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Sample records for escherichia coli strains

  1. Emerging Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Strains?

    PubMed Central

    Irino, Kinue; Girão, Dennys M.; Girão, Valéria B.C.; Guth, Beatriz E.C.; Vaz, Tânia M.I.; Moreira, Fabiana C.; Chinarelli, Silvia H.; Vieira, Mônica A.M.

    2004-01-01

    Escherichia coli strains of nonenteropathogenic serogroups carrying eae but lacking the enteropathogenic E. coli adherence factor plasmid and Shiga toxin DNA probe sequences were isolated from patients (children, adults, and AIDS patients) with and without diarrhea in Brazil. Although diverse in phenotype and genotype, some strains are potentially diarrheagenic. PMID:15504277

  2. Hydrogen production by recombinant Escherichia coli strains

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Toshinari; Sanchez‐Torres, Viviana; Wood, Thomas K.

    2012-01-01

    Summary The production of hydrogen via microbial biotechnology is an active field of research. Given its ease of manipulation, the best‐studied bacterium Escherichia coli has become a workhorse for enhanced hydrogen production through metabolic engineering, heterologous gene expression, adaptive evolution, and protein engineering. Herein, the utility of E. coli strains to produce hydrogen, via native hydrogenases or heterologous ones, is reviewed. In addition, potential strategies for increasing hydrogen production are outlined and whole‐cell systems and cell‐free systems are compared. PMID:21895995

  3. Thymineless Death in Escherichia coli: Strain Specificity

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, Donald J.; Mondale, Lee

    1967-01-01

    Thymineless death of various ultraviolet (UV)-sensitive strains of Escherichia coli B and K-12 was investigated. It was found that E. coli B, Bs−12, K-12 rec-21, and possibly K-12 Lon−, all sensitive to UV, were also sensitive to thymine starvation. However, other UV-sensitive strains of E. coli were found to display the typical resistant-type kinetics of thymineless death. The correlation of these results with various other cellular processes suggested that the filament-forming ability of the bacteria might be involved in the mechanism of thymineless death. It was apparent from the present results that capacity for host-cell reactivation, recombination ability, thymine dimer excision, and probably induction of a defective prophage had little to do with determining sensitivity to thymine deprivation. Images PMID:5337772

  4. Cyanide degradation by an Escherichia coli strain.

    PubMed

    Figueira, M M; Ciminelli, V S; de Andrade, M C; Linardi, V R

    1996-05-01

    Chemical formation of a glucose-cyanide complex was necessary for metabolic degradation of cyanide at concentrations up to 50.0 mg/L by a strain of Escherichia coli isolated from gold extraction circuit liquids. Ammonia accumulating during the culture log phase as the sole nitrogen by-product was further utilized for bacterial growth. Washed (intact) cells, harvested at different periods of bacterial growth on cyanide, consumed oxygen in presence of cyanide. These findings suggest that metabolism of cyanide involved a dioxygenase enzyme that converted cyanide directly to ammonia, without the formation of cyanate. PMID:8640610

  5. ELECTROPHORETIC MOBILITIES OF ESCHERICHIA COLI 0157:H7 AND WILD-TYPE ESCHERICHIA COLI STRAINS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The electrophoretic mobility (EPM) of a number of human-virulent and "wild-type" Escherichia coli strains in phosphate buffered water was measured. The impact of pH, ionic strength, cation type (valence) and concentration, and bacterial strain on the EPM was investigated. Resul...

  6. Competition between congenic Escherichia coli K-12 strains in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Onderdonk, A; Marshall, B; Cisneros, R; Levy, S B

    1981-01-01

    The ability of Escherichia coli to colonize the large bowels of animals is related to many factors inherent to the intestinal environment and the bacterium. The use of germfree mice eliminates the competition between E. coli and the other microflora and allows most E. coli strains to colonize. We found that E. coli K-12 strains differing in chromosomal antibiotic resistance could monoassociate in germfree mice in large numbers. However, when two or more strains were in competition with each other, we detected quantitative differences in the abilities of the strains to colonize. The order of colonizing ability was as follows: nalidixic acid resistance greater than streptomycin resistance greater than rifampin resistance. We also found that a nalidixic acid-resistant strain bearing plasmid pBR322 colonized less efficiently and at lower levels when in competition with the nalidixic acid-resistant strain. Studies of the membrane proteins of the various strains indicated that changes in membrane proteins occurred concomitantly with altered resistance to antimicrobial agents. These results suggest that chromosomally linked alterations in antimicrobial sensitivity may also reflect changes in membrane proteins and a decreased ability to colonize mammalian intestines in otherwise isogenic bacterial strains. Images PMID:7012037

  7. Gentamicin resistance among Escherichia coli strains isolated in neonatal sepsis.

    PubMed

    Hasvold, J; Bradford, L; Nelson, C; Harrison, C; Attar, M; Stillwell, T

    2013-01-01

    Neonatal sepsis is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality among term and preterm infants. Ampicillin and gentamicin are standard empiric therapy for early onset sepsis. Four cases of neonatal sepsis secondary to Escherichia coli (E. coli) found to be gentamicin resistant occurred within a five week period in one neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). To determine whether these cases could be tied to a single vector of transmission, and to more broadly evaluate the incidence of gentamicin resistant strains of E. coli in the neonatal population at our institution compared to other centers, we reviewed the charts of the four neonates (Infants A through D) and their mothers. The E. coli isolates were sent for Pulse Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) to evaluate for genetic similarity between strains. We also reviewed all positive E. coli cultures from one NICU over a two year period. Infants A and B had genetically indistinguishable strains which matched that of urine and placental cultures of Infant B's mother. Infant C had a genetically distinct organism. Infant D, the identical twin of Infant C, did not have typing performed. Review of all cultures positive for E. coli at our institution showed a 12.9 percent incidence of gentamicin-resistance. A review of other studies showed that rates of resistance vary considerably by institution. We conclude that gentamicin-resistant E. coli is a relatively uncommon cause of neonatal sepsis, but should remain a consideration in patients who deteriorate despite initiation of empiric antibiotics. PMID:24246520

  8. Identification of Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli Strains from Avian Organic Fertilizers

    PubMed Central

    Puño-Sarmiento, Juan; Gazal, Luis Eduardo; Medeiros, Leonardo P.; Nishio, Erick K.; Kobayashi, Renata K. T.; Nakazato, Gerson

    2014-01-01

    The Brazilian poultry industry generates large amounts of organic waste, such as chicken litter, which is often used in agriculture. Among the bacteria present in organic fertilizer are members of the Enterobacteriaceae family. The objective of this study was to detect the presence of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) strains in avian organic fertilizer, and assess the potential damage they can cause in humans due to antimicrobial resistance. The presence of DEC pathotypes and phylogenetic groups were detected by multiplex-PCR. Phenotypic assays, such as tests for adhesion, cytotoxicity activity, biofilm formation and especially antimicrobial susceptibility, were performed. Fifteen DEC strains from 64 E. coli were isolated. Among these, four strains were classified as enteropathogenic (EPEC; 6.2%), three strains as Shiga toxin-producing (STEC; 4.7%), 10 strains as enteroaggregative (EAEC; 12.5%), but two of these harbored the eaeA gene too. The low number of isolated strains was most likely due to the composting process, which reduces the number of microorganisms. These strains were able to adhere to HEp-2 and HeLa cells and produce Shiga-toxins and biofilms; in addition, some of the strains showed antimicrobial resistance, which indicates a risk of the transfer of resistance genes to human E. coli. These results showed that DEC strains isolated from avian organic fertilizers can cause human infections. PMID:25170683

  9. Characterization of Shigatoxigenic Escherichia coli strains from Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Martikainen, Outi; Kagambèga, Assèta; Bonkoungou, Isidore Juste; Barro, Nicolas; Siitonen, Anja; Haukka, Kaisa

    2012-11-01

    Shigatoxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) cause serious foodborne infections that lead to diarrheal disease and sequelae worldwide. In Burkina Faso, West Africa, STEC strains from environmental and human sources have not been isolated and characterized before. In this study, 21 STEC strains were isolated from food samples of animal origin and human feces using colony hybridization of the Shiga toxin gene stx. The STEC strains belonged to 15 different serotypes, including O43:H2, O8:H(-), and O2:H2. All strains were positive for stx(1) and 10 also for stx(2). The most common stx(1) subtype was stx(1a), and the most common stx(2) subtype was stx(2b). In five strains, stx(2) subtypes stx(2a) and/or stx(2c), which were previously associated with hemolytic uremic syndrome, were present. Some of the strains possessed the gene saa, encoding autoagglutinating adhesin. None of the strains possessed the gene eae, encoding intimin. Two STEC strains carried also an enterotoxigenic E. coli-associated gene estIa, encoding heat-stable enterotoxin. The STEC isolated from food in Burkina Faso are potentially pathogenic for humans based on the virulence gene combinations that they possess and phenotypes that they express. PMID:23134285

  10. Modeling and observer design for recombinant Escherichia coli strain.

    PubMed

    Nadri, M; Trezzani, I; Hammouri, H; Dhurjati, P; Longin, R; Lieto, J

    2006-03-01

    A mathematical model for recombinant bacteria which includes foreign protein production is developed. The experimental system consists of an Escherichia Coli strain and plasmid pIT34 containing genes for bioluminescence and production of a protein, beta-galactosidase. This recombinant strain is constructed to facilitate on-line estimation and control in a complex bioprocess. Several batch experiments are designed and performed to validate the developed model. The design of a model structure, the identification of the model parameters and the estimation problem are three parts of a joint design problem. A nonlinear observer is designed and an experimental evaluation is performed on a batch fermentation process to estimate the substrate consumption. PMID:16411071

  11. Improved genetically modified Escherichia coli strain for prescreening antineoplastic agents.

    PubMed Central

    Bartus, H R; Mirabelli, C K; Auerbach, J I; Shatzman, A R; Taylor, D P; Johnson, R K; Rosenberg, M; Crooke, S T

    1984-01-01

    Clinical experience suggests that drugs that interact with and damage DNA are useful in cancer chemotherapy (H. Umezawa , p. 43-72, in V. T. DeVita , Jr., and H. Busch [ed.], Methods in Cancer Research; Cancer Drug Development, vol. XVI, 1979). Prescreening systems for antitumor agents in natural products require assays that are exquisitely sensitive, since the active components are often produced in quantities of micrograms per milliliter or less. One assay used to identify agents that interact with DNA is the biochemical induction assay, utilizing Escherichia coli BR 513 (R. K. Elespuru and R. J. White, Cancer Res. 43:2819-2830, 1983). In this paper we describe a genetic modification of strain BR 513 that displays an expanded spectrum of activity. This strain may provide an improved prescreen for detecting natural products that interact with DNA. PMID:6203484

  12. P-fimbriated clones among uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains.

    PubMed Central

    Väisänen-Rhen, V; Elo, J; Väisänen, E; Siitonen, A; Orskov, I; Orskov, F; Svenson, S B; Mäkelä, P H; Korhonen, T K

    1984-01-01

    A total of 237 Escherichia coli strains isolated from the urine of patients with various forms of urinary tract infection or from feces of healthy children were analyzed for O group, possession of K1 capsule, type 1 fimbriae, P fimbriae, X adhesin, and production of hemolysin. Some of the strains were also analyzed for K and H antigens, outer membrane protein pattern, and plasmid content. P fimbriation, hemolysin production, and certain O groups were found to be significantly correlated with pyelonephritogenicity. Possession of type 1 fimbriae or of K1 capsule or plasmid content did not significantly correlate with virulence. Outer membrane protein patterns in 139 strains of the more common O groups were analyzed. Only one to three patterns, which varied between serotypes, were usually found within any one O group. Distinctive groups (clones) were found when the strains were grouped according to complete serotype, fimbriation, hemolysin production, and outer membrane protein pattern; also, the mean number of plasmids was typical of the strains in a given clone. Seven clones associated with pyelonephritis were found; together they accounted for 57% of the O serotypable strains from the pyelonephritis patients. The seven clones were P fimbriated but differed in their serotypes as follows: O1:K1:H7, O4:K12:H1, O4:K12:H5, O6:K2:H1, O16:K1:H6, or O18ac:K5:H7. All O1:K1:H7 strains observed fell into two clones according to the presence or absence of type 1 fimbriae and hemolysin production. One clone associated with cystitis was also found; this consisted of O6:K13:H1 strains lacking P fimbriae. Not a single representative of these eight clones was found among the fecal strains from the healthy children. They are proposed to represent virulent clones with special ability to cause human urinary tract infection. Images PMID:6140222

  13. Impact of Diversity of Colonizing Strains on Strategies for Sampling Escherichia coli from Fecal Specimens ▿

    PubMed Central

    Lautenbach, Ebbing; Bilker, Warren B.; Tolomeo, Pam; Maslow, Joel N.

    2008-01-01

    Of 49 subjects, 21 were colonized with more than one strain of Escherichia coli and 12 subjects had at least one strain present in fewer than 20% of colonies. The ability to accurately characterize E. coli strain diversity is directly related to the number of colonies sampled and the underlying prevalence of the strain. PMID:18650357

  14. Impact of diversity of colonizing strains on strategies for sampling Escherichia coli from fecal specimens.

    PubMed

    Lautenbach, Ebbing; Bilker, Warren B; Tolomeo, Pam; Maslow, Joel N

    2008-09-01

    Of 49 subjects, 21 were colonized with more than one strain of Escherichia coli and 12 subjects had at least one strain present in fewer than 20% of colonies. The ability to accurately characterize E. coli strain diversity is directly related to the number of colonies sampled and the underlying prevalence of the strain. PMID:18650357

  15. Draft Genome Sequence of Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Strain NB8.

    PubMed

    Weng, Xing-Bei; Mi, Zu-Huang; Wang, Chun-Xin; Zhu, Jian-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Escherichia coli NB8 is a clinical pyelonephritis isolate. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of uropathogenic E. coli NB8, which contains drug resistance genes encoding resistance to beta-lactams, aminoglycosides, quinolones, macrolides, colistin, sulfonamide-trimethoprim, and tetracycline. NB8 infects the kidney and bladder, making it an important tool for studying E. coli pathogenesis. PMID:27609920

  16. Pathotyping avian pathogenic Escherichia coli strains in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Yong-Wun; Kim, Tae-Eun

    2012-01-01

    To examine the genetic background of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) that affects virulence of this microorganism, we characterized the virulence genes of 101 APEC strains isolated from infected chickens between 1985~2005. Serotypes were determined with available anti-sera and median lethal doses were determined in subcutaneously inoculated chicks. The virulence genes we tested included ones encoding type 1 fimbriae (fimC), iron uptake-related (iroN, irp2, iucD, and fyuA), toxins (lt, st, stx1, stx2, and vat), and other factors (tsh, hlyF, ompT, and iss). Twenty-eight strains were found to be O1 (2.0%), O18 (3.0%), O20 (1.0%), O78 (19.8%), and O115 (2.0%) serotypes. The iroN (100%) gene was observed most frequently followed by ompT (94.1%), fimC (90.1%), hlyF (87.1%), iss (78.2%), iucD (73.3%), tsh (61.4%), fyuA (44.6%), and irp2 (43.6%). The strains were negative for all toxin genes except for vat (10.9%). All the strains were classified into 27 molecular pathotypes (MPs). The MP25, MP19, and MP10 pathotypes possessing iroN-fimC-ompT-hlyF-iucD-tsh-iss-irp2-fyuA (22.8%), iroN-fimC-ompT-hlyF-iucD-tsh-iss (21.8%), and iroN-fimC-ompT-hlyF-iss (11.9%) genotypes, respectively, were predominant. Redundancy of iron uptake-related genes was clearly observed and some strains were associated with higher mortality than others. Therefore, strains with the predominant genotypes can be used for diagnosis and vaccine. PMID:22705736

  17. R-PLASMID TRANSFER TO AND FROM 'ESCHERICHIA COLI' STRAINS ISOLATED FROM HUMAN FECAL SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Strains of Escherichia coli recently isolated from human feces were examined for the frequency with which they accept and R factor (Ri) from a derepressed fi+ strain of E. coli K-12 and transfer it to fecal and laboratory strains. Colicins produced by some of the isolates rapidly...

  18. Enhanced succinate production from glycerol by engineered Escherichia coli strains.

    PubMed

    Li, Qing; Wu, Hui; Li, Zhimin; Ye, Qin

    2016-10-01

    In this study, an engineered strain Escherichia coli MLB (ldhA(-)pflB(-)) was constructed for production of succinate from glycerol. The succinate yield was 0.37mol/mol in anaerobic culture, however, the growth and glycerol consumption rates were very slow, resulting in a low succinate level. Two-stage fermentation was performed in flasks, and the succinate yield reached 0.93mol/mol, but the succinate titer was still low. Hence, overexpression of malate dehydrogenase, malic enzyme, phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) carboxylase and PEP carboxykinase (PCK) from E. coli, and pyruvate carboxylase from Corynebacterium glutamicum in MLB was investigated for improving succinate production. Overexpression of PCK resulted in remarkable enhancement of glycerol consumption and succinate production. In flask experiments, the succinate concentration reached 118.1mM, and in a 1.5-L bioreactor the succinate concentration further increased to 360.2mM. The highest succinate yield achieved 0.93mol/mol, which was 93% of the theoretical yield, in the anaerobic stage. PMID:27371794

  19. Genetic relationships among pathogenic strains of avian Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Whittam, T S; Wilson, R A

    1988-01-01

    Genetic relationships among 79 strains of Escherichia coli, isolated mostly from diseased chickens, were estimated on the basis of allelic variation at 15 enzyme-encoding loci, determined by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis. All 15 loci were polymorphic, with an average of 4.1 allelic states per locus. Comparisons of the observed combinations of alleles among strains revealed 37 distinct multilocus genotypes that were used to define naturally occurring cell lineages or clones. Two-thirds of the isolates were classified into 10 clones, including a single multilocus genotype that accounted for about a third of all isolates. For isolates of these clones, there was a high concordance (76%) between identity in multilocus genotype, O:K:H serotype, and pattern of resistance to five antibiotics. Cluster analysis disclosed two major complexes of closely related clones, in which more than 50% of the isolates were associated with localized infections (airsacculitis and pericarditis). Both complexes contained isolates with serotype O2:K1, indicating that this serotype can occur on diverse chromosomal backgrounds. The results suggest that colibacillosis within avian populations is caused by a relatively limited number of pathogenic clones representing at least two distinct clone complexes. PMID:3045001

  20. Proteomic differences between Escherichia coli strains that cause transient versus persistent intramammary infections [abstract

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Escherichia coli is a leading cause of bacterial mastitis in dairy cattle. Typically this infection is transient in nature and lasts 2-3 days. However, in a minority of cases, E. coli can cause a persistent intramammary infection. The mechanisms that enable certain strains of E. coli to cause a p...

  1. Comparison of whole genome sequences from human and non-human Escherichia coli O26 strains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O26 is the second leading E. coli serogroup responsible for human illness outbreaks behind E. coli O157:H7. Recent outbreaks have been linked to emerging pathogenic O26:H11 strains harboring stx2 only. Cattle have been recognized as an important reserv...

  2. Genotypic Characterization of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Strains Causing Traveler's Diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, Fulton P.; Medina, Anicia M.; Aldasoro, Edelweiss; Sangil, Anna; Gascon, Joaquim; Ochoa, Theresa J.; Vila, Jordi

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to characterize the presence of virulence factors of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) causing traveler's diarrhea. Among 52 ETEC isolates, the most common toxin type was STh, and the most frequent colonization factors (CFs) were CS21, CS6, and CS3. On the other hand, the nonclassical virulence factors EAST1 and EatA were frequently present. PMID:23224092

  3. Draft Genome Sequence of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Strain W25K.

    PubMed

    Ren, Wenkai; Liu, Gang; Yin, Jie; Chen, Shuai; Li, Tiejun; Kong, Xiangfeng; Peng, Yuanyi; Yin, Yulong; Hardwidge, Philip R

    2014-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a major cause of diarrheal disease in humans and newly weaned pigs. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of ETEC strain W25K, which causes diarrhea in piglets. PMID:24970825

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Strain W25K

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Wenkai; Liu, Gang; Yin, Jie; Chen, Shuai; Li, Tiejun; Kong, Xiangfeng; Peng, Yuanyi; Hardwidge, Philip R.

    2014-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a major cause of diarrheal disease in humans and newly weaned pigs. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of ETEC strain W25K, which causes diarrhea in piglets. PMID:24970825

  5. Strain level differences in Escherichia coli transport, cell surface and adhesion characteristics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Given the importance of Escherichia coli as both an indicator of fecal contamination and a potential pathogen, it is imperative that genotypic and phenotypic variability among strains of E. coli from the same host and/or environmental niche are understood. Strain survival and variation are regulated...

  6. Prevalence and diversity of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli strains in fresh produce.

    PubMed

    Feng, Peter C H; Reddy, Shanker P

    2014-05-01

    Analysis of fresh produce showed that enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains are most often found in cilantro and parsley, with prevalence rates of approximately 0.3%. Some ETEC strains also carried Shiga toxigenic E. coli (STEC) genes but had no STEC adherence factors, which are essential to cause severe human illness. Most ETEC strains in produce carried stable toxin and/or labile toxin genes but belonged to unremarkable serotypes that have not been reported to have caused human illnesses. PMID:24780338

  7. Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Other E. coli Strains Share Physiological Properties Associated with Intestinal Colonization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Escherichia coli isolates(72 commensal and 10 O157:H7 isolates) were compared with regard to physiological and growth parameters related to their ability to survive and persist in the gastrointestinal tract and found to be similar. We propose that in nonhuman hosts E. coli O157:H7 strains function ...

  8. Draft Genome Sequence of Escherichia coli Strain LCT-EC59

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tianzhi; Chen, Jiapeng; Chang, De; Fang, Xiangqun; Wang, Junfeng; Guo, Yinghua; Su, Longxiang; Xu, Guogang; Wang, Yajuan; Chen, Zhenhong

    2013-01-01

    The space environment is a very special condition under which many organisms change many features. Escherichia coli is employed widely as a prokaryotic model organism in the fields of biotechnology and microbiology. Here, we present the draft genome sequence of E. coli strain LCT-EC59 exposed to space conditions. PMID:23469355

  9. Continuous ethanol production from wheat straw hydrolysate by recombinant ethanologenic Escherichia coli strain FBR5

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Continuous production of ethanol from alkaline peroxide pretreated and enzymatically saccharified wheat straw hydrolyzate by ethanologenic recombinant Escherichia coli strain FBR5 was investigated under various conditions at controlled pH 6.5 and 35 deg C. The strain FBR5 was chosen because of its a...

  10. Lack of virulence factors in Escherichia coli strains of enteropathogenic serogroups isolated from water.

    PubMed Central

    Valentini, S R; Gomes, T A; Falcão, D P

    1992-01-01

    Thirty-eight Escherichia coli strains belonging to 14 human enteropathogenic serogroups were isolated from 33 of 208 water samples studied. No virulence factor or virulence-related gene sequences were found in any of the 38 strains analyzed. The results point out the importance of detecting specific virulence factors before incriminating water as a source of human diarrhea. PMID:1539989

  11. Escherichia Coli

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodsell, David S.

    2009-01-01

    Diverse biological data may be used to create illustrations of molecules in their cellular context. I describe the scientific results that support a recent textbook illustration of an "Escherichia coli cell". The image magnifies a portion of the bacterium at one million times, showing the location and form of individual macromolecules. Results…

  12. Escherichia coli identification and strain discrimination using nanosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehse, Steven; Diedrich, Jonathan; Palchaudhuri, Sunil

    2007-06-01

    Three strains of Escherichia coli, one strain of black mold and one strain of Candida albicans yeast have been analyzed by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) using nanosecond laser pulses. All microorganisms were analyzed while still alive and with no sample preparation. Nineteen atomic and ionic emission lines have been identified in the spectrum, which is dominated by calcium, magnesium and sodium. A discriminant function analysis (DFA) has been used to discriminate between the bio-types and E. coli strains. This is the first demonstration of the ability of the LIBS technique to differentiate between different strains of a single species.

  13. Escherichia coli identification and strain discrimination using nanosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diedrich, Jonathan; Rehse, Steven J.; Palchaudhuri, Sunil

    2007-04-01

    Three strains of Escherichia coli, one strain of environmental mold, and one strain of Candida albicans yeast have been analyzed by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using nanosecond laser pulses. All microorganisms were analyzed while still alive and with no sample preparation. Nineteen atomic and ionic emission lines have been identified in the spectrum, which is dominated by calcium, magnesium, and sodium. A discriminant function analysis has been used to discriminate between the biotypes and E. coli strains. This analysis showed efficient discrimination between laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy spectra from different strains of a single bacteria species.

  14. Colonization with Escherichia coli Strains among Female Sex Partners of Men with Febrile Urinary Tract Infection

    PubMed Central

    Sandberg, Torsten; Scheutz, Flemming; Clabots, Connie; Johnston, Brian D.; Thuras, Paul; Johnson, James R.

    2015-01-01

    Of 23 unique Escherichia coli strains from 10 men with febrile urinary tract infections (UTIs) and their female sex partners, 6 strains (all UTI causing) were shared between partners. Molecularly, the 6 shared strains appeared more virulent than the 17 nonshared strains, being associated with phylogenetic group B2, sequence types ST73 and ST127, and multiple specific virulence genes. This indicates that UTIs are sometimes sexually transmitted. PMID:25832302

  15. A commensal gone bad: complete genome sequence of the prototypical enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli strain H10407.

    PubMed

    Crossman, Lisa C; Chaudhuri, Roy R; Beatson, Scott A; Wells, Timothy J; Desvaux, Mickael; Cunningham, Adam F; Petty, Nicola K; Mahon, Vivienne; Brinkley, Carl; Hobman, Jon L; Savarino, Stephen J; Turner, Susan M; Pallen, Mark J; Penn, Charles W; Parkhill, Julian; Turner, A Keith; Johnson, Timothy J; Thomson, Nicholas R; Smith, Stephen G J; Henderson, Ian R

    2010-11-01

    In most cases, Escherichia coli exists as a harmless commensal organism, but it may on occasion cause intestinal and/or extraintestinal disease. Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) is the predominant cause of E. coli-mediated diarrhea in the developing world and is responsible for a significant portion of pediatric deaths. In this study, we determined the complete genomic sequence of E. coli H10407, a prototypical strain of enterotoxigenic E. coli, which reproducibly elicits diarrhea in human volunteer studies. We performed genomic and phylogenetic comparisons with other E. coli strains, revealing that the chromosome is closely related to that of the nonpathogenic commensal strain E. coli HS and to those of the laboratory strains E. coli K-12 and C. Furthermore, these analyses demonstrated that there were no chromosomally encoded factors unique to any sequenced ETEC strains. Comparison of the E. coli H10407 plasmids with those from several ETEC strains revealed that the plasmids had a mosaic structure but that several loci were conserved among ETEC strains. This study provides a genetic context for the vast amount of experimental and epidemiological data that have been published. PMID:20802035

  16. Prevalence and Persistence of Escherichia coli Strains with Uropathogenic Virulence Characteristics in Sewage Treatment Plants▿

    PubMed Central

    Anastasi, E. M.; Matthews, B.; Gundogdu, A.; Vollmerhausen, T. L.; Ramos, N. L.; Stratton, H.; Ahmed, W.; Katouli, M.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the prevalence and persistence of Escherichia coli strains in four sewage treatment plants (STPs) in a subtropical region of Queensland, Australia. In all, 264 E. coli strains were typed using a high-resolution biochemical fingerprinting method and grouped into either a single or a common biochemical phenotype (S-BPT and C-BPT, respectively). These strains were also tested for their phylogenetic groups and 12 virulence genes associated with intestinal and extraintestinal E. coli strains. Comparison of BPTs at various treatment stages indicated that certain BPTs were found in two or all treatment stages. These BPTs constituted the highest proportion of E. coli strains in each STP and belonged mainly to phylogenetic group B2 and, to a lesser extent, group D. No virulence genes associated with intestinal E. coli were found among the strains, but 157 (59.5%) strains belonging to 14 C-BPTs carried one or more virulence genes associated with uropathogenic strains. Of these, 120 (76.4%) strains belonged to seven persistent C-BPTs and were found in all four STPs. Our results indicate that certain clonal groups of E. coli with virulence characteristics of uropathogenic strains can survive the treatment processes of STPs. These strains were common to all STPs and constituted the highest proportion of the strains in different treatment tanks of each STP. PMID:20622128

  17. Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Nataro, James P.; Kaper, James B.

    1998-01-01

    Escherichia coli is the predominant nonpathogenic facultative flora of the human intestine. Some E. coli strains, however, have developed the ability to cause disease of the gastrointestinal, urinary, or central nervous system in even the most robust human hosts. Diarrheagenic strains of E. coli can be divided into at least six different categories with corresponding distinct pathogenic schemes. Taken together, these organisms probably represent the most common cause of pediatric diarrhea worldwide. Several distinct clinical syndromes accompany infection with diarrheagenic E. coli categories, including traveler’s diarrhea (enterotoxigenic E. coli), hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic-uremic syndrome (enterohemorrhagic E. coli), persistent diarrhea (enteroaggregative E. coli), and watery diarrhea of infants (enteropathogenic E. coli). This review discusses the current level of understanding of the pathogenesis of the diarrheagenic E. coli strains and describes how their pathogenic schemes underlie the clinical manifestations, diagnostic approach, and epidemiologic investigation of these important pathogens. PMID:9457432

  18. Draft Genome Sequences of the Enteroinvasive Escherichia coli Strains M4163 and 4608-58

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Susan R.; Lacher, David W.

    2015-01-01

    We report here the draft genome sequences of enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC) O124:H30 strain M4163 isolated from imported French cheese and EIEC O143:H26 strain 4608-58. The assembled data determined that both strains contain multiple copies of the ipaH gene, as well as the pINV A form of the invasion plasmid. PMID:25657266

  19. Pathogenic Escherichia coli strain discrimination using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diedrich, Jonathan; Rehse, Steven J.; Palchaudhuri, Sunil

    2007-07-01

    A pathogenic strain of bacteria, Escherichia coli O157:H7 (enterohemorrhagic E. coli or EHEC), has been analyzed by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) with nanosecond pulses and compared to three nonpathogenic E. coli strains: a laboratory strain of K-12 (AB), a derivative of the same strain termed HF4714, and an environmental strain, E. coli C (Nino C). A discriminant function analysis (DFA) was performed on the LIBS spectra obtained from live colonies of all four strains. Utilizing the emission intensity of 19 atomic and ionic transitions from trace inorganic elements, the DFA revealed significant differences between EHEC and the Nino C strain, suggesting the possibility of identifying and discriminating the pathogenic strain from commonly occurring environmental strains. EHEC strongly resembled the two K-12 strains, in particular, HF4714, making discrimination between these strains difficult. DFA was also used to analyze spectra from two of the nonpathogenic strains cultured in different media: on a trypticase soy (TS) agar plate and in a liquid TS broth. Strains cultured in different media were identified and effectively discriminated, being more similar than different strains cultured in identical media. All bacteria spectra were completely distinct from spectra obtained from the nutrient medium or ablation substrate alone. The ability to differentiate strains prepared and tested in different environments indicates that matrix effects and background contaminations do not necessarily preclude the use of LIBS to identify bacteria found in a variety of environments or grown under different conditions.

  20. Pathogenic Escherichia coli

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Escherichia coli, a member of the Enterobacteriaceae family, is a part of the normal flora of the intestinal tract of humans and a variety of animals. E. coli strains are classified on the basis of antigenic differences in two surface components (serotyping), the somatic antigen (O) of the lipopoly...

  1. Studying the features of 57 confirmed CRISPR loci in 29 strains of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Rahmatabadi, Seyyed Soheil; Nezafat, Navid; Negahdaripour, Manica; Hajighahramani, Nasim; Morowvat, Mohammad Hossein; Ghasemi, Younes

    2016-06-01

    Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPRs) system is a novel type of innate defense system in prokaryotes for destruction of exogenous elements. To gain further insight into behavior and organization of the system, the extensive analysis of the available sequenced genomes is necessary. The dynamic nature of CRISPR loci is possibly valuable for typing and relative analyses of strains and microbial population. There are a few orderly bioinformatics investigations about the structure of CRISPR sequences in the Escherichia coli strains. In this study, 57 CRISPR loci were selected from 32 Escherichia coli strains to investigate their structural characteristics and potential functions using bioinformatics tools. Our results showed that most strains contained several loci that mainly included conserved direct repeats, while the spacers were highly variable. Moreover, RNA analysis of the sequences indicated that all loci could form stable RNA secondary structures and showed homology mostly with phages compared to plasmids. Only three strains included cas genes around their loci. PMID:26871258

  2. Complete Genome Assembly of Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, a Serotype O6 Reference Strain.

    PubMed

    Minogue, T D; Daligault, H A; Davenport, K W; Bishop-Lilly, K A; Broomall, S M; Bruce, D C; Chain, P S; Chertkov, O; Coyne, S R; Freitas, T; Frey, K G; Gibbons, H S; Jaissle, J; Redden, C L; Rosenzweig, C N; Xu, Y; Johnson, S L

    2014-01-01

    We present the complete genome assembly of Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 as submitted to NCBI under accession no. CP009072. This strain was originally isolated from a clinical sample in Seattle, Washington (1946), and is often used in quality control testing. The assembled genome is 5.20 Mb (50.4% G+C content) and includes two plasmids. PMID:25291776

  3. Complete Genome Assembly of Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, a Serotype O6 Reference Strain

    PubMed Central

    Minogue, T. D.; Daligault, H. A.; Davenport, K. W.; Bishop-Lilly, K. A.; Broomall, S. M.; Bruce, D. C.; Chain, P. S.; Chertkov, O.; Coyne, S. R.; Freitas, T.; Frey, K. G.; Gibbons, H. S.; Jaissle, J.; Redden, C. L.; Rosenzweig, C. N.; Xu, Y.

    2014-01-01

    We present the complete genome assembly of Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 as submitted to NCBI under accession no. CP009072. This strain was originally isolated from a clinical sample in Seattle, Washington (1946), and is often used in quality control testing. The assembled genome is 5.20 Mb (50.4% G+C content) and includes two plasmids. PMID:25291776

  4. Group A Escherichia coli-Related Purpura Fulminans: an Unusual Manifestation Due to an Unusual Strain?

    PubMed Central

    Amara, Marlène; Bonacorsi, Stéphane; Bedel, Jérôme; Mira, Jean-Paul; Laurent, Virginie; Socha, Koryna; Bruneel, Fabrice; Pangon, Béatrice; Bédos, Jean-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    We describe an exceptional case of life-threatening group A Escherichia coli-induced purpura fulminans. Genotyping of common polymorphisms in genes involved in innate immunity or coagulation did not reveal known susceptibility to such a manifestation. Genetic analysis of the strain revealed an unusual conserved virulence plasmidic region, pointing out its potential virulence. PMID:25232165

  5. Colistin Resistance mcr-1-Gene-Bearing Escherichia coli Strain from the United States.

    PubMed

    Meinersmann, Richard J; Ladely, Scott R; Plumblee, Jodie R; Hall, M Carolina; Simpson, Sheron A; Ballard, Linda L; Scheffler, Brian E; Genzlinger, Linda L; Cook, Kimberly L

    2016-01-01

    Transmissible colistin resistance in the form of an mcr-1-gene-bearing plasmid has been recently reported in Enterobacteriaceae in several parts of the world. We report here the completed genome sequence of an Escherichia coli strain isolated from swine in the United States that carried the mcr-1 gene on an IncI2-type plasmid. PMID:27587816

  6. Colistin Resistance mcr-1-Gene-Bearing Escherichia coli Strain from the United States

    PubMed Central

    Ladely, Scott R.; Plumblee, Jodie R.; Hall, M. Carolina; Simpson, Sheron A.; Ballard, Linda L.; Scheffler, Brian E.; Genzlinger, Linda L.; Cook, Kimberly L.

    2016-01-01

    Transmissible colistin resistance in the form of an mcr-1-gene-bearing plasmid has been recently reported in Enterobacteriaceae in several parts of the world. We report here the completed genome sequence of an Escherichia coli strain isolated from swine in the United States that carried the mcr-1 gene on an IncI2-type plasmid. PMID:27587816

  7. Complete Genomic Sequence of an Avian Pathogenic Escherichia coli Strain of Serotype O7:HNT

    PubMed Central

    Maluta, Renato P.; Nicholson, Bryon; Logue, Catherine M.; Nolan, Lisa K.; Rojas, Thaís C. G.

