Science.gov

Sample records for escherichia coli isolated

  1. Large plasmids of avian Escherichia coli isolates.

    PubMed

    Doetkott, D M; Nolan, L K; Giddings, C W; Berryhill, D L

    1996-01-01

    The plasmid DNA of 30 Escherichia coli isolates from chickens was extracted and examined using techniques designed to isolate large plasmids. This plasmid DNA was examined for the presence of certain known virulence-related genes including cvaC, traT, and some aerobactin-related sequences. Seventeen of the 30 isolates contained from one to four plasmids greater than 50 kb in size. Eleven of these 17 strains possessed plasmids greater than 100 kb in size. Therefore, E. coli isolates of chickens frequently contain large plasmids, and many of these plasmids are likely to contain virulence-related sequences. PMID:8980827

  2. Vaginal Lactobacillus isolates inhibit uropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Atassi, Fabrice; Brassart, Dominique; Grob, Philipp; Graf, Federico; Servin, Alain L

    2006-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the antibacterial activities of Lactobacillus jensenii KS119.1 and KS121.1, and Lactobacillus gasserii KS120.1 and KS124.3 strains isolated from the vaginal microflora of healthy women, against uropathogenic, diffusely adhering Afa/Dr Escherichia coli (Afa/Dr DAEC) strains IH11128 and 7372 involved in recurrent cystitis. We observed that some of the Lactobacillus isolates inhibited the growth and decreased the viability of E. coli IH11128 and 7372. In addition, we observed that adhering Lactobacillus strains inhibited adhesion of E. coli IH11128 onto HeLa cells, and inhibited internalization of E. coli IH11128 within HeLa cells. PMID:16553843

  3. TRIMETHOPRIM-SULFAMETHOXAZOLE RESISTANCE IN SEWAGE ISOLATES OF ESCHERICHIA COLI

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sewage samples from seven locations in the United States were analyzed for Escherichia coli isolates which were resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT). The prevalence rate of SXT resistant organisms varied between the different geographical locales. The majority of th...

  4. Virulence attributes of Escherichia coli isolated from dairy heifer feces.

    PubMed

    Cray, W C; Thomas, L A; Schneider, R A; Moon, H W

    1996-12-01

    Escherichia coli isolates from 1,305 (of 6,894) fecal samples collected during the 1991-1992 USDA, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, National Health Monitoring System, Diary Heifer Evaluation Project were tested for virulence attributes associated with human enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) and the enterotoxin commonly associated with diarrhoea in newborn calves. Single, random isolates from each heifer were hybridized to probes derived from the 60 mDa EHEC plasmid (CVD 419), E. coli attaching and effacing gene (eae), Shiga-like toxin (slt) genes I and II, and E. coli heat-stable enterotoxin a (STaP). Seventy-seven of the 1305 isolates (5.9%) were slt-positive. Most (81.8%) slt-positive E. coli were also CVD 419 and eae-positive. Only 2 of the slt-positive E. coli isolates were STaP-positive. PMID:9008347

  5. Phylogenetic Group Determination of Escherichia coli Isolated from Animals Samples.

    PubMed

    Coura, Fernanda Morcatti; Diniz, Soraia de Araújo; Silva, Marcos Xavier; Mussi, Jamili Maria Suhet; Barbosa, Silvia Minharro; Lage, Andrey Pereira; Heinemann, Marcos Bryan

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzes the occurrence and distribution of phylogenetic groups of 391 strains of Escherichia coli isolated from poultry, cattle, and water buffalo. The frequency of the phylogroups was A = 19%, B1 = 57%, B2 = 2.3%, C = 4.6%, D = 2.8%, E = 11%, and F = 3.3%. Phylogroups A (P < 0.001) and F (P = 0.018) were associated with E. coli strains isolated from poultry, phylogroups B1 (P < 0.001) and E (P = 0.002) were associated with E. coli isolated from cattle, and phylogroups B2 (P = 0.003) and D (P = 0.017) were associated with E. coli isolated from water buffalo. This report demonstrated that some phylogroups are associated with the host analyzed and the results provide knowledge of the phylogenetic composition of E. coli from domestic animals. PMID:26421310

  6. Phylogenetic Group Determination of Escherichia coli Isolated from Animals Samples

    PubMed Central

    Morcatti Coura, Fernanda; Diniz, Soraia de Araújo; Silva, Marcos Xavier; Mussi, Jamili Maria Suhet; Barbosa, Silvia Minharro; Lage, Andrey Pereira; Heinemann, Marcos Bryan

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzes the occurrence and distribution of phylogenetic groups of 391 strains of Escherichia coli isolated from poultry, cattle, and water buffalo. The frequency of the phylogroups was A = 19%, B1 = 57%, B2 = 2.3%, C = 4.6%, D = 2.8%, E = 11%, and F = 3.3%. Phylogroups A (P < 0.001) and F (P = 0.018) were associated with E. coli strains isolated from poultry, phylogroups B1 (P < 0.001) and E (P = 0.002) were associated with E. coli isolated from cattle, and phylogroups B2 (P = 0.003) and D (P = 0.017) were associated with E. coli isolated from water buffalo. This report demonstrated that some phylogroups are associated with the host analyzed and the results provide knowledge of the phylogenetic composition of E. coli from domestic animals. PMID:26421310

  7. Isolation of an Lc-specific Escherichia coli bacteriophage.

    PubMed Central

    Fralick, J A; Diedrich, D L; Casey-Wood, S

    1990-01-01

    We isolated an OmpF-specific bacteriophage whose host range mutant, SQ108h2, requires the presence of the Lc porin for its attachment and which can be used to screen or select for Lc-defective mutants among Escherichia coli K-12 strains lysogenic for the PA-2 converting phage. Images FIG. 1 PMID:1689719

  8. TRIMETHOPRIM-SULFAMETHOXAZOLE RESISTANCE IN SEWAGE ISOLATES OF ESCHERICHIA COLI

    EPA Science Inventory

    The increase in resistance rates to trimehtoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) in isolates of Escherichia coli has become a matter of increasing concern. This has been particularly true in reference to community acquired urinary tract infections (UTI). This study utilized sewage i...

  9. Plasmid replicon typing of commensal and pathogenic Escherichia coli isolates.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Timothy J; Wannemuehler, Yvonne M; Johnson, Sara J; Logue, Catherine M; White, David G; Doetkott, Curt; Nolan, Lisa K

    2007-03-01

    Despite the critical role of plasmids in horizontal gene transfer, few studies have characterized plasmid relatedness among different bacterial populations. Recently, a multiplex PCR replicon typing protocol was developed for classification of plasmids occurring in members of the Enterobacteriaceae. Here, a simplified version of this replicon typing procedure which requires only three multiplex panels to identify 18 plasmid replicons is described. This method was used to screen 1,015 Escherichia coli isolates of avian, human, and poultry meat origin for plasmid replicon types. Additionally, the isolates were assessed for their content of several colicin-associated genes. Overall, a high degree of plasmid variability was observed, with 221 different profiles occurring among the 1,015 isolates examined. IncFIB plasmids were the most common type identified, regardless of the source type of E. coli. IncFIB plasmids occurred significantly more often in avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) and retail poultry E. coli (RPEC) than in uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) and avian and human fecal commensal E. coli isolates (AFEC and HFEC, respectively). APEC and RPEC were also significantly more likely than UPEC, HFEC, and AFEC to possess the colicin-associated genes cvaC, cbi, and/or cma in conjunction with one or more plasmid replicons. The results suggest that E. coli isolates contaminating retail poultry are notably similar to APEC with regard to plasmid profiles, with both generally containing multiple plasmid replicon types in conjunction with colicin-related genes. In contrast, UPEC and human and avian commensal E. coli isolates generally lack the plasmid replicons and colicin-related genes seen in APEC and RPEC, suggesting limited dissemination of such plasmids among these bacterial populations. PMID:17277222

  10. Resistance and virulence factors of Escherichia coli isolated from chicken.

    PubMed

    Pavlickova, Silvie; Dolezalova, Magda; Holko, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Chicken meat has become an important part of the human diet and besides contamination by pathogenic Escherichia coli there is a risk of antibiotic resistance spreading via the food chain. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of resistance against eight antibiotics and the presence of 14 virulence factors among 75 Escherichia coli strains isolated from chicken meat in the Czech Republic after classification into phylogenetic groups by the multiplex PCR method. More than half of strains belonged to A phylogroup, next frequently represented was B1 phylogroup, which suggests the commensal strains. The other strains were classified into phylogroups B2 and D, which had more virulence factors. Almost half of all E. coli strains were resistant to at least one of eight-tested antibiotics. A multidrug resistance was observed in 13% of strains. The most prevalent virulence genes were iucD, iss and tsh. None of genes encoding toxins was detected. Most of E. coli strains isolated from chicken meat can be considered as nonpathogenic on the basis of analysis of virulence factors, antibiotic resistance and phylogroups assignment. It can provide a useful tool for prediction of a potential risk from food contaminated by E. coli. PMID:25844863

  11. Gentamicin resistance among Escherichia coli strains isolated in neonatal sepsis.

    PubMed

    Hasvold, J; Bradford, L; Nelson, C; Harrison, C; Attar, M; Stillwell, T

    2013-01-01

    Neonatal sepsis is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality among term and preterm infants. Ampicillin and gentamicin are standard empiric therapy for early onset sepsis. Four cases of neonatal sepsis secondary to Escherichia coli (E. coli) found to be gentamicin resistant occurred within a five week period in one neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). To determine whether these cases could be tied to a single vector of transmission, and to more broadly evaluate the incidence of gentamicin resistant strains of E. coli in the neonatal population at our institution compared to other centers, we reviewed the charts of the four neonates (Infants A through D) and their mothers. The E. coli isolates were sent for Pulse Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) to evaluate for genetic similarity between strains. We also reviewed all positive E. coli cultures from one NICU over a two year period. Infants A and B had genetically indistinguishable strains which matched that of urine and placental cultures of Infant B's mother. Infant C had a genetically distinct organism. Infant D, the identical twin of Infant C, did not have typing performed. Review of all cultures positive for E. coli at our institution showed a 12.9 percent incidence of gentamicin-resistance. A review of other studies showed that rates of resistance vary considerably by institution. We conclude that gentamicin-resistant E. coli is a relatively uncommon cause of neonatal sepsis, but should remain a consideration in patients who deteriorate despite initiation of empiric antibiotics. PMID:24246520

  12. Characterization of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli isolated in eastern China.

    PubMed

    Dou, Xinhong; Gong, Jiansen; Han, Xiangan; Xu, Ming; Shen, Haiyu; Zhang, Di; Zhuang, Linlin; Liu, Jiasheng; Zou, Jianmin

    2016-01-15

    In order to investigate the biological characteristics of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) isolated in eastern China, a total of 243 isolates were isolated from diseased poultry on different farms during the period from 2007 to 2014. These isolates were characterized for serogroups (polymerase chain reaction and agglutination), the presence of virulence-associated genes (fimC, iss, ompA, fyuA, stx2f, iroC, iucD, hlyE, tsh, cvaC, irp2, and papC) and class I integrons (polymerase chain reaction), drug susceptibilities (disk diffusion method) and the biofilm-forming abilities (semi-quantitative method). The results showed that the most predominant serogroups were O78 (87 isolates, 35.8%) and O2 (35 isolates, 14.4%). Gene profiling found that fimC and ompA were frequently distributed among the isolates and that 77.4% of the isolates were positive for class 1 integrons. Overall, isolates displayed resistance to tetracycline (97.5%), nalidixic acid (82.3%), ampicillin (81.1%), sulphafurazole (80.7%), streptomycin (79.0%), trimethoprim (78.2%) and cotrimoxazole (78.2%). Multiple-drug resistance was exhibited in 80.3% of the isolates, and the presence of class 1 integrons is associated with multidrug resistance. Finally, 151 isolates had the ability to form biofilms in vitro, and drug resistance seemed relative to biofilm-forming abilities. PMID:26475938

  13. Biofilm and fluoroquinolone resistance of canine Escherichia coli uropathogenic isolates

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Escherichia coli is the most common uropathogen involved in urinary tract infection (UTI). Virulence of strains may differ, and may be enhanced by antimicrobial resistance and biofilm formation, resulting in increased morbidity and recurrent infections. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro biofilm forming capacity of E. coli isolates from dogs with UTI, by using fluorescent in situ hybridization, and its association with virulence genes and antimicrobial resistance. Findings The proportion of biofilm-producing isolates significantly increased with the length of incubation time (P < 0.05). Biofilm production was significantly associated with fluoroquinolone resistance at all incubation time points and was independent of the media used (P < 0.05). Biofilm production was not associated with cnf1, hly, pap and sfa genes (P > 0.05), but was significantly associated with afa, aer and the β-lactamase genes (P < 0.05). Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report showing significant association between biofilm production and fluoroquinolone resistance in E. coli isolates from dogs with UTI. Biofilm formation may contribute to UTI treatment failure in dogs, through the development of bacterial reservoirs inside bladder cells, allowing them to overcome host immune defenses and to establish recurrent infections. PMID:25099929

  14. Virulence and antibiotic resistance of Escherichia coli isolated from rooks.

    PubMed

    Kmet, Vladimir; Drugdova, Zuzana; Kmetova, Marta; Stanko, Michal

    2013-01-01

    With regard to antibiotic resistance studies in various model animals in the urban environment, the presented study focused on the rook, many behavioural and ecological aspects of which are important from an epidemiological point of view. A total of 130 Escherichia coli strains isolated from rook faeces during a two-year period (2011-2012) were investigated for antibiotic resistance and virulence. Resistance to ampicillin (60%) and streptomycin (40%) were the most frequent, followed by resistance to fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin-22% and enrofloxacin-24%), tetracycline (18%), cotrimoxazol (17%) and florfenicol (14%). Ceftiofur resistance occured in 10.7% of strains and cefquinom resistance in 1.5% of strains. Twenty-five E.coli strains with a higher level of MICs of cephalosporins (over 2mg/L of ceftazidime and ceftriaxon) and fluoroquinolones were selected for detection of betalactamase genes (CTX-M, CMY), plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance qnrS, integrase 1, and for APEC (avian pathogenic E.coli) virulence factors (iutA, cvaC, iss, tsh, ibeA, papC, kpsII). Genes of CTX-M1, CMY-2, integrase 1, papC, cvaC, iutA were detected in one strain of E.coli, and qnrS, integrase 1, iss, cvaC, tsh were detected in another E.coli. DNA microarray revealed the absence of verotoxin and enterotoxin genes and pathogenicity islands. The results show that rooks can serve as a reservoir of antibiotic-resistant E. coli with avian pathogenic virulence factors for the human population, and potentially transmit such E.coli over long distances. PMID:23772573

  15. Clonal relationships among bloodstream isolates of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Maslow, J N; Whittam, T S; Gilks, C F; Wilson, R A; Mulligan, M E; Adams, K S; Arbeit, R D

    1995-01-01

    The clonal relationships among 187 bloodstream isolates of Escherichia coli from 179 patients at Boston, Mass., Long Beach, Calif., and Nairobi, Kenya, were determined by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE), analysis of polymorphisms associated with the ribosomal operon (ribotyping), and serotyping. MLEE based on 20 enzymes resolved 101 electrophoretic types (ETs), forming five clusters; ribotyping resolved 56 distinct patterns concordant with the analysis by MLEE. The isolates at each study site formed a genetically diverse group and demonstrated similar clonal structures, with the same small subset of lineages accounting for the majority of isolates at each site. Moreover, two ribotypes accounted for approximately 30% of the isolates at each study site. One cluster contained the majority (65%) of isolates and, by direct comparison of the ETs and ribotypes of individual isolates, was genetically indistinguishable from the largest cluster for each of two other collections of E. coli causing pyelonephritis and neonatal meningitis (R. K. Selander, T. K. Korhonen, V. Väisänen-Rhen, P. H. Williams, P. E. Pattison, and D. A. Caugent, Infect. Immun. 52:213-222, 1986; M. Arthur, C. E. Johnson, R. H. Rubin, R. D. Arbeit, C. Campanelli, C. Kim, S. Steinbach, M. Agarwal, R. Wilkinson, and R. Goldstein, Infect. Immun. 57:303-313, 1989), thus defining a virulent set of lineages. The isolates within these virulent lineages typically carried DNA homologous to the adhesin operon pap or sfa and the hemolysin operon hly and expressed O1, O2, O4, O6, O18, O25, or O75 antigens. DNA homologous to pap was distributed among isolates of each major cluster, whereas hly was restricted to isolates of two clusters, typically detected in pap-positive strains, and sfa was restricted to isolates of one cluster, typically detected in pap- and hly-positive strains. The occurrence of pap-positive isolates in the same geographically and genetically divergent lineages suggests that this

  16. Molecular characterization of bacteremic Escherichia coli isolates in Romania.

    PubMed

    Usein, Codruţa-Romaniţa; Papagheorghe, Raluca; Oprea, Mihaela; Condei, Maria; Strãuţ, Monica

    2016-05-01

    The increasing prevalence of invasive infections caused by antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli strains in Romanian patients, already mentioned in the European reports, requires better knowledge of their specific traits. Thus, a set of 38 E. coli blood isolates, collected between 2010 and 2012 at one of the local hospitals participating into the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Network, was investigated retrospectively with respect to the phylogenetic origin, extraintestinal virulence-associated markers (i.e. fimH, papC, papG alleles, sfa/foc, afa/dra, hly, cnf1, sat, iucC, fyuA, ibeA), and beta-lactamase encoding genes (i.e. bla CTX-M, bla TEM, and bla SHV alleles). The isolates with extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) phenotypes were further characterized using PCR-based replicon typing and multilocus sequencing typing. For ST131 members, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and PCR-based detection of fimH30 allele were performed. Overall, the isolates were more likely members of the major phylogenetic group A (53 %) and to a lesser extent of groups B2 (29 %), D (10 %), and B1 (8 %). All but three of the virulence markers sought (i.e. papGI, hly, cnf1) were detected with prevalence ranging from 3 % (i.e. ibeA, papGIII) to 87 % (fimH). As expected, the most complex genotypes (four to seven virulence markers) defined the isolates derived from phylogenetic groups B2 and D. ESBL producers were bla CTX-M-15-positive, mostly of phylogroup A (67 %), harboured IncF multireplicon plasmids, and belonged to six sequence types (i.e. ST10, ST131, ST167, ST410, ST540, ST1275). Members of ST10 clonal complex (i.e. ST10, ST167) were the most common. The ST131 isolates belonged to H30 subclone and displayed 74 % similarity at PFGE analysis. PMID:26452764

  17. R-PLASMID TRANSFER TO AND FROM 'ESCHERICHIA COLI' STRAINS ISOLATED FROM HUMAN FECAL SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Strains of Escherichia coli recently isolated from human feces were examined for the frequency with which they accept and R factor (Ri) from a derepressed fi+ strain of E. coli K-12 and transfer it to fecal and laboratory strains. Colicins produced by some of the isolates rapidly...

  18. Escherichia Coli

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodsell, David S.

    2009-01-01

    Diverse biological data may be used to create illustrations of molecules in their cellular context. I describe the scientific results that support a recent textbook illustration of an "Escherichia coli cell". The image magnifies a portion of the bacterium at one million times, showing the location and form of individual macromolecules. Results…

  19. Increased amoxicillin-clavulanic acid resistance in Escherichia coli blood isolates, Spain.

    PubMed

    Oteo, Jesús; Campos, José; Lázaro, Edurne; Cuevas, Oscar; García-Cobos, Silvia; Pérez-Vázquez, María; de Abajo, F J

    2008-08-01

    To determine the evolution and trends of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid resistance among Escherichia coli isolates in Spain, we tested 9,090 blood isolates from 42 Spanish hospitals and compared resistance with trends in outpatient consumption. These isolates were collected by Spanish hospitals that participated in the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System network from April 2003 through December 2006. PMID:18680650

  20. Adhesion, biofilm and genotypic characteristics of antimicrobial resistant Escherichia coli isolates

    PubMed Central

    Cergole-Novella, Maria C.; Pignatari, Antonio C.C.; Guth, Beatriz E.C.

    2015-01-01

    Aggregative adherence to human epithelial cells, most to renal proximal tubular (HK-2) cells, and biofilm formation was identified among antimicrobial resistant Escherichia coli strains mainly isolated from bacteremia. The importance of these virulence properties contributing to host colonization and infection associated with multiresistant E. coli should not be neglected. PMID:26221104

  1. Isolation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 from Intact Colon Fecal Samples of Swine1

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, F. Morgan; Gray, Jeffrey T.; Fratamico, Pina; Fedorka-Cray, Paula J.; Pearce, Rachel A.; Call, Jeffrey E.; Perrine, Richard; Luchansky, John B.

    2003-01-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 was recovered from colon fecal samples of pigs. Polymerase chain reaction confirmed two genotypes: isolates harboring the eaeA, stx1, and stx2 genes and isolates harboring the eaeA, stx1, and hly933 genes. We demonstrate that swine in the United States can harbor potentially pathogenic E. coli O157:H7. PMID:12643837

  2. Virulence factors of verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli isolated from raw meats.

    PubMed Central

    Piérard, D; Van Damme, L; Moriau, L; Stevens, D; Lauwers, S

    1997-01-01

    PCR for verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) was positive in 4.6% of 2,440 raw meat samples; only beef, sheep, and venison samples were positive. None of the isolated VTEC strains belonged to serogroup O157. Additional virulence factors were detected in only a minority of strains, suggesting that most of these meat VTEC isolates are not pathogenic. PMID:9361444

  3. Human Escherichia coli O157:H7 Genetic Marker in Isolates of Bovine Origin

    PubMed Central

    Abedon, Stephen T.; Takemura, Kaori; Christie, Nicholas P.; Sreevatsan, Srinand

    2004-01-01

    The antiterminator Q gene of bacteriophage 933W (Q933) was identified upstream of the stx2 gene in 90% of human disease–origin Escherichia coli O157:H7 isolates and in 44.5% of bovine isolates. Shiga toxin production was higher in Q933-positive isolates than Q933-negative isolates. This genetic marker may provide a useful molecular tool for epidemiologic studies. PMID:15496255

  4. Molecular characterization and clonal relationships among Escherichia coli strains isolated from broiler chickens with colisepticemia.

    PubMed

    Barbieri, Nicolle Lima; de Oliveira, Aline Luísa; Tejkowski, Thiago Moreira; Pavanelo, Daniel Brisotto; Matter, Letícia Beatriz; Pinheiro, Sandra Regina Schincariol; Vaz, Tânia Mara Ibelli; Nolan, Lisa K; Logue, Catherine M; de Brito, Benito Guimarães; Horn, Fabiana

    2015-01-01

    This study characterized 52 Escherichia coli isolates from distinct diseased organs of 29 broiler chickens with clinical symptoms of colibacillosis in the Southern Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul. Thirty-eight isolates were highly virulent and 14 were virtually avirulent in 1-day-old chicks, yet all isolates harbored virulence factors characteristic of avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC), including those related to adhesion, iron acquisition, and serum resistance. E. coli reference collection phylogenetic typing showed that isolates belonged mostly to group D (39%), followed by group A (29%), group B1 (17%), and group B2 (15%). Phylogenetic analyses using the Amplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Analysis and pulse-field gel electrophoresis methods were used to discriminate among isolates displaying the same serotype, revealing that five birds were infected with two distinct APEC strains. Among the 52 avian isolates, 2 were members of the pandemic E. coli O25:H4-B2-ST131 clone. PMID:25514382

  5. Genetic Relatedness Among Escherichia coli Pathotypes Isolated from Food Products for Human Consumption in Cartagena, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Amézquita-Montes, Zorangel; Tamborski, Maria; Kopsombut, Usa G.; Zhang, Chengxian; Arzuza, Octavio S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Foodborne pathogens are a leading cause of mild-to-severe gastrointestinal illnesses worldwide. Escherichia coli pathotypes have been known to cause gastrointestinal illnesses in children less than 5 years old in Colombia. However, insufficient information is available on the prevalence of E. coli contamination of food products and the kind of E. coli food product reservoirs. The two objectives of this study were designed to address this issue. The first objective was to ascertain coliform, E. coli, and pathogenic E. coli contamination of food products readily available for human consumption in Cartagena, Colombia. The second objective was to evaluate the relationship between pathogenic E. coli isolated from food products and those isolated from cases of diarrhea in children. Food product samples consisting of pasteurized milk, unpasteurized fruit juice, ground beef, cheese, and vegetables were obtained at four retail stores. The food samples were cultured in liquid media and tested for the presence of coliforms and E. coli. E. coli isolates were tested by polymerase chain reaction for the presence of pathogenic E. coli. Coliforms, E. coli, and E. coli intestinal pathotypes contamination were detected in 88.4%, 53%, and 2.1% of food product samples, respectively. Ground beef and cheese were the only food samples contaminated with E. coli intestinal pathotypes including enteropathogenic (EPEC), Shiga toxin–producing (STEC), and enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC). Closed multilocus sequencing typing relationships between diarrheagenic E. coli isolates from food products and from individuals with diarrhea suggest that food products readily available at public markets in Cartagena can transmit ETEC and possibly EPEC and STEC. We demonstrated that a high proportion of food products for human consumption available at public markets in Cartagena are contaminated with coliforms, E. coli, and E. coli intestinal pathogens. Furthermore, food products containing E. coli

  6. Draft Genome Sequences of Escherichia coli Isolates from Wounded Military Personnel.

    PubMed

    Arivett, Brock A; Ream, Dave C; Fiester, Steven E; Kidane, Destaalem; Actis, Luis A

    2016-01-01

    Members of the Escherichia coli bacterial family have been grouped as ESKAPE (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter species) pathogens because of their extensive drug resistance phenotypes and increasing threat to human health. The genomes of six extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli strains isolated from wounded military personnel were sequenced and annotated. PMID:27516515

  7. Draft Genome Sequences of Escherichia coli Isolates from Wounded Military Personnel

    PubMed Central

    Arivett, Brock A.; Ream, Dave C.; Fiester, Steven E.; Kidane, Destaalem

    2016-01-01

    Members of the Escherichia coli bacterial family have been grouped as ESKAPE (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter species) pathogens because of their extensive drug resistance phenotypes and increasing threat to human health. The genomes of six extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli strains isolated from wounded military personnel were sequenced and annotated. PMID:27516515

  8. Molecular epidemiology of Escherichia coli producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases isolated in Rome, Italy.

    PubMed

    Carattoli, Alessandra; García-Fernández, Aurora; Varesi, Paola; Fortini, Daniela; Gerardi, Serena; Penni, Adriano; Mancini, Carlo; Giordano, Alessandra

    2008-01-01

    Escherichia coli strains producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) are a major problem in many different hospitals worldwide, causing outbreaks as well as sporadic infections. The prevalence of Escherichia coli ESBL producers was analyzed in a surveillance study performed on the population attending the Policlinico Umberto I, the largest university hospital in Rome, Italy. We also investigated genotypes, pathogenicity islands, and plasmids in the ESBL-positive E. coli isolates as further markers that are useful in describing the epidemiology of the infections. In this survey, 163 nonreplicate isolates of Escherichia coli were isolated from patients from 86 different wards, and 28 were confirmed as ESBL producers. A high prevalence (26/28) of CTX-M-15 producers was observed within the bacterial population circulating in this hospital, and the dissemination of this genetic trait was associated with the spread of related strains; however, these do not have the characteristics of a single epidemic clone spreading. The dissemination was also linked to horizontal transfer among the prevalent E. coli genotypes of multireplicon plasmids showing FIA, FIB, and FII replicons in various combinations, which are well adapted to the E. coli species. The analysis of related bacteria suggests a probable interpatient transmission occurring in several wards, causing small outbreaks. PMID:17959756

  9. Development of an automated multiplexed immunomagnetic separation system for isolating Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years, non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli(STEC) have become an emerging problem. Efforts have been devoted to facilitating and speeding their detection, however, their isolation from high background microbiota foods remains problematic. To solve this problem, immunomagnetic se...

  10. Lack of virulence factors in Escherichia coli strains of enteropathogenic serogroups isolated from water.

    PubMed Central

    Valentini, S R; Gomes, T A; Falcão, D P

    1992-01-01

    Thirty-eight Escherichia coli strains belonging to 14 human enteropathogenic serogroups were isolated from 33 of 208 water samples studied. No virulence factor or virulence-related gene sequences were found in any of the 38 strains analyzed. The results point out the importance of detecting specific virulence factors before incriminating water as a source of human diarrhea. PMID:1539989

  11. Antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli isolates obtained from animals, foods and humans in Spain.

    PubMed

    Sáenz, Y; Zarazaga, M; Briñas, L; Lantero, M; Ruiz-Larrea, F; Torres, C

    2001-10-01

    Antibiotic resistance was investigated in 474 Escherichia coli isolates recovered from animal faeces (broilers, pigs, pets, bulls and horses), human faeces (patients and healthy volunteers) and food products of animal origin. E. coli isolates (3260) recovered from human significant infectious samples were also included. There was a high frequency of nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin and gentamicin resistance in E. coli isolates from broilers (88, 38 and 40%, respectively), and from foods (53, 13 and 17%). High levels of resistance to trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole and tetracycline have been found in E. coli isolates from broilers, pigs and foods. These data raise important questions about the potential impact of antibiotic use in animals and the possible entry of resistant pathogens into the food chain. PMID:11691568

  12. Antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli isolates from canine urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shao-Kuang; Lo, Dan-Yuan; Wei, Hen-Wei; Kuo, Hung-Chih

    2015-01-01

    This study determined the antimicrobial resistance profiles of Escherichia coli isolates from dogs with a presumptive diagnosis of urinary tract infection (UTI). Urine samples from 201 dogs with UTI diagnosed through clinical examination and urinalysis were processed for isolation of Escherichia coli. Colonies from pure cultures were identified by biochemical reactions (n=114) and were tested for susceptibility to 18 antimicrobials. The two most frequent antimicrobials showing resistance in Urinary E. coli isolates were oxytetracycline and ampicillin. Among the resistant isolates, 17 resistance patterns were observed, with 12 patterns involving multidrug resistance (MDR). Of the 69 tetracycline-resistant E. coli isolates, tet(B) was the predominant resistance determinant and was detected in 50.9% of the isolates, whereas the remaining 25.5% isolates carried the tet(A) determinant. Most ampicillin and/or amoxicillin-resistant E. coli isolates carried blaTEM-1 genes. Class 1 integrons were prevalent (28.9%) and contained previously described gene cassettes that are implicated primarily in resistance to aminoglycosides and trimethoprim (dfrA1, dfrA17-aadA5). Of the 44 quinolone-resistant E. coli isolates, 38 were resistant to nalidixic acid, and 6 were resistant to nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin and enrofloxacin. Chromosomal point mutations were found in the GyrA (Ser83Leu) and ParC (Ser80Ile) genes. Furthermore, the aminoglycoside resistance gene aacC2, the chloramphenicol resistant gene cmlA and the florfenicol resistant gene floR were also identified. This study revealed an alarming rate of antimicrobial resistance among E. coli isolates from dogs with UTIs. PMID:25720807

  13. Antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli isolates from canine urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shao-Kuang; Lo, Dan-Yuan; Wei, Hen-Wei; Kuo, Hung-Chih

    2014-10-28

    This study determined the antimicrobial resistance profiles of Escherichia coli isolates from dogs with a presumptive diagnosis of urinary tract infection (UTI). Urine samples from 201 dogs with UTI diagnosed through clinical examination and urinalysis were processed for isolation of Escherichia coli. Colonies from pure cultures were identified by biochemical reactions (n=114) and were tested for susceptibility to 18 antimicrobials. The two most frequent antimicrobials showing resistance in Urinary E. coli isolates were oxytetracycline and ampicillin. Among the resistant isolates, 17 resistance patterns were observed, with 12 patterns involving multidrug resistance (MDR). Of the 69 tetracycline-resistant E. coli isolates, tet(B) was the predominant resistance determinant and was detected in 50.9% of the isolates, whereas the remaining 25.5% isolates carried the tet(A) determinant. Most ampicillin and/or amoxicillin-resistant E. coli isolates carried blaTEM-1 genes. Class 1 integrons were prevalent (28.9%) and contained previously described gene cassettes that are implicated primarily in resistance to aminoglycosides and trimethoprim (dfrA1, dfrA17-aadA5). Of the 44 quinolone-resistant E. coli isolates, 38 were resistant to nalidixic acid, and 6 were resistant to nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin and enrofloxacin. Chromosomal point mutations were found in the GyrA (Ser83Leu) and ParC (Ser80Ile) genes. Furthermore, the aminoglycoside resistance gene aacC2, the chloramphenicol resistant gene cmlA and the florfenicol resistant gene floR were also identified. This study revealed an alarming rate of antimicrobial resistance among E. coli isolates from dogs with UTIs. PMID:25354649

  14. Antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli isolates from canine urinary tract infections

    PubMed Central

    CHANG, Shao-Kuang; LO, Dan-Yuan; WEI, Hen-Wei; KUO, Hung-Chih

    2014-01-01

    This study determined the antimicrobial resistance profiles of Escherichia coli isolates from dogs with a presumptive diagnosis of urinary tract infection (UTI). Urine samples from 201 dogs with UTI diagnosed through clinical examination and urinalysis were processed for isolation of Escherichia coli. Colonies from pure cultures were identified by biochemical reactions (n=114) and were tested for susceptibility to 18 antimicrobials. The two most frequent antimicrobials showing resistance in Urinary E. coli isolates were oxytetracycline and ampicillin. Among the resistant isolates, 17 resistance patterns were observed, with 12 patterns involving multidrug resistance (MDR). Of the 69 tetracycline-resistant E. coli isolates, tet(B) was the predominant resistance determinant and was detected in 50.9% of the isolates, whereas the remaining 25.5% isolates carried the tet(A) determinant. Most ampicillin and/or amoxicillin-resistant E. coli isolates carried blaTEM-1 genes. Class 1 integrons were prevalent (28.9%) and contained previously described gene cassettes that are implicated primarily in resistance to aminoglycosides and trimethoprim (dfrA1, dfrA17-aadA5). Of the 44 quinolone-resistant E. coli isolates, 38 were resistant to nalidixic acid, and 6 were resistant to nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin and enrofloxacin. Chromosomal point mutations were found in the GyrA (Ser83Leu) and ParC (Ser80Ile) genes. Furthermore, the aminoglycoside resistance gene aacC2, the chloramphenicol resistant gene cmlA and the florfenicol resistant gene floR were also identified. This study revealed an alarming rate of antimicrobial resistance among E. coli isolates from dogs with UTIs. PMID:25720807

  15. Distinct inflammatory and cytopathic characteristics of Escherichia coli isolates from inflammatory bowel disease patients.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Stina Rikke; Mirsepasi-Lauridsen, Hengameh Chloé; Thysen, Anna Hammerich; Brynskov, Jørn; Krogfelt, Karen A; Petersen, Andreas Munk; Pedersen, Anders Elm; Brix, Susanne

    2015-12-01

    Escherichia coli (E. coli) may be implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), as implied from a higher prevalence of mucosa-associated E. coli in the gut of IBD-affected individuals. However, it is unclear whether different non-diarrheagenic E. coli spp. segregate from each other in their ability to promote intestinal inflammation. Herein we compared the inflammation-inducing properties of non-diarrheagenic LF82, 691-04A, E. coli Nissle 1917 (ECN) and eleven new intestinal isolates from different locations in five IBD patients and one healthy control. Viable E. coli were cultured with human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs) and monolayers of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs), followed by analysis of secreted cytokines, intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species and cellular death. The IBD-associated E. coli LF82 induced the same dose-dependent inflammatory cytokine profile as ECN and ten of the new E. coli isolates displayed as high level IL-12p70, IL-1β, IL-23 and TNF-α from moDCs irrespective of their site of isolation (ileum/colon/faeces), disease origin (diseased/non-diseased) or known virulence factors. Contrarily, 691-04A and one new IBD E. coli isolate induced a different cellular phenotype with enhanced killing of moDCs and IECs, coupled to elevated IL-18. The cytopathic nature of 691-04A and one other IBD E. coli isolate suggests that colonization with specific non-diarrheagenic E. coli could promote intestinal barrier leakage and profound intestinal inflammation, while LF82, ECN and the remaining non-diarrheagenic E. coli isolates hold notorious pro-inflammatory characteristics that can progress inflammation in case of intestinal barrier leakage. PMID:26522075

  16. Isolation of Escherichia coli 0157:H7 Strain from Fecal Samples of Zoo Animal

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed Hamzah, Aseel; Mohammed Hussein, Aseel; Mahmoud Khalef, Jenan

    2013-01-01

    The isolation and characterization of Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains from 22 out of 174 fecal samples from petting zoo animals representing twenty-two different species (camel, lion, goats, zebra, bear, baboon monkey, Siberian monkey, deer, elk, llama, pony, horses, fox, kangaroo, wolf, porcupine, chickens, tiger, ostrich, hyena, dogs, and wildcats) were investigated. One petting Al-Zawraa zoological society of Baghdad was investigated for E. coli O157:H7 over a 16-month period that spanned two summer and two autumn seasons. Variation in the occurrence of E. coli O157:H7-positive petting zoo animals was observed, with animals being culture positive only in the summer months but not in the spring, autumn, or winter. E. coli O157:H7 isolates were distinguished by agglutination with E. coli O157:H7 latex reagent (Oxoid), identified among the isolates, which showed that multiple E. coli strains were isolated from one petting zoo animal, in which a single animal simultaneously shed multiple E. coli strains; E. coli O157:H7 was isolated only by selective enrichment culture of 2 g of petting zoo animal feces. In contrast, strains other than O157:H7 were cultured from feces of petting zoo animals without enrichment. PMID:24489514

  17. Isolation of Escherichia coli 0157:H7 strain from fecal samples of zoo animal.

    PubMed

    Mohammed Hamzah, Aseel; Mohammed Hussein, Aseel; Mahmoud Khalef, Jenan

    2013-01-01

    The isolation and characterization of Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains from 22 out of 174 fecal samples from petting zoo animals representing twenty-two different species (camel, lion, goats, zebra, bear, baboon monkey, Siberian monkey, deer, elk, llama, pony, horses, fox, kangaroo, wolf, porcupine, chickens, tiger, ostrich, hyena, dogs, and wildcats) were investigated. One petting Al-Zawraa zoological society of Baghdad was investigated for E. coli O157:H7 over a 16-month period that spanned two summer and two autumn seasons. Variation in the occurrence of E. coli O157:H7-positive petting zoo animals was observed, with animals being culture positive only in the summer months but not in the spring, autumn, or winter. E. coli O157:H7 isolates were distinguished by agglutination with E. coli O157:H7 latex reagent (Oxoid), identified among the isolates, which showed that multiple E. coli strains were isolated from one petting zoo animal, in which a single animal simultaneously shed multiple E. coli strains; E. coli O157:H7 was isolated only by selective enrichment culture of 2 g of petting zoo animal feces. In contrast, strains other than O157:H7 were cultured from feces of petting zoo animals without enrichment. PMID:24489514

  18. Positive control of sulphate reduction in Escherichia coli. Isolation, characterization and mapping oc cysteineless mutants of E. coli K12.

    PubMed

    Jones-Mortimer, M C

    1968-12-01

    To determine to what extent the biosynthesis of cysteine in Escherichia coli resembles that in Salmonella typhimurium, the following experiments were performed. (1) Mutants of E. coli K 12 deficient in the biosynthesis of cysteine were isolated. (2) These mutants were classified by nutritional and biochemical criteria; some mutants lacked a single enzyme of sulphate reduction, other mutants appeared to lack two or more enzymes. (3) The genetic map predicted from the biochemical data alone is shown to be incorrect, and an alternative map, consistent with the genetic data, is proposed for the cys mutants of E. coli. PMID:4882981

  19. Positive control of sulphate reduction in Escherichia coli. Isolation, characterization and mapping of cysteineless mutants of E. coli K 12

    PubMed Central

    Jones-Mortimer, M. C.

