile found in the single-cell analysis were compared with levels found by analysis of purified extracts with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). These results demonstrated that stress-induced accumulation of ABA and JA-Ile could be monitored from living single cells. PMID:25759328

  2. Aphid Parasitoid Mothers Don't Always Know Best through the Whole Host Selection Process.

    PubMed

    Chesnais, Quentin; Ameline, Arnaud; Doury, Géraldine; Le Roux, Vincent; Couty, Aude

    2015-01-01

    Parasitoid host selection behaviour has been extensively studied in experimentally simplified tritrophic systems formed by one single food chain (one plant, one herbivore and one parasitoid species). The "Mother knows best" hypothesis predicts that the preference for a plant-host complex should be positively correlated with plant quality for offspring performance. We studied the host selection behaviour of the generalist endoparasitoid Aphidius matricariae towards the black bean aphid Aphis fabae in the intercrop system including Vicia faba as a focal plant and its companion plant Camelina sativa. Dual-choice laboratory bioassays revealed that parasitoid females preferred to orientate towards (1) the plant-aphid complex over the non-infested plant whatever the complex (2) the C. sativa-A. fabae complex over the V. faba-A. fabae complex. In dual choice attack rate bioassays, parasitoid females showed more interest towards the aphids on C. sativa but paradoxically chose to oviposit more in aphids on V. faba. Ultimately, parasitoids that had developed on the V. faba-A. fabae complex exhibited better fitness parameters. By demonstrating that parasitoid females were able to discriminate the aphid host that offered the highest fitness to their offspring but selected beforehand the least suitable plant-aphid complex, we provide key insight into the disruption in their host selection behaviour potentially triggered by diverse habitats. This suggests that the "Mother knows best" hypothesis could be thwarted by increasing the complexity of the studied systems. PMID:26270046

  3. Response of different genotypes of faba bean plant to drought stress.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Manzer H; Al-Khaishany, Mutahhar Y; Al-Qutami, Mohammed A; Al-Whaibi, Mohamed H; Grover, Anil; Ali, Hayssam M; Al-Wahibi, Mona S; Bukhari, Najat A

    2015-01-01

    Drought stress is one of the major abiotic stresses that are a threat to crop production worldwide. Drought stress impairs the plants growth and yield. Therefore, the aim of the present experiment was to select the tolerant genotype/s on the basis of moprpho-physiological and biochemical characteristics of 10 Vicia faba genotypes (Zafar 1, Zafar 2, Shebam, Makamora, Espan, Giza Blanka, Giza 3, C4, C5 and G853) under drought stress. We studied the effect of different levels of drought stress i.e., (i) normal irrigation (ii) mild stress (iii) moderate stress, and (iv) severe stress on plant height (PH) plant-1, fresh weight (FW) and dry weight (DW) plant-1, area leaf-1, leaf relative water content (RWC), proline (Pro) content, total chlorophyll (Total Chl) content, electrolyte leakage (EL), malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content, and activities of catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) of genotypes of faba bean. Drought stress reduced all growth parameters and Total Chl content of all genotypes. However, the deteriorating effect of drought stress on the growth performance of genotypes "C5" and "Zafar 1" were relatively low due to its better antioxidant enzymes activities (CAT, POD and SOD), and accumulation of Pro and Total Chl, and leaf RWC. In the study, genotype "C5" and "Zafar 1" were found to be relatively tolerant to drought stress and genotypes "G853" and "C4" were sensitive to drought stress. PMID:25950766

  4. The use of comet assay in plant toxicology: recent advances.

    PubMed

    Santos, Conceição L V; Pourrut, Bertrand; Ferreira de Oliveira, José M P

    2015-01-01

    The systematic study of genotoxicity in plants induced by contaminants and other stress agents has been hindered to date by the lack of reliable and robust biomarkers. The comet assay is a versatile and sensitive method for the evaluation of DNA damages and DNA repair capacity at single-cell level. Due to its simplicity and sensitivity, and the small number of cells required to obtain robust results, the use of plant comet assay has drastically increased in the last decade. For years its use was restricted to a few model species, e.g., Allium cepa, Nicotiana tabacum, Vicia faba, or Arabidopsis thaliana but this number largely increased in the last years. Plant comet assay has been used to study the genotoxic impact of radiation, chemicals including pesticides, phytocompounds, heavy metals, nanoparticles or contaminated complex matrices. Here we will review the most recent data on the use of this technique as a standard approach for studying the genotoxic effects of different stress conditions on plants. Also, we will discuss the integration of information provided by the comet assay with other DNA-damage indicators, and with cellular responses including oxidative stress, cell division or cell death. Finally, we will focus on putative relations between transcripts related with DNA damage pathways, DNA replication and repair, oxidative stress and cell cycle progression that have been identified in plant cells with comet assays demonstrating DNA damage. PMID:26175750

  5. Faba bean forisomes can function in defence against generalist aphids.

    PubMed

    Medina-Ortega, Karla J; Walker, Gregory P

    2015-06-01

    Phloem sieve elements have shut-off mechanisms that prevent loss of nutrient-rich phloem sap when the phloem is damaged. Some phloem proteins such as the proteins that form forisomes in legume sieve elements are one such mechanism and in response to damage, they instantly form occlusions that stop the flow of sap. It has long been hypothesized that one function of phloem proteins is defence against phloem sap-feeding insects such as aphids. This study provides the first experimental evidence that aphid feeding can induce phloem protein occlusion and that the aphid-induced occlusions inhibit phloem sap ingestion. The great majority of phloem penetrations in Vicia faba by the generalist aphids Myzus persicae and Macrosiphum euphorbiae triggered forisome occlusion and the aphids eventually withdrew their stylets without ingesting phloem sap. This contrasts starkly with a previous study on the legume-specialist aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, where penetration of faba bean sieve elements did not trigger forisome occlusion and the aphids readily ingested phloem sap. Next, forisome occlusion was demonstrated to be the cause of failed phloem ingestion attempts by M. persicae: when occlusion was inhibited by the calcium channel blocker lanthanum, M. persicae readily ingested faba bean phloem sap. PMID:25311512

  6. Genomic and phenotypic characterization of Rhizobium gallicum phage vB_RglS_P106B.

    PubMed

    Halmillawewa, Anupama P; Restrepo-Córdoba, Marcela; Yost, Christopher K; Hynes, Michael F

    2015-03-01

    The phage P106B (vB_RglS_P106B) is a Siphoviridae phage with a narrow spectrum of infectivity, which has been isolated from soils with a history of pea cultivation. The trapping host of P106B is an indigenous strain of Rhizobium gallicum (SO14B-4) isolated from soils associated with Vicia cracca. Phenotypic characterization of the phage revealed that P106B has an approximate burst size of 21 p.f.u. per infected cell with 60 min and 100 min eclipse and latent periods, respectively. Phage P106B was unable to transduce under the conditions tested. The genome of P106B is 56 024 bp in length with a mean DNA G+C content of 47.9 %. The complete genome sequence contains 95 putative ORFs and a single tRNA gene coding for leucine with the anticodon TTA. Putative functions could only be assigned to 22 of the predicted ORFs while a significant number of ORFs (47) shared no sequence similarities to previously characterized proteins. The remaining 26 putative protein-coding genes exhibited a sequence resemblance to other hypothetical proteins. No lysogeny-related genes were found in the P106B genome. PMID:25627439

  7. Potential genotoxicity and risk assessment of a chlorinated flame retardant, Dechlorane Plus.

    PubMed

    Dou, Jing; Jin, Yuan; Li, Yajie; Wu, Bing; Li, Mei

    2015-09-01

    Dechlorane Plus (DP) is a chlorinated flame retardants that is globally ubiquitous. It is a potentially persistent organic pollutant (POPs) and an environmental toxin. However, the toxicity data is still limited and cannot provide a comprehensive environmental ecological risk assessment for DP. In this study, luminous bacteria, Vicia faba and Tetrahymena thermophila were chosen as testing organisms to investigate the acute toxicity and mutagenicity of DP. The concentration gradient of DP used in this study was chosen based on its environmental levels (experiments of luminous bacteria: 0.591, 2.95, 14.8, 73.8, 369 μg L(-1); micronucleus tests: 2.4, 12, 60, 300, 1500 μg L(-1); comet assay: 2.4, 12, 60, 300, 1500 μg L(-1)). For luminous bacteria, the relative luminosities were around 100% in treated groups, which suggested that there is no acute toxicity to luminous bacteria under the studied DP concentrations. The micronucleus test showed no significant difference between treatment and control groups, indicating no genotoxicity of DP. However the comet assay conducted with T. thermophila was relatively sensitive as there was a significant increase in DNA damage when the concentrations of DP increased from 300 to 1500 μg L(-1), while the lower concentrations failed to show any treatment-related differences. Therefore, DP may pose a potential risk at concentration⩾300 μg L(-1). The results provide scientific information on the ecological risk assessment of DP. PMID:25585867

  8. Ascofuranone suppresses EGF-induced HIF-1α protein synthesis by inhibition of the Akt/mTOR/p70S6K pathway in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, Yun-Jeong; Cho, Hyun-Ji; Magae, Junji; Lee, In-Kyu; Park, Keun-Gyu; Chang, Young-Chae

    2013-12-15

    Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1 plays an important role in tumor progression, angiogenesis and metastasis. In this study, we investigated the potential molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-angiogenic effect of ascofuranone, an isoprenoid antibiotic from Ascochyta viciae, in epidermal growth factor (EGF)-1 responsive human breast cancer cells. Ascofuranone significantly and selectively suppressed EGF-induced HIF-1α protein accumulation, whereas it did not affect the expression of HIF-1β. Furthermore, ascofuranone inhibited the transcriptional activation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) by reducing protein HIF-1α. Mechanistically, we found that the inhibitory effects of ascofuranone on HIF-1α protein expression are associated with the inhibition of synthesis HIF-1α through an EGF-dependent mechanism. In addition, ascofuranone suppressed EGF-induced phosphorylation of Akt/mTOR/p70S6 kinase, but the phosphorylation of ERK/JNK/p38 kinase was not affected by ascofuranone. These results suggest that ascofuranone suppresses EGF-induced HIF-1α protein translation through the inhibition of Akt/mTOR/p70S6 kinase signaling pathways and plays a novel role in the anti-angiogenic action. - Highlights: • Inhibitory effect of ascofuranone on HIF-1α expression is EGF-specific regulation. • Ascofuranone decreases HIF-1α protein synthesis through Akt/mTOR pathways. • Ascofuranone suppresses EGF-induced VEGF production and tumor angiogenesis.

  9. Two cytochrome P-450 isoforms catalysing O-de-ethylation of ethoxycoumarin and ethoxyresorufin in higher plants.

    PubMed Central

    Werck-Reichhart, D; Gabriac, B; Teutsch, H; Durst, F

    1990-01-01

    The O-dealkylating activities of 7-ethoxycoumarin O-de-ethylase (ECOD) and 7-ethoxyresorufin O-de-ethylase (EROD) have been fluorimetrically detected in microsomes prepared from manganese-induced Jerusalem artichoke tubers. Cytochrome P-450 dependence of the reactions was demonstrated by light-reversed CO inhibition, NADPH-dependence, NADH-NADPH synergism and by use of specific inhibitors: antibodies to NADPH-cytochrome P-450 reductase, mechanism-based inactivators and tetcyclasis. Apparent Km values of 161 microM for 7-ethoxycoumarin and 0.4 microM for 7-ethoxyresorufin were determined. O-De-ethylase activity was also detected in microsomes prepared from several other plant species, including wheat, maize, tulip, avocado and Vicia. ECOD and EROD were low or undetectable in uninduced plant tissues, and both activities were stimulated by wounding or by chemical inducers. Two distinct cytochrome P-450 isoforms are involved in ECOD and EROD activities since (1) they showed different distributions among plant species; (2) they showed contrasting inhibition and induction patterns; and (3) ECOD but not EROD activity was supported by cumene hydroperoxide. PMID:2241905

  10. Determination of 5-methylcytosine from plant DNA by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Wagner, I; Capesius, I

    1981-06-26

    The relative amounts of the five nucleosides (deoxycytidine, 5-methyldeoxycytidine, deoxyadenosine, deoxyguanosine and thymidine) in the DNA of nine plant species, one plant satellite DNA, and one animal species were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. The method allows the clean separation of the nucleosides from 10 microgram samples with 15 min. The following values for the proportion of methylated cytosines among all cytosines were obtained: Lobularia maritima 18.5%, Nicotiana tabacum 32.6%, Pisum sativum 23.2%, Rhinanthus minor 29.2%, Sinapsis alba 12.2%, Vicia faba 30.5%, Viscum album 23.2%, Cymbidium pumilum 18.8%, Cymbidium pumilum AT-rich satellite DNA 15.8%, Triticum aestivum 22.4%. DNA of an animal, the gerbil, Meriones unguiculatus, had a methylation percentage of 3.1%. An estimate of the GC content based on the buoyant density of DNA tends to be lower than the actual value, an estimate based on the melting temperature tends to be higher. This supports the finding by other authors that DNA methylation decreases the buoyant density and may increase the melting temperature at high m5C concentration. PMID:7272310

  11. Binucleate trophoblast giant cells in the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) placenta.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, A F; Klisch, K; Miglino, M A; Pereira, F T V; Bevilacqua, E

    2006-01-01

    The binucleate trophoblast giant cells (BNC) of the water buffalo, Bubalus bubalis, placenta were studied, with emphasis on the synthesis of BNC-specific proteins. Placentomal tissues of 27 water buffalos (2-10 months of pregnancy) were processed for light and electron microscopy. The frequency of BNCs was 20% of the trophoblastic cells in 2-3-month placentas and increased to 27% in the later stages. Ultrastructurally, binucleate cells displayed a prominent granular endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus, typical of cells involved with protein synthesis and exportation. The buffalo BNCs contained periodic acid-Schiff (PAS)-positive granules and reacted with antisera against bovine placental lactogen, prolactin-related protein-I, and pregnancy-associated glycoproteins. Lectin histochemistry with Dolichos biflorus agglutinin, Vicia villosa agglutinin, and Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin showed specific staining of BNCs. Different stages of BNC migration and fusion with uterine epithelial cells were observed. Trinucleate feto-maternal hybrid cells were the typical outcome of cell fusions. These cells underwent degeneration, with typical morphological features of apoptosis. The results revealed a strong homology between water buffalo and cattle BNCs concerning cell morphology, protein expression, glycosylation pattern, and characteristics of cell migration and fusion. PMID:16240388

  12. Histochemical study of retinal photoreceptors development during pre- and postnatal period and their association with retinal pigment epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi, Vahid; Vojoudi, Elham; Fazel, Alireza; Ebrahimzadeh-bideskan, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): The aim of this study was to evaluate distribution and changes of glycoconjugates of retinal photoreceptors during both pre- and postnatal development. Materials and Methods: Tissue sections from days 15 to 20 of Wistar rat embryos and 1 to 12 postnatal days of rat newborns including developing eye were prepared for lectinhistochemistry technique. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-labeled lectins including Vicia villosa (VVA), peanut agglutinin (PNA), Maclura pomifera (MPA) and wheat germ agglutinin (WGA-ІІ) were used. Alcian blue (pH 2.5) was used for counterstaining. Results: Interphotoreceptor matrix (IPM) plays a crucial role in photoreceptors differentiation and acts as a mediator in interactions between photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Specific cell surface glycoconjugates secreted from cone cells could help us to distinguish these cells from rod photoreceptors. Our results for the first time revealed the strong reaction of cone photoreceptors with the cone-specific lectin (PNA) at postnatal day 12 (P12). Postnatal day 12 can be determined as the final differentiation of cone photoreceptors. Conclusion: According to our findings, we suggest that the generation of the eye photoreceptors begins from pre- natal period and their final differentiations will continue to postnatal period. Glycoconjugates including (β-D-Gal [1-3]-D-GalNac) and (β-D-Gal) terminal sugars play a critical role in the pre- and postnatal development and differentiation of retinal photoreceptors. PMID:25429338

  13. Histological and lectin histochemical studies on the main and accessory olfactory bulbs in the Japanese striped snake, Elaphe quadrivirgata.

    PubMed

    Kondoh, Daisuke; Wada, Akimi; Endo, Daisuke; Nakamuta, Nobuaki; Taniguchi, Kazuyuki

    2013-01-01

    The main and accessory olfactory bulbs were examined by histological methods and lectin histochemistry in the Japanese striped snake. As the results, the histological properties are similar between the main olfactory bulb and the accessory olfactory bulb. In lectin histochemistry, 21 lectins used in this study showed similar binding patterns in the main olfactory bulb and the accessory olfactory bulb. In detail, 15 lectins stained these olfactory bulbs with similar manner, and 6 lectins did not stain them at all. Two lectins, Lycopersicon esculentum lectin (LEL) and Solanum tuberosum lectin (STL), stained the nerve and glomerular layers and did not stain any other layers in both olfactory bulbs. Four lectins, Soybean agglutinin (SBA), Vicia villosa agglutinin (VVA), Peanut agglutinin (PNA) and Phaseolus vulgaris agglutinin-L (PHA-L) stained the nerve and glomerular layers more intensely than other layers in both olfactory bulbs. In addition, VVA showed the dot-like stainings in the glomeruli of both olfactory bulbs. These findings suggest that the degree of development and the properties of glycoconjugates are similar between the main olfactory bulb and the accessory olfactory bulb in the Japanese striped snake. PMID:23257605

  14. [Comparison of the adaptive potential for Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viceae nodule bacterial populations isolated in natural ecosystems and agrocenoses].

