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1

Vitiligo Associated with Esophageal Adenocarcinoma  

PubMed Central

Vitiligo is a disease that results in depigmented areas in the skin. It may develop at any age but the average age at onset is 20 years. Association of vitiligo and melanoma has been commonly reported, but malignancies other than melanoma have been rarely associated with vitiligo. We report a 73-year-old patient with new onset vitiligo who developed esophageal adenocarcinoma in the following years. PMID:23671783

Asilian, Ali; Momeni, Iman; Khosravani, Parastou

2013-01-01

2

Epigenetics in the Pathogenesis of Esophageal Adenocarcinoma.  

PubMed

Epigenetic influences, such as DNA methylation, histone acetylation, and up-regulation/down-regulation of genes by microRNAs, change the genetic makeup of an individual without affecting DNA base-pair sequences. Indeed, epigenetic changes play an integral role in the progression from normal esophageal mucosa to Barrett's esophagus to esophageal adenocarcinoma via dysplasia-metaplasia-neoplasia sequence. Many genes involved in esophageal adenocarcinoma display hypermethylation, leading to their down-regulation. The classes of these genes include cell cycle control, DNA and growth factor repair, tumor suppressors, antimetastasis, Wnt-related genes, and proapoptotic genes. Histone acetylation in the pathophysiology of esophageal diseases has not been thoroughly investigated, and its critical role in the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma is less defined. Many microRNAs have been associated with the development of Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma. Here, we critically addressed the specific steps most closely influenced by microRNAs in the progression from Barrett's esophagus to esophageal adenocarcinoma. However, microRNAs can target up to hundreds of genes, making it difficult to correlate directly with a given phenotype of the disease. Esophageal adenocarcinoma progressing from premalignant condition of Barrett's esophagus carries an extremely poor prognosis. Risk stratification for patients based on their epigenetic profiles may be useful in providing more targeted and directed treatment to patients. PMID:25388215

Kailasam, Aparna; Mittal, Sumeet K; Agrawal, Devendra K

2014-11-12

3

FOLFOX-6 Induction Chemotherapy Followed by Esophagectomy and Post-operative Chemoradiotherapy in Patients With Esophageal Adenocarcinoma  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adenocarcinoma of the Esophagus; Adenocarcinoma of the Gastroesophageal Junction; Adenocarcinoma of the Gastric Cardia; Stage IIIA Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIIB Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIIC Esophageal Cancer

2015-01-22

4

Microbiome, innate immunity, and esophageal adenocarcinoma.  

PubMed

With the development of culture-independent technique, a complex microbiome has been established and described in the distal esophagus. The incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) has increased dramatically in the United States. Studies documenting an altered microbiome associated with EAC and its precedents suggest that dysbiosis may be contributing to carcinogenesis, potentially mediated by interactions with toll-like receptors. Investigations attempting to associate viruses with EAC have not been as consistent. Currently available data are cross-sectional and therefore cannot prove causal relationships. Prospectively, microbiome studies open a new avenue to the understanding of the etiology and pathogenesis of reflux disorders and EAC. PMID:25439272

Baghdadi, Jonathan; Chaudhary, Noami; Pei, Zhiheng; Yang, Liying

2014-12-01

5

Notch signaling drives stemness and tumorigenicity of esophageal adenocarcinoma.  

PubMed

Esophageal adenocarcinoma ranks sixth in cancer mortality in the world and its incidence has risen dramatically in the Western population over the last decades. Data presented herein strongly suggest that Notch signaling is critical for esophageal adenocarcinoma and underlies resistance to chemotherapy. We present evidence that Notch signaling drives a cancer stem cell phenotype by regulating genes that establish stemness. Using patient-derived xenograft models, we demonstrate that inhibition of Notch by gamma-secretase inhibitors (GSI) is efficacious in downsizing tumor growth. Moreover, we demonstrate that Notch activity in a patient's ultrasound-assisted endoscopic-derived biopsy might predict outcome to chemotherapy. Therefore, this study provides a proof of concept that inhibition of Notch activity will have efficacy in treating esophageal adenocarcinoma, offering a rationale to lay the foundation for a clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy of GSI in esophageal adenocarcinoma treatment. PMID:25164006

Wang, Zhiqiang; Da Silva, Thiago G; Jin, Ke; Han, Xiaoqing; Ranganathan, Prathibha; Zhu, Xiaoxia; Sanchez-Mejias, Avencia; Bai, Feng; Li, Bin; Fei, Dennis Liang; Weaver, Kelly; Carpio, Rodrigo Vasquez-Del; Moscowitz, Anna E; Koshenkov, Vadim P; Sanchez, Lilly; Sparling, Lynne; Pei, Xin-Hai; Franceschi, Dido; Ribeiro, Afonso; Robbins, David J; Livingstone, Alan S; Capobianco, Anthony J

2014-11-01

6

Pathophysiological mechanisms linking obesity and esophageal adenocarcinoma  

PubMed Central

In recent decades there has been a dramatic rise in the incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) in the developed world. Over approximately the same period there has also been an increase in the prevalence of obesity. Obesity, especially visceral obesity, is an important independent risk factor for the development of gastro-esophageal reflux disease, Barrett’s esophagus and EAC. Although the simplest explanation is that this mediated by the mechanical effects of abdominal obesity promoting gastro-esophageal reflux, the epidemiological data suggest that the EAC-promoting effects are independent of reflux. Several, not mutually exclusive, mechanisms have been implicated, which may have different effects at various points along the reflux-Barrett’s-cancer pathway. These mechanisms include a reduction in the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection enhancing gastric acidity and possibly appetite by increasing gastric ghrelin secretion, induction of both low-grade systemic inflammation by factors secreted by adipose tissue and the metabolic syndrome with insulin-resistance. Obesity is associated with enhanced secretion of leptin and decreased secretion of adiponectin from adipose tissue and both increased leptin and decreased adiponectin have been shown to be independent risk factors for progression to EAC. Leptin and adiponectin have a set of mutually antagonistic actions on Barrett’s cells which appear to influence the progression of malignant behaviour. At present no drugs are of proven benefit to prevent obesity associated EAC. Roux-en-Y reconstruction is the preferred bariatric surgical option for weight loss in patients with reflux. Statins and aspirin may have chemopreventative effects and are indicated for their circulatory benefits. PMID:25400997

Alexandre, Leo; Long, Elizabeth; Beales, Ian LP

2014-01-01

7

Carbonated Soft Drink Consumption and Risk of Esophageal Adenocarcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbonated soft drinks (CSDs) have been associated with gastroesophageal refl ux, an established risk factor for esophageal adenocarcinoma. As both CSD consumption and esophageal ade- nocarcinoma incidence have sharply increased in recent decades, we exam- ined CSD as a risk factor for esophageal and gastric cancers in a U.S. multi- center, population-based case-control study. Associations between CSD intake and risk

Susan T. Mayne; Harvey A. Risch; Robert Dubrow; Wong-Ho Chow; Marilie D. Gammon; Thomas L. Vaughan; Lauren Borchardt; Janet B. Schoenberg; Janet L. Stanford; A. Brian West; Heidi Rotