Science.gov

Sample records for erythrinae kim hymenoptera

  1. Systemically applied insecticides for treatment of erythrina gall wasp, quadrastichus erythrinae kim hymenoptera: Eulophidae

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doccola, J.J.; Smith, S.L.; Strom, B.L.; Medeiros, A.C.; Von Allmen, E.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The erythrina gall wasp (EGW), believed native to Africa, is a recently described species and now serious invasive pest of Erythrina (coral trees) in tropical and subtropical locales. Erythrina are favored ornamental and landscape trees, as well as native members of threatened ecosystems. The EGW is a tiny, highly mobile, highly invasive wasp that deforms (galls) host trees causing severe defoliation and tree death. The first detection of EGW in the United States was in O'ahu, Hawai'i in April 2005. It quickly spread through the Hawai'ian island chain (U.S.) killing ornamental and native Erythrina in as little as two years. At risk are endemic populations of Erythrinaas well as ornamental landscape species in the same genus, the latter of which have already been killed and removed from O'ahu at a cost of more than USD $1 million. Because EGW are so small and spread so quickly, host injury is usually detected before adult wasps are observed, making prophylactic treatments less likely than therapeutic ones. This study evaluates two stem-injected insecticides, imidacloprid (IMA-jet??) and emamectin benzoate, delivered through Arborjet Tree I.V.?? equipment, for their ability to affect E. sandwicensis (wiliwili) canopy demise under severe EGW exposure. IMA-jet, applied at a rate of 0.16 g AI/cm basal diameter (0.4 g AI/in. dia.), was the only effective treatment for maintaining canopy condition of wiliwili trees. Emamectin benzoate, applied at a rate of -0.1 g AI/cm basal diameter (-0.25 g AI/in. dia.), was not effective in this application, although it was intermediate in effect between IMA-jet and untreated trees. The relatively high concentrations of imidacloprid in leaves, and its durability for at least 13 months in native wiliwili growing on a natural, dryland site, suggest that treatment applications against EGW can impact canopy recovery even under suboptimal site and tree conditions. ?? 2009 International Society of Arboriculture.

  2. A new species of Eurytoma (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae) attacking, Quadrastichus spp. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) galling Erythrina spp. (Fabaceae) with a summary of African Eurytoma spp. biology and species checklist

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eurytoma erythrinae Gates and Delvare, new species, is described and illustrated. This species was reared from field-collected galls induced on Erythrina spp. by Quadrastichus spp. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), in Tanzania, Ghana, and South Africa. It is compared to a closely related African species. W...

  3. The ten thousand Kims

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Seung Ki; Minnhagen, Petter; Kim, Beom Jun

    2011-07-01

    In Korean culture, the names of family members are recorded in special family books. This makes it possible to follow the distribution of Korean family names far back in history. It is shown here that these name distributions are well described by a simple null model, the random group formation (RGF) model. This model makes it possible to predict how the name distributions change and these predictions are shown to be borne out. In particular, the RGF model predicts that for married women entering a collection of family books in a certain year, the occurrence of the most common family name 'Kim' should be directly proportional to the total number of married women with the same proportionality constant for all the years. This prediction is also borne out to a high degree. We speculate that it reflects some inherent social stability in the Korean culture. In addition, we obtain an estimate of the total population of the Korean culture down to the year 500 AD, based on the RGF model, and find about ten thousand Kims.

  4. KIMS : Dark Matter Search Experiment in Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sun Kee

    2005-12-02

    KIMS is an experimental group searching for dark matter in an underground laboratory in Korea. Major effort of KIMS has been devoted for the development of low background CsI(Tl) crystal detectors with low threshold for the direct WIMP search. An underground laboratory utilizing the space in a tunnel of Yangyang Pumped Storage Power Plant is established. We present the first result obtained with one crystal detector and the future prospect of WIMP search as well as other research activities carried out by KIMS.

  5. KIMS : Dark Matter Search Experiment in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sun Kee

    2005-12-01

    KIMS is an experimental group searching for dark matter in an underground laboratory in Korea. Major effort of KIMS has been devoted for the development of low background CsI(Tl) crystal detectors with low threshold for the direct WIMP search. An underground laboratory utilizing the space in a tunnel of Yangyang Pumped Storage Power Plant is established. We present the first result obtained with one crystal detector and the future prospect of WIMP search as well as other research activities carried out by KIMS.

  6. The recent results from KIMS experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, SeungCheon; Kims Collaboration

    2012-09-01

    In this paper, the recent results from KIMS (Korea invisible mass search) experiment are presented. KIMS has searched for WIMPs (Weakly Interactig Massive Particles) scattering off the nucleus by using the CsI(Tl) scintillator. The detector is an array of 12 CsI(Tl) scintilltors, whose total mass is 103.4 kg. The results reported here used the exposure of 24524.3 kg-days. With pulse shape discrimination (PSD) analysis, we estimated the nuclear recoil (NR) event rate and no meaningful excess of NR events rate were found. From this, we derived the improved cross section limit for WIMP-nucleon interaction.

  7. Phenolic compounds from the stem bark Erythrina Orientalis and detection of antimalaria activity by ELISA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tjahjadarie, Tjitjik Srie; Saputri, Ratih Dewi; Tanjung, Mulyadi

    2016-03-01

    Erythrina orientalis has local name "Dadap". This plant has known producing alkaloids, flavonoids, pterocarpans, stilbenes, and arylbenzofurans which are active compounds.Three prenylated flavonoids, 8-prenyl-daidzein (1), alpinumisoflavone (2) and 4'-O-methyl licoflavanone (3) had been isolated from the stem bark of Erythrina Orientalis. The structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data,which are IR, UV, MS, and NMR 1D (1H-NMR and 13C-NMR) and 2D (COSY, HMQC, and HMBC).

  8. Yongmin Kim: setting the pace for bioengineers.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    Early in his career, Yongmin Kim adopted an interdisciplinary approach to research that a more ego-driven researcher would have shied away from. He teamed with statisticians, electrical engineers, medical doctors, computer scientists, and industry executives to produce a steady stream of around 450 publications and a slew of innovations to medical imaging equipment that he has often had the pleasure of seeing put to use in hospitals in as short as two years. But Kim did not sit back and bask in his accomplishments. The moment he reached a goal, he set his sights on the next one. Having helped build the University of Washington's Bioengineering Department, where he led students and faculty for 29 years, the IEEE Fellow and former Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBS) president resigned his tenured faculty position and set out to meet another challenge: serving as president of South Korea's Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH). PMID:22344945

  9. Three new prenylated isoflavonoids from the root bark of Erythrina vogelii.

    PubMed

    Atindehou, K K; Queiroz, E F; Terreaux, C; Traore, D; Hostettmann, K

    2002-02-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the CH2Cl2 extract of Erythrina vogelii led to the isolation of five isoflavonoids. Three prenylated isoflavonoids are new natural compounds. The isolation of the antifungal compounds was monitored by inhibition of the growth of Cladosporium cucumerinum in a direct TLC bioautographic assay. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic techniques. PMID:11859477

  10. KIM-1-mediated phagocytosis reduces acute injury to the kidney.

    PubMed

    Yang, Li; Brooks, Craig R; Xiao, Sheng; Sabbisetti, Venkata; Yeung, Melissa Y; Hsiao, Li-Li; Ichimura, Takaharu; Kuchroo, Vijay; Bonventre, Joseph V

    2015-04-01

    Kidney injury molecule 1 (KIM-1, also known as TIM-1) is markedly upregulated in the proximal tubule after injury and is maladaptive when chronically expressed. Here, we determined that early in the injury process, however, KIM-1 expression is antiinflammatory due to its mediation of phagocytic processes in tubule cells. Using various models of acute kidney injury (AKI) and mice expressing mutant forms of KIM-1, we demonstrated a mucin domain-dependent protective effect of epithelial KIM-1 expression that involves downregulation of innate immunity. Deletion of the mucin domain markedly impaired KIM-1-mediated phagocytic function, resulting in increased proinflammatory cytokine production, decreased antiinflammatory growth factor secretion by proximal epithelial cells, and a subsequent increase in tissue macrophages. Mice expressing KIM-1Δmucin had greater functional impairment, inflammatory responses, and mortality in response to ischemia- and cisplatin-induced AKI. Compared with primary renal proximal tubule cells isolated from KIM-1Δmucin mice, those from WT mice had reduced proinflammatory cytokine secretion and impaired macrophage activation. The antiinflammatory effect of KIM-1 expression was due to the interaction of KIM-1 with p85 and subsequent PI3K-dependent downmodulation of NF-κB. Hence, KIM-1-mediated epithelial cell phagocytosis of apoptotic cells protects the kidney after acute injury by downregulating innate immunity and inflammation. PMID:25751064

  11. Q & A with Ed Tech Leaders: Interview with Joshua Kim

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaughnessy, Michael F.; Fulgham, Susan M.

    2016-01-01

    The authors present this interview with Joshua Kim, Director of Digital Learning Initiatives at the Dartmouth Center for the Advancement of Learning (DCAL). Dr. Kim leads Dartmouth College's efforts around online learning and digital innovation for teaching and learning. He is a well-known conference speaker and consultant in the area of…

  12. Young Kim, PhD | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Young S Kim, PhD, joined the Division of Cancer Prevention at the National Cancer Institute in 1998 as a Program Director who oversees and monitors NCI grants in the area of Nutrition and Cancer. She serves as an expert in nutrition, molecular biology, and genomics as they relate to cancer prevention. Dr. Kim assists with research initiatives that will advance nutritional science and lead to human health benefits. |

  13. Unprecedented new nonadecyl para-hydroperoxycinnamate isolated from Erythrina excelsa and its cytotoxic activity.

    PubMed

    Kwamou, Guy M N; Sandjo, Louis P; Kuete, Victor; Wandja, Anaelle A K; Tankeo, Simplice B; Efferth, Thomas; Nkengfack, Augustin E

    2015-01-01

    A new unprecedented cinnamate derivative (1) was obtained from Erythrina excelsa (Leguminosae) and identified as nonadecyl para-hydroperoxycinnamate. This compound was isolated together with three known compounds, namely lupeol (2), mixture of sitosterol and stigmasterol (3), and isoneorautenol (4). Their structures were established on the basis of NMR and mass spectroscopic data in conjunction with those reported in the literature. Compound 1 was evaluated for its capability of inhibiting cancer cell lines and growth of a panel of microbial strains. It turned out that 1 is moderately to significantly cytotoxic against six cancer cell lines and shows weak to no antimicrobial activity. PMID:25220189

  14. Erythrina variegata Linn: A review on morphology, phytochemistry, and pharmacological aspects

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, A.; Lingadurai, S.; Jain, A.; Barman, N. R.

    2010-01-01

    This review gives an account of the current knowledge on the morphology, phytochemistry, and pharmacological aspects of Erythrina variegata. E. variegata also called Erythrina indica is a thorny deciduous tree growing to 60 feet tall. A wide range of chemical compounds have been isolated, mainly alkaloids, flavonoids, triterpenoids, and lectin. Different parts of the plant have been used in traditional medicine as nervine sedative, collyrium in opthalmia, antiasthmatic, antiepileptic, antiseptic, and as an astringent. The alkaloids extracted from the leaves of E. variegata are reported to have anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity. Isoflavonoids isolated from E. variegata having antibacterial and anthelmintic activity. E. variegata shows several other characteristic pharmacological effects like neuromuscular blocking, smooth muscle relaxant, CNS depressant, and hydrocholeretic, which are consistent with the reported uses of the plant extracts in the indigenous system of medicine. Hence the present article includes the detailed exploration of morphology, phytochemistry, and pharmacological aspects of E. variegata in an attempt to provide a direction for further research. PMID:22228954

  15. Metabolomics driven analysis of Erythrina lysistemon cell suspension culture in response to methyl jasmonate elicitation.

    PubMed

    Farag, Mohamed A; Mekky, Hattem; El-Masry, Sawsan

    2016-09-01

    An MS-based metabolomic approach was used to profile the secondary metabolite of the ornamental plant Erythrina lysistemon via ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to photodiode array detection and high resolution q-TOF mass spectrometry (UPLC-PDA-MS). Cultures maintained the capacity to produce E. lysistemon flavonoid subclasses with pterocarpans amounting for the most abundant ones suggesting that it could provide a resource of such flavonoid subclass. In contrast, alkaloids, major constituents of Erythrina genus, were detected at trace levels in suspension cultures. Methyl jasmonate (MeJA), phytohormone, was further supplied to culture with the aim of increasing secondary metabolites production and with metabolite profiles subjected to multivariate data analysis to evaluate its effect. Results revealed that triterpene i.e. oleanolic acid and fatty acid i.e. hydroxy-octadecadienoic acid were elicited in response to methyl jasmonate, whereas pterocarpans i.e., isoneorautenol showed a decline in response to elicitation suggesting for the induction of terpenoid biosynthetic pathway and concurrent with a down regulation of pterocarpans. In conclusion, a total of 53 secondary metabolites including 3 flavones, 12 isoflavones, 4 isoflavanones, 4 alkaloids, 11 pterocarpans, and 5 phenolic acids were identified. PMID:27504198

  16. Barrier Buster: Kim Charlson--Perkins School for the Blind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library Journal, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Kim Charlson believes everyone should live life to the fullest no matter what their handicaps. Blind since early childhood, she chose librarianship because, as a braille reader and avid user of talking books, she wanted to be "in a decision-making capacity in the library field and influence the direction of library services for people with…

  17. Host ranges of gregarious muscoid fly parasitoids: Muscidifurax raptorellus (Kogan and Legner) (Hymenoptera:Pteromalidae), Tachinaephagus zealandicus Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), and Trichopria (Hymenoptera: Diapriidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Attack rates, progeny production, sex ratios and host utilization efficiency of Muscidifurax raptorellus (Kogan and Legner) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), Tachinaephagus zealandicus Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), and Trichopria nigra (Nees) (Hymenoptera: Diapriidae) were evaluated in laboratory bi...

  18. Hymenoptera Genome Database: integrating genome annotations in HymenopteraMine.

    PubMed

    Elsik, Christine G; Tayal, Aditi; Diesh, Colin M; Unni, Deepak R; Emery, Marianne L; Nguyen, Hung N; Hagen, Darren E

    2016-01-01

    We report an update of the Hymenoptera Genome Database (HGD) (http://HymenopteraGenome.org), a model organism database for insect species of the order Hymenoptera (ants, bees and wasps). HGD maintains genomic data for 9 bee species, 10 ant species and 1 wasp, including the versions of genome and annotation data sets published by the genome sequencing consortiums and those provided by NCBI. A new data-mining warehouse, HymenopteraMine, based on the InterMine data warehousing system, integrates the genome data with data from external sources and facilitates cross-species analyses based on orthology. New genome browsers and annotation tools based on JBrowse/WebApollo provide easy genome navigation, and viewing of high throughput sequence data sets and can be used for collaborative genome annotation. All of the genomes and annotation data sets are combined into a single BLAST server that allows users to select and combine sequence data sets to search. PMID:26578564

  19. Hymenoptera Genome Database: integrating genome annotations in HymenopteraMine

    PubMed Central

    Elsik, Christine G.; Tayal, Aditi; Diesh, Colin M.; Unni, Deepak R.; Emery, Marianne L.; Nguyen, Hung N.; Hagen, Darren E.

    2016-01-01

    We report an update of the Hymenoptera Genome Database (HGD) (http://HymenopteraGenome.org), a model organism database for insect species of the order Hymenoptera (ants, bees and wasps). HGD maintains genomic data for 9 bee species, 10 ant species and 1 wasp, including the versions of genome and annotation data sets published by the genome sequencing consortiums and those provided by NCBI. A new data-mining warehouse, HymenopteraMine, based on the InterMine data warehousing system, integrates the genome data with data from external sources and facilitates cross-species analyses based on orthology. New genome browsers and annotation tools based on JBrowse/WebApollo provide easy genome navigation, and viewing of high throughput sequence data sets and can be used for collaborative genome annotation. All of the genomes and annotation data sets are combined into a single BLAST server that allows users to select and combine sequence data sets to search. PMID:26578564

  20. Primo-Vascular System as Presented by Bong Han Kim

    PubMed Central

    Vodyanoy, Vitaly; Pustovyy, Oleg; Globa, Ludmila; Sorokulova, Iryna

    2015-01-01

    In the 1960s Bong Han Kim discovered and characterized a new vascular system. He was able to differentiate it clearly from vascular blood and lymph systems by the use of a variety of methods, which were available to him in the mid-20th century. He gave detailed characterization of the system and created comprehensive diagrams and photographs in his publications. He demonstrated that this system is composed of nodes and vessels, and it was responsible for tissue regeneration. However, he did not disclose in detail his methods. Consequently, his results are relatively obscure from the vantage point of contemporary scientists. The stains that Kim used had been perfected and had been in use for more than 100 years. Therefore, the names of the stains were directed to the explicit protocols for the usage with the particular cells or molecules. Traditionally, it was not normally necessary to describe the method used unless it is significantly deviated from the original method. In this present work, we have been able to disclose staining methods used by Kim. PMID:26379743

  1. Erythrina speciosa (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae) under soil water saturation: morphophysiological and growth responses

    PubMed Central

    Medina, Camilo L.; Sanches, Maria Cristina; Tucci, Maria Luiza S.; Sousa, Carlos A. F.; Cuzzuol, Geraldo Rogério F.; Joly, Carlos A.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Erythrina speciosa is a Neotropical tree that grows mainly in moist habitats. To characterize the physiological, morphological and growth responses to soil water saturation, young plants of E. speciosa were subjected experimentally to soil flooding. Methods Flooding was imposed from 2 to 4 cm above the soil surface in water-filled tanks for 60 d. Non-flooded (control) plants were well watered, but never flooded. The net CO2 exchange (ACO2), stomatal conductance (gs) and intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) were assessed for 60 d. Soluble sugar and free amino acid concentrations and the proportion of free amino acids were determined at 0, 7, 10, 21, 28 and 45 d of treatments. After 28, 45 and 60 d, dry masses of leaves, stems and roots were determined. Stem and root cross-sections were viewed using light microscopy. Key Results The ACO2 and gs were severely reduced by flooding treatment, but only for the first 10 d. The soluble sugars and free amino acids increased until the tenth day but decreased subsequently. The content of asparagine in the roots showed a drastic decrease while those of alanine and γ-aminobutyric increased sharply throughout the first 10 d after flooding. From the 20th day on, the flooded plants reached ACO2 and gs values similar to those observed for non-flooded plants. These events were coupled with the development of lenticels, adventitious roots and aerenchyma tissue of honeycomb type. Flooding reduced the growth rate and altered carbon allocation. The biomass allocated to the stem was higher and the root mass ratio was lower for flooded plants when compared with non-flooded plants. Conclusions Erythrina speciosa showed 100 % survival until the 60th day of flooding and was able to recover its metabolism. The recovery during soil flooding seems to be associated with morphological alterations, such as development of hypertrophic lenticels, adventitious roots and aerenchyma tissue, and with the maintenance of neutral amino

  2. Alkaloids in Erythrina by UPLC-ESI-MS and In Vivo Hypotensive Potential of Extractive Preparations

    PubMed Central

    Merlugo, Liara; Santos, Marí C.; Sant'Anna, Liane S.; Cordeiro, Everson W. F.; Batista, Luiz A. C.; Miotto, Silvia T. S.; Garcia, Cássia V.; Moreira, Cleci M.; Mendez, Andreas S. L.

    2015-01-01

    Erythrina species are used in popular medicine as sedative, anxiolytic, anti-inflammatory, and antihypertensive. In this work, we investigated the chemical composition of extracts obtained from leaves of E. falcata and E. crista-galli. The hypotensive potential of E. falcata and the mechanism of action were also studied. The extracts were obtained by maceration and infusion. The total content of phenolic compounds and flavonoids was estimated by spectrophotometric methods. The chemical constituents were studied performing a chromatographic analysis by UPLC-ESI-MS. For in vivo protocols, blood pressure and heart rate were measured by the invasive hemodynamic monitoring method. Different concentrations of extracts and drugs such as L-NAME, losartan, hexamethonium, and propranolol were administrated i.v. The results of total phenolic contents for E. falcata and E. crista-galli were 1.3193–1.4989 mgGAE/mL for maceration and 0.8771–0.9506 mgGAE/mL for infusion. In total flavonoids, the content was 7.7829–8.1976 mg RE/g for maceration and 9.3471–10.4765 RE mg/g for infusion. The chemical composition was based on alkaloids, suggesting the presence of erythristemine, 11β-methoxyglucoerysodine, erysothiopine, 11β-hydroxyerysodine-glucose, and 11-hydroxyerysotinone-rhamnoside. A potent dose-dependent hypotensive effect was observed for E. falcata, which may be related to the route of β-adrenergic receptors. PMID:26356581

  3. Isolation and primary structure of proteinase inhibitors from Erythrina variegata (Linn.) var. Orientalis seeds.

    PubMed

    Kouzuma, Y; Suetake, M; Kimura, M; Yamasaki, N

    1992-11-01

    The Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitors, ETIa and ETIb, and chymotrypsin inhibitor ECI were isolated from the seeds of Erythrina variegata. The proteins were extracted from a defatted meal of seeds with 10 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.2, containing 0.15 M NaCl, and purified by DEAE-cellulose and Q-Sepharose column chromatographies. The stoichiometry of trypsin inhibitors with trypsin was estimated to be 1:1, while that of chymotrypsin inhibitor with chymotrypsin was 1:2, judging from the titration patterns of their inhibitory activities. The complete amino acids of the two trypsin inhibitors were sequenced by protein chemical methods. The proteins ETIa and ETIb consist of 172 and 176 amino acid residues and have M(r) 19,242 and M(r) 19,783, respectively, and share 112 identical amino acid residues, which is 65% identity. They show structural features characteristic of the Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitor (i.e., identical residues at about 45% with soybean trypsin inhibitor STI). Furthermore, the trypsin inhibitors show a significant homology to the storage proteins, sporamin, in sweet potato and the taste-modifying protein, miraculin, in miracle fruit, having about 30% identical residues. PMID:1369077

  4. A comparative framework of the Erythrina velutina tree species in reforested land and native populations.

    PubMed

    Souza, E M S; Pereira, G S; Silva-Mann, R; Álvares-Carvalho, S V; Ferreira, R A

    2016-01-01

    Erythrina velutina Willd. (Fabaceae: Papillionoideae) is a pioneer species found in tropical and subtropical regions of the world that has medicinal properties and that is used in reforestation projects. This species is rare in some areas of northeastern Brazil. This study aimed to characterize and compare genetic structures of natural and restored populations of E. velutina, with a focus on the selection of tree seeds. A total of 108 individuals from five natural populations and one restored population were analyzed using ISSR markers, resulting in 407 polymorphic fragments. A high rate of polymorphism was observed in the restored population. The highest genetic variability was identified within populations (82%). Genetic bottleneck tests were significant for the Carmópolis/Rosário do Catete and Laranjeiras natural populations along with the Laranjeiras restored population. Genetic distances significantly correlated with spatial distance. Only the restored population retained unique alleles. Similarly, increased genetic distance was observed in individuals of the restored populations compared to the other populations. Observed genetic variation in both natural and restored populations of E. velutina was moderate, thus enabling selection of divergent trees from those trees supplying seeds. Environmental protection and management of these areas is necessary for the maintenance of these individuals and subsequent reproduction. We recommend suggestions for E. velutina conservation, since the restoration model adopted in this study did not promote the development of the specimens until the reproductive stage in a fashion that aims to augment the soil seed bank supply, as is suggested for pioneer species. PMID:27323200

  5. Erythrina edulis (Pajuro) Seed Protein: A New Source of Antioxidant Peptides.

    PubMed

    Intiquilla, Arturo; Jiménez-Aliaga, Karim; Zavaleta, Amparo I; Arnao, Inés; Peña, Carmen; Chávez-Hidalgo, Elizabeth L; Hernández-Ledesma, Blanca

    2016-06-01

    Erythrina edulis Triana ex Micheli is a protein-enriched legume traditionally used for both dietary and medicinal purposes. In this paper, protein concentrate was obtained from the seed flour. SDS-PAGE analysis revealed a high number and intensity of bands in the range between 10 and 90 kDa. Neutrase, Flavourzyme, and Alcalase were used to hydrolyze the protein concentrate at different times. By SDS-PAGE, the lower resistance of proteins to Alcalase action was observed, providing hydrolyzates with higher radical scavenging activity. The 120 min-hydrolyzate showed ORAC and TEAC values of 2.51 and 0.91 μmol Trolox equivalents/mg of protein, respectively. A fraction lower than 3 kDa and rich in hydrophobic and aromatic amino acids was demonstrated to be mainly responsible for the observed activity. E. edulis could be a new alternative in the formulation of functional foods not only for its high protein content but also for the potential biological properties of its hydrolyzates. PMID:27534115

  6. Anti-inflammatory activity of erycristagallin, a pterocarpene from Erythrina mildbraedii.

    PubMed

    Njamen, Dieudonné; Talla, Emmanuel; Mbafor, Joseph Tanyi; Fomum, Zacharias Tanee; Kamanyi, Albert; Mbanya, Jean-Claude; Cerdá-Nicolás, Miguel; Giner, Rosa M; Recio, M Carmen; Ríos, José Luis

    2003-05-01

    Erycristagallin, a pterocarpene isolated from Erythrina mildbraedii, was tested in vitro for its antioxidant properties on the stable 2,2-diphenyl-1-pycryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical and on the arachidonic acid metabolism. In addition, erycristagallin was tested on different experimental models of inflammation, such as the acute and chronic inflammation induced by the application of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) on mice and the phospholipase A(2)-induced mouse paw oedema test. In the carrageenan-induced mouse paw oedema test, the ethyl acetate extract obtained from E. mildbraedii showed anti-inflammatory activity, and erycristagallin was isolated as the active principle. In vivo, erycristagallin significantly inhibited the phospholipase A(2)-induced mouse paw oedema as well as the mouse ear oedema induced by TPA (ID(50)<10 microg/ear). Moreover, it significantly reduced the chronic inflammation and leukocyte infiltration induced by repeated application of TPA. In vitro, erycristagallin inhibited the arachidonic acid metabolism via the 5-lipoxygenase pathway in rat polymorphonuclear leukocytes (IC(50)=23.4 microM), but had no effect on cyclooxygenase-1 metabolism in human platelets, while showing antioxidant activity in the DPPH test. As with other phenolics, the anti-inflammatory activity of erycristagallin may be based on its capacity to inhibit the arachidonic acid metabolism via the 5-lipoxygenase pathway. PMID:12729844

  7. [Chang Sei Kim's activities on public health in colonial Korea].

    PubMed

    Park, Yunjae

    2006-12-01

    After graduating from Severance Medical College in 1916, Chang Sei Kim went to Shanghai to work as a missionary in a adventist hospital. The establishment of the Korean Provisional Government led him to participate in the independence movement. Educating nurses to assist the forthcoming war for independence, he seemed to realize the fact that the health of Koreans would be a key factor for achieving independence. He left for the U.S. to conduct comprehensive research on medicine. Chang Sei Kim was the first Korean to receive a Ph. D. degree of Public Health, graduating from the Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health in 1925. He then gained an opportunity to work for Korea as a professor at Severance Medical College. His objective was the 'Reconstruction of the Korean People In Terms of Physical Constitution.' He pointed out that Koreans' weak state of health was a major reason for Korea's colonization. To gain independence, he emphasized that the Korean people should receive education on public health in order to improve the primitive conditions of sanitation. There is little doubt that Chang Sei Kim's ideas developed Heungsadan's views on medicine in terms of its stress on cultivation of ability, especially considering the fact that he was a member of the organization. As a member of the colonized who could not participate in the developing official policy, Chang Sei Kim was not able to implement his ideas fully, because an individual or a private organization could not carry out policy on public health as large a scale as the government did. Never giving up his hopes for Korean independence, he rejected requests to assume official posts in the Government-General. That was why he was particularly interested in the Self-Governing Movement in 1920s Korea. If the movement had attained its goal, he might have worked for the enhancement of sanitary environment as a director of Sanitary Department. His application for funding to establish a hygiene laboratory

  8. Development of a Divergent Synthetic Route to the Erythrina Alkaloids: Asymmetric Syntheses of 8-Oxo-erythrinine, Crystamidine, 8-Oxo-erythraline, and Erythraline.

