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Sample records for escherichia coli ribosomal

  1. High-resolution structure of the Escherichia coli ribosome

    PubMed Central

    Noeske, Jonas; Wasserman, Michael R.; Terry, Daniel S.; Altman, Roger B.; Blanchard, Scott C.; Cate, Jamie H. D.

    2015-01-01

    Protein synthesis by the ribosome is highly dependent on the ionic conditions in the cellular environment, but the roles of ribosome solvation remain poorly understood. Moreover, the function of modifications to ribosomal RNA and ribosomal proteins are unclear. Here we present the structure of the Escherichia coli 70S ribosome to 2.4 Å resolution. The structure reveals details of the ribosomal subunit interface that are conserved in all domains of life, and suggest how solvation contributes to ribosome integrity and function. The structure also suggests how the conformation of ribosomal protein uS12 likely impacts its contribution to messenger RNA decoding. This structure helps to explain the phylogenetic conservation of key elements of the ribosome, including posttranscriptional and posttranslational modifications and should serve as a basis for future antibiotic development. PMID:25775265

  2. Comprehensive analysis of phosphorylated proteins of Escherichia coli ribosomes.

    PubMed

    Soung, George Y; Miller, Jennifer L; Koc, Hasan; Koc, Emine C

    2009-07-01

    Phosphorylation of bacterial ribosomal proteins has been known for decades; however, there is still very limited information available on specific locations of the phosphorylation sites in ribosomal proteins and the role they might play in protein synthesis. In this study, we have mapped the specific phosphorylation sites in 24 Escherichia coli ribosomal proteins by tandem mass spectrometry. Detection of phosphorylation was achieved by either phosphorylation specific visualization techniques, ProQ staining, and antibodies for phospho-Ser, Thr, and Tyr; or by mass spectrometry equipped with a capability to detect addition and loss of the phosphate moiety. Enrichment by immobilized metal affinity and/or strong cation exchange chromatography was used to improve the success of detection of the low abundance phosphopeptides. We found the small subunit (30S) proteins S3, S4, S5, S7, S11, S12, S13, S18, and S21 and the large subunit (50S) proteins L1, L2, L3, L5, L6, L7/L12, L13, L14, L16, L18, L19, L21, L22, L28, and L31 to be phosphorylated at one or more residues. Potential roles for each specific site in ribosome function were deduced through careful evaluation of the given phosphorylation sites in 3D-crystal structure models of ribosomes and the previous mutational studies of E. coli ribosomal proteins. PMID:19469554

  3. Time-resolved binding of azithromycin to Escherichia coli ribosomes.

    PubMed

    Petropoulos, Alexandros D; Kouvela, Ekaterini C; Starosta, Agata L; Wilson, Daniel N; Dinos, George P; Kalpaxis, Dimitrios L

    2009-01-30

    Azithromycin is a semisynthetic derivative of erythromycin that inhibits bacterial protein synthesis by binding within the peptide exit tunnel of the 50S ribosomal subunit. Nevertheless, there is still debate over what localization is primarily responsible for azithromycin binding and as to how many molecules of the drug actually bind per ribosome. In the present study, kinetic methods and footprinting analysis are coupled together to provide time-resolved details of the azithromycin binding process. It is shown that azithromycin binds to Escherichia coli ribosomes in a two-step process: The first-step involves recognition of azithromycin by the ribosomal machinery and places the drug in a low-affinity site located in the upper part of the exit tunnel. The second step corresponds to the slow formation of a final complex that is both much tighter and more potent in hindering the progression of the nascent peptide through the exit tunnel. Substitution of uracil by cytosine at nucleoside 2609 of 23S rRNA, a base implicated in the high-affinity site, facilitates the shift of azithromycin to this site. In contrast, mutation U754A hardly affects the binding process. Binding of azithromycin to both sites is hindered by high concentrations of Mg(2+) ions. Unlike Mg(2+) ions, polyamines do not significantly affect drug binding to the low-affinity site but attenuate the formation of the final complex. The low- and high-affinity sites of azithromycin binding are mutually exclusive, which means that one molecule of the drug binds per E. coli ribosome at a time. In contrast, kinetic and binding data indicate that in Deinococcus radiodurans, two molecules of azithromycin bind cooperatively to the ribosome. This finding confirms previous crystallographic results and supports the notion that species-specific structural differences may primarily account for the apparent discrepancies between the antibiotic binding modes obtained for different organisms. PMID:19071138

  4. Ribosome Patterns in Escherichia coli Growing at Various Rates

    PubMed Central

    Varricchio, Frederick; Monier, Roger

    1971-01-01

    The distribution of ribosomes, 30 and 50S subunits and polysomes, at three different growth rates of Escherichia coli strains B and K-12 has been studied. The usual percentage of subunits is about 20%. However, at the lowest growth rate (μ = generations/hour), μ = 0.45 at 30C, the proportion of subunits is about 30%. An exceptional situation exists in K-12 strains growing at maximum growth rate, μ = 1.35, where the percentage of subunits is 45%. Several points of control over ribosome production are thus indicated. It is suggested that “subunit pool” is essentially a reserve. Furthermore, the polysome content when related to deoxyribonucleic acid content varies directly with the growth rate, which indicates the average efficiency of polysomes in protein synthesis does not vary over the range of growth rates tested. PMID:5001192

  5. Effects of ribosome-inactivating proteins on Escherichia coli and Agrobacterium tumefaciens translation systems.

    PubMed Central

    Girbés, T; Barbieri, L; Ferreras, M; Arias, F J; Rojo, M A; Iglesias, R; Alegre, C; Escarmis, C; Stirpe, F

    1993-01-01

    The effects of 30 type 1 and of 2 (ricin and volkensin) type 2 ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) on Escherichia coli and Agrobacterium tumefaciens cell-free translation systems were compared with the effects on a rabbit reticulocyte translation system. The depurinating activity of RIPs on E. coli ribosomes was also evaluated. Only six type 1 RIPs inhibited endogenous mRNA-directed translational activity of E. coli lysates, with submicromolar 50% inhibitory concentrations. Four RIPs had similar activities on poly(U)-directed phenylalanine polymerization by E. coli ribosomes, and three RIPs inhibited poly(U)-directed polyphenylalanine synthesis by A. tumefaciens ribosomes, with submicromolar 50% inhibitory concentrations. Images PMID:8407849

  6. All-atom homology model of the Escherichia coli 30S ribosomal subunit.

    PubMed

    Tung, Chang-Shung; Joseph, Simpson; Sanbonmatsu, Kevin Y

    2002-10-01

    Understanding the structural basis of ribosomal function requires close comparison between biochemical and structural data. Although a large amount of biochemical data are available for the Escherichia coli ribosome, the structure has not been solved to atomic resolution. Using a new RNA homology procedure, we have modeled the all-atom structure of the E. coli 30S ribosomal subunit. We find that the tertiary structure of the ribosome core, including the A-, P- and E-sites, is highly conserved. The hypervariable regions in our structure, which differ from the structure of the 30S ribosomal subunit from Thermus thermophilus, are consistent with the cryo-EM map of the E. coli ribosome. PMID:12244297

  7. The fail-safe system to rescue the stalled ribosomes in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Abo, Tatsuhiko; Chadani, Yuhei

    2014-01-01

    Translation terminates at stop codon. Without stop codon, ribosome cannot terminate translation properly and reaches and stalls at the 3′-end of the mRNA lacking stop codon. Bacterial tmRNA-mediated trans-translation releases such stalled ribosome and targets the protein product to degradation by adding specific “degradation tag.” Recently two alternative ribosome rescue factors, ArfA (YhdL) and ArfB (YaeJ), have been found in Escherichia coli. These three ribosome rescue systems are different each other in terms of molecular mechanism of ribosome rescue and their activity, but they are mutually related and co-operate to maintain the translation system in shape. This suggests the biological significance of ribosome rescue. PMID:24782844

  8. Most RNAs regulating ribosomal protein biosynthesis in Escherichia coli are narrowly distributed to Gammaproteobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Yang; Deiorio-Haggar, Kaila; Anthony, Jon; Meyer, Michelle M.

    2013-01-01

    In Escherichia coli, 12 distinct RNA structures within the transcripts encoding ribosomal proteins interact with specific ribosomal proteins to allow autogenous regulation of expression from large multi-gene operons, thus coordinating ribosomal protein biosynthesis across multiple operons. However, these RNA structures are typically not represented in the RNA Families Database or annotated in genomic sequences databases, and their phylogenetic distribution is largely unknown. To investigate the extent to which these RNA structures are conserved across eubacterial phyla, we created multiple sequence alignments representing 10 of these messenger RNA (mRNA) structures in E. coli. We find that while three RNA structures are widely distributed across many phyla of bacteria, seven of the RNAs are narrowly distributed to a few orders of Gammaproteobacteria. To experimentally validate our computational predictions, we biochemically confirmed dual L1-binding sites identified in many Firmicute species. This work reveals that RNA-based regulation of ribosomal protein biosynthesis is used in nearly all eubacterial phyla, but the specific RNA structures that regulate ribosomal protein biosynthesis in E. coli are narrowly distributed. These results highlight the limits of our knowledge regarding ribosomal protein biosynthesis regulation outside of E. coli, and the potential for alternative RNA structures responsible for regulating ribosomal proteins in other eubacteria. PMID:23396277

  9. Kinetics of paused ribosome recycling in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Brian D.; Hayes, Christopher S.

    2009-01-01

    Summary The bacterial tmRNA•SmpB system recycles stalled translation complexes in a process termed ‘ribosome rescue’. tmRNA•SmpB specifically recognizes ribosomes that are paused at or near the 3′ end of truncated mRNA, and therefore nucleolytic mRNA processing is required before paused ribosomes can be rescued from full-length transcripts. Here, we examine the recycling of ribosomes paused on both full-length and truncated mRNAs. Peptidyl-tRNAs corresponding to each paused translation complex were identified, and their turnover kinetics used to estimate the half-lives of paused ribosomes in vivo. Ribosomes were paused at stop codons on full-length mRNA using a nascent peptide motif that interferes with translation termination and elicits tmRNA•SmpB activity. Peptidyl-tRNA turnover from these termination-paused ribosomes was slightly more rapid in tmRNA+ cells (T1/2 = 22 ± 2.2 s), compared to ΔtmRNA cells (T1/2 = 32 ± 1.6 s). Overexpression of release factor-1 (RF-1) greatly accelerated peptidyl-tRNA turnover from termination-paused ribosomes in both tmRNA+ and ΔtmRNA cells, whereas other termination factors had little or no effect on recycling. In contrast to inefficient translation termination, ribosome recycling from truncated transcripts lacking in-frame stop codons was dramatically accelerated by tmRNA•SmpB. However, peptidyl-tRNA still turned over from nonstop-paused ribosomes at a significant rate (t1/2 = 61 ± 7.3 s) in ΔtmRNA cells. Overexpression of RF-1, RF-3, and ribosome recycling factor (RRF) in ΔtmRNA cells failed to accelerate ribosome recycling from nonstop mRNA. These results indicate that tmRNA•SmpB activity is rate-limited by mRNA cleavage, and that RF-3 and RRF do not constitute a tmRNA-independent rescue pathway as previously suggested. Peptidyl-tRNA turnover from nonstop-paused ribosomes in ΔtmRNA cells suggests the existence of another uncharacterized ribosome rescue pathway. PMID:19761774

  10. Mutational robustness of 16S ribosomal RNA, shown by experimental horizontal gene transfer in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Kitahara, Kei; Yasutake, Yoshiaki; Miyazaki, Kentaro

    2012-01-01

    The bacterial ribosome consists of three rRNA molecules and 57 proteins and plays a crucial role in translating mRNA-encoded information into proteins. Because of the ribosome’s structural and mechanistic complexity, it is believed that each ribosomal component coevolves to maintain its function. Unlike 5S rRNA, 16S and 23S rRNAs appear to lack mutational robustness, because they form the structural core of the ribosome. However, using Escherichia coli Δ7 (null mutant of operons) as a host, we have recently shown that an active hybrid ribosome whose 16S rRNA has been specifically substituted with that from non–E. coli bacteria can be reconstituted in vivo. To investigate the mutational robustness of 16S rRNA and the structural basis for its functionality, we used a metagenomic approach to screen for 16S rRNA genes that complement the growth of E. coli Δ7. Various functional genes were obtained from the Gammaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria lineages. Despite the large sequence diversity (80.9–99.0% identity with E. coli 16S rRNA) of the functional 16S rRNA molecules, the doubling times (DTs) of each mutant increased only modestly with decreasing sequence identity (average increase in DT, 4.6 s per mutation). The three-dimensional structure of the 30S ribosome showed that at least 40.7% (628/1,542) of the nucleotides were variable, even at ribosomal protein-binding sites, provided that the secondary structures were properly conserved. Our results clearly demonstrate that 16S rRNA functionality largely depends on the secondary structure but not on the sequence itself. PMID:23112186

  11. Breakdown by Streptomycin of Initiation Complexes Formed on Ribosomes of Escherichia coli*

    PubMed Central

    Modolell, Juan; Davis, Bernard D.

    1970-01-01

    Streptomycin induces breakdown of the completed 70S initiation complex on ribosomes of Escherichia coli, but it does not interfere with any step in the formation of the complex. Moreover, it does not appear to interact with the ribosome in any special way during initiation, since the kinetics of breakdown are the same whether streptomycin is added before formation of the initiation complex, or after its completion, or (as previously observed) after formation of a polypeptide. fMet-tRNA is released as such, without chain elongation; it is released from a puromycin-reactive („P”) site. Streptomycin thus appears to distort not only the A site of the ribosome (as suggested earlier) but also the P site. PMID:4922285

  12. Markerless Escherichia coli rrn Deletion Strains for Genetic Determination of Ribosomal Binding Sites.

    PubMed

    Quan, Selwyn; Skovgaard, Ole; McLaughlin, Robert E; Buurman, Ed T; Squires, Catherine L

    2015-12-01

    Single-copy rrn strains facilitate genetic ribosomal studies in Escherichia coli. Consecutive markerless deletion of rrn operons resulted in slower growth upon inactivation of the fourth copy, which was reversed by supplying transfer RNA genes encoded in rrn operons in trans. Removal of the sixth, penultimate rrn copy led to a reduced growth rate due to limited rrn gene dosage. Whole-genome sequencing of variants of single-copy rrn strains revealed duplications of large stretches of genomic DNA. The combination of selective pressure, resulting from the decreased growth rate, and the six identical remaining scar sequences, facilitating homologous recombination events, presumably leads to elevated genomic instability. PMID:26438293

  13. Binding of Dihydrostreptomycin to Escherichia coli Ribosomes: Characteristics and Equilibrium of the Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Chang, F. N.; Flaks, Joel G.

    1972-01-01

    The binding of dihydrostreptomycin to ribosomes and ribosomal subunits of a number of different Escherichia coli strains was studied, and the Mg2+ and pH dependence, as well as the effect of salts and polynucleotides, was determined. The only requirement for binding with ribosomes and subunits from susceptible strains was 10 mm Mg2+. Monovalent salts weakened the binding in a manner similar to the effects on ribonucleic acid secondary structure, and this was antagonized to some extent by increased amounts of Mg2+. Bound dihydrostreptomycin could be readily exchanged by streptomycin and any antibiotically active derivative, but not by fragments of the antibiotic or any other aminoglycoside. With native (run-off) 70S ribosomes from streptomycin-susceptible strains, the binding was rapid and relatively temperature independent over the range from 0 to 37 C. Polynucleotides did not stimulate the binding. With concentrations of dihydrostreptomycin up to 10−5m, greater than 95% of native 70S ribosomes bound exactly 1 molecule of the antibiotic tightly, with a Kdiss for the bound complex at 25 C of 9.4 × 10−8m. The following thermodynamic parameters were found for the binding with 70S ribosomes at 25 C:ΔG° = −9.6 kcal/mole, ΔH° = −6.2 kcal/mole, and ΔS° = +11.4 entropy units/mole. Differences in affinity for the antibiotic were found between ribosomes of K-12 strains and those of other E. coli strains. There was insignificant binding to 70S ribosomes or subunits from streptomycin-resistant or -dependent strains, and to 50S subunits from susceptible strains. The binding to 30S subunits from susceptible strains was weaker by an order of magnitude than that to the 70S particle, with a Kdiss at 25 C of 10−6m. Polyuridylic acid stimulated this binding slightly but did not influence the affinity of the bound molecule. At antibiotic concentrations above 10−5m, streptomycin-susceptible 70S and 30S particles bound additional molecules of the antibiotic, and

  14. Insights into the mechanism of azithromycin interaction with an Escherichia coli functional ribosomal complex.

    PubMed

    Dinos, G P; Michelinaki, M; Kalpaxis, D L

    2001-06-01

    Azithromycin, a derivative of erythromycin with improved activity against Gram-negative bacteria, exhibits a marginal inhibition effect in a model system derived from Escherichia coli, in which a peptide bond is formed between puromycin and AcPhe-tRNA bound at the P-site of poly(U)-programmed ribosomes. This renders the study of azithromycin interaction with Ac[(3)H]Phe-tRNA. poly(U). 70S ribosome complex (complex C) impossible, if we analyze its effect on peptide bond formation. To overcome this problem, we have used an alternative approach to investigate kinetically the azithromycin interaction with complex C and to compare the azithromycin binding properties with those of erythromycin. This approach was based on the ability of azithromycin to compete with tylosin, a macrolide antibiotic strongly inhibiting the puromycin reaction. Detailed kinetic analysis revealed that the encounter complex CA between complex C and azithromycin (A) undergoes a slow isomerization to a tighter complex C*A, which remains active toward puromycin. The determination of inhibition and isomerization rate constants enabled us to classify azithromycin as a slow-binding ligand of ribosomes. Compared with erythromycin, azithromycin is a better inducer and stabilizer of the C*A complex. This finding may explain the superiority of azithromycin as inhibitor of translation in E. coli cells and many other Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:11353804

  15. In vitro expression of Escherichia coli ribosomal protein genes: autogenous inhibition of translation.

    PubMed Central

    Yates, J L; Arfsten, A E; Nomura, M

    1980-01-01

    Escherichia coli ribosomal protein L1 (0.5 micro M) was found to inhibit the synthesis of both proteins of the L11 operon, L11 and L1, but not the synthesis of other proteins directed by lambda rifd 18 DNA. Similarly, S4 (1 micro M) selectively inhibited the synthesis of three proteins of the alpha operon, S13, S11, and S4, directed by lambda spcI DNA or a restriction enzyme fragment obtained from this DNA. S8 (3.6 micro M) also showed preferential inhibitory effects on the synthesis of some proteins encoded in the spc operon, L24 and L5 (and probably S14 and S8), directed by lambda spcl DNA or a restriction enzyme fragment carrying the genes for these proteins. The inhibitory effect of L1 was observed only with L1 and not with other proteins examined, including S4 and S8. Similarly, the effect of S4 was not observed with L1 or S8, and that of S8 was not seen with L1 or S4. Inhibition was shown to take place at the level of translation rather than transcription. Thus, at least some ribosomal proteins (L1 S4, and S8) have the ability to cause selective translational inhibition of the synthesis of certain ribosomal proteins whose genes are in the same operon as their own. These results support the hypothesis that certain free ribosomal proteins not assembled into ribosomes act as "autogenous" feedback inhibitors to regulate the synthesis of ribosomal proteins. Images PMID:6445562

  16. Stepwise binding of tylosin and erythromycin to Escherichia coli ribosomes, characterized by kinetic and footprinting analysis.

    PubMed

    Petropoulos, Alexandros D; Kouvela, Ekaterini C; Dinos, George P; Kalpaxis, Dimitrios L

    2008-02-22

    Erythromycin and tylosin are 14- and 16-membered lactone ring macrolides, respectively. The current work shows by means of kinetic and chemical footprinting analysis that both antibiotics bind to Escherichia coli ribosomes in a two-step process. The first step established rapidly, involves a low-affinity binding site placed at the entrance of the exit tunnel in the large ribosomal subunit, where macrolides bind primarily through their hydrophobic portions. Subsequently, slow conformational changes mediated by the antibiotic hydrophilic portion push the drugs deeper into the tunnel, in a high-affinity site. Compared with erythromycin, tylosin shifts to the high-affinity site more rapidly, due to the interaction of the mycinose sugar of the drug with the loop of H35 in domain II of 23 S rRNA. Consistently, mutations of nucleosides U2609 and U754 implicated in the high-affinity site reduce the shift of tylosin to this site and destabilize, respectively, the final drug-ribosome complex. The weak interaction between tylosin and the ribosome is Mg2+ independent, unlike the tight binding. In contrast, both interactions between erythromycin and the ribosome are reduced by increasing concentrations of Mg2+ ions. Polyamines attenuate erythromycin affinity for the ribosome at both sequential steps of binding. In contrast, polyamines facilitate the initial binding of tylosin, but exert a detrimental, more pronounced, effect on the drug accommodation at its final position. Our results emphasize the role of the particular interactions that side chains of tylosin and erythromycin establish with 23 S rRNA, which govern the exact binding process of each drug and its response to the ionic environment. PMID:18079110

  17. Effects of induction of rRNA overproduction on ribosomal protein synthesis and ribosome subunit assembly in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Yamagishi, M; Nomura, M

    1988-01-01

    Overproduction of rRNA was artificially induced in Escherichia coli cells to test whether the synthesis of ribosomal protein (r-protein) is normally repressed by feedback regulation. When rRNA was overproduced more than twofold from a hybrid plasmid carrying the rrnB operon fused to the lambda pL promoter (pL-rrnB), synthesis of individual r-proteins increased by an average of about 60%. This demonstrates that the synthesis of r-proteins is repressed under normal conditions. The increase of r-protein production, however, for unknown reasons, was not as great as the increase in rRNA synthesis and resulted in an imbalance between the amounts of rRNA and r-protein synthesis. Therefore, only a small (less than 20%) increase in the synthesis of complete 30S and 50S ribosome subunits was detected, and a considerable fraction of the excess rRNA was degraded. Lack of complete cooperativity in the assembly of ribosome subunits in vivo is discussed as a possible explanation for the absence of a large stimulation of ribosome synthesis observed under these conditions. In addition to the induction of intact rRNA overproduction from the pL-rrnB operon, the effects of unbalanced overproduction of each of the two large rRNAs, 16S rRNA and 23S rRNA, on r-protein synthesis were examined using pL-rrnB derivatives carrying a large deletion in either the 23S rRNA gene or the 16S rRNA gene. Operon-specific derepression after 23S or 16S rRNA overproduction correlated with the overproduction of rRNA containing the target site for the operon-specific repressor r-protein. These results are discussed to explain the apparent coupling of the assembly of one ribosomal subunit with that of the other which was observed in earlier studies on conditionally lethal mutants with defects in ribosome assembly. PMID:3053641

  18. Ribosomal protein methylation in Escherichia coli: the gene prmA, encoding the ribosomal protein L11 methyltransferase, is dispensable.

    PubMed

    Vanet, A; Plumbridge, J A; Guérin, M F; Alix, J H

    1994-12-01

    The prmA gene, located at 72 min on the Escherichia coli chromosome, is the genetic determinant of ribosomal protein L11-methyltransferase activity. Mutations at this locus, prmA1 and prmA3, result in a severely undermethylated form of L11. No effect, other than the lack of methyl groups on L11, has been ascribed to these mutations. DNA sequence analysis of the mutant alleles prmA1 and prmA3 detected point mutations near the C-terminus of the protein and plasmids overproducing the wild-type and the two mutant proteins have been constructed. The wild-type PrmA protein could be crosslinked to its radiolabelled substrate, S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM), by u.v. irradiation indicating that it is the gene for the methyltransferase rather than a regulatory protein. One of the mutant proteins, PrmA3, was also weakly crosslinked to SAM. Both mutant enzymes when expressed from the overproducing plasmids were capable of catalysing the incorporation of 3H-labelled methyl groups from SAM to L11 in vitro. This confirmed the observation that the mutant proteins possess significant residual activity which could account for their lack of growth phenotype. However, a strain carrying an in vitro-constructed null mutation of the prmA gene, transferred to the E. coli chromosome by homologous recombination, was perfectly viable. PMID:7715456

  19. pH-dependent structural changes of helix 69 from Escherichia coli 23S ribosomal RNA

    PubMed Central

    Abeysirigunawardena, Sanjaya C.; Chow, Christine S.

    2008-01-01

    Helix 69 in 23S rRNA is a region in the ribosome that participates in a considerable number of RNA–RNA and RNA–protein interactions. Conformational flexibility is essential for such a region to interact and accommodate protein factors at different stages of protein biosynthesis. In this study, pH-dependent structural and stability changes were observed for helix 69 through a variety of spectroscopic techniques, such as circular dichroism spectroscopy, UV melting, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. In Escherichia coli 23S rRNA, helix 69 contains pseudouridine residues at positions 1911, 1915, and 1917. The presence of these pseudouridines was found to be essential for the pH-induced conformational changes. Some of the pH-dependent changes appear to be localized to the loop region of helix 69, emphasizing the importance of the highly conserved nature of residues in this region. PMID:18268024

  20. Analysis of tetra- and hepta-nucleotides motifs promoting -1 ribosomal frameshifting in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Virag; Prère, Marie-Françoise; Canal, Isabelle; Firth, Andrew E.; Atkins, John F.; Baranov, Pavel V.; Fayet, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Programmed ribosomal -1 frameshifting is a non-standard decoding process occurring when ribosomes encounter a signal embedded in the mRNA of certain eukaryotic and prokaryotic genes. This signal has a mandatory component, the frameshift motif: it is either a Z_ZZN tetramer or a X_XXZ_ZZN heptamer (where ZZZ and XXX are three identical nucleotides) allowing cognate or near-cognate repairing to the -1 frame of the A site or A and P sites tRNAs. Depending on the signal, the frameshifting frequency can vary over a wide range, from less than 1% to more than 50%. The present study combines experimental and bioinformatics approaches to carry out (i) a systematic analysis of the frameshift propensity of all possible motifs (16 Z_ZZN tetramers and 64 X_XXZ_ZZN heptamers) in Escherichia coli and (ii) the identification of genes potentially using this mode of expression amongst 36 Enterobacteriaceae genomes. While motif efficiency varies widely, a major distinctive rule of bacterial -1 frameshifting is that the most efficient motifs are those allowing cognate re-pairing of the A site tRNA from ZZN to ZZZ. The outcome of the genomic search is a set of 69 gene clusters, 59 of which constitute new candidates for functional utilization of -1 frameshifting. PMID:24875478

  1. Analysis of tetra- and hepta-nucleotides motifs promoting -1 ribosomal frameshifting in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Virag; Prère, Marie-Françoise; Canal, Isabelle; Firth, Andrew E; Atkins, John F; Baranov, Pavel V; Fayet, Olivier

    2014-06-01

    Programmed ribosomal -1 frameshifting is a non-standard decoding process occurring when ribosomes encounter a signal embedded in the mRNA of certain eukaryotic and prokaryotic genes. This signal has a mandatory component, the frameshift motif: it is either a Z_ZZN tetramer or a X_XXZ_ZZN heptamer (where ZZZ and XXX are three identical nucleotides) allowing cognate or near-cognate repairing to the -1 frame of the A site or A and P sites tRNAs. Depending on the signal, the frameshifting frequency can vary over a wide range, from less than 1% to more than 50%. The present study combines experimental and bioinformatics approaches to carry out (i) a systematic analysis of the frameshift propensity of all possible motifs (16 Z_ZZN tetramers and 64 X_XXZ_ZZN heptamers) in Escherichia coli and (ii) the identification of genes potentially using this mode of expression amongst 36 Enterobacteriaceae genomes. While motif efficiency varies widely, a major distinctive rule of bacterial -1 frameshifting is that the most efficient motifs are those allowing cognate re-pairing of the A site tRNA from ZZN to ZZZ. The outcome of the genomic search is a set of 69 gene clusters, 59 of which constitute new candidates for functional utilization of -1 frameshifting. PMID:24875478

  2. Regulation of ribonuclease E activity by the L4 ribosomal protein of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Dharam; Chang, Ssu-Jean; Lin, Pei-Hsun; Averina, Olga V.; Kaberdin, Vladimir R.; Lin-Chao, Sue

    2009-01-01

    Whereas ribosomal proteins (r-proteins) are known primarily as components of the translational machinery, certain of these r-proteins have been found to also have extraribosomal functions. Here we report the novel ability of an r-protein, L4, to regulate RNA degradation in Escherichia coli. We show by affinity purification, immunoprecipitation analysis, and E. coli two-hybrid screening that L4 interacts with a site outside of the catalytic domain of RNase E to regulate the endoribonucleolytic functions of the enzyme, thus inhibiting RNase E-specific cleavage in vitro, stabilizing mRNAs targeted by RNase E in vivo, and controlling plasmid DNA replication by stabilizing an antisense regulatory RNA normally attacked by RNase E. Broader effects of the L4-RNase E interaction on E. coli transcripts were shown by DNA microarray analysis, which revealed changes in the abundance of 65 mRNAs encoding the stress response proteins HslO, Lon, CstA, YjiY, and YaeL, as well as proteins involved in carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism and transport, transcription/translation, and DNA/RNA synthesis. Analysis of mRNA stability showed that the half lives of stress-responsive transcripts were increased by ectopic expression of L4, which normally increases along with other r-proteins in E. coli under stress conditions, and also by inactivation of RNase E. Our finding that L4 can inhibit RNase E-dependent decay may account at least in part for the elevated production of stress-induced proteins during bacterial adaptation to adverse environments. PMID:19144914

  3. The N-terminal extension of Escherichia coli ribosomal protein L20 is important for ribosome assembly, but dispensable for translational feedback control

    PubMed Central

    GUILLIER, MAUDE; ALLEMAND, FRÉDÉRIC; GRAFFE, MONIQUE; RAIBAUD, SOPHIE; DARDEL, FRÉDÉRIC; SPRINGER, MATHIAS; CHIARUTTINI, CLAUDE

    2005-01-01

    The Escherichia coli autoregulatory ribosomal protein L20 consists of two structurally distinct domains. The C-terminal domain is globular and sits on the surface of the large ribosomal subunit whereas the N-terminal domain has an extended shape and penetrates deep into the RNA-rich core of the subunit. Many other ribosomal proteins have analogous internal or terminal extensions. However, the biological functions of these extended domains remain obscure. Here we show that the N-terminal tail of L20 is important for ribosome assembly in vivo. Indeed, a truncated version of L20 without its N-terminal tail is unable to complement the deletion of rplT, the gene encoding L20. In addition, this L20 truncation confers a lethal-dominant phenotype, suggesting that the N-terminal domain is essential for cell growth because it could be required for ribosome assembly. Supporting this hypothesis, partial deletions of the N-terminal tail of the protein are shown to cause a slow-growth phenotype due to altered ribosome assembly in vivo as large amounts of intermediate 40S ribosomal particles accumulate. In addition to being a ribosomal protein, L20 also acts as an autogenous repressor. Using L20 truncations, we also show that the N-terminal tail of L20 is dispensable for autogenous control. PMID:15840820

  4. The signal recognition particle binds to protein L23 at the peptide exit of the Escherichia coli ribosome

    PubMed Central

    GU, SHAN-QING; PESKE, FRANK; WIEDEN, HANS-JOACHIM; RODNINA, MARINA V.; WINTERMEYER, WOLFGANG

    2003-01-01

    The signal recognition particle (SRP) from Escherichia coli, composed of Ffh protein and 4.5S RNA, mediates membrane targeting of translating ribosomes displaying a signal or signal-anchor sequence. SRP binds at the peptide exit of the large ribosomal subunit. Structural details of the interaction are not known. Here, the position of Ffh or SRP on the ribosome was probed by using site-specific UV-induced crosslinking by p-azidophenacyl bromide (AzP) attached to a number of cysteine residues engineered into surface positions of Ffh. Efficient crosslinking to vacant ribosomes took place from two positions (AzP17 and AzP25) in the N domain of Ffh, both with Ffh and SRP. Both AzP17 and AzP25 were predominantly crosslinked to ribosomal protein L23 that is located at the peptide exit of the 50S subunit. The SRP receptor, FtsY, did not change the crosslink pattern, whereas the presence of a nascent signal peptide on the ribosome resulted in a second crosslink between Ffh(AzP17) and protein L23, indicating that binding to the nascent signal peptide induced a slightly different arrangement of SRP on the ribosome. These results indicate a model of the topographical arrangement of SRP at the peptide exit of the 50S ribosomal subunit. PMID:12702815

  5. The signal recognition particle binds to protein L23 at the peptide exit of the Escherichia coli ribosome.

    PubMed

    Gu, Shan-Qing; Peske, Frank; Wieden, Hans-Joachim; Rodnina, Marina V; Wintermeyer, Wolfgang

    2003-05-01

    The signal recognition particle (SRP) from Escherichia coli, composed of Ffh protein and 4.5S RNA, mediates membrane targeting of translating ribosomes displaying a signal or signal-anchor sequence. SRP binds at the peptide exit of the large ribosomal subunit. Structural details of the interaction are not known. Here, the position of Ffh or SRP on the ribosome was probed by using site-specific UV-induced crosslinking by p-azidophenacyl bromide (AzP) attached to a number of cysteine residues engineered into surface positions of Ffh. Efficient crosslinking to vacant ribosomes took place from two positions (AzP17 and AzP25) in the N domain of Ffh, both with Ffh and SRP. Both AzP17 and AzP25 were predominantly crosslinked to ribosomal protein L23 that is located at the peptide exit of the 50S subunit. The SRP receptor, FtsY, did not change the crosslink pattern, whereas the presence of a nascent signal peptide on the ribosome resulted in a second crosslink between Ffh(AzP17) and protein L23, indicating that binding to the nascent signal peptide induced a slightly different arrangement of SRP on the ribosome. These results indicate a model of the topographical arrangement of SRP at the peptide exit of the 50S ribosomal subunit. PMID:12702815

  6. Mapping of the RNA recognition site of Escherichia coli ribosomal protein S7.

    PubMed Central

    Robert, F; Gagnon, M; Sans, D; Michnick, S; Brakier-Gingras, L

    2000-01-01

    Bacterial ribosomal protein S7 initiates the folding of the 3' major domain of 16S ribosomal RNA by binding to its lower half. The X-ray structure of protein S7 from thermophilic bacteria was recently solved and found to be a modular structure, consisting of an alpha-helical domain with a beta-ribbon extension. To gain further insights into its interaction with rRNA, we cloned the S7 gene from Escherichia coli K12 into a pET expression vector and introduced 4 deletions and 12 amino acid substitutions in the protein sequence. The binding of each mutant to the lower half of the 3' major domain of 16S rRNA was assessed by filtration on nitrocellulose membranes. Deletion of the N-terminal 17 residues or deletion of the B hairpins (residues 72-89) severely decreased S7 affinity for the rRNA. Truncation of the C-terminal portion (residues 138-178), which includes part of the terminal alpha-helix, significantly affected S7 binding, whereas a shorter truncation (residues 148-178) only marginally influenced its binding. Severe effects were also observed with several strategic point mutations located throughout the protein, including Q8A and F17G in the N-terminal region, and K35Q, G54S, K113Q, and M115G in loops connecting the alpha-helices. Our results are consistent with the occurrence of several sites of contact between S7 and the 16S rRNA, in line with its role in the folding of the 3' major domain. PMID:11105763

  7. Magnesium ions and the structure of Escherichia coli ribosomal ribonucleic acid

    PubMed Central

    Rodgers, A.