    2016-01-01

    Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) is associated with colibacillosis in poultry. Here, we present the first complete sequence of an APEC strain of the O7:HNT serotype and ST73 sequence type, isolated from a broiler with cellulitis. Complete genomes of APEC with distinct genetic backgrounds may be useful for comparative analysis. PMID:26823578

  8. Drug resistance and R plasmids in Escherichia coli strains isolated from imported pet birds.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, M; Fukazawa, M; Yoshimura, H; Koeda, T

    1980-01-01

    Drug resistance in Escherichia coli strains isolated from pet birds (mynahs, macaws, finches, common bengals, parrots, and flamingos) imported into Japan from 10 foreign countries in 1977 and 1978 was investigated. Of the 309 strains isolated from 127 pet birds in the Animal Quarantine Service, 232 (75.1%) were drug resistant. Furthermore, strains resistant to oxytetracycline hydrochloride, dihydrostreptomycin, and sulfadimethoxine were relatively common. Resistance patterns varied from single to sextuple resistance, and 148 (63.8%) of the resistant strains had conjugative R plasmids. These results suggest that the high incidence of drug resistance and R plasmids in E. coli strains isolated from these pet birds may be a reflection of the prophylactic use of antibiotics for the prevention of diseases which increasingly occur with importation of the birds. Furthermore, the results suggest that the birds may be potential reservoirs of drug-resistant E. coli for families who raise and have intimate contact with such birds. PMID:6163947

  9. Complete Genome Sequence and Comparative Metabolic Profiling of the Prototypical Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli Strain 042

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhuri, Roy R.; Sebaihia, Mohammed; Hobman, Jon L.; Webber, Mark A.; Leyton, Denisse L.; Goldberg, Martin D.; Cunningham, Adam F.; Scott-Tucker, Anthony; Ferguson, Paul R.; Thomas, Christopher M.; Frankel, Gad; Tang, Christoph M.; Dudley, Edward G.; Roberts, Ian S.; Rasko, David A.; Pallen, Mark J.; Parkhill, Julian; Nataro, James P.; Thomson, Nicholas R.; Henderson, Ian R.

    2010-01-01

    Background Escherichia coli can experience a multifaceted life, in some cases acting as a commensal while in other cases causing intestinal and/or extraintestinal disease. Several studies suggest enteroaggregative E. coli are the predominant cause of E. coli-mediated diarrhea in the developed world and are second only to Campylobacter sp. as a cause of bacterial-mediated diarrhea. Furthermore, enteroaggregative E. coli are a predominant cause of persistent diarrhea in the developing world where infection has been associated with malnourishment and growth retardation. Methods In this study we determined the complete genomic sequence of E. coli 042, the prototypical member of the enteroaggregative E. coli, which has been shown to cause disease in volunteer studies. We performed genomic and phylogenetic comparisons with other E. coli strains revealing previously uncharacterised virulence factors including a variety of secreted proteins and a capsular polysaccharide biosynthetic locus. In addition, by using Biolog™ Phenotype Microarrays we have provided a full metabolic profiling of E. coli 042 and the non-pathogenic lab strain E. coli K-12. We have highlighted the genetic basis for many of the metabolic differences between E. coli 042 and E. coli K-12. Conclusion This study provides a genetic context for the vast amount of experimental and epidemiological data published thus far and provides a template for future diagnostic and intervention strategies. PMID:20098708

  10. High temporal variability in commensal Escherichia coli strain communities of a herbivorous marsupial.

    PubMed

    Blyton, Michaela D J; Banks, Sam C; Peakall, Rod; Gordon, David M

    2013-08-01

    Although Escherichia coli is an important model organism for bacterial research, few studies have explored the nature of temporal variation in E. coli strains within the intestinal tracts of host individuals. In this study the E. coli strains of 54 mountain brushtail possums were sampled on four occasions during a year. This allowed temporal changes to be quantified both at the host population level and within individuals. Escherichia coli strains were identified using a combination of rep-PCR profiles from two primers (CGG and ERIC) and phylogenetic group assigned by quadruplex PCR. The study revealed considerable changes in community structure within individuals among all time periods. In fact, temporal variation within individuals accounted for more of the variation in E. coli community structure than differences between animals. In contrast to the within-host dynamics, there were no significant differences among the time periods at the host population level. It was also found that there was no effect of host age or sex on strain community structure within host individuals. These findings highlight the importance of temporal variation in the ecology of E. coli, while the methods applied in this study may serve as a foundation for further work in this area. PMID:23414000

  11. Isolation of atypical enteropathogenic and shiga toxin encoding Escherichia coli strains from poultry in Tehran, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Doregiraee, Fatemeh; Alebouyeh, Masoud; Nayeri Fasaei, Bahar; Charkhkar, Saeed; Tajedin, Elahe; Zali, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and shiga toxin producing E. coli (STEC) strains in healthy broilers in Iran. Background: STEC and EPEC strains as diarrheagenic E. coli are among the most prevalent causative agents in acute diarrhea. Domestic animals, mainly cattle and sheep, have been implicated as the principal reservoirs of these pathotypes; however their prevalence among the broilers is varied among different countries. Patients and methods: A total of 500 cloacal swab samples from broilers of five different poultry houses (A-E) were collected to investigate the presence of stx1, stx2, hly, eae, and bfp virulence genes among the E. coli isolates by polymerase chain reaction. The shiga toxin encoding strains were evaluated serologically to detect their interaction with a commercial antiserum against O157 antigen. Results: Out of the 500 collected samples, 444 E. coli strains were isolated. Three strains (0.67%) presented at least one of the studied virulence genes (stx2, hly and eae), two strains were identified as STEC (stx2+, O157:nonH7) and one as an atypical EPEC strains (eae+ bfp-). Conclusion: The study established the presence of STEC and atypical EPEC in healthy broilers in Iran. Poultry might serve as vectors for transmission of pathogenic E. coli to human populations. PMID:26744615

  12. Emergence of uropathogenic extended-spectrum beta lactamases-producing Escherichia coli strains in the community.

    PubMed

    Marijan, Tatjana; Vranes, Jasmina; Bedenić, Branka; Mlinarić-Dzepina, Ana; Plecko, Vanda; Kalenić, Smilja

    2007-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the virulence characteristics and resistance pattern of the extended-spectrum/lactamases (ESBLs)-producing Escherichia coli strains isolated from urine of outpatients in the Zagreb region during a five-month period, and to compare them with the non ESBLs-producing E. coli strains isolated in the same period. Out of 2451 E. coli strains isolated from urine of nonhospitalized patients with significant bacteriuria, a total of 39 ESBLs-producing strains (1.59%) were detected by a double-disk diffusion technique and by the broth-dilution minimal inhibitory concentration reduction method. The 45 non ESBLs-producing strains were randomly chosen, and phenotype of the two groups of strains was characterized and compared. Serogroup O4, hemolysin production, expression of P- and type 1 fimbriae as well as resistance to gentamicin and amikacin were significantly more prevalent characteristics among the ESBLs-producing strains than among non ESBLs-producing strains (p < 0.01), while higher prevalence of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole resistance among ESBLs-producing strains was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Chromosomal DNA analysis by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis exhibited a great genomic similarity among ESBLs-producing strains and revealed that those highly virulent and resistant E. coli strains isolated from urine of outpatients in the Zagreb region had a clonal propagation. PMID:17598406

  13. Pathogenic potential of Escherichia coli clinical strains from orthopedic implant infections towards human osteoblastic cells.

    PubMed

    Crémet, Lise; Broquet, Alexis; Brulin, Bénédicte; Jacqueline, Cédric; Dauvergne, Sandie; Brion, Régis; Asehnoune, Karim; Corvec, Stéphane; Heymann, Dominique; Caroff, Nathalie

    2015-11-01

    Escherichia coli is one of the first causes of Gram-negative orthopedic implant infections (OII), but little is known about the pathogenicity of this species in such infections that are increasing due to the ageing of the population. We report how this pathogen interacts with human osteoblastic MG-63 cells in vitro, by comparing 20 OII E. coli strains to two Staphylococcus aureus and two Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains. LDH release assay revealed that 6/20 (30%) OII E. coli induced MG-63 cell lysis whereas none of the four control strains was cytotoxic after 4 h of coculture. This high cytotoxicity was associated with hemolytic properties and linked to hlyA gene expression. We further showed by gentamicin protection assay and confocal microscopy that the non-cytotoxic E. coli were not able to invade MG-63 cells unlike S. aureus strains (internalization rate <0.01% for the non-cytotoxic E. coli versus 8.88 ± 2.31% and 4.60 ± 0.42% for both S. aureus). The non-cytotoxic E. coli also demonstrated low adherence rates (<7%), the most adherent E. coli eliciting higher IL-6 and TNF-α mRNA expression in the osteoblastic cells. Either highly cytotoxic or slightly invasive OII E. coli do not show the same infection strategies as S. aureus towards osteoblasts. PMID:26333570

  14. Isolation of Escherichia coli 0157:H7 Strain from Fecal Samples of Zoo Animal

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed Hamzah, Aseel; Mohammed Hussein, Aseel; Mahmoud Khalef, Jenan

    2013-01-01

    The isolation and characterization of Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains from 22 out of 174 fecal samples from petting zoo animals representing twenty-two different species (camel, lion, goats, zebra, bear, baboon monkey, Siberian monkey, deer, elk, llama, pony, horses, fox, kangaroo, wolf, porcupine, chickens, tiger, ostrich, hyena, dogs, and wildcats) were investigated. One petting Al-Zawraa zoological society of Baghdad was investigated for E. coli O157:H7 over a 16-month period that spanned two summer and two autumn seasons. Variation in the occurrence of E. coli O157:H7-positive petting zoo animals was observed, with animals being culture positive only in the summer months but not in the spring, autumn, or winter. E. coli O157:H7 isolates were distinguished by agglutination with E. coli O157:H7 latex reagent (Oxoid), identified among the isolates, which showed that multiple E. coli strains were isolated from one petting zoo animal, in which a single animal simultaneously shed multiple E. coli strains; E. coli O157:H7 was isolated only by selective enrichment culture of 2 g of petting zoo animal feces. In contrast, strains other than O157:H7 were cultured from feces of petting zoo animals without enrichment. PMID:24489514

  15. Isolation of Escherichia coli 0157:H7 strain from fecal samples of zoo animal.

    PubMed

    Mohammed Hamzah, Aseel; Mohammed Hussein, Aseel; Mahmoud Khalef, Jenan

    2013-01-01

    The isolation and characterization of Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains from 22 out of 174 fecal samples from petting zoo animals representing twenty-two different species (camel, lion, goats, zebra, bear, baboon monkey, Siberian monkey, deer, elk, llama, pony, horses, fox, kangaroo, wolf, porcupine, chickens, tiger, ostrich, hyena, dogs, and wildcats) were investigated. One petting Al-Zawraa zoological society of Baghdad was investigated for E. coli O157:H7 over a 16-month period that spanned two summer and two autumn seasons. Variation in the occurrence of E. coli O157:H7-positive petting zoo animals was observed, with animals being culture positive only in the summer months but not in the spring, autumn, or winter. E. coli O157:H7 isolates were distinguished by agglutination with E. coli O157:H7 latex reagent (Oxoid), identified among the isolates, which showed that multiple E. coli strains were isolated from one petting zoo animal, in which a single animal simultaneously shed multiple E. coli strains; E. coli O157:H7 was isolated only by selective enrichment culture of 2 g of petting zoo animal feces. In contrast, strains other than O157:H7 were cultured from feces of petting zoo animals without enrichment. PMID:24489514

  16. Risk Factors for Fecal Colonization with Multiple Distinct Strains of Escherichia coli Among Long-Term Care Facility Residents

    PubMed Central

    Lautenbach, Ebbing; Tolomeo, Pam; Black, Nicole; Maslow, Joel N.

    2009-01-01

    Of 49 long-term care facility residents, 21 (43%) were colonized with two or more distinct strains of Escherichia coli. There were no significant risk factors for colonization with multiple strains of E. coli. These results suggest future efforts to efficiently identify diversity of colonizing strains will be challenging. PMID:19292660

  17. Risk factors for fecal colonization with multiple distinct strains of Escherichia coli among long-term care facility residents.

    PubMed

    Lautenbach, Ebbing; Tolomeo, Pam; Black, Nicole; Maslow, Joel N

    2009-05-01

    Of 49 long-term care facility residents, 21 (43%) were colonized with 2 or more distinct strains of Escherichia coli. There were no significant risk factors for colonization with multiple strains of E. coli. These results suggest that future efforts to efficiently identify the diversity of colonizing strains will be challenging. PMID:19292660

  18. Prevalence and characteristics of intimin-producing Escherichia coli strains isolated from healthy chickens in Korea.

    PubMed

    Oh, J-Y; Kang, M-S; An, B-K; Shin, E-G; Kim, M-J; Kim, Y-J; Kwon, Y-K

    2012-10-01

    Virulent Escherichia coli strains have commonly been associated with diarrheal illness in humans and animals. Typical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) with intimin gene (eaeA) and E. coli adherence factor plasmid, or atypical EPEC with only eaeA have been implicated in human cases. In the present study, we investigated the prevalence of virulence-associated genes including eaeA in the E. coli strains isolated from cloacal specimens of 184 chicken flocks in 7 provinces in Korea between 2009 and 2010. When 7 virulence genes (VT1, VT2, LT, and ST for enterotoxigenic E. coli; eaeA and bfpA for enteropathogenic E. coli; and aggR for enteroaggregative E. coli) were screened by multiplex PCR, a total of 30 E. coli strains carrying only the eaeA gene were detected from 184 flocks that were identified as atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (aEPEC). The aEPEC strains were analyzed by eae subtyping, phylogenetic grouping PCR, and serotyping. Twelve (40%) of 30 aEPEC strains possessed an eae-β subtype, followed by θ (30%), ε (16.7%), and β1 (13.3%). Eight (26.7%) of 30 aEPEC strains were designated into the phylogenetic group A. Two (6.7%) and 3 (10%) aEPEC strains were classified into the phylogenetic group B2 and D, respectively. A total of 15 (50%) aEPEC strains were serotyped to groups O24, O25, O26, O71, O80, O103, and O157, and the remaining strains were nontypeable. In analyzing the genetic diversity among the 30 aEPEC isolates by the pulsed-field gel electrophoresis method with XbaI-digestion, the pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiling produced 20 different patterns, but isolates within the same group did not show clear geographic or breed relationships. Our data indicate that healthy chickens may constitute an important natural reservoir of aEPEC strains, and suggest that transmission to humans could not be excluded. PMID:22991525

  19. Characterization of non-Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 strains isolated from dogs.

    PubMed

    Bentancor, A; Vilte, D A; Rumi, M V; Carbonari, C C; Chinen, I; Larzábal, M; Cataldi, A; Mercado, E C

    2010-01-01

    Shiga toxin-negative Escherichia coli O157 strains of various H types have been associated with diarrhea in children and are considered potentially pathogenic for humans. In this study, we describe non-Shiga toxin-producing E. coli O157 E. coli strains previously obtained from dogs in Argentina. Different E. coli phylogenetic lineages corresponding to flagellar types H16, H29 and H45 were identified. E. coli serotypes O157:H16 and O157:H45 contained intimin subtypes epsilon and alpha 1, respectively. Serotype O157:H45 carried the bfp gene encoding the bundle-forming pilus. Localized adherence-like patterns to HEp-2 cells were observed in O157:H16 strains, while O157:H45 adhered in a typical localized pattern. A total of eight different XbaI-pulse field electrophoresis patterns with more than 74 % similarity were identified among the nine E. coli O157:H16 strains. Our data emphasized the fact that dogs may harbor human pathogenic E. coli O157 which do not correspond to Shiga toxin-producing strains and whose potential human health hazard should not be underestimated. PMID:20461294

  20. Efficient Recovery of Fluoroquinolone-Susceptible and Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Escherichia coli Strains From Frozen Samples

    PubMed Central

    Lautenbach, Ebbing; Santana, Evelyn; Lee, Abby; Tolomeo, Pam; Black, Nicole; Babson, Andrew; Perencevich, Eli N.; Harris, Anthony D.; Smith, Catherine A.; Maslow, Joel

    2010-01-01

    We assessed the rate of recovery of fluoroquinolone-resistant and fluoroquinolone-susceptible Escherichia coli isolates from culture of frozen perirectal swab samples compared with the results for culture of the same specimen before freezing. Recovery rates for these 2 classes of E. coli were 91% and 83%, respectively. The majority of distinct strains recovered from the initial sample were also recovered from the frozen sample. The strains that were not recovered were typically present only in low numbers in the initial sample. These findings emphasize the utility of frozen surveillance samples. PMID:18279070

  1. Draft Genome Sequence of Escherichia coli Strain Nissle 1917 (Serovar O6:K5:H1).

    PubMed

    Cress, Brady F; Linhardt, Robert J; Koffas, Mattheos A G

    2013-01-01

    We announce the availability of the 5.023-Mbp high-quality draft assembly of the Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917 (serovar O6:K5:H1) genome. Short genomic segments from this important probiotic strain have been available in public databases, but the full genome sequence has remained inaccessible. Thus, high-coverage, whole genome sequencing of E. coli Nissle 1917 is presented herein. Reannotation and metabolic reconstruction will enable comparative genomics analysis and model-guided predictions of genetic manipulations leading to increased production of the K5 capsular polysaccharide known as N-acetyl heparosan, a precursor to the anticoagulant pharmaceutical heparin. PMID:23516190

  2. Efficient recovery of fluoroquinolone-susceptible and fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli strains from frozen samples.

    PubMed

    Lautenbach, Ebbing; Santana, Evelyn; Lee, Abby; Tolomeo, Pam; Black, Nicole; Babson, Andrew; Perencevich, Eli N; Harris, Anthony D; Smith, Catherine A; Maslow, Joel

    2008-04-01

    We assessed the rate of recovery of fluoroquinolone-resistant and fluoroquinolone-susceptible Escherichia coli isolates from culture of frozen perirectal swab samples compared with the results for culture of the same specimen before freezing. Recovery rates for these 2 classes of E. coli were 91% and 83%, respectively. The majority of distinct strains recovered from the initial sample were also recovered from the frozen sample. The strains that were not recovered were typically present only in low numbers in the initial sample. These findings emphasize the utility of frozen surveillance samples. PMID:18279070

  3. EcoR phylogenetic analysis and virulence genotyping of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli strains and Escherichia coli isolates from commercial chicken carcasses in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Renata K T; Aquino, Ivani; Ferreira, Ana Lívia da S; Vidotto, Marilda C

    2011-05-01

    Escherichia coli strains designated as avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) are responsible for avian colibacillosis, an acute and largely systemic disease that promotes significant economic losses in poultry industry worldwide because of mortality increase, medication costs, and condemnation of carcasses. APEC is a subgroup of extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli pathotype, which includes uropathogenic E. coli, neonatal meningitis E. coli, and septicemic E. coli. We isolated E. coli from commercial chicken carcasses in a Brazilian community and compared by polymerase chain reaction-defined phylogenetic group (A, B1, B2, or D) with APEC strains isolated from sick chickens from different poultry farms. A substantial number of strains assigned to phylogenetic E. coli reference collection group B2, which is known to harbor potent extraintestinal human and animal E. coli pathogens, were identified as APEC (26.0%) in both commercial chicken carcasses and retail poultry meat (retail poultry E. coli [RPEC]) (21.25%). The majority of RPEC were classified as group A (35%), whereas the majority of APEC were groups B1 (30.8) and A (27.6%). APEC and RPEC presented the genes pentaplex, iutA, hly, iron, ompT, and iss, but with different virulence profiles. The similarity between APEC and RPEC indicates RPEC as potentially pathogenic strains and supports a possible zoonotic risk for humans. PMID:21254888

  4. Natural antibiotic susceptibility of Escherichia coli, Shigella, E. vulneris, and E. hermannii strains.

    PubMed

    Stock, I; Wiedemann, B

    1999-03-01

    The natural antibiotic susceptibility of 139 Escherichia coli strains (including 18 enterohemorrhagic E. coli), 73 Shigella strains (S. sonnei (n = 37), S. flexneri (n = 29), S. boydii (n = 6), S. dysenteriae (n = 1)), 23 E. vulneris, and 20 E. hermannii strains toward 71 antibiotics was examined. MICs were determined using a microdilution procedure. All examined taxa were naturally sensitive/intermediate toward tetracyclines, aminoglycosides, some penicillins (amoxycillin/clavulanate, ampicillin/sulbactam, piperacillin [with and without tazobactam], mezlocillin, azlocillin), cephalosporins, carbapenems, monobactams, quinolones, trimethoprim, cotrimoxazole, and chloramphenicol and were naturally resistant/intermediate toward benzylpenicillin, oxacillin, macrolides, lincosamides, glycopeptides, rifampicin, and fusidic acid. No differences in natural antibiotic susceptibility were seen between enterohemorrhagic and other E. coli strains. Likewise, with one exception, no significant differences in natural antibiotic susceptibility were seen either among the Shigella subgroups or between Shigella and E. coli. The natural population of S. flexneri was slightly more susceptible to chloramphenicol than the natural populations of other taxa within the Shigella-E. coli complex. E. vulneris and E. hermannii showed susceptibility patterns to many antibiotics similar to Shigella and E. coli, but there were other antibiotics toward which there were significant differences in natural susceptibility. E. vulneris and E. hermannii were less susceptible to nitrofurantoin and slightly more susceptible to several aminoglycosides than E. coli and Shigella. E. hermannii was the only species that was naturally resistant/intermediate to ticarcillin and amoxycillin (DIN standard). The addition of clavulanic acid to the latter resulted in a decrease of seven twofold dilution steps (E. vulneris: four twofold dilution steps, E. coli/Shigella: two twofold dilution steps) of the MICs of the

  5. Comparative Genomics and Characterization of Hybrid Shigatoxigenic and Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC/ETEC) Strains

    PubMed Central

    Nyholm, Outi; Halkilahti, Jani; Wiklund, Gudrun; Okeke, Uche; Paulin, Lars; Auvinen, Petri; Haukka, Kaisa; Siitonen, Anja

    2015-01-01

    Background Shigatoxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) and enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) cause serious foodborne infections in humans. These two pathogroups are defined based on the pathogroup-associated virulence genes: stx encoding Shiga toxin (Stx) for STEC and elt encoding heat-labile and/or est encoding heat-stable enterotoxin (ST) for ETEC. The study investigated the genomics of STEC/ETEC hybrid strains to determine their phylogenetic position among E. coli and to define the virulence genes they harbor. Methods The whole genomes of three STEC/ETEC strains possessing both stx and est genes were sequenced using PacBio RS sequencer. Two of the strains were isolated from the patients, one with hemolytic uremic syndrome, and one with diarrhea. The third strain was of bovine origin. Core genome analysis of the shared chromosomal genes and comparison with E. coli and Shigella spp. reference genomes was performed to determine the phylogenetic position of the STEC/ETEC strains. In addition, a set of virulence genes and ETEC colonization factors were extracted from the genomes. The production of Stx and ST were studied. Results The human STEC/ETEC strains clustered with strains representing ETEC, STEC, enteroaggregative E. coli, and commensal and laboratory-adapted E. coli. However, the bovine STEC/ETEC strain formed a remote cluster with two STECs of bovine origin. All three STEC/ETEC strains harbored several other virulence genes, apart from stx and est, and lacked ETEC colonization factors. Two STEC/ETEC strains produced both toxins and one strain Stx only. Conclusions This study shows that pathogroup-associated virulence genes of different E. coli can co-exist in strains originating from different phylogenetic lineages. The possibility of virulence genes to be associated with several E. coli pathogroups should be taken into account in strain typing and in epidemiological surveillance. Development of novel hybrid E. coli strains may cause a new public health risk, which

  6. Antimicrobial activity of selected synbiotics targeted for the elderly against pathogenic Escherichia coli strains.

    PubMed

    Likotrafiti, E; Tuohy, K M; Gibson, G R; Rastall, R A

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of two synbiotic combinations, Lactobacillus fermentum with short-chain fructooligosaccharides (FOS-LF) and Bifidobacterium longum with isomaltooligosaccharides (IMO-BL), against enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 and enteropathogenic E. coli O86. Antimicrobial activity was determined (1) by co-culturing the synbiotics and pathogens in batch cultures, and (2) with the three-stage continuous culture system (gut model), inoculated with faecal slurry from an elderly donor. In the co-culture experiments, IMO-BL was significantly inhibitory to both E. coli strains, while FOS-LF was slightly inhibitory or not inhibitory. Factors other than acid production appeared to play a role in the inhibition. In the gut models, both synbiotics effectively inhibited E. coli O157 in the first vessel, but not in vessels 2 and 3. E. coli O86 was not significantly inhibited. PMID:26754553

  7. Comparison of whole genome sequences from human and non-human Escherichia coli O26 strains

    PubMed Central

    Norman, Keri N.; Clawson, Michael L.; Strockbine, Nancy A.; Mandrell, Robert E.; Johnson, Roger; Ziebell, Kim; Zhao, Shaohua; Fratamico, Pina M.; Stones, Robert; Allard, Marc W.; Bono, James L.

    2015-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O26 is the second leading E. coli serogroup responsible for human illness outbreaks behind E. coli O157:H7. Recent outbreaks have been linked to emerging pathogenic O26:H11 strains harboring stx2 only. Cattle have been recognized as an important reservoir of O26 strains harboring stx1; however the reservoir of these emerging stx2 strains is unknown. The objective of this study was to identify nucleotide polymorphisms in human and cattle-derived strains in order to compare differences in polymorphism derived genotypes and virulence gene profiles between the two host species. Whole genome sequencing was performed on 182 epidemiologically unrelated O26 strains, including 109 human-derived strains and 73 non-human-derived strains. A panel of 289 O26 strains (241 STEC and 48 non-STEC) was subsequently genotyped using a set of 283 polymorphisms identified by whole genome sequencing, resulting in 64 unique genotypes. Phylogenetic analyses identified seven clusters within the O26 strains. The seven clusters did not distinguish between isolates originating from humans or cattle; however, clusters did correspond with particular virulence gene profiles. Human and non-human-derived strains harboring stx1 clustered separately from strains harboring stx2, strains harboring eae, and non-STEC strains. Strains harboring stx2 were more closely related to non-STEC strains and strains harboring eae than to strains harboring stx1. The finding of human and cattle-derived strains with the same polymorphism derived genotypes and similar virulence gene profiles, provides evidence that similar strains are found in cattle and humans and transmission between the two species may occur. PMID:25815275

  8. Biosynthesis of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate- co-3-hydroxyalkanoates) by metabolically engineered Escherichia coli strains.

    PubMed

    Park, Si Jae; Lee, Sang Yup

    2004-01-01

    Biosynthesis of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) consisting of 3-hydroxy-alkanoates (3HAs) of 4 to 10 carbon atoms was examined in metabolically engineered Escherichia coli strains. When the fadA and/or fadB mutant E. coli strains harboring the plasmid containing the Pseudomonas sp. 61-3 phaC2 gene and the Ralstonia eutropha phaAB genes were cultured in Luria-Bertani (LB) medium supplemented with 2 g/L of sodium decanoate, all the recombinant E. coli strains synthesized PHAs consisting of C4, C6, C8, and C10 monomer units. The monomer composition of PHA was dependent on the E. coli strain used. When the fadA mutant E. coli was employed, PHA containing up to 63 mol% of 3-hydroyhexanoate was produced. In fadB and fadAB mutant E. coli strains, 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB) was efficiently incorporated into PHA up to 86 mol%. Cultivation of recombinant fadA and/or fadB mutant E. coli strains in LB medium containing 10 g/L of sodium gluconate and 2 g/L of sodium decanoate resulted in the production of PHA copolymer containing a very high fraction of 3HB up to 95 mol%. Since the material properties of PHA copolymer consisting of a large fraction of 3HB and a small fraction of medium-chain-length 3HA are similar to those of low-density polyethylene, recombinant E. coli strains constructed in this study should be useful for the production of PHAs suitable for various commercial applications. PMID:15054261

  9. Whole-Genome Draft Sequences of Six Commensal Fecal and Six Mastitis-Associated Escherichia coli Strains of Bovine Origin

    PubMed Central

    Leimbach, Andreas; Witten, Anika; Wellnitz, Olga; Shpigel, Nahum; Petzl, Wolfram; Zerbe, Holm; Daniel, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    The bovine gastrointestinal tract is a natural reservoir for commensal and pathogenic Escherichia coli strains with the ability to cause mastitis. Here, we report the whole-genome sequences of six E. coli isolates from acute mastitis cases and six E. coli isolates from the feces of udder-healthy cows. PMID:27469942

  10. Whole-Genome Draft Sequences of Six Commensal Fecal and Six Mastitis-Associated Escherichia coli Strains of Bovine Origin.

    PubMed

    Leimbach, Andreas; Poehlein, Anja; Witten, Anika; Wellnitz, Olga; Shpigel, Nahum; Petzl, Wolfram; Zerbe, Holm; Daniel, Rolf; Dobrindt, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    The bovine gastrointestinal tract is a natural reservoir for commensal and pathogenic Escherichia coli strains with the ability to cause mastitis. Here, we report the whole-genome sequences of six E. coli isolates from acute mastitis cases and six E. coli isolates from the feces of udder-healthy cows. PMID:27469942

  11. Molecular screening of pathogenic Escherichia coli strains isolated from dairy neonatal calves in Cordoba province, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Picco, Natalia Y; Alustiza, Fabrisio E; Bellingeri, Romina V; Grosso, María C; Motta, Carlos E; Larriestra, Alejandro J; Vissio, Claudina; Tiranti, Karina I; Terzolo, Horacio R; Moreira, Ana R; Vivas, Adriana B

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to perform a current molecular characterization of bovine pathogenic Escherichia coli strains isolated from random samplings in Argentinean dairy farms. Rectal swabs were obtained from 395 (63.7%) healthy and 225 (36.3%) diarrheic calves, belonging to 45 dairy farms in Cordoba Province, Argentina. E. coli isolates were examined for virulence genes (f5, f41, f17, sta, stb, lt, eae, vt) using PCR and the prevalence of E. coli virulence profiles was spatially described in terms of spatial distribution. A total of 30.1% isolates were found to be positive for at least one of the virulence genes. Depending on the different gene combinations present, 11 virulence profiles were found. Most of the isolates analyzed had a single gene, and no combination of fimbrial and enterotoxin gene was predominant. There was no association between the frequency and distribution of E. coli virulence genes and calf health status. Most of the virulence profiles were compatible with ETEC strains and showed a homogeneous distribution over the sampled area. A clustering pattern for E. coli virulence profiles could not be recognized. This work provides updated information on the molecular characterization of pathogenic E. coli strains from dairy herds in Cordoba, Argentina. These findings would be important to formulate prevention programs and effective therapies for diarrhea in calves caused by E. coli. PMID:26026231

  12. Pathogenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Kaper, James B; Nataro, James P; Mobley, Harry L

    2004-02-01

    Few microorganisms are as versatile as Escherichia coli. An important member of the normal intestinal microflora of humans and other mammals, E. coli has also been widely exploited as a cloning host in recombinant DNA technology. But E. coli is more than just a laboratory workhorse or harmless intestinal inhabitant; it can also be a highly versatile, and frequently deadly, pathogen. Several different E. coli strains cause diverse intestinal and extraintestinal diseases by means of virulence factors that affect a wide range of cellular processes. PMID:15040260

  13. The prevalence of Escherichia coli strains with extended spectrum beta-lactamases isolated in China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Haihong; Wang, Yueling; Wang, Gang; Xing, Quantai; Shao, Lihua; Dong, Xiaomeng; Sai, Lintao; Liu, Yongjuan; Ma, Lixian

    2015-01-01

    The extended-spectrum-lactamases-producing Escherichia coli has rapidly spread worldwide. Escherichia coli has been becoming much more resistant to β-lactam antibiotics and other commonly available antimicrobials. We investigated the prevalence, resistance, and probable gene type of extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) using minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) testing and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We have collected 289 single-patient E. coli Isolates based on samples of China from July 2013 to August 2014. This article explored that the prevalence of ESBL-producing Isolates showed multi-resistant to antimicrobials such as fluoroquinolones, trimethoprim, tetracycline and aminoglycosides, and so on. The frequencies of resistance in Isolates were as follows: Ciprofloxacin, 74%, gentamicin, 69.5%, levofloxacin, 63%, tobramycin, 39%, and minocycline, 7.9%. According to our results, 197(68.2%) of the total 289 Isolates were ESBL-producing strains; further, 172 (87.3%) producers contained genes encoding CTX-M enzymes and 142(72.1%) producers contained genes encoding TEM enzymes. Most ESBL-producing Escherichia coli has produced more than one type of β-lactamase. Nucleotide sequence analysis has revealed the diversity of ESBLs types: CTX-M -15 is in the majority and TEM-135, CTX-M-3, CTX-M-98, CTX-M-14, CTX-M-142, CTX-M-65, CTX-M-55, CTX-M-27, and CTX-M-123 have been recovered. The results confirm that ESBL producers which are common in hospital strains of Escherichia coli are resistant to cephalosporins and other antibiotics in China. It is important to monitor such strains closely and provide scientific evidence of rational application of antibiotics to prevent their spread. PMID:25954262

  14. A draft genome of Escherichia coli sequence type 127 strain 2009-46

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Escherichia coli are a frequent cause of urinary tract infections (UTI) and are thought to have a foodborne origin. E. coli with sequence type 127 (ST127) are emerging pathogens increasingly implicated as a cause of urinary tract infections (UTI) globally. A ST127 isolate (2009-46) resistant to ampicillin and trimethoprim was recovered from the urine of a 56 year old patient with a UTI from a hospital in Sydney, Australia and was characterised here. Results We sequenced the genome of Escherichia coli 2009-46 using the Illumina Nextera XT and MiSeq technologies. Assembly of the sequence data reconstructed a 5.14 Mbp genome in 89 scaffolds with an N50 of 161 kbp. The genome has extensive similarity to other sequenced uropathogenic E. coli genomes, but also has several genes that are potentially related to virulence and pathogenicity that are not present in the reference E. coli strain. Conclusion E. coli 2009-46 is a multiple antibiotic resistant, phylogroup B2 isolate recovered from a patient with a UTI. This is the first description of a drug resistant E. coli ST127 in Australia. PMID:25197321

  15. Whole-Genome Sequence of Escherichia coli Serotype O157:H7 Strain EDL932 (ATCC 43894)

    PubMed Central

    Paoli, George C.; Chen, Chin-Yi; Cottrell, Bryan J.; Zhang, Xinmin; Yan, Xianghe

    2016-01-01

    The genome sequence of Escherichia coli serotype O157:H7 EDL933, a ground beef isolate from a 1983 hemorrhagic colitis outbreak, is a standard reference for comparative genomic studies of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli strains. Here, we report the genome sequence of a patient stool isolate from that outbreak, strain EDL932. PMID:27417834

  16. Anaerobic Obligatory Xylitol Production in Escherichia coli Strains Devoid of Native Fermentation Pathways ▿

    PubMed Central

    Akinterinwa, Olubolaji; Cirino, Patrick C.

    2011-01-01

    Anaerobic glucose oxidation was coupled to xylose reduction in a nonfermentative Escherichia coli strain expressing NADPH-dependent xylose reductase. Xylitol production serves as the primary means of NAD(P)+ regeneration, as glucose is converted primarily to acetate and CO2. The membrane-bound transhydrogenase PntAB is required to achieve the maximum theoretical yield of four moles of xylitol per mole of glucose consumed. PMID:21097593

  17. Pathogenic properties of Escherichia coli strains isolated from diarrheic commercial rabbits.

    PubMed Central

    Peeters, J E; Pohl, P; Okerman, L; Devriese, L A

    1984-01-01

    Thirty-two different strains of Escherichia coli isolated from diarrheic commercial rabbits showing intestinal attachment of bacilli were studied. None of the strains produced thermostable or thermolabile enterotoxins, and none was invasive. Strains isolated from suckling rabbits attached in vitro to the brush borders of intestinal villi, whereas strains from weanling rabbits did not. After experimental infection of 5-week-old rabbits, the 26 strains isolated from weaned diarrheic rabbits attached to the epithelium of ileum, cecum, and colon, whereas only slight attachment was found after infection with the six strains isolated from suckling diarrheic rabbits. The former strains induced diarrhea in 87% of the rabbits, whereas the latter induced diarrhea in only 9% of inoculated rabbits. E. coli isolated from healthy rabbits did not cause diarrhea. Strains isolated from diarrheic suckling rabbits all belonged to serotype O109:K-:H2, whereas strains from diarrheic weaned rabbits belonged to at least eight different serogroups. It is suggested that two different mechanisms of E. coli enteropathy might exist in rabbits. PMID:6378965

  18. Molecular characterization and clonal relationships among Escherichia coli strains isolated from broiler chickens with colisepticemia.