    PubMed

    Kurchak, O N; Provorov, N A; Simarov, B V

    2011-04-01

    Polymorphism analysis was performed in Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viceae populations isolated from geographically distant regions of Ukraine and Middle Asia. Examination of cultural, biochemical, and symbiotic traits revealed interpopulation differences, which were attributed to the difference in conditions between natural ecosystems and agrocenoses. Vetch has high species diversity and is not cultivated in Middle Asia, and the corresponding rhizobial population displayed higher genetic diversity and higher polymorphism of adaptive traits ensuring saprophytic development in soil and the rhizosphere, including melanin synthesis (35%) and active exopolysaccharide production (90%). Strains of the Ukrainian population had a lower exopolysaccharide production (10%), did not produce melanin, had higher herbicide resistance, and utilized glucose and succinate (main components of plant root exudation) as carbon sources. Strains capable of efficient symbiosis with Vicia villosa Roth. had a higher frequency in the Middle Asian than in the Ukrainian population, especially among strains isolated from soil (80 and 35%, respectively). In addition, strains of the Middle Asian population better competed for nodulation. It was assumed that the formation of rhizobial populations in vetch cultivation regions (Ukraine) is aimed at adaptation to ectosymbiotic (rhizospheric) interactions with plants and anthropogenic stress factors, while strains of the vetch original center (Middle Asia) are mostly adapted to the endosymbiotic interaction and to natural edaphic stress factors. PMID:21675237

  15. Evaluation of vegetable production management practices to reduce the ecological risk of pesticides.

    PubMed

    Rice, Pamela J; Hapeman, Cathleen J; McConnell, Laura L; Sadeghi, Ali M; Teasdale, John R; Coffman, C Benjamin; McCarty, Gregory W; Abdul-Baki, Aref A; Starr, James L

    2007-11-01

    The ability of agricultural management practices to reduce the ecological risks of pesticides was evaluated. Risk quotients, a mathematical description of the relationship between exposure and toxicity, and hazard ratings, a rank of the potential risk of pesticides to aquatic environments, were calculated for conventional and alternative cultivation practices for tomatoes: Poly-Bare, raised beds covered with polyethylene mulch with bare-soil furrows; Poly-Rye, raised beds covered with polyethylene mulch with cereal rye (Secale cereale) grown in the furrows; and Vetch, raised beds and furrows planted with hairy vetch seed (Vicia villosa). Evaluations were conducted using measured pesticide concentrations in runoff at the edge-of-field and estimated environmental concentrations in an adjacent creek and a theoretical pond receiving the runoff. Runoff from Poly-Bare presented the greatest risk to ecosystem health and to sensitive organisms, whereas the use of Vetch minimized these risks. Previous studies have shown that harvest yields were maintained and that runoff volume, soil loss, and off-site transport of pesticides measured in runoff were reduced using the alternative management practices (Poly-Rye and Vetch). Together, these results indicate that the alternative management practices (Poly-Rye and Vetch) have a less adverse impact on the environment than the conventional management practice (Poly-Bare) while providing growers with an acceptable economic return. In addition, the present study demonstrates the need to consider the management practice when assessing the potential risks and hazards for certain pesticides. PMID:17941735

  16. Competition increases sensitivity of wheat (Triticum aestivum) to biotic plant-soil feedback.

    PubMed

    Hol, W H Gera; de Boer, Wietse; ten Hooven, Freddy; van der Putten, Wim H

    2013-01-01

    Plant-soil feedback (PSF) and plant competition play an important role in structuring vegetation composition, but their interaction remains unclear. Recent studies suggest that competing plants could dilute pathogenic effects, whereas the standing view is that competition may increase the sensitivity of the focal plant to PSF. In agro-ecosystems each of these two options would yield contrasting outcomes: reduced versus enhanced effects of weeds on crop biomass production. To test the effect of competition on sensitivity to PSF, we grew Triticum aestivum (Common wheat) with and without competition from a weed community composed of Vicia villosa, Chenopodium album and Myosotis arvensis. Plants were grown in sterilized soil, with or without living field inoculum from 4 farms in the UK. In the conditioning phase, field inocula had both positive and negative effects on T. aestivum shoot biomass, depending on farm. In the feedback phase the differences between shoot biomass in T. aestivum monoculture on non-inoculated and inoculated soils had mostly disappeared. However, T. aestivum plants growing in mixtures in the feedback phase were larger on non-inoculated soil than on inoculated soil. Hence, T. aestivum was more sensitive to competition when the field soil biota was present. This was supported by the statistically significant negative correlation between shoot biomass of weeds and T. aestivum, which was absent on sterilized soil. In conclusion, competition in cereal crop-weed systems appears to increase cereal crop sensitivity to soil biota. PMID:23776610

  17. Lectin histochemistry of palatine glands in the developing rat.

    PubMed

    Hakami, Zaki; Kitaura, Hideki; Honma, Shiho; Wakisaka, Satoshi; Takano-Yamamoto, Teruko

    2014-05-01

    This study examined the binding pattern of lectins, soybean agglutinin (SBA), Dolichos biflorus agglutinin (DBA), Vicia villosa agglutinin (VVA), Ulex europaeus agglutinin-I (UEA-I), peanut agglutinin (PNA), wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), and succinylated WGA (sucWGA) in the developing rat palatine glands. In adult rats, heterogeneous lectin binding patterns were revealed between the anterior and posterior portions of palatine glands, as DBA, VVA, and WGA were bound more intensely and broadly in the posterior portion. SBA, PNA, and sucWGA showed far less reactivity in the anterior than in the posterior portion. At embryonic day 18 (E18), weak labeling was observed with UEA-I and WGA at the basal membrane of terminal buds, UEA-I and PNA labeled the epithelial cord, and there was no apparent binding for SBA, DBA, VVA, and sucWGA. At E20, after acinar lumenization, all lectins were detected at the acinar cell basal membranes. After birth, all lectins detectably labeled at the mucous cell apical membranes and progressively, with maturation, extended from the apical to basal portions of the cytoplasm. Apparent serous cells were observed around postnatal day 10 (PN10) and bound UEA-I. Lectins reached peak reactivity at PN21 and the binding patterns became identical to those of adults around PN28. PMID:24345684

  18. Histological and lectin histochemical studies on the olfactory and respiratory mucosae of the sheep.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Dalia; Nakamuta, Nobuaki; Taniguchi, Kazumi; Yamamoto, Yoshio; Taniguchi, Kazuyuki

    2014-03-01

    The olfactory and respiratory mucosae of the Corriedale sheep were examined using lectin histochemistry in order to clarify the histochemical and glycohistochemical differences between these two tissues. The olfactory epithelium was stained with 13 lectins out of 21 lectins examined, while the respiratory epithelium was positive to 16 lectins. The free border of both of the olfactory and respiratory epithelia was stained with 12 lectins: Wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), succinylated-wheat germ agglutinin (s-WGA), Lycopersicon esculentum lectin (LEL), Solanum tuberosum lectin (STL), Datura stramonium lectin (DSL), Soybean agglutinin (SBA), Bandeiraea simplicifolia lectin-I (BSL-I), Ricinus communis agglutinin-I (RCA-120), Erythrina cristagalli lectin (ECL), Concanavalin A (Con A), Phaseolus vulgaris agglutinin-E (PHA-E) and Phaseolus vulgaris agglutinin-L (PHA-L). The associated glands of the olfactory mucosa, Bowman's glands, were stained with 13 lectins. While both the goblet cells and mucous nasal glands were stained with 8 lectins; five of them (WGA, s-WGA, STL, Vicia villosa agglutinin (VVA) and ECL) were mutually positive among the Bowman's glands, mucous nasal glands and the goblet cells. These findings indicate that the glycohistochemical characteristics of the free borders of both olfactory and respiratory epithelia are similar to each other, suggesting that secretions from the Bowman's glands and those of the goblet cells and mucous nasal glands are partially exchanged between the surface of two epithelia to contribute the functions of the respiratory epithelium and the olfactory receptor cells, respectively. PMID:24200894

  19. Microarrays with varying carbohydrate density reveal distinct subpopulations of serum antibodies.

    PubMed

    Oyelaran, Oyindasola; Li, Qian; Farnsworth, David; Gildersleeve, Jeffrey C

    2009-07-01

    Antigen arrays have become important tools for profiling complex mixtures of proteins such as serum antibodies. These arrays can be used to better understand immune responses, discover new biomarkers, and guide the development of vaccines. Nevertheless, they are not perfect and improved array designs would enhance the information derived from this technology. In this study, we describe and evaluate a strategy for varying antigen density on an array and then use the array to study binding of lectins, monoclonal antibodies, and serum antibodies. To vary density, neoglycoproteins containing differing amounts of carbohydrate were synthesized and used to make a carbohydrate microarray with variations in both structure and density. We demonstrate that this method provides variations in density on the array surface within a range that is relevant for biological recognition events. The array was used to evaluate density dependent binding properties of three lectins (Vicia villosa lectin B4, Helix pomatia agglutinin, and soybean agglutinin) and three monoclonal antibodies (HBTn-1, B1.1, and Bric111) that bind the tumor-associated Tn antigen. In addition, serum antibodies were profiled from 30 healthy donors. The results show that variations in antigen density are required to detect the full spectrum of antibodies that bind a particular antigen and can be used to reveal differences in antibody populations between individuals that are not detectable using a single antigen density. PMID:19366269

  20. GABAergic complex basket formations in the human neocortex.

    PubMed

    Blazquez-Llorca, Lidia; García-Marín, Virginia; DeFelipe, Javier

    2010-12-15

    Certain GABAergic interneurons in the cerebral cortex, basket cells, establish multiple connections with cell bodies that typically outline the somata and proximal dendrites of pyramidal cells. During studies into the distribution of the vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT) in the human cerebral cortex, we were struck by the presence of a very dense, pericellular arrangement of multiple VGAT-immunoreactive (-ir) terminals in certain cortical areas. We called these terminals "Complex basket formations" (Cbk-formations) to distinguish them from the simpler and more typical pericellular GABAergic innervations of most cortical neurons. Here we examined the distribution of these VGAT-ir Cbk-formations in various cortical areas, including the somatosensory (area 3b), visual (areas 17 and 18), motor (area 4), associative frontal (dorsolateral areas 9, 10, 45, 46, and orbital areas 11, 12, 13, 14, 47), associative temporal (areas 20, 21, 22, and 38), and limbic cingulate areas (areas 24, 32). Furthermore, we used dual or triple staining techniques to study the chemical nature of the innervated cells. We found that VGAT-ir Cbk-formations were most frequently found in area 4 followed by areas 3b, 13, and 18. In addition, they were mostly observed in layer III, except in area 17, where they were most dense in layer IV. We also found that 70% of the innervated neurons were pyramidal cells, while the remaining 30% were multipolar cells. Most of these multipolar cells expressed the calcium-binding protein parvalbumin and the lectin Vicia villosa agglutinin. PMID:21031559

  1. Density variant glycan microarray for evaluating cross-linking of mucin-like glycoconjugates by lectins.

    PubMed

    Godula, Kamil; Bertozzi, Carolyn R

    2012-09-26

    Interactions of mucin glycoproteins with cognate receptors are dictated by the structures and spatial organization of glycans that decorate the mucin polypeptide backbone. The glycan-binding proteins, or lectins, that interact with mucins are often oligomeric receptors with multiple ligand binding domains. In this work, we employed a microarray platform comprising synthetic glycopolymers that emulate natural mucins arrayed at different surface densities to evaluate how glycan valency and spatial separation affect the preferential binding mode of a particular lectin. We evaluated a panel of four lectins (Soybean agglutinin (SBA), Wisteria floribunda lectin (WFL), Vicia villosa-B-4 agglutinin (VVA), and Helix pomatia agglutin (HPA)) with specificity for α-N-acetylgalactosamine (α-GalNAc), an epitope displayed on mucins overexpressed in many adenocarcinomas. While these lectins possess the ability to agglutinate A(1)-blood cells carrying the α-GalNAc epitope and cross-link low valency glycoconjugates, only SBA showed a tendency to form intermolecular cross-links among the arrayed polyvalent mucin mimetics. These results suggest that glycopolymer microarrays can reveal discrete higher-order binding preferences beyond the recognition of individual glycan epitopes. Our findings indicate that glycan valency can set thresholds for cross-linking by lectins. More broadly, well-defined synthetic glycopolymers enable the integration of glycoconjugate structural and spatial diversity in a single microarray screening platform. PMID:22967056

  2. Invasion of insect cells by Spiroplasma citri involves spiralin relocalization and lectin/glycoconjugate-type interactions.

    PubMed

    Duret, Sybille; Batailler, Brigitte; Dubrana, Marie-Pierre; Saillard, Colette; Renaudin, Joël; Béven, Laure; Arricau-Bouvery, Nathalie

    2014-07-01

    Spiroplamas are helical, cell wall-less bacteria belonging to the Class Mollicutes, a group of microorganisms phylogenetically related to low G+C, Gram-positive bacteria. Spiroplasma species are all found associated with arthropods and a few, including Spiroplasma citri are pathogenic to plant. Thus S. citri has the ability to colonize cells of two very distinct hosts, the plant and the insect vector. While spiroplasmal factors involved in transmission by the leafhopper Circulifer haematoceps have been identified, their specific contribution to invasion of insect cells is poorly understood. In this study we provide evidence that the lipoprotein spiralin plays a major role in the very early step of cell invasion. Confocal laser scanning immunomicroscopy revealed a relocalization of spiralin at the contact zone of adhering spiroplasmas. The implication of a role for spiralin in adhesion to insect cells was further supported by adhesion assays showing that a spiralin-less mutant was impaired in adhesion and that recombinant spiralin triggered adhesion of latex beads. We also showed that cytochalasin D induced changes in the surface-exposed glycoconjugates, as inferred from the lectin binding patterns, and specifically improved adhesion of S. citri wild-type but not of the spiralin-less mutant. These results indicate that cytochalasin D exposes insect cell receptors of spiralin that are masked in untreated cells. In addition, competitive adhesion assays with lectins strongly suggest spiralin to exhibit glycoconjugate binding properties similar to that of the Vicia villosa agglutinin (VVA) lectin. PMID:24438161

  3. Expression of GALNT2 in human extravillous trophoblasts and its suppressive role in trophoblast invasion.

    PubMed

    Liao, W-C; Chen, C-H; Liu, C-H; Huang, M-J; Chen, C-W; Hung, J-S; Chou, C-H; Chen, C-H; Che, M-I; Chang, H-M; Lan, C-T; Huang, H-C; Tseng, G-F; Shyu, M-K; Huang, M-C

    2012-12-01

    Extravillus trophoblast (EVT) invasion plays a critical role in placental development. Integrins bind to extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins to mediate EVT cell adhesion, migration, and invasion. Changes in O-glycans on β1-integrin have been found to regulate cancer cell behavior. We hypothesize that O-glycosyltransferases can regulate EVT invasion through modulating the glycosylation and function of β1-integrin. Here, we found that the GALNT1 and GALNT2 mRNA were highly expressed in HTR8/SVneo and first trimester EVT cells. Immunohistochemstry and immunofluorescence staining showed that GALNT2 was expressed in subpopulations of EVT cells in deciduas, but not in syncytiotrophoblasts and cytotrophoblasts of placental villi. The percentage of GALNT2-positive EVT cells increased with gestational ages. Overexpression of GALNT2 in HTR8/SVneo cells significantly enhanced cell-collagen IV adhesion, but suppressed cell migration and invasion. Notably, we found that GALNT2 increased the expression of Tn antigen (GalNAc-Ser/Thr) on β1-integrin as revealed by Vicia Villosa agglutinin (VVA) binding. Furthermore, GALNT2 suppressed the phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), a crucial downstream signaling molecule of β1-integrin. Our findings suggest that GALNT2 is a critical initiating enzyme of O-glycosylation for regulating EVT invasion. PMID:23117232

  4. Understanding the structural specificity of Tn antigen for its receptor: an NMR solution study.

    PubMed

    D'Amelio, Nicola; Coslovi, Anna; Rossi, Marco; Uggeri, Fulvio; Paoletti, Sergio

    2012-04-01

    The present work aims at understanding the structural basis of the biological recognition of Tn antigen (GalNAc-α-O-L-Ser), a specific epitope expressed by tumor cells, and the role of its amino acidic moiety in the interaction with its receptor (the isolectin B4 extracted from Vicia villosa). An NMR structural characterization of the α and β anomers, based on J couplings and molecular modeling revealed a structure in very good agreement with data reported in literature for variants of the same molecules. In order to demonstrate the involvement of the amino acid in the ligand-receptor recognition, also GalNAc-α-O-D-Ser was studied; the change in the stereochemistry is in fact expected to impact on the interaction only in case the serine is part of the epitope. Relaxation properties in the presence of the receptor clearly indicated a selective recognition of the natural L form, probably due to the formation of a water-mediated hydrogen bond with Asn 129 of the protein. PMID:22341503

  5. Ultrastructural and histochemical properties of the olfactory system in the japanese jungle crow, Corvus macrorhynchos.