    1968-01-01

    To determine to what extent the biosynthesis of cysteine in Escherichia coli resembles that in Salmonella typhimurium, the following experiments were performed. (1) Mutants of E. coli K 12 deficient in the biosynthesis of cysteine were isolated. (2) These mutants were classified by nutritional and biochemical criteria; some mutants lacked a single enzyme of sulphate reduction, other mutants appeared to lack two or more enzymes. (3) The genetic map predicted from the biochemical data alone is shown to be incorrect, and an alternative map, consistent with the genetic data, is proposed for the cys mutants of E. coli. PMID:4882981

  20. Relationship of biofilm formation and different virulence genes in uropathogenic Escherichia coli isolates from Northwest Iran

    PubMed Central

    Fattahi, Sargol; Kafil, Hossein Samadi; Nahai, Mohammad Reza; Asgharzadeh, Mohammad; Nori, Roghaya; Aghazadeh, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives: The Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacterium is one of the main causative agents of urinary tract infections (UTI) worldwide. The ability of this bacterium to form biofilms on medical devices such as catheters plays an important role in the development of UTI. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible relationship between virulence factors and biofilm formation of E. coli isolates responsible for urinary tract infection. Materials and methods: A total of 100 E. coli isolates isolated from patients with UTI were collected and characterized by routine bacteriological methods. In vitro biofilm formation by these isolates was determined using the 96-well microtiter-plate test, and the presence of fimA, papC, and hly virulence genes was examined by PCR assay. Data analysis was performed using SPSS 16.0 software. Results: From 100 E. coli isolates isolated from UTIs, 92% were shown to be biofilm positive. The genes papC, fimA, and hly were detected in 43%, 94% and 26% of isolates, respectively. Biofilm formation in isolates that expressed papC, fimA, and hly genes was 100%, 93%, and 100%, respectively. A significant relationship was found between presence of the papC gene and biofilm formation in E. coli isolates isolated from UTI (P<0.01), but there was no statistically significant correlation between presence of fimA and hly genes with biofilm formation (P<0.072, P<0.104). Conclusion: Results showed that fimA and hly genes do not seem to be necessary or sufficient for the production of biofilm in E. coli, but the presence of papC correlates with increased biofilm formation of urinary tract isolates. Overall, the presence of fimA, papC, and hly virulence genes coincides with in vitro biofilm formation in uropathogenic E. coli isolates. PMID:26213679

  1. Vaginal versus Obstetric Infection Escherichia coli Isolates among Pregnant Women: Antimicrobial Resistance and Genetic Virulence Profile

    PubMed Central

    Sáez-López, Emma; Guiral, Elisabet; Fernández-Orth, Dietmar; Villanueva, Sonia; Goncé, Anna; López, Marta; Teixidó, Irene; Pericot, Anna; Figueras, Francesc; Palacio, Montse; Cobo, Teresa; Bosch, Jordi; Soto, Sara M.

    2016-01-01

    Vaginal Escherichia coli colonization is related to obstetric infections and the consequent development of infections in newborns. Ampicillin resistance among E. coli strains is increasing, which is the main choice for treating empirically many obstetric and neonatal infections. Vaginal E. coli strains are very similar to extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli with regards to the virulence factors and the belonging to phylogroup B2. We studied the antimicrobial resistance and the genetic virulence profile of 82 E. coli isolates from 638 vaginal samples and 63 isolated from endometrial aspirate, placental and amniotic fluid samples from pregnant women with obstetric infections. The prevalence of E. coli in the vaginal samples was 13%, which was significant among women with associated risk factors during pregnancy, especially premature preterm rupture of membranes (p<0.0001). Sixty-five percent of the strains were ampicillin-resistant. The E. coli isolates causing obstetric infections showed higher resistance levels than vaginal isolates, particularly for gentamicin (p = 0.001). The most prevalent virulence factor genes were those related to the iron uptake systems revealing clear targets for interventions. More than 50% of the isolates belonged to the virulent B2 group possessing the highest number of virulence factor genes. The ampicillin-resistant isolates had high number of virulence factors primarily related to pathogenicity islands, and the remarkable gentamicin resistance in E. coli isolates from women presenting obstetric infections, the choice of the most appropriate empiric treatment and clinical management of pregnant women and neonates should be carefully made. Taking into account host-susceptibility, the heterogeneity of E. coli due to evolution over time and the geographical area, characterization of E. coli isolates colonizing the vagina and causing obstetric infections in different regions may help to develop interventions and avoid the aetiological link

  2. Zoonotic Potential of Escherichia coli Isolates from Retail Chicken Meat Products and Eggs

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Natalie M.; Johnson, James R.; Johnston, Brian; Curtiss, Roy

    2014-01-01

    Chicken products are suspected as a source of extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC), which causes diseases in humans. The zoonotic risk to humans from chicken-source E. coli is not fully elucidated. To clarify the zoonotic risk posed by ExPEC in chicken products and to fill existing knowledge gaps regarding ExPEC zoonosis, we evaluated the prevalence of ExPEC on shell eggs and compared virulence-associated phenotypes between ExPEC and non-ExPEC isolates from both chicken meat and eggs. The prevalence of ExPEC among egg-source isolates was low, i.e., 5/108 (4.7%). Based on combined genotypic and phenotypic screening results, multiple human and avian pathotypes were represented among the chicken-source ExPEC isolates, including avian-pathogenic E. coli (APEC), uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC), neonatal meningitis E. coli (NMEC), and sepsis-associated E. coli (SEPEC), as well as an undefined ExPEC group, which included isolates with fewer virulence factors than the APEC, UPEC, and NMEC isolates. These findings document a substantial prevalence of human-pathogenic ExPEC-associated genes and phenotypes among E. coli isolates from retail chicken products and identify key virulence traits that could be used for screening. PMID:25480753

  3. Zoonotic potential of Escherichia coli isolates from retail chicken meat products and eggs.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Natalie M; Johnson, James R; Johnston, Brian; Curtiss, Roy; Mellata, Melha

    2015-02-01

    Chicken products are suspected as a source of extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC), which causes diseases in humans. The zoonotic risk to humans from chicken-source E. coli is not fully elucidated. To clarify the zoonotic risk posed by ExPEC in chicken products and to fill existing knowledge gaps regarding ExPEC zoonosis, we evaluated the prevalence of ExPEC on shell eggs and compared virulence-associated phenotypes between ExPEC and non-ExPEC isolates from both chicken meat and eggs. The prevalence of ExPEC among egg-source isolates was low, i.e., 5/108 (4.7%). Based on combined genotypic and phenotypic screening results, multiple human and avian pathotypes were represented among the chicken-source ExPEC isolates, including avian-pathogenic E. coli (APEC), uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC), neonatal meningitis E. coli (NMEC), and sepsis-associated E. coli (SEPEC), as well as an undefined ExPEC group, which included isolates with fewer virulence factors than the APEC, UPEC, and NMEC isolates. These findings document a substantial prevalence of human-pathogenic ExPEC-associated genes and phenotypes among E. coli isolates from retail chicken products and identify key virulence traits that could be used for screening. PMID:25480753

  4. Biofilm-Forming Abilities of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Isolates Associated with Human Infections

    PubMed Central

    Vogeleer, Philippe; Tremblay, Yannick D. N.; Jubelin, Grégory; Jacques, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Forming biofilms may be a survival strategy of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli to enable it to persist in the environment and the food industry. Here, we evaluate and characterize the biofilm-forming ability of 39 isolates of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli isolates recovered from human infection and belonging to seropathotypes A, B, or C. The presence and/or production of biofilm factors such as curli, cellulose, autotransporter, and fimbriae were investigated. The polymeric matrix of these biofilms was analyzed by confocal microscopy and by enzymatic digestion. Cell viability and matrix integrity were examined after sanitizer treatments. Isolates of the seropathotype A (O157:H7 and O157:NM), which have the highest relative incidence of human infection, had a greater ability to form biofilms than isolates of seropathotype B or C. Seropathotype A isolates were unique in their ability to produce cellulose and poly-N-acetylglucosamine. The integrity of the biofilms was dependent on proteins. Two autotransporter genes, ehaB and espP, and two fimbrial genes, z1538 and lpf2, were identified as potential genetic determinants for biofilm formation. Interestingly, the ability of several isolates from seropathotype A to form biofilms was associated with their ability to agglutinate yeast in a mannose-independent manner. We consider this an unidentified biofilm-associated factor produced by those isolates. Treatment with sanitizers reduced the viability of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli but did not completely remove the biofilm matrix. Overall, our data indicate that biofilm formation could contribute to the persistence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli and specifically seropathotype A isolates in the environment. PMID:26712549

  5. Virulence-associated genes in Escherichia coli isolates from poultry with colibacillosis: correction.

    PubMed

    Vidotto, Marilda C; Gaziri, Luis Carlos J; Delicato, Elaine R

    2004-08-19

    Several virulence genes of avian Escherichia coli were detected in 200 colibacillosis isolates from our region by PCR. However, the genes sfaDE and facA were not detected in that study. In this work we correct those data, showing by colony hybridization that sfaDE and facA are present in 40% and 30% of those isolates, respectively. PMID:15288931

  6. Prevalence and characterization of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli isolated from conventional and organic vegetables.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sara; Woo, Gun-Jo

    2014-10-01

    To compare the characteristics and to identify the epidemiological relationships of Escherichia coli isolated from organic and conventional vegetables, the antimicrobial resistance and genetic properties of E. coli were investigated from 2010 to 2011. E. coli was isolated from 1 of 111 (0.9%) organic vegetables and from 20 of 225 (8.9%) conventional vegetables. The majority of strains were isolated from the surrounding farming environment (n=27/150 vs. 49/97 in organic vs. conventional samples). The majority of the vegetable strains were isolated from the surrounding farming environments. E. coli isolated from organic vegetables showed very low antimicrobial resistance rates except for cephalothin, ranging from 0% to 17.9%, while the resistance rates to cephalothin (71%) were extremely high in both groups. E. coli isolates expressed various resistance genes, which most commonly included blaTEM, tet(A), strA, strB, and qnrS. However, none of the isolates harbored tet(D), tet(E), tet(K), tet(L), tet(M), or qnrA. The transferability of tet gene, tet(A), and tet(B) was identified in tetracycline-resistant E. coli, and the genetic relationship was confirmed in a few cases from different sources. With regard to the lower antimicrobial resistance found in organic produce, this production mode seems able to considerably reduce the selection of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria on vegetables. PMID:25140978

  7. Isolation and molecular characterization of Escherichia coli O157 from broiler and human samples.

    PubMed

    Kalin, Recep; Ongor, Hasan; Cetinkaya, Burhan

    2012-04-01

    There is a lack of information about the role of poultry, specifically chicken, in transmission of Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157 and subsequent human illnesses. This study was therefore aimed at investigating the presence of E. coli O157 and its virulence genes in various samples collected from broiler chickens and humans in Eastern Turkey by culture, immunomagnetic separation (IMS), and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The genetic relationship between broiler and human isolates was also examined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). In the PCR analysis of sorbitol-negative isolates, E. coli O157 was identified in 0.1% (1/1000) and 0.4% (4/1000) of the liver and cecum samples of broiler chickens, respectively. On the other hand, none of the carcass samples were determined to be positive for E. coli O157. Overall, the results indicated that 12% (3/25) of the flocks were positive for E. coli O157. The differences between the flocks in terms of the positivity were determined to be statistically significant (p<0.001). Ten (2.7%) of 367 human stool samples were also positive for E. coli O157 in the PCR examination. None of the broiler and human E. coli O157 isolates possessed H7, shigatoxins 1-2, or enterohemolysin genes, whereas all the broiler isolates and one of the human isolates were positive for intimin gene. In the PFGE analysis, a total of eight different profiles (four from broiler and four from human isolates) were observed. However, there were no genetic relationships between broiler and human E. coli O157 isolates. It can be concluded that more detailed studies are needed in poultry to better understand the role of these species in the epidemiology of E. coli 0157 infections in humans. PMID:22304630

  8. Moderate Prevalence of Antimicrobial Resistance in Escherichia coli Isolates from Lettuce, Irrigation Water, and Soil

    PubMed Central

    Holvoet, Kevin; Callens, Benedicte; Dewulf, Jeroen; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2013-01-01

    Fresh produce is known to carry nonpathogenic epiphytic microorganisms. During agricultural production and harvesting, leafy greens can become contaminated with antibiotic-resistant pathogens or commensals from animal and human sources. As lettuce does not undergo any inactivation or preservation treatment during processing, consumers may be exposed directly to all of the (resistant) bacteria present. In this study, we investigated whether lettuce or its production environment (irrigation water, soil) is able to act as a vector or reservoir of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli. Over a 1-year period, eight lettuce farms were visited multiple times and 738 samples, including lettuce seedlings (leaves and soil), soil, irrigation water, and lettuce leaves were collected. From these samples, 473 isolates of Escherichia coli were obtained and tested for resistance to 14 antimicrobials. Fifty-four isolates (11.4%) were resistant to one or more antimicrobials. The highest resistance rate was observed for ampicillin (7%), followed by cephalothin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, tetracycline, trimethoprim, and streptomycin, with resistance rates between 4.4 and 3.6%. No resistance to amikacin, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, or kanamycin was observed. One isolate was resistant to cefotaxime. Among the multiresistant isolates (n = 37), ampicillin and cephalothin showed the highest resistance rates, at 76 and 52%, respectively. E. coli isolates from lettuce showed higher resistance rates than E. coli isolates obtained from soil or irrigation water samples. When the presence of resistance in E. coli isolates from lettuce production sites and their resistance patterns were compared with the profiles of animal-derived E. coli strains, they were found to be the most comparable with what is found in the cattle reservoir. This may suggest that cattle are a potential reservoir of antimicrobial-resistant E. coli strains in plant primary production. PMID:23974140

  9. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Escherichia coli isolated from feces of wild cranes migrating to Kagoshima, Japan.

    PubMed

    Kitadai, Noriyuki; Obi, Takeshi; Yamashita, Shogo; Murase, Toshiyuki; Takase, Kozo

    2012-03-01

    Susceptibility to 13 antimicrobial agents was examined for 138 Escherichia coli isolates obtained from 192 fecal samples of wild cranes that migrated for wintering to the Izumi plain, Kagoshima prefecture in Japan. The numbers of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobials used in this study are as follows: oxytetracycline (OTC), 22 isolates; minocycline, 7 isolates; ampicillin (ABPC), 4 isolates; nalidixic acid, 4 isolates; enrofloxacin, 2 isolates; kanamycin, one isolate. Multidrug resistant isolates exhibiting 2-4 drug resistances were obtained. All of the OTC-resistant isolates carried either the tet (A) or tet(B) gene. The bla(TEM) gene was found in all of the ABPC-resistant isolates. PMID:22075707

  10. Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli O157 and non-Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli O157 respond differently to culture and isolation from naturally contaminated bovine feces

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We quantified the effects of two immunomagnetic separation (IMS) strategies, two broth enrichment times, and two selective plating media on isolation rates of Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) O157 and non-STEC O157 from fecal specimens of naturally infected feedlot cattle. STEC O157 and non-...

  11. The population structure of Escherichia coli isolated from subtropical and temperate soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N.; Yan, Tao; Hamilton, Matthew J.; Ishii, Satoshi; Fujioka, Roger S.; Whitman, Richard L.; Sadowsky, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    While genotypically-distinct naturalized Escherichia coli strains have been shown to occur in riparian soils of Lake Michigan and Lake Superior watersheds, comparative analyses of E. coli populations in diverse soils across a range of geographic and climatic conditions have not been investigated. The main objectives of this study were to: (a) examine the population structure and genetic relatedness of E. coli isolates collected from different soil types on a tropical island (Hawaii), and (b) determine if E. coli populations from Hawaii and temperate soils (Indiana, Minnesota) shared similar genotypes that may be reflective of biome-related soil conditions. DNA fingerprint and multivariate statistical analyses were used to examine the population structure and genotypic characteristics of the E. coli isolates. About 33% (98 of 293) of the E. coli from different soil types and locations on the island of Oahu, Hawaii, had unique DNA fingerprints, indicating that these bacteria were relatively diverse; the Shannon diversity index for the population was 4.03. Nearly 60% (171 of 293) of the E. coli isolates from Hawaii clustered into two major groups and the rest, with two or more isolates, fell into one of 22 smaller groups, or individual lineages. Multivariate analysis of variance of 89, 21, and 106 unique E. coli DNA fingerprints for Hawaii, Indiana, and Minnesota soils, respectively, showed that isolates formed tight cohesive groups, clustering mainly by location. However, there were several instances of clonal isolates being shared between geographically different locations. Thus, while nearly identical E. coli strains were shared between disparate climatologically- and geographically-distinct locations, a vast majority of the soil E. coli strains were genotypically diverse and were likely derived from separate lineages. This supports the hypothesis that these bacteria are not unique and multiple genotypes can readily adapt to become part of the soil autochthonous

  12. Antimicrobial resistance, virulence, and phylogenetic characteristics of Escherichia coli isolates from clinically healthy swine.

    PubMed

    Lay, Khin Khin; Koowattananukul, Chailai; Chansong, Nisit; Chuanchuen, Rungtip

    2012-11-01

    A total of 344 commensal Escherichia coli isolates from clinically healthy pigs were examined for antimicrobial resistance phenotypes, class 1 integrons, resistance genes, virulence gene profile, and phylogenetic groups. The majority of E. coli isolates were resistant to tetracycline (96.2%) and ampicillin (91.6%). Up to 98% were multidrug resistant. Seventy-three percent of the isolates carried class 1 integrons. Inserted-gene cassette arrays in variable regions included incomplete sat, aadA22, aadA1, dfrA12-aadA2, and sat-psp-aadA2, of which the aadA2 gene cassette was most prevalent (42.9%). Horizontal transfer was detected in eight E. coli isolates carrying class 1 integrons with dfrA12-aadA2 gene cassette array. Sixteen resistance genes were identified among the E. coli isolates with corresponding resistance phenotype. Ten virulence genes (including elt, estA, estB, astA, faeG, fasA, fedA, eaeA, paa, and sepA) were detected, of which fasA was most commonly found (98.3%). Most of the E. coli isolates belonged to phylogenetic group B1. Significantly positive associations were observed between some virulence genes and some resistance phenotypes and genotypes (p < 0.05). The results support a finding that commensal E. coli have a role as reservoirs for antimicrobial resistance-encoding genes and virulence determinants. PMID:22953741

  13. Molecular screening of pathogenic Escherichia coli strains isolated from dairy neonatal calves in Cordoba province, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Picco, Natalia Y; Alustiza, Fabrisio E; Bellingeri, Romina V; Grosso, María C; Motta, Carlos E; Larriestra, Alejandro J; Vissio, Claudina; Tiranti, Karina I; Terzolo, Horacio R; Moreira, Ana R; Vivas, Adriana B

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to perform a current molecular characterization of bovine pathogenic Escherichia coli strains isolated from random samplings in Argentinean dairy farms. Rectal swabs were obtained from 395 (63.7%) healthy and 225 (36.3%) diarrheic calves, belonging to 45 dairy farms in Cordoba Province, Argentina. E. coli isolates were examined for virulence genes (f5, f41, f17, sta, stb, lt, eae, vt) using PCR and the prevalence of E. coli virulence profiles was spatially described in terms of spatial distribution. A total of 30.1% isolates were found to be positive for at least one of the virulence genes. Depending on the different gene combinations present, 11 virulence profiles were found. Most of the isolates analyzed had a single gene, and no combination of fimbrial and enterotoxin gene was predominant. There was no association between the frequency and distribution of E. coli virulence genes and calf health status. Most of the virulence profiles were compatible with ETEC strains and showed a homogeneous distribution over the sampled area. A clustering pattern for E. coli virulence profiles could not be recognized. This work provides updated information on the molecular characterization of pathogenic E. coli strains from dairy herds in Cordoba, Argentina. These findings would be important to formulate prevention programs and effective therapies for diarrhea in calves caused by E. coli. PMID:26026231

  14. HIGH PREVALENCE OF ENTEROINVASIVE ESCHERICHIA COLI ISOLATED IN A REMOTE REGION OF NORTHERN COASTAL ECUADOR

    PubMed Central

    VIEIRA, NADIA; BATES, SARAH J.; SOLBERG, OWEN D.; PONCE, KARINA; HOWSMON, REBECCA; CEVALLOS, WILLIAM; TRUEBA, GABRIEL; RILEY, LEE; EISENBERG, JOSEPH N. S.

    2008-01-01

    Enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC) causes dysentery; however, it is less widely reported than other etiological agents in studies of diarrhea worldwide. Between August 2003 and July 2005, stool samples were collected in case-control studies in 22 rural communities in northwestern Ecuador. Infection was assessed by PCR specific for LT and STa genes of enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), the bfp gene of enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), and the ipaH gene of both enteroinvasive E. coli and Shigellae. The pathogenic E. coli most frequently identified were EIEC (3.2 cases/100 persons) and Shigellae (1.5 cases/100 persons), followed by ETEC (1.3 cases/100 persons), and EPEC (0.9 case/100 persons). EIEC exhibited similar risk-factor relationships with other pathotypes analyzed but different age-specific infection rates. EIEC was the predominant diarrheagenic bacteria isolated in our community-based study, a unique observation compared with other regions of the world. PMID:17360879

  15. The prevalence of Escherichia coli strains with extended spectrum beta-lactamases isolated in China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Haihong; Wang, Yueling; Wang, Gang; Xing, Quantai; Shao, Lihua; Dong, Xiaomeng; Sai, Lintao; Liu, Yongjuan; Ma, Lixian

    2015-01-01

    The extended-spectrum-lactamases-producing Escherichia coli has rapidly spread worldwide. Escherichia coli has been becoming much more resistant to β-lactam antibiotics and other commonly available antimicrobials. We investigated the prevalence, resistance, and probable gene type of extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) using minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) testing and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We have collected 289 single-patient E. coli Isolates based on samples of China from July 2013 to August 2014. This article explored that the prevalence of ESBL-producing Isolates showed multi-resistant to antimicrobials such as fluoroquinolones, trimethoprim, tetracycline and aminoglycosides, and so on. The frequencies of resistance in Isolates were as follows: Ciprofloxacin, 74%, gentamicin, 69.5%, levofloxacin, 63%, tobramycin, 39%, and minocycline, 7.9%. According to our results, 197(68.2%) of the total 289 Isolates were ESBL-producing strains; further, 172 (87.3%) producers contained genes encoding CTX-M enzymes and 142(72.1%) producers contained genes encoding TEM enzymes. Most ESBL-producing Escherichia coli has produced more than one type of β-lactamase. Nucleotide sequence analysis has revealed the diversity of ESBLs types: CTX-M -15 is in the majority and TEM-135, CTX-M-3, CTX-M-98, CTX-M-14, CTX-M-142, CTX-M-65, CTX-M-55, CTX-M-27, and CTX-M-123 have been recovered. The results confirm that ESBL producers which are common in hospital strains of Escherichia coli are resistant to cephalosporins and other antibiotics in China. It is important to monitor such strains closely and provide scientific evidence of rational application of antibiotics to prevent their spread. PMID:25954262

  16. Characterization of Escherichia coli Isolates from Hospital Inpatients or Outpatients with Urinary Tract Infection

    PubMed Central

    Toval, Francisco; Köhler, Christian-Daniel; Vogel, Ulrich; Wagenlehner, Florian; Mellmann, Alexander; Fruth, Angelika; Schmidt, M. Alexander; Karch, Helge; Bielaszewska, Martina

    2014-01-01

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is the most common cause of community- and hospital-acquired urinary tract infections (UTIs). Isolates from uncomplicated community-acquired UTIs express a variety of virulence traits that promote the efficient colonization of the urinary tract. In contrast, nosocomial UTIs can be caused by E. coli strains that differ in their virulence traits from the community-acquired UTI isolates. UPEC virulence markers are used to distinguish these facultative extraintestinal pathogens, which belong to the intestinal flora of many healthy individuals, from intestinal pathogenic E. coli (IPEC). IPEC is a diarrheagenic pathogen with a characteristic virulence gene set that is absent in UPEC. Here, we characterized 265 isolates from patients with UTIs during inpatient or outpatient treatment at a hospital regarding their phylogenies and IPEC or UPEC virulence traits. Interestingly, 28 of these isolates (10.6%) carried typical IPEC virulence genes that are characteristic of enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), and atypical enteropathogenic E. coli (aEPEC), although IPEC is not considered a uropathogen. Twenty-three isolates harbored the astA gene coding for the EAEC heat-stable enterotoxin 1 (EAST1), and most of them carried virulence genes that are characteristic of UPEC and/or EAEC. Our results indicate that UPEC isolates from hospital patients differ from archetypal community-acquired isolates from uncomplicated UTIs by their spectrum of virulence traits. They represent a diverse group, including EAEC, as well as other IPEC pathotypes, which in addition contain typical UPEC virulence genes. The combination of typical extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) and IPEC virulence determinants in some isolates demonstrates the marked genome plasticity of E. coli and calls for a reevaluation of the strict pathotype classification of EAEC. PMID:24478469

  17. Molecular Epidemiology of Ceftiofur-Resistant Escherichia coli Isolates from Dairy Calves

    PubMed Central

    Donaldson, Sarah C.; Straley, Beth A.; Hegde, Narasimha V.; Sawant, Ashish A.; DebRoy, Chitrita; Jayarao, Bhushan M.

    2006-01-01

    Healthy calves (n = 96, 1 to 9 weeks old) from a dairy herd in central Pennsylvania were examined each month over a five-month period for fecal shedding of ceftiofur-resistant gram-negative bacteria. Ceftiofur-resistant Escherichia coli isolates (n = 122) were characterized by antimicrobial resistance (disk diffusion and MIC), serotype, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis subtypes, beta-lactamase genes, and virulence genes. Antibiotic disk diffusion assays showed that the isolates were resistant to ampicillin (100%), ceftiofur (100%), chloramphenicol (94%), florfenicol (93%), gentamicin (89%), spectinomycin (72%), tetracycline (98%), ticarcillin (99%), and ticarcillin-clavulanic acid (99%). All isolates were multidrug resistant and displayed elevated MICs. The E. coli isolates belonged to 42 serotypes, of which O8:H25 was the predominant serotype (49.2%). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis classified the E. coli isolates into 27 profiles. Cluster analysis showed that 77 isolates (63.1%) belonged to one unique group. The prevalence of pathogenic E. coli was low (8%). A total of 117 ceftiofur-resistant E. coli isolates (96%) possessed the blaCMY2 gene. Based on phenotypic and genotypic characterization, the ceftiofur-resistant E. coli isolates belonged to 59 clonal types. There was no significant relationship between calf age and clonal type. The findings of this study revealed that healthy dairy calves were rapidly colonized by antibiotic-resistant strains of E. coli shortly after birth. The high prevalence of multidrug-resistant nonpathogenic E. coli in calves could be a significant source of resistance genes to other bacteria that share the same environment. PMID:16751500

  18. Drug resistance and R plasmids in Escherichia coli strains isolated from imported pet birds.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, M; Fukazawa, M; Yoshimura, H; Koeda, T

    1980-01-01

    Drug resistance in Escherichia coli strains isolated from pet birds (mynahs, macaws, finches, common bengals, parrots, and flamingos) imported into Japan from 10 foreign countries in 1977 and 1978 was investigated. Of the 309 strains isolated from 127 pet birds in the Animal Quarantine Service, 232 (75.1%) were drug resistant. Furthermore, strains resistant to oxytetracycline hydrochloride, dihydrostreptomycin, and sulfadimethoxine were relatively common. Resistance patterns varied from single to sextuple resistance, and 148 (63.8%) of the resistant strains had conjugative R plasmids. These results suggest that the high incidence of drug resistance and R plasmids in E. coli strains isolated from these pet birds may be a reflection of the prophylactic use of antibiotics for the prevention of diseases which increasingly occur with importation of the birds. Furthermore, the results suggest that the birds may be potential reservoirs of drug-resistant E. coli for families who raise and have intimate contact with such birds. PMID:6163947

  19. [Growth peculiarities of commensal Escherichia coli isolates from the gut microflora in Crohn's disease patients].

    PubMed

    Gasparian, G; Balaian, M; Grigorian, A; Akopian, A; Manvelian, A; Mirzabekian, S; Trchunian, A; Pepoian, A

    2013-01-01

    Verhulst's logistic differential equation, popular in mathematical ecology, is used in modeling of population growth, neural networks, statistics, reaction models, Fermi distribution, modeling of tumor growth, etc. We used this function to characterize growth of commensal Escherichia coli isolates from gut microflora in Crohn's disease patients. The results of our investigations show differences in growth parameters of commensal E. coli, isolated from the gut microflora in Crohn's disease patients and healthy volunteers; it is most likely explained by the influence of chronic inflammatory processes on growth and reproduction of these bacteria. It has been established that the used mathematical model well characterizes growth of patients' gut E. coli isolates, and it can be important for the expedient probiotics' application during the disease. PMID:24455889

  20. Sharing of Ribotype Patterns of Escherichia Coli Isolates During Baseflow and Stormflow Conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hartel, Peter G.; Frick, Elizabeth A.; Funk, Adrienne L.; Hill, Jennifer L.; Summer, Jacob D.; Gregory, M. Brian

    2004-01-01

    Factors affecting bacterial source tracking are important to understand because they affect the amount of sampling needed to describe fecal sources in a watershed adequately. The study area was a 76-kilometer reach of the Chattahoochee River and its tributaries in Metropolitan Atlanta, Georgia. Escherichia coli was isolated from water samples collected during baseflow and stormflow conditions from four mainstem and eight tributary sites; 262 isolates were ribotyped and assessed for their similarity. The vast majority of the E. coli ribotype patterns were unshared, whether the comparisons were between baseflow and stormflow conditions at one location, or between one location and another. The data suggest that either baseflow and stormflow conditions affected sharing of ribotype patterns, or that the sample size was too small to characterize the sharing adequately. Regardless, the results suggest that a large sampling of E. coli isolates is needed during various flow conditions from watersheds with complex land-use patterns for adequate bacterial source tracking.

  1. SEROLOGICAL CROSS-REACTIONS BETWEEN ESCHERICHIA COLI 0157 AND OTHER SPECIES OF THE GENUS ESCHERICHIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Escherichia hermannii, a sorbitol-negative species of the genus Escherichia, has been reported to be agglutinated by Escherichia coli 0157 and four sorbitol-negative species of the genus Escherichia: . hermannii (24 isolates), Escherichia fergusonii (12 isolates), Escherichia vul...

  2. Characterization of Escherichia coli O157:H7 Strains Isolated from Supershedding Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Rafiq; Chase-Topping, Margo; Kalchayanand, Norasak; Schmidt, John W.; Bono, James L.

    2013-01-01

    Previous reports have indicated that a small proportion of cattle shedding high levels of Escherichia coli O157:H7 is the main source for transmission of this organism between animals. Cattle achieving a fecal shedding status of 104 CFU of E. coli O157:H7/gram or greater are now referred to as supershedders. The aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of E. coli O157:H7 strain type to supershedding and to determine if supershedding was restricted to a specific set of E. coli O157:H7 strains. Fecal swabs (n = 5,086) were collected from cattle at feedlots or during harvest. Supershedders constituted 2.0% of the bovine population tested. Supershedder isolates were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), phage typing, lineage-specific polymorphism assay (LSPA), Stx-associated bacteriophage insertion (SBI) site determination, and variant analysis of Shiga toxin, tir, and antiterminator Q genes. Isolates representing 52 unique PFGE patterns, 19 phage types, and 12 SBI clusters were obtained from supershedding cattle, indicating that there is no clustering to E. coli O157:H7 genotypes responsible for supershedding. While being isolated directly from cattle, this strain set tended to have higher frequencies of traits associated with human clinical isolates than previously collected bovine isolates with respect to lineage and tir allele, but not for SBI cluster and Q type. We conclude that no exclusive genotype was identified that was common to all supershedder isolates. PMID:23645203

  3. EcoR phylogenetic analysis and virulence genotyping of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli strains and Escherichia coli isolates from commercial chicken carcasses in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Renata K T; Aquino, Ivani; Ferreira, Ana Lívia da S; Vidotto, Marilda C

    2011-05-01

    Escherichia coli strains designated as avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) are responsible for avian colibacillosis, an acute and largely systemic disease that promotes significant economic losses in poultry industry worldwide because of mortality increase, medication costs, and condemnation of carcasses. APEC is a subgroup of extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli pathotype, which includes uropathogenic E. coli, neonatal meningitis E. coli, and septicemic E. coli. We isolated E. coli from commercial chicken carcasses in a Brazilian community and compared by polymerase chain reaction-defined phylogenetic group (A, B1, B2, or D) with APEC strains isolated from sick chickens from different poultry farms. A substantial number of strains assigned to phylogenetic E. coli reference collection group B2, which is known to harbor potent extraintestinal human and animal E. coli pathogens, were identified as APEC (26.0%) in both commercial chicken carcasses and retail poultry meat (retail poultry E. coli [RPEC]) (21.25%). The majority of RPEC were classified as group A (35%), whereas the majority of APEC were groups B1 (30.8) and A (27.6%). APEC and RPEC presented the genes pentaplex, iutA, hly, iron, ompT, and iss, but with different virulence profiles. The similarity between APEC and RPEC indicates RPEC as potentially pathogenic strains and supports a possible zoonotic risk for humans. PMID:21254888

  4. Prevalence of antimicrobial resistance and resistance genes in faecal Escherichia coli isolates recovered from healthy pets.

    PubMed

    Costa, Daniela; Poeta, Patricia; Sáenz, Yolanda; Coelho, Ana Cláudia; Matos, Manuela; Vinué, Laura; Rodrigues, Jorge; Torres, Carmen

    2008-02-01

    Faecal samples of healthy dogs (n=39) and cats (n=36) obtained in Northern Portugal were seeded on Levine agar plates, and two Escherichia coli isolates per sample were recovered (78 of dogs and 66 of cats). The susceptibility to 16 antimicrobial agents was tested in this series of 144 E. coli isolates. Almost 20% of them showed tetracycline resistance and 12 and 15% presented ampicillin or streptomycin resistance, respectively. The percentage of resistance to the other antimicrobial agents was in all cases below 4%, and no resistant isolates were detected for ceftazidime, imipenem, cefoxitin or amikacin. Two isolates (from one dog) showed cefotaxime-resistance and harboured both the CTX-M-1 and OXA-30 beta-lactamases. A bla(TEM) gene was detected in 12 of 17 ampicillin-resistant isolates, the aac(3)-II gene in the three gentamicin-resistant isolates, aadA in 7 of 22 streptomycin-resistant isolates, and tet(A) and/or tet(B) gene in all 28 tetracycline-resistant isolates. The gene encoding class 1 integrase was detected in six E. coli isolates, including the four trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole-resistant isolates and those two harbouring CTX-M-1 and OXA-30 beta-lactamases; different gene cassette arrangements were identified: dfrA1+aadA1 (two isolates), dfrA12+orfF+aadA2 (two isolates) and bla(OXA30)+aadA1 (two isolates). One amino acid change in GyrA protein (Ser83Leu or Asp87Tyr) was detected in four nalidixic acid-resistant and ciprofloxacin-susceptible isolates and two amino acid changes in GyrA (Ser83Leu+Asp87Asn) and one in ParC (Ser80Ile) were identified in one nalidixic acid- and ciprofloxacin-resistant isolate. Faecal E. coli isolates of healthy pets could be a reservoir of antimicrobial resistance genes. PMID:17870255

  5. Escherichia coli Serogroups Isolated from Streams in Pennsylvania, 1965 to 19721

    PubMed Central

    Glantz, Paul J.

    1973-01-01

    Of 3,200 cultures of Escherichia coli isolated from streams in Pennsylvania over a 7-year period, 82.46% or 2,639 were O serogrouped. The largest number of cultures (33.4%) belonged to O groups 1 to 26, and the second highest number (16.8%) belonged to O groups 60 to 88. The individual E. coli O groups most frequently isolated were ADO3, 18ac, 2a, 3, 7, 73, 139, and OX13. Practically every known standard E. coli O group was found in the streams. It was not possible to identify the K and H antigen of every E. coli isolate. Serotypes of E. coli O2a:K1:H6, O26:K60:H11, O55:K59:H27, O86:K62:H2, 112ab:K68:H2, 125ab:K70:H21, 128ab:K67:H2, and O138:K81:H14 known to be pathogenic for humans and animals were identified. Cultures having the same K antigen but a different H antigen for enteropathogenic E. coli O groups 6, 18ab, 18ac, 111ab, 126, 127a, 139, 141, and 147 were also isolated. PMID:4586930

  6. Large scale analysis of virulence genes in Escherichia coli strains isolated from Avalon Bay, CA.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Matthew J; Hadi, Asbah Z; Griffith, John F; Ishii, Satoshi; Sadowsky, Michael J

    2010-10-01

    Contamination of recreational waters with Escherichia coli and Enterococcus sp. is a widespread problem resulting in beach closures and loss of recreational activity. While E. coli is frequently used as an indicator of fecal contamination, and has been extensively measured in waterways, few studies have examined the presence of potentially pathogenic E. coli strains in beach waters. In this study, a combination of high-throughput, robot-assisted colony hybridization and PCR-based analyses were used to determine the genomic composition and frequency of virulence genes present in E. coli isolated from beach water in Avalon Bay, Santa Catalina Island, CA. A total of 24,493 E. coli isolates were collected from two sites at a popular swimming beach between August through September 2007 and from July through August 2008. All isolates were examined for the presence of shiga-like toxins (stx1/stx2), intimin (eaeA), and enterotoxins (ST/LT). Of the 24,493 isolates examined, 3.6% contained the eaeA gene, indicating that these isolates were potential EPEC strains. On five dates, however, greater than 10% of the strains were potential EPEC, suggesting that incidence of virulence genes at this beach has a strong temporal component. No STEC or ETEC isolates were detected, and only eight (<1.0%) of the potential EPEC isolates were found to carry the EAF plasmid. The potential EPEC isolates mainly belonged to E. coli phylogenetic groups B1 or B2, and carried the β intimin subtype. DNA fingerprint analyses of the potential EPEC strains indicated that the isolates belonged to several genetically diverse groups, although clonal isolates were frequently detected. While the presence of virulence genes alone cannot be used to determine the pathogenicity of strains, results from this study show that potential EPEC strains can be found in marine beach water and their presence needs to be considered as one of the factors used in decisions concerning beach closures. PMID:20643468

  7. Analysis of antimicrobial resistance genes detected in multiple-drug-resistant Escherichia coli isolates from broiler chicken carcasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria in food animals are a potential problem in both animal and human health. In this study, MDR commensal Escherichia coli isolates from poultry were examined. Thirty-two E. coli isolates from broiler carcass rinses were selected based on resistance to aminoglycosid...

  8. A clinical isolate of transposon Tn5 expressing streptomycin resistance in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Genilloud, O; Blázquez, J; Mazodier, P; Moreno, F

    1988-01-01

    The central region of transposon Tn5 carries three antibiotic resistance markers: neo, ble, and str. The str gene codes for a phosphotransferase that inactivates streptomycin. This activity is phenotypically expressed in several gram-negative bacteria but not in Escherichia coli. We identified a Tn5 variant in E. coli clinical isolates that express streptomycin resistance. This transposon carries a 6-base-pair deletion within the str gene, near the 3' end. The same kind of mutation had been previously obtained experimentally from Tn5. Images PMID:2830233

  9. Emergence of an NDM-5-producing clinical Escherichia coli isolate in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Ahmed M; Khalifa, Hazim O; Ahmed, Ashraf M; Shimamoto, Toshi; Shimamoto, Tadashi

    2016-07-01

    The first occurrence of New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase 5 (NDM-5), carried on an IncI1-Iγ-type plasmid of >93kb in a multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli strain in Kafr El-Sheikh, Egypt, is reported. The strain was isolated from a wound pus swab from a patient diagnosed with a fracture of the right femur. This E. coli strain was found to belong to sequence type (ST) 5018 and also to carry other resistance genes, including blaCTX-M-15, blaCMY-42, blaOXA-1, and aac(6')-Ib-cr. PMID:27173077

  10. Microcin determinants are associated with B2 phylogroup of human fecal Escherichia coli isolates.

    PubMed

    Micenková, Lenka; Bosák, Juraj; Štaudová, Barbora; Kohoutová, Darina; Čejková, Darina; Woznicová, Vladana; Vrba, Martin; Ševčíková, Alena; Bureš, Jan; Šmajs, David

    2016-06-01

    Escherichia coli strains are classified into four main phylogenetic groups (A, B1, B2, and D) and strains of these phylogroups differ in a number of characteristics. This study tested whether human fecal E. coli isolates belonging to different phylogroups differ in prevalence of bacteriocinogenic isolates and prevalence of individual bacteriocinogenic determinants. A set of 1283 fecal E. coli isolates from patients with different diseases was tested for the presence of DNA regions allowing classification into E. coli phylogroups and for the ability to produce bacteriocins (23 colicins and 7 microcins). Of the isolates tested, the most common was phylogroup B2 (38.3%) followed by phylogroups A (28.3%), D (26.3%) and B1 (7.2%). Altogether, 695 bacteriocin producers were identified representing 54.2% of all tested isolates. The highest prevalence of bacteriocin producers was found in group B2 (60.3%) and the lowest in group B1 (44.6%). Determinants encoding colicins E1, Ia, and microcin mV were most common in phylogroup A, determinants encoding microcins mM and mH47 were most common in phylogroup B2, and determinant encoding mB17 was most common in phylogroup D. The highest prevalence of bacteriocinogeny was found in phylogroup B2, suggesting that bacteriocinogeny and especially the synthesis of microcins was associated with virulent and resident E. coli strains. PMID:26987297

  11. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli serotype O111:HNT isolated from preterm neonates in Nairobi, Kenya.