    PubMed

    Barbieri, Nicolle Lima; de Oliveira, Aline Luísa; Tejkowski, Thiago Moreira; Pavanelo, Daniel Brisotto; Matter, Letícia Beatriz; Pinheiro, Sandra Regina Schincariol; Vaz, Tânia Mara Ibelli; Nolan, Lisa K; Logue, Catherine M; de Brito, Benito Guimarães; Horn, Fabiana

    2015-01-01

    This study characterized 52 Escherichia coli isolates from distinct diseased organs of 29 broiler chickens with clinical symptoms of colibacillosis in the Southern Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul. Thirty-eight isolates were highly virulent and 14 were virtually avirulent in 1-day-old chicks, yet all isolates harbored virulence factors characteristic of avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC), including those related to adhesion, iron acquisition, and serum resistance. E. coli reference collection phylogenetic typing showed that isolates belonged mostly to group D (39%), followed by group A (29%), group B1 (17%), and group B2 (15%). Phylogenetic analyses using the Amplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Analysis and pulse-field gel electrophoresis methods were used to discriminate among isolates displaying the same serotype, revealing that five birds were infected with two distinct APEC strains. Among the 52 avian isolates, 2 were members of the pandemic E. coli O25:H4-B2-ST131 clone. PMID:25514382

  19. Bacterial flora of Tasmanian SIDS infants with special reference to pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Bettiol, S. S.; Radcliff, F. J.; Hunt, A. L.; Goldsmid, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    The general bacterial flora of 38 Tasmanian SIDS infants was examined together with faecal flora of 134 comparison infants ranging in age from birth to 6 months. The microflora of all specimens received was investigated with special emphasis on the toxigenic Escherichia coli (TEC). Samples were examined for verocytotoxigenic E. coli, free faecal verocytotoxin (FVT), heat labile toxin (LT) and heat stable toxin (ST) producers with the use of a Vero cell assay and commercial kits. The findings of this study revealed a high isolation rate (39%) of TEC from SIDS infants as compared to 1.5% from the healthy comparison infants. Atypical E. coli strains were also identified during the study, including E. coli A-D. An analysis of the same specimens for rotaviral and adenoviral antigens indicated that 30% of the SIDS cases were positive as compared to 20% in the comparison group. PMID:8150001

  20. Experimental infection of gnotobiotic piglets with Escherichia coli strains positive for EAST1 and AIDA.

    PubMed

    Zajacova, Zuzana Sramkova; Faldyna, Martin; Kulich, Pavel; Kummer, Vladimir; Maskova, Jarmila; Alexa, Pavel

    2013-03-15

    The virulence factors EAST1 and AIDA are often detected in ETEC/VTEC strains isolated from pigs and their role in diarrhoeal infections is discussed. In order to elucidate the pathogenesis of AIDA, the colonisation patterns of F4 positive and AIDA positive strains were investigated. Two wild-type Escherichia coli strains AIDA/EAST1 and F4/EAST1 isolated from diarrhoeal piglets were used for animal experiment to evaluate the ability of the EAST1 toxin to be involved in induction of diarrhoea. Gnotobiotic piglets were supplemented with normal porcine serum and orally inoculated with the strains. Faecal bacterial shedding of the challenge strains was observed during the experiment. Light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to detect the colonisation pattern of both challenge strains. Although bacterial isolation demonstrated shedding of the challenge strains until the end of the experiment, diarrhoea did not develop in any piglet. Based on histological examination, piglets were more heavily colonised in the case of infection with E. coli O149/F4/EAST1 strain. Scanning electron microscopy showed bacterial cells of F4/EAST1 E. coli adhering to enterocytes, in contrast to AIDA/EAST1 which were poorly present on the intestinal surface. The EAST1 toxin alone was not able to induce diarrhoea in animals. Therefore our results demonstrate that the function/role of EAST1 and AIDA in colibacillosis of pigs remains to be elucidated. PMID:23068274

  1. Genome Sequence of Avian Escherichia coli Strain IHIT25637, an Extraintestinal Pathogenic E. coli Strain of ST131 Encoding Colistin Resistance Determinant MCR-1.

    PubMed

    Ewers, Christa; Göttig, Stephan; Bülte, Maria; Fiedler, Sophie; Tietgen, Manuela; Leidner, Ursula; Heydel, Carsten; Bauerfeind, Rolf; Semmler, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    Sequence type 131 (ST131) is one of the predominant Escherichia coli lineages among extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) that causes a variety of diseases in humans and animals and frequently shows multidrug resistance. Here, we report the first genome sequence of an ST131-ExPEC strain from poultry carrying the plasmid-encoded colistin resistance gene mcr-1. PMID:27587807

  2. Genome Sequence of Avian Escherichia coli Strain IHIT25637, an Extraintestinal Pathogenic E. coli Strain of ST131 Encoding Colistin Resistance Determinant MCR-1

    PubMed Central

    Göttig, Stephan; Bülte, Maria; Fiedler, Sophie; Tietgen, Manuela; Leidner, Ursula; Heydel, Carsten; Bauerfeind, Rolf; Semmler, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    Sequence type 131 (ST131) is one of the predominant Escherichia coli lineages among extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) that causes a variety of diseases in humans and animals and frequently shows multidrug resistance. Here, we report the first genome sequence of an ST131-ExPEC strain from poultry carrying the plasmid-encoded colistin resistance gene mcr-1. PMID:27587807

  3. Comparison of Three Escherichia coli Strains in Recombinant Production of Reteplase

    PubMed Central

    Fathi-Roudsari, Mehrnoosh; Akhavian-Tehrani, Asal; Maghsoudi, Nader

    2016-01-01

    Background: Escherichia coli (E. coli) is the most extensively used host for the production of recombinant proteins. However, most of the eukaryotic proteins are typically obtained as insoluble, misfolded inclusion bodies that need solubilization and refolding. Reteplase as a highly disulfide-bonded recombinant protein is an example of difficult to express protein in E. coli. Methods: In this study, a codon optimized reteplase gene was synthetically prepared and cloned under the control of an IPTG inducible T7 promoter. The vector was simultaneously transformed and expressed in three different E. coli strains. The ability of strains for expression of this recombinant pharmaceutical was compared. Also, an attempt was made to increase the soluble production of reteplase in SHuffle T7 E. coli with alterations of expression condition like temperature, inducer concentration and oxygen supply. Results: High amounts of reteplase were expressed as inclusion bodies in all three strains. BL21 (DE3) showed the highest level of expression in inclusion bodies followed by Rosetta-gami (DE3) and Shuffle T7. Changes of expression conditions were insufficient for soluble expression of reteplase in SHuffle T7 as a genetically engineered host for production of disulfide bonded proteins. Conclusion: The oxidizing cytoplasm of Rosetta-gami and Shuffle T7 in addition to alterations of cultivation parameters could not result in soluble production of reteplase, although the inclusion bodies produced in these two strains might increase the rate of refolding procedure likely due to formation of folding intermediates. PMID:26855731

  4. Virulence genes, antibiotic resistance and integrons in Escherichia coli strains isolated from synanthropic birds from Spain.

    PubMed

    Sacristán, C; Esperón, F; Herrera-León, S; Iglesias, I; Neves, E; Nogal, V; Muñoz, M J; de la Torre, A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the presence of virulence genes and antibiotic resistance profiles in 164 Escherichia coli strains isolated from birds (feral pigeons, hybrid ducks, house sparrows and spotless starlings) inhabiting urban and rural environments. A total of eight atypical enteropathogenic E. coli strains were identified: one in a house sparrow, four in feral pigeons and three in spotless starlings. Antibiotic resistance was present in 32.9% (54) of E. coli strains. The dominant type of resistance was to tetracycline (21.3%), ampicillin (19.5%) and sulfamethoxazole (18.9%). Five isolates had class 1 integrons containing gene cassettes encoding for dihydrofolate reductase A (dfrA) and aminoglycoside adenyltransferase A (aadA), one in a feral pigeon and four in spotless starlings. To our knowledge, the present study constitutes the first detection of virulence genes from E. coli in spotless starlings and house sparrows, and is also the first identification worldwide of integrons containing antibiotic resistance gene cassettes in E. coli strains from spotless starlings and pigeons. PMID:24689431

  5. Stability of plasmids R1-19 and R100 in hyper-recombinant Escherichia coli strains and in Salmonella typhimurium strains.

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Eichelmann, M C; Torres, H K

    1983-01-01

    Plasmids R1-19 and R100 dissociate in hyper-recominant Escherichia coli strains in a way that is similar to but slower than dissociation in Salmonella typhimurium. The results presented suggest that the molecular mechanism for plasmid dissociation in hyper-recombinant E. coli strains is different than that in S. typhimurium strains. PMID:6343357

  6. Genotypic characterization of virulence factors in Escherichia coli strains from patients with cystitis.

    PubMed

    Tiba, Monique Ribeiro; Yano, Tomomasa; Leite, Domingos da Silva

    2008-01-01

    Adhesins (P-fimbriae, S-fimbriae, type 1 fimbriae and afimbrial adhesin), toxins (alpha-hemolysin and cytotoxic necrotizing factor type 1), iron acquisition systems (aerobactin) and host defense avoidance mechanisms (capsule or lipopolysaccharide) have been shown to be prevalent in Escherichia coli strains associated with urinary tract infections. In this work, 162 Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) strains from patients with cystitis were genotypically characterized by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. We developed three multiplex PCR assays for virulence-related genes papC, papE/F, papG alleles, fimH, sfa/foc, afaE, hly, cnf-1, usp, cdtB, iucD, and kpsMTII, all of them previously identified in UPEC strains. The PCR assay results identified 158 fimH (97.5%), 86 kpsMTII (53.1%), 53 papC/papEF/papG (32.7%), 45 sfa (27.8%), 42 iucD (25.9%), 41 hly (25.3%), 36 usp (22.2%), 30 cnf-1(18.5%) and 10 afa (6.2%) strains. No strain was positive for cdtB. In this work, we also demonstrated that adhesins may be multiple within a single strain and that several virulence genes can occur combined in association. PMID:18949339

  7. Escherichia coli strains from ostriches and their sensitivity to antimicrobial substances.

    PubMed

    Ščerbová, J; Lauková, A

    2016-01-01

    Ostriches are bred especially for their high-quality meat. There is a lack of knowledge concerning the ostrich's microflora. Escherichia coli is a commensal microorganism of the poultry intestine, ostriches included. However, some strains may become pathogenic. This study was therefore undertaken to detect coliform bacteria in ostrich faeces and to test their antibiotic profile and sensitivity to enterocins. Faeces (n=54, 18 mixture samples from 3 different age groups of 140 ostriches) were sampled to isolate coliform bacteria. The counts of coliform bacteria varied from 5.69 ± 2.4 log10 CFU/g to 5.73 ± 2.4 CFU/g. Pure colonies were identified using MALDI-TOF MS mass spectrometry and confirmed by phenotypization. Seventy-one strains were allotted to the species E. coli. Sixty-four of those 71 strains caused hemolysis. They were mostly polyresistant to antibiotics. Thirty-two poly-resistant strains of E. coli were sensitive to enterocins. These strains were most sensitive to Ent 9296 (26 strains). Moreover, Ent EM41 produced by E. faecium EM41 (isolated from ostrich faeces) inhibited the growth of 20 strains, reaching activity of 100 AU/ml. Our results indicate the possibility of enterocins being used for prevention/reduction of coliforms. Of course, in vivo studies are also being processed. PMID:27487518

  8. A Simple and Effective Method for Construction of Escherichia coli Strains Proficient for Genome Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Kwangsu; Parisutham, Vinuselvi; Kim, Suk Min; Lee, Sung Kuk

    2014-01-01

    Multiplex genome engineering is a standalone recombineering tool for large-scale programming and accelerated evolution of cells. However, this advanced genome engineering technique has been limited to use in selected bacterial strains. We developed a simple and effective strain-independent method for effective genome engineering in Escherichia coli. The method involves introducing a suicide plasmid carrying the λ Red recombination system into the mutS gene. The suicide plasmid can be excised from the chromosome via selection in the absence of antibiotics, thus allowing transient inactivation of the mismatch repair system during genome engineering. In addition, we developed another suicide plasmid that enables integration of large DNA fragments into the lacZ genomic locus. These features enable this system to be applied in the exploitation of the benefits of genome engineering in synthetic biology, as well as the metabolic engineering of different strains of E. coli. PMID:24747264

  9. Genome of multidrug-resistant uropathogenic Escherichia coli strain NA114 from India.

    PubMed

    Avasthi, Tiruvayipati Suma; Kumar, Narender; Baddam, Ramani; Hussain, Arif; Nandanwar, Nishant; Jadhav, Savita; Ahmed, Niyaz

    2011-08-01

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) causes serious infections in people at risk and has a significant environmental prevalence due to contamination by human and animal excreta. In developing countries, UPEC assumes importance in certain dwellings because of poor community/personal hygiene and exposure to contaminated water or soil. We report the complete genome sequence of E. coli strain NA114 from India, a UPEC strain with a multidrug resistance phenotype and the capacity to produce extended-spectrum beta-lactamase. The genome sequence and comparative genomics emanating from it will be significant in under-standing the genetic makeup of diverse UPEC strains and in boosting the development of new diagnostics/vaccines. PMID:21685291

  10. Efficient fermentation of Pinus sp. acid hydrolysates by an ethanologenic strain of Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Barbosa, M.F.S. de; Ingram, L.O. ); Beck, M.J. ); Fein, J.E.; Potts, D. )

    1992-04-01

    Process conditions for the acid hydrolysis of pine hemicellulose and cellulose have been described which provide a biocompatible sugar solution. By using an improved strain of recombinant Escherichia coli, strain KO11, hydrolysates supplemented with yeast extract and tryptone nutrients were converted to ethanol with an efficiency of 85% to over 100% on the basis of monomer sugar content (approximately 72 g/liter) and with the production of 35 g of ethanol per liter in 48 h. In the process described, approximately 347 liters of ethanol could be produced per dry metric ton of lignocellulose.

  11. Complete genome sequence of the gram-negative probiotic Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917.

    PubMed

    Reister, Marten; Hoffmeier, Klaus; Krezdorn, Nicolas; Rotter, Bjoern; Liang, Chunguang; Rund, Stefan; Dandekar, Thomas; Sonnenborn, Ulrich; Oelschlaeger, Tobias A

    2014-10-10

    Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917 (EcN) is the active principle of a probiotic preparation (trade name Mutaflor(®)) used for the treatment of patients with intestinal diseases such as ulcerative colitis and diarrhea. It has GRAS (generally recognized as save) status and has been shown to be a therapeutically effective drug (Sonnenborn and Schulze, 2009). The complete genomic DNA sequence will help in identifying genes and their products which are essential for the strains probiotic nature. Genbank/EMBL/DDBJ accession number: CP007799 (chromosome). PMID:25093936

  12. Markerless Escherichia coli rrn Deletion Strains for Genetic Determination of Ribosomal Binding Sites.

    PubMed

    Quan, Selwyn; Skovgaard, Ole; McLaughlin, Robert E; Buurman, Ed T; Squires, Catherine L

    2015-12-01

    Single-copy rrn strains facilitate genetic ribosomal studies in Escherichia coli. Consecutive markerless deletion of rrn operons resulted in slower growth upon inactivation of the fourth copy, which was reversed by supplying transfer RNA genes encoded in rrn operons in trans. Removal of the sixth, penultimate rrn copy led to a reduced growth rate due to limited rrn gene dosage. Whole-genome sequencing of variants of single-copy rrn strains revealed duplications of large stretches of genomic DNA. The combination of selective pressure, resulting from the decreased growth rate, and the six identical remaining scar sequences, facilitating homologous recombination events, presumably leads to elevated genomic instability. PMID:26438293

  13. Virulence factors of lactose-negative Escherichia coli strains isolated from children with diarrhea in Somalia.

    PubMed Central

    Nicoletti, M; Superti, F; Conti, C; Calconi, A; Zagaglia, C

    1988-01-01

    Lactose-negative Escherichia coli strains were isolated at high frequency from children with diarrhea in Somalia during a 2-year study on diarrheal diseases. Sixty-four of these strains, considered to be a representative sample, were characterized for virulence factors, plasmid profiles, and antibiotic resistance. Of these strains, 5 were recognized as enteroinvasive E. coli (they were serotyped as O135:K-:H-), 6 belonged to classical enteropathogenic E. coli serotypes, 9 were able to adhere to tissue culture cells (of these, 4 showed a pattern of localized adherence and 1 was an enteropathogenic strain), 18 were both adherent and hemolytic, and 8 were simply hemolytic. None hybridized with 32P-labeled heat-labile or heat-stable (a and b) enterotoxin gene probes or produced moderate or high-level cytotoxic effects on HeLa cells. Of the 64 strains examined, 24 produced mannose-resistant hemagglutination with human, chicken, and monkey erythrocytes. One of these was serotyped as O4:K-:H8, and a rabbit O antiserum raised against this strain allowed us to establish that 23 strains had the same O antigen. The 23 O4 strains were hemolytic and were not enterotoxic for rabbit ileal loops, and intact bacteria were able to destroy tissue culture cell monolayers very rapidly. The uniformity of the antibiotic resistance pattern and of the plasmid DNA content, together with the fact that they were isolated in different years and in different children, suggests that the O4 strains must be epidemiologically relevant in Somalia. A possible diarrheagenic role for the adherent-hemolytic E. coli strains is also discussed. Images PMID:3281977

  14. Large scale analysis of virulence genes in Escherichia coli strains isolated from Avalon Bay, CA.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Matthew J; Hadi, Asbah Z; Griffith, John F; Ishii, Satoshi; Sadowsky, Michael J

    2010-10-01

    Contamination of recreational waters with Escherichia coli and Enterococcus sp. is a widespread problem resulting in beach closures and loss of recreational activity. While E. coli is frequently used as an indicator of fecal contamination, and has been extensively measured in waterways, few studies have examined the presence of potentially pathogenic E. coli strains in beach waters. In this study, a combination of high-throughput, robot-assisted colony hybridization and PCR-based analyses were used to determine the genomic composition and frequency of virulence genes present in E. coli isolated from beach water in Avalon Bay, Santa Catalina Island, CA. A total of 24,493 E. coli isolates were collected from two sites at a popular swimming beach between August through September 2007 and from July through August 2008. All isolates were examined for the presence of shiga-like toxins (stx1/stx2), intimin (eaeA), and enterotoxins (ST/LT). Of the 24,493 isolates examined, 3.6% contained the eaeA gene, indicating that these isolates were potential EPEC strains. On five dates, however, greater than 10% of the strains were potential EPEC, suggesting that incidence of virulence genes at this beach has a strong temporal component. No STEC or ETEC isolates were detected, and only eight (<1.0%) of the potential EPEC isolates were found to carry the EAF plasmid. The potential EPEC isolates mainly belonged to E. coli phylogenetic groups B1 or B2, and carried the β intimin subtype. DNA fingerprint analyses of the potential EPEC strains indicated that the isolates belonged to several genetically diverse groups, although clonal isolates were frequently detected. While the presence of virulence genes alone cannot be used to determine the pathogenicity of strains, results from this study show that potential EPEC strains can be found in marine beach water and their presence needs to be considered as one of the factors used in decisions concerning beach closures. PMID:20643468

  15. An Improved Binary Vector and Escherichia coli Strain for Agrobacterium tumefaciens-Mediated Plant Transformation

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Michael R.; Lin, Yu-fei; Hollwey, Elizabeth; Dodds, Rachel E.; Meyer, Peter; McDowall, Kenneth J.

    2016-01-01

    The plasmid vector pGreenII is widely used to produce plant transformants via a process that involves propagation in Escherichia coli. However, we show here that pGreenII-based constructs can be unstable in E. coli as a consequence of them hampering cell division and promoting cell death. In addition, we describe a new version of pGreenII that does not cause these effects, thereby removing the selective pressure for mutation, and a new strain of E. coli that better tolerates existing pGreenII-based constructs without reducing plasmid yield. The adoption of the new derivative of pGreenII and the E. coli strain, which we have named pViridis and MW906, respectively, should help to ensure the integrity of genes destined for study in plants while they are propagated and manipulated in E. coli. The mechanism by which pGreenII perturbs E. coli growth appears to be dysregulation within the ColE1 origin of replication. PMID:27194805

  16. Abrupt Emergence of a Single Dominant Multidrug-Resistant Strain of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, James R.; Tchesnokova, Veronika; Johnston, Brian; Clabots, Connie; Roberts, Pacita L.; Billig, Mariya; Riddell, Kim; Rogers, Peggy; Qin, Xuan; Butler-Wu, Susan; Price, Lance B.; Aziz, Maliha; Nicolas-Chanoine, Marie-Hélène; DebRoy, Chitrita; Robicsek, Ari; Hansen, Glen; Urban, Carl; Platell, Joanne; Trott, Darren J.; Zhanel, George; Weissman, Scott J.; Cookson, Brad T.; Fang, Ferric C.; Limaye, Ajit P.; Scholes, Delia; Chattopadhyay, Sujay; Hooper, David C.; Sokurenko, Evgeni V.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli are increasingly prevalent. Their clonal origins—potentially critical for control efforts—remain undefined. Methods. Antimicrobial resistance profiles and fine clonal structure were determined for 236 diverse-source historical (1967–2009) E. coli isolates representing sequence type ST131 and 853 recent (2010–2011) consecutive E. coli isolates from 5 clinical laboratories in Seattle, Washington, and Minneapolis, Minnesota. Clonal structure was resolved based on fimH sequence (fimbrial adhesin gene: H subclone assignments), multilocus sequence typing, gyrA and parC sequence (fluoroquinolone resistance-determining loci), and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Results. Of the recent fluoroquinolone-resistant clinical isolates, 52% represented a single ST131 subclonal lineage, H30, which expanded abruptly after 2000. This subclone had a unique and conserved gyrA/parC allele combination, supporting its tight clonality. Unlike other ST131 subclones, H30 was significantly associated with fluoroquinolone resistance and was the most prevalent subclone among current E. coli clinical isolates, overall (10.4%) and within every resistance category (11%–52%). Conclusions. Most current fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli clinical isolates, and the largest share of multidrug-resistant isolates, represent a highly clonal subgroup that likely originated from a single rapidly expanded and disseminated ST131 strain. Focused attention to this strain will be required to control the fluoroquinolone and multidrug-resistant E. coli epidemic. PMID:23288927

  17. Adhesion of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli strains to neoglycans synthesised with prebiotic galactooligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Sarabia-Sainz, Hector Manuel; Armenta-Ruiz, Carolina; Sarabia-Sainz, Jose Andre-i; Guzmán-Partida, Ana María; Ledesma-Osuna, Ana Irene; Vázquez-Moreno, Luz; Ramos-Clamont Montfort, Gabriela

    2013-12-01

    Enterotoxigenic (ETEC) Escherichia coli (E. coli) causes traveller's diarrhoea and high mortality among baby animals. ETEC adhesion is mediated by lectins (adhesins) that bind to glycoconjugates on the surface of host cells. Glycans that compete for adhesion could be used for disease prevention. Neoglycans of porcine albumin (PSA) that were conjugated with prebiotic galactooligosaccharides (GOS) were synthesised using the Maillard reaction. PSA glycation was confirmed by a reduction in the number of available free amino groups, decreased tryptophan intrinsic fluorescence, increased molecular mass and Ricinus communis lectin recognition. The adhesion of four ETEC strains (E. coli H10407, CFA(+), K99 and K88) to PSA-GOS was examined by an enzyme-linked lectin assay. E. coli K88 bound to PSA-GOS with greater affinity (P<0.05) than did E. coli H10407, CFA(+) and K99. In addition, PSA-GOS partially inhibited the adherence of the K88 strain to intestinal mucins. Pig ETEC strain was unable to ferment galactooligosaccharide-neoglycans. These results suggest that neoglycans obtained by the Maillard reaction may serve in the prophylaxis of ETEC K88 diarrhoea. PMID:23871017

  18. Characterization of Escherichia coli O157:H7 Strains Isolated from Supershedding Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Rafiq; Chase-Topping, Margo; Kalchayanand, Norasak; Schmidt, John W.; Bono, James L.

    2013-01-01

    Previous reports have indicated that a small proportion of cattle shedding high levels of Escherichia coli O157:H7 is the main source for transmission of this organism between animals. Cattle achieving a fecal shedding status of 104 CFU of E. coli O157:H7/gram or greater are now referred to as supershedders. The aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of E. coli O157:H7 strain type to supershedding and to determine if supershedding was restricted to a specific set of E. coli O157:H7 strains. Fecal swabs (n = 5,086) were collected from cattle at feedlots or during harvest. Supershedders constituted 2.0% of the bovine population tested. Supershedder isolates were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), phage typing, lineage-specific polymorphism assay (LSPA), Stx-associated bacteriophage insertion (SBI) site determination, and variant analysis of Shiga toxin, tir, and antiterminator Q genes. Isolates representing 52 unique PFGE patterns, 19 phage types, and 12 SBI clusters were obtained from supershedding cattle, indicating that there is no clustering to E. coli O157:H7 genotypes responsible for supershedding. While being isolated directly from cattle, this strain set tended to have higher frequencies of traits associated with human clinical isolates than previously collected bovine isolates with respect to lineage and tir allele, but not for SBI cluster and Q type. We conclude that no exclusive genotype was identified that was common to all supershedder isolates. PMID:23645203

  19. Virulence factors in Escherichia coli strains isolated from Swedish piglets with diarrhea.

    PubMed Central

    Söderlind, O; Thafvelin, B; Möllby, R

    1988-01-01

    Parenteral vaccination of sows against Escherichia coli diarrhea in their newborn piglets has become more common during the last decade in Sweden, and the vaccination has generally had positive effects. For more than 20 years we have investigated E. coli strains isolated from piglets and weaned pigs with enteric disorders, noting the presence of O groups, enterotoxins, and adhesins. There has been a continuous change in the frequency of these virulence factors. The present study was performed during 1983 and 1984 to follow this change, since such information is essential for the proper choice of vaccines. A total of 856 E. coli strains were obtained from 683 herds divided into three age groups: 1 to 6 days old, 1 to 6 weeks old, and weaned pigs. O group 149 still dominated in the last two age groups, while O group 101 was, for the first time, the most frequent O group in neonatal piglets. All but four O149 strains carried the K88 antigen, which was found in only one other strain (O group 8). K99 antigen was most often found in O groups 101 and 64, and among all the K99 strains ST mouse was the most common (44 of 57), followed by ST mouse-ST pig strains (12 of 57). The 987P antigen was demonstrated in 26 strains belonging to O groups 141 and OX46 and nontypable strains. Two strains belonging to O group 101 were positive for F41 antigen; one of them also carried the K99 antigen. Among all non-O149 strains, ST mouse was the most common type of enterotoxigenic E. coli ( n = 88), followed in decreasing order by ST mouse-ST pig strains ( n = 69) and ST pig strains ( n = 33). In 114 strains producing enterotoxins no adhesive factor was found. Thus, vaccination of the Swedish sow population for more than 5 years with vaccines containing O149 and K88 antigens has apparently changed the pattern of enterotoxigenic E. coli in neonatal diarrhea. The frequency of O149:K88 strains has been reduced, and O101:K99:ST mouse strains now dominate. However, O149 strains remain the

  20. Comparison of ruminant and human attaching and effacing Escherichia coli (AEEC) strains.

    PubMed

    Horcajo, Pilar; Domínguez-Bernal, Gustavo; de la Fuente, Ricardo; Ruiz-Santa-Quiteria, José A; Blanco, Jesús E; Blanco, Miguel; Mora, Azucena; Dahbi, Ghizlane; López, Cecilia; Puentes, Beatriz; Alonso, María Pilar; Blanco, Jorge; Orden, José A

    2012-03-23

    The presence of 12 genes associated with virulence in human attaching and effacing Escherichia coli (AEEC) was studied within a collection of 20 enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) and 206 atypical enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) isolated from ruminants. In addition, virulence genes and the clonal relationship of 49 atypical EPEC O26 strains isolated from humans and ruminants were compared to clarify whether ruminants serve as a reservoir of atypical EPEC for humans. A great diversity in the content of virulence gene was found. Thus, the espH, espG and map genes were detected in more than 85% of ruminant AEEC strains; the tccP2, espI, efa1/lifA, ehxA and paa genes were present in 50-70% of strains; and other genes such as tccP, espP, katP and toxB were detected in <25% of strains. EHEC strains contained more virulence genes than atypical EPEC strains. Our results suggest for the first time that the efa1/lifA gene is associated with diarrhea in newborn ruminants and that the AEEC strains with the H11 flagellar antigen are potentially more virulent than the non-H11 AEEC strains. Importantly, we identified a new intimin variant gene, eaeρ, in three ruminant atypical EPEC strains. The comparison of ruminant and human EPEC O26 strains showed that some ruminant strains possess virulence gene profiles and pulse-field gel electrophoresis pulsotypes similar to those of human strains. In conclusion, our data suggest that atypical EPEC is a heterogeneous group with different pathogenic potential and that ruminants could serve as a reservoir of atypical EPEC for humans. PMID:21958746

  1. [Study of phenotypical and antimicrobial susceptibility markers in enteric Escherichia coli strains].

    PubMed

    Aguila, Adalberto; Bernedo, Robert; Llop, Alina; Ramírez, Margarita; Bravo, Laura; Fernández, Anabel; Ledo, Yudith

    2007-01-01

    Forty strains of Escherichia coli isolated from children under 5 years of age with acute diarreas, coming from different provinces of the country , were analyzed. Four important phenotypical determinants were tested: sorbosa, sorbitol, enterohemolysin and 0157:H7 serology, in order to select those strains from enterohemorrhagic or Shiga toxin-producing category. Likewise, they were characterized by biotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility methods. The use of phenotypical tests showed six strains with presumptive characteristics, four of which were most likely to be Shiga toxin-producing strains. In antimicrobial susceptibility test, the strains showed high resistance mainly to ampicillin and trimethrophin-sulfamethoxasole. Another interesting finding were intermediate resistance and susceptibility values to augmentin, aztreonan and ceftriaxone. There were 12 antimicrobial resistance patterns of which 10 were multi-resistant. PMID:23427442

  2. Evidence of Naturalized Stress-Tolerant Strains of Escherichia coli in Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants

    PubMed Central

    Zhi, Shuai; Banting, Graham; Li, Qiaozhi; Edge, Thomas A.; Topp, Edward; Sokurenko, Mykola; Scott, Candis; Braithwaite, Shannon; Ruecker, Norma J.; Yasui, Yutaka; McAllister, Tim; Chui, Linda

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Escherichia coli has been proposed to have two habitats—the intestines of mammals/birds and the nonhost environment. Our goal was to assess whether certain strains of E. coli have evolved toward adaptation and survival in wastewater. Raw sewage samples from different treatment plants were subjected to chlorine stress, and ∼59% of the surviving E. coli strains were found to contain a genetic insertion element (IS30) located within the uspC-flhDC intergenic region. The positional location of the IS30 element was not observed across a library of 845 E. coli isolates collected from various animal hosts or within GenBank or whole-genome reference databases for human and animal E. coli isolates (n = 1,177). Phylogenetics clustered the IS30 element-containing wastewater E. coli isolates into a distinct clade, and biomarker analysis revealed that these wastewater isolates contained a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) biomarker pattern that was specific for wastewater. These isolates belonged to phylogroup A, possessed generalized stress response (RpoS) activity, and carried the locus of heat resistance, features likely relevant to nonhost environmental survival. Isolates were screened for 28 virulence genes but carried only the fimH marker. Our data suggest that wastewater contains a naturalized resident population of E. coli. We developed an endpoint PCR targeting the IS30 element within the uspC-flhDC intergenic region, and all raw sewage samples (n = 21) were positive for this marker. Conversely, the prevalence of this marker in E. coli-positive surface and groundwater samples was low (≤5%). This simple PCR assay may represent a convenient microbial source-tracking tool for identification of water samples affected by municipal wastewater. IMPORTANCE The results of this study demonstrate that some strains of E. coli appear to have evolved to become naturalized populations in the wastewater environment and possess a number of stress-related genetic

  3. Biosynthesis of trans-4-hydroxyproline by recombinant strains of Corynebacterium glutamicum and Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Trans-4-hydroxy-L-proline (trans-Hyp), one of the hydroxyproline (Hyp) isomers, is a useful chiral building block in the production of many pharmaceuticals. Although there are some natural biosynthetic pathways of trans-Hyp existing in microorganisms, the yield is still too low to be scaled up for industrial applications. Until now the production of trans-Hyp is mainly from the acid hydrolysis of collagen. Due to the increasing environmental concerns on those severe chemical processes and complicated downstream separation, it is essential to explore some environment-friendly processes such as constructing new recombinant strains to develop efficient process for trans-Hyp production. Result In this study, the genes of trans-proline 4-hydroxylase (trans-P4H) from diverse resources were cloned and expressed in Corynebacterium glutamicum and Escherichia coli, respectively. The trans-Hyp production by these recombinant strains was investigated. The results showed that all the genes from different resources had been expressed actively. Both the recombinant C. glutamicum and E. coli strains could produce trans-Hyp in the absence of proline and 2-oxoglutarate. Conclusions The whole cell microbial systems for trans-Hyp production have been successfully constructed by introducing trans-P4H into C. glutamicum and E. coli. Although the highest yield was obtained in recombinant E. coli, using recombinant C. glutamicum strains to produce trans-Hyp was a new attempt. PMID:24885047

  4. Innate immune evasion of Escherichia coli clinical strains from orthopedic implant infections.

    PubMed

    Crémet, L; Broquet, A; Jacqueline, C; Chaillou, C; Asehnoune, K; Corvec, S; Caroff, N

    2016-06-01

    Escherichia coli is one of the first causes of Gram-negative orthopedic implant infections (OII). Those infections, usually hematogenous, mostly originate from the urinary tract. We investigated the strategies developed by E. coli in this context to evade host innate immune responses, i.e. complement and polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN). Twenty strains from OII were compared with 20 strains from bacteremia in patients with non-infected orthopedic implant. In both groups, 6/20 (30 %) strains lysed PMNs, due to the production of the pore-forming toxin α-hemolysin (HlyA). For the others, resistance to phagocytic killing by PMN was not significantly different between both groups. In contrast, resistance to complement-mediated serum killing was significantly higher in OII strains than in the others (65 % vs 10 %; P <0.001). In E. coli, different mechanisms have been involved in complement resistance. Here, serum resistance was not linked to a group 2 capsule, or a loss of outer membrane permeability, or the recruitment of the complement inhibitor C4bp, but was significantly associated with the synthesis of long-chain LPS, regardless of the O-antigen. Thus, serum resistance could promote seeding of peri-implant tissues by helping E. coli to either persist in blood and reach the site of infection or overcome localized complement activation. PMID:27039343

  5. The Lpp lipoprotein suppresses motility in a biofilm-forming strain of Escherichia coli O157:H7

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In Escherichia coli O157:H7 strain ATCC 43895, a guanine to thymine transversion in a gene involved in fimbrial (curlifiber) synthesis created strain 43895OR. Strain 43895OR produces an abundant extracellular matrix rich in curli fibers and generates dense biofilms on solid surfaces. We investigated...

  6. Draft Genome Sequence of Escherichia coli Strain VKPM B-10182, Producing the Enzyme for Synthesis of Cephalosporin Acids

    PubMed Central

    Mardanov, Andrey V.; Eldarov, Mikhail A.; Sklyarenko, Anna V.; Dumina, Maria V.; Beletsky, Alexey V.; Yarotsky, Sergey V.

    2014-01-01

    Escherichia coli strain VKPM B-10182, obtained by chemical mutagenesis from E. coli strain ATCC 9637, produces cephalosporin acid synthetase employed in the synthesis of β-lactam antibiotics, such as cefazolin. The draft genome sequence of strain VKPM B-10182 revealed 32 indels and 1,780 point mutations that might account for the improvement in antibiotic synthesis that we observed. PMID:25414512

  7. Short report: high prevalence of serine protease autotransporter cytotoxins among strains of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Boisen, Nadia; Ruiz-Perez, Fernando; Scheutz, Flemming; Krogfelt, Karen A; Nataro, James P

    2009-02-01

    Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) pathogenesis is thought to comprise intestinal colonization followed by the release of enterotoxins and cytotoxins. Here, we use a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to determine the prevalence of 10 genes encoding serine protease autotransporter toxins (SPATEs) in a collection of clinical EAEC isolates. Eighty-six percent of EAEC strains harbored genes encoding one or more class I cytotoxic SPATE proteins (Pet, Sat, EspP, or SigA). Two Class II, non-cytotoxic, SPATE genes were found among EAEC strains: pic and sepA, each originally described in Shigella flexneri 2a. Using a multiplex PCR for five SPATE genes (pet, sat, sigA, pic, and sepA), we found that most of the Shigella isolates also harbored more than one SPATE, whereas members of most other E. coli pathotypes rarely harbored a cytotoxic SPATE gene. SPATEs may be relevant to the pathogenesis of both EAEC and Shigella spp. PMID:19190229

  8. Virulence from vesicles: Novel mechanisms of host cell injury by Escherichia coli O104:H4 outbreak strain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The highly virulent Escherichia coli O104:H4 that caused the large 2011 outbreak of diarrhoea and haemolytic uraemic syndrome secretes blended virulence factors of enterohaemorrhagic and enteroaggregative E. coli, but their secretion pathways are unknown. We demonstrate that the outbreak strain rele...