    PubMed

    Kondoh, Daisuke; Nashimoto, Mai; Kanayama, Shunsaku; Nakamuta, Nobuaki; Taniguchi, Kazuyuki

    2011-08-01

    Although it has been commonly believed that birds are more dependent on the vision and audition than the olfaction, recent studies indicate that the olfaction of birds is related to the reproductive, homing, and predatory behaviors. In an attempt to reveal the dependence on the olfactory system in crows, we examined the olfactory system of the Japanese jungle crow (Corvus macrorhynchos) by histological, ultrastructural, and lectin histochemical methods. The olfactory epithelium (OE) of the crow occupied remarkably a small area of the nasal cavity (NC) and had the histological and ultrastructural features like other birds. The olfactory bulb (OB) of the crow was remarkably small and did not possess the olfactory ventricle. The left and right halves of the OB were fused in many cases. In the lectin histochemistry, soybean agglutinin (SBA) and Vicia villosa agglutinin (VVA) stained a small number of the receptor cells (RCs) in the OE and the olfactory nerve layer (ONL) and glomerular layer (GL) on the dorsocaudal region of the OB. Phaseolus vulgaris agglutinin-E (PHA-E) stained several RCs in the OE and the ONL and GL on the ventral region of the OB. These results suggest that 1) the crow has less-developed olfactory system than other birds, and 2) the dedicated olfactory receptor cells project their axons to the specific regions of the OB in the crow. PMID:21478653

  6. Brevican-containing perineuronal nets of extracellular matrix in dissociated hippocampal primary cultures.

    PubMed

    John, Nora; Krügel, Hans; Frischknecht, Renato; Smalla, Karl-Heinz; Schultz, Christian; Kreutz, Michael R; Gundelfinger, Eckart D; Seidenbecher, Constanze I

    2006-04-01

    Perineuronal nets (PNN) are specialized extracellular matrix structures enwrapping CNS neurons, which are important regulators for neuronal and synaptic functions. Brevican, a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, is an integral component of PNN. Here, we have investigated the appearance of these structures in hippocampal primary cultures. The expression profile of brevican in mixed cultures resembles the in vivo pattern with a strong upregulation of all isoforms during the second and 3rd weeks in culture. Brevican is primarily synthesized by co-cultured glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP-)-positive astrocytes and co-assembles with its interaction partners in PNN-like structures on neuronal somata and neurites as identified by counterstaining with the PNN marker Vicia villosa lectin. Both excitatory and inhibitory synapses are embedded into PNN. Furthermore, axon initial segments are strongly covered by a dense brevican coat. Altogether, we show that mature primary cultures can form PNN, and that basic features of these extracellular matrix structures may be studied in vitro. PMID:16503162

  7. Glycoconjugates Distribution during Developing Mouse Spinal Cord Motor Organizers

    PubMed Central

    Vojoudi, Elham; Ebrahimi, Vahid; Ebrahimzadeh-Bideskan, Alireza; Fazel, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of this research was to study the distribution and changes of glycoconjugates particularly their terminal sugars by using lectin histochemistry during mouse spinal cord development. Methods: Formalin-fixed sections of mouse embryo (10-16 fetal days) were processed for lectin histochemical method. In this study, two groups of horseradish peroxidase-labeled specific lectins were used: N-acetylgalactosamine, including Dolichos biflorus, Wisteria floribunda agglutinin (WFA), Vicia villosa, Glycine max as well as focuse-binding lectins, including tetragonolobus, Ulex europaeus, and Orange peel fungus (OFA). All sections were counterstained with alcian blue (pH 2.5). Results: Our results showed that only WFA and OFA reacted strongly with the floor plate cells from early to late embryonic period of developing spinal cord. The strongest reactions were related to the 14, 15, and 16 days of tissue sections incubated with OFA and WFA lectins. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that cellular and molecular differentiation of the spinal cord organizers is a wholly regulated process, and α-L-fucose, α-D-GalNAc, and α/β-D-GalNAc terminal sugars play a significant role during the prenatal spinal cord development. PMID:25605492

  8. The Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen-binding lectin jacalin interacts with desmoglein-1 and abrogates the pathogenicity of pemphigus foliaceus autoantibodies in vivo.

    PubMed

    Li, Ning; Park, Moonhee; Zhao, Minglang; Hilario-Vargas, Julio; McInnes, David M; Prisayanh, Phillip S; Liu, Zhi; Diaz, Luis A

    2010-12-01

    Pemphigus foliaceus (PF) is an autoimmune skin blistering disease mediated by pathogenic autoantibodies against the desmosomal core glycoprotein desmoglein-1 (Dsg1). This study demonstrated that the O-glycan-specific plant lectin jacalin binds Dsg1 and inhibits the interaction of Dsg1/PF IgG. N-glycosylation is not involved in the interaction of Dsg1/jacalin or Dsg1/PF IgG. Subcutaneous injection of jacalin into neonatal mice drastically reduced PF IgG deposition at the epidermal cell surface and blocked PF IgG-induced skin blisters, both clinically and histologically. Interestingly, another plant lectin, peanut agglutinin, which shares the same carbohydrate specificity toward the O-linked carbohydrate structure known as Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen (TF antigen, Galβ1-3GalNAcα-O-Ser/Thr), also bound Dsg1 and blocked the skin blistering. In contrast, the plant lectin vicia villosa-B4 (VVL-B4), which shares the carbohydrate specificity toward the O-linked monosaccharide known as Thomsen-nouveau antigen (GalNAc-α1-O-Ser/Thr), did not bind Dsg1 and did not show a protective effect against the disease induced by the autoantibodies. Collectively, these results suggest that the binding of jacalin to O-linked TF carbohydrate motifs on Dsg1 impairs the Dsg1/PF autoantibody interactions and abrogates its pathogenicity in vivo. TF-specific binding ligands may have a potential therapeutic value for PF. PMID:20631728

  9. Influence of decomposition on chemical properties of plant- and manure-derived dissolved organic matter and sorption to goethite.

    PubMed

    Hunt, James F; Ohno, Tsutomu; He, Zhongqi; Honeycutt, C Wayne; Dail, D Bryan

    2007-01-01

    Sorption of dissolved organic matter (DOM) plays an important role in maintaining the fertility and quality of soils in agricultural ecosystems. Few studies have examined the effects of decomposition on DOM sorption and chemical characteristics. This study investigated the sorption to goethite (alpha-FeOOH) of fresh and decomposed hydrophilic (HPL) and hydrophobic (HPB) DOM fractions extracted from the shoots and roots of crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum L.), corn (Zea mays L.), soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], hairy vetch (Vicia villosa L.), and dairy and poultry manures. Sorption was positively related to apparent molecular weight (MWAP), aromaticity as measured by absorptivity at 280 nm, and phenolic acid content. A 10-d laboratory microbial decomposition of the source organic matter generally increased the sorption of the extracted DOM onto goethite. The decomposition effect on sorption was greater for the HPL fractions than for the HPB fractions. There was a decrease in the MWAP values of the DOM samples following sorption to goethite. In many cases the reduction in MWAP was large, indicating a strong preference by goethite for the higher MWAP DOM fractions. The results of this laboratory-based research demonstrate that microbial processes affect the chemical characteristics of DOM which may affect the distribution of soil organic C pools. PMID:17215221

  10. A lectin recognizes differential arrangements of O-glycans on mucin repeats.

    PubMed

    Kato, Kentaro; Takeuchi, Hideyuki; Ohki, Takao; Waki, Michihiko; Usami, Katsuaki; Hassan, Helle; Clausen, Henrik; Irimura, Tatsuro

    2008-07-11

    Interaction of Vicia villosa agglutinin-B4 (VVA-B4) to glycopeptides with O-linked GalNAc residues was investigated by surface plasmon resonance. The affinity was shown to be influenced by the arrangement of O-glycosylation sites on a peptide, PTTTPITTTTK, representing the tandem repeat of MUC2. The association rate constant was relatively high with a particular category of GalNAc-peptides in which more than three amino acid residues were placed between GalNAc-Thr residues. PTT( *)T( *)PITT( *)T( *)TK (T( *) indicates GalNAc-Thr) had the highest association rate constant among the glycopeptides tested. The dissociation rate constant was low in the peptides containing consecutive GalNAc residues and PT( *)TTPIT( *)T( *)T( *)TK was the lowest of the glycopeptides tested. Dissociation constant (K(D)), calculated as k(d)/k(a) was the lowest with PTT( *)T( *)PITT( *)T( *)TK. Therefore, the arrangement but not the quantity of GalNAc residues apparently determines the affinity between VVA-B4 and peptides with attached GalNAc residues. PMID:18455506

  11. Spatiotemporal distribution of proteoglycans in the developing rat's barrel field and the effects of early deafferentation.

    PubMed

    Bahia, Carlomagno Pacheco; Houzel, Jean-Christophe; Picanço-Diniz, Cristovam Wanderley; Pereira, Antonio

    2008-09-10

    The isolectin Vicia villosa B(4) (VV) selectively recognizes N-acetyl-galactosamine-terminal glycoconjugates that form perineuronal nets (PNNs) around a subset of neurons in the cerebral cortex. PNNs are thought to participate in the guidance of incoming thalamic axons and in the posterior stabilization and maintenance of synaptic contacts. Here we examine the spatial and temporal distribution of biotinylated VV in tangential sections through layer IV of the posteromedial barrel subfield in the primary somatosensory cortex (PMBSF) of rats ranging from postnatal day (P)3 to P60, which underwent unilateral deafferentation of whiskers at birth. In the afferented hemisphere, labeling first appears at P5, with a diffuse distribution, probably associated with neuropil, inside PMBSF barrels. VV distribution remains diffuse during the following week, and declines around P17. From P24 onward, however, proteoglycans form PNNs around cell bodies preferentially localized in septal regions of the PMBSF. In the contralateral, deafferented PMBSF the diffuse labeling also appears on P5, but first develops into elongated, homogeneous stripes, which disappear after P24, leaving only scattered cell bodies along layer IV. Our results indicate that proteoglycans appear simultaneous to barrel formation in the developing rat while segregation of PNNs to septal cells might be driven by afferent activity. PMID:18615535

  12. The responses of guard and mesophyll cell photosynthesis to CO2, O2, light, and water stress in a range of species are similar.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Tracy; Oxborough, Kevin; Morison, James I L; Baker, Neil R

    2003-07-01

    High resolution chlorophyll a fluorescence imaging was used to compare the photosynthetic efficiency of PSII electron transport (estimated by Fq'/Fm') in guard cell chloroplasts and the underlying mesophyll in intact leaves of six different species: Commelina communis, Vicia faba, Amaranthus caudatus, Polypodium vulgare, Nicotiana tabacum, and Tradescantia albifora. While photosynthetic efficiency varied between the species, the efficiencies of guard cells and mesophyll cells were always closely matched. As measurement light intensity was increased, guard cells from the lower leaf surfaces of C. communis and V. faba showed larger reductions in photosynthetic efficiency than those from the upper surfaces. In these two species, guard cell photosynthetic efficiency responded similarly to that of the mesophyll when either light intensity or CO2 concentration during either measurement or growth was changed. In all six species, reducing the O2 concentration from 21% to 2% reduced guard cell photosynthetic efficiency, even for the C4 species A. caudatus, although the mesophyll of the C4 species did not show any O2 modulation of photosynthetic efficiency. This suggests that Rubisco activity is significant in the guard cells of these six species. When C. communis plants were water-stressed, the guard cell photosynthetic efficiency declined in parallel with that of the mesophyll. It was concluded that the photosynthetic efficiency in guard cells is determined by the same factors that determine it in the mesophyll. PMID:12773521

  13. Preparation of Epidermal Peels and Guard Cell Protoplasts for Cellular, Electrophysiological, and -Omics Assays of Guard Cell Function.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Mengmeng; Jeon, Byeong Wook; Geng, Sisi; Yu, Yunqing; Balmant, Kelly; Chen, Sixue; Assmann, Sarah M

    2016-01-01

    Bioassays are commonly used to study stomatal phenotypes. There are multiple options in the choice of plant materials and species used for observation of stomatal and guard cell responses in vivo. Here, detailed procedures for bioassays of stomatal responses to abscisic acid (ABA) in Arabidopsis thaliana are described, including ABA promotion of stomatal closure, ABA inhibition of stomatal opening, and ABA promotion of reaction oxygen species (ROS) production in guard cells. We also include an example of a stomatal bioassay for the guard cell CO2 response using guard cell-enriched epidermal peels from Brassica napus. Highly pure preparations of guard cell protoplasts can be produced, which are also suitable for studies on guard cell signaling, as well as for studies on guard cell ion transport. Small-scale and large-scale guard cell protoplast preparations are commonly used for electrophysiological and -omics studies, respectively. We provide a procedure for small-scale guard cell protoplasting from A. thaliana. Additionally, a general protocol for large-scale preparation of guard cell protoplasts, with specifications for three different species, A. thaliana, B. napus, and Vicia faba is also provided. PMID:26577784

  14. Pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum sequesters plant-derived secondary metabolite L-DOPA for wound healing and UVA resistance

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yi; Wang, Xing-Xing; Zhang, Zhan-Feng; Chen, Nan; Zhu, Jing-Yun; Tian, Hong-Gang; Fan, Yong-Liang; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2016-01-01

    Herbivores can ingest and store plant-synthesized toxic compounds in their bodies, and sequester those compounds for their own benefits. The broad bean, Vicia faba L., contains a high quantity of L-DOPA (L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine), which is toxic to many insects. However, the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, can feed on V. faba normally, whereas many other aphid species could not. In this study, we investigated how A. pisum utilizes plant-derived L-DOPA for their own benefit. L-DOPA concentrations in V. faba and A. pisum were analyzed to prove L-DOPA sequestration. L-DOPA toxicity was bioassayed using an artificial diet containing high concentrations of L-DOPA. We found that A. pisum could effectively adapt and store L-DOPA, transmit it from one generation to the next. We also found that L-DOPA sequestration verity differed in different morphs of A. pisum. After analyzing the melanization efficiency in wounds, mortality and deformity of the aphids at different concentrations of L-DOPA under ultraviolet radiation (UVA 365.0 nm for 30 min), we found that A. pisum could enhance L-DOPA assimilation for wound healing and UVA-radiation protection. Therefore, we conclude that A. pisum could acquire L-DOPA and use it to prevent UVA damage. This study reveals a successful co-evolution between A. pisum and V. faba. PMID:27006098

  15. The Decisive Step in Betaxanthin Biosynthesis Is a Spontaneous Reaction1

    PubMed Central

    Schliemann, Willibald; Kobayashi, Naoko; Strack, Dieter

    1999-01-01

    Experiments were performed to confirm that the aldimine bond formation is a spontaneous reaction, because attempts to find an enzyme catalyzing the last decisive step in betaxanthin biosynthesis, the aldimine formation, failed. Feeding different amino acids to betalain-forming hairy root cultures of yellow beet (Beta vulgaris L. subsp. vulgaris “Golden Beet”) showed that all amino acids (S- and R-forms) led to the corresponding betaxanthins. We observed neither an amino acid specificity nor a stereoselectivity in this process. In addition, increasing the endogenous phenylalanine (Phe) level by feeding the Phe ammonia-lyase inhibitor 2-aminoindan 2-phosphonic acid yielded the Phe-derived betaxanthin. Feeding amino acids or 2-aminoindan 2-phosphonic acid to hypocotyls of fodder beet (B. vulgaris L. subsp. vulgaris “Altamo”) plants led to the same results. Furthermore, feeding cyclo-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-alanine (cyclo-Dopa) to these hypocotyls resulted in betanidin formation, indicating that the decisive step in betacyanin formation proceeds spontaneously. Finally, feeding betalamic acid to broad bean (Vicia faba L.) seedlings, which are known to accumulate high levels of Dopa but do not synthesize betaxanthins, resulted in the formation of dopaxanthin. These results indicate that the condensation of betalamic acid with amino acids (possibly including cyclo-Dopa or amines) in planta is a spontaneous, not an enzyme-catalyzed reaction. PMID:10198080

  16. Ribulose diphosphate carboxylase of the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis

    SciTech Connect

    Terekhova, I.V.; Chernyad'ev, I.I.; Doman, N.G.

    1986-11-20

    The ribulose diphosphate (RDP) carboxylase activity of the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis is represented by two peaks when a cell homogenate is centrifuged in a sucrose density gradient. In the case of differential centrifugation (40,000 g, 1 h), the activity of the enzyme was distributed between the supernatant liquid (soluble form) and the precipitate (carboxysomal form). From the soluble fraction, in which 80-95% of the total activity of the enzyme is concentrated, electrophoretically homogeneous RDP carboxylase was isolated by precipitation with ammonium sulfate and centrifugation in a sucrose density gradient. The purified enzyme possessed greater electrophoretic mobility in comparison with the RDP carboxylase of beans Vicia faba. The molecular weight of the enzyme, determined by gel filtration, was 450,000. The enzyme consists of monotypic subunits with a molecular weight of 53,000. The small subunits were not detected in electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gel in the presence of SDS after fixation and staining of the gels by various methods.

  17. Early insights into the genome sequence of Uromyces fabae

    PubMed Central

    Link, Tobias; Seibel, Christian; Voegele, Ralf T.