    PubMed

    Umihara, Hirotatsu; Yoshino, Tomomi; Shimokawa, Jun; Kitamura, Masato; Fukuyama, Tohru

    2016-06-01

    A general synthetic methodology toward the erythrina alkaloids has been developed. Inspired by a proposed biosynthetic mechanism, the medium-sized chiral biaryl lactam was asymmetrically transformed into the common core A-D rings by a stereospecific singlet oxygen oxidation of the phenol moiety, followed by a transannular aza-Michael reaction to the dienone functionality. The late-stage manipulation of the oxidation and oxygenation states of the functional groups on the peripheral moieties enabled the flexible syntheses of the erythrina alkaloids. PMID:27145193

  9. Afrotropical Cynipoidea (Hymenoptera)

    PubMed Central

    van Noort, Simon; Buffington, Matthew L.; Forshage, Mattias

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Afrotropical Cynipoidea are represented by 306 described species and 54 genera in four families: Cynipidae, Figitidae, Liopteridae and Ibaliidae, the latter represented by a single introduced species. Seven of these genera are only represented by undescribed species in the region. Seven new genus-level synonymies, one genus resurrected from synonymy, 54 new combinations, one combination reinstated, and one new replacement name are presented. We provide identification keys to the families, subfamilies and genera of cynipoid wasps occurring in the Afrotropical region (Africa south of the Sahara, including Madagascar and southern Arabian Peninsula). Online interactive Lucid Phoenix and Lucid matrix keys are available at: http://www.waspweb.org/Cynipoidea/Keys/index.htm. An overview of the biology and checklists of species for each genus are provided. This paper constitutes the first contributory chapter to the book on Afrotropical Hymenoptera. PMID:25878545

  10. Evaluation of local energy sources in milk production in a tropical silvopastoral system with Erythrina poeppigiana.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Ferrer, Guillermo; Mendoza-Martínez, Germán; Soto-Pinto, Lorena; Alayón-Gamboa, Armando

    2015-06-01

    An experiment was carried out to determine the effect of four local energy sources (sorghum grain, green banana, polished rice, and sugarcane molasses) fed to dairy cows on intake, milk production and composition, and economic viability in a silvopastoral system in Costa Rica (Turrialba). Twelve grazing cows (Jersey × Central American Milking Creole), with a mean live weight of 332 kg (SD 34), were supplemented with 0.5 kg of dry matter (DM)/100 kg/LW of Erythrina porppigiana fresh foliage daily. Experimental design was a replicated change-over 4 × 4 Latin Square. The pasture composition was 11 and 17 % of star grass (Cynodon niemfuensis), 32 and 28 % of ruzzi grass (Brachiaria rusisiensis), and 45 and 42 % of natural grasses (Axonopus compresus and Paspalum conjugatum) at initial and final times of the essay, respectively. The grass allowance was 30.14 DM/cow/day. Significant differences were found among treatments for variable milk fat content (P < 0.05). Sorghum presented the highest (41.2 g/kg milk) content of milk fat, followed by green banana (39.2 g/kg milk), polished rice (38.3 g/kg milk) and molasses (38.1 g/kg milk). Non-significant differences (P > 0.05) resulted for total milk production (sorghum 9.0 kg/cow/day; green banana 8.9 kg/cow/day; polished rice 8.8 kg/cow/day; molasses 8.6 kg/cow/day) and fat-corrected milk (FCM). The financial analysis showed that all treatments were economically viable; however, supplementation with green bananas and molasses were the most favorable due to the low costs incurred. PMID:25863954

  11. Ultrastructure and post-floral secretion of the pericarpial nectaries of Erythrina speciosa (Fabaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Paiva, Elder Antônio Sousa

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims The occurrence of nectaries in fruits is restricted to a minority of plant families and consistent reports of their occurrence are not found associated with Fabaceae, mainly showing cellular details. The present study aims to describe the anatomical organization and ultrastructure of the pericarpial nectaries (PNs) in Erythrina speciosa, a bird-pollinated species, discussing functional aspects of these unusual structures. Methods Samples of floral buds, ovaries of flowers at anthesis and fruits at several developmental stages were fixed and processed by the usual methods for studies using light, and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Nectar samples collected by filter paper wicks were subjected to chemical analysis using thin-layer chromatography. Key Results The PNs are distributed in isolation on the exocarp. Each PN is represented by a single hyaline trichome that consists of a basal cell at epidermal level, stalk cell(s) and a small secretory multicellular head. The apical stalk cell shows inner periclinal and anticlinal walls impregnated by lipids and lignin and has dense cytoplasm with a prevalence of mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum. The secretory cells show voluminous nuclei and dense cytoplasm, which predominantly has dictyosomes, rough endoplasmic reticulum, plastids, mitochondria and free ribosomes. At the secretory stage the periplasmic space is prominent and contains secretion residues. Tests for sugar indicate the presence of non-reducing sugars in the secretory cells. Nectar samples from PNs contained sucrose, glucose and fructose. Conclusions The secretory stage of these PNs extends until fruit maturation and evidence suggests that the energetic source of nectar production is based on pericarp photosynthesis. Patrolling ants were seen foraging on fruits during all stages of fruit development, which suggests that the PNs mediate a symbiotic relationship between ants and plant, similar to the common role of many

  12. Kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) mediates renal epithelial cell repair via ERK MAPK signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhiwei; Cai, Cindy X

    2016-01-01

    The expression of kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), a very promising sensitive and specific urinary biomarker for acute renal injury, is markedly upregulated in injured and regenerating renal proximal tubular epithelial cells following ischemic or toxic insults, suggesting a possible role for this molecule in renal repair process. In the present study we report that expression of KIM-1 facilitates renal tubular epithelial cell repair by promoting cell migration and proliferation. KIM-1 expression also enhances ERK MAPK activation, and the modulatory effect of KIM-1 on cellular repair process is likely mediated via ERK MAPK signaling pathway. PMID:27084535

  13. Kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) mediates renal epithelial cell repair via ERK MAPK signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhiwei; Cai, Cindy X

    2016-05-01

    The expression of kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), a very promising sensitive and specific urinary biomarker for acute renal injury, is markedly upregulated in injured and regenerating renal proximal tubular epithelial cells following ischemic or toxic insults, suggesting a possible role for this molecule in renal repair process. In the present study, we report that expression of KIM-1 facilitates renal tubular epithelial cell repair by promoting cell migration and proliferation. KIM-1 expression also enhances ERK MAPK activation, and the modulatory effect of KIM-1 on cellular repair process is likely mediated via ERK MAPK signaling pathway. PMID:27084535

  14. HETEROGENEITY OF HUMAN NATURAL KILLER (NK) CELLS: ENRICHMENT OF NK BY NEGATIVE-SELECTION WITH THE LECTIN FROM 'ERYTHRINA CRISTAGALLI' (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A novel technique for the isolation and enrichment of human natural killer (NK) cells from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (MNC) is described. Negative selection of MNC with the lectin from Erythrina cristagalli (ECA), whether by panning or agglutination in solution, resulted ...

  15. Dormancy-breaking requirements of Sophora tomentosa and Erythrina speciosa (Fabaceae) seeds.

    PubMed

    Luzia Delgado, Carolina Maria; Souza de Paula, Alexandre; Santos, Marisa; Silveira Paulilo, Maria Terezinha

    2015-03-01

    The physical dormancy of seeds has been poorly studied in species from tropical forests, such as the Atlantic Forest. This study aimed to examine the effect of moderate alternating temperatures on breaking the physical dormancy of seeds, the morphoanatomy and histochemistry of seed coats, and to locate the structure/region responsible for water entrance into the seed, after breaking the physical dormancy of seeds of two woody Fabaceae (subfamily Faboideae) species that occur in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest: Sophora tomentosa and Erythrina speciosa. To assess temperature effect, seeds were incubated in several temperature values that occur in the Atlantic Forest. For morphological and histochemical studies, sections of fixed seeds were subjected to different reagents, and were observed using light or epifluorescence microscopy, to analyze the anatomy and histochemistry of the seed coat. Treated and nonreated seeds were also analyzed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) to observe the morphology of the seed coat. To localize the specific site of water entrance, the seeds were blocked with glue in different regions and also immersed in ink. In the present work a maximum temperature fluctuation of 15 degrees C was applied during a period of 20 days and these conditions did not increase the germination of S. tomentosa or E. speciosa. These results may indicate that these seeds require larger fluctuation of temperature than the applied or/and longer period of exposition to the temperature fluctuation. Blocking experiments water inlet combined with SEM analysis of the structures of seed coat for both species showed that besides the lens, the hilum and micropyle are involved in water absorption in seeds scarified with hot water. In seeds of E. speciosa the immersion of scarified seeds into an aniline aqueous solution showed that the solution first entered the seed through the hilum. Both species showed seed morphological and anatomical features for seed coats of the

  16. Purification, some properties of a D-galactose-binding leaf lectin from Erythrina indica and further characterization of seed lectin.

    PubMed

    Konozy, Emadeldin H E; Mulay, Ranjana; Faca, Vitor; Ward, Richard John; Greene, Lewis Joel; Roque-Barriera, Maria Cristina; Sabharwal, Sushma; Bhide, Shobhana V

    2002-10-01

    Lectin from a leaf of Erythrina indica was isolated by affinity chromatography on Lactamyl-Seralose 4B. Lectin gave a single band in polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). In SDS-gel electrophoresis under reducing and non-reducing conditions Erythrina indica leaf lectin (EiLL) split into two bands with subunit molecular weights of 30 and 33 kDa, whereas 58 kDa was obtained for the intact lectin by gel filtration on Sephadex G-100. EiLL agglutinated all human RBC types, with a slight preference for the O blood group. Lectin was found to be a glycoprotein with a neutral sugar content of 9.5%. The carbohydrate specificity of lectin was directed towards D-galactose and its derivatives with pronounced preference for lactose. EiLL had pH optima at pH 7.0; above and below this pH lectin lost sugar-binding capability rapidly. Lectin showed broad temperature optima from 25 to 50 degrees C; however, at 55 degrees C EiLL lost more than 90% of its activity and at 60 degrees C it was totally inactivated. The pI of EiLL was found to be 7.6. The amino acid analysis of EiLL indicated that the lectin was rich in acidic as well as hydrophobic amino acids and totally lacked cysteine and methionine. The N-terminal amino acids were Val-Glu-Thr-IIe-Ser-Phe-Ser-Phe-Ser-Glu-Phe-Glu-Ala-Gly-Asn-Asp-X-Leu-Thr-Gln-Glu-Gly-Ala-Ala-Leu-. Chemical modification studies of both EiLL and Erythrina indica seed lectin (EiSL) with phenylglyoxal, DEP and DTNB revealed an absence of arginine, histidine and cysteine, respectively, in or near the ligand-binding site of both lectins. Modification of tyrosine with NAI led to partial inactivation of EiLL and EiSL; however, total inactivation was observed upon NBS-modification of two tryptophan residues in EiSL. Despite the apparent importance of these tryptophan residues for lectin activity they did not seem to have a direct role in binding haptenic sugar as D-galactose did not protect lectin from inactivation by NBS. PMID:12504284

  17. Thelytokous parthenogenesis in eusocial Hymenoptera.

    PubMed

    Rabeling, Christian; Kronauer, Daniel J C

    2013-01-01

    Female parthenogenesis, or thelytoky, is particularly common in solitary Hymenoptera. Only more recently has it become clear that many eusocial species also regularly reproduce thelytokously, and here we provide a comprehensive overview. Especially in ants, thelytoky underlies a variety of idiosyncratic life histories with unique evolutionary and ecological consequences. In all eusocial species studied, thelytoky probably has a nuclear genetic basis and the underlying cytological mechanism retains high levels of heterozygosity. This is in striking contrast to many solitary wasps, in which thelytoky is often induced by cytoplasmic bacteria and results in an immediate loss of heterozygosity. These differences are likely related to differences in haplodiploid sex determination mechanisms, which in eusocial species usually require heterozygosity for female development. At the same time, haplodiploidy might account for important preadaptations that can help explain the apparent ease with which Hymenoptera transition between sexual and asexual reproduction. PMID:23072461

  18. Isolation, purification, and physicochemical characterization of a D-galactose-binding lectin from seeds of Erythrina speciosa.

    PubMed

    Konozy, Emadeldin H E; Bernardes, Emerson S; Rosa, Cesar; Faca, Vitor; Greene, Lewis Joel; Ward, Richard John

    2003-02-15

    A lectin was isolated from the saline extract of Erythrina speciosa seeds by affinity chromatography on lactose-Sepharose. The lectin content was about 265 mg/100g dry flour. E. speciosa seed lectin (EspecL) agglutinated all human RBC types, showing no human blood group specificity; however a slight preference toward the O blood group was evident. The lectin also agglutinated rabbit, sheep, and mouse blood cells and showed no effect on horse erythrocytes. Lactose was the most potent inhibitor of EspecL hemagglutinating activity (minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC)=0.25 mM) followed by N-acetyllactosamine, MIC=0.5mM, and then p-nitrophenyl alpha-galactopyranoside, MIC=2 mM. The lectin was a glycoprotein with a neutral carbohydrate content of 5.5% and had two pI values of 5.8 and 6.1 and E(1%)(1 cm) of 14.5. The native molecular mass of the lectin detected by hydrodynamic light scattering was 58 kDa and when examined by mass spectroscopy and SDS-PAGE it was found to be composed of two identical subunits of molecular mass of 27.6 kDa. The amino acid composition of the lectin revealed that it was rich in acidic and hydroxyl amino acids, contained a lesser amount of methionine, and totally lacked cysteine. The N-terminal of the lectin shared major similarities with other reported Erythrina lectins. The lectin was a metaloprotein that needed both Ca(2+) and Mn(2+) ions for its activity. Removal of these metals by EDTA rendered the lectin inactive whereas their addition restored the activity. EspecL was acidic pH sensitive and totally lost its activity when incubated with all pH values between pH 3 and pH 6. Above pH 6 and to pH 9.6 there was no effect on the lectin activity. At 65 degrees C for more than 90 min the lectin was fairly stable; however, when heated at 70 degrees C for 10 min it lost more than 80% of its original activity and was totally inactivated at 80 degrees C for less than 10 min. Fluorescence studies of EspecL indicated that tryptophan residues were

  19. Dirhinus texanus (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae) from Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pech, L.L.; Gates, M.W.; Graham, T.B.

    2011-01-01

    We collected a Dirhinus texanus (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae) in Salt Creek Canyon, Canyonlands National Park, San Juan County, Utah. This is the first record for D. texanus in Utah. Copyright ?? 2011 BioOne All rights reserved.

  20. In Vitro Antibacterial and Time-Kill Evaluation of the Erythrina caffra Thunb. Extract against Bacteria Associated with Diarrhoea

    PubMed Central

    Olajuyigbe, Olufunmiso Olusola; Afolayan, Anthony Jide

    2012-01-01

    The antibacterial activities of stem bark ethanolic extract of Erythrina caffra Thunb. against bacteria in diarrhoea was determined in vitro by the agar diffusion and dilution, macrobroth dilution, and time-kill assay methods. The result showed that the extract produced inhibition zones ranging between 15 ± 1.0 mm and 23 ± 1.0 mm, and the bacteria were susceptible at concentrations ranging between ≤100 and ≤1000 μg/mL. While the MICs of the extract ranged between 39.1 and 625 μg/mL, and the MBCs ranged between 78.1 and 625 μg/mL, the MICs of Micrococcus luteus, Proteus vulgaris CSIR 0030, Enterococcus faecalis KZN, and Staphylococcus aureus OK3 were less than 100 μg/mL, and the mechanisms of antibiosis indicated that the crude ethanolic extract was highly bactericidal against the entire test bacteria isolates. In the time-kill assay, the average log reduction of the viable cell count ranged between 0.916log 10 and 1.851log 10 cfu/mL on incubating the bacteria for 4 h at the MICs, while the reduction ranged between 0.183log 10 and 1.105log 10 cfu/mL after 8 h of incubation. Incubating the bacteria for 4 h at 2 × MICs resulted in the reduction of the viable cell count to between −0.264log 10 and 0.961log 10 cfu/mL, while the average log reduction ranged between −3.968log 10 and −0.425log 10 cfu/mL after 8 h of incubation with Micrococcus luteus, Proteus vulgaris CSIR 0030, and Staphylococcus aureus OK3 being the most highly affected bacteria. The result showed that the extract exhibited broader-spectrum antibacterial activity and justifies the use of Erythrina caffra in the folkloric medicine for treating gastrointestinal infections in South Africa. PMID:23213297

  1. In vitro antibacterial and time-kill evaluation of the Erythrina caffra Thunb. extract against bacteria associated with diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Olajuyigbe, Olufunmiso Olusola; Afolayan, Anthony Jide

    2012-01-01

    The antibacterial activities of stem bark ethanolic extract of Erythrina caffra Thunb. against bacteria in diarrhoea was determined in vitro by the agar diffusion and dilution, macrobroth dilution, and time-kill assay methods. The result showed that the extract produced inhibition zones ranging between 15 ± 1.0 mm and 23 ± 1.0 mm, and the bacteria were susceptible at concentrations ranging between ≤100 and ≤1000 μg/mL. While the MICs of the extract ranged between 39.1 and 625 μg/mL, and the MBCs ranged between 78.1 and 625 μg/mL, the MICs of Micrococcus luteus, Proteus vulgaris CSIR 0030, Enterococcus faecalis KZN, and Staphylococcus aureus OK₃ were less than 100 μg/mL, and the mechanisms of antibiosis indicated that the crude ethanolic extract was highly bactericidal against the entire test bacteria isolates. In the time-kill assay, the average log reduction of the viable cell count ranged between 0.916 log₁₀ and 1.851 log₁₀ cfu/mL on incubating the bacteria for 4 h at the MICs, while the reduction ranged between 0.183 log₁₀ and 1.105 log₁₀ cfu/mL after 8 h of incubation. Incubating the bacteria for 4 h at 2 × MICs resulted in the reduction of the viable cell count to between -0.264 log₁₀ and 0.961 log₁₀ cfu/mL, while the average log reduction ranged between -3.968 log₁₀ and -0.425 log₁₀ cfu/mL after 8 h of incubation with Micrococcus luteus, Proteus vulgaris CSIR 0030, and Staphylococcus aureus OK₃ being the most highly affected bacteria. The result showed that the extract exhibited broader-spectrum antibacterial activity and justifies the use of Erythrina caffra in the folkloric medicine for treating gastrointestinal infections in South Africa. PMID:23213297

  2. Antibacterial and cytotoxic effect of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles using aqueous root extract of Erythrina indica lam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rathi Sre, P. R.; Reka, M.; Poovazhagi, R.; Arul Kumar, M.; Murugesan, K.

    2015-01-01

    Simple, yet an effective and rapid approach for the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) using root extract of Erythrina indica and its in vitro antibacterial activity was tried against human pathogenic bacteria and its cytotoxic effect in breast and lung cancer cell lines has been demonstrated in this study. Various instrumental techniques were adopted to characterize the synthesized Ag NPs viz. UV-Vis (Ultra violet), FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared), XRD (X-ray diffraction), DLS (Dynamic light scattering), HR TEM (High-resolution transmission electron microscopy), EDX (Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy). Surface plasmon spectra for Ag NPs are centered nearly at 438 nm with dark brown color. FTIR analysis revealed the presence of terpenes, phenol, flavonols and tannin act as effective reducing and capping agents for converting silver nitrate to Ag NPs. The synthesized Ag NPs were found to be spherical in shape with size in the range of 20-118 nm. Moreover, the synthesized Ag NPs showed potent antibacterial activity against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria and these biologically synthesized nanoparticles were also proved to exhibit excellent cytotoxic effect on breast and lung cancer cell lines.

  3. One-step separation of antioxidant compounds from Erythrina variegata by high speed counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qi; Yu, Jingang; Liao, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Peisen; Chen, Xiaoqing

    2015-01-01

    High speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) was used for separation and purification of antioxidant compounds from ethyl acetate fraction of the stem bark of Erythrina variegata. The optimal two-phase solvent system was composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (1:4:1:4, v/v/v/v). After one-step HSCCC separation, 75 mg of protocatechuic acid ( 1: ), 32 mg of chlorogenic acid ( 2: ) and 44 mg of caffeic acid ( 3: ) were purified from 420 mg of the ethyl acetate fraction. The purity of isolated compounds was determined up to 99.7% as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The chemical structures of the three compounds were confirmed by UV, HPLC-MS/MS and (1)H NMR. The IC50 values of scavenging DPPH free radical for the three compounds were 22.5, 41.9 and 20.9 μg/mL, respectively. Protocatechuic acid and chlorogenic acid were obtained from the stem bark of E. variegata for the first time. PMID:25209680

  4. Phytochemical Profile of Erythrina variegata by Using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy Analyses.

    PubMed

    Muthukrishnan, Suriyavathana; Palanisamy, Subha; Subramanian, Senthilkumar; Selvaraj, Sumathi; Mari, Kavitha Rani; Kuppulingam, Ramalingam

    2016-08-01

    Natural products derived from plant sources have been utilized to treat patients with numerous diseases. The phytochemical constituents present in ethanolic leaf extract of Erythrina variegata (ELEV) were identified by using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) analyses. Shade dried leaves were powdered and extracted with ethanol for analyses through HPLC to identify selected flavonoids and through GC-MS to identify other molecules. The HPLC analysis of ELEV showed the presence of gallic and caffeic acids as the major components at concentrations of 2.0 ppm and 0.1 ppm, respectively, as well as other components. GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of 3-eicosyne; 3,7,11,15-tetramethyl-2-hexadecen-1-ol; butanoic acid, 3-methyl-3,7-dimethyl-6-octenyl ester; phytol; 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, diundecyl ester; 1-octanol, 2-butyl-; squalene; and 2H-pyran, 2-(7-heptadecynyloxy) tetrahydro-derivative. Because pharmacopuncture is a new evolving natural mode that uses herbal extracts for treating patients with various ailments with minimum pain and maximum effect, the results of this study are particularly important and show that ELEV possesses a wide range of phytochemical constituents, as indicated above, as effective active principle molecules that can be used individually or in combination to treat patients with various diseases. PMID:27555226

  5. Synthesis of tetravalent LacNAc-glycoclusters as high-affinity cross-linker against Erythrina cristagalli agglutinin.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Makoto; Chuma, Yasushi; Yasumoto, Yoshinori; Onoda, Takashi; Umemura, Myco; Usui, Taichi; Park, Enoch Y

    2016-01-01

    Four kinds of tetravalent double-headed glycoclusters [(LacNAc)4-DHGs] were designed with linkers of varying lengths consisting of alkanedioic carboxyamido groups (C6, C12, C18 and C24) between two bi-antennary LacNAc-glycosides. These glycoclusters served as high-affinity cross-linking ligands for the LacNAc-binding lectin Erythrina cristagalli agglutinin (ECA). The binding activity and cross-linking between each ligand and ECA were characterized by a hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), a quantitative precipitation assay and dynamic light scattering (DLS). For the precipitation assay and DLS measurement, the synthesized (LacNAc)4-DHGs were found to be capable of binding and precipitating the ECA as multivalent ligands. ITC analysis indicated the binding of (LacNAc)4-DHGs was driven by a favorable enthalpy change. Furthermore, the entropy penalty from binding (LacNAc)4-DHGs clearly decreased in a spacer length-dependent manner. The binding affinities of flexible (LacNAc)4-DHGs (C18 and C24) with long spacers were found to be more favorable than those of the clusters having short spacers (C6 and C12). These results were supported by molecular dynamics simulations with explicit water molecules for the tetravalent glycoclusters with ECA. We concluded that the subtle modification in the epitope-presenting scaffolds exerts the significant effect in the recognition efficiency involved in the LacNAc moieties by ECA. PMID:26672510

  6. [KIM-1 and NGAL as potential biomarkers for the diagnosis and cancer progression].

    PubMed

    Marchewka, Zofia; Tacik, Aneta; Piwowar, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    On the basis of scientific literature, there is growing evidence that KIM-1 and NGAL are interesting and promising biomarkers not only in acute and chronic inflammatory processes but also in oncogenesis. There are a number of studies which investigate their possible use in diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of therapy effectiveness. The results of recent research suggests that they may play an important role in standard oncology practice. Simultaneous measurement of KIM-1 and NGAL in urine can play a crucial role in carcinogenesis assessment and cancer progression. In the future, they can become rapid diagnostic indicators, which allow one to determine cancer subtype leading to biopsy replacement and therapy improvement. In the present work, beside biochemical characteristics of KIM-1 and NGAL, we will also discuss their role in the diagnosis and assessment of development of cancer. PMID:27117109

  7. Kim model for flux-pinning-induced stress in a long cylindrical superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Jun; Wang, Xiaogui; Wu, Huaping; Xue, Feng; Zhu, Jun

    2016-07-01

    In this work, the flux-pinning-induced stress distribution in a circular cylinder of high-temperature superconductors is studied by adopting the Kim critical state model to describe the relationship between the magnetic flux density and induced current. Based on the plane strain approach, the analytic expressions of the radial and hoop stress in the cylinder are derived for the zero-field cooling and field cooling magnetization processes. It is shown that the stress distributions depend on the activation processes and the values of the dimensionless parameter p in the Kim model, and the overall maximums of the stresses appear at or near the center of the cylinder where cracking may be most likely initiated. In addition, the Kim model has wider applicability than the Bean model, and the influence of p on the stress depends on the activation process. Generally speaking, these results may be useful for understanding the magnetoelastic problem in practical application of bulk superconductors.

  8. Monocyte/macrophage-specific monoclonal antibody Ki-M1 recognizes interdigitating reticulum cells.

    PubMed Central

    Radzun, H. J.; Parwaresch, M. R.; Feller, A. C.; Hansmann, M. L.

    1984-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody, Ki-M1, was produced, and its immunoreactivity was tested by light and electron-microscopic immunohistochemistry. Ki-M1 was found to react with monocytes, cells of the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS), interdigitating reticulum cells (IDC), and the so-called indeterminate dendritic cells of lymphoid tissue. No reactivity was seen in other human tissues or other hematopoietic cells, including granulocytes and cells of the unstimulated promyelocyte cell line HL-60. Thus, Ki-M1 is the first of the monoclonal antibodies to MPS cells to react with both human IDC and MPS cells. This suggests that IDC and MPS cells may have a common cytogenesis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:6391190

  9. [The medical treatment of Kim Phúc at the BG Unfallklinik Ludwigshafen].

    PubMed

    Kiefer, J; Daigeler, A; Lehnhardt, M

    2012-08-01

    The Vietnam War was a military conflict in Vietnam during the Cold War that followed the First Indochina War. This war was fought between North Vietnam, supported by its communist allies, and the government of South Vietnam, supported by the USA and other anti-communist countries. Kim Phúc is the child depicted in the Pulitzer Prize winning photograph taken on June 8, 1972 by AP photographer Nick Út. The iconic photo shows her at about nine years of age running naked on a road amid the chaos after being severely burned by a napalm attack. After 14 months of hospital stay and 17 surgical procedures Kim Phúc was able to return home. Since then, she was used as a propaganda symbol by the communist government of Vietnam. To continue her studies, Kim was granted permission to move to Cuba where she met her future husband. However, the sequelae of her burn wounds affected her everyday life enormously. In 1984, with the support of the international aid organization "terre des hommes" and the German magazine "STERN", Kim Phúc got the opportunity to meet and get treated by Professor Zellner. Professor Peter Rudolph Zellner was the first chief of the Department of Hand, Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Burn Center, BG Trauma Center Ludwigshafen, and one of the founder members of the German Society of Plastic Surgeons. The reconstructive surgeries provide Kim Phúc an almost normal life. Later on, she was involved in international aid organizations; she was named a UNESCO Goodwill Ambassador and she was awarded several honorary Doctorates of Law. Kim Phúc became a Canadian citizen. Today, she lives with her husband and two children in Ontario, Canada. PMID:22618160

  10. Loran-C digital word generator for use with a KIM-1 microprocessor system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nickum, J. D.

    1977-01-01

    The problem of translating the time of occurrence of received Loran-C pulses into a time, referenced to a particular period of occurrence is addressed and applied to the design of a digital word generator for a Loran-C sensor processor package. The digital information from this word generator is processed in a KIM-1 microprocessor system which is based on the MOS 6502 CPU. This final system will consist of a complete time difference sensor processor for determining position information using Loran-C charts. The system consists of the KIM-1 microprocessor module, a 4K RAM memory board, a user interface, and the Loran-C word generator.

  11. Bionomics of Orasema simplex (Hymenoptera: Eucharitidae) a parasitoid of Solenopsis fire ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Argentina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biological characteristics of the parasitoid Orasema simplex Heraty (Hymenoptera: Eucharitidae), a potential candidate for the biological control of fire ants in the United States were investigated. Female survivorship, fertility and oviposition preferences were studied in the laboratory. Naturally ...

  12. Development of the Semi-implicit Time Integration in KIM-SH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    NAM, H.

    2015-12-01

    The Korea Institute of Atmospheric Prediction Systems (KIAPS) was founded in 2011 by the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) to develop Korea's own global Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) system as nine year (2011-2019) project. The KIM-SH is a KIAPS integrated model-spectral element based in the HOMME. In KIM-SH, the explicit schemes are employed. We introduce the three- and two-time-level semi-implicit scheme in KIM-SH as the time integration. Explicit schemes however have a tendancy to be unstable and require very small timesteps while semi-implicit schemes are very stable and can have much larger timesteps.We define the linear and reference values, then by definition of semi-implicit scheme, we apply the linear solver as GMRES. The numerical results from experiments will be introduced with the current development status of the time integration in KIM-SH. Several numerical examples are shown to confirm the efficiency and reliability of the proposed schemes.

  13. KIM 3: An Ultra-faint Star Cluster in the Constellation of Centaurus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dongwon; Jerjen, Helmut; Mackey, Dougal; Da Costa, Gary S.; Milone, Antonino P.