    1966-01-01

    1. The effect of removing Mg2+ from a purified high-molecular-weight (1·07×106) fraction of Escherichia coli ribosomal RNA was examined by ultracentrifugation, thermal denaturation and optical rotation. 2. At moderate I (0·1m-sodium chloride), EDTA at 2–50mm has little effect on RNA; at low I, 0·01–0·04 (with tris as counter-ion), two boundaries appear. 3. The leading boundary, S20,w about 20s, is identified with the original material with counter-ion Mg2+ (`ionic atmosphere') removed, leading to an expanded form. 4. The slow boundary, 15–16s, is associated with a further loss of Mg2+ and a further expansion, sensitive to EDTA concentration: it is proposed that this Mg2+ is localized on the polynucleotide chain, i.e. `site-bound'. 5. I is important and the EDTA effect at low I is reversible if Na+ is added immediately after the EDTA: this Na+ reversibility is lost on standing at 0°. It is suggested that changes in the tertiary structure may be associated with this loss of reversibility. 6. Thermal-denaturation studies show that there is no loss of secondary structure associated with these changes: change in the optical-rotatory-dispersion spectrum in the region of the Cotton effect may be associated with this change in tertiary structure. PMID:4960869

  8. Cloning, in vitro transcription, and biological activity of Escherichia coli 23S ribosomal RNA.

    PubMed

    Weitzmann, C J; Cunningham, P R; Ofengand, J

    1990-06-25

    The 23S rRNA gene was excised from the rrnB operon of pKK3535 and ligated into pUC19 behind the strong class III T7 promoter so that the correct 5' end of mature 23S RNA was produced upon transcription by T7 RNA polymerase. At the 3' end, generation of a restriction site for linearization required the addition of 2 adenosine residues to the mature 23S sequence. In vitro runoff transcripts were indistinguishable from natural 23S RNA in size on denaturing gels and in 5'-terminal sequence. The length and sequence of the 3' terminal T1 fragment was also as expected from the DNA sequence, except that an additional C, A, or U residue was added to 21%, 18%, or 5% of the molecules, respectively. Typical transcription reactions yielded 500-700 moles RNA per mole template. This transcript was used as a substrate for methyl transfer from S-adenosyl methionine catalyzed by Escherichia coli cell extracts. The majority (50-65%) of activity observed in a crude (S30) extract appeared in the post-ribosomal supernatant (S100). Activities catalyzing formation of m5C, m5U, m2G, and m6A residues in the synthetic transcript were observed. PMID:2194163

  9. Role of Ribosome Release in Regulation of tna Operon Expression in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Konan, Kouacou Vincent; Yanofsky, Charles

    1999-01-01

    Expression of the degradative tryptophanase (tna) operon of Escherichia coli is regulated by catabolite repression and tryptophan-induced transcription antitermination. In cultures growing in the absence of added tryptophan, transcription of the structural genes of the tna operon is limited by Rho-dependent transcription termination in the leader region of the operon. Tryptophan induction prevents this Rho-dependent termination, and requires in-frame translation of a 24-residue leader peptide coding region, tnaC, that contains a single, crucial, Trp codon. Studies with a lacZ reporter construct lacking the spacer region between tnaC and the first major structural gene, tnaA, suggested that tryptophan induction might involve cis action by the TnaC leader peptide on the ribosome translating the tnaC coding region. The leader peptide was hypothesized to inhibit ribosome release at the tnaC stop codon, thereby blocking Rho’s access to the transcript. Regulatory studies with deletion constructs of the tna operon of Proteus vulgaris supported this interpretation. In the present study the putative role of the tnaC stop codon in tna operon regulation in E. coli was examined further by replacing the natural tnaC stop codon, UGA, with UAG or UAA in a tnaC-stop codon-tnaA′-′lacZ reporter construct. Basal level expression was reduced to 20 and 50% when the UGA stop codon was replaced by UAG or UAA, respectively, consistent with the finding that in E. coli translation terminates more efficiently at UAG and UAA than at UGA. Tryptophan induction was observed in strains with any of the stop codons. However, when UAG or UAA replaced UGA, the induced level of expression was also reduced to 15 and 50% of that obtained with UGA as the tnaC stop codon, respectively. Introduction of a mutant allele encoding a temperature-sensitive release factor 1, prfA1, increased basal level expression 60-fold when the tnaC stop codon was UAG and 3-fold when this stop codon was UAA; basal level

  10. Selective Translation of Leaderless mRNAs by Specialized Ribosomes Generated by MazF in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Vesper, Oliver; Amitai, Shahar; Belitsky, Maria; Byrgazov, Konstantin; Kaberdina, Anna Chao; Engelberg-Kulka, Hanna; Moll, Isabella

    2016-01-01

    Summary Escherichia coli (E. coli) mazEF is a stress-induced toxin-antitoxin (TA) module. The toxin MazF is an endoribonuclease that cleaves single-stranded mRNAs at ACA sequences. Here, we show that MazF cleaves at ACA sites at or closely upstream of the AUG start codon of some specific mRNAs and thereby generates leaderless mRNAs. Moreover, we provide evidence that MazF also targets 16S rRNA within 30S ribosomal subunits at the decoding center, thereby removing 43 nucleotides from the 3′ terminus. As this region comprises the anti-Shine-Dalgarno (aSD) sequence that is required for translation initiation on canonical mRNAs, a subpopulation of ribosomes is formed that selectively translates the described leaderless mRNAs both in vivo and in vitro. Thus, we have discovered a modified translation machinery that is generated in response to MazF induction and that probably serves for stress adaptation in Escherichia coli. PMID:21944167

  11. Comparison of quantitative PCR assays for Escherichia coli targeting ribosomal RNA and single copy genes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aims: Compare specificity and sensitivity of quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays targeting single and multi-copy gene regions of Escherichia coli. Methods and Results: A previously reported assay targeting the uidA gene (uidA405) was used as the basis for comparing the taxono...

  12. Ribosome Shut-Down by 16S rRNA Fragmentation in Stationary-Phase Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Luidalepp, Hannes; Berger, Stefan; Joss, Oliver; Tenson, Tanel; Polacek, Norbert

    2016-05-22

    Stationary-phase bacterial cells are characterized by vastly reduced metabolic activities yielding a dormant-like phenotype. Several hibernation programs ensure the establishment and maintenance of this resting growth state. Some of the stationary phase-specific modulations affect the ribosome and its translational activity directly. In stationary-phase Escherichia coli, we observed the appearance of a 16S rRNA fragmentation event at the tip of helix 6 within the small ribosomal subunit (30S). Stationary-phase 30S subunits showed markedly reduced activities in protein biosynthesis. On the other hand, the functional performance of stationary-phase large ribosomal subunits (50S) was indistinguishable from particles isolated from exponentially growing cells. Introduction of the 16S rRNA cut in vitro at helix 6 of exponential phase 30S subunits renders them less efficient in protein biosynthesis. This indicates that the helix 6 fragmentation is necessary and sufficient to attenuate translational activities of 30S ribosomal subunits. These results suggest that stationary phase-specific cleavage of 16S rRNA within the 30S subunit is an efficient means to reduce global translation activities under non-proliferating growth conditions. PMID:27067112

  13. Mutation at position 791 in Escherichia coli 16S ribosomal RNA affects processes involved in the initiation of protein synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Tapprich, W E; Goss, D J; Dahlberg, A E

    1989-01-01

    A single base was mutated from guanine to adenine at position 791 in 16S rRNA in the Escherichia coli rrnB operon on the multicopy plasmid pKK3535. The plasmid-coded rRNA was processed and assembled into 30S ribosomal subunits in E. coli and caused a retardation of cell growth. The mutation affected crucial functional roles of the 30S subunit in the initiation of protein synthesis. The affinity of the mutant 30S subunits for 50S subunits was reduced and the association equilibrium constant for initiation factor 3 was decreased by a factor of 10 compared to wild-type 30S subunits. The interrelationship among the region of residue 790 in 16S rRNA, subunit association, and initiation factor 3 binding during initiation complex formation, as revealed by this study, offers insights into the functional role of rRNA in protein synthesis. PMID:2662189

  14. Possible involvement of Escherichia coli 23S ribosomal RNA in peptide bond formation.

    PubMed Central

    Nitta, I; Ueda, T; Watanabe, K

    1998-01-01

    Experimental results are presented suggesting that 23S rRNA is directly involved in the peptide bond formation usually performed on the ribosome. Although several reports have indicated that the eubacterial peptidyltransferase reaction does not necessarily require all the ribosomal proteins, the reconstitution of peptidyltransferase activity by a naked 23S rRNA without the help of any of the ribosomal proteins has not been reported previously. It is demonstrated that an E. coli 23S rRNA transcript synthesized by T7 RNA polymerase in vitro was able to promote peptide bond formation in the presence of 0.5% SDS. The reaction was inhibited by the peptidyltransferase-specific antibiotics chloramphenicol and carbomycin, and by digestion with RNases A and T1. Site-directed mutageneses at two highly conserved regions close to the peptidyltransferase center ring, G2252 to U2252 and C2507G2581 to U2507A2581, also suppressed peptide bond formation. These findings strongly suggest that 23S rRNA is the peptidyltransferase itself. PMID:9510328

  15. Structural and functional analysis of Escherichia coli ribosomes containing small deletions around position 1760 in the 23S ribosomal RNA.

    PubMed Central

    Zweib, C; Dahlberg, A E

    1984-01-01

    Three different small deletions were produced at a single Pvu 2 restriction site in E. coli 23S rDNA of plasmid pKK 3535 using exonuclease Bal 31. The deletions were located around position 1760 in 23S rRNA and were characterized by DNA sequencing as well as by direct fingerprinting and S1-mapping of the rRNA. Two of the mutant plasmids, Pvu 2-32 and Pvu 2-33, greatly reduced the growth rate of transformed cells while the third mutant, Pvu 2-14 grew as fast as cells containing the wild-type plasmid pKK 3535. All three mutant 23S rRNAs were incorporated into 50S-like particles and were even found in 70S ribosomes and polysomes in vivo. The conformation of mutant 23S rRNA in 50S subunits was probed with a double-strand specific RNase from cobra venom. These analyses revealed changes in the accessibility of cleavage sites near the deletions around position 1760 and in the area around position 800 in all three mutant rRNAs. We suggest, that an altered conformation of the rRNAs at the site of the deletion is responsible for the slow growth of cells containing mutant plasmids Pvu 2-32 and Pvu 2-33. Images PMID:6091057

  16. Depletion of Free 30S Ribosomal Subunits in Escherichia coli by Expression of RNA Containing Shine-Dalgarno-Like Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Mawn, Mary V.; Fournier, Maurille J.; Tirrell, David A.; Mason, Thomas L.

    2002-01-01

    We have constructed synthetic coding sequences for the expression of poly(α,l-glutamic acid) (PLGA) as fusion proteins with dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) in Escherichia coli. These PLGA coding sequences use both GAA and GAG codons for glutamic acid and contain sequence elements (5′-GAGGAGG-3′) that resemble the consensus Shine-Dalgarno (SD) sequence found at translation initiation sites in bacterial mRNAs. An unusual feature of DHFR-PLGA expression is that accumulation of the protein is inversely related to the level of induction of its mRNA. Cellular protein synthesis was inhibited >95% by induction of constructs for either translatable or untranslatable PLGA RNAs. Induction of PLGA RNA resulted in the depletion of free 30S ribosomal subunits and the appearance of new complexes in the polyribosome region of the gradient. Unlike normal polyribosomes, these complexes were resistant to breakdown in the presence of puromycin. The novel complexes contained 16S rRNA, 23S rRNA, and PLGA RNA. We conclude that multiple noninitiator SD-like sequences in the PLGA RNA inhibit cellular protein synthesis by sequestering 30S small ribosomal subunits and 70S ribosomes in nonfunctional complexes on the PLGA mRNA. PMID:11751827

  17. A three-dimensional model of domain III of the Escherichia coli small ribosomal subunit.

    PubMed

    Elson, D; Spitnik-Elson, P

    1987-09-01

    A three-dimensional model of domain III (nucleotides 920 to 1395) of the 30S ribosomal subunit of E. coli is proposed. The data used as a guide in folding the secondary structure of the RNA into a tertiary structure are four long range RNA-RNA interactions proposed by us on the basis of experiments performed in this laboratory plus two sets of data from other laboratories: protein-RNA cross-linking sites for proteins S1, S3, S7, S10 and S12, and the interprotein distances determined by neutron scattering. The model is consistent with nearly all of the published experimental findings on the structure of domain III. PMID:2450593

  18. Escherichia Coli

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodsell, David S.

    2009-01-01

    Diverse biological data may be used to create illustrations of molecules in their cellular context. I describe the scientific results that support a recent textbook illustration of an "Escherichia coli cell". The image magnifies a portion of the bacterium at one million times, showing the location and form of individual macromolecules. Results…

  19. Characterization of the autophosphorylation property of HflX, a ribosome-binding GTPase from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Aditi; Dutta, Dipak; Bandyopadhyay, Kaustav; Parrack, Pradeep

    2016-07-01

    Escherichia coli HflX belongs to the widely distributed but poorly characterized HflX family of translation factor-related GTPases that is conserved from bacteria to humans. A 426-residue polypeptide that binds 50S ribosomes and has both GTPase and ATPase activities, HflX also exhibits autophosphorylation activity. We show that HflX(C), a C-terminal fragment of HflX, has an enhanced autophosphorylation activity compared to the full-length protein. Using a chemical stability assay and thin layer chromatography, we have determined that phosphorylation occurs at a serine residue. Each of the nine serine residues of HflX(C) was mutated to alanine. It was found that all but S211A retained autophosphorylation activity, suggesting that S211, located in the P-loop, was the likely site for autophosphorylation. While the S211A mutant lacked the autophosphorylation site, it possessed strong GTP binding and GTPase activities. PMID:27398305

  20. Ribosomal protein S7 from Escherichia coli uses the same determinants to bind 16S ribosomal RNA and its messenger RNA

    PubMed Central

    Robert, Francis; Brakier-Gingras, Léa

    2001-01-01

    Ribosomal protein S7 from Escherichia coli binds to the lower half of the 3′ major domain of 16S rRNA and initiates its folding. It also binds to its own mRNA, the str mRNA, and represses its translation. Using filter binding assays, we show in this study that the same mutations that interfere with S7 binding to 16S rRNA also weaken its affinity for its mRNA. This suggests that the same protein regions are responsible for mRNA and rRNA binding affinities, and that S7 recognizes identical sequence elements within the two RNA targets, although they have dissimilar secondary structures. Overexpression of S7 is known to inhibit bacterial growth. This phenotypic growth defect was relieved in cells overexpressing S7 mutants that bind poorly the str mRNA, confirming that growth impairment is controlled by the binding of S7 to its mRNA. Interestingly, a mutant with a short deletion at the C-terminus of S7 was more detrimental to cell growth than wild-type S7. This suggests that the C-terminal portion of S7 plays an important role in ribosome function, which is perturbed by the deletion. PMID:11160889

  1. The spc ribosomal protein operon of Escherichia coli: sequence and cotranscription of the ribosomal protein genes and a protein export gene.

    PubMed

    Cerretti, D P; Dean, D; Davis, G R; Bedwell, D M; Nomura, M

    1983-05-11

    The genes encoding the 52 ribosomal proteins (r-proteins) of Escherichia coli are organized into approximately 19 operons scattered throughout the chromosome. One of these, the spc operon, contains the genes for ten ribosomal proteins: L14, L24, L5, S14, S8, L6, L18, S5, L30 and L15 (rp1N, rp1X, rp1E, rpsN, rpsH, rp1F, rp1R, rpsE, rpmD, and rp1O). We now report the entire 5.9 kb nucleotide sequence of the spc operon. DNA sequence analysis has confirmed the genetic organization and refined the amino acid sequence of the ten r-proteins in this operon. It has also revealed the presence of two open reading frames past the last known gene (L15) of the spc operon. One of these corresponds to a gene (pr1A or secY) which recently has been shown by others to be involved in protein export. In addition, S1 mapping experiments indicate that a significant proportion of transcription initiated from the spc operon continues not only into the two putative genes, but also without termination into the downstream alpha r-protein operon. PMID:6222285

  2. De novo Synthesis and Assembly of rRNA into Ribosomal Subunits during Cold Acclimation in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Piersimoni, Lolita; Giangrossi, Mara; Marchi, Paolo; Brandi, Anna; Gualerzi, Claudio O; Pon, Cynthia L

    2016-04-24

    During the cold adaptation that follows a cold stress, bacterial cells undergo many physiological changes and extensive reprogramming of their gene expression pattern. Bulk gene expression is drastically reduced, while a set of cold shock genes is selectively and transiently expressed. The initial stage of cold acclimation is characterized by the establishment of a stoichiometric imbalance of the translation initiation factors (IFs)/ribosomes ratio that contributes to the preferential translation of cold shock transcripts. Whereas de novo synthesis of the IFs following cold stress has been documented, nothing was known concerning the activity of the rrn operons during the cold acclimation period. In this work, we focus on the expression of the rrn operons and the fate of rRNA after temperature downshift. We demonstrate that in Escherichia coli, rRNA synthesis does not stop during the cold acclimation phase, but continues with greater contribution of the P2 compared to the P1 promoter and all seven rrn operons are active, although their expression levels change with respect to pre-stress conditions. Eight hours after the 37°→10°C temperature downshift, the newly transcribed rRNA represents up to 20% of total rRNA and is preferentially found in the polysomes. However, with respect to the de novo synthesis of the IFs, both rRNA transcription and maturation are slowed down drastically by cold stress, thereby accounting in part for the stoichiometric imbalance of the IFs/ribosomes. Overall, our data indicate that new ribosomes, which are possibly suitable to function at low temperature, are slowly assembled during cold acclimation. PMID:26953262

  3. SuhB Associates with Nus Factors To Facilitate 30S Ribosome Biogenesis in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Navjot; Bubunenko, Mikhail; Smith, Carol; Abbott, David M.; Stringer, Anne M.; Shi, Ronald; Court, Donald L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT A complex of highly conserved proteins consisting of NusB, NusE, NusA, and NusG is required for robust expression of rRNA in Escherichia coli. This complex is proposed to prevent Rho-dependent transcription termination by a process known as “antitermination.” The mechanism of this antitermination in rRNA is poorly understood but requires association of NusB and NusE with a specific RNA sequence in rRNA known as BoxA. Here, we identify a novel member of the rRNA antitermination machinery: the inositol monophosphatase SuhB. We show that SuhB associates with elongating RNA polymerase (RNAP) at rRNA in a NusB-dependent manner. Although we show that SuhB is required for BoxA-mediated antitermination in a reporter system, our data indicate that the major function of the NusB/E/A/G/SuhB complex is not to prevent Rho-dependent termination of rRNA but rather to promote correct rRNA maturation. This occurs through formation of a SuhB-mediated loop between NusB/E/BoxA and RNAP/NusA/G. Thus, we have reassigned the function of these proteins at rRNA and identified another key player in this complex. PMID:26980831

  4. Recognition of the 70S ribosome and polysome by the RNA degradosome in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Yi-Chun; Du, Dijun; Domínguez-Malfavón, Lilianha; Dimastrogiovanni, Daniela; Cross, Jonathan; Callaghan, Anastasia J.; García-Mena, Jaime; Luisi, Ben F.

    2012-01-01

    The RNA degradosome is a multi-enzyme assembly that contributes to key processes of RNA metabolism, and it engages numerous partners in serving its varied functional roles. Small domains within the assembly recognize collectively a diverse range of macromolecules, including the core protein components, the cytoplasmic lipid membrane, mRNAs, non-coding regulatory RNAs and precursors of structured RNAs. We present evidence that the degradosome can form a stable complex with the 70S ribosome and polysomes, and we demonstrate the proximity in vivo of ribosomal proteins and the scaffold of the degradosome, RNase E. The principal interactions are mapped to two, independent, RNA-binding domains from RNase E. RhlB, the RNA helicase component of the degradosome, also contributes to ribosome binding, and this is favoured through an activating interaction with RNase E. The catalytic activity of RNase E for processing 9S RNA (the ribosomal 5S RNA precursor) is repressed in the presence of the ribosome, whereas there is little affect on the cleavage of single-stranded substrates mediated by non-coding RNA, suggestings that the enzyme retains capacity to cleave unstructured substrates when associated with the ribosome. We propose that polysomes may act as antennae that enhance the rates of capture of the limited number of degradosomes, so that they become recruited to sites of active translation to act on mRNAs as they become exposed or tagged for degradation. PMID:22923520

  5. Evidence for a role of initiation factor 3 in recycling of ribosomal complexes stalled on mRNAs in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Singh, N. S.; Das, G.; Seshadri, A.; Sangeetha, R.; Varshney, U.

    2005-01-01

    Specific interactions between ribosome recycling factor (RRF) and elongation factor-G (EFG) mediate disassembly of post-termination ribosomal complexes for new rounds of initiation. The interactions between RRF and EFG are also important in peptidyl-tRNA release from stalled pre-termination complexes. Unlike the post-termination complexes (harboring deacylated tRNA), the pre-termination complexes (harboring peptidyl-tRNA) are not recycled by RRF and EFG in vitro, suggesting participation of additional factor(s) in the process. Using a combination of biochemical and genetic approaches, we show that, (i) Inclusion of IF3 with RRF and EFG results in recycling of the pre-termination complexes; (ii) IF3 overexpression in Escherichia coli LJ14 rescues its temperature sensitive phenotype for RRF; (iii) Transduction of infC135 (which encodes a functionally compromised IF3) in E.coli LJ14 generates a ‘synthetic severe’ phenotype; (iv) The infC135 and frr1 (containing an insertion in the RRF gene promoter) alleles synergistically rescue a temperature sensitive mutation in peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase in E.coli; and (v) IF3 facilitates ribosome recycling by Thermus thermophilus RRF and E.coli EFG in vivo and in vitro. These lines of evidence clearly demonstrate the physiological importance of IF3 in the overall mechanism of ribosome recycling in E.coli. PMID:16199751

  6. Positions of S2, S13, S16, S17, S19 and S21 in the 30 S ribosomal subunit of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Capel, M S; Kjeldgaard, M; Engelman, D M; Moore, P B

    1988-03-01

    Neutron scattering distance data are presented for 33 protein pairs in the 30 S ribosomal subunit from Escherichia coli, along with the methods used for measuring distances between its exchangeable components. When combined with prior data, these new results permit the positioning of S2, S13, S16, S17, S19 and S21 in the 30 S ribosomal subunit, completing the mapping of its proteins by neutron scattering. Comparisons with other data suggest that the neutron map is a reliable guide to the quaternary structure of the 30 S subunit. PMID:3288761

  7. Retroregulation of the synthesis of ribosomal proteins L14 and L24 by feedback repressor S8 in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Mattheakis, L; Vu, L; Sor, F; Nomura, M

    1989-01-01

    Previous studies on regulation of the spc operon containing genes for ribosomal proteins have shown that S8, encoded by the fifth gene of the operon in Escherichia coli, is a translational repressor and regulates the synthesis of the third gene product (L5) and distal gene products by acting at a site near the L5 mRNA translation initiation site. We have now shown that S8 also regulates the synthesis of the first and second gene products (L14 and L24) of the operon by acting at the same mRNA target site--that is, the site located distal to sites coding for L14 and L24--and that mRNA degradation is involved in this retroregulation. It was shown that single base substitutions in the target site, which abolish repression of the synthesis of L5 and L5-distal gene products by S8, also cause derepression of L14-L24 synthesis. Inhibition of L14-L24 synthesis by S8 was also shown by overproducing S8 in trans from a plasmid carrying the S8 gene under lac promoter/operator control. A strain carrying temperature-sensitive mutations in genes for polynucleotide phosphorylase and RNase II was found upon shift to nonpermissive temperature to show higher differential synthesis rates of L14-L24 (and L5) relative to those of several L5-distal spc operon gene products. We suggest that repression of distal ribosomal protein synthesis by S8 triggers nucleolytic cleavage of spc operon mRNA, followed by mRNA degradation by these 3'- to 5'- exonucleases, which is then responsible for inhibition of L14-L24 synthesis. Images PMID:2643112

  8. Synthesis and characterization of modified nucleotides in the 970 hairpin loop of Escherichia coli 16S ribosomal RNA

    PubMed Central

    Abeydeera, N. Dinuka

    2009-01-01

    The synthesis of the 6-O-DPC-2-N-methylguanosine (m2G) nucleoside and the corresponding 5′-O-DMT-2′-O-TOM-protected 6-O-DPC-2-N-methylguanosine phosphoramidite is reported [DPC, diphenyl carbamoyl; DMT, 4, 4′-dimethoxytrityl; TOM, [(triisopropylsilyl)oxy]methyl]. The availability of the phosphoramidite allows for syntheses of hairpin RNAs with site-selective incorporation of 2-N-methylguanosine modification. Four 18-nt hairpin RNA analogues representing the 970-loop region (helix 31 or h31; U960–A975) of Escherichia coli 16S rRNA were synthesized with and without modifications in the loop region. Subsequently, stabilities and conformations of the singly and doubly modified RNAs were examined and compared with the corresponding unmodified RNA. Thermodynamic parameters and circular dichroism spectra are presented for the four helix 31 RNA analogues. Surprisingly, methylations in the loop region of helix 31 slightly destabilize the hairpin, which may have subtle effects on ribosome function. The hairpin construct is suitable for future ligand-binding experiments. PMID:19628400

  9. Role of the ribosome-associated protein PY in the cold-shock response of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Di Pietro, Fabio; Brandi, Anna; Dzeladini, Nadire; Fabbretti, Attilio; Carzaniga, Thomas; Piersimoni, Lolita; Pon, Cynthia L; Giuliodori, Anna Maria

    2013-01-01

    Protein Y (PY) is an Escherichia coli cold-shock protein which has been proposed to be responsible for the repression of bulk protein synthesis during cold adaptation. Here, we present in vivo and in vitro data which clarify the role of PY and its mechanism of action. Deletion of yfiA, the gene encoding protein PY, demonstrates that this protein is dispensable for cold adaptation and is not responsible for the shutdown of bulk protein synthesis at the onset of the stress, although it is able to partially inhibit translation. In vitro assays reveal that the extent of PY inhibition changes with different mRNAs and that this inhibition is related to the capacity of PY of binding 30S subunits with a fairly strong association constant, thus stimulating the formation of 70S monomers. Furthermore, our data provide evidence that PY competes with the other ribosomal ligands for the binding to the 30S subunits. Overall these results suggest an alternative model to explain PY function during cold shock and to reconcile the inhibition caused by PY with the active translation observed for some mRNAs during cold shock. PMID:23420694

  10. Differential scanning calorimetry of whole Escherichia coli treated with the antimicrobial peptide MSI-78 indicate a multi-hit mechanism with ribosomes as a novel target

    PubMed Central

    Brannan, Alexander M.; Whelan, William A.; Cole, Emma

    2015-01-01

    Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) of intact Escherichia coli (E. coli) was used to identify non-lipidic targets of the antimicrobial peptide (AMP) MSI-78. The DSC thermograms revealed that, in addition to its known lytic properties, MSI-78 also has a striking effect on ribosomes. MSI-78’s effect on DSC scans of bacteria was similar to that of kanamycin, an antibiotic drug known to target the 30S small ribosomal subunit. An in vitro transcription/translation assay helped confirm MSI-78’s targeting of ribosomes. The scrambled version of MSI-78 also affected the ribosome peak of the DSC scans, but required greater amounts of peptide to cause a similar effect to the unscrambled peptide. Furthermore, the effect of the scrambled peptide was not specific to the ribosomes; other regions of the DSC thermogram were also affected. These results suggest that MSI-78’s effects on E. coli are at least somewhat dependent on its particular structural features, rather than a sole function of its overall charge and hydrophobicity. When considered along with earlier work detailing MSI-78’s membrane lytic properties, it appears that MSI-78 operates via a multi-hit mechanism with multiple targets. PMID:26713257

  11. Cloning, sequencing, and characterization of ribosomal protein and RNA polymerase genes from the region analogous to the alpha-operon of escherichia coli in halophilic archaea, halobacterium halobium.

    PubMed

    Sano, K; Taguchi, A; Furumoto, H; Uda, T; Itoh, T

    1999-10-14

    A determination was made of the nucleotide sequence of the 3215-bp region of a ribosomal protein gene cluster (HS13, HS4, HS11, and HeL18), RNA polymerase (RNA poly D), and tRNA genes (tRNAser and tRNAarg) of halophilic Archaea Halobacterium halobium, which is analogous to the alpha-operon of Escherichia coli (tRNAser-HS13-HS4-HS11-RNA poly D-tRNAarg-HeL18). The seven-gene string was preceded by a pseudoknot-like structure similar to the proposed S4 ribosomal protein binding site of the alpha-operon mRNA leader in E. coli. Using an inducible expression system H. halobium HS4 was produced in large amounts in E. coli, and immunoblot analysis showed the S4 to constitute a 21-kDa polypeptide component of the ribosome. Analysis of the deduced amino acids sequence revealed that the HS13, HS4, and HS11 sequences including the RNA polymerase subunit are more similar to their eukaryotic than to their bacterial counterparts. HeL18, located downstream of the gene cluster analogous to the E. coli alpha-operon (S13-S11-S4-RNA poly D-L17), was similar to both the eukaryotic (eL18) and eubacterial ribosomal protein L15 located in the spc-operon, but not to L17 positioned as the terminal gene of the bacterial alpha-operon. PMID:10527834

  12. Mutations in the Escherichia coli Ribosomal Protein L22 Selectively Suppress the Expression of a Secreted Bacterial Virulence Factor

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Mutations in the ribosomal protein L22 that impair peptide-mediated translation arrest in Escherichia coli have been shown to reduce the expression of several genes, including secA, which encodes an ATPase that drives protein export via the Sec pathway. Here, we used a comparative proteomic approach to obtain insight into the global effects of the L22(Δ82-84) mutation on gene expression and protein synthesis. While the mutation did not affect or modestly affected the level of most soluble proteins, it dramatically reduced the level of antigen 43 (Ag43), a secreted virulence factor that promotes autoaggregation. The reduced protein concentration correlated with a sharp decrease in the abundance and stability of Ag43 mRNA. We found that the overexpression of secA or the inactivation of genes that encode presecretory and membrane proteins restored Ag43 production in the L22 mutant strain. Furthermore, impairment of the Sec pathway in a wild-type strain reduced Ag43 production but did not significantly affect the synthesis of other presecretory proteins. Taken together, these results indicate that Ag43 gene expression is exquisitely sensitive to the status of the Sec machinery and strongly suggest that the L22 mutation decreases the Ag43 concentration indirectly by reducing secA expression. Our results imply the existence of a novel regulatory mechanism in which the efficiency of protein export is coupled to gene expression and help to explain the modulation of SecA synthesis that has been observed in response to secretion stress. PMID:23625843

  13. The 70 S monosome accumulation and in vitro initiation complex formation by Escherichia coli ribosomes at 5 C. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broeze, R. J.; Pope, D. H.

    1978-01-01

    The inhibition of translation which is observed after shifting Escherichia coli to low temperature was investigated. 70 S ribosomes were isolated from E. coli 8 hours after a shift to 5 C synthesized protein in the absence of added mRNA (i.e., endogenous protein synthesis by 70 S monosomes) at a rate which was three times greater than the rate of endogenous protein synthesis by 70 S ribosomes which were isolated at the time of the shift to 5 C. Calculations based on the rates of endogenous protein synthesis and polyphenylalanine synthesis indicate that 70 S monosomes comprise only 0.1% of the total E. coli 70 S ribosome population after 8 hours at 5 c. Experiments designed to test initiation complex formation on ApUpG or formaldehyde treated MS-2 viral RNA demonstrated that, although the rate of formation of 30 S initiation complexes was not inhibited, the rate of formation of active 70 S initiation complexes, able to react with puromycin, was inhibited to a great extent at 5 C. A model depicting the effects of low temperature on the E. coli translation system is proposed.