  9. Measuring and modelling straining of Escherichia coli in saturated porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foppen, Jan Willem; van Herwerden, Manon; Schijven, Jack

    2007-08-01

    Though coliform bacteria are used worldwide to indicate fecal pollution of groundwater, the parameters determining the transport of Escherichia coli in aquifers are relatively unknown. We evaluated the occurrence of both straining and attachment of E. coli ATCC25922 in columns of ultra-pure, angular, saturated quartz sand. The column experiments were conducted over a wide range of porous medium sizes, column heights, input concentrations, and pore water flow velocities. Straining and attachment were examined by modelling the breakthrough curves (with HYDRUS 1D). In addition, model output was compared with measured strained and attached bacteria via column extrusion experiments (in which sand was extruded from the column and placed in excess water) and flow reversal experiments (in which the pore water flow direction was reversed, thereby dislodging strained bacteria). Our model consisted of an attachment rate coefficient and a straining rate coefficient; both of these decreased with transport distance. The straining rate coefficient also decreased in a Langmuirian way, in response to the filling of available pore space, which in turn depended on influent bacteria concentration, quartz grain diameter, and transport distance. The maximum strained fraction was 25-30% of total bacteria mass applied to the column; the maximum attached fraction was 30-35%. The fit between modelled and measured (strained and attached) bacteria masses was acceptable, as was the sensitivity of the model output to fitted parameter values. Our results lead to a new description for the time-dependent mass balance of strained bacteria, which entails using three fitting parameters. The results also imply that column experiments in combination with retention profiles (or various column lengths) are not enough to explain the retention processes in a column. Column extrusion and flow reversal experiments provide vital additional information on the occurrence and magnitude of straining. Our

  10. Measuring and modelling straining of Escherichia coli in saturated porous media.

    PubMed

    Foppen, Jan Willem; van Herwerden, Manon; Schijven, Jack

    2007-08-15

    Though coliform bacteria are used worldwide to indicate fecal pollution of groundwater, the parameters determining the transport of Escherichia coli in aquifers are relatively unknown. We evaluated the occurrence of both straining and attachment of E. coli ATCC25922 in columns of ultra-pure, angular, saturated quartz sand. The column experiments were conducted over a wide range of porous medium sizes, column heights, input concentrations, and pore water flow velocities. Straining and attachment were examined by modelling the breakthrough curves (with HYDRUS 1D). In addition, model output was compared with measured strained and attached bacteria via column extrusion experiments (in which sand was extruded from the column and placed in excess water) and flow reversal experiments (in which the pore water flow direction was reversed, thereby dislodging strained bacteria). Our model consisted of an attachment rate coefficient and a straining rate coefficient; both of these decreased with transport distance. The straining rate coefficient also decreased in a Langmuirian way, in response to the filling of available pore space, which in turn depended on influent bacteria concentration, quartz grain diameter, and transport distance. The maximum strained fraction was 25-30% of total bacteria mass applied to the column; the maximum attached fraction was 30-35%. The fit between modelled and measured (strained and attached) bacteria masses was acceptable, as was the sensitivity of the model output to fitted parameter values. Our results lead to a new description for the time-dependent mass balance of strained bacteria, which entails using three fitting parameters. The results also imply that column experiments in combination with retention profiles (or various column lengths) are not enough to explain the retention processes in a column. Column extrusion and flow reversal experiments provide vital additional information on the occurrence and magnitude of straining. Our

  11. Pathogenicity island sequences of pyelonephritogenic Escherichia coli CFT073 are associated with virulent uropathogenic strains.

    PubMed Central

    Kao, J S; Stucker, D M; Warren, J W; Mobley, H L

    1997-01-01

    Urinary tract infection is the most frequently diagnosed kidney and urologic disease, and Escherichia coli is by far the most common etiologic agent. Defined blocks of DNA termed pathogenicity islands have been found in uropathogenic strains to carry genes not generally found in fecal strains. We have identified one of these regions of DNA within the chromosome of the highly virulent E. coli CFT073, isolated from the blood and urine of a woman with acute pyelonephritis. This strain, which is cytotoxic for cultured renal cells and causes acute pyelonephritis in transurethrally infected CBA mice, contains two distinct copies of the pap operon and is hemolytic. One pap operon was localized on a cosmid clone which was used to identify three overlapping cosmid clones. By using restriction mapping, DNA hybridization, sequencing, and PCR amplification, a region of approximately 50 kb was found to be present in this uropathogenic strain and to have no corresponding sequences in E. coli K-12. This gene block also carries hemolysin genes hlyCABD. The pathogenicity island begins 7 bp downstream of dadX (catabolic alanine racemase; 26.55 min) and ends at a position in the K-12 genome 75 bp downstream of the metV tRNA gene (62.74 min); this suggests that a chromosomal rearrangement has occurred relative to the K-12 linkage map. The junctions of the pathogenicity island were verified by PCR amplification directly from the genomic DNA of strain CFT073. DNA sequencing within the boundaries of the junctions revealed genes not previously identified in E. coli or in some cases bearing no known homologs. When used as probes for DNA hybridization, these sequences were found significantly more often in strains associated with the clinical syndromes of cystitis (82%) and acute pyelonephritis (79%) than in fecal strains (19%; P < 0.001). PMID:9199454

  12. Unique chromosomal regions associated with virulence of an avian pathogenic Escherichia coli strain.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, P K; Curtiss, R

    1996-01-01

    The avian pathogenic Escherichia coli strain (chi)7122 (serotype O78:K80:H9) causes airsacculitis and colisepticemia in chickens. To identify genes associated with avian disease, a genomic subtraction technique was performed between strain (chi)7122 and the E. coli K-12 strain (chi)289. The DNA isolated using this method was found only in strain (chi)7122 and was used to identify cosmid clones carrying unique DNA from a library of (chi)7122 that were then used to map the position of unique DNA on the E. coli chromosome. A total of 12 unique regions were found, 5 of which correspond to previously identified positions for unique DNA sequence in E. coli strains. To assess the role each unique region plays in virulence, mutants of (chi)7122 were constructed in which a segment of unique DNA was replaced with E. coli K-12 DNA by cotransduction of linked transposon insertions in DNA flanking the unique sequence. The resulting replacement mutants were assessed for inability to colonize the air sac and cause septicemia in 2-week-old white Leghorn chickens. Two mutants were found to be avirulent when injected into the right caudal air sac of 2-week-old chickens. One avirulent mutant, designated (chi)7145, carries a replacement of the rfb locus at 44 min, generating a rough phenotype. The second mutant is designated (chi)7146, and carries a replacement at position 0.0 min on the genetic map. Both mutants could be complemented to partial virulence by cosmids carrying sequences unique to (chi)7122. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 PMID:8855324

  13. Diffusely Adhering Escherichia coli Strains Induce Attaching and Effacing Phenotypes and Secrete Homologs of Esp Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Beinke, Christina; Laarmann, Sven; Wachter, Clemens; Karch, Helge; Greune, Lilo; Schmidt, M. Alexander

    1998-01-01

    Recent epidemiological studies indicate that Escherichia coli strains which exhibit the diffuse-adherence phenotype (DAEC strains) represent a potential cause of diarrhea in infants. We investigated the interaction of DAEC strains isolated from diarrhea patients in Brazil and in Germany with epithelial cells in tissue culture. The investigated strains were identified as DAEC strains by (i) their attachment pattern, (ii) presence of genes associated with the Dr family of adhesins, and (iii) lack of genetic markers for other diarrhea-associated E. coli categories. Several clinical DAEC isolates were shown to secrete similar patterns of proteins into tissue culture medium. Protein secretion was found to be regulated by environmental parameters, namely, medium, temperature, pH, and iron concentration. DAEC strains secreting these proteins induced accumulation of actin and tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins at sites of bacterial attachment, leading to the formation of pedestals and/or extended surface structures. These changes were phenotypically similar to the attaching and effacing (A/E) lesions observed with enteropathogenic and some enterohemorrhagic E. coli strains carrying the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) pathogenicity island. Proteins homologous to the EspA, EspB, and EspD proteins, necessary for signal transduction events inducing A/E lesions, were identified by sequence analysis and cross-reaction of specific antibodies. However, initially nonadhering strains secreting these proteins induced signal transduction events only after prolonged infection. These results indicate that secretion of the Esp proteins alone is not sufficient for efficient signal transduction. This study further shows that some DAEC strains are likely to contain a homolog(s) of the LEE locus which may contribute to the pathogenic potential of DAEC. PMID:9453606

  14. Sensitivity of antibiotic resistant and antibiotic susceptible Escherichia coli, Enterococcus and Staphylococcus strains against ozone.

    PubMed

    Heß, Stefanie; Gallert, Claudia

    2015-12-01

    Tolerance of antibiotic susceptible and antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli, Enterococcus and Staphylococcus strains from clinical and wastewater samples against ozone was tested to investigate if ozone, a strong oxidant applied for advanced wastewater treatment, will affect the release of antibiotic resistant bacteria into the aquatic environment. For this purpose, the resistance pattern against antibiotics of the mentioned isolates and their survival after exposure to 4 mg/L ozone was determined. Antibiotic resistance (AR) of the isolates was not correlating with higher tolerance against ozone. Except for ampicillin resistant E. coli strains, which showed a trend towards increased resistance, E. coli strains that were also resistant against cotrimoxazol, ciprofloxacin or a combination of the three antibiotics were similarly or less resistant against ozone than antibiotic sensitive strains. Pigment-producing Enterococcus casseliflavus and Staphylococcus aureus seemed to be more resistant against ozone than non-pigmented species of these genera. Furthermore, aggregation or biofilm formation apparently protected bacteria in subsurface layers from inactivation by ozone. The relatively large variance of tolerance against ozone may indicate that resistance to ozone inactivation most probably depends on several factors, where AR, if at all, does not play a major role. PMID:26608763

  15. In vitro activity of commercial probiotic Lactobacillus strains against uropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Delley, Michèle; Bruttin, Anne; Richard, Michel; Affolter, Michael; Rezzonico, Enea; Brück, Wolfram M

    2015-07-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most prevalent infections in humans. In ≥80% of cases, the etiologic agents are strains of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), which commonly reside in the gastrointestinal tract. Lactobacilli have been shown to prevent UTI reoccurrence by restoring the urogenital microbiota when administered vaginally or orally. The goal of this study was to determine if commercial probiotic Lactobacillus spp. reduce or clear UPEC in vitro. Results show that it is likely that lactobacilli may, in addition to restoring a healthy urogenital microbiota through acidification of their environment, also displace adhering UPEC and cause a reduction of infection. PMID:26078118

  16. Phenotypical characterization and adhesin identification in Escherichia coli strains isolated from dogs with urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Maluta, Renato Pariz; Stella, Ariel Eurides; Riccardi, Kátia; Rigobelo, Everlon Cid; Marin, José Moacir; Carvalho, Marileda Bonafim; de Ávila, Fernando Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli are the most common bacteria associated with urinary tract infections in both humans and companion animals. Standard biochemical tests may be useful in demonstrating detailed phenotypical characteristics of these strains. Thirteen strains of E. coli isolated from dogs with UTIs were submitted to biochemical tests, serotyping for O and H antigens and antimicrobial resistance testing. Furthermore, the presence of papC, sfa, and afa genes was evaluated by PCR, and genetic relationships were established using enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus PCR (ERIC-PCR). The antimicrobial that showed the highest resistance rate among the isolates was nalidixic acid (76.9%), followed by cephalotin (69.2%), sulfamethoxazole + trimethoprim (61.5%), tetracycline (61.5%), streptomycin (53.8%), ciprofloxacin (53.8%), ampicillin (46.2%), gentamicin (30.8%) and chloramphenicol (23.1%). No isolate was resistant either to meropenem or nitrofurantoin. Among the five clusters that were identified using ERIC-PCR, one cluster (A) had only one strain, which belonged to a serotype with zoonotic potential (O6:H31) and showed the genes papC+, sfa+, afa-. Strains with the genes papC-, sfa+, afa- were found in two other clusters (C and D), whereas all strains in clusters B and E possessed papC-, sfa-, afa- genes. Sucrose and raffinose phenotypic tests showed some ability in discriminating clusters A, B and C from clusters D and E. PMID:24031842

  17. Complete Genome Sequences of Escherichia coli O157:H7 Strains SRCC 1675 and 28RC, Which Vary in Acid Resistance.

    PubMed

    Baranzoni, Gian Marco; Fratamico, Pina M; Reichenberger, Erin R; Kim, Gwang-Hee; Breidt, Frederick; Kay, Kathryn; Oh, Deog-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    The level of acid resistance among Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains varies, and strains with higher resistance to acid may have a lower infectious dose. The complete genome sequences belonging to two strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7 with different levels of acid resistance are presented here. PMID:27469964

  18. Complete Genome Sequences of Escherichia coli O157:H7 Strains SRCC 1675 and 28RC, Which Vary in Acid Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Baranzoni, Gian Marco; Reichenberger, Erin R.; Kim, Gwang-Hee; Breidt, Frederick; Kay, Kathryn; Oh, Deog-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    The level of acid resistance among Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains varies, and strains with higher resistance to acid may have a lower infectious dose. The complete genome sequences belonging to two strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7 with different levels of acid resistance are presented here. PMID:27469964

  19. Complete genome sequences of Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains SRCC 1675 and 28RC that vary in acid resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The level of acid resistance among Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains varies, and strains with higher resistance to acid may have a lower infectious dose. The complete genome sequences belonging to two strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7 with different levels of acid resistance are presented....

  20. Enhanced production of arginine and urea by genetically engineered Escherichia coli K-12 strains.

    PubMed Central

    Tuchman, M; Rajagopal, B S; McCann, M T; Malamy, M H

    1997-01-01

    Escherichia coli strains capable of enhanced synthesis of arginine and urea were produced by derepression of the arginine regulon and simultaneous overexpression of the E. coli carAB and argI genes and the Bacillus subtilis rocF gene. Plasmids expressing carAB driven by their natural promoters were unstable. Therefore, E. coli carAB and argI genes with and without the B. subtilis rocF gene were constructed as a single operon under the regulation of the inducible promoter ptrc. Arginine operator sequences (Arg boxes) from argI were also cloned into the same plasmids for titration of the arginine repressor. Upon overexpression of these genes in E. coli strains, very high carbamyl phosphate synthetase, ornithine transcarbamylase, and arginase catalytic activities were achieved. The biosynthetic capacity of these engineered bacteria when overexpressing the arginine biosynthetic enzymes was 6- to 16-fold higher than that of controls but only if exogenous ornithine was present (ornithine was rate limiting). Overexpression of arginase in bacteria with a derepressed arginine biosynthetic pathway resulted in a 13- to 20-fold increase in urea production over that of controls with the parent vector alone; in this situation, the availability of carbamyl phosphate was rate limiting. PMID:8979336

  1. Genotoxicity of Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 strain cannot be dissociated from its probiotic activity.

    PubMed

    Olier, Maïwenn; Marcq, Ingrid; Salvador-Cartier, Christel; Secher, Thomas; Dobrindt, Ulrich; Boury, Michèle; Bacquié, Valérie; Pénary, Marie; Gaultier, Eric; Nougayrède, Jean-Philippe; Fioramonti, Jean; Oswald, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Oral administration of the probiotic bacterium Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 improves chronic inflammatory bowel diseases, but the molecular basis for this therapeutic efficacy is unknown. E. coli Nissle 1917 harbors a cluster of genes coding for the biosynthesis of hybrid nonribosomal peptide-polyketide(s). This biosynthetic pathway confers the ability for bacteria to induce DNA double strand breaks in eukaryotic cells. Here we reveal that inactivation of the clbA gene within this genomic island abrogated the ability for the strain to induce DNA damage and chromosomal abnormalities in non-transformed cultured rat intestinal epithelial cells but is required for the probiotic activity of E. coli Nissle 1917. Thus, evaluation of colitis severity induced in rodent fed with E. coli Nissle 1917 or an isogenic non-genotoxic mutant demonstrated the need for a functional biosynthetic pathway both in the amelioration of the disease and in the modulation of cytokine expression. Feeding rodents with a complemented strain for which genotoxicity was restored confirmed that this biosynthetic pathway contributes to the health benefits of the probiotic by modulating its immunomodulatory properties. Our data provide additional evidence for the benefit of this currently used probiotic in colitis but remind us that an efficient probiotic may also have side effects as any other medication. PMID:22895085

  2. ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE OF ESCHERICHIA COLI STRAINS ISOLATED FROM URINE AT OUTPATIENT POPULATION: A SINGLE LABORATORY EXPERIENCE

    PubMed Central

    Vranic, Sabina Mahmutovic; Uzunovic, Aida

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli strains isolated from urine in outpatient population. Material and methods: We performed a retrospective study for tree months period, between January 1st and March 31st, 2015, at the Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Sarajevo. We determined the E. coli antimicrobial resistance in 556 first urine samples from outpatient population of Hrasno community in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina. E. coli is the most frequent agent causing urinary tract infections in outpatients as well. The standard methods of descriptive statistics were performed for data analysis. Results: We observed the highest antimicrobial resistance of E. coli for ampicillin (82,79%), followed by trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (40,86%), nalidixic acid (19,35%), cephazolin (7,52%), nitrofurantoin (5,37%), gentamicin (2,15%) and ciprofloxacin (4,30%). Conclusions: The results of study showed that E. coli has the highest resistance to ampicillin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in outpatient population of Hrasno community. PMID:27147918

  3. Molecular Control of Sucrose Utilization in Escherichia coli W, an Efficient Sucrose-Utilizing Strain

    PubMed Central

    Sabri, Suriana; Nielsen, Lars K.

    2013-01-01

    Sucrose is an industrially important carbon source for microbial fermentation. Sucrose utilization in Escherichia coli, however, is poorly understood, and most industrial strains cannot utilize sucrose. The roles of the chromosomally encoded sucrose catabolism (csc) genes in E. coli W were examined by knockout and overexpression experiments. At low sucrose concentrations, the csc genes are repressed and cells cannot grow. Removal of either the repressor protein (cscR) or the fructokinase (cscK) gene facilitated derepression. Furthermore, combinatorial knockout of cscR and cscK conferred an improved growth rate on low sucrose. The invertase (cscA) and sucrose transporter (cscB) genes are essential for sucrose catabolism in E. coli W, demonstrating that no other genes can provide sucrose transport or inversion activities. However, cscK is not essential for sucrose utilization. Fructose is excreted into the medium by the cscK-knockout strain in the presence of high sucrose, whereas at low sucrose (when carbon availability is limiting), fructose is utilized by the cell. Overexpression of cscA, cscAK, or cscAB could complement the WΔcscRKAB knockout mutant or confer growth on a K-12 strain which could not naturally utilize sucrose. However, phenotypic stability and relatively good growth rates were observed in the K-12 strain only when overexpressing cscAB, and full growth rate complementation in WΔcscRKAB also required cscAB. Our understanding of sucrose utilization can be used to improve E. coli W and engineer sucrose utilization in strains which do not naturally utilize sucrose, allowing substitution of sucrose for other, less desirable carbon sources in industrial fermentations. PMID:23124236

  4. Infections with Avian Pathogenic and Fecal Escherichia coli Strains Display Similar Lung Histopathology and Macrophage Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Horn, Fabiana; Corrêa, André Mendes Ribeiro; Barbieri, Nicolle Lima; Glodde, Susanne; Weyrauch, Karl Dietrich; Kaspers, Bernd; Driemeier, David; Ewers, Christa; Wieler, Lothar H.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare histopathological changes in the lungs of chickens infected with avian pathogenic (APEC) and avian fecal (Afecal) Escherichia coli strains, and to analyze how the interaction of the bacteria with avian macrophages relates to the outcome of the infection. Chickens were infected intratracheally with three APEC strains, MT78, IMT5155, and UEL17, and one non-pathogenic Afecal strain, IMT5104. The pathogenicity of the strains was assessed by isolating bacteria from lungs, kidneys, and spleens at 24 h post-infection (p.i.). Lungs were examined for histopathological changes at 12, 18, and 24 h p.i. Serial lung sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE), terminal deoxynucleotidyl dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) for detection of apoptotic cells, and an anti-O2 antibody for detection of MT78 and IMT5155. UEL17 and IMT5104 did not cause systemic infections and the extents of lung colonization were two orders of magnitude lower than for the septicemic strains MT78 and IMT5155, yet all four strains caused the same extent of inflammation in the lungs. The inflammation was localized; there were some congested areas next to unaffected areas. Only the inflamed regions became labeled with anti-O2 antibody. TUNEL labeling revealed the presence of apoptotic cells at 12 h p.i in the inflamed regions only, and before any necrotic foci could be seen. The TUNEL-positive cells were very likely dying heterophils, as evidenced by the purulent inflammation. Some of the dying cells observed in avian lungs in situ may also be macrophages, since all four avian E. coli induced caspase 3/7 activation in monolayers of HD11 avian macrophages. In summary, both pathogenic and non-pathogenic fecal strains of avian E. coli produce focal infections in the avian lung, and these are accompanied by inflammation and cell death in the infected areas. PMID:22848424

  5. Metabolic design of a platform Escherichia coli strain producing various chorismate derivatives.

    PubMed

    Noda, Shuhei; Shirai, Tomokazu; Oyama, Sachiko; Kondo, Akihiko

    2016-01-01

    A synthetic metabolic pathway suitable for the production of chorismate derivatives was designed in Escherichia coli. An L-phenylalanine-overproducing E. coli strain was engineered to enhance the availability of phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP), which is a key precursor in the biosynthesis of aromatic compounds in microbes. Two major reactions converting PEP to pyruvate were inactivated. Using this modified E.coli as a base strain, we tested our system by carrying out the production of salicylate, a high-demand aromatic chemical. The titer of salicylate reached 11.5 g/L in batch culture after 48 h cultivation in a 2-liter jar fermentor, and the yield from glucose as the sole carbon source exceeded 40% (mol/mol). In this test case, we found that pyruvate was synthesized primarily via salicylate formation and the reaction converting oxaloacetate to pyruvate. In order to demonstrate the generality of our designed strain, we employed this platform for the production of each of 7 different chorismate derivatives. Each of these industrially important chemicals was successfully produced to levels of 1-3g/L in test tube-scale culture. PMID:26654797

  6. Succinic acid production from xylose mother liquor by recombinant Escherichia coli strain

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Honghui; Pan, Jiachuan; Wang, Jing; Wang, Nan; Zhang, Jie; Li, Qiang; Wang, Dan; Zhou, Xiaohua

    2014-01-01

    Succinic acid (1,4-butanedioic acid) is identified as one of important building-block chemicals. Xylose mother liquor is an abundant industrial residue in xylitol biorefining industry. In this study, xylose mother liquor was utilized to produce succinic acid by recombinant Escherichia coli strain SD121, and the response surface methodology was used to optimize the fermentation media. The optimal conditions of succinic acid fermentation were as follows: 82.62 g L−1 total initial sugars, 42.27 g L−1 MgCO3 and 17.84 g L−1 yeast extract. The maximum production of succinic acid was 52.09 ± 0.21 g L−1 after 84 h with a yield of 0.63 ± 0.03 g g−1 total sugar, approaching the predicted value (53.18 g L−1). It was 1.78-fold of the production of that obtained with the basic medium. This was the first report on succinic acid production from xylose mother liquor by recombinant E. coli strains with media optimization using response surface methodology. This work suggested that the xylose mother liquor could be an alternative substrate for the economical production of succinic acid by recombinant E. coli strains. PMID:26019590

  7. Isolation and characterization of a gene involved in hemagglutination by an avian pathogenic Escherichia coli strain.

    PubMed Central

    Provence, D L; Curtiss, R

    1994-01-01

    In this article, we report the isolation and characterization of a gene that may be important in the adherence of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli to the avian respiratory tract. The E. coli strain HB101, which is unable to agglutinate chicken erythrocytes, was transduced with cosmid libraries from the avian pathogenic E. coli strain chi 7122. Enrichment of transductants that could agglutinate chicken erythrocytes yielded 19 colonies. These isolates contained cosmids that encompassed four nonoverlapping regions of the E. coli chromosome. Only one group of cosmids, represented by pYA3104, would cause E. coli CC118 to agglutinate chicken erythrocytes. A 10-kb fragment of this cosmid was subcloned in pACYC184. Transposon mutagenesis of this fragment with Tn5seq1 indicated that a contiguous 4.4-kb region of cloned DNA was required for hemagglutination. In vitro transcription/translation assays indicated that this 4.4-kb region of DNA encoded one protein of approximately 140 kDa. The nucleotide sequence of this region was determined and found to encode one open reading frame of 4,134 nucleotides that would encode a protein of 1,377 amino acids with a deduced molecular weight of 148,226. This gene confers on E. coli K-12 a temperature-sensitive hemagglutination phenotype that is best expressed when cells are grown at 26 degrees C, and we have designated this gene tsh and the deduced gene product Tsh. Insertional mutagenesis of the chromosomal tsh gene in chi 7122 had no effect on hemagglutination titers. The deduced protein was found to contain significant homology to the Haemophilus influenzae and Neisseria gonorrhoeae immunoglobulin A1 proteases. These data indicate that (i) a single gene isolated from the avian pathogenic E. coli strain chi 7122 will confer on E. coli K-12 a hemagglutination-positive phenotype, (ii) chi 7122 contains at least two distinct mechanisms to allow hemagglutination to occur, and (iii) the hemagglutinin Tsh has homology with a class of

  8. Antimicrobial drug resistance in strains of Escherichia coli isolated from food sources.

    PubMed

    Rasheed, Mohammed Uddin; Thajuddin, Nooruddin; Ahamed, Parveez; Teklemariam, Zelalem; Jamil, Kaiser

    2014-01-01

    A variety of foods and environmental sources harbor bacteria that are resistant to one or more antimicrobial drugs used in medicine and agriculture. Antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli is of particular concern because it is the most common Gram-negative pathogen in humans. Hence this study was conducted to determine the antibiotic sensitivity pattern of E. coli isolated from different types of food items collected randomly from twelve localities of Hyderabad, India. A total of 150 samples comprising; vegetable salad, raw egg-surface, raw chicken, unpasteurized milk, and raw meat were processed microbiologically to isolate E. coli and to study their antibiotic susceptibility pattern by the Kirby-Bauer method. The highest percentages of drug resistance in isolates of E. coli were detected from raw chicken (23.3%) followed by vegetable salad (20%), raw meat (13.3%), raw egg-surface (10%) and unpasteurized milk (6.7%). The overall incidence of drug resistant E. coli was 14.7%. A total of six (4%) Extended Spectrum β-Lactamase (ESBL) producers were detected, two each from vegetable salads and raw chicken, and one each from raw egg-surface and raw meat. Multidrug resistant strains of E. coli are a matter of concern as resistance genes are easily transferable to other strains. Pathogen cycling through food is very common and might pose a potential health risk to the consumer. Therefore, in order to avoid this, good hygienic practices are necessary in the abattoirs to prevent contamination of cattle and poultry products with intestinal content as well as forbidding the use of untreated sewage in irrigating vegetables. PMID:25076436

  9. ANTIMICROBIAL DRUG RESISTANCE IN STRAINS OF Escherichia coli ISOLATED FROM FOOD SOURCES

    PubMed Central

    Rasheed, Mohammed Uddin; Thajuddin, Nooruddin; Ahamed, Parveez; Teklemariam, Zelalem; Jamil, Kaiser

    2014-01-01

    A variety of foods and environmental sources harbor bacteria that are resistant to one or more antimicrobial drugs used in medicine and agriculture. Antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli is of particular concern because it is the most common Gram-negative pathogen in humans. Hence this study was conducted to determine the antibiotic sensitivity pattern of E. coli isolated from different types of food items collected randomly from twelve localities of Hyderabad, India. A total of 150 samples comprising; vegetable salad, raw egg-surface, raw chicken, unpasteurized milk, and raw meat were processed microbiologically to isolate E. coli and to study their antibiotic susceptibility pattern by the Kirby-Bauer method. The highest percentages of drug resistance in isolates of E. coli were detected from raw chicken (23.3%) followed by vegetable salad (20%), raw meat (13.3%), raw egg-surface (10%) and unpasteurized milk (6.7%). The overall incidence of drug resistant E. coli was 14.7%. A total of six (4%) Extended Spectrum β-Lactamase (ESBL) producers were detected, two each from vegetable salads and raw chicken, and one each from raw egg-surface and raw meat. Multidrug resistant strains of E. coli are a matter of concern as resistance genes are easily transferable to other strains. Pathogen cycling through food is very common and might pose a potential health risk to the consumer. Therefore, in order to avoid this, good hygienic practices are necessary in the abattoirs to prevent contamination of cattle and poultry products with intestinal content as well as forbidding the use of untreated sewage in irrigating vegetables. PMID:25076436

  10. Complete Genome Sequence of the Engineered Escherichia coli SHuffle Strains and Their Wild-Type Parents

    PubMed Central

    Anton, Brian P.; Fomenkov, Alexey; Raleigh, Elisabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    SHuffle strains are genetically engineered Escherichia coli strains that are capable of oxidizing cysteines within proteins to form disulfide bonds. Here we present the complete genome of both the K-12 and B versions of SHuffle strains along with their parental ancestors. These strains have been of significant use to both the general scientific community and the biotech industry, interested in producing novel disulfide-bonded proteins that were hitherto unable to be expressed in standard E. coli expression strains. PMID:27034504

  11. Gene doctoring: a method for recombineering in laboratory and pathogenic Escherichia coli strains

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Homologous recombination mediated by the λ-Red genes is a common method for making chromosomal modifications in Escherichia coli. Several protocols have been developed that differ in the mechanisms by which DNA, carrying regions homologous to the chromosome, are delivered into the cell. A common technique is to electroporate linear DNA fragments into cells. Alternatively, DNA fragments are generated in vivo by digestion of a donor plasmid with a nuclease that does not cleave the host genome. In both cases the λ-Red gene products recombine homologous regions carried on the linear DNA fragments with the chromosome. We have successfully used both techniques to generate chromosomal mutations in E. coli K-12 strains. However, we have had limited success with these λ-Red based recombination techniques in pathogenic E. coli strains, which has led us to develop an enhanced protocol for recombineering in such strains. Results Our goal was to develop a high-throughput recombineering system, primarily for the coupling of genes to epitope tags, which could also be used for deletion of genes in both pathogenic and K-12 E. coli strains. To that end we have designed a series of donor plasmids for use with the λ-Red recombination system, which when cleaved in vivo by the I-SceI meganuclease generate a discrete linear DNA fragment, allowing for C-terminal tagging of chromosomal genes with a 6 × His, 3 × FLAG, 4 × ProteinA or GFP tag or for the deletion of chromosomal regions. We have enhanced existing protocols and technologies by inclusion of a cassette conferring kanamycin resistance and, crucially, by including the sacB gene on the donor plasmid, so that all but true recombinants are counter-selected on kanamycin and sucrose containing media, thus eliminating the need for extensive screening. This method has the added advantage of limiting the exposure of cells to the potential damaging effects of the λ-Red system, which can lead to unwanted secondary

  12. The sensitivity to complement of strains of Escherichia coli related to their K antigens

    PubMed Central

    Glynn, A. A.; Howard, C. J.

    1970-01-01

    We have confirmed that K antigens influence the sensitivity to complement of strains of Escherichia coli. Resistant strains bound more polycation and by inference therefore had a higher surface negative charge than sensitive strains. Extracts containing K antigen non-specifically inhibited red cell agglutination and this inhibitory activity was roughly proportional to complement resistance. All of five resistant strains became more sensitive to complement when grown at unusual temperatures and extracts from them then had less inhibitory activity. In four strains of serotype O6 K13 complement resistance was proportional to K antigen content measured by immunodiffusion. However, purified K antigen from a resistant strain (WF82) had much greater agglutination inhibiting activity weight for weight than purified K antigen from a sensitive strain (WF96). In experiments with 125I-labelled haemolysin K antigens decreased the binding of both IgG and IgM antibodies and also directly reduced complement activity. The mechanisms of action of K antigens and their relation to virulence are discussed. ImagesFIG. 4FIG. 12 PMID:4986073

  13. Diarrhea, bacteremia and multiorgan dysfunction due to an extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli strain with enteropathogenic E. coli genes

    PubMed Central

    Kessler, Robert; Nisa, Shahista; Hazen, Tracy H.; Horneman, Amy; Amoroso, Anthony; Rasko, David A.; Donnenberg, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    A 55-year-old man with well-controlled HIV had severe diarrhea for 3 weeks and developed multiorgan dysfunction and bacteremia due to Escherichia coli. The genome of the patient's isolate had features characteristic of extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli and genes distantly related to those defining enteropathogenic E. coli. PMID:26410828

  14. Diarrhea, bacteremia and multiorgan dysfunction due to an extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli strain with enteropathogenic E. coli genes.

    PubMed

    Kessler, Robert; Nisa, Shahista; Hazen, Tracy H; Horneman, Amy; Amoroso, Anthony; Rasko, David A; Donnenberg, Michael S

    2015-11-01

    A 55-year-old man with well-controlled HIV had severe diarrhea for 3 weeks and developed multiorgan dysfunction and bacteremia due to Escherichia coli. The genome of the patient's isolate had features characteristic of extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli and genes distantly related to those defining enteropathogenic E. coli. PMID:26410828

  15. Synthesis and accumulation of aromatic aldehydes in an engineered strain of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Kunjapur, Aditya M; Tarasova, Yekaterina; Prather, Kristala L J

    2014-08-20

    Aromatic aldehydes are useful in numerous applications, especially as flavors, fragrances, and pharmaceutical precursors. However, microbial synthesis of aldehydes is hindered by rapid, endogenous, and redundant conversion of aldehydes to their corresponding alcohols. We report the construction of an Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655 strain with reduced aromatic aldehyde reduction (RARE) that serves as a platform for aromatic aldehyde biosynthesis. Six genes with reported activity on the model substrate benzaldehyde were rationally targeted for deletion: three genes that encode aldo-keto reductases and three genes that encode alcohol dehydrogenases. Upon expression of a recombinant carboxylic acid reductase in the RARE strain and addition of benzoate during growth, benzaldehyde remained in the culture after 24 h, with less than 12% conversion of benzaldehyde to benzyl alcohol. Although individual overexpression results demonstrated that all six genes could contribute to benzaldehyde reduction in vivo, additional experiments featuring subset deletion strains revealed that two of the gene deletions were dispensable under the conditions tested. The engineered strain was next investigated for the production of vanillin from vanillate and succeeded in preventing formation of the byproduct vanillyl alcohol. A pathway for the biosynthesis of vanillin directly from glucose was introduced and resulted in a 55-fold improvement in vanillin titer when using the RARE strain versus the wild-type strain. Finally, synthesis of the chiral pharmaceutical intermediate L-phenylacetylcarbinol (L-PAC) was demonstrated from benzaldehyde and glucose upon expression of a recombinant mutant pyruvate decarboxylase in the RARE strain. Beyond allowing accumulation of aromatic aldehydes as end products in E. coli, the RARE strain expands the classes of chemicals that can be produced microbially via aldehyde intermediates. PMID:25076127

  16. Persistence of Escherichia coli O157 and non-O157 strains in agricultural soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli O157 and non-O157 serogroups are known to cause serious diseases in human. However, research on the persistence of E. coli non-O157 serogroups in preharvest environment is limited. In the current study, we compared the survival behavior of E. coli O157 to that ...

  17. A Commensal Gone Bad: Complete Genome Sequence of the Prototypical Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Strain H10407▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Crossman, Lisa C.; Chaudhuri, Roy R.; Beatson, Scott A.; Wells, Timothy J.; Desvaux, Mickael; Cunningham, Adam F.; Petty, Nicola K.; Mahon, Vivienne; Brinkley, Carl; Hobman, Jon L.; Savarino, Stephen J.; Turner, Susan M.; Pallen, Mark J.; Penn, Charles W.; Parkhill, Julian; Turner, A. Keith; Johnson, Timothy J.; Thomson, Nicholas R.; Smith, Stephen G. J.; Henderson, Ian R.