    2016-04-01

    We report the discovery of an ultra-faint star cluster in the constellation of Centaurus. This new stellar system, Kim 3, features a half-light radius of {r}h={2.29}-0.52+1.28 pc and a total luminosity of MV = +0.7 ± 0.3. Approximately 26 stars are identified as candidate member stars down to four magnitudes below the main-sequence turn-off, which makes Kim 3 the least luminous star cluster known to date. The compact physical size and extreme low luminosity place it close to faint star clusters in the size-luminosity plane. The stellar population of Kim 3 appears to be relatively young ({9.5}-1.7+3.0 Gyr) and metal-poor ([Fe/H]\\quad =\\quad -{1.6}-0.30+0.45) at a heliocentric distance of {15.14}-0.28+1.00 kpc. The cluster lacks a well-defined center, and a small but prominent group of stars consistent with the Kim 3 isochrone is present approximately 9.7 pc in projection south of the cluster center. Both are signs of the cluster being in the final stage of tidal disruption.

  14. A Misleading Review of Response Bias: Comment on McGrath, Mitchell, Kim, and Hough (2010)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohling, Martin L.; Larrabee, Glenn J.; Greiffenstein, Manfred F.; Ben-Porath, Yossef S.; Lees-Haley, Paul; Green, Paul; Greve, Kevin W.

    2011-01-01

    In the May 2010 issue of "Psychological Bulletin," R. E. McGrath, M. Mitchell, B. H. Kim, and L. Hough published an article entitled "Evidence for Response Bias as a Source of Error Variance in Applied Assessment" (pp. 450-470). They argued that response bias indicators used in a variety of settings typically have insufficient data to support such…

  15. The first clinical treatment with kilovoltage intrafraction monitoring (KIM): A real-time image guidance method

    SciTech Connect

    Keall, Paul J. O’Brien, Ricky; Huang, Chen-Yu; Aun Ng, Jin; Colvill, Emma; Rugaard Poulsen, Per; Fledelius, Walther; Juneja, Prabhjot; Booth, Jeremy T.; Simpson, Emma; Bell, Linda; Alfieri, Florencia; Eade, Thomas; Kneebone, Andrew

    2015-01-15

    Purpose: Kilovoltage intrafraction monitoring (KIM) is a real-time image guidance method that uses widely available radiotherapy technology, i.e., a gantry-mounted x-ray imager. The authors report on the geometric and dosimetric results of the first patient treatment using KIM which occurred on September 16, 2014. Methods: KIM uses current and prior 2D x-ray images to estimate the 3D target position during cancer radiotherapy treatment delivery. KIM software was written to process kilovoltage (kV) images streamed from a standard C-arm linear accelerator with a gantry-mounted kV x-ray imaging system. A 120° pretreatment kV imaging arc was acquired to build the patient-specific 2D to 3D motion correlation. The kV imager was activated during the megavoltage (MV) treatment, a dual arc VMAT prostate treatment, to estimate the 3D prostate position in real-time. All necessary ethics, legal, and regulatory requirements were met for this clinical study. The quality assurance processes were completed and peer reviewed. Results: During treatment, a prostate position offset of nearly 3 mm in the posterior direction was observed with KIM. This position offset did not trigger a gating event. After the treatment, the prostate motion was independently measured using kV/MV triangulation, resulting in a mean difference of less than 0.6 mm and standard deviation of less than 0.6 mm in each direction. The accuracy of the marker segmentation was visually assessed during and after treatment and found to be performing well. During treatment, there were no interruptions due to performance of the KIM software. Conclusions: For the first time, KIM has been used for real-time image guidance during cancer radiotherapy. The measured accuracy and precision were both submillimeter for the first treatment fraction. This clinical translational research milestone paves the way for the broad implementation of real-time image guidance to facilitate the detection and correction of geometric and

  16. High-resolution crystal structures of Erythrina cristagalli lectin in complex with lactose and 2'-alpha-L-fucosyllactose and correlation with thermodynamic binding data.

    PubMed

    Svensson, Cecilia; Teneberg, Susann; Nilsson, Carol L; Kjellberg, Anders; Schwarz, Frederick P; Sharon, Nathan; Krengel, Ute

    2002-08-01

    The primary sequence of Erythrina cristagalli lectin (ECL) was mapped by mass spectrometry, and the crystal structures of the lectin in complex with lactose and 2'-alpha-L-fucosyllactose were determined at 1.6A and 1.7A resolution, respectively. The two complexes were compared with the crystal structure of the closely related Erythrina corallodendron lectin (ECorL) in complex with lactose, with the crystal structure of the Ulex europaeus lectin II in complex with 2'-alpha-L-fucosyllactose, and with two modeled complexes of ECorL with 2'-alpha-L-fucosyl-N-acetyllactosamine. The molecular models are very similar to the crystal structure of ECL in complex with 2'-alpha-L-fucosyllactose with respect to the overall mode of binding, with the L-fucose fitting snugly into the cavity surrounded by Tyr106, Tyr108, Trp135 and Pro134 adjoining the primary combining site of the lectin. Marked differences were however noted between the models and the experimental structure in the network of hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions holding the L-fucose in the combining site of the lectin, pointing to limitations of the modeling approach. In addition to the structural characterization of the ECL complexes, an effort was undertaken to correlate the structural data with thermodynamic data obtained from microcalorimetry, revealing the importance of the water network in the lectin combining site for carbohydrate binding. PMID:12139934

  17. Ileal digestibility of amino acids of cassava, sweet potato, cocoyam and erythrina foliages fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Régnier, C; Jaguelin, Y; Noblet, J; Renaudeau, D

    2012-04-01

    Ileal digestibility in growing pigs fed starch-based diets with inclusion of four tropical leaves in a meal form was studied in a 5 × 5 Latin square design. Five diets were formulated with only casein as protein source in the basal diet (CAS), and casein plus dry cassava (CA) leaves, casein plus dry sweet potato (SP) leaves, casein plus dry cocoyam (CO) leaves and casein plus erythrina (ER) leaves in the other four diets. All diets contained the same amount of CP (14%), either provided by only CAS or a combination of casein and 250 g of leaf meal per kg of diet in the other diets. Leaves were separated manually from stems, and only the leaf part was used. A protein-free diet was fed during a sixth period in order to estimate the endogenous protein losses and calculate the CP- and amino-acid (AA)-standardized ileal digestibility (SID) values. The values for the foliages were calculated according to the difference method, assuming no interaction between the foliage and the casein. The ileal tract apparent digestibility of CP, organic matter and energy was higher in diet CAS than in the other diets (P < 0.05). The SID of CP and AA was close to 0.950 for casein, whereas the SID of AA was markedly lower in the foliages; the SID of indispensable and dispensable AA was highest in CO (0.500 and 0.352) and lowest in ER (0.170 and 0.195); intermediate values were obtained for SPs (0.367 and 0.349) and CA (0.232 and 0.242) leaves. Accordingly, the SID of lysine was highest (0.538) for CO leaves and lowest (0.126) in ER leaves; intermediate values were measured for CA and SP leaves. These low SID values in foliage meals must be related to the high levels of dietary fibre and the presence of secondary metabolites (tannins). These results suggest that it is only possible to replace a fraction of the conventional protein sources such as soyabean meal by tropical foliages in growing pig diets with a preference for CO leaves. PMID:22436274

  18. Kim model of stress induced by flux pinning in type-II superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yong, Hua-Dong; Zhou, You-He

    2008-06-01

    Magnetoelastic effects, which are caused by flux pinning in the superconductors, often induce fatal cracking of the bulk high temperature superconductors (HTS). In the present work, the Kim model is considered for the critical state in which the critical current density is assumed to depend on the flux density. Based on the plane strain approach, the analytic expression of the stress under the magnetic field is derived for a specimen having a slab geometry and infinitely along the other two directions. The stress field is obtained in the slab for the Kim model, and the stress behavior is discussed for two magnetization processes: the decreasing field and the field cooling. It is shown that the effects of the parameter p on the stress are related to the magnetization process. Compared to the Bean model, the results for the Kim model show the same trend with respect to the external field Ba during field cooling. Generally speaking, these results are of clear interest to experimentalists and to the successful application of bulk superconductors.

  19. Age estimation of an Indian population by using the Kim's scoring system of occlusal tooth wear

    PubMed Central

    Telang, Lahari A.; Patil, Karthikeya; Mahima, V. G.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Age is one of the prime factors employed to establish the identity of an individual and the use of teeth for this purpose has been considered reliable. Tooth wear is widely accepted as a physiological consequence of aging and evaluation of tooth wear can be a simple and convenient tool to estimate age in adults. Aims: The present study was conducted to record the degree of tooth wear among Indian adults and to estimate their ages from the degree of tooth wear based on Kim's scoring system. Materials and Methods: Dental stone casts of 120 participants were used to assess the degree of occlusal tooth wear based on the criteria given by Kim et al. Statistical Analysis Used: The age of all subjects was estimated based on these scores using multiple regression analysis function. Results: The degree of tooth wear showed a significant positive correlation with age in each and every examined tooth of both males and females. The predicted age was within ± 5 years of actual age in 70% of males and 68.3% females, and within ± 3 years of actual age in 50% of males and 50.1% of females. Conclusions: Kim's scoring system has proven to be a useful tool in estimation of age using occlusal wear in an Indian population with a high level of accuracy in adults. PMID:24695780

  20. A new species of Aximopsis sensu lato ashmead (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Eurytomidae) parasitic on Euglossa spp. (Hymenoptera: Apidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aximopsis masneri Gates, new species, (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Eurytomidae) is described and illustrated. This species was reared from field-collected nests of Euglossa sp. (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in the Neotropical region with additional label data indicating E. variabilis and E. cybelia as hosts...

  1. Hymenoptera allergens: from venom to "venome".

    PubMed

    Spillner, Edzard; Blank, Simon; Jakob, Thilo

    2014-01-01

    In Western Europe, Hymenoptera venom allergy (HVA) primarily relates to venoms of the honeybee and the common yellow jacket. In contrast to other allergen sources, only a few major components of Hymenoptera venoms had been characterized until recently. Improved expression systems and proteomic detection strategies have allowed the identification and characterization of a wide range of additional allergens. The field of HVA research has moved rapidly from focusing on venom extract and single major allergens to a molecular understanding of the entire "venome" as a system of unique and characteristic components. An increasing number of such components has been identified, characterized regarding function, and assessed for allergenic potential. Moreover, advanced expression strategies for recombinant production of venom allergens allow selective modification of molecules and provide insight into different types of immunoglobulin E reactivities and sensitization patterns. The obtained information contributes to an increased diagnostic precision in HVA and may serve for monitoring, re-evaluation, and improvement of current therapeutic strategies. PMID:24616722

  2. Fauna Europaea: Hymenoptera - Apocrita (excl. Ichneumonoidea).

    PubMed

    Mitroiu, Mircea-Dan; Noyes, John; Cetkovic, Aleksandar; Nonveiller, Guido; Radchenko, Alexander; Polaszek, Andrew; Ronquist, Fredrick; Forshage, Mattias; Pagliano, Guido; Gusenleitner, Josef; Bartalucci, Mario Boni; Olmi, Massimo; Fusu, Lucian; Madl, Michael; Johnson, Norman F; Jansta, Petr; Wahis, Raymond; Soon, Villu; Rosa, Paolo; Osten, Till; Barbier, Yvan; de Jong, Yde

    2015-01-01

    Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms) of all living European land and freshwater animals, their geographical distribution at country level (up to the Urals, excluding the Caucasus region), and some additional information. The Fauna Europaea project covers about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies. This represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard) reference suitable for many users in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. Hymenoptera is one of the four largest orders of insects, with about 130,000 described species. In the Fauna Europaea database, 'Hymenoptera - Apocrita (excluding Ichneumonoidea)' comprises 13 superfamilies, 52 families, 91 subfamilies, 38 tribes and 13,211 species. The paper includes a complete list of taxa dealt with, the number of species in each and the name of the specialist responsible for data acquisition. As a general conclusion about the European fauna of Hymenoptera, the best known countries in terms of recorded species are those from northwestern Europe, with the least known fauna probably in the more eastern and southeastern parts of Europe. PMID:25859127

  3. Comparative ultrastructure of ant spermatozoa (Formicidae: Hymenoptera).

    PubMed

    Wheeler, D E; Crichton, E G; Krutzsch, P H

    1990-12-01

    Mature spermatozoa from spermathecae of founding queens were obtained from 5 species of ants, representing the major subfamilies Myrmicinae (Acromyrmex versicolor, Crematogaster sp.) and Dolichoderinae (Tapinoma sessile, Conomyrma insana, Conomyrma wheeleri). The ultrastructure of ant spermatozoa has many features in common with that of higher insects and is similar to that of other Hymenoptera. Structural similarities to spermatozoa of other Hymenoptera include an acrosome containing an internal rod that extends into the nucleus, two elongate mitochondrial derivatives, a centriolar adjunct, and an axonemal arrangement of 9 + 9 + 2 that includes well-developed coarse, or accessory, tubules. Spermatozoa obtained from A. versicolor, a species that is known to store and utilize viable sperm from this supply for over 10 years, show greater development of the mitochondrial derivatives than do the other species. The most distinctive feature of ant spermatozoa in comparison to other Hymenoptera is the large size of the centriolar adjunct relative to the other organelles. The centriolar adjunct is located posterior to the nucleus, anterior to the mitochondrial derivatives, and opposite the axoneme. PMID:2280410

  4. Identifying and managing Hymenoptera venom allergy.

    PubMed

    Matron, Patricia Kane; Timms, Victoria; Fitzsimons, Roisin

    2016-05-25

    Hymenoptera venom allergy is an immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated hypersensitivity to the venom of insects from the Hymenoptera order and is a common cause of anaphylaxis. A diagnosis of venom allergy is made by taking an accurate medical, family and social history, alongside specific allergy testing. Systemic reactions to Hymenoptera venom occur in a small proportion of the population; these range from mild to life-threatening in severity. Treatment for local reactions involves the use of cold packs, antihistamines, analgesia and topical corticosteroids to help alleviate swelling, pain and pruritus. Venom immunotherapy is the treatment of choice for reducing the incidence of future anaphylactic reactions in individuals who have signs of respiratory obstruction or hypotension. Venom immunotherapy is the most effective treatment in reduction of life-threatening reactions to venom, and can improve quality of life for individuals. Treatment should only be provided by experienced staff who are able to provide emergency care for anaphylaxis and life-threatening episodes. A risk assessment to deliver treatment should be undertaken before treatment is commenced. PMID:27224630

  5. On the dynamics of Armbruster Guckenheimer Kim galactic potential in a rotating reference frame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elmandouh, A. A.

    2016-06-01

    In this article, we are interested in studying some dynamics aspects for the Armbruster Guckenheimer Kim galactic potential in a rotating reference frame. We introduce a non-integrability condition for this problem using Painlevé analysis. The equilibrium positions are given and their stability is studied. Furthermore, we prove the force resulting from the rotation of the reference frame can be used to stabilize the unstable maximum equilibrium positions. The periodic solutions near the equilibrium positions are constructed by applying Lyapunov method. The permitted region of motion is determined.

  6. Localization of polyamine enhancement of protein synthesis to subcellular components of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas sp. strain Kim.

    PubMed Central

    Rosano, C L; Bunce, S C; Hurwitz, C

    1983-01-01

    At 5 mM Mg2+, spermidine stimulation of polyphenylalanine synthesis by cell-free extracts of Escherichia coli was found to be about 30 times greater than that by extracts of Pseudomonas sp. strain Kim, a unique organism which lacks detectable levels of spermidine. By means of reconstitution experiments, the target of spermidine stimulation was localized to the protein fraction of the highspeed supernatant component (S-100) of E. coli and was absent from, or deficient in, the S-100 fraction of Pseudomonas sp. strain Kim. The spermidine stimulation did not appear to be due to the presence in the E. coli S-100 fraction of ribosomal protein S1, elongation factors, or E. coli aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. The failure to observe spermidine stimulation by the Pseudomonas sp. strain Kim S-100 fraction was also not due to a spermidine-enhanced polyuridylic acid degradation. The synthesis of polyphenylalanine by Pseudomonas sp. strain Kim extracts was stimulated by putrescine and by S-(+)-2-hydroxyputrescine to a greater degree than was synthesis by E. coli extracts. The enhancement by putrescine and by S-(+)-2-hydroxyputrescine with Pseudomonas sp. strain Kim extracts was found to be due to effects on its ribosomes. PMID:6336736

  7. Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera) species new to the fauna of Norway

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The present paper contains new distributional records for 61 species of ichneumon wasps (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae) previously unknown for Norway, six of them are reported from Scandinavia for the first time. PMID:24855440

  8. Combivena gen.n (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Acaenitinae) from China.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Mao-Ling; Sun, Shu-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Combivena Sheng & Sun, gen.n. and Combivena sulcata Sheng & Sun, sp.n. belonging to Acaenitinae of family Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera), collected from Qinghai Province, China, are described and illustrated. PMID:25347843

  9. Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera) species new to the fauna of Norway.

    PubMed

    Humala, Andrei E; Reshchikov, Alexey

    2014-01-01

    The present paper contains new distributional records for 61 species of ichneumon wasps (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae) previously unknown for Norway, six of them are reported from Scandinavia for the first time. PMID:24855440

  10. Social influence of a religious hero: the late Cardinal Stephen Kim Sou-hwan's effect on cornea donation and volunteerism.

    PubMed

    Bae, Hyuhn-Suhck; Brown, William J; Kang, Seok

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the mediated influence of a celebrated religious hero in South Korea, Cardinal Stephen Kim, through two forms of involvement--parasocial interaction and identification--on intention toward cornea donation and volunteerism, and it investigated how the news media diffused of his death. A structural equation modeling analysis with a Web-based voluntary survey of more than 1,200 people in South Korea revealed a multistep social influence process, beginning with parasocial interaction with Cardinal Kim, leading to identification with him, which predicted intention toward cornea donation and volunteerism. Additional investigations found that news of Cardinal Kim's death diffused rapidly through media and interpersonal communication. Results of this study demonstrate that religious leaders who achieve a celebrity hero status can prompt public discussion of important issues rather quickly through extensive media coverage, enabling them to promote prosocial behavior and positively affect public health. PMID:21086210

  11. Brittle-ductile shear zone formation in the McKim Limestone: eastern Monument Upwarp, Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyum, S.; Pollard, D. D.

    2011-12-01

    The McKim Limestone is part of a regressive, marine sedimentary sequence of strata that was deposited in the Pennsylvanian to Permian periods. It is well-exposed across large portions of Raplee anticline and Comb monocline; a pair of kilometer-scale folds that mark the Monument Upwarp of the Colorado Plateau in southeastern Utah. Two conjugate sets of echelon vein arrays, with complementary echelon pressure solution seam arrays, occur as bed-perpendicular, systematic deformation features in the 1-3 m thick McKim Limestone unit. Based on large vein to vein array angles, large vein aperture to length ratios, and the presence of vein-perpendicular pressure solution seams, these structures are interpreted to have developed within localized, brittle-ductile shear zones. Topics of debate among structural geologists regarding the formation mechanism of echelon veins include the initiation mode of vein segments (tensile or shear), the relative age between shear zone initiation and vein formation, the interpretation of strain within a shear zone, and the development of sigmoidal veins as being indicative of rotation. These concepts often are founded on geometric observations and kinematic models of deformation (e.g. simple shear) that are independent of the constitutive properties of the rock, are not constrained by the equations of motion, and do not honor the boundary conditions on the vein surfaces. Here we show a more realistic representation of brittle-ductile shear zone formation by introducing numerical models that consider the mechanical properties of limestone, are constrained by the equations of motion, and explicitly define the vein surfaces and their boundary conditions. The commercial finite element software, Abaqus FEA, is used to investigate the deformed geometry of model echelon vein arrays as a function of the remotely applied stress, the initial geometry of the vein arrays, and the constitutive properties of the solid. These geometric patterns are compared

  12. Background study of NaI(Tl) crystals for the KIMS-NaI experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, P.; Adhikari, G.; Choi, S.; Ha, C.; Hahn, I. S.; Jeon, EJ; Joo, H. W.; Kang, W. G.; Kim, H. J.; Kim, H. O.; Kim, K. W.; Kim, N. Y.; Kim, S. K.; Kim, Y. D.; Kim, Y. H.; Lee, H. S.; Lee, J. H.; Lee, M. H.; Leonard, D. S.; Li, J.; Oh, S. Y.; Olsen, S. L.; Park, H. K.; Park, H. S.; Park, K. S.; So, J. H.; Yoon, Y. S.

    2016-05-01

    The DAMA experiment has reported an annual-modulation signal in an array of low-background NaI(Tl) scintillating crystals that may be caused by WIMP-nucleon interactions. However, to date there has been no direct confirmation of this result that uses the same taget nuclides. The Korea Invisible Mass Search (KIMS) collaboration has been engaged in an extensive R&D program to grow ultra-low background NaI(Tl) crystals for use as a direct test of the DAMA result using same nuclide targets. Six crystals were grown from different powders in order to understand mechanisms of internal background contaminations and to reduce their effects. Studies of internal backgrounds in these crystals were performed with the ultimate goal of reducing internal background contamination levels to 1 dru at 2 keV.

  13. Synthesis of the Tetracyclic Framework of the Erythrina Alkaloids Using a [4+2]-Cycloaddition/Rh(I)-Catalyzed Cascade of 2-Imidofurans

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qiu

    2008-01-01

    Several 2-imido substituted furans were found to undergo a rapid intramolecular [4+2]-cycloaddition to deliver oxabicyclo adducts in good to excellent yields. By using a Rh(I)-catalyzed ring opening of the resulting oxabicyclic adduct, it was possible to prepare several highly functionalized tetrahydro-1H-indol-2(3H)-one derivatives which were then used to prepare several erythrina alkaloids. By taking advantage of the Rh(I)-catalyzed reaction, it was possible to convert tert-butyl 3-oxo-5-carbomethoxy-10-oxa-2-azatricyclo[5.2.1.01,5]dec-8-ene-2-carboxylate into the ring opened boronate by reaction with phenylboronic acid. Treatment of the boronate with pinacol/acetic acid afforded the corresponding diol which was used in a successful synthesis of racemic 3-demethoxyerythratidinone. During the course of these studies, several novel rearrangement reactions were encountered while attempting to induce an acid-initiated Pictet Spengler cyclization of a key lactam intermediate. The IMDAF/Rh(I)-catalyzed ring opening cascade sequence was also applied to the total synthesis of (±)-erysotramidine as well as the lycorine type alkaloid (±)-epi-zephyranthine. PMID:16958534

  14. "Sundiata, Lion King of Mali." Adapted by Kim Hines, Featuring Griot Alhaji Papa Susso, Cue Sheet for Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Aakhu TuahNera

    This performance guide is designed for teachers to use with students before and after a performance of "Sundiata: Lion King of Mali," adapted by Kim Hines and featuring Griot Alhaji Papa Susso. The guide, called a "Cuesheet," contains seven activity sheets for use in class, addressing: (1) Sundiata: Man & Myth (discusses the real man and the…

  15. Structural Equation Modeling Highlights the Potential of Kim-1 as a Biomarker for Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Gardiner, Lesley; Akintola, Adebayo; Chen, Gang; Catania, Jeffrey M.; Vaidya, Vishal; Burghardt, Robert C.; Bonventre, Joseph V.; Trzeciakowski, Jerome; Parrish, Alan R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major public health problem, and despite continued research in the field, there is still a need to identify both biomarkers of risk and progression, as well as potential therapeutic targets. Structural equation modeling (SEM) is a family of statistical techniques that has been utilized in the fields of sociology and psychology for many years; however, its utilization in the biological sciences is relatively novel. SEM's ability to investigate complex relationships in an efficient, single model could be utilized to understand the progression of CKD, as well as to develop a predictive model to assess kidney status in the patient. Methods Fischer 344 rats were fed either an ad libitum diet or a calorically restricted diet, and a time-course study of kidney structure and function was performed. EQS, a SEM software package, was utilized to generate five CKD models of the Fisher 344 rat and identify relationships between measured variables and estimates of kidney damage and kidney function. Results All models identified strong relationships between a biomarker for CKD, kidney injury molecule-1 (Kim-1) and kidney damage, in the Fischer 344 rat CKD model. Models also indicate a strong relationship between age and renal damage and dysfunction. Conclusion SEM can be used to model CKD and could be useful to examine biomarkers in CKD patients. PMID:22269876

  16. Lactobacillus curvatus WiKim38 isolated from kimchi induces IL-10 production in dendritic cells and alleviates DSS-induced colitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Jo, Sung-Gang; Noh, Eui-Jeong; Lee, Jun-Young; Kim, Green; Choi, Joo-Hee; Lee, Mo-Eun; Song, Jung-Hee; Chang, Ji-Yoon; Park, Jong-Hwan

    2016-07-01

    Probiotics such as lactobacilli and bifidobacteria have healthpromoting effects by immune modulation. In the present study, we examined the immunomodulatory properties of Lactobacillus curvatus WiKim38, which was newly isolated from baechu (Chinese cabbage) kimchi. The ability of L. curvatus WiKim38 to induce cytokine production in bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. To evaluate the molecular mechanisms underlying L. curvatus Wikim38-mediated IL-10 production, Western blot analyses and inhibitor assays were performed. Moreover, the in vivo anti-inflammatory effects of L. curvatus WiKim38 were examined in a dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis mouse model. L. curvatus WiKim38 induced significantly higher levels of IL-10 in BMDCs compared with that induced by LPS. NF-κB and ERK were activated by L. curvatus WiKim38, and an inhibitor assay revealed that these pathways were required for L. curvatus WiKim38-induced production of IL-10 in BMDCs. An in vivo experiment showed that oral administration of L. curvatus WiKim38 increased the survival rate of mice with DSS-induced colitis and improved clinical signs and histopathological severity in colon tissues. Taken together, these results indicate that L. curvatus Wikim38 may have health-promoting effects via immune modulation, and may thus be applicable for therapy of various inflammatory diseases. PMID:27350616

  17. Hymenoptera Allergy and Mast Cell Activation Syndromes.

    PubMed

    Bonadonna, Patrizia; Bonifacio, Massimiliano; Lombardo, Carla; Zanotti, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    Mast cell activation syndrome (MCAS) can be diagnosed in patients with recurrent, severe symptoms from mast cell (MC)-derived mediators, which are transiently increased in serum and are attenuated by mediator-targeting drugs. When KIT-mutated, clonal MC are detected in these patients, a diagnosis of primary MCAS can be made. Severe systemic reactions to hymenoptera venom (HV) represent the most common form of anaphylaxis in patients with mastocytosis. Patients with primary MCAS and HV anaphylaxis are predominantly males and do not have skin lesions in the majority of cases, and anaphylaxis is characterized by hypotension and syncope in the absence of urticaria and angioedema. A normal value of tryptase (≤11.4 ng/ml) in these patients does not exclude a diagnosis of mastocytosis. Patients with primary MCAS and HV anaphylaxis have to undergo lifelong venom immunotherapy, in order to prevent further potentially fatal severe reactions. PMID:26714690

  18. Catalogue of the Iranian Microgastrinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    PubMed

    Gadallah, Neveen S; Ghahari, Hassan; Peris-Felipo, Francisco Javier

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the Iranian Microgastrinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) fauna is summarized. It is based on a detailed study of all available published data and new material collected. In total 99 species belonging to 8 genera are from Iran: Apanteles Förster, 1862 (36 species), Cotesia Cameron, 1891 (34 species), Deuterixys Mason, 1981 (1 species), Diolcogaster Ashmead, 1900 (4 species), Microgaster Latreille, 1804 (4 species), Microplitis Förster, 1862 (11 species), Pholesetor Mason, 1981 (4 species) and Protapanteles Ashmead, 1898 (5 species) in 4 tribes (Apantilini, Cotesiini, Microgastrini and Microplitini). A faunistic list with distribution data, and host records are given. Four species are new records for the fauna of Iran: Apanteles brunnistigma Abdinbekova, 1969, A. ingenuoides Papp, 1971, Microplitis decipiens Prell, 1925 and M. marshallii Kokujev, 1898. PMID:26624699

  19. Subforaminal bridges in Hymenoptera (Insecta), with a focus on Chalcidoidea.

    PubMed

    Burks, R A; Heraty, J M

    2015-03-01

    Variation in structures of the posterior surface of the head in Hymenoptera is compared and interpreted according to theories of head capsule evolution, with focus on understanding previously baffling conditions in the superfamily Chalcidoidea. Features are investigated separately without first classifying subforaminal bridges into subcategories. In Proctotrupomorpha (including Chalcidoidea), Ceraphronoidea and some Ichneumonoidea, there are multiple posterior pits associated with the tentorium. In most examined Hymenoptera with a subforaminal bridge, there was a differentiated median area, typically with highly variable microtrichia. This area is elevated in Cephoidea and Pamphilioidea, but is not elevated in other Hymenoptera. Subforaminal bridges in Apocrita previously classified as hypostomal bridges are discussed in the context of A.P. Rasnitsyn's hypothesis that relative importance of adult feeding drives subforaminal bridge evolution. PMID:25579204

  20. A Gross Anatomy Ontology for Hymenoptera

    PubMed Central

    Yoder, Matthew J.; Mikó, István; Seltmann, Katja C.; Bertone, Matthew A.; Deans, Andrew R.