  14. Analysis of the conformation of the 3' major domain of Escherichia coli16S ribosomal RNA using site-directed photoaffinity crosslinking.

    PubMed Central

    Montpetit, A; Payant, C; Nolan, J M; Brakier-Gingras, L

    1998-01-01

    The 3' major domain of Escherichia coli 16S rRNA, which occupies the head of the small ribosomal subunit, is involved in several functions of the ribosome. We have used a site-specific crosslinking procedure to gain further insights into the higher-order structure of this domain. Circularly permuted RNAs were used to introduce an azidophenacyl group at specific positions within the 3' major domain. Crosslinks were generated in a high-ionic strength buffer that has been used for ribosome reconstitution studies and so enables the RNA to adopt a structure recognized by ribosomal proteins. The crosslinking sites were identified by primer extension and confirmed by assessing the mobility of the crosslinked RNA lariats in denaturing polyacrylamide gels. Eight crosslinks were characterized. Among them, one crosslink demonstrates that helix 28 is proximal to the top of helix 34, and two others show that the 1337 region, located in an internal loop at the junction of helices 29, 30, 41, and 42, is proximal to the center of helix 30 and to a segment connecting helix 28 to helix 29. These relationships of vicinity have previously been observed in native 30S subunits, which suggests that the free domain adopts a conformation similar to that within the 30S subunit. Furthermore, crosslinks were obtained in helix 34, which suggest that the upper and lower portions of this helix are in close proximity. PMID:9814765

  15. Chloramphenicol-induced changes in the synthesis of ribosomal, transfer, and messenger ribonucleic acids in Escherichia coli B/r.

    PubMed

    Shen, V; Bremer, H

    1977-06-01

    The synthesis of ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA) and messenger RNA (mRNA) was measured in Escherichia coli B/r after the addition of 100 mug of chloramphenicol (CAM) per ml to cultures growing either in one of three minimal media (succinate, glycerol, or glucose) or in one of the same three media supplemented with 20 amino acids. (i) During CAM treatment, rRNA and tRNA were synthesized in the same relative proportions (85:15) as during exponential growth. The faster accumulation of tRNA relative to rRNA in CAM was due to a decreased stability of rRNA that is synthesized in the presence of or immediately before the addition of CAM. (ii) CAM stimulated the synthesis of rRNA and tRNA two- to eightfold. The results fell into two groups; one group was from studies done in minimal media and the other was from amino acid-supplemented media. In each group the stimulation decreased with increasing growth rate of the culture during exponential growth before the addition of CAM; however, the stimulation in minimal media was lower than that in amino acid-supplemented media. (iii) CAM caused an increase in the proportion of rRNA and tRNA synthesis and a corresponding decrease in the proportion of mRNA synthesis. In minimal media, the residual proportion of mRNA synthesis after CAM treatment was 10 to 15% of total RNA synthesis; in amino acid-supplemented media this proportion was 0 to 10%. In either case, the residual proportion of mRNA synthesis was independent of the proportions observed during exponential growth in these media. (iv) The absolute rate of mRNA synthesis decreased severalfold with the addition of CAM; i.e., the rate of synthesis of rRNA and tRNA was increased at the expense of mRNA synthesis. (v) During exponential growth, the fraction of the instantaneous rate of total RNA synthesis that corresponds to mRNA is a function of both the growth rate and the presence or absence of amino acids in the growth medium: in the absence of amino acids

  16. Conserved codon composition of ribosomal protein coding genes in Escherichia coli, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae: lessons from supervised machine learning in functional genomics.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kui; Kuang, Yuyu; Joseph, Jeremiah S; Kolatkar, Prasanna R

    2002-06-01

    Genomics projects have resulted in a flood of sequence data. Functional annotation currently relies almost exclusively on inter-species sequence comparison and is restricted in cases of limited data from related species and widely divergent sequences with no known homologs. Here, we demonstrate that codon composition, a fusion of codon usage bias and amino acid composition signals, can accurately discriminate, in the absence of sequence homology information, cytoplasmic ribosomal protein genes from all other genes of known function in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Escherichia coli and Mycobacterium tuberculosis using an implementation of support vector machines, SVM(light). Analysis of these codon composition signals is instructive in determining features that confer individuality to ribosomal protein genes. Each of the sets of positively charged, negatively charged and small hydrophobic residues, as well as codon bias, contribute to their distinctive codon composition profile. The representation of all these signals is sensitively detected, combined and augmented by the SVMs to perform an accurate classification. Of special mention is an obvious outlier, yeast gene RPL22B, highly homologous to RPL22A but employing very different codon usage, perhaps indicating a non-ribosomal function. Finally, we propose that codon composition be used in combination with other attributes in gene/protein classification by supervised machine learning algorithms. PMID:12034849

  17. Use of molecular beacons to probe for messenger RNA release from ribosomes during 5'-translational blockage by consecutive low-usage codons in Escherichia coli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Wenwu; Tyagi, Sanjay; Kramer, Fred R.; Goldman, Emanuel

    2000-03-01

    In `5'-translational blockage,' significantly reduced yields of proteins are synthesized in Escherichia coli when consecutive low-usage codons are inserted near translation starts of messages (with reduced or no effect when these same codons are inserted downstream). We tested the hypothesis that ribosomes encountering these low-usage codons prematurely release the mRNA. RNA from polysome gradients was fractionated into pools of polysomes, monosomes and ribosomes-free. New hybridization probes, called `molecular beacons,' and standard slot-blots, were used to detect test messages containing either consecutive low-usage AGG (arginine) or synonymous high-usage CGU insertions near the 5' end. The results show an approximately twofold increase in the ratio of free to bound mRNA when the low-usage codons were present compared to high-usage codons. In contrast, there was no difference in the ratio of free to bound mRNA when consecutive low-usage CUA or high-usage CUG (leucine) codons were inserted, or when the arginine codons were inserted near the 3' end. These data indicate that at least some mRNA is released from ribosomes during 5'-translational blockage by arginine but not leucine codons, and they support proposals that premature termination of translation can occur in some conditions in vivo in the absence of a stop codon.

  18. Escherichia coli (E. coli)

    MedlinePlus

    ... so you might hear about E. coli being found in drinking water, which are not themselves harmful, but indicate the ... at CDC Foodborne disease Travelers' Health: Safe Food & Water Healthy Swimming E. coli Infection & Farm ... Word file Microsoft Excel file Audio/Video file Apple ...

  19. Incorporation of single dinitrophenyl-modified proteins in to the 30S subunit of Escherichia coli ribosomes by total reconstitution for localization by immune electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Olah, T.V.

    1989-01-01

    The ribosome is a structurally defined organelle whose function is central to the existence of all organisms. It is the unique site of protein biosynthesis in all cells. A detailed understanding of ribosome structure is essential in understanding the process of translation. This thesis represents a new approach to the systematic localization of individual proteins contained in the small subunit of Escherichia coli ribosomes using immunoelectron microscopy. All 30S proteins were purified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and eight isolated proteins (S12,S21,S14,S19,S18,S17,S16 and S13) were derivatized with 2,4-(3,5-{sup 3}H)dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB). The extent of modification of these proteins was estimated by both radioactivity and integrated peak areas, using dual wavelength monitoring at 214nm to detect protein and 360nm (to detect dinitrophenyl groups). Each dinitrophenylated protein was introduced in place of the corresponding unmodified protein into totally reconstituted 30S subunits. Antibodies raised against the DNP-hapten bound effectively to such reconstituted subunits and did not cause dissociation of the modified protein from the subunit. Electron microscopy of the immune complexes was used to localize the modified protein on the subunit surface. Incorporation of any of the DNP-modified proteins, with the exception of DNP-S18, does not interfere with the functionality of the ribosome as measure by the binding of Phe-tRNA{sup Phe} or the synthesis of poly(Phe) in a poly(U)-dependent manner. Results show that unmodified protein competes with DNP-protein and that DNP-protein can function, as its native counterpart, in stimulating uptake of specific proteins during reconstitution. This data provides evidence that each DNP-protein occupies the same position in 30S subunits as does the corresponding unmodified protein.

  20. A high-throughput screen of the GTPase activity of Escherichia coli EngA to find an inhibitor of bacterial ribosome biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Bharat, Amrita; Blanchard, Jan E.; Brown, Eric D.

    2014-01-01

    The synthesis of ribosomes is an essential process, which is aided by a variety of transacting factors in bacteria. Among these is a group of GTPases essential for bacterial viability and emerging as promising targets for new antibacterial agents. Herein, we describe a robust high-throughput screening process for inhibitors of one such GTPase, the Escherichia coli EngA protein. The primary screen employed an assay of phosphate production in 384-well density. Reaction conditions were chosen to maximize sensitivity for the discovery of competitive inhibitors while maintaining a strong signal amplitude and low noise. In a pilot screen of 31,800 chemical compounds, 44 active compounds were identified. Further, we describe the elimination of non-specific inhibitors that were detergent-sensitive or reactive as well as those that interfered with the high-throughput phosphate assay. Four inhibitors survived these common counter-screens for non-specificity but these chemicals were also inhibitors of the unrelated enzyme dihydrofolate reductase, suggesting that they too were promiscuously active. The high-throughput screen of the EngA protein described here provides a meticulous pilot study in the search for specific inhibitors of GTPases involved in ribosome biogenesis. PMID:23606650

  1. Effect of an uncE ribosome-binding site mutation on the synthesis and assembly of the Escherichia coli proton-translocating ATPase.

    PubMed

    Solomon, K A; Brusilow, W S

    1988-04-15

    Plasmid pRPG54, which carries the genes for the eight subunits of the proton-translocating ATPase of Escherichia coli, has been found to carry a single base change of a G to an A in the ribosome-binding site for uncE, the gene which codes for the N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide-binding subunit c of the Fo. This noncoding region mutation both lowers expression of uncE by a factor of 2-3 and affects the function of the ATPase, specifically of the Fo sector. The presence of the mutation results in a decrease in the proton permeability of the Fo or of the entire F1Fo-ATPase complex when either is synthesized from genes on a multicopy plasmid. Expression of uncE from an F1Fo plasmid carrying the wild type ribosome binding site results in increased membrane proton permeability and decreased ability of the resultant ATPase to couple a transmembrane proton gradient to ATP synthesis both in vitro and in vivo. Also, although an Fo plasmid carrying the correct ribosome-binding site causes harmful, F1-dependent proton permeability in unc+ cells (Brusilow, W. S. S. (1987) J. Bacteriol. 169, 4984-4990), an identical plasmid carrying the mutation does not, even though it still codes for a functional reconstitutable Fo. The results show a relationship between the relative level of expression of uncE from a multicopy plasmid and the assembly pathway, proton permeability, and energy-coupling characteristics of the ATPase. PMID:2895768

  2. The extended loops of ribosomal proteins uL4 and uL22 of Escherichia coli contribute to ribosome assembly and protein translation.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Marlon G; Shamsuzzaman, Md; Kondopaka, Maithri; Pascual, Clarence; Zengel, Janice M; Lindahl, Lasse

    2016-07-01

    Nearly half of ribosomal proteins are composed of a domain on the ribosome surface and a loop or extension that penetrates into the organelle's RNA core. Our previous work showed that ribosomes lacking the loops of ribosomal proteins uL4 or uL22 are still capable of entering polysomes. However, in those experiments we could not address the formation of mutant ribosomes, because we used strains that also expressed wild-type uL4 and uL22. Here, we have focused on ribosome assembly and function in strains in which loop deletion mutant genes are the ONLY: sources of uL4 or uL22 protein. The uL4 and uL22 loop deletions have different effects, but both mutations result in accumulation of immature particles that do not accumulate in detectable amounts in wild-type strains. Thus, our results suggest that deleting the loops creates kinetic barriers in the normal assembly pathway, possibly resulting in assembly via alternate pathway(s). Furthermore, deletion of the uL4 loop results in cold-sensitive ribosome assembly and function. Finally, ribosomes carrying either of the loop-deleted proteins responded normally to the secM translation pausing peptide, but the uL4 mutant responded very inefficiently to the cmlA(crb) pause peptide. PMID:27257065

  3. The extended loops of ribosomal proteins uL4 and uL22 of Escherichia coli contribute to ribosome assembly and protein translation

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Marlon G.; Shamsuzzaman, Md; Kondopaka, Maithri; Pascual, Clarence; Zengel, Janice M.; Lindahl, Lasse

    2016-01-01

    Nearly half of ribosomal proteins are composed of a domain on the ribosome surface and a loop or extension that penetrates into the organelle's RNA core. Our previous work showed that ribosomes lacking the loops of ribosomal proteins uL4 or uL22 are still capable of entering polysomes. However, in those experiments we could not address the formation of mutant ribosomes, because we used strains that also expressed wild-type uL4 and uL22. Here, we have focused on ribosome assembly and function in strains in which loop deletion mutant genes are the only sources of uL4 or uL22 protein. The uL4 and uL22 loop deletions have different effects, but both mutations result in accumulation of immature particles that do not accumulate in detectable amounts in wild-type strains. Thus, our results suggest that deleting the loops creates kinetic barriers in the normal assembly pathway, possibly resulting in assembly via alternate pathway(s). Furthermore, deletion of the uL4 loop results in cold-sensitive ribosome assembly and function. Finally, ribosomes carrying either of the loop-deleted proteins responded normally to the secM translation pausing peptide, but the uL4 mutant responded very inefficiently to the cmlAcrb pause peptide. PMID:27257065

  4. Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Nataro, James P.; Kaper, James B.

    1998-01-01

    Escherichia coli is the predominant nonpathogenic facultative flora of the human intestine. Some E. coli strains, however, have developed the ability to cause disease of the gastrointestinal, urinary, or central nervous system in even the most robust human hosts. Diarrheagenic strains of E. coli can be divided into at least six different categories with corresponding distinct pathogenic schemes. Taken together, these organisms probably represent the most common cause of pediatric diarrhea worldwide. Several distinct clinical syndromes accompany infection with diarrheagenic E. coli categories, including traveler’s diarrhea (enterotoxigenic E. coli), hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic-uremic syndrome (enterohemorrhagic E. coli), persistent diarrhea (enteroaggregative E. coli), and watery diarrhea of infants (enteropathogenic E. coli). This review discusses the current level of understanding of the pathogenesis of the diarrheagenic E. coli strains and describes how their pathogenic schemes underlie the clinical manifestations, diagnostic approach, and epidemiologic investigation of these important pathogens. PMID:9457432

  5. Pathogenic Escherichia coli

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Escherichia coli, a member of the Enterobacteriaceae family, is a part of the normal flora of the intestinal tract of humans and a variety of animals. E. coli strains are classified on the basis of antigenic differences in two surface components (serotyping), the somatic antigen (O) of the lipopoly...

  6. PATHOGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI

    EPA Science Inventory

    Escherichia coli is a bacterial species which inhabits the gastrointestinal tract of man and warm-blooded animals. Because of the ubiquity of this bacterium in the intestinal flora, it serves as an important indicator organism of fecal contamination. E. coli, aside from serving a...

  7. Methylation sites in Escherichia coli ribosomal RNA: localization and identification of four new sites of methylation in 23S rRNA.

    PubMed

    Smith, J E; Cooperman, B S; Mitchell, P

    1992-11-10

    Four previously undetermined sites of methylation are mapped in Escherichia coli 23S rRNA employing a novel combination of methods. First, using a double-isotope approach, the total number of methyl groups in 23S rRNA was determined to be 14.9 +/- 1.6. Second, hybridization of methyl-labeled rRNA to complementary DNA restriction fragments and PAGE analysis were used to purify RNA-DNA heteroduplexes and to quantify methyl groups within specific 23S rRNA fragments. Third, the methylated nucleosides in these fragments were identified and quantified using HPLC, confirming the presence of 14 methylation sites in 23S rRNA, four more than had been previously identified. In contrast, a similar set of analyses conducted on 16S rRNA gave evidence for 10 sites of methylation, at all approximate locations consistent with published 16S methylated nucleoside identities and locations. Selected regions of the 23S rRNA molecule containing previously unidentified methylated nucleosides were released by site-directed cleavage with ribonuclease H and isolated by PAGE. Sites of methylation within the RNA fragments were determined by classical oligonucleotide analyses. The four newly identified methylation sites in 23S rRNA are m2G-1835, m5C-1962, m6A-2503, and m2G at one of positions 2445-2447. Together with previously described sites of modification, these new sites form a group that is clustered in a current model for the three-dimensional organization of the 23S rRNA in the 50S ribosomal subunit, at a locus congruent with nucleotides previously implicated in ribosomal function. PMID:1384701

  8. The 16S rRNA binding site of Thermus thermophilus ribosomal protein S15: comparison with Escherichia coli S15, minimum site and structure.

    PubMed

    Serganov, A A; Masquida, B; Westhof, E; Cachia, C; Portier, C; Garber, M; Ehresmann, B; Ehresmann, C

    1996-11-01

    Binding of Escherichia coli and Thermus thermophilus ribosomal proteins S15 to a 16S ribosomal RNA fragment from T. thermophilus (nt 559-753) has been investigated in detail by extensive deletion analysis, filter-binding assays, gel mobility shift, structure probing, footprinting with chemical, enzymatic, and hydroxyl radical probes. Both S15 proteins recognize two distinct sites. The first one maps in the bottom of helix 638-655/717-734 (H22) and in the three-way junction between helix 560-570/737-747 (H20), helix 571-600/606-634 (H21), and H22. The second is located in a conserved purine-rich region in the center of H22. The first site provides a higher contribution to the free energy of binding than the second one, and both are required for efficient binding. A short RNA fragment of 56 nt containing these elements binds S15 with high affinity. The structure of the rRNA is constrained by the three-way junction and requires both magnesium and S15 to be stabilized. A 3D model, derived by computer modeling with the use of experimental data, suggests that the bound form adopts a Y-shaped conformation, with a quasi-coaxial stacking of H22 on H20, and H21 forming an acute angle with H22. In this model, S15 binds to the shallow groove of the RNA on the exterior side of the Y-shaped structure, making contact with the two sites, which are separated by one helix turn. PMID:8903343

  9. Pathogenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Kaper, James B; Nataro, James P; Mobley, Harry L

    2004-02-01

    Few microorganisms are as versatile as Escherichia coli. An important member of the normal intestinal microflora of humans and other mammals, E. coli has also been widely exploited as a cloning host in recombinant DNA technology. But E. coli is more than just a laboratory workhorse or harmless intestinal inhabitant; it can also be a highly versatile, and frequently deadly, pathogen. Several different E. coli strains cause diverse intestinal and extraintestinal diseases by means of virulence factors that affect a wide range of cellular processes. PMID:15040260

  10. Effects of base change mutations within an Escherichia coli ribosomal RNA leader region on rRNA maturation and ribosome formation

    PubMed Central

    Schäferkordt, Jan; Wagner, Rolf

    2001-01-01

    The effects of base change mutations in a highly conserved sequence (boxC) within the leader of bacterial ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) was studied. The boxC sequence preceding the 16S rRNA structural gene constitutes part of the RNase III processing site, one of the first cleavage sites on the pathway to mature 16S rRNA. Moreover, rRNA leader sequences facilitate correct 16S rRNA folding, thereby assisting ribosomal subunit formation. Mutations in boxC cause cold sensitivity and result in 16S rRNA and 30S subunit deficiency. Strains in which all rRNA operons are replaced by mutant transcription units are viable. Thermodynamic studies by temperature gradient gel electrophoresis reveal that mutant transcripts have a different, less ordered structure. In addition, RNA secondary structure differences between mutant and wild-type transcripts were determined by chemical and enzymatic probing. Differences are found in the leader RNA sequence itself but also in structurally important regions of the mature 16S rRNA. A minor fraction of the rRNA transcripts from mutant operons is not processed by RNase III, resulting in a significantly extended precursor half-life compared to the wild-type. The boxC mutations also give rise to a new aberrant degradation product of 16S rRNA. This intermediate cannot be detected in strains lacking RNase III. Together the results indicate that the boxC sequence, although important for RNase III processing, is likely to serve additional functions by facilitating correct formation of the mature 16S rRNA structure. They also suggest that quality control steps are acting during ribosome biogenesis. PMID:11504877

  11. Genetic recombination. [Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Stahl, F.W.

    1987-02-01

    The molecular pathways of gene recombination are explored and compared in studies of the model organisms, Escherichia coli and phase lambda. In the discussion of data from these studies it seems that recombination varies with the genetic idiosyncrasies of the organism and may also vary within a single organism.

  12. Tn9 and IS1 inserts in a ribosomal ribonucleic acid operon of Escherichia coli are incompletely polar.

    PubMed Central

    Brewster, J M; Morgan, E A

    1981-01-01

    Transcription is known to be coupled to translation in many or all bacterial operons which code for proteins. In these operons, nonsense codons which prevent normal translation often result in premature termination of transcription (polarity). However, efficient transcription of ribosomal ribonucleic acid operons (rrn operons) occurs, although rrn transcripts are not translated. It therefore seemed possible that insertion sequences and transposable elements which are polar in protein-coding operons might not be polar in rrn operons. Previously, it has been shown (E. A. Morgan, Cell 21:257-265, 1980) that Tn10 is incompletely polar in the rrnX operon. Here we show that the transposon Tn9 and the insertion sequence IS1 also incompletely polar in rrnX. In normal cells expression of sequences distal to the insertions can be detected by genetic methods. In ultraviolet-irradiated cells expression of distal sequences is about 80% of that observed in uninterrupted rrnX operons. These observations provide evidence that ribonucleic acid polymerase molecules beginning at rrnX promoters can read through Tn9 and IS1 and that, at least in ultraviolet-irradiated cells, read-through is very efficient. Images PMID:6171559

  13. Evidence for the ability of L10 ribosomal proteins of Salmonella typhimurium and Klebsiella pneumoniae to regulate rplJL gene expression in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Paton, E B; Woodmaska, M I; Kroupskaya, I V; Zhyvoloup, A N; Matsuka, G Kh

    1990-06-01

    Genes rplJ, coding for ribosomal protein L10 of Salmonella typhimurium and Klebsiella pneumoniae, have been cloned on pUC plasmid. The resultant multicopy recombinant plasmids were detrimental for the growth of normal JM101 E. coli host cells and harmless for the mutant JF3029 host. This negative effect is the evidence for the ability of heterologous L10 proteins to regulate expression of rplJL genes in E. coli. Nucleotide sequence was determined completely for S. typhimurium rplJL' DNA portion and partially for rplJL' genes of K. pneumoniae. According to the nucleotide sequence data obtained three amino acid substitutions differ L10 proteins of S. typhimurium and E. coli and the long range, providing for the coupled translations of L10 and L7/L12 cistrons in E. coli mRNA is also valid for S. typhimurium and K. pneumoniae. PMID:2194828

  14. Recurrent Escherichia coli bacteremia.

    PubMed Central

    Maslow, J N; Mulligan, M E; Arbeit, R D

    1994-01-01

    Escherichia coli is the most common gram-negative organism associated with bacteremia. While recurrent E. coli urinary tract infections are well-described, recurrent E. coli bacteremia appears to be uncommon, with no episodes noted in multiple series of patients with gram-negative bacteremias. We report on 5 patients with recurrent bloodstream infections identified from a series of 163 patients with E. coli bacteremia. For each patient, the isolates from each episode were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and ribotyping and for the presence of E. coli virulence factors. For each of four patients, the index and recurrent episodes of bacteremia represented the same strain as defined by PFGE, and the strains were found to carry one or more virulence factors. The remaining patient, with two episodes of bloodstream infection separated by a 4-year interval, was infected with two isolates that did not carry any virulence factors and that were clonally related by ribotype analysis but differed by PFGE. All five patients had either a local host defense defect (three patients) or impaired systemic defenses (one patient) or both (one patient). Thus, recurrent E. coli bacteremia is likely to represent a multifactorial process that occurs in patients with impaired host defenses who are infected with virulent isolates. Images PMID:7910828

  15. deaD, a new Escherichia coli gene encoding a presumed ATP-dependent RNA helicase, can suppress a mutation in rpsB, the gene encoding ribosomal protein S2.

    PubMed Central

    Toone, W M; Rudd, K E; Friesen, J D

    1991-01-01

    We have cloned and sequenced a new gene from Escherichia coli which encodes a 64-kDa protein. The inferred amino acid sequence of the protein shows remarkable similarity to eIF4A, a murine translation initiation factor that has an ATP-dependent RNA helicase activity and is a founding member of the D-E-A-D family of proteins (characterized by a conserved Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp motif). Our new gene, called deaD, was cloned as a gene dosage-dependent suppressor of temperature-sensitive mutations in rpsB, the gene encoding ribosomal protein S2. We suggest that the DeaD protein plays a hitherto unknown role in translation in E. coli. Images PMID:2045359

  16. Selective translation during stress in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Moll, Isabella; Engelberg-Kulka, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    The bacterial stress response, a strategy to cope with environmental changes, is generally known to operate on the transcriptional level. Here, we discuss a novel paradigm for stress adaptation at the post-transcriptional level, based on the recent discovery of a stress-induced modified form of the translation machinery in Escherichia coli that is generated by MazF, the toxin component of the toxin–antitoxin (TA) module mazEF. Under stress, the induced endoribonuclease MazF removes the 3′-terminal 43 nucleotides of the 16S rRNA of ribosomes and, concomitantly, the 5′-untranslated regions (UTRs) of specific transcripts. This elegant mechanism enables selective translation due to the complementary effect of MazF on ribosomes and mRNAs, and also represents the first example of functional ribosome heterogeneity based on rRNA alteration. PMID:22939840

  17. Structure of the DNA distal to the gene for ribosomal protein S20 in Escherichia coli K12: presence of a strong terminator and an IS1 element.

    PubMed Central

    Mackie, G A

    1986-01-01

    The sequence of nucleotides extending over 2.3 kb distal to the gene for ribosomal protein S20 of E. coli has been determined. Included in the sequence is an efficient rho-independent terminator 50 b.p. distal to the coding sequence for S20, a complete copy of IS1 which lacks, however, flanking direct repeats, and finally, an open reading frame capable of encoding a 28 kDa polypeptide of unknown function. Several lines of evidence suggest that the IS1 sequence described here must represent one of the copies resident in the bacterial chromosome rather than a newly transposed copy. Northern blotting experiments show that the gene for S20 is functionally monocistronic under all conditions tested in several genetic backgrounds. Thus it seems unlikely that the distal copy of IS1 plays any role in the termination or stability of mRNA transcribed from the gene for S20. Images PMID:2429258

  18. Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli Adhesins.

    PubMed

    McWilliams, Brian D; Torres, Alfredo G

    2014-06-01

    Adhesins are a group of proteins in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) that are involved in the attachment or colonization of this pathogen to abiotic (plastic or steel) and biological surfaces, such as those found in bovine and human intestines. This review provides the most up-to-date information on these essential adhesion factors, summarizing important historical discoveries and analyzing the current and future state of this research. In doing so, the proteins intimin and Tir are discussed in depth, especially regarding their role in the development of attaching and effacing lesions and in EHEC virulence. Further, a series of fimbrial proteins (Lpf1, Lpf2, curli, ECP, F9, ELF, Sfp, HCP, and type 1 fimbria) are also described, emphasizing their various contributions to adherence and colonization of different surfaces and their potential use as genetic markers in detection and classification of different EHEC serotypes. This review also discusses the role of several autotransporter proteins (EhaA-D, EspP, Saa and Sab, and Cah), as well as other proteins associated with adherence, such as flagella, EibG, Iha, and OmpA. While these proteins have all been studied to varying degrees, all of the adhesins summarized in this article have been linked to different stages of the EHEC life cycle, making them good targets for the development of more effective diagnostics and therapeutics. PMID:26103974

  19. Emerging Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Strains?

    PubMed Central

    Irino, Kinue; Girão, Dennys M.; Girão, Valéria B.C.; Guth, Beatriz E.C.; Vaz, Tânia M.I.; Moreira, Fabiana C.; Chinarelli, Silvia H.; Vieira, Mônica A.M.

    2004-01-01

    Escherichia coli strains of nonenteropathogenic serogroups carrying eae but lacking the enteropathogenic E. coli adherence factor plasmid and Shiga toxin DNA probe sequences were isolated from patients (children, adults, and AIDS patients) with and without diarrhea in Brazil. Although diverse in phenotype and genotype, some strains are potentially diarrheagenic. PMID:15504277

  20. EXTRAINTESTINAL PATHOGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI (EXPEC)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) possess virulence traits that allow them to invade, colonize, and induce disease in bodily sites outside of the gastrointestinal tract. Human diseases caused by ExPEC include urinary tract infections, neonatal meningitis, sepsis, pneumonia, surgic...

  1. Specific recognition of rpsO mRNA and 16S rRNA by Escherichia coli ribosomal protein S15 relies on both mimicry and site differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Mathy, Nathalie; Pellegrini, Olivier; Serganov, Alexander; Patel, Dinshaw J.; Ehresmann, Chantal; Portier, Claude

    2015-01-01

    Summary The ribosomal protein S15 binds to 16S rRNA, during ribosome assembly, and to its own mRNA (rpsO mRNA), affecting autocontrol of its expression. In both cases, the RNA binding site is bipartite with a common subsite consisting of a G•U/G-C motif. The second subsite is located in a three-way junction in 16S rRNA and in the distal part of a stem forming a pseudoknot in Escherichia coli rpsO mRNA. To determine the extent of mimicry between these two RNA targets, we determined which amino acids interact with rpsO mRNA. A plasmid carrying rpsO (the S15 gene) was mutagenized and introduced into a strain lacking S15 and harbouring an rpsO–lacZ translational fusion. Analysis of deregulated mutants shows that each subsite of rpsO mRNA is recognized by a set of amino acids known to interact with 16S rRNA. In addition to the G•U/G-C motif, which is recognized by the same amino acids in both targets, the other subsite interacts with amino acids also involved in contacts with helix H22 of 16S rRNA, in the region adjacent to the three-way junction. However, specific S15–rpsO mRNA interactions can also be found, probably with A(−46) in loop L1 of the pseudoknot, demonstrating that mimicry between the two targets is limited. PMID:15101974

  2. Initiation factor IF 2 binds to the alpha-sarcin loop and helix 89 of Escherichia coli 23S ribosomal RNA.

    PubMed Central

    La Teana, A; Gualerzi, C O; Dahlberg, A E

    2001-01-01

    During initiation of protein synthesis in bacteria, translation initiation factor IF2 is responsible for the recognition of the initiator tRNA (fMet-tRNA). To perform this function, IF2 binds to the ribosome interacting with both 30S and 50S ribosomal subunits. Here we report the topographical localization of translation initiation factor IF2 on the 70S ribosome determined by base-specific chemical probing. Our results indicate that IF2 specifically protects from chemical modification two sites in domain V of 23S rRNA, namely A2476 and A2478, and residues around position 2660 in domain VI, the so-called sarcin-ricin loop. These footprints are generated by IF2 regardless of the presence of fMet-tRNA, GTP, mRNA, and IF1. IF2 causes no specific protection of 16S rRNA. We observe a decreased reactivity of residues A1418 and A1483, which is an indication that the initiation factor has a tightening effect on the association of ribosomal subunits. This result, confirmed by sucrose density gradient analysis, seems to be a universally conserved property of IF2. PMID:11497435

  3. Shiga Toxin Producing Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Allen; Youngster, Ilan; McAdam, Alexander J

    2015-06-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is among the common causes of foodborne gastroenteritis. STEC is defined by the production of specific toxins, but within this pathotype there is a diverse group of organisms. This diversity has important consequences for understanding the pathogenesis of the organism, as well as for selecting the optimum strategy for diagnostic testing in the clinical laboratory. This review includes discussions of the mechanisms of pathogenesis, the range of manifestations of infection, and the several different methods of laboratory detection of Shiga toxin-producing E coli. PMID:26004641

  4. Colicin E3 cleavage of 16S rRNA impairs decoding and accelerates tRNA translocation on Escherichia coli ribosomes

    PubMed Central

    Lancaster, Lorna E; Savelsbergh, Andreas; Kleanthous, Colin; Wintermeyer, Wolfgang; Rodnina, Marina V

    2008-01-01

    The cytotoxin colicin E3 targets the 30S subunit of bacterial ribosomes and specifically cleaves 16S rRNA at the decoding centre, thereby inhibiting translation. Although the cleavage site is well known, it is not clear which step of translation is inhibited. We studied the effects of colicin E3 cleavage on ribosome functions by analysing individual steps of protein synthesis. We find that the cleavage affects predominantly the elongation step. The inhibitory effect of colicin E3 cleavage originates from the accumulation of sequential impaired decoding events, each of which results in low occupancy of the A site and, consequently, decreasing yield of elongating peptide. The accumulation leads to an almost complete halt of translation after reading of a few codons. The cleavage of 16S rRNA does not impair monitoring of codon–anticodon complexes or GTPase activation during elongation-factor Tu-dependent binding of aminoacyl-tRNA, but decreases the stability of the codon–recognition complex and slows down aminoacyl-tRNA accommodation in the A site. The tRNA–mRNA translocation is faster on colicin E3-cleaved than on intact ribosomes and is less sensitive to inhibition by the antibiotic viomycin. PMID:18485067

  5. Structural studies of E. coli ribosomes by spectroscopic techniques: A specialized review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonicontro, Adalberto; Risuleo, Gianfranco

    2005-12-01

    We present a review on our interdisciplinary line of research based on strategies of molecular biology and biophysics. These have been applied to the study of the prokaryotic ribosome of the bacterium Escherichia coli. Our investigations on this organelle have continued for more than a decade and we have adopted different spectroscopic biophysical techniques such as: dielectric and fluorescence spectroscopy as well as light scattering (photon correlation spectroscopy). Here we report studies on the whole 70S ribosomes and on the separated subunits 30S and 50S. Our results evidence intrinsic structural features of the subunits: the small shows a more "floppy" structure, while the large one appears to be more rigid. Also, an inner "kernel" formed by the RNA/protein association is found within the ribosome. This kernel is surrounded by a ribonucleoprotein complex more exposed to the solvent. Initial analyses were done on the so called Kaldtschmit-Wittmann ribosome: more recently we have extended the studies to the "tight couple" ribosome known for its better functional performance in vitro. Data evidence a phenomenological correlation between the differential biological activity and the intrinsic structural properties of the two-ribosome species. Finally, investigations were also conducted on particles treated at sub-denaturing temperatures and on ribosomes partially deproteinized by salt treatment (ribosomal cores). Results suggest that the thermal treatment and the selective removal of proteins cause analogous structural alterations.