    2014-01-01

    Uromyces fabae is a major pathogen of broad bean, Vicia faba. U. fabae has served as a model among rust fungi to elucidate the development of infection structures, expression and secretion of cell wall degrading enzymes and gene expression. Using U. fabae, enormous progress was made regarding nutrient uptake and metabolism and in the search for secreted proteins and effectors. Here, we present results from a genome survey of U. fabae. Paired end Illumina sequencing provided 53 Gb of data. An assembly gave 59,735 scaffolds with a total length of 216 Mb. K-mer analysis estimated the genome size to be 329 Mb. Of a representative set of 23,153 predicted proteins we could annotate 10,209, and predict 599 secreted proteins. Clustering of the protein set indicates families of highly likely effectors. We also found new homologs of RTP1p, a prototype rust effector. The U. fabae genome will be an important resource for comparative analyses with U. appendiculatus and P. pachyrhizi and provide information regarding the phylogenetic relationship of the genus Uromyces with respect to other rust fungi already sequenced, namely Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, P. striiformis f. sp. tritici, Melampsora lini, and Melampsora larici-populina. PMID:25400651

  18. Early insights into the genome sequence of Uromyces fabae.

    PubMed

    Link, Tobias; Seibel, Christian; Voegele, Ralf T

    2014-01-01

    Uromyces fabae is a major pathogen of broad bean, Vicia faba. U. fabae has served as a model among rust fungi to elucidate the development of infection structures, expression and secretion of cell wall degrading enzymes and gene expression. Using U. fabae, enormous progress was made regarding nutrient uptake and metabolism and in the search for secreted proteins and effectors. Here, we present results from a genome survey of U. fabae. Paired end Illumina sequencing provided 53 Gb of data. An assembly gave 59,735 scaffolds with a total length of 216 Mb. K-mer analysis estimated the genome size to be 329 Mb. Of a representative set of 23,153 predicted proteins we could annotate 10,209, and predict 599 secreted proteins. Clustering of the protein set indicates families of highly likely effectors. We also found new homologs of RTP1p, a prototype rust effector. The U. fabae genome will be an important resource for comparative analyses with U. appendiculatus and P. pachyrhizi and provide information regarding the phylogenetic relationship of the genus Uromyces with respect to other rust fungi already sequenced, namely Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, P. striiformis f. sp. tritici, Melampsora lini, and Melampsora larici-populina. PMID:25400651

  19. Molecular and cytogenetic assessment of Dipterygium glaucum genotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Altwaty, Nada H; El-Sayed, Osama E; Aly, Nariman A H; Baeshen, Mohamed N; Baeshen, Nabih A

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to assess the genotoxicity of Dipterygium glaucum grows widely in Saudi Arabia desert to produce safety herbal products. This work is considered the first and pioneer report so far due to the lack and poor evaluated reports of the plant species for their mutagensity, genotoxicity and cytogenetics effects. Cytogenetic effects of D. glaucum on mitotic in roots of Vicia faba showed reduction in mitotic activity using three extracts; water, ethanol and ethyl acetate. Chromosomal abnormalities were recorded that included stickiness of chromosomes, chromatin bridge, fragments, lagging chromosome and micronuclei. Protein bands and RAPD analyses of V. faba treated with three D. glaucum extracts revealed some newly induced proteins and DNA fragments and other disappeared. Chemical constitution of the plant species should be identified with their biological activities against human and animal cells like HeLa cancer cell line. We are recommending using additional genotoxicity tests and other toxicity tests on animal culture with different concentrations and also utilizing several drought and heat tolerant genes of the plant species in gene cloning to develop and improve other economical crop plants instead of using the species as oral herbal remedy. PMID:27142548

  20. System potentials, a novel electrical long-distance apoplastic signal in plants, induced by wounding.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Matthias R; Maischak, Heiko; Mithöfer, Axel; Boland, Wilhelm; Felle, Hubert H

    2009-03-01

    Systemic signaling was investigated in both a dicot (Vicia faba) and a monocot (Hordeum vulgare) plant. Stimuli were applied to one leaf (S-leaf), and apoplastic responses were monitored on a distant leaf (target; T-leaf) with microelectrodes positioned in substomatal cavities of open stomata. Leaves that had been injured by cutting and to which a variety of cations were subsequently added caused voltage transients at the T-leaf, which are neither action potentials nor variation potentials: with respect to the cell interior, the initial polarity of these voltage transients is hyperpolarizing; they do not obey the all-or-none rule but depend on both the concentration and the type of substance added and propagate at 5 to 10 cm min(-1). This response is thought to be due to the stimulation of the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase, a notion supported by the action of fusicoccin, which also causes such voltage transients to appear on the T-leaf, whereas orthovanadate prevents their propagation. Moreover, apoplastic ion flux analysis reveals that, in contrast to action or variation potentials, all of the investigated ion movements (Ca(2+), K(+), H(+), and Cl(-)) occur after the voltage change begins. We suggest that these wound-induced "system potentials" represent a new type of electrical long-distance signaling in higher plants. PMID:19129416

  1. Biochemical characteristics of the Ca2+ pumping ATPase in the peribacteroid membrane from broad bean root nodules.

    PubMed

    Krylova, Valeriya; Andreev, Igor M; Zartdinova, Rozaliya; Izmailov, Stanislav F

    2013-04-01

    Ca(2+)-ATPase in the peribacteroid membrane (PBM) of symbiosomes isolated from Vicia faba root nodules was characterized in terms of its hydrolytic and transport activities. Both activities were found to be pH-dependent and exhibit pH optimum at pH 7.0. Translocation of Ca(2+) through the PBM by the Ca(2+)-ATPase was shown to be fueled by ATP and other nucleotide triphosphates in the following order: ATP > ITP ≅ GTP ≅ UTP ≅ CTP, the K m of the enzyme for MgATP being about 100 μM. Ca-dependent ITP-hydrolytic activity of symbiosomes was investigated in the presence of the Ca-EGTA buffer system and showed the affinity of PBM Ca(2+)-ATPase for Ca(2+) of about 0.1 μM. The transport activity of Ca(2+)-ATPase was inhibited by erythrosin B as well as orthovanadate, but markedly stimulated by calmodulin from bovine brain. These results allowed us to conclude that this enzyme belongs to IIB-type Ca(2+)-ATPases which are present in other plant membranes. PMID:22872095

  2. Calcium-dependent depletion zones in the cortical microtubule array coincide with sites of, but do not regulate, wall ingrowth papillae deposition in epidermal transfer cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hui-ming; Talbot, Mark J.; McCurdy, David W.; Patrick, John W.; Offler, Christina E.

    2015-01-01

    Trans-differentiation to a transfer-cell morphology is characterized by the localized deposition of wall ingrowth papillae that protrude into the cytosol. Whether the cortical microtubule array directs wall ingrowth papillae formation was investigated using a Vicia faba cotyledon culture system in which their adaxial epidermal cells were spontaneously induced to trans-differentiate to transfer cells. During deposition of wall ingrowth papillae, the aligned cortical microtubule arrays in precursor epidermal cells were reorganized into a randomized array characterized by circular depletion zones. Concurrence of the temporal appearance, spatial pattern, and size of depletion zones and wall ingrowth papillae was consistent with each papilla occupying a depletion zone. Surprisingly, microtubules appeared not to regulate construction of wall ingrowth papillae, as neither depolymerization nor stabilization of cortical microtubules changed their deposition pattern or morphology. Moreover, the size and spatial pattern of depletion zones was unaltered when the formation of wall ingrowth papillae was blocked by inhibiting cellulose biosynthesis. In contrast, the depletion zones were absent when the cytosolic calcium plumes, responsible for directing wall ingrowth papillae formation, were blocked or dissipated. Thus, we conclude that the depletion zones within the cortical microtubule array result from localized depolymerization of microtubules initiated by elevated cytosolic Ca2+ levels at loci where wall ingrowth papillae are deposited. The physiological significance of the depletion zones as a mechanism to accommodate the construction of wall ingrowth papillae without compromising maintenance of the plasma membrane–microtubule inter-relationship is discussed. PMID:26136268

  3. Physiological framework for adaptation of stomata to CO2 from glacial to future concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Franks, Peter J.; Leitch, Ilia J.; Ruszala, Elizabeth M.; Hetherington, Alistair M.; Beerling, David J.

    2012-01-01

    In response to short-term fluctuations in atmospheric CO2 concentration, ca, plants adjust leaf diffusive conductance to CO2, gc, via feedback regulation of stomatal aperture as part of a mechanism for optimizing CO2 uptake with respect to water loss. The operational range of this elaborate control mechanism is determined by the maximum diffusive conductance to CO2, gc(max), which is set by the size (S) and density (number per unit area, D) of stomata on the leaf surface. Here, we show that, in response to long-term exposure to elevated or subambient ca, plants alter gc(max) in the direction of the short-term feedback response of gc to ca via adjustment of S and D. This adaptive feedback response to ca, consistent with long-term optimization of leaf gas exchange, was observed in four species spanning a diverse taxonomic range (the lycophyte Selaginella uncinata, the fern Osmunda regalis and the angiosperms Commelina communis and Vicia faba). Furthermore, using direct observation as well as flow cytometry, we observed correlated increases in S, guard cell nucleus size and average apparent 1C DNA amount in epidermal cell nuclei with increasing ca, suggesting that stomatal and leaf adaptation to ca is linked to genome scaling. PMID:22232765

  4. Arsenate (As V) in water: quantitative sensitivity relationships among biomarker, ecotoxicity and genotoxicity endpoints.

    PubMed

    Silva, Valéria C; Almeida, Sônia M; Resgalla, Charrid; Masfaraud, Jean-François; Cotelle, Sylvie; Radetski, Claudemir M

    2013-06-01

    It is useful to test ecotoxicity and genotoxicity endpoints in the environmental impact assessment. Here, we compare and discuss ecotoxicity and genotoxicity effects in organisms in response to exposure to arsenate (As V) in solution. Eco(geno)toxicity responses in Aliivibrio fischeri, Lytechinus variegatus, Daphnia magna, Skeletonema costatum and Vicia faba were analyzed by assessing different endpoints: biomass growth, peroxidase activity, mitotic index, micronucleus frequency, and lethality in accordance with the international protocols. Quantitative sensitivity relationships (QSR) between these endpoints were established in order to rank endpoint sensitivity. The results for the QSR values based on the lowest observed effect concentration (LOEC) ratios varied from 2 (for ratio of root peroxidase activity to leaf peroxidase activity) to 2286 (for ratio of higher plant biomass growth to root peroxidase activity). The QSR values allowed the following sensitivity ranking to be established: higher plant enzymatic activity>daphnids≈echinoderms>bacteria≈algae>higher plant biomass growth. The LOEC values for the mitotic index and micronucleus frequency (LOEC=0.25mgAsL(-1)) were similar to the lowest LOEC values observed in aquatic organisms. This approach to the QSR of different endpoints could form the basis for monitoring and predicting early effects of pollutants before they give rise to significant changes in natural community structures. PMID:23597676

  5. Biomass production by fescue and switchgrass alone and in mixed swards with legumes. Final project report

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, M.

    1994-06-01

    In assessing the role of biomass in alleviating potential global warming, the absence of information on the sustainability of biomass production on soils of limited agricultural potential is cited as a major constraint to the assessment of the role of biomass. Research on the sustainability of yields, recycling of nutrients, and emphasis on reduced inputs of agricultural chemicals in the production of biomass are among the critical research needs to clarify optimum cropping practice in biomass production. Two field experiments were conducted between 1989 and 1993. One study evaluated biomass production and composition of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) grown alone and with bigflower vetch (Vicia grandiflora L.) and the other assessed biomass productivity and composition of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) grown alone and with perennial legumes. Switchgrass received 0, 75 or 150 kg ha{sup {minus}1} of N annually as NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} or was interseeded with vetch. Tall fescue received 0, 75, 150 or 225 kg ha{sup {minus}1} of N annually or was interseeded with alfalfa (Medicago L.) or birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.). It is hoped that production systems can be designed to produce high yields of biomass with minimal inputs of fertilizer N. Achievement of this goal would reduce the potential for movement of NO{sub 3} and other undesirable N forms outside the biomass production system into the environment. In addition, management systems involving legumes could reduce the cost of biomass production.

  6. Partly transparent young legume pods: Do they mimic caterpillars for defense and simultaneously enable better photosynthesis?

    PubMed

    Lev-Yadun, Simcha

    2015-01-01

    Being partly or fully transparent as a defense from predation is mostly known in various groups of aquatic animals and various terrestrial arthropods. Plants, being photosynthetic and having cell walls made of various polymers, cannot be wholly transparent. In spite of these inherent limitations, some succulent plant species of arid zones have partially transparent "windows" in order to perform photosynthesis in their below-ground leaves, as defense from herbivores as well as for protection from harsh environmental conditions. Similarly, transparent "windows" or even wholly transparent leaves are found in certain thick or thin, above-ground organs irrespective of aridity. The young pods of various wild annual Mediterranean legume species belonging to the genera Lathyrus, Pisum and Vicia are partly transparent and may therefore look like caterpillars when viewed with back illumination. I propose that this character serves 2 functions: (1) being a type of defensive caterpillar mimicry that may reduce their consumption by various herbivores in that very sensitive stage, and (2) simultaneously allowing better photosynthesis in the rapidly growing seeds and pods. Unlike animals that are transparent for either defensive or aggressive crypsis, in the case of young legume pods it allows them to visually mimic caterpillars for defense. PMID:26633565

  7. Mixed planting with a leguminous plant outperforms bacteria in promoting growth of a metal remediating plant through histidine synthesis.

    PubMed

    Adediran, Gbotemi A; Ngwenya, Bryne T; Mosselmans, J Frederick W; Heal, Kate V; Harvie, Barbra A

    2016-01-01

    The effectiveness of plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) in improving metal phytoremediation is still limited by stunted plant growth under high soil metal concentrations. Meanwhile, mixed planting with leguminous plants is known to improve yield in nutrient deficient soils but the use of a metal tolerant legume to enhance metal tolerance of a phytoremediator has not been explored. We compared the use of Pseudomonas brassicacearum, Rhizobium leguminosarum, and the metal tolerant leguminous plant Vicia sativa to promote the growth of Brassica juncea in soil contaminated with 400 mg Zn kg(-1), and used synchrotron based microfocus X-ray absorption spectroscopy to probe Zn speciation in plant roots. B. juncea grew better when planted with V. sativa than when inoculated with PGPB. By combining PGPB with mixed planting, B. juncea recovered full growth while also achieving soil remediation efficiency of >75%, the maximum ever demonstrated for B. juncea. μXANES analysis of V. sativa suggested possible root exudation of the Zn chelates histidine and cysteine were responsible for reducing Zn toxicity. We propose the exploration of a legume-assisted-phytoremediation system as a more effective alternative to PGPB for Zn bioremediation. PMID:26682469

  8. Pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum sequesters plant-derived secondary metabolite L-DOPA for wound healing and UVA resistance.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Wang, Xing-Xing; Zhang, Zhan-Feng; Chen, Nan; Zhu, Jing-Yun; Tian, Hong-Gang; Fan, Yong-Liang; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2016-01-01

    Herbivores can ingest and store plant-synthesized toxic compounds in their bodies, and sequester those compounds for their own benefits. The broad bean, Vicia faba L., contains a high quantity of L-DOPA (L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine), which is toxic to many insects. However, the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, can feed on V. faba normally, whereas many other aphid species could not. In this study, we investigated how A. pisum utilizes plant-derived L-DOPA for their own benefit. L-DOPA concentrations in V. faba and A. pisum were analyzed to prove L-DOPA sequestration. L-DOPA toxicity was bioassayed using an artificial diet containing high concentrations of L-DOPA. We found that A. pisum could effectively adapt and store L-DOPA, transmit it from one generation to the next. We also found that L-DOPA sequestration verity differed in different morphs of A. pisum. After analyzing the melanization efficiency in wounds, mortality and deformity of the aphids at different concentrations of L-DOPA under ultraviolet radiation (UVA 365.0 nm for 30 min), we found that A. pisum could enhance L-DOPA assimilation for wound healing and UVA-radiation protection. Therefore, we conclude that A. pisum could acquire L-DOPA and use it to prevent UVA damage. This study reveals a successful co-evolution between A. pisum and V. faba. PMID:27006098

  9. Use of agro-industrial organic sludge amendment to remediate degraded soil: chemical and eco(geno)toxicological differences between fresh and stabilized sludge and establishment of application rates.

    PubMed

    Chiochetta, Claudete G; Cotelle, Sylvie; Masfaraud, Jean-François; Toumi, Hela; Quaranta, Gaetana; Adani, Fabrizio; Radetski, Claudemir M

    2016-02-01

    Soil degraded by coal mining activities can be remediated by amendment with agro-industrial organic sludge. However, the environmental impacts associated with this management practice must be properly addressed. In this context, the objective of this study was to evaluate the eco(geno)toxicity of a fresh and a stabilized sludge before use in a laboratory soil remediation test. Chemical analysis of the complex mixtures (degraded soil, fresh sludge, and stabilized sludge) was carried out, as well as a battery of eco(geno)toxicity tests on microbiological enzymes (fluorescein hydrolysis), earthworms, and higher plants (including Vicia faba genotoxicity test), according to published methodologies. The results of these tests showed that fresh sludge was more toxic than sludge stabilized over 6 months toward earthworms and higher plants (lettuce, corn, and wild cabbage), while phyto(geno)toxicity tests with V. faba indicated the same genotoxicity levels for the two types of sludge. In the soil remediation simulation using different mixtures of degraded soil and stabilized sludge, the proportions of 50:50% (dry weight basis) provided the lowest phyto(geno)toxicity effects and this mixture can be used for the revegetation of the contaminated site. PMID:26341335

  10. Remediation of degraded arable steppe soils in Moldova using vetch as green manure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiesmeier, M.; Lungu, M.; Hübner, R.; Cerbari, V.

    2015-01-01

    In the Republic of Moldova, non-sustainable arable farming led to severe degradation and erosion of fertile steppe soils (Chernozems). As a result, the Chernozems lost about 40% of their initial amounts of soil organic carbon (SOC). Aim of this study was to remediate degraded arable soils and promote carbon sequestration by implementation of cover cropping and green manuring in Moldova. Thereby, the suitability of the legume hairy vetch (Vicia sativa) as cover crop under the dry, continental climate of Moldova was examined. At two experimental sites, the effect of cover cropping on chemical and physical soil properties as well as on yields of subsequent main crops was determined. The results showed a significant increase of SOC after incorporation of hairy vetch due to a high above- and belowground biomass production that was related with a high input of carbon and nitrogen. A calculation of SOC stocks based on equivalent soil masses revealed a sequestration of around 3 t C ha-1 yr-1 as a result of hairy vetch cover cropping. The buildup of SOC was associated with an improvement of the soil structure as indicated by a distinct decrease of bulk density and a relative increase of macroaggregates at the expense of microaggregates and clods. As a result, yields of subsequent main crops increased by around 20%. Our results indicated that hairy vetch is a promising cover crop to remediate degraded steppe soils, control soil erosion and sequestrate substantial amounts of atmospheric C in arable soils of Moldova.