    2010-01-01

    Hymenoptera is an extraordinarily diverse lineage, both in terms of species numbers and morphotypes, that includes sawflies, bees, wasps, and ants. These organisms serve critical roles as herbivores, predators, parasitoids, and pollinators, with several species functioning as models for agricultural, behavioral, and genomic research. The collective anatomical knowledge of these insects, however, has been described or referred to by labels derived from numerous, partially overlapping lexicons. The resulting corpus of information—millions of statements about hymenopteran phenotypes—remains inaccessible due to language discrepancies. The Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology (HAO) was developed to surmount this challenge and to aid future communication related to hymenopteran anatomy. The HAO was built using newly developed interfaces within mx, a Web-based, open source software package, that enables collaborators to simultaneously contribute to an ontology. Over twenty people contributed to the development of this ontology by adding terms, genus differentia, references, images, relationships, and annotations. The database interface returns an Open Biomedical Ontology (OBO) formatted version of the ontology and includes mechanisms for extracting candidate data and for publishing a searchable ontology to the Web. The application tools are subject-agnostic and may be used by others initiating and developing ontologies. The present core HAO data constitute 2,111 concepts, 6,977 terms (labels for concepts), 3,152 relations, 4,361 sensus (links between terms, concepts, and references) and over 6,000 text and graphical annotations. The HAO is rooted with the Common Anatomy Reference Ontology (CARO), in order to facilitate interoperability with and future alignment to other anatomy ontologies, and is available through the OBO Foundry ontology repository and BioPortal. The HAO provides a foundation through which connections between genomic, evolutionary developmental biology

  1. Evaluation of medium-range weather forecasts about Korea Institute of Atmospheric Prediction Systems (KIAPS) Integrated Model System (KIM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J.; Seol, K. H.

    2015-12-01

    The Korea Institute of Atmospheric Prediction Systems (KIAPS) is a government funded non-profit research and development institute located in Seoul, South Korea. KIAPS was established in 2011 by the Korea Meteorological Administration, KIAPS' primary sponsor. KIAPS is developing the KIAPS Integrated Model System (KIM), a backbone for the next-generation operational global numerical weather prediction (NWP) system. The KIM will be a unified model that can be used for global modeling as well as local areas, particularly optimized to topographic and meteorological features of the Korean Peninsula. We have been completed developing major model components based on KIAPS own research and release the KIAPS beta version model on September 2014. We evaluated the results of KIM by using verification system developed KIAPS, it is composed of standard verification score based on WMO report. The system consists of four parts: verification against analysis, observations, vertical verification and quantitative precipitation forecasts. The results of verification against analysis, we found that increase of error for temperature under 700 hPa. In case of MSLP, poor performance except for tropical region is represented, and the increase of error for geopotential height is shown in tropical region. For verification against observations, positive bias is represented for upper level geopotential height, for low level wind speed in tropical region in summer, for all level wind speed in Northern Hemisphere in winter, and for specific humidity in Northern Hemisphere in summer. As previously stated about the result against analysis, cold bias for low level temperature is shown in Northern Hemisphere in summer. In case of verification for rain about KIM, the model value is underestimated in heavy rain category in summer, on the contrary, that is overestimated in heavy rain category in winter. Overall, there is overestimation in ocean for all models. Our findings indicate that continuing

  2. The Wing Apparatus and Flapping Behavior of Hymenoptera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudo, Seiichi; Tsuyuki, Koji; Ito, Yoshiyasu; Tani, Junji

    The wing apparatus of Hymenoptera was observed with a scanning electron microscope, and the structure and function of insect wings were studied. The measurements of displacement of extrinsic skeleton vibration produced by wing flapping of a wasp were made by an optical displacement detector system. The free flight of the wasp was analyzed by a three dimensional motion analysis system. The results of a series of measurements revealed the flight characteristics of Hymenoptera, such as the wing tip velocity, wing path, wave form of extrinsic skeleton vibration, and so forth.

  3. Natural history of interaction between Meteorus sp. Haliday, 1835 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and its hyperparasitoid Toxeumella albipes Girault, 1913 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    PubMed

    Sobczak, J F; Maia, D P; Moura, J C M S; Costa, V A; Vasconcellos-Neto, J

    2012-02-01

    Some parasitoids build a cocoon mass that hangs in the host body until the adults emergence, which is an advantage against attack by predators who troll the vegetation in search of prey. However, such behaviour is not effective against the hyperparasitoid attacks. This study reports the interaction between the caterpillar Manduca sexta Linnaeus, 1763 (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae) parasitised by Meteorus sp. (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) larvae and its hyperparasitoid Toxeumella albipes (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae). This is the first description of the attack and oviposition of T. albipes. PMID:22437404

  4. The Key Indicator Method for Manual Handling Operations (KIM-MHO) - evaluation of a new method for the assessment of working conditions within a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Upper extremity musculoskeletal symptoms and disorders are common in the working population. The economic and social impact of such disorders is considerable. Long-time, dynamic repetitive exposure of the hand-arm system during manual handling operations (MHO) alone or in combination with static and postural effort are recognised as causes of musculoskeletal symptoms and disorders. The assessment of these manual work tasks is crucial to estimate health risks of exposed employees. For these work tasks, a new method for the assessment of the working conditions was developed by the Federal Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (BAuA) and released as a draft in the year 2007. The draft of the so-called Key Indicator Method for Manual Handling Operations (KIM-MHO) was developed in analogy with the existing KIM for Lifting/Holding/Carrying (KIM-LHC) and Pulling/Pushing (KIM-PP) of loads. The KIM-MHO is designed to fill the gap existing in risk assessment of manual work processes, since the existing KIMs deal only with manual handling of loads. This research project focused on the following: - Examination of the validity of workplace assessment with the KIM-MHO comparing expert ratings with the results of the observations. - Examination of the objectivity of workplace assessment with the KIM-MHO applied by different examiners. - Examination of the criterion validity of the risk assessment provided by KIM-MHO with respect to the association between exposure and the occurrence and prevalence of health related outcomes. Methods/Design To determine the objectivity and validity of workplace assessment, the KIM-MHO is applied by occupational health and safety officers at different workplaces involving manual handling operations. To determine the criterion validity of risk assessment, a survey of employees at different workplaces takes place with standardised questionnaires and interviews about symptoms in the neck and upper extremities. In addition, physical

  5. Larvicidal, ovicidal, and adulticidal efficacy of Erythrina indica (Lam.) (Family: Fabaceae) against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Sivakumar, Rajamohan

    2014-02-01

    Mosquitoes are the major vector for the transmission of malaria, dengue fever, yellow fever, filariasis, schistosomiasis, and Japanese encephalitis. Mosquito control is facing a threat because of the emergence of resistance to synthetic insecticides. Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. In view of the recently increased interest in developing plant origin insecticides as an alternative to chemical insecticide, this study was undertaken to assess the larvicidal, ovicidal, and adulticidal potential of the crude hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol solvent extracts from the medicinal plant Erythrina indica against the medically important mosquito vectors, Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. All extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in methanol extract of leaf of E. indica against the larvae of A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus with the LC50 and LC90 values of 69.43, 75.13, and 91.41 ppm and 125.49, 134.31, and 167.14 ppm, respectively. The mean percent hatchability of the eggs was observed after 48 h post treatment. The percent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. All the five solvent extracts showed moderate ovicidal activity; however, the methanol extract showed the highest ovicidal activity. The methanol extract of E. indica against A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus exerted 100 % mortality (zero hatchability) at 150, 200, and 250 ppm, respectively. Control eggs showed above 99.3-100 % hatchability. The adult mortality was observed after 24 h recovery period. The plant crude extracts showed dose-dependent mortality. At higher concentrations, the adult showed restless movement for some times with abnormal wagging and

  6. A phylogenetic analysis of the megadiverse Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera) are extremely diverse with an estimated 500,000 species. We present the first phylogenetic analysis of the superfamily based on a cladistic analysis of both morphological and molecular data. A total of 233 morphological characters were scored for 300 taxa and 265 genera, a...

  7. Thermoperiodism synchronizes emergence in the alfalfa leafcutting bee (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa seed production in the northwestern United States and western Canada is heavily dependent upon the pollinating services of M. rotundata (F.) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). Megachile rotundata females nest in cavities either naturally occurring or in artificial nesting blocks. Because of the ph...

  8. A review of Trachusoides Michener and Griswold (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although Megachile (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) are well-known for their diverse nesting habits, records of the genus nesting in live plants are rare and unknown in the North America. Here, we report the widespread Megachile (Megachile) montivaga Cresson, 1878 nesting in live thistle (Cirsium neomexi...

  9. New records of Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera) for the Italian fauna.

    PubMed

    Di Giovanni, Filippo; Reshchikov, Alexey; Riedel, Matthias; Diller, Erich; Schwarz, Martin

    2015-01-01

    New distributional records on 55 ichneumonids (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae) from Italy are provided. Of these, 47 species are new for Italy, including representatives of the subfamily Diacritinae and of the tribes Zimmeriini (Ichneumoninae) and Pseudorhyssini (Poemeniinae); six species are new for Sardinia, one for Sicily and one for the Italian mainland. The hitherto unknown female of Baranisobashibericus Heinrich, 1972 (Ichneumoninae) is described. PMID:26175609

  10. Geographic spread of Strumigenys silvestrii (Hymenoptera: formicidae: dacetine)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Strumigenys silvestrii is a tiny dacetine ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Dacetini), apparently from South America, that has spread to the southern US and the West Indies. Strumigenys silvestrii has recently been found for the first time in the Old World, from the island of Madeira, mainland Portugal,...

  11. Cardiochilinae and Ichneutinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) of Konza Prairie

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The results of a survey of Cardiochilinae and Ichneutinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) at Konza Prairie near Manhattan, Kansas are reported. Eleven sites representing prairie and woodland/wetland areas, including gallery forest, were sampled in 2001 and 2005 using Malaise traps and a canopy trap. Selec...

  12. Aphanogmus sp. (Hymenoptera: Ceraphronidae): a hyperparasitoid of the coffee berry borer parasitoid Prorops nasuta (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) in Kenya

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is the first report of a hyperparasitod of the primary parasitoid of the coffee berry borer Prorops nasuta Waterston (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae). Aphanogmus sp is a gregarious ectoparasitoid of larval and pupal stages of P. nasuta, which was found in coffee berry samples collected on the ground o...

  13. Brain plasticity in Diptera and Hymenoptera

    PubMed Central

    Groh, Claudia; Meinertzhagen, Ian A.

    2010-01-01

    To mediate different types of behaviour, nervous systems must coordinate the proper operation of their neural circuits as well as short- and long-term alterations that occur within those circuits. The latter ultimately devolve upon specific changes in neuronal structures, membrane properties and synaptic connections that are all examples of plasticity. This reorganization of the adult nervous system is shaped by internal and external influences both during development and adult maturation. In adults, behavioural experience is a major driving force of neuronal plasticity studied particularly in sensory systems. The range of adaptation depends on features that are important to a particular species, so that learning is essential for foraging in honeybees, while regenerative capacities are important in hemimetabolous insects with long appendages. Experience is usually effective during a critical period in early adult life, when neural function becomes tuned to future conditions in an insect's life. Changes occur at all levels, in synaptic circuits, neuropile volumes, and behaviour. There are many examples, and this review incorporates only a select few, mainly those from Diptera and Hymenoptera. PMID:20036946

  14. A Molecular Phylogeny of the Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Munro, James B.; Heraty, John M.; Burks, Roger A.; Hawks, David; Mottern, Jason; Cruaud, Astrid; Rasplus, Jean-Yves; Jansta, Petr

    2011-01-01

    Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera) are extremely diverse with more than 23,000 species described and over 500,000 species estimated to exist. This is the first comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the superfamily based on a molecular analysis of 18S and 28S ribosomal gene regions for 19 families, 72 subfamilies, 343 genera and 649 species. The 56 outgroups are comprised of Ceraphronoidea and most proctotrupomorph families, including Mymarommatidae. Data alignment and the impact of ambiguous regions are explored using a secondary structure analysis and automated (MAFFT) alignments of the core and pairing regions and regions of ambiguous alignment. Both likelihood and parsimony approaches are used to analyze the data. Overall there is no impact of alignment method, and few but substantial differences between likelihood and parsimony approaches. Monophyly of Chalcidoidea and a sister group relationship between Mymaridae and the remaining Chalcidoidea is strongly supported in all analyses. Either Mymarommatoidea or Diaprioidea are the sister group of Chalcidoidea depending on the analysis. Likelihood analyses place Rotoitidae as the sister group of the remaining Chalcidoidea after Mymaridae, whereas parsimony nests them within Chalcidoidea. Some traditional family groups are supported as monophyletic (Agaonidae, Eucharitidae, Encyrtidae, Eulophidae, Leucospidae, Mymaridae, Ormyridae, Signiphoridae, Tanaostigmatidae and Trichogrammatidae). Several other families are paraphyletic (Perilampidae) or polyphyletic (Aphelinidae, Chalcididae, Eupelmidae, Eurytomidae, Pteromalidae, Tetracampidae and Torymidae). Evolutionary scenarios discussed for Chalcidoidea include the evolution of phytophagy, egg parasitism, sternorrhynchan parasitism, hypermetamorphic development and heteronomy. PMID:22087244

  15. Power over reproduction in social hymenoptera.

    PubMed Central

    Beekman, Madeleine; Ratnieks, Francis L W

    2003-01-01

    Inclusive fitness theory has been very successful in predicting and explaining much of the observed variation in the reproductive characteristics of insect societies. For example, the theory correctly predicts sex-ratio biasing by workers in relation to the queen's mating frequency. However, within an insect society there are typically multiple reproductive optima, each corresponding to the interest of different individual(s) or parties of interest. When multiple optima occur, which party's interests prevail? Presumably, the interests of the party with the greatest 'power'; the ability to do or act. This article focuses on factors that influence power over colony reproduction. In particular, we seek to identify the principles that may cause different parties of interest to have greater or lesser power. In doing this, we discuss power from two different angles. On the one hand, we discuss general factors based upon non-idiosyncratic biological features (e.g. information, access to and ability to process food) that are likely to be important to all social Hymenoptera. On the other hand, we discuss idiosyncratic factors that depend upon the biology of a taxon at any hierarchical level. We propose that a better understanding of the diversity of reproductive characteristics of insect societies will come from combining inclusive fitness theory with a wide range of other factors that affect relative power in a conflict situation. PMID:14561330

  16. A hymenopterist’s guide to the Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology: utility, clarification, and future directions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hymenoptera exhibit an incredible diversity of phenotypes, the result of ~240 million years of evolution and the primary subject of more than 250 years of research. Here we describe the history, development, and utility of the Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology (HAO) and its associated applications. These...

  17. A Density Functional Approach to Polarizable Models: A Kim-Gordon-Response Density Interaction Potential for Molecular Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Tabacchi, G; Hutter, J; Mundy, C

    2005-04-07

    A combined linear response--frozen electron density model has been implemented in a molecular dynamics scheme derived from an extended Lagrangian formalism. This approach is based on a partition of the electronic charge distribution into a frozen region described by Kim-Gordon theory, and a response contribution determined by the instaneous ionic configuration of the system. The method is free from empirical pair-potentials and the parameterization protocol involves only calculations on properly chosen subsystems. They apply this method to a series of alkali halides in different physical phases and are able to reproduce experimental structural and thermodynamic properties with an accuracy comparable to Kohn-Sham density functional calculations.

  18. Commentary on Kim et al., Effects of therapeutic relationship, expectancy, and credibility in breathing therapies for anxiety.

    PubMed

    Cuyler, Robert N

    2015-01-01

    Kim and colleagues (2015) explored influences on clinical outcomes related to nonspecific therapeutic factors, addressing the importance of client expectancy and development of the therapeutic alliance. In the process, however, the authors carry forward conclusions from their prior research on treatment of panic that two opposing breathing retraining protocols are equally effective. Neither the experimental design nor the sample size of the current or previous study warrants reaching those conclusions. This commentary examines the findings of the current and previous studies and points to consistent trends that suggest that breathing retraining of panic patients may be enhanced by protocols aimed at raising exhaled CO2. PMID:26682831

  19. Expression of kidney injury molecule-1 (Kim-1) in relation to necrosis and apoptosis during the early stages of Cd-induced proximal tubule injury

    SciTech Connect

    Prozialeck, Walter C. Edwards, Joshua R.; Lamar, Peter C.; Liu, Jie; Vaidya, Vishal S.; Bonventre, Joseph V.

    2009-08-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a nephrotoxic industrial and environmental pollutant that causes a generalized dysfunction of the proximal tubule. Kim-1 is a transmembrane glycoprotein that is normally not detectable in non-injured kidney, but is up-regulated and shed into the urine during the early stages of Cd-induced proximal tubule injury. The objective of the present study was to examine the relationship between the Cd-induced increase in Kim-1 expression and the onset of necrotic and apoptotic cell death in the proximal tubule. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with 0.6 mg (5.36 {mu}mol) Cd/kg, subcutaneously, 5 days per week for up to 12 weeks. Urine samples were analyzed for levels of Kim-1 and the enzymatic markers of cell death, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and alpha-glutathione-S-transferase ({alpha}-GST). In addition, necrotic cells were specifically labeled by perfusing the kidneys in situ with ethidium homodimer using a procedure that has been recently developed and validated in the Prozialeck laboratory. Cryosections of the kidneys were also processed for the immunofluorescent visualization of Kim-1 and the identification of apoptotic cells by TUNEL labeling. Results showed that significant levels of Kim-1 began to appear in the urine after 6 weeks of Cd treatment, whereas the levels of total protein, {alpha}-GST and LDH were not increased until 8-12 weeks. Results of immunofluorescence labeling studies showed that after 6 weeks and 12 weeks, Kim-1 was expressed in the epithelial cells of the proximal tubule, but that there was no increase in the number of necrotic cells, and only a modest increase in the number of apoptotic cells at 12 weeks. These results indicate that the Cd-induced increase in Kim-1 expression occurs before the onset of necrosis and at a point where there is only a modest level of apoptosis in the proximal tubule.

  20. Aldosterone induces NRK-52E cell apoptosis in acute kidney injury via rno-miR-203 hypermethylation and Kim-1 upregulation

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Xiangcheng; Tang, Rong; Zhou, Xiao; Peng, Ling; Yu, Pingping

    2016-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is characterized by an acute reduction in kidney function as identified by an increase in serum creatinine levels and reduction in urine output. Kidney injury molecule-1 (Kim-1) is a hallmark of kidney diseases, since it is typically non-detectable in the non-injured kidney, but upregulated and excreted in the urine during AKI. Aldosterone (Aldo) is a mediator of the renin-angiotensin-Aldo system with a pivotal role in the regulation of salt and extracellular fluid metabolism. In the present study, mice subjected to renal ischemia/reperfusion-induced AKI were investigated. The mice exhibited elevated levels of Aldo and angiotensin II, together with increased Kim-1 expression levels in renal tissue. Treatment of the mice with the Aldo receptor antagonist spironolactone decreased Kim-1 expression levels. These results suggest that Aldo may be associated with the expression of Kim-1 during AKI. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the role of Aldo in Kim-1 expression is unclear, and thus was investigated using NRK-52E cells. Aldo was found to induce the apoptosis of NRK-52E cells via the hypermethylation of rno-microRNA (miR)-203 and upregulation of Kim-1. In addition, luciferase reporter assays demonstrated that Kim-1 was a target gene of rno-miR-203 in NRK-52E cells. Furthermore, Aldo-induced NRK-52E cell apoptosis was reduced by treatment with pre-miR-203 and spironolactone to a greater extent when compared with either alone. The results may provide a promising diagnostic marker or novel therapeutic target for AKI. PMID:27446296

  1. Oxidative Dearomatization of 4,5,6,7-Tetrahydro-1H-indoles Obtained by Metal- and Solvent-Free Thermal 5-endo-dig Cyclization: The Route to Erythrina and Lycorine Alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Andreev, Ivan A; Ratmanova, Nina K; Novoselov, Anton M; Belov, Dmitry S; Seregina, Irina F; Kurkin, Alexander V

    2016-05-17

    A facile one-pot approach based on a thermally induced metal- and solvent-free 5-endo-dig cyclization reaction of the amino propargylic alcohols in combination with Dess-Martin periodinane-promoted oxidative dearomatization of 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroindole intermediates provides an efficient and robust access to 5,6-dihydro-1H-indol-2(4H)ones. Green, relatively mild and operationally simple characteristics of the synthetic sequence are the major advantages, which greatly amplify the developed methodology. The utility of obtained indolones as unified key precursors is demonstrated by the application of these products to the formal total syntheses of a whole pleiad of Erythrina- and Lycorine-type alkaloids, namely (±)-erysotramidine, (±)-erysotrine, (±)-erythravine, (±)-γ-lycorane, and abnormal erythrinanes (±)-coccoline and (±)-coccuvinine. PMID:27076115

  2. Urinary KIM-1, NGAL and L-FABP for the diagnosis of AKI in patients with acute coronary syndrome or heart failure undergoing coronary angiography.

    PubMed

    Torregrosa, Isidro; Montoliu, Carmina; Urios, Amparo; Andrés-Costa, María Jesús; Giménez-Garzó, Carla; Juan, Isabel; Puchades, María Jesús; Blasco, María Luisa; Carratalá, Arturo; Sanjuán, Rafael; Miguel, Alfonso

    2015-11-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication after coronary angiography. Early biomarkers of this disease are needed since increase in serum creatinine levels is a late marker. To assess the usefulness of urinary kidney injury molecule-1 (uKIM-1), neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (uNGAL) and liver-type fatty acid-binding protein (uL-FABP) for early detection of AKI in these patients, comparing their performance with another group of cardiac surgery patients. Biomarkers were measured in 193 patients, 12 h after intervention. In the ROC analysis, AUC for KIM-1, NGAL and L-FABP was 0.713, 0.958 and 0.642, respectively, in the coronary angiography group, and 0.716, 0.916 and 0.743 in the cardiac surgery group. Urinary KIM-1 12 h after intervention is predictive of AKI in adult patients undergoing coronary angiography, but NGAL shows higher sensitivity and specificity. L-FABP provides inferior discrimination for AKI than KIM-1 or NGAL in contrast to its performance after cardiac surgery. This is the first study showing the predictive capacity of KIM-1 for AKI after coronary angiography. Further studies are still needed to answer relevant questions about the clinical utility of biomarkers for AKI in different clinical settings. PMID:24989970

  3. New tools in Germany: development and appliance of the first two KIM ("lifting, holding and carrying" and "pulling and pushing") and practical use of these methods.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Ulf

    2012-01-01

    The Key Indicator Methods (KIM) assess the risk of manual handling of loads on a screening level. Their purpose is the recognition and removal of job design deficits. The risk assessment is carried out in two stages. The first stage is the ordinal scaled description of workload items. The second stage is the evaluation of the degree of probability of physical overload. The intended user population are both practitioners in enterprises such as safety engineers, industrial engineers, and inspectors. The first two KIM were developed and tested from 1996 to 2001 in connection with the implementation of the EU directives into German national legislation. They consist of two independent, but formally adaptable methods for lifting, holding, and carrying and for pulling, and pushing. The KIM were drafted in the German Federal Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (BAuA) in close collaboration with the German Labour Inspectors. Numerous companies, scientists, statutory accident insurances, institutions, employer associations, and trade unions were involved. Since their first publication in 2000 and 2001, these methods are widely accepted among possible users with a corresponding broad application in Germany. They are recommended by the EU Labour Inspector Conference for application. In 2007 a third KIM for manual handling operating tasks KIM MHO were developed, tested, and validated in the last four years. PMID:22317333

  4. Allometric ecological distributions in a local community of Hymenoptera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulrich, Werner

    2004-05-01

    The present paper describes basic ecological distributions in a community of beech forest Hymenoptera. It shows that the species diversity-body weight and the density-body weight distributions give rise to a new distribution that relates total community biomass to species diversity. For Hymenoptera this distribution follows a power function with a slope of 1.3. Combining this relation with the species-area and the individuals-area relations resulted in two other distributions that relate community biomass to area and individual numbers. It appeared that population densities decrease when computed over larger areas. The biomass-species diversity relation offers a new and simple way to estimate total community biomass from samples. The possible implications of this distribution to the productivity-diversity debate are discussed.

  5. New records of Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera) for the Italian fauna

    PubMed Central

    Riedel, Matthias; Diller, Erich; Schwarz, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract New distributional records on 55 ichneumonids (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae) from Italy are provided. Of these, 47 species are new for Italy, including representatives of the subfamily Diacritinae and of the tribes Zimmeriini (Ichneumoninae) and Pseudorhyssini (Poemeniinae); six species are new for Sardinia, one for Sicily and one for the Italian mainland. The hitherto unknown female of Baranisobas hibericus Heinrich, 1972 (Ichneumoninae) is described. PMID:26175609

  6. Management of hymenoptera sting anaphylaxis: a preventive medicine survey.

    PubMed

    McDougle, L; Klein, G L; Hoehler, F K

    1995-01-01

    The evaluation of aftercare instructions given to patients suffering from hymenoptera sting anaphylaxis was the objective of the study. Part of this evaluation included asking the physicians questions to examine the knowledge on which they based their aftercare instructions. Survey questionnaires were completed by 124 of 174 (71%) physicians who worked in an emergency department or urgent care center. Fifty-eight percent of the physicians never provided written avoidance instructions, 24% provided or prescribed anaphylaxis ID bracelets, 44% referred all of their patients to an allergist for further evaluation, and 73% reported prescribing an Epi-pen or Ana-kit to all hymenoptera sting anaphylaxis victims. Twenty-four percent of physicians did not know where to obtain anaphylaxis identification bracelets. This survey demonstrates that a substantial number of physicians practicing emergency medicine are not providing appropriate aftercare instructions to patients, and substantiates the need for educational efforts to increase the awareness of physicians concerning the implications of hymenoptera allergy and the value of proper preventive measures. PMID:7782631

  7. Prevalence of allergic reactions to Hymenoptera stings in northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Incorvaia, C; Senna, G; Mauro, M; Bonadonna, P; Marconi, I; Asero, R; Nitti, F

    2004-12-01

    The epidemiology of Hymenoptera venom allergy in Europe showed prevalence of systemic reactions of about 3%, but is scantly investigated in Italy. We studied two samples of the general and an at risk population, i.e. the foresters, in northern Italy. A standardized questionnaire dealing with allergic reactions to Hymenoptera stings was submitted to the subjects included in the study, who were factory workers in Milan and Verona and foresters in Lombardy. An overall number of 574 subjects participated to the study, 462 (299 males and 163 females, mean age 40.1 yrs, range 20-63 yrs) were factory workers and 112 (all males, mean age 38.8 yrs, range 24-59 yrs) were foresters. Among factory workers, 302 (65.4%) were stung by Hymenoptera, 49 (10.6%) had had large local reactions, and 13 (2.8%) systemic reactions. Among foresters, 76 (67.8%) were stung, 11 (9.8%) had had large local reactions, and 5 (4.5%) systemic reactions. The systemic reactions were life-threatening in 3 (0.6%) industrial workers and 2 (1.8%) foresters. The prevalence of systemic reaction of 2.8% in the general population agrees with the data reported from a number of countries with temperate climate. The prevalence of 4.5% in foresters attributed to this population a risk only slightly increased. PMID:15662965

  8. Recombination, chromosome number and eusociality in the Hymenoptera

    PubMed Central

    Ross, L; Blackmon, H; Lorite, P; Gokhman, V E; Hardy, N B

    2015-01-01

    Extraordinarily high rates of recombination have been observed in some eusocial species. The most popular explanation is that increased recombination increases genetic variation among workers, which in turn increases colony performance, for example by increasing parasite resistance. However, support for the generality of higher recombination rates among eusocial organisms remains weak, due to low sample size and a lack of phylogenetic independence of observations. Recombination rate, although difficult to measure directly, is correlated with chromosome number. As predicted, several authors have noted that chromosome numbers are higher among the eusocial species of Hymenoptera (ants, bees and wasps). Here, we present a formal comparative analysis of karyotype data from 1567 species of Hymenoptera. Contrary to earlier studies, we find no evidence for an absolute difference between chromosome number in eusocial and solitary species of Hymenoptera. However, we find support for an increased rate of chromosome number change in eusocial taxa. We show that among eusocial taxa colony size is able to explain some of the variation in chromosome number: intermediate-sized colonies have more chromosomes than those that are either very small or very large. However, we were unable to detect effects of a number of other colony characteristics predicted to affect recombination rate – including colony relatedness and caste number. Taken together, our results support the view that a eusocial lifestyle has led to variable selection pressure for increased recombination rates, but that identifying the factors contributing to this variable selection will require further theoretical and empirical effort. PMID:25382409

  9. Facing Hymenoptera Venom Allergy: From Natural to Recombinant Allergens

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Riverol, Amilcar; Justo-Jacomini, Débora Lais; Zollner, Ricardo de Lima; Brochetto-Braga, Márcia Regina

    2015-01-01

    Along with food and drug allergic reactions, a Hymenoptera insect Sting (Apoidea, Vespidae, Formicidae) is one of the most common causes of anaphylaxis worldwide. Diagnoses of Hymenoptera venom allergy (HVA) and specific immunotherapy (SIT) have been based on the use of crude venom extracts. However, the incidence of cross-reactivity and low levels of sensibility during diagnosis, as well as the occurrence of nonspecific sensitization and undesired side effects during SIT, encourage the search for novel allergenic materials. Recombinant allergens are an interesting approach to improve allergy diagnosis and SIT because they circumvent major problems associated with the use of crude venom. Production of recombinant allergens depends on the profound molecular characterization of the natural counterpart by combining some “omics” approaches with high-throughput screening techniques and the selection of an appropriate system for heterologous expression. To date, several clinically relevant allergens and novel venom toxins have been identified, cloned and characterized, enabling a better understanding of the whole allergenic and envenoming processes. Here, we review recent findings on identification, molecular characterization and recombinant expression of Hymenoptera venom allergens and on the evaluation of these heterologous proteins as valuable tools for tackling remaining pitfalls on HVA diagnosis and immunotherapy. PMID:26184309

  10. Green electrochemical sensing platforms: utilizing hydroxyapatite derived from natural fish scales as a novel electrochemical material for the sensitive detection of kidney injury molecule 1 (KIM-1).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Qing; Li, Kaiyang; Liu, Wei; Liu, Yong; Banks, Craig E

    2014-11-01

    Urinary KIM-1 is an ideal biomarker for acute kidney injury diagnosis. The proof-of-concept is demonstrated by utilizing the hydroxyapatite derived from natural fish scales as an electrode material, where the sensing of KIM-1 is shown to be possible for the first time with a linear range from 0.01 to 0.20 μg mL(-1) and a detection limit of 0.017 μg mL(-1) under model conditions; proof-of-concept is demonstrated in spiked urine. PMID:25192033

  11. A NEW SPECIES OF INVASIVE GALL WASP (HYMENOPTERA: EULOPHIDAE: TETRASTICHINAE) ON BLUE GUM (EUCALYPTUS GLOBULUS) IN CALIFORNIA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The blue gum gall wasp, Selitrichodes globulus La Salle & Gates (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae), is described as an invasive gall inducer on blue gum, Eucalyptus globulus (Myrtaceae), in California....