    2010-01-01

    In most cases, Escherichia coli exists as a harmless commensal organism, but it may on occasion cause intestinal and/or extraintestinal disease. Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) is the predominant cause of E. coli-mediated diarrhea in the developing world and is responsible for a significant portion of pediatric deaths. In this study, we determined the complete genomic sequence of E. coli H10407, a prototypical strain of enterotoxigenic E. coli, which reproducibly elicits diarrhea in human volunteer studies. We performed genomic and phylogenetic comparisons with other E. coli strains, revealing that the chromosome is closely related to that of the nonpathogenic commensal strain E. coli HS and to those of the laboratory strains E. coli K-12 and C. Furthermore, these analyses demonstrated that there were no chromosomally encoded factors unique to any sequenced ETEC strains. Comparison of the E. coli H10407 plasmids with those from several ETEC strains revealed that the plasmids had a mosaic structure but that several loci were conserved among ETEC strains. This study provides a genetic context for the vast amount of experimental and epidemiological data that have been published. PMID:20802035

  18. RegR virulence regulon of rabbit-specific enteropathogenic Escherichia coli strain E22.

    PubMed

    Srikhanta, Yogitha N; Hocking, Dianna M; Praszkier, Judyta; Wakefield, Matthew J; Robins-Browne, Roy M; Yang, Ji; Tauschek, Marija

    2013-04-01

    AraC-like regulators play a key role in the expression of virulence factors in enteric pathogens, such as enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC), enterotoxigenic E. coli, enteroaggregative E. coli, and Citrobacter rodentium. Bioinformatic analysis of the genome of rabbit-specific EPEC (REPEC) strain E22 (O103:H2) revealed the presence of a gene encoding an AraC-like regulatory protein, RegR, which shares 71% identity to the global virulence regulator, RegA, of C. rodentium. Microarray analysis demonstrated that RegR exerts 25- to 400-fold activation on transcription of several genes encoding putative virulence-associated factors, including a fimbrial operon (SEF14), a serine protease, and an autotransporter adhesin. These observations were confirmed by proteomic analysis of secreted and heat-extracted surface-associated proteins. The mechanism of RegR-mediated activation was investigated by using its most highly upregulated gene target, sefA. Transcriptional analyses and electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that RegR activates the expression of sefA by binding to a region upstream of the sefA promoter, thereby relieving gene silencing by the global regulatory protein H-NS. Moreover, RegR was found to contribute significantly to virulence in a rabbit infection experiment. Taken together, our findings indicate that RegR controls the expression of a series of accessory adhesins that significantly enhance the virulence of REPEC strain E22. PMID:23340312

  19. [The role of Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917 in the gastro-intestinal diseases].

    PubMed

    Różańska, Dorota; Regulska-Ilow, Bożena; Choroszy-Król, Irena; Ilow, Rafał

    2014-01-01

    In this paper a review of the researches on the role of Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917 (EcN) in gastrointestinal diseases was presented. EcN is a non-pathogenic strain of the Enterobacteriaceae family, which has probiotic properties. In a number of studies conducted among humans and  experimental animals the application of EcN in treatment of gastrointestinal diseases was observed. Most studies about EcN has been devoted to this organism efficacy in ulcerative colitis treatment. Comparable results were obtained, by citied authors, in the treatment (sustaining remission) of EcN and mesalazine in ulcerative colitis. Moreover, this probiotic therapy, compared to placebo, contributes to obtaining a faster remission and improvement of intestinal histopathology. The use of EcN in Crohn's disease has not been the subject of as many studies as in the case of ulcerative colitis. Assessing the importance of EcN in treatment of other gastrointestinal disorders, authors of the studies observed, that in patients with irritable bowel syndrome, who receiving this probiotic there was a pain, nausea and bloating reduction. In studies conducted among children a positive impact of EcN in prevention and treatment of diarrhea was demonstrated. Similar results were obtained in studies conducted in experimental animals. Based on the presented review it can be concluded that the strain of Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 is useful in treatment of gastrointestinal diseases, especially in treatment of ulcerative colitis. This probiotic may constitute a part of treatment of irritable bowel syndrome and diarrhea. The effectiveness of this strain in treatment of Crohn's disease is not clearly established and further research are require. PMID:25380207

  20. Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917: significant reduction of neonatal calf diarrhea.

    PubMed

    von Buenau, R; Jaekel, L; Schubotz, E; Schwarz, S; Stroff, T; Krueger, M

    2005-01-01

    Inappropriate daily use of antimicrobial drugs for the treatment of intestinal diseases is associated with an increased risk of antibiotic resistance. Thus, the establishment of new forms of therapy is still needed. Our objective was to examine the effect of the nonpathogenic Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917 on the prophylaxis and treatment of neonatal calf diarrhea in a hypothesis-generating study (study I) and a subsequent confirmatory clinical study (study II) under field conditions. Both trials were designed as consecutive, placebo-controlled, single-blind comparisons of 2 groups of animals. Immediately after birth, healthy calves were assigned to either the E. coli Nissle 1917 or the placebo group. The study medication was administered orally 1/d before the first feeding. The treatment was continued for the first 10 to 12 d of life. For each animal, the studies ended on d 20 to 22 of life. In both trials, the number of calves developing diarrhea was defined as the primary target criterion. A total of 335 newborn calves were included in the studies (study I: n = 172; study II: n = 163). Study I showed that the incidence of diarrhea was 65.2% under placebo and 26.5% under E. coli Nissle 1917. In study II, the corresponding figures were 63.0% under placebo and 12.2% under E. coli Nissle 1917. It can be concluded that the administration of viable E. coli bacteria, strain Nissle 1917, has a clear beneficial effect on the prophylaxis and treatment of neonatal calf diarrhea. PMID:15591395

  1. Recurrent Escherichia coli bacteremia.

    PubMed Central

    Maslow, J N; Mulligan, M E; Arbeit, R D

    1994-01-01

    Escherichia coli is the most common gram-negative organism associated with bacteremia. While recurrent E. coli urinary tract infections are well-described, recurrent E. coli bacteremia appears to be uncommon, with no episodes noted in multiple series of patients with gram-negative bacteremias. We report on 5 patients with recurrent bloodstream infections identified from a series of 163 patients with E. coli bacteremia. For each patient, the isolates from each episode were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and ribotyping and for the presence of E. coli virulence factors. For each of four patients, the index and recurrent episodes of bacteremia represented the same strain as defined by PFGE, and the strains were found to carry one or more virulence factors. The remaining patient, with two episodes of bloodstream infection separated by a 4-year interval, was infected with two isolates that did not carry any virulence factors and that were clonally related by ribotype analysis but differed by PFGE. All five patients had either a local host defense defect (three patients) or impaired systemic defenses (one patient) or both (one patient). Thus, recurrent E. coli bacteremia is likely to represent a multifactorial process that occurs in patients with impaired host defenses who are infected with virulent isolates. Images PMID:7910828

  2. Genotypic and Phenotypic Characterization of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Strains Isolated from Peruvian Children ▿

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, F. P.; Ochoa, T. J.; Maves, R. C.; Bernal, M.; Medina, A. M.; Meza, R.; Barletta, F.; Mercado, E.; Ecker, L.; Gil, A. I.; Hall, E. R.; Huicho, L.; Lanata, C. F.

    2010-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a major cause of childhood diarrhea. The present study sought to determine the prevalence and distribution of toxin types, colonization factors (CFs), and antimicrobial susceptibility of ETEC strains isolated from Peruvian children. We analyzed ETEC strains isolated from Peruvian children between 2 and 24 months of age in a passive surveillance study. Five E. coli colonies per patient were studied by multiplex real-time PCR to identify ETEC virulence factors. ETEC-associated toxins were confirmed using a GM1-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Confirmed strains were tested for CFs by dot blot assay using 21 monoclonal antibodies. We analyzed 1,129 samples from children with diarrhea and 744 control children and found ETEC in 5.3% and 4.3%, respectively. ETEC was more frequently isolated from children >12 months of age than from children <12 months of age (P < 0.001). Fifty-two percent of ETEC isolates from children with diarrhea and 72% of isolates from controls were heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) positive and heat-stable enterotoxin (ST) negative; 25% and 19%, respectively, were LT negative and ST positive; and 23% and 9%, respectively, were LT positive and ST positive. CFs were identified in 64% of diarrheal samples and 37% of control samples (P < 0.05). The most common CFs were CS6 (14% and 7%, respectively), CS12 (12% and 4%, respectively), and CS1 (9% and 4%, respectively). ST-producing ETEC strains caused more severe diarrhea than non-ST-producing ETEC strains. The strains were most frequently resistant to ampicillin (71%) and co-trimoxazole (61%). ETEC was thus found to be more prevalent in older infants. LT was the most common toxin type; 64% of strains had an identified CF. These data are relevant in estimating the burden of disease due to ETEC and the potential coverage of children in Peru by investigational vaccines. PMID:20631096

  3. Phenotypic and Genotypic Characterization of Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli Strains Isolated From Diarrheic Children in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Davoodabadi, Abolfazl; Abbaszadeh, Maryam; Oloomi, Mana; Bouzari, Saeid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Several studies performed in developed and developing countries have identified enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) as the emerging cause of pediatric diarrhea. Objectives: This study investigated the phenotypic and genetic characteristics of EAEC strains isolated from children with diarrhea between 2007 - 2008 in Tehran, Iran. Materials and Methods: EAEC strains were examined for virulence plasmid genes (aap, aggR, and aatA), biofilm formation, and drug resistance. In addition, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) profiles of these strains were determined. Results: Significant percentage of local EAEC strains carried the virulence plasmid genes and formed biofilms. In addition, these strains showed high resistance to ampicillin (100%), tetracycline (65.7%), streptomycin (58.7%), chloramphenicol (52.6%), and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (51.7%) and had different PFGE patterns. Conclusions: These results indicated that EAEC strains isolated from Iranian children with diarrhea were heterogeneous and showed high resistance rates against commonly used antibiotics, which was similar to that reported in studies performed in other countries. PMID:26487919

  4. Effect of probiotic bacterial strains of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, and Enterococcus on enteroaggregative Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Yoshibumi; Kamiya, Shigeru; Hanawa, Tomoko; Fukuda, Minoru; Kawakami, Hayato; Takahashi, Hidemi; Yokota, Hiroyuki

    2010-02-01

    The effects of nine probiotic strains of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, and Enterococcus on the growth, adhesion activity, and biofilm formation of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAggEC) were examined. The culture supernatant of the E. faecium strain, with or without pH adjustment to a neutral pH, had a strong bactericidal effect on EAggEC, including induction of membrane damage and cell lysis. Supernatants of the L. casei ss. casei and L. casei ss. rhamnosus strains also had a bactericidal effect on EAggEC, but this activity was abolished by pH adjustment to a neutral pH. No inhibitory effect of the culture supernatants of Bifidobacterium or E. faecalis strains was detected. Adhesion of EAggEC to intestinal epithelial cells was not inhibited by the bacterial strains tested. Two strains of L. casei enhanced EAggEC biofilm formation, which was characterized by increased bacterial proliferation. These results suggest that the three different bacterial species; Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, and Enterococcus, have different effects on EAggEC, and that further analysis is required for the practical use of these bacteria as probiotics against EAggEC infection. PMID:20054601

  5. Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains isolated from environmental sources differ significantly in acid resistance compared to human outbreak strains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A number of studies on the influence of acid on Escherichia coli O157:H7 have shown considerable strain differences, but limited information has been reported to compare the acid resistance based on the different sources of E. coli O157:H7 isolates. The purpose of this study was to determine the sur...

  6. Genes Related to Long Polar Fimbriae of Pathogenic Escherichia coli Strains as Reliable Markers To Identify Virulent Isolates▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Alfredo G.; Blanco, Miguel; Valenzuela, Patricio; Slater, Terry M.; Patel, Shilpa D.; Dahbi, Ghizlane; López, Cecilia; Barriga, Ximena Fernández; Blanco, Jesús E.; Gomes, Tânia A. T.; Vidal, Roberto; Blanco, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    Lpf (stands for long polar fimbriae) is one of the few adhesive factors of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 associated with colonization of the intestine. E. coli O157:H7 strains possess two lpf loci encoding highly regulated fimbrial structures. Database analysis of the genes encoding the major fimbrial subunits demonstrated that they are present in commensal as well as pathogenic (both intestinal and extraintestinal) E. coli strains and in Salmonella strains and that the lpfA1 and lpfA2 genes are highly prevalent among LEE (locus of enterocyte effacement)-positive E. coli strains associated with severe and/or epidemic disease. Further DNA sequence analysis of the lpfA1 and lpfA2 genes from different attaching-and-effacing E. coli strains has led us to the identification of several polymorphisms and the classification of the major fimbrial subunits into distinct variants. Using collections of pathogenic E. coli isolates from Europe and Latin America, we demonstrated that the different lpfA types are associated with the presence of specific intimin (eae) adhesin variants and, most importantly, that they are found in specific E. coli pathotypes. Our results showed that the use of these fimbrial genes as markers, in combination with the different intimin types, resulted in a specific test for the identification of E. coli O157:H7, distinguishing it from other pathogenic E. coli strains. PMID:19494071

  7. Phenotypic and Genotypic Analyses of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O145 Strains from Patients in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Sonntag, Anne-Katharina; Prager, Rita; Bielaszewska, Martina; Zhang, Wenlan; Fruth, Angelika; Tschäpe, Helmut; Karch, Helge

    2004-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) strains of serogroup O145 are emerging as causes of diarrhea and the hemolytic-uremic syndrome. However, there have been few genetic analyses of this EHEC group. We investigated the serotypes, virulence genes, plasmid profiles, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns, and genetic variability of the fliC and eae genes in 120 EHEC O145 strains isolated from cases of hemolytic-uremic syndrome (n = 24) or diarrhea (n = 96) in Germany between 1996 and 2002. Three isolates belonged to serotype O145:H28, one to serotype O145:H25, and 116 were nonmotile (O145:H−). One hundred fourteen of the nonmotile strains shared fliC restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) patterns identical to that of the O145:H28 strains. The remaining two nonmotile strains displayed a fliC-RFLP pattern identical to that of the O145:H25 strain. Each of the 117 strains with the fliC-RFLPH28 pattern harbored eae γ, whereas the three strains with the fliC-RFLPH25 pattern possessed eae β. Five different stx genotypes, six combinations of plasmid-encoded putative virulence genes, 29 plasmid profiles, and 47 PFGE types were identified. Strains within some of the PFGE types could be further subtyped by means of distinct plasmid profiles. These data demonstrate that the EHEC O145 serogroup is comprised of two different serotypes that possess distinct eae types. The heterogeneity of EHEC O145 strains at the chromosomal and plasmid level, in particular the high diversity in PFGE patterns, provides a basis for molecular subtyping of these pathogens. PMID:15004038

  8. Interaction of porcine neutrophils with different strains of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Ondrackova, Petra; Alexa, Pavel; Matiasovic, Jan; Volf, Jiri; Faldyna, Martin

    2012-11-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is one of the most important causes of post-weaning diarrhea in piglets. Whilst serotype O149:F4 is frequently associated with hemorrhagic gastroenteritis, other serotypes have been found to be associated with mild or moderate enteritis. As neutrophils are recruited to sites of inflammation, the aim of this study was to ascertain whether or not there is any difference in the in vitro interaction between neutrophils and two different ETEC serotypes: O149:F4 and O147:F18. The association of bacteria with neutrophils was evaluated by flow cytometry. The respiratory burst was measured by the fluorescent probe dichlorofluorescein diacetate using flow cytometry and by L012-amplified chemiluminescence. The titers of antibodies against ETEC present in cultivation sera were assessed by agglutination. The viability of E. coli was ascertained by cultivation. It was found that the strains of O149 serotype were more frequently associated with neutrophils and induced a more intensive respiratory burst compared to the strains of O147 serotype. These differences might be due to the presence of different types of fimbriae on the surface of the strains tested and by the presence of anti-fimbrial antibodies in the porcine plasma. However, the intensive interaction between E. coli and the neutrophils and respiratory burst induced by the O149 strain did not lead to more efficient killing of the bacteria. It is suggested that a stronger respiratory burst may be an important factor causing severe clinical signs of post-weaning diarrhea in piglets. PMID:22704243

  9. TleA, a Tsh-like autotransporter identified in a human enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli strain.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Daniela; Pardo, Mirka; Montero, David; Oñate, Angel; Farfán, Mauricio J; Ruiz-Pérez, Fernando; Del Canto, Felipe; Vidal, Roberto

    2015-05-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), a leading cause of acute diarrhea, colonizes the intestine by means of adhesins. However, 15 to 50% of clinical isolates are negative for known adhesins, making it difficult to identify antigens for broad-coverage vaccines. The ETEC strain 1766a, obtained from a child with watery diarrhea in Chile, harbors the colonization factor CS23 but is negative for other known adhesins. One clone, derived from an ETEC 1766a genomic library (clone G10), did not produce CS23 yet was capable of adhering to Caco-2 cells. The goal of this study was to identify the gene responsible for this capacity. Random transposon-based mutagenesis allowed the identification of a 4,110-bp gene that codes for a homologue of the temperature-sensitive hemagglutinin (Tsh) autotransporter described in avian E. coli strains (97% identity, 90% coverage) and that is called TleA (Tsh-like ETEC autotransporter) herein. An isogenic ETEC 1766a strain with a tleA mutation showed an adhesion level similar to that of the wild-type strain, suggesting that the gene does not direct attachment to Caco-2 cells. However, expression of tleA conferred the capacity for adherence to nonadherent E. coli HB101. This effect coincided with the detection of TleA on the surface of nonpermeabilized bacteria, while, conversely, ETEC 1766a seems to secrete most of the produced autotransporter to the medium. On the other hand, TleA was capable of degrading bovine submaxillary mucin and leukocyte surface glycoproteins CD45 and P-selectin glycoprotein ligand 1 (PSGL-1). These results suggest that TleA promotes colonization of the intestinal epithelium and that it may modulate the host immune response. PMID:25712927

  10. Hemolytic activity in enterotoxigenic and non-enterotoxigenic strains of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    DeBoy, J M; Wachsmuth, I K; Davis, B R

    1980-01-01

    We screened 223 strains of Escherichia coli belonging to serotypes previously associated with the production of enterotoxin for hemolytic activity, using horse erythrocytes in liquid and in agar media. Thirty-eight were hemolytic. They belonged to nine different serotypes; most (65.8%) belonged to one serotype, O6: H-. Additionally, all 38 strains were specifically assayed for a filterable, heat-labile hemolytic activity previously associated with a hemolysin plasmid. A comparison of hemolytic activity and enterotoxicity showed that none of 32 strains hemolytic in both media was enterotoxigenic; 28 of the 32 expressed heat-labile hemolytic activity. Four of the six strains hemolytic in only one of the media were enterotoxigenic; none of these six expressed heat-labile hemolytic activity. Of 223 strains, 176 that were of human origin and isolated in the United States were further assayed for three traditionally plasmid-mediated characteristics: heat-labile enterotoxin, heat-stable enterotoxin, and colonization factors. The interrelationships of these characteristics, including hemolytic activity, may reflect varying degrees of plasmid compatibility. PMID:7014606

  11. Growth and survival of various strains of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli in hydrochloric and acetic acid.

    PubMed

    McKellar, R C; Knight, K P

    1999-12-01

    Nineteen strains of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli isolated from humans and foods were examined for their ability to grow and survive at low pH in organic (acetic) and mineral (HCl) acids. Strains were subcultured in tryptic soy broth adjusted to various pH values (3.75 to 4.75 for HCl and 4.75 to 5.75 for acetic acid) and incubated for 72 h at 37 degrees C to determine the minimum growth pH value. Minimum pH values for growth of 4.25 and 5.5 were found for HCl and acetic acid, respectively. Strains were also exposed to pH 2.0 (HCl) and pH 4.0 (acetic acid) for up to 24 h at 37 degrees C to assess their ability to survive. HCl was a more effective inhibitor after 6 h of exposure, whereas acetic acid was more effective after 24 h. Outbreak strains survived acid treatment significantly (P < or = 0.05) better than strains isolated from fermented or high-pH foods or animal or human isolates. Significant (P < or = 0.05) differences among serotypes and between O157:H7 and other serotypes were apparent after 3 or 6 h of exposure to acids. PMID:10606153

  12. Complete Genome Sequence of an Escherichia coli O157:H7 Strain Isolated from a Super-Shedder Steer

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Lin; Ginn, Amber; Jeon, Soojin; Kang, Minyoung

    2016-01-01

    We report here the complete genome sequence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 strain JEONG-1266 isolated from a super- shedder steer in northwest Florida. Cattle are considered a primary reservoir of E. coli O157:H7, and those cattle that excrete this pathogen in their feces at levels ≥104 CFU/g are known as super-shedders. PMID:27056233

  13. Multiple mechanisms responsible for strong Congo red-binding variants of Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High variability in the expression of csgD-dependent, biofilm-forming and adhesive properties is common among Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). Although many strains of serotype O157:H7 form little biofilm, conversion to stronger biofilm phenotypes has been observed. In this study we sc...

  14. Phylogenetic classification of Escherichia coli O26 strains from human, animals, and environmental origins using nucleotide polymorphisms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O26 strains are food-borne pathogens that were recently classified as adulterants in certain beef products. Little is known about their genetic diversity, including whether or not phylogenetic subtypes within the serogroup vary in their assoc...

  15. Efficient synthesis of the tetrasaccharide repeating unit of the O-antigen of Escherichia coli O174 strain.

    PubMed

    Bhaumik, Ishani; Ghosh, Tamashree; Misra, Anup Kumar

    2014-11-18

    The tetrasaccharide repeating unit of the O-antigen of Escherichia coli O174 strain was synthesized applying sequential glycosylations of suitably functionalized monosaccharide intermediates. Activation of glycosyl trichloroacetimidate derivatives using nitrosyl tetrafluoroborate (NOBF4) has been used during the synthesis. The glycosylation steps were high yielding with satisfactory stereo outcome. PMID:25318901

  16. Genotypic Characterization of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli (STEC) Strains Recovered from Farm Animal Feces in Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Technical Abstract and Interpretive Summary: Provide electronically in Word. Sixty-three strains of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) were recovered from farm animal feces in distinct regions in the Culiacan Valley, an important agricultural region in Mexico for horticultural crops that...

  17. Draft Genome Sequences of Two Avian Pathogenic Escherichia coli Strains of Clinical Importance, E44 and E51

    PubMed Central

    Stegger, Marc; Andersen, Paal S.; Pedersen, Karl; Li, Lili; Thøfner, Ida C. N.; Olsen, Rikke H.

    2016-01-01

    Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli strains have remarkable impacts on animal welfare and the production economy in the poultry industry worldwide. Here, we present the draft genomes of two isolates from chickens (E44 and E51) obtained from field outbreaks and subsequently investigated for their potential for use in autogenous vaccines for broiler breeders. PMID:27491996

  18. Draft Genome Sequences of Two Avian Pathogenic Escherichia coli Strains of Clinical Importance, E44 and E51.

    PubMed

    Ronco, Troels; Stegger, Marc; Andersen, Paal S; Pedersen, Karl; Li, Lili; Thøfner, Ida C N; Olsen, Rikke H

    2016-01-01

    Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli strains have remarkable impacts on animal welfare and the production economy in the poultry industry worldwide. Here, we present the draft genomes of two isolates from chickens (E44 and E51) obtained from field outbreaks and subsequently investigated for their potential for use in autogenous vaccines for broiler breeders. PMID:27491996

  19. Characterization of an Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Strain from Africa Expressing a Putative Colonization Factor

    PubMed Central

    Khalil, Sami B.; Cassels, Frederick J.; Shaheen, Hind I.; Pannell, Lewis K.; El-Ghorab, Nemat; Kamal, Karim; Mansour, Moustafa; Savarino, Stephen J.; Peruski, Leonard F.

    1999-01-01

    An enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strain of serotype O114:H− that expressed both heat-labile and heat-stable enterotoxins and tested negative for colonization factors (CF) was isolated from a child with diarrhea in Egypt. This strain, WS0115A, induced hemagglutination of bovine erythrocytes and adhered to the enterocyte-like cell line Caco-2, suggesting that it may elaborate novel fimbriae. Surface-expressed antigen purified by differential ammonium sulfate precipitation and column chromatography yielded a single protein band with Mr 14,800 when resolved by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (16% polyacrylamide). A monoclonal antibody against this putative fimbrial antigen was generated and reacted with strain WS0115A and also with CS1-, CS17-, and CS19-positive strains in a dot blot assay. Reactivity was temperature dependent, with cells displaying reactivity when grown at 37°C but not when grown at 22°C. Immunoblot analysis of a fimbrial preparation from strain WS0115A showed that the monoclonal antibody reacted with a single protein band. Electron microscopy and immunoelectron microscopy revealed fimbria-like structures on the surface of strain WS0115A. These structures were rigid and measured 6.8 to 7.4 nm in diameter. Electrospray mass-spectrometric analysis showed that the mass of the purified fimbria was 14,965 Da. The N-terminal sequence of the fimbria established that it was a member of the CFA/I family, with sequence identity to the amino terminus of CS19, a new CF recently identified in India. Cumulatively, our results suggest that this fimbria is CS19. Screening of a collection of ETEC strains isolated from children with diarrhea in Egypt found that 4.2% of strains originally reported as CF negative were positive for this CF, suggesting that it is biologically relevant in the pathogenesis of ETEC. PMID:10417169

  20. Recovery of a marker strain of Escherichia coli from ozonated water by membrane filtration

    SciTech Connect

    Finch, G.R.; Stiles, M.E.; Smith, D.W.

    1987-12-01

    Selective and nonselective growth media were evaluated at two incubation temperatures, 35 and 44.5 degrees C, for the recovery of a nalidixic acid-resistant marker strain of Escherichia coli ATCC 11775 by membrane filtration from ozonated 0.05 M phosphate buffer (pH 6.9). There were significantly fewer bacteria recovered with the standard m-FC agar when compared with the same growth medium prepared without bile salts and rosolic acid. This effect was particularly noticeable at the elevated incubation temperature of 44.5 degrees C. These findings are contrary to previous work which concluded that the standard American Public Health Association membrane filtration procedure is suitable for recovery of fecal coliform indicator bacteria from ozonated wastewater.

  1. Biological effects of stevioside on the survival of Escherichia coli strains and plasmid DNA.

    PubMed

    Nunes, A P M; De Mattos, J C P; Ferreira-Machado, S C; Nunes, R M; Asad, N R; Dantas, F J S; Bezerra, R J A C; Caldeira-de-Araujo, A

    2006-12-01

    Stevioside is widely used daily in many countries as a non-caloric sugar substitute. Its sweetening power is higher than that of sucrose by approximately 250-300 times, being extensively employed as a household sweetener, or added to beverages and food products. The purpose of this study was to ascertain stevioside genotoxic and cytotoxic potentiality in different biological systems, as its use continues to increase. Agarose gel electrophoresis and bacterial transformation were employed to observe the occurrence of DNA lesions. In addition to these assays, Escherichia coli strains were incubated with stevioside so that their survival fractions could be obtained. Results show absence of genotoxic activity through electrophoresis and bacterial transformation assays and drop of survival fraction of E. coli strains deficient in rec A and nth genes, suggesting that stevioside (i) is cytotoxic; (ii) could need metabolization to present deleterious effects on cells; (iii) is capable of generating lesions in DNA and pathways as base excision repair, recombination and SOS system would be important to recover these lesions. PMID:16804638

  2. Comparative genetic characterization of Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli strains recovered from clinical and non-clinical settings

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rong; Gu, Dan-xia; Huang, Yong-lu; Chan, Edward Wai-Chi; Chen, Gong-Xiang; Chen, Sheng

    2016-01-01

    The origin of pathogenic Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC), a major causative agent of childhood diarrhea worldwide, remains ill-defined. The objective of this study was to determine the relative prevalence of EAEC in clinical and non-clinical sources and compare their genetic characteristics in order to identify strains that rarely and commonly cause human diarrhea. The virulence gene astA was commonly detectable in both clinical and non-clinical EAEC, while clinical isolates, but not the non-clinical strains, were consistently found to harbor other virulence factors such as aap (32%), aatA (18%) and aggR (11%). MLST analysis revealed the extremely high diversity of EAEC ST types, which can be grouped into three categories including: (i) non-clinical EAEC that rarely cause human infections; (ii) virulent strains recoverable in diarrhea patients that are also commonly found in the non-clinical sources; (iii) organisms causing human infections but rarely recoverable in the non-clinical setting. In addition, the high resistance in these EAEC isolates in particular resistance to fluoroquinolones and cephalosporins raised a huge concern for clinical EAEC infection control. The data from this study suggests that EAEC strains were diversely distributed in non-clinical and clinical setting and some of the clinical isolates may originate from the non-clinical setting. PMID:27062991

  3. Posttranslationally caused bioluminescence burst of the Escherichia coli luciferase reporter strain.

    PubMed

    Ideguchi, Yamato; Oshikoshi, Yuta; Ryo, Masashi; Motoki, Shogo; Kuwano, Takashi; Tezuka, Takafumi; Aoki, Setsuyuki

    2016-01-01

    We continuously monitored bioluminescence from a wild-type reporter strain of Escherichia coli (lacp::luc+/WT), which carries the promoter of the lac operon (lacp) fused with the firefly luciferase gene (luc+). This strain showed a bioluminescence burst when shifted into the stationary growth phase. Bioluminescence profiles of other wild-type reporter strains (rpsPp::luc+ and argAp::luc+) and gene-deletion reporter strains (lacp::luc+/crp- and lacp::luc+/lacI-) indicate that transcriptional regulation is not responsible for generation of the burst. Consistently, changes in the luciferase protein levels did not recapitulate the profile of the burst. On the other hand, dissolved oxygen levels increased over the period across the burst, suggesting that the burst is, at least partially, caused by an increase in intracellular oxygen levels. We discuss limits of the firefly luciferase when used as a reporter for gene expression and its potential utility for monitoring metabolic changes in cells. PMID:26506945

  4. Functional genotypes are associated with commensal Escherichia coli strain abundance within-host individuals and populations.

    PubMed

    Blyton, Michaela D J; Banks, Sam C; Peakall, Rod; Gordon, David M

    2013-08-01

    The selective pressures that determine genotype abundance and distribution frequently vary between ecological levels. Thus, it is often unclear whether the same functional genotypes will become abundant at different levels and how selection acting at these different scales is linked. In this study, we examined whether particular functional genotypes, defined by the presence or absence of 34 genes, of commensal Escherichia coli strains were associated with within-host abundance and/or host population abundance in a wild population of 54 adult mountain brushtail possums (Trichosurus cunninghami). Our results revealed that there was a positive correlation between a strain's relative abundance within individuals and the strain's abundance in the host population. We also found that strain abundance at both ecological levels was predicted by the same group of functional genes (agn43, focH, micH47, iroN, ygiL, ompT, kspmT2 and K1) that had associated patterns of occurrence. We propose that direct selection on the same functional genes at both levels may in part be responsible for the observed correlation between the ecological levels. However, a potential link between abundance within the host and excretion rate may also contribute. PMID:23786329

  5. Resistance Pattern and Molecular Characterization of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) Strains Isolated in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Begum, Yasmin A.; Talukder, K. A.; Azmi, Ishrat J.; Shahnaij, Mohammad; Sheikh, A.; Sharmin, Salma; Svennerholm, A.-M.; Qadri, Firdausi

    2016-01-01

    Background Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a common cause of bacterial infection leading to acute watery diarrhea in infants and young children as well as in travellers to ETEC endemic countries. Ciprofloxacin is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent nowadays used for the treatment of diarrhea. This study aimed to characterize ciprofloxacin resistant ETEC strains isolated from diarrheal patients in Bangladesh. Methods A total of 8580 stool specimens from diarrheal patients attending the icddr,b Dhaka hospital was screened for ETEC between 2005 and 2009. PCR and Ganglioside GM1- Enzyme Linked Immuno sorbent Assay (ELISA) was used for detection of Heat labile (LT) and Heat stable (ST) toxins of ETEC. Antimicrobial susceptibilities for commonly used antibiotics and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin and azithromycin were examined. DNA sequencing of representative ciprofloxacin resistant strains was performed to analyze mutations of the quinolone resistance-determining region of gyrA, gyrB, parC and parE. PCR was used for the detection of qnr, a plasmid mediated ciprofloxacin resistance gene. Clonal variations among ciprofloxacin resistant (CipR) and ciprofloxacin susceptible (CipS) strains were determined by Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Results Among 1067 (12%) ETEC isolates identified, 42% produced LT/ST, 28% ST and 30% LT alone. Forty nine percent (n = 523) of the ETEC strains expressed one or more of the 13 tested colonization factors (CFs) as determined by dot blot immunoassay. Antibiotic resistance of the ETEC strains was observed as follows: ampicillin 66%, azithromycin 27%, ciprofloxacin 27%, ceftriazone 13%, cotrimaxazole 46%, doxycycline 44%, erythromycin 96%, nalidixic acid 83%, norfloxacin 27%, streptomycin 48% and tetracycline 42%. Resistance to ciprofloxacin increased from 13% in 2005 to 34% in 2009. None of the strains was resistant to mecillinam. The MIC of the nalidixic acid and

  6. Safety of Probiotic Escherichia coli Strain Nissle 1917 Depends on Intestinal Microbiota and Adaptive Immunity of the Host▿

    PubMed Central

    Gronbach, Kerstin; Eberle, Ute; Müller, Martina; Ölschläger, Tobias A.; Dobrindt, Ulrich; Leithäuser, Frank; Niess, Jan Hendrik; Döring, Gerd; Reimann, Jörg; Autenrieth, Ingo B.; Frick, Julia-Stefanie

    2010-01-01

    Probiotics are viable microorganisms that are increasingly used for treatment of a variety of diseases. Occasionally, however, probiotics may have adverse clinical effects, including septicemia. Here we examined the role of the intestinal microbiota and the adaptive immune system in preventing translocation of probiotics (e.g., Escherichia coli Nissle). We challenged C57BL/6J mice raised under germfree conditions (GF-raised C57BL/6J mice) and Rag1−/− mice raised under germfree conditions (GF-raised Rag1−/− mice) and under specific-pathogen-free conditions (SPF-raised Rag1−/− mice) with probiotic E. coli strain Nissle 1917, strain Nissle 1917 mutants, the commensal strain E. coli mpk, or Bacteroides vulgatus mpk. Additionally, we reconstituted Rag1−/− mice with CD4+ T cells. E. coli translocation and dissemination and the mortality of mice were assessed. In GF-raised Rag1−/− mice, but not in SPF-raised Rag1−/− mice or GF-raised C57BL/6J mice, oral challenge with E. coli strain Nissle 1917, but not oral challenge with E. coli mpk, resulted in translocation and dissemination. The mortality rate was significantly higher for E. coli strain Nissle 1917-challenged GF-raised Rag1−/− mice (100%; P < 0.001) than for E. coli strain Nissle 1917-challenged SPF-raised Rag1−/− mice (0%) and GF-raised C57BL/6J mice (0%). Translocation of and mortality due to strain E. coli Nissle 1917 in GF-raised Rag1−/− mice were prevented when mice were reconstituted with T cells prior to strain E. coli Nissle 1917 challenge, but not when mice were reconstituted with T cells after E. coli strain Nissle 1917 challenge. Cocolonization experiments revealed that E. coli mpk could not prevent translocation of strain E. coli Nissle 1917. Moreover, we demonstrated that neither lipopolysaccharide structure nor flagella play a role in E. coli strain Nissle 1917 translocation and dissemination. Our results suggest that if both the microbiota and adaptive immunity are

  7. Proteomic analysis reveals protein expression differences in Escherichia coli strains associated with persistent versus transient mastitis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Escherichia coli is a leading cause of bacterial mastitis in dairy cattle. Typically this infection is transient in nature, causing an infection that lasts 2-3 days. However, in a minority of cases, E. coli has been shown to cause a persistent intramammary infection. The mechanisms that allow for...

  8. Characterization of Escherichia coli 0157:H7 strains isolated from supershedding cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous reports have indicated that a small proportion of cattle shedding high levels of Escherichia coli O157:H7 is the main source for transmission of this organism between animals. Cattle achieving a fecal shedding status of 10**4 CFU of E. coli O157: H7/gram or greater are now referred to as su...

  9. THE WIDESPREAD OCCURRENCE OF THE ENTEROHEMOLYSIN GENE EHLYA AMONG ENVIRONMENTAL STRAINS OF ESCHERICHIA COLI

    EPA Science Inventory

    The putative virulence factor enterohemolysin, encoded for by the ehlyA gene, has been closely associated with the pathogenic enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) group. E. coli isolates from effluents from seven geographically dispersed municipal ...

  10. Escherichia coli (E. coli)

    MedlinePlus

    ... so you might hear about E. coli being found in drinking water, which are not themselves harmful, but indicate the ... at CDC Foodborne disease Travelers' Health: Safe Food & Water Healthy Swimming E. coli Infection & Farm ... Word file Microsoft Excel file Audio/Video file Apple ...