  11. Glutamate functions in stomatal closure in Arabidopsis and fava bean.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Riichiro; Mori, Izumi C; Kamizono, Nobuto; Shichiri, Yudai; Shimatani, Tetsuo; Miyata, Fumika; Honda, Kenji; Iwai, Sumio

    2016-01-01

    Guard cells are indispensable for higher plants because they control gas exchange and water balance to maintain photosynthetic activity. The signaling processes that govern their movement are controlled by several factors, such as abscisic acid (ABA), blue light, pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), and carbon dioxide. Herein, we demonstrated that the amino acid glutamate (Glu), a well-known mammalian neurotransmitter, functions as a novel signaling molecule in stomatal closure in both Arabidopsis and fava bean (Vicia faba L.). Pharmacological and electrophysiological analyses provided important clues for the participation of Glu-receptors, Ca(2+), and protein phosphorylation during the signaling process. Genetic analyses using Arabidopsis ABA-deficient (aba2-1) and ABA-insensitive (abi1-1 and abi2-1) mutants showed that ABA is not required for Glu signaling. However, loss-of-function of the Arabidopsis gene encoding Slow Anion Channel-Associated 1 (SLAC1) and Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinase 6 (CPK6) impaired the Glu response. Moreover, T-DNA knockout mutations of the Arabidopsis Glu receptor-like gene (GLR), GLR3.5, lost their sensitivity to Glu-dependent stomatal closure. Our results strongly support functional Glu-signaling in stomatal closure and the crucial roles of GLRs in this signaling process. PMID:26586261

  12. Yield and quality attributes of faba bean inbred lines grown under marginal environmental conditions of Sudan.

    PubMed

    Gasim, Seif; Hamad, Solafa A A; Abdelmula, Awadalla; Mohamed Ahmed, Isam A

    2015-11-01

    Faba beans (Vicia faba L.) represent an essential source of food protein for many people in Sudan, especially those who cannot afford to buy animal meat. The demand for faba bean seeds is greatly increased in recent years, and consequently its production area was extended southward where the climate is marginally suitable. Therefore, this study was aimed to evaluate seed yield and nutritional quality of five faba bean inbred lines grown under marginal environmental conditions of Sudan. The inbred lines have considerable (P ≤ 0.05) variability in yield and yield components, and seed chemical composition. The mean carbohydrate content was very high (501.1 g kg(-1)) and negatively correlated with seed yield, whereas the average protein content was relatively high (253.1 g kg(-1)) and positively correlated with seed yield. Globulin was the significant fraction (613.5 g kg(-1)protein) followed by albumin (200.2 g kg(-1)protein). Biplot analysis indicates that inbred lines Hudeiba/93-S5 and Ed-damar-S5 outscore other lines in terms of seed yield and nutritional quality. This study demonstrates that Hudeiba/93-S5 and Ed-damar-S5 are useful candidates in faba bean breeding program to terminate the protein deficiency malnutrition and provide healthy and nutritious meal for people living in subtropical areas. PMID:26788295

  13. Does Mutual Interference Affect the Feeding Rate of Aphidophagous Coccinellids? A Modeling Perspective.

    PubMed

    Papanikolaou, Nikos E; Demiris, Nikos; Milonas, Panagiotis G; Preston, Simon; Kypraios, Theodore

    2016-01-01

    Mutual interference involves direct interactions between individuals of the same species that may alter their foraging success. Larvae of aphidophagous coccinellids typically stay within a patch during their lifetime, displaying remarkable aggregation to their prey. Thus, as larvae are exposed to each other, frequent encounters may affect their foraging success. A study was initiated in order to determine the effect of mutual interference in the coccinellids' feeding rate. One to four 4th larval instars of the fourteen-spotted ladybird beetle Propylea quatuordecimpunctata were exposed for 6 hours into plastic containers with different densities of the black bean aphid, Aphis fabae, on potted Vicia faba plants. The data were used to fit a purely prey-dependent Holling type II model and its alternatives which account for interference competition and have thus far been underutilized, i.e. the Beddington-DeAngelis, the Crowley-Martin and a modified Hassell-Varley model. The Crowley-Martin mechanistic model appeared to be slightly better among the competing models. The results showed that although the feeding rate became approximately independent of predator density at high prey density, some predator dependence in the coccinellid's functional response was observed at the low prey-high predator density combination. It appears that at low prey densities, digestion breaks are negligible so that the predators do waste time interfering with each other, whereas at high prey densities time loss during digestion breaks may fully accommodate the cost of interference, so that the time cost may be negligible. PMID:26756980

  14. Rapid Structural Changes and Acidification of Guard Cell Vacuoles during Stomatal Closure Require Phosphatidylinositol 3,5-Bisphosphate[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Bak, Gwangbae; Lee, Eun-Jung; Lee, Yuree; Kato, Mariko; Segami, Shoji; Sze, Heven; Maeshima, Masayoshi; Hwang, Jae-Ung; Lee, Youngsook

    2013-01-01

    Rapid stomatal closure is essential for water conservation in plants and is thus critical for survival under water deficiency. To close stomata rapidly, guard cells reduce their volume by converting a large central vacuole into a highly convoluted structure. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this change are poorly understood. In this study, we used pH-indicator dyes to demonstrate that vacuolar convolution is accompanied by acidification of the vacuole in fava bean (Vicia faba) guard cells during abscisic acid (ABA)–induced stomatal closure. Vacuolar acidification is necessary for the rapid stomatal closure induced by ABA, since a double mutant of the vacuolar H+-ATPase vha-a2 vha-a3 and vacuolar H+-PPase mutant vhp1 showed delayed stomatal closure. Furthermore, we provide evidence for the critical role of phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate [PtdIns(3,5)P2] in changes in pH and morphology of the vacuole. Single and double Arabidopsis thaliana null mutants of phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate 5-kinases (PI3P5Ks) exhibited slow stomatal closure upon ABA treatment compared with the wild type. Moreover, an inhibitor of PI3P5K reduced vacuolar acidification and convolution and delayed stomatal closure in response to ABA. Taken together, these results suggest that rapid ABA-induced stomatal closure requires PtdIns(3,5)P2, which is essential for vacuolar acidification and convolution. PMID:23757398

  15. Ecological Indicators of Native Rhizobia in Tropical Soils †

    PubMed Central

    Woomer, Paul; Singleton, Paul W.; Bohlool, B. Ben

    1988-01-01

    The relationship between environment and abundance of rhizobia was described by determining the populations of root nodule bacteria at 14 diverse sites on the island of Maui. Mean annual rainfall at the sites ranged from 320 to 1,875 mm, elevation from 37 to 1,650 m, and soil pH from 4.6 to 7.9. Four different soil orders were represented in this study: inceptisols, mollisols, ultisols, and an oxisol. The rhizobial populations were determined by plant infection counts of five legumes (Trifolium repens, Medicago sativa, Vicia sativa, Leucaena leucocephala, and Macroptilium atropurpureum). Populations varied from 1.1 to 4.8 log10 cells per g of soil. The most frequently occurring rhizobia were Bradyrhizobium spp., which were present at 13 of 14 sites with a maximum of 4.8 log10 cells per g of soil. Rhizobium trifolii and R. leguminosarum occurred only at higher elevations. The presence of a particular Rhizobium or Bradyrhizobium sp. was correlated with the occurrence of its appropriate host legume. Total rhizobial populations were significantly correlated with mean annual rainfall, legume cover and shoot biomass, soil temperature, soil pH, and phosphorus retention. Regression models are presented which describe the relationship of legume hosts, soil climate, and soil fertility on native rhizobial populations. PMID:16347624

  16. [Allelopathy of different plants on wheat, cucumber and radish seedlings].

    PubMed

    Shen, Huimin; Guo, Hongru; Huang, Gaobao

    2005-04-01

    By means of bioassay in laboratory and field, this paper studied the allelopathy of 18 kinds of plants in Gansu Province on the seedlings of wheat, cucumber and radish. The results showed that the aqueous extract of the stems and leaves of Artemisia annua, Solanum nigrum and Datura stramonium had the strongest allelopathy on test receptor plants, and their synthetic inhibitory effect (SE) was 47.66%, 32.89% and 26.63%, respectively. The SE of Xanthium sibiricum, Portulaca oleraca, Cephalanoplos segetum, and Chenopodium album was 21.71%, 20.93%, 20.83% and 20.2%, respectively, while Vicia amoena (SE 3.5%), Setaria viridis (SE 2.2%), and Cymamchum chinense (SE 1.97%) had a weaker allelopathy. Chenopodium ambrosioides (SE - 1.03%), Polygonum caespitosum (SE - 1.63%) and Avena fatua (SE 5.33%) had no evident allelopathy, but Artemisia annua affected the seedling height and fresh weight of radish, cucumber, wheat and maize, with the SE being 54.07%, 38.46%, 33.35% and 20.88%, respectively. Artemisia annua had a 44.70% of SE on wheat growth, and thus, had a certain value to develop and use. PMID:16011179

  17. Ultrastructure, Histochemistry, and Mineralization Patterns in the Ecdysial Suture of the Blue Crab, Callinectes sapidus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priester, Carolina; Dillaman, Richard M.; Gay, D. Mark

    2005-12-01

    The ecdysial suture is the region of the arthropod exoskeleton that splits to allow the animal to emerge during ecdysis. We examined the morphology and composition of the intermolt and premolt suture of the blue crab using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The suture could not be identified by routine histological techniques; however 3 of 22 fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled lectins tested (Lens culinaris agglutinin, Vicia faba agglutinin, and Pisum sativum agglutinin) differentiated the suture, binding more intensely to the suture exocuticle and less intensely to the suture endocuticle. Back-scattered electron (BSE) and secondary electron observations of fracture surfaces of intermolt cuticle showed less mineralized regions in the wedge-shaped suture as did BSE analysis of premolt and intermolt resin-embedded cuticle. The prism regions of the suture exocuticle were not calcified. X-ray microanalysis of both the endocuticle and exocuticle demonstrated that the suture was less calcified than the surrounding cuticle with significantly lower magnesium and phosphorus concentrations, potentially making its mineral more soluble. The presence or absence of a glycoprotein in the organic matrix, the extent and composition of the mineral deposited, and the thickness of the cuticle all likely contribute to the suture being removed by molting fluid, thereby ensuring successful ecdysis.

  18. Glycoconjugate expression in follicle-associated epithelium (FAE) covering the nasal-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT) in specific pathogen-free and conventional rats.

    PubMed

    Jeong, K I; Uetsuka, K; Nakayama, H; Doi, K

    1999-01-01

    We examined lectin-histochemically the glycoconjugate expression in the follicle-associated epithelium (FAE) covering the nasal-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT) in the rat under specific pathogen-free (SPF) and conventional (CV) conditions and compared the results for SPF and CV rats as well as for membranous (M) cells and adjacent ciliated respiratory epithelial (CRE) cells in FAE. N-acetylgalactosamine-specific lectins, Dolichos biflorus (DBA), Helix pomatia (HPA), Glycine max (SBA) and Vicia villosa (VVA), and alpha-L-fucose-specific lectin, Ulex europaeus (UEA-I), preferentially bound to M cells mainly in the luminal surface compared with CRE cells in SPF rats, whereas DBA and UEA-I showed signs of preferential binding to the apical and basolateral cytoplasm as well as to the luminal surface of M cells in CV rats. In addition, HPA, SBA and VVA more frequently and extensively labeled M cells than CRE cells in CV rats with the same subcellular staining pattern as DBA and UEA-I. On the whole, the changes in lectin binding frequency and strength were more prominent in M cells than in CRE cells in both SPF and CV rats. The present results indicate that DBA and UEA-I are useful as markers of M cells in NALT. Furthermore, the pattern of expression of carbohydrate residues recognized by such lectins in SPF and CV rats suggests that M cells are highly sensitive to environmental changes. PMID:10067202

  19. Leaf hydraulic conductivity and stomatal responses to humidity in amphistomatous leaves.

    PubMed

    Mott, Keith A

    2007-11-01

    The response of stomata to changes in humidity for a single surface of an amphistomatous leaf was investigated in Xanthium strumarium and Vicia faba using gas exchange and direct observation of stomatal apertures. The stomatal response to humidity for a given surface was found to be the same whether or not the humidity for the opposite surface was changed concurrently. Stomata on the surface for which humidity was constant showed no response to changes in humidity for the opposite surface. Despite large changes in epidermal turgor on the surface for which humidity was changed, there was no change in epidermal turgor for the surface with constant humidity. Measurements of transpiration and epidermal turgor as functions of the mole fraction gradient of water between leaf and air were used to calculate a value for leaf hydraulic resistance. The results suggest that in these species, the mechanism for the stomatal response to humidity resides in the epidermis or the mesophyll very close to the epidermis, and that most of the hydraulic resistance of the leaf occurs between the xylem and the evaporating sites. PMID:17897414

  20. Characterization of a novel NADP+-dependent D-arabitol dehydrogenase from the plant pathogen Uromyces fabae

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    We have identified and characterized a novel NADP+-dependent D-arabitol dehydrogenase and the corresponding gene from the rust fungus Uromyces fabae, a biotrophic plant pathogen on broad bean (Vicia faba). The new enzyme was termed ARD1p (D-arabitol dehydrogenase 1). It recognizes D-arabitol and mannitol as substrates in the forward reaction, and D-xylulose, D-ribulose and D-fructose as substrates in the reverse reaction. Co-factor specificity was restricted to NADP(H). Kinetic data for the major substrates and co-factors are presented. A detailed analysis of the organization and expression pattern of the ARD1 gene are also given. Immunocytological data indicate a localization of the gene product predominantly in haustoria, the feeding structures of these fungi. Analyses of metabolite levels during pathogenesis indicate that the D-arabitol concentration rises dramatically as infection progresses, and D-arabitol was shown in an in vitro system to be capable of quenching reactive oxygen species involved in host plant defence reactions. ARD1p may therefore play an important role in carbohydrate metabolism and in establishing and/or maintaining the biotrophic interaction in U. fabae. PMID:15796718

  1. Comparative genomic in situ hybridization (cGISH) analysis on plant chromosomes revealed by labelled Arabidopsis DNA.

    PubMed

    Zoller, J F; Yang, Y; Herrmann, R G; Hohmann, U

    2001-01-01

    A new approach for comparative cytogenetic banding analysis of plant chromosomes has been established. The comparative GISH (cGISH) technique is universally applicable to various complex genomes of Monocotyledonae (Triticum aestivum, Agropyron elongatum, Secale cereale, Hordeum vulgare, Allium cepa, Muscari armenaticum and Lilium longiflorum) and Dicotyledonae (Vicia faba, Beta vulgaris, Arabidopsis thaliana). Labelled total genomic DNA of A. thaliana generates signals at conserved chromosome regions. The nucleolus organizing regions (NORs) containing the majority of tandemly repeated rDNA sequences, N-band regions containing satellite DNA, conserved homologous sequences at telomeres and additional chromosome-characteristic markers were detected in heterologous FISH experiments. Multicolour FISH analysis with repetitive DNA probes simultaneously revealed the chromosome assignment of 56 cGISH signals in rye and 61 cGISH signals in barley. Further advantages of this technique are: (1) the fast and straightforward preparation of the probe; (2) the generation of signals with high intensity and reproducibility even without signal amplification; and (3) no requirement of species-specific sequences suitable for molecular karyotype analysis. Hybridization can be performed without competitive DNA. Signal detection without significant background is possible under low stringency conditions. The universal application of this fast and simple one-step fluorescence banding technique for plant cytogenetic and plant genome evolution is discussed. PMID:11448038

  2. Lycopersicon assays of chemical/radiation genotoxicity for the study of environmental mutagens.

    PubMed

    Grant, William F; Owens, Elizabeth T

    2002-07-01

    From a literature survey, 21 chemicals are tabulated that have been evaluated in 39 assays for their clastogenic effects in Lycopersicon. Nineteen of the 21 chemicals are reported as giving a positive reaction (i.e. causing chromosome aberrations). Of these, five are reported positive with a dose response. In addition, 23 assays have been recorded for six types of radiation, all of which reacted positively. The results of 102 assays with 32 chemicals and seven types of radiation tested for the induction of gene mutations are tabulated, as well as 20 chemicals and/or radiation in combined treatments. The Lycopersicon esculentum (2n=24) assay is a very good plant bioassay for assessing chromosome damage both in mitosis and meiosis and for somatic mutations induced by chemicals and radiations. The Lycopersicon bioassay has been shown to be as sensitive and as specific an assay as other plant genotoxicity assays, such as Hordeum vulgare, Vicia faba, Crepis capillaris, Pisum sativum and Allium cepa and should be considered in further studies in assessing clastogenicity. Tests using L. esculentum can be made for a spectrum of mutant phenotypes of which many are identifiable in young seedlings. PMID:12088718

  3. Lectins discriminate between pathogenic and nonpathogenic South American trypanosomes

    SciTech Connect

    de Miranda Santos, I.K.; Pereira, M.E.

    1984-09-01

    Cell surface carbohydrates of Trypanosoma cruzi, Trypanosoma rangeli, and Trypanosoma conorhini were analyzed by a micro-agglutination assay employing 27 highly purified lectins and by binding assays using various /sup 125/I-labeled lectins. The following seven lectins discriminated between the trypanosomes: 1) tomato lectin (an N-acetyl-D-glucosamine-binding protein), both in purified form and as crude tomato juice; 2) Bauhinea purpurea and Sophora japonica lectins (both N-acetyl-D-galactosamine-binding proteins), which selectively agglutinated T. cruzi; 3) Vicia villosa (an N-acetyl-D-galactosamine-binding protein) which was specific for T. rangeli; 4) peanut lectin (a D-galactose-binding protein) both in purified form and as crude saline extract; and 5) Ulex europaeus and Lotus tetragonolobus (both L-fucose-binding proteins) lectins which reacted only with T. conorhini. Binding studies with 125I-labeled lectins were performed to find whether unagglutinated cells of the three different species of trypanosomes might have receptors for these lectins, in which case absence of agglutination could be due to a peculiar arrangement of the receptors. These assays essentially confirmed the agglutination experiments.

  4. Evaluation of the effect of clinostat rotation on pollen germination and tube development as a tool for selection of plants in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Micco, Veronica; Scala, Michele; Aronne, Giovanna

    2006-05-01

    The choice of species and cultivar on which rely to sustain Close Loop Environmental Systems is generally approached by analysing the behaviour of plants in presence of stress (sporophytic selection). In this paper, we investigated the possibility to conduct the selection among genotypes in Space through the male gametophytic selection. Thus, we studied the effect of simulated microgravity on pollen germination and tube development of both woody and herbaceous crop species: Prunus armeniaca (apricot), P. dulcis (almond), Malus domestica (apple) and Vicia faba (broad bean). Pollen collected from just bloomed flowers was assessed for viability and incubated on the optimal growing medium in petri dishes both on a uni-axial clinostat and stationary in 1g. Then, pollen was observed under a light microscope to detect percent germination and growth direction. Histochemical analyses were performed to verify the presence and distribution of storage substances. Moreover, specific stainings and epifluorescent microscopy were applied to count nuclei, follow the migration of sperm cells and investigate the presence, size and morphology of callose plugs. Results showed that simulated microgravity affected pollen tube development. The different response showed by the various species indicates that male-gametophytic selection could be useful for the selection of plants in microgravity.