  12. VALIDATION OF COOKING TIMES AND TEMPERATURES FOR THERMAL INACTIVATION OF YERSINIA PESTIS STRAINS KIM5 AND CDC-A1112 IN GROUND BEEF

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The thermal stability of Yersinia pestis inoculated into retail ground beef (25 per cent fat) and heated in a temperature-controlled water bath or cooked on commercial grills was evaluated. Irradiated ground beef (3-g portions) was inoculated with ca. 6.7 log10 CFU/g of Y. pestis strain KIM5 and hea...

  13. The trouble with halos: invited commentary on Kim, S., & Harris, P. L. (2014). Children prefer to learn from mind-readers. British Journal of Developmental Psychology.

    PubMed

    Richert, Rebekah A

    2014-11-01

    This commentary on Kim and Harris (2014) addresses the authors' interpretation of the halo effect, in which 5- to 6-year-old children preferentially agreed with an informant who could read other people's minds, regardless of domain of knowledge. PMID:25277781

  14. Understanding internal backgrounds in NaI(Tl) crystals toward a 200 kg array for the KIMS-NaI experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, P.; Adhikari, G.; Choi, S.; Ha, C.; Hahn, I. S.; Jeon, E. J.; Joo, H. W.; Kang, W. G.; Kim, H. J.; Kim, H. O.; Kim, K. W.; Kim, N. Y.; Kim, S. K.; Kim, Y. D.; Kim, Y. H.; Lee, H. S.; Lee, J. H.; Lee, M. H.; Leonard, D. S.; Li, J.; Oh, S. Y.; Olsen, S. L.; Park, H. K.; Park, H. S.; Park, K. S.; So, J. H.; Yoon, Y. S.

    2016-04-01

    The Korea Invisible Mass Search (KIMS) collaboration has developed low-background NaI(Tl) crystals that are suitable for the direct detection of WIMP dark matter. Building on experience accumulated during the KIMS-CsI programs, the KIMS-NaI experiment will consist of a 200 kg NaI(Tl) crystal array surrounded by layers of shielding structures and will be operated at the Yangyang underground laboratory. The goal is to provide an unambiguous test of the DAMA/LIBRA annual modulation signature. Measurements of six prototype crystals show progress in the reduction of internal contamination from radioisotopes. Based on our understanding of these measurements, we expect to achieve a background level in the final detector configuration that is less than 1 count/day/keV/kg for recoil energies around 2 keV. The annual modulation sensitivity for the KIMS-NaI experiment shows that an unambiguous 7σ test of the DAMA/LIBRA signature would be possible with a 600 kg year exposure with this system.

  15. Strategic implications of the succession of Kim Jong IL for US foreign policy towards North Korea. Master`s thesis, 2 August 1994-2 June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    McElree, J.A.

    1995-06-02

    This study analyzes the strategic implications of the dynastic succession of Kim Jong IL for U.S. foreign policy towards North Korea. The proliferation of nuclear weapons by North Korea threatens vital U.S. interests in Northeast Asia and challenges U.S. regional and global leadership. In order to properly respond to the North Korean nuclear threat, it is essential to understand the man who will dictate North Korean actions--Kim Jong IL. The study examines Kim Jong Il`s background, training, experience, personality, leadership characteristics, and the challenges he will face. The analysis of Kim Jong IL indicates that he is a rational actor who has and will continue to act in a rational manner in pursuit of his desired ends. The framework for analysis is the Strategic Estimate Process. Alternative courses of action are developed using the four elements of national power. The study identifies the strategic implications of probable North Korean actions and recommends appropriate U.S. courses of action on the basis of feasibility, acceptability, and suitability in achieving U.S. objectives in support of U.S. interests.

  16. Release and establishment of Diachasmimorpha kraussii (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) against Bactrocera latifrons (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Hawaii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Laboratory tests documented that Diachasmimorpha kraussii Fullaway (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) was a potentially effective biological control agent against Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) and Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Diachasmimorpha kraussii was approved for release in Hawa...

  17. The description of Paramblynotus delaneyi (Hymenoptera: Liopteridae), a new species from Joshua Tree National Park

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new species, Paramblynotus delaneyi (Hymenoptera: Liopteridae), is described and characters separating it from the Nearctic species P. zonatus Weld and P. virginianus Liu are discussed. A discussion of the insect biodiversity survey at Joshua Tree National Park is provided....

  18. A new parasitoid of Bazariaturensis (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae): Campoplexbazariae sp. n. (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yu-Xiang; Sheng, Mao-Ling

    2014-01-01

    A new solitary endoparasitoid of the larva of Bazariaturensis Ragonot, 1887 (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae) in Qinghai province, China, Campoplexbazariae Sheng, sp. n., belonging to the subfamily Campopleginae (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae), is reported. Illustrations of the new species are provided. PMID:25610335

  19. A floral-derived compound attractive to the tephritid fruit fly parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many adult hymenopteran parasitoids, even host-feeding species, consume the nectar of flowering plants. Previous field studies had identified plants attractive (Lobularia maritima L.) and unattractive (Spermacoce verticillata L) to certain opiine braconids (Hymenoptera). Under laboratory conditions,...

  20. Competition between the filth fly parasitoids Muscidifurax raptor and M. raptorellus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Competition bioassays were conducted with the filth fly pupal parasitoids Muscidurax raptor (Girault & Sanders) and M. raptorellus (Kogan & Legner) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) with house fly Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) hosts at different host densities. Assays were conducted by varying e...

  1. Context dependent stridulatory responses of Leptogenys kitteli (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) to social, prey, and disturbance stimuli

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    By increasing the speed of stridulatory movements and the rates of stridulation pulses, individuals and groups of Leptogenys kitteli (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) produce graded stridulatory responses to increasingly excitatory stimuli ranging from social interactions within a nest to prey items placed ...

  2. Drug screening and confirmation by GC-MS: comparison of EMIT II and Online KIMS against 10 drugs between US and England laboratories.

    PubMed

    Lu, Natalie T; Taylor, Bruce G

    2006-03-10

    Drug screening through urinalysis is a widely accepted tool for rapid detection of potential drug use at a relatively low cost. It is, therefore, a potentially useful method for detecting and monitoring drug use in a variety of contexts such as the criminal justice system, pre-employment screening and a variety of treatment centers. This article explores the efficacy of two commercially available drug-screening assays: Online KIMS assay (Roche) and EMIT II assays. First, we evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of two immunoassays. A total of 738 urine samples were collected among adult arrestee populations from Chicago, New Orleans and Seattle through the Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring (ADAM) program. Partial samples were split within one laboratory and analyzed by both enzymes multiplied immunoassay technique (EMIT) II and kinetic interaction of microparticle in solution (KIMS) assays for a 10-drug panel (amphetamine, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, marijuana, cocaine, methadone, methaqualone, opiate, phencyclidine and propoxyphene). Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used as a confirmation method for all positives from either EMIT II or KIMS for all experiments. Second, the paper examines whether using different testing laboratories plays a role in the final results. The same experiments were repeated at two different testing locations: one in California and one in London and England. Third, the paper studies whether drug testing results vary between two laboratories when each of them had used their own routine screening method: the Forensic Science Service (FSS) at Birmingham, United Kingdom with KIMS assay and Medscreen Limited at London, United Kingdom with EMIT II. In summary, both EMIT II and KIMS assays generate fairly consistent results. The concordance rate against each of the 10 drugs tested is relatively high (97.4-100%). The discrepancies, in most cases, occurred at drug concentrations near the cut-off levels. There were more

  3. Taxonomic and Functional Responses to Fire and Post-Fire Management of a Mediterranean Hymenoptera Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mateos, Eduardo; Santos, Xavier; Pujade-Villar, Juli

    2011-11-01

    Fire is one of the commonest disturbances worldwide, transforming habitat structure and affecting ecosystem functioning. Understanding how species respond to such environmental disturbances is a major conservation goal that should be monitored using functionally and taxonomically diverse groups such as Hymenoptera. In this respect, we have analyzed the taxonomic and functional response to fire and post-fire management of a Hymenoptera community from a Mediterranean protected area. Thus, Hymenoptera were sampled at fifteen sites located in three burnt areas submitted to different post-fire practices, as well as at five sites located in peripheral unburnt pine forest. A total of 4882 specimens belonging to 33 families, which were classified into six feeding groups according to their dietary preferences, were collected. ANOVA and Redundancy Analyses showed a taxonomic and functional response to fire as all burnt areas had more Hymenoptera families, different community composition and higher numbers of parasitoids than the unburnt area. Taxonomic differences were also found between burnt areas in terms of the response of Hymenoptera to post-fire management. In general the number of parasitoids was positively correlated to the number of potential host arthropods. Parasitoids are recognized to be sensitive to habitat changes, thus highlighting their value for monitoring the functional responses of organisms to habitat disturbance. The taxonomic and functional responses of Hymenoptera suggest that some pine-forest fires can enhance habitat heterogeneity and arthropod diversity, hence increasing interspecific interactions such as those established by parasitoids and their hosts.

  4. The genus Diolcogaster Ashmead, 1900 (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Microgastrinae) from China

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Jie; He, Jun-hua; Chen, Xue-xin

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The genus Diolcogaster Ashmead, 1900 (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Microgastrinae) from China is revised and keyed, with nine new species, namely Diolcogaster bifurcifossa sp. n., Diolcogaster brevivena sp. n., Diolcogaster grammata sp. n., Diolcogaster ineminens sp. n., Diolcogaster laetimedia sp. n., Diolcogaster pluriminitida sp. n., Diolcogaster praritas sp. n., Diolcogaster punctatiscutum sp. n. and Diolcogaster translucida sp. n. described and illustrated, and one species, Diolcogaster perniciosa (Wilkinson, 1929) recorded for the first time from China. A key to the Chinese species of this genus is provided. PMID:21998555

  5. Revision of the world species of Zambion (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Tryphoninae)

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Andrew M.R.; Barnes, Diana I.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The world species of Zambion Kasparyan (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Tryphoninae) are revised including re-descriptions of Zambion monodon Kasparyan and Zambion hirtum Delobel. Five new species are described: Zambion kasparyani sp. n., Zambion rogeri sp. n., Zambion eileenae sp. n., Zambion wahli sp. n. andZambion broadi sp. n. A key to species is provided. The genus is endemic to Africa (Angola to Kenya) and is one of only three genera of the tribe Tryphonini recorded from the Afrotropical region. PMID:22303113

  6. The mitochondrial genome of Diadromus collaris (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Qian; Wei, Shu-jun; Shi, Min; Chen, Xue-Xin

    2015-04-01

    We sequenced the nearly complete mitochondrial genome of the parasitic wasps Diadromus collaris, the fourth sequenced mitogenome in the family Ichneumonidae (Insecta: Hymenoptera). The sequenced segment is 14,621 bp, including 13 protein-coding genes, 19 transfer RNA genes and 2 ribosomal RNA genes. Four tRNAs are rearranged comparing to the ancestral insect mitochondrial gene arrangements, which coincides with the fact that the most rearranged genes are tRNA genes in the Ichneumonidae, and trnI-trnQ-trnM is a hot-spot of gene rearrangement. The lrRNA secondary structure was predicted, containing six domains (I-VI) and 49 helics. PMID:24047184

  7. Complete mitochondrial genome of Camponotus atrox (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): a new tRNA arrangement in Hymenoptera.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Jee; Hong, Eui Jeong; Kim, Iksoo

    2016-01-01

    We sequenced the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of Camponotus atrox (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), which is only distributed in Korea. The genome was 16 540 bp in size and contained typical sets of genes (13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNAs, and 2 rRNAs). The C. atrox A+T-rich region, at 1402 bp, was the longest of all sequenced ant genomes and was composed of an identical tandem repeat consisting of six 100-bp copies and one 96-bp copy. A total of 315 bp of intergenic spacer sequence was spread over 23 regions. An alignment of the spacer sequences in ants was largely feasible among congeneric species, and there was substantial sequence divergence, indicating their potential use as molecular markers for congeneric species. The A/T contents at the first and second codon positions of protein-coding genes (PCGs) were similar for ant species, including C. atrox (73.9% vs. 72.3%, on average). With increased taxon sampling among hymenopteran superfamilies, differences in the divergence rates (i.e., the non-synonymous substitution rates) between the suborders Symphyta and Apocrita were detected, consistent with previous results. The C. atrox mt genome had a unique gene arrangement, trnI-trnM-trnQ, at the A+T-rich region and ND2 junction (underline indicates inverted gene). This may have originated from a tandem duplication of trnM-trnI, resulting in trnM-trnI-trnM-trnI-trnQ, and the subsequent loss of the first trnM and second trnI, resulting in trnI-trnM-trnQ. PMID:26731510

  8. On-line identification of the antifungal constituents of Erythrina vogelii by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry, ultraviolet absorbance detection and nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry combined with liquid chromatographic micro-fractionation.

    PubMed

    Queiroz, E F; Wolfender, J L; Atindehou, K K; Traore, D; Hostettmann, K

    2002-10-18

    In our continuing search for new antifungal agents of plant origin, the investigation of Erythrina vogelii Hook. f. (Leguminosae), a plant used in the traditional medicine of Ivory Coast to treat various infectious ailments, was undertaken. In order to rapidly identify the active principles, the crude extract was analysed by low-flow LC-1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry (NMR) which gave a sensitive detection of all the main peaks. LC microfractionation was performed just after LC-NMR detection and all peaks collected were submitted to antifungal bioautography assays against Cladosporium cucumerinum. By this means, the antifungal activity could be efficiently linked to three of the LC peaks. In order to obtain complementary on-line structural information for all peaks of interest, high-resolution LC-MS-MS together with LC-UV with post-column addition of UV shifts reagents was undertaken on the crude extract. This chemical screening strategy with integrated antifungal bioassays has permitted the on-line identification of numerous constituents and has given useful information for an efficient peak-guided isolation procedure. PMID:12458932

  9. Comment on Underwater Explosion (UWE) Analysis of the ROKS Cheonan Incident by S.G. Kim and Y. Kitterman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kwang Sup

    2013-03-01

    The analysis of the seismic and infrasound data recorded at the time of the Cheonan incident led Kim and Gitterman (this journal, published on line August 2012) to conclude that a non-contact underwater explosion had sunk the ship. They also concluded that one of the mines deployed by the South Korean Navy many years ago in the area and then abandoned sank the ship. Their mine theory that is based on the explosive charge weights they calculated by means of two methods using the bubble period determined by their analysis, however, appears to be invalid. Although the incident had occurred in a shallow sea with a depth of less than 50m, the authors used the methods that are applicable only to free-field underwater explosions. The consideration of the influence on the bubble period of the nearby sea surface and bottom and the nearby ship's hull would double the calculated weights. In addition, the authors ignored several evidences that support the torpedo theory. One of them is aluminum-containing white powder found in large quantities at certain substrates in the retrieved Cheonan. However, the conclusion of the official investigation group that the torpedo was made in North Korea is based on a circumstantial evidence and is yet to be proven with other more direct evidences.

  10. A New Species of Vespula, and First Record of Vespa crabro L. (Hymenoptera:Vespidae) from Guatemala, Central America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vespula akrei Landolt sp. nov. (Hymenoptera:Vespidae; Vespinae) is described from Guatemala. The first record of Vespa crabro L. (Hymenoptera:Vespidae:Vespinae) in Guatemala is given, and Vespula Inexspectata Eck (1994) from Mexico is re-described. We place Vespula akrei sp. nov. in the Vespula vulg...

  11. Antennal Sensilla in the Parasitoid Sclerodermus sp. (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae)

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Chang-Xiang; Sun, Xiao; Mi, Feng; Chen, Jingyuan; Wang, Man-Qun

    2015-01-01

    Parasitoid wasps of the genus Sclerodermus (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) are an important natural enemy of the Japanese pine sawyer beetle Monochamus alternatus Hope (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). In this study, we used scanning electron microscopy to examine the external morphology of the antennal sensilla of Sclerodermus sp. Antennae of females and males comprised the scape, pedicel, and 11 flagellomere segments. Based on the morphology of the sensilla in each sex, seven types of sensillum were identified: sensilla trichodea (Tr.1, Tr.2 and Tr.3), sensilla basiconica (Ba.1, Ba.2, and Ba.3), sensilla styloconica (St.1 and St.2), sensilla placodea, sensilla coeloconica, sensilla squamiforma, and Bohm’s bristles. Tr.2, Ba.1, and St.1 were only found in females, whereas Ba.2, Ba.3, and St.2 were only observed in males. Sensilla placodea were the most common, given that they occur on the antennae of many parasitoid Hymenoptera, whereas sensilla Tr were the most abundant, being distributed over the entire antennal surface. These sensilla are likely to have roles in the host locating and habitat searching behavior of adult Sclerodermus wasps. Therefore, our findings provide a basis for further studies of the host location behavior of this and other species of parasitic wasp. PMID:25843589

  12. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Galaxy structural parameters from 3.6um images (Kim+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, T.; Gadotti, D. A.; Sheth, K.; Athanassoula, E.; Bosma, A.; Lee, M. G.; Madore, B. F.; Elmegreen, B.; Knapen, J. H.; Zaritsky, D.; Ho, L. C.; Comeron, S.; Holwerda, B.; Hinz, J. L.; Munoz-Mateos, J.-C.; Cisternas, M.; Erroz-Ferrer, S.; Buta, R.; Laurikainen, E.; Salo, H.; Laine, J.; Menendez-Delmestre, K.; Regan, M. W.; de Swardt, B.; Gil de, Paz A.; Seibert, M.; Mizusawa, T.

    2016-03-01

    We select our samples from the Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies (S4G; Sheth et al. 2010, cat. J/PASP/122/1397). We chose galaxies that had already been processed by the first three S4G pipelines (Pipelines 1, 2, and 3; Sheth et al. 2010, cat. J/PASP/122/1397) at the moment of this study (2011 November). In brief, Pipeline processes images and provides science-ready images. Pipeline 2 prepares mask images (to exclude foreground and background objects) for further analysis, and Pipeline 3 derives surface brightness profiles and total magnitudes using IRAF ellipse fits. We excluded highly inclined (b/a<0.5), significantly disturbed, very faint, or irregular galaxies. Galaxies were also discarded if their images are unsuitable for decomposition due to contamination such as a bright foreground star or significant stray light from stars in the IRAC scattering zones. Then we chose barred galaxies from all Hubble types from S0 to Sdm using the numerical Hubble types from Hyperleda (Paturel et al. 2003, cat. VII/237, VII/238). The assessment of the presence of a bar was done visually by K. Sheth, T. Kim, and B. de Swardt. Later, we also confirmed the presence of a bar by checking the mid-infrared classification (Buta et al. 2010, cat. J/ApJS/190/147; Buta et al. 2015, cat. J/ApJS/217/32). A total of 144 barred galaxies were selected that satisfy our criteria, and we list our sample in Table1 with basic information. Table2 presents the measures of structural parameters for all galaxies in the sample obtained from the 2D model fit with BUDDA (BUlge/disk Decomposition Analysis, de Souza et al., 2004ApJS..153..411D; Gadotti, 2008MNRAS.384..420G) code. (2 data files).

  13. The Community of Hymenoptera Parasitizing Necrophagous Diptera in an Urban Biotope

    PubMed Central

    Frederickx, Christine; Dekeirsschieter, Jessica; Verheggen, François J.; Haubruge, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Most reports published in the field of forensic entomology are focused on Diptera and neglect the Hymenoptera community. However, Hymenoptera are part of the entomofaunal colonization of a dead body. The use of Hymenoptera parasitoids in forensic entomology can be relevant to evaluate the time of death. Hymenoptera parasitoids of the larvae and pupae of flies may play an important role in the estimation of the post-mortem period because their time of attack is often restricted to a small, well-defined window of time in the development of the host insect. However, these parasitoids can interfere with the developmental times of colonizing Diptera, and therefore a better understanding of their ecology is needed. The work reported here monitored the presence of adult Hymenoptera parasitoids on decaying pig carcasses in an urban biotope during the summer season (from May to September). Six families and six species of parasitoids were recorded in the field: Aspilota fuscicornis Haliday (Braconidae), Alysia manducator Panzer, Nasonia vitripennis Walker (Pteromalidae), Tachinaephagus zealandicus Ashmead (Encyrtidae), Trichopria sp. (Diapriidae), and Figites sp. (Figitidae). In the laboratory, five species emerged from pupae collected in the field: Trichopria sp., Figites sp., A. manducator, N. vitripennis, and T. zealandicus. These five species colonize a broad spectrum of Diptera hosts, including those species associated with decomposing carcasses, namely those from the families Calliphoridae, Muscidae, Fanniidae, and Sarcophagidae. PMID:23895458

  14. A checklist of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Peru.

    PubMed

    Bezděčková, Klára; Bezděčka, Pavel; Machar, Ivo

    2015-01-01

    The article presents a comprehensive list of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Peru. Distribution data for 592 valid names of species-group taxa in 76 genera and 12 subfamilies were collected through a bibliographical review. The most diverse subfamilies in terms of species richness are Myrmicinae (273 species/subspecies), Formicinae (86 species/subspecies) and Ponerinae (71 species/subspecies). The most diverse genera are Pheidole (86 species/subspecies), Camponotus (73 species/subspecies), and Pseudomyrmex (47 species/subspecies). With respect to geographic divisions, richness is highest in Madre de Dios (245 species/subspecies), followed by Huanuco (109 species/subspecies) and Cusco (104 species/subspecies). Regions in greatest need of additional survey work are Aycucho, Huancavelica, Moquegua and Tacna, from which virtually no information on the ant fauna is available. PMID:26624091

  15. An annotated catalogue of the Iranian Alysiinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    PubMed

    Gadallah, Neveen S; Ghahari, Hassan; Peris-Felipo, Francisco Javier; Fischer, Maximilian

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, a catalogue of the Iranian Alysiinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is given. It is based on a detailed study of all available published data. In total 78 species from 15 genera including Alloea Haliday, 1833 (1 species), Angelovia Zaykov, 1980 (1 species), Aphaereta Foerster, 1862 (2 species), Aspilota Foerster, 1862 (2 species), Chorebus Haliday, 1833 (42 species), Coelinidea Viereck, 1913 (2 species), Coloneura Foerster, 1862 (1 species), Dacnusa Haliday, 1833 (10 species), Dinotrema Foerster, 1862 (5 species), Idiasta Foerster, 1862 (1 species), Orthostigma Ratzeburg, 1844 (3 species), Phaenocarpa Foerster, 1862 (1 species), Protodacnusa Griffiths, 1964 (2 species), Pseudopezomachus Mantero, 1905 (2 species), and Synaldis Foerster, 1862 (3 species) are reported in this catalogue. Two species are new records for Iran: Coelinidea elegans (Curtis, 1829) and Dacnusa (Pachysema) aterrima Thomson, 1895. Also, a faunistic list with distribution data and host records is provided. PMID:26249881

  16. Cytogenetic characterization of Partamona cupira (Hymenoptera, Apidae) by fluorochromes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Four colonies of the stingless bee Partamona cupira (Hymenoptera: Apidae) were cytogenetically analyzed using conventional staining and the fluorochromes CMA3 e DAPI. The females have 2n = 34 chromosomes (2K = 32 M¯+2 A¯). Some females, however, presented an additional large B acrocentric chromosome, to a total of 2n = 35. Chromosome B and the chromosomal pairs 2, 9 and 10 showed CMA 3+ bands, indicating an excess of CG base-pairs. A clear association was verified between the P. helleri B chromosome SCAR marker and the presence of a B chromosome in P. cupira. The data obtained suggests that B chromosomes in P. helleri and P. cupira share a common origin. PMID:21637478

  17. New records of spider wasps (Hymenoptera, Pompilidae) from Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Castro-Huertas, Valentina; Pitts, James P.; Rodriguez, Juanita; Cecilia Waichert; Fernández, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Abstract New records of genera and species of spider wasps (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae) from Colombia are provided. Agenioideus, Cryptocheilus, Evagetes, Mystacagenia, and Xerochares are newly recorded genera from Colombia. Nineteen species are first recorded from Colombia: Aimatocare vitrea (Fox); Ageniella azteca (Cameron); Ageniella curtipinus (Cameron); Ageniella fallax (Arlé); Ageniella hirsuta Banks; Ageniella pilifrons (Cameron); Ageniella pretiosa Banks; Ageniella sanguinolenta (Smith); Ageniella zeteki (Banks); Agenioideus birkmanni (Banks); Aporus (Aporus) cuzco Evans; Aporus (Cosmiaporus) diverticulus (Fox); Aporus (Notoplaniceps) canescens Smith; Euplaniceps exilis (Banks); Euplaniceps herbertii (Fox); Irenangelus clarus Evans; Mystacagenia bellula Evans; Phanochilus nobilitatus (Smith) and Xerochares expulsus Schulz. The following species and genera have their occurence ranges expanded for South America: Ageniella azteca (Cameron); Ageniella zeteki (Banks); Agenioideus birkmanni (Banks); and Xerochares expulsus Schulz; Cryptocheilus Panzer; and Xerochares Evans. PMID:25349495

  18. Evaluation of insecticides for the control of Linepithema (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    PubMed

    Nondillo, Aline; Chaves, Cindy Correa; Fialho, Flávio Bello; Bueno, Odair Correa; Botton, Marcos

    2014-02-01

    Linepithema micans (Forel) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) is the main ant species responsible for the spreading of Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Wille) (Hemiptera: Margarodidae), a soil scale that damages grapevine plants in southern Brazil. The effect of contact and ingestion of insecticides on the control of L. micans was evaluated in a greenhouse using grapevines (Vitis spp.) infested by L. micans. The insecticides thiamethoxam (250, 187.5, and 125 g/ha), fipronil (4, 5, and 50 ml/ha), and imidacloprid (650 g/ha) were sprayed on the ground, whereas toxic baits containing boric acid (0.5, 1.0, and 1.2%), pyriproxyfen (0.3 and 0.5%), and hydramethylnon (0.5%) were evaluated in different formulations. Hydramethylnon (toxic bait) and thiamethoxam (chemical barrier) were the most efficient active ingredients for the control of L. micans. PMID:24665704

  19. Revision of the Paridris nephtaspecies group (Hymenoptera, Platygastroidea, Platygastridae)

    PubMed Central

    Talamas, Elijah J.; Masner, Lubomír; Johnson, Norman F.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The Paridris nephta group is revised (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae). Fifteen species are described, 14 of which are new: Paridris atroxTalamas, sp. n.(Yunnan Province, China), Paridris bununTalamas, sp. n.(Taiwan), Paridris ferusTalamas, sp. n.(Thailand), Paridris kagemonoTalamas, sp. n.(Japan), Paridris minatorTalamas, sp. n.(Laos, Thailand), Paridris mystaxTalamas, sp. n.(Laos, Thailand), Paridris nephta(Kozlov) (Japan, North Korea, South Korea, Far Eastern Russia), Paridris nilakaTalamas, sp. n.(Thailand), Paridris reptilisTalamas, sp. n.(Taiwan), Paridris rugulosusTalamas, sp. n.(Laos, Vietnam), Paridris solarisTalamas, sp. n.(Laos, Thailand, Vietnam), Paridris teresTalamas, sp. n.(Vietnam), Paridris toketokiTalamas, sp. n.(Taiwan), Paridris verrucosusTalamas, sp. n.(Guangdong Province, China), Paridris yakTalamas, sp. n.(Thailand). PMID:22140338

  20. Apomictic parthenogenesis in a parasitoid wasp Meteorus pulchricornis, uncommon in the haplodiploid order Hymenoptera.