    PubMed Central

    Senerwa, D; Olsvik, O; Mutanda, L N; Lindqvist, K J; Gathuma, J M; Fossum, K; Wachsmuth, K

    1989-01-01

    This investigation was initiated as a consequence of several cases of diarrhea in a nursery ward for preterm babies in Nairobi, Kenya. Ten lactose-positive colonies were isolated from the stools of each of 30 neonates, regardless of whether they had diarrhea; 229 strains were identified as Escherichia coli and 65 strains were identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae. Six strains were lost during laboratory handling. No other bacterial, viral, or parasitic enteropathogens were identified. Using synthetic alkaline phosphatase-labeled probes, the bacterial isolates were found to be negative for the presence of genes coding for heat-stable and heat-labile enterotoxins. Seventy-eight E. coli strains isolated from a total of 13 neonates possessed the E. coli enteropathogenic adhesion factor (EAF) gene, as demonstrated by the use of a cloned radiolabeled DNA fragment probe. These strains possessed similar plasmid profiles constituting a core plasmid profile, and while all adhered to HeLa cells, none produced Vero cell cytotoxins. The EAF gene was located on a 65-megadalton plasmid. Serotyping showed the strains to be of serogroup O111 and serotype H nontypable, a well known enteropathogenic type. Five neonates died during the outbreak, and the fatality rate was 30.7% (4 of 13) for neonates infected with EAF-positive E. coli strains compared with 7.7% (1 of 13) for neonates from whom only EAF-negative E. coli strains were isolated. K. pneumoniae only was isolated from five neonates. Images PMID:2568996

  12. Escherichia coli Isolates Causing Asymptomatic Bacteriuria in Catheterized and Noncatheterized Individuals Possess Similar Virulence Properties ▿

    PubMed Central

    Watts, Rebecca E.; Hancock, Viktoria; Ong, Cheryl-Lynn Y.; Vejborg, Rebecca Munk; Mabbett, Amanda N.; Totsika, Makrina; Looke, David F.; Nimmo, Graeme R.; Klemm, Per; Schembri, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common infectious diseases of humans, with Escherichia coli being responsible for >80% of all cases. Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU) occurs when bacteria colonize the urinary tract without causing clinical symptoms and can affect both catheterized patients (catheter-associated ABU [CA-ABU]) and noncatheterized patients. Here, we compared the virulence properties of a collection of ABU and CA-ABU nosocomial E. coli isolates in terms of antibiotic resistance, phylogenetic grouping, specific UTI-associated virulence genes, hemagglutination characteristics, and biofilm formation. CA-ABU isolates were similar to ABU isolates with regard to the majority of these characteristics; exceptions were that CA-ABU isolates had a higher prevalence of the polysaccharide capsule marker genes kpsMT II and kpsMT K1, while more ABU strains were capable of mannose-resistant hemagglutination. To examine biofilm growth in detail, we performed a global gene expression analysis with two CA-ABU strains that formed a strong biofilm and that possessed a limited adhesin repertoire. The gene expression profile of the CA-ABU strains during biofilm growth showed considerable overlap with that previously described for the prototype ABU E. coli strain, 83972. This is the first global gene expression analysis of E. coli CA-ABU strains. Overall, our data suggest that nosocomial ABU and CA-ABU E. coli isolates possess similar virulence profiles. PMID:20444967

  13. Distribution and transferability of tetracycline resistance determinants in Escherichia coli isolated from meat and meat products.

    PubMed

    Koo, Hyon-Ji; Woo, Gun-Jo

    2011-02-28

    Escherichia coli is used to assess the hygienic quality of food products and the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance. In particular, tetracycline-resistant E. coli can be chosen as an indicator of antibiotic resistant bacteria because it has a high frequency of occurrence. The purpose of this study was to investigate the distribution and transfer of tetracycline resistance determinants in meatborne E. coli. A total of 121 tetracycline-resistant E. coli isolates were collected from meat and meat products (raw meat, fish, and processed foods) from 2004 to 2006 in Korea. Among these isolates, tet(A) (52.4%) was the most frequent tetracycline resistance determinant, followed by tet(B) (41.3%), whereas tet(C) (1.7%) and tet(D) (0.8%) were less frequently identified. Two isolates (1.6%) contained two tet genes simultaneously, tet(A) and tet(B). Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) to tetracycline family antibiotics, such as tetracycline, minocycline, doxycycline, oxytetracycline, and chlortetracycline were higher for isolates carrying the tet(B) gene compared to isolates carrying tet(A) (P<0.0001). Conjugation experiments were performed by the broth mating method; 119 isolates (98.3%) containing at least one of the tet genes were shown to transfer tetracycline resistance to recipient E. coli J53. Also, we observed high diversity of tetracycline-resistant E. coli isolates in meat and meat products in Korea by using XbaI pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing. This study suggests that the high prevalence of tetracycline-resistant E. coli in meat may be due to the high transferability of tet determinants. PMID:21324543

  14. Emergence of Escherichia coli Sequence Type 131 Isolates Producing KPC-2 Carbapenemase in China

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Jia Chang; Zhang, Rong; Hu, Yan Yan; Zhou, Hong Wei

    2014-01-01

    Twenty-two KPC-2-producing Escherichia coli isolates were obtained from three hospitals in Hangzhou, China, from 2007 to 2011. One isolate, with OmpC porin deficiency, exhibited high-level carbapenem resistance. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed that few isolates were indistinguishable or closely related. Multilocus sequence typing indicated that sequence type 131 (ST131) was the predominant type (9 isolates, 40.9%), followed by ST648 (5 isolates), ST405 (2 isolates), ST38 (2 isolates), and 4 single STs, ST69, ST2003, ST2179, and ST744. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that 9 group B2 isolates belonged to ST131, and 5 of 11 group D isolates belonged to ST648. Only one group B1 isolate and one group A isolate were identified. A representative plasmid (pE1) was partially sequenced, and a 7,788-bp DNA fragment encoding Tn3 transposase, Tn3 resolvase, ISKpn8 transposase, KPC-2, and ISKpn6-like transposase was obtained. The blaKPC-2-surrounding sequence was amplified by a series of primers. The PCR results showed that 13 isolates were consistent with the genetic environment in pE1. It is the first report of rapid emergence of KPC-2-producing E. coli ST131 in China. The blaKPC-2 gene of most isolates was located on a similar genetic structure. PMID:24323475

  15. Antibacterial Activity of Some Plant Extracts Against Extended- Spectrum Beta-Lactamase Producing Escherichia coli Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Saeidi, Saeide; Amini Boroujeni, Negar; Ahmadi, Hassan; Hassanshahian, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Background: The extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) -producing Escherichia coli isolates make many serious infections, especially urinary tract infections. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the antibacterial activities of some natural plant extracts against ESBL-producing E. coli isolates, which harbor the TEM gene in urine samples of the patients who have urinary tract infections. Materials and Methods: Evaluation has to be exactly determined for both methods of disk diffusion test and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), separately. We evaluated 120 strains of E. coli isolates from the urine culture of the patients in Boo-Ali Hospital (Zahedan, south-eastern Iran) who were suffering from urinary tract infections. The ESBL-producing E. coli isolates were evaluated by disk diffusion test and PCR through TEM gene detection. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of commonly used antibiotics including ceftazidime, ceftriaxon, amikacin, gentamicin and ciprofloxacin along with the MIC of the alcoholic extract of different natural plants including Myrtus communis L (Myrtaceae), Amaranthus retraflexus (Amaranthaceae), Cyminum cuminum L (Apiaceae), Marrubium vulgare (Laminaceae) and Peganum. harmala (Zygrophyllaceae) against the ESBL-producing E. coli isolates, which harbor the TEM genes, were determined using the microdulition method. Results: Results of this study showed that in disk diffusion method, 80 samples of E. coli produced ESBLs. In PCR method, the TEM gene distribution in the isolated ESBL-producing organisms was 50 (41.6%). Amikacin was the most effective anti-bacterial agent and ciprofloxacin was the least effective against E. coli isolates. All the natural plant extracts mentioned above, especially P. harmala, were effective against the selected isolates of ESBL-producing E. coli. The most frequent ESBL rate producing E. coli isolates (32 out of 50) had MIC of 2.5 mg/mL in ethanol extract of P. harmala. Conclusions: The alcoholic

  16. Antimicrobial resistance and genetic diversity of Escherichia coli isolated from humans and foods

    PubMed Central

    Melo, Daniela Benevides; Menezes, Ana Paula de Oliveira; Reis, Joice Neves; Guimarães, Alaíse Gil

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance has increased in recent years, raising the concern of public health authorities. We conducted a study of Escherichia coli isolates obtained from human and food samples to assess the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance and to determine the genotype and clonal relationship of 84 E. coli isolates (48 from humans and 36 from foods). An antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed using the disk diffusion method. Virulence factors were evaluated by multiplex PCR, and the clonal relationship among the resistant isolates was studied by Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE). All isolates were susceptible to ceftriaxone. Overall, 26%, 20.2%, 15.4% and 6% of the isolates were resistant to tetracycline, ampicillin, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim and cephalotin, respectively. Twenty two percent of the isolates exhibited resistance to more than one antimicrobial agent. Multiple-drug resistance was mostly observed in the human isolates and involved the antibiotics ampicillin and tetracycline. None of the six virulence genes were identified among the isolates. Analysis of genetic diversity by PFGE of 31 resistant isolates, revealed 29 distinct restriction patterns. In conclusion, E. coli from humans and foods are resistant to commonly used antibiotics and are highly genetically diverse. In this setting, inappropriate use of antibiotics may be a cause of high resistance rate instead of clonal spread. PMID:26691477

  17. Primary isolation of Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli from environmental sources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since the time of the first microbe hunters, primary culture and isolation of bacteria has been a foundation of microbiology. Like other microbial methods, bacterial culture and isolation methodologies continue to develop. Although fundamental concepts like selection and enrichment are as relevant t...

  18. Microarray Evaluation of Antimicrobial Resistance and Virulence of Escherichia coli Isolates from Portuguese Poultry

    PubMed Central

    Mendonça, Nuno; Figueiredo, Rui; Mendes, Catarina; Card, Roderick M.; Anjum, Muna F.; da Silva, Gabriela Jorge

    2016-01-01

    The presence of antimicrobial resistance and virulence factors of 174 Escherichia coli strains isolated from healthy Portuguese Gallus gallus was evaluated. Resistance profiles were determined against 33 antimicrobials by microbroth dilution. Resistance was prevalent for tetracycline (70%) and ampicillin (63%). Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) phenotype was observed in 18% of the isolates. Multidrug resistance was found in 56% of isolates. A subset of 74 isolates were screened by DNA microarrays for the carriage of 88 antibiotic resistance genes and 62 virulence genes. Overall, 37 different resistance genes were detected. The most common were tet(A) (72%), blaTEM (68%), and sul1 (47%), while 21% isolates harbored an ESBL gene (blaCTX-M group 1, group 2, or group 9). Of these, 96% carried the increased serum survival (iss) virulence gene, while 89% presented the enterobactin siderophore receptor protein (iroN), 70% the temperature-sensitive hemagglutinin (tsh), and 68% the long polar fimbriae (lpfA) virulence genes associated with extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli. In conclusion, prevalence of antibiotic resistant E. coli from the microbiota of Portuguese chickens was high, including to extended spectrum cephalosporins. The majority of isolates seems to have the potential to trigger extraintestinal human infection due to the presence of some virulence genes. However, the absence of genes specific for enteropathogenic E. coli reduces the risk for human intestinal infection. PMID:27025519

  19. Microarray Evaluation of Antimicrobial Resistance and Virulence of Escherichia coli Isolates from Portuguese Poultry.

    PubMed

    Mendonça, Nuno; Figueiredo, Rui; Mendes, Catarina; Card, Roderick M; Anjum, Muna F; da Silva, Gabriela Jorge

    2016-01-01

    The presence of antimicrobial resistance and virulence factors of 174 Escherichia coli strains isolated from healthy Portuguese Gallus gallus was evaluated. Resistance profiles were determined against 33 antimicrobials by microbroth dilution. Resistance was prevalent for tetracycline (70%) and ampicillin (63%). Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) phenotype was observed in 18% of the isolates. Multidrug resistance was found in 56% of isolates. A subset of 74 isolates were screened by DNA microarrays for the carriage of 88 antibiotic resistance genes and 62 virulence genes. Overall, 37 different resistance genes were detected. The most common were tet(A) (72%), blaTEM (68%), and sul1 (47%), while 21% isolates harbored an ESBL gene (blaCTX-M group 1, group 2, or group 9). Of these, 96% carried the increased serum survival (iss) virulence gene, while 89% presented the enterobactin siderophore receptor protein (iroN), 70% the temperature-sensitive hemagglutinin (tsh), and 68% the long polar fimbriae (lpfA) virulence genes associated with extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli. In conclusion, prevalence of antibiotic resistant E. coli from the microbiota of Portuguese chickens was high, including to extended spectrum cephalosporins. The majority of isolates seems to have the potential to trigger extraintestinal human infection due to the presence of some virulence genes. However, the absence of genes specific for enteropathogenic E. coli reduces the risk for human intestinal infection. PMID:27025519

  20. Genetic diversity of Escherichia coli isolates in irrigation water and associated sediments: implications for source tracking.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lingeng; Hume, Michael E; Sternes, Keith L; Pillai, Suresh D

    2004-11-01

    Identifying the sources of fecal contaminants in surface water bodies such as rivers and lakes is of significant importance for environmental quality, food safety and regulatory purposes. Current DNA library-based source tracking approaches rely on the comparison of the genetic relatedness among the fecal contaminants. The objective of this study was to determine the genetic relatedness of Escherichia coli isolated from irrigation water and associated sediments using pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and to evaluate the genetic stability of the E. coli PFGE patterns. The isolates were obtained over a 4-month period from specific locations within irrigation canals and sediments associated with the Rio Grande River along the Texas-Mexico border. Fifty E. coli isolates were genotyped using PFGE. Different E. coli genotypes were identified among samples collected in 11 different locations. Some isolates obtained over successive months showed similar genotypic patterns. In the laboratory experiment, the PFGE pattern of one E. coli strain changed during survival in irrigation water. The genetic relatedness of this strain changed from >95% to <83% over 8-week survival. These results imply that PFGE is of such extreme resolution that it may be a challenging task to rely solely on a PFGE-based source tracking DNA fingerprint library for large watersheds. PMID:15380980

  1. Population structure and virulence content of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli isolated from outbreaks in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Dissanayake, D R A; Octavia, Sophie; Lan, Ruiting

    2014-01-31

    Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) causes economically significant infections in poultry. The genetic diversity of APEC and phylogenetic relationships within and between APEC and other pathogenic E. coli are not yet well understood. We used multilocus sequence typing (MLST), PCR-based phylogrouping and virulence genotyping to analyse 75 avian E. coli strains, including 55 isolated from outbreaks of colisepticaemia and 20 from healthy chickens. Isolates were collected from 42 commercial layer and broiler chicken farms in Sri Lanka. MLST identified 61 sequence types (ST) with 44 being novel. The most frequent ST, ST48, was represented by only six isolates followed by ST117 with four isolates. Phylogenetic clusters based on MLST sequences were mostly comparable to phylogrouping by PCR and MLST further differentiated phylogroups B1 and D into two subgroups. Genotyping of 16 APEC associated virulence genes found that 27 of the clinical isolates and one isolate from a healthy chicken belonged to highly virulent genotype according to previously established classification schemes. We found that a combination of four genes, ompT, hlyF, iroN and papC, gave a comparable prediction to that of using five and nine genes by other studies. Four STs (ST10, ST48, ST117 and ST2016) contained APEC isolates from this study and human UPEC isolates reported by others, suggesting that these STs are potentially zoonotic. Our results enhanced the understanding of APEC population structure and virulence association. PMID:24388626

  2. Molecular and phenotypic characterization of Escherichia coli isolated from broiler chicken flocks in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Ashraf H M; Ghanem, Ibrahim A I; Eid, Amal A M; Ali, Mohamed A; Sherwood, Julie S; Li, Ganwu; Nolan, Lisa K; Logue, Catherine M

    2013-09-01

    Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) infection is responsible for great economic losses to the poultry industry worldwide and there is increasing evidence of its zoonotic importance. In this study, 219 E. coli isolates from 84 poultry flocks in Egypt, including 153 APEC, 30 avian fecal E. coli (AFEC), and 36 environmental E. coli, were subjected to phylogenetic grouping and virulence genotyping. Additionally, 50 of these isolates (30 APEC from colisepticemia and 20 AFEC) were subjected to a more-extensive characterization which included serogrouping, antimicrobial susceptibility analysis, screening for seven intestinal E. coli virulence genes (stx1, stx2, eae, espP, KatP, hlyA, and fliCh7), multilocus sequence typing (MLST), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and in vivo virulence testing. More than 90% of the total APEC examined possessed iroN, ompT, hlyF, iss, and iutA, indicating that Egyptian APECs, like their counterparts from the United States, harbor plasmid pathogenicity islands (PAIs). The majority of APEC and AFEC were of phylogenetic groups A, B1, and D. For the 50-isolate subgroup, more than 70% of APEC and 80% ofAFEC were multidrug resistant. Among the subgroup of APEC, MLST analysis identified 11 sequence types (ST) while seven STs were found among AFEC. Based on PFGE, the genetic relatedness of APEC and AFEC ranged from 50%-100% and clustered into four primary groups at 50% similarity. Two of the eight APEC strains tested in chickens were able to induce 25% mortality in 1-day-old chicks. APECs were distinguished from AFECs and environmental E. coli by their content of plasmid PAI genes, whereas APEC isolated from colisepticemia and AFEC were not distinguishable based on their antimicrobial resistance patterns, as both groups were multidrug resistant. Avian E. coli strains from broiler flocks in Egypt show similar sequence types to E. coli associated with human infection. PMID:24283125

  3. Characterization of persistent and transient Escherichia coli isolates recovered from clinical mastitis episodes in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Fairbrother, Julie-Hélène; Dufour, Simon; Fairbrother, John Morris; Francoz, David; Nadeau, Éric; Messier, Serge

    2015-03-23

    Escherichia coli usually cause transient intramammary infections in dairy cows, but persistent intramammary infections have been observed. The objective of the study was to compare antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes found in persistent and transient E. coli isolated from clinical mastitis cases in a cohort of 91 Canadian dairy herds monitored over a 2-year period. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by broth microdilution and the presence of 27 virulence genes associated with extra-intestinal E. coli infections was determined by colony hybridization. Proportion of resistance in persistent E. coli ranged from 0.0% (enrofloxacin) to 27.8% (ampicillin and tetracycline). Proportion of resistance in transient E. coli ranged from 0.0% (enrofloxacin) to 16.8% (tetracycline). Odds of being classified as a persistent isolate increased by a factor of 1.6 (95% CI: 1.1, 2.4) for each aditional resistance observed (e.g. isolates resistant to four antimicrobial agents had 1.6 times higher odds of belonging to the persistent groups compared to isolates demonstrating resistance to three agents). Persistency was associated with higher odds of resistance to ampicillin (OR: 9.8, P<0.01) or cephalothin (OR: 7.6, P=0.02). Persistent isolates had 5.4 times higher odds (95% CI: 1.2, 24.0) of harboring virulence gene iroN. Similarly, persistent isolates had 8.6 times higher odds (95% CI: 2.8, 27.1) of possessing the virulence gene sitA. In conclusion, this study confirmed that persistency of intramammary E. coli isolates is associated with certain traits. Findings concerning iron-acquisition shed new light on the mechanisms of intramammary survival. PMID:25631255

  4. Antimicrobial resistant Escherichia coli isolates in cattle and house sparrows on two Czech dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Dolejská, M; Senk, D; Cízek, A; Rybaríková, J; Sychra, O; Literák, I

    2008-12-01

    Rectal smears of calves, cows and young bulls, as well as cloacal smears of house sparrows (Passer domesticus), from farms at the villages of Sumice and Troskotovice, Czech Republic, were examined for E. coli resistant to 12 antimicrobials. The resistant isolates were tested for antimicrobial-resistance genes and integrons. Totals of 40% (n=183), 3% (n=95), 0% (n=33), and 9% (n=54) of Escherichia coli isolates from calves, cows, young bulls and house sparrows, respectively, were antimicrobial resistant. The following genes were identified in cattle E. coli isolates: tetA, tetB (isolates resistant to tetracycline), bla(TEM) (beta-lactams), strA, aadA (streptomycin), sul1, sul2 (sulphonamides), and cat, floR (chloramphenicol). Seven of 16 antimicrobial-resistant calf isolates from the Sumice farm possessed class 1 integrons with the aadA1 gene cassette integrated, 1 kb in size. On the Troskotovice farm, eight of 57 antimicrobial-resistant calf isolates possessed class 1 integrons. Integrons of 1.5kb with the dhfr1- aadA1 gene cassette were found in four isolates, followed by a 1kb integron with the aadA1 gene found in three isolates, and a 1.7kb integron with the dhfr17-aadA5 gene cassette and the phenotype ASSuTSxtNaCipCCfG. The prevalence of resistant E. coli in calves compared to adult cattle was much higher and probably was influenced by oral antimicrobial usage in calves, feeding with milk and colostrum from treated cows, as well as mechanisms unrelated to antimicrobial drug selection. Although house sparrows lived together with the cattle and came into contact with cattle waste on the farm, they were not infected by resistant E. coli isolates with the same characteristics as those found in cattle. PMID:18471838

  5. Characterization of Multiple-Antimicrobial-Resistant Escherichia coli Isolates from Diseased Chickens and Swine in China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hanchun; Chen, Sheng; White, David G.; Zhao, Shaohua; McDermott, Patrick; Walker, Robert; Meng, Jianghong

    2004-01-01

    Escherichia coli isolates from diseased piglets (n = 89) and chickens (n = 71) in China were characterized for O serogroups, virulence genes, antimicrobial susceptibility, class 1 integrons, and mechanisms of fluoroquinolone resistance. O78 was the most common serogroup identified (63%) among the chicken E. coli isolates. Most isolates were PCR positive for the increased serum survival gene (iss; 97%) and the temperature-sensitive hemagglutinin gene (tsh; 93%). The O serogroups of swine E. coli were not those typically associated with pathogenic strains, nor did they posses common characteristic virulence factors. Twenty-three serogroups were identified among the swine isolates; however, 38% were O nontypeable. Overall, isolates displayed resistance to nalidixic acid (100%), tetracycline (98%), sulfamethoxazole (84%), ampicillin (79%), streptomycin (77%), and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (76%). Among the fluoroquinolones, resistance ranged between 64% to levofloxacin, 79% to ciprofloxacin, and 95% to difloxacin. DNA sequencing of gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE quinolone resistance-determining regions of 39 nalidixic acid-resistant E. coli isolates revealed that a single gyrA mutation was found in all of the isolates; mutations in parC together with double gyrA mutations conferred high-level resistance to fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin MIC, ≥8 μg/ml). Class 1 integrons were identified in 17 (19%) isolates from swine and 42 (47%) from chickens. The majority of integrons possessed genes conferring resistance to streptomycin and trimethoprim. These findings suggest that multiple-antimicrobial-resistant E. coli isolates, including fluoroquinolone-resistant variants, are commonly present among diseased swine and chickens in China, and they also suggest the need for the introduction of surveillance programs in China to monitor antimicrobial resistance in pathogenic bacteria that can be potentially transmitted to humans from food animals. PMID:15297487

  6. Prevalence and characteristics of intimin-producing Escherichia coli strains isolated from healthy chickens in Korea.

    PubMed

    Oh, J-Y; Kang, M-S; An, B-K; Shin, E-G; Kim, M-J; Kim, Y-J; Kwon, Y-K

    2012-10-01

    Virulent Escherichia coli strains have commonly been associated with diarrheal illness in humans and animals. Typical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) with intimin gene (eaeA) and E. coli adherence factor plasmid, or atypical EPEC with only eaeA have been implicated in human cases. In the present study, we investigated the prevalence of virulence-associated genes including eaeA in the E. coli strains isolated from cloacal specimens of 184 chicken flocks in 7 provinces in Korea between 2009 and 2010. When 7 virulence genes (VT1, VT2, LT, and ST for enterotoxigenic E. coli; eaeA and bfpA for enteropathogenic E. coli; and aggR for enteroaggregative E. coli) were screened by multiplex PCR, a total of 30 E. coli strains carrying only the eaeA gene were detected from 184 flocks that were identified as atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (aEPEC). The aEPEC strains were analyzed by eae subtyping, phylogenetic grouping PCR, and serotyping. Twelve (40%) of 30 aEPEC strains possessed an eae-β subtype, followed by θ (30%), ε (16.7%), and β1 (13.3%). Eight (26.7%) of 30 aEPEC strains were designated into the phylogenetic group A. Two (6.7%) and 3 (10%) aEPEC strains were classified into the phylogenetic group B2 and D, respectively. A total of 15 (50%) aEPEC strains were serotyped to groups O24, O25, O26, O71, O80, O103, and O157, and the remaining strains were nontypeable. In analyzing the genetic diversity among the 30 aEPEC isolates by the pulsed-field gel electrophoresis method with XbaI-digestion, the pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiling produced 20 different patterns, but isolates within the same group did not show clear geographic or breed relationships. Our data indicate that healthy chickens may constitute an important natural reservoir of aEPEC strains, and suggest that transmission to humans could not be excluded. PMID:22991525

  7. Identification of the Multi-Resistance Gene cfr in Escherichia coli Isolates of Animal Origin

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jun; Li, Liang; Fang, Liang-Xing; Zhang, Qijing; Liu, Ya-Hong; Liao, Xiao-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Previous study indicated that the multi-resistance gene cfr was mainly found in gram-positive bacteria, such as Staphylococcus and Enterococcus, and was sporadically detected in Escherichia coli. Little is known about the prevalence and transmission mechanism of cfr in E. coli. In this study, the presence of cfr in E. coli isolates collected during 2010–2012 from food-producing animals in Guangdong Province of China was investigated, and the cfr-positive E. coli isolates were characterized by PFGE, plasmid profiling, and genetic environment analysis. Of the 839 E. coli isolates, 10 isolates from pig were cfr positive. All the cfr-positive isolates presented a multi-resistance phenotype and were genetically divergent as determined by PFGE. In 8 out of the 10 strains, the cfr gene was located on plasmids of ∼30 kb. Restriction digestion of the plasmids with EcoRI and sequence hybridization with a cfr-specific probe revealed that the cfr-harboring fragments ranged from 6 to 23 kb and a ∼18 kb cfr-carrying fragment was common for the plasmids that were ∼30 kb. Four different genetic environments of cfr were detected, in which cfr is flanked by two identical copies of IS26, which may loop out the intervening sequence through homologous recombination. Among the 8 plasmids of ∼30 kb, 7 plasmids shared the same genetic environment. These results demonstrate plasmid-carried cfr in E. coli and suggest that transposition and homologous recombination mediated by IS26 might have played a rule in the transfer of the cfr gene in E. coli. PMID:25036029

  8. Identification and Molecular Characterization of Class 1 Integrons in Multiresistant Escherichia coli Isolates from Poultry Litter

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Márquez, María-Enriqueta; Khan, Ashraf A.

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the prevalence of arrays of class 1 integron cassettes and Qnr determinants (A, B, and S) in 19 fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli isolates from chicken litter. qnrS and qnrA were the predominant genes in these fluoroquinolone-resistant isolates, and an uncommon array of aacA4-catB3-dfrA1 gene cassettes from a class1 integron was found. Additionally, aadA1 and dfrA1 gene cassettes, encoding resistance to streptomycin and trimethoprim, constituted the most common genes identified and was located on megaplasmids as well on the chromosome. Antibiotic resistance, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and plasmid data suggest a genetically diverse origin of poultry E. coli isolates. PMID:22635994

  9. Isolation of atypical enteropathogenic and shiga toxin encoding Escherichia coli strains from poultry in Tehran, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Doregiraee, Fatemeh; Alebouyeh, Masoud; Nayeri Fasaei, Bahar; Charkhkar, Saeed; Tajedin, Elahe; Zali, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and shiga toxin producing E. coli (STEC) strains in healthy broilers in Iran. Background: STEC and EPEC strains as diarrheagenic E. coli are among the most prevalent causative agents in acute diarrhea. Domestic animals, mainly cattle and sheep, have been implicated as the principal reservoirs of these pathotypes; however their prevalence among the broilers is varied among different countries. Patients and methods: A total of 500 cloacal swab samples from broilers of five different poultry houses (A-E) were collected to investigate the presence of stx1, stx2, hly, eae, and bfp virulence genes among the E. coli isolates by polymerase chain reaction. The shiga toxin encoding strains were evaluated serologically to detect their interaction with a commercial antiserum against O157 antigen. Results: Out of the 500 collected samples, 444 E. coli strains were isolated. Three strains (0.67%) presented at least one of the studied virulence genes (stx2, hly and eae), two strains were identified as STEC (stx2+, O157:nonH7) and one as an atypical EPEC strains (eae+ bfp-). Conclusion: The study established the presence of STEC and atypical EPEC in healthy broilers in Iran. Poultry might serve as vectors for transmission of pathogenic E. coli to human populations. PMID:26744615

  10. Multiple Antimicrobial Resistance of Escherichia coli Isolated from Chickens in Iran.

    PubMed

    Talebiyan, Reza; Kheradmand, Mehdi; Khamesipour, Faham; Rabiee-Faradonbeh, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Antimicrobial agents are used extremely in order to reduce the great losses caused by Escherichia coli infections in poultry industry. In this study, 318 pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) strains isolated from commercial broiler flocks with coli-septicemia were examined for antimicrobials of both veterinary and human significance by disc diffusion method. Multiple resistances to antimicrobial agents were observed in all the isolates. Resistance to the antibiotics was as follows: Tylosin (88.68%), Erythromycin (71.70%), Oxytetracycline (43.40%), Sulfadimethoxine-Trimethoprim (39.62%), Enrofloxacin (37.74%), Florfenicol (35.85%), Chlortetracycline (33.96%), Doxycycline (16.98%), Difloxacin (32.08%), Danofloxacin (28.30%), Chloramphenicol (20.75%), Ciprofloxacin (7.55%), and Gentamicin (5.66%). This study showed resistance against the antimicrobial agents that are commonly applied in poultry, although resistance against the antibiotics that are only applied in humans or less frequently used in poultry was significantly low. This study emphasizes on the occurrence of multiple drug resistant E. coli among diseased broiler chickens in Iran. The data revealed the relative risks of using antimicrobials in poultry industry. It also concluded that use of antibiotics must be limited in poultry farms in order to reduce the antibiotic resistances. PMID:25548716

  11. Multiple Antimicrobial Resistance of Escherichia coli Isolated from Chickens in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Talebiyan, Reza; Kheradmand, Mehdi; Khamesipour, Faham; Rabiee-Faradonbeh, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Antimicrobial agents are used extremely in order to reduce the great losses caused by Escherichia coli infections in poultry industry. In this study, 318 pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) strains isolated from commercial broiler flocks with coli-septicemia were examined for antimicrobials of both veterinary and human significance by disc diffusion method. Multiple resistances to antimicrobial agents were observed in all the isolates. Resistance to the antibiotics was as follows: Tylosin (88.68%), Erythromycin (71.70%), Oxytetracycline (43.40%), Sulfadimethoxine-Trimethoprim (39.62%), Enrofloxacin (37.74%), Florfenicol (35.85%), Chlortetracycline (33.96%), Doxycycline (16.98%), Difloxacin (32.08%), Danofloxacin (28.30%), Chloramphenicol (20.75%), Ciprofloxacin (7.55%), and Gentamicin (5.66%). This study showed resistance against the antimicrobial agents that are commonly applied in poultry, although resistance against the antibiotics that are only applied in humans or less frequently used in poultry was significantly low. This study emphasizes on the occurrence of multiple drug resistant E. coli among diseased broiler chickens in Iran. The data revealed the relative risks of using antimicrobials in poultry industry. It also concluded that use of antibiotics must be limited in poultry farms in order to reduce the antibiotic resistances. PMID:25548716

  12. Cadmium tolerance and antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli isolated from waste stabilization ponds.

    PubMed

    Patra, Sova; Das, T K; Avila, C; Cabello, V; Castillo, F; Sarkar, D; Lahiri, Susmita; Jana, B B

    2012-04-01

    The incidence pattern of cadmium tolerance and antibiotics resistance by Escherichia coli was examined periodically from the samples of water, sludge and intestine of fish raised in waste stabilization ponds in a sewage treatment plant. Samples of water and sludge were collected from all the selected ponds and were monitored for total counts of fecal coliform (FC), total coliform (TC) and the population of Escherichia coli, which was also obtained from the intestine of fishes. Total counts of both FC and TC as well as counts of E. coli were markedly reduced from the facultative pond to the last maturation pond. Tolerance limit to cadmium by E. coli tended to decline as the distance of the sewage effluent from the source increased; the effective lethal concentration of cadmium ranged from 0.1 mM in split chamber to 0.05 mM in first maturation pond. E. coli isolated from water, sludge and fish gut were sensitive to seven out of ten antibiotics tested. It appears that holistic functions mediated through the mutualistic growth of micro algae and heterotrophic bacteria in the waste stabilization ponds were responsible for the promotion of water quality and significant reduction of coliform along the sewage effluent gradient. PMID:22611919

  13. Genetic Features of MCR-1-Producing Colistin-Resistant Escherichia coli Isolates in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Poirel, Laurent; Kieffer, Nicolas; Brink, Adrian; Coetze, Jennifer; Jayol, Aurélie; Nordmann, Patrice

    2016-07-01

    A series of colistin-resistant Escherichia coli clinical isolates was recovered from hospitalized and community patients in South Africa. Seven clonally unrelated isolates harbored the mcr-1 gene located on different plasmid backbones. Two distinct plasmids were fully sequenced, and identical 2,600-bp-long DNA sequences defining a mcr-1 cassette were identified. Promoter sequences responsible for the expression of mcr-1, deduced from the precise identification of the +1 transcription start site for mcr-1, were characterized. PMID:27161623

  14. Isolation and characterization of the outer membrane of Escherichia coli with autodisplayed Z-domains.

    PubMed

    Park, Min; Yoo, Gu; Bong, Ji-Hong; Jose, Joachim; Kang, Min-Jung; Pyun, Jae-Chul

    2015-03-01

    "Autodisplay technology" is an expression technique used to display the various recombinant proteins on the outer membrane (OM) of Escherichia coli. The resulting autodisplayed Z-domain has been used to improve the sensitivity of immunoassays. In this work, a facile isolation method of the OM fraction of E. coli with autodisplayed Z-domains was presented using (1) an enzyme reaction for the hydrolysis of the peptidoglycan layer and (2) short centrifugation steps. The purity of the isolated OM fraction was analyzed. For the estimation of contamination with bacterial proteins from other parts of E. coli, Western blots of marker proteins for the OM (OmpA), periplasm (β-lactamase), inner membrane (SecA), and cytoplasm (β-galactosidase) were performed. Additionally, assays of marker components or enzymes from each part of E. coli were carried out including the OM (KDO), inner membrane (NADH oxidase), periplasm (β-lactamase), and cytoplasm (β-galactosidase). The yield of OM isolation using this new method was determined to be 80% of the total OM amount, with less than 1% being contaminants from other parts of E. coli. PMID:25528472

  15. Beta-Lactamase Producing Escherichia coli Isolates in Imported and Locally Produced Chicken Meat from Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Mette Marie; Opintan, Japheth A.; Frimodt-Møller, Niels; Styrishave, Bjarne

    2015-01-01

    The use of antibiotics in food animals is of public health concern, because resistant zoonotic pathogens can be transmitted to humans. Furthermore, global trade with food may rapidly spread multi-resistant pathogens between countries and even continents. The purpose of the study was to investigate whether imported chicken meat and meat from locally reared chicken are potential sources for human exposure to multi resistant Escherichia coli isolates. 188 samples from imported and locally produced chicken meat were sampled and analyzed. 153 bacteria isolates were successfully cultured and identified as E. coli using MALDI-ToF. Of these 109 isolates were from meat whereas the remaining 44 were isolated from the cloaca of locally reared live chickens. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was done on the identified E. coli isolates. Additionally, beta-lactamases production (ESBL and/or AmpC) were phenotypically confirmed on all isolates showing resistance to cefpodoxime. Beta-lactamase producing (BLP) E. coli meat isolates were further genotyped. Antimicrobial resistance to four antibiotic markers with highest resistance was detected more frequently in isolates from local chickens compared to imported chickens (tetracycline 88.9% vs. 57.5%, sulphonamide 75.0% vs. 46.6%, ampicillin 69.4% vs. 61.6% and trimethoprim 66.7% vs. 38.4%). Beta-lactamase production was found in 29 E. coli meat isolates, with 56.9% of them being multiple drug resistant (≥ 3). The predominant phylogroup identified was B1 followed by A and D, with similar distribution among the isolates from meat of locally reared chickens and imported chickens. Beta-lactamase producing genotype blaCTX-M-15 (50%; 10/20) was the most frequently drug resistant gene detected. More BLP E. coli isolates were found in imported chicken meat compared to locally reared chickens, demonstrating that these isolates may be spreading through food trade. In conclusion, both imported and locally produced chicken meats are potential

  16. Silver Resistance Genes Are Overrepresented among Escherichia coli Isolates with CTX-M Production

    PubMed Central

    Edquist, Petra; Sandegren, Linus; Adler, Marlen; Tängdén, Thomas; Drobni, Mirva; Olsen, Björn; Melhus, Åsa

    2014-01-01

    Members of the Enterobacteriaceae with extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) of the CTX-M type have disseminated rapidly in recent years and have become a threat to public health. In parallel with the CTX-M type expansion, the consumption and widespread use of silver-containing products has increased. To determine the carriage rates of silver resistance genes in different Escherichia coli populations, the presence of three silver resistance genes (silE, silP, and silS) and genes encoding CTX-M-, TEM-, and SHV-type enzymes were explored in E. coli isolates of human (n = 105) and avian (n = 111) origin. The antibiotic profiles were also determined. Isolates harboring CTX-M genes were further characterized, and phenotypic silver resistance was examined. The silE gene was present in 13 of the isolates. All of them were of human origin. Eleven of these isolates harbored ESBLs of the CTX-M type (P = 0.007), and eight of them were typed as CTX-M-15 and three as CTX-M-14. None of the silE-positive isolates was related to the O25b-ST131 clone, but 10 out of 13 belonged to the ST10 or ST58 complexes. Phenotypic silver resistance (silver nitrate MIC > 512 mg/liter) was observed after silver exposure in 12 of them, and a concomitant reduced susceptibility to piperacillin-tazobactam developed in three. In conclusion, 12% of the human E. coli isolates but none of the avian isolates harbored silver resistance genes. This indicates another route for or level of silver exposure for humans than that caused by common environmental contamination. Since silE-positive isolates were significantly more often found in CTX-M-positive isolates, it is possible that silver may exert a selective pressure on CTX-M-producing E. coli isolates. PMID:25128339

  17. Recurrent Escherichia coli bacteremia.

    PubMed Central

    Maslow, J N; Mulligan, M E; Arbeit, R D

    1994-01-01

    Escherichia coli is the most common gram-negative organism associated with bacteremia. While recurrent E. coli urinary tract infections are well-described, recurrent E. coli bacteremia appears to be uncommon, with no episodes noted in multiple series of patients with gram-negative bacteremias. We report on 5 patients with recurrent bloodstream infections identified from a series of 163 patients with E. coli bacteremia. For each patient, the isolates from each episode were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and ribotyping and for the presence of E. coli virulence factors. For each of four patients, the index and recurrent episodes of bacteremia represented the same strain as defined by PFGE, and the strains were found to carry one or more virulence factors. The remaining patient, with two episodes of bloodstream infection separated by a 4-year interval, was infected with two isolates that did not carry any virulence factors and that were clonally related by ribotype analysis but differed by PFGE. All five patients had either a local host defense defect (three patients) or impaired systemic defenses (one patient) or both (one patient). Thus, recurrent E. coli bacteremia is likely to represent a multifactorial process that occurs in patients with impaired host defenses who are infected with virulent isolates. Images PMID:7910828

  18. Detection and characterization of colonization factor of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli isolated from adults with diarrhea.

    PubMed Central

    Evans, D G; Evans, D J; Tjoa, W S; DuPont, H L

    1978-01-01

    The fimbriate colonization factor antigen (CEA) of Escherichia coli strain H-1047 was isolated and used to prepare anti-CFA antiserum. Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) isolated from 29 adults with diarrhea acquired in Mexico were examined for CFA by using this serum. Retrospectively, it was found that ETEC possessing the H-10407-type CFA were isolated from 25 (86%) of these diarrhea cases as compared with 2 of 11 (18%) from asymptomatic controls from whom ETEC had been isolated. CFA was found onE. coli of various serotypes, as demonstrated by bacterial agglutination by the anti-CFA serum. Heat treating the cells at 65 degress C for 1 h prevented the agglutination. CFA-positive strains did not react with anti-CFA serum when the cultures were grown at a low incubation temperature (18 degrees C). E. coli isolates identified serologically as CFA positive were shown to adhere to the intestinal villous surfaces of infant rabbits. By the indirect immunofluorescence technique, it was found that adhesion occurred preferentially in the upper 20 cm of the small intestine. Also, the ability or inability of various isolates to adhere to intestinal mucosa in vivo correlated with the presence or absence of fimbriae on the cells when grown in vitro. Agglutinability with anti-CFA serum, fimbriae, and adhesiveness were spontaneously lost by many isolates after laboratory passage in a manner previously described with E. coli H-10407. These observations suggest that the H-10407-type CFA plays a role in the virulence of ETEC possessing this antigen. Images PMID:344221

  19. Phenotypic and Genotypic Characterization of Escherichia coli Isolated from Untreated Surface Waters

    PubMed Central

    Janezic, Kristopher J; Ferry, Blake; Hendricks, Eric W; Janiga, Brian A; Johnson, Tiffany; Murphy, Samantha; Roberts, Morgan E; Scott, Sarah M; Theisen, Alexandra N; Hung, Kai F; Daniel, Steven L

    2013-01-01

    A common member of the intestinal microbiota in humans and animals is Escherichia coli. Based on the presence of virulence factors, E. coli can be potentially pathogenic. The focus of this study was to isolate E. coli from untreated surface waters (37 sites) in Illinois and Missouri and determine phenotypic and genotypic diversity among isolates. Water samples positive for fecal coliforms based on the Colisure® test were streaked directly onto Eosin Methylene Blue (EMB) agar (37°C) or transferred to EC broth (44.5°C). EC broth cultures producing gas were then streaked onto EMB agar. Forty-five isolates were identified as E. coli using API 20E and Enterotube II identification systems, and some phenotypic variation was observed in metabolism and fermentation. Antibiotic susceptibility of each isolate was also determined using the Kirby-Bauer Method. Differential responses to 10 antimicrobial agents were seen with 7, 16, 2, and 9 of the isolates resistant to ampicillin, cephalothin, tetracycline, and triple sulfonamide, respectively. All of the isolates were susceptible or intermediate to amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin, polymyxin B, gentamicin, imipenem, and nalidixic acid. Genotypic variation was assessed through multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction for four virulence genes (stx1 and stx2 [shiga toxin], eaeA [intimin]; and hlyA [enterohemolysin]) and one housekeeping gene (uidA [β-D-glucuronidase]). Genotypic variation was observed with two of the isolates possessing the virulence gene (eaeA) for intimin. These findings increase our understanding of the diversity of E. coli in the environment which will ultimately help in the assessment of this organism and its role in public health. PMID:23539437

  20. Beta-lactamase Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus isolated from chickens in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Mamza, Sunday Akidarju; Egwu, Godwin Onyemaechi; Mshelia, Gideon Dauda

    2010-01-01

    The occurrence of beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus in chickens was investigated. Specimens (n = 1,300) were collected from 400 chickens and were streaked on MacConkey agar plates. From each plate, presumptive growths of organisms were picked and streaked on eosin methylene blue and Baird-Parker agars, respectively. Typical colonies of E. coli and S. aureus with similar morphologies were identified by biochemical tests. Isolates were tested for beta-lactamase production and antimicrobial susceptibilities. Results indicated that 805 E. coli isolates from which 89 (11%) were beta-lactamase-positive and 660 S. aureus from which 58 (8.8%) were beta-lactamase-positive. Both isolates showed a high level of resistance to all twelve antibiotics screened. The increased prevalence of antibiotic resistance amongst bacterial organisms is undoubtedly correlated with the discovery and characterisation of multiple, transferrable resistance determinants, such as beta-lactamases, corresponding to their respective phenotypes. The implications of this for humans when handling and/or consuming chickens and chicken products contaminated with strains of such isolates, is a risk of transferrable multi-drug resistance and a failure of treatment. The results of our study indicated that beta-lactamase-producing E. coli and S. aureus are prevalent in chickens in Nigeria. PMID:20560125

  1. Pathogenic properties of Escherichia coli strains isolated from diarrheic commercial rabbits.

    PubMed Central

    Peeters, J E; Pohl, P; Okerman, L; Devriese, L A

    1984-01-01

    Thirty-two different strains of Escherichia coli isolated from diarrheic commercial rabbits showing intestinal attachment of bacilli were studied. None of the strains produced thermostable or thermolabile enterotoxins, and none was invasive. Strains isolated from suckling rabbits attached in vitro to the brush borders of intestinal villi, whereas strains from weanling rabbits did not. After experimental infection of 5-week-old rabbits, the 26 strains isolated from weaned diarrheic rabbits attached to the epithelium of ileum, cecum, and colon, whereas only slight attachment was found after infection with the six strains isolated from suckling diarrheic rabbits. The former strains induced diarrhea in 87% of the rabbits, whereas the latter induced diarrhea in only 9% of inoculated rabbits. E. coli isolated from healthy rabbits did not cause diarrhea. Strains isolated from diarrheic suckling rabbits all belonged to serotype O109:K-:H2, whereas strains from diarrheic weaned rabbits belonged to at least eight different serogroups. It is suggested that two different mechanisms of E. coli enteropathy might exist in rabbits. PMID:6378965

  2. Emergence of Carbapenemase-Producing Escherichia coli Isolated from Companion Animals in Algeria.

    PubMed

    Yousfi, Massilia; Touati, Abdelaziz; Mairi, Assia; Brasme, Lucien; Gharout-Sait, Alima; Guillard, Thomas; De Champs, Christophe

    2016-06-01

    The emergence and worldwide spread of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae is of great concern to public health. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of carbapenemase-producing Escherichia coli in companion animals in Algeria. Two hundred fecal samples were obtained from healthy and diseased dogs and cats in one veterinary office and private owners in Bejaia city, Algeria, during November 2014 to March 2015. Isolates were screened by polymerase chain reaction for the presence of carbapenemase, acquired plasmidic AmpC (pAmpC) and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase genes. Five carbapenemase-producing E. coli isolates were detected including four OXA-48-producing isolates and one isolate producing NDM-5. Coexpression of ESBL and pAmpC genes was observed in these isolates. Phylogenetic grouping revealed that these isolates belonged to A and D phylogroups. The results of this study show that carbapenemase-producing E. coli spread to the companion animals in Algeria. PMID:26741510

  3. Virulence genotypes of Escherichia coli canine isolates from pyometra, cystitis and fecal origin.

    PubMed

    Mateus, Luisa; Henriques, Sofia; Merino, Carolina; Pomba, Constança; Lopes da Costa, Luís; Silva, Elisabete

    2013-10-25

    Pyometra is the most common diestrual uterine disease of bitches. Escherichia coli is the most frequent bacterium isolated from the uterine content of pyometra uteri and it is associated with the most severe clinical signs, leading to endotoxemia and sepsis. In this study, canine E. coli isolates from pyometra (n=31), cystitis (n=23) and fecal (n=26) origin were compared regarding the prevalence of 23 potential virulence traits (15 virulence factor (VF) genes and 8 pathogenicity associated islands-PAIs), detected by PCR assays. Overall, there was a considerable overlap between pyometra, cystitis and fecal isolates regarding the phylogenetic grouping and virulence traits. Virulence traits more prevalent in pyometra than in cystitis and fecal isolates included two PAIs (PAI IV536 and PAI ICFT073) and three VF genes (sfa/focDE, fyuA and chuA). Regardless the isolates' origin, the average number of virulence traits per strain was higher in B2 than in the other phylogenetic groups (A, B1 and D). The prevalence of phylogenetic group B2 was significantly higher in pyometra (94%) than in cystitis (48%) and fecal (39%) isolates. In conclusion, pyometra isolates have a high potential of virulence and a broad virulence genotype, although being similar to a subset of cystitis and fecal isolates. This leads to the suggestion that cystitis and fecal isolates may be able to induce pyometra in receptive hosts. PMID:23953028

  4. Virulence-associated genes in Escherichia coli isolates from poultry with colibacillosis.

    PubMed

    Delicato, Elaine R; de Brito, Benito Guimarães; Gaziri, Luis Carlos J; Vidotto, Marilda C

    2003-07-01

    Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli, the causative agent of colibacillosis, harbors several putative virulence genes. In this study we examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) the presence of 16 of those genes in 200 colibacillosis isolates from our region. The seven virulence genes iutA, iss, cvaC, tsh, papC, papG and felA were detected significantly more often amongst colibacillosis isolates than in fecal isolates from healthy birds, thereby confirming their worldwide occurrence and possible pathogenic role in colibacillosis. However, several of those genes were not detected in many colibacillosis isolates, and none of them were detected in 27.5% of those isolates, which suggests that variants of those genes and yet undetected virulence factors should be searched for. PMID:12781478

  5. Serotypes, Virulence Factors, and Antimicrobial Susceptibilities of Vaginal and Fecal Isolates of Escherichia coli from Giant Pandas

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin; Xia, Xiaodong; Li, Desheng; Wang, Chengdong; Chen, Shijie; Hou, Rong

    2013-01-01

    Although Escherichia coli typically colonizes the intestinal tract and vagina of giant pandas, it has caused enteric and systemic disease in giant pandas and greatly impacts the health and survival of this endangered species. In order to understand the distribution and characteristics of E. coli from giant pandas, 67 fecal and 30 vaginal E. coli isolates from 21 giant pandas were characterized for O serogroups, phylogenetic groups, antimicrobial susceptibilities, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) profiles. In addition, these isolates were tested for the presence of extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) and diarrheagenic E. coli (DEC) by multiplex PCR detection of specific virulence genes. The most prevalent serogroups for all E. coli isolates were O88, O18, O167, O4, and O158. ExPEC isolates were detected mostly in vaginal samples, and DEC isolates were detected only in fecal samples. Phylogenetic group B1 predominated in fecal isolates, while groups B2 and D were frequently detected in vaginal isolates. Resistance to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was most frequently observed, followed by resistance to nalidixic acid and tetracycline. All except five isolates were typeable by using XbaI and were categorized into 74 PFGE patterns. Our findings indicate that panda E. coli isolates exhibited antimicrobial resistance, and potentially pathogenic E. coli isolates were present in giant pandas. In addition, these E. coli isolates were genetically diverse. This study may provide helpful information for developing strategies in the future to control E. coli infections of giant pandas. PMID:23793635

  6. Serotypes, virulence factors, and antimicrobial susceptibilities of vaginal and fecal isolates of Escherichia coli from giant pandas.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Yan, Qigui; Xia, Xiaodong; Zhang, Yanming; Li, Desheng; Wang, Chengdong; Chen, Shijie; Hou, Rong

    2013-09-01

    Although Escherichia coli typically colonizes the intestinal tract and vagina of giant pandas, it has caused enteric and systemic disease in giant pandas and greatly impacts the health and survival of this endangered species. In order to understand the distribution and characteristics of E. coli from giant pandas, 67 fecal and 30 vaginal E. coli isolates from 21 giant pandas were characterized for O serogroups, phylogenetic groups, antimicrobial susceptibilities, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) profiles. In addition, these isolates were tested for the presence of extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) and diarrheagenic E. coli (DEC) by multiplex PCR detection of specific virulence genes. The most prevalent serogroups for all E. coli isolates were O88, O18, O167, O4, and O158. ExPEC isolates were detected mostly in vaginal samples, and DEC isolates were detected only in fecal samples. Phylogenetic group B1 predominated in fecal isolates, while groups B2 and D were frequently detected in vaginal isolates. Resistance to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was most frequently observed, followed by resistance to nalidixic acid and tetracycline. All except five isolates were typeable by using XbaI and were categorized into 74 PFGE patterns. Our findings indicate that panda E. coli isolates exhibited antimicrobial resistance, and potentially pathogenic E. coli isolates were present in giant pandas. In addition, these E. coli isolates were genetically diverse. This study may provide helpful information for developing strategies in the future to control E. coli infections of giant pandas. PMID:23793635

  7. Draft Genome Sequence of Escherichia coli MS499, Isolated from the Infected Uterus of a Postpartum Cow with Metritis.

    PubMed

    Goldstone, Robert J; Talbot, Richard; Schuberth, Hans-Joachim; Sandra, Olivier; Sheldon, I Martin; Smith, David G E

    2014-01-01

    Specific Escherichia coli strains associated with bovine postpartum uterine infection have recently been described. Many recognized virulence factors are absent in these strains; therefore, to define a prototypic strain, we report here the genome sequence of E. coli isolate MS499 from a cow with the postpartum disease metritis. PMID:24994791

  8. Virulence genes, antibiotic resistance and integrons in Escherichia coli strains isolated from synanthropic birds from Spain.

    PubMed

    Sacristán, C; Esperón, F; Herrera-León, S; Iglesias, I; Neves, E; Nogal, V; Muñoz, M J; de la Torre, A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the presence of virulence genes and antibiotic resistance profiles in 164 Escherichia coli strains isolated from birds (feral pigeons, hybrid ducks, house sparrows and spotless starlings) inhabiting urban and rural environments. A total of eight atypical enteropathogenic E. coli strains were identified: one in a house sparrow, four in feral pigeons and three in spotless starlings. Antibiotic resistance was present in 32.9% (54) of E. coli strains. The dominant type of resistance was to tetracycline (21.3%), ampicillin (19.5%) and sulfamethoxazole (18.9%). Five isolates had class 1 integrons containing gene cassettes encoding for dihydrofolate reductase A (dfrA) and aminoglycoside adenyltransferase A (aadA), one in a feral pigeon and four in spotless starlings. To our knowledge, the present study constitutes the first detection of virulence genes from E. coli in spotless starlings and house sparrows, and is also the first identification worldwide of integrons containing antibiotic resistance gene cassettes in E. coli strains from spotless starlings and pigeons. PMID:24689431

  9. Virulence gene profiles of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli isolated from chickens with colibacillosis in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Mbanga, Joshua; Nyararai, Yvonne O

    2015-01-01

    Colibacillosis, a disease caused by avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC), is one of the main causes of economic losses in the poultry industry worldwide. This study was carried out in order to determine the APEC-associated virulence genes contained by E. coli isolates causing colibacillosis in chickens. A total of 45 E. coli isolates were obtained from the diagnostics and research branch of the Central Veterinary Laboratories, Bulawayo, Zimbabwe. These isolates were obtained from chickens with confirmed cases of colibacillosis after postmortem examination. The presence of the iutA, hlyF, ompT, frz, sitD, fimH, kpsM, sitA, sopB, uvrY, pstB and vat genes were investigated by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. Of the 45 isolates, 93% were positive for the presence of at least one virulence gene. The three most prevalent virulence genes were iutA (80%), fimH (33.3%) and hlyF (24.4%). The kpsM, pstB and ompT genes had the lowest prevalence, having been detected in only 2.2% of the isolates. All 12 virulence genes studied were detected in the 45 APEC isolates. Virulence gene profiles were constructed for each APEC isolate from the multiplex data. The APEC isolates were profiled as 62.2% fitting profile A, 31.1% profile B and 6.7% profile C. None of the isolates had more than seven virulence genes. Virulence profiles of Zimbabwean APEC isolates are different from those previously reported. Zimbabwean APEC isolates appear to be less pathogenic and may rely on environmental factors and stress in hosts to establish infection. PMID:26017325

  10. Cytotoxicity Potential and Genotypic Characterization of Escherichia coli Isolates from Environmental and Food Sources

    PubMed Central

    Maldonado, Yadilka; Fiser, Jennifer C.; Nakatsu, Cindy H.; Bhunia, Arun K.

    2005-01-01

    The presence of Escherichia coli isolates in the environment is a potential source of contamination of food and water supplies. Moreover, these isolates may harbor virulence genes that can be a source of new forms of pathogenic strains. Here, using multiplex PCR, we examined the presence of virulence gene markers (stx1, stx2, eaeA, hlyA) in 1,698 environmental isolates of E. coli and 81 isolates from food and clinical sources. The PCR analysis showed that ∼5% (79 of 1,698) of the total environmental isolates and 96% (79 of 81) of the food and clinical isolates were positive for at least one of the genes. Of the food and clinical isolates, 84% (68 of 81 isolates) were positive for all four genes. Of the subset of environmental isolates chosen for further analysis, 16% (13 of 79 isolates) were positive for stx2 and 84% (66 of 79 isolates) were positive for eaeA; 16 of the latter strains were also positive for hlyA. The pathogenic potentials of 174 isolates (81 isolates from food and clinical sources and 93 isolates from environmental sources) were tested by using a cytotoxicity assay based on lactate dehydrogenase release from Vero cells. In general, 97% (79 of 81) of the food and clinical isolates and 41% (39 of 93) of the environmental isolates exhibited positive cytotoxicity. High cytotoxicity values correlated to the presence of stx genes. The majority of hly-positive but stx-negative environmental isolates also exhibited a certain degree of cytotoxicity. Isolates were also tested for sorbitol utilization and were genotyped by ribotyping and by repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR (REP-PCR) as potential means of quickly identifying virulent strains from the environment, but none of these methods could be used to distinguish cytotoxic environmental isolates. Only 31% of the isolates were negative for sorbitol fermentation, and none of the isolates had common ribotypes or REP-PCR fingerprints. This study suggests that overall higher cytotoxicity values

  11. Intergenic Sequence Comparison of Escherichia coli Isolates Reveals Lifestyle Adaptations but Not Host Specificity▿

    PubMed Central

    White, A. P.; Sibley, K. A.; Sibley, C. D.; Wasmuth, J. D.; Schaefer, R.; Surette, M. G.; Edge, T. A.; Neumann, N. F.

    2011-01-01

    Establishing the risk of human infection is one of the goals of public health. For bacterial pathogens, the virulence and zoonotic potential can often be related to their host source. Escherichia coli bacteria are common contaminants of water associated with human recreation and consumption, and many strains are pathogenic. In this study, we analyzed three promoter-containing intergenic regions from 284 diverse E. coli isolates in an attempt to identify molecular signatures associated with specific host types. Promoter sequences controlling production of curli fimbriae, flagella, and nutrient import yielded a phylogenetic tree with isolates clustered by established phylogenetic grouping (A, B1, B2, and D) but not by host source. Virulence genes were more prevalent in groups B2 and D isolates and in human isolates. Group B1 isolates, primarily from nonhuman sources, were the most genetically similar, indicating that they lacked molecular adaptations to specific host environments and were likely host generalists. Conversely, B2 isolates, primarily from human sources, displayed greater genetic distances and were more likely to be host adapted. In agreement with these hypotheses, prevalence of σS activity and the rdar morphotype, phenotypes associated with environmental survival, were significantly higher in B1 isolates than in B2 isolates. Based on our findings, we speculate that E. coli host specificity is not defined by genome-wide sequence changes but, rather, by the presence or absence of specific genes and associated promoter elements. Furthermore, the requirements for colonization of the human gastrointestinal tract may lead to E. coli lifestyle changes along with selection for increased virulence. PMID:21908635

  12. Echinoderms from Azores islands: an unexpected source of antibiotic resistant Enterococcus spp. and Escherichia coli isolates.

    PubMed

    Marinho, Catarina; Silva, Nuno; Pombo, Sofia; Santos, Tiago; Monteiro, Ricardo; Gonçalves, Alexandre; Micael, Joana; Rodrigues, Pedro; Costa, Ana Cristina; Igrejas, Gilberto; Poeta, Patrícia

    2013-04-15

    The prevalence of antibiotic resistance and the implicated mechanisms of resistance were evaluated in Enterococcus spp. and Escherichia coli, isolated from a total of 250 faecal samples of echinoderms collected from Azorean waters (Portugal). A total of 144 enterococci (120 Enterococcus faecium, 14 E. hirae, 8 E. faecalis, 2 E. gallinarum) and 10 E. coli were recovered. High percentages of resistance in enterococci were found for erythromycin, ampicillin, tetracyclin and ciprofloxacin. The erm(A) or erm(B), tet(M) and/or tet(L), vat(D), aac(6')-aph(2″) and aph(3')-IIIa genes were found in isolates resistant to erythromycin, tetracycline, quinupristin/dalfopristin, high-level gentamicin and high-level kanamycin, respectively. Resistance in E. coli isolates was detected for streptomycin, amikacin, tetracycline and tobramycin. The aadA gene was found in streptomycin-resistant isolates and tet(A)+tet(B) genes in tetracycline-resistant isolates. The data recovered are essential to improve knowledge about the dissemination of resistant strains through marine ecosystems and the possible implications involved in transferring these resistances either to other animals or to humans. PMID:23419753

  13. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Escherichia coli Isolated from Fresh-Marketed Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Rafael dos Santos; Leite, Lana Oliveira; de Sousa, Oscarina Viana; Vieira, Regine Helena Silva dos Fernandes

    2014-01-01

    The contamination of seafood by bacteria of fecal origin, especially Escherichia coli, is a widely documented sanitary problem. The objective of the present study was to isolate E. coli strains from the gills, muscle, and body surface of farmed Nile tilapias (Oreochromis niloticus) fresh-marketed in supermarkets in Fortaleza (Ceará, Brazil), to determine their susceptibility to antibiotics of different families (amikacin, gentamicin, imipenem, cephalothin, cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin, aztreonam, ampicillin, nalidixic acid, tetracycline, and sulfametoxazol-trimetoprim), and to determine the nature of resistance by plasmid curing. Forty-four strains (body surface = 25, gills = 15, muscle = 4) were isolated, all of which were susceptible to amikacin, aztreonam, cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, and imipenem. Gill and body surface samples yielded 11 isolates resistant to ampicillin, tetracycline, and sulfametoxazol-trimetoprim, 4 of which of plasmidial nature. The multiple antibiotic resistance index was higher for strains isolated from body surface than from gills. The overall high antibiotic susceptibility of E. coli strains isolated from fresh-marketed tilapia was satisfactory, although the occasional finding of plasmidial resistance points to the need for close microbiological surveillance of the farming, handling, and marketing conditions of aquaculture products. PMID:24808957

  14. Investigating the Relatedness of Enteroinvasive Escherichia coli to Other E. coli and Shigella Isolates by Using Comparative Genomics.

    PubMed

    Hazen, Tracy H; Leonard, Susan R; Lampel, Keith A; Lacher, David W; Maurelli, Anthony T; Rasko, David A

    2016-08-01

    Enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC) is a unique pathovar that has a pathogenic mechanism nearly indistinguishable from that of Shigella species. In contrast to isolates of the four Shigella species, which are widespread and can be frequent causes of human illness, EIEC causes far fewer reported illnesses each year. In this study, we analyzed the genome sequences of 20 EIEC isolates, including 14 first described in this study. Phylogenomic analysis of the EIEC genomes demonstrated that 17 of the isolates are present in three distinct lineages that contained only EIEC genomes, compared to reference genomes from each of the E. coli pathovars and Shigella species. Comparative genomic analysis identified genes that were unique to each of the three identified EIEC lineages. While many of the EIEC lineage-specific genes have unknown functions, those with predicted functions included a colicin and putative proteins involved in transcriptional regulation or carbohydrate metabolism. In silico detection of the Shigella virulence plasmid (pINV), which is essential for the invasion of host cells, demonstrated that a form of pINV was present in nearly all EIEC genomes, but the Mxi-Spa-Ipa region of the plasmid that encodes the invasion-associated proteins was absent from several of the EIEC isolates. The comparative genomic findings in this study support the hypothesis that multiple EIEC lineages have evolved independently from multiple distinct lineages of E. coli via the acquisition of the Shigella virulence plasmid and, in some cases, the Shigella pathogenicity islands. PMID:27271741

  15. Environmental phosphate differentially affects virulence phenotypes of uropathogenic Escherichia coli isolates causative of prostatitis.

    PubMed

    Grillo-Puertas, M; Martínez-Zamora, M G; Rintoul, M R; Soto, S M; Rapisarda, V A

    2015-01-01

    K-12 Escherichia coli cells grown in static media containing a critical phosphate (Pi) concentration ≥25 mM maintained a high polyphosphate (polyP) level in stationary phase, impairing biofilm formation, a phenomenon that is triggered by polyP degradation. Pi concentration in human urine fluctuates according to health state. Here, the influence of environmental Pi concentration on the occurrence of virulence traits in uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) isolated from acute prostatitis patients was evaluated. After a first screening, 3 isolates were selected according to differential biofilm formation profiles depending on media Pi concentration. For each isolate, biofilm positive and negative conditions were established. Regardless of the isolate, biofilm formation capacity was accompanied with curli and cellulose production and expression of some key virulence factors associated with adhesion. When the selected isolates were grown in their non-biofilm-forming condition, low concentrations of nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin induced biofilm formation. Interestingly, similar to laboratory strains, polyP degradation induced biofilm formation in the selected isolates. Data demonstrated the complexity of UPEC responses to environmental Pi and the importance of polyP metabolism in the virulence of clinical isolates. PMID:26083279

  16. Distribution of pathogenicity island markers in commensal and uropathogenic Escherichia coli isolates.

    PubMed

    Samei, Ali; Haghi, Fakhri; Zeighami, Habib

    2016-05-01

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) isolates contain large genomic segments, termed pathogenicity islands (PAIs), that contribute to their virulence. A total of 150 UPEC and 50 commensal E. coli isolates from outpatients were investigated for antimicrobial susceptibility and the presence of eight PAI markers. One hundred ninety (95 %) isolates were resistant to one or more antimicrobial agents. The most frequent resistance found against amoxicillin (68 %), amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (55 %), aztreonam (50 %), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (46 %) and tetracycline (43.5 %). Antimicrobial resistance among UPEC isolates was higher than that of commensals. PAI markers were detected in substantial percentage of commensal (88 %) and UPEC isolates (98.6 %) (P > 0.05). The most prevalent PAI marker among UPEC and commensal isolates was PAI IV536 (98.7 % UPEC vs. 84 % commensal). We found a high number of PAI markers such as PAI ICFT073, PAI IICFT073, PAI I536, PAI II536, PAI III536 and PAI IIJ96 significantly associated with UPEC. PAI III536 (21.3 %) and PAI IIJ96 (8 %) were detected only in the uropathogenic isolates. Several different combinations of PAIs were found among UPEC isolates. Comparison of PAIs among UPEC and commensal isolates showed that many UPEC isolates (79.3 %) carried two or more PAI markers, while 6 % of commensals had two PAI markers (P < 0.05). The most frequent combinations of PAI markers in UPEC isolates were PAI IV536 + PAI IICFT073 (18 %) and PAI IV536 + PAI ICFT073 + PAI IICFT073 (18 %). These results indicate that PAI markers are widespread among commensal and UPEC isolates and these commensal isolates may be reservoirs for transmission of these markers. PMID:26563230

  17. Isolation of atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli from chicken and chicken-derived products.

    PubMed

    Alonso, M Z; Sanz, M E; Irino, K; Krüger, A; Lucchesi, P M A; Padola, N L

    2016-04-01

    Atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) strains from chicken and chicken-derived products were isolated and characterised. The strains presented a wide variety of serotypes, some have been reported in other animal species (O2:H40, O5:H40) and in children with diarrhoea (O8:H-). Most of the strains carried intimin β. The results indicate that chicken and chicken products are important sources of atypical EPEC strains that could be associated with human disease, and highlight the need to improve hygiene practices in chicken slaughtering and meat handling. PMID:26810335

  18. Method for isolating restriction- and modificationless mutants of Escherichia coli K-12.

    PubMed Central

    Del Giudice, L

    1979-01-01

    A simple method is described for the selection and isolation of restriction- and modificationless mutants in Escherichia coli K-12 by using the following properties: (i) the temperature-sensitive repressor activity of phage lambdacI857; (ii) a mutant of lambda phage defective in integration and the establishment of repression (lambdab2cI); (iii) a virulent lambda phage insensitive to the repressor activity. The final yield of spontaneously arising rk-mk+ and rk-mk- mutants from stationary-phase cultures was about 5% of the surviving cells. Images PMID:368038

  19. Ability of Escherichia coli isolates that cause meningitis in newborns to invade epithelial and endothelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Meier, C; Oelschlaeger, T A; Merkert, H; Korhonen, T K; Hacker, J

    1996-01-01

    Escherichia coli isolates that cause meningitis in newborns are able to invade the circulation and subsequently cross the blood-brain barrier. One mechanism for traversing the blood-brain barrier might involve transcytosis through the endothelial cells. The ability of the meningitis isolate E. coli IHE3034, of serotype 018:K1:H7, to invade epithelial (T24) and endothelial (EA-hy926) cells was investigated by the standard gentamicin survival assay and by electron microscopy. Human bladder epithelial and endothelial cells were efficiently invaded by strain IHE3034, whereas epithelial human colon Caco-2 cells, canine kidney MDCK cells, and the opossum [correction of opposum] epithelial kidney cell line OK were not invaded. The ability to invade human epithelial cells of the bladder could also be demonstrated for several other newborn meningitis E. coli strains and one septicemic E. coli strain. Studies utilizing inhibitors which act on eukaryotic cells revealed a dependence on microfilaments as well as on microtubules in the process of E. coli IHE3034 entry into T24 and EA-hy926 cells. These results indicated that cell cytoskeletal rearrangements are involved in bacterial uptake and suggest that there are either two pathways (microtubule dependent and microfilament dependent) or one complex pathway involving both microtubules and microfilaments. The intracellular IHE3034 organisms were contained in a host-membrane-confined compartment mainly as single microorganisms. Intracellular replication of 1HE3034 was not detected, nor did the number of intracellular bacteria decrease significantly during a 48-h period. The ability of E. coli O18:K1 to invade and survive within certain eukaryotic cells may be another virulence factor of meningitis-associated E. coli. PMID:8698457

  20. Relationship between Antimicrobial Consumption and the Incidence of Antimicrobial Resistance in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Noyal Mariya; Shewade, Deepak Gopal; Harish, Belgode Narasimha

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Gram negative organisms are one of the major causes of nosocomial diseases. Development of resistance to antibiotics by these organisms increases their risk in clinical treatment of patients. It also affects morbidity and mortality hence needs to be monitored and controlled. Aim: The aim of the present study was to analyse the correlation between consumption of parenteral antibiotics and the rates of antimicrobial resistance among the Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates collected during Dec 2010 - Jun 2013 from JIPMER hospital. Materials and Methods: Consumption data of parenteral antibiotics in J01 category of Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) in JIPMER was obtained and expressed in Defined Daily Doses (DDD) per 1000 inhabitants. Valid consumption and resistance data during the period Dec 2010 to Jun 2013 were obtained at 6 month intervals and were correlated to draw a relationship between antimicrobial consumption and its impact on drug resistance for Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Results: Escherichia coli isolates showed high resistance for increased use of gentamycin and ciprofloxacin. Increase in antibiotic consumption increases the resistance for Escherichia coli except for amikacin. Among the Klebsiella isolates, meropenem and gentamycin showed high correlations followed by ceftazidime, amikacin, ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin. Conclusion: In summary, a statistically significant association was noticed between consumption of the studied antimicrobials and resistance of Escherichia coli isolates, except for amikacin and ceftazidime. In the case of Klebsiella pneumoniae, there was a statistically significant association between the resistance rates and consumption of gentamycin, ceftazidime and meropenem. Further, a linear relationship was noted between antimicrobial consumption and resistant isolates of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae, except for Escherichia coli resistance to amikacin. PMID:25859453

  1. Apramycin and gentamicin resistance in Escherichia coli and salmonellas isolated from farm animals.

    PubMed Central

    Wray, C.; Hedges, R. W.; Shannon, K. P.; Bradley, D. E.

    1986-01-01

    Since the aminoglycoside antibiotic apramycin was licensed for veterinary use in 1980, all isolates of Escherichia coli and salmonellas received at the Central Veterinary Laboratory have been monitored for resistance to apramycin and the related antibiotic gentamicin. During the period 1982-4, the incidence of resistance in E. coli to apramycin increased from 0.6% in 1982 to 2.6% in 1984. In salmonellas the incidence of resistance to apramycin increased from 0.1% in 1982 to 1.4% in 1984. Resistance to both apramycin and gentamicin was detected in six different salmonella serotypes, although an isolate of Salmonella thompson from poultry was resistant to gentamicin but not apramycin. Most of the cultures were isolated from pigs, although the incidence of apramycin resistance in S. typhimurium (DT 204C) from calves has shown a recent dramatic increase. All the isolates with one exception produced the enzyme aminoglycoside 3-N-acetyltransferase IV (ACC(3)IV). The resistance was transferable by conjugation in most of the strains examined, and the plasmids specifying the resistance have been found to belong to a number of different incompatibility groups. Plasmids from three E. coli strains were compatible with all the reference plasmids and belonged to a previously undescribed group which was investigated further. It is suggested that bacteria from humans should be examined for resistance to apramycin and gentamicin to determine the possibility of the antibiotic-resistance bacteria, and their genes, spreading from animals to humans. Images Fig. 1 PMID:3540112

  2. Antimicrobial drug resistance in strains of Escherichia coli isolated from food sources.

    PubMed

    Rasheed, Mohammed Uddin; Thajuddin, Nooruddin; Ahamed, Parveez; Teklemariam, Zelalem; Jamil, Kaiser

    2014-01-01

    A variety of foods and environmental sources harbor bacteria that are resistant to one or more antimicrobial drugs used in medicine and agriculture. Antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli is of particular concern because it is the most common Gram-negative pathogen in humans. Hence this study was conducted to determine the antibiotic sensitivity pattern of E. coli isolated from different types of food items collected randomly from twelve localities of Hyderabad, India. A total of 150 samples comprising; vegetable salad, raw egg-surface, raw chicken, unpasteurized milk, and raw meat were processed microbiologically to isolate E. coli and to study their antibiotic susceptibility pattern by the Kirby-Bauer method. The highest percentages of drug resistance in isolates of E. coli were detected from raw chicken (23.3%) followed by vegetable salad (20%), raw meat (13.3%), raw egg-surface (10%) and unpasteurized milk (6.7%). The overall incidence of drug resistant E. coli was 14.7%. A total of six (4%) Extended Spectrum β-Lactamase (ESBL) producers were detected, two each from vegetable salads and raw chicken, and one each from raw egg-surface and raw meat. Multidrug resistant strains of E. coli are a matter of concern as resistance genes are easily transferable to other strains. Pathogen cycling through food is very common and might pose a potential health risk to the consumer. Therefore, in order to avoid this, good hygienic practices are necessary in the abattoirs to prevent contamination of cattle and poultry products with intestinal content as well as forbidding the use of untreated sewage in irrigating vegetables. PMID:25076436

  3. Characterization of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli O157 Isolates from Bovine Carcasses.

    PubMed

    Fontcuberta, M; Planell, R; Torrents, A; Sabaté, S; Gonzalez, R; Ramoneda, M; de Simón, M

    2016-08-01

    The main purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of Escherichia coli O157 on bovine carcasses before and after chilling at a large slaughterhouse located in the city of Barcelona, Spain, to assess the effectiveness of dry chilling on reducing E. coli O157 contamination of carcasses. In addition, the study characterized the E. coli O157 strains isolated in terms of virulence factors, antibiotic susceptibility, and their genetic diversity. Individual bovine carcasses were sampled before (n = 300) and after (n = 300) chilling over an 8-month period. Positive samples for E. coli O157 were subjected to virulence screening by PCR (stx1, stx2, and eaeA genes and the fliCH7 gene), antimicrobial susceptibility testing, and molecular typing by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. A total of 9.7% (29 of 300) of the nonrefrigerated carcasses examined and 2.3% (7 of 300) of the refrigerated carcasses were positive for E. coli O157. All the isolates were serotype O157:H7, 92% (33 of 36) carried the stx1, stx2, and eaeA genes, and 8% (3 of 36) carried the stx2 and eaeA genes. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing showed a high degree of resistance: 29 strains (81%) were resistant to at least 1 antimicrobial of the 12 antimicrobials tested; 69% (25 of 36) were resistant to 4 or more antimicrobials. Molecular typing by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis found a high diversity of genetic types, implying little cross-contamination in the slaughterhouse. This study confirms that E. coli O157:H7 is present on the carcasses slaughtered in Spain, although its prevalence is reduced by the dry chilling process used. The recovered isolates showed potential pathogenesis and a high degree of multidrug resistance, confirming the importance of bovine meat monitoring. PMID:27497130

  4. ANTIMICROBIAL DRUG RESISTANCE IN STRAINS OF Escherichia coli ISOLATED FROM FOOD SOURCES

    PubMed Central

    Rasheed, Mohammed Uddin; Thajuddin, Nooruddin; Ahamed, Parveez; Teklemariam, Zelalem; Jamil, Kaiser

    2014-01-01

    A variety of foods and environmental sources harbor bacteria that are resistant to one or more antimicrobial drugs used in medicine and agriculture. Antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli is of particular concern because it is the most common Gram-negative pathogen in humans. Hence this study was conducted to determine the antibiotic sensitivity pattern of E. coli isolated from different types of food items collected randomly from twelve localities of Hyderabad, India. A total of 150 samples comprising; vegetable salad, raw egg-surface, raw chicken, unpasteurized milk, and raw meat were processed microbiologically to isolate E. coli and to study their antibiotic susceptibility pattern by the Kirby-Bauer method. The highest percentages of drug resistance in isolates of E. coli were detected from raw chicken (23.3%) followed by vegetable salad (20%), raw meat (13.3%), raw egg-surface (10%) and unpasteurized milk (6.7%). The overall incidence of drug resistant E. coli was 14.7%. A total of six (4%) Extended Spectrum β-Lactamase (ESBL) producers were detected, two each from vegetable salads and raw chicken, and one each from raw egg-surface and raw meat. Multidrug resistant strains of E. coli are a matter of concern as resistance genes are easily transferable to other strains. Pathogen cycling through food is very common and might pose a potential health risk to the consumer. Therefore, in order to avoid this, good hygienic practices are necessary in the abattoirs to prevent contamination of cattle and poultry products with intestinal content as well as forbidding the use of untreated sewage in irrigating vegetables. PMID:25076436

  5. Antimicrobial resistance in commensal Escherichia coli isolated from animals at slaughter

    PubMed Central

    Wasyl, Dariusz; Hoszowski, Andrzej; Zając, Magdalena; Szulowski, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring of antimicrobial resistance in commensal Escherichia coli (N = 3430) isolated from slaughtered broilers, laying hens, turkeys, swine, and cattle in Poland has been run between 2009 and 2012. Based on minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) microbiological resistance to each of 14 tested antimicrobials was found reaching the highest values for tetracycline (43.3%), ampicillin (42.3%), and ciprofloxacin (39.0%) whereas the lowest for colistin (0.9%), cephalosporins (3.6 ÷ 3.8%), and florfenicol (3.8%). The highest prevalence of resistance was noted in broiler and turkey isolates, whereas it was rare in cattle. That finding along with resistance patterns specific to isolation source might reflect antimicrobial consumption, usage preferences or management practices in specific animals. Regression analysis has identified changes in prevalence of microbiological resistance and shifts of MIC values. Critically important fluoroquinolone resistance was worrisome in poultry isolates, but did not change over the study period. The difference (4.7%) between resistance to ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid indicated the scale of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance. Cephalosporin resistance were found in less than 3.8% of the isolates but an increasing trends were observed in poultry and MIC shift in the ones from cattle. Gentamycin resistance was also increasing in E. coli of turkey and cattle origin although prevalence of streptomycin resistance in laying hens decreased considerably. Simultaneously, decreasing MIC for phenicols observed in cattle and layers isolates as well as tetracycline values in E. coli from laying hens prove that antimicrobial resistance is multivariable phenomenon not only directly related to antimicrobial usage. Further studies should elucidate the scope of commensal E. coli as reservoirs of resistance genes, their spread and possible threats for human and animal health. PMID:23935596

  6. Frequency of virulence factors in Escherichia coli isolated from suckling pigs with diarrhoea in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenxin; Yuan, Chaowen; Meng, Xiangqiu; Du, Yuance; Gao, Ruize; Tang, Jie; Shi, Dongfang

    2014-02-01

    Escherichia coli-associated diarrhoea is an important disease adversely affecting the pig industry. This study was conducted to investigate the frequency of virulence factors expressed by E. coli strains isolated from suckling pigs with diarrhoea in China. A total of 381 E. coli strains, obtained from 290 faecal samples from pigs on 38 farms, were tested for fimbriae (K88, K99, 987P, F41, F18, F17), non-fimbrial adhesins (AIDA-I, paa, CS31A, eae, saa), enterotoxin (LT-I, LT-II, STa, STb, EAST1), Shiga toxin (Stx1, Stx2, Stx2e), pathogenicity islands (HPI, LEE), α-haemolysin (hlyA), afa8 gene cluster (afaD, afaE) and sepA genes by PCR. Out of the 381 isolates, 206 carried at least one virulence gene. Of the 206 virulence positive isolates, the virulence factor genes detected were EAST1 (n=120), irp2 (n=59), paa (n=50), STb (n=41), AIDA-I (n=34), LT-I (n=23), ler (n=11), hlyA (n=9), K88 (n=8), eae (n=8), STa (n=7), sepA (n=6), F18 (n=5), afaD (n=3), afaE (n=3), K99 (n=2) and Stx2e (n=1), with most isolates carrying multiple virulence genes. These results demonstrate that relatively few isolates from the study population express K88, K99, LT-I or STa, but that EAST1 (58%), irp2 (29%), AIDA-I (16.5%), paa (24%) and STb (20%) are frequent virulence factors expressed by E. coli strains isolated from suckling pigs with diarrhoea in China. PMID:24378293

  7. Emerging Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Strains?

    PubMed Central

    Irino, Kinue; Girão, Dennys M.; Girão, Valéria B.C.; Guth, Beatriz E.C.; Vaz, Tânia M.I.; Moreira, Fabiana C.; Chinarelli, Silvia H.; Vieira, Mônica A.M.