  6. Cotranscription of two genes necessary for ribosomal protein L11 methylation (prmA) and pantothenate transport (panF) in Escherichia coli K-12.

    PubMed

    Vanet, A; Plumbridge, J A; Alix, J H

    1993-11-01

    Genetic complementation and enzyme assays have shown that the DNA region between panF, which encodes pantothenate permease, and orf1, the first gene of the fis operon, encodes prmA, the genetic determinant for the ribosomal protein L11 methyltransferase. Sequencing of this region identified one long open reading frame that encodes a protein of 31,830 Da and corresponds to the prmA gene. We found, both in vivo and in vitro, that prmA is expressed from promoters located upstream of panF and thus that the panF and prmA genes constitute a bifunctional operon. We located the major 3' end of prmA transcripts 90 nucleotides downstream of the stop codon of prmA in the DNA region upstream of the fis operon, a region implicated in the control of the expression of the fis operon. Although no promoter activity was detected immediately upstream of prmA, S1 mapping detected 5' ends of mRNA in this region, implying that some mRNA processing occurs within the bicistronic panF-prmA mRNA. PMID:8226664

  7. SEROLOGICAL CROSS-REACTIONS BETWEEN ESCHERICHIA COLI 0157 AND OTHER SPECIES OF THE GENUS ESCHERICHIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Escherichia hermannii, a sorbitol-negative species of the genus Escherichia, has been reported to be agglutinated by Escherichia coli 0157 and four sorbitol-negative species of the genus Escherichia: . hermannii (24 isolates), Escherichia fergusonii (12 isolates), Escherichia vul...

  8. A Single Missense Mutation in a Coiled-Coil Domain of Escherichia coli Ribosomal Protein S2 Confers a Thermosensitive Phenotype That Can Be Suppressed by Ribosomal Protein S1

    PubMed Central

    Aseev, Leonid V.; Chugunov, Anton O.; Efremov, Roman G.

    2013-01-01

    Ribosomal protein S2 is an essential component of translation machinery, and its viable mutated variants conferring distinct phenotypes serve as a valuable tool in studying the role of S2 in translation regulation. One of a few available rpsB mutants, rpsB1, shows thermosensitivity and ensures enhanced expression of leaderless mRNAs. In this study, we identified the nature of the rpsB1 mutation. Sequencing of the rpsB1 allele revealed a G-to-A transition in the part of the rpsB gene which encodes a coiled-coil domain of S2. The resulting E132K substitution resides in a highly conserved site, TKKE, a so-called N-terminal capping box, at the beginning of the second alpha helix. The protruding coiled-coil domain of S2 is known to provide binding with 16S rRNA in the head of the 30S subunit and, in addition, to interact with a key mRNA binding protein, S1. Molecular dynamics simulations revealed a detrimental impact of the E132K mutation on the coiled-coil structure and thereby on the interactions between S2 and 16S rRNA, providing a clue for the thermosensitivity of the rpsB1 mutant. Using a strain producing a leaderless lacZ transcript from the chromosomal lac promoter, we demonstrated that not only the rpsB1 mutation generating S2/S1-deficient ribosomes but also the rpsA::IS10 mutation leading to partial deficiency in S1 alone increased translation efficiency of the leaderless mRNA by about 10-fold. Moderate overexpression of S1 relieved all these effects and, moreover, suppressed the thermosensitive phenotype of rpsB1, indicating the role of S1 as an extragenic suppressor of the E132K mutation. PMID:23104805

  9. Cross-linking of initiation factor IF3 to Escherichia coli 30S ribosomal subunit by trans-diamminedichloroplatinum(II): characterization of two cross-linking sites in 16S rRNA; a possible way of functioning for IF3.

    PubMed Central

    Ehresmann, C; Moine, H; Mougel, M; Dondon, J; Grunberg-Manago, M; Ebel, J P; Ehresmann, B

    1986-01-01

    The initiation factor IF3 is platinated with trans-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) and cross-linked to Escherichia coli 30S ribosomal subunit. Two cross-linking sites are unambiguously identified on the 16S rRNA: a major one, in the region 819-859 in the central domain, and a minor one, in the region 1506-1529 in the 3'-terminal domain. Specific features of these sequences together with their particular location within the 30S subunit lead us to postulate a role for IF3, that conciliates topographical and functional observations made so far. Images PMID:2425339

  10. Quantitative assessment of ribosome drop-off in E. coli.

    PubMed

    Sin, Celine; Chiarugi, Davide; Valleriani, Angelo

    2016-04-01

    Premature ribosome drop-off is one of the major errors in translation of mRNA by ribosomes. However, repeated analyses of Ribo-seq data failed to quantify its strength inE. coli Relying on a novel highly sensitive data analysis method we show that a significant rate of ribosome drop-off is measurable and can be quantified also when cells are cultured under non-stressing conditions. Moreover, we find that the drop-off rate is highly variable, depending on multiple factors. In particular, under environmental stress such as amino acid starvation or ethanol intoxication, the drop-off rate markedly increases. PMID:26935582

  11. Quantitative assessment of ribosome drop-off in E. coli

    PubMed Central

    Sin, Celine; Chiarugi, Davide; Valleriani, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    Premature ribosome drop-off is one of the major errors in translation of mRNA by ribosomes. However, repeated analyses of Ribo-seq data failed to quantify its strength in E. coli. Relying on a novel highly sensitive data analysis method we show that a significant rate of ribosome drop-off is measurable and can be quantified also when cells are cultured under non-stressing conditions. Moreover, we find that the drop-off rate is highly variable, depending on multiple factors. In particular, under environmental stress such as amino acid starvation or ethanol intoxication, the drop-off rate markedly increases. PMID:26935582

  12. Nonchemotactic Mutants of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, John B.; Adler, Julius; Dahl, Margaret M.

    1967-01-01

    We have isolated 40 mutants of Escherichia coli which are nonchemotactic as judged by their failure to swarm on semisolid tryptone plates or to make bands in capillary tubes containing tryptone broth. All the mutants have normal flagella, a fact shown by their shape and reaction with antiflagella serum. All are fully motile under the microscope and all are sensitive to the phage chi. Unlike its parent, one of the mutants, studied in greater detail, failed to show chemotaxis toward oxygen, glucose, serine, threonine, or aspartic acid. The failure to exhibit chemotaxis does not result from a failure to use the chemicals. The swimming of this mutant was shown to be random. The growth rate was normal under several conditions, and the growth requirements were unchanged. Images PMID:5335897

  13. Peptidoglycan Hydrolases of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    van Heijenoort, Jean

    2011-01-01

    Summary: The review summarizes the abundant information on the 35 identified peptidoglycan (PG) hydrolases of Escherichia coli classified into 12 distinct families, including mainly glycosidases, peptidases, and amidases. An attempt is also made to critically assess their functions in PG maturation, turnover, elongation, septation, and recycling as well as in cell autolysis. There is at least one hydrolytic activity for each bond linking PG components, and most hydrolase genes were identified. Few hydrolases appear to be individually essential. The crystal structures and reaction mechanisms of certain hydrolases having defined functions were investigated. However, our knowledge of the biochemical properties of most hydrolases still remains fragmentary, and that of their cellular functions remains elusive. Owing to redundancy, PG hydrolases far outnumber the enzymes of PG biosynthesis. The presence of the two sets of enzymes acting on the PG bonds raises the question of their functional correlations. It is difficult to understand why E. coli keeps such a large set of PG hydrolases. The subtle differences in substrate specificities between the isoenzymes of each family certainly reflect a variety of as-yet-unidentified physiological functions. Their study will be a far more difficult challenge than that of the steps of the PG biosynthesis pathway. PMID:22126997

  14. Structures of the E. coli translating ribosome with SRP and its receptor and with the translocon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jomaa, Ahmad; Boehringer, Daniel; Leibundgut, Marc; Ban, Nenad

    2016-01-01

    Co-translational protein targeting to membranes is a universally conserved process. Central steps include cargo recognition by the signal recognition particle and handover to the Sec translocon. Here we present snapshots of key co-translational-targeting complexes solved by cryo-electron microscopy at near-atomic resolution, establishing the molecular contacts between the Escherichia coli translating ribosome, the signal recognition particle and the translocon. Our results reveal the conformational changes that regulate the latching of the signal sequence, the release of the heterodimeric domains of the signal recognition particle and its receptor, and the handover of the signal sequence to the translocon. We also observe that the signal recognition particle and the translocon insert-specific structural elements into the ribosomal tunnel to remodel it, possibly to sense nascent chains. Our work provides structural evidence for a conformational state of the signal recognition particle and its receptor primed for translocon binding to the ribosome-nascent chain complex.

  15. Structures of the E. coli translating ribosome with SRP and its receptor and with the translocon.

    PubMed

    Jomaa, Ahmad; Boehringer, Daniel; Leibundgut, Marc; Ban, Nenad

    2016-01-01

    Co-translational protein targeting to membranes is a universally conserved process. Central steps include cargo recognition by the signal recognition particle and handover to the Sec translocon. Here we present snapshots of key co-translational-targeting complexes solved by cryo-electron microscopy at near-atomic resolution, establishing the molecular contacts between the Escherichia coli translating ribosome, the signal recognition particle and the translocon. Our results reveal the conformational changes that regulate the latching of the signal sequence, the release of the heterodimeric domains of the signal recognition particle and its receptor, and the handover of the signal sequence to the translocon. We also observe that the signal recognition particle and the translocon insert-specific structural elements into the ribosomal tunnel to remodel it, possibly to sense nascent chains. Our work provides structural evidence for a conformational state of the signal recognition particle and its receptor primed for translocon binding to the ribosome-nascent chain complex. PMID:26804923

  16. Kasugamycin-dependent mutants of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Dabbs, E R

    1978-01-01

    Kasugamycin-dependent mutants have been isolated from Escherichia coli B. They were obtained through mutagenesis with ethyl methane sulfonate or nitrosoguanidine in conjunction with an antibiotic underlay technique. In the case of nitrosoguanidine, dependent mutants were obtained at a frequency of about 3% of survivors growing up in the selection. In the case of ethyl methane sulfonate, the corresponding value was 1%. Nineteen mutants showing a kasugamycin-dependent phenotype were studied. In terms of response to various temperatures and antibiotic concentrations, they were very heterogeneous, although most fell into two general classes. Genetic analysis indicated that in at least some cases, the kasugamycin-dependent phenotype was the product of two mutations. Two-dimensional gel electropherograms revealed alterations in the ribosomal proteins of seven mutants. One mutant had an alteration in protein S13, and one had an alteration in protein L14. Three showed changes in protein S9. Each of two mutants had changes in two proteins, S18 and L11. Three of these mutants additionally had protein S18 occurring in a partly altered, partly unaltered form. Images PMID:363701

  17. Protein-RNA crosslinking in Escherichia coli 30S ribosomal subunits. Identification of a 16S rRNA fragment crosslinked to protein S12 by the use of the chemical crosslinking reagent 1-ethyl-3-dimethyl-aminopropylcarbodiimide.

    PubMed Central

    Chiaruttini, C; Expert-Bezançon, A; Hayes, D; Ehresmann, B

    1982-01-01

    1-ethyl-3-dimethyl aminopropylcarbodiimide (EDC) was used to cross-link 30S ribosomal proteins to 16S rRNA within the E. coli 3OS ribosomal subunit. Covalently linked complexes containing 30S proteins and 16S rRNA, isolated by sedimentation of dissociated crosslinked 30S subunits through SDS containing sucrose gradients, were digested with RNase T1, and the resulting oligonucleotide-protein complexes were fractionated on SDS containing polyacrylamide gels. Eluted complexes containing 30S proteins S9 and S12 linked to oligonucleotides were obtained in pure form. Oligonucleotide 5'terminal labelling was successful in the case of S12 containing but not of the S9 containing complex and led to identification of the S12 bound oligonucleotide as CAACUCG which is located at positions 1316-1322 in the 16S rRNA sequence. Protein S12 is crosslinked to the terminal G of this heptanucleotide. Images PMID:6760129

  18. Entropy-based mechanism of ribosome-nucleoid segregation in E. coli cells.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Jagannath; Bratton, Benjamin P; Li, Yijie; Yethiraj, Arun; Weisshaar, James C

    2011-06-01

    In Escherichia coli, ribosomes concentrate near the cylindrical wall and at the endcaps, whereas the chromosomal DNA segregates in the more centrally located nucleoid. A simple statistical model recovers the observed ribosome-nucleoid segregation remarkably well. Plectonemic DNA is represented as a hyperbranched hard-sphere polymer, and multiple ribosomes that simultaneously translate the same mRNA strand (polysomes) are represented as freely jointed chains of hard spheres. There are no attractive interactions between particles, only excluded-volume effects. At realistic DNA and ribosome concentrations, segregation arises primarily from two effects: the DNA polymer avoids walls to maximize conformational entropy, and the polysomes occupy the empty space near the walls to maximize translational entropy. In this complex system, maximizing total entropy results in spatial organization of the components. Due to coupling of mRNA to DNA through RNA polymerase, the same entropic effects should favor the placement of highly expressed genes at the interface between the nucleoid and the ribosome-rich periphery. Such a placement would enable efficient cotranscriptional translation and facile transertion of membrane proteins into the cytoplasmic membrane. Finally, in the model, monofunctional DNA polymer beads representing the tips of plectonemes preferentially locate near the cylindrical wall. This suggests that initiation of transcription may occur preferentially near the ribosome-rich periphery. PMID:21641305

  19. Structure of Escherichia coli tryptophanase.

    PubMed

    Ku, Shao Yang; Yip, Patrick; Howell, P Lynne

    2006-07-01

    Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) dependent tryptophanase has been isolated from Escherichia coli and its crystal structure has been determined. The structure shares the same fold with and has similar quaternary structure to Proteus vulgaris tryptophanase and tyrosine-phenol lyase, but is found in a closed conformation when compared with these two enzymes. The tryptophanase structure, solved in its apo form, does not have covalent PLP bound in the active site, but two sulfate ions. The sulfate ions occupy the phosphoryl-binding site of PLP and the binding site of the alpha-carboxyl of the natural substrate tryptophan. One of the sulfate ions makes extensive interactions with both the transferase and PLP-binding domains of the protein and appears to be responsible for holding the enzyme in its closed conformation. Based on the sulfate density and the structure of the P. vulgaris enzyme, PLP and the substrate tryptophan were modeled into the active site. The resulting model is consistent with the roles of Arg419 in orienting the substrate to PLP and acidifying the alpha-proton of the substrate for beta-elimination, Lys269 in the formation and decomposition of the PLP quinonoid intermediate, Arg230 in orienting the substrate-PLP intermediates in the optimal conformation for catalysis, and His463 and Tyr74 in determining substrate specificity and suggests that the closed conformation observed in the structure could be induced by substrate binding and that significant conformational changes occur during catalysis. A catalytic mechanism for tryptophanase is proposed. Since E. coli tryptophanase has resisted forming diffraction-quality crystals for many years, the molecular surface of tryptophanase has been analyzed in various crystal forms and it was rationalized that strong crystal contacts occur on the flat surface of the protein and that the size of crystal contact surface seems to correlate with the diffraction quality of the crystal. PMID:16790938

  20. Structure of Escherichia Coli Tryptophanase

    SciTech Connect

    Ku,S.; Yip, P.; Howell, P.

    2006-01-01

    Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) dependent tryptophanase has been isolated from Escherichia coli and its crystal structure has been determined. The structure shares the same fold with and has similar quaternary structure to Proteus vulgaris tryptophanase and tyrosine-phenol lyase, but is found in a closed conformation when compared with these two enzymes. The tryptophanase structure, solved in its apo form, does not have covalent PLP bound in the active site, but two sulfate ions. The sulfate ions occupy the phosphoryl-binding site of PLP and the binding site of the {alpha}-carboxyl of the natural substrate tryptophan. One of the sulfate ions makes extensive interactions with both the transferase and PLP-binding domains of the protein and appears to be responsible for holding the enzyme in its closed conformation. Based on the sulfate density and the structure of the P. vulgaris enzyme, PLP and the substrate tryptophan were modeled into the active site. The resulting model is consistent with the roles of Arg419 in orienting the substrate to PLP and acidifying the {alpha}-proton of the substrate for {beta}-elimination, Lys269 in the formation and decomposition of the PLP quinonoid intermediate, Arg230 in orienting the substrate-PLP intermediates in the optimal conformation for catalysis, and His463 and Tyr74 in determining substrate specificity and suggests that the closed conformation observed in the structure could be induced by substrate binding and that significant conformational changes occur during catalysis. A catalytic mechanism for tryptophanase is proposed. Since E. coli tryptophanase has resisted forming diffraction-quality crystals for many years, the molecular surface of tryptophanase has been analyzed in various crystal forms and it was rationalized that strong crystal contacts occur on the flat surface of the protein and that the size of crystal contact surface seems to correlate with the diffraction quality of the crystal.

  1. Succinate production in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Thakker, Chandresh; Martínez, Irene; San, Ka-Yiu; Bennett, George N.

    2012-01-01

    Succinate has been recognized as an important platform chemical that can be produced from biomass. While a number of organisms are capable of succinate production naturally, this review focuses on the engineering of Escherichia coli for production of the four-carbon dicarboxylic acid. Important features of a succinate production system are to achieve optimal balance of reducing equivalents generated by consumption of the feedstock, while maximizing the amount of carbon that is channeled to the product. Aerobic and anaerobic production strains have been developed and applied to production from glucose as well as other abundant carbon sources. Metabolic engineering methods and strain evolution have been used and supplemented by the recent application of systems biology and in silico modeling tools to construct optimal production strains. The metabolic capacity of the production strain, as well as the requirement for efficient recovery of succinate and the reliability of the performance under scale-up are important in the overall process. The costs of the overall biorefinery compatible process will determine the economical commercialization of succinate and its impact in larger chemical markets. PMID:21932253

  2. Dihydropteridine reductase from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Vasudevan, S G; Shaw, D C; Armarego, W L

    1988-01-01

    A dihydropteridine reductase from Escherichia coli was purified to apparent homogeneity. It is a dimeric enzyme with identical subunits (Mr 27000) and a free N-terminal group. It can use NADH (Vmax./Km 3.36 s-1) and NADPH (Vmax./Km 1.07 s-1) when 6-methyldihydro-(6H)-pterin is the second substrate, as well as quinonoid dihydro-(6H)-biopterin (Vmax./Km 0.69 s-1), dihydro-(6H)-neopterin (Vmax./Km 0.58 s-1), dihydro-(6H)-monapterin 0.66 s-1), 6-methyldihydro-(6H)-pterin and cis-6,7-dimethyldihydro-(6H)-pterin (Vmax./Km 0.66 s-1) when NADH is the second substrate. The pure reductase has a yellow colour and contains bound FAD. The enzyme also has pterin-independent NADH and NADPH oxidoreductase activities when potassium ferricyanide is the electron acceptor. Images Fig. 2. PMID:3060113

  3. Escherichia coli survival in waters: Temperature dependence

    EPA Science Inventory

    Knowing the survival rates of water-borne Escherichia coli is important in evaluating microbial contamination and making appropriate management decisions. E. coli survival rates are dependent on temperature, a dependency that is routinely expressed using an analogue of the Q10 mo...

  4. Strategies for Protein Overproduction in Escherichia coli.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mott, John E.

    1984-01-01

    Examines heterologous expression in Escherichia coli and the role of regulatory sequences which control gene expression at transcription resulting in abundant production of messenger RNA and regulatory sequences in mRNA which promote efficient translation. Also examines the role of E. coli cells in stabilizing mRNA and protein that is…

  5. A DNA structural atlas for Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, A G; Jensen, L J; Brunak, S; Staerfeldt, H H; Ussery, D W

    2000-06-16

    We have performed a computational analysis of DNA structural features in 18 fully sequenced prokaryotic genomes using models for DNA curvature, DNA flexibility, and DNA stability. The structural values that are computed for the Escherichia coli chromosome are significantly different from (and generally more extreme than) that expected from the nucleotide composition. To aid this analysis, we have constructed tools that plot structural measures for all positions in a long DNA sequence (e.g. an entire chromosome) in the form of color-coded wheels (http://www.cbs.dtu. dk/services/GenomeAtlas/). We find that these "structural atlases" are useful for the discovery of interesting features that may then be investigated in more depth using statistical methods. From investigation of the E. coli structural atlas, we discovered a genome-wide trend, where an extended region encompassing the terminus displays a high of level curvature, a low level of flexibility, and a low degree of helix stability. The same situation is found in the distantly related Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis, suggesting that the phenomenon is biologically relevant. Based on a search for long DNA segments where all the independent structural measures agree, we have found a set of 20 regions with identical and very extreme structural properties. Due to their strong inherent curvature, we suggest that these may function as topological domain boundaries by efficiently organizing plectonemically supercoiled DNA. Interestingly, we find that in practically all the investigated eubacterial and archaeal genomes, there is a trend for promoter DNA being more curved, less flexible, and less stable than DNA in coding regions and in intergenic DNA without promoters. This trend is present regardless of the absolute levels of the structural parameters, and we suggest that this may be related to the requirement for helix unwinding during initiation of transcription, or perhaps to the previously observed

  6. Clinical implications of enteroadherent Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Arenas-Hernández, Margarita M P; Martínez-Laguna, Ygnacio; Torres, Alfredo G

    2012-10-01

    Pathogenic Escherichia coli that colonize the small intestine primarily cause gastrointestinal illness in infants and travelers. The main categories of pathogenic E. coli that colonize the epithelial lining of the small intestine are enterotoxigenic E. coli, enteropathogenic E. coli, and enteroaggregative E. coli. These organisms accomplish their pathogenic process by a complex, coordinated multistage strategy, including nonintimate adherence mediated by various adhesins. These so called "enteroadherent E. coli" categories subsequently produce toxins or effector proteins that are either secreted to the milieu or injected to the host cell. Finally, destruction of the intestinal microvilli results from the intimate adherence or the toxic effect exerted over the epithelia, resulting in water secretion and diarrhea. In this review, we summarize the current state of knowledge regarding these enteroadherent E. coli strains and the present clinical understanding of how these organisms colonize the human intestine and cause disease. PMID:22798032

  7. Clinical Implications of Enteroadherent Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Arenas-Hernández, Margarita M.P.; Martínez-Laguna, Ygnacio; Torres, Alfredo G.

    2012-01-01

    Pathogenic Escherichia coli that colonize the small intestine primarily cause gastrointestinal illness in infants and travelers. The main categories of pathogenic E. coli that colonize the epithelial lining of the small intestine are enterotoxigenic E. coli enteropathogenic E. coli and enteroaggregative E. coli. These organisms accomplish their pathogenic process by a complex, coordinated multistage strategy, including non-intimate adherence mediated by various adhesins. These so called “enteroadherent E. coli ” categories subsequently produced toxins or effector proteins that are either secreted to the milieu or injected to the host cell. Finally, destruction of the intestinal microvilli results from the intimate adherence or the toxic effect exerted over the epithelia, resulting in water secretion and diarrhea. In this review, we summarize the current state of knowledge regarding these enteroadherent E. coli strains and the present clinical understanding of how these organisms colonize the human intestine and cause disease. PMID:22798032

  8. Infection strategies of enteric pathogenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Clements, Abigail; Young, Joanna C.; Constantinou, Nicholas; Frankel, Gad

    2012-01-01

    Enteric Escherichia coli (E. coli) are both natural flora of humans and important pathogens causing significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Traditionally enteric E. coli have been divided into 6 pathotypes, with further pathotypes often proposed. In this review we suggest expansion of the enteric E. coli into 8 pathotypes to include the emerging pathotypes of adherent invasive E. coli (AIEC) and Shiga-toxin producing enteroaggregative E. coli (STEAEC). The molecular mechanisms that allow enteric E. coli to colonize and cause disease in the human host are examined and for two of the pathotypes that express a type 3 secretion system (T3SS) we discuss the complex interplay between translocated effectors and manipulation of host cell signaling pathways that occurs during infection. PMID:22555463

  9. Infection by verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Karmali, M A

    1989-01-01

    Verocytotoxin (VT)-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) are a newly recognized group of enteric pathogens which are increasingly being recognized as common causes of diarrhea in some geographic settings. Outbreak studies indicate that most patients with VTEC infection develop mild uncomplicated diarrhea. However, a significant risk of two serious and potentially life-threatening complications, hemorrhagic colitis and the hemolytic uremic syndrome, makes VTEC infection a public health problem of serious concern. The main reservoirs of VTEC appear to be the intestinal tracts of animals, and foods of animal (especially bovine) origin are probably the principal sources for human infection. The term VT refers to a family of subunit exotoxins with high biological activity. Individual VTEC strains elaborate one or both of at least two serologically distinct, bacteriophage-mediated VTs (VT1 and VT2) which are closely related to Shiga toxin and are thus also referred to as Shiga-like toxins. The holotoxins bind to cells, via their B subunits, to a specific receptor which is probably the glycolipid, globotriosyl ceramide (Gb3). Binding is followed by internalization of the A subunit, which, after it is proteolytically nicked and reduced to the A1 fragment, inhibits protein synthesis in mammalian cells by inactivating 60S ribosomal subunits through selective structural modification of 28S ribosomal ribonucleic acid. The mechanism of VTEC diarrhea is still controversial, and the relative roles of locally acting VT and "attaching and effacing adherence" of VTEC to the mucosa have yet to be resolved. There is increasing evidence that hemolytic uremic syndrome and possibly hemorrhagic colitis result from the systemic action of VT on vascular endothelial cells. The role of antitoxic immunity in preventing the systemic complications of VTEC infection is being explored. Antibiotics appear to be contraindicated in the treatment of VTEC infection. The most common VTEC serotype associated

  10. Key intermolecular interactions in the E. coli 70S ribosome revealed by coarse-grained analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhiyong; Sanbonmatsu, Karissa Y; Voth, Gregory A

    2011-10-26

    The ribosome is a very large complex that consists of many RNA and protein molecules and plays a central role in protein biosynthesis in all organisms. Extensive interactions between different molecules are critical to ribosomal functional dynamics. In this work, intermolecular interactions in the Escherichia coli 70S ribosome are investigated by coarse-grained (CG) analysis. CG models are defined to preserve dynamic domains in RNAs and proteins and to capture functional motions in the ribosome, and then the CG sites are connected by harmonic springs, and spring constants are obtained by matching the computed fluctuations to those of an all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. Those spring constants indicate how strong the interactions are between the ribosomal components, and they are in good agreement with various experimental data. Nearly all the bridges between the small and large ribosomal subunits are indicated by CG interactions with large spring constants. The head of the small subunit is very mobile because it has minimal CG interactions with the rest of the subunit; however, a large number of small subunit proteins bind to maintain the internal structure of the head. The results show a clear connection between the intermolecular interactions and the structural and functional properties of the ribosome because of the reduced complexity in domain-based CG models. The present approach also provides a useful strategy to map interactions between molecules within large biomolecular complexes since it is not straightforward to investigate these by either atomistic MD simulations or residue-based elastic network models. PMID:21910449

  11. Structures of the E. coli translating ribosome with SRP and its receptor and with the translocon

    PubMed Central

    Jomaa, Ahmad; Boehringer, Daniel; Leibundgut, Marc; Ban, Nenad

    2016-01-01

    Co-translational protein targeting to membranes is a universally conserved process. Central steps include cargo recognition by the signal recognition particle and handover to the Sec translocon. Here we present snapshots of key co-translational-targeting complexes solved by cryo-electron microscopy at near-atomic resolution, establishing the molecular contacts between the Escherichia coli translating ribosome, the signal recognition particle and the translocon. Our results reveal the conformational changes that regulate the latching of the signal sequence, the release of the heterodimeric domains of the signal recognition particle and its receptor, and the handover of the signal sequence to the translocon. We also observe that the signal recognition particle and the translocon insert-specific structural elements into the ribosomal tunnel to remodel it, possibly to sense nascent chains. Our work provides structural evidence for a conformational state of the signal recognition particle and its receptor primed for translocon binding to the ribosome–nascent chain complex. PMID:26804923

  12. Fosfomycin Resistance in Escherichia coli, Pennsylvania, USA

    PubMed Central

    Alrowais, Hind; McElheny, Christi L.; Spychala, Caressa N.; Sastry, Sangeeta; Guo, Qinglan; Butt, Adeel A.

    2015-01-01

    Fosfomycin resistance in Escherichia coli is rare in the United States. An extended-spectrum β-lactamase–producing E. coli clinical strain identified in Pennsylvania, USA, showed high-level fosfomycin resistance caused by the fosA3 gene. The IncFII plasmid carrying this gene had a structure similar to those found in China, where fosfomycin resistance is commonly described. PMID:26488485

  13. Escherichia Coli--Key to Modern Genetics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bregegere, Francois

    1982-01-01

    Mid-nineteenth century work by Mendel on plant hybrids and by Pasteur on fermentation gave birth by way of bacterial genetics to modern-day molecular biology. The bacterium Escherichia Coli has occupied a key position in genetic studies leading from early gene identification with DNA to current genetic engineering using recombinant DNA technology.…

  14. Detection of O antigens in Escherichia coli

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lipopolysaccharide on the surface of Escherichia coli constitute the O antigens, which are important virulence factors that are targets of both the innate and adaptive immune system and play a major role in host-pathogen interactions. O antigens that are responsible for antigenic specificity of the ...

  15. Escherichia coli and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Bettelheim, Karl A.; Goldwater, Paul N.

    2015-01-01

    This review examines the association of strains of Escherichia coli with sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and the possible role these bacteria play in this enigmatic condition. The review addresses evidence for E. coli in SIDS infants, potential sources of E. coli in the environment, colonization by commensal and pathogenic strains, the variety of currently accepted pathotypes, and how these pathotypes could compromise intestinal integrity and induce inflammation. Both intestinal and extraintestinal pathotypes are compared in relation to the apparent liability in which virulence traits can be gained or lost by strains of E. coli. The way in which E. coli infections fit with current views on infant sleeping position and other SIDS risk factors is highlighted. PMID:26191064

  16. Mechanism of Sperm Immobilization by Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Prabha, Vijay; Sandhu, Ravneet; Kaur, Siftjit; Kaur, Kiranjeet; Sarwal, Abha; Mavuduru, Ravimohan S.; Singh, Shravan Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Aim. To explore the influence of Escherichia coli on the motility of human spermatozoa and its possible mechanism. Methods. Highly motile preparations of spermatozoa from normozoospermic patients were coincubated with Escherichia coli for 4 hours. At 1, 2 and 4 hours of incubation, sperm motility was determined. The factor responsible for sperm immobilization without agglutination was isolated and purified from filtrates. Results. This report confirms the immobilization of spermatozoa by E. coli and demonstrates sperm immobilization factor (SIF) excreted by E. coli. Further this factor was purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation, gel permeation chromatography, and ion-exchange chromatography. Purified SIF (56 kDa) caused instant immobilization without agglutination of human spermatozoa at 800 μg/mL and death at 2.1 mg/mL. Spermatozoa incubated with SIF revealed multiple and profound alterations involving all superficial structures of spermatozoa as observed by scanning electron microscopy. Conclusion. In conclusion, these results have shown immobilization of spermatozoa by E. coli and demonstrate a factor (SIF) produced and secreted by E. coli which causes variable structural damage as probable morphological correlates of immobilization. PMID:20379358

  17. Characterization of RNA damage under oxidative stress in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Min; Gong, Xin; Alluri, Ravi Kumar; Wu, Jinhua; Sablo, Tene’; Li, Zhongwei

    2012-01-01

    We have examined the level of 8-hydroxyguanosine (8-oxo-G), an oxidized form of guanosine, in RNA in Escherichia coli under normal and oxidative stress conditions. The level of 8-oxo-G in RNA rises rapidly and remains high for hours in response to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) challenge in a dose-dependent manner. H2O2 induced elevation of 8-oxo-G content is much higher in RNA than that of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG) in DNA. Under normal conditions, the 8-oxo-G level is low in RNA isolated from the ribosome and it is nearly three times higher in non-ribosomal RNAs. In contrast, 8-oxo-G generated by a short exposure to H2O2 is almost equally distributed in various RNA species, suggesting that although ribosomal RNAs are normally less oxidized, they are not protected against exogenous H2O2. Interestingly, highly folded RNA is not protected from oxidation because 8-oxo-G generated by H2O2 treatment in vitro increases to approximately the same levels in tRNA and rRNA in both native and denatured forms. Lastly, increased RNA oxidation is closely associated with cell death by oxidative stress. Our data suggests that RNA is a primary target for reactive oxygen species and RNA oxidation is part of the paradox that cells have to deal with under oxidative stress. PMID:22718628

  18. Diagnosisand Investigation of Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Nataro, J P; Martinez, J

    1998-01-01

    Although most Escherichia coli are harmless commensals of the human intestine, certain specific, highly-adapted E. coli strains are capable of causing urinary tract, systemic or enteric/diarrheagenic infection. Diarrheagenic E coli are divided into six distinct categories, or pathotypes, each with a distinct pathogenic scheme (Table 1). Combined, diarrheagenic E coli have emerged as perhaps the most important enteric pathogens of man. In the developing world, the E coli categories account for more cases of gastroenteiltis among infants than any other cause (1) In addition, E coli are also the most common cause of traveller's diarrhea, which afflicts more than one million travellers to the developing world annually (1). Enterohemorrhagic E coli (EHEC) are the cause of hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), which has become a major foodborne threat in many parts of the developed world (2). Table 1 Categories of Diarrheagenic E. coli Category Toxins Invasion Virulence plasmid Adhesin Clinical syndrome ETEC LT, ST - Many CFA/I, CFA/II, CFA/IV, others Watery diarrhea EPEC - + 60 MDa Bundle-forming pilus Watery diarrhea of infants EHEC SLT-1, SLT-2 - 60 MDa( a ) Intimin, Fimbriae( a ) Hemorrhagic colitis, HUS EAEC EAST1( a ) ? 65 MDa( a ) AAF/I, AAF/I Watery, persistent diarrhea EIEC EIET( a ) +++ 140 MDa Ipa's(?) Watery diarrhea, dysentery DAEC ? ? ? F1845( a ) Watery diarrhea ( a )Role in pathogenesis unproven. PMID:21390758

  19. Escherichia coli in retail processed food.

    PubMed Central

    Pinegar, J. A.; Cooke, E. M.