  5. Reproduction of Pratylenchus penetrans on 24 Common Weeds in Potato Fields in Québec.

    PubMed

    Bélair, G; Dauphinais, N; Benoit, D L; Fournier, Y

    2007-12-01

    Twenty-four weeds commonly found in commercial potato fields in Quebec were evaluated for their host suitability to the root-lesion nematode, Pratylenchus penetrans, under greenhouse conditions. Brown mustard (Brassica juncea) and rye (Secale cereale) were included as susceptible controls and forage pearl millet hyb. CFPM 101 (Pennisetum glaucum) as a poor host. Pratylenchus penetrans multiplied well on 22 of the 24 weed species tested (Pf/Pi >/= rye or brown mustard). Cirsium arvense, Leucanthemum vulgare and Matricaria discoida were classified as very good hosts with a Pf/Pi ranging from 1.60 to 2.54, while Ambrosia artemisiifolia and Cyperus esculentus were classified as poor hosts with a Pf/Pi from 0.01 to 0.15. Amaranthus powellii, A. retrqflexus, Raphanus raphanistrum, Rorippa palustris, Cerastium fontanum, Spergula arvensis, Stellaria media, Chenopodium album, Vicia cracca, Elytrigia repens, Digitaria ischaemum, Echinochloa crusgalli, Panicum capillare, Setaria faberii, S. pumila, S. viridis, Polygonum convolvulus, P. scabrum and P. persicaria were intermediate hosts with Pf/Pi values ranging from 0.33 to 2.01. The plant species and the botanical family had a significant impact on nematode reproduction. The Brassicaceae family resulted in the greatest reproduction of P. penetrans, and the Cyperaceae resulted in the least. The plant life-cycle (annual vs. perennial) had no impact on nematode population. PMID:19259506

  6. Ultrastructure, histochemistry, and mineralization patterns in the ecdysial suture of the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus.

    PubMed

    Priester, Carolina; Dillaman, Richard M; Gay, D Mark

    2005-12-01

    The ecdysial suture is the region of the arthropod exoskeleton that splits to allow the animal to emerge during ecdysis. We examined the morphology and composition of the intermolt and premolt suture of the blue crab using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The suture could not be identified by routine histological techniques; however 3 of 22 fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled lectins tested (Lens culinaris agglutinin, Vicia faba agglutinin, and Pisum sativum agglutinin) differentiated the suture, binding more intensely to the suture exocuticle and less intensely to the suture endocuticle. Back-scattered electron (BSE) and secondary electron observations of fracture surfaces of intermolt cuticle showed less mineralized regions in the wedge-shaped suture as did BSE analysis of premolt and intermolt resin-embedded cuticle. The prism regions of the suture exocuticle were not calcified. X-ray microanalysis of both the endocuticle and exocuticle demonstrated that the suture was less calcified than the surrounding cuticle with significantly lower magnesium and phosphorus concentrations, potentially making its mineral more soluble. The presence or absence of a glycoprotein in the organic matrix, the extent and composition of the mineral deposited, and the thickness of the cuticle all likely contribute to the suture being removed by molting fluid, thereby ensuring successful ecdysis. PMID:17481327

  7. Favism, the commonest form of severe hemolytic anemia in Palestinian children, varies in severity with three different variants of G6PD deficiency within the same community.

    PubMed

    Reading, N Scott; Sirdah, Mahmoud M; Shubair, Mohammad E; Nelson, Benjamin E; Al-Kahlout, Mustafa S; Al-Tayeb, Jamal M; Aboud, Lina N; Shaban, Maysaa Abu; Luzzatto, Lucio; Prchal, Josef T

    2016-09-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is a common genetic abnormality known to predispose to acute hemolytic anemia (AHA), which can be triggered by certain drugs or infection. However, the commonest trigger is fava beans (Vicia faba) ingestion, causing AHA (favism), which may be life-threatening especially in children. G6PD deficiency is genetically highly heterogeneous, as nearly 200 different mutations have been observed. We have investigated the hematological features of acute favism in the Palestinian Gaza community that is characterized by the polymorphic coexistence of three different G6PD deficiency genes (G6PD A-, G6PD Cairo, G6PD Med). We have found by comparison to the general population (485 adults and 466 newborns) that children with favism, in terms of relative frequency, G6PD A- was under-represented, whereas G6PD Med was over-represented. We also found that the severity of anemia was significantly greater with G6PD Med and G6PD Cairo than with G6PD A-; and with G6PD Cairo, compared to the other two variants, there was greater hyperbilirubinemia, as well as persistence of mild anemia and reticulocytosis for as long as 4months after recovery from favism. This is the first report determining a differential impact of different G6PD mutations on the clinical features of favism in the same population and the same environment. PMID:27519946

  8. Characterization of the cycHJKL genes involved in cytochrome c biogenesis and symbiotic nitrogen fixation in Rhizobium leguminosarum.

    PubMed Central

    Delgado, M J; Yeoman, K H; Wu, G; Vargas, C; Davies, A E; Poole, R K; Johnston, A W; Downie, J A

    1995-01-01

    Mutants of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae unable to respire via the cytochrome aa3 pathway were identified by the inability to oxidize N,N'-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine. Two mutants which were complemented by cosmid pIJ1942 from an R. leguminosarum clone bank were identified. Although pea nodules induced by these mutants contained many bacteroids, no symbiotic nitrogen fixation was detected. Heme staining of cellular proteins revealed that all cytochrome c-type heme proteins were absent. These mutants lacked spectroscopically detectable cytochrome c, but cytochromes aa3 and d were present, the latter at a higher-than-normal level. DNA sequence analysis of complementing plasmids revealed four apparently cotranscribed open reading frames (cycH, cycJ, cycK, and cycL). CycH, CycJ, CycK, and CycL are homologous to Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Rhizobium meliloti proteins thought to be involved in the attachment of heme to cytochrome c apoproteins; CycK and CycL are also homologous to the Rhodobacter capsulatus ccl1 and ccl2 gene products and the Escherichia coli nrfE and nrfF gene products involved in the assembly of c-type cytochromes. The absence of cytochrome c heme proteins in these R. leguminosarum mutants is consistent with the view that the cycHJKL operon could be involved in the attachment of heme to apocytochrome c. PMID:7665469

  9. Electrical potentials in stomatal complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Saftner, R.A.; Raschke, K.

    1981-06-01

    Guard cells of several species, but predominantly Commelina communis, were impaled by micropipette electrodes and potential differences measured that occurred between cell compartments and the flowing bathing medium. The wall developed a Donnan potential that was between -60 and -70 millivolt in 30 millimolar KC1 at pH 7. The density of the fixed charges ranged from 0.3 to 0.5 molar; its dependence on pH was almost identical with the titration curve of authentic polygalacturonic acid. The vacuolar potential of guard cells of Commelina communis L., Zea mays L., Nicotiana glauca Graham, Allium cepa L., and Vicia faba L. was between -40 and -50 millivolt in 30 millimolar KCl when stomata were open and about -30 millivolt when stomata were closed. The vacuolar potential of guard cells of C. communis was almost linearly related to stomatal aperture and responded to changes in the ionic strength in the bathing medium in a Nernstian manner. No specificity for any alkali ion (except Li/sup +/), ammonium, or choline appeared. Lithium caused hyperpolarization. Calcium in concentrations between 1 and 100 millimolar in the medium led to stomatal closure, also caused hyperpolarization, and triggered transient oscillations in the intracellular potential. Gradients in the electrical potential existed across stomatal complexes with open pores. When stomata closed, these gradients almost disappeared or slightly reverted; all epidermal cells were then at potentials near -30 millivolt in 30 millimolar KCl.

  10. First Report of Cucumber mosaic virus Isolated from Wild Vigna angularis var. nipponensis in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi-Kyeong; Jeong, Rae-Dong; Kwak, Hae-Ryun; Lee, Su-Heon; Kim, Jeong-Soo; Kim, Kook-Hyung; Cha, Byeongjin; Choi, Hong-Soo

    2014-06-01

    A viral disease causing severe mosaic, necrotic, and yellow symptoms on Vigna angularis var. nipponensis was prevalent around Suwon area in Korea. The causal virus was characterized as Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) on the basis of biological and nucleotide sequence properties of RNAs 1, 2 and 3 and named as CMV-wVa. CMV-wVa isolate caused mosaic symptoms on indicator plants, Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi-nc, Petunia hybrida, and Cucumis sativus. Strikingly, CMV-wVa induced severe mosaic and malformation on Cucurbita pepo, and Solanum lycopersicum. Moreover, it caused necrotic or mosaic symptoms on V. angularis and V. radiate of Fabaceae. Symptoms of necrotic local or pin point were observed on inoculated leaves of V. unguiculata, Vicia fava, Pisum sativum and Phaseolus vulgaris. However, CMV-wVa isolate failed to infect in Glycine max cvs. 'Sorok', 'Sodam' and 'Somyeong'. To assess genetic variation between CMV-wVa and the other known CMV isolates, phylogenetic analysis using 16 complete nucleotide sequences of CMV RNA1, RNA2, and RNA3 including CMV-wVa was performed. CMV-wVa was more closely related to CMV isolates belonging to CMV subgroup I showing about 85.1-100% nucleotide sequences identity to those of subgroup I isolates. This is the first report of CMV as the causal virus infecting wild Vigna angularis var. nipponensis in Korea. PMID:25289004

  11. Increased soil phosphorus availability induced by faba bean root exudation stimulates root growth and phosphorus uptake in neighbouring maize.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Deshan; Zhang, Chaochun; Tang, Xiaoyan; Li, Haigang; Zhang, Fusuo; Rengel, Zed; Whalley, William R; Davies, William J; Shen, Jianbo

    2016-01-01

    Root growth is influenced by soil nutrients and neighbouring plants, but how these two drivers affect root interactions and regulate plant growth dynamics is poorly understood. Here, interactions between the roots of maize (Zea mays) and faba bean (Vicia faba) are characterized. Maize was grown alone (maize) or with maize (maize/maize) or faba bean (maize/faba bean) as competitors under five levels of phosphorus (P) supply, and with homogeneous or heterogeneous P distribution. Maize had longer root length and greater shoot biomass and P content when grown with faba bean than with maize. At each P supply rate, faba bean had a smaller root system than maize but greater exudation of citrate and acid phosphatase, suggesting a greater capacity to mobilize P in the rhizosphere. Heterogeneous P availability enhanced the root-length density of maize but not faba bean. Maize root proliferation in the P-rich patches was associated with increased shoot P uptake. Increased P availability by localized P application or by the presence of faba bean exudation stimulated root morphological plasticity and increased shoot growth in maize in the maize/faba bean mixture, suggesting that root interactions of neighbouring plants can be modified by increased P availability. PMID:26313736

  12. Allium cepa anaphase-telophase root tip chromosome aberration assay on N-methyl-N-nitrosourea, maleic hydrazide, sodium azide, and ethyl methanesulfonate.

    PubMed

    Rank, J; Nielsen, M H

    1997-04-24

    The Allium anaphase-telophase assay was used to show genotoxicity of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU), maleic hydrazide (MH), sodium azide (NaN3) and ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS). All agents induced chromosome aberrations at statistically significant levels. The rank of the lowest doses with positive effect was as follows: NaN3 0.3 mg/l < MH 1 mg/l < MNU 41 mg/l < EMS 100 mg/l. The results were compared with results from other plant assays (Arabidopsis, Vicia, Tradescantia) and for MH and MNU the values were found to be within the same range, whereas the results in the Allium test for NaN3 and EMS were in a lower range than that found for the other plant assays. EMS and MMS (methyl methanesulfonate), two chemicals used as positive controls in mutagenicity testing, were compared in the Allium test, and MMS was found to be about ten times more potent in inducing chromosome aberrations than EMS. Recording of micronuclei in interphase cells showed that this endpoint does not give more information of clastogenicity than recording of chromosome aberrations in anaphase-telophase cells. PMID:9150760

  13. Evaluation of an aerobic treatment for olive mill wastewater detoxification.

    PubMed

    El Hajjouji, Houda; El Fels, Loubna; Pinelli, Eric; Barje, Farid; El Asli, Abdelghani; Merlina, Georges; Hafidi, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Olive mill wastewater (OMWW) is a by-product of the olive oil extraction industry. Its dumping creates severe environmental problems in the Mediterranean countries. The phytoxicity of OMWW is due to the phenolic substances and is evaluated through a genotoxicity method. An aerobic treatment of OMWW was conducted during 45 days. Different concentrations of raw and treated OMWW were tested using the Vicia faba micronuclei test. Results showed that raw OMWW induced significant micronuclei formation at 10% of OMWW dilution. At 20% of dilution, no mitosis was recorded. The 45 days aerobic treatment OMWW showed an important decrease in the genotoxicity and also in the toxicity that was observed at 10% and 20% OMWW dilution. This could be correlated with the biodegradation of 76% of the total phenols. Indeed, qualitative analysis by high performance liquid chromatography shows the disappearance of the majority of phenolic compounds after 45 days of treatment. This study was completed by an agricultural test with V. faba plant. Data showed significant growth yield of 36.3% and 29.9% after being irrigated with 5 and 10 t/ha, respectively. These results supported the positive role of aerobic treatment on OMWW and their capacity to ameliorate the agronomic potential of these effluents. PMID:25244133

  14. Laser microsurgery of higher plant cell walls permits patch-clamp access

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henriksen, G. H.; Taylor, A. R.; Brownlee, C.; Assmann, S. M.; Evans, M. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    Plasma membranes of guard cells in epidermal peels of Vicia faba and Commelina communis can be made accessible to a patch-clamp pipet by removing a small portion (1-3 micrometers in diameter) of the guard cell wall using a microbeam of ultraviolet light generated by a nitrogen laser. Using this laser microsurgical technique, we have measured channel activity across plasma membranes of V. faba guard cells in both cell-attached and isolated patch configurations. Measurements made in the inside-out patch configuration revealed two distinct K(+)-selective channels. Major advantages of the laser microsurgical technique include the avoidance of enzymatic protoplast isolation, the ability to study cell types that have been difficult to isolate as protoplasts or for which enzymatic isolation protocols result in protoplasts not amenable to patch-clamp studies, the maintenance of positional information in single-channel measurements, reduced disruption of cell-wall-mediated signaling pathways, and the ability to investigate intercellular signaling through studies of cells remaining situated within tissue.

  15. Distinct abscisic acid signaling pathways for modulation of guard cell versus mesophyll cell potassium channels revealed by expression studies in Xenopus laevis oocytes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutton, F.; Paul, S. S.; Wang, X. Q.; Assmann, S. M.; Evans, M. L. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    Regulation of guard cell ion transport by abscisic acid (ABA) and in particular ABA inhibition of a guard cell inward K(+) current (I(Kin)) is well documented. However, little is known concerning ABA effects on ion transport in other plant cell types. Here we applied patch clamp techniques to mesophyll cell protoplasts of fava bean (Vicia faba cv Long Pod) plants and demonstrated ABA inhibition of an outward K(+) current (I(Kout)). When mesophyll cell protoplast mRNA (mesophyll mRNA) was expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, I(Kout) was generated that displayed similar properties to I(Kout) observed from direct analysis of mesophyll cell protoplasts. I(Kout) expressed by mesophyll mRNA-injected oocytes was inhibited by ABA, indicating that the ABA signal transduction pathway observed in mesophyll cells was preserved in the frog oocytes. Co-injection of oocytes with guard cell protoplast mRNA and cRNA for KAT1, an inward K(+) channel expressed in guard cells, resulted in I(Kin) that was similarly inhibited by ABA. However, oocytes co-injected with mesophyll mRNA and KAT1 cRNA produced I(Kin) that was not inhibited by ABA. These results demonstrate that the mesophyll-encoded signaling mechanism could not substitute for the guard cell pathway. These findings indicate that mesophyll cells and guard cells use distinct and different receptor types and/or signal transduction pathways in ABA regulation of K(+) channels.

  16. A laser microsurgical method of cell wall removal allows detection of large-conductance ion channels in the guard cell plasma membrane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miedema, H.; Henriksen, G. H.; Assmann, S. M.; Evans, M. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Application of patch clamp techniques to higher-plant cells has been subject to the limitation that the requisite contact of the patch electrode with the cell membrane necessitates prior enzymatic removal of the plant cell wall. Because the wall is an integral component of plant cells, and because cell-wall-degrading enzymes can disrupt membrane properties, such enzymatic treatments may alter ion channel behavior. We compared ion channel activity in enzymatically isolated protoplasts of Vicia faba guard cells with that found in membranes exposed by a laser microsurgical technique in which only a tiny portion of the cell wall is removed while the rest of the cell remains intact within its tissue environment. "Laser-assisted" patch clamping reveals a new category of high-conductance (130 to 361 pS) ion channels not previously reported in patch clamp studies on plant plasma membranes. These data indicate that ion channels are present in plant membranes that are not detected by conventional patch clamp techniques involving the production of individual plant protoplasts isolated from their tissue environment by enzymatic digestion of the cell wall. Given the large conductances of the channels revealed by laser-assisted patch clamping, we hypothesize that these channels play a significant role in the regulation of ion content and electrical signalling in guard cells.