  11. Genetic features of human and bovine Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains isolated in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Pianciola, L; D'Astek, B A; Mazzeo, M; Chinen, I; Masana, M; Rivas, M

    2016-02-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are important food-borne pathogens associated with human diseases. In Argentina, O157:H7 is the dominant serotype in hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) cases. Previously, we have described the almost exclusive circulation of human E. coli O157 strains belonging to the hypervirulent clade 8 in Neuquén Province. The aim of the present study was to investigate, by a broad molecular characterization, if this particular distribution of E. coli O157 clades in Neuquén is similar to the situation in other regions of the country and if it may be originated in a similar profile in cattle, its main reservoir. Two-hundred and eighty O157 strains (54 bovine and 226 human) isolated between 2006 and 2008 in different regions of Argentina were studied. All strains harbored rfbO157, fliCH7, eae, and ehxA genes. The predominant genotype was stx2a/stx2c in human (76.1%) and bovine (55.5%) strains. All human isolates tested by Lineage-Specific Polymorphism Assay (LSPA-6), were lineage I/II; among bovine strains, 94.1% belonged to lineage I/II and 5.9% to lineage I. No LSPA-6 lineage II isolates were detected. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis has revealed the existence of nine clade phylogenetic groups. In our clinical strains collection, 87.6% belonged to the hypervirulent clade 8, and 12.4% were classified as clade 4/5. In bovine isolates, 59.3% strains were clade 8, 33.3% clade 4/5 and 7.4% clade 3. More than 80% of human strains showed the presence of 6 of the 7 virulence determinants described in the TW14359 O157 strain associated with the raw spinach outbreak in the U.S. in 2006. More than 80% of bovine strains showed the presence of 3 of these factors. The q933 allele, which has been related to high toxin production, was present in 98.2% of clinical strains and 75.9% of the bovine isolates. The molecular characterization of human STEC O157 strains allows us to conclude that the particular situation previously described

  12. Fimbrial Profiles Predict Virulence of Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Strains: Contribution of Ygi and Yad Fimbriae▿

    PubMed Central

    Spurbeck, Rachel R.; Stapleton, Ann E.; Johnson, James R.; Walk, Seth T.; Hooton, Thomas M.; Mobley, Harry L. T.

    2011-01-01

    Escherichia coli, a cause of ∼90% of urinary tract infections (UTI), utilizes fimbrial adhesins to colonize the uroepithelium. Pyelonephritis isolate E. coli CFT073 carries 12 fimbrial operons, 5 of which have never been studied. Using multiplex PCR, the prevalence of these 12 and 3 additional fimbrial types was determined for a collection of 303 E. coli isolates (57 human commensal, 32 animal commensal, 54 asymptomatic bacteriuria, 45 complicated UTI, 38 uncomplicated cystitis, and 77 pyelonephritis). The number of fimbrial types per E. coli isolate was distributed bimodally: those with low (3.2 ± 1.1) and those with high (8.3 ± 1.3) numbers of fimbrial types (means ± standard errors of the means). The fimbrial genes ygiL, yadN, yfcV, and c2395 were significantly more prevalent among urine isolates than human commensal isolates. The effect of deletion of Ygi and Yad fimbrial operons on growth, motility, biofilm formation, adherence to immortalized human epithelial cells, and pathogenesis in the mouse model of UTI was examined. Yad fimbriae were necessary for wild-type levels of adherence to a bladder epithelial cell line and for biofilm formation. Deletion of these fimbrial genes increased motility. Ygi fimbriae were necessary for wild-type levels of adherence to a human embryonic kidney cell line, biofilm formation, and in vivo fitness in the urine and kidneys. Complementation of each fimbrial mutant restored wild-type levels of motility, biofilm formation, adherence and, for ygi, in vivo fitness. A double deletion strain, Δygi Δyad, was attenuated in the urine, bladder, and kidneys in the mouse model, demonstrating that these fimbriae contribute to uropathogenesis. PMID:21911462

  13. Large-scale genomic sequencing of extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli strains

    PubMed Central

    Salipante, Stephen J.; Roach, David J.; Kitzman, Jacob O.; Snyder, Matthew W.; Stackhouse, Bethany; Butler-Wu, Susan M.; Lee, Choli; Cookson, Brad T.

    2015-01-01

    Large-scale bacterial genome sequencing efforts to date have provided limited information on the most prevalent category of disease: sporadically acquired infections caused by common pathogenic bacteria. Here, we performed whole-genome sequencing and de novo assembly of 312 blood- or urine-derived isolates of extraintestinal pathogenic (ExPEC) Escherichia coli, a common agent of sepsis and community-acquired urinary tract infections, obtained during the course of routine clinical care at a single institution. We find that ExPEC E. coli are highly genomically heterogeneous, consistent with pan-genome analyses encompassing the larger species. Investigation of differential virulence factor content and antibiotic resistance phenotypes reveals markedly different profiles among lineages and among strains infecting different body sites. We use high-resolution molecular epidemiology to explore the dynamics of infections at the level of individual patients, including identification of possible person-to-person transmission. Notably, a limited number of discrete lineages caused the majority of bloodstream infections, including one subclone (ST131-H30) responsible for 28% of bacteremic E. coli infections over a 3-yr period. We additionally use a microbial genome-wide-association study (GWAS) approach to identify individual genes responsible for antibiotic resistance, successfully recovering known genes but notably not identifying any novel factors. We anticipate that in the near future, whole-genome sequencing of microorganisms associated with clinical disease will become routine. Our study reveals what kind of information can be obtained from sequencing clinical isolates on a large scale, even well-characterized organisms such as E. coli, and provides insight into how this information might be utilized in a healthcare setting. PMID:25373147

  14. Functional activities of the Tsh protein from avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) strains.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Renata K; Gaziri, Luis Carlos; Vidotto, Marilda C

    2010-12-01

    The temperature-sensitive hemagglutinin (Tsh) expressed by strains of avian pathogenic Escherichia (E.) coli (APEC) has both agglutinin and protease activities. Tsh is synthesized as a 140 kDa precursor protein, whose processing results in a 106 kDa passenger domain (Tsh(s)) and a 33 kDa β-domain (Tsh(β)). In this study, both recombinant Tsh (rTsh) and supernatants from APEC, which contain Tsh(s) (106 kDa), caused proteolysis of chicken tracheal mucin. Both rTsh (140 kDa) and pellets from wild-type APEC, which contain Tsh(β) (33 kDa), agglutinated chicken erythrocytes. On Western blots, the anti-rTsh antibody recognized the rTsh and 106 kDa proteins in recombinant E. coli BL21/pET 101-Tsh and in the supernatants from APEC grown at either 37°C or 42°C. Anti-rTsh also recognized a 33 kDa protein in the pellets from APEC13 cultures grown in either Luria-Bertani agar, colonization factor antigen agar, or mucin agar at either 26°C, 37°C, or 42°C, and in the extracts of outer membrane proteins of APEC. The 106 kDa protein was more evident when the bacteria were grown at 37°C in mucin agar, and it was not detected when the bacteria were grown at 26°C in any of the culture media used in this study. Chicken anti-Tsh serum inhibited hemagglutinating and mucinolytic activities of strain APEC13 and recombinant E. coli BL21/pET101-Tsh. This work suggests that the mucinolytic activity of Tsh might be important for the colonization of the avian tracheal mucous environment by APEC. PMID:21113100

  15. Clinical Escherichia coli Strains Carrying stx Genes: stx Variants and stx-Positive Virulence Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Eklund, Marjut; Leino, Kirsikka; Siitonen, Anja

    2002-01-01

    Altogether, 173 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serotype O157 (n = 111) and non-O157 (n = 62) isolates from 170 subjects were screened by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism for eight different stx genes. The results were compiled according to serotypes, phage types of O157, production of Stx toxin and enterohemolysin, and the presence of eae. The stx genes occurred in 11 combinations; the most common were stx2 with stx2c (42%), stx2 alone (21%), and stx1 alone (16%). Of the O157 strains, 64% carried stx2 with stx2c versus 2% of the non-O157 strains (P < 0.001). In the non-O157 strains, the prevailing gene was stx1 (99% versus 1% in O157 strains; P < 0.001). In addition, one strain (O Rough:H4:stx2c) which has not previously been described as associated with hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) was found. Ten stx-positive virulence profiles were responsible for 71% of all STEC infections. Of these profiles, five accounted for 71% of the 21 strains isolated from 20 patients with HUS or thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). The strains having the virulence profile that caused mainly HUS or TTP or bloody diarrhea produced Stx with titers of ≥1:128 (90%) more commonly than did other strains (51%; P < 0.001). These strains were also more commonly enterohemolytic (98% versus 68% for other strains; P < 0.001) and possessed the eae gene (100%) more commonly than did other strains (74%; P < 0.001). A particular virulence profile, O157:H7:PT2:stx2:stx2c:eae:Ehly, was significantly more frequently associated with HUS and bloody diarrhea than were other profiles (P = 0.02) and also caused the deaths of two children. In this study, the risk factors for severe symptoms were an age of <5 years and infection by the strain of O157:H7:PT2 mentioned above. PMID:12454157

  16. Control of Shigatoxin-producing Escherichia coli in cheese by dairy bacterial strains.

    PubMed

    Callon, Cécile; Arliguie, Céline; Montel, Marie-Christine

    2016-02-01

    Bio-preservation could be a valuable way to control Shigatoxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in cheese. To this end, 41 strains were screened for their inhibitory potential on model cheese curd and on pasteurized and raw milk uncooked pressed cheeses. Strains of Lactococcus lactis, Lactococcus garvieae, Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides, Leuconostoc citreum, Lactobacillus sp, Carnobacterium mobile, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Macrococcus caseolyticus and Hafnia alvei reduced STEC O26:H11 counts by 1.4-2.5 log cfu g(-1) and to a lesser extent STEC O157:H7 counts in pasteurized milk cheeses. Some strains can act in synergy to inhibit STEC in raw milk uncooked pressed cheeses. Inhibitory associations had no adverse effect on the sensory characteristics of these cheeses. The association of H. alvei, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lc. lactis was the most inhibitory: after inoculation of this consortium into milk, STEC O26:H11 and O157:H7, inoculated at 2 log cfu ml(-1), were reduced by up to 3 log cfu g(-1) in ripened cheese. Inhibition in cheese cannot be predicted from H2O2 production in BHI medium, decreased pH or milk reduction. It is not clear what role the rapid decrease in pH during the first 6 h may play in the inhibition. Further studies will be needed to determine the nature of the inhibition. PMID:26678131

  17. Isolation of Minicircular Deoxyribonucleic Acids from Wild Strains of Escherichia coli and their Relationship to other Bacterial Plasmids

    PubMed Central

    Goebel, Werner; Schrempf, Hildgund

    1972-01-01

    Supercoiled minicircular deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecules with molecular weights of 1.8 × 106 and 2.3 × 106 have been isolated from two wild strains of Escherichia coli. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments indicate that these DNA molecules share extended homologies with the minicircular DNA of E. coli 15. The DNA of the colicinogenic factor E1 (ColE1) also hybridizes to a large extent with minicircular DNA of E. coli 15. In contrast, no hybridization could be detected with various large extrachromosomal DNA elements such as the colicinogenic factor V (ColV), the beta-hemolytic factor (Hly), or the P1-like DNA of E. coli 15. Two different insertion DNA species of E. coli integrated into λdg-DNA (λdg UPin 128, λdg UPin 308) do not show any annealing with minicircular DNA of E. coli 15. Images PMID:4340922

  18. Investigation of carbon storage regulation network (csr genes) and phenotypic differences between acid sensitive and resistant Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Escherichia coli O157:H7 and related serotype strains have previously been shown to vary in acid resistance, however, little is known about strain specific mechanisms of acid resistance. We examined sensitive and resistant E. coli strains to determine the effects of growth in minimal and...

  19. Metabolic footprint analysis of recombinant Escherichia coli strains during fed-batch fermentations.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Sónia; Villas-Bôas, Silas G; Ferreira, Eugénio C; Rocha, Isabel

    2011-03-01

    Metabolic footprinting has become a valuable analytical approach for the characterization of phenotypes and the distinction of specific metabolic states resulting from environmental and/or genetic alterations. The metabolic impact of heterologous protein production in Escherichia coli cells is of particular interest, since there are numerous cellular stresses triggered during this process that limit the overall productivity, e.g. the stringent response. Because the knowledge on the metabolic responses in recombinant bioprocesses is still scarce, metabolic footprinting can provide relevant information on the intrinsic metabolic adjustments. Thus, the metabolic footprints generated by E. coli W3110 and the ΔrelA mutant strain during recombinant fed-batch fermentations at different experimental conditions were measured and interpreted. The IPTG-induction of the heterologous protein expression resulted in the rapid accumulation of inhibitors of the glyoxylate shunt in the culture broth, suggesting the clearance of this anaplerotic route to replenish the TCA intermediaries withdrawn for the additional formation of the heterologous protein. Nutritional shifts were also critical in the recombinant cellular metabolism, indicating that cells employ diverse strategies to counteract imbalances in the cellular metabolism, including the secretion of certain metabolites that are, most likely, used as a metabolic relief to survival processes. PMID:21152511

  20. Conversion of xylan to ethanol by ethanologenic strains of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella oxytoca

    SciTech Connect

    Burchhardt, G.; Ingram, L.O. )

    1992-04-01

    A two-stage process was evaluated for the fermentation of polymeric feedstocks to ethanol by a single, genetically engineered microorganism. The truncated xylanase gene (xynZ) from the thermophilic bacterium Clostridium thermocellum was fused with the N terminus of lacZ to eliminate secretory signals. This hybrid gene was expressed at high levels in ethanologenic strains of Escherichia coli KO11 and Klebsiella oxytoca M5A1(pLOI555). Large amounts of xylanase (25 to 93 mU/mg of cell protein) accumulated as intracellular products during ethanol production. Cells containing xylanase for saccharification. After cooling, the hydrolysate was fermented to ethanol with the same organism (30C), thereby replenishing the supply of xylanase for a subsequent saccharification. Recombinant E. coli metabolized only xylose, while recombinant K. oxytoca M5A1 metabolized xylose, xylobiose, and xylotriose but not xylotetrose. Derivatives of this latter organism produced large amounts of intracellular xylosidase, and the organism is presumed to transport both xylobiose and xylotriose for intracellular hydrolysis. By using recombinant M5A1, approximately 34% of the maximal theoretical yield of ethanol was obtained from xylan by this two-stage process. The yield appeared to be limited by the digestability of commercial xylan rather than by a lack of sufficient xylanase or by ethanol toxicity. In general form, this two-stage process, which uses a single, genetically engineered microorganism, should be applicable for the production of useful chemicals from a wide range of biomass polymers.

  1. Microbial conversion of glycerol to 1,3-propanediol by an engineered strain of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xueming; Tan, Yongsong; Zhu, Hong; Zhao, Kai; Shen, Wei

    2009-03-01

    In an effort to improve industrial production of 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PD), we engineered a novel polycistronic operon under the control of the temperature-sensitive lambda phage P(L)P(R) promoter regulated by the cIts857 repressor and expressed it in Escherichia coli K-12 ER2925. The genes for the production of 1,3-PD in Clostridium butyricum, dhaB1 and dhaB2, which encode the vitamin B(12)-independent glycerol dehydratase DhaB1 and its activating factor, DhaB2, respectively, were tandemly arrayed with the E. coli yqhD gene, which encodes the 1,3-propanediol oxidoreductase isoenzyme YqhD, an NADP-dependent dehydrogenase that can directly convert glycerol to 1,3-PD. The microbial conversion of 1,3-PD from glycerol by this recombinant E. coli strain was studied in a two-stage fermentation process. During the first stage, a novel high-cell-density fermentation step, there was significant cell growth and the majority of the metabolites produced were organic acids, mainly acetate. During the second stage, glycerol from the fresh medium was rapidly converted to 1,3-PD following a temperature shift from 30 degrees C to 42 degrees C. The by-products were mainly pyruvate and acetate. During this two-stage process, the overall 1,3-PD yield and productivity reached 104.4 g/liter and 2.61 g/liter/h, respectively, and the conversion rate of glycerol to 1,3-PD reached 90.2% (g/g). To our knowledge, this is the highest reported yield and productivity efficiency of 1,3-PD with glycerol as the sole source of carbon. Furthermore, the overall fermentation time was only 40 h, shorter than that of any other reports. PMID:19139229

  2. Comparison of the mutagenic effects of 35S decay in Escherichia coli strains WP-2 and WP-2S.

    PubMed

    Pluciennik, H; Kański, R

    1975-01-01

    Comparison was made of the lethal and mutagenic efficiency of 35S yields 35Cl transmutation of incorporated 35S in cells of Escherichia coli strain WP-2 and WP-2S (UV-sensitive). Bacteria were stored at minus 196 degrees. 35S yields 35Cl transmutation induced a higher lethal effect in strain WP-2 than in the UV-sensitive strain WP-2S. Reversions try yields try+ were induced with an approximately similar efficiency in both strains compared. PMID:1090114

  3. Biofilm formation and sanitizer resistance of Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains isolated from "high event period" meat contamination.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rong; Kalchayanand, Norasak; King, David A; Luedtke, Brandon E; Bosilevac, Joseph M; Arthur, Terrance M

    2014-11-01

    In the meat industry, a "high event period" (HEP) is defined as a time period during which commercial meat plants experience a higher than usual rate of Escherichia coli O157:H7 contamination. Genetic analysis indicated that within a HEP, most of the E. coli O157:H7 strains belong to a singular dominant strain type. This was in disagreement with the current beef contamination model stating that contamination occurs when incoming pathogen load on animal hides, which consists of diverse strain types of E. coli O157:H7, exceeds the intervention capacity. Thus, we hypothesize that the HEP contamination may be due to certain in-plant colonized E. coli O157:H7 strains that are better able to survive sanitization through biofilm formation. To test our hypothesis, a collection of 45 E. coli O157:H7 strains isolated from HEP beef contamination incidents and a panel of 47 E. coli O157:H7 strains of diverse genetic backgrounds were compared for biofilm formation and sanitizer resistance. Biofilm formation was tested on 96-well polystyrene plates for 1 to 6 days. Biofilm cell survival and recovery growth after sanitization were compared between the two strain collections using common sanitizers, including quaternary ammonium chloride, chlorine, and sodium chlorite. No difference in "early stage" biofilms was observed between the two strain collections after incubation at 22 to 25°C for 1 or 2 days. However, the HEP strains demonstrated significantly higher potency of "mature" biofilm formation after incubation for 4 to 6 days. Biofilms of the HEP strains also exhibited significantly stronger resistance to sanitization. These data suggest that biofilm formation and sanitization resistance could have a role in HEP beef contamination by E. coli O157:H7, which highlights the importance of proper and complete sanitization of food contact surfaces and food processing equipment in commercial meat plants. PMID:25364934

  4. Deciphering the Magainin Resistance Process of Escherichia coli Strains in Light of the Cytosolic Proteome

    PubMed Central

    Maria-Neto, Simone; Cândido, Elizabete de Souza; Rodrigues, Diana Ribas; de Sousa, Daniel Amaro; da Silva, Ezequiel Marcelino; de Moraes, Lidia Maria Pepe; Otero-Gonzalez, Anselmo de Jesus; Magalhães, Beatriz Simas; Dias, Simoni Campos

    2012-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are effective antibiotic agents commonly found in plants, animals, and microorganisms, and they have been suggested as the future of antimicrobial chemotherapies. It is vital to understand the molecular details that define the mechanism of action of resistance to AMPs for a rational planning of the next antibiotic generation and also to shed some light on the complex AMP mechanism of action. Here, the antibiotic resistance of Escherichia coli ATCC 8739 to magainin I was evaluated in the cytosolic subproteome. Magainin-resistant strains were selected after 10 subsequent spreads at subinhibitory concentrations of magainin I (37.5 mg · liter−1), and their cytosolic proteomes were further compared to those of magainin-susceptible strains through two-dimensional electrophoresis analysis. As a result, 41 differentially expressed proteins were detected by in silico analysis and further identified by tandem mass spectrometry de novo sequencing. Functional categorization indicated an intense metabolic response mainly in energy and nitrogen uptake, stress response, amino acid conversion, and cell wall thickness. Indeed, data reported here show that resistance to cationic antimicrobial peptides possesses a greater molecular complexity than previously supposed, resulting in cell commitment to several metabolic pathways. PMID:22290970

  5. The nature of laboratory domestication changes in freshly isolated Escherichia coli strains.

    PubMed

    Eydallin, Gustavo; Ryall, Ben; Maharjan, Ram; Ferenci, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    Adaptation of environmental bacteria to laboratory conditions can lead to modification of important traits, what we term domestication. Little is known about the rapidity and reproducibility of domestication changes, the uniformity of these changes within a species or how diverse these are in a single culture. Here, we analysed phenotypic changes in nutrient-rich liquid media or on agar of four Escherichia coli strains newly isolated through minimal steps from different sources. The laboratory-cultured populations showed changes in metabolism, morphotype, fitness and in some phenotypes associated with the sigma factor RpoS. Domestication events and phenotypic diversity started to emerge within 2-3 days in replicate subcultures of the same ancestor. In some strains, increased amino acid usage and higher fitness under nutrient limitation resembled those in mutants with the GASP (growth advantage in stationary phase) phenotype. The domestication changes are not uniform across a species or even within a single domesticated population. However, some parallelism in adaptation within repeat cultures was observed. Differences in the laboratory environment also determine domestication effects, which differ between liquid and solid media or with extended stationary phase. Important lessons for the handling and storage of organisms can be based on these studies. PMID:23889812

  6. Proteomic analysis of outer membrane vesicles from the probiotic strain Escherichia coli Nissle 1917.

    PubMed

    Aguilera, Laura; Toloza, Lorena; Giménez, Rosa; Odena, Antonia; Oliveira, Eliandre; Aguilar, Juan; Badia, Josefa; Baldomà, Laura

    2014-02-01

    Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) is a probiotic used for the treatment of intestinal disorders. EcN improves gastrointestinal homeostasis and microbiota balance; however, little is known about how this probiotic delivers effector molecules to the host. Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are constitutively produced by Gram-negative bacteria and have a relevant role in bacteria-host interactions. Using 1D SDS-PAGE and highly sensitive LC-MS/MS analysis we identified in this study 192 EcN vesicular proteins with high confidence in three independent biological replicates. Of these proteins, 18 were encoded by strain-linked genes and 57 were common to pathogen-derived OMVs. These proteins may contribute to the ability of this probiotic to colonize the human gut as they fulfil functions related to adhesion, immune modulation or bacterial survival in host niches. This study describes the first global OMV proteome of a probiotic strain and provides evidence that probiotic-derived OMVs contain proteins that can target these vesicles to the host and mediate their beneficial effects on intestinal function. All MS data have been deposited in the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000367 (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org/dataset/PXD000367). PMID:24307187

  7. Synthesis of magnetic framework composites for the discrimination of Escherichia coli at the strain level.

    PubMed

    Wei, Ji-Ping; Qiao, Bin; Song, Wen-Jun; Chen, Tao; li, Fei; Li, Bo-Zhi; Wang, Jin; Han, Ye; Huang, Yan-Feng; Zhou, Zhi-Jiang

    2015-04-01

    Rapid and efficient characterization and identification of pathogens at the strain level is of key importance for epidemiologic investigations, which still remains a challenge. In this work, solvothermically Fe3O4-COOH@MIL-101 composites were fabricated by in situ crystallization approach. The composites combine the excellent properties of both chromium (III) terephthalate (MIL-101) and carboxylic-functionalized magnetite (Fe3O4-COOH) particles and possess the efficient peptides/proteins enrichment properties and magnetic responsiveness. Fe3O4-COOH@MIL-101 composites as magnetic solid phase extraction materials were used to increase the discriminatory power of MALDI-TOF MS profiles. BSA tryptic peptides at a low concentration of 0.25 fmol μL(-1) could be detected by MALDI-TOF MS. In addition, Fe3O4-COOH@MIL-101 composites were successfully applied in the selective enrichment of the protein biomarkers from bacterial cell lysates and discrimination of Escherichia coli at the strain level. This work provides the possibility for wide applications of magnetic MOFs to discriminate pathogens below the species level. PMID:25813232

  8. Correlation between virulence factors and in vitro biofilm formation by Escherichia coli strains.

    PubMed

    Naves, Plínio; del Prado, Gema; Huelves, Lorena; Gracia, Matilde; Ruiz, Vicente; Blanco, Jorge; Dahbi, Ghizlane; Blanco, Miguel; Ponte, María del Carmen; Soriano, Francisco

    2008-08-01

    The ability of 15 Escherichia coli strains to form biofilms on polystirene plates was studied. The strains were serotyped, and their phenotypic expression of surface virulence factors (VFs), and antibiotic susceptibility was also determined. Moreover, 30 VFs-associated genes were analysed, including 15 adhesins (papC, papG and its three alleles, sfa/focDE, sfaS, focG, afa/draBC, iha, bmaE, gafD, nfaE, fimH, fimAvMT78, agn43, F9 fimbriae and type 3 fimbriae-encoding gene clusters), four toxins (hlyA, cnf1, sat and tsh), four siderophore (iron, fyuA, iutA and iucD), five proctetins/invasion-encoding genes (kpsM II, kpsMT III, K1 kps variant- neuC, traT and ibeA), and the pathogenicity island malX and cvaC. Morphological appearance and thickness of biofilms of two strong and three weak biofilm producers were also studied by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Seven strains were classified as strong biofilm producers and the remaining eight strains were regarded as weak biofilm producers. Mannose-resistant haemagglutination was the only phenotypically expressed surface virulence factor more frequently found in the strong biofilm group. Five virulence-associated genes were more common (p<0.05) in strong biofilm producers: papC and papG alleles, sfa/focDE, focG, hlyA and cnf1. CLSM images showed irregular biofilms with projections at the top mainly in strong biofilm. PMID:18486439

  9. Transcriptional analysis and adaptive evolution of Escherichia coli strains growing on acetate.

    PubMed

    Rajaraman, Eashwar; Agarwal, Ankit; Crigler, Jacob; Seipelt-Thiemann, Rebecca; Altman, Elliot; Eiteman, Mark A

    2016-09-01

    Eighteen strains of Escherichia coli were compared for maximum specific growth rate (μ MAX) on 85 mM acetate as the sole carbon source. The C strain ATCC8739 had the greatest growth rate (0.41 h(-1)) while SCS-1 had the slowest growth rate (0.15 h(-1)). Transcriptional analysis of three of the strains (ATCC8739, BL21, SMS-3-5) was conducted to elucidate why ATCC8739 had the greatest maximum growth rate. Seventy-one genes were upregulated 2-fold or greater in ATCC8739, while 128 genes were downregulated 2-fold or greater in ATCC8739 compared to BL21 and SMS-3-5. To generate a strain that could grow more quickly on acetate, ATCC8739 was cultured in a chemostat using a progressively increasing dilution rate. When the dilution rate reached 0.50 h(-1), three isolated colonies each grew faster than ATCC8739 on 85 mM acetate, with MEC136 growing the fastest with a growth rate of 0.51 h(-1), about 25 % greater than ATCC8739. Transcriptional analysis of MEC136 showed that eight genes were downregulated 2-fold or greater and one gene was upregulated 2-fold or greater compared to ATCC8739. Genomic sequencing revealed that MEC136 contained a single mutation, causing a serine to proline change in amino acid 266 of RpoA, the α subunit of the RNA polymerase core enzyme. The 260-270 amino acid region of RpoA has been shown to be a key region of the protein that affects the interaction of the α subunit of the RNA polymerase core enzyme with several global transcriptional activators, such as CRP and FNR. PMID:27448288

  10. Strain-Dependent Cellular Immune Responses in Cattle following Escherichia coli O157:H7 Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Corbishley, Alexander; Ahmad, Nur Indah; Hughes, Kirsty; Hutchings, Michael R.; McAteer, Sean P.; Connelley, Timothy K.; Brown, Helen; Gally, David L.

    2014-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 causes hemorrhagic diarrhea and potentially fatal renal failure in humans. Ruminants are considered to be the primary reservoir for human infection. Vaccines that reduce shedding in cattle are only partially protective, and their underlying protective mechanisms are unknown. Studies investigating the response of cattle to colonization generally focus on humoral immunity, leaving the role of cellular immunity unclear. To inform future vaccine development, we studied the cellular immune responses of cattle during EHEC O157:H7 colonization. Calves were challenged either with a phage type 21/28 (PT21/28) strain possessing the Shiga toxin 2a (Stx2a) and Stx2c genes or with a PT32 strain possessing the Stx2c gene only. T-helper cell-associated transcripts at the terminal rectum were analyzed by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). Induction of gamma interferon (IFN-γ) and T-bet was observed with peak expression of both genes at 7 days in PT32-challenged calves, while upregulation was delayed, peaking at 21 days, in PT21/28-challenged calves. Cells isolated from gastrointestinal lymph nodes demonstrated antigen-specific proliferation and IFN-γ release in response to type III secreted proteins (T3SPs); however, responsiveness was suppressed in cells isolated from PT32-challenged calves. Lymph node cells showed increased expression of the proliferation marker Ki67 in CD4+ T cells from PT21/28-challenged calves, NK cells from PT32-challenged calves, and CD8+ and γδ T cells from both PT21/28- and PT32-challenged calves following ex vivo restimulation with T3SPs. This study demonstrates that cattle mount cellular immune responses during colonization with EHEC O157:H7, the temporality of which is strain dependent, with further evidence of strain-specific immunomodulation. PMID:25267838

  11. REPETITIVE SEQUENCE BASED-PCR PROFILING OF ESCHERICHIA COLI O157 STRAINS FROM BEEF IN SOUTHERN THAILAND.

    PubMed

    Sukhumungoon, Pharanai; Tantadapan, Rujira; Rattanachuay, Pattamarat

    2016-01-01

    Beef and its products are potential vehicles of Escherichia coli O157, the most important serotype implicated in many large outbreaks of diarrheal infection in humans worldwide. There is a need for rapid detection of contaminated food in order to implement appropriate and effective control measures. In this study, repetitive sequence (rep)-PCR, using three different primers, BOXA1R, ERIC2 and (GTG)5, singly and in combinations, were employed to compare the genetic relatedness among E. coli O157 group with other diarrheagenic E. coli strains as controls. Although a combination of BOXA1R + ERIC2 + (GTG)5 primers generated a rep-PCR profile containing the highest number of amplicon bands among the DEC strains tested, dendrogram (at 80% similarity) exhibited the lowest DEC classification of 5 clusters, whereas that from BOXA1R or BOXA1R+ (GTG)5 rep-PCR profiling produced 8 clusters. Nevertheless, focusing E. coli O157 strains were grouped into 4 clusters irrespective of the rep-PCR profiles analyzed, and all 14 but two, PSU60 and PSU132, E. coli O157 strains isolated from beef in southern Thailand during 2012 to 2014 fell into a single cluster. Thus, rep-PCR profiling generated with BOXA1R or BOXA1R + (GTG)5 is sufficient for distinguishing among DEC strains, including E. coli O157 in southern Thailand. PMID:27086425

  12. Comparison of growth, acetate production, and acetate inhibition of Escherichia coli strains in batch and fed-batch fermentations.

    PubMed

    Luli, G W; Strohl, W R

    1990-04-01

    The growth characteristics and acetate production of several Escherichia coli strains were compared by using shake flasks, batch fermentations, and glucose-feedback-controlled fed-batch fermentations to assess the potential of each strain to grow at high cell densities. Of the E. coli strains tested, including JM105, B, W3110, W3100, HB101, DH1, CSH50, MC1060, JRG1046, and JRG1061, strains JM105 and B were found to have the greatest relative biomass accumulation, strain MC1060 accumulated the highest concentrations of acetic acid, and strain B had the highest growth rates under the conditions tested. In glucose-feedback-controlled fed-batch fermentations, strains B and JM105 produced only 2 g of acetate.liter-1 while accumulating up to 30 g of biomass.liter-1. Under identical conditions, strains HB101 and MC1060 accumulated less than 10 g of biomass.liter-1 and strain MC1060 produced 8 g of acetate.liter-1. The addition of various concentrations of sodium acetate to the growth medium resulted in a logarithmic decrease, with respect to acetate concentration, in the growth rates of E. coli JM105, JM105(pOS4201), and JRG1061. These data indicated that the growth of the E. coli strains was likely to be inhibited by the acetate they produced when grown on media containing glucose. A model for the inhibition of growth of E. coli by acetate was derived from these experiments to explain the inhibition of acetate on E. coli strains at neutral pH. PMID:2187400

  13. Comparison of growth, acetate production, and acetate inhibition of Escherichia coli strains in batch and fed-batch fermentations.

    PubMed Central

    Luli, G W; Strohl, W R

    1990-01-01

    The growth characteristics and acetate production of several Escherichia coli strains were compared by using shake flasks, batch fermentations, and glucose-feedback-controlled fed-batch fermentations to assess the potential of each strain to grow at high cell densities. Of the E. coli strains tested, including JM105, B, W3110, W3100, HB101, DH1, CSH50, MC1060, JRG1046, and JRG1061, strains JM105 and B were found to have the greatest relative biomass accumulation, strain MC1060 accumulated the highest concentrations of acetic acid, and strain B had the highest growth rates under the conditions tested. In glucose-feedback-controlled fed-batch fermentations, strains B and JM105 produced only 2 g of acetate.liter-1 while accumulating up to 30 g of biomass.liter-1. Under identical conditions, strains HB101 and MC1060 accumulated less than 10 g of biomass.liter-1 and strain MC1060 produced 8 g of acetate.liter-1. The addition of various concentrations of sodium acetate to the growth medium resulted in a logarithmic decrease, with respect to acetate concentration, in the growth rates of E. coli JM105, JM105(pOS4201), and JRG1061. These data indicated that the growth of the E. coli strains was likely to be inhibited by the acetate they produced when grown on media containing glucose. A model for the inhibition of growth of E. coli by acetate was derived from these experiments to explain the inhibition of acetate on E. coli strains at neutral pH. PMID:2187400

  14. [The Influence of Rifampicin Resistant Mutations on the Biosynthesis of Exopolysaccharides by Strain Escherichia coli K-12 lon].

    PubMed

    Hovhannisyan, H G; Barseghyan, A H

    2015-01-01

    The influence of RNA polymerase (rif) mutations on the yield of capsular exopolysaccharide--colanic acid (CA) of Escherichia coli K-12 lon strain was studied. Five colanic acid isogenic producing strains were created by transduction transfer of rif alleles possessing pleiotropic effects. The obtained isogenic strains differed by specific growth rate, size and mucoidness of colonies, the dependence of growth on the medium composition and cultivation temperature, as well as by the adsorption rate of virulent bacteriophage M59, specifically lysing E. coli cells producing CA. Direct correlation between the yield of exopolysaccharides, growth rate and adsorption of bacteriophage M59 was revealed. Among rif recombinants strain AH203, which synthesized twice as much CA compared with the parental strain in submerged cultivation was selected. PMID:26596085

  15. Occurrence and characteristics of virulence genes of Escherichia coli strains isolated from healthy dairy cows in Inner Mongolia, China

    PubMed Central

    Huasai, Simujide; Chen, Aorigele; Wang, Chun-jie; Li, Yu; Tongrige, Bai

    2012-01-01

    Virulence genes of Escherichia coli (E. coli) isolates from healthy dairy cows were identified and characterized by a multiplex PCR assay and serogrouping test. The results showed that among the target genes, eaeA was most frequently detected, accounting for 22.11% (67/303) in all strains from 101 cows. For categorization of E. coli, aEPEC was the category with widest distribution detected in 55 (18.15%) strains from 22 cattle. All of 84 PCR-positive strains belonged to 14 O serogroups, and O149 (25.00%) was most common identified, followed by O2 (17.86%), O8 (11.90%) and O103 (9.52%) with relatively high prevalence. PMID:24031860

  16. Phylogenetic Comparisons Reveal Multiple Acquisitions of the Toxin Genes by Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Strains of Different Evolutionary Lineages▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Sue M.; Chaudhuri, Roy R.; Jiang, Zhi-Dong; DuPont, Herbert; Gyles, Carlton; Penn, Charles W.; Pallen, Mark J.; Henderson, Ian R.