    1985-01-01

    Four thousand two hundred and forty six samples of retail processed food were examined for the presence of Escherichia coli. Overall 12% of samples contained this organism, cakes and confectionery being more frequently contaminated (28%) than meat and meat based products (9%). Contamination was more frequent in the summer months than in the colder weather and 27% of the contaminated foods contained greater than 10(3) E. coli/g. E. coli from meat and meat based products were more commonly resistant to one or more antibiotics (14%) than were confectionery strains (1%). The significance of these findings in relation to the E. coli population of the human bowel is discussed. PMID:3894508

  20. Escherichia coli in retail processed food.

    PubMed

    Pinegar, J A; Cooke, E M

    1985-08-01

    Four thousand two hundred and forty six samples of retail processed food were examined for the presence of Escherichia coli. Overall 12% of samples contained this organism, cakes and confectionery being more frequently contaminated (28%) than meat and meat based products (9%). Contamination was more frequent in the summer months than in the colder weather and 27% of the contaminated foods contained greater than 10(3) E. coli/g. E. coli from meat and meat based products were more commonly resistant to one or more antibiotics (14%) than were confectionery strains (1%). The significance of these findings in relation to the E. coli population of the human bowel is discussed. PMID:3894508

  1. Vaginal Lactobacillus isolates inhibit uropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Atassi, Fabrice; Brassart, Dominique; Grob, Philipp; Graf, Federico; Servin, Alain L

    2006-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the antibacterial activities of Lactobacillus jensenii KS119.1 and KS121.1, and Lactobacillus gasserii KS120.1 and KS124.3 strains isolated from the vaginal microflora of healthy women, against uropathogenic, diffusely adhering Afa/Dr Escherichia coli (Afa/Dr DAEC) strains IH11128 and 7372 involved in recurrent cystitis. We observed that some of the Lactobacillus isolates inhibited the growth and decreased the viability of E. coli IH11128 and 7372. In addition, we observed that adhering Lactobacillus strains inhibited adhesion of E. coli IH11128 onto HeLa cells, and inhibited internalization of E. coli IH11128 within HeLa cells. PMID:16553843

  2. Escherichia coli bacteriuria and contraceptive method.

    PubMed

    Hooton, T M; Hillier, S; Johnson, C; Roberts, P L; Stamm, W E

    1991-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of contraceptive method on the occurrence of bacteriuria and vaginal colonization with Escherichia coli in 104 women who were evaluated prior to having sexual intercourse, the morning after intercourse, and 24 hours later. After intercourse, the prevalence of E coli bacteriuria increased slightly in oral contraceptive users but dramatically in both foam and condom users and diaphragm-spermicide users. Twenty-four hours later, the prevalence of bacteriuria remained significantly elevated only in the latter two groups. Similarly, vaginal colonization with E coli was more dramatic and persistent in users of diaphragm-spermicide and foam and condoms. Vaginal colonization with Candida species, enterococci, and staphylococci also increased significantly in diaphragm-spermicide users after intercourse. We conclude that use of the diaphragm with spermicidal jelly or use of a spermicidal foam with a condom markedly alters normal vaginal flora and strongly predisposes users to the development of vaginal colonization and bacteriuria with E coli. PMID:1859519

  3. Adhesion behaviors of Escherichia coli on hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Kamitakahara, Masanobu; Takahashi, Shohei; Yokoi, Taishi; Inoue, Chihiro; Ioku, Koji

    2016-04-01

    Optimum design of support materials for microorganisms is required for the construction of bioreactors. However, the effects of support materials on microorganisms are still unclear. In this study, we investigated the adhesion behavior of Escherichia coli (E. coli) on hydroxyapatite (HA), polyurethane (PU), poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC), and carbon (Carbon) to obtain basic knowledge for the design of support materials. The total metabolic activity and number of E. coli adhering on the samples followed the order of HA ≈ Carbon>PVC>PU. On the other hand, the water contact angle of the pellet surfaces followed the order of HAcoli. The results implied that HA has a potential as a support material for microorganisms used in bioreactors. PMID:26838837

  4. FTIR nanobiosensors for Escherichia coli detection

    PubMed Central

    Greppi, Gianfranco; Marongiu, Maria Laura; Roggero, Pier Paolo; Ravindranath, Sandeep P; Mauer, Lisa J; Schibeci, Nicoletta; Perria, Francesco; Piccinini, Massimo; Innocenzi, Plinio; Irudayaraj, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Summary Infections due to enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (Escherichia coli) have a low incidence but can have severe and sometimes fatal health consequences, and thus represent some of the most serious diseases due to the contamination of water and food. New, fast and simple devices that monitor these pathogens are necessary to improve the safety of our food supply chain. In this work we report on mesoporous titania thin-film substrates as sensors to detect E. coli O157:H7. Titania films treated with APTES ((3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane) and GA (glutaraldehyde) were functionalized with specific antibodies and the absorption properties monitored. The film-based biosensors showed a detection limit for E. coli of 1 × 102 CFU/mL, constituting a simple and selective method for the effective screening of water samples. PMID:23019542

  5. Large plasmids of avian Escherichia coli isolates.

    PubMed

    Doetkott, D M; Nolan, L K; Giddings, C W; Berryhill, D L

    1996-01-01

    The plasmid DNA of 30 Escherichia coli isolates from chickens was extracted and examined using techniques designed to isolate large plasmids. This plasmid DNA was examined for the presence of certain known virulence-related genes including cvaC, traT, and some aerobactin-related sequences. Seventeen of the 30 isolates contained from one to four plasmids greater than 50 kb in size. Eleven of these 17 strains possessed plasmids greater than 100 kb in size. Therefore, E. coli isolates of chickens frequently contain large plasmids, and many of these plasmids are likely to contain virulence-related sequences. PMID:8980827

  6. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli-associated exotoxins

    PubMed Central

    Welch, Rodney A.

    2015-01-01

    Escherichia coli are a common cause of infectious disease outside of the gastrointestinal tract. Several independently evolved E. coli clades are common causes of urinary tract and blood stream infections. There is ample epidemiological and in vitro evidence that several different protein toxins common to many but not all of these strains are likely to aid the colonization and immune evasion ability of these bacteria. This review discusses our current knowledge and areas of ignorance concerning the contribution of the hemolysin, cytotoxic necrotizing factor-1 and the autotransporters, Sat, Pic and Vat to extraintestinal human disease. PMID:27337488

  7. Production of antibody fragments in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Katsuda, Tomohisa; Sonoda, Hiroyuki; Kumada, Yoichi; Yamaji, Hideki

    2012-01-01

    Escherichia coli is a host widely used in the industrial production of recombinant proteins. However, the expression of heterologous proteins in E. coli often encounters the formation of inclusion bodies, which are insoluble and nonfunctional protein aggregates. For the successful production of antibody fragments, which includes single-chain variable fragments (scFvs), we describe here the modification of linker, signal, and Shine-Dalgarno (SD) sequences, the coexpression of cytoplasmic and periplasmic chaperones, and a method for fed-batch cultivation with exponential feed. PMID:22907360

  8. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli-Associated Exotoxins.

    PubMed

    Welch, Rodney A

    2016-06-01

    Escherichia coli are a common cause of infectious disease outside of the gastrointestinal tract. Several independently evolved E. coli clades are common causes of urinary tract and bloodstream infections. There is ample epidemiological and in vitro evidence that several different protein toxins common to many, but not all, of these strains are likely to aid the colonization and immune-evasion ability of these bacteria. This review discusses our current knowledge and areas of ignorance concerning the contribution of the hemolysin; cytotoxic-necrotizing factor-1; and the autotransporters, Sat, Pic, and Vat, to extraintestinal human disease. PMID:27337488

  9. Hydrogen production by recombinant Escherichia coli strains

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Toshinari; Sanchez‐Torres, Viviana; Wood, Thomas K.

    2012-01-01

    Summary The production of hydrogen via microbial biotechnology is an active field of research. Given its ease of manipulation, the best‐studied bacterium Escherichia coli has become a workhorse for enhanced hydrogen production through metabolic engineering, heterologous gene expression, adaptive evolution, and protein engineering. Herein, the utility of E. coli strains to produce hydrogen, via native hydrogenases or heterologous ones, is reviewed. In addition, potential strategies for increasing hydrogen production are outlined and whole‐cell systems and cell‐free systems are compared. PMID:21895995

  10. Towards a classification of E. coli ribosomal proteins: A hypothetical `small ribosome' as a primitive protein-synthesizing apparatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohnishi, Koji

    1984-12-01

    Homologies were searched among the published primary sequences of 51 E. coli ribosomal proteins, partly by ‘eye’ and partly by computer-assisted methods. By employing Moore and Goodman's alignment statistics for evaluating homology levels, 33 out of these 51 ribosomal proteins has been classified into 9 homology groups, some of which being yet tentative and remaining to be further analyzed. Taking it into consideration that most ribosomal protein genes are clustered at str- stc region, rif region and several other regions, these results strongly suggest that most or all of the contemporary ribosomal proteins must have evolved by repeated gene duplications of very few (or only one) primitive ancestral ribosomal protein gene(s). Thus it is most reasonable to propose that a ‘ small ribosome’ consisting of very few (or only one) ribosomal protein(s) must have existed as a primitive protein-synthesizing apparatus.

  11. Novel compound for identifying Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, W D; Rippey, S R; Clavet, C R; Kelley-Reitz, D J; Burkhardt, W

    1988-01-01

    A new chromogenic compound, 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indoxyl-beta-D-glucuronide, was found to be useful for the rapid, specific, differential identification of Escherichia coli in the sanitary analysis of shellfish and wastewater. Of 1,025 presumptively positive colonies (blue) and 583 presumptively negative colonies (nonblue), only 1% false-negative and 5% false-positive results were found. PMID:3046494

  12. Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In United States, it is estimated that non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) cause more illnesses than STEC O157:H7, and the majority of cases of non-O157 STEC infections is due to serogroups O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145, referred to as the top six non-O157 STEC. The diseas...

  13. Draft genome sequence of Escherichia coli LCT-EC106.

    PubMed

    Li, Tianzhi; Pu, Fei; Yang, Rentao; Fang, Xiangqun; Wang, Junfeng; Guo, Yinghua; Chang, De; Su, Longxiang; Guo, Na; Jiang, Xuege; Zhao, Jiao; Liu, Changting

    2012-08-01

    Escherichia coli is a Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that is commonly found in the intestine of warm-blooded organisms. Most E. coli strains are harmless, but some serotypes can cause serious food poisoning in humans. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of Escherichia coli LCT-EC106, which was isolated from CGMCC 1.2385. PMID:22843582

  14. Time course of large ribosomal subunit assembly in E. coli cells overexpressing a helicase inactive DbpA protein.

    PubMed

    Gentry, Riley C; Childs, Jared J; Gevorkyan, Jirair; Gerasimova, Yulia V; Koculi, Eda

    2016-07-01

    DbpA is a DEAD-box RNA helicase implicated in Escherichia coli large ribosomal subunit assembly. Previous studies have shown that when the ATPase and helicase inactive DbpA construct, R331A, is expressed in E. coli cells, a large ribosomal subunit intermediate accumulates. The large subunit intermediate migrates as a 45S particle in a sucrose gradient. Here, using a number of structural and fluorescent assays, we investigate the ribosome profiles of cells lacking wild-type DbpA and overexpressing the R331A DbpA construct. Our data show that in addition to the 45S particle previously described, 27S and 35S particles are also present in the ribosome profiles of cells overexpressing R331A DbpA. The 27S, 35S, and 45S independently convert to the 50S subunit, suggesting that ribosome assembly in the presence of R331A and the absence of wild-type DbpA occurs via multiple pathways. PMID:27194011

  15. Natural plasmid transformation in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Tsen, Suh-Der; Fang, Suh-Sen; Chen, Mei-Jye; Chien, Jun-Yi; Lee, Chih-Chun; Tsen, Darwin Han-Lin

    2002-01-01

    Although Escherichia coli does not have a natural transformation process, strains of E. coli can incorporate extracellular plasmids into cytoplasm 'naturally' at low frequencies. A standard method was developed in which stationary phase cells were concentrated, mixed with plasmids, and then plated on agar plates with nutrients which allowed cells to grow. Transformed cells could then be selected by harvesting cells and plating again on selective agar plates. Competence developed in the lag phase, but disappeared during exponential growth. As more plasmids were added to the cell suspension, the number of transformants increased, eventually reaching a plateau. Supercoiled monomeric or linear concatemeric DNA could transform cells, while linear monomeric DNA could not. Plasmid transformation was not related to conjugation and was recA-independent. Most of the E. coli strains surveyed had this process. All tested plasmids, except pACYC184, could transform E. coli. Insertion of a DNA fragment containing the ampicillin resistance gene into pACYC184 made the plasmid transformable. By inserting random 20-base-pair oligonucleotides into pACYC184 and selecting for transformable plasmids, a most frequent sequence was identified. This sequence resembled the bacterial interspersed medium repetitive sequence of E. coli, suggesting the existence of a recognition sequence. We conclude that plasmid natural transformation exists in E. coli. PMID:12065899

  16. Systems Metabolic Engineering of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kyeong Rok; Shin, Jae Ho; Cho, Jae Sung; Yang, Dongsoo; Lee, Sang Yup

    2016-05-01

    Systems metabolic engineering, which recently emerged as metabolic engineering integrated with systems biology, synthetic biology, and evolutionary engineering, allows engineering of microorganisms on a systemic level for the production of valuable chemicals far beyond its native capabilities. Here, we review the strategies for systems metabolic engineering and particularly its applications in Escherichia coli. First, we cover the various tools developed for genetic manipulation in E. coli to increase the production titers of desired chemicals. Next, we detail the strategies for systems metabolic engineering in E. coli, covering the engineering of the native metabolism, the expansion of metabolism with synthetic pathways, and the process engineering aspects undertaken to achieve higher production titers of desired chemicals. Finally, we examine a couple of notable products as case studies produced in E. coli strains developed by systems metabolic engineering. The large portfolio of chemical products successfully produced by engineered E. coli listed here demonstrates the sheer capacity of what can be envisioned and achieved with respect to microbial production of chemicals. Systems metabolic engineering is no longer in its infancy; it is now widely employed and is also positioned to further embrace next-generation interdisciplinary principles and innovation for its upgrade. Systems metabolic engineering will play increasingly important roles in developing industrial strains including E. coli that are capable of efficiently producing natural and nonnatural chemicals and materials from renewable nonfood biomass. PMID:27223822

  17. Mechanisms of Emerging Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli Infection.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohammed A.; Steiner, Ted S.

    2002-04-01

    Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli organisms are major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although most strains of E. coli are harmless commensals, a few types have emerged that are capable of disrupting the normal physiology of the human gut, producing illness ranging from watery diarrhea to fatal hemorrhagic colitis. Diarrheagenic E. coli cause infection by a variety of complex mechanisms, some of which are incompletely understood. These include adherence, elaboration of toxigenic mediators, invasion of the intestinal mucosa, and transportation of bacterial proteins into the host cells. Specific components of the host-microbial interaction that cause damage have been identified, increasing our understanding of the mechanisms of diarrhea. This article reviews some of the recent findings about the pathogenesis and infectious processes involved in three emerging pathotypes of this fascinating gram-negative bacterium. PMID:11927041

  18. Molecular mechanisms of Escherichia coli pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Croxen, Matthew A; Finlay, B Brett

    2010-01-01

    Escherichia coli is a remarkable and diverse organism. This normally harmless commensal needs only to acquire a combination of mobile genetic elements to become a highly adapted pathogen capable of causing a range of diseases, from gastroenteritis to extraintestinal infections of the urinary tract, bloodstream and central nervous system. The worldwide burden of these diseases is staggering, with hundreds of millions of people affected annually. Eight E. coli pathovars have been well characterized, and each uses a large arsenal of virulence factors to subvert host cellular functions to potentiate its virulence. In this Review, we focus on the recent advances in our understanding of the different pathogenic mechanisms that are used by various E. coli pathovars and how they cause disease in humans. PMID:19966814

  19. Thymineless Death in Escherichia coli: Strain Specificity

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, Donald J.; Mondale, Lee

    1967-01-01

    Thymineless death of various ultraviolet (UV)-sensitive strains of Escherichia coli B and K-12 was investigated. It was found that E. coli B, Bs−12, K-12 rec-21, and possibly K-12 Lon−, all sensitive to UV, were also sensitive to thymine starvation. However, other UV-sensitive strains of E. coli were found to display the typical resistant-type kinetics of thymineless death. The correlation of these results with various other cellular processes suggested that the filament-forming ability of the bacteria might be involved in the mechanism of thymineless death. It was apparent from the present results that capacity for host-cell reactivation, recombination ability, thymine dimer excision, and probably induction of a defective prophage had little to do with determining sensitivity to thymine deprivation. Images PMID:5337772

  20. Action of sodium deoxycholate on Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    D'Mello, A.; Yotis, W.W.

    1987-08-01

    Sodium deoxycholate is used in a number of bacteriological media for the isolation and classification of gram-negative bacteria from food and the environment. Initial experiments to study the effect of deoxycholate on the growth parameters of Escherichia coli showed an increase in the lag time constant and generation time and a decrease in the growth rate constant total cell yield of this microorganisms. Cell fractionation studies indicated that sodium deoxycholate at levels used in bacteriological media interferes with the incorporation of (U-/sup 14/C)glucose into the cold-trichloroacetic acid-soluble, ethanol-soluble, and trypsin-soluble cellular fractions of E. coli. Finally, sodium deoxycholate interfered with the flagellation and motility of Proteus mirabilis and E. coli. It would appear then that further improvement of the deoxycholate medium may be in order.

  1. Prodigiosin - A Multifaceted Escherichia coli Antimicrobial Agent.

    PubMed

    Danevčič, Tjaša; Borić Vezjak, Maja; Zorec, Maša; Stopar, David

    2016-01-01

    Despite a considerable interest in prodigiosin, the mechanism of its antibacterial activity is still poorly understood. In this work, Escherichia coli cells were treated with prodigiosin to determine its antimicrobial effect on bacterial physiology. The effect of prodigiosin was concentration dependent. In prodigiosin treated cells above MIC value no significant DNA damage or cytoplasmic membrane disintegration was observed. The outer membrane, however, becomes leaky. Cells had severely decreased respiration activity. In prodigiosin treated cells protein and RNA synthesis were inhibited, cells were elongated but could not divide. Pre-treatment with prodigiosin improved E. coli survival rate in media containing ampicillin, kanamycin and erythromycin but not phleomycin. The results suggest that prodigiosin acts as a bacteriostatic agent in E. coli cells. If prodigiosin was diluted, cells resumed growth. The results indicate that prodigiosin has distinct mode of antibacterial action in different bacteria. PMID:27612193

  2. Interaction between Escherichia coli and lunar fines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johansson, K. R.

    1983-01-01

    A sample of mature lunar fines (10084.151) was solubilized to a high degree (about 17 percent) by the chelating agent salicylic acid (0.01. M). The neutralized (pH adjusted to 7.0) leachate was found to inhibit the growth of Escherichia coli (ATCC 259922) in a minimial mineral salts glucose medium; however, the inhibition was somewhat less than that caused by neutralized salicylic acid alone. The presence of lunar fines in the minimal medium was highly stimulatory to growth of E. coli following an early inhibitory response. The bacterium survived less well in the lunar leachate than in distilled water, no doubt because of the salicylate. It was concluded that the sample of lunar soil tested has nutritional value to E. coli and that certain products of fermentation helped to solubilize the lunar soil.

  3. The synthesis of ribonucleic acid during inhibition of Escherichia coli by chlortetracycline

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Isobel A.; Wild, D. G.

    1965-01-01

    1. During inhibition of Escherichia coli by chlortetracycline, protein synthesis was sharply reduced whereas synthesis of RNA was much less affected. 2. Most of the RNA made during inhibition was contained in particles that sedimented more slowly than ribosomes. 3. The particles were more sensitive than ribosomes to degradation by ultrasonic vibrations and ribonuclease and differed from ribosomes in their behaviour during chromatography on DEAE-cellulose. 4. The particles contained two species of RNA that differed slightly in their sedimentation properties from the two RNA components found in ribosomes. 5. The nature of the events taking place during inhibition by chlortetracycline is discussed with particular reference to the status of the particles that accumulate and to the mode of action of this and other antibiotics. ImagesFig. 2. PMID:16749115

  4. Unconventional initiator tRNAs sustain Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Samhita, Laasya; Shetty, Sunil; Varshney, Umesh

    2012-01-01

    Of all tRNAs, initiator tRNA is unique in its ability to start protein synthesis by directly binding the ribosomal P-site. This ability is believed to derive from the almost universal presence of three consecutive G-C base (3G-C) pairs in the anticodon stem of initiator tRNA. Consistent with the hypothesis, a plasmid-borne initiator tRNA with one, two, or all 3G-C pairs mutated displays negligible initiation activity when tested in a WT Escherichia coli cell. Given this, the occurrence of unconventional initiator tRNAs lacking the 3G-C pairs, as in some species of Mycoplasma and Rhizobium, is puzzling. We resolve the puzzle by showing that the poor activity of unconventional initiator tRNAs in E. coli is because of competition from a large pool of the endogenous WT initiator tRNA (possessing the 3G-C pairs). We show that E. coli can be sustained on an initiator tRNA lacking the first and third G-C pairs; thereby reducing the 3G-C rule to a mere middle G-C requirement. Two general inferences following from our findings, that the activity of a mutant gene product may depend on its abundance in the cell relative to that of the WT, and that promiscuous initiation with elongator tRNAs has the potential to enhance phenotypic diversity without affecting genomic integrity, have been discussed. PMID:22829667

  5. Biodegradation of Aromatic Compounds by Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Díaz, Eduardo; Ferrández, Abel; Prieto, María A.; García, José L.

    2001-01-01

    Although Escherichia coli has long been recognized as the best-understood living organism, little was known about its abilities to use aromatic compounds as sole carbon and energy sources. This review gives an extensive overview of the current knowledge of the catabolism of aromatic compounds by E. coli. After giving a general overview of the aromatic compounds that E. coli strains encounter and mineralize in the different habitats that they colonize, we provide an up-to-date status report on the genes and proteins involved in the catabolism of such compounds, namely, several aromatic acids (phenylacetic acid, 3- and 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, phenylpropionic acid, 3-hydroxyphenylpropionic acid, and 3-hydroxycinnamic acid) and amines (phenylethylamine, tyramine, and dopamine). Other enzymatic activities acting on aromatic compounds in E. coli are also reviewed and evaluated. The review also reflects the present impact of genomic research and how the analysis of the whole E. coli genome reveals novel aromatic catabolic functions. Moreover, evolutionary considerations derived from sequence comparisons between the aromatic catabolic clusters of E. coli and homologous clusters from an increasing number of bacteria are also discussed. The recent progress in the understanding of the fundamentals that govern the degradation of aromatic compounds in E. coli makes this bacterium a very useful model system to decipher biochemical, genetic, evolutionary, and ecological aspects of the catabolism of such compounds. In the last part of the review, we discuss strategies and concepts to metabolically engineer E. coli to suit specific needs for biodegradation and biotransformation of aromatics and we provide several examples based on selected studies. Finally, conclusions derived from this review may serve as a lead for future research and applications. PMID:11729263

  6. COMPARATIVE RESISTANCE OF ESCHERICHIA COLI AND ENTEROCOCCI TO CHLORINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pure cultures of Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecium were inactivated by free chlorine and monochloramine. ndigenous E. coli and enterococci in wastewater effluents were also inactivated. elective bacteriological media specifically designed for the enumeration of the target...

  7. Profiling of Escherichia coli Chromosome database.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Yukiko; Niki, Hironori; Kato, Jun-ichi

    2008-01-01

    The Profiling of Escherichia coli Chromosome (PEC) database (http://www.shigen.nig.ac.jp/ecoli/pec/) is designed to allow E. coli researchers to efficiently access information from functional genomics studies. The database contains two principal types of data: gene essentiality and a large collection of E. coli genetic research resources. The essentiality data are based on data compilation from published single-gene essentiality studies and on cell growth studies of large-deletion mutants. Using the circular and linear viewers for both whole genomes and the minimal genome, users can not only gain an overview of the genome structure but also retrieve information on contigs, gene products, mutants, deletions, and so forth. In particular, genome-wide exhaustive mutants are an essential resource for studying E. coli gene functions. Although the genomic database was constructed independently from the genetic resources database, users may seamlessly access both types of data. In addition to these data, the PEC database also provides a summary of homologous genes of other bacterial genomes and of protein structure information, with a comprehensive interface. The PEC is thus a convenient and useful platform for contemporary E. coli researchers. PMID:18392982

  8. Logarithmic Sensing in Escherichia coli Bacterial Chemotaxis

    PubMed Central

    Kalinin, Yevgeniy V.; Jiang, Lili; Tu, Yuhai; Wu, Mingming

    2009-01-01

    We studied the response of swimming Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria in a comprehensive set of well-controlled chemical concentration gradients using a newly developed microfluidic device and cell tracking imaging technique. In parallel, we carried out a multi-scale theoretical modeling of bacterial chemotaxis taking into account the relevant internal signaling pathway dynamics, and predicted bacterial chemotactic responses at the cellular level. By measuring the E. coli cell density profiles across the microfluidic channel at various spatial gradients of ligand concentration grad[L] and the average ligand concentration [L]¯near the peak chemotactic response region, we demonstrated unambiguously in both experiments and model simulation that the mean chemotactic drift velocity of E. coli cells increased monotonically with grad [L]/[L]¯ or ∼grad(log[L])—that is E. coli cells sense the spatial gradient of the logarithmic ligand concentration. The exact range of the log-sensing regime was determined. The agreements between the experiments and the multi-scale model simulation verify the validity of the theoretical model, and revealed that the key microscopic mechanism for logarithmic sensing in bacterial chemotaxis is the adaptation kinetics, in contrast to explanations based directly on ligand occupancy. PMID:19289068

  9. Multiscale Spatial Organization of RNA Polymerase in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Endesfelder, Ulrike; Finan, Kieran; Holden, Seamus J.; Cook, Peter R.; Kapanidis, Achillefs N.; Heilemann, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Nucleic acid synthesis is spatially organized in many organisms. In bacteria, however, the spatial distribution of transcription remains obscure, owing largely to the diffraction limit of conventional light microscopy (200–300 nm). Here, we use photoactivated localization microscopy to localize individual molecules of RNA polymerase (RNAP) in Escherichia coli with a spatial resolution of ∼40 nm. In cells growing rapidly in nutrient-rich media, we find that RNAP is organized in 2–8 bands. The band number scaled directly with cell size (and so with the chromosome number), and bands often contained clusters of >70 tightly packed RNAPs (possibly engaged on one long ribosomal RNA operon of 6000 bp) and clusters of such clusters (perhaps reflecting a structure like the eukaryotic nucleolus where many different ribosomal RNA operons are transcribed). In nutrient-poor media, RNAPs were located in only 1–2 bands; within these bands, a disproportionate number of RNAPs were found in clusters containing ∼20–50 RNAPs. Apart from their importance for bacterial transcription, our studies pave the way for molecular-level analysis of several cellular processes at the nanometer scale. PMID:23823236

  10. ELECTROPHORETIC MOBILITIES OF ESCHERICHIA COLI 0157:H7 AND WILD-TYPE ESCHERICHIA COLI STRAINS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The electrophoretic mobility (EPM) of a number of human-virulent and "wild-type" Escherichia coli strains in phosphate buffered water was measured. The impact of pH, ionic strength, cation type (valence) and concentration, and bacterial strain on the EPM was investigated. Resul...

  11. Cyanide degradation by an Escherichia coli strain.

    PubMed

    Figueira, M M; Ciminelli, V S; de Andrade, M C; Linardi, V R

    1996-05-01

    Chemical formation of a glucose-cyanide complex was necessary for metabolic degradation of cyanide at concentrations up to 50.0 mg/L by a strain of Escherichia coli isolated from gold extraction circuit liquids. Ammonia accumulating during the culture log phase as the sole nitrogen by-product was further utilized for bacterial growth. Washed (intact) cells, harvested at different periods of bacterial growth on cyanide, consumed oxygen in presence of cyanide. These findings suggest that metabolism of cyanide involved a dioxygenase enzyme that converted cyanide directly to ammonia, without the formation of cyanate. PMID:8640610

  12. Escherichia coli growth under modeled reduced gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, Paul W.; Meyer, Michelle L.; Leff, Laura G.

    2004-01-01

    Bacteria exhibit varying responses to modeled reduced gravity that can be simulated by clino-rotation. When Escherichia coli was subjected to different rotation speeds during clino-rotation, significant differences between modeled reduced gravity and normal gravity controls were observed only at higher speeds (30-50 rpm). There was no apparent affect of removing samples on the results obtained. When E. coli was grown in minimal medium (at 40 rpm), cell size was not affected by modeled reduced gravity and there were few differences in cell numbers. However, in higher nutrient conditions (i.e., dilute nutrient broth), total cell numbers were higher and cells were smaller under reduced gravity compared to normal gravity controls. Overall, the responses to modeled reduced gravity varied with nutrient conditions; larger surface to volume ratios may help compensate for the zone of nutrient depletion around the cells under modeled reduced gravity.

  13. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli: Orchestrated host engagement.

    PubMed

    Fleckenstein, James M; Munson, George M; Rasko, David A

    2013-01-01

    The enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli are a pervasive cause of serious diarrheal illness in developing countries. Presently, there is no vaccine to prevent these infections, and many features of the basic pathogenesis of these organisms remain poorly understood. Until very recently most pathogenesis studies had focused almost exclusively on a small subset of known "classical" virulence genes, namely fimbrial colonization factors and the heat-labile (LT) and heat stable (ST) enterotoxins. However, recent investigations of pathogen-host interactions reveal a surprisingly complex and intricately orchestrated engagement involving the interplay of classical and "novel" virulence genes, as well as participation of genes highly conserved in the E. coli species. These studies may inform further rational approaches to vaccine development for these important pathogens. PMID:23892244

  14. Engineering the Escherichia coli Fermentative Metabolism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orencio-Trejo, M.; Utrilla, J.; Fernández-Sandoval, M. T.; Huerta-Beristain, G.; Gosset, G.; Martinez, A.

    Fermentative metabolism constitutes a fundamental cellular capacity for industrial biocatalysis. Escherichia coli is an important microorganism in the field of metabolic engineering for its well-known molecular characteristics and its rapid growth. It can adapt to different growth conditions and is able to grow in the presence or absence of oxygen. Through the use of metabolic pathway engineering and bioprocessing techniques, it is possible to explore the fundamental cellular properties and to exploit its capacity to be applied as industrial biocatalysts to produce a wide array of chemicals. The objective of this chapter is to review the metabolic engineering efforts carried out with E. coli by manipulating the central carbon metabolism and fermentative pathways to obtain strains that produce metabolites with high titers, such as ethanol, alanine, lactate and succinate.