  17. Anion channel sensitivity to cytosolic organic acids implicates a central role for oxaloacetate in integrating ion flux with metabolism in stomatal guard cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yizhou; Blatt, Michael R

    2011-10-01

    Stomatal guard cells play a key role in gas exchange for photosynthesis and in minimizing transpirational water loss from plants by opening and closing the stomatal pore. The bulk of the osmotic content driving stomatal movements depends on ionic fluxes across both the plasma membrane and tonoplast, the metabolism of organic acids, primarily Mal (malate), and its accumulation and loss. Anion channels at the plasma membrane are thought to comprise a major pathway for Mal efflux during stomatal closure, implicating their key role in linking solute flux with metabolism. Nonetheless, little is known of the regulation of anion channel current (I(Cl)) by cytosolic Mal or its immediate metabolite OAA (oxaloacetate). In the present study, we have examined the impact of Mal, OAA and of the monocarboxylic acid anion acetate in guard cells of Vicia faba L. and report that all three organic acids affect I(Cl), but with markedly different characteristics and sidedness to their activities. Most prominent was a suppression of ICl by OAA within the physiological range of concentrations found in vivo. These findings indicate a capacity for OAA to co-ordinate organic acid metabolism with I(Cl) through the direct effect of organic acid pool size. The findings of the present study also add perspective to in vivo recordings using acetate-based electrolytes. PMID:21745184

  18. Distinct Abscisic Acid Signaling Pathways for Modulation of Guard Cell versus Mesophyll Cell Potassium Channels Revealed by Expression Studies in Xenopus laevis Oocytes1

    PubMed Central

    Sutton, Fedora; Paul, Sunil S.; Wang, Xi-Qing; Assmann, Sarah M.

    2000-01-01

    Regulation of guard cell ion transport by abscisic acid (ABA) and in particular ABA inhibition of a guard cell inward K+ current (IKin) is well documented. However, little is known concerning ABA effects on ion transport in other plant cell types. Here we applied patch clamp techniques to mesophyll cell protoplasts of fava bean (Vicia faba cv Long Pod) plants and demonstrated ABA inhibition of an outward K+ current (IKout). When mesophyll cell protoplast mRNA (mesophyll mRNA) was expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, IKout was generated that displayed similar properties to IKout observed from direct analysis of mesophyll cell protoplasts. IKout expressed by mesophyll mRNA-injected oocytes was inhibited by ABA, indicating that the ABA signal transduction pathway observed in mesophyll cells was preserved in the frog oocytes. Co-injection of oocytes with guard cell protoplast mRNA and cRNA for KAT1, an inward K+ channel expressed in guard cells, resulted in IKin that was similarly inhibited by ABA. However, oocytes co-injected with mesophyll mRNA and KAT1 cRNA produced IKin that was not inhibited by ABA. These results demonstrate that the mesophyll-encoded signaling mechanism could not substitute for the guard cell pathway. These findings indicate that mesophyll cells and guard cells use distinct and different receptor types and/or signal transduction pathways in ABA regulation of K+ channels. PMID:10982437

  19. In vitro inhibition of ETEC K88 adhesion by pea hulls and of LT enterotoxin binding by faba bean hulls.

    PubMed

    Becker, P M; van der Meulen, J; Jansman, A J M; van Wikselaar, P G

    2012-12-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) expressing K88 (F4) adhesins are associated with post-weaning diarrhoea in piglets. Different grain fractions from pea (Pisum sativum) and faba bean (Vicia faba) were tested in vitro for their capacity to counteract aetiological factors, which contribute to the development of diarrhoea. In detail, adhesion of E. coli O149:K91:K88ac (ETEC K88ac) to grain legume products, intended to impair the colonization of the host, was studied as well as interference with receptor binding of the pathogen's heat-labile enterotoxin LT, intended to reduce toxin-inflicted gut cell damage. When comparing different pea and faba bean products tested for their binding capacity of ETEC K88ac, especially pea hulls, but also whole pea meal, starch-enriched and protein-enriched pea meal, and digestion-resistant pea hull and meal fractions showed a higher binding of ETEC K88ac than faba bean products. In contrast to the ETEC K88ac adhesion results, bean hulls proved more effective than pea hulls in preventing GM1 receptor binding of LT. Previous small intestinal segment perfusion experiments we performed with ETEC K88ac-challenged piglets indicated that both pea and bean hulls have the potential for successful application in diarrhoea prophylaxis and treatment, which is in agreement with and refined by our detection of their different modes of functioning. PMID:21929729

  20. Plant surfaces of vegetable crops mediate interactions between chemical footprints of true bugs and their egg parasitoids.

    PubMed

    Giudice, Daniela Lo; Peri, Ezio; Bue, Mauro Lo; Colazza, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    During the host location process, egg parasitoids can eavesdrop on chemical cues released from immature and adult hosts. These indirect host-related cues are highly detectable, but of low reliability because they lead egg parasitoid females to an area where oviposition is likely to occur rather then providing wasps with direct information on the presence of eggs and their location. In the host-parasitoid associations between true bugs and their scelionid egg parasitoids, female wasps perceive the chemical residues left by host adults walking on substrates as contact kairomones, displaying a characteristic arrestment posture. In this study, we demonstrated that epicuticular waxes of leaves of two vegetable crops, broad bean, Vicia faba and collard greens, Brassica oleracea, mediate the foraging behaviour of Trissolcus basalis (Wollaston) by adsorbing contact kairomones from adults of Nezara viridula (L.). Trissolcus basalis females showed no response when released on the adaxial leaf surface of broad bean or collard green plants with intact cuticular wax layers that had not been exposed to bugs, whereas wasps displayed the arrestment posture when intact leaves were contaminated by chemical residues from host females. Adaxial leaf surfaces that were dewaxed with an aqueous solution of gum arabic and afterwards contaminated by N. viridula females elicited no arrestment responses from wasp females. Similarly, leaves contaminated by host females and subsequently dewaxed did not elicit responses from female wasps. These findings reveal the important role of plant waxes in N. viridula-T. basalis semiochemical communication. PMID:20539789

  1. Diversity of nodule-endophytic agrobacteria-like strains associated with different grain legumes in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Saïdi, Sabrine; Mnasri, Bacem; Mhamdi, Ridha

    2011-11-01

    This study represents the first report describing the genetic diversity of nodule-endophytic agrobacteria isolated from diverse legumes and their phylogenetic relationships with the valid species of agrobacteria, as well as the non-recognized genomospecies of the former Agrobacterium tumefaciens (Rhizobium radiobacter). The genetic diversity of a collection of 18 non-nodulating agrobacteria-like strains, previously isolated from root nodules of Vicia faba, Cicer arietinum and Phaseolus vulgaris from different geographical regions of Tunisia, was studied by REP-PCR and PCR-RFLP of the 16S-23S rDNA IGS, as well as by sequence analysis of the 16S rDNA and the housekeeping genes recA and atpD. The aim of the work was to study the genetic diversity of the different isolates and to check for any host-specificity. The results from the different techniques were congruent and suggested a specific interaction for P. vulgaris, whereas no specific endophytic interaction was observed for V. faba and C. arietinum. The phylogenetic analysis clearly indicated that some isolates were affiliated to R. radiobacter or to its non-recognized genomic species (genomovars G2, G4 and G9). However, the other isolates probably constitute new species within Rhizobium (Agrobacterium) and Shinella. PMID:21621936

  2. A protease responsible for post-translational cleavage of a conserved Asn-Gly linkage in glycinin, the major seed storage protein of soybean

    PubMed Central

    Scott, M. Paul; Jung, Rudolf; Muntz, Klaus; Nielsen, Niels C.

    1992-01-01

    The assembly of 11S globulin seed storage proteins in plants is regulated in part by the activity of a protease that cleaves between asparagine and glycine residues. Post-translational cleavage of subunit precursors into acidic and basic polypeptides is associated with the ability of subunits in trimers to aggregate into hexamers in vitro. An activity is present in extracts from immature soybean seeds that specifically cleaves immature 11S seed storage proteins of soybean and Vicia faba into the polypeptides of the mature proteins. Sequence microanalysis has been used to demonstrate that proglycinin and prolegumin are cut at the legitimate site when proteins synthesized in vitro are used as substrates. A single amino acid change in the cleavage site renders the substrate uncleavable. The protease responsible for this activity also hydrolyzes a synthetic octapeptide whose sequence reproduces four amino acids on either side of the glycinin subunit G4 cleavage site. This assay permitted the purification and characterization of the protease. It is a glycosylated enzyme with an acidic pH optimum and a molecular mass of about 45 kDa in solution. Images PMID:1731337

  3. Aphid Parasitoid Mothers Don't Always Know Best through the Whole Host Selection Process

    PubMed Central

    Chesnais, Quentin; Ameline, Arnaud; Doury, Géraldine; Le Roux, Vincent; Couty, Aude

    2015-01-01

    Parasitoid host selection behaviour has been extensively studied in experimentally simplified tritrophic systems formed by one single food chain (one plant, one herbivore and one parasitoid species). The "Mother knows best" hypothesis predicts that the preference for a plant-host complex should be positively correlated with plant quality for offspring performance. We studied the host selection behaviour of the generalist endoparasitoid Aphidius matricariae towards the black bean aphid Aphis fabae in the intercrop system including Vicia faba as a focal plant and its companion plant Camelina sativa. Dual-choice laboratory bioassays revealed that parasitoid females preferred to orientate towards (1) the plant-aphid complex over the non-infested plant whatever the complex (2) the C. sativa-A. fabae complex over the V. faba-A. fabae complex. In dual choice attack rate bioassays, parasitoid females showed more interest towards the aphids on C. sativa but paradoxically chose to oviposit more in aphids on V. faba. Ultimately, parasitoids that had developed on the V. faba-A. fabae complex exhibited better fitness parameters. By demonstrating that parasitoid females were able to discriminate the aphid host that offered the highest fitness to their offspring but selected beforehand the least suitable plant-aphid complex, we provide key insight into the disruption in their host selection behaviour potentially triggered by diverse habitats. This suggests that the "Mother knows best" hypothesis could be thwarted by increasing the complexity of the studied systems. PMID:26270046

  4. Angiotensin-converting enzymes modulate aphid–plant interactions

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Luo, Lan; Lu, Hong; Chen, Shaoliang; Kang, Le; Cui, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzymes (ACEs) are key components of the renin–angiotensin system in mammals. However, the function of ACE homologs in insect saliva is unclear. Aphids presumably deliver effector proteins via saliva into plant cells to maintain a compatible insect–plant interaction. In this study, we showed that ACE modulates aphid–plant interactions by affecting feeding behavior and survival of aphids on host plants. Three ACE genes were identified from the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum genome. ACE1 and ACE2 were highly expressed in the salivary glands and are predicted to function as secretory proteins. The ACE2 transcript level decreased in aphids fed on artificial diet compared with aphids fed on Vicia faba. The knockdown of the expression of each ACE by RNAi failed to affect aphid survival. When ACE1 and ACE2 were simultaneously knocked down, aphid feeding was enhanced. Aphids required less time to find the phloem sap and showed longer passive ingestion. However, the simultaneous knockdown of ACE1 and ACE2 resulted in a higher mortality rate than the control group when aphids were fed on plants. These results indicated that ACE1 and ACE2 function together to modulate A. pisum feeding and survival on plants. PMID:25744345

  5. Conventional crops and organic amendments for Pb, Cd and Zn treatment at a severely contaminated site.

    PubMed

    Pichtel, J; Bradway, D J

    2008-03-01

    The ability of selected plants and amendments to treat Pb, Cd and Zn accumulations from a metalliferous waste disposal site was studied both in the greenhouse and field. Spinach (Spinacea oleracea), cabbage (Brassica oleracea), and a grass-legume mix (red fescue, Festuca rubra; ryegrass, Lolium perenne); and bean (Vicia faba) were grown in the greenhouse on blast furnace slag or baghouse dust amended with composted peat (CP). All plant species accumulated Pb, Cd and Zn to varying degrees. Total soil metal concentrations had a marked influence on plant uptake. Topdressing versus incorporating CP had a significant (p<0.05) effect on spinach and cabbage tissue metal concentrations. Soil Pb and Zn tended to shift towards less bioavailable forms after treatment with CP. Field plots were treated with CP, farmyard manure (FYM), or inorganic fertilizer. Dry matter production of spinach, cabbage and a grass-legume mix was greatest on either the CP or FYM treatments. Phytostabilization in combination with organic amendments may be the most appropriate technology to ensure stabilization of soil metals at this site. PMID:17475483

  6. Structure of the Developing Pea Seed Coat and the Post‐phloem Transport Pathway of Nutrients

    PubMed Central

    VAN DONGEN, JOOST T.; AMMERLAAN, ANKIE M. H.; WOUTERLOOD, MADELEINE; VAN AELST, ADRIAAN C.; BORSTLAP, ADRIANUS C.

    2003-01-01

    An important function of the seed coat is to deliver nutrients to the embryo. To relate this function to anatomical characteristics, the developing seed coat of pea (Pisum sativum L.) was examined by light‐ and cryo‐scanning electron microscopy (cryo‐SEM) from the late pre‐storage phase until the end of seed filling. During this time the apparently undifferentiated seed coat tissues evolve into the epidermal macrosclereids, the hypodermal hourglass cells, chlorenchyma, ground parenchyma and branched parenchyma. Using the fluorescent symplast tracer 8‐hydroxypyrene‐1,3,6‐trisulfonic acid, it could be demonstrated that solutes imported by the phloem move into the chlorenchyma and ground parenchyma, but not into the branched parenchyma. From a comparison with literature data of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and broad bean (Vicia faba L.), it is concluded that in the three species different parenchyma layers, but not the branched parenchyma, may be involved in the post‐phloem symplasmic transport of nutrients in the seed coat. In pea, the branched parenchyma dies during the storage phase, and its cell wall remnants then form the boundary layer between the living seed coat parenchyma cells and the cotyledons. Using cryo‐SEM, clear images were obtained of this boundary layer which showed that many intracellular spaces in the seed coat parenchyma are filled with an aqueous solution. This is suggested to facilitate the diffusion of nutrients from the site of unloading towards the cotyledons. PMID:12714370

  7. [Comparative study of the composition and nutritional value of the seeds and protein concentrations in legumes].

    PubMed

    Cantoral, R; Fernández-Quintela, A; Martínez, J A; Macarulla, M T

    1995-09-01

    The nutritional properties of three legumes: pea (Pisum sativum), faba bean (Vicia faba) and soya (Glycine max) have been characterized. From these seeds, protein concentrates were elaborated by wet processing and two different procedures of drying were followed (freeze-drying and alcohol washing). The composition and content of several antinutritional factors (phytates, tannins, trypsin inhibitors and lectins) were assessed in all of them. Also some functional properties regarding their potential use in food technology were evaluated, such as protein solubility at different pH, as well as water and oil absorption capacities. All the obtained concentrates showed high protein contents, nevertheless protein extraction efficiency was smaller in alcohol-washed concentrates than in the lyophilized ones. In the other hand, the concentrates obtained from pea and faba bean showed higher yields than those obtained from soya. The content of antinutritional factors were markedly reduced after the concentration process. Furthermore, the functional properties of pea and faba bean protein concentrates point out their suitability for food preparation as previously reported for soya. PMID:9382685

  8. Interactions between Rhizobia and Lectins of Lentil, Pea, Broad Bean, and Jackbean 1

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Peter P.

    1980-01-01

    A quantitative method was developed to measure the binding of fluorescent-labeled lentil (Lens esculenta Moench), pea (Pisum sativum L.), broad bean (Vicia faba L.), and jackbean (Canavalia ensiformis L., DC.) lectins to various Rhizobium strains. Lentil lectin bound to three of the five Rhizobium leguminosarum strains tested. The number of lentil lectin molecules bound per R. leguminosarum 128C53 cell was 2.1 × 104. Lentil lectin also bound to R. japonicum 61A133. Pea and broad bean lectins bound to only two of the five strains of R. leguminosarum, whereas concanavalin A (jackbean lectin) bound to all strains of R. leguminosarum, R. phaseoli, R. japonicum, and R. sp. tested. Since these four lectins have similar sugarbinding properties but different physical properties, the variation in bindings of these lectins to various Rhizobium strains indicates that binding of lectin to Rhizobium is determined not only by the sugar specificity of the lectin but also by its physical characteristics. The binding of lentil lectin and concanavalin A to R. leguminosarum 128C53 could be inhibited by glucose, fructose, and mannose. However, even at 150 millimolar glucose, about 15% of the binding remained. The binding of lentil lectin to R. japonicum 61A133 could be inhibited by glucose but not by galactose. It is concluded that the binding site of lentil lectin to R. japonicum is different from the binding site of soybean lectin to R. japonicum. PMID:16661328

  9. Hoverfly preference for high honeydew amounts creates enemy-free space for aphids colonizing novel host plants.

    PubMed

    Vosteen, Ilka; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Kunert, Grit

    2016-09-01

    The existence of an enemy-free space can play an important role in aphid host race formation processes, but little is known about the mechanisms that create an area of low predation pressure on particular host plants. In this paper, we identify a mechanism generating lower predation pressure that promotes the maintenance of the different host races of the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) complex, a well-studied model for ecological speciation. The pea aphid consists of at least 15 genetically distinct host races which are native to specific host plants of the legume family, but can all develop on the universal host plant Vicia faba. Previous work showed that hoverfly (Episyrphus balteatus) oviposition preferences contribute to the enemy-free space that helps to maintain the different pea aphid host races, and that higher amounts of honeydew are more attractive to ovipositing hoverflies. Here we demonstrated that aphid honeydew is produced in large amounts when aphid reproduction rate was highest, and is an important oviposition cue for hoverflies under field conditions. However, on less suitable host plants, where honeydew production is reduced, pea aphids enjoy lower predation rates. A reduction in enemy pressure can mitigate the performance disadvantages of aphids colonizing a novel host and probably plays an important role in pea aphid host race formation. PMID:27328648

  10. Fotometria de grupos compactos de galáxias no infravermelho próximo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brasileiro, F.; Mendes de Oliveira, C.