    2006-01-01

    Escherichia coli is a diverse bacterial species which is widely distributed in the environment but also exists as a commensal and pathogen of different host species. Human intestinal pathogenic E. coli causes over 160 million cases of diarrhea and an estimated 1 million deaths per year. The majority of deaths are attributable to one pathovar of E. coli, namely, enterotoxigenic E. coli. The pathogenesis of enterotoxigenic E. coli is dependent on the production of a colonization factor to promote adhesion to the intestinal epithelium and the elaboration of heat-labile or heat-stable toxins which induce a secretory diarrhea. Despite the high morbidity and mortality associated with enterotoxigenic E. coli infection, little is known of the genetic background of this global pathogen. Here we demonstrate by multilocus sequence typing that enterotoxigenic E. coli isolates are present in all phylogenetic lineages of E. coli, indicating that acquisition of the toxin genes may be sufficient to generate an enterotoxigenic E. coli strain. In addition, screening of diarrheal isolates for the presence of additional genes previously associated with the virulence of enterotoxigenic E. coli revealed that they were not abundant. These observations have significant implications for disease epidemiology and for the design of effective vaccines. PMID:17050815

  17. Inhibition profiles of mono- and polyvalent FimH antagonists against 10 different Escherichia coli strains.

    PubMed

    Chalopin, T; Brissonnet, Y; Sivignon, A; Deniaud, D; Cremet, L; Barnich, N; Bouckaert, J; Gouin, S G

    2015-12-14

    Mono- and polyvalent ligands with strong affinities for the mannose-binding adhesin FimH were synthesised, and their anti-adhesive properties against ten E. coli strains were compared in two cell-based assays. The compounds were assessed against the non-pathogenic E. coli K12 and nine strains isolated by coproculture or from patients with osteoarticular infections (OIs), Crohn's disease (CD) and urinary tract infections (UTIs). The results showed that the compounds could inhibit the whole set of bacterial strains but with marked differences in terms of effective concentrations. The relative inhibitory potency of the monovalent compounds was also conserved for the ten strains and in the two assays. These results clearly suggest that a potent monovalent anti-adhesive assessed on a single E. coli strain will probably be effective on a broad range of strains and may treat diverse E. coli infections (OIs, CD and UTIs). In contrast, the polyvalent compounds showed a significant strain-dependancy in preventing E. coli attachment to intestinal cells. The multivalent antiadhesive effect may therefore vary depending on the E. coli strain tested. PMID:26440382

  18. Development of a Multiplex PCR Assay for Detection of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli, Enterohemorrhagic E. coli, and Enteropathogenic E. coli Strains

    PubMed Central

    Botkin, Douglas J.; Galli, Lucía; Sankarapani, Vinoth; Soler, Michael; Rivas, Marta; Torres, Alfredo G.

    2012-01-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 and other pathogenic E. coli strains are enteric pathogens associated with food safety threats and which remain a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In the current study, we investigated whether enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), and enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) strains can be rapidly and specifically differentiated with multiplex PCR (mPCR) utilizing selected biomarkers associated with each strain’s respective virulence genotype. Primers were designed to amplify multiple intimin (eae) and long polar fimbriae (lpfA) variants, the bundle-forming pilus gene bfpA, and the Shiga toxin-encoding genes stx1 and stx2. We demonstrated consistent amplification of genes specific to the prototype EHEC O157:H7 EDL933 (lpfA1-3, lpfA2-2, stx1, stx2, and eae-γ) and EPEC O127:H6 E2348/69 (eae-α, lpfA1-1, and bfpA) strains using the optimized mPCR protocol with purified genomic DNA (gDNA). A screen of gDNA from isolates in a diarrheagenic E. coli collection revealed that the mPCR assay was successful in predicting the correct pathotype of EPEC and EHEC clones grouped in the distinctive phylogenetic disease clusters EPEC1 and EHEC1, and was able to differentiate EHEC1 from EHEC2 clusters. The assay detection threshold was 2 × 104 CFU per PCR reaction for EHEC and EPEC. mPCR was also used to screen Argentinean clinical samples from hemolytic uremic syndrome and diarrheal patients, resulting in 91% sensitivity and 84% specificity when compared to established molecular diagnostic procedures. In conclusion, our mPCR methodology permitted differentiation of EPEC, STEC and EHEC strains from other pathogenic E. coli; therefore, the assay becomes an additional tool for rapid diagnosis of these organisms. PMID:22919600

  19. Influence of Sanitizers on the Lipopolysaccharide Toxicity of Escherichia coli Strains Cultivated in the Presence of Zygosaccharomyces bailii

    PubMed Central

    Mogotsi, Lerato; De Smidt, Olga; Venter, Pierre; Groenewald, Willem

    2014-01-01

    The influence of sublethal concentrations of two sanitizers, liquid iodophor and liquid hypochlorite (LH), on the growth rates and toxicity of food-borne pathogenic Escherichia coli strains grown in the presence of spoilage yeast Zygosaccharomyces bailii was assessed. When grown in combination with Z. bailii both E. coli O113 and E. coli O26 exhibited slower growth rates, except when E. coli O113 was grown in combination with Z. bailii at 0.2% LH. The growth rate of Z. bailii was not impacted by the addition of the sanitizers or by communal growth with E. coli strains. LAL and IL-6 results indicated a decrease in toxicity of pure E. coli cultures with comparable profiles for control and sanitizer exposed samples, although the LAL assay proved to be more sensitive. Interestingly, pure cultures of Z. bailii showed increased toxicity measured by LAL and decreased toxicity measured by IL-6. LAL analysis showed a decrease in toxicity of both E. coli strains grown in combination with Z. bailii, while IL-6 analysis of the mixed cultures showed an increase in toxicity. The use of LAL for toxicity determination in a mixed culture overlooks the contribution made by spoilage yeast, thus demonstrating the importance of using the appropriate method for toxicity testing in mixed microbe environments. PMID:24977173

  20. Comparative Safety and Immunogenicity of Two Attenuated Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Vaccine Strains in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    McKenzie, Robin; Bourgeois, A. Louis; Engstrom, Fayette; Hall, Eric; Chang, H. Sunny; Gomes, Joseph G.; Kyle, Jennifer L.; Cassels, Fred; Turner, Arthur K.; Randall, Roger; Darsley, Michael; Lee, Cynthia; Bedford, Philip; Shimko, Janet; Sack, David A.

    2006-01-01

    A vaccine against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is needed to prevent diarrheal illness among children in developing countries and at-risk travelers. Two live attenuated ETEC strains, PTL002 and PTL003, which express the ETEC colonization factor CFA/II, were evaluated for safety and immunogenicity. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 19 subjects ingested one dose, and 21 subjects ingested two doses (days 0 and 10) of PTL-002 or PTL-003 at 2 × 109 CFU/dose. Anti-CFA/II mucosal immune responses were determined from the number of antibody-secreting cells (ASC) in blood measured by enzyme-linked immunospot assay, the antibody in lymphocyte supernatants (ALS) measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and fecal immunoglobulin A (IgA) levels determined by ELISA. Time-resolved fluorescence (TRF) ELISA was more sensitive than standard colorimetric ELISA for measuring serum antibody responses to CFA/II and its components, CS1 and CS3. Both constructs were well tolerated. Mild diarrhea occurred after 2 of 31 doses (6%) of PTL-003. PTL-003 produced more sustained intestinal colonization than PTL-002 and better IgA response rates: 90% versus 55% (P = 0.01) for anti-CFA/II IgA-ASCs, 55% versus 30% (P = 0.11) for serum anti-CS1 IgA by TRF, and 65% versus 25% (P = 0.03) for serum anti-CS3 IgA by TRF. Serum IgG response rates to CS1 or CS3 were 55% in PTL-003 recipients and 15% in PTL-002 recipients (P = 0.02). Two doses of either strain were not significantly more immunogenic than one. Based on its superior immunogenicity, which was comparable to that of a virulent ETEC strain and other ETEC vaccine candidates, PTL-003 will be developed further as a component of a live, oral attenuated ETEC vaccine. PMID:16428745

  1. Dual-serotype biofilm formation by shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 and O26:H11 strains.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rong; Kalchayanand, Norasak; Bono, James L; Schmidt, John W; Bosilevac, Joseph M

    2012-09-01

    Escherichia coli O26:H11 strains were able to outgrow O157:H7 companion strains in planktonic and biofilm phases and also to effectively compete with precolonized O157:H7 cells to establish themselves in mixed biofilms. E. coli O157:H7 strains were unable to displace preformed O26:H11 biofilms. Therefore, E. coli O26:H11 remains a potential risk in food safety. PMID:22706056

  2. A Novel Phenanthrene Dioxygenase from Nocardioides sp. Strain KP7: Expression in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Atsushi; Iwabuchi, Tokuro; Harayama, Shigeaki

    2000-01-01

    Nocardioides sp. strain KP7 grows on phenanthrene but not on naphthalene. This organism degrades phenanthrene via 1-hydroxy-2-naphthoate, o-phthalate, and protocatechuate. The genes responsible for the degradation of phenanthrene to o-phthalate (phd) were found by Southern hybridization to reside on the chromosome. A 10.6-kb DNA fragment containing eight phd genes was cloned and sequenced. The phdA, phdB, phdC, and phdD genes, which encode the α and β subunits of the oxygenase component, a ferredoxin, and a ferredoxin reductase, respectively, of phenanthrene dioxygenase were identified. The gene cluster, phdAB, was located 8.3 kb downstream of the previously characterized phdK gene, which encodes 2-carboxybenzaldehyde dehydrogenase. The phdCD gene cluster was located 2.9 kb downstream of the phdB gene. PhdA and PhdB exhibited moderate (less than 60%) sequence identity to the α and β subunits of other ring-hydroxylating dioxygenases. The PhdC sequence showed features of a [3Fe-4S] or [4Fe-4S] type of ferredoxin, not of the [2Fe-2S] type of ferredoxin that has been found in most of the reported ring-hydroxylating dioxygenases. PhdD also showed moderate (less than 40%) sequence identity to known reductases. The phdABCD genes were expressed poorly in Escherichia coli, even when placed under the control of strong promoters. The introduction of a Shine-Dalgarno sequence upstream of each initiation codon of the phdABCD genes improved their expression in E. coli. E. coli cells carrying phdBCD or phdACD exhibited no phenanthrene-degrading activity, and those carrying phdABD or phdABC exhibited phenanthrene-degrading activity which was significantly less than that in cells carrying the phdABCD genes. It was thus concluded that all of the phdABCD genes are necessary for the efficient expression of phenanthrene-degrading activity. The genetic organization of the phd genes, the phylogenetically diverged positions of these genes, and an unusual type of ferredoxin component

  3. Inhibitory activity of avibactam against selected β-lactamases expressed in an isogenic Escherichia coli strain.

    PubMed

    Giani, Tommaso; Cannatelli, Antonio; Di Pilato, Vincenzo; Testa, Raymond; Nichols, Wright W; Rossolini, Gian Maria

    2016-09-01

    Avibactam restored the in-vitro antibacterial activity of ceftazidime, ceftaroline, and aztreonam against isogenic Escherichia coli expressing class A, class C, and class D β-lactamases. The enzymes included TEM and CTX-M extended spectrum β-lactamases, ACT, CMY and FOX AmpC-type enzymes, and carbapenemases including rarer KPC variants and OXA-139. PMID:27394638

  4. Complete genome sequences of two Escherichia coli O145:H28 outbreak strains of food origin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although serotype O157:H7 is the predominant enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC), outbreaks of non-O157 EHEC that cause severe foodborne illness, including hemolytic uremic syndrome have increased worldwide. O145 is recognized as one of the six non-O157 serotypes that are most frequently assoc...

  5. Ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass by recombinant Escherichia coli strain FBR5

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lignocellulosic biomass, upon pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis, generates a mixture of hexose and pentose sugars such as glucose, xylose, arabinose and galactose. Escherichia coli utilizes all these sugars well but it lacks the ability to produce ethanol from them. Recombinant ethanologenic E...

  6. Comparative genomic analysis and adherence characteristics of supershedder strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 (O157) is a zoonotic foodborne pathogen of major public health concern that results in considerable intestinal and extra-intestinal illness in humans. Asymptomatic cattle are the primary reservoir of O157 and harbor the pathogen at the terminal recto-an...

  7. Molecular Epidemiology of ESBL Genes and Multi-Drug Resistance in Diarrheagenic Escherichia Coli Strains Isolated from Adults in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Ghorbani-Dalini, Sadegh; Kargar, Mohammad; Doosti, Abbas; Abbasi, Pejman; Sarshar, Meysam

    2015-01-01

    Resistance to oxyimino cephalosporins antibiotics in Enterobacteriaceae is primarily done by the extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs). Clear identification of risk factors for ESBLs-producing infections is necessary. Therefore, efficient strategies can be developed to decrease outbreak of these infections. The aim of this study was to determine the antibacterial susceptibility and ESBLs pattern of diarrhogenic Escherichia coli (E. coli) strains isolated from adult patients. In the present study, diarrheogenic E. coli strains were isolated from 54 patients from the University of Medical Sciences hospitals in Shiraz. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done by disk diffusion method by CLSI criteria. The presence of blaTEM, blaSHV and blaCTX-M genes was investigated by PCR using designated primers. The prevalence of ESBLs-producer E. coli strains was 12.96%. Antimicrobial resistance testing showed a high resistance to cefexime, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, ampicillin and penicillin. Overall, β-lactamase genes were identified in 52 (96.30%) isolates which were identified as 45 (83.33%) blaTEM, 17 (31.48%) blaSHV and 11 (20.37%) blaCTX-M. ESBLs-producer E. coli is very prevalent in Diarrheogenic strains isolated from adult patients. Also, this study clearly showed that the blaTEM gene for ESBLs-producer E. coli was widespread in Iran. PMID:26664394

  8. Molecular Epidemiology of ESBL Genes and Multi-Drug Resistance in Diarrheagenic Escherichia Coli Strains Isolated from Adults in Iran.

    PubMed

    Ghorbani-Dalini, Sadegh; Kargar, Mohammad; Doosti, Abbas; Abbasi, Pejman; Sarshar, Meysam

    2015-01-01

    Resistance to oxyimino cephalosporins antibiotics in Enterobacteriaceae is primarily done by the extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs). Clear identification of risk factors for ESBLs-producing infections is necessary. Therefore, efficient strategies can be developed to decrease outbreak of these infections. The aim of this study was to determine the antibacterial susceptibility and ESBLs pattern of diarrhogenic Escherichia coli (E. coli) strains isolated from adult patients. In the present study, diarrheogenic E. coli strains were isolated from 54 patients from the University of Medical Sciences hospitals in Shiraz. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done by disk diffusion method by CLSI criteria. The presence of bla TEM , bla SHV and bla CTX-M genes was investigated by PCR using designated primers. The prevalence of ESBLs-producer E. coli strains was 12.96%. Antimicrobial resistance testing showed a high resistance to cefexime, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, ampicillin and penicillin. Overall, β-lactamase genes were identified in 52 (96.30%) isolates which were identified as 45 (83.33%) bla TEM, 17 (31.48%) blaSHV and 11 (20.37%) blaCTX-M. ESBLs-producer E. coli is very prevalent in Diarrheogenic strains isolated from adult patients. Also, this study clearly showed that the bla TEM gene for ESBLs-producer E. coli was widespread in Iran. PMID:26664394

  9. Identification of genes subject to positive selection in uropathogenic strains of Escherichia coli: A comparative genomics approach

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Swaine L.; Hung, Chia-Seui; Xu, Jian; Reigstad, Christopher S.; Magrini, Vincent; Sabo, Aniko; Blasiar, Darin; Bieri, Tamberlyn; Meyer, Rekha R.; Ozersky, Philip; Armstrong, Jon R.; Fulton, Robert S.; Latreille, J. Phillip; Spieth, John; Hooton, Thomas M.; Mardis, Elaine R.; Hultgren, Scott J.; Gordon, Jeffrey I.

    2006-01-01

    Escherichia coli is a model laboratory bacterium, a species that is widely distributed in the environment, as well as a mutualist and pathogen in its human hosts. As such, E. coli represents an attractive organism to study how environment impacts microbial genome structure and function. Uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) must adapt to life in several microbial communities in the human body, and has a complex life cycle in the bladder when it causes acute or recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI). Several studies designed to identify virulence factors have focused on genes that are uniquely represented in UPEC strains, whereas the role of genes that are common to all E. coli has received much less attention. Here we describe the complete 5,065,741-bp genome sequence of a UPEC strain recovered from a patient with an acute bladder infection and compare it with six other finished E. coli genome sequences. We searched 3,470 ortholog sets for genes that are under positive selection only in UPEC strains. Our maximum likelihood-based analysis yielded 29 genes involved in various aspects of cell surface structure, DNA metabolism, nutrient acquisition, and UTI. These results were validated by resequencing a subset of the 29 genes in a panel of 50 urinary, periurethral, and rectal E. coli isolates from patients with UTI. These studies outline a computational approach that may be broadly applicable for studying strain-specific adaptation and pathogenesis in other bacteria. PMID:16585510

  10. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli strain CFT073 disrupts NLRP3 inflammasome activation.

    PubMed

    Waldhuber, Anna; Puthia, Manoj; Wieser, Andreas; Cirl, Christine; Dürr, Susanne; Neumann-Pfeifer, Silke; Albrecht, Simone; Römmler, Franziska; Müller, Tina; Zheng, Yunji; Schubert, Sören; Groß, Olaf; Svanborg, Catharina; Miethke, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    Successful bacterial pathogens produce an array of virulence factors that allow subversion of the immune system and persistence within the host. For example, uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains, such as CFT073, express Toll/IL-1 receptor-containing (TIR-containing) protein C (TcpC), which impairs TLR signaling, thereby suppressing innate immunity in the urinary tract and enhancing persistence in the kidneys. Here, we have reported that TcpC also reduces secretion of IL-1β by directly interacting with the NACHT leucin-rich repeat PYD protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome, which is crucial for recognition of pathogens within the cytosol. At a low MOI, IL-1β secretion was minimal in CFT073-infected macrophages; however, IL-1β release was markedly increased in macrophages infected with CFT073 lacking tcpC. Induction of IL-1β secretion by CFT073 and tcpC-deficient CFT073 required the NLRP3 inflammasome. TcpC attenuated activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome by binding both NLRP3 and caspase-1 and thereby preventing processing and activation of caspase-1. Moreover, in a murine urinary tract infection model, CFT073 infection rapidly induced expression of the NLRP3 inflammasome in the bladder mucosa; however, the presence of TcpC in WT CFT073 reduced IL-1β levels in the urine of infected mice. Together, these findings illustrate how uropathogenic E. coli use the multifunctional virulence factor TcpC to attenuate innate immune responses in the urinary tract. PMID:27214553

  11. Comparison of the large-scale periplasmic proteomes of the Escherichia coli K-12 and B strains.

    PubMed

    Han, Mee-Jung; Kim, Jin Young; Kim, Jung A

    2014-04-01

    Escherichia coli typically secretes many proteins into the periplasmic space, and the periplasmic proteins have been used for the secretory production of various proteins by the biotechnology industry. However, the identity of all of the E. coli periplasmic proteins remains unknown. Here, high-resolution periplasmic proteome reference maps of the E. coli K-12 and B strains were constructed and compared. Of the 145 proteins identified by tandem mass spectrometry, 61 proteins were conserved in the two strains, whereas 11 and 12 strain-specific proteins were identified for the E. coli K-12 and B strains, respectively. In addition, 27 proteins exhibited differences in intensities greater than 2-fold between the K-12 and B strains. The periplasmic proteins MalE and OppA were the most abundant proteins in the two E. coli strains. Distinctive differences between the two strains included several proteins that were caused by genetic variations, such as CybC, FliC, FliY, KpsD, MglB, ModA, and Ybl119, hydrolytic enzymes, particularly phosphatases, glycosylases, and proteases, and many uncharacterized proteins. Compared to previous studies, the localization of many proteins, including 30 proteins for the K-12 strain and 53 proteins for the B strain, was newly identified as periplasmic. This study identifies the largest number of proteins in the E. coli periplasm as well as the dynamics of these proteins. Additionally, these findings are summarized as reference proteome maps that will be useful for studying protein secretion and may provide new strategies for the enhanced secretory production of recombinant proteins. PMID:24140104

  12. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Escherichia coli Strains Isolated from Alouatta spp. Feces to Essential Oils

    PubMed Central

    Carregaro, Adriano Bonfim; Santurio, Deise Flores; de Sá, Mariangela Facco; Santurio, Janio Moraes; Alves, Sydney Hartz

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the in vitro antibacterial activity of essential oils from Lippia graveolens (Mexican oregano), Origanum vulgaris (oregano), Thymus vulgaris (thyme), Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary), Cymbopogon nardus (citronella), Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass), and Eucalyptus citriodora (eucalyptus) against Escherichia coli (n = 22) strains isolated from Alouatta spp. feces. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined for each isolate using the broth microdilution technique. Essential oils of Mexican oregano (MIC mean = 1818 μg mL−1; MBC mean = 2618 μg mL−1), thyme (MIC mean = 2618 μg mL−1; MBC mean = 2909 μg mL−1), and oregano (MIC mean = 3418 μg mL−1; MBC mean = 4800 μg mL−1) showed the best antibacterial activity, while essential oils of eucalyptus, rosemary, citronella, and lemongrass displayed no antibacterial activity at concentrations greater than or equal to 6400 μg mL−1. Our results confirm the antimicrobial potential of some essential oils, which deserve further research. PMID:27313638

  13. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Escherichia coli Strains Isolated from Alouatta spp. Feces to Essential Oils.

    PubMed

    Lara, Valéria Maria; Carregaro, Adriano Bonfim; Santurio, Deise Flores; de Sá, Mariangela Facco; Santurio, Janio Moraes; Alves, Sydney Hartz

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the in vitro antibacterial activity of essential oils from Lippia graveolens (Mexican oregano), Origanum vulgaris (oregano), Thymus vulgaris (thyme), Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary), Cymbopogon nardus (citronella), Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass), and Eucalyptus citriodora (eucalyptus) against Escherichia coli (n = 22) strains isolated from Alouatta spp. feces. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined for each isolate using the broth microdilution technique. Essential oils of Mexican oregano (MIC mean = 1818 μg mL(-1); MBC mean = 2618 μg mL(-1)), thyme (MIC mean = 2618 μg mL(-1); MBC mean = 2909 μg mL(-1)), and oregano (MIC mean = 3418 μg mL(-1); MBC mean = 4800 μg mL(-1)) showed the best antibacterial activity, while essential oils of eucalyptus, rosemary, citronella, and lemongrass displayed no antibacterial activity at concentrations greater than or equal to 6400 μg mL(-1). Our results confirm the antimicrobial potential of some essential oils, which deserve further research. PMID:27313638

  14. Localization of polyamine enhancement of protein synthesis to subcellular components of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas sp. strain Kim.

    PubMed Central

    Rosano, C L; Bunce, S C; Hurwitz, C

    1983-01-01

    At 5 mM Mg2+, spermidine stimulation of polyphenylalanine synthesis by cell-free extracts of Escherichia coli was found to be about 30 times greater than that by extracts of Pseudomonas sp. strain Kim, a unique organism which lacks detectable levels of spermidine. By means of reconstitution experiments, the target of spermidine stimulation was localized to the protein fraction of the highspeed supernatant component (S-100) of E. coli and was absent from, or deficient in, the S-100 fraction of Pseudomonas sp. strain Kim. The spermidine stimulation did not appear to be due to the presence in the E. coli S-100 fraction of ribosomal protein S1, elongation factors, or E. coli aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. The failure to observe spermidine stimulation by the Pseudomonas sp. strain Kim S-100 fraction was also not due to a spermidine-enhanced polyuridylic acid degradation. The synthesis of polyphenylalanine by Pseudomonas sp. strain Kim extracts was stimulated by putrescine and by S-(+)-2-hydroxyputrescine to a greater degree than was synthesis by E. coli extracts. The enhancement by putrescine and by S-(+)-2-hydroxyputrescine with Pseudomonas sp. strain Kim extracts was found to be due to effects on its ribosomes. PMID:6336736

  15. Molecular typing of Escherichia coli strains associated with threatened sea ducks and near-shore marine habitats of southwest Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schamber, Jason L.

    2011-01-01

    In Alaska, sea ducks winter in coastal habitats at remote, non-industrialized areas, as well as in proximity to human communities and industrial activity. We evaluated prevalence and characteristics of Escherichia coli strains in faecal samples of Steller's eiders (Polysticta stelleri; n = 122) and harlequin ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus; n = 21) at an industrialized site and Steller's eiders (n = 48) at a reference site, and compared these strains with those isolated from water samples from near-shore habitats of ducks. The overall prevalence of E. coli was 16% and 67% in Steller's eiders and harlequin ducks, respectively, at the industrialized study site, and 2% in Steller's eiders at the reference site. Based on O and H antigen subtyping and genetic characterization by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus polymerase chain reaction and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, we found evidence of avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) strains associated with both species and detected E. coli strains carrying virulence genes associated with mammals in harlequin ducks. Steller's eiders that carried APEC had lower serum total protein and albumin concentrations, providing further evidence of pathogenicity. The genetic profile of two E. coli strains from water matched an isolate from a Steller's eider providing evidence of transmission between near-shore habitats and birds.

  16. Nutritional Basis for Colonization Resistance by Human Commensal Escherichia coli Strains HS and Nissle 1917 against E. coli O157:H7 in the Mouse Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Maltby, Rosalie; Leatham-Jensen, Mary P.; Gibson, Terri; Cohen, Paul S.; Conway, Tyrrell

    2013-01-01

    Escherichia coli is a single species consisting of many biotypes, some of which are commensal colonizers of mammals and others that cause disease. Humans are colonized on average with five commensal biotypes, and it is widely thought that the commensals serve as a barrier to infection by pathogens. Previous studies showed that a combination of three pre-colonized commensal E. coli strains prevents colonization of E. coli O157:H7 in a mouse model (Leatham, et al., 2010, Infect Immun 77: 2876–7886). The commensal biotypes included E. coli HS, which is known to successfully colonize humans at high doses with no adverse effects, and E. coli Nissle 1917, a human commensal strain that is used in Europe as a preventative of traveler's diarrhea. We hypothesized that commensal biotypes could exert colonization resistance by consuming nutrients needed by E. coli O157:H7 to colonize, thus preventing this first step in infection. Here we report that to colonize streptomycin-treated mice E. coli HS consumes six of the twelve sugars tested and E. coli Nissle 1917 uses a complementary yet divergent set of seven sugars to colonize, thus establishing a nutritional basis for the ability of E. coli HS and Nissle 1917 to occupy distinct niches in the mouse intestine. Together these two commensals use the five sugars previously determined to be most important for colonization of E. coli EDL933, an O157:H7 strain. As predicted, the two commensals prevented E. coli EDL933 colonization. The results support a model in which invading pathogenic E. coli must compete with the gut microbiota to obtain the nutrients needed to colonize and establish infection; accordingly, the outcome of the challenge is determined by the aggregate capacity of the native microbiota to consume the nutrients required by the pathogen. PMID:23349773

  17. Nutritional basis for colonization resistance by human commensal Escherichia coli strains HS and Nissle 1917 against E. coli O157:H7 in the mouse intestine.

    PubMed

    Maltby, Rosalie; Leatham-Jensen, Mary P; Gibson, Terri; Cohen, Paul S; Conway, Tyrrell

    2013-01-01

    Escherichia coli is a single species consisting of many biotypes, some of which are commensal colonizers of mammals and others that cause disease. Humans are colonized on average with five commensal biotypes, and it is widely thought that the commensals serve as a barrier to infection by pathogens. Previous studies showed that a combination of three pre-colonized commensal E. coli strains prevents colonization of E. coli O157:H7 in a mouse model (Leatham, et al., 2010, Infect Immun 77: 2876-7886). The commensal biotypes included E. coli HS, which is known to successfully colonize humans at high doses with no adverse effects, and E. coli Nissle 1917, a human commensal strain that is used in Europe as a preventative of traveler's diarrhea. We hypothesized that commensal biotypes could exert colonization resistance by consuming nutrients needed by E. coli O157:H7 to colonize, thus preventing this first step in infection. Here we report that to colonize streptomycin-treated mice E. coli HS consumes six of the twelve sugars tested and E. coli Nissle 1917 uses a complementary yet divergent set of seven sugars to colonize, thus establishing a nutritional basis for the ability of E. coli HS and Nissle 1917 to occupy distinct niches in the mouse intestine. Together these two commensals use the five sugars previously determined to be most important for colonization of E. coli EDL933, an O157:H7 strain. As predicted, the two commensals prevented E. coli EDL933 colonization. The results support a model in which invading pathogenic E. coli must compete with the gut microbiota to obtain the nutrients needed to colonize and establish infection; accordingly, the outcome of the challenge is determined by the aggregate capacity of the native microbiota to consume the nutrients required by the pathogen. PMID:23349773

  18. Altered Regulation of Escherichia coli Biotin Biosynthesis in BirA Superrepressor Mutant Strains

    PubMed Central

    Chakravartty, Vandana

    2012-01-01

    Transcription of the Escherichia coli biotin (bio) operon is directly regulated by the biotin protein ligase BirA, the enzyme that covalently attaches biotin to its cognate acceptor proteins. Binding of BirA to the bio operator requires dimerization of the protein, which is triggered by BirA-catalyzed synthesis of biotinoyl-adenylate (biotinoyl-5′-AMP), the obligatory intermediate of the ligation reaction. Although several aspects of this regulatory system are well understood, no BirA superrepressor mutant strains had been isolated. Such superrepressor BirA proteins would repress the biotin operon transcription in vivo at biotin concentrations well below those needed for repression by wild-type BirA. We isolated mutant strains having this phenotype by a combined selection-screening approach and resolved multiple mutations to give several birA superrepressor alleles, each having a single mutation, all of which showed repression dominant over that of the wild-type allele. All of these mutant strains repressed bio operon transcription in vivo at biotin concentrations that gave derepression of the wild-type strain and retained sufficient ligation activity for growth when overexpressed. All of the strains except that encoding G154D BirA showed derepression of bio operon transcription upon overproduction of a biotin-accepting protein. In BirA, G154D was a lethal mutation in single copy, and the purified protein was unable to transfer biotin from enzyme-bound biotinoyl-adenylate either to the natural acceptor protein or to a biotin-accepting peptide sequence. Consistent with the transcriptional repression data, each of the purified mutant proteins showed increased affinity for the biotin operator DNA in electrophoretic mobility shift assays. Surprisingly, although most of the mutations were located in the catalytic domain, all of those tested, except G154D BirA, had normal ligase activity. Most of the mutations that gave superrepressor phenotypes altered residues

  19. Invasive ability of an Escherichia coli strain isolated from the ileal mucosa of a patient with Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Boudeau, J; Glasser, A L; Masseret, E; Joly, B; Darfeuille-Michaud, A

    1999-09-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) is an inflammatory bowel disease in which Escherichia coli strains have been suspected of being involved. We demonstrated previously that ileal lesions of CD are colonized by E. coli strains able to adhere to intestinal Caco-2 cells but devoid of the virulence genes so far described in the pathogenic E. coli strains involved in gastrointestinal infections. In the present study we compared the invasive ability of one of these strains isolated from an ileal biopsy of a patient with CD, strain LF82, with that of reference enteroinvasive (EIEC), enteropathogenic (EPEC), enterotoxigenic (ETEC), enteraggregative (EAggEC), enterohemorrhagic (EHEC), and diffusely adhering (DAEC) E. coli strains. Gentamicin protection assays showed that E. coli LF82 was able to efficiently invade HEp-2 cells. Its invasive level was not significantly different from that of EIEC and EPEC strains (P > 0.5) but significantly higher than that of ETEC (P < 0.03), EHEC (P < 0. 005), EAggEC (P < 0.004) and DAEC (P < 0.02) strains. Strain LF82 also demonstrated efficient ability to invade intestinal epithelial cultured Caco-2, Intestine-407, and HCT-8 cells. Electron microscopy examination of infected HEp-2 cells revealed the presence of numerous intracellular bacteria located in vacuoles or free in the host cell cytoplasm. In addition, the interaction of strain LF82 with epithelial cells was associated with the elongation of microvillar extensions that extruded from the host cell membranes and engulfed the bacteria. This internalization mechanism strongly resembles Salmonella- or Shigella-induced macropinocytosis. The use of cytochalasin D and colchicine showed that the uptake of strain LF82 by HEp-2 cells was mediated by both an actin microfilament-dependent mechanism and microtubule involvement. In addition, strain LF82 survived for at least 24 h in HEp-2 and Intestine-407 cells and efficiently replicated intracellularly in HEp-2 cells. PCR and hybridization experiments did

  20. Characterization of a Dipartite Iron Uptake System from Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Strain F11*

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Doreen; Chan, Anson C. K.; Murphy, Michael E. P.; Lilie, Hauke; Grass, Gregor; Nies, Dietrich H.

    2011-01-01

    In the uropathogenic Escherichia coli strain F11, in silico genome analysis revealed the dicistronic iron uptake operon fetMP, which is under iron-regulated control mediated by the Fur regulator. The expression of fetMP in a mutant strain lacking known iron uptake systems improved growth under iron depletion and increased cellular iron accumulation. FetM is a member of the iron/lead transporter superfamily and is essential for iron uptake by the Fet system. FetP is a periplasmic protein that enhanced iron uptake by FetM. Recombinant FetP bound Cu(II) and the iron analog Mn(II) at distinct sites. The crystal structure of the FetP dimer reveals a copper site in each FetP subunit that adopts two conformations: CuA with a tetrahedral geometry composed of His44, Met90, His97, and His127, and CuB, a second degenerate octahedral geometry with the addition of Glu46. The copper ions of each site occupy distinct positions and are separated by ∼1.3 Å. Nearby, a putative additional Cu(I) binding site is proposed as an electron source that may function with CuA/CuB displacement to reduce Fe(III) for transport by FetM. Together, these data indicate that FetMP is an additional iron uptake system composed of a putative iron permease and an iron-scavenging and potentially iron-reducing periplasmic protein. PMID:21596746

  1. Exploring the proteomic characteristics of the Escherichia coli B and K-12 strains in different cellular compartments.

    PubMed

    Han, Mee-Jung

    2016-07-01

    Escherichia coli, one of the well-characterized prokaryotes, has been the most widely used bacterial host in scientific studies and industrial applications. Many different strains have been developed for the widespread use of E. coli in biotechnology, and selecting an ideal host to produce a specific protein of interest is a critical step in developing a production process. The E. coli B and K-12 strains are among the most frequently used bacterial hosts for the production of recombinant proteins as well as small-molecule metabolites such as amino acids, biofuels, carboxylic acids, diamines, and others. However, both strains have distinctive differences in genotypic and phenotypic attributes, and their behaviors can still be unpredictable at times, especially while expressing a recombinant protein. Therefore, in this review, an in-depth analysis of the physiological behavior on the proteomic level was performed, wherein the particularly distinct proteomic differences between the E. coli B and K-12 strains were investigated in the four distinctive cellular compartments. Interesting differences in the proteins associated with key cellular properties including cell growth, protein production and quality, cellular tolerance, and motility were observed between the two representative strains. The resulting enhancement of knowledge regarding host physiology that is summarized herein is expected to contribute to the acceleration of strain improvements and optimization for biotechnology-related processes. PMID:26777236

  2. Characterization of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O111 and O157 Strains Isolated from Outbreak Patients in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Isobe, Junko; Kimata, Keiko; Shima, Tomoko; Kanatani, Jun-ichi; Shimizu, Miwako; Nagata, Akihiro; Kawakami, Keiko; Yamada, Mikiko; Izumiya, Hidemasa; Iyoda, Sunao; Morita-Ishihara, Tomoko; Mitobe, Jiro; Terajima, Jun; Ohnishi, Makoto; Sata, Tetsutaro

    2014-01-01

    In April and May 2011, there was a serious food-poisoning outbreak in Japan caused by enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) strains O111:H8 and O157:H7 from raw beef dishes at branches of a barbecue restaurant. This outbreak involved 181 infected patients, including 34 hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) cases (19%). Among the 34 HUS patients, 21 developed acute encephalopathy (AE) and 5 died. Patient stool specimens yielded E. coli O111 and O157 strains. We also detected both EHEC O111 stx2 and stx-negative E. coli O111 strains in a stock of meat block from the restaurant. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) showed that the stx-negative E. coli O111 isolates were closely related to EHEC O111 stx2 isolates. Although the EHEC O157 strains had diverse stx gene profiles (stx1, stx2, and stx1 stx2), the PFGE and MLVA analyses indicated that these isolates originated from a single clone. Deletion of the Stx2-converting prophage from the EHEC O111 stx2 isolates was frequently observed during in vitro growth, suggesting that strain conversion from an EHEC O111 stx2 to an stx-negative strain may have occurred during infection. PMID:24829231

  3. Generation of an attenuated strain oral vaccine candidate using a novel double selection platform in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenxin; Yuan, Chaowen; Bao, Jun; Guan, Weikun; Zhao, Zhiteng; Li, Xingyue; Tang, Jie; Li, Dandan; Shi, Dongfang

    2015-01-01

    Live attenuated bacteria delivered orally are interesting tools for mucosal immunization. The objective of this study was to construct a novel counter-selection platform based on an attenuated wild-type Escherichia coli (E. coli) strain and to utilize it for the delivery of LTR192G-STaA13Q fusion protein as an oral vaccine. First, a counter-selectable marker, namely, PRPL-Kil, was inserted into an attenuated wild-type E. coli strain through the use of the red and G-DOC homologous recombination systems to construct the counter-selection platform, and PRPL-Kil was subsequently replaced by the LT192-STa13 fusion gene to construct the oral vaccine O142 (yaiT::LT192-STa13) (ER-A). Subsequently, BALB/c mice were orogastrically inoculated with ER-A. Our results showed that ER-A could induce the production of specific IgA and IgG against fimbriae (F41) and enterotoxins (LT and STa), with neutralizing activity in BALB/c mice. In addition, assays of cellular immune responses showed that the stimulation index (SI) values of immunized mice were significantly higher than those of control mice (P<0.05), and revealed a marked shift toward Th2-mediated immunity. These findings suggest that ER-A is a suitable candidate for an oral vaccine strain to protect animals from enter toxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) infection. PMID:25301580

  4. Identification of pathogens and virulence profile of Rhodococcus equi and Escherichia coli strains obtained from sand of parks

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, M.C.; Takai, S.; Leite, D.S.; Pinto, J.P.A.N.; Brandão, P.E.; Santarém, V.A.; Listoni, F.J.P.; Da Silva, A.V.; Ribeiro, M.G.