  15. Gas signatures from Escherichia coli and Escherichia coli-inoculated human whole blood

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The gaseous headspace above naïve Escherichia Coli (E. coli) cultures and whole human blood inoculated with E. coli were collected and analyzed for the presence of trace gases that may have the potential to be used as novel, non-invasive markers of infectious disease. Methods The naïve E. coli culture, LB broth, and human whole blood or E. coli inoculated whole blood were incubated in hermetically sealable glass bioreactors at 37°C for 24 hrs. LB broth and whole human blood were used as controls for background volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The headspace gases were collected after incubation and analyzed using a gas chromatographic system with multiple column/detector combinations. Results Six VOCs were observed to be produced by E. coli-infected whole blood while there existed nearly zero to relatively negligible amounts of these gases in the whole blood alone, LB broth, or E. coli-inoculated LB broth. These VOCs included dimethyl sulfide (DMS), carbon disulfide (CS2), ethanol, acetaldehyde, methyl butanoate, and an unidentified gas S. In contrast, there were several VOCs significantly elevated in the headspace above the E. coli in LB broth, but not present in the E. coli/blood mixture. These VOCs included dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS), methyl propanoate, 1-propanol, methylcyclohexane, and unidentified gases R2 and Q. Conclusions This study demonstrates 1) that cultivated E. coli in LB broth produce distinct gas profiles, 2) for the first time, the ability to modify E. coli-specific gas profiles by the addition of whole human blood, and 3) that E. coli-human whole blood interactions present different gas emission profiles that have the potential to be used as non-invasive volatile biomarkers of E. coli infection. PMID:23842518

  16. Escherichia coli as a bioreporter in ecotoxicology.

    PubMed

    Robbens, Johan; Dardenne, Freddy; Devriese, Lisa; De Coen, Wim; Blust, Ronny

    2010-11-01

    Ecotoxicological assessment relies to a large extent on the information gathered with surrogate species and the extrapolation of test results across species and different levels of biological organisation. Bacteria have long been used as a bioreporter for genotoxic testing and general toxicity. Today, it is clear that bacteria have the potential for screening of other toxicological endpoints. Escherichia coli has been studied for years; in-depth knowledge of its biochemistry and genetics makes it the most proficient prokaryote for the development of new toxicological assays. Several assays have been designed with E. coli as a bioreporter, and the recent trend to develop novel, better advanced reporters makes bioreporter development one of the most dynamic in ecotoxicology. Based on in-depth knowledge of E. coli, new assays are being developed or existing ones redesigned, thanks to the availability of new reporter genes and new or improved substrates. The technological evolution towards easier and more sensitive detection of different gene products is another important aspect. Often, this requires the redesign of the bacterium to make it compatible with the novel measuring tests. Recent advances in surface chemistry and nanoelectronics open the perspective for advanced reporter based on novel measuring platforms and with an online potential. In this article, we will discuss the use of E. coli-based bioreporters in ecotoxicological applications as well as some innovative sensors awaited for the future. PMID:20803141

  17. Transport proteins promoting Escherichia coli pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Fengyi; Saier, Milton H.

    2014-01-01

    Escherichia coli is a genetically diverse species infecting hundreds of millions of people worldwide annually. We examined seven well-characterized E. coli pathogens causing urinary tract infections, gastroenteritis, pyelonephritis and haemorrhagic colitis. Their transport proteins were identified and compared with each other and a non-pathogenic E. coli K12 strain to identify transport proteins related to pathogenesis. Each pathogen possesses a unique set of protein secretion systems for export to the cell surface or for injecting effector proteins into host cells. Pathogens have increased numbers of iron siderophore receptors and ABC iron uptake transporters, but the numbers and types of low-affinity secondary iron carriers were uniform in all strains. The presence of outer membrane iron complex receptors and high-affinity ABC iron uptake systems correlated, suggesting co-evolution. Each pathovar encodes a different set of pore-forming toxins and virulence-related outer membrane proteins lacking in K12. Intracellular pathogens proved to have a characteristically distinctive set of nutrient uptake porters, different from those of extracellular pathogens. The results presented in this report provide information about transport systems relevant to various types of E. coli pathogenesis that can be exploited in future basic and applied studies. PMID:24747185

  18. Discrepancies in the enumeration of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Ray, B; Speck, M L

    1973-04-01

    Stationary-phase cells of Escherichia coli were enumerated by the pour plate method on Trypticase soy agar containing 0.3% yeast extract (TSYA), violet red-bile agar, and desoxycholate-lactose agar, and by the most-probable-number method in Brilliant Green-bile broth and lauryl sulfate broth. Maximum counts were assumed to be those on TSYA. In general, numbers detected were lower with the selective solid media and higher with the selective liquid media. Inhibitory effects, especially on selective solid media varied with the strains of E. coli. The lower detection on selective solid media was partly due to the stress induced in some cells by the temperature of the melted media used in the pour plate method. These cells apparently failed to repair and form colonies in the selective media. Improved detection on the selective solid media was achieved by using 1% nonfat milk solids, 1% peptone, or 1% MgSO(4).7H(2)O in the dilution blanks. Higher detection on selective agar media was effected by surface plating or by surface-overlay plating of the cells. The surface-overlay method appeared to be superior for the direct enumeration of E. coli in foods. PMID:4572980

  19. Role of Escherichia coli in Biofuel Production.

    PubMed

    Koppolu, Veerendra; Vasigala, Veneela Kr

    2016-01-01

    Increased energy consumption coupled with depleting petroleum reserves and increased greenhouse gas emissions have renewed our interest in generating fuels from renewable energy sources via microbial fermentation. Central to this problem is the choice of microorganism that catalyzes the production of fuels at high volumetric productivity and yield from cheap and abundantly available renewable energy sources. Microorganisms that are metabolically engineered to redirect renewable carbon sources into desired fuel products are contemplated as best choices to obtain high volumetric productivity and yield. Considering the availability of vast knowledge in genomic and metabolic fronts, Escherichia coli is regarded as a primary choice for the production of biofuels. Here, we reviewed the microbial production of liquid biofuels that have the potential to be used either alone or in combination with the present-day fuels. We specifically highlighted the metabolic engineering and synthetic biology approaches used to improve the production of biofuels from E. coli over the past few years. We also discussed the challenges that still exist for the biofuel production from E. coli and their possible solutions. PMID:27441002

  20. [Population genomic researches of Escherichia coli].

    PubMed

    Wu, Y R; Yang, R F; Cui, Y J

    2016-06-01

    Population genomics, an interdiscipline of genomics and population genetics, is booming in recent years with the rapid growth number of deciphered genomes and revolutionizes the understanding of bacterial population diversity and evolution dynamics. It also largely improves the prevention and control of infectious disease through providing more accurate genotyping and source-tracing results and more comprehensive characteristics of emerging pathogens. In this review, taking one of the best characterized bacteria, Escherichia coli, as model, we reviewed the phylogenetic relationship across its five major populations (designated A, B1, B2, D and E); and summarized researches on molecular mutation rate, selection signals, and patterns of adaptive evolution. We also described the application of population genomics in responding against large-scale outbreaks of E. coli O157:H7 and E. coli O104:H4. These results indicated that, although being a novel discipline, population genomics has played an important role in deciphering bacterial population structures, exploring evolutionary patterns and combating emerging infectious diseases. PMID:27256740

  1. Escherichia coli biofilm: development and therapeutic strategies.

    PubMed

    Sharma, G; Sharma, S; Sharma, P; Chandola, D; Dang, S; Gupta, S; Gabrani, R

    2016-08-01

    Escherichia coli biofilm consists of a bacterial colony embedded in a matrix of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) which protects the microbes from adverse environmental conditions and results in infection. Besides being the major causative agent for recurrent urinary tract infections, E. coli biofilm is also responsible for indwelling medical device-related infectivity. The cell-to-cell communication within the biofilm occurs due to quorum sensors that can modulate the key biochemical players enabling the bacteria to proliferate and intensify the resultant infections. The diversity in structural components of biofilm gets compounded due to the development of antibiotic resistance, hampering its eradication. Conventionally used antimicrobial agents have a restricted range of cellular targets and limited efficacy on biofilms. This emphasizes the need to explore the alternate therapeuticals like anti-adhesion compounds, phytochemicals, nanomaterials for effective drug delivery to restrict the growth of biofilm. The current review focuses on various aspects of E. coli biofilm development and the possible therapeutic approaches for prevention and treatment of biofilm-related infections. PMID:26811181

  2. Role of Escherichia coli in Biofuel Production

    PubMed Central

    Koppolu, Veerendra; Vasigala, Veneela KR

    2016-01-01

    Increased energy consumption coupled with depleting petroleum reserves and increased greenhouse gas emissions have renewed our interest in generating fuels from renewable energy sources via microbial fermentation. Central to this problem is the choice of microorganism that catalyzes the production of fuels at high volumetric productivity and yield from cheap and abundantly available renewable energy sources. Microorganisms that are metabolically engineered to redirect renewable carbon sources into desired fuel products are contemplated as best choices to obtain high volumetric productivity and yield. Considering the availability of vast knowledge in genomic and metabolic fronts, Escherichia coli is regarded as a primary choice for the production of biofuels. Here, we reviewed the microbial production of liquid biofuels that have the potential to be used either alone or in combination with the present-day fuels. We specifically highlighted the metabolic engineering and synthetic biology approaches used to improve the production of biofuels from E. coli over the past few years. We also discussed the challenges that still exist for the biofuel production from E. coli and their possible solutions. PMID:27441002

  3. (p)ppGpp-dependent and -independent pathways for salt tolerance in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Tarusawa, Takefusa; Ito, Shion; Goto, Simon; Ushida, Chisato; Muto, Akira; Himeno, Hyouta

    2016-07-01

    Addition of some kinds of translation inhibitors targeting the ribosome such as kasugamycin to the culture medium as well as removal of a ribosome maturation factor or a ribosomal protein provides Escherichia coli cells with tolerance to high salt stress. Here, we found that another kind of translation inhibitor, serine hydroxamate (SHX), which induces amino acid starvation leading to (p)ppGpp production, also has a similar effect, but via a different pathway. Unlike kasugamycin, SHX was not effective in (p)ppGpp-null mutant cells. SHX and depletion of RsgA, a ribosome maturation factor, had an additive effect on salt tolerance, while kasugamycin or depletion of RsgA did not. These results indicate the presence of two distinct pathways, (p)ppGpp-dependent and -independent pathways, for salt tolerance of E. coli cell. Both pathways operate even in the absence of σ(S), an alternative sigma factor involved in the stationary phase or stress response. Hastened activation of the exocytoplasmic stress-specific sigma factor, σ(E), after salt shock was observed in the cells treated with SHX, as has been observed in the cells treated with a translation inhibitor or depleted of a ribosome maturation factor. PMID:26823481

  4. Non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), also known as verocytotoxin-producing E. coli, are important food-borne pathogens responsible for outbreaks of hemorrhagic colitis (HC) and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). STEC that cause HC and HUS are also referred to as enterohemorrhagic E. coli (E...

  5. WGS accurately predicts antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objectives: To determine the effectiveness of whole-genome sequencing (WGS) in identifying resistance genotypes of multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli (E. coli) and whether these correlate with observed phenotypes. Methods: Seventy-six E. coli strains were isolated from farm cattle and measured f...

  6. Virulence Gene Regulation in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Mellies, Jay L; Barron, Alex M S

    2006-01-01

    Escherichia colicauses three types of illnesses in humans: diarrhea, urinary tract infections, and meningitis in newborns. The acquisition of virulence-associated genes and the ability to properly regulate these, often horizontally transferred, loci distinguishes pathogens from the normally harmless commensal E. coli found within the human intestine. This review addresses our current understanding of virulence gene regulation in several important diarrhea-causing pathotypes, including enteropathogenic, enterohemorrhagic,enterotoxigenic, and enteroaggregativeE. coli-EPEC, EHEC, ETEC and EAEC, respectively. The intensely studied regulatory circuitry controlling virulence of uropathogenicE. coli, or UPEC, is also reviewed, as is that of MNEC, a common cause of meningitis in neonates. Specific topics covered include the regulation of initial attachment events necessary for infection, environmental cues affecting virulence gene expression, control of attaching and effacing lesionformation, and control of effector molecule expression and secretion via the type III secretion systems by EPEC and EHEC. How phage control virulence and the expression of the Stx toxins of EHEC, phase variation, quorum sensing, and posttranscriptional regulation of virulence determinants are also addressed. A number of important virulence regulators are described, including the AraC-like molecules PerA of EPEC, CfaR and Rns of ETEC, and AggR of EAEC;the Ler protein of EPEC and EHEC;RfaH of UPEC;and the H-NS molecule that acts to silence gene expression. The regulatory circuitry controlling virulence of these greatly varied E. colipathotypes is complex, but common themes offerinsight into the signals and regulators necessary forE. coli disease progression. PMID:26443571

  7. Molecular characterization and clonal relationships among Escherichia coli strains isolated from broiler chickens with colisepticemia.

    PubMed

    Barbieri, Nicolle Lima; de Oliveira, Aline Luísa; Tejkowski, Thiago Moreira; Pavanelo, Daniel Brisotto; Matter, Letícia Beatriz; Pinheiro, Sandra Regina Schincariol; Vaz, Tânia Mara Ibelli; Nolan, Lisa K; Logue, Catherine M; de Brito, Benito Guimarães; Horn, Fabiana

    2015-01-01

    This study characterized 52 Escherichia coli isolates from distinct diseased organs of 29 broiler chickens with clinical symptoms of colibacillosis in the Southern Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul. Thirty-eight isolates were highly virulent and 14 were virtually avirulent in 1-day-old chicks, yet all isolates harbored virulence factors characteristic of avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC), including those related to adhesion, iron acquisition, and serum resistance. E. coli reference collection phylogenetic typing showed that isolates belonged mostly to group D (39%), followed by group A (29%), group B1 (17%), and group B2 (15%). Phylogenetic analyses using the Amplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Analysis and pulse-field gel electrophoresis methods were used to discriminate among isolates displaying the same serotype, revealing that five birds were infected with two distinct APEC strains. Among the 52 avian isolates, 2 were members of the pandemic E. coli O25:H4-B2-ST131 clone. PMID:25514382

  8. Efficient production of indigoidine in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fuchao; Gage, David; Zhan, Jixun

    2015-08-01

    Indigoidine is a bacterial natural product with antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Its bright blue color resembles the industrial dye indigo, thus representing a new natural blue dye that may find uses in industry. In our previous study, an indigoidine synthetase Sc-IndC and an associated helper protein Sc-IndB were identified from Streptomyces chromofuscus ATCC 49982 and successfully expressed in Escherichia coli BAP1 to produce the blue pigment at 3.93 g/l. To further improve the production of indigoidine, in this work, the direct biosynthetic precursor L-glutamine was fed into the fermentation broth of the engineered E. coli strain harboring Sc-IndC and Sc-IndB. The highest titer of indigoidine reached 8.81 ± 0.21 g/l at 1.46 g/l L-glutamine. Given the relatively high price of L-glutamine, a metabolic engineering technique was used to directly enhance the in situ supply of this precursor. A glutamine synthetase gene (glnA) was amplified from E. coli and co-expressed with Sc-indC and Sc-indB in E. coli BAP1, leading to the production of indigoidine at 5.75 ± 0.09 g/l. Because a nitrogen source is required for amino acid biosynthesis, we then tested the effect of different nitrogen-containing salts on the supply of L-glutamine and subsequent indigoidine production. Among the four tested salts including (NH4)2SO4, NH4Cl, (NH4)2HPO4 and KNO3, (NH4)2HPO4 showed the best effect on improving the titer of indigoidine. Different concentrations of (NH4)2HPO4 were added to the fermentation broths of E. coli BAP1/Sc-IndC+Sc-IndB+GlnA, and the titer reached the highest (7.08 ± 0.11 g/l) at 2.5 mM (NH4)2HPO4. This work provides two efficient methods for the production of this promising blue pigment in E. coli. PMID:26109508

  9. Escherichia coli photoreactivating enzyme: purification and properties

    SciTech Connect

    Snapka, R.M.; Sutherland, B.M.

    1980-01-01

    Researchers have purified large quantities of Escherichia coli photoreactivating enzyme to apparent homogeneity and have studied its physical and chemical properties. The enzyme has a molecular weight of 36,800 and a S/sub 20,w//sup 0/ of 3.72 S. Amino acid analysis revealed an apparent absence of tryptophan, a low content of aromatic residues, and the presence of no unusual amino acids. The N terminus is arginine. The purified enzyme contained up to 13% carbohydrate by weight. The carbohydrate was composed of mannose, galactose, glucose, and N-acetylglucosamine. The enzyme is also associated with RNA containing uracil, adenine, guanine, and cytosine with no unusual bases detected.

  10. Genetic Analysis of an Escherichia coli Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lennette, Evelyne T.; Apirion, David

    1971-01-01

    A mutant strain of Escherichia coli that fails to recover from prolonged (72 hr) starvation also fails to grow at 43 C. Extracts of this mutant strain show an increased ribonuclease II activity as compared to extracts of the parental strain, and stable ribonucleic acid is degraded to a larger extent in this strain during starvation. Ts+ transductants and revertants were tested for all the above-mentioned phenotypes. All the Ts+ transductants and revertants tested behaved like the Ts+ parental strain, which suggests that all the observed phenotypes are caused by a single sts (starvation-temperature sensitivity) mutation. The reversion rate from sts− to sts+ is rather low but is within the range of reversion rates for other single-site mutations. Three-point transduction crosses located this sts mutation between the ilv and rbs genes. The properties of sts+/sts− merozygotes suggested that the Ts− phenotype of this mutation is recessive. PMID:4945197

  11. Phosphoglucomutase Mutants of Escherichia coli K-12

    PubMed Central

    Adhya, Sankar; Schwartz, Maxime

    1971-01-01

    Bacteria with strongly depressed phosphoglucomutase (EC 2.7.5.1) activity are found among the mutants of Escherichia coli which, when grown on maltose, accumulate sufficient amylose to be detectable by iodine staining. These pgm mutants grow poorly on galactose but also accumulate amylose on this carbon source. Growth on lactose does not produce high amylose but, instead, results in the induction of the enzymes of maltose metabolism, presumably by accumulation of maltose. These facts suggest that the catabolism of glucose-1-phosphate is strongly depressed in pgm mutants, although not completely abolished. Anabolism of glucose-1-phosphate is also strongly depressed, since amino acid- or glucose-grown pgm mutants are sensitive to phage C21, indicating a deficiency in the biosynthesis of uridine diphosphoglucose or uridine diphosphogalactose, or both. All pgm mutations isolated map at about 16 min on the genetic map, between purE and the gal operon. PMID:4942754

  12. Structure of common pili from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    McMichael, J C; Ou, J T

    1979-01-01

    Several important properties of the common pili from Escherichia coli are discussed. These pili were resistant to the gentle Folin-Ciocalteau reagent methods for protein detection and were not readily solubilized by sodium dodecyl sulfate. They were found to contain a reducing sugar but not peptidoglycan. The pilin had multiple conformations in sodium dodecyl sulfate solution, and the appearance of multiple bands on sodium dodecyl sulfate gels did not necessarily indicate heterogeneity of the preparation. The ilus subunit was found to be a different protein than outer membrane III, which has the same apparent molecular weight. In addition, we conformed the results of Brinton (Trans. N.Y. Acad. Sci 27:1003-1054, 1965): that there is a dramatic change in the properties of pili after they are heated at pH values below 2. Images PMID:37233

  13. Novel antigens for enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli vaccines.

    PubMed

    Fleckenstein, James; Sheikh, Alaullah; Qadri, Firdausi

    2014-05-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are the most common bacterial pathogens causing diarrhea in developing countries where they lead to hundreds of thousands of deaths, mostly in children. These organisms are a leading cause of diarrheal illness in travelers to endemic countries. ETEC pathogenesis, and consequently vaccine approaches, have largely focused on plasmid-encoded enterotoxins or fimbrial colonization factors. To date these approaches have not yielded a broadly protective vaccine. However, recent studies suggest that ETEC pathogenesis is more complex than previously appreciated and involves additional plasmid and chromosomally encoded virulence molecules that can be targeted in vaccines. Here, we review recent novel antigen discovery efforts, potential contribution of these proteins to the molecular pathogenesis of ETEC and protective immunity, and the potential implications for development of next generation vaccines for important pathogens. These proteins may help to improve the effectiveness of future vaccines by making them simpler and possibly broadly protective because of their conserved nature. PMID:24702311

  14. Oxygen sensitivity of an Escherichia coli mutant.

    PubMed

    Adler, H; Mural, R; Suttle, B

    1992-04-01

    Genetic evidence indicates that Oxys-6, an oxygen-sensitive mutant of Escherichia coli AB1157, is defective in the region of the hemB locus. Oxys-6 is capable of growth under aerobic conditions only if cultures are initiated at low-inoculum levels. Aerobic liquid cultures are limited to a cell density of 10(7) cells per ml by the accumulation of a metabolically produced, low-molecular-weight, heat-stable material in complex organic media. Both Oxys-6 and AB1157 cells produce the material, but only aerobic cultures of the mutant are inhibited by it. The material is produced by both intact cells and cell extracts in complex media. This reaction also occurs when the amino acid L-lysine is substituted for complex media. PMID:1551829

  15. Oxygen sensitivity of an Escherichia coli mutant.

    PubMed Central

    Adler, H; Mural, R; Suttle, B

    1992-01-01

    Genetic evidence indicates that Oxys-6, an oxygen-sensitive mutant of Escherichia coli AB1157, is defective in the region of the hemB locus. Oxys-6 is capable of growth under aerobic conditions only if cultures are initiated at low-inoculum levels. Aerobic liquid cultures are limited to a cell density of 10(7) cells per ml by the accumulation of a metabolically produced, low-molecular-weight, heat-stable material in complex organic media. Both Oxys-6 and AB1157 cells produce the material, but only aerobic cultures of the mutant are inhibited by it. The material is produced by both intact cells and cell extracts in complex media. This reaction also occurs when the amino acid L-lysine is substituted for complex media. Images PMID:1551829

  16. Direct Upstream Motility in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Kaya, Tolga; Koser, Hur

    2012-01-01

    We provide an experimental demonstration of positive rheotaxis (rapid and continuous upstream motility) in wild-type Escherichia coli freely swimming over a surface. This hydrodynamic phenomenon is dominant below a critical shear rate and robust against Brownian motion and cell tumbling. We deduce that individual bacteria entering a flow system can rapidly migrate upstream (>20 μm/s) much faster than a gradually advancing biofilm. Given a bacterial population with a distribution of sizes and swim speeds, local shear rate near the surface determines the dominant hydrodynamic mode for motility, i.e., circular or random trajectories for low shear rates, positive rheotaxis for moderate flow, and sideways swimming at higher shear rates. Faster swimmers can move upstream more rapidly and at higher shear rates, as expected. Interestingly, we also find on average that both swim speed and upstream motility are independent of cell aspect ratio. PMID:22500751

  17. Glucose-lactose diauxie in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Loomis, W F; Magasanik, B

    1967-04-01

    Growth of Escherichia coli in medium containing glucose, at a concentration insufficient to support full growth, and containing lactose, is diauxic. A mutation in the gene, CR, which determines catabolite repression specific to the lac operon, was found to relieve glucose-lactose but not glucose-maltose diauxie. Furthermore, a high concentration of lactose was shown to overcome diauxie in a CR(+) strain. Studies on the induction of beta-galactosidase by lactose suggested that glucose inhibits induction by 10(-2)m lactose. Preinduction of the lac operon was found to overcome this effect. The ability of glucose to prevent expression of the lac operon by reducing the internal concentration of inducer as well as by catabolite repression is discussed. PMID:5340309

  18. Genes under positive selection in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Lise; Bollback, Jonathan P.; Dimmic, Matt; Hubisz, Melissa; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2007-01-01

    We used a comparative genomics approach to identify genes that are under positive selection in six strains of Escherichia coli and Shigella flexneri, including five strains that are human pathogens. We find that positive selection targets a wide range of different functions in the E. coli genome, including cell surface proteins such as beta barrel porins, presumably because of the involvement of these genes in evolutionary arms races with other bacteria, phages, and/or the host immune system. Structural mapping of positively selected sites on trans-membrane beta barrel porins reveals that the residues under positive selection occur almost exclusively in the extracellular region of the proteins that are enriched with sites known to be targets of phages, colicins, or the host immune system. More surprisingly, we also find a number of other categories of genes that show very strong evidence for positive selection, such as the enigmatic rhs elements and transposases. Based on structural evidence, we hypothesize that the selection acting on transposases is related to the genomic conflict between transposable elements and the host genome. PMID:17675366

  19. Independence of replisomes in Escherichia coli chromosomalreplication

    SciTech Connect

    Breier, Adam M.; Weier, Heinz-Ulrich G.; Cozzarelli, Nicholas R.

    2005-03-13

    In Escherichia coli DNA replication is carried out by the coordinated action of the proteins within a replisome. After replication initiation, the two bidirectionally oriented replisomes from a single origin are colocalized into higher-order structures termed replication factories. The factory model postulated that the two replisomes are also functionally coupled. We tested this hypothesis by using DNA combing and whole-genome microarrays. Nascent DNA surrounding oriC in single, combed chromosomes showed instead that one replisome, usually the leftward one, was significantly ahead of the other 70% of the time. We next used microarrays to follow replication throughout the genome by measuring DNA copy number. We found in multiple E. coli strains that the replisomes are independent, with the leftward replisome ahead of the rightward one. The size of the bias was strain-specific, varying from 50 to 130 kb in the array results. When we artificially blocked one replisome, the other continued unabated, again demonstrating independence. We suggest an improved version of the factory model that retains the advantages of threading DNA through colocalized replisomes at about equal rates, but allows the cell flexibility to overcome obstacles encountered during elongation.

  20. Thiol-sensitive genes of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Javor, G T

    1989-01-01

    The effect of 1-thioglycerol on the expression of genes of Escherichia coli was investigated. Pulse-labeled proteins from aerobically growing, 1-thioglycerol-treated E. coli were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and their radioactivities were compared with those of identical proteins from nontreated cells. The first 10 min of exposure to thiol stimulated the synthesis of 10% of the observed proteins and inhibited the production of 16% of the proteins. After 30 min of growth with thiol, the synthesis of 44% of the observed proteins was inhibited and synthesis of 18% of the proteins was stimulated. In general, the expression of genes of carbohydrate metabolism, amino acid metabolism, and protein biosynthesis were inhibited, while nucleic acid synthetic and repair gene expressions showed mixed responses. Synthesis of transport proteins was not affected. Transient stimulation of oxidative-stress proteins and sustained stimulation of the expressions of trxB, ompA, and ompB genes and those of several unidentified gene products were also observed. Whether these complex responses merely reflect adjustments by cellular subsystems to a suddenly reducing environment or whether they are manifestations of a reductive-stress regulon will have to await genetic analysis of this phenomenon. Images PMID:2676982

  1. gltBDF operon of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Castaño, I; Bastarrachea, F; Covarrubias, A A

    1988-01-01

    A 2.0-kilobase DNA fragment carrying antibiotic resistance markers was inserted into the gltB gene of Escherichia coli previously cloned in a multicopy plasmid. Replacement of the chromosomal gltB+ gene by the gltB225::omega mutation led to cells unable to synthesize glutamate synthase, utilize growth rate-limiting nitrogen sources, or derepress their glutamine synthetase. The existence of a gltBDF operon encoding the large (gltB) and small (gltD) subunits of glutamate synthase and a regulatory peptide (gltF) at 69 min of the E. coli linkage map was deduced from complementation analysis. A plasmid carrying the entire gltB+D+F+ operon complemented cells for all three of the mutant phenotypes associated with the polar gltB225::omega mutation in the chromosome. By contrast, plasmids carrying gltB+ only complemented cells for glutamate synthase activity. A major tricistronic mRNA molecule was detected from Northern (RNA blot) DNA-RNA hybridization experiments with DNA probes containing single genes of the operon. A 30,200-dalton polypeptide was identified as the gltF product, the lack of which was responsible for the inability of cells to use nitrogen-limiting sources associated with gltB225::omega. Images PMID:2448295

  2. The extracellular RNA complement of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Ghosal, Anubrata; Upadhyaya, Bimal Babu; Fritz, Joëlle V; Heintz-Buschart, Anna; Desai, Mahesh S; Yusuf, Dilmurat; Huang, David; Baumuratov, Aidos; Wang, Kai; Galas, David; Wilmes, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The secretion of biomolecules into the extracellular milieu is a common and well-conserved phenomenon in biology. In bacteria, secreted biomolecules are not only involved in intra-species communication but they also play roles in inter-kingdom exchanges and pathogenicity. To date, released products, such as small molecules, DNA, peptides, and proteins, have been well studied in bacteria. However, the bacterial extracellular RNA complement has so far not been comprehensively characterized. Here, we have analyzed, using a combination of physical characterization and high-throughput sequencing, the extracellular RNA complement of both outer membrane vesicle (OMV)-associated and OMV-free RNA of the enteric Gram-negative model bacterium Escherichia coli K-12 substrain MG1655 and have compared it to its intracellular RNA complement. Our results demonstrate that a large part of the extracellular RNA complement is in the size range between 15 and 40 nucleotides and is derived from specific intracellular RNAs. Furthermore, RNA is associated with OMVs and the relative abundances of RNA biotypes in the intracellular, OMV and OMV-free fractions are distinct. Apart from rRNA fragments, a significant portion of the extracellular RNA complement is composed of specific cleavage products of functionally important structural noncoding RNAs, including tRNAs, 4.5S RNA, 6S RNA, and tmRNA. In addition, the extracellular RNA pool includes RNA biotypes from cryptic prophages, intergenic, and coding regions, of which some are so far uncharacterised, for example, transcripts mapping to the fimA-fimL and ves-spy intergenic regions. Our study provides the first detailed characterization of the extracellular RNA complement of the enteric model bacterium E. coli. Analogous to findings in eukaryotes, our results suggest the selective export of specific RNA biotypes by E. coli, which in turn indicates a potential role for extracellular bacterial RNAs in intercellular communication. PMID:25611733

  3. Escherichia coli mutants deficient in exonuclease VII.

    PubMed Central

    Chase, J W; Richardson, C C

    1977-01-01

    Mutants of Escherichia coli having reduced levels of exonuclease VII activity have been isolated by a mass screening procedure. Nine mutants, five of which are known to be of independent origin, were obtained and designated xse. The defects in these strains lie at two or more loci. One of these loci, xseA, lies in the interval between purG and purC; it is 93 to 97% co-transducible with guaA. The order of the genes in this region is purG-xseA guaA,B-purC. The available data do not allow xseA to be ordered with respect to guaA,B. Exonuclease VII purified from E. coli KLC3 xseA3 is more heat labile than exonuclease VII purified from the parent, E. coli PA610 xse+. Therefore, xseA is the structural gene for exonuclease VII. Mutants with defects in the xseA gene show increased sensitivity to nalidixic acid and have an abnormally high frequency of recombination (hyper-Rec phenotype) as measured by the procedure of Konrad and Lehlman (1974). The hyper-Rec character of xseA strains is approximately one-half that of the polAex1 mutant defective in the 5' leads to 3' hydrolytic activity of deoxyribonucleic acid polymerase I. The double mutant, polAex1 xseA7, is twice as hyper-Rec as the polAex1 mutant alone. The xseA- strains are slightly more sensitive to ultraviolet irradiation than the parent strain. Bacteriophages T7, fd, and lambdared grow normally in xseA- strains. Images PMID:320198

  4. The spatial biology of transcription and translation in rapidly growing Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Bakshi, Somenath; Choi, Heejun; Weisshaar, James C.

    2015-01-01

    Single-molecule fluorescence provides high resolution spatial distributions of ribosomes and RNA polymerase (RNAP) in live, rapidly growing Escherichia coli. Ribosomes are more strongly segregated from the nucleoids (chromosomal DNA) than previous widefield fluorescence studies suggested. While most transcription may be co-translational, the evidence indicates that most translation occurs on free mRNA copies that have diffused from the nucleoids to a ribosome-rich region. Analysis of time-resolved images of the nucleoid spatial distribution after treatment with the transcription-halting drug rifampicin and the translation-halting drug chloramphenicol shows that both drugs cause nucleoid contraction on the 0–3 min timescale. This is consistent with the transertion hypothesis. We suggest that the longer-term (20–30 min) nucleoid expansion after Rif treatment arises from conversion of 70S-polysomes to 30S and 50S subunits, which readily penetrate the nucleoids. Monte Carlo simulations of a polymer bead model built to mimic the chromosomal DNA and ribosomes (either 70S-polysomes or 30S and 50S subunits) explain spatial segregation or mixing of ribosomes and nucleoids in terms of excluded volume and entropic effects alone. A comprehensive model of the transcription-translation-transertion system incorporates this new information about the spatial organization of the E. coli cytoplasm. We propose that transertion, which radially expands the nucleoids, is essential for recycling of 30S and 50S subunits from ribosome-rich regions back into the nucleoids. There they initiate co-transcriptional translation, which is an important mechanism for maintaining RNAP forward progress and protecting the nascent mRNA chain. Segregation of 70S-polysomes from the nucleoid may facilitate rapid growth by shortening the search time for ribosomes to find free mRNA concentrated outside the nucleoid and the search time for RNAP concentrated within the nucleoid to find transcription

  5. A combined quantitative mass spectrometry and electron microscopy analysis of ribosomal 30S subunit assembly in E. coli

    PubMed Central

    Sashital, Dipali G; Greeman, Candacia A; Lyumkis, Dmitry; Potter, Clinton S; Carragher, Bridget; Williamson, James R

    2014-01-01

    Ribosome assembly is a complex process involving the folding and processing of ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs), concomitant binding of ribosomal proteins (r-proteins), and participation of numerous accessory cofactors. Here, we use a quantitative mass spectrometry/electron microscopy hybrid approach to determine the r-protein composition and conformation of 30S ribosome assembly intermediates in Escherichia coli. The relative timing of assembly of the 3′ domain and the formation of the central pseudoknot (PK) structure depends on the presence of the assembly factor RimP. The central PK is unstable in the absence of RimP, resulting in the accumulation of intermediates in which the 3′-domain is unanchored and the 5′-domain is depleted for r-proteins S5 and S12 that contact the central PK. Our results reveal the importance of the cofactor RimP in central PK formation, and introduce a broadly applicable method for characterizing macromolecular assembly in cells. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04491.001 PMID:25313868

  6. Nucleotide sequence corresponding to five chemotaxis genes in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Mutoh, N; Simon, M I

    1986-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of DNA which contains five chemotaxis-related genes of Escherichia coli, cheW, cheR, cheB, cheY, and cheZ, and part of the cheA gene was determined. Molecular weights of the polypeptides encoded by these genes were calculated from translated amino acid sequences, and they were 18,100 for cheW, 32,700 for cheR, 37,500 for cheB, 14,100 for cheY, and 24,000 for cheZ. Nucleotide sequences which could act as ribosome-binding sites were found in the upstream region of each gene. After the termination codon of the cheW gene, a typical rho-independent transcription termination signal was observed. There are no other open reading frames long enough to encode polypeptides in this region except those which code for the two previously reported genes tar and tap. PMID:3510184

  7. Protein folding in the cell envelope of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    De Geyter, Jozefien; Tsirigotaki, Alexandra; Orfanoudaki, Georgia; Zorzini, Valentina; Economou, Anastassios; Karamanou, Spyridoula

    2016-01-01

    While the entire proteome is synthesized on cytoplasmic ribosomes, almost half associates with, localizes in or crosses the bacterial cell envelope. In Escherichia coli a variety of mechanisms are important for taking these polypeptides into or across the plasma membrane, maintaining them in soluble form, trafficking them to their correct cell envelope locations and then folding them into the right structures. The fidelity of these processes must be maintained under various environmental conditions including during stress; if this fails, proteases are called in to degrade mislocalized or aggregated proteins. Various soluble, diffusible chaperones (acting as holdases, foldases or pilotins) and folding catalysts are also utilized to restore proteostasis. These responses can be general, dealing with multiple polypeptides, with functional overlaps and operating within redundant networks. Other chaperones are specialized factors, dealing only with a few exported proteins. Several complex machineries have evolved to deal with binding to, integration in and crossing of the outer membrane. This complex protein network is responsible for fundamental cellular processes such as cell wall biogenesis; cell division; the export, uptake and degradation of molecules; and resistance against exogenous toxic factors. The underlying processes, contributing to our fundamental understanding of proteostasis, are a treasure trove for the development of novel antibiotics, biopharmaceuticals and vaccines. PMID:27573113

  8. An Integrated System for Precise Genome Modification in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Tas, Huseyin; Nguyen, Cac T.; Patel, Ravish; Kim, Neil H.; Kuhlman, Thomas E.