    2004-01-01

    Escherichia coli strains of nonenteropathogenic serogroups carrying eae but lacking the enteropathogenic E. coli adherence factor plasmid and Shiga toxin DNA probe sequences were isolated from patients (children, adults, and AIDS patients) with and without diarrhea in Brazil. Although diverse in phenotype and genotype, some strains are potentially diarrheagenic. PMID:15504277

  8. Characterization of Multi-antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli Isolated from Beef Cattle in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Shiori; Nakano, Motoki; Kitagawa, Wataru; Tanaka, Michiko; Sone, Teruo; Hirai, Katsuya; Asano, Kozo

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of multiple-antibiotic-resistance bacteria is increasing, which is a particular concern on livestock farms. We previously isolated 1,347 antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) Escherichia coli strains from the feces of beef cattle on 14 Japanese farms. In the present study, the genetic backgrounds and phylogenetic relationships of 45 AMR isolates were characterized by the chromosome phylotype, AMR phenotype, AMR genotype, and plasmid type. These isolates were classified into five chromosome phylotypes, which were closely linked to the farms from which they were isolated, suggesting that each farm had its own E. coli phylotype. AMR phenotype and plasmid type analyses yielded 8 and 14 types, all of which were associated with the chromosomal phylotype and, thus, to the original farms. AMR genotype analysis revealed more variety, with 16 types, indicating both inter- and intra-farm diversity. Different phylotype isolates from the same farm shared highly similar plasmid types, which indicated that plasmids with AMR genes could be transferred between phylotypes, thereby generating multi-antibiotic-resistant microorganisms. This ecological study demonstrated that the chromosome phylotype was strongly correlated with the farm from which they were isolated, while the AMR phenotype, genotype, and plasmid type were generally correlated with the chromosome phylotype and farm source. PMID:24789986

  9. Isolation of an Escherichia coli K4 kfoC mutant over-producing capsular chondroitin

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Chondroitin sulphate is a complex polysaccharide having important structural and protective functions in animal tissues. Extracted from animals, this compound is used as a human anti-inflammatory drug. Among bacteria, Escherichia coli K4 produces a capsule containing a non-sulphate chondroitin and its development may provide an efficient and cheap fermentative production of the polysaccharide. Results A random N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine mutagenesis was performed on E. coli K4 to isolate mutants showing an increased production of chondroitin. Several mutants were isolated, one of which, here named VZ15, produced about 80% more chondroitin than the wild type E. coli. We found that the mutant has a missense mutation in the codon 313 of kfoC, the gene encoding chondroitin polymerase (K4CP), with a change from arginine to glutamine. A docking analysis to explain the increased productivity of the K4CP enzyme is presented. Conclusion The enhanced chondroitin production by the E. coli K4 mutant reported here shows the validity of the strain improvement strategy for more cost-friendly fermentative processes in the production of this pharmaceutically important but so-far expensive polysaccharide. PMID:20478023

  10. ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE OF ESCHERICHIA COLI STRAINS ISOLATED FROM URINE AT OUTPATIENT POPULATION: A SINGLE LABORATORY EXPERIENCE

    PubMed Central

    Vranic, Sabina Mahmutovic; Uzunovic, Aida

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli strains isolated from urine in outpatient population. Material and methods: We performed a retrospective study for tree months period, between January 1st and March 31st, 2015, at the Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Sarajevo. We determined the E. coli antimicrobial resistance in 556 first urine samples from outpatient population of Hrasno community in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina. E. coli is the most frequent agent causing urinary tract infections in outpatients as well. The standard methods of descriptive statistics were performed for data analysis. Results: We observed the highest antimicrobial resistance of E. coli for ampicillin (82,79%), followed by trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (40,86%), nalidixic acid (19,35%), cephazolin (7,52%), nitrofurantoin (5,37%), gentamicin (2,15%) and ciprofloxacin (4,30%). Conclusions: The results of study showed that E. coli has the highest resistance to ampicillin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in outpatient population of Hrasno community. PMID:27147918

  11. Bioconversion of glycerol for bioethanol production using isolated Escherichia coli ss1

    PubMed Central

    Suhaimi, Sheril Norliana; Phang, Lai-Yee; Maeda, Toshinari; Abd-Aziz, Suraini; Wakisaka, Minato; Shirai, Yoshihito; Hassan, Mohd Ali

    2012-01-01

    Bioconverting glycerol into various valuable products is one of glycerol's promising applications due to its high availability at low cost and the existence of many glycerol-utilizing microorganisms. Bioethanol and biohydrogen, which are types of renewable fuels, are two examples of bioconverted products. The objectives of this study were to evaluate ethanol production from different media by local microorganism isolates and compare the ethanol fermentation profile of the selected strains to use of glucose or glycerol as sole carbon sources. The ethanol fermentations by six isolates were evaluated after a preliminary screening process. Strain named SS1 produced the highest ethanol yield of 1.0 mol: 1.0 mol glycerol and was identified as Escherichia coli SS1 Also, this isolated strain showed a higher affinity to glycerol than glucose for bioethanol production. PMID:24031858

  12. Four new type I restriction enzymes identified in Escherichia coli clinical isolates

    PubMed Central

    Kasarjian, Julie K. A.; Kodama, Yoshiaki; Iida, Masatake; Matsuda, Katsura; Ryu, Junichi

    2005-01-01

    Using a plasmid transformation method and the RM search computer program, four type I restriction enzymes with new recognition sites and two isoschizomers (EcoBI and Eco377I) were identified in a collection of clinical Escherichia coli isolates. These new enzymes were designated Eco394I, Eco826I, Eco851I and Eco912I. Their recognition sequences were determined to be GAC(5N)RTAAY, GCA(6N)CTGA, GTCA(6N)TGAY and CAC(5N)TGGC, respectively. A methylation sensitivity assay, using various synthetic oligonucleotides, was used to identify the adenines that prevent cleavage when methylated (underlined). These results suggest that type I enzymes are abundant in E.coli and many other bacteria, as has been inferred from bacterial genome sequencing projects. PMID:16040596

  13. Isolation and characterization of an endogenous inhibitor of protein synthesis in Escherichia coli K-12.

    PubMed Central

    Clark, V L

    1979-01-01

    A low-molecular-weight factor was isolated from cell extracts of Escherichia coli K-12. The concentration of the factor in cells was dependent upon nutritional conditions, the concentration being higher in faster growing cells. Treatment of cells with colicin K caused an increase in concentration of the factor. The factor inhibited protein synthesis in E. coli. This inhibition was reversible, apparently because of metabolism of the factor. The inhibition of synthesis of beta-galactosidase lasted longer than the inhibition of protein synthesis; cyclic AMP eliminated this difference. The factor inhibited the synthesis of beta-galactosidase from preformed lac mRNA, indicating an inhibition of translation. Kinetic studies of the onset of inhibition of beta-galactosidase synthesis by the factor suggested that the factor may inhibit protein synthesis at the initiation of translation. PMID:104965

  14. Comprehensive Characterization of Escherichia coli O104:H4 Isolated from Patients in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Ferdous, Mithila; Zhou, Kai; de Boer, Richard F.; Friedrich, Alexander W.; Kooistra-Smid, Anna M. D.; Rossen, John W. A.

    2015-01-01

    In 2011, a Shiga toxin-producing Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC Stx2a+) O104:H4 strain caused a serious outbreak of acute gastroenteritis and hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) in Germany. In 2013, E. coli O104:H4 isolates were obtained from a patient with HUS and her friend showing only gastrointestinal complaints. The antimicrobial resistance and virulence profiles of these isolates together with three EAEC Stx2a+ O104:H4 isolates from 2011 were determined and compared. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) was performed for detailed characterization and to determine genetic relationship of the isolates. Four additional genomes of EAEC Stx2a+ O104:H4 isolates of 2009 and 2011 available on NCBI were included in the virulence and phylogenetic analysis. All E. coli O104:H4 isolates tested were positive for stx2a, aatA, and terD but were negative for escV. All, except one 2011 isolate, were positive for aggR and were therefore considered EAEC. The EAEC Stx2a+ O104:H4 isolates of 2013 belonged to sequence type (ST) ST678 as the 2011 isolates and showed slightly different resistance and virulence patterns compared to the 2011 isolates. Core-genome phylogenetic analysis showed that the isolates of 2013 formed a separate cluster from the isolates of 2011 and 2009 by 27 and 20 different alleles, respectively. In addition, only a one-allele difference was found between the isolate of the HUS-patient and that of her friend. Our study shows that EAEC Stx2a+ O104:H4 strains highly similar to the 2011 outbreak clone in their core genome are still circulating necessitating proper surveillance to prevent further outbreaks with these potentially pathogenic strains. In addition, WGS not only provided a detailed characterization of the isolates but its high discriminatory power also enabled us to discriminate the 2013 isolates from the isolates of 2009 and 2011 expediting the use of WGS in public health services to rapidly apply proper infection control strategies. PMID:26696970

  15. Antimicrobial resistance in fecal Escherichia coli isolated from growing chickens on commercial broiler farms.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Hiroichi; Esaki, Hidetake; Takemoto, Kouhei; Ikeda, Akira; Nakatani, Yasutaka; Someya, Azusa; Hirayama, Norio; Murase, Toshiyuki

    2011-05-12

    To investigate the effects of rearing practices of commercial broiler chickens on the incidence of antimicrobial resistance in commensal Escherichia coli isolates, fecal E. coli isolates obtained in 4 farms were screened for anitimicrobial resistance. Ten E. coli isolates were recovered from each of the fecal samples collected from 10 birds in the farms at the ages of 2 days, 14-17 days, and 47-50 days. In 2 out of the 4 farms, no antimicrobials were used during the rearing period. In the other two farms, following collection of the fecal samples at 14 and 15 days of age, oxytetracycline (OTC), sulfadimethoxine (SDMX), and tylosin were given to birds on one farm and SDMX was used in the other. Isolates resistant to ampicillin and OTC that were obtained from an untreated flock at different sampling times were closely related to each other by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns (PFGE) of XbaI-digested chromosomal DNA. PFGE analysis together with in vitro conjugation experiments suggested that diversity of resistance phenotypes within a clone may be resulted from the acquisition and loss of R-plasmids in an untreated and a treated flock. The numbers of resistance phenotypes observed among fecal isolates increased during the growth of the chickens in all the farms. The results in the present study suggest that persistence of commensal E. coli strains resistant to antimicrobials even in the absence of antimicrobial administration. It is also hypothesized that horizontal transmission of resistance determinants resulted in the emergence of different resistance phenotypes in those farms. PMID:21232883

  16. Emergence of Ertapenem Resistance in an Escherichia coli Clinical Isolate Producing Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase AmpC▿

    PubMed Central

    Guillon, Hélène; Tande, Didier; Mammeri, Hedi

    2011-01-01

    Escherichia coli isolate MEV, responsible for a bloodstream infection, was resistant to penicillins, cephalosporins, and ertapenem. Molecular and biochemical characterization revealed the production of a novel, chromosome-borne, extended-spectrum AmpC (ESAC) β-lactamase with a Ser-282 duplication and increased carbapenemase activity. This study demonstrates for the first time that chromosome-borne ESAC β-lactamases can contribute to the emergence of ertapenem resistance in E. coli clinical isolates. PMID:21746958

  17. Detection of Extended-Spectrum-β-Lactamase-Positive Escherichia coli in Bile Isolates from Two Dogs with Bacterial Cholangiohepatitis ▿

    PubMed Central

    Timofte, Dorina; Dandrieux, Julien; Wattret, Andrew; Fick, Jenny; Williams, Nicola J.

    2011-01-01

    This is the first report of Escherichia coli isolates producing CTX-M-15, the predominant type of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) associated with clinical disease in humans in the United Kingdom, in a United Kingdom pet dog. This report also describes the first isolation of CTX-M/Tem ESBL-positive E. coli from bile in dogs with hepatobiliary disease. PMID:21775537

  18. Isolation and characterization of a gene involved in hemagglutination by an avian pathogenic Escherichia coli strain.

    PubMed Central

    Provence, D L; Curtiss, R

    1994-01-01

    In this article, we report the isolation and characterization of a gene that may be important in the adherence of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli to the avian respiratory tract. The E. coli strain HB101, which is unable to agglutinate chicken erythrocytes, was transduced with cosmid libraries from the avian pathogenic E. coli strain chi 7122. Enrichment of transductants that could agglutinate chicken erythrocytes yielded 19 colonies. These isolates contained cosmids that encompassed four nonoverlapping regions of the E. coli chromosome. Only one group of cosmids, represented by pYA3104, would cause E. coli CC118 to agglutinate chicken erythrocytes. A 10-kb fragment of this cosmid was subcloned in pACYC184. Transposon mutagenesis of this fragment with Tn5seq1 indicated that a contiguous 4.4-kb region of cloned DNA was required for hemagglutination. In vitro transcription/translation assays indicated that this 4.4-kb region of DNA encoded one protein of approximately 140 kDa. The nucleotide sequence of this region was determined and found to encode one open reading frame of 4,134 nucleotides that would encode a protein of 1,377 amino acids with a deduced molecular weight of 148,226. This gene confers on E. coli K-12 a temperature-sensitive hemagglutination phenotype that is best expressed when cells are grown at 26 degrees C, and we have designated this gene tsh and the deduced gene product Tsh. Insertional mutagenesis of the chromosomal tsh gene in chi 7122 had no effect on hemagglutination titers. The deduced protein was found to contain significant homology to the Haemophilus influenzae and Neisseria gonorrhoeae immunoglobulin A1 proteases. These data indicate that (i) a single gene isolated from the avian pathogenic E. coli strain chi 7122 will confer on E. coli K-12 a hemagglutination-positive phenotype, (ii) chi 7122 contains at least two distinct mechanisms to allow hemagglutination to occur, and (iii) the hemagglutinin Tsh has homology with a class of

  19. Escherichia coli (E. coli)

    MedlinePlus

    ... so you might hear about E. coli being found in drinking water, which are not themselves harmful, but indicate the ... at CDC Foodborne disease Travelers' Health: Safe Food & Water Healthy Swimming E. coli Infection & Farm ... Word file Microsoft Excel file Audio/Video file Apple ...

  20. Antimicrobial resistance in equine faecal Escherichia coli isolates from North West England

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Escherichia coli isolates of equine faecal origin were investigated for antibiotic resistance, resistance genes and their ability to perform horizontal transfer. Methods In total, 264 faecal samples were collected from 138 horses in hospital and community livery premises in northwest England, yielding 296 resistant E. coli isolates. Isolates were tested for susceptibility to antimicrobial drugs by disc diffusion and agar dilution methods in order to determine minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC). PCR amplification was used to detect genes conferring resistance to: ampicillin (TEM and SHV beta-lactamase), chloramphenicol (catI, catII, catIII and cml), tetracycline (tetA, tetB, tetC, tetD, tet E and tetG), and trimethoprim (dfrA1, dfrA9, dfrA12, dfrA13, dfr7, and dfr17). Results The proportion of antibiotic resistant isolates, and multidrug resistant isolates (MDR) was significantly higher in hospital samples compared to livery samples (MDR: 48% of hospital isolates; 12% of livery isolates, p < 0.001). Resistance to ciprofloxacin and florfenicol were identified mostly within the MDR phenotypes. Resistance genes included dfr, TEM beta-lactamase, tet and cat, conferring resistance to trimethoprim, ampicillin, tetracycline and chloramphenicol, respectively. Within each antimicrobial resistance group, these genes occurred at frequencies of 93% (260/279), 91%, 86.8% and 73.5%, respectively; with 115/296 (38.8%) found to be MDR isolates. Conjugation experiments were performed on selected isolates and MDR phenotypes were readily transferred. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that E. coli of equine faecal origin are commonly resistant to antibiotics used in human and veterinary medicine. Furthermore, our results suggest that most antibiotic resistance observed in equine E. coli is encoded by well-known and well-characterized resistant genes common to E. coli from man and domestic animals. These data support the ongoing concern about antimicrobial resistance

  1. Serogroups and virulence genotypes of Escherichia coli isolated from patients with sepsis.

    PubMed

    Ananias, M; Yano, T

    2008-10-01

    Sixty strains of Escherichia coli, isolated by hemoculture, from septicemic Brazilian patients were evaluated to determine their serogroup and invasivity to Vero cells. All 60 patients died within 2 days of hospitalization. Furthermore, the molecular study of the following extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli-associated virulence factor (VF) genes was performed by PCR: i) adhesins: type 1 fimbria (fimH), S fimbria (sfaD/E), P fimbria (papC and papG alleles) and afimbrial adhesin (afaB/C); ii) capsule K1/K5 (kpsMTII); iii) siderophores: aerobactin (iucD), yersiniabactin (fyuA) and salmochelin (iroN); iv) toxins hemolysin (hlyA), necrotizing cytotoxic factor type 1 (cnf1) and secreted autotransporter toxin (sat); v) miscellaneous: brain microvascular endothelial cells invasion (ibeA), serum resistance (traT), colicin V (cvaC) and specific uropathogenic protein (usp). Our results showed that isolates are able to invade Vero cells (96.6%), differing from previous research on uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC). The O serogroups associated with UPEC were prevalent in 60% of strains vs 11.7% of other serogroups. The PCR results showed a conserved virulence subgroup profile and a prevalence above 75% for fimH, fyuA, kpsMTII and iucD, and between 35-65% for papC, papG, sat, iroN, usp and traT. The evasion from the immunological system of the host and also iron uptake are essential for the survival of extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli strains. Interestingly, among our isolates, a low prevalence of VF genes appeared. Therefore, the present study contributes to the identification of a bacterial profile for sepsis-associated E. coli. PMID:19030710

  2. Prevalence and antibiogram profiling of Escherichia coli pathotypes isolated from the Kat River and the Fort Beaufort abstraction water.

    PubMed

    Nontongana, Nolonwabo; Sibanda, Timothy; Ngwenya, Elvis; Okoh, Anthony I

    2014-08-01

    Escherichia coli is a widespread bacterium encompassing a variety of strains, ranging from highly pathogenic strains, causing worldwide outbreaks of severe diseases to avirulent, well characterized safe laboratory strains. This study evaluated the prevalence and antibiogram profiles of E. coli pathotypes isolated from the Kat River and Fort Beaufort abstraction water. A total of 171 out of 278 confirmed E. coli isolates were positive for at least one pathogenic determinant and these included enteropathogenic E. coli (6%), enterotoxigenic E. coli (47%), uropathogenic E. coli (2%), neonatal meningitis E. coli (5%), diffusely adherent E. coli (1%) and enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (1%). Interestingly, enteroinvasive and enteroaggregative E. coli were not detected. The phenotypic antibiogram profiles of the isolates revealed that all were resistant to penicillin G, while 98% and 38% of the pathotypes were resistant to ampicillin and trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole, respectively. About 8% of the isolates were resistant to streptomycin. More than half of the isolates exhibited multiple antibiotic resistance with 44% being resistant to three antibiotics and 8% resistant to four antibiotics. We conclude that the Kat River is a reservoir of potentially virulent antibiotic resistant E. coli strains that can cause serious health risks to humans who drink raw water from this river, or in the case that consumption of treated drinking water coincides with failed drinking water processes. PMID:25119699

  3. Prevalence and Antibiogram Profiling of Escherichia coli Pathotypes Isolated from the Kat River and the Fort Beaufort Abstraction Water

    PubMed Central

    Nontongana, Nolonwabo; Sibanda, Timothy; Ngwenya, Elvis; Okoh, Anthony I.

    2014-01-01

    Escherichia coli is a widespread bacterium encompassing a variety of strains, ranging from highly pathogenic strains, causing worldwide outbreaks of severe diseases to avirulent, well characterized safe laboratory strains. This study evaluated the prevalence and antibiogram profiles of E. coli pathotypes isolated from the Kat River and Fort Beaufort abstraction water. A total of 171 out of 278 confirmed E. coli isolates were positive for at least one pathogenic determinant and these included enteropathogenic E. coli (6%), enterotoxigenic E. coli (47%), uropathogenic E. coli (2%), neonatal meningitis E. coli (5%), diffusely adherent E. coli (1%) and enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (1%). Interestingly, enteroinvasive and enteroaggregative E. coli were not detected. The phenotypic antibiogram profiles of the isolates revealed that all were resistant to penicillin G, while 98% and 38% of the pathotypes were resistant to ampicillin and trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole, respectively. About 8% of the isolates were resistant to streptomycin. More than half of the isolates exhibited multiple antibiotic resistance with 44% being resistant to three antibiotics and 8% resistant to four antibiotics. We conclude that the Kat River is a reservoir of potentially virulent antibiotic resistant E. coli strains that can cause serious health risks to humans who drink raw water from this river, or in the case that consumption of treated drinking water coincides with failed drinking water processes. PMID:25119699

  4. Multidrug-Resistant Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolated From Patients in Kashan, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Moini, Atieh Sadat; Soltani, Babak; Taghavi Ardakani, Abbas; Moravveji, Alireza; Erami, Mahzad; Haji Rezaei, Mostafa; Namazi, Mansoor

    2015-01-01

    Background: Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae are common human pathogens that cause a wide spectrum of infections. Antimicrobial resistance is a basic obstacle in the management of these infections which has different patterns in various regions. Objectives: In this study, the antibiotic resistance patterns and risk factors for multidrug-resistant (MDR) E. coli and K. pneumoniae were determined. Patients and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 250 isolates (134 E. coli and 116 K. pneumoniae) were collected and antimicrobial resistances to ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, amikacin, gentamycin, ceftriaxone, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin and imipenem were evaluated by disc diffusion method and confirmed by E-test. Moreover, risk factors for MDR E. coli and K. pneumoniae were also detected. Results: The mean ages of the culture-positive cases of E. coli and K. pneumoniae were 33.39 ± 24.42 and 36.54 ± 24.66 years, respectively (P = 0.31); 137 (54.8%) cases were male and 113 (45.2%) were female (P = 0.53). Nineteen (14.2%) isolates of E. coli and 12 (10.3%) isolates of K. pneumoniae were sensitive to all the evaluated antibiotics. The prevalence of MDR E. coli and MDR K. pneumoniae was 50% and 46.6%, respectively (P = 0.59). The highest resistance for both strains was to ampicillin and no imipenem resistance was seen. The risk factors for MDR E. coli were admission history during the recent three months (P = 0.043) and antibiotic use in the previous month (P = 0.03); for MDR K. pneumoniae, they were admission in the pediatric ward (P = 0.016), surgical ward (P = 0.019), or gynecology ward (P = 0.12), admission duration of > seven days, and antibiotic use during the past month (P = 0.04). Conclusions: The prevalence of multidrug resistance was high compared with developed countries, and history of admission, antibiotic use, admission duration and admission wards were the risk factors for multidrug resistance. PMID:26587220

  5. Bactericidal activity of Musca domestica cecropin (Mdc) on multidrug-resistant clinical isolate of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Lu, X; Shen, J; Jin, X; Ma, Y; Huang, Y; Mei, H; Chu, F; Zhu, J

    2012-08-01

    The housefly (Musca domestica) larvae have been used clinically to cure osteomyelitis, decubital necrosis, lip boil, ecthyma and malnutritional stagnation ever since the Ming/Qing Dynasty (1368 Anno Domini) till now, in China. In prior research, we have cloned and characterized a new gene of antimicrobial peptide cecropin from M. domestica larvae. This peptide was potently active against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria standard strain. In the present study, we evaluated the possibility of Mdc to be a potential bactericidal agent against clinical isolates of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Escherichia coli and to elucidate the related antimicrobial mechanisms. Antimicrobial activity assays indicated a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 1.56 μM. Bactericidal kinetics at MIC showed that Mdc rapid killing of MDR E. coli. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) dose-dependently suppressed Mdc antibacterial potency indicates that LPS is the initial binding site of Mdc in E. coli. Propidium iodide-based flow cytometry revealed that Mdc causes E. coli membrane permeabilization. Transmission electron micrographs further indicated that a remarkable damage in the bacteria's outer and inner membrane, even the leakage of cytoplasmic contents induced by Mdc. DNA binding experimental result implies that DNA is one of the possible intracellular targets of Mdc. Of note, Mdc did not show a perceptible cytotoxic effect on human red blood cells. Altogether, these results suggest that Mdc could be an excellent candidate for the development of more efficacious bactericidal agents. PMID:22202966

  6. Genotype comparison of sorbitol-negative Escherichia coli isolates from healthy broiler chickens from different commercial farms.

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, B; Gattuso, M; Moisan, H; Malouin, F; Diarra, M S

    2009-07-01

    Hybridization on arrays was used to assess the presence of virulence-associated genes and to determine the relatedness of 32 non-O157 sorbitol-negative Escherichia coli isolates from healthy broiler chickens. These isolates were from commercial farms that used feed supplemented with different antimicrobial agents (virginiamycin, bacitracin, salinomycin, narasin, nicarbazin, or diclazuril). For each isolate, fluorescent probes were made from genomic DNA and were hybridized on DNA arrays composed of genes associated with general functions, virulence, iron uptake systems, and DNA repair genes (e.g., mut genes). Hybridization on arrays results showed that isolates from the same farm tended to be clustered but actually represented 18 genetically distinct groups of isolates. Results revealed that some isolates showed similarity to human uropathogenic E. coli or avian pathogenic E. coli. Four avian pathogenic E. coli-like isolates were detected. Another isolate possessed the intimin gene (eaeA) and typical genes of the type 3 secretion system associated with enteropathogenic E. coli and enterohemorrhagic E. coli strains. Genes from a second system (secondary type 3 secretion system) homologous to that found in Salmonella Typhimurium were detected in many isolates. Several of the studied isolates also possessed the aerobactin, salmochelin, and yersiniabactin genes involved in iron acquisition in pathogenic bacteria. Our results clearly suggest that commensal E. coli isolates from chickens are reservoirs of virulence-associated genes and may represent colibacillosis and zoonotic risks. PMID:19531720

  7. Prevalence of beta-lactams resistance among Escherichia coli clinical isolates from a hospital in Algiers.

    PubMed

    Messai, Y; Benhassine, T; Naim, M; Paul, G; Bakour, R

    2006-06-01

    A high prevalence of beta-lactams resistance among Enterobacteriaceae have been reported worldwide; however, there are not sufficient data on this issue in Algeria. beta-Lactams susceptibility of 203 Escherichia coli clinical isolates was determined by agar diffusion method, and production of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) was screened by double-disk synergy test. This analysis showed five well-defined phenotypes: 1) 62 isolates (30.5%) were susceptible to all beta-lactams; 2) 135 isolates (66.5%) presented a broad-spectrum beta-lactamases phenotype (BSBL); 3) three isolates (1.5%) were defined as producing ESBLs; 4) two isolates (1%) were AmpC cephalosporinase producers; and 5) one isolate (0.5%) presented a phenotype of cell-decreased permeability to beta-lactams. Isoelectric focusing revealed beta-lactamases with isolectric points of 5.4 or 7.6 for isolates with BSBL phenotype; approximately 9.0 for two ESBL isolates; 5.4, 7.6 and approximately 9.0 for the remaining ESBL isolate; and 5.4 and approximately 9.0 for the AmpC isolates. The cefotaxime hydrolysis corresponds to the basic bands with an isoelectric point of approximately 9.0. Conjugation assay showed transfer of penicillinase and AmpC resistance phenotypes and their corresponding beta-lactamases to recipient E. coli BM21 in association with plasmids of 71.4 kb for the AmpC isolates and from 40-56 kb for penicillinase isolates. This result showed that the AmpC phenotype is plasmid mediated. ESBL isolates were found not to transfer their resistance through conjugation experiment. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) experiments using primers specific to blaTEM, blaAmpC and blaCTX-M genes showed specific amplification with blaCTX-M primer for two ESBL isolates; blaTEM and blaCTX-M for the remaining ESBL isolate; and blaTEM and blaAmpC for the AmpC isolates and their corresponding transconjugants. The study showed a high rate of isolates producing penicillinase, and low frequencies of AmpC and ESBL

  8. Effectiveness of pressurised carbon dioxide for inactivation of Escherichia coli isolated from sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Mushtaq, Maryam; Banks, Charles J; Heaven, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    This research explored the possible application of pressurised carbon dioxide (P CO(2)), a promising non-thermal sterilisation technique, for the treatment of sewage sludge (SS) before anaerobic digestion to inactivate pathogenic microorganisms. Escherichia coli was selected as the test organism and was isolated from SS and maintained in pure culture. The growth curve of the isolated strain was determined by measuring the optical density (OD) in liquid culture medium and relating this information to the spread plate count so that a culture of known cell density could be grown for optimisation experiments. Inactivation of E. coli was enhanced by increase in pressure (1,500, 2,000 and 2,800 kPa) and treatment time (from 0.75 to 24 h). A short exposure time at high pressure was sufficient to provide a degree of inactivation which could also be achieved by longer exposure at lower pressure. Complete inactivation (8 log(10) reduction) was possible at all three pressures. scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy studies of E. coli treated with P CO(2) revealed that the cell walls were ruptured, and the cytoplasm was unevenly distributed and had lost its density, indicating the possible leakage of intracellular substances. PMID:22546789

  9. Antibacterial activity of isolated phenolic compounds from cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) against Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Pérez, Celia; Quirantes-Piné, Rosa; Uberos, José; Jiménez-Sánchez, Cecilia; Peña, Alejandro; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2016-03-01

    Phenolic compounds from a cranberry extract were isolated in order to assess their contribution to the antibacterial activity against uropathogenic strains of Escherichia coli (UPEC). With this purpose, a total of 25 fractions from a cranberry extract were isolated using semipreparative high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and characterized based on the results obtained by reversed-phase HPLC coupled to mass spectrometry detection. Then, the effects on UPEC surface hydrophobicity and biofilm formation of the cranberry extract as well as the purest fractions (a total of 13) were tested. As expected, the whole extract presented a powerful antibacterial activity against UPEC while the selected fractions presented a different behavior. Myricetin and quercitrin significantly decreased (p < 0.05) E. coli biofilm formation compared with the control, while dihydroferulic acid glucuronide, procyanidin A dimer, quercetin glucoside, myricetin and prodelphinidin B led to a significant decrease of the surface hydrophobicity compared with the control. The results suggest that apart from proanthocyanidins, other compounds, mainly flavonoids, can act against E. coli biofilm formation and also modify UPEC surface hydrophobicity in vitro, one of the first steps of adhesion. PMID:26902395

  10. Dairy farm age and resistance to antimicrobial agents in Escherichia coli isolated from dairy topsoil.

    PubMed

    Jones, Suzanna E; Burgos, Jonathan M; Lutnesky, Marvin M F; Sena, Johnny A; Kumar, Sanath; Jones, Lindsay M; Varela, Manuel F

    2011-04-01

    Antimicrobial agent usage is common in animal agriculture for therapeutic and prophylactic purposes. Selective pressure exerted by these antimicrobials on soil bacteria could result in the selection of strains that are resistant due to chromosomal- or plasmid-derived genetic components. Multiple antimicrobial resistances in Escherichia coli and the direct relationship between antimicrobial agent use over time has been extensively studied, yet the relationship between the age of an animal agriculture environment such as a dairy farm and antibiotic resistance remains unclear. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that antimicrobial-resistance profiles of E. coli isolated from dairy farm topsoil correlate with dairy farm age. E. coli isolated from eleven dairy farms of varying ages within Roosevelt County, NM were used for MIC determinations to chloramphenicol, nalidixic acid, penicillin, tetracycline, ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, gentamicin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, cefotaxime, and ciprofloxacin. The minimum inhibitory concentration values of four antibiotics ranged 0.75 to >256 μg/ml, 1 to >256 μg/ml, 12 to >256 μg/ml, and 0.75 to >256 μg/ml for chloramphenicol, nalidixic acid, penicillin, and tetracycline, respectively. The study did not show a direct relationship between antibiotic resistance and the age of dairy farms. PMID:21153729

  11. Characterization of Vaginal Escherichia coli Isolated from Pregnant Women in Two Different African Sites

    PubMed Central

    Sáez-López, Emma; Cossa, Anélsio; Benmessaoud, Rachid; Madrid, Lola; Moraleda, Cinta; Villanueva, Sonia; Tligui, Houssain; Moiane, Benilde; Alami, Hassan; Massora, Sérgio; Bezad, Rachid; Mandomando, Inacio; Bosch, Jordi; Vila, Jordi; Bassat, Quique; Soto, Sara M.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of vaginal colonization of pregnant women by Escherichia coli is poorly understood, despite these strains sharing a similar virulence profile with other extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli producing severe obstetric and neonatal infections. We characterized the epidemiology, antimicrobial susceptibility and virulence profiles of 84 vaginal E. coli isolates from pregnant women from Rabat (Morocco) and Manhiça (Mozambique), two very distinct epidemiological settings. Low levels of antimicrobial resistance were observed to all drugs tested, except for trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in Manhiça, where this drug is extensively used as prophylaxis for opportunistic HIV infections. The most prevalent virulence factors were related to iron acquisition systems. Phylogroup A was the most common in Rabat, while phylogroups E and non-typeable were the most frequent in Manhiça. Regardless of the apparently “low virulence” of these isolates, the frequency of infections is higher and the outcomes more devastating in constrained-resources conditions, especially among pregnant women and newborns. PMID:27387665

  12. Detection of aac(6')-Ib-cr in avian pathogenic Escherichia coli isolates in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kawanishi, Michiko; Ozawa, Manao; Hiki, Mototaka; Abo, Hitoshi; Kojima, Akemi; Asai, Tetsuo

    2013-11-01

    We investigated the prevalence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes in avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) strains in Japan. A total of 117 APEC strains collected between 2004 and 2007 were examined for PMQR genes (qnrA, qnrB, qnrC, qnrD, qnrS, aac(6')-Ib-cr, qepA and oqxAB) by polymerase chain reaction. None of the APEC strains carried qnrA, qnrB, qnrC, qnrD, qnrS, qepA or oqxAB, but one of the isolates was identified as an AAC (6')-Ib-cr producer. Phylogenetic grouping, multi-locus sequence typing and serotyping showed that this isolate belonged to phylogenetic group A, sequence type 167 and untypable serogroup. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the aac (6')-Ib-cr gene in bacteria from food-producing animals in Japan. PMID:23856759

  13. Antibioresistance of Escherichia coli strains isolated in Morocco from chickens with colibacillosis.

    PubMed

    Amara, A; Ziani, Z; Bouzoubaa, K

    1995-03-01

    Two hundred and fifty eight isolates of Escherichia coli were made from autopsied chickens showing lesions of avian colibacillosis. Antibiograms showed high levels of resistance (greater than 40%) to sulphonamides (SSS), oxytetracycline (OT), trimethoprim + sulphamethoxazole (STX) and chloramphenicol (C). Medium frequencies of resistances (from 15 to 40%) were noted for streptomycin (S), spectinomycin (SPT), nalidixic acid (NA), oxolinic acid (OA), flumequine (UB) and enrofloxacine (ENR). For ampicillin (AM), gentamicin (GM), nitrofurans (FT), colistin (CS) and rifampin (RA) the frequencies of resistance were low (less than 15%). A linked resistance was observed for the 4 quinolones. A significant percentage of isolates (82.5%) were resistant to at least 2 antimicrobial agents. The most frequent antibiotypes were: C.OT.SSS.STX (4.65%), C.OT.SSS.STX.OA.NA.UB.ENR (4.65%), AM.S.C.OT.SSS.STX (4.26%) and OT.SSS.STX (3.87%). PMID:7785191

  14. [Study on in-vitro susceptibility of ESBL-positive Escherichia coli isolated from urine specimens].

    PubMed

    Grandesso, Stefano; Sapino, Barbara; Mazzucato, Sandra; Alessandrini, Roberta; Solinas, Maria; Gion, Massimo

    2010-09-01

    Treatment of infections by beta-lactamase-producing microorganisms is very difficult. Our aim was to determine the in vitro susceptibility of 430 ESBL-positive Escherichia coli strains isolated from urinary tract infections. All the microorganisms were isolated in the Microbiology Unit at the Ospedale dell'Angelo in Mestre (Venice) between May 2008 and September 2009 and were confirmed by the double-disk test. All microorganisms were sensitive to imipenem and meropenem, 98.4% to tigecycline, 95.1% to amikacin, 89.3% to nitrofurantoin, 67.5% to gentamycin and 63.2% to piperacillin/tazobactam. Only 22.6% were sensitive to cotrimoxazole, while fluoroquinolone (norfloxacin and levofloxacin) activity was found to be very low (6%). PMID:20956871

  15. Antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli isolates from raccoons (Procyon lotor) in Southern Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Jardine, Claire M; Janecko, Nicol; Allan, Mike; Boerlin, Patrick; Chalmers, Gabhan; Kozak, Gosia; McEwen, Scott A; Reid-Smith, Richard J

    2012-06-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in fecal Escherichia coli isolates from raccoons (Procyon lotor) living in Ontario, Canada. From June to October 2007, we trapped raccoons in three areas: one primarily urban site around Niagara, one primarily rural site north of Guelph, and one at the Toronto Zoo. In addition, we conducted a longitudinal study at the Toronto Zoo site to investigate the temporal dynamics of fecal E. coli and AMR in raccoons. Reduced susceptibility to ≥1 antimicrobial agent was detected in E. coli isolates from 19% of 16 raccoons at the urban site, 17% of 29 raccoons from the rural site, and 42% of 130 samples collected from 59 raccoons at the zoo site. Raccoons from the zoo site were significantly more likely to shed E. coli with reduced susceptibility to ≥1 antimicrobial agent than animals from the rural site (odds ratio [OR], 3.41; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.17 to 12.09; P = 0.02). Resistance to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins (and the associated bla(CMY-2) gene) was detected in two animals from the zoo site and one animal from the rural site. Serotyping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis show that raccoons on the zoo grounds harbor a diverse assemblage of E. coli, with rapid bacterial turnover within individuals over time. Our study indicates that raccoons may shed resistant bacteria of public health significance and that raccoons have the potential to disseminate these bacteria throughout their environment. PMID:22447599

  16. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli clinical isolates from northern Colombia, South America.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Julio A; Romero-Herazo, Yesenia C; Arzuza, Octavio; Gómez-Duarte, Oscar G

    2014-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are major causes of childhood diarrhea in low and middle income countries including Colombia, South America. To understand the diversity of ETEC strains in the region, clinical isolates obtained from northern Colombia children were evaluated for multiple locus sequencing typing, serotyping, classical and nonclassical virulence genes, and antibiotic susceptibility. Among 40 ETEC clinical isolates evaluated, 21 (52.5%) were positive for LT gene, 13 (32.5%) for ST gene, and 6 (15%) for both ST and LT. The most prevalent colonization surface antigens (CS) were CS21 and CFA/I identified in 21 (50%) and 13 (32.5%) isolates, respectively. The eatA, irp2, and fyuA were the most common nonclassical virulence genes present in more than 60% of the isolates. Ampicillin resistance (80% of the strains) was the most frequent phenotype among ETEC strains followed by trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole resistance (52.5%). Based on multiple locus sequencing typing (MLST), we recognize that 6 clonal groups of ETEC clinical isolates circulate in Colombia. ETEC clinical isolates from children in northern Colombia are highly diverse, yet some isolates circulating in the community belong to well-defined clonal groups that share a unique set of virulence factors, serotypes, and MLST sequence types. PMID:24877071

  17. Phenotypic and Genotypic Characterization of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Clinical Isolates from Northern Colombia, South America

    PubMed Central

    Guerra, Julio A.; Romero-Herazo, Yesenia C.; Arzuza, Octavio; Gómez-Duarte, Oscar G.