    PubMed

    Tsutsui, Y; Maeto, K; Hamaguchi, K; Isaki, Y; Takami, Y; Naito, T; Miura, K

    2014-06-01

    Although apomixis is the most common form of parthenogenesis in diplodiploid arthropods, it is uncommon in the haplodiploid insect order Hymenoptera. We found a new type of spontaneous apomixis in the Hymenoptera, completely lacking meiosis and the expulsion of polar bodies in egg maturation division, on the thelytokous strain of a parasitoid wasp Meteorus pulchricornis (Wesmael) (Braconidae, Euphorinae) on pest lepidopteran larvae Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) (Noctuidae). The absence of the meiotic process was consistent with a non-segregation pattern in the offspring of heterozygous females, and no positive evidence was obtained for the induction of thelytoky by any bacterial symbionts. We discuss the conditions that enable the occurrence of such rare cases of apomictic thelytoky in the Hymenoptera, suggesting the significance of fixed heterosis caused by hybridization or polyploidization, symbiosis with bacterial agents, and occasional sex. Our finding will encourage further genetic studies on parasitoid wasps to use asexual lines more wisely for biological control. PMID:24521569

  1. Sex investment ratios in eusocial Hymenoptera support inclusive fitness theory.

    PubMed

    Bourke, A F G

    2015-11-01

    Inclusive fitness theory predicts that sex investment ratios in eusocial Hymenoptera are a function of the relatedness asymmetry (relative relatedness to females and males) of the individuals controlling sex allocation. In monogynous ants (with one queen per colony), assuming worker control, the theory therefore predicts female-biased sex investment ratios, as found in natural populations. Recently, E.O. Wilson and M.A. Nowak criticized this explanation and presented an alternative hypothesis. The Wilson-Nowak sex ratio hypothesis proposes that, in monogynous ants, there is selection for a 1 : 1 numerical sex ratio to avoid males remaining unmated, which, given queens exceed males in size, results in a female-biased sex investment ratio. The hypothesis also asserts that, contrary to inclusive fitness theory, queens not workers control sex allocation and queen-worker conflict over sex allocation is absent. Here, I argue that the Wilson-Nowak sex ratio hypothesis is flawed because it contradicts Fisher's sex ratio theory, which shows that selection on sex ratio does not maximize the number of mated offspring and that the sex ratio proposed by the hypothesis is not an equilibrium for the queen. In addition, the hypothesis is not supported by empirical evidence, as it fails to explain 'split' (bimodal) sex ratios or data showing queen and worker control and ongoing queen-worker conflict. By contrast, these phenomena match predictions of inclusive fitness theory. Hence, the Wilson-Nowak sex ratio hypothesis fails both as an alternative hypothesis for sex investment ratios in eusocial Hymenoptera and as a critique of inclusive fitness theory. PMID:26238365

  2. Association of urinary KIM-1, L-FABP, NAG and NGAL with incident end-stage renal disease and mortality in American Indians with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Fufaa, Gudeta D.; Weil, E. Jennifer; Nelson, Robert G.; Hanson, Robert L.; Bonventre, Joseph V.; Sabbisetti, Venkata; Waikar, Sushrut S.; Mifflin, Theodore E.; Zhang, Xiaoming; Xie, Dawei; Hsu, Chi-yuan; Feldman, Harold I.; Coresh, Josef; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Kimmel, Paul L.; Liu, Kathleen D.

    2014-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis Kidney injury molecule 1 (KIM-1), liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP), N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) are urinary biomarkers of renal tubular injury. We examined their association with incident end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and all-cause mortality in American Indians with type 2 diabetes. Methods Biomarker concentrations were measured in baseline urine samples in 260 Pima Indians who were followed for a median of 14 years. HRs were reported per SD of creatinine (Cr)-normalised log-transformed KIM-1, NAG and NGAL, and for three categories of L-FABP. Results During follow-up, 74 participants developed ESRD and 101 died. Median concentrations of KIM-1/Cr, NAG/Cr and NGAL/Cr and the proportion of detectable L-FABP were highest in those with macroalbuminuria (p < 0.001 for KIM-1/Cr, NAG/Cr and L-FABP; p = 0.006 for NGAL/Cr). After multivariable adjustment, NGAL/Cr was positively associated with ESRD (HR 1.59, 95% CI 1.20, 2.11) and mortality (HR 1.39, 95% CI 1.06, 1.82); L-FABP/Cr was inversely associated with ESRD (HR [for highest vs lowest tertile] 0.40, 95% CI 0.19, 0.83). Addition of NGAL/Cr to models that included albuminuria and glomerular filtration rate increased the c-statistic for predicting ESRD from 0.828 to 0.833 (p = 0.001) and for death from 0.710 to 0.722 (p = 0.018). Addition of L-FABP/Cr increased the c-statistic for ESRD from 0.828 to 0.832 (p = 0.042). Conclusions/interpretation In Pima Indians with type 2 diabetes, urinary concentrations of NGAL and L-FABP are associated with important health outcomes, but they are unlikely to add to risk prediction with standard markers in a clinically meaningful way given the small increase in the c-statistic. PMID:25316431

  3. Validation of cooking times and temperatures for thermal inactivation of Yersinia pestis strains KIM5 and CDC-A1122 in irradiated ground beef.

    PubMed

    Porto-Fett, Anna C S; Juneja, Vijay K; Tamplin, Mark L; Luchansky, John B

    2009-03-01

    Irradiated ground beef samples (ca. 3-g portions with ca. 25% fat) inoculated with Yersina pestis strain KIM5 (ca. 6.7 log CFU/g) were heated in a circulating water bath stabilized at 48.9, 50, 52.5, 55, 57.5, or 60 degrees C (120, 122, 126.5, 131, 135.5, and 140 degrees F, respectively). Average D-values were 192.17, 34.38, 17.11, 3.87, 1.32, and 0.56 min, respectively, with a corresponding z-value of 4.67 degrees C (8.41 degrees F). In related experiments, irradiated ground beef patties (ca. 95 g per patty with ca. 25% fat) were inoculated with Y. pestis strains KIMS or CDC-A1122 (ca. 6.0 log CFU/g) and cooked on an open-flame gas grill or on a clam-shell type electric grill to internal target temperatures of 48.9, 60, and 71.1 degrees C (120, 140, and 160 degrees F, respectively). For patties cooked on the gas grill, strain KIM5 populations decreased from ca. 6.24 to 4.32, 3.51, and < or = 0.7 log CFU/g at 48.9, 60, and 71.1 degrees C, respectively, and strain CDC-A1122 populations decreased to 3.46 log CFU/g at 48.9 degrees C and to < or = 0.7 log CFU/g at both 60 and 71.1 degrees C. For patties cooked on the clam-shell grill, strain KIM5 populations decreased from ca. 5.96 to 2.53 log CFU/g at 48.9 degrees C and to < or = 0.7 log CFU/g at 60 or 71.1 degrees C, and strain CDC-A1122 populations decreased from ca. 5.98 to < or = 0.7 log CFU/g at all three cooking temperatures. These data confirm that cooking ground beef on an open-flame gas grill or on a clam-shell type electric grill to the temperatures and times recommended by the U.S. Department of Agriculture and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Food Code, appreciably lessens the likelihood, severity, and/or magnitude of consumer illness if the ground beef were purposefully contaminated even with relatively high levels of Y. pestis. PMID:19343945

  4. Acute exposure to low dose radiation disrupts reproduction and shortens survival of Wasmannia auropunctata (Hymenoptera Formicidae)queens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Irradiation is a postharvest quarantine treatment option to control ants and other hitchhiker pests on fresh horticultural products exported from Hawaii. The radiotolerance of the invasive little fire ant, Wasmannia auropunctata (Roger) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Myrmicinae), was studied to determine...

  5. Reproductive and developmental biology of the emerald ash borer parasitoid Spathius galinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) as affected by temperature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is an invasive pest of serious concern in North America. To complement ongoing biological control efforts, Spathius galinae Belokobylskij and Strazenac (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a recently-described specialist parasitoid of ...

  6. Hyperparasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Trigonalidae) reared from dry forest and rain forest caterpillars of Area de Conservacion, Guanacaste, Costa Rica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five species of Trigonalidae, hyperparasites of Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera) and Tachinidae (Diptera) that parasitize caterpillars (Lepidoptera), have been reared during the ongoing caterpillar inventory of Area de Conservación Guanacaste (ACG), Guanacaste Province, northwestern Costa Rica: Lycogaste...

  7. Notes on the ovipositional behavior of Trichogramma fuentesi (Hymenoptera:Trichogrammatidae), an egg parasitoid of Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera:Pyralidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Trichogramma fuentesi Torre (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) is an arrhenotokous egg parasitoid of Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). The parasitoid was identified attacking C. cactorum eggs at several north Florida locations in 2010 (Paraiso et al. 2011). Low incidence of this...

  8. The genus Mymaromella (Hymenoptera: Mymarommatidae) in North America, with a key to described extant species of the world

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We describe and illustrate the adults of two species of Nearctic Mymarommatidae (Hymenoptera): Mymaromella pala and M. palella. In addition, the world species of Mymaromella are keyed and strong circumstantial evidence provided in support of their hosts being Psocoptera....

  9. Cell position during larval development affects postdiapause development in Megachile rotundata (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Megachile rotundata (F.) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) is the primary pollinator of alfalfa in the northwestern United States and western Canada and provides pollination services for onion, carrot, hybrid canola, various legumes and other specialty crops. Female M. rotundata are gregarious, nest in ca...

  10. Prewinter Management Affects Megachile rotundata (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) Prepupal Physiology and Adult Emergence and Survival

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata F. (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) is widely used as a pollinator for production of alfalfa seed, and populations of these bees can be maintained by alfalfa seed growers or can be purchased from mostly Canadian bee providers. Megachile rotundata raised i...

  11. Utilizing descriptive statements from the biodiversity heritage library to expand the Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology.

    PubMed

    Seltmann, Katja C; Pénzes, Zsolt; Yoder, Matthew J; Bertone, Matthew A; Deans, Andrew R

    2013-01-01

    Hymenoptera, the insect order that includes sawflies, bees, wasps, and ants, exhibits an incredible diversity of phenotypes, with over 145,000 species described in a corpus of textual knowledge since Carolus Linnaeus. In the absence of specialized training, often spanning decades, however, these articles can be challenging to decipher. Much of the vocabulary is domain-specific (e.g., Hymenoptera biology), historically without a comprehensive glossary, and contains much homonymous and synonymous terminology. The Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology was developed to surmount this challenge and to aid future communication related to hymenopteran anatomy, as well as provide support for domain experts so they may actively benefit from the anatomy ontology development. As part of HAO development, an active learning, dictionary-based, natural language recognition tool was implemented to facilitate Hymenoptera anatomy term discovery in literature. We present this tool, referred to as the 'Proofer', as part of an iterative approach to growing phenotype-relevant ontologies, regardless of domain. The process of ontology development results in a critical mass of terms that is applied as a filter to the source collection of articles in order to reveal term occurrence and biases in natural language species descriptions. Our results indicate that taxonomists use domain-specific terminology that follows taxonomic specialization, particularly at superfamily and family level groupings and that the developed Proofer tool is effective for term discovery, facilitating ontology construction. PMID:23441153

  12. Utilizing Descriptive Statements from the Biodiversity Heritage Library to Expand the Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology

    PubMed Central

    Seltmann, Katja C.; Pénzes, Zsolt; Yoder, Matthew J.; Bertone, Matthew A.; Deans, Andrew R.

    2013-01-01

    Hymenoptera, the insect order that includes sawflies, bees, wasps, and ants, exhibits an incredible diversity of phenotypes, with over 145,000 species described in a corpus of textual knowledge since Carolus Linnaeus. In the absence of specialized training, often spanning decades, however, these articles can be challenging to decipher. Much of the vocabulary is domain-specific (e.g., Hymenoptera biology), historically without a comprehensive glossary, and contains much homonymous and synonymous terminology. The Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology was developed to surmount this challenge and to aid future communication related to hymenopteran anatomy, as well as provide support for domain experts so they may actively benefit from the anatomy ontology development. As part of HAO development, an active learning, dictionary-based, natural language recognition tool was implemented to facilitate Hymenoptera anatomy term discovery in literature. We present this tool, referred to as the ‘Proofer’, as part of an iterative approach to growing phenotype-relevant ontologies, regardless of domain. The process of ontology development results in a critical mass of terms that is applied as a filter to the source collection of articles in order to reveal term occurrence and biases in natural language species descriptions. Our results indicate that taxonomists use domain-specific terminology that follows taxonomic specialization, particularly at superfamily and family level groupings and that the developed Proofer tool is effective for term discovery, facilitating ontology construction. PMID:23441153

  13. Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) as a potential natural enemy of corn-infesting Ulidiidae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A four-species complex of corn-infesting Ulidiidae (Diptera) are primary sweet corn pests in Florida. Few natural enemies of these flies are known. The pupal parasitoid Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae Rondani (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) was discovered in a laboratory colony of Euxesta eluta Loew (Dipte...

  14. Biology of Eurytoma Sivinskii, an unusual Eurytomid (Hymenoptera) parasitoid of fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) pupae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eurytomidae are diverse biologically, being entomophagous, phytophagous or both and typically attack egg, larval and/or pupal stages of their hosts. Here, we describe some aspects of the natural history of a recently described Mexican species, Eurytoma sivinskii (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae) found att...

  15. Biology of Eurytoma sivinskii, an unusual eurytomid (Hymenoptera) parasitoid of fruit fly (Diptera:Tephritidae) pupae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eurytomidae are diverse biologically, being entomophagous, phytophagous or both and typically attack egg, larval and/or pupal stages of their hosts. Here, we describe some aspects of the natural history of a recently described Mexican species, Eurytoma sivinskii (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae) found att...

  16. Production of Anagrus epos Girault (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae) on Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) eggs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anagrus epos Girault (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae) is a natural enemy candidate for a classical biological control program targeting the glassy-winged sharpshooter (GWSS), Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), in California. Little is known about A. epos biology or ecology when usi...

  17. Descriptions of three new species of Dzhanokmenia (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) from China.

    PubMed

    Li, Qin; Wang, Chao; Hu, Hong-Ying; Kostjukov, Viktor V; Salle, John La; Zhu, Chao-Dong

    2016-01-01

    Three new species of Dzhanokmenia Kostjukov (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae), D. muleica Li, Wang & Hu sp. n., D. karamayica Li, Wang & Zhu sp. n. and D. gobica Li, Wang & Zhu sp. n. from Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of China are described and illustrated. A key to all known species of the genus is provided. PMID:27395234

  18. Phylogenetic systematics and a revised generic classification of anthidiine bees (Hymenoptera: Megachile)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The bee tribe Anthidiini (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) is a large, cosmopolitan group of solitary bees that exhibit intriguing nesting behavior. We present the first molecular-based phylogenetic analysis of relationships within Anthidiini using model based methods and a large, multi-locus dataset (fiv...

  19. Cuticular Lipids of Female Solitary Bees, Osmia lignaria Say and Megachile rotundata (F.) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cuticular lipids of the cavity-nesting adult female solitary bees, Osmia lignaria Say and Megachile rotundata (F.) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and combined GC-mass spectrometry. The cuticular lipids of these female bees mainly consisted of hydrocarbons....

  20. The genus Arhaconotus Belokobylskij (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Doryctinae) from China, with description of a new species

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Pu; He, Jun-Hua; Chen, Xue-Xin

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The genus Arhaconotus Belokobylskij (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Doryctinae) is recorded for the first time from China. A new species of this genus, Arhaconotus hainanensis Tang & Chen, sp. n., is described and illustrated. A key to the species of this genus is updated to include the new species. PMID:21594016

  1. Chinese species of genus Notopygus Holmgren (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Ctenopelmatinae) with description of a new species.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shu-Ping; Sheng, Mao-Ling

    2014-01-01

    A new species, Notopygus longiventris Sun & Sheng, sp. n., collected from Benxi County, Liaoning Province, China, and N. emarginatus Holmgren, 1857, reared from Neurotoma sibirica Gussakovskij (Hymenoptera, Pamphiliidae) from Haicheng, Liaoning Province, are reported. The new species is placed within existing key to species. PMID:24693216

  2. Medium for development of bee cell cultures (Apis mellifera: Hymenoptera: Apidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A bee cell culture system was developed. A medium, WH2, for the production of cell cultures from hymenopteran species such as honey bee, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae) was developed. Multiple bee cell cultures were produced when using bee larvae and pupae as starting material and the modif...

  3. First record of the tramp ant Cardiocondyla obscurior (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) for Mississippi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cardiocondyla (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Myrmicinae) is an old world genus of omnivorous ants native to Africa and Asia. The genus Cardiocondyla includes several common tramp species that have spread globally with human commerce. A single alate female C. obscurior Wheeler was collected by J. M. Stro...

  4. The species of the genus Hypodynerus de Saussure (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Eumeninae) occurring in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Garcete-Barrett, Bolívar R; Hermes, Marcel Gustavo

    2013-01-01

    An identification table and descriptions are given to recognize the two species of Hypodynerus (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Eumeninae) recorded from Brazil: Hypodynerus arechavaletae (Brèthes) and Hypodynerus duckei (Bertoni) comb. n. The lectotype is designated and the male is described for Hypodynerus duckei, its presence being recorded from Brazil for the first time. PMID:23794876

  5. Cold Storage Effects on Maternal and Progeny Quality of Gonatocerus ashmeadi Girault (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study determined the effects of cold storage on the survival and development of the mymarid wasp, Gonatocerus ashmeadi Girault (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae), when stored within host eggs of the glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) under a daily fluct...

  6. Redescription of Chrysoctonus and description of Chrysoctonoides (Hymenoptera, Mymaridae), a new genus from the Australian Region

    PubMed Central

    Huber, John T.; Triapitsyn, Serguei

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Chrysoctonoides longisetosa Huber & Triapitsyn (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae), gen. n. and sp. n., is described from Australia. It is compared with the related genus Chrysoctonus, known from Africa and the New World. Myrmecomymar Yoshimoto, syn. n., is synonymized under Chrysoctonus Mathot and its type species is transferred to Chrysoctonus as Chrysoctonus masneri (Yoshimoto), comb. n. PMID:26052240

  7. Dinoponera lucida Emery (Formicidae: Ponerinae): the highest number of chromosomes known in Hymenoptera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariano, C. S. F.; Delabie, J. H. C.; Ramos, L. S.; Lacau, S.; Pompolo, S. G.

    We report the remarkable karyotype of Dinoponera lucida, a Brazilian endemic ponerine ant. Its chromosome number is 2n=106, most of the chromosomes are acrocentric and of very small size, and the karyotype formula is 88A+18M. A chromosome pair of the AMt type is reported. This is the largest number of chromosomes reported for the Hymenoptera order until now.

  8. Suitability and accessibility of immature Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) stages to Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a gregarious larval endoparasitoid, is one of three biocontrol agents from Asia currently being released in the United States to combat the invasive emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire. The current protocol for rearing T. ...

  9. Suitability of immature emerald ash borers to Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since first detected in Michigan in 2002, the emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire), a buprestid native to Asia, has killed millions of ash trees in northeastern North America and continues to expand into new areas. Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a gregar...

  10. Gall structure affects ecological associations of Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gall wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) induce structures (galls) on their host plants which house developing wasps and provide them with protection from natural enemies. The Asian chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu, is an invasive pest that is destructive to chestnut (Castanea spp.). ...

  11. Doryctinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) of Konza Prairie excluding species of Heterospilus Haliday

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The results of a survey of Doryctinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) at Konza Prairie, excluding species of Heterospilus Haliday, are reported. Eleven sites representing prairie and woodland/wetland areas, including gallery forest, were sampled in 2001 and 2005 using Malaise and canopy traps. Topographic...

  12. Health status of alfalfa leafcutting bee larvae (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) in commercial United States alfalfa seed fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We conducted a geographically large survey to quantify production losses in the alfalfa leafcutting bee (Megachile rotundata, Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), a solitary pollinator used extensively in alfalfa seed production. Healthy prepupae were found in only 47.1% of the nest cells collected at the en...

  13. Release and establishment of Encarsia diaspidicola (Hymenoptera:Aphelididae) against white peach scale in papaya

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    White peach scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Hemiptera:Diaspididae) is a serious economic pest of papaya, Carica papaya L. The parasitic wasp Encarsia diaspidicola (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) was brought from Samoa into a quarantine containment facility in Hawaii for evaluation and potential release...

  14. An update on the diversity of Wolbachia in Spalangia spp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infections of Wolbachia bacteria have the potential to improve the efficacy of their host insects as biological control agents. Results of an earlier study documented numerous cases of such infections in a beneficial guild of wasps (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) parasitic on pest flies affecting lives...

  15. The species of the genus Hypodynerus de Saussure (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Eumeninae) occurring in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Garcete-Barrett, Bolívar R.; Hermes, Marcel Gustavo

    2013-01-01

    Abstract An identification table and descriptions are given to recognize the two species of Hypodynerus (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Eumeninae) recorded from Brazil: Hypodynerus arechavaletae (Brèthes) and Hypodynerus duckei (Bertoni) comb. n. The lectotype is designated and the male is described for Hypodynerus duckei, its presence being recorded from Brazil for the first time. PMID:23794876

  16. Revision of the genus Paralipsis Foerster, 1863 (Hymenoptera, Braconidae), with the description of two new species.

    PubMed

    van Achterberg, Cornelis; Carrón, Nilo F Ortiz de Zugasti

    2016-01-01

    The Palaearctic genus Paralipsis Foerster, 1863 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae) is revised and two new species are described: Paralipsis tibiator van Achterberg & Ortiz de Zugasti, sp. n. from Spain and Paralipsis planus van Achterberg, sp. n. from the Netherlands. Some biological notes are supplied for Paralipsis tibiator sp. n. A key to the four known species is added and all species are illustrated. PMID:27551220

  17. Attraction to Old Nest Cues During Nest Selection by the Solitary Bee Megachile rotundata (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata F. (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), is an important pollinator for the commercial production of alfalfa seed. However, poor nest establishment is an ongoing problem for bee managers. Megachile rotundata are solitary, yet gregarious bees that nest in pre...

  18. Developing Methods to Evaluate Reproduction Rates of Pseudacteon curvatus (Diptera: Phoridae) in Solenopsis richteri (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The black imported fire ants Solenopsis richteri Buren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) is a major economic pest that has spread throughout United State. A great deal of interest exists in the potential for augmentative biological control agents in an effort to control its spread and reduce the damage prod...

  19. On the parasitoid complex of butterflies with descriptions of two new species of parasitic wasps (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) from Goa, India.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ankita; Gawas, Sandesh M; Bhambure, Ravindra

    2015-11-01

    In comprehensive rearing of butterflies from Goa, India, an interesting parasitoid complex of wasps and tachinid flies was found. Two new species of parasitic wasps are described and illustrated: Tetrastichus thetisae n. sp. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a gregarious parasitoid reared from the pupa of Curetis thetis (Drury) (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) on the host plant Derris sp., and Sympiesis thyrsisae n. sp. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a gregarious parasitoid reared from the caterpillar of Gangara thyrsis (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) on the host plant Cocos nucifera L. Additionally, the following host-parasitoid associations are recorded: Amblypodia anita Hewitson (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) with Parapanteles sp. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae); Coladenia indrani (Moore) (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) with Sympiesis sp. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae); Danaus chrysippus L. (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) with Sturmia convergens (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tachinidae); Idea malabarica Moore (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) with Brachymeria sp. (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae) and Palexorista sp. (Diptera: Tachinidae); Notocrypta curvifascia Felder & Felder (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) with Cotesia erionotae (Wilkinson) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae); and Rapala sp. (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) with an inominate species close to Aplomya spp. (Diptera: Tachinidae). This discovery is the first record of Tetrastichus as parasitoid of Curetis thetis, Sympiesis as parasitoid of Gangara thyrsis and Coladenia indrani, Brachymeria and Palexorista as parasitoids of Idea malabarica, and Cotesia erionotae as parasitoid of Notocrypta curvifascia. Data on habitat, brief diagnoses and host records for all parasitoids are provided. PMID:26446545

  20. "The Day All of the Different Parts of Me Can Come Along": Intersectionality and U.S. Third World Feminism in the Poetry of Pat Parker and Willyce Kim.

    PubMed

    Van Ausdall, Mimi Iimuro

    2015-01-01

    This article brings to light the poetry of Pat Parker and Willyce Kim, two key figures within the 1970s and '80s women in print movement. While Parker and Kim have been rightly placed within African-American and Asian-American histories, respectively, and working-class and lesbian-feminist literary histories, their work is most fully understood within the context of U.S. Third World Feminism. Through close readings of poetic form and content in addition to engagement with current debates about intersectionality as a methodology, the article links Kim and Parker's works to central contributions of U.S. Third World Feminism such as intersectionality and power across and within difference that continue to influence feminist theory today. PMID:26075687

  1. Selectivity of Organic Products to Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae).

    PubMed

    Amaro, J T; Bueno, A F; Pomari-Fernandes, A F; Neves, P M O J

    2015-10-01

    The selectivity of various entomopathogens and one insecticide (chlorpyrifos = positive control) to Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) was evaluated in the laboratory, using the protocol established by the Working Group on "Pesticides and Beneficial Organisms" of the IOBC. The evaluated parameters were parasitism (%), adult emergence (%), and product repellency to the parasitoid when sprayed on host eggs prior to parasitism (free-choice and no-choice tests). Most of the studied entomopathogens (Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki, Bacillus thuringiensis var. aizawai, Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae, and Trichoderma harzianum) had no effects on biological parameters and were classified as harmless to T. pretiosum. Emergence of parasitoids (progeny viability) was reduced, but remained above 90%, when host eggs were sprayed with Baculovirus anticarsia prior to parasitism in the free-choice test, and B. anticarsia was therefore considered harmless. Chlorpyrifos (positive control) caused high adult parasitoid mortality in all bioassays. While T. pretiosum and the tested entomopathogens may be used simultaneously in integrated pest management programs, the use of chlorpyrifos should be avoided. PMID:26267248

  2. Mitochondrial genome evolution in fire ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Complete mitochondrial genome sequences have become important tools for the study of genome architecture, phylogeny, and molecular evolution. Despite the rapid increase in available mitogenomes, the taxonomic sampling often poorly reflects phylogenetic diversity and is often also biased to represent deeper (family-level) evolutionary relationships. Results We present the first fully sequenced ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) mitochondrial genomes. We sampled four mitogenomes from three species of fire ants, genus Solenopsis, which represent various evolutionary depths. Overall, ant mitogenomes appear to be typical of hymenopteran mitogenomes, displaying a general A+T-bias. The Solenopsis mitogenomes are slightly more compact than other hymentoperan mitogenomes (~15.5 kb), retaining all protein coding genes, ribosomal, and transfer RNAs. We also present evidence of recombination between the mitogenomes of the two conspecific Solenopsis mitogenomes. Finally, we discuss potential ways to improve the estimation of phylogenies using complete mitochondrial genome sequences. Conclusions The ant mitogenome presents an important addition to the continued efforts in studying hymenopteran mitogenome architecture, evolution, and phylogenetics. We provide further evidence that the sampling across many taxonomic levels (including conspecifics and congeners) is useful and important to gain detailed insights into mitogenome evolution. We also discuss ways that may help improve the use of mitogenomes in phylogenetic analyses by accounting for non-stationary and non-homogeneous evolution among branches. PMID:20929580

  3. Hemocytes of the Rose Sawfly Arge ochropus (Gmelin) (Hymenoptera: Argidae).

    PubMed

    Khosravi, R; Sendi, J J; Brayner, F A; Alves, L C; Feitosa, A P S

    2016-02-01

    We characterized individual morphological types of the rose sawfly, Arge ochropus (Gmelin) (Hymenoptera: Argidae), hemocytes for the first time by means of light and differential interference contrast microscopy and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Four types of hemocytes were identified in the hemolymph of larvae and pupae of A. ochropus: prohemocytes, plasmatocytes, granulocytes, and oenocytoids. Prohemocytes are the smallest type of hemocytes, rounded to ovoid cells with large nuclei. Plasmatocytes are polymorphic and variable in size. Granulocytes are oval and spherical cells variable in size, with variable number of rough endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, and microtubules in the cytoplasm. Oenocytoids contain eccentric nucleus and cytoplasm with small mitochondria and few rough endoplasmic reticula. Differential hemocyte counts indicated that plasmatocytes are the most abundant hemocyte type during early instars while granulocytes are the most abundant hemocyte type in the last instar. The pattern of total hemocyte count changed during rose sawfly development and reached its peak in prepupae and then declined slowly in the pupal stage. PMID:26429582

  4. Maternal care in the parasitoid Sclerodermus harmandi (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae).

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhenjie; Zhao, Xingli; Li, Yisong; Liu, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Qingwen