    2015-01-01

    We describe an optimized system for the easy, effective, and precise modification of the Escherichia coli genome. Genome changes are introduced first through the integration of a 1.3 kbp Landing Pad consisting of a gene conferring resistance to tetracycline (tetA) or the ability to metabolize the sugar galactose (galK). The Landing Pad is then excised as a result of double-strand breaks by the homing endonuclease I-SceI, and replaced with DNA fragments bearing the desired change via λ-Red mediated homologous recombination. Repair of the double strand breaks and counterselection against the Landing Pad (using NiCl2 for tetA or 2-deoxy-galactose for galK) allows the isolation of modified bacteria without the use of additional antibiotic selection. We demonstrate the power of this method to make a variety of genome modifications: the exact integration, without any extraneous sequence, of the lac operon (~6.5 kbp) to any desired location in the genome and without the integration of antibiotic markers; the scarless deletion of ribosomal rrn operons (~6 kbp) through either intrachromosomal or oligonucleotide recombination; and the in situ fusion of native genes to fluorescent reporter genes without additional perturbation. PMID:26332675

  9. An Integrated System for Precise Genome Modification in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Tas, Huseyin; Nguyen, Cac T; Patel, Ravish; Kim, Neil H; Kuhlman, Thomas E

    2015-01-01

    We describe an optimized system for the easy, effective, and precise modification of the Escherichia coli genome. Genome changes are introduced first through the integration of a 1.3 kbp Landing Pad consisting of a gene conferring resistance to tetracycline (tetA) or the ability to metabolize the sugar galactose (galK). The Landing Pad is then excised as a result of double-strand breaks by the homing endonuclease I-SceI, and replaced with DNA fragments bearing the desired change via λ-Red mediated homologous recombination. Repair of the double strand breaks and counterselection against the Landing Pad (using NiCl2 for tetA or 2-deoxy-galactose for galK) allows the isolation of modified bacteria without the use of additional antibiotic selection. We demonstrate the power of this method to make a variety of genome modifications: the exact integration, without any extraneous sequence, of the lac operon (~6.5 kbp) to any desired location in the genome and without the integration of antibiotic markers; the scarless deletion of ribosomal rrn operons (~6 kbp) through either intrachromosomal or oligonucleotide recombination; and the in situ fusion of native genes to fluorescent reporter genes without additional perturbation. PMID:26332675

  10. Escherichia coli in chronic inflammatory bowel diseases: An update on adherent invasive Escherichia coli pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Medina, Margarita; Garcia-Gil, Librado Jesus

    2014-01-01

    Escherichia coli (E. coli), and particularly the adherent invasive E. coli (AIEC) pathotype, has been increasingly implicated in the ethiopathogenesis of Crohn’s disease (CD). E. coli strains with similar pathogenic features to AIEC have been associated with other intestinal disorders such as ulcerative colitis, colorectal cancer, and coeliac disease, but AIEC prevalence in these diseases remains largely unexplored. Since AIEC was described one decade ago, substantial progress has been made in deciphering its mechanisms of pathogenicity. However, the molecular bases that characterize the phenotypic properties of this pathotype are still not well resolved. A review of studies focused on E. coli populations in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is presented here and we discuss about the putative role of this species on each IBD subtype. Given the relevance of AIEC in CD pathogenesis, we present the latest research findings concerning AIEC host-microbe interactions and pathogenicity. We also review the existing data regarding the prevalence and abundance of AIEC in CD and its association with other intestinal diseases from humans and animals, in order to discuss the AIEC disease- and host-specificity. Finally, we highlight the fact that dietary components frequently found in industrialized countries may enhance AIEC colonization in the gut, which merits further investigation and the implementation of preventative measures. PMID:25133024

  11. Escherichia coli survival in waters: temperature dependence.

    PubMed

    Blaustein, R A; Pachepsky, Y; Hill, R L; Shelton, D R; Whelan, G

    2013-02-01

    Knowing the survival rates of water-borne Escherichia coli is important in evaluating microbial contamination and making appropriate management decisions. E. coli survival rates are dependent on temperature, a dependency that is routinely expressed using an analogue of the Q₁₀ model. This suggestion was made 34 years ago based on 20 survival curves taken from published literature, but has not been revisited since then. The objective of this study was to re-evaluate the accuracy of the Q₁₀ equation, utilizing data accumulated since 1978. We assembled a database of 450 E. coli survival datasets from 70 peer-reviewed papers. We then focused on the 170 curves taken from experiments that were performed in the laboratory under dark conditions to exclude the effects of sunlight and other field factors that could cause additional variability in results. All datasets were tabulated dependencies "log concentration vs. time." There were three major patterns of inactivation: about half of the datasets had a section of fast log-linear inactivation followed by a section of slow log-linear inactivation; about a quarter of the datasets had a lag period followed by log-linear inactivation; and the remaining quarter were approximately linear throughout. First-order inactivation rate constants were calculated from the linear sections of all survival curves and the data grouped by water sources, including waters of agricultural origin, pristine water sources, groundwater and wells, lakes and reservoirs, rivers and streams, estuaries and seawater, and wastewater. Dependency of E. coli inactivation rates on temperature varied among the water sources. There was a significant difference in inactivation rate values at the reference temperature between rivers and agricultural waters, wastewaters and agricultural waters, rivers and lakes, and wastewater and lakes. At specific sites, the Q₁₀ equation was more accurate in rivers and coastal waters than in lakes making the value of

  12. TRIMETHOPRIM-SULFAMETHOXAZOLE RESISTANCE IN SEWAGE ISOLATES OF ESCHERICHIA COLI

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sewage samples from seven locations in the United States were analyzed for Escherichia coli isolates which were resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT). The prevalence rate of SXT resistant organisms varied between the different geographical locales. The majority of th...

  13. Structural and Functional Analysis of BipA, a Regulator of Virulence in Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli*

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Haitian; Hahm, Joseph; Diggs, Stephen; Perry, J. Jefferson P.; Blaha, Gregor

    2015-01-01

    The translational GTPase BipA regulates the expression of virulence and pathogenicity factors in several eubacteria. BipA-dependent expression of virulence factors occurs under starvation conditions, such as encountered during infection of a host. Under these conditions, BipA associates with the small ribosomal subunit. BipA also has a second function to promote the efficiency of late steps in biogenesis of large ribosomal subunits at low temperatures, presumably while bound to the ribosome. During starvation, the cellular concentration of stress alarmone guanosine-3′, 5′-bis pyrophosphate (ppGpp) is increased. This increase allows ppGpp to bind to BipA and switch its binding specificity from ribosomes to small ribosomal subunits. A conformational change of BipA upon ppGpp binding could explain the ppGpp regulation of the binding specificity of BipA. Here, we present the structures of the full-length BipA from Escherichia coli in apo, GDP-, and ppGpp-bound forms. The crystal structure and small-angle x-ray scattering data of the protein with bound nucleotides, together with a thermodynamic analysis of the binding of GDP and of ppGpp to BipA, indicate that the ppGpp-bound form of BipA adopts the structure of the GDP form. This suggests furthermore, that the switch in binding preference only occurs when both ppGpp and the small ribosomal subunit are present. This molecular mechanism would allow BipA to interact with both the ribosome and the small ribosomal subunit during stress response. PMID:26163516

  14. Structure of the E. coli ribosome-EF-Tu complex at <3 Å resolution by Cs-corrected cryo-EM.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Niels; Neumann, Piotr; Konevega, Andrey L; Bock, Lars V; Ficner, Ralf; Rodnina, Marina V; Stark, Holger

    2015-04-23

    Single particle electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) has recently made significant progress in high-resolution structure determination of macromolecular complexes due to improvements in electron microscopic instrumentation and computational image analysis. However, cryo-EM structures can be highly non-uniform in local resolution and all structures available to date have been limited to resolutions above 3 Å. Here we present the cryo-EM structure of the 70S ribosome from Escherichia coli in complex with elongation factor Tu, aminoacyl-tRNA and the antibiotic kirromycin at 2.65-2.9 Å resolution using spherical aberration (Cs)-corrected cryo-EM. Overall, the cryo-EM reconstruction at 2.9 Å resolution is comparable to the best-resolved X-ray structure of the E. coli 70S ribosome (2.8 Å), but provides more detailed information (2.65 Å) at the functionally important ribosomal core. The cryo-EM map elucidates for the first time the structure of all 35 rRNA modifications in the bacterial ribosome, explaining their roles in fine-tuning ribosome structure and function and modulating the action of antibiotics. We also obtained atomic models for flexible parts of the ribosome such as ribosomal proteins L9 and L31. The refined cryo-EM-based model presents the currently most complete high-resolution structure of the E. coli ribosome, which demonstrates the power of cryo-EM in structure determination of large and dynamic macromolecular complexes. PMID:25707802

  15. Meta-Analysis of Transcriptional Responses to Mastitis-Causing Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Younis, Sidra; Javed, Qamar; Blumenberg, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    Bovine mastitis is a widespread disease in dairy cows, and is often caused by bacterial mammary gland infection. Mastitis causes reduced milk production and leads to excessive use of antibiotics. We present meta-analysis of transcriptional profiles of bovine mastitis from 10 studies and 307 microarrays, allowing identification of much larger sets of affected genes than any individual study. Combining multiple studies provides insight into the molecular effects of Escherichia coli infection in vivo and uncovers differences between the consequences of E. coli vs. Staphylococcus aureus infection of primary mammary epithelial cells (PMECs). In udders, live E. coli elicits inflammatory and immune defenses through numerous cytokines and chemokines. Importantly, E. coli infection causes downregulation of genes encoding lipid biosynthesis enzymes that are involved in milk production. Additionally, host metabolism is generally suppressed. Finally, defensins and bacteria-recognition genes are upregulated, while the expression of the extracellular matrix protein transcripts is silenced. In PMECs, heat-inactivated E. coli elicits expression of ribosomal, cytoskeletal and angiogenic signaling genes, and causes suppression of the cell cycle and energy production genes. We hypothesize that heat-inactivated E. coli may have prophylactic effects against mastitis. Heat-inactivated S. aureus promotes stronger inflammatory and immune defenses than E. coli. Lipopolysaccharide by itself induces MHC antigen presentation components, an effect not seen in response to E. coli bacteria. These results provide the basis for strategies to prevent and treat mastitis and may lead to the reduction in the use of antibiotics. PMID:26933871

  16. The Escherichia coli Peripheral Inner Membrane Proteome*

    PubMed Central

    Papanastasiou, Malvina; Orfanoudaki, Georgia; Koukaki, Marina; Kountourakis, Nikos; Sardis, Marios Frantzeskos; Aivaliotis, Michalis; Karamanou, Spyridoula; Economou, Anastassios

    2013-01-01

    Biological membranes are essential for cell viability. Their functional characteristics strongly depend on their protein content, which consists of transmembrane (integral) and peripherally associated membrane proteins. Both integral and peripheral inner membrane proteins mediate a plethora of biological processes. Whereas transmembrane proteins have characteristic hydrophobic stretches and can be predicted using bioinformatics approaches, peripheral inner membrane proteins are hydrophilic, exist in equilibria with soluble pools, and carry no discernible membrane targeting signals. We experimentally determined the cytoplasmic peripheral inner membrane proteome of the model organism Escherichia coli using a multidisciplinary approach. Initially, we extensively re-annotated the theoretical proteome regarding subcellular localization using literature searches, manual curation, and multi-combinatorial bioinformatics searches of the available databases. Next we used sequential biochemical fractionations coupled to direct identification of individual proteins and protein complexes using high resolution mass spectrometry. We determined that the proposed cytoplasmic peripheral inner membrane proteome occupies a previously unsuspected ∼19% of the basic E. coli BL21(DE3) proteome, and the detected peripheral inner membrane proteome occupies ∼25% of the estimated expressed proteome of this cell grown in LB medium to mid-log phase. This value might increase when fleeting interactions, not studied here, are taken into account. Several proteins previously regarded as exclusively cytoplasmic bind membranes avidly. Many of these proteins are organized in functional or/and structural oligomeric complexes that bind to the membrane with multiple interactions. Identified proteins cover the full spectrum of biological activities, and more than half of them are essential. Our data suggest that the cytoplasmic proteome displays remarkably dynamic and extensive communication with

  17. The N-degradome of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Humbard, Matthew A.; Surkov, Serhiy; De Donatis, Gian Marco; Jenkins, Lisa M.; Maurizi, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    The N-end rule is a conserved mechanism found in Gram-negative bacteria and eukaryotes for marking proteins to be degraded by ATP-dependent proteases. Specific N-terminal amino acids (N-degrons) are sufficient to target a protein to the degradation machinery. In Escherichia coli, the adaptor ClpS binds an N-degron and delivers the protein to ClpAP for degradation. As ClpS recognizes N-terminal Phe, Trp, Tyr, and Leu, which are not found at the N terminus of proteins translated and processed by the canonical pathway, proteins must be post-translationally modified to expose an N-degron. One modification is catalyzed by Aat, an enzyme that adds leucine or phenylalanine to proteins with N-terminal lysine or arginine; however, such proteins are also not generated by the canonical protein synthesis pathway. Thus, the mechanisms producing N-degrons in proteins and the frequency of their occurrence largely remain a mystery. To address these issues, we used a ClpS affinity column to isolate interacting proteins from E. coli cell lysates under non-denaturing conditions. We identified more than 100 proteins that differentially bound to a column charged with wild-type ClpS and eluted with a peptide bearing an N-degron. Thirty-two of 37 determined N-terminal peptides had N-degrons. Most of the proteins were N-terminally truncated by endoproteases or exopeptidases, and many were further modified by Aat. The identities of the proteins point to possible physiological roles for the N-end rule in cell division, translation, transcription, and DNA replication and reveal widespread proteolytic processing of cellular proteins to generate N-end rule substrates. PMID:23960079

  18. Biocontrol of Escherichia coli O157

    PubMed Central

    Boyacioglu, Olcay; Sharma, Manan; Sulakvelidze, Alexander; Goktepe, Ipek

    2013-01-01

    The effect of a bacteriophage cocktail (EcoShield™) that is specific against Escherichia coli O157:H7 was evaluated against a nalidixic acid-resistant enterohemorrhagic E. coli O157:H7 RM4407 (EHEC) strain on leafy greens stored under either (1) ambient air or (2) modified atmosphere (MA; 5% O2/35% CO2/60% N2). Pieces (~2 × 2 cm2) of leafy greens (lettuce and spinach) inoculated with 4.5 log CFU/cm2 EHEC were sprayed with EcoShield™ (6.5 log PFU/cm2). Samples were stored at 4 or 10°C for up to 15 d. On spinach, the level of EHEC declined by 2.38 and 2.49 log CFU/cm2 at 4 and 10°C, respectively, 30 min after phage application (p ≤ 0.05). EcoShield™ was also effective in reducing EHEC on the surface of green leaf lettuce stored at 4°C by 2.49 and 3.28 log units in 30 min and 2 h, respectively (p ≤ 0.05). At 4°C under atmospheric air, the phage cocktail significantly (p ≤ 0.05) lowered the EHEC counts in one day by 1.19, 3.21 and 3.25 log CFU/cm2 on spinach, green leaf and romaine lettuce, respectively compared with control (no bacteriophage) treatments. When stored under MA at 4°C, phages reduced (p ≤ 0.05) EHEC populations by 2.18, 3.50 and 3.13 log CFU/cm2, on spinach, green leaf and romaine lettuce. At 10°C, EHEC reductions under atmospheric air storage were 1.99, 3.90 and 3.99 log CFU/cm2 (p ≤ 0.05), while population reductions under MA were 3.08, 3.89 and 4.34 logs on spinach, green leaf and romaine lettuce, respectively, compared with controls (p ≤ 0.05). The results of this study showed that bacteriophages were effective in reducing the levels of E. coli O157:H7 on fresh leafy produce, and that the reduction was further improved when produce was stored under the MA conditions. PMID:23819107

  19. Effect of the "RNA control" locus in Escherichia coli on RNA bacteriophage R23 replication.

    PubMed Central

    Ernberg, J; Sköld, O

    1976-01-01

    The effect of the rel gene of Escherichia coli on the RNA synthesis induced by phage R23 was studied. This RNA phage has the property of inhibiting ribosomal RNA formation and completely dominating the RNA synthesis of the host. Phage-specific RNA formation was found to be dependent on the allelic state of the rel gene. Determinations of RNA synthesis were made by both cumulative and short-term incorporations of uracil and adenine. Variations in labeling of nucleotide pools were compensated for by determining specific activities of ATP and UTP and using these values to obtain true, relative rates of RNA synthesis. PMID:768516

  20. Routes for fructose utilization by Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Kornberg, H L

    2001-07-01

    There are three main routes for the utilization of fructose by Escherichia coli. One (Route A) predominates in the growth of wild-type strains. It involves the functioning of the phosphoenolpyruvate:glycose phosphotransferase system (PTS) and a fructose operon, mapping at min. 48.7, containing genes for a membrane-spanning protein (fruA), a 1-phosphofructose kinase (fruK) and a diphosphoryl transfer protein (fruB), under negative regulation by a fruR gene mapping at min. 1.9. A second route (Route B) also involves the PTS and membrane-spanning proteins that recognize a variety of sugars possessing the 3,4,5-D-arabino-hexoseconfiguration but with primary specificity for mannose(manXYZ), mannitol (mtlA) and glucitol (gutA) and which, if over-produced, can transport also fructose. A third route (Route C), functioning in mutants devoid of Routes A and B, does not involve the PTS: fructose diffuses into the cell via an isoform (PtsG-F) of the major glucose permease of the PTS and is then phosphorylated by ATP and a manno(fructo)kinase (Mak+) specified by a normally cryptic 1032 bp ORF (yajF) of hitherto unknown function (Mak-o), mapping at min. 8.8 and corresponding to a peptide of 344 amino acids. Conversion of the Mak-o to the Mak+ phenotypeinvolves an A24D mutation in a putative regulatory region. PMID:11361065

  1. Genotoxicity of Graphene in Escherichia coli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Ananya

    Rapid advances in nanotechnology necessitate assessment of the safety of nanomaterials in the resulting products and applications. One key nanomaterial attracting much interest in many areas of science and technology is graphene. Graphene is a one atom thick carbon allotrope arranged in a two-dimensional honeycomb lattice. In addition to being extremely thin, graphene has several extraordinary physical properties such as its exceptional mechanical strength, thermal stability, and high electrical conductivity. Graphene itself is relatively chemically inert and therefore pristine graphene must undergo a process called functionalization, which is combination of chemical and physical treatments that change the properties of graphene, to make it chemically active. Functionalization of graphene is of crucial importance as the end application of graphene depends on proper functionalization. In the field of medicine, graphene is currently a nanomaterial of high interest for building biosensors, DNA transistors, and probes for cancer detection. Despite the promising applications of graphene in several areas of biomedicine, there have been only few studies in recent years that focus on evaluating cytotoxicity of graphene on cells, and almost no studies that investigate how graphene exposure affects cellular genetic material. Therefore, in this study we used a novel approach to evaluate the genotoxicity, i.e., the effects of graphene on DNA, using Escherichia coli as a prokaryotic model organism.

  2. Biochemistry of homologous recombination in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Kowalczykowski, S C; Dixon, D A; Eggleston, A K; Lauder, S D; Rehrauer, W M

    1994-01-01

    Homologous recombination is a fundamental biological process. Biochemical understanding of this process is most advanced for Escherichia coli. At least 25 gene products are involved in promoting genetic exchange. At present, this includes the RecA, RecBCD (exonuclease V), RecE (exonuclease VIII), RecF, RecG, RecJ, RecN, RecOR, RecQ, RecT, RuvAB, RuvC, SbcCD, and SSB proteins, as well as DNA polymerase I, DNA gyrase, DNA topoisomerase I, DNA ligase, and DNA helicases. The activities displayed by these enzymes include homologous DNA pairing and strand exchange, helicase, branch migration, Holliday junction binding and cleavage, nuclease, ATPase, topoisomerase, DNA binding, ATP binding, polymerase, and ligase, and, collectively, they define biochemical events that are essential for efficient recombination. In addition to these needed proteins, a cis-acting recombination hot spot known as Chi (chi: 5'-GCTGGTGG-3') plays a crucial regulatory function. The biochemical steps that comprise homologous recombination can be formally divided into four parts: (i) processing of DNA molecules into suitable recombination substrates, (ii) homologous pairing of the DNA partners and the exchange of DNA strands, (iii) extension of the nascent DNA heteroduplex; and (iv) resolution of the resulting crossover structure. This review focuses on the biochemical mechanisms underlying these steps, with particular emphases on the activities of the proteins involved and on the integration of these activities into likely biochemical pathways for recombination. Images PMID:7968921

  3. Energetics of glycylglycine transport in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Cowell, J L

    1974-10-01

    The transport system for glycylglycine in Escherichia coli behaves like a shock-sensitive transport system. The initial rate of transport is reduced 85% by subjecting whole cells to osmotic shock, and glycylglycine is not transported by membrane vesicles. The energetics of transport was studied with strain ML 308-225 and its mutant DL-54, which is deficient in Ca(2+)- and Mg(2+)-stimulated adenosine 5'-triphosphatase (EC 3.6.1.3) activity. It is concluded that active transport of glycylglycine, like other shock-sensitive transport systems, has an obligatory requirement for phosphate bond energy, but not for respiration or the energized state of the membrane. The major evidence for this conclusion is as follows. (i) Uptake of glycylglycine is severely inhibited by arsenate. (ii) Oxidizable energy sources such as d-lactate, succinate, and ascorbate, which is mediated by N-methylphenazinium methylsulfate, cannot serve as energy sources for the transport of glycylglycine in DL-54, which lacks oxidative phosphorylation. (iii) When energy is supplied only from adenosine-5'-triphosphate produced by glycolysis (anaerobic transport assays with glucose as the energy source in DL-54), substantial uptake of glycylglycine is observed. (iv) When the Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-adenosine triphosphatase activity is absent but substrate-level phosphorylations and electron transport are operating (glucose as the energy source in DL-54), transport of glycylglycine shows significant resistance to the uncouplers, dinitrophenol and carbonyl cyanide-p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone. PMID:4278690

  4. Oligosaccharide Binding in Escherichia coli Glycogen Synthase

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng, Fang; Yep, Alejandra; Feng, Lei; Preiss, Jack; Geiger, James H.

    2010-11-17

    Glycogen/starch synthase elongates glucan chains and is the key enzyme in the synthesis of glycogen in bacteria and starch in plants. Cocrystallization of Escherichia coli wild-type glycogen synthase (GS) with substrate ADPGlc and the glucan acceptor mimic HEPPSO produced a closed form of GS and suggests that domain-domain closure accompanies glycogen synthesis. Cocrystallization of the inactive GS mutant E377A with substrate ADPGlc and oligosaccharide results in the first oligosaccharide-bound glycogen synthase structure. Four bound oligosaccharides are observed, one in the interdomain cleft (G6a) and three on the N-terminal domain surface (G6b, G6c, and G6d). Extending from the center of the enzyme to the interdomain cleft opening, G6a mostly interacts with the highly conserved N-terminal domain residues lining the cleft of GS. The surface-bound oligosaccharides G6c and G6d have less interaction with enzyme and exhibit a more curled, helixlike structural arrangement. The observation that oligosaccharides bind only to the N-terminal domain of GS suggests that glycogen in vivo probably binds to only one side of the enzyme to ensure unencumbered interdomain movement, which is required for efficient, continuous glucan-chain synthesis.

  5. Colonization factors of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Madhavan, T P Vipin; Sakellaris, Harry

    2015-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a major cause of life-threatening diarrheal disease around the world. The major aspects of ETEC virulence are colonization of the small intestine and the secretion of enterotoxins which elicit diarrhea. Intestinal colonization is mediated, in part, by adhesins displayed on the bacterial cell surface. As colonization of the intestine is the critical first step in the establishment of an infection, it represents a potential point of intervention for the prevention of infections. Therefore, colonization factors (CFs) have been important subjects of research in the field of ETEC virulence. Research in this field has revealed that ETEC possesses a large array of serologically distinct CFs that differ in composition, structure, and function. Most ETEC CFs are pili (fimbriae) or related fibrous structures, while other adhesins are simple outer membrane proteins lacking any macromolecular structure. This chapter reviews the genetics, structure, function, and regulation of ETEC CFs and how such studies have contributed to our understanding of ETEC virulence and opened up potential opportunities for the development of preventive and therapeutic interventions. PMID:25596032

  6. ESCHERICHIA COLI Gene Induction by Alkylation Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Volkert, Michael R.; Nguyen, Dinh C.; Beard, K. Christopher

    1986-01-01

    Searches for alkylation-inducible (aid) genes of Escherichia coli have been conducted by screening random fusions of the Mu-dl(ApR lac) phage for fusions showing increased β-galactosidase activity after treatment with methylating agents, but not after treatments with UV-irradiation. In this report we describe gene fusions that are specifically induced by alkylation treatments. Nine new mutants are described, and their properties are compared with the five mutants described previously. The total of 14 fusion mutants map at five distinct genetic loci. They can be further subdivided on the basis of their induction by methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) and N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG). alkA, aidB and aidD are induced by both agents and appear to be regulated by ada. Neither aidC nor aidI is regulated by ada. Moreover, since aidC is induced only by MNNG and aidI is induced only by MMS, these two genes are likely to be individually regulated. Thus, there appear to be at least three different regulatory mechanisms controlling aid genes. PMID:3080354

  7. Incomplete flagellar structures in Escherichia coli mutants.

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, T; Komeda, Y

    1981-01-01

    Escherichia coli mutants with defects in 29 flagellar genes identified so far were examined by electron microscopy for possession of incomplete flagellar structures in membrane-associated fractions. The results are discussed in consideration of the known transcriptional interaction of flagellar genes. Hook-basal body structures were detected in flaD, flaS, flaT, flbC, and hag mutants. The flaE mutant had a polyhook-basal body structure. An intact basal body appeared in flaK mutants. Putative precursors of the basal body were detected in mutants with defects in flaM, flaU, flaV, and flaY. No structures homologous to the flagellar basal body or its parts were detected in mutants with defects in flaA, flaB, flaC, flaG, flaH, flaI, flaL, flaN, flaO, flaP, flaQ, flaR, flaW, flaX, flbA, flbB, and flbD. One flaZ mutant had an incomplete flagellar basal body structure and another formed no significant structure, suggesting that flaZ is responsible for both basal body assembly and the transcription of the hag gene. Images PMID:7007337

  8. Regulation of alcohol fermentation by Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D.P.

    1986-03-01

    The purpose of this project is to elucidate the way in which the fermentative synthesis of ethanol is regulated in the facultative anaerobe Escherichia coli. Focus is on the two final steps in alcohol synthesis, which are catalyzed by alcohol dehydrogenase and acetaldehyde CoA dehydrogenase. We have isolated a series of mutations affecting the expression of these enzymes. Some of these mutations are in the structural genes for these enzymes; others affect the regulation of the adh operon. We have recently cloned the genes coding for these enzymes and are now studying the effect of multiple copies of the adh gene on fermentative growth and its regulation. A recently invented technique, proton suicide has allowed the selection of a variety of novel mutants affecting fermentation which are presently being characterized. We have isolated a comprehensive collection of operon fusions in which the lacZ structural gene is fused to promoters that are inactive aerobically but active anaerobically. Although these genes (like adh) are only expressed under anaerobic conditions, the level of induction varies from two-fold to nearly 100-fold. The nitrogen source, medium pH, nature of the buffer, presence of alternative electron acceptors (e.g., nitrate), and other factors exert a great effect on the expression of many of these genes. In the near future we will investigate control mechanisms common to the adh operon and other anaerobically regulated genes.

  9. The Escherichia coli divisome: born to divide.

    PubMed

    Natale, Paolo; Pazos, Manuel; Vicente, Miguel

    2013-12-01

    Septation in Escherichia coli involves complex molecular mechanisms that contribute to the accuracy of bacterial division. The proto-ring, a complex made up by the FtsZ, FtsA and ZipA proteins, forms at the beginning of the process and directs the assembly of the full divisome. Central to this complex is the FtsZ protein, a GTPase able to assemble into a ring-like structure that responds to several modulatory inputs including mechanisms to position the septum at midcell. The connection with the cell wall synthesising machinery stabilizes the constriction of the cytoplasmic membrane. Although a substantial amount of evidence supports this description, many details on how individual divisome elements are structured or how they function are subjected to controversial interpretations. We discuss these discrepancies arising from incomplete data and from technical difficulties imposed by the small size of bacteria. Future work, including more powerful imaging and reconstruction technologies, will help to clarify the missing details on the architecture and function of the bacterial division machinery. PMID:23962168

  10. EFFECT OF MANURE ON ESCHERICHIA COLI ATTACHMENT TO SOIL FRACTIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Escherichia coli are commonly used as indicators of fecal contamination in the environment. Attachment of bacteria to soil and sediment is an important retardation factor of bacterial transport with runoff water. Despite the fact that E. coli are derived exclusively from feces/manure, the effect of ...

  11. Complete Genome Sequence of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Myophage Murica

    PubMed Central

    Wilder, Joseph N.; Lancaster, Jacob C.; Cahill, Jesse L.; Rasche, Eric S.

    2015-01-01

    Murica is an rv5-like myophage that infects enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Pathogenic E. coli strains are responsible for many intestinal diseases, and phages that infect these bacteria may prove useful in preventing severe health issues. The following is a report of the complete genome sequence of Murica and its important features. PMID:26430048

  12. Complete Genome Sequence of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Myophage Murica.

    PubMed

    Wilder, Joseph N; Lancaster, Jacob C; Cahill, Jesse L; Rasche, Eric S; Kuty Everett, Gabriel F

    2015-01-01

    Murica is an rv5-like myophage that infects enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Pathogenic E. coli strains are responsible for many intestinal diseases, and phages that infect these bacteria may prove useful in preventing severe health issues. The following is a report of the complete genome sequence of Murica and its important features. PMID:26430048

  13. Complete Draft Genome Sequence of Escherichia coli JF733

    PubMed Central

    Kleiner, Gabriele R. M.; Wibberg, Daniel; Winkler, Anika; Wertz, John E.; Friehs, Karl

    2016-01-01

    Escherichia coli JF733 is a strain with a long history in research on membrane proteins and processes. However, tracing back the strain development raises some questions concerning the correct genotype of JF733. Here, we present the complete draft genome of E. coli JF733 in order to resolve any remaining uncertainties. PMID:27103723

  14. Molecular Serotyping of Escherichia coli O111:H8

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate Escherichia coli serotyping is critical for pathogen diagnosis and surveillance of non-O157 shiga-toxigenic strains, however, few laboratories have this capacity. The molecular serotyping protocol described in this paper targets the somatic and flagellar antigens of E. coli O111:H8 used in...

  15. Properties and Transport Behavior among 12 Different Environmental Escherichia coli

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Escherichia coli is a commonly used indicator organism for detecting the presence of fecal-borne pathogenic microorganisms in water supplies. The importance of E. coli as an indicator organism has led to numerous studies looking at cell properties and transport behavior of this microorganism. In man...