    2014-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are major causes of childhood diarrhea in low and middle income countries including Colombia, South America. To understand the diversity of ETEC strains in the region, clinical isolates obtained from northern Colombia children were evaluated for multiple locus sequencing typing, serotyping, classical and nonclassical virulence genes, and antibiotic susceptibility. Among 40 ETEC clinical isolates evaluated, 21 (52.5%) were positive for LT gene, 13 (32.5%) for ST gene, and 6 (15%) for both ST and LT. The most prevalent colonization surface antigens (CS) were CS21 and CFA/I identified in 21 (50%) and 13 (32.5%) isolates, respectively. The eatA, irp2, and fyuA were the most common nonclassical virulence genes present in more than 60% of the isolates. Ampicillin resistance (80% of the strains) was the most frequent phenotype among ETEC strains followed by trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole resistance (52.5%). Based on multiple locus sequencing typing (MLST), we recognize that 6 clonal groups of ETEC clinical isolates circulate in Colombia. ETEC clinical isolates from children in northern Colombia are highly diverse, yet some isolates circulating in the community belong to well-defined clonal groups that share a unique set of virulence factors, serotypes, and MLST sequence types. PMID:24877071

  18. Phylogenetic grouping and pathotypic comparison of urine and fecal Escherichia coli isolates from children with urinary tract infection

    PubMed Central

    Navidinia, Masoumeh; Peerayeh, Shahin Najar; Fallah, Fatemeh; Bakhshi, Bita; Sajadinia, Raheleh Sadat

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the phylogenetic background and to assess hlyD (involved in the secretion of haemolysin A) and intI1 (encoding a class 1 integrase) in Escherichia coli isolates derived from urinary and fecal specimens. A total of 200 E. coli isolates was collected from patients presenting with urinary tract infection (UTI) during September 2009 to September 2010 and screened for hlyD and intI1 genes by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Phylogenetic analysis showed that E. coli is composed of four main phylogenetic groups (A, B1, B2 and D) and that uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) isolates mainly belong to groups B2 (54%) and D (34%) whereas group A (44%) and D (26%) are predominant among commensal E. coli isolates. In this study, hlyD was present in 26% of UPEC and 2% of commensal E. coli isolates. However, hemolytic activity was detected for 42% of UPEC and 6% of commensal E. coli isolates (p < 0.05). intI1 gene was more frequently expressed in UPEC (24%) in comparison with commensal E. coli isolates (12%). Resistance to aztreonam, co-trimoxazole and cefpodoxime were frequently found among UPEC isolates whereas commensal E. coli isolates were commonly resistant to co-trimoxazole, nalidixic acid and cefotaxime. Concluding, a considerable difference between UPEC and commensal E. coli isolates was observed regarding their phylogenetic groups, presence of class 1 integron and hlyD gene, hemolysin activity and resistance pattern. The detection of class 1 integrons and hlyD gene was higher among UPEC compared with commensal E. coli isolates. These findings may contribute for a better understanding of the factors involved in the pathogenesis of UPEC. PMID:25242935

  19. Amdinocillin (Mecillinam) Resistance Mutations in Clinical Isolates and Laboratory-Selected Mutants of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Thulin, Elisabeth; Sundqvist, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Amdinocillin (mecillinam) is a β-lactam antibiotic that is used mainly for the treatment of uncomplicated urinary tract infections. The objectives of this study were to identify mutations that confer amdinocillin resistance on laboratory-isolated mutants and clinical isolates of Escherichia coli and to determine why amdinocillin resistance remains rare clinically even though resistance is easily selected in the laboratory. Under laboratory selection, frequencies of mutation to amdinocillin resistance varied from 8 × 10−8 to 2 × 10−5 per cell, depending on the concentration of amdinocillin used during selection. Several genes have been demonstrated to give amdinocillin resistance, but here eight novel genes previously unknown to be involved in amdinocillin resistance were identified. These genes encode functions involved in the respiratory chain, the ribosome, cysteine biosynthesis, tRNA synthesis, and pyrophosphate metabolism. The clinical isolates exhibited significantly greater fitness than the laboratory-isolated mutants and a different mutation spectrum. The cysB gene was mutated (inactivated) in all of the clinical isolates, in contrast to the laboratory-isolated mutants, where mainly other types of more costly mutations were found. Our results suggest that the frequency of mutation to amdinocillin resistance is high because of the large mutational target (at least 38 genes). However, the majority of these resistant mutants have a low growth rate, reducing the probability that they are stably maintained in the bladder. Inactivation of the cysB gene and a resulting loss of cysteine biosynthesis are the major mechanism of amdinocillin resistance in clinical isolates of E. coli. PMID:25583718

  20. Characterization of Escherichia coli isolated from calf diarrhea in and around Kombolcha, South Wollo, Amhara Region, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Gebregiorgis, Ashenafi; Tessema, Tesfaye Sisay

    2016-02-01

    This study was carried out from October 2012 to end of February 2013 in and around Kombolcha, Amhara regional state, Ethiopia, using a total of 201 neonatal calves aged 1 day to 4 months and suffering from diarrhea. The objectives of the study were to isolate Escherichia coli from diarrheic calves, and to determine E. coli biotypes and risk factors associated with its isolation. The fecal samples were collected, transported, and processed following standard microbiological procedures. Seventy-four isolates of E. coli were identified. Yellowish diarrhea, younger age, and low-colostrum feeding were significantly associated with rate of E. coli isolation (P < 0.05). Then the 74 isolates of E. coli were biotyped using fermentation of 9 sugars and grouped into 12 biotypes; the most dominant was biotype III (36.8 %). Finally, by comparing with studies elsewhere, from the 12 isolated biotypes, 3 of them were suggested to be enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), entherotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), and adhesion and effacing E. coli (AEEC) pathogenic strains. The present study showed that E. coli accounted for 37 % of calf diarrhea, with very diverse biotypes. PMID:26563273

  1. Phenotypical characterization and adhesin identification in Escherichia coli strains isolated from dogs with urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Maluta, Renato Pariz; Stella, Ariel Eurides; Riccardi, Kátia; Rigobelo, Everlon Cid; Marin, José Moacir; Carvalho, Marileda Bonafim; de Ávila, Fernando Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli are the most common bacteria associated with urinary tract infections in both humans and companion animals. Standard biochemical tests may be useful in demonstrating detailed phenotypical characteristics of these strains. Thirteen strains of E. coli isolated from dogs with UTIs were submitted to biochemical tests, serotyping for O and H antigens and antimicrobial resistance testing. Furthermore, the presence of papC, sfa, and afa genes was evaluated by PCR, and genetic relationships were established using enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus PCR (ERIC-PCR). The antimicrobial that showed the highest resistance rate among the isolates was nalidixic acid (76.9%), followed by cephalotin (69.2%), sulfamethoxazole + trimethoprim (61.5%), tetracycline (61.5%), streptomycin (53.8%), ciprofloxacin (53.8%), ampicillin (46.2%), gentamicin (30.8%) and chloramphenicol (23.1%). No isolate was resistant either to meropenem or nitrofurantoin. Among the five clusters that were identified using ERIC-PCR, one cluster (A) had only one strain, which belonged to a serotype with zoonotic potential (O6:H31) and showed the genes papC+, sfa+, afa-. Strains with the genes papC-, sfa+, afa- were found in two other clusters (C and D), whereas all strains in clusters B and E possessed papC-, sfa-, afa- genes. Sucrose and raffinose phenotypic tests showed some ability in discriminating clusters A, B and C from clusters D and E. PMID:24031842

  2. Evaluation of a Method Using Three Genomic Guided Escherichia coli Markers for Phylogenetic Typing of E. coli Isolates of Various Genetic Backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Hamamoto, Kouta; Ueda, Shuhei; Yamamoto, Yoshimasa; Hirai, Itaru

    2015-06-01

    Genotyping and characterization of bacterial isolates are essential steps in the identification and control of antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections. Recently, one novel genotyping method using three genomic guided Escherichia coli markers (GIG-EM), dinG, tonB, and dipeptide permease (DPP), was reported. Because GIG-EM has not been fully evaluated using clinical isolates, we assessed this typing method with 72 E. coli collection of reference (ECOR) environmental E. coli reference strains and 63 E. coli isolates of various genetic backgrounds. In this study, we designated 768 bp of dinG, 745 bp of tonB, and 655 bp of DPP target sequences for use in the typing method. Concatenations of the processed marker sequences were used to draw GIG-EM phylogenetic trees. E. coli isolates with identical sequence types as identified by the conventional multilocus sequence typing (MLST) method were localized to the same branch of the GIG-EM phylogenetic tree. Sixteen clinical E. coli isolates were utilized as test isolates without prior characterization by conventional MLST and phylogenetic grouping before GIG-EM typing. Of these, 14 clinical isolates were assigned to a branch including only isolates of a pandemic clone, E. coli B2-ST131-O25b, and these results were confirmed by conventional typing methods. Our results suggested that the GIG-EM typing method and its application to phylogenetic trees might be useful tools for the molecular characterization and determination of the genetic relationships among E. coli isolates. PMID:25809972

  3. Molecular characterization of multidrug-resistant avian pathogenic Escherichia coli isolated from septicemic broilers.

    PubMed

    Li, Yurong; Chen, Ligong; Wu, Xianjun; Huo, Shuying

    2015-04-01

    Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) causes extensive mortality in poultry flocks, leading to extensive economic losses. To date, little information has been available on the molecular basis of antimicrobial resistance in APEC in Hebei, China. Therefore, the objective of this study was to characterize the virulence and antimicrobial resistance of multidrug-resistant APEC isolated from septicemic broilers at the molecular level. Among 87 nonrepetitive E. coli isolates, 41 (47.1%) carried 3 or more of the APEC virulence genes iroN, ompT, iss, iutA, and hlyF. All 87 APEC isolates showed multidrug-resistant phenotypes, particularly against ampicillin, kanamycin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, streptomycin, gentamycin, ofloxacin, norfloxacin, and ceftriaxone. The β-lactamase-encoding genes blaTEM, blaCMY-2, blaOXA-30, blaCTX-M-15, and blaSHV-2; the aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes (AME) strA, strB, aph(3')-IIa, aac(3)-IIa, aac(6')-Ib, and ant(3″)-Ia; and the plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes qnrA, qnrB, and qnrS, were also identified in 66 (75.9%), 65 (74.7%), and 6 (6.9%) isolates, respectively. All isolates were evaluated in terms of replicon type. The plasmid replicons were identified in 63 (72.4%) isolates, and the FIB, B/O, and K replicons were the most present. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of molecular characterization of antimicrobial resistance in APEC strains from China. PMID:25667425

  4. Characterization and survival of environmental Escherichia coli O26 isolates in ground beef and environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Christine E; Bratcher, Christy L; Singh, Manpreet; Wang, Luxin

    2015-04-01

    In addition to Escherichia coli O157:H7, shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) O26 was added to the zero-tolerance adulterant list together with other 5 non-O157 STEC serogroups in 2012. Four farm O26 isolates were used in this study; they were obtained from a on-farm survey study conducted in Alabama. The presence of 3 major pathogenic genes (stx1, stx2, and eaeA) was determined through multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Two major pathogenic gene profiles were observed: 3 of the farm isolates contain only the eaeA gene whereas 1 farm isolate has both the eaeA and the stx1 genes. No significant difference was seen among the 4 farm isolates in the antibiotic resistance tests. To test their survival in ground beef and environmental samples, 2 inoculums were prepared and inoculated at various concentrations into samples of ground beef, bovine feces, bedding materials, and trough water. One inoculum was made of 3 farm isolates containing only the eaeA gene and another inoculum contained the isolate with both the eaeA and stx1 genes. Inoculated beef samples were stored at 4 °C for 10 d and the inoculated environmental samples were stored at ambient temperature for 30 d. Results showed that virulence gene profiles do not have an impact on O26's ability to survive in ground beef and in environment (P > 0.05). The inoculation levels, sample types as well as the storage times are the major factors that impact O26 survival (P < 0.05). PMID:25765176

  5. Molecular Characterization of Multidrug-Resistant Escherichia coli Isolates from Irish Cattle Farms▿†

    PubMed Central

    Karczmarczyk, Maria; Walsh, Ciara; Slowey, Rosemarie; Leonard, Nola; Fanning, Séamus

    2011-01-01

    This study describes the genotypic characteristics of a collection of 100 multidrug-resistant (MDR) Escherichia coli strains recovered from cattle and the farm environment in Ireland in 2007. The most prevalent antimicrobial resistance identified was to streptomycin (100%), followed by tetracycline (99%), sulfonamides (98%), ampicillin (82%), and neomycin (62%). Resistance was mediated predominantly by strA-strB (92%), tetA (67%), sul2 (90%), blaTEM (79%), and aphA1 (63%) gene markers, respectively. Twenty-seven isolates harbored a class 1 integrase (intI1), while qacEΔ1 and sul1 markers were identified in 25 and 26 isolates, respectively. The variable regions of these integrons contained aminoglycoside, trimethoprim, and β-lactam resistance determinants (aadA12, aadB-aadA1, blaOXA-30-aadA1, dfrA1-aadA1, dfrA7). Class 2 integrons were identified less frequently (4%) and contained the gene cassette array dfrA1-sat1-aadA1. Resistance to ampicillin, neomycin, streptomycin, sulfonamide, and tetracycline was associated with transferable high-molecular-weight plasmids, as demonstrated by conjugation assays. A panel of virulence markers was screened for by PCR, and genes identified included vt1, K5 in 2 isolates, papC in 10 isolates, and PAI IV536 in 37 isolates. MDR commensal E. coli isolates from Irish cattle displayed considerable diversity with respect to the genes identified. Our findings highlight the importance of the commensal microflora of food-producing animals as a reservoir of transferable MDR. PMID:21856840

  6. Selective Enrichment with a Resuscitation Step for Isolation of Freeze-Injured Escherichia coli O157:H7 from Foods

    PubMed Central

    Hara-Kudo, Y.; Ikedo, M.; Kodaka, H.; Nakagawa, H.; Goto, K.; Masuda, T.; Konuma, H.; Kojima, T.; Kumagai, S.

    2000-01-01

    We studied injury of Escherichia coli O157:H7 cells in 11 food items during freeze storage and methods of isolating freeze-injured E. coli O157:H7 cells from foods. Food samples inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 were stored for 16 weeks at −20°C in a freezer. Noninjured and injured cells were counted by using tryptic soy agar and sorbitol MacConkey agar supplemented with cefixime and potassium tellurite. Large populations of E. coli O157:H7 cells were injured in salted cabbage, grated radish, seaweed, and tomato samples. In an experiment to detect E. coli O157:H7 in food samples artificially contaminated with freeze-injured E. coli O157:H7 cells, the organism was recovered most efficiently after the samples were incubated in modified E. coli broth without bile salts at 25°C for 2 h and then selectively enriched at 42°C for 18 h by adding bile salts and novobiocin. Our enrichment method was further evaluated by isolating E. coli O157:H7 from frozen foods inoculated with the organism prior to freezing. Two hours of resuscitation at 25°C in nonselective broth improved recovery of E. coli O157:H7 from frozen grated radishes and strawberries, demonstrating that the resuscitation step is very effective for isolating E. coli O157:H7 from frozen foods contaminated with injured E. coli O157:H7 cells. PMID:10877780

  7. Characterization of Diarrheagenic Antimicrobial Resistant Escherichia coli Isolated From Pediatric Patients in Tehran, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Heidary, Maryam; Momtaz, Hassan; Madani, Mahboobeh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Acute infectious diarrhea is one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Objectives: The objective of this study was to characterize antimicrobial resistant diarrheagenic Escherichia coli strains isolated from diarrheic children in Tehran, IR Iran. Patients and Methods: In total, 550 stool samples from diarrheic pediatric patients, aged less than 60 months, were collected and immediately transferred to the laboratory. Isolation and identification of E. coli strains was done using bacteriological methods. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using the disk diffusion technique. Multiplex PCR was used to detect aadA1, tetA, tetB, dfrA1, qnr, aac (3)-IV, sul1, blaSHV, CITM, cat1, and cmlA antibiotic resistance genes. Results: From the total of 550 fecal samples examined, 154 samples (28%) were positive for diarraheagenic E. coli. High rates of antibiotic resistance were seen against penicillin ﴾100%), ampicillin ﴾89.6%﴿ and tetracycline ﴾83.1%﴿. Resistance against ciprofloxacin was low ﴾28.6%﴿. The prevalence of different resistance genes in the studied strains varied from 96.10% for aadA1 gene to 40.25% for sul1 gene. The frequencies of aadA1, tetA, tetB, dfrA1, qnr, aac(3)-IV, sul1, blaSHV, CITM, cat1, and cmlA genes were 96.10%, 85.06%, 84.41%, 51.94%, 72.07%, 54.54%, 40.25%, 57.79%, 90.25%, 59.74% and 60.38%, respectively. Conclusions: Our results indicated that antibiotic resistance is increasing in diarraheagenic E. coli strains in Iran. It is imperative to develop strategies for prevention and control of resistant organisms. Changes in patterns of resistance against commonly used antibiotics in Iran indicate that an applied surveillance system and introduction of guidelines for appropriate antibiotic prescription are necessary. PMID:24910786

  8. Detection of virulence-associated genes in pathogenic and commensal avian Escherichia coli isolates.

    PubMed

    Paixão, A C; Ferreira, A C; Fontes, M; Themudo, P; Albuquerque, T; Soares, M C; Fevereiro, M; Martins, L; Corrêa de Sá, M I

    2016-07-01

    Poultry colibacillosis due to Avian Pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) is responsible for several extra-intestinal pathological conditions, leading to serious economic damage in poultry production. The most commonly associated pathologies are airsacculitis, colisepticemia, and cellulitis in broiler chickens, and salpingitis and peritonitis in broiler breeders. In this work a total of 66 strains isolated from dead broiler breeders affected with colibacillosis and 61 strains from healthy broilers were studied. Strains from broiler breeders were typified with serogroups O2, O18, and O78, which are mainly associated with disease. The serogroup O78 was the most prevalent (58%). All the strains were checked for the presence of 11 virulence genes: 1) arginine succinyltransferase A (astA); ii) E.coli hemeutilization protein A (chuA); iii) colicin V A/B (cvaA/B); iv) fimbriae mannose-binding type 1 (fimC); v) ferric yersiniabactin uptake A (fyuA); vi) iron-repressible high-molecular-weight proteins 2 (irp2); vii) increased serum survival (iss); viii) iron-uptake systems of E.coli D (iucD); ix) pielonefritis associated to pili C (papC); x) temperature sensitive haemaglutinin (tsh), and xi) vacuolating autotransporter toxin (vat), by Multiplex-PCR. The results showed that all genes are present in both commensal and pathogenic E. coli strains. The iron uptake-related genes and the serum survival gene were more prevalent among APEC. The adhesin genes, except tsh, and the toxin genes, except astA, were also more prevalent among APEC isolates. Except for astA and tsh, APEC strains harbored the majority of the virulence-associated genes studied and fimC was the most prevalent gene, detected in 96.97 and 88.52% of APEC and AFEC strains, respectively. Possession of more than one iron transport system seems to play an important role on APEC survival. PMID:26976911

  9. Virulence factors of lactose-negative Escherichia coli strains isolated from children with diarrhea in Somalia.

    PubMed Central

    Nicoletti, M; Superti, F; Conti, C; Calconi, A; Zagaglia, C

    1988-01-01

    Lactose-negative Escherichia coli strains were isolated at high frequency from children with diarrhea in Somalia during a 2-year study on diarrheal diseases. Sixty-four of these strains, considered to be a representative sample, were characterized for virulence factors, plasmid profiles, and antibiotic resistance. Of these strains, 5 were recognized as enteroinvasive E. coli (they were serotyped as O135:K-:H-), 6 belonged to classical enteropathogenic E. coli serotypes, 9 were able to adhere to tissue culture cells (of these, 4 showed a pattern of localized adherence and 1 was an enteropathogenic strain), 18 were both adherent and hemolytic, and 8 were simply hemolytic. None hybridized with 32P-labeled heat-labile or heat-stable (a and b) enterotoxin gene probes or produced moderate or high-level cytotoxic effects on HeLa cells. Of the 64 strains examined, 24 produced mannose-resistant hemagglutination with human, chicken, and monkey erythrocytes. One of these was serotyped as O4:K-:H8, and a rabbit O antiserum raised against this strain allowed us to establish that 23 strains had the same O antigen. The 23 O4 strains were hemolytic and were not enterotoxic for rabbit ileal loops, and intact bacteria were able to destroy tissue culture cell monolayers very rapidly. The uniformity of the antibiotic resistance pattern and of the plasmid DNA content, together with the fact that they were isolated in different years and in different children, suggests that the O4 strains must be epidemiologically relevant in Somalia. A possible diarrheagenic role for the adherent-hemolytic E. coli strains is also discussed. Images PMID:3281977

  10. Densities and antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli isolated from marine waters and beach sands.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Vanessa da Costa; Zampieri, Bruna Del Busso; Ballesteros, Eliete Rodrigues; Pinto, Aline Bartelochi; de Oliveira, Ana Julia Fernandes Cardoso

    2015-06-01

    Bacterial resistance is a rising problem all over the world. Many studies have showed that beach sands can contain higher concentration of microorganisms and represent a risk to public health. This paper aims to evaluate the densities and resistance to antimicrobials of Escherichia coli strains, isolated from seawater and samples. The hypothesis is that microorganisms show higher densities in contaminated beach sands and more antimicrobial resistance than the water column. Density, distribution, and antimicrobial resistance of bacteria E. coli were evaluate in seawater and sands from two recreational beaches with different levels of pollution. At the beach with higher degree of pollution (Gonzaguinha), water samples presented the highest densities of E. coli; however, higher frequency of resistant strains was observe in wet sand (71.9 %). Resistance to a larger number of antimicrobial groups was observe in water (betalactamics, aminoglycosides, macrolides, rifampicins, and tetracyclines) and sand (betagalactamics and aminoglycosids). In water samples, highest frequencies of resistance were obtain against ampicilin (22.5 %), streptomycin (15.0 %), and rifampicin (15.0 %), while in sand, the highest frequencies were observe in relation to ampicilin (36.25 %) and streptomycin (23.52 %). At the less polluted beach, Ilha Porchat, highest densities of E. coli and higher frequency of resistance were obtain in wet and dry sand (53.7 and 53.8 %, respectively) compared to water (50 %). Antimicrobial resistance in strains isolated from water and sand only occurred against betalactamics (ampicilin and amoxicilin plus clavulanic acid). The frequency and variability of bacterial resistance to antimicrobials in marine recreational waters and sands were related to the degree of fecal contamination in this environment. These results show that water and sands from beaches with a high index of fecal contamination of human origin may be potential sources of contamination by pathogens

  11. Escherichia coli O104 in Feedlot Cattle Feces: Prevalence, Isolation and Characterization.

    PubMed

    Shridhar, Pragathi B; Noll, Lance W; Shi, Xiaorong; Cernicchiaro, Natalia; Renter, David G; Bai, J; Nagaraja, T G

    2016-01-01

    Escherichia coli O104:H4, an hybrid pathotype of Shiga toxigenic and enteroaggregative E. coli, involved in a major foodborne outbreak in Germany in 2011, has not been detected in cattle feces. Serogroup O104 with H type other than H4 has been reported to cause human illnesses, but their prevalence and characteristics in cattle have not been reported. Our objectives were to determine the prevalence of E. coli O104 in feces of feedlot cattle, by culture and PCR detection methods, and characterize the isolated strains. Rectal fecal samples from a total of 757 cattle originating from 29 feedlots were collected at a Midwest commercial slaughter plant. Fecal samples, enriched in E. coli broth, were subjected to culture and PCR methods of detection. The culture method involved immunomagnetic separation with O104-specific beads and plating on a selective chromogenic medium, followed by serogroup confirmation of pooled colonies by PCR. If pooled colonies were positive for the wzxO104 gene, then colonies were tested individually to identify wzxO104-positive serogroup and associated genes of the hybrid strains. Extracted DNA from feces were also tested by a multiplex PCR to detect wzxO104-positive serogroup and associated major genes of the O104 hybrid pathotype. Because wzxO104 has been shown to be present in E. coli O8/O9/O9a, wzxO104-positive isolates and extracted DNA from fecal samples were also tested by a PCR targeting wbdDO8/O9/O9a, a gene specific for E. coli O8/O9/O9a serogroups. Model-adjusted prevalence estimates of E. coli O104 (positive for wzxO104 and negative for wbdDO8/O9/O9a) at the feedlot level were 5.7% and 21.2%, and at the sample level were 0.5% and 25.9% by culture and PCR, respectively. The McNemar's test indicated that there was a significant difference (P < 0.01) between the proportions of samples that tested positive for wzxO104 and samples that were positive for wzxO104, but negative for wbdDO8/O9/O9a by PCR and culture methods. A total of 143

  12. Escherichia coli O104 in Feedlot Cattle Feces: Prevalence, Isolation and Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Shridhar, Pragathi B.; Noll, Lance W.; Shi, Xiaorong; Cernicchiaro, Natalia; Renter, David G.; Bai, J.; Nagaraja, T. G.

    2016-01-01

    Escherichia coli O104:H4, an hybrid pathotype of Shiga toxigenic and enteroaggregative E. coli, involved in a major foodborne outbreak in Germany in 2011, has not been detected in cattle feces. Serogroup O104 with H type other than H4 has been reported to cause human illnesses, but their prevalence and characteristics in cattle have not been reported. Our objectives were to determine the prevalence of E. coli O104 in feces of feedlot cattle, by culture and PCR detection methods, and characterize the isolated strains. Rectal fecal samples from a total of 757 cattle originating from 29 feedlots were collected at a Midwest commercial slaughter plant. Fecal samples, enriched in E. coli broth, were subjected to culture and PCR methods of detection. The culture method involved immunomagnetic separation with O104-specific beads and plating on a selective chromogenic medium, followed by serogroup confirmation of pooled colonies by PCR. If pooled colonies were positive for the wzxO104 gene, then colonies were tested individually to identify wzxO104-positive serogroup and associated genes of the hybrid strains. Extracted DNA from feces were also tested by a multiplex PCR to detect wzxO104-positive serogroup and associated major genes of the O104 hybrid pathotype. Because wzxO104 has been shown to be present in E. coli O8/O9/O9a, wzxO104-positive isolates and extracted DNA from fecal samples were also tested by a PCR targeting wbdDO8/O9/O9a, a gene specific for E. coli O8/O9/O9a serogroups. Model-adjusted prevalence estimates of E. coli O104 (positive for wzxO104 and negative for wbdDO8/O9/O9a) at the feedlot level were 5.7% and 21.2%, and at the sample level were 0.5% and 25.9% by culture and PCR, respectively. The McNemar’s test indicated that there was a significant difference (P < 0.01) between the proportions of samples that tested positive for wzxO104 and samples that were positive for wzxO104, but negative for wbdDO8/O9/O9a by PCR and culture methods. A total of 143

  13. Detection of mcr-1 colistin resistance gene in polyclonal Escherichia coli isolates in Barcelona, Spain, 2012 to 2015.

    PubMed

    Prim, Núria; Rivera, Alba; Rodríguez-Navarro, Judith; Español, Montserrat; Turbau, Miquel; Coll, Pere; Mirelis, Beatriz

    2016-03-31

    Colistin resistance was detected in 53 of 10,011 Escherichia coli (0.5%) by prospective phenotypic testing of consecutive clinical isolates in a single hospital in Barcelona, Spain (2012-15). The mcr-1 gene was retrospectively identified by PCR and sequencing in 15 of 50 available isolates. Each isolate had a unique PFGE pattern except for two. This clonal diversity supports the hypothesis of horizontal dissemination of the mcr-1 gene in the local study population. PMID:27055477

  14. Complete Genome Sequence of an Escherichia coli O157:H7 Strain Isolated from a Super-Shedder Steer

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Lin; Ginn, Amber; Jeon, Soojin; Kang, Minyoung

    2016-01-01

    We report here the complete genome sequence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 strain JEONG-1266 isolated from a super- shedder steer in northwest Florida. Cattle are considered a primary reservoir of E. coli O157:H7, and those cattle that excrete this pathogen in their feces at levels ≥104 CFU/g are known as super-shedders. PMID:27056233

  15. Phylogenetic grouping, epidemiological typing, analysis of virulence genes, and antimicrobial susceptibility of Escherichia coli isolated from healthy broilers in Japan

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of our study was to investigate the possible etiology of avian colibacillosis by examining Escherichia coli isolates from fecal samples of healthy broilers. Findings Seventy-eight E. coli isolates from fecal samples of healthy broilers in Japan were subjected to analysis of phylogenetic background, virulence-associated gene profiling, multi-locus sequence typing (MLST), and antimicrobial resistance profiling. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that 35 of the 78 isolates belonged to group A, 28 to group B1, one to group B2, and 14 to group D. Virulence-associated genes iutA, iss, cvaC, tsh, iroN, ompT, and hlyF were found in 23 isolates (29.5%), 16 isolates (20.5%), nine isolates (11.5%), five isolates (6.4%), 19 isolates (24.4%), 23 isolates (29.5%), and 22 isolates (28.2%) respectively. Although the genetic diversity of group D isolates was revealed by MLST, the group D isolates harbored iutA (10 isolates, 71.4%), iss (6 isolates, 42.9%), cvaC (5 isolates, 35.7%), tsh (3 isolates, 21.4%), hlyF (9 isolates, 64.3%), iroN (7 isolates, 50.0%), and ompT (9 isolates, 64.3%). Conclusions Our results indicated that E. coli isolates inhabiting the intestines of healthy broilers pose a potential risk of causing avian colibacillosis. PMID:25061511

  16. Effect of antimicrobial dosage regimen on Salmonella and Escherichia coli isolates from feeder swine.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Bruce A; Straw, Barbara E; Fedorka-Cray, Paula J; Dargatz, David A

    2008-03-01

    A body of evidence exists that suggests that antimicrobial use in food animals leads to resistance in both pathogenic and commensal bacteria. This study focused on the impact of three different antimicrobial regimes (low-level continuous, pulse, and no antimicrobial) for two antimicrobials (chlortetracycline and tylosin) on the presence of Salmonella spp. and on the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance of both Salmonella spp. and nonspecific Escherichia coli in fecal samples from feeder swine. The prevalence of fecal samples positive for Salmonella spp. significantly decreased between the samples taken at feeder placement compared to samples taken when the animals were close to market weight. Differences in resistance of Salmonella spp. did not appear to be influenced by dosing treatment including the control. Analysis of antimicrobial resistance examining both susceptibility and resistance, as well as MIC outcomes, demonstrated that only resistance to cephalothin increased in E. coli under the pulse chlortetracycline treatment. These results suggest that the dosing regimes examined in this study did not lead to an increase in either the prevalence of Salmonella spp. or the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in isolates of Salmonella spp. or E. coli. PMID:18223115

  17. Effect of Antimicrobial Dosage Regimen on Salmonella and Escherichia coli Isolates from Feeder Swine▿

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Bruce A.; Straw, Barbara E.; Fedorka-Cray, Paula J.; Dargatz, David A.

    2008-01-01

    A body of evidence exists that suggests that antimicrobial use in food animals leads to resistance in both pathogenic and commensal bacteria. This study focused on the impact of three different antimicrobial regimes (low-level continuous, pulse, and no antimicrobial) for two antimicrobials (chlortetracycline and tylosin) on the presence of Salmonella spp. and on the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance of both Salmonella spp. and nonspecific Escherichia coli in fecal samples from feeder swine. The prevalence of fecal samples positive for Salmonella spp. significantly decreased between the samples taken at feeder placement compared to samples taken when the animals were close to market weight. Differences in resistance of Salmonella spp. did not appear to be influenced by dosing treatment including the control. Analysis of antimicrobial resistance examining both susceptibility and resistance, as well as MIC outcomes, demonstrated that only resistance to cephalothin increased in E. coli under the pulse chlortetracycline treatment. These results suggest that the dosing regimes examined in this study did not lead to an increase in either the prevalence of Salmonella spp. or the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in isolates of Salmonella spp. or E. coli. PMID:18223115

  18. Antimicrobial Activity of Lactobacillus spp. Isolated From Fecal Flora of Healthy Breast-Fed Infants Against Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Davoodabadi, Abolfazl; Soltan Dallal, Mohammad Mehdi; Lashani, Elahe; Tajabadi Ebrahimi, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Background: Among the enteric pathogens, diarrheagenic Escherichia coli are important causes of diarrhea in children in both developing and industrialized countries. Some Lactobacillus species are commonly used as probiotics, with effects especially against acute diarrhea in childhood. Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore antimicrobial activity of Lactobacillus strains isolated from fecal flora of healthy breast-fed infants against five diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes such as enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC), enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) and enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC). Materials and Methods: Fecal samples were collected from seven healthy breast-fed infants between 1 to 18 months of age in Tehran city, Iran. Identification of Lactobacillus isolates was performed by biochemical and 16S rRNA gene sequencing methods. An agar well diffusion assay was used for detection of antimicrobial activity of Lactobacillus isolates against five diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes. Results: A total of 20 Lactobacillus isolates were identified from stool samples. Lactobacillus fermentum was the most frequently isolated strain, followed by L. plantarum and L. rhamnosus. Seven Lactobacillus strains including L. fermentum (four isolates), L. paracasei (one isolate), L. plantarum (one isolate) and L. rhamnosus (one isolate) had a mild inhibitory activity against diarrheagenic E. coli. The mechanism of inhibitory activity of Lactobacillus strains appeared to be due to the production of organic acids or hydrogen peroxide. Conclusions: Our findings show that Lactobacillus strains with human origin had a mild inhibitory activity against the diarrheagenic E. coli, and these strains may be useful as probiotic candidates in prevention of intestinal infections caused by diarrheagenic E. coli. PMID:26865944

  19. Characterisation of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) associated with colisepticaemia compared to faecal isolates from healthy birds.

    PubMed

    McPeake, S J W; Smyth, J A; Ball, H J

    2005-10-31

    A total of 114 avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) isolates were collected from cases of colisepticaemia occurring in broilers (77) and layers (37) within Ireland. In addition 45 strains isolated from faeces of healthy birds were included for comparison. All isolates were serogrouped, and examined for known virulence factors, mostly by PCR. The O78 serogroup represented 55 and 27% of broiler and layer colisepticaemic isolates respectively. All isolates were positive for curli fimbriae (crl, csg) and negative for afimbrial adhesin (afa). S-fimbrial (sfa) sequences were present in 8.8% of septicaemic isolates and 8.9% of healthy bird isolates. The majority of E. coli from cases of colisepticaemia (97.4%) and healthy bird (95.6%) isolates were positive for aerobactin (aer), and temperature sensitive haemagglutinin (tsh) was similarly detected in high numbers in 93.9 and 93.3%, respectively. In comparison to E. coli isolates from the faeces of healthy birds, a significantly higher percentage of isolates from septicaemic cases possessed Type 1 fimbriae (fimC) and increased serum survival (iss) gene sequences. Forty-seven (41.2%) isolates from septicaemic birds possessed P-fimbriae (pap) gene sequences, compared with only 15.6% from E. coli isolated from healthy birds. Haemolysin (hlyE) sequences were detected in 46.7% of isolates from healthy birds in comparison with 6.1% of septicaemic isolates. Sequences encoding colicin V (cvaC) were detected in 99.1% of septicaemic isolates and 82.2% of isolates from healthy birds. The K1 capsule was only present in two septicaemic isolates, both taken from layers. Motility was detected in 36.8% of E. coli isolated from cases of septicaemia, compared with 93.3% of isolates from healthy birds. These results demonstrate the presence of 11 virulence genes in E. coli isolated from cases of colisepticaemia within Ireland, and indicate the prevalence of iss and fimC. PMID:16150559

  20. Analysis of Antimicrobial Resistance Genes in Multiple Drug Resistant (MDR) Escherichia coli Isolated from Broiler Chicken Carcasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: MDR food-borne bacteria are a concern in both animal and human health. To understand the mechanisms driving this problem, the genetic elements responsible for resistance need to be determined and analyzed. Methods: From 2000-2007, 16,912 Escherichia coli were isolated from broiler carcas...

  1. Escherichia coli O157:H7 bacteriophage (phi)241 isolated from an industrial cucumber fermentation at high acidity and salinity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel phage, (phi)241, specific for Escherichia coli O157:H7 was isolated from an industrial cucumber fermentation where both acidity (pH less than or equal to 3.7) and salinity (greater than or equal to 5% NaCl) were high. The phage belongs to the Myoviridae family. Its latent period was 15 min a...

  2. Development of a multiplex PCR assay for rapid virulence factor profiling of extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli isolated from cattle.

    PubMed

    Ojima, Toru; Hirano, Kaori; Honda, Kohei; Kusumoto, Masahiro

    2016-09-01

    Virulence factor (VF) profiling is important for the control of extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) infection because VF prevalence is highly variable. We analyzed the VF profile of ExPEC isolated from cattle in Yamagata prefecture, Japan, 2000-2015 and developed a rapid VF profiling method using a multiplex PCR assay. PMID:27380962

  3. Antimicrobial Resistance and Virulence Characterization among Escherichia coli Clinical Isolates Causing Severe Obstetric Infections in Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Guiral, Elisabet; Sáez-López, Emma; Bosch, Jordi; Goncé, Anna; López, Marta; Sanz, Sergi; Vila, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    The virulence markers and the antimicrobial resistance profiles of 78 Escherichia coli isolates causing obstetric infections accompanied by sepsis or not were studied. Adhesion-related virulence factors were the most prevalent markers. Low rates of resistance to the antimicrobial agents used as first-line therapy suggest their correct implementation in stewardship guidelines. PMID:25740771

  4. Characterization of Escherichia coli 0157:H7 strains isolated from supershedding cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous reports have indicated that a small proportion of cattle shedding high levels of Escherichia coli O157:H7 is the main source for transmission of this organism between animals. Cattle achieving a fecal shedding status of 10**4 CFU of E. coli O157: H7/gram or greater are now referred to as su...

  5. Variability of Surface Characteristics and Transport Behavior of Escherichia coli Isolates from Different Host

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Escherichia coli is a commonly used indicator organism for detecting the presence of fecal-borne pathogenic microorganisms in water supplies. The importance of E. coli as an indicator organism has led to numerous studies looking at surface characteristics and transport behavior of this important mic...

  6. Complete genome sequence and comparison of two Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O104 isolates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O104 strains have been associated with sporadic cases of illness and have caused outbreaks associated with milk and sprouts. E. coli O104:H21 caused an outbreak associated with milk in the U.S. in 1994. In this study, next generation sequencing techno...

  7. Diversity of Cell Properties and Transport Behavior Among 12 Enviromental Escherichia Coli Isolates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Escherichia coli is a commonly used indicator organism for detecting the presence of fecal-borne pathogenic microorganisms in water supplies. The importance of E. coli as an indicator organism has led to numerous studies looking at surface characteristics and transport behavior of this important mi...