    2003-08-01

    Apresentamos medidas nas bandas J, H e K de cerca de 90 galáxias em 34 grupos compactos. Através da combinação dos novos dados, com dados obtidos na literatura para a banda B, investigamos como as luminosidades, cores, tamanhos e massas das galáxias em grupos compactos foram afetadas por processos dinâmicos, e como essas diferem de galáxias em ambientes menos densos. Uma comparação dos novos valores obtidos com aqueles listados no catálogo 2MASS, mostram que para 50 galáxias estudadas em comum, as diferenças nas magnitudes J, H e K estão dentro dos erros fotométricos. Através da construção dos diagramas de cor (J-H x H-K e B-H x J-K), percebemos que as galáxias em grupos compactos ocupam posições no diagrama diferentes das posições de galáxias em campo ou em aglomerados, sendo mais parecidas com as posições ocupadas por galáxias HII, ou com excesso de poeira, acreditamos que tal deslocamento é derivado do aumento da taxa de formação estelar.

  11. A correlação índice espectral vs. luminosidade em QSOs e suas implicações

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Rissmann, A.

    2003-08-01

    Estudos de variabilidade de núcleos ativos já demonstraram ser comum o fato de seu contínuo óptico/UV tornar-se mais "duro" à medida que a luminosidade aumenta. Essa tendência ocorre tanto de forma individual quanto global, e pode ter implicações importantes (1) para estudos fotométricos de variabilidade conduzidos numa banda fixa no referencial do observador, comparando objetos a diferentes redshifts, e (2) no cálculo da correção K, com consequente impacto na determinação de massas de buracos negros e bojos de galáxias hospedeiras (através da relação de Magorrian). Confirmo aqui as correlações positivas entre o índice espectral e a luminosidade óptica, utilizando dados espectroscópicos de 11 QSOs monitorados no Brasil e no Chile, durante ~2 anos. O estudo é complementado com parâmetros extraídos de espectros e de dados fotométricos públicos de quasares. Destaco ainda as diferenças observadas em tais correlações para objetos do tipo radio-loud e radio-quiet. Este projeto é financiado pelo I. Milênio/CNPq.

  12. Induction of ferritin synthesis by water deficit and iron excess in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    DeLaat, Daiane Mariele; Colombo, Carlos Augusto; Chiorato, Alisson Fernando; Carbonell, Sergio Augusto Morais

    2014-03-01

    Ferritins are molecules for iron storage present in most living beings. In plants, ferritin is an essential iron homeostasis regulator and therefore plays a fundamental role in control of iron induced by oxidative stress or by excess of iron ions. Ferritin gene expression is modulated by various environmental factors, including the intensity of drought, cold, light and pathogenic attack. Common bean, one of the most important species in the Brazilian diet, is also affected by insufficiency or lack of water. Thus, the present study was conducted for the purpose of determining the levels of expression of ferritins transcripts in leaf tissues of three common bean cultivars (BAT 477, Carioca Comum and IAC-Diplomata) under osmotic shock caused by polyethylene glycol 6000 and by iron excess. The expression of three ferritins genes (PvFer1, PvFer2 and PvFer3), determined by quantitative PCR, indicated a difference in the expression kinetics among the cultivars. All the ferritin genes were actively transcribed under iron excess and water deficit conditions. The cultivars most responsive to treatments were BAT 477 and IAC-Diplomata. All the cultivars responded to treatments. Nevertheless, the ferritin genes were differentially regulated according to the cultivars. Analysis of variance indicated differences among cultivars in expression of the genes PvFer1 and PvFer3. Both genes were most responsive to treatments. This result suggests that ferritin genes may be functionally important in acclimatization of common bean under iron excess or water deficit conditions. PMID:24390245

  13. The role of UV-B radiation in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems--an experimental and functional analysis of the evolution of UV-absorbing compounds.

    PubMed

    Rozema, J; Björn, L O; Bornman, J F; Gaberscik, A; Häder, D-P; Trost, T; Germ, M; Klisch, M; Gröniger, A; Sinha, R P; Lebert, M; He, Y-Y; Buffoni-Hall, R; de Bakker, N V J; van de Staaij, J; Meijkamp, B B

    2002-02-01

    Gyrodinium dorsum, the green algal species Prasiola stipitata and in the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. While visible (400-700 nm) and long wavelength UV-A (315-400 nm) showed only a slight effect, MAAs were effectively induced by UV-B (280-315 nm). The growth of the lower land organisms studied, i.e. the lichens Cladina portentosa, Cladina foliacaea and Cladonia arbuscula, and the club moss Lycopodiumannotinum, was not significantly reduced when grown under elevated UV-B radiation (simulating 15% ozone depletion). The growth in length of the moss Tortula ruralis was reduced under elevated UV-B. Of the aquatic plants investigated the charophytes Chara aspera showed decreased longitudinal growth under elevated UV-B. In the 'aquatic higher plants' studied, Ceratophyllum demersum, Batrachium trichophyllum and Potamogeton alpinus, there was no such depressed growth with enhanced UV-B. In Chara aspera, neither MAAs nor flavonoids could be detected. Of the terrestrial higher plants studied, Fagopyrum esculentum, Deschampsia antarctica, Vicia faba, Calamagrostis epigejos and Carex arenaria, the growth of the first species was depressed with enhanced UV-B, in the second species length growth was decreased, but the shoot number was increased, and in the latter two species of a dune grassland there was no reduced growth with enhanced UV-B. In the dune grassland species studied outdoors, at least five different flavonoids appeared in shoot tissue. Some of the flavonoids in the monocot species, which were identified and quantified with HPLC, included orientin, luteolin, tricin and apigenin. A greenhouse study with Vicia faba showed that two flavonoids (aglycones) respond particularly to enhanced UV-B. Of these, quercetin is UV-B inducible and mainly located in epidermal cells, while kaempferol occurs constitutively. In addition to its UV-screening function, quercetin may also act as an antioxidant. Polychromatic action spectra were determined for induction of the UV-absorbing pigments in

  14. Herbivore-Triggered Electrophysiological Reactions: Candidates for Systemic Signals in Higher Plants and the Challenge of Their Identification.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Matthias R; Mithöfer, Axel; Will, Torsten; Felle, Hubert H; Furch, Alexandra C U

    2016-04-01

    In stressed plants, electrophysiological reactions (elRs) are presumed to contribute to long-distance intercellular communication between distant plant parts. Because of the focus on abiotic stress-induced elRs in recent decades, biotic stress-triggered elRs have been widely ignored. It is likely that the challenge to identify the particular elR types (action potential [AP], variation potential, and system potential [SP]) was responsible for this course of action. Thus, this survey focused on insect larva feeding (Spodoptera littoralis and Manduca sexta) that triggers distant APs, variation potentials, and SPs in monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plant species (Hordeum vulgare, Vicia faba, and Nicotiana tabacum). APs were detected only after feeding on the stem/culm, whereas SPs were observed systemically following damage to both stem/culm and leaves. This was attributed to the unequal vascular innervation of the plant and a selective electrophysiological connectivity of the plant tissue. However, striking variations in voltage patterns were detected for each elR type. Further analyses (also in Brassica napus and Cucurbita maxima) employing complementary electrophysiological approaches in response to different stimuli revealed various reasons for these voltage pattern variations: an intrinsic plasticity of elRs, a plant-specific signature of elRs, a specific influence of the applied (a)biotic trigger, the impact of the technical approach, and/or the experimental setup. As a consequence, voltage pattern variations, which are not irregular but rather common, need to be included in electrophysiological signaling analysis. Due to their widespread occurrence, systemic propagation, and respective triggers, elRs should be considered as candidates for long-distance communication in higher plants. PMID:26872949

  15. O-Glycosylation of α-1-Acid Glycoprotein of Human Milk Is Lactation Stage Related

    PubMed Central

    Berghausen-Mazur, Marta; Hirnle, Lidia; Kątnik-Prastowska, Iwona

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Human milk provides a multitude of glycoproteins, including highly glycosylated α-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), which elicits anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties. The milk AGP glycoforms may provide the breastfed infant with a wide range of biological benefits. Here, we analyzed the reactivity of O-linked sugar-specific lectins with human milk AGP over the process of lactation and compared the results with those of the lactating mother's plasma. Materials and Methods: Relative amounts of human skim milk AGP O-glycans were analyzed in early colostrum, colostrum, and transitional and mature milk samples of 127 healthy mothers by lectin–AGP enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using sialyl T (sialyl-α2,3/α2,6 Galβ1,3GalNAc-), asialyl T (Galβ1,3GalNAc-), and Tn (GalNAc-) antigen-specific biotinylated Artocarpus integrifolia (Jacalin), Arachis hypogaea (PNA), and Vicia villosa (VVA) lectins, respectively. Results: Milk AGP elicited high expression of Jacalin- and PNA-reactive glycotopes and low expression of VVA-reactive glycotopes, which were absent on plasma AGP of lactating mothers and healthy individuals. The expression of sialyl, asialyl T, and Tn glycotopes of human milk AGP was lactation stage related. The relative amount of Jacalin-reactive AGP glycotope was highest in the colostrum samples and then decreased starting from Day 8 of lactation. In contrast, an increase of the relative amount of PNA-reactive glycotope with milk maturation was observed. The relative amount of VVA-reactive glycotope remained almost constant over the development of lactation. Conclusions: Milk AGP differs from mother's plasma AGP by the presence of O-linked sialylated and asialylated T as well as Tn antigens. The variation of the expression of sialylated and asialylated T and Tn antigens on AGP is associated with milk maturation. PMID:26057552

  16. Impact of Fertilizing Pattern on the Biodiversity of a Weed Community and Wheat Growth

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Leilei; Cheng, Chuanpeng; Wan, Kaiyuan; Li, Ruhai; Wang, Daozhong; Tao, Yong; Pan, Junfeng; Xie, Juan; Chen, Fang

    2014-01-01

    Weeding and fertilization are important farming practices. Integrated weed management should protect or improve the biodiversity of farmland weed communities for a better ecological environment with not only increased crop yield, but also reduced use of herbicides. This study hypothesized that appropriate fertilization would benefit both crop growth and the biodiversity of farmland weed communities. To study the effects of different fertilizing patterns on the biodiversity of a farmland weed community and their adaptive mechanisms, indices of species diversity and responses of weed species and wheat were investigated in a 17-year field trial with a winter wheat-soybean rotation. This long term field trial includes six fertilizing treatments with different N, P and K application rates. The results indicated that wheat and the four prevalent weed species (Galium aparine, Vicia sativa, Veronica persica and Geranium carolinianum) showed different responses to fertilizer treatment in terms of density, plant height, shoot biomass, and nutrient accumulations. Each individual weed population exhibited its own adaptive mechanisms, such as increased internode length for growth advantages and increased light interception. The PK treatment had higher density, shoot biomass, Shannon-Wiener and Pielou Indices of weed community than N plus P fertilizer treatments. The N1/2PK treatment showed the same weed species number as the PK treatment. It also showed higher Shannon-Wiener and Pielou Indices of the weed community, although it had a lower wheat yield than the NPK treatment. The negative effects of the N1/2PK treatment on wheat yield could be balanced by the simultaneous positive effects on weed communities, which are intermediate in terms of the effects on wheat and weeds. PMID:24416223

  17. Impact of fertilizing pattern on the biodiversity of a weed community and wheat growth.

    PubMed

    Tang, Leilei; Cheng, Chuanpeng; Wan, Kaiyuan; Li, Ruhai; Wang, Daozhong; Tao, Yong; Pan, Junfeng; Xie, Juan; Chen, Fang

    2014-01-01

    Weeding and fertilization are important farming practices. Integrated weed management should protect or improve the biodiversity of farmland weed communities for a better ecological environment with not only increased crop yield, but also reduced use of herbicides. This study hypothesized that appropriate fertilization would benefit both crop growth and the biodiversity of farmland weed communities. To study the effects of different fertilizing patterns on the biodiversity of a farmland weed community and their adaptive mechanisms, indices of species diversity and responses of weed species and wheat were investigated in a 17-year field trial with a winter wheat-soybean rotation. This long term field trial includes six fertilizing treatments with different N, P and K application rates. The results indicated that wheat and the four prevalent weed species (Galium aparine, Vicia sativa, Veronica persica and Geranium carolinianum) showed different responses to fertilizer treatment in terms of density, plant height, shoot biomass, and nutrient accumulations. Each individual weed population exhibited its own adaptive mechanisms, such as increased internode length for growth advantages and increased light interception. The PK treatment had higher density, shoot biomass, Shannon-Wiener and Pielou Indices of weed community than N plus P fertilizer treatments. The N1/2PK treatment showed the same weed species number as the PK treatment. It also showed higher Shannon-Wiener and Pielou Indices of the weed community, although it had a lower wheat yield than the NPK treatment. The negative effects of the N1/2PK treatment on wheat yield could be balanced by the simultaneous positive effects on weed communities, which are intermediate in terms of the effects on wheat and weeds. PMID:24416223

  18. Genetic engineering for high methionine grain legumes.

    PubMed

    Müntz, K; Christov, V; Saalbach, G; Saalbach, I; Waddell, D; Pickardt, T; Schieder, O; Wüstenhagen, T

    1998-08-01

    Methionine (Met) is the primary limiting essential amino acid in grain legumes. The imbalance in amino acid composition restricts their biological value (BV) to 55 to 75% of that of animal protein. So far improvement of the BV could not be achieved by conventional breeding. Therefore, genetic engineering was employed by several laboratories to resolve the problem. Three strategies have been followed. A) Engineering for increased free Met levels; B) engineering of endogenous storage proteins with increased numbers of Met residues; C) transfer of foreign genes encoding Met-rich proteins, e.g. the Brazil nut 2S albumin (BNA) and its homologue from sunflower, into grain legumes. The latter strategy turned out to be most promising. In all cases the gene was put under the control of a developmentally regulated seed specific promoter and transferred into grain legumes using the bacterial Agrobacterium tumefaciens-system. Integration into and copy numbers in the plant genome as well as Mendelian inheritance and gene dosage effects were verified. After correct precursor processing the mature 2S albumin was intracellularly deposited in protein bodies which are part of the vacuolar compartment. The foreign protein amounted to 5 to 10% of the total seed protein in the best transgenic lines of narbon bean (Vicia narbonensis L., used in the authors' laboratories), lupins (Lupinus angustifolius L., used in CSIRO, Australia), and soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr., used by Pioneer Hi-Bred, Inc., USA). In the narbon bean the increase of Met was directly related to the amount of 2S albumin in the transgenic seeds, but in soybean it remained below the theoretically expected value. Nevertheless, trangenic soybean reached 100%, whereas narbon bean and lupins reached approximately 80% of the FAO-standard for nutritionally balanced food proteins. These results document that the Met problem of grain legumes can be resolved by genetic engineering. PMID:9739551

  19. Nitric oxide induces stomatal closure and enhances the adaptive plant responses against drought stress.

    PubMed

    García-Mata, C; García Mata, C; Lamattina, L

    2001-07-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a very active molecule involved in many and diverse biological pathways where it has proved to be protective against damages provoked by oxidative stress conditions. In this work, we studied the effect of two NO donors, sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine SNP-treated on the response of wheat (Triticum aestivum) to water stress conditions. After 2 and 3 h of drought, detached wheat leaves pretreated with 150 microM SNP retained up to 15% more water than those pretreated with water or NO(2)(-)/NO(3)(-). The effect of SNP treatment on water retention was also found in wheat seedlings after 7 d of drought. These results were consistent with a 20% decrease in the transpiration rate of SNP-treated detached wheat leaves for the same analyzed time. In parallel experiments, NO was also able to induce a 35%, 30%, and 65% of stomatal closure in three different species, Tradescantia sp. (monocotyledonous) and two dicotyledonous, Salpichroa organifolia and fava bean (Vicia faba), respectively. In SNP-treated leaves of Tradescantia sp., the stomatal closure was correlated with a 10% increase on RWC. Ion leakage, a cell injury index, was 25% lower in SNP-treated wheat leaves compared with control ones after the recovery period. Carboxy-PTIO (2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide), a specific NO scavenger, reverted SNP action by restoring the transpiration rate, stomatal aperture, and the ion leakage to the level found in untreated leaves. Northern-blot analysis showed that SNP-treated wheat leaves display a 2-fold accumulation of a group three late embryogenesis abundant transcript with respect to control leaves both after 2 and 4 h of drought periods. All together, these results suggest that the exogenous application of NO donors might confer an increased tolerance to severe drought stress conditions in plants. PMID:11457969

  20. A possible mechanism of action of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) strain Bacillus pumilus WP8 via regulation of soil bacterial community structure.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yijun; Shen, Min; Wang, Huanli; Zhao, Qingxin

    2013-01-01

    According to the traditional view, establishment and maintenance of critical population densities in the rhizosphere was the premise of PGPR to exert growth-promoting effects. In light of the facts that soil bacterial community structures can be changed by some PGPR strains including Bacillus pumilus WP8, we hypothesize that regulation of soil bacterial community structure is one of the plant growth-promoting mechanisms of B. pumilus WP8, rather than depending on high-density cells in soil. In this study, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) was performed to evaluate the relationship between changes in soil bacterial community structure and growth-promoting effect on the seedling growth of fava beans (Vicia faba L.) during three successive cultivations. We found that B. pumilus WP8 lacks capacity to reproduce in large enough numbers to survive in bulk soil more than 40 days, yet the bacterial community structures were gradually influenced by inoculation of WP8, especially on dominant populations. Despite WP8 being short-lived, it confers the ability of steadily promoting fava bean seedling growth on soil during the whole growing period for at least 90 days. Pseudomonas chlororaphis RA6, another tested PGPR strain, exists in large numbers for at least 60 days but less than 90 days, whilst giving rise to slight influence on bacterial community structure. In addition, along with the extinction of RA6 cells in bulk soils, the effect of growth promotion disappeared simultaneously. Furthermore, the increment of soil catalase activity from WP8 treatment implied the ability to stimulate soil microbial activity, which may be the reason why the dominant population changed and increased as time passed. Our study suggests that regulation of treated soil bacterial community structure may be another possible action mechanism. PMID:24005176