    2012-01-01

    Guarding behavior is an important activity in sub-social insects, and this behavior is believed to improve the survival of offspring. Sclerodermus harmandi (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) is one of most powerful epizoic parasitoid wasps, and it parasitizes Monochamus alternatus, a borer of wood and also the primary vector of the pinewood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. After laying eggs, S. harmandi exhibits sub-social behavior involving the female tending the clutch of eggs until emergence (guarding behavior). In this study, the benefits of this maternal care with regard to improvements in the survival of offspring were examined. During the developmental stages, only offspring in the egg and larval stages were sensitive to guarding behavior. A positive relationship between the survival of the offspring and the duration of guarding was detected with logistic regression analysis. A female replacement experiment demonstrated that multiparous S. harmandi stepmothers showed guarding behavior and that this behavior improved the survival of the immature offspring, whereas nulliparous stepmothers failed to exhibit the guarding behavior. These results indicate that S. harmandi females display maternal care and that this behavior improves the survival of offspring. PMID:23251468

  5. Function and evolution of microRNAs in eusocial Hymenoptera

    PubMed Central

    Søvik, Eirik; Bloch, Guy; Ben-Shahar, Yehuda

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of eusociality (“true sociality”) in several insect lineages represents one of the most successful evolutionary adaptations in the animal kingdom in terms of species richness and global biomass. In contrast to solitary insects, eusocial insects evolved a set of unique behavioral and physiological traits such as reproductive division of labor and cooperative brood care, which likely played a major role in their ecological success. The molecular mechanisms that support the social regulation of behavior in eusocial insects, and their evolution, are mostly unknown. The recent whole-genome sequencing of several eusocial insect species set the stage for deciphering the molecular and genetic bases of eusociality, and the possible evolutionary modifications that led to it. Studies of mRNA expression patterns in the brains of diverse eusocial insect species have indicated that specific social behavioral states of individual workers and queens are often associated with particular tissue-specific transcriptional profiles. Here, we discuss recent findings that highlight the role of non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs) in modulating traits associated with reproductive and behavioral divisions of labor in eusocial insects. We provide bioinformatic and phylogenetic data, which suggest that some Hymenoptera-specific miRNA may have contributed to the evolution of traits important for the evolution of eusociality in this group. PMID:26074950

  6. Paridris Kieffer of the New World (Hymenoptera, Platygastroidea, Platygastridae)

    PubMed Central

    Talamas, Elijah J.; Masner, Lubomír; Johnson, Norman F.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Paridris in the New World is revised (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae). Fifteen species are described, of which 13 are new. Paridris aenea (Ashmead)(Mexico (Tamaulipas) and West Indies south to Bolivia and southern Brazil (Rio de Janeiro state)), Paridris armata Talamas, sp. n. (Venezuela), Paridris convexa Talamas, sp. n. (Costa Rica, Panama), Paridris dnophos Talamas, sp. n. (Mexico (Vera Cruz) south to Bolivia and central Brazil (Goiás)), Paridris gongylos Talamas & Masner, sp. n. (United States: Appalachian Mountains of Virginia, Tennessee, South Carolina), Paridris gorn Talamas & Masner, sp. n. (United States: Ohio south to Alabama, Georgia), Paridris invicta Talamas & Masner, sp. n. (Brazil: São Paulo), Paridris isabelicae Talamas & Masner, sp. n. (Cuba, Dominican Republic), Paridris lemete Talamas & Masner, sp. n. (Puerto Rico), Paridris minor Talamas, sp. n. (Cuba), Paridris nayakorum Talamas, sp. n. (Costa Rica), Paridris pallipes (Ashmead)(southeastern Canada, United States south to Costa Rica, also Brazil (São Paulo), Paridris psydrax Talamas & Masner, sp. n. (Argentina, Mexico, Paraguay, United States, Venezuela), Paridris saurotos Talamas, sp. n. (Jamaica), Paridris soucouyant Talamas & Masner, sp. n. (Colombia, Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela). Paridris brevipennis Fouts, Paridris laeviceps (Ashmead), and Paridris nigricornis (Fouts) are treated as junior synonyms of Paridris pallipes; Paridris opaca is transferred to Probaryconus. Lectotypes are designated for Idris aenea Ashmead and Caloteleia aenea Ashmead. PMID:23226959

  7. Revision of the Afrotropical species of Norbanus Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    PubMed

    Mitroiu, Mircea-Dan

    2015-01-01

    The Afrotropical species of Norbanus Walker, 1843 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) are revised. Four previously described Afrotropical species are recognized as valid and redescribed: N. africanus Subba Rao, 1973, N. garouae (Risbec, 1956) comb. nov. (transferred from Bruchobius Ashmead), N. kitegaensis (Risbec, 1957) and N. seyrigi (Risbec, 1952) comb. nov. (from Habrocytus Thomson). In addition, the Mediterranean species N. tenuicornis Bouček, 1970 is recorded for the first time from the Afrotropical region, and 21 species are described as new: N. aequus sp. nov., N. awi sp. nov., N. brevicephalus sp. nov., N. breviclava sp. nov., N. caloramans sp. nov., N. draco sp. nov., N. erebus sp. nov., N. foritempus sp. nov., N. gibber sp. nov., N. gracilis sp. nov., N. incombo sp. nov., N. ingens sp. nov., N. longissimus sp. nov., N. maliarphae sp. nov., N. mustatai sp. nov., N. pilosus sp. nov., N. pleuralis sp. nov., N. polaszeki sp. nov., N. prinslooi sp. nov., N. rotundus sp. nov., and N. sunabron sp. nov. Three extralimital species from North Africa are included in the key: N. cerasiops (Masi, 1922), N. guyoni (Giraud, 1869), and N. obscurus (Masi, 1922). Lectotypes are designated for N. cerasiops, N. kitegaensis and N. seyrigi. The subgenus Picroscytoides Masi is placed in synonymy with Norbanus s.s. syn. nov. Host records are given for several new species, including some economically important pests of maize, sorghum or rice. PMID:26249477

  8. Temperature-dependent emergence of Osmia cornifrons (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) adults.

    PubMed

    White, Joseph; Son, Youngsoo; Park, Yong-Lak

    2009-12-01

    Japanese hornfaced bees Osmia cornifrons (Radoszkowski) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) are used for pollination of spring blooming fruit crops such as apple, pear, and blueberry. Because O. cornifrons has a short adult life span, synchronization of bee emergence with bloom is critical to maximize crop pollination. This study was conducted to determine lower temperature thresholds (LTDs), optimum temperatures, and required degree-day accumulation for emergence of O. cornifrons adults. Patterns of temperature-dependent emergence of O. cornifrons adults at seven temperatures (3.9, 12.0, 18.6, 26.6, 30.3, 35.6, and 42.5 degrees C) were modeled and simulated with linear and nonlinear regression analyses. Results of this study showed that required degree-days (DD) for emergence of male and female O. cornifrons adults were 125.2 DD, with LTD of 8.9 degrees C and 179.8 DD, with LTD of 8.6 degrees C, respectively. The optimum temperatures for emergence were 36.5, 30.2, and 35.7 degrees C for male, female, and both sexes combined, respectively. This study indicated that emergence of O. cornifrons adults could be manipulated to synchronize with pollination periods of target fruit crops. PMID:20069827

  9. Catalogue of the ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) of Bulgaria

    PubMed Central

    Lapeva-Gjonova, Albena; Antonova, Vera; Radchenko, Alexander G.; Atanasova, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The present catalogue of the ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) of Bulgaria is made on a base of critical reconsideration of literature (covering the period from 1892 till 2009 and part of 2010) as well as on examination of the authors‘ and several museum‘s collections. A lot of data were omitted in the previous Bulgarian monograph on ants, lots of new data were recently added and many important additions and alterations were made due to taxonomic revisions of Eurasian Formicidae during the last three decades. Two new species are reported for the country [Temnothorax graecus (Forel, 1911) and Temnothorax cf. korbi (Emery, 1924)]. This catalogue contains a list of 163 ant species belonging to 40 genera of 6 subfamilies now known from Bulgaria. Synonyms and information on the previously reported names in relevant publications are given. Known localities of the species are grouped by geographic regions. Maps with concrete localities or regions for each species were prepared. The conservation status of 13 ant species is given as they are included in IUCN Red List of Threatened Species and Bulgarian Biodiversity Act. In comparison with adjacent Balkan regions the ant fauna of Bulgaria is quite rich and its core is composed of South European elements. PMID:21594018

  10. World species of the genus Platyscelio Kieffer (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae)

    PubMed Central

    Taekul, Charuwat; Johnson, Norman F.; Masner, Lubomír; Polaszek, Andrew; Rajmohana K.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The genus Platyscelio Kieffer (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae, Scelioninae) is a widespread group in the Old World, found from West Africa to northern Queensland, Australia. The species concepts are revised and a key to world species is presented. The genus is comprised of 6 species, including 2 known species which are redescribed: Platyscelio africanus Risbec (Benin, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Mozambique, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Yemen, Zimbabwe); and Platyscelio pulchricornis Kieffer (Australia, Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Solomon Islands, Taiwan, Thailand, Vanuatu, Vietnam). Five species-group names are considered to be junior synonyms of Platyscelio pulchricornis: Platyscelio abnormis Crawford syn. n., Platyscelio dunensis Mukerjee syn. n., Platyscelio mirabilis Dodd syn. n., Platyscelio punctatus Kieffer syn. n., and Platyscelio wilcoxi Fullaway. The following species are hypothesized and described as new taxa: Platyscelio arcuatus Taekul & Johnson, sp. n. (Western Australia); Platyscelio mysterium Taekul & Johnson, sp. n. (Zimbabwe, Botswana, South Africa); Platyscelio mzantsi Taekul & Johnson, sp. n. (South Africa); and Platyscelio striga Taekul & Johnson, sp. n. (Western Australia). PMID:21594118

  11. Detection of Drug-Induced Acute Kidney Injury in Humans Using Urinary KIM-1, miR-21, -200c, and -423.

    PubMed

    Pavkovic, Mira; Robinson-Cohen, Cassianne; Chua, Alicia S; Nicoara, Oana; Cárdenas-González, Mariana; Bijol, Vanesa; Ramachandran, Krithika; Hampson, Lucy; Pirmohamed, Munir; Antoine, Daniel J; Frendl, Gyorgy; Himmelfarb, Jonathan; Waikar, Sushrut S; Vaidya, Vishal S

    2016-07-01

    Drug-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) is often encountered in hospitalized patients. Although serum creatinine (SCr) is still routinely used for assessing AKI, it is known to be insensitive and nonspecific. Therefore, our objective was to evaluate kidney injury molecule 1 (KIM-1) in conjunction with microRNA (miR)-21, -200c, and -423 as urinary biomarkers for drug-induced AKI in humans. In a cross-sectional cohort of patients (n = 135) with acetaminophen (APAP) overdose, all 4 biomarkers were significantly (P < .004) higher not only in APAP-overdosed (OD) patients with AKI (based on SCr increase) but also in APAP-OD patients without clinical diagnosis of AKI compared with healthy volunteers. In a longitudinal cohort of patients with malignant mesothelioma receiving intraoperative cisplatin (Cp) therapy (n = 108) the 4 biomarkers increased significantly (P < .0014) over time after Cp administration, but could not be used to distinguish patients with or without AKI. Evidence for human proximal tubular epithelial cells (HPTECs) being the source of miRNAs in urine was obtained first, by in situ hybridization based confirmation of increase in miR-21 expression in the kidney sections of AKI patients and second, by increased levels of miR-21, -200c, and -423 in the medium of cultured HPTECs treated with Cp and 4-aminophenol (APAP degradation product). Target prediction analysis revealed 1102 mRNA targets of miR-21, -200c, and -423 that are associated with pathways perturbed in diverse pathological kidney conditions. In summary, we report noninvasive detection of AKI in humans by combining the sensitivity of KIM-1 along with mechanistic potentials of miR-21, -200c, and -423. PMID:27122240

  12. Fertility signals in the bumblebee Bombus terrestris (Hymenoptera: Apidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sramkova, A.; Schulz, C.; Twele, R.; Francke, W.; Ayasse, M.

    2008-06-01

    In eusocial Hymenoptera, queen control over workers is probably inseparable from the mechanism of queen recognition. In primitively eusocial bumblebees ( Bombus), worker reproduction is controlled not only by the presence or absence of a dominant queen but also by other dominant workers. Furthermore, it was shown that the queen dominance is maintained by pheromonal cues. We investigated whether there is a similar odor signal released by egg-laying queens and workers that may have a function as a fertility signal. We collected cuticular surface extracts from nest-searching and breeding Bombus terrestris queens and workers that were characterized by their ovarian stages. In chemical analyses, we identified 61 compounds consisting of aldehydes, alkanes, alkenes, and fatty acid esters. Nest-searching queens and all groups of breeding females differed significantly in their odor bouquets. Furthermore, workers before the competition point (time point of colony development where workers start to develop ovaries and lay eggs) differed largely from queens and all other groups of workers. Breeding queens showed a unique bouquet of chemical compounds and certain queen-specific compounds, and the differences toward workers decrease with an increasing development of the workers’ ovaries, hinting the presence of a reliable fertility signal. Among the worker groups, the smallest differences were found after the competition point. Egg-laying females contained higher total amounts of chemical compounds and of relative proportions of wax-type esters and aldehydes than nest-searching queens and workers before the competition point. Therefore, these compounds may have a function as a fertility signal present in queens and workers.

  13. Testing baits to control Argentine ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in vineyards.

    PubMed

    Daane, Kent M; Cooper, Monica L; Sime, Karen R; Nelson, Erik H; Battany, Mark C; Rust, Michael K

    2008-06-01

    Liquid baits were evaluated for control of the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), and associated mealybug and soft scale pests in California vineyards. In 2003, liquid baits with small doses ofimidacloprid, boric acid, or thiamethoxam dissolved in 25% sucrose water resulted in lower ant and mealybug densities and fruit damage, compared with an untreated control. Similar treatments in a soft scale-infested vineyard showed only a reduction of ant density and fruit infestation in only the boric acid and thiamethoxam treatments. In 2004, commercial and noncommercial formulations of liquid baits reduced ant densities in three separate trials, but they had inconsistent effects on mealybug densities and fruit infestation; granular protein bait had no effect. Using large plots and commercial application methodologies, liquid bait deployed in June resulted in lower ant density and fruit infestation, but it had no effect on mealybug density. Across all trials, liquid bait treatments resulted in lower ant density (12 of 14 trials) and fruit damage (11 of 14 sites), presenting the first report of liquid baits applied using commercial methodologies that resulted in a reduction of ants and their associated hemipteran crop damage. For commercialization of liquid baits, we showed that any of the tested insecticides can suppress Argentine ants when properly delivered in the crop system. For imidacloprid, bait dispensers must be protected from sunlight to reduce photodegradation. Results suggest that incomplete ant suppression can suppress mealybug densities. However, after ant populations are suppressed, there may be a longer period before hemipteran populations are effectively suppressed. Therefore, liquid baits should be considered part of a multiseason program rather than a direct, in-season control of hemipteran pest populations. PMID:18613568

  14. Relative attractiveness of baits to Paratrechina longicornis (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    PubMed

    Stanley, Margaret C; Robinson, Wayne A

    2007-04-01

    Exotic ant incursions are becoming more frequent around the globe, and management with toxic baits is a suitable strategy for most species. Crazy ants, (Latreille) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), however, are notoriously difficult to attract to commercial baits, which are generally tailored to the preferences of fire ants. We tested P. longicornis preferences for various food types and commercial ant baits. Baits trialed were commercially available products Amdro, Maxforce, Xstinguish (nontoxic monitoring version), Presto, and tuna (in spring water), sugar water (25%), boric acid (1% in 25% sugar water), and deionized water. Tuna and Xstinguish, along with sugar water and sugar water + boric acid, were the most attractive baits to P. longicornis foragers. The granular baits (Maxforce, Amdro, and Presto) were not as attractive to P. longicornis foragers. A decrease in temperature from summer (30 degrees C) to autumn (23 degrees C) trials did not seem to affect the food preferences of P. longicornis. Although P. longicornis recruitment was substantially lower during trials where there was concurrent high native ant abundance and diversity, P. longicornis still recruited to preferred baits in numbers higher than any other species. Given that tuna is impractical for management programs, the effectiveness of boric acid, sweet liquid baits in eliminating P. longicornis colonies should be compared with that of the toxic version of Xstinguish. If both are effective at eliminating colonies, we recommend sweet liquid baits containing boric acid be used for small-scale incursions (one or two nests), but a more practicable solid bait, such as Xstinguish, be used for larger scale incursions (numerous nests). PMID:17461077

  15. Genomic and karyotypic variation in Drosophila parasitoids (Hymenoptera, Cynipoidea, Figitidae).

    PubMed

    Gokhman, Vladimir E; Johnston, J Spencer; Small, Chiyedza; Rajwani, Roma; Hanrahan, Shawn J; Govind, Shubha

    2011-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster Meigen, 1830 has served as a model insect for over a century. Sequencing of the 11 additional Drosophila Fallen, 1823 species marks substantial progress in comparative genomics of this genus. By comparison, practically nothing is known about the genome size or genome sequences of parasitic wasps of Drosophila. Here, we present the first comparative analysis of genome size and karyotype structures of Drosophila parasitoids of the Leptopilina Förster, 1869 and Ganaspis Förster, 1869 species. The gametic genome size of Ganaspis xanthopoda (Ashmead, 1896) is larger than those of the three Leptopilina species studied. The genome sizes of all parasitic wasps studied here are also larger than those known for all Drosophila species. Surprisingly, genome sizes of these Drosophila parasitoids exceed the average value known for all previously studied Hymenoptera. The haploid chromosome number of both Leptopilina heterotoma (Thomson, 1862) and Leptopilina victoriae Nordlander, 1980 is ten. A chromosomal fusion appears to have produced a distinct karyotype for Leptopilina boulardi (Barbotin, Carton et Keiner-Pillault, 1979)(n = 9), whose genome size is smaller than that of wasps of the Leptopilina heterotoma clade. Like Leptopilina boulardi, the haploid chromosome number for Ganaspis xanthopoda is also nine. Our studies reveal a positive, but non linear, correlation between the genome size and total chromosome length in Drosophila parasitoids. These Drosophila parasitoids differ widely in their host range, and utilize different infection strategies to overcome host defense. Their comparative genomics, in relation to their exceptionally well-characterized hosts, will prove to be valuable for understanding the molecular basis of the host-parasite arms race and how such mechanisms shape the genetic structures of insectcommunities. PMID:24260630

  16. Cold storage of adult Gonatocerus ashmeadi Girault (Mymaridae: Hymenoptera) and effects on maternal and progeny fitness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ABSTRACT Storage of Gonatocerus ashmeadi Girault (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae) adults at 2, 5, and 10°C showed that these parasitoids do not survive at 2°C for 5 d, and exposure to 5 and 10°C shortens their lifespan. The LT50 (i.e., length of storage time for 50% wasp survival) at 5°C was 14 d ...

  17. Checklist of British and Irish Hymenoptera - aculeates (Apoidea, Chrysidoidea and Vespoidea)

    PubMed Central

    Else, George R.; Bolton, Barry

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The checklist of British and Irish aculeate Hymenoptera (Apoidea, Chrysidoidea and Vespoidea) is revised. Species distribution is summarised for all species at the level of country (England, Scotland, Wales, Ireland and Isle of Man). New information The 601 native species represent an increase of 25 on the 1978 checklist, comprising mostly new discoveries. This increase is nearly balanced by the 23 species now presumed to be extinct in Britain and Ireland. PMID:27226757

  18. Revision of the genus Paralipsis Foerster, 1863 (Hymenoptera, Braconidae), with the description of two new species

    PubMed Central

    van Achterberg, Cornelis; Carrón, Nilo F. Ortiz de Zugasti

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Palaearctic genus Paralipsis Foerster, 1863 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae) is revised and two new species are described: Paralipsis tibiator van Achterberg & Ortiz de Zugasti, sp. n. from Spain and Paralipsis planus van Achterberg, sp. n. from the Netherlands. Some biological notes are supplied for Paralipsis tibiator sp. n. A key to the four known species is added and all species are illustrated. PMID:27551220

  19. Four new species of Andricus Hartig oak gallwasp from Turkey (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae, Cynipini).

    PubMed

    Mutun, Serap; Dinç, Serdar; Bozsó, Miklós; Melika, George

    2014-01-01

    Four new species of oak gallwasps, Andricus ahmeti, A. anatolicus, A. bakrachus and A. turcicus (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae: Cynipini) are described from Turkey. All four species are known only from asexual females and induce galls on twigs and young shoots on Q. infectoria, Q. macranthera and Q. petraea. Data on the diagnosis, distribution and biology of the four new species are given. Andricus stonei and Aphelonyx kordestanica are listed for the first time for the Turkish oak gallwasp fauna. PMID:24870080

  20. Chemoreceptor Evolution in Hymenoptera and Its Implications for the Evolution of Eusociality

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiaofan; Rokas, Antonis; Berger, Shelley L.; Liebig, Jürgen; Ray, Anandasankar; Zwiebel, Laurence J.

    2015-01-01

    Eusocial insects, mostly Hymenoptera, have evolved unique colonial lifestyles that rely on the perception of social context mainly through pheromones, and chemoreceptors are hypothesized to have played important adaptive roles in the evolution of sociality. However, because chemoreceptor repertoires have been characterized in few social insects and their solitary relatives, a comprehensive examination of this hypothesis has not been possible. Here, we annotate ∼3,000 odorant and gustatory receptors in recently sequenced Hymenoptera genomes and systematically compare >4,000 chemoreceptors from 13 hymenopterans, representing one solitary lineage (wasps) and three independently evolved eusocial lineages (ants and two bees). We observe a strong general tendency for chemoreceptors to expand in Hymenoptera, whereas the specifics of gene gains/losses are highly diverse between lineages. We also find more frequent positive selection on chemoreceptors in a facultative eusocial bee and in the common ancestor of ants compared with solitary wasps. Our results suggest that the frequent expansions of chemoreceptors have facilitated the transition to eusociality. Divergent expression patterns of odorant receptors between honeybee and ants further indicate differential roles of chemoreceptors in parallel trajectories of social evolution. PMID:26272716

  1. Chemoreceptor Evolution in Hymenoptera and Its Implications for the Evolution of Eusociality.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaofan; Rokas, Antonis; Berger, Shelley L; Liebig, Jürgen; Ray, Anandasankar; Zwiebel, Laurence J

    2015-08-01

    Eusocial insects, mostly Hymenoptera, have evolved unique colonial lifestyles that rely on the perception of social context mainly through pheromones, and chemoreceptors are hypothesized to have played important adaptive roles in the evolution of sociality. However, because chemoreceptor repertoires have been characterized in few social insects and their solitary relatives, a comprehensive examination of this hypothesis has not been possible. Here, we annotate ∼3,000 odorant and gustatory receptors in recently sequenced Hymenoptera genomes and systematically compare >4,000 chemoreceptors from 13 hymenopterans, representing one solitary lineage (wasps) and three independently evolved eusocial lineages (ants and two bees). We observe a strong general tendency for chemoreceptors to expand in Hymenoptera, whereas the specifics of gene gains/losses are highly diverse between lineages. We also find more frequent positive selection on chemoreceptors in a facultative eusocial bee and in the common ancestor of ants compared with solitary wasps. Our results suggest that the frequent expansions of chemoreceptors have facilitated the transition to eusociality. Divergent expression patterns of odorant receptors between honeybee and ants further indicate differential roles of chemoreceptors in parallel trajectories of social evolution. PMID:26272716

  2. Conservation of novel Mahya genes shows the existence of neural functions common between Hymenoptera and Deuterostome.

    PubMed

    Tsuchimoto, Mayumi; Yasuo, Shinobu; Funada, Masahiro; Aoki, Makoto; Sasagawa, Hiromi; Yoshimura, Takashi; Tadauchi, Osamu; Cameron, Sydney A; Kitagawa, Yasuo; Kadowaki, Tatsuhiko

    2005-11-01

    Honeybees have been shown to exhibit cognitive performances that were thought to be specific to some vertebrates. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms of such cognitive abilities of the bees have not been understood. We have identified a novel gene, Mahya, expressed in the brain of the honeybee, Apis mellifera, and other Hymenoptera. Mahya orthologues are present in Deuterostomes but are absent or highly diverged in nematodes and, intriguingly, in two dipteran insects (fruit fly and mosquito) and Lepidoptera (silk moth). Mahya genes encode novel secretory proteins with a follistatin-like domain (Kazal-type serine/threonine protease inhibitor domain and EF-hand calcium-binding domain), two immunoglobulin domains, and a C-terminal novel domain. Honeybee Mahya is expressed in the mushroom bodies and antennal lobes of the brain. Zebra fish Mahya orthologues are expressed in the olfactory bulb, telencephalon, habenula, optic tectum, and cerebellum of the brain. Mouse Mahya orthologues are expressed in the olfactory bulb, hippocampus, and cerebellum of the brain. These results suggest that Mahya may be involved in learning and memory and in processing of sensory information in Hymenoptera and vertebrates. Furthermore, the limited existence of Mahya in the genomes of Hymenoptera and Deuterostomes supports the hypothesis that the genes typically represented by Mahya were lost or highly diverged during the evolution of the central nervous system of specific Bilaterian branches under the specific selection and subsequent adaptation associated with different ecologies and life histories. PMID:16193321

  3. Can the Understory Affect the Hymenoptera Parasitoids in a Eucalyptus Plantation?

    PubMed Central

    Dall’Oglio, Onice Teresinha; Ribeiro, Rafael Coelho; Ramalho, Francisco de Souza; Fernandes, Flávio Lemes; Wilcken, Carlos Frederico; de Assis Júnior, Sebastião Lourenço; Rueda, Rosa Angélica Plata; Serrão, José Eduardo; Zanuncio, José Cola

    2016-01-01

    The understory in forest plantations can increase richness and diversity of natural enemies due to greater plant species richness. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that the presence of the understory and climatic season in the region (wet or dry) can increase the richness and abundance of Hymenoptera parasitoids in Eucalyptus plantations, in the municipality of Belo Oriente, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. In each eucalyptus cultivation (five areas of cultivation) ten Malaise traps were installed, five with the understory and five without it. A total of 9,639 individuals from 30 families of the Hymenoptera parasitoids were collected, with Mymaridae, Scelionidae, Encyrtidae and Braconidae being the most collected ones with 4,934, 1,212, 619 and 612 individuals, respectively. The eucalyptus stands with and without the understory showed percentage of individuals 45.65% and 54.35% collected, respectively. The understory did not represent a positive effect on the overall abundance of the individuals Hymenoptera in the E. grandis stands, but rather exerted a positive effect on the specific families of the parasitoids of this order. PMID:26954578

  4. Effective population size in eusocial Hymenoptera with worker-produced males

    PubMed Central

    Nomura, T; Takahashi, J

    2012-01-01

    In many eusocial Hymenoptera, a proportion of males are produced by workers. To assess the effect of male production by workers on the effective population size Ne, a general expression of Ne in Hymenoptera with worker-produced males is derived on the basis of the genetic drift in the frequency of a neutral allele. Stochastic simulation verifies that the obtained expression gives a good prediction of Ne under a wide range of conditions. Numerical computation with the expression indicates that worker reproduction generally reduces Ne. The reduction can be serious in populations with a unity or female-biased breeding sex ratio. Worker reproduction may increase Ne in populations with a male-biased breeding sex ratio, only if each laying worker produce a small number of males and the difference of male progeny number among workers is not large. Worker reproduction could be an important cause of the generally lower genetic variation found in Hymenoptera, through its effect on Ne. PMID:22948186

  5. Expression of odorant-binding proteins and chemosensory proteins in some Hymenoptera.

    PubMed

    Calvello, M; Brandazza, A; Navarrini, A; Dani, F R; Turillazzi, S; Felicioli, A; Pelosi, P

    2005-04-01

    The expression of chemosensory proteins (CSPs) and odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) in individuals of different castes and ages have been monitored in three species of social hymenopterans, Polistes dominulus (Hymenoptera, Vespidae), Vespa crabro (Hymenoptera, Vespidae) and Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera, Apidae), using PCR with specific primers and polyclonal antibodies. In the paper wasp P. dominulus, OBP is equally expressed in antennae, wings and legs of all castes and ages, while CSP is often specifically present in antennae and in some cases also in legs. In the vespine species V. crabro CSP is antennal specific, while OBP is also expressed in legs and wings. The three CSPs and the five OBPs of A. mellifera show a complex pattern of expression, where both classes of proteins include members specifically expressed in antennae and others present in other parts of the body. These data indicate that at least in some hymenopteran species CSPs are specifically expressed in antennae and could perform roles in chemosensory perception so far assigned only to OBPs. PMID:15763466

  6. A new species of Crinibracon Quicke (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) parasitic on pupae of Hasora chromus (Cramer) (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) from India.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ankita; Achterberg, Cornelis Van; Chitrala, Malathi

    2016-01-01

    A new species, Crinibracon chromusae Gupta & van Achterberg sp. n., parasitic on pupae of Hasora chromus (Cramer) (Hesperiidae) on Millettia (= Pongamia) pinnata (L.) Panigrahi (Fabaceae), is described from India and compared with C. sinicus (Yang, Chen & Liu, 2008) from China, the only other species known with a similar general appearance. For the first time biological information for the genus Crinibracon Quicke, 1988, is given. Three species of hyperparasitoids, Philolema braconidis (Ferrière) (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae), Nesolynx javanica Ferrière (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), and an Eupelmus sp. (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae) emerged along with C. chromusae sp. n. from pupae of H. chromus. The generic placement of this new species along with interesting parasitoid biology is discussed. PMID:27615886

  7. Urinary Vitamin D Binding Protein and KIM-1 Are Potent New Biomarkers of Major Adverse Renal Events in Patients Undergoing Coronary Angiography

    PubMed Central

    Chaykovska, Lyubov; Heunisch, Fabian; von Einem, Gina; Alter, Markus L.; Hocher, Carl-Friedrich; Tsuprykov, Oleg; Dschietzig, Thomas; Kretschmer, Axel; Hocher, Berthold

    2016-01-01

    Background Vitamin-D-binding protein (VDBP) is a low molecular weight protein that is filtered through the glomerulus as a 25-(OH) vitamin D 3/VDBP complex. In the normal kidney VDBP is reabsorbed and catabolized by proximal tubule epithelial cells reducing the urinary excretion to trace amounts. Acute tubular injury is expected to result in urinary VDBP loss. The purpose of our study was to explore the potential role of urinary VDBP as a biomarker of an acute renal damage. Method We included 314 patients with diabetes mellitus or mild renal impairment undergoing coronary angiography and collected blood and urine before and 24 hours after the CM application. Patients were followed for 90 days for the composite endpoint major adverse renal events (MARE: need for dialysis, doubling of serum creatinine after 90 days, unplanned emergency rehospitalization or death). Results Increased urine VDBP concentration 24 hours after contrast media exposure was predictive for dialysis need (no dialysis: 113.06 ± 299.61ng/ml, n = 303; need for dialysis: 613.07 ± 700.45 ng/ml, n = 11, Mean ± SD, p<0.001), death (no death during follow-up: 121.41 ± 324.45 ng/ml, n = 306; death during follow-up: 522.01 ± 521.86 ng/ml, n = 8; Mean ± SD, p<0.003) and MARE (no MARE: 112.08 ± 302.00ng/ml, n = 298; MARE: 506.16 ± 624.61 ng/ml, n = 16, Mean ± SD, p<0.001) during the follow-up of 90 days after contrast media exposure. Correction of urine VDBP concentrations for creatinine excretion confirmed its predictive value and was consistent with increased levels of urinary Kidney Injury Molecule-1 (KIM-1) and baseline plasma creatinine in patients with above mentioned complications. The impact of urinary VDBP and KIM-1 on MARE was independent of known CIN risk factors such as anemia, preexisting renal failure, preexisting heart failure, and diabetes. Conclusions Urinary VDBP is a promising novel biomarker of major contrast induced nephropathy-associated events 90 days after contrast media

  8. Analysis of the coexisting pathways for NO and N2O formation in Chernozem using the (15)N-tracer SimKIM-Advanced model.