  8. Mercury volatilization by R factor systems in Escherichia coli isolated from aquatic environments of India.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Neerja; Ali, Arif

    2004-02-01

    Ten Escherichia coli strains isolated from five different aquatic environments representing three distinct geographical regions of India showed significantly high levels of tolerance to the inorganic form of mercury, i.e., mercuric chloride (HgCl(2)). MRD14 isolated from the Dal Lake (Kashmir) could tolerate the highest concentration of HgCl(2), i.e., 55 microg/mL, and MRF1 from the flood water of the Yamuna River (Delhi) tolerated the lowest concentration, i.e., 25 microg/mL. All ten strains revealed the presence of a plasmid of approximately 24 kb, and transformation of the isolated plasmids into the mercury-sensitive competent cells of E. coli DH5alpha rendered the transformants resistant to the same concentration of mercury as the wild-type strains. Mating experiments were performed to assess the self-transmissible nature of these promiscuous plasmids. The transfer of mercury resistance from these wild-type strains to the mercury-sensitive, naladixic acid-resistant E. coli K12 (F(-) lac(+)) strain used as a recipient was observed in six of the nine strains tested. Transconjugants revealed the presence of a plasmid of approximately 24 kb. An evaluation of the mechanism of mercury resistance in the three most efficient strains (MRG12, MRD11, and MRD14) encountered in our study was determined by cold vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy (CV-AAS), and it was noted that resistance to HgCl(2) was conferred by conversion of the toxic ionic form of mercury (Hg(++)) to the nontoxic elemental form (Hg(0)) in all three strains. MRD14 volatilized mercury most efficiently. PMID:15057474

  9. Characterization of Extraintestinal Pathogenic Escherichia coli isolated from retail poultry meats from Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Aslam, Mueen; Toufeer, Mehdi; Narvaez Bravo, Claudia; Lai, Vita; Rempel, Heidi; Manges, Amee; Diarra, Moussa Sory

    2014-05-01

    Extraintestinal Pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) have the potential to spread through fecal waste resulting in the contamination of both farm workers and retail poultry meat in the processing plants or environment. The objective of this study was to characterize ExPEC from retail poultry meats purchased from Alberta, Canada and to compare them with 12 human ExPEC representatives from major ExPEC lineages. Fifty-four virulence genes were screened by a set of multiplex PCRs in 700 E. coli from retail poultry meat samples. ExPEC was defined as the detection of at least two of the following virulence genes: papA/papC, sfa, kpsMT II and iutA. Genetic relationships between isolates were determined using pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Fifty-nine (8.4%) of the 700 poultry meat isolates were identified as ExPEC and were equally distributed among the phylogenetic groups A, B1, B2 and D. Isolates of phylogenetic group A possessed up to 12 virulence genes compared to 24 and 18 genes in phylogenetic groups B2 and D, respectively. E. coli identified as ExPEC and recovered from poultry harbored as many virulence genes as those of human isolates. In addition to the iutA gene, siderophore-related iroN and fyuA were detected in combination with other virulence genes including those genes encoding for adhesion, protectin and toxin while the fimH, ompT, traT, uidA and vat were commonly detected in poultry ExPEC. The hemF, iss and cvaC genes were found in 40% of poultry ExPEC. All human ExPEC isolates harbored concnf (cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1 altering cytoskeleton and causing necrosis) and hlyD (hemolysin transport) genes which were not found in poultry ExPEC. PFGE analysis showed that a few poultry ExPEC isolates clustered with human ExPEC isolates at 55-70% similarity level. Comparing ExPEC isolated from retail poultry meats provides insight into their virulence potential and suggests that poultry associated ExPEC may be important for retail meat safety

  10. Isolation and characterization of temperature-sensitive pantothenate kinase (coaA) mutants of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Vallari, D S; Rock, C O

    1987-01-01

    Escherichia coli mutants conditionally defective in the conversion of pantothenate to coenzyme A were isolated and characterized. The gene was designated coaA and localized between argEH and rpoB near min 90 of the chromosome. The coaA15(Ts) mutation caused a temperature-sensitive growth phenotype and temperature-dependent inactivation of pantothenate kinase activity assayed both in vivo and in vitro. At 30 degrees C, coaA15(Ts) extracts contained less than 20% of the wild-type pantothenate kinase activity; the kinase had near normal kinetic constants for the substrates ATP and pantothenate and was inhibited by coenzyme A to the same degree as the wild-type enzyme. These data define the coaA gene as the structural gene for pantothenate kinase. PMID:2824448

  11. Virulence Potential of Activatable Shiga Toxin 2d–Producing Escherichia coli Isolates from Fresh Produce

    PubMed Central

    Melton-Celsa, Angela R.; O'Brien, Alison D.; Feng, Peter C. H.

    2016-01-01

    Shiga toxin (Stx)–producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains are food- and waterborne pathogens that are often transmitted via beef products or fresh produce. STEC strains cause both sporadic infections and outbreaks, which may result in hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome. STEC strains may elaborate Stx1, Stx2, and/or subtypes of those toxins. Epidemiological evidence indicates that STEC that produce subtypes Stx2a, Stx2c, and/or Stx2d are more often associated with serious illness. The Stx2d subtype becomes more toxic to Vero cells after incubation with intestinal mucus or elastase, a process named “activation.” Stx2d is not generally found in the E. coli serotypes most commonly connected to STEC outbreaks. However, STEC strains that are stx2d positive can be isolated from foods, an occurrence that gives rise to the question of whether those food isolates are potential human pathogens. In this study, we examined 14 STEC strains from fresh produce that were stx2d positive and found that they all produced the mucus-activatable Stx2d and that a subset of the strains tested were virulent in streptomycin-treated mice. PMID:26555533

  12. Isolation and characterization of Escherichia coli pantothenate permease (panF) mutants.

    PubMed Central

    Vallari, D S; Rock, C O

    1985-01-01

    Mutants of Escherichia coli K-12 defective in the pantothenate permease (panF) were isolated and characterized. The panF mutation resulted in the complete loss of pantothenate uptake and of the ability to use extracellular vitamin for growth. The growth phenotypes of panF panD, panF panB, and panF panC double mutants showed that the cytoplasmic membrane was impermeable to external pantothenate. Analysis of the intracellular and extracellular metabolites from strain DV1 (panF panD) labeled with beta-[3-3H]alanine demonstrated that a carrier-mediated mechanism for efficient pantothenate efflux remained in the panF mutant. Genetic mapping of this nonselectable allele was facilitated by the isolation of three independent Tn10 insertions close to panF. Two- and three-factor crosses located panF at minute 72 of the E. coli chromosome and established the gene order fabE panF aroE. PMID:2995306

  13. Virulence Potential of Activatable Shiga Toxin 2d-Producing Escherichia coli Isolates from Fresh Produce.

    PubMed

    Melton-Celsa, Angela R; O'Brien, Alison D; Feng, Peter C H

    2015-11-01

    Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains are food- and waterborne pathogens that are often transmitted via beef products or fresh produce. STEC strains cause both sporadic infections and outbreaks, which may result in hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome. STEC strains may elaborate Stx1, Stx2, and/or subtypes of those toxins. Epidemiological evidence indicates that STEC that produce subtypes Stx2a, Stx2c, and/or Stx2d are more often associated with serious illness. The Stx2d subtype becomes more toxic to Vero cells after incubation with intestinal mucus or elastase, a process named "activation." Stx2d is not generally found in the E. coli serotypes most commonly connected to STEC outbreaks. However, STEC strains that are stx2d positive can be isolated from foods, an occurrence that gives rise to the question of whether those food isolates are potential human pathogens. In this study, we examined 14 STEC strains from fresh produce that were stx2d positive and found that they all produced the mucus-activatable Stx2d and that a subset of the strains tested were virulent in streptomycin-treated mice. PMID:26555533

  14. Isolation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 from foods in Greece.

    PubMed

    Dontorou, C; Papadopoulou, C; Filioussis, G; Economou, V; Apostolou, I; Zakkas, G; Salamoura, A; Kansouzidou, A; Levidiotou, S

    2003-05-15

    The presence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in various foods of animal origin was surveyed in northwestern Greece. Six hundred samples of unpasteurized cows', ewes' and goats' milk, raw minced meat, uncooked frozen beef hamburgers, sandwiches (containing ham or turkey, mixed vegetable salad with mayonnaise and lettuce), fresh traditional Greek pork sausages and swine intestines appropriate for traditional Greek kokoretsi were assayed for E. coli serogroup O157:H7 using the standard cultural method and the immunomagnetic separation technique. The pathogen was detected in 1 out of 100 (1.0%) samples of ewes' milk, 1 out of 75 (1.3%) fresh sausages and 1 out of 50 (2.0%) swine intestines prepared for kokoretsi. The isolated strains were nonsorbitol fermenters, MUG-negative, O157 agglutinating, verotoxin-producing and carried both VT1 and VT2 genes. The three isolated strains were tested for antibiotic resistance and were found to be susceptible to eight antimicrobial agents (ampicillin, chloramphenicol, kanamycin, nalidixic acid, norfloxacin, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim and tetracycline). PMID:12593930

  15. Differential expression of two isolates of beak and feather disease virus capsid protein in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Edward I; Swarbrick, Crystall M D; Roman, Noelia; Forwood, Jade K; Raidal, Shane R

    2013-04-01

    Expression of recombinant beak and feather disease virus (BFDV) capsid-associated protein (Cap) has relied on inefficient techniques that typically produce low yields or use specialized expression systems, which greatly increase the cost and expertise required for mass production. An Escherichia coli system was used to express recombinant BFDV Cap derived from two isolates of BFDV, from a Long-billed Corella (Cacatua tenuirostris) and an Orange-bellied parrot (OBP; Neophema chrysogaster). Purification by affinity and size exclusion chromatography was optimized through an iterative process involving screening and modification of buffer constituents and pH. A buffer containing glycerol, β-mercaptoethanol, Triton X-100, and a high concentration of NaCl at pH 8 was used to increase solubility of the protein. The final concentration of the corella-isolated BFDV protein was fifteen- to twenty-fold greater than that produced in previous publications using E. coli expression systems. Immunoassays were used to confirm the specific antigenicity of recombinant Cap, verifying its validity for use in continued experimentation as a potential vaccine, a reagent in diagnostic assays, and as a concentrated sample for biological discoveries. PMID:23403150

  16. Emergence of KPC-2-producing Escherichia coli isolates in an urban river in Harbin, China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Guofeng; Jiang, Yue; An, Wei; Wang, Hongdong; Zhang, Xiuying

    2015-09-01

    Three KPC-2-producing Escherichia coli (E1, E2, and E3) were recovered from water samples of an urban river in the city of Harbin, China. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by broth microdilution. Molecular characterization and genetic relatedness of the isolates were determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and PCR-directed phylotyping. Plasmids were analyzed by conjugation, S1-PFGE, Southern blotting and PCR-based replicon typing (PBRT). The genetic environment of the bla KPC-2 gene was determined using PCR and sequencing. PCR analyses revealed that the E1 isolate carried the bla KPC-2, bla CMY-2, bla TEM-1, bla CTX-M-14, and qnrB2 genes and belonged to sequence type ST410, phylogenetic type A; the E2 isolate was assigned to ST131-B2 and carried the bla KPC-2, bla TEM-1, bla CTX-M-3, bla DHA-1, aac(6')-Ib-cr, and qnrS1 genes; while the E3 isolate was of ST648-D and possessed bla KPC-2, bla TEM-1, bla OXA-1, bla CTX-M-15, armA, and aac(6')-Ib-cr genes. PFGE demonstrated that each of the three KPC-2-producing E. coli isolates exhibited an individual XbaI patterns. The bla KPC-2 gene was located on plasmids of 60-140 kb with IncA/C, IncN, or non-typeable replicon types. The genetic environment of bla KPC-2 of the three strains was consistent with the genetic structure of bla KPC-2 on the plasmid pKP048. PMID:26149956

  17. Genotypic and Phenotypic Characterization of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Strains Isolated from Peruvian Children ▿

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, F. P.; Ochoa, T. J.; Maves, R. C.; Bernal, M.; Medina, A. M.; Meza, R.; Barletta, F.; Mercado, E.; Ecker, L.; Gil, A. I.; Hall, E. R.; Huicho, L.; Lanata, C. F.

    2010-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a major cause of childhood diarrhea. The present study sought to determine the prevalence and distribution of toxin types, colonization factors (CFs), and antimicrobial susceptibility of ETEC strains isolated from Peruvian children. We analyzed ETEC strains isolated from Peruvian children between 2 and 24 months of age in a passive surveillance study. Five E. coli colonies per patient were studied by multiplex real-time PCR to identify ETEC virulence factors. ETEC-associated toxins were confirmed using a GM1-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Confirmed strains were tested for CFs by dot blot assay using 21 monoclonal antibodies. We analyzed 1,129 samples from children with diarrhea and 744 control children and found ETEC in 5.3% and 4.3%, respectively. ETEC was more frequently isolated from children >12 months of age than from children <12 months of age (P < 0.001). Fifty-two percent of ETEC isolates from children with diarrhea and 72% of isolates from controls were heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) positive and heat-stable enterotoxin (ST) negative; 25% and 19%, respectively, were LT negative and ST positive; and 23% and 9%, respectively, were LT positive and ST positive. CFs were identified in 64% of diarrheal samples and 37% of control samples (P < 0.05). The most common CFs were CS6 (14% and 7%, respectively), CS12 (12% and 4%, respectively), and CS1 (9% and 4%, respectively). ST-producing ETEC strains caused more severe diarrhea than non-ST-producing ETEC strains. The strains were most frequently resistant to ampicillin (71%) and co-trimoxazole (61%). ETEC was thus found to be more prevalent in older infants. LT was the most common toxin type; 64% of strains had an identified CF. These data are relevant in estimating the burden of disease due to ETEC and the potential coverage of children in Peru by investigational vaccines. PMID:20631096

  18. Common antimicrobial resistance phenotypes and genotypes of fecal Escherichia coli isolates from a single family over a 6-month period.

    PubMed

    Al-Dweik, Manar R; Shehabi, Asem A

    2009-06-01

    This study investigated the antimicrobial resistance phenotypes and genotypes among fecal Escherichia coli isolates from the members of a single Jordanian family over a 6-month period. A total of 55 (51%) E. coli isolates were resistant to >2, and 21 (19%) to >3 of the 14 tested antimicrobial agents, respectively. The highest resistance rates were observed to tetracycline (42%), followed by coamoxyclav and cotrimoxazole (32%), gentamicin (31%), and nalidixic acid (27%). Sixteen out of 21 (76%) multiresistant E. coli isolates (resistant to >3 drugs) transferred most of their resistance markers in vitro to E. coli K12. Five out of the six family members were colonized with E. coli carrying one or two of the two common plasmid sizes (54.3 and 13.2 kb). Ten of these isolates (48%) were positive for class 1 integron genes and harbored four tet (A) and five tet (B) genes, respectively, but all were negative for tet (39). The genetic diversity of E. coli isolates using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA-PCR demonstrated 13 major clusters of genotype groups, and most of the isolates (63%) belonged to one genotype group. This study indicates that all six family members are colonized with fecal E. coli isolates exhibiting a common number of antimicrobial resistance phenotypes and at least one prevalent genotype. PMID:19432518

  19. Complete genome sequence and characterization of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli field isolate ACN001.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiangru; Wei, Liuya; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Ruixuan; Liu, Canying; Bi, Dingren; Chen, Huanchun; Tan, Chen

    2016-01-01

    Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli is an important etiological agent of avian colibacillosis, which manifests as respiratory, hematogenous, meningitic, and enteric infections in poultry. It is also a potential zoonotic threat to human health. The diverse genomes of APEC strains largely hinder disease prevention and control measures. In the current study, pyrosequencing was used to analyze and characterize APEC strain ACN001 (= CCTCC 2015182(T) = DSMZ 29979(T)), which was isolated from the liver of a diseased chicken in China in 2010. Strain ACN001 belongs to extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli phylogenetic group B1, and was highly virulent in chicken and mouse models. Whole genome analysis showed that it consists of six different plasmids along with a circular chromosome of 4,936,576 bp, comprising 4,794 protein-coding genes, 108 RNA genes, and 51 pseudogenes, with an average G + C content of 50.56 %. As well as 237 coding sequences, we identified 39 insertion sequences, 12 predicated genomic islands, 8 prophage-related sequences, and 2 clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats regions on the chromosome, suggesting the possible occurrence of horizontal gene transfer in this strain. In addition, most of the virulence and antibiotic resistance genes were located on the plasmids, which would assist in the distribution of pathogenicity and multidrug resistance elements among E. coli populations. Together, the information provided here on APEC isolate ACN001 will assist in future study of APEC strains, and aid in the development of control measures. PMID:26823959

  20. Isolation and Characterization of NDM-Positive Escherichia coli from Municipal Wastewater in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Mantilla-Calderon, David; Jumat, Muhammad Raihan; Wang, Tiannyu; Ganesan, Pugalenthi; Al-Jassim, Nada; Hong, Pei-Ying

    2016-09-01

    The emergence of resistance to last-resort antibiotics is a public health concern of global scale. Besides direct person-to-person propagation, environmental pathways might contribute to the dissemination of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). Here, we describe the incidence of blaNDM-1, a gene conferring resistance to carbapenems, in the wastewater of the city of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, over a 1-year period. blaNDM-1 was detected at concentrations ranging from 10(4) to 10(5) copies/m(3) of untreated wastewater during the entire monitoring period. These results indicate the ubiquity and high incidence of blaNDM-1 in the local wastewater. To track the bacteria carrying blaNDM-1, we isolated Escherichia coli PI7, a strain of sequence type 101 (ST101), from wastewater around the Hajj event in October 2013. Genome sequencing of this strain revealed an extensive repertoire of ARGs as well as virulence and invasive traits. These traits were further confirmed by antibiotic resistance profiling and in vitro cell internalization in HeLa cell cultures. Given that this strain remains viable even after a certain duration in the sewerage, and that Jeddah lacks a robust sanitary infrastructure to fully capture all generated sewage, the presence of this bacterium in the untreated wastewater represents a potential hazard to the local public health. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a blaNDM-1-positive E. coli strain isolated from a nonnosocomial environment in Saudi Arabia and may set a priority concern for the need to establish improved surveillance for carbapenem-resistant E. coli in the country and nearby regions. PMID:27324770

  1. Isolation and Characterization of NDM-Positive Escherichia coli from Municipal Wastewater in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Mantilla-Calderon, David; Jumat, Muhammad Raihan; Wang, Tiannyu; Ganesan, Pugalenthi; Al-Jassim, Nada

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of resistance to last-resort antibiotics is a public health concern of global scale. Besides direct person-to-person propagation, environmental pathways might contribute to the dissemination of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). Here, we describe the incidence of blaNDM-1, a gene conferring resistance to carbapenems, in the wastewater of the city of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, over a 1-year period. blaNDM-1 was detected at concentrations ranging from 104 to 105 copies/m3 of untreated wastewater during the entire monitoring period. These results indicate the ubiquity and high incidence of blaNDM-1 in the local wastewater. To track the bacteria carrying blaNDM-1, we isolated Escherichia coli PI7, a strain of sequence type 101 (ST101), from wastewater around the Hajj event in October 2013. Genome sequencing of this strain revealed an extensive repertoire of ARGs as well as virulence and invasive traits. These traits were further confirmed by antibiotic resistance profiling and in vitro cell internalization in HeLa cell cultures. Given that this strain remains viable even after a certain duration in the sewerage, and that Jeddah lacks a robust sanitary infrastructure to fully capture all generated sewage, the presence of this bacterium in the untreated wastewater represents a potential hazard to the local public health. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a blaNDM-1-positive E. coli strain isolated from a nonnosocomial environment in Saudi Arabia and may set a priority concern for the need to establish improved surveillance for carbapenem-resistant E. coli in the country and nearby regions. PMID:27324770

  2. Isolation of Minicircular Deoxyribonucleic Acids from Wild Strains of Escherichia coli and their Relationship to other Bacterial Plasmids

    PubMed Central

    Goebel, Werner; Schrempf, Hildgund

    1972-01-01

    Supercoiled minicircular deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecules with molecular weights of 1.8 × 106 and 2.3 × 106 have been isolated from two wild strains of Escherichia coli. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments indicate that these DNA molecules share extended homologies with the minicircular DNA of E. coli 15. The DNA of the colicinogenic factor E1 (ColE1) also hybridizes to a large extent with minicircular DNA of E. coli 15. In contrast, no hybridization could be detected with various large extrachromosomal DNA elements such as the colicinogenic factor V (ColV), the beta-hemolytic factor (Hly), or the P1-like DNA of E. coli 15. Two different insertion DNA species of E. coli integrated into λdg-DNA (λdg UPin 128, λdg UPin 308) do not show any annealing with minicircular DNA of E. coli 15. Images PMID:4340922

  3. Virulence Genes in Expanded-Spectrum-Cephalosporin-Resistant and -Susceptible Escherichia coli Isolates from Treated and Untreated Chickens.

    PubMed

    Baron, S; Delannoy, S; Bougeard, S; Larvor, E; Jouy, E; Balan, O; Fach, P; Kempf, I

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated antimicrobial resistance, screened for the presence of virulence genes involved in intestinal infections, and determined phylogenetic groups of Escherichia coli isolates from untreated poultry and poultry treated with ceftiofur, an expanded-spectrum cephalosporin. Results show that none of the 76 isolates appeared to be Shiga toxin-producing E. coli or enteropathogenic E. coli. All isolates were negative for the major virulence factors/toxins tested (ehxA, cdt, heat-stable enterotoxin [ST], and heat-labile enterotoxin [LT]). The few virulence genes harbored in isolates generally did not correlate with isolate antimicrobial resistance or treatment status. However, some of the virulence genes were significantly associated with certain phylogenetic groups. PMID:26666927

  4. [Genotypic characterization of toxigenic Escherichia coli isolated from pigs with postweaning diarrhea (PWD) and edema disease (ED)].

    PubMed

    Moredo, Fabiana A; Cappuccio, Javier A; Insarralde, Lucas; Perfumo, Carlos J; Quiroga, María A; Leotta, Gerardo A

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to characterize 47 Escherichia coli strains isolated from 32 pigs diagnosed with postweaning diarrhea and three pigs with edema disease by PCR. Forty two (95.5 %) of the strains isolated from diarrheic pigs were characterized as enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) and 2 (4.5 %) as Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC). Fourteen (33.3 %) ETEC strains were positive for est/estII/fedA genes. The most complex genotype was eltA/estI/faeG/aidA. Strains isolated from pigs with ED were classified as porcine STEC and were stx2e/aidA carriers. Eleven (25 %) strains carried the gene encoding adhesin protein AIDA-I. However, genes coding for F5, F6, F41, intimin and Paa were not detected. The development of vaccines generating antibodies against prevalent E. coli adhesins in Argentina could be useful for the prevention of PWD and ED. PMID:22997765

  5. Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Nataro, James P.; Kaper, James B.

    1998-01-01

    Escherichia coli is the predominant nonpathogenic facultative flora of the human intestine. Some E. coli strains, however, have developed the ability to cause disease of the gastrointestinal, urinary, or central nervous system in even the most robust human hosts. Diarrheagenic strains of E. coli can be divided into at least six different categories with corresponding distinct pathogenic schemes. Taken together, these organisms probably represent the most common cause of pediatric diarrhea worldwide. Several distinct clinical syndromes accompany infection with diarrheagenic E. coli categories, including traveler’s diarrhea (enterotoxigenic E. coli), hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic-uremic syndrome (enterohemorrhagic E. coli), persistent diarrhea (enteroaggregative E. coli), and watery diarrhea of infants (enteropathogenic E. coli). This review discusses the current level of understanding of the pathogenesis of the diarrheagenic E. coli strains and describes how their pathogenic schemes underlie the clinical manifestations, diagnostic approach, and epidemiologic investigation of these important pathogens. PMID:9457432

  6. Molecular characterisation of acquired and overproduced chromosomal blaAmpC in Escherichia coli clinical isolates.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Noemí; Miró, Elisenda; Pascual, Vanesa; Rivera, Alba; Simó, Maria; Garcia, Maria Consol; Xercavins, Mariona; Morera, Maria Antonia; Espejo, Elena; Gurguí, Mercè; Pérez, Josefa; Rodríguez-Carballeira, Mònica; Garau, Javier; Calbo, Esther; Navarro, Ferran; Mirelis, Beatriz; Coll, Pere

    2016-01-01

    Escherichia coli recovered from three hospitals in Barcelona (Spain) were studied to determine the prevalence of isolates with acquired AmpC (ac-AmpC) and/or overproduced chromosomal AmpC (c-AmpC). Mechanisms involved in blac-AmpC overexpression, blaac-AmpC and the plasmids associated with their distribution as well as the prevalence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) in AmpC-producing isolates were also determined. Isolates were selected according to their resistance phenotype. blaac-AmpC, alterations in the blac-AmpC promoter/attenuator, and PMQR genes [qnrA, qnrB, qnrS, aac(6')-Ib-cr and qepA] were characterised by PCR and sequencing. blac-AmpC expression was determined by qRT-PCR. Population structure analysis was performed using PFGE, MLST and phylogenetic group PCR. Plasmids carrying blaac-AmpC were characterised by PCR-based replicon typing and S1-PFGE. IncI1 and IncF plasmids were also analysed by plasmid MLST and replicon sequence typing, respectively. Among 21563 E. coli isolates, 240 (1.1%) overproduced AmpC β-lactamases, including 180 (75.0%) harbouring ac-AmpC (132 CMY-2 variants and 48 DHA-1) and 60 (25.0%) c-AmpC enzymes. Three mutation profiles in the blac-AmpC promoter/attenuator were associated with a 72.5-, 19.9- and 5.8-fold increased expression, respectively. Moreover, 63.3% of ac-AmpC and 43.3% of c-AmpC isolates belonged to B2, D, E or F phylogenetic groups. PMQR was found in 31% of ac-AmpC isolates [38 qnrB4, 8 aac(6')-Ib-cr, 6 qnrS1 and 3 qnrB19] and in 10% of c-AmpC isolates [5 aac(6')-Ib-cr and 1 qnrS1]. IncI1-ST12 and IncF were associated with blaCMY-2 and blaDHA-1, respectively. These results suggest that ac-AmpC β-lactamases were the main mechanism of AmpC production. Isolates and plasmids both showed high genetic diversity. PMID:26607336

  7. Isolation and characterization of the gene coding for Escherichia coli arginyl-tRNA synthetase.

    PubMed Central

    Eriani, G; Dirheimer, G; Gangloff, J

    1989-01-01

    The gene coding for Escherichia coli arginyl-tRNA synthetase (argS) was isolated as a fragment of 2.4 kb after analysis and subcloning of recombinant plasmids from the Clarke and Carbon library. The clone bearing the gene overproduces arginyl-tRNA synthetase by a factor 100. This means that the enzyme represents more than 20% of the cellular total protein content. Sequencing revealed that the fragment contains a unique open reading frame of 1734 bp flanked at its 5' and 3' ends respectively by 247 bp and 397 bp. The length of the corresponding protein (577 aa) is well consistent with earlier Mr determination (about 70 kd). Primer extension analysis of the ArgRS mRNA by reverse transcriptase, located its 5' end respectively at 8 and 30 nucleotides downstream of a TATA and a TTGAC like element (CTGAC) and 60 nucleotides upstream of the unusual translation initiation codon GUG; nuclease S1 analysis located the 3'-end at 48 bp downstream of the translation termination codon. argS has a codon usage pattern typical for highly expressed E. coli genes. With the exception of the presence of a HVGH sequence similar to the HIGH consensus element, ArgRS has no relevant sequence homologies with other aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. Images PMID:2668891

  8. Factors affecting the isolation of CCC DNA from Streptomyces lividans and Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Kieser, T

    1984-07-01

    Based on the results of a systematic study of factors affecting plasmid yield and purity, a procedure suitable for the rapid screening for and isolation of covalently closed circular DNA from Streptomyces lividans and Escherichia coli was developed. The method consists of lysis of lysozyme-treated bacteria combined with alkaline denaturation of DNA at high temperature. Renaturation of CCC DNA and precipitation of single-stranded DNA together with protein is achieved by the addition of a minimal amount of phenol/chloroform. The screening procedure uses only a single tube and the samples can be analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis about 30 min after lysis. Removal of phenol and further purification of the plasmid preparation is achieved by consecutive precipitations with isopropanol and spermine, followed by extraction with ethanol, producing samples suitable for restriction endonuclease digestion, ligation, and transformation of S. lividans protoplasts or competent E. coli cells in about 2 h. All steps of the procedure are explained in detail with information about the effects of changing parameters. This should help the experimenter to obtain reproducible results and may be useful if the method has to be adapted to new strains or plasmids. PMID:6387733

  9. Pathogenic Escherichia coli

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Escherichia coli, a member of the Enterobacteriaceae family, is a part of the normal flora of the intestinal tract of humans and a variety of animals. E. coli strains are classified on the basis of antigenic differences in two surface components (serotyping), the somatic antigen (O) of the lipopoly...

  10. PATHOGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI

    EPA Science Inventory

    Escherichia coli is a bacterial species which inhabits the gastrointestinal tract of man and warm-blooded animals. Because of the ubiquity of this bacterium in the intestinal flora, it serves as an important indicator organism of fecal contamination. E. coli, aside from serving a...

  11. Virulence and plasmidic resistance determinants of Escherichia coli isolated from municipal and hospital wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Calhau, Vera; Mendes, Catarina; Pena, Angelina; Mendonça, Nuno; Da Silva, Gabriela Jorge

    2015-06-01

    Escherichia coli is simultaneously an indicator of water contamination and a human pathogen. This study aimed to characterize the virulence and resistance of E. coli from municipal and hospital wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in central Portugal. From a total of 193 isolates showing reduced susceptibility to cefotaxime and/or nalidixic acid, 20 E. coli with genetically distinct fingerprint profiles were selected and characterized. Resistance to antimicrobials was determined using the disc diffusion method. Extended spectrum β-lactamase and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes, phylogroups, pathogenicity islands (PAIs) and virulence genes were screened by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). CTX-M producers were typed by multilocus sequence typing. Resistance to beta-lactams was associated with the presence of bla(TEM), bla(SHV), bla(CTX-M-15) and bla(CTX-M-32). Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance was associated with qnrA, qnrS and aac(6')-Ib-cr. Aminoglycoside resistance and multidrug-resistant phenotypes were also detected. PAI IV(536), PAI II(CFT073), PAI II(536) and PAI I(CFT073), and uropathogenic genes iutA, papAH and sfa/foc were detected. With regard to the clinical ST131 clone, it carried bla(CTX-M-15), blaTEM-type, qnrS and aac(6')-lb-cr; IncF and IncP plasmids, and virulence factors PAI IV(536), PAI I(CFT073), PAI II(CFT073), iutA, sfa/foc and papAH were identified in the effluent of a hospital plant. WWTPs contribute to the dissemination of virulent and resistant bacteria in water ecosystems, constituting an environmental and public health risk. PMID:26042965

  12. [Unequal crossing over in Escherichia coli: genetic and physical mapping of duplications isolated in conjugational matings].

    PubMed

    Sukhodolets, V V; Dukhiĭ, D E

    1996-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that stable heterozygous duplications deoA deoB :: Tn5/deoC deoD can be isolated among Deo+ recombinants obtained in conjugational matings between Escherichia coli strains HfrH deoA deoB :: Tn5 and HfrH deoC deoD. In this work, 30 duplications were tested by transduction for the inclusion of a set of genetic markers adjoining the deo operon (99.5 min) at the genetic map of E. coli: cycA :: Tn10 (96 min), zji :: Tn10 (98.2 min), thr :: Tn9 (100/0 min), car :: Tn10 (1 min), leu :: Tn9 (2 min), and proAB :: Tn10 (6 min). The results obtained indicate that only three out of 30 duplications could have originated from unequal crossing over between the rrn operons. In eight strains, duplications were chosen for physical mapping by the use of Not I restriction, pulsed-field electrophoresis, and Southern blot hybridization with DNA of the deo operon. In all these strains, the presence of duplications (once a triplication) was confirmed by corresponding changes in the set of Not I digests, although some strains had additional genetic rearrangements. The order of operon copies in a tandem was determined, and the length of a duplicated chromosomal segment was calculated as equal to 25, 46, 80, 150.5, and 175 kb in duplication D49, D4, D5, D9, and D18, respectively. Thus, the use of the conjugational Hfr x Hfr system allows the generation of unique rearrangements of the E. coli genetic material. PMID:8647423

  13. Clonal analysis and virulent traits of pathogenic extraintestinal Escherichia coli isolates from swine in China

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) can cause a variety of infections outside the gastrointestinal tract in humans and animals. Infections due to swine ExPECs have been occurring with increasing frequency in China. These ExPECs may now be considered a new food-borne pathogen that causes cross-infections between humans and pigs. Knowledge of the clonal structure and virulence genes is needed as a framework to improve the understanding of phylogenetic traits of porcine ExPECs. Results Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) data showed that the isolates investigated in this study could be placed into four main clonal complexes, designated as CC10, CC1687, CC88 and CC58. Strains within CC10 were classified as phylogroup A, and these accounted for most of our porcine ExPEC isolates. Isolates in the CC1687 clonal complex, formed by new sequence types (STs), was classified as phylogroup D, with CC88 isolates considered as B2 and CC58 isolates as B1. Porcine ExPECs in these four clonal complexes demonstrated significantly different virulence gene patterns. A few porcine ExPECs were indentified in phylogroup B2, the phylogroup in which human ExPECs mainly exist. However some STs in the four clonal groups of porcine ExPECs were reported to cause extraintestinal infections in human, based on data in the MLST database. Conclusion Porcine ExPECs have different virulence gene patterns for different clonal complexes. However, these strains are mostly fell in phylogenentic phylogroup A, B1 and D, which is different from human ExPECs that concentrate in phylogroup B2. Our findings provide a better understanding relating to the clonal structure of ExPECs in diseased pigs and indicate a need to re-evaluate their contribution to human ExPEC diseases. PMID:22909380

  14. Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles in Escherichia coli O157 Isolates from Northern Colorado Dairies.

    PubMed

    McConnel, Craig S; Stenkamp-Strahm, Chloe M; Rao, Sangeeta; Linke, Lyndsey M; Magnuson, Roberta J; Hyatt, Doreene R

    2016-03-01

    Escherichia coli O157 (EcO157) infections can lead to serious disease and death in humans. Although the ecology of EcO157 is complex, ruminant animals serve as an important reservoir for human infection. Dairy cattle are unique because they may be a source of contamination for milk, meat, and manure-fertilized crops. Foodborne dairy pathogens such as EcO157 are of primary importance to public health. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a complex phenomenon that complicates the treatment of serious bacterial infections and is of increasing concern. In the face of recommended use restrictions for antimicrobial agents in livestock operations, current AMR patterns in known foodborne pathogens should be documented. The objective of this study was to document AMR patterns in EcO157 isolates from dairies in northern Colorado using antimicrobial agents commonly found on dairies and representative of medically important antimicrobial drug classes. Seventy-five EcO157 isolates were recovered from three dairies. Six isolates were resistant to at least 1 of the 10 tested antimicrobial agents: four were resistant to streptomycin, sulfisoxazole, and tetracycline; one was resistant to streptomycin and tetracycline; and one was resistant to only tetracycline. All resistant isolates were from a single dairy. Overall, a low prevalence (8%) of AMR was observed among the 75 EcO157 isolates. No significant effects on AMR profiles due to virulence genes, parity, or previous antimicrobial treatments within the current lactation period were detected. The results of this study provide background information for future comparative studies investigating AMR trends. Future studies should include more participating farms and more samples and should control for potential confounding factors of AMR that may underlie individual farm variation. PMID:26939660

  15. Geographic isolation of Escherichia coli genotypes in sediments and water of the Seven Mile Creek - A constructed riverine watershed.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekaran, Ramyavardhanee; Hamilton, Matthew J; Wang, Ping; Staley, Christopher; Matteson, Scott; Birr, Adam; Sadowsky, Michael J

    2015-12-15

    Escherichia coli is used to indicate fecal contamination in freshwater systems and is an indicator of the potential presence of human pathogens. However, naturalized E. coli strains that persist and grow in the environment confound the use of this bacterium as a fecal indicator. Here we examined the spatial and temporal distribution of E. coli in water and sediments of the Seven Mile Creek (SMC), a constructed, ephemeral watershed. E. coli concentrations showed variation by site and date, likely due to changes in temperature and rainfall. Horizontal fluorophore enhanced rep-PCR (HFERP) DNA fingerprint analyses indicated that E. coli populations were very diverse and consisted of transient and naturalized strains, which were especially prevalent in sediment. E. coli fingerprints from water and sediment collected in the same year clustered together with significant overlap, indicating exchange of strains between matrices. Isolates obtained during periods of flow, but not during non-flow conditions, clustered together regardless of sample site, indicating that transport between sites occurred. Naturalized E. coli strains were found in the SMC and strains become geographically isolated and distinct during non-flow conditions. Isolates collected during late spring to fall clustered together at each site, suggesting that temperature and growth of naturalized strains are likely factors affecting population dynamics. Results of this study show that newly introduced and naturalized E. coli strains are present in the SMC. Results of this study highlight an important concern for resource managers using this species for water quality monitoring. PMID:26298250

  16. Virulence factors in Escherichia coli strains isolated from Swedish piglets with diarrhea.

    PubMed Central

    Söderlind, O; Thafvelin, B; Möllby, R

    1988-01-01

    Parenteral vaccination of sows against Escherichia coli diarrhea in their newborn piglets has become more common during the last decade in Sweden, and the vaccination has generally had positive effects. For more than 20 years we have investigated E. coli strains isolated from piglets and weaned pigs with enteric disorders, noting the presence of O groups, enterotoxins, and adhesins. There has been a continuous change in the frequency of these virulence factors. The present study was performed during 1983 and 1984 to follow this change, since such information is essential for the proper choice of vaccines. A total of 856 E. coli strains were obtained from 683 herds divided into three age groups: 1 to 6 days old, 1 to 6 weeks old, and weaned pigs. O group 149 still dominated in the last two age groups, while O group 101 was, for the first time, the most frequent O group in neonatal piglets. All but four O149 strains carried the K88 antigen, which was found in only one other strain (O group 8). K99 antigen was most often found in O groups 101 and 64, and among all the K99 strains ST mouse was the most common (44 of 57), followed by ST mouse-ST pig strains (12 of 57). The 987P antigen was demonstrated in 26 strains belonging to O groups 141 and OX46 and nontypable strains. Two strains belonging to O group 101 were positive for F41 antigen; one of them also carried the K99 antigen. Among all non-O149 strains, ST mouse was the most common type of enterotoxigenic E. coli ( n = 88), followed in decreasing order by ST mouse-ST pig strains ( n = 69) and ST pig strains ( n = 33). In 114 strains producing enterotoxins no adhesive factor was found. Thus, vaccination of the Swedish sow population for more than 5 years with vaccines containing O149 and K88 antigens has apparently changed the pattern of enterotoxigenic E. coli in neonatal diarrhea. The frequency of O149:K88 strains has been reduced, and O101:K99:ST mouse strains now dominate. However, O149 strains remain the

  17. Characterization of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli isolated from healthy pigs in China

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is recognized as an important human diarrheal pathogen. Swine plays an important role as a carrier of this pathogen. In this study we determined the prevalence and characteristics of STEC from healthy swine collected between May 2011 and August 2012 from 3 cities/provinces in China. Results A total of 1003 samples, including 326 fecal, 351 small intestinal contents and 326 colon contents samples, was analyzed. Two hundred and fifty five samples were stx-positive by PCR and 93 STEC isolates were recovered from 62 stx-positive samples. Twelve O serogroups and 19 O:H serotypes including 6 serotypes (O100:H20/[H20], O143:H38/[H38], O87:H10, O172:H30/[H30], O159:H16, O9:H30/[H30]) rarely found in swine and ruminants were identified. All 93 STEC isolates harbored stx2 only, all of which were stx2e subtype including 1 isolate being a new variant of stx2e. 53.76%, 15.05% and 2.15% STEC isolates carried astA, hlyA and ehxA respectively. Four STEC isolates harbored the high-pathogenicity island. Of the 15 adherence-associated genes tested, 13 (eae, efa1, iha, lpfAO113, lpfAO157/OI-154, lpfAO157/OI-141, toxB, saa, F4, F5, F6, F17 or F41) were all absent while 2 (paa and F18) were present in 7 and 4 STEC isolates respectively. The majority of the isolates were resistant to tetracycline (79.57%), nalidixic acid (78.49%), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (73.12%) and kanamycin (55.91%). The STEC isolates were divided into 63 pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns and 21 sequence types (STs). Isolates of the same STs generally showed the same or similar drug resistance patterns. A higher proportion of STEC isolates from Chongqing showed multidrug resistance with one ST (ST3628) resistant to 14 antimicrobials. Conclusions Our results indicate that swine is a significant reservoir of STEC strains in China. Based on comparison by serotypes and sequence types with human strains and presence of virulence genes, the swine STEC

  18. Natural Genetic Transformation of Clinical Isolates of Escherichia coli in Urine and Water

    PubMed Central

    Woegerbauer, Markus; Jenni, Bernard; Thalhammer, Florian; Graninger, Wolfgang; Burgmann, Heinz

    2002-01-01

    Transfer of plasmid-borne antibiotic resistance genes in Escherichia coli wild-type strains is possible by transformation under naturally occurring conditions in oligotrophic, aquatic environments containing physiologic concentrations of calcium. In contrast, transformation is suppressed in nitrogen-rich body fluids like urine, a common habitat of uropathogenic strains. Current knowledge indicates that transformation of these E. coli wild-type strains is of no relevance for the acquisition of resistance in this clinically important environment. PMID:11772660

  19. First report of extended-spectrum β-lactamases among clinical isolates of Escherichia coli in Gaza Strip, Palestine.

    PubMed

    Tayh, Ghassan; Ben Sallem, Rym; Ben Yahia, Houssem; Gharsa, Haythem; Klibi, Naouel; Boudabous, Abdellatif; Ben Slama, Karim

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to assess the occurrence of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) in clinical Escherichia coli isolates from Palestine and to characterise their type, genetic environments and associated resistance genes. Twenty-seven broad-spectrum-cephalosporin-resistant E. coli isolates were recovered between April and June 2013 in Gaza Strip hospitals. Characterisation of ESBL genes and their genetic environments, detection of associated resistance genes, and the presence and characterisation of integrons were performed by PCR and sequencing. The clonal relationship among ESBL-positive E. coli strains was determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) using the restriction enzyme XbaI. Phylogroup typing and virulence factors were studied by PCR. The following ESBL genes were identified: blaCTX-M-15 (21 isolates); blaCTX-M-14a (2 isolates); blaCTX-M-1 (2 isolates); blaCTX-M-3 (1 isolate); and blaCTX-M-27 (1 isolate). The blaTEM-1 gene was also detected in eight CTX-M-producing strains. The ISEcp1 sequence was found upstream of blaCTX-M in 23 isolates, and orf477 was found downstream of this gene in 24 isolates. IS903 was also detected downstream in three isolates. Six isolates carried class 1 integrons with the gene cassette arrangement dfrA17-aadA5. High clonal diversity was observed among the studied isolates by PFGE (24 unrelated profiles). The virulence gene fimA was detected in 23 isolates, the aer gene in 8 isolates and the papC gene in 7 isolates. The studied isolates belonged to phylogroups B2 (12 isolates), D (12 isolates) and A (3 isolates). This is the first report of the detection of CTX-M class β-lactamases in E. coli of clinical origin in Gaza Strip hospitals. PMID:27530833

  20. Detection of aac(6’)-Ib-cr in Avian Pathogenic Escherichia coli Isolates in Japan

    PubMed Central

    KAWANISHI, Michiko; OZAWA, Manao; HIKI, Mototaka; ABO, Hitoshi; KOJIMA, Akemi; ASAI, Tetsuo

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT We investigated the prevalence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes in avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) strains in Japan. A total of 117 APEC strains collected between 2004 and 2007 were examined for PMQR genes (qnrA, qnrB, qnrC, qnrD, qnrS, aac(6’)-Ib-cr, qepA and oqxAB) by polymerase chain reaction. None of the APEC strains carried qnrA, qnrB, qnrC, qnrD, qnrS, qepA or oqxAB, but one of the isolates was identified as an AAC (6’)-Ib-cr producer. Phylogenetic grouping, multi-locus sequence typing and serotyping showed that this isolate belonged to phylogenetic group A, sequence type 167 and untypable serogroup. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the aac (6’)-Ib-cr gene in bacteria from food-producing animals in Japan. PMID:23856759

  1. Phenotypic and Genotypic Characterization of Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli Strains Isolated From Diarrheic Children in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Davoodabadi, Abolfazl; Abbaszadeh, Maryam; Oloomi, Mana; Bouzari, Saeid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Several studies performed in developed and developing countries have identified enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) as the emerging cause of pediatric diarrhea. Objectives: This study investigated the phenotypic and genetic characteristics of EAEC strains isolated from children with diarrhea between 2007 - 2008 in Tehran, Iran. Materials and Methods: EAEC strains were examined for virulence plasmid genes (aap, aggR, and aatA), biofilm formation, and drug resistance. In addition, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) profiles of these strains were determined. Results: Significant percentage of local EAEC strains carried the virulence plasmid genes and formed biofilms. In addition, these strains showed high resistance to ampicillin (100%), tetracycline (65.7%), streptomycin (58.7%), chloramphenicol (52.6%), and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (51.7%) and had different PFGE patterns. Conclusions: These results indicated that EAEC strains isolated from Iranian children with diarrhea were heterogeneous and showed high resistance rates against commonly used antibiotics, which was similar to that reported in studies performed in other countries. PMID:26487919

  2. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Escherichia coli Strains Isolated from Alouatta spp. Feces to Essential Oils

    PubMed Central

    Carregaro, Adriano Bonfim; Santurio, Deise Flores; de Sá, Mariangela Facco; Santurio, Janio Moraes; Alves, Sydney Hartz

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the in vitro antibacterial activity of essential oils from Lippia graveolens (Mexican oregano), Origanum vulgaris (oregano), Thymus vulgaris (thyme), Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary), Cymbopogon nardus (citronella), Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass), and Eucalyptus citriodora (eucalyptus) against Escherichia coli (n = 22) strains isolated from Alouatta spp. feces. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined for each isolate using the broth microdilution technique. Essential oils of Mexican oregano (MIC mean = 1818 μg mL−1; MBC mean = 2618 μg mL−1), thyme (MIC mean = 2618 μg mL−1; MBC mean = 2909 μg mL−1), and oregano (MIC mean = 3418 μg mL−1; MBC mean = 4800 μg mL−1) showed the best antibacterial activity, while essential oils of eucalyptus, rosemary, citronella, and lemongrass displayed no antibacterial activity at concentrations greater than or equal to 6400 μg mL−1. Our results confirm the antimicrobial potential of some essential oils, which deserve further research. PMID:27313638

  3. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Escherichia coli Strains Isolated from Alouatta spp. Feces to Essential Oils.