  16. Complete Draft Genome Sequence of Escherichia coli JF733.

    PubMed

    Kleiner, Gabriele R M; Wibberg, Daniel; Winkler, Anika; Kalinowski, Jörn; Wertz, John E; Friehs, Karl

    2016-01-01

    ITALIC! Escherichia coliJF733 is a strain with a long history in research on membrane proteins and processes. However, tracing back the strain development raises some questions concerning the correct genotype of JF733. Here, we present the complete draft genome of ITALIC! E. coliJF733 in order to resolve any remaining uncertainties. PMID:27103723

  17. Draft Genome Sequence of Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Strain NB8.

    PubMed

    Weng, Xing-Bei; Mi, Zu-Huang; Wang, Chun-Xin; Zhu, Jian-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Escherichia coli NB8 is a clinical pyelonephritis isolate. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of uropathogenic E. coli NB8, which contains drug resistance genes encoding resistance to beta-lactams, aminoglycosides, quinolones, macrolides, colistin, sulfonamide-trimethoprim, and tetracycline. NB8 infects the kidney and bladder, making it an important tool for studying E. coli pathogenesis. PMID:27609920

  18. Nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding the major subunit of CS3 fimbriae of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Boylan, M; Smyth, C J; Scott, J R

    1988-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of a 612-base-pair DNA fragment containing the gene for the major fimbrial subunit of CS3 of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli is presented. A possible promoter region, a ribosome-binding site, and two potential signal peptidase cleavage sites are indicated. Unlike the best-studied fimbrial proteins, the predicted CS3 sequence has no Cys residues. PMID:2903130

  19. Soil solarization reduces Escherichia coli O157:H7 and total Escherichia coli on cattle feedlot pen surfaces

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feedlot pen soils are a source for transmission of Escherichia coli O157:H7, and therefore a target for preharvest strategies to reduce this pathogen in cattle. The objective of this study was to determine the ability of soil solarization to reduce E. coli O157:H7 in feedlot surface material (FSM)....

  20. Clonal relationships among bloodstream isolates of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Maslow, J N; Whittam, T S; Gilks, C F; Wilson, R A; Mulligan, M E; Adams, K S; Arbeit, R D

    1995-01-01

    The clonal relationships among 187 bloodstream isolates of Escherichia coli from 179 patients at Boston, Mass., Long Beach, Calif., and Nairobi, Kenya, were determined by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE), analysis of polymorphisms associated with the ribosomal operon (ribotyping), and serotyping. MLEE based on 20 enzymes resolved 101 electrophoretic types (ETs), forming five clusters; ribotyping resolved 56 distinct patterns concordant with the analysis by MLEE. The isolates at each study site formed a genetically diverse group and demonstrated similar clonal structures, with the same small subset of lineages accounting for the majority of isolates at each site. Moreover, two ribotypes accounted for approximately 30% of the isolates at each study site. One cluster contained the majority (65%) of isolates and, by direct comparison of the ETs and ribotypes of individual isolates, was genetically indistinguishable from the largest cluster for each of two other collections of E. coli causing pyelonephritis and neonatal meningitis (R. K. Selander, T. K. Korhonen, V. Väisänen-Rhen, P. H. Williams, P. E. Pattison, and D. A. Caugent, Infect. Immun. 52:213-222, 1986; M. Arthur, C. E. Johnson, R. H. Rubin, R. D. Arbeit, C. Campanelli, C. Kim, S. Steinbach, M. Agarwal, R. Wilkinson, and R. Goldstein, Infect. Immun. 57:303-313, 1989), thus defining a virulent set of lineages. The isolates within these virulent lineages typically carried DNA homologous to the adhesin operon pap or sfa and the hemolysin operon hly and expressed O1, O2, O4, O6, O18, O25, or O75 antigens. DNA homologous to pap was distributed among isolates of each major cluster, whereas hly was restricted to isolates of two clusters, typically detected in pap-positive strains, and sfa was restricted to isolates of one cluster, typically detected in pap- and hly-positive strains. The occurrence of pap-positive isolates in the same geographically and genetically divergent lineages suggests that this

  1. A Novel Cell-Based Method to Detect Shiga Toxin 2 from Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Inhibitors of Toxin Activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a leading cause of foodborne illness. This human pathogen produces Shiga toxins (Stx1 and Stx2) which inhibit protein synthesis by inactivating ribosome function. The present study describes a novel cell-based assay to detect Stxs and inhibitors of Stx activity. A Vero...

  2. Inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Escherichia coli 8739 in apple juice by pulsed electric fields.

    PubMed

    Evrendilek, G A; Zhang, Q H; Richter, E R

    1999-07-01

    The effect of high voltage pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment on Escherichia coli O157:H7 and generic E. coli 8739 in apple juice was investigated. Fresh apple juice samples inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 and E. coli 8739 were treated by PEF with selected parameters including electric field strength, treatment time, and treatment temperature. Samples were exposed to bipolar pulses with electric field strengths of 30, 26, 22, and 18 kV/cm and total treatment times of 172, 144, 115, and 86 micros. A 5-log reduction in both cultures was determined by a standard nonselective medium spread plate laboratory procedure. Treatment temperature was kept below 35 degrees C. Results showed no difference in the sensitivities of E. coli O157:H7 and E. coli 8739 against PEF treatment. PEF is a promising technology for the inactivation of E. coli O157:H7 and E. coli 8739 in apple juice. PMID:10419274

  3. Systematic Mutagenesis of the Escherichia coli Genome†

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Yisheng; Durfee, Tim; Glasner, Jeremy D.; Qiu, Yu; Frisch, David; Winterberg, Kelly M.; Blattner, Frederick R.

    2004-01-01

    A high-throughput method has been developed for the systematic mutagenesis of the Escherichia coli genome. The system is based on in vitro transposition of a modified Tn5 element, the Sce-poson, into linear fragments of each open reading frame. The transposon introduces both positive (kanamycin resistance) and negative (I-SceI recognition site) selectable markers for isolation of mutants and subsequent allele replacement, respectively. Reaction products are then introduced into the genome by homologous recombination via the λRed proteins. The method has yielded insertion alleles for 1976 genes during a first pass through the genome including, unexpectedly, a number of known and putative essential genes. Sce-poson insertions can be easily replaced by markerless mutations by using the I-SceI homing endonuclease to select against retention of the transposon as demonstrated by the substitution of amber and/or in-frame deletions in six different genes. This allows a Sce-poson-containing gene to be specifically targeted for either designed or random modifications, as well as permitting the stepwise engineering of strains with multiple mutations. The promiscuous nature of Tn5 transposition also enables a targeted gene to be dissected by using randomly inserted Sce-posons as shown by a lacZ allelic series. Finally, assessment of the insertion sites by an iterative weighted matrix algorithm reveals that these hyperactive Tn5 complexes generally recognize a highly degenerate asymmetric motif on one end of the target site helping to explain the randomness of Tn5 transposition. PMID:15262929

  4. The Melibiose Transporter of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Fuerst, Oliver; Lin, Yibin; Granell, Meritxell; Leblanc, Gérard; Padrós, Esteve; Lórenz-Fonfría, Víctor A.; Cladera, Josep

    2015-01-01

    We examine the role of Lys-377, the only charged residue in helix XI, on the functional mechanism of the Na+-sugar melibiose symporter from Escherichia coli. Intrinsic fluorescence, FRET, and Fourier transform infrared difference spectroscopy reveal that replacement of Lys-377 with either Cys, Val, Arg, or Asp disables both Na+ and melibiose binding. On the other hand, molecular dynamics simulations extending up to 200–330 ns reveal that Lys-377 (helix XI) interacts with the anionic side chains of two of the three putative ligands for cation binding (Asp-55 and Asp-59 in helix II). When Asp-59 is protonated during the simulations, Lys-377 preferentially interacts with Asp-55. Interestingly, when a Na+ ion is positioned in the Asp-55-Asp-59 environment, Asp-124 in helix IV (a residue essential for melibiose binding) reorients and approximates the Asp-55-Asp-59 pair, and all three acidic side chains act as Na+ ligands. Under these conditions, the side chain of Lys-377 interacts with the carboxylic moiety of these three Asp residues. These data highlight the crucial role of the Lys-377 residue in the spatial organization of the Na+ binding site. Finally, the analysis of the second-site revertants of K377C reveals that mutation of Ile-22 (in helix I) preserves Na+ binding, whereas that of melibiose is largely abolished according to spectroscopic measurements. This amino acid is located in the border of the sugar-binding site and might participate in sugar binding through apolar interactions. PMID:25971963

  5. Routes of quinolone permeation in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, J S; Georgopapadakou, N H

    1988-01-01

    The uptake of quinolone antibiotics by Escherichia coli was investigated by using fleroxacin (RO 23-6240, AM 833) as a prototype compound. The uptake of fleroxacin was reduced and its MIC was increased in the presence of magnesium. Quinolones induced lipopolysaccharide release, increased cell-surface hydrophobicity and outer membrane permeability to B-lactams, and sensitized cells to lysis by detergents. These effects were also antagonized by magnesium and were very similar to those seen with EDTA and gentamicin. MICs of quinolones in portin-deficient strains were increased relative to those of the parent strain, consistent with a porin pathway of entry. However, MICs were further increased in the presence of magnesium; the size of the additional increase showed a positive correlation with quinolone hydrophobicity in an OmpF- OmpC- OmpA- strain. When quinolones were mixed with divalent cations in solution, changes in quinolone fluorescence suggestive of metal chelation were observed. The addition of fleroxacin to a cell suspension resulted in a rapid initial association of fluorescence with cells, followed by a brief decrease and a final time-dependent linear increase in cell-associated fluorescence. We interpret these results as representing chelation of outer membrane-bound magnesium by fleroxacin and other quinolones, dissociation of the quinolone-magnesium complex from the outer membrane, and diffusion of the quinolone through both porins and exposed lipid domains on the outer membrane. For a given quinolone, the contribution of the porin and nonporin pathways to total uptake is influenced by the hydrophobicity of the quinolone. PMID:3132091

  6. Physiological state of Escherichia coli BJ4 growing in the large intestines of streptomycin-treated mice.

    PubMed Central

    Poulsen, L K; Licht, T R; Rang, C; Krogfelt, K A; Molin, S

    1995-01-01

    Growth rates of Escherichia coli BJ4 colonizing the large intestine of streptomycin-treated mice were estimated by quantitative hybridization with rRNA target probes and by epifluorescence microscopy. The ribosomal contents in bacteria isolated from the cecal mucus, cecal contents, and feces were measured and correlated with the ribosomal contents of bacteria growing in vitro at defined rates. The data suggest that E. coli BJ4 grows at an overall high rate in the intestine. However, when taking into account the total intestinal volume and numbers of bacteria present in cecal mucus, cecal contents, and feces, we suggest that E. coli BJ4 in the intestine consists of two populations, one in the mucus which has an apparent generation time of 40 to 80 min and one in the luminal contents which is static. PMID:7592332

  7. Serogroups of Escherichia coli from drinking water.

    PubMed

    Ramteke, P W; Tewari, Suman

    2007-07-01

    Fifty seven isolates of thermotolerant E. coli were recovered from 188 drinking water sources, 45 (78.9%) were typable of which 15 (26.3%) were pathogenic serotypes. Pathogenic serogroup obtained were 04 (Uropathogenic E. coli, UPEC), 025 (Enterotoxigenic E. coli, ETEC), 086 (Enteropathogenic E. coli, EPEC), 0103 (Shiga-toxin producing E. coli, STEC), 0157 (Shiga-toxin producing E. coli, STEC), 08 (Enterotoxigenic E. coli, ETEC) and 0113 (Shiga-toxin producing E. coli, STEC). All the pathogenic serotypes showed resistance to bacitracin and multiple heavy metal ions. Resistance to streptomycin and cotrimazole was detected in two strains whereas resistance to cephaloridine, polymixin-B and ampicillin was detected in one strain each. Transfer of resistances to drugs and metallic ions was observed in 9 out of 12 strains studied. Resistances to bacitracin were transferred in all nine strains. Among heavy metals resistance to As(3+) followed by Cr(6+) were transferred more frequently. PMID:17057960

  8. Functions that protect Escherichia coli from DNA-protein crosslinks.

    PubMed

    Krasich, Rachel; Wu, Sunny Yang; Kuo, H Kenny; Kreuzer, Kenneth N

    2015-04-01

    Pathways for tolerating and repairing DNA-protein crosslinks (DPCs) are poorly defined. We used transposon mutagenesis and candidate gene approaches to identify DPC-hypersensitive Escherichia coli mutants. DPCs were induced by azacytidine (aza-C) treatment in cells overexpressing cytosine methyltransferase; hypersensitivity was verified to depend on methyltransferase expression. We isolated hypersensitive mutants that were uncovered in previous studies (recA, recBC, recG, and uvrD), hypersensitive mutants that apparently activate phage Mu Gam expression, and novel hypersensitive mutants in genes involved in DNA metabolism, cell division, and tRNA modification (dinG, ftsK, xerD, dnaJ, hflC, miaA, mnmE, mnmG, and ssrA). Inactivation of SbcCD, which can cleave DNA at protein-DNA complexes, did not cause hypersensitivity. We previously showed that tmRNA pathway defects cause aza-C hypersensitivity, implying that DPCs block coupled transcription/translation complexes. Here, we show that mutants in tRNA modification functions miaA, mnmE and mnmG cause defects in aza-C-induced tmRNA tagging, explaining their hypersensitivity. In order for tmRNA to access a stalled ribosome, the mRNA must be cleaved or released from RNA polymerase. Mutational inactivation of functions involved in mRNA processing and RNA polymerase elongation/release (RNase II, RNaseD, RNase PH, RNase LS, Rep, HepA, GreA, GreB) did not cause aza-C hypersensitivity; the mechanism of tmRNA access remains unclear. PMID:25731940

  9. Functions that protect Escherichia coli from DNA-protein crosslinks

    PubMed Central

    Krasich, Rachel; Wu, Sunny Yang; Kuo, H. Kenny; Kreuzer, Kenneth N

    2015-01-01

    Pathways for tolerating and repairing DNA-protein crosslinks (DPCs) are poorly defined. We used transposon mutagenesis and candidate gene approaches to identify DPC-hypersensitive Escherichia coli mutants. DPCs were induced by azacytidine (aza-C) treatment in cells overexpressing cytosine methyltransferase; hypersensitivity was verified to depend on methyltransferase expression. We isolated hypersensitive mutants that were uncovered in previous studies (recA, recBC, recG, and uvrD), hypersensitive mutants that apparently activate phage Mu Gam expression, and novel hypersensitive mutants in genes involved in DNA metabolism, cell division, and tRNA modification (dinG, ftsK, xerD, dnaJ, hflC, miaA, mnmE, mnmG, and ssrA). Inactivation of SbcCD, which can cleave DNA at protein-DNA complexes, did not cause hypersensitivity. We previously showed that tmRNA pathway defects cause aza-C hypersensitivity, implying that DPCs block coupled transcription/translation complexes. Here, we show that mutants in tRNA modification functions miaA, mnmE and mnmG cause defects in aza-C-induced tmRNA tagging, explaining their hypersensitivity. In order for tmRNA to access a stalled ribosome, the mRNA must be cleaved or released from RNA polymerase. Mutational inactivation of functions involved in mRNA processing and RNA polymerase elongation/release (RNase II, RNaseD, RNase PH, RNase LS, Rep, HepA, GreA, GreB) did not cause aza-C hypersensitivity; the mechanism of tmRNA access remains unclear. PMID:25731940

  10. Rapid Sterilization of Escherichia coli by Solution Plasma Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreeva, Nina; Ishizaki, Takahiro; Baroch, Pavel; Saito, Nagahiro

    2012-12-01

    Solution plasma (SP), which is a discharge in the liquid phase, has the potential for rapid sterilization of water without chemical agents. The discharge showed a strong sterilization performance against Escherichia coli bacteria. The decimal value (D value) of the reduction time for E. coli by this system with an electrode distance of 1.0 mm was estimated to be approximately 1.0 min. Our discharge system in the liquid phase caused no physical damage to the E. coli and only a small increase in the temperature of the aqueous solution. The UV light generated by the discharge was an important factor in the sterilization of E. coli.

  11. Serological cross-reactions between Escherichia coli O157 and other species of the genus Escherichia.

    PubMed

    Rice, E W; Sowers, E G; Johnson, C H; Dunnigan, M E; Strockbine, N A; Edberg, S C

    1992-05-01

    The antigenic relatedness of Escherichia coli O157 and four sorbitol-negative species of the genus Escherichia was examined. Isolates of Escherichia hermannii, E. fergusonii, E. vulneris, and E. blattae were tested in the tube agglutination assay by using polyclonal antisera and in the slide agglutination assay by using latex reagents. Only four isolates (17%) of E. hermannii exhibited serological cross-reactivity. PMID:1583138

  12. Serological cross-reactions between Escherichia coli O157 and other species of the genus Escherichia.

    PubMed Central

    Rice, E W; Sowers, E G; Johnson, C H; Dunnigan, M E; Strockbine, N A; Edberg, S C

    1992-01-01

    The antigenic relatedness of Escherichia coli O157 and four sorbitol-negative species of the genus Escherichia was examined. Isolates of Escherichia hermannii, E. fergusonii, E. vulneris, and E. blattae were tested in the tube agglutination assay by using polyclonal antisera and in the slide agglutination assay by using latex reagents. Only four isolates (17%) of E. hermannii exhibited serological cross-reactivity. PMID:1583138

  13. The Biology of the Escherichia coli Extracellular Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Hufnagel, David A.; DePas, William H.; Chapman, Matthew R.

    2015-01-01

    Chapter Summary Escherichia coli (E. coli) is one of the world’s best-characterized organisms, as it has been extensively studied for over a century. However, most of this work has focused on E. coli grown under laboratory conditions that do not faithfully simulate its natural environments. Therefore, the historical perspectives on E. coli physiology and life cycle are somewhat skewed toward experimental systems that feature E. coli growing logarithmically in a test tube. Typically a commensal bacterium, E. coli resides in the lower intestines of a slew of animals. Outside of the lower intestine, E. coli can adapt and survive in a very different set of environmental conditions. Biofilm formation allows E. coli to survive, and even thrive, in environments that do not support the growth of planktonic populations. E. coli can form biofilms virtually everywhere; in the bladder during a urinary tract infection, on in-dwelling medical devices, and outside of the host on plants and in the soil. The E. coli extracellular matrix, primarily composed of the protein polymer named curli and the polysaccharide cellulose, promotes adherence to organic and inorganic surfaces, and resistance to desiccation, the host immune system and other antimicrobials. The pathways that govern E. coli biofilm formation, cellulose production, and curli biogenesis will be discussed in this book chapter, which concludes with insights into the future of E. coli biofilm research and potential therapies. PMID:26185090

  14. The conserved GTPase LepA contributes mainly to translation initiation in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Balakrishnan, Rohan; Oman, Kenji; Shoji, Shinichiro; Bundschuh, Ralf; Fredrick, Kurt

    2014-01-01

    LepA is a paralog of EF-G found in all bacteria. Deletion of lepA confers no obvious growth defect in Escherichia coli, and the physiological role of LepA remains unknown. Here, we identify nine strains (ΔdksA, ΔmolR1, ΔrsgA, ΔtatB, ΔtonB, ΔtolR, ΔubiF, ΔubiG or ΔubiH) in which ΔlepA confers a synthetic growth phenotype. These strains are compromised for gene regulation, ribosome assembly, transport and/or respiration, indicating that LepA contributes to these functions in some way. We also use ribosome profiling to deduce the effects of LepA on translation. We find that loss of LepA alters the average ribosome density (ARD) for hundreds of mRNA coding regions in the cell, substantially reducing ARD in many cases. By contrast, only subtle and codon-specific changes in ribosome distribution along mRNA are seen. These data suggest that LepA contributes mainly to the initiation phase of translation. Consistent with this interpretation, the effect of LepA on ARD is related to the sequence of the Shine–Dalgarno region. Global perturbation of gene expression in the ΔlepA mutant likely explains most of its phenotypes. PMID:25378333

  15. Binding studies of antimicrobial peptides to Escherichia coli cells.

    PubMed

    Avitabile, Concetta; D'Andrea, Luca D; Saviano, Michele; Olivieri, Michele; Cimmino, Amelia; Romanelli, Alessandra

    2016-09-01

    Understanding the mechanism of action of antimicrobial peptides is pivotal to the design of new and more active peptides. In the last few years it has become clear that the behavior of antimicrobial peptides on membrane model systems does not always translate to cells; therefore the need to develop methods aimed at capturing details of the interactions of peptides with bacterial cells is compelling. In this work we analyzed binding of two peptides, namely temporin B and TB_KKG6A, to Escherichia coli cells and to Escherichia coli LPS. Temporin B is a natural peptide active against Gram positive bacteria but inactive against Gram negative bacteria, TB_KKG6A is an analogue of temporin B showing activity against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. We found that binding to cells occurs only for the active peptide TB_KKG6A; stoichiometry and affinity constant of this peptide toward Escherichia coli cells were determined. PMID:27450805

  16. The quaternary structure of the ribosome from E. coli. A neutron small-angle scattering study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowotny, V.; Nowotny, P.; Voß, H.; Nierhaus, K. H.; May, R. P.

    1989-01-01

    Ribosomes synthesize proteins in living cells. The E. coli ribosome is composed of a small (30S) and a large subunit (50S). They consist of different proteins (21 or 34, respectively) and of ribosomal RNAs (16S or 23S and 5S). The inter-protein distances within the ribosomal subunits can be measured from scattering experiments with selectively labeled protein pairs from which the quaternary distribution of the proteins is reconstructed. We have developed the strategy of the “glassy ribosome”: the rRNAs and the proteins are deuterated such that they reach the same scattering density and are “invisible” in a corresponding buffer solution. A preliminary quaternary map of the 50S subunit which is the result of our new method for the extraction of the distances from the scattering data as well as shape parameters of proteins in situ will be presented.

  17. Recurrent Hemolytic and Uremic Syndrome Induced by Escherichia Coli

    PubMed Central

    Commereuc, Morgane; Weill, Francois-Xavier; Loukiadis, Estelle; Gouali, Malika; Gleizal, Audrey; Kormann, Raphaël; Ridel, Christophe; Frémeaux-Bacchi, Véronique; Rondeau, Eric; Hertig, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A widespread belief is that typical hemolytic and uremic syndrome (HUS) does not recur. We report the case of a patient infected twice with raw milk taken from his own cow and containing a Shiga toxin–producing Escherichia coli O174:H21 that induced recurrent HUS causing severe renal and cerebral disorders. A genomic comparison of the human and bovine Shiga toxin–producing Escherichia coli O174:H21 isolates revealed that they were identical. Typical HUS may recur. Since milk from this animal was occasionally distributed locally, thereby posing a serious threat for the whole village, this particular cow was destroyed. PMID:26735524

  18. Recurrent Hemolytic and Uremic Syndrome Induced by Escherichia Coli.

    PubMed

    Commereuc, Morgane; Weill, Francois-Xavier; Loukiadis, Estelle; Gouali, Malika; Gleizal, Audrey; Kormann, Raphaël; Ridel, Christophe; Frémeaux-Bacchi, Véronique; Rondeau, Eric; Hertig, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    A widespread belief is that typical hemolytic and uremic syndrome (HUS) does not recur. We report the case of a patient infected twice with raw milk taken from his own cow and containing a Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O174:H21 that induced recurrent HUS causing severe renal and cerebral disorders. A genomic comparison of the human and bovine Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O174:H21 isolates revealed that they were identical. Typical HUS may recur. Since milk from this animal was occasionally distributed locally, thereby posing a serious threat for the whole village, this particular cow was destroyed. PMID:26735524

  19. Recent advances in adherence and invasion of pathogenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Kalita, Anjana; Hu, Jia; Torres, Alfredo G.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review Colonization of the host epithelia by pathogenic Escherichia coli is influenced by the ability of the bacteria to interact with host surfaces. Because the initial step of an E. coli infection is to adhere, invade, and persist within host cells, some strategies used by intestinal and extra-intestinal E. coli to infect host cell are presented. Recent findings This review highlights recent progress understanding how extra-intestinal pathogenic E. coli strains express specific adhesins/invasins that allow colonization of the urinary tract or the meninges, while intestinal E. coli strains are able to colonize different regions of the intestinal tract using other specialized adhesins/invasins. Finally, evaluation of, different diets and environmental conditions regulating the colonization of these pathogens is discussed. Summary Discovery of new interactions between pathogenic E. coli and the host epithelial cells unravels the need of more mechanistic studies that can provide new clues in how to combat these infections. PMID:25023740

  20. Virulence attributes of Escherichia coli isolated from dairy heifer feces.

    PubMed

    Cray, W C; Thomas, L A; Schneider, R A; Moon, H W

    1996-12-01

    Escherichia coli isolates from 1,305 (of 6,894) fecal samples collected during the 1991-1992 USDA, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, National Health Monitoring System, Diary Heifer Evaluation Project were tested for virulence attributes associated with human enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) and the enterotoxin commonly associated with diarrhoea in newborn calves. Single, random isolates from each heifer were hybridized to probes derived from the 60 mDa EHEC plasmid (CVD 419), E. coli attaching and effacing gene (eae), Shiga-like toxin (slt) genes I and II, and E. coli heat-stable enterotoxin a (STaP). Seventy-seven of the 1305 isolates (5.9%) were slt-positive. Most (81.8%) slt-positive E. coli were also CVD 419 and eae-positive. Only 2 of the slt-positive E. coli isolates were STaP-positive. PMID:9008347

  1. Transcription of foreign DNA in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Warren, René L.; Freeman, John D.; Levesque, Roger C.; Smailus, Duane E.; Flibotte, Stephane; Holt, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    Propagation of heterologous DNA in E. coli host cells is central to molecular biology. DNA constructs are often engineered for expression of recombinant protein in E. coli, but the extent of incidental transcription arising from natural regulatory sequences in cloned DNA remains underexplored. Here, we have used programmable microarrays and RT-PCR to measure, comprehensively, the transcription of H. influenzae, P. aeruginosa, and human DNA propagating in E. coli as bacterial artificial chromosomes. We find evidence that at least half of all H. influenzae genes are transcribed in E. coli. Highly transcribed genes are principally involved in energy metabolism, and their proximal promoter regions are significantly enriched with E. coli σ70 (also known as RpoD) binding sites. H. influenzae genes acquired from an ancient bacteriophage Mu insertion are also highly transcribed. Compared with H. influenzae, a smaller proportion of P. aeruginosa genes are transcribed in E. coli, and in E. coli there is punctuated transcription of human DNA. The presence of foreign DNA in E. coli disturbs the host transcriptional profile, with expression of the E. coli phage shock protein operon and the flagellar gene cluster being particularly strongly up-regulated. While cross-species transcriptional activation is expected to be enabling for horizontal gene transfer in bacteria, incidental expression of toxic genes can be problematic for DNA cloning. Ongoing characterization of cross-expression will help inform the design of biosynthetic gene clusters and synthetic microbial genomes. PMID:18701636

  2. Genes and proteins of Escherichia coli K-12.

    PubMed

    Riley, M

    1998-01-01

    GenProtEC is a database of Escherichia coli genes and their gene products, classified by type of function and physiological role and with citations to the literature for each. Also present are data on sequence similarities among E.coli proteins, representing groups of paralogous genes, with PAM values, percent identity of amino acids, length of alignment and percent aligned. GenProtEC can be accessed at the URL http://www.mbl.edu/html/ecoli.html PMID:9399799

  3. Antibacterial activity and inhibition of protein synthesis in Escherichia coli by antisense DNA analogs.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M A; Summerton, J; Foster, E; Cunningham, K; Stirchak, E; Weller, D; Schaup, H W

    1991-01-01

    Protein synthesis, which takes place within ribosomes, is essential for the survival of any living organism. Ribosomes are composed of both proteins and RNA. Specific interaction between the 3' end CCUCC sequence of prokaryotic 16S rRNA and a partially complementary sequence preceding the initiating codon of mRNA is believed to be a prerequisite for initiation of protein synthesis. Here we report the use of short (three to six nucleotides) synthetic DNA analogs complementary to this sequence to block protein synthesis in vitro and in vivo in Escherichia coli. In the DNA analogs the normal phosphodiester bond in the antisense DNA was replaced by methylcarbamate internucleoside linkages to enhance transport across plasma membranes. Of the analogs tested, those with the sequence AGG and GGA inhibit protein synthesis and colony formation by E. coli strains lacking an outer cell wall. Polyethylene glycol 1000 (PEG 1000) was attached to the 5' end of some of the test methylcarbamate DNAs to enhance solubility. Analogs of AGG and GGAG with PEG 1000 attached inhibited colony formation in normal E. coli. These analogs may be useful food additives to control bacterial spoilage and biomedically as antibiotics. PMID:1821653

  4. Structural model of the 50S subunit of E.Coli ribosomes from solution scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Svergun, D.I.; Koch, M.H.J.; Pedersen, J.S.; Serdyuk, I.N.

    1994-12-31

    The application of new methods of small-angle scattering data interpretation to a contrast variation study of the 50S ribosomal subunit of Escherichia coli in solution is described. The X-ray data from contrast variation with sucrose are analyzed in terms of the basic scattering curves from the volume inaccessible to sucrose and from the regions inside this volume occupied mainly by RNA and by proteins. From these curves models of the shape of the 50S and its RNA-rich core are evaluated and positioned so that their difference produces a scattering curve which is in good agreement with the scattering from the protein moiety. Basing on this preliminary model, the X-ray and neutron contrast variation data of the 50S subunit in aqueous solutions are interpreted in the frame of the advanced two-phase model described by the shapes of the 50S subunit and its RNA-rich core taking into account density fluctuations inside the RNA and the protein moiety. The shape of the envelope of the 50S subunit and of the RNA-rich core are evaluated with a resolution of about 40A. The shape of the envelope is in good agreement with the models of the 50S subunit obtained from electron microscopy on isolated particles. The shape of the RNA-rich core correlates well with the model of the entire particle determined by the image reconstruction from ordered sheets indicating that the latter model which is based on the subjective contouring of density maps is heavily biased towards the RNA.

  5. YeeO from Escherichia coli exports flavins

    PubMed Central

    McAnulty, Michael J; Wood, Thomas K

    2014-01-01

    Multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) proteins help maintain cellular homeostasis by secreting metabolic wastes. Flavins may occur as cellular waste products, with their production and secretion providing potential benefit for industrial applications related to biofuel cells. Here we find that MATE protein YeeO from Escherichia coli exports both flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD). Significant amounts of flavins were trapped intracellularly when YeeO was produced indicating transport limits secretion of flavins. Wild-type E. coli secreted 3 flavins (riboflavin, FMN, and FAD), so E. coli likely produces additional flavin transporters. PMID:25482085

  6. Characterization of pili associated with Escherichia coli O18ac.

    PubMed Central

    Wevers, P; Picken, R; Schmidt, G; Jann, B; Jann, K; Golecki, J R; Kist, M

    1980-01-01

    A strain of Escherichia coli O18ac isolated from the stool sample of a patient with diarrhea was found to agglutinate human erythrocytes. From the results presented it is suggested that this hemagglutination is mediated by pili. Isolated pilus preparations agglutinated human erythrocytes, whereas pilus-negative mutants did not. The serological and chemical analyses indicate that the pili associated with E. coli O18ac are distinct from other types found with E. coli. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:6111534

  7. An integrated database to support research on Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Baehr, A.; Dunham, G.; Matsuda, Hideo; Michaels, G.; Taylor, R.; Overbeek, R.; Rudd, K.E. ); Ginsburg, A.; Joerg, D.; Kazic, T. . Dept. of Genetics); Hagstrom, R.; Zawada, D. ); Smith, C.; Yoshida, Kaoru )

    1992-01-01

    We have used logic programming to design and implement a prototype database of genomic information for the model bacterial organism Escherichia coli. This report presents the fundamental database primitives that can be used to access and manipulate data relating to the E. coli genome. The present system, combined with a tutorial manual, provides immediate access to the integrated knowledge base for E. coli chromosome data. It also serves as the foundation for development of more user-friendly interfaces that have the same retrieval power and high-level tools to analyze complex chromosome organization.

  8. YeeO from Escherichia coli exports flavins.

    PubMed

    McAnulty, Michael J; Wood, Thomas K

    2014-01-01

    Multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) proteins help maintain cellular homeostasis by secreting metabolic wastes. Flavins may occur as cellular waste products, with their production and secretion providing potential benefit for industrial applications related to biofuel cells. Here we find that MATE protein YeeO from Escherichia coli exports both flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD). Significant amounts of flavins were trapped intracellularly when YeeO was produced indicating transport limits secretion of flavins. Wild-type E. coli secreted 3 flavins (riboflavin, FMN, and FAD), so E. coli likely produces additional flavin transporters. PMID:25482085

  9. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Serotypes and Endemic Diarrhea in Infants

    PubMed Central

    Toledo, M. Regina F.; Alvariza, M. do Carmo B.; Murahovschi, Jayme; Ramos, Sonia R. T. S.; Trabulsi, Luiz R.

    1983-01-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli serotypes were searched for in feces of 550 children with endemic diarrhea and in 129 controls, in São Paulo, in 1978 and 1979; serotypes O111ab:H−, O111ab:H2, and O119:H6 were significantly associated with diarrhea in children 0 to 5 months old and were the most frequent agents of diarrhea in this age group as compared with enterotoxigenic and enteroinvasive E. coli, Salmonella sp., Shigella sp., and Yersinia enterocolitica. It is concluded that various enteropathogenic E. coli serotypes may be agents of endemic infantile diarrhea. PMID:6339384

  10. The quantitative and condition-dependent Escherichia coli proteome

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Alexander; Kochanowski, Karl; Vedelaar, Silke; Ahrné, Erik; Volkmer, Benjamin; Callipo, Luciano; Knoops, Kèvin; Bauer, Manuel; Aebersold, Ruedi; Heinemann, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Measuring precise concentrations of proteins can provide insights into biological processes. Here, we use efficient protein extraction and sample fractionation and state-of-the-art quantitative mass spectrometry techniques to generate a comprehensive, condition-dependent protein abundance map of Escherichia coli. We measure cellular protein concentrations for 55% of predicted E. coli genes (>2300 proteins) under 22 different experimental conditions and identify methylation and N-terminal protein acetylations previously not known to be prevalent in bacteria. We uncover system-wide proteome allocation, expression regulation, and post-translational adaptations. These data provide a valuable resource for the systems biology and broader E. coli research communities. PMID:26641532