    PubMed

    Stange, Claus Florian; Spott, Oliver; Russow, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    The nitrogen (N) cycle consists of a variety of microbial processes. These processes often occur simultaneously in soils, but respond differently to local environmental conditions due to process-specific biochemical restrictions (e.g. oxygen levels). Hence, soil nitrogen cycling (e.g. soil N gas production through nitrification and denitrification) is individually affected through these processes, resulting in the complex and highly dynamic behaviour of total soil N turnover. The development and application of methods that facilitate the quantification of individual contributions of coexisting processes is a fundamental prerequisite for (i) understanding the dynamics of soil N turnover and (ii) implementing these processes in ecosystem models. To explain the unexpected results of the triplet tracer experiment (TTE) of Russow et al. (Role of nitrite and nitric oxide in the processes of nitrification and denitrification in soil: results from (15)N tracer experiments. Soil Biol Biochem. 2009;41:785-795) the existing SimKIM model was extended to the SimKIM-Advanced model through the addition of three separate nitrite subpools associated with ammonia oxidation, oxidation of organic nitrogen (Norg), and denitrification, respectively. For the TTE, individual treatments with (15)N ammonium, (15)N nitrate, and (15)N nitrite were conducted under oxic, hypoxic, and anoxic conditions, respectively, to clarify the role of nitric oxide as a denitrification intermediate during N2O formation. Using a split nitrite pool, this analysis model explains the observed differences in the (15)N enrichments in nitric oxide (NO) and nitrous oxide (N2O) which occurred in dependence on different oxygen concentrations. The change from oxic over hypoxic to anoxic conditions only marginally increased the NO and N2O release rates (1.3-fold). The analysis using the model revealed that, under oxic and hypoxic conditions, Norg-based N2O production was the dominant pathway, contributing to 90 and 50

  9. Biology and life history of Balcha indica (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae), an ectoparasitoid attacking the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Balcha indica (Hymenoptera:Eupelmidae) is a solitary ectoparasitoid attacking larvae, prepupae, and pupae of the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire). Its fecundity, oviposition rate, longevity and development time were determined in the laboratory. Lifetime fecundity averaged 36 eggs...

  10. Feasibility of using an alternative larval host and host plants to establish Cotesia flavipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in the temperate Louisiana sugarcane ecosystem

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although successfully introduced and established in sugarcane fields around the world, attempts to establish Cotesia flavipes (Cameron) (Hymenoptera: Bracondiae) in the temperate sugarcane fields of Louisiana as a parasitoid of the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) ...

  11. Cryptic species of parasitoids attacking the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), in Asia: Binodoxys communis Gahan and Binodoxys koreanus Stary sp. n. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Collections of parasitoids attacking the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines, in Korea yielded a population that was originally identified as Binodoxys communis Gahan (Hymenoptera; Braconidae: Aphidiinae) based upon current identification keys. Our laboratory studies indicated that this population is act...

  12. Tanzawana flavomaculata (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Ctenopelmatinae), a new genus and species of parasitoid of Fagineura crenativora (Tenthredinidae, Nematinae), a serious pest of beech tree.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Kyohei; Taniwaki, Tooru; Kasparyan, Dmitri

    2015-01-01

    We describe a new genus, and a new species, of parasitoid--Tanzawana flavomaculata Watanabe & Kasparyan (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Ctenopelmatinae)--based on material collected in Honshu, Japan. As T. flavomaculata is found on Fagineura crenativora Vikberg & Zinovjev, 2000 (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae), a serious pest of beech tree, this parasitoid is an important natural enemy of F. crenativora that can be used for the biological control of this pest. PMID:26624663

  13. Description of immature stages of Eurytoma sivinskii Gates and Grissell (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae), an ectoparasitoid of Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) pupae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We describe and illustrate for the first time the egg, larva and pupa of Eurytoma sivinskii Gates and Grissell (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae), a parasitoid that attacks Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) pupae in Veracruz, Mexico. Using lab-reared A. ludens (Loew) pupae as hosts, we obtained all immature st...

  14. Methyl 6-methylsalicylate: A female-produced pheromone component of the parasitoid wasp Spalangia endius (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sex pheromone-related behavior and chemistry were studied in the wasp Spalangia endius Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), a pupal parasitoid of house flies Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae). Males responded behaviorally to female extracts by arrestment, whereas females did not arrest to male e...

  15. Field Control of the Invasive Ant Wasmannia auropunctata (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in a Tropical Fruit Orchard in Hawaii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The little fire ant (LFA), Wasmannia auropunctata (Roger) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) is an invasive ant that forms supercolonies when it successfully invades new areas. LFA was first reported in Hawaii in 1999 and has since invaded a variety of agricultural sites including nurseries, tropical fruit f...

  16. Allomermis solenopsii n. sp. (Mermithidae: Nematoda) parasitizing the fire ant Solenopsis invicta Buren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Argentina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new species of mermithid nematode, Allomermis solenopsii, (Mermithidae: Nematoda) is described from the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Argentina. This is the first record of Allomermis from South America and the first host record for members of this genus. Previo...

  17. A new species of Tamarixia Mercet (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae), parasitoid of Trioza aguacate Hollis & Martin (Hemiptera, Triozidae) in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Yefremova, Zoya; González-Santarosa, Graciela; Lomeli-Flores, J. Refugio; Bautista-Martínez, Néstor

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Tamarixia aguacatensis Yefremova, sp. n. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae) is described from Mexico as a parasitoid of the avocado psyllid, Trioza aguacate Hollis & Martin (Hemiptera: Triozidae). Trioza aguacate is a serious pest of avocado, Persea americana Miller. A key to the species of Tamarixia Mercet in Mexico is given. PMID:24478580

  18. Landing surface color preferences of Spathius agrili (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a parasitoid of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The color preferences for landing surfaces were examined for Spathius agrili Yang (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a parasitic wasp introduced for biocontrol of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). Lures with the 3-component pheromone blend of male S. agrili were use...

  19. USBombus, a database of contemporary survey data for North American Bumble Bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Bombus) distributed in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper describes USBombus, a large dataset that represents the outcomes of one of the largest standardized surveys of bee pollinators (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Bombus) globally. The motivation to collect live bumble bees across the US was to examine the decline and conservation status of Bombus affi...

  20. A new species of Tamarixia Mercet (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae), parasitoid of Trioza aguacate Hollis & Martin (Hemiptera, Triozidae) in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Yefremova, Zoya; González-Santarosa, Graciela; Lomeli-Flores, J Refugio; Bautista-Martínez, Néstor

    2014-01-01

    Tamarixia aguacatensis Yefremova, sp. n. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae) is described from Mexico as a parasitoid of the avocado psyllid, Trioza aguacate Hollis & Martin (Hemiptera: Triozidae). Trioza aguacate is a serious pest of avocado, Persea americana Miller. A key to the species of Tamarixia Mercet in Mexico is given. PMID:24478580

  1. The effect of photobleaching on bee (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) setae color and its implications for studying aging and behavior

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies of foraging ecology and plant-pollinator interactions benefit from a number of bee (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) characteristics including morphometric measurements, natural history and age. Historically, bee age has been estimated using measurements of wing wear and integument color change. Wing w...

  2. Ground Ant Diversity (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in the Iberá Nature Reserve, the Largest Wetland of Argentina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Iberá Nature Reserve in northeastern Argentina protects one of the largest freshwater wetlands and reservoirs of species in South America. However, key invertebrate groups such as the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) remain almost unknown. The main objective of this work was to study the ground an...

  3. Linear dispersal of the filth fly parasitoid spalangia cameroni (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) and parasitism of hosts at increasing distances

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spalangia cameroni Perkins (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) is a common pupal parasitoid of pest flies in livestock facilities. Biological control for fly control using parasitoids has had variable success. The lack of efficacy in some trials may be a consequence of the insufficient knowledge of parasi...

  4. Review of the genus Metopheltes Uchida, 1932 (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae) with description of a new species from Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Reshchikov, Alexey; van Achterberg, Kees

    2014-01-01

    A new species of the genus Metopheltes Uchida (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae, Ctenopelmatinae), Metopheltesclypeoarmatus sp. n. is described from Vietnam. Metopheltespetiolaris Uchida, 1932 is recorded for the first time from the Russian Far East. The other previously described species are also illustrated and discussed. PMID:24891821

  5. Distribution of 18S rDNA sites and absence of the canonical TTAGG insect telomeric repeat in parasitoid Hymenoptera.

    PubMed

    Gokhman, Vladimir E; Anokhin, Boris A; Kuznetsova, Valentina G

    2014-08-01

    Karyotypes of six species belonging to three main clades of parasitoid Hymenoptera, the superfamilies Ichneumonoidea (Ichneumonidae: Ichneumon amphibolus), Cynipoidea (Cynipidae: Diplolepis rosae) and Chalcidoidea (Eurytomidae: Eurytoma robusta, Eu. serratulae and Eu. compressa, and Torymidae: Torymus bedeguaris) were studied using FISH with 18S rDNA and telomeric (TTAGG)n probes. Haploid karyotypes of D. rosae, Eu. robusta and Eu. serratulae carried the only 18S rDNA hybridization signal, whereas those of I. amphibolus and Eu. compressa carried three and two rDNA clusters respectively. In addition, three rDNA sites were visualized in the aneuploid female of T. bedeguaris. The number of rDNA clusters in parasitoid Hymenoptera generally correlates to the chromosome number. Apart from the overwhelming majority of the studied species of aculeate Hymenoptera, no hybridization signals were obtained from FISH with the telomeric (TTAGG)n probe in the examined parasitoid species. These data suggest absence of the canonical (TTAGG)n insect telomeric motif in the Ichneumonoidea, Cynipoidea and Chalcidoidea, and perhaps in parasitoid Hymenoptera in general. PMID:24992984

  6. Biology and life history of Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a larval endoparasitoid of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera:Eulophidae) is a gregarious larval endoparasitoid from China that is being released in North America in an effort to control the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire), an exotic beetle responsible for widespread ash mortality. The developmental tim...

  7. A chemical lure for stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) is used as a kairomone by Astata occidentalis (Hymenoptera: sphecidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The digger wasp Astata occidentalis Cresson (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae) is a predator of pentatomid stink bugs (Hemiptera). In the states of Washington and Georgia, adult females were consistently captured in the field in traps baited with lures that included methyl (E,E,Z)-2,4,6-decatrienoate, a comp...

  8. A taxonomic review of the genus Dolichomitus Smith (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Pimplinae) from South Korea with descriptions of two new species.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jin-Kyung; Kolarov, Janko; Jeong, Jong-Chul; Lee, Jong-Wook

    2016-01-01

    Nineteen species of the genus Dolichomitus Smith (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Pimplinae) are recognized from South Korea, including 15 newly recorded species as well as two species new to science, Dolichomitus koreanus sp. nov., and D. rufinus sp. nov., A key to the species of the genus Dolichomitus in South Korea is provided, together with diagnostic illustrations. PMID:27395664

  9. Conserving natural enemies with flowering plants: estimating floral attractiveness to parasitic Hymenoptera and attractions relationship to flower and plant morphology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flowering plants in agricultural landscapes can provide ecological services, such as nectar-food for adult parasitic Hymenoptera. Various native, introduced/established and cultivated potted plants-in-flower were used to bait interception traps along the wooded margins of fields planted seasonally w...

  10. Review of species of the genus Adelurola Strand, 1928, with a key to species (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Alysiinae)

    PubMed Central

    Peris-Felipo, Francisco Javier; Yari, Zahra; van Achterberg, Cornelis; Ehsan Rakhshani; Belokobylskij, Sergey A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The alysiine genus Adelurola Strand, 1928 (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) is revised. Illustrated re-descriptions and a key to all known species of this genus are given. The following new combination is proposed: Dapsilarthra eurys (Chen & Wu, 1994), comb. n. Adelurola amplidens (Fischer, 1966) and Adelurola asiatica Telenga, 1935 are recorded for the first time from Iran and Kyrgyzstan, respectively. PMID:27047244

  11. Induction of reproductive diapause in Habrobracon hebetor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) when reared at different photoperiods at low temperatures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development of the parasitoid Habrobracon hebetor Say (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) at low temperatures was determined to identify rearing conditions that might result in adults that were in reproductive diapause. Diapausing adults would be expected to survive cold storage longer than non-diapausing adu...

  12. Parasitism of Megacopta cribraria (Hemiptera: Plataspidae)by Paratelenomus saccharalis (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) in organic soybean plots in Georgia, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The kudzu bug, Megacopta cribraria (F.) (Hemiptera: Plataspidae), is a newly-invasive exotic pest of soybean in the southeastern US. In 2013, the exotic egg parasitoid Paratelenomus saccharalis (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) (Dodd) was discovered parasitizing eggs of this pest in kudzu and soybean in...

  13. The effect of linear distance on the parasitism of house fly hosts (Diptera: Muscidae) by Spalangia cameroni (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spalangia cameroni Perkins (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) is a common pupal parasitoid of pest flies in livestock facilities. Biological control for fly control using parasitoids has had variable success. The lack of efficacy in some trials may be a consequence of the insufficient knowledge of parasi...

  14. Species diagnostic single-nucleotide polymorphism and sequence-tagged site markers for the parasitic WASP Genus Nasonia (Hymenoptera: Ptermalidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We developed, identified and evaluated eight single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and three sequence-tagged site (STS) markers in nuclear gene sequences of the wasp genus Nasonia (Hymenoptera). We studied variation of these markers in natural populations of the closely related and regionally sympatr...

  15. Comparative Performance of Two Mite-Resistant Stocks of Honey Bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in Alabama Beekeeping Operations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The utility of USDA-developed Russian and varroa sensitive hygiene (VSH) honey bees, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), was compared to that of locally produced, commercial Italian bees during 2004-2006 in beekeeping operations in Alabama, USA. Infestations of varroa mites, Varroa destructor ...

  16. Solenopsis invicta virus (sinv-1) infection and insecticide interactions in the red imported fire ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Controlling invasive species is a growing concern; however, pesticides can be detrimental for non-target organisms. The red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta Buren; Hymenoptera: Formicidae) has aggressively invaded approximately 138 million ha in the USA and causes over $6 billion in damage and ...

  17. Kodamaea ohmeri (Ascomycota: Saccharomycotina) presence in commercial Bombus impatiens Cresson and feral Bombus pensylvanicus DeGeer (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, eight commercial and three feral bumble bee (Bombus impatiens Cresson and Bombus pensylvanicus DeGeer respectively, Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies were tested for the presence of Kodamaea ohmeri (Ascomycota: Saccharomycotina), a yeast known to attract small hive beetles (SHB) (Aethina ...

  18. Hymenoptera of Afghanistan and the central command area of operations: assessing the threat to deployed U.S. service members with insect venom hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Turbyville, Joseph C; Dunford, James C; Nelson, Michael R

    2013-01-01

    Insect venom hypersensitivity can pose a threat to personnel deployed to a combat zone but the exposure risk in Afghanistan is currently unknown. This study was designed to assess the threat of Hymenoptera stings and associated allergic reactions in Afghanistan. Hymenoptera species were collected during a deployment to southern Afghanistan from June 2010 through January 2011. The literature was also reviewed to determine species of medically important Hymenoptera recorded in the region. The U.S. Army theater electronic medical data system was mined for ICD-9 codes associated with insect stings to determine the number of theater medical clinic encounters addressing insect sting reactions. Three species of flying hymenoptera were commonly encountered during the study period: Vespa orientalis L., Polistes wattii Cameron, and Vespula germanica (F.). A literature review also confirms the presence of honeybees (Apidae), numerous velvet ant (Mutillidae) species, and various ant (Formicidae) species all capable of stinging. No evidence was identified to suggest that fire ants (Solenopsis ssp.) are a threat in the region. Based on electronic medical records from the U.S. Central Command area of operations over a 2-year period, roughly 1 in 500 clinic visits involved a patient with a diagnosis of insect bite or sting. Cross-reactive members of all five flying Hymenoptera species commonly assessed for in Hymenoptera allergy evaluations are present in Afghanistan. The review of in-theater medical records confirms that insect stings pose an environmental threat to deployed service members. PMID:23484895

  19. Kim Davis: A Mother's Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudecki, Michael S.

    2000-01-01

    Presents a discussion case in which parents must decide whether or not to enroll their sons in an experimental treatment program for muscular dystrophy. Identifies teaching objectives and discusses the key issues of the case--muscle structure and function, muscular dystrophy, scientists and money, scientific method and the FDA, and family health…

  20. Three new Afrotropical species of Tersilochinae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) from the Kibale National Park, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Khalaim, Andrey I; Sääksjärvi, Ilari E; Roininen, Heikki

    2014-01-01

    Seven species of Tersilochinae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) have been found from Uganda in Equatorial Africa: Allophrys budongoana Khalaim, Diaparsis interstitialis Khalaim, D. kanyawara sp. nov., D. mostovskii Khalaim, D. sinuator sp. nov., D. umbrosa sp. nov. and Tersilochus moestus Holmgren. Two species of Diaparsis, described in this paper, possess a white banded flagellum, and a key to the group of four Afrotropical species having a white-banded flagellum is provided. Tersilochus moestus Holmgren, previously known only from a single female from South Africa, is recorded from the Kibale National Park, Uganda. Antennae and ovipositor of this species, broken in the type specimen, are described for the first time.  PMID:24870341

  1. Evolution of Cuticular Hydrocarbons in the Hymenoptera: a Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Kather, Ricarda; Martin, Stephen J

    2015-10-01

    Chemical communication is the oldest form of communication, spreading across all forms of life. In insects, cuticular hydrocarbons (CHC) function as chemical cues for the recognition of mates, species, and nest-mates in social insects. Although much is known about the function of individual hydrocarbons and their biosynthesis, a phylogenetic overview is lacking. Here, we review the CHC profiles of 241 species of Hymenoptera, one of the largest and most important insect orders, which includes the Symphyta (sawflies), the polyphyletic Parasitica (parasitoid wasps), and the Aculeata (wasps, bees, and ants). We investigated whether these taxonomic groups differed in the presence and absence of CHC classes and whether the sociality of a species (solitarily vs. social) had an effect on CHC profile complexity. We found that the main CHC classes (i.e., n-alkanes, alkenes, and methylalkanes) were all present early in the evolutionary history of the Hymenoptera, as evidenced by their presence in ancient Symphyta and primitive Parasitica wasps. Throughout all groups within the Hymenoptera, the more complex a CHC the fewer species that produce it, which may reflect the Occam's razor principle that insects' only biosynthesize the most simple compound that fulfil its needs. Surprisingly, there was no difference in the complexity of CHC profiles between social and solitary species, with some of the most complex CHC profiles belonging to the Parasitica. This profile complexity has been maintained in the ants, but some specialization in biosynthetic pathways has led to a simplification of profiles in the aculeate wasps and bees. The absence of CHC classes in some taxa or species may be due to gene silencing or down-regulation rather than gene loss, as demonstrated by sister species having highly divergent CHC profiles, and cannot be predicted by their phylogenetic history. The presence of highly complex CHC profiles prior to the vast radiation of the social Hymenoptera indicates a

  2. Aspilota-group (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Alysiinae) diversity in Mediterranean Natural Parks of Spain

    PubMed Central

    Belokobylskij, Sergey A; Falcó-Garí, Jose Vicente; Jiménez-Peydró, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This work analyses the biodiversity of the Aspilota-group (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Alysiinae) in three Mediterranean Natural parks: Natural Park of La Font Roja, Natural Park of Las Lagunas de la Mata-Torrevieja and Natural Park of La Tinença de Benifassà. Samples were carried out from April 2004 to December 2007. In total, 822 specimens, belonging to 52 species, were collected. Alpha, beta and gamma diversities were analysed, and the Tinença Park was proven to have higher diversity than the Font Roja and Torrevieja. Also, the structure of the Aspilota-group community was analysed. PMID:25197232

  3. Three new species of genus Sinophorus Förster (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae) parasitizing twig and defoliating Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Mao-Ling; Li, Tao; Cao, Jiang-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Three new wasp species are described from the subfamily Campopleginae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae), Sinophorus bazariae Sheng, sp. n., reared from Bazaria turensis Ragonot (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae) in Dulan County, Qinghai Province, China, S. nigrus Sheng, sp. n., reared from Epinotia rubiginosana rubiginosana (Herrich-Schäffer) (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) in Weichang, Hebei Province, and S. zeirapherae Sheng, sp. n., reared from Zeiraphera grisecana (Hübner) (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) in Liupanshan, Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region. A key to the species of Chinese Sinophorus is provided. PMID:25947806

  4. The European species of Foersterella Dalla Torre (Hymenoptera: Tetracampidae), including the description of two new species.

    PubMed

    Hansson, Christer

    2016-01-01

    The European species of Foersterella Dalla Torre 1897 (Hymenoptera: Tetracampidae) are treated, including two previously described species, F. erdoesi Bouček and F. reptans (Nees), and two new species, F. angusticornis sp. nov. and F. fuscicornis sp. nov. Morphological concepts of the species are based mainly on characters in the male antenna, which females lack, and with the exception of F. erdoesi females are currently not possible to identify to species. A key for the identification of species is included, as well as illustrations to facilitate the identification. PMID:27470745

  5. Review of the Mexican species of Erythmelus (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae),
    with description of two new species.

    PubMed

    Guzmán-Larralde, Adriana J; Triapitsyn, Serguei V; Huber, John T; González-Hernández, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    The Mexican species of Erythmelus Enock (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae) are revised. A key to females of 13 species is provided in both English and Spanish. Two new taxa are described-E. maya Guzmán-Larralde & Triapitsyn, sp. n. and E. tigres Guzmán-Larralde & Triapitsyn, sp. n. Six species are newly recorded from Mexico-E. angustatus Ogloblin, E. cingulatus Ogloblin, E. clavatus Ogloblin, E. gracilis (Howard), E. nanus Dozier, and E. noeli (Dozier), besides new geographic records for E. miridiphagus Dozier, E. picinus (Girault), E. psallidis Gahan, and E. rex (Girault) which were previously known from the country. PMID:26248908

  6. Influence of rough handling on Osmia lignaria (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) nest establishment in commercial orchards.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Cory A; Pitts-Singer, Theresa L; Bosch, Jordi

    2011-06-01

    Osmia lignaria Say (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) can be used to pollinate fruit trees. Populations are sometimes difficult to sustain because some female bees fail to establish at provided nesting sites. We address the hypothesis that rough handling of overwintered O. lignaria results in decreased establishment. We tested this by shaking (200 rpm for 2 min) overwintering bees as a proxy for rough handling. Bees were then released in an orchard, and nest establishment of shaken and unshaken bees was recorded. There was no significant difference in the proportion of shaken and unshaken females that nested, indicating that rough handling of overwintering bees does not discourage nest establishment. PMID:21735890

  7. Mexican species of the genus Exenterus Hartig (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Tryphoninae) reared from diprionid hosts.

    PubMed

    Ruíz-Cancino, Enrique; Khalaim, Andrey I

    2015-01-01

    Two new species of the tryphonine genus Exenterus from Mexico, E. durangensis Khalaim & Ruíz-Cancino, sp. nov. and E. sehuerachicus Khalaim & Ruíz-Cancino, sp. nov., are described. Both species belong to the group of Exenterus species characterized by the unusually short, depressed tarsi. Exenterus durangensis was reared from the sawfly Zadiprion falsus Smith and E. sehuerachicus from Neodiprion autumnalis Smith (Hymenoptera: Diprionidae). This is the first record of the genus Exenterus as a parasitoid of these hosts. An identification key to separate the two Mexican species of Exenterus is provided. PMID:26624742

  8. Assessment of potential fumigants to control Chaetodactylus krombeini (Acari: Chaetodactylidae) associated with Osmia cornifrons (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae).

    PubMed

    White, Joseph B; Park, Yong-Lak; West, Todd P; Tobin, Patrick C

    2009-12-01

    With the recent decline of honey bees, Apis mellifera (L.) (Hymenoptera: Apidae), there is a need for alternative or supplemental crop pollinators, such as Osmia cornifrons (Radoszkowski) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). However, O. cornifrons propagation could be impeded by a cleptoparasitic mite, Chaetodactylus krombeini Baker. We investigated the effects of formic acid and wintergreen oil on mortality of C. krombeini hypopi and O. cornifrons adults by determining the lethal concentration of each compound on each species. On average, >4.8 and >1.8 h were required to cause mortality in O. cornifrons adults when <2,473.5 ppm of formic acid and wintergreen oil was applied as a fumigant, respectively. When the two chemicals were directly applied to the exoskeleton of O. cornifrons adults, 353.4 ppm of wintergreen oil caused bee mortality within 10 min; however, no mortality was found with any formic acid application attempted. Mortality of C. krombeini hypopi occurred 5 and 10 min after application of >176.7 ppm of formic acid and wintergreen oil, respectively. Estimates of LC50 for C. krombeini hypopi treated with formic acid and wintergreen oil were 54.3 and 271.3 ppm, respectively. This study showed that C. krombeini could be controlled effectively without inducing O. cornifrons adult mortality based on concentration and duration of fumigation. PMID:20069836

  9. Revision of the Chinese Cleptes (Hymenoptera, Chrysididae) with description of new species

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Na-sen; Rosa, Paolo; Xu, Zai-fu

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The genus Cleptes Latreille, 1802 from China is revised and illustrated for the first time. Seventeen species of Cleptes are recorded. Nine species are new to science, Cleptes albonotatus sp. n., Cleptes eburnecoxis sp. n., Cleptes flavolineatus sp. n., Cleptes helanshanus sp. n., Cleptes niger sp. n., Cleptes shengi sp. n., Cleptes sinensis sp. n., Cleptes tibetensis sp. n., and Cleptes villosus sp. n.,and two species are reported as new to China, Cleptes metallicorpus Ha, Lee & Kim, 2011, and Cleptes seoulensis Tsuneki, 1959. PMID:24363600

  10. The genus Trachionus Haliday, 1833 (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Alysiinae) new for China, with description of four new species

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Qian; van Achterberg, Cornelis; Tan, Jiang-Li; Chen, Xue-Xin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The genus Trachionus Haliday, 1833 (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Alysiinae, Dacnusini) is reported for the first time from China. The genus is represented by four new species from Shaanxi province (NW China), which are described and illustrated. An identification key to the species in China is presented, a key to the genera of the Trachionus group and notes on the relationships with other Palaearctic species are added. PMID:26257558