    2013-01-01

    The identification of pathogens of viral (Rotavirus, Coronavirus), parasitic (Toxocara spp.) and bacterial (Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Rhodococcus equi) origin shed in feces, and the virulence profile of R. equi and E. coli isolates were investigated in 200 samples of sand obtained from 40 parks, located in central region of state of Sao Paulo, Brazil, using different diagnostic methods. From 200 samples analyzed, 23 (11.5%) strains of R. equi were isolated. None of the R. equi isolates showed a virulent (vapA gene) or intermediately virulent (vapB gene) profiles. Sixty-three (31.5%) strains of E. coli were identified. The following genes encoding virulence factors were identified in E. coli: eae, bfp, saa, iucD, papGI, sfa and hly. Phylogenetic classification showed that 63 E. coli isolates belonged to groups B1 (52.4%), A (25.4%) and B2 (22.2%). No E. coli serotype O157:H7 was identified. Eggs of Toxocara sp. were found in three parks and genetic material of bovine Coronavirus was identified in one sample of one park. No Salmonella spp. and Rotavirus isolates were identified in the samples of sand. The presence of R. equi, Toxocara sp, bovine Coronavirus and virulent E. coli isolates in the environment of parks indicates that the sanitary conditions of the sand should be improved in order to reduce the risks of fecal transmission of pathogens of zoonotic potential to humans in these places. PMID:24294244

  5. Simulation of the rate of transfer of antibiotic resistance between Escherichia coli strains cultured under well controlled environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Smelt, Jan P; Hoefsloot, Huub C; de Koster, Chris G; Schuurmans, Jasper M; ter Kuile, Benno H; Brul, Stanley

    2015-02-01

    It was demonstrated that the tetracycline resistance plasmid in Escherichia coli resembling K-12 23:06 containing the E. coli plasmid DM0133 could be transferred to tetracycline sensitive E. coli K-12 MG1655 YFP. The sensitive recipient strain has a slight metabolic advantage in continuous fermentation in absence of tetracycline pressure and as a result the numbers of the resistant recipient strain increase during fermentation. In presence of tetracycline pressure the sensitive strain is eliminated, but when it acquires tetracycline resistance the strain has still the same metabolic advantage as its sensitive parent strain in absence of tetracycline. Here a model will be shown that could explain the rate of transformation of a sensitive into a resistant recipient strain and its subsequent growth during continuous fermentation. According to the model the probability of formation of mutants would be much higher at the dilution rate of 0.09 compared to 0.28, whereas the growth of mutants would be much faster at high dilution rate. The growth model shows how the recipient mutants and the donor cells behave in relation to the dilution rate and the number of mutants. Apart from a deterministic model describing the growth rate of both the donor strain and the resistant recipient strain a stochastic model was developed that is particularly useful when low numbers of mutants are formed. PMID:25500384

  6. A Comparison of Shiga-Toxin 2 Bacteriophage from Classical Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli Serotypes and the German E. coli O104:H4 Outbreak Strain

    PubMed Central

    Laing, Chad R.; Zhang, Yongxiang; Gilmour, Matthew W.; Allen, Vanessa; Johnson, Roger; Thomas, James E.; Gannon, Victor P. J.

    2012-01-01

    Escherichia coli O104:H4 was associated with a severe foodborne disease outbreak originating in Germany in May 2011. More than 4000 illnesses and 50 deaths were reported. The outbreak strain was a typical enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) that acquired an antibiotic resistance plasmid and a Shiga-toxin 2 (Stx2)-encoding bacteriophage. Based on whole-genome phylogenies, the O104:H4 strain was most closely related to other EAEC strains; however, Stx2-bacteriophage are mobile, and do not necessarily share an evolutionary history with their bacterial host. In this study, we analyzed Stx2-bacteriophage from the E. coli O104:H4 outbreak isolates and compared them to all available Stx2-bacteriophage sequences. We also compared Stx2 production by an E. coli O104:H4 outbreak-associated isolate (ON-2011) to that of E. coli O157:H7 strains EDL933 and Sakai. Among the E. coli Stx2-phage sequences studied, that from O111:H- strain JB1-95 was most closely related phylogenetically to the Stx2-phage from the O104:H4 outbreak isolates. The phylogeny of most other Stx2-phage was largely concordant with their bacterial host genomes. Finally, O104:H4 strain ON-2011 produced less Stx2 than E. coli O157:H7 strains EDL933 and Sakai in culture; however, when mitomycin C was added, ON-2011 produced significantly more toxin than the E. coli O157:H7 strains. The Stx2-phage from the E. coli O104:H4 outbreak strain and the Stx2-phage from O111:H- strain JB1-95 likely share a common ancestor. Incongruence between the phylogenies of the Stx2-phage and their host genomes suggest the recent Stx2-phage acquisition by E. coli O104:H4. The increase in Stx2-production by ON-2011 following mitomycin C treatment may or may not be related to the high rates of hemolytic uremic syndrome associated with the German outbreak strain. Further studies are required to determine whether the elevated Stx2-production levels are due to bacteriophage or E. coli O104:H4 host related factors. PMID:22649523

  7. Recovery of electric energy from formate by using a recombinant strain of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Ojima, Yoshihiro; Kawata, Teruyoshi; Matsuo, Nahoko; Nishinoue, Yosuke; Taya, Masahito

    2014-10-01

    Recombinant Escherichia coli cells were applied for the recovery of electric energy from formate. Initially, the fdh gene, which encodes formate dehydrogenase (FDH) of Mycobacterium vaccae, was introduced into E. coli cells to allow efficient degradation of formate. The constructed microbial fuel cell (MFC) with E. coli BW25113 cells carrying fdh gene showed appreciable generation of current density in the presence of formate as a substrate. Current density and polarization curves revealed that the performance of MFC under examined conditions was limited by the electron transfer from bulk liquid to the electrode surface; accordingly, agitation resulted in an increase in the current density and achieved a coulombic efficiency of 21.7 % on the basis of formate consumed. Thus, gene recombination enables E. coli cells to utilize formate as a fuel for MFC. PMID:24676530

  8. PATHOGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI

    EPA Science Inventory

    Escherichia coli is a bacterial species which inhabits the gastrointestinal tract of man and warm-blooded animals. Because of the ubiquity of this bacterium in the intestinal flora, it serves as an important indicator organism of fecal contamination. E. coli, aside from serving a...

  9. Draft Genome Sequences of Three European Laboratory Derivatives from Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 Strain EDL933, Including Two Plasmids

    PubMed Central

    Fellner, Lea; Huptas, Christopher; Simon, Svenja; Mühlig, Anna; Neuhaus, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 EDL933, isolated in 1982 in the United States, was the first enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) strain sequenced. Unfortunately, European labs can no longer receive the original strain. We checked three European EDL933 derivatives and found major genetic deviations (deletions, inversions) in two strains. All EDL933 strains contain the cryptic EHEC-plasmid, not reported before. PMID:27056239

  10. Comparative analysis of envelope proteomes in Escherichia coli B and K-12 strains.

    PubMed

    Han, Mee-Jung; Lee, Sang Yup; Hong, Soon Ho

    2012-04-01

    Recent genome comparisons of E. coli B and K-12 strains have indicated that the makeup of the cell envelopes in these two strains is quite different. Therefore, we analyzed and compared the envelope proteomes of E. coli BL21(DE3) and MG1655. A total of 165 protein spots, including 62 nonredundant proteins, were unambiguously identified by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Of these, 43 proteins were conserved between the two strains, whereas 4 and 16 strain-specific proteins were identified only in E. coli BL21(DE3) and MG1655, respectively. Additionally, 24 proteins showed more than 2-fold differences in intensities between the B and K-12 strains. The reference envelope proteome maps showed that E. coli envelope mainly contained channel proteins and lipoproteins. Interesting proteomic observations between the two strains were as follows: (i) B produced more OmpF porin with a larger pore size than K-12, indicating an increase in the membrane permeability; (ii) B produced higher amounts of lipoproteins, which facilitates the assembly of outer membrane beta-barrel proteins; and (iii) motility- (FliC) and chemotaxis-related proteins (CheA and CheW) were detected only in K-12, which showed that E. coli B is restricted with regard to migration under unfavorable conditions. These differences may influence the permeability and integrity of the cell envelope, showing that E. coli B may be more susceptible than K-12 to certain stress conditions. Thus, these findings suggest that E. coli K-12 and its derivatives will be more favorable strains in certain biotechnological applications, such as cell surface display or membrane engineering studies. PMID:22534293

  11. A collection of strains containing genetically linked alternating antibiotic resistance elements for genetic mapping of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Singer, M; Baker, T A; Schnitzler, G; Deischel, S M; Goel, M; Dove, W; Jaacks, K J; Grossman, A D; Erickson, J W; Gross, C A

    1989-01-01

    We present a collection of 182 isogenic strains containing genetically linked antibiotic resistance elements located at approximately 1-min intervals around the Escherichia coli chromosome. At most positions both Tn10 (Tetr) and TN10kan (Kanr) elements are available, so that the collection contains a linked set of alternating antibiotic resistance markers. The map position of each insertion has been aligned to the E. coli genetic map as well as to the Kohara ordered clone bank. These strains are designed to be used in a rapid two-step mapping system in E. coli. In the first step, the mutation is localized to a 5- to 15-min region of the chromosome by Hfr mapping with a set of Hfr strains containing either Tn10 or Tn10kan elements located 20 min from their respective origins of transfer. In the second step, the mutation is localized to a 1-min region by P1 transduction, with a collection of isogenic insertion strains as donors. We discuss the uses of this collection of strains to map and eventually to clone a variety of mutations in E. coli. PMID:2540407

  12. Hydrogen-producing Escherichia coli strains overexpressing lactose permease: FT-IR analysis of the lactose-induced stress.

    PubMed

    Grube, Mara; Dimanta, Ilze; Gavare, Marita; Strazdina, Inese; Liepins, Janis; Juhna, Talis; Kalnenieks, Uldis

    2014-01-01

    The lactose permease gene (lacY) was overexpressed in the septuple knockout mutant of Escherichia coli, previously engineered for hydrogen production from glucose. It was expected that raising the lactose transporter activity would elevate the intracellular lactose concentration, inactivate the lactose repressor, induce the lactose operon, and as a result stimulate overall lactose consumption and conversion. However, overexpression of the lactose transporter caused a considerable growth delay in the recombinant strain on lactose, resembling to some extent the "lactose killing" phenomenon. Therefore, the recombinant strain was subjected to selection on lactose-containing media. Selection on plates with 3% lactose yielded a strain with a decreased content of the recombinant plasmid but with an improved ability to grow and produce hydrogen on lactose. Macromolecular analysis of its biomass by means of Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy demonstrated that increase of the cellular polysaccharide content might contribute to the adaptation of E. coli to lactose stress. PMID:23725289

  13. Comparative pathogenicity of Escherichia coli O157 and intimin-negative non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing E coli strains in neonatal pigs.

    PubMed

    Dean-Nystrom, Evelyn A; Melton-Celsa, Angela R; Pohlenz, Joachim F L; Moon, Harley W; O'Brien, Alison D

    2003-11-01

    We compared the pathogenicity of intimin-negative non-O157:H7 Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O91:H21 and O104:H21 strains with the pathogenicity of intimin-positive O157:H7 and O157:H(-) strains in neonatal pigs. We also examined the role of Stx2d-activatable genes and the large hemolysin-encoding plasmid of O91:H21 strain B2F1 in the pathogenesis of STEC disease in pigs. We found that all E. coli strains that made wild-type levels of Stx caused systemic illness and histological lesions in the brain and intestinal crypts, whereas none of the control Stx-negative E. coli strains evoked comparable central nervous system signs or intestinal lesions. By contrast, the absence of intimin, hemolysin, or motility had little impact on the overall pathogenesis of systemic disease during STEC infection. The most striking differences between pigs inoculated with non-O157 STEC strains and pigs inoculated with O157 STEC strains were the absence of attaching and effacing intestinal lesions in pigs inoculated with non-O157:H7 strains and the apparent association between the level of Stx2d-activatable toxin produced by an STEC strain and the severity of lesions. PMID:14573674

  14. The heat-resistant agglutinin family includes a novel adhesin from enteroaggregative Escherichia coli strain 60A.

    PubMed

    Mancini, Justin; Weckselblatt, Brooke; Chung, Yoonjie K; Durante, Julia C; Andelman, Steven; Glaubman, Jessica; Dorff, Justin D; Bhargava, Samhita; Lijek, Rebeccah S; Unger, Katherine P; Okeke, Iruka N

    2011-09-01

    Heat-resistant agglutinin 1 (Hra1) is an accessory colonization factor of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) strain 042. Tia, a close homolog of Hra1, is an invasin and adhesin that has been described in enterotoxigenic E. coli. We devised a PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism screen for the associated genes and found that they occur among 55 (36.7%) of the enteroaggregative E. coli isolates screened, as well as lower proportions of enterotoxigenic, enteropathogenic, enterohemorrhagic, and commensal E. coli isolates. Overall, 25%, 8%, and 3% of 150 EAEC strains harbored hra1 alone, tia alone, or both genes, respectively. One EAEC isolate, 60A, produced an amplicon with a unique restriction profile, distinct from those of hra1 and tia. We cloned and sequenced the full-length agglutinin gene from strain 60A and have designated it hra2. The hra2 gene was not detected in any of 257 diarrheagenic E. coli isolates in our collection but is present in the genome of Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg strain SL476. The cloned hra2 gene from strain 60A, which encodes a predicted amino acid sequence that is 64% identical to that of Hra1 and 68% identical to that of Tia, was sufficient to confer adherence on E. coli K-12. We constructed an hra2 deletion mutant of EAEC strain 60A. The mutant was deficient in adherence but not autoaggregation or invasion, pointing to a functional distinction from the autoagglutinin Hra1 and the Tia invasin. Hra1, Tia, and the novel accessory adhesin Hra2 are members of a family of integral outer membrane proteins that confer different colonization-associated phenotypes. PMID:21764925

  15. The probiotic Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917 induces gammadelta T cell apoptosis via caspase- and FasL-dependent pathways.

    PubMed

    Guzy, Claudia; Paclik, Daniela; Schirbel, Anja; Sonnenborn, Ulrich; Wiedenmann, Bertram; Sturm, Andreas

    2008-07-01

    Human gammadelta T cells play a vital role in the innate and adaptive immune response to microbial antigens by acting as antigen-presenting cells while at the same time being capable of directly activating CD4(+) T cells. Pathogenic microbes or loss of tolerance toward the host's own microflora trigger many diseases including inflammatory bowel diseases. We previously demonstrated that Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 directly interacts with the adaptive immune system by regulating central T cell functions. Here we aimed to investigate whether E. coli Nissle regulates gammadelta T cell function, thereby linking the innate and adaptive immune system. In our study, we demonstrate that, in contrast to the other probiotic strains tested, E. coli Nissle increased activation, cell cycling and expansion of gammadelta, but not alphabeta T cells. In gammadelta T cells, E. coli Nissle reduced tumor necrosis factor-alpha secretion but increased IL-6 and CXCL8 release. However, after activation, only E. coli Nissle induced gammadelta T cell apoptosis, mediated via Toll-like receptor-2 by caspase- and FasLigand-dependent pathways. gammadelta T cells play an important role in the recognition of microbial antigens and the perpetuation of inflammatory processes. The demonstration that E. coli Nissle, but not the other bacteria tested, profoundly regulate gammadelta T cell function contributes to explaining the biological function of this probiotic strain in inflammatory diseases and provides us with a better understanding of the role of gammadelta T cells. PMID:18448456

  16. Seven gene deletions in seven days: Fast generation of Escherichia coli strains tolerant to acetate and osmotic stress

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Sheila I.; Lennen, Rebecca M.; Herrgård, Markus J.; Nielsen, Alex T.

    2015-01-01

    Generation of multiple genomic alterations is currently a time consuming process. Here, a method was established that enables highly efficient and simultaneous deletion of multiple genes in Escherichia coli. A temperature sensitive plasmid containing arabinose inducible lambda Red recombineering genes and a rhamnose inducible flippase recombinase was constructed to facilitate fast marker-free deletions. To further speed up the procedure, we integrated the arabinose inducible lambda Red recombineering genes and the rhamnose inducible FLP into the genome of E. coli K-12 MG1655. This system enables growth at 37 °C, thereby facilitating removal of integrated antibiotic cassettes and deletion of additional genes in the same day. Phosphorothioated primers were demonstrated to enable simultaneous deletions during one round of electroporation. Utilizing these methods, we constructed strains in which four to seven genes were deleted in E. coli W and E. coli K-12. The growth rate of an E. coli K-12 quintuple deletion strain was significantly improved in the presence of high concentrations of acetate and NaCl. In conclusion, we have generated a method that enables efficient and simultaneous deletion of multiple genes in several E. coli variants. The method enables deletion of up to seven genes in as little as seven days. PMID:26643270

  17. A Fatal Case of Necrotizing Fasciitis Caused by a Highly Virulent Escherichia coli Strain

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, André; Lin, Alex; Harel, Josée; Côté, Jean-Charles; Tremblay, Cécile

    2016-01-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis is a serious disease characterized by the necrosis of the subcutaneous tissues and fascia. E. coli as the etiologic agent of necrotizing fasciitis is a rare occurrence. A 66-year-old woman underwent total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. She rapidly developed necrotizing fasciitis which led to her death 68 hours following surgery. An E. coli strain was isolated from blood and fascia cultures. DNA microarray revealed the presence of 20 virulence genes. PMID:27366162

  18. Acid-adapted strains of Escherichia coli K-12 obtained by experimental evolution.

    PubMed

    Harden, Mark M; He, Amanda; Creamer, Kaitlin; Clark, Michelle W; Hamdallah, Issam; Martinez, Keith A; Kresslein, Robert L; Bush, Sean P; Slonczewski, Joan L

    2015-03-01

    Enteric bacteria encounter a wide range of pHs throughout the human intestinal tract. We conducted experimental evolution of Escherichia coli K-12 to isolate clones with increased fitness during growth under acidic conditions (pH 4.5 to 4.8). Twenty-four independent populations of E. coli K-12 W3110 were evolved in LBK medium (10 g/liter tryptone, 5 g/liter yeast extract, 7.45 g/liter KCl) buffered with homopiperazine-N,N'-bis-2-(ethanosulfonic acid) and malate at pH 4.8. At generation 730, the pH was decreased to 4.6 with HCl. By 2,000 generations, all populations had achieved higher endpoint growth than the ancestor at pH 4.6 but not at pH 7.0. All evolving populations showed a progressive loss of activity of lysine decarboxylase (CadA), a major acid stress enzyme. This finding suggests a surprising association between acid adaptation and moderation of an acid stress response. At generation 2,000, eight clones were isolated from four populations, and their genomes were sequenced. Each clone showed between three and eight missense mutations, including one in a subunit of the RNA polymerase holoenzyme (rpoB, rpoC, or rpoD). Missense mutations were found in adiY, the activator of the acid-inducible arginine decarboxylase (adiA), and in gcvP (glycine decarboxylase), a possible acid stress component. For tests of fitness relative to that of the ancestor, lacZ::kan was transduced into each strain. All acid-evolved clones showed a high fitness advantage at pH 4.6. With the cytoplasmic pH depressed by benzoate (at external pH 6.5), acid-evolved clones showed decreased fitness; thus, there was no adaptation to cytoplasmic pH depression. At pH 9.0, acid-evolved clones showed no fitness advantage. Thus, our acid-evolved clones showed a fitness increase specific to low external pH. PMID:25556191

  19. Strain engineering to prevent norleucine incorporation during recombinant protein production in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Veeravalli, Karthik; Laird, Michael W; Fedesco, Mark; Zhang, Yu; Yu, X Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Incorporation of norleucine in place of methionine residues during recombinant protein production in Escherichia coli is well known. Continuous feeding of methionine is commonly used in E. coli recombinant protein production processes to prevent norleucine incorporation. Although this strategy is effective in preventing norleucine incorporation, there are several disadvantages associated with continuous feeding. Continuous feeding increases the operational complexity and the overall cost of the fermentation process. In addition, the continuous feed leads to undesirable dilution of the fermentation medium possibly resulting in lower cell densities and recombinant protein yields. In this work, the genomes of three E. coli hosts were engineered by introducing chromosomal mutations that result in methionine overproduction in the cell. The recombinant protein purified from the fermentations using the methionine overproducing hosts had no norleucine incorporation. Furthermore, these studies demonstrated that the fermentations using one of the methionine overproducing hosts exhibited comparable fermentation performance as the control host in three different recombinant protein production processes. PMID:25315437

  20. Experimental Infection of Calves with Escherichia coli O104:H4 outbreak strain.

    PubMed

    Hamm, K; Barth, S A; Stalb, S; Geue, L; Liebler-Tenorio, E; Teifke, J P; Lange, E; Tauscher, K; Kotterba, G; Bielaszewska, M; Karch, H; Menge, C

    2016-01-01

    In 2011, a severe outbreak of hemolytic-uremic syndrome was caused by an unusual, highly virulent enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) O104:H4 strain, which possessed EHEC virulence traits in the genetic background of human-adapted enteroaggregative E. coli. To determine magnitude of fecal shedding and site of colonization of EHEC O104:H4 in a livestock host, 30 (ten/strain) weaned calves were inoculated with 10(10) CFU of EHEC O104:H4, EHEC O157:H7 (positive control) or E. coli strain 123 (negative control) and necropsied (4 or 28 d.p.i.). E. coli O157:H7 was recovered until 28 d.p.i. and O104:H4 until 24 d.p.i. At 4 d.p.i., EHEC O104:H4 was isolated from intestinal content and detected associated with the intestinal mucosa. These results are the first evidence that cattle, the most important EHEC reservoir, can also carry unusual EHEC strains at least transiently, questioning our current understanding of the molecular basis of host adaptation of this important E. coli pathovar. PMID:27600997

  1. Experimental Infection of Calves with Escherichia coli O104:H4 outbreak strain

    PubMed Central

    Hamm, K.; Barth, S. A.; Stalb, S.; Geue, L.; Liebler-Tenorio, E.; Teifke, J. P.; Lange, E.; Tauscher, K.; Kotterba, G.; Bielaszewska, M.; Karch, H.; Menge, C.

    2016-01-01

    In 2011, a severe outbreak of hemolytic-uremic syndrome was caused by an unusual, highly virulent enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) O104:H4 strain, which possessed EHEC virulence traits in the genetic background of human-adapted enteroaggregative E. coli. To determine magnitude of fecal shedding and site of colonization of EHEC O104:H4 in a livestock host, 30 (ten/strain) weaned calves were inoculated with 1010 CFU of EHEC O104:H4, EHEC O157:H7 (positive control) or E. coli strain 123 (negative control) and necropsied (4 or 28 d.p.i.). E. coli O157:H7 was recovered until 28 d.p.i. and O104:H4 until 24 d.p.i. At 4 d.p.i., EHEC O104:H4 was isolated from intestinal content and detected associated with the intestinal mucosa. These results are the first evidence that cattle, the most important EHEC reservoir, can also carry unusual EHEC strains at least transiently, questioning our current understanding of the molecular basis of host adaptation of this important E. coli pathovar. PMID:27600997

  2. Characterization of Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains from contaminated raw beef trim during "high event periods".

    PubMed

    Arthur, Terrance M; Bono, James L; Kalchayanand, Norasak

    2014-01-01

    The development and implementation of effective antimicrobial interventions by the beef processing industry in the United States have dramatically reduced the incidence of beef trim contamination by Escherichia coli O157:H7. However, individual processing plants still experience sporadic peaks in contamination rates where multiple E. coli O157:H7-positive lots are clustered in a short time frame. These peaks have been referred to as "high event periods" (HEP) of contamination. The results reported here detail the characterization of E. coli O157:H7 isolates from 21 HEP across multiple companies and processing plants to gain insight regarding the mechanisms causing these incidents. Strain genotypes were determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and isolates were investigated for characteristics linking them to human illness. Through these analyses, it was determined that individual HEP show little to no diversity in strain genotypes. Hence, each HEP has one strain type that makes up most, if not all, of the contamination. This is shown to differ from the genotypic diversity of E. coli O157:H7 found on the hides of cattle entering processing plants. In addition, it was found that a large proportion (81%) of HEP are caused by strain types associated with human illness. These results pose a potential challenge to the current model for finished product contamination during beef processing. PMID:24212567

  3. The CsgA and Lpp proteins affect motility and cell invasion in a strain of Escherichia coli O157:H7

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In Escherichia coli O157:H7 strain ATCC 43895, a guanine to thymine transversion in the csgD promoter created strain 43895OR. Strain 43895OR produces an abundant extracellular matrix rich in curli fibers, forms biofilm on solid surfaces, invades cultured epithelial cells, and is more virulent in a m...

  4. The CsgA and Lpp proteins affect HEp-2 cell invasion, motility, and biofilm formation in a strain of Escherichia coli O157:H7

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In Escherichia coli O157:H7 strain ATCC 43895, a guanine to thymine transversion in the csgD promoter created strain 43895OR. Strain 43895OR produces an abundant extracellular matrix rich in curli fibers, forms biofilm on solid surfaces, invades cultured epithelial cells, and is more virulent in mic...

  5. Coculture of Escherichia coli O157:H7 with a Nonpathogenic E. coli Strain Increases Toxin Production and Virulence in a Germfree Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Goswami, Kakolie; Chen, Chun; Xiaoli, Lingzi; Eaton, Kathryn A.

    2015-01-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a notorious foodborne pathogen due to its low infectious dose and the disease symptoms it causes, which include bloody diarrhea and severe abdominal cramps. In some cases, the disease progresses to hemorrhagic colitis (HC) and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), due to the expression of one or more Shiga toxins (Stx). Isoforms of Stx, including Stx2a, are encoded within temperate prophages. In the presence of certain antibiotics, phage induction occurs, which also increases the expression of toxin genes. Additionally, increased Stx2 accumulation has been reported when O157:H7 was cocultured with phage-susceptible nonpathogenic E. coli. This study characterized an E. coli O157:H7 strain, designated PA2, that belongs to the hypervirulent clade 8 cluster. Stx2a levels after ciprofloxacin induction were lower for PA2 than for the prototypical outbreak strains Sakai and EDL933. However, during coculture with the nonpathogenic strain E. coli C600, PA2 produced Stx2a levels that were 2- to 12-fold higher than those observed during coculture with EDL933 and Sakai, respectively. Germfree mice cocolonized by PA2 and C600 showed greater kidney damage, increased Stx2a accumulation in feces, and more visible signs of disease than mice given PA2 or C600 alone. These data suggest one mechanism by which microorganisms associated with the colonic microbiota could enhance the virulence of E. coli O157:H7, particularly a subset of clade 8 strains. PMID:26259815

  6. Coculture of Escherichia coli O157:H7 with a Nonpathogenic E. coli Strain Increases Toxin Production and Virulence in a Germfree Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Kakolie; Chen, Chun; Xiaoli, Lingzi; Eaton, Kathryn A; Dudley, Edward G

    2015-11-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a notorious foodborne pathogen due to its low infectious dose and the disease symptoms it causes, which include bloody diarrhea and severe abdominal cramps. In some cases, the disease progresses to hemorrhagic colitis (HC) and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), due to the expression of one or more Shiga toxins (Stx). Isoforms of Stx, including Stx2a, are encoded within temperate prophages. In the presence of certain antibiotics, phage induction occurs, which also increases the expression of toxin genes. Additionally, increased Stx2 accumulation has been reported when O157:H7 was cocultured with phage-susceptible nonpathogenic E. coli. This study characterized an E. coli O157:H7 strain, designated PA2, that belongs to the hypervirulent clade 8 cluster. Stx2a levels after ciprofloxacin induction were lower for PA2 than for the prototypical outbreak strains Sakai and EDL933. However, during coculture with the nonpathogenic strain E. coli C600, PA2 produced Stx2a levels that were 2- to 12-fold higher than those observed during coculture with EDL933 and Sakai, respectively. Germfree mice cocolonized by PA2 and C600 showed greater kidney damage, increased Stx2a accumulation in feces, and more visible signs of disease than mice given PA2 or C600 alone. These data suggest one mechanism by which microorganisms associated with the colonic microbiota could enhance the virulence of E. coli O157:H7, particularly a subset of clade 8 strains. PMID:26259815

  7. Sequencing and functional annotation of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli serogroup O78 strains reveal the evolution of E. coli lineages pathogenic for poultry via distinct mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Dziva, Francis; Hauser, Heidi; Connor, Thomas R; van Diemen, Pauline M; Prescott, Graham; Langridge, Gemma C; Eckert, Sabine; Chaudhuri, Roy R; Ewers, Christa; Mellata, Melha; Mukhopadhyay, Suman; Curtiss, Roy; Dougan, Gordon; Wieler, Lothar H; Thomson, Nicholas R; Pickard, Derek J; Stevens, Mark P

    2013-03-01

    Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) causes respiratory and systemic disease in poultry. Sequencing of a multilocus sequence type 95 (ST95) serogroup O1 strain previously indicated that APEC resembles E. coli causing extraintestinal human diseases. We sequenced the genomes of two strains of another dominant APEC lineage (ST23 serogroup O78 strains χ7122 and IMT2125) and compared them to each other and to the reannotated APEC O1 sequence. For comparison, we also sequenced a human enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) strain of the same ST23 serogroup O78 lineage. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the APEC O78 strains were more closely related to human ST23 ETEC than to APEC O1, indicating that separation of pathotypes on the basis of their extraintestinal or diarrheagenic nature is not supported by their phylogeny. The accessory genome of APEC ST23 strains exhibited limited conservation of APEC O1 genomic islands and a distinct repertoire of virulence-associated loci. In light of this diversity, we surveyed the phenotype of 2,185 signature-tagged transposon mutants of χ7122 following intra-air sac inoculation of turkeys. This procedure identified novel APEC ST23 genes that play strain- and tissue-specific roles during infection. For example, genes mediating group 4 capsule synthesis were required for the virulence of χ7122 and were conserved in IMT2125 but absent from APEC O1. Our data reveal the genetic diversity of E. coli strains adapted to cause the same avian disease and indicate that the core genome of the ST23 lineage serves as a chassis for the evolution of E. coli strains adapted to cause avian or human disease via acquisition of distinct virulence genes. PMID:23275093

  8. Comparison of Extraintestinal Pathogenic Escherichia coli Strains from Human and Avian Sources Reveals a Mixed Subset Representing Potential Zoonotic Pathogens▿

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Timothy J.; Wannemuehler, Yvonne; Johnson, Sara J.; Stell, Adam L.; Doetkott, Curt; Johnson, James R.; Kim, Kwang S.; Spanjaard, Lodewijk; Nolan, Lisa K.

    2008-01-01

    Since extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) strains from human and avian hosts encounter similar challenges in establishing infection in extraintestinal locations, they may share similar contents of virulence genes and capacities to cause disease. In the present study, 1,074 ExPEC isolates were classified by phylogenetic group and possession of 67 other traits, including virulence-associated genes and plasmid replicon types. These ExPEC isolates included 452 avian pathogenic E. coli strains from avian colibacillosis, 91 neonatal meningitis E. coli (NMEC) strains causing human neonatal meningitis, and 531 uropathogenic E. coli strains from human urinary tract infections. Cluster analysis of the data revealed that most members of each subpathotype represent a genetically distinct group and have distinguishing characteristics. However, a genotyping cluster containing 108 ExPEC isolates was identified, heavily mixed with regard to subpathotype, in which there was substantial trait overlap. Many of the isolates within this cluster belonged to the O1, O2, or O18 serogroup. Also, 58% belonged to the ST95 multilocus sequence typing group, and over 90% of them were assigned to the B2 phylogenetic group typical of human ExPEC strains. This cluster contained strains with a high number of both chromosome- and plasmid-associated ExPEC genes. Further characterization of this ExPEC subset with zoonotic potential urges future studies exploring the potential for the transmission of certain ExPEC strains between humans and animals. Also, the widespread occurrence of plasmids among NMEC strains and members of the mixed cluster suggests that plasmid-mediated virulence in these pathotypes warrants further attention. PMID:18820066

  9. Differential gene expression profiling of porcine epithelial cells infected with three enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli strains

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is one of the most important pathogenic bacteria causing severe diarrhoea in human and pigs. In ETEC strains, the fimbrial types F4 and F18 are commonly found differently colonized within the small intestine and cause huge economic losses in the swine industry annually worldwide. To address the underlying mechanism, we performed a transcriptome study of porcine intestinal epithelial cells (IPEC-J2) with and without infection of three representative ETEC strains. Results A total 2443, 3493 and 867 differentially expressed genes were found in IPEC-J2 cells infected with F4ab ETEC (CF4ab), with F4ac ETEC (CF4ac) and with F18ac ETEC (CF18ac) compared to the cells without infection (control), respectively. The number of differentially expressed genes between CF4ab and CF4ac, CF4ab and CF18ac, and CF4ac and CF18ac were 77, 1446 and 1629, respectively. The gene ontology and pathway analysis showed that the differentially expressed genes in CF4abvs control are significantly involved in cell-cycle progress and amino acid metabolism, while the clustered terms of the differentially expressed genes in CF4acvs control comprise immune, inflammation and wounding response and apoptosis as well as cell cycle progress and proteolysis. Differentially expressed genes between CF18acvs control are mainly involved in cell-cycle progression and immune response. Furthermore, fundamental differences were observed in expression levels of immune-related genes among the three ETEC treatments, especially for the important pro-inflammatory molecules, including IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, CCL20, CXCL2 etc. Conclusions The discovery in this study provides insights into the interaction of porcine intestinal epithelial cells with F4 ETECs and F18 ETEC, respectively. The genes induced by ETECs with F4 versus F18 fimbriae suggest why ETEC with F4 may be more virulent compared to F18 which seems to elicit milder effects. PMID:22823589

  10. Metaproteomics analyses as diagnostic tool for differentiation of Escherichia coli strains in outbreaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jabbour, Rabih E.; Wright, James D.; Deshpande, Samir V.; Wade, Mary; McCubbin, Patrick; Bevilacqua, Vicky

    2013-05-01

    The secreted proteins of the enterohemorrhagic and enteropathogenic E. coli (EHEC and EPEC) are the most common cause of hemorrhagic colitis, a bloody diarrhea with EHEC infection, which often can lead to life threatening hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS).We are employing a metaproteomic approach as an effective and complimentary technique to the current genomic based approaches. This metaproteomic approach will evaluate the secreted proteins associated with pathogenicity and utilize their signatures as differentiation biomarkers between EHEC and EPEC strains. The result showed that the identified tryptic peptides of the secreted proteins extracted from different EHEC and EPEC growths have difference in their amino acids sequences and could potentially utilized as biomarkers for the studied E. coli strains. Analysis of extract from EHEC O104:H4 resulted in identification of a multidrug efflux protein, which belongs to the family of fusion proteins that are responsible of cell transportation. Experimental peptides identified lies in the region of the HlyD haemolysin secretion protein-D that is responsible for transporting the haemolysin A toxin. Moreover, the taxonomic classification of EHEC O104:H4 showed closest match with E. coli E55989, which is in agreement with genomic sequencing studies that were done extensively on the mentioned strain. The taxonomic results showed strain level classification for the studied strains and distinctive separation among the strains. Comparative proteomic calculations showed separation between EHEC O157:H7 and O104:H4 in replicate samples using cluster analysis. There are no reported studies addressing the characterization of secreted proteins in various enhanced growth media and utilizing them as biomarkers for strain differentiation. The results of FY-2012 are promising to pursue further experimentation to statistically validate the results and to further explore the impact of environmental conditions on the nature of the secreted