    PubMed

    Lara, Valéria Maria; Carregaro, Adriano Bonfim; Santurio, Deise Flores; de Sá, Mariangela Facco; Santurio, Janio Moraes; Alves, Sydney Hartz

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the in vitro antibacterial activity of essential oils from Lippia graveolens (Mexican oregano), Origanum vulgaris (oregano), Thymus vulgaris (thyme), Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary), Cymbopogon nardus (citronella), Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass), and Eucalyptus citriodora (eucalyptus) against Escherichia coli (n = 22) strains isolated from Alouatta spp. feces. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined for each isolate using the broth microdilution technique. Essential oils of Mexican oregano (MIC mean = 1818 μg mL(-1); MBC mean = 2618 μg mL(-1)), thyme (MIC mean = 2618 μg mL(-1); MBC mean = 2909 μg mL(-1)), and oregano (MIC mean = 3418 μg mL(-1); MBC mean = 4800 μg mL(-1)) showed the best antibacterial activity, while essential oils of eucalyptus, rosemary, citronella, and lemongrass displayed no antibacterial activity at concentrations greater than or equal to 6400 μg mL(-1). Our results confirm the antimicrobial potential of some essential oils, which deserve further research. PMID:27313638

  4. Replicon typing of virulence plasmids of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli isolates from cattle.

    PubMed Central

    Mainil, J G; Bex, F; Dreze, P; Kaeckenbeeck, A; Couturier, M

    1992-01-01

    Plasmid DNA hybridization with probes for virulence factors used for basic replicons of plasmids was used to identify the virulence plasmids of a collection of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli isolates from cattle. The virulence probes were derived from the genes coding for the heat-stable enterotoxin STaP and for the F5 (K99) and F41 fimbrial adhesins. The replicon probes were derived from 16 different basic replicons of plasmids (probes repFIA, repFIB, repFIC, repFIIA, repI1, repHI1, repHI2, repL/M, repN, repP, repQ, repT, repU, repW, repX, and repY). The virulence genes coding for the STaP enterotoxin and for the F5 adhesin were located on a single plasmid band in each isolate. The sizes of most of these virulence plasmids were from 65 to 95 MDa. The F41 probe failed to hybridize with any plasmid band. The virulence plasmids had multireplicon types typical of plasmids of the IncF groups. The most common basic replicon association was the triple RepFIA-RepFIB-RepFIC family association. Images PMID:1639505

  5. Survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 Isolates in Acetic Acid Solutions is Influenced by the Source of Isolation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 has been recognized as highly acid resistant in nature because of its low infectious dose and ability to survive in acid foods or to survive in stomach acid. A number of studies on the influence of acid on E. coli O157:H7 have shown considerable strain diff...

  6. Faecal Escherichia coli isolates from healthy dogs harbour CTX-M-15 and CMY-2 β-lactamases.

    PubMed

    Rocha-Gracia, R C; Cortés-Cortés, G; Lozano-Zarain, P; Bello, F; Martínez-Laguna, Y; Torres, C

    2015-03-01

    The presence of extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) and plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamase (pAmpC) producing Escherichia coli, along with the mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance and the molecular types of isolates, was investigated in faecal samples from 53 healthy dogs in Mexico. Samples were inoculated on Levine agar plates with 2 µg/mL cefotaxime for recovery of cefotaxime-resistant (CTX(R)) E. coli. CTX(R)E. coli isolates were recovered from 9/53 (17%) samples; one isolate was characterised from each positive sample. ESBL producing E. coli isolates were detected in 3/53 (6%) samples; these isolates carried the blaCTX-M-15 gene and one isolate also carried blaSHV-2. These three ESBL-positive E. coli isolates belonged to phylogroup A and sequence types ST617, ST410 or ST3944. The remaining 6/53 (11%) samples contained pAmpC positive isolates; these isolates carried the blaCMY-2 gene, which encodes CMY-2 β-lactamase. These six isolates belonged to phylogroups A (n = 2), B1 (n = 1) and D (n = 3), and sequences types ST1431, ST57, ST93 and ST4565. One CMY-2 β-lactamase positive E. coli isolate of lineage ST93 had the -32 mutation in the chromosomal ampC promoter/attenuator region. Five ESBL/pAmpC positive E. coli isolates carried class 1 integrons (dfrA17-aadA5, aadA and aadA/aadB arrays were detected in three isolates) and one isolate carried a class 2 integron (dfrA12-sat2-aadA1). The aac(6')Ib-cr, aac(3)-II, qnrB19, tet(A), tet(B), cmlA, and sul3 genes were also detected. All studied isolates showed unrelated PFGE-patterns. To our knowledge, this is the first description of ESBL-producing E. coli and the second of pAmpC-producing E. coli from healthy dogs in America. Our results suggest the potential zoonotic role of dogs in the transmission to humans of ESBL and pAmpC E. coli in the household environment. PMID:25624187

  7. Molecular characterization and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of caprine Shiga toxin producing-Escherichia coli (STEC) isolates from India

    PubMed Central

    Mahanti, A.; Samanta, I.; Bandyopadhyay, S.; Joardar, S. N.

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to detect the occurrence, serotype, genotype, phylogenetic relationship and antimicrobial resistance pattern of STEC from healthy goats of West Bengal, India. From the 125 faecal samples collected from healthy goats, 245 isolates were identified as Escherichia coli. The E. coli harbouring any gene for Shiga toxins (stx1/stx2) was detected in 36 (14.7%) of the 245 E. coli isolates. These STEC strains belonged to 22 different serogroups (O2, O5, O20, O21, O22, O25, O41, O44, O45, O60, O71, O76, O84, O85, O87, O91, O103, O112, O113, O120, O156, and O158) and three were untypeable. The stx1 and stx2 was detected in 26 (72.2%) and 21 (58.3%) of Shiga toxin producing-E. coli (STEC) isolates, respectively. Further, E. coli harbouring eaeA only (Enteropathogenic E. coli) and ehxA was detected in 22 (61.1%) and 28 (77.7%) isolates, respectively. Whereas the saa was present in 8 (22.2%) E. coli isolates. The subtyping of the 26 E. coli strains possessing stx1 showed that 73.% (19/26) of these isolates were positive for stx1C subtype. Of the 21 isolates with the stx2 gene, 42.8% (9/21) were positive for stx2C, and 38.1% (8/21) were positive for stx2d gene. The phylogenetic analysis of STEC strains after RAPD reveals eight major clusters. However, no serogroup specific cluster was observed. Resistance was observed most frequently to erythromycin (80.5%), amikacin (52.7%), cephalothin (50%), kanamycin (41.6%), neomycin (36.1%) and gentamycin (36.1%) and less frequently to norfloxacin (2.7%), enrofloxacin (2.7%), and ciprofloxacin (2.7%). Multidrug resistance was observed in eleven STEC isolates. PMID:27175147

  8. Highly variable patterns of antimicrobial resistance in commensal Escherichia coli isolates from pigs, sympatric rodents, and flies.

    PubMed

    Literak, Ivan; Dolejska, Monika; Rybarikova, Jana; Cizek, Alois; Strejckova, Pavla; Vyskocilova, Martina; Friedman, Miroslava; Klimes, Jiri

    2009-09-01

    Antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli strains from pigs, sympatric rodents, and flies from two large farms in the Czech Republic with different antibiotic exposure histories were characterized based on antimicrobial resistance genes, integrons, and macrorestriction DNA profiles. Isolates of E. coli were tested for susceptibility to 12 antimicrobial agents according to the standard disk diffusion method. In resistant isolates, polymerase chain reaction was used to detect antibiotic resistance genes, integrase genes, and gene cassettes. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was used for molecular subtyping of E. coli. In farm A (long-term use of amoxicillin only), 75% (n = 198), 65% (n = 49), 11% (n = 139), and 82% (n = 177) of E. coli isolates from piglets, sows, sympatric rodents, and flies, respectively, were antibiotic resistant. In farm B (various antibiotics commonly used), 53% (n = 154), 69% (n = 98), and 54% (n = 74) of E. coli isolates from piglets, sows, and sympatric rodents, respectively, were antibiotic resistant. In both farms, the highest resistance prevalence was to tetracycline, and resistance patterns of isolates were greatly variable. Isolates with the same resistance phenotype, genes, and PFGE profile were found in pigs and flies. Isolates from rodents showed unique PFGE profiles. Close contact of sympatric rodents and flies with pigs or their products was associated with colonization of rodents and flies with resistant bacteria or transfer of resistance genes found in pig intestinal flora. PMID:19728783

  9. Multidrug Resistance in Escherichia coli Strains Isolated from Infections in Dogs and Cats in Poland (2007–2013)

    PubMed Central

    Rzewuska, Magdalena; Czopowicz, Michał; Kizerwetter-Świda, Magdalena; Chrobak, Dorota; Błaszczak, Borys; Binek, Marian

    2015-01-01

    The antimicrobial susceptibility of Escherichia coli isolates associated with various types of infections in dogs and cats was determined. The studied isolates were most frequently susceptible to fluoroquinolones and the extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESCs), antimicrobials commonly used in treatment of infections in companion animals. However, an increase in the percentage of strains resistant to β-lactam antibiotics including ESCs was noted between January 2007 and December 2013. The frequency of multidrug-resistant (MDR) E. coli isolation (66.8% of isolates) is alarming. Moreover, the statistically significant increase of the percentage of MDR isolates was observed during the study period. No difference in the prevalence of multidrug resistance was found between bacteria causing intestinal and extraintestinal infections and between canine and feline isolates. Nonhemolytic E. coli isolates were MDR more often than hemolytic ones. Our study showed the companion animals in Poland as an important reservoir of MDR bacteria. These results indicate that continuous monitoring of canine and feline E. coli antimicrobial susceptibility is required. Furthermore, introduction and application of recommendations for appropriate use of antimicrobials in small animal practice should be essential to minimize the emergence of multidrug resistance among E. coli in companion animals. PMID:25667937

  10. [Isolation of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (O157:H7) by an immunomagnetic separation method].

    PubMed

    Asai, Y; Murase, T; Osawa, R; Okitsu, T; Suzuki, R; Sata, S; Yamai, S; Wada, A; Tamura, K; Watanabe, H

    1997-01-01

    Three sporadic cases of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157 infection which occurred in Kanagawa in 1996 were investigated. In an attempt to determine sources of the infection, a novel method of immunomagnetic separation (IMS) was employed to isolate the bacterium from feces, foods, and other associated items. In the first case, strains of EHEC O157:H7 producing Vero toxin (VT) 2 were isolated from both feces of the patient and suspected food (cattle liver) kept at a restaurant, and the strains were found to be genotypically identical through an analysis of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Subsequent investigation in the meat processing store, from which the above cattle liver had been retailed to the restaurants revealed that the store was contaminated with EHEC O157:H7 producing both VT1 and VT2. In the second case, a strain isolated from the patient was EHEC O157:H7 producing both VT1 and VT2 while strains isolated from the patient's family (without apparent symptom) and the suspected facility were O137:NM producing VT2. PFGE analysis indicated that the latter two strains were genotypically identical, suggesting that the facility thus contaminated with EHEC O157 caused the infection in question. In the third case, EHEC O157:NM producing VT2 was isolated from 4 out of 7 family members including the patient, and these strains were found to be genotypically identical by subsequent PFGE analysis. Source of the infection was, however, not determined due to lack of suspected food items. In this context, four slaughterhouses in Kanagawa Prefecture were investigated for presence of EHEC O157. As a result, strains of EHEC O157:H7 producing VT1 and VT2 were isolated from the contents of cattle's distal colon and surface of the skinned carcasses. Additional attempt was also made to determine a possibility of river water being contaminated with EHEC O157. The bacterium was, however, not isolated from water samples collected from 4 major rivers in the

  11. Antimicrobial resistance of F4+ Escherichia coli isolated from Swine in Italy.

    PubMed

    Luppi, A; Bonilauri, P; Dottori, M; Gherpelli, Y; Biasi, G; Merialdi, G; Maioli, G; Martelli, P

    2015-02-01

    Four-hundred and forty-two F4+ pathogenic Escherichia coli were isolated in a period of 10 years (2002-2011), from pigs that were suffering from diarrhoea belonging to Italian swine herds. The strains were analysed for their susceptibility to 12 antimicrobials using the disc diffusion method. During the study period, a statistically significant proportion of isolates resistant to enrofloxacin (14.5-89.3%), marbofloxacin (5.4-60.7%), flumequine (49.1-92.9%), danofloxacin (21.6-80%), florfenicol (9.8-64.3%), thiamphenicol (50-92%) and cefquinome (3.8-44%) was recorded. An increase in resistance (not statistically significant) to gentamicin (63.6-85.7%), apramycin (61.8-82.1%), trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole (75-89.3%), tetracycline (97-100%) and erythromycin (92.4-100%) was also observed. Based on antimicrobial multiresistance, the strains were collected into three groups: I. resistant to 2-5 antimicrobials; II. resistant to 6-8 antimicrobials; III. resistant to 9-12 antimicrobials. The number of isolates belonging to the first group showed a statistically significant decrease (P < 0.05; R(2)  = 0.896; r = -0.9608), while the isolates belonging to the second and third groups showed a statistically significant increase in resistance (P < 0.05; R(2)  = 0.753; r = 0.8890 and P < 0.05; R(2)  = 0.727; r = 0.8701, respectively) over the period of study. The results of this study suggest the need for continued monitoring of the development of resistance. PMID:23906344

  12. Isolation and characterization of Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli of animal and bird origin by multiplex polymerase chain reaction

    PubMed Central

    Neher, S.; Hazarika, A. K.; Barkalita, L. M.; Borah, P.; Bora, D. P.; Sharma, R. K.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine the virulence genes and serotype of Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains isolated from animals and birds. Materials and Methods: A total of 226 different samples viz., fecal, intestinal content, rectal swab and heart blood were collected from different clinically affected/healthy animals and birds and were streaked on McConkeys’ lactose agar and eosin methylene blue agar for isolation of E. coli, confirmed by staining characteristics and biochemical tests. By polymerase chain reaction (PCR) all the E. coli isolates were screened for certain virulence genes, viz., Shiga toxin 1 (stx1), stx2 and eae and enterohemolytic (Ehly) phenotype was observed in washed sheep blood agar plate. All the isolated E. coli strains were forwarded to the National Salmonella and Escherichia Centre, Central Research Institute, Kasauli (Himachal Pradesh) for serotyping. Results: Out of 226 samples 138 yielded E. coli. All the isolates were screened for molecular detection of different virulent genes, viz. stx1, stx2 and eae, based on which 36 (26.08%) were identified as STEC. Among those STEC isolates, 15 (41.67%), 14 (38.89%), 1 (2.78%) exhibited eae, stx2, stx1 alone, respectively, whereas 4 (11.11%) and 2 (5.56%) carried both stx1 and stx2, stx2 and eae, respectively. Among the STEC isolates 22 were belonged to 15 different sero-groups, viz., O2, O20, O22, O25, O43, O60, O69, O90, O91, O95, O106, O118, O130, O162 and O170 and others were untypable. Ehly phenotype was observed in 10 (27.78%) the STEC isolates. Conclusion: The present study concluded that STEC could be isolated from both clinically affected as well as healthy animals and birds. Regular monitoring of more samples from animal and bird origin is important to identify natural reservoir of STEC to prevent zoonotic infection. PMID:27051196

  13. Potential pathogens, antimicrobial patterns and genotypic diversity of Escherichia coli isolates in constructed wetlands treating swine wastewater.

    PubMed

    Ibekwe, A M; Murinda, Shelton E; DebRoy, Chitrita; Reddy, Gudigopura B

    2016-02-01

    Escherichia coli populations originating from swine houses through constructed wetlands were analyzed for potential pathogens, antimicrobial susceptibility patterns, and genotypic diversity. Escherichia coli isolates (n = 493) were screened for the presence of the following virulence genes: stx1, stx2 and eae (Shiga toxin-producing E. coli [STEC]), heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) genes and heat stable toxin STa and STb (enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), cytotoxin necrotizing factors 1 and 2 (cnf1 and cnf2 [necrotoxigenic E. coli- NTEC]), as well as O and H antigens, and the presence of the antibiotic resistance genes blaTEM, blaSHV, blaCMY-2, tet A, tet B, tet C, mph(A), aadA, StrA/B, sul1, sul2 and sul3. The commensal strains were further screened for 16 antimicrobials and characterized by BOX AIR-1 PCR for unique genotypes. The highest antibiotic resistance prevalence was for tetracycline, followed by erythromycin, ampicillin, streptomycin, sulfisoxazole and kanamycin. Our data showed that most of the isolates had high distribution of single or multidrug-resistant (MDR) genotypes. Therefore, the occurrence of MDR E. coli in the wetland is a matter of great concern due to possible transfer of resistance genes from nonpathogenic to pathogenic strains or vice versa in the environment. PMID:26839381

  14. Pathogenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Kaper, James B; Nataro, James P; Mobley, Harry L

    2004-02-01

    Few microorganisms are as versatile as Escherichia coli. An important member of the normal intestinal microflora of humans and other mammals, E. coli has also been widely exploited as a cloning host in recombinant DNA technology. But E. coli is more than just a laboratory workhorse or harmless intestinal inhabitant; it can also be a highly versatile, and frequently deadly, pathogen. Several different E. coli strains cause diverse intestinal and extraintestinal diseases by means of virulence factors that affect a wide range of cellular processes. PMID:15040260

  15. OCCURRENCE OF VIRULENCE FACTOR ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIP (VFAR) IN ESCHERICHIA COLI ISOLATED FROM MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER EFFLUENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 has been linked to waterborne outbreaks in the United States and abroad. Methods employed to detect this pathogen typically are cultural based and take advantage of phenotypic traits that are specific for this serotype, including slow sorbitol fermentati...

  16. OCCURRENCE OF VIRTUENCE FACTOR ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIP (VFAR) IN ESCHERICHIA COLI ISOLATED FROM MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Escherichia coli O157 H:7 has been linked to waterborne outbreaks in the United States and abroad. Methods employed to detect this pathogen typically are cultural based and take advantage of phenotypic traits that are specific for this serotype. These phenotypic characteristics...

  17. Resistance to non-quinolone antimicrobials in commensal Escherichia coli isolates from chickens treated orally with enrofloxacin.

    PubMed

    Jurado, Sonia; Medina, Alberto; de la Fuente, Ricardo; Ruiz-Santa-Quiteria, José A; Orden, José A

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the present study was evaluate how oral administration of enrofloxacin affected the frequency of resistance to different antimicrobials in commensal Escherichia coli isolates from healthy chickens. A further objective of this study was to characterize the mechanisms of resistance in these isolates. A trend towards increased resistance to enrofloxacin, doxycycline and amoxicillin of E. coli isolates from chickens after enrofloxacin administration was observed. The increase in the resistance to doxycycline and amoxicillin was probably due to a co-selection of tetracycline and β-lactam resistance genes by the administration of enrofloxacin. The detection of tetM was much higher than expected (50%), which indicates that this gene may play an important role in tetracycline resistance in E. coli from chickens. PMID:26753246

  18. Virulence potential for extraintestinal infections among commensal Escherichia coli isolated from healthy humans--the Trojan horse within our gut.

    PubMed

    Starčič Erjavec, Marjanca; Žgur-Bertok, Darja

    2015-03-01

    Previous investigations have indicated that the reservoir of extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) strains is the intestinal microbiota. Nevertheless, studies focused on the prevalence of potential ExPEC strains among the bowel microbiota in healthy human individuals practically do not exist and a strong bias towards pathogenic strains among the E. coli data set is obvious. To assess the prevalence of potential ExPEC strains among E. coli from the intestinal microbiota of healthy humans, we performed a search for data on the prevalence of virulence-associated genes and pathogenicity islands among fecal E. coli found in published studies, including studies comparing isolates from patients suffering from extraintestinal E. coli infections with E. coli from feces of healthy humans. An extensive literature search, including more than 500 published papers, revealed 24 papers with data on prevalences of ≥ 5 virulence-associated genes among 21 E. coli collections including ≥ 20 fecal/rectal strains obtained from healthy individuals and 4 papers with prevalences of pathogenicity islands among E. coli collections from healthy humans. The gathered data are presented in this minireview and clearly show that potential ExPEC strains are present among fecal isolates with a prevalence of around ≥ 10%. PMID:25657191

  19. Molecular characterization of integrons in clinical isolates of betalactamase-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae in Iran.

    PubMed

    Zeighami, Habib; Haghi, Fakhri; Hajiahmadi, Fahimeh

    2015-06-01

    Integrons are considered to play a significant role in the evolution and spread of antibiotic resistance genes. A total of 349 clinical isolates of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae were investigated for molecular characterization of integrons and betalactamases. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was also performed as the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. The frequency of extended spectrum betalactamases (ESBL) or metallo-betalactamases (MBL)-producing isolates, patient demographics, and the susceptibility to various antimicrobial agents were described. BlaCTX-M was the most frequently detected betalactamase in all isolates. Moreover, MBL producing K. pneumoniae carried blaIMP and blaVIM at 100 and 41·6%, respectively but no MBL-positive E. coli was detected. Class 1 integrons were more frequent among E. coli and K. pneumoniae isolates in comparison with class 2 integrons and the frequency of intI2 in K. pneumoniae was significantly higher than E. coli isolates. Five different resistance gene arrays were identified among class 1 integrons. Dihydrofolate reductase (dfrA) and aminoglycoside adenyltransferase (aad) gene cassettes were found to be predominant in the class 1 integrons. These results indicate that class 1 integrons are widespread among ESBL-producing isolates of K. pneumoniae and E. coli and appropriate surveillance and control measures are essential to prevent further dissemination of these elements among Enterobacteriaceae in our country. PMID:24571248

  20. [The comparison of antibiotic susceptibilities of uropathogenic Escherichia coli isolates in transition from CLSI to EUCAST].

    PubMed

    Süzük, Serap; Kaşkatepe, Banu; Avcıküçük, Havva; Aksaray, Sebahat; Başustaoğlu, Ahmet

    2015-10-01

    Determination of treatment protocols for infections according to antimicrobial susceptibility test (AST) results is are important for controlling the problem of antibiotic resistance. Two standards are widely used in the world. One of them is Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) standards used in Turkey for many years and the other is the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) standards which is used in European Union member countries and came into use in 2015 in Turkey. Since the EUCAST standards had higher clinical sensitivity limits particularly for gram-negative bacilli compared to CLSI (2009) standards, there will be some changes in antibiotic resistance profiles of Turkey with the use of EUCAST. CLSI has changed zone diameters after 2009 versions and the differences between the two standards were brought to a minimum level. Knowledge of local epidemiological data is important to determine empirical therapy which will be used in urinary tract infections (UTI). The aim of this study was to determine the differences of antibiotic susceptibility zone diameters based on our local epidemiological data among uropathogenic Escherichia coli isolates according to EUCAST 2014 and CLSI 2014 standards. A total of 298 E.coli strains isolated from urine samples as the cause of uncomplicated acute UTI agents, were included in the study. Isolates were identified by conventional methods and with BBL Crystal E/NF ID System (Becton Dickinson, USA). AST was performed with Kirby Bauer disk diffusion method and results were evaluated and interpreted according to the CLSI 2014 and EUCAST 2014 standards. According to the results, susceptibility rates of isolates against amikacin (100%) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (63.09%) were identical in both standards. However, statistically significant differences were observed between CLSI and EUCAST standards in terms of susceptibilities against gentamicin (91.95% and 84.56%, respectively; p= 0

  1. Biotic and abiotic variables affecting internalization and fate of Escherichia coli O157:H7 isolates in leafy green roots.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Marilyn C; Webb, Cathy C; Davey, Lindsey E; Payton, Alison S; Flitcroft, Ian D; Doyle, Michael P

    2014-06-01

    Preharvest internalization of Escherichia coli O157:H7 into the roots of leafy greens is a food safety risk because the pathogen may be systemically transported to edible portions of the plant. In this study, both abiotic (degree of soil moisture) and biotic (E. coli O157:H7 exposure, presence of Shiga toxin genes, and type of leafy green) factors were examined to determine their potential effects on pathogen internalization into roots of leafy greens. Using field soil that should have an active indigenous microbial community, internalized populations in lettuce roots were 0.8 to 1.6 log CFU/g after exposure to soil containing E. coli O157:H7 at 5.6 to 6.1 log CFU/g. Internalization of E. coli O157:H7 into leafy green plant roots was higher when E. coli O157:H7 populations in soil were increased to 7 or 8 log CFU/g or when the soil was saturated with water. No differences were noted in the extent to which internalization of E. coli O157:H7 occurred in spinach, lettuce, or parsley roots; however, in saturated soil, maximum levels in parsley occurred later than did those in spinach or lettuce. Translocation of E. coli O157:H7 from roots to leaves was rare; therefore, decreases observed in root populations over time were likely the result of inactivation within the plant tissue. Shiga toxin-negative (nontoxigenic) E. coli O157:H7 isolates were more stable than were virulent isolates in soil, but the degree of internalization of E. coli O157:H7 into roots did not differ between isolate type. Therefore, these nontoxigenic isolates could be used as surrogates for virulent isolates in field trials involving internalization. PMID:24853507

  2. Isolation of Escherichia coli from piglets in South Korea with diarrhea and characteristics of the virulence genes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeong Ju; Kim, Ji Hee; Hur, Jin; Lee, John Hwa

    2010-01-01

    Escherichia coli was isolated from the feces of 122 piglets with diarrhea on 55 farms in Korea. The virulence genes of each isolate were characterized by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Of the 562 isolates, 191 carried 1 or more of the virulence genes tested for in this study. Of the 191 isolates, 114 (60%) carried 1 or more of the genes for enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) fimbriae F4, F5, F6, F18, and F41 and ETEC toxins LT, STa, and STb, 57 (30%) carried 1 or more of the genes for the Shiga-toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) toxins Stx1, Stx2, and Stx2e, and 21% and 37% carried the gene for enteropathogenic E. coli intimin and for enteroaggregative E. coli toxin, respectively. Collectively, our results indicate that other pathotypes of E. coli as well as ETEC can be strongly associated with diarrhea in piglets. In addition, detection of the genes for Stx1 and Stx2 indicates that pigs are reservoirs of human pathogenic STEC. PMID:20357961

  3. Molecular Epidemiology of ESBL Genes and Multi-Drug Resistance in Diarrheagenic Escherichia Coli Strains Isolated from Adults in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Ghorbani-Dalini, Sadegh; Kargar, Mohammad; Doosti, Abbas; Abbasi, Pejman; Sarshar, Meysam

    2015-01-01

    Resistance to oxyimino cephalosporins antibiotics in Enterobacteriaceae is primarily done by the extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs). Clear identification of risk factors for ESBLs-producing infections is necessary. Therefore, efficient strategies can be developed to decrease outbreak of these infections. The aim of this study was to determine the antibacterial susceptibility and ESBLs pattern of diarrhogenic Escherichia coli (E. coli) strains isolated from adult patients. In the present study, diarrheogenic E. coli strains were isolated from 54 patients from the University of Medical Sciences hospitals in Shiraz. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done by disk diffusion method by CLSI criteria. The presence of blaTEM, blaSHV and blaCTX-M genes was investigated by PCR using designated primers. The prevalence of ESBLs-producer E. coli strains was 12.96%. Antimicrobial resistance testing showed a high resistance to cefexime, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, ampicillin and penicillin. Overall, β-lactamase genes were identified in 52 (96.30%) isolates which were identified as 45 (83.33%) blaTEM, 17 (31.48%) blaSHV and 11 (20.37%) blaCTX-M. ESBLs-producer E. coli is very prevalent in Diarrheogenic strains isolated from adult patients. Also, this study clearly showed that the blaTEM gene for ESBLs-producer E. coli was widespread in Iran. PMID:26664394

  4. Molecular Epidemiology of ESBL Genes and Multi-Drug Resistance in Diarrheagenic Escherichia Coli Strains Isolated from Adults in Iran.

    PubMed

    Ghorbani-Dalini, Sadegh; Kargar, Mohammad; Doosti, Abbas; Abbasi, Pejman; Sarshar, Meysam

    2015-01-01

    Resistance to oxyimino cephalosporins antibiotics in Enterobacteriaceae is primarily done by the extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs). Clear identification of risk factors for ESBLs-producing infections is necessary. Therefore, efficient strategies can be developed to decrease outbreak of these infections. The aim of this study was to determine the antibacterial susceptibility and ESBLs pattern of diarrhogenic Escherichia coli (E. coli) strains isolated from adult patients. In the present study, diarrheogenic E. coli strains were isolated from 54 patients from the University of Medical Sciences hospitals in Shiraz. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done by disk diffusion method by CLSI criteria. The presence of bla TEM , bla SHV and bla CTX-M genes was investigated by PCR using designated primers. The prevalence of ESBLs-producer E. coli strains was 12.96%. Antimicrobial resistance testing showed a high resistance to cefexime, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, ampicillin and penicillin. Overall, β-lactamase genes were identified in 52 (96.30%) isolates which were identified as 45 (83.33%) bla TEM, 17 (31.48%) blaSHV and 11 (20.37%) blaCTX-M. ESBLs-producer E. coli is very prevalent in Diarrheogenic strains isolated from adult patients. Also, this study clearly showed that the bla TEM gene for ESBLs-producer E. coli was widespread in Iran. PMID:26664394

  5. Molecular typing of uropathogenic Escherichia coli isolated from Korean children with urinary tract infection

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Ki Wook; Kim, Do Soo; Kim, Wonyong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We investigated the molecular types of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) by using conventional phylogrouping, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and fimH genotyping. Methods Samples of patients younger than 18 years of age were collected from the Chung-Ang University Hospital over 2 years. Conventional phylogenetic grouping for UPEC strains was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Bacterial strain sequence types (STs) were classified on the basis of the results of partial sequencing of seven housekeeping genes. In addition, we analyzed nucleotide variations in a 424-base pair fragment of fimH, a major virulence factor in UPEC. Results Sixty-four UPEC isolates were analyzed in this study. Phylogenetic grouping revealed that group B2 was the most common type (n=54, 84%). We identified 16 distinctive STs using MLST. The most common STs were ST95 (35.9%), ST73 (15.6%), ST131 (12.5%), ST69 (7.8%), and ST14 (6.3%). Fourteen fimH allele types were identified, of which 11 had been previously reported, and the remaining three were identified in this study. f1 (n=28, 45.2%) was found to be the most common allele type, followed by f6 and f9 (n=7, 11.3% each). Comparative analysis of the results from the three different molecular typing techniques revealed that both MLST and fimH typing generated more discriminatory UPEC types than did PCR-based phylogrouping. Conclusion We characterized UPEC molecular types isolated from Korean children by MLST and fimH genotyping. fimH genotyping might serve as a useful molecular test for large epidemiologic studies of UPEC isolates. PMID:25729395

  6. Isolation and characterization of hypertoxinogenic (htx) mutants of Escherichia coli KL320(pCG86).

    PubMed Central

    Bramucci, M G; Twiddy, E M; Baine, W B; Holmes, R K

    1981-01-01

    The structural genes for heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) are present on plasmid pCG86. Escherichia coli KL320(pCG86), LT was found to be cell associated. LT was present as a soluble protein in sonic lysates of KL320(pCG86). Thirty-one mutants of KL320(pCG86) that produced increased amounts of extracellular LT were isolated. These hypertoxinogenic (htx) mutants were assigned to four phenotypically distinct classes based on the amounts of cell-associated and extracellular LT in early-stationary-phase cultures. Type 1 and type 2 htx mutants produced significantly increased amounts of cell-associated LT. Type 3 and type 4 htx mutants produced normal or decreased amounts of cell-associated LT was similar to that of the wild type. In the mutants of types 1, 3, and 4, the ratios of extracellular to cell-associated LT were higher than that of the wild type and were characteristic for each strain. Cell lysis or leakage of macromolecular cytoplasmic constituents appeared to be significant for release of LT by mutants of types 1, 3, and 4, because supernatants from cultures of these mutants also contained increased amounts of protein and of the cytoplasmic enzyme glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase. In all four representative htx mutants, the hypertoxinogenic phenotypes were dependent on chromosomal mutations. The resident pCG86 plasmids were eliminated from the htx mutants of types 2 and 3. After wild-type plasmid pCG86 was introduced into the cured strains by conjugation, their hypertoxinogenic phenotypes were restored. We conclude that chromosomal loci in E. coli KL320 are important in regulating expression of the LT structural genes of plasmid pCG86. Images PMID:7019086

  7. Draft Genome Sequence of Escherichia coli S51, a Chicken Isolate Harboring a Chromosomally Encoded mcr-1 Gene.

    PubMed

    Zurfluh, Katrin; Tasara, Taurai; Poirel, Laurent; Nordmann, Patrice; Stephan, Roger

    2016-01-01

    We present the draft genome of Escherichia coli S51, a colistin-resistant extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing strain isolated in 2015 from raw chicken meat imported from Germany. Assembly and annotation of this draft genome resulted in a 4,994,918-bp chromosome and revealed a chromosomally encoded mcr-1 gene responsible for the colistin resistance of the strain. PMID:27491979

  8. Draft Genome Sequence of Escherichia coli S51, a Chicken Isolate Harboring a Chromosomally Encoded mcr-1 Gene

    PubMed Central

    Zurfluh, Katrin; Tasara, Taurai; Poirel, Laurent; Nordmann, Patrice

    2016-01-01

    We present the draft genome of Escherichia coli S51, a colistin-resistant extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing strain isolated in 2015 from raw chicken meat imported from Germany. Assembly and annotation of this draft genome resulted in a 4,994,918-bp chromosome and revealed a chromosomally encoded mcr-1 gene responsible for the colistin resistance of the strain. PMID:27491979

  9. The nature of laboratory domestication changes in freshly isolated Escherichia coli strains.

    PubMed

    Eydallin, Gustavo; Ryall, Ben; Maharjan, Ram; Ferenci, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    Adaptation of environmental bacteria to laboratory conditions can lead to modification of important traits, what we term domestication. Little is known about the rapidity and reproducibility of domestication changes, the uniformity of these changes within a species or how diverse these are in a single culture. Here, we analysed phenotypic changes in nutrient-rich liquid media or on agar of four Escherichia coli strains newly isolated through minimal steps from different sources. The laboratory-cultured populations showed changes in metabolism, morphotype, fitness and in some phenotypes associated with the sigma factor RpoS. Domestication events and phenotypic diversity started to emerge within 2-3 days in replicate subcultures of the same ancestor. In some strains, increased amino acid usage and higher fitness under nutrient limitation resembled those in mutants with the GASP (growth advantage in stationary phase) phenotype. The domestication changes are not uniform across a species or even within a single domesticated population. However, some parallelism in adaptation within repeat cultures was observed. Differences in the laboratory environment also determine domestication effects, which differ between liquid and solid media or with extended stationary phase. Important lessons for the handling and storage of organisms can be based on these studies. PMID:23889812

  10. Isolation and genetic analysis of mutations allowing the degradation of furans and thiophenes by Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Abdulrashid, N.; Clark, D.P.

    1987-03-01

    Successive mutations of Escherichia coli yielded a strain that was able to degrade a variety of heterocyclic oxygen- and sulfur-containing ring compounds. In particular, this strain could use both furan-2-carboxylic acid and thiophene-2-carboxylic acid as sole carbon and energy sources. Nitrogen-containing heterocyclic compounds were not degraded. This mutant was isolated by selecting first for oxidation of furan derivatives and then for thiphene degradation. Genetic analysis revealed that mutations in three novel genes, thdA (12 min), thdC (92 min), and thdD (98 min), were required for thiphene degradation. In addition, constitutively at both of the previously characterized fadR and atoC loci was required for efficient thiophene breakdown. The pathway of furan and thiophene degradation remains obscure, but the inability of the mutants to degrade 5-nitro or 5-bromo-substituted furan derivatives suggests that hydroxylation at position 5 may be involved. Thiophene derivatives were toxic when they were present at concentrations of 0.1% or greater; however, addition of trace amounts of phenylalanine plus tyrosine greatly reduced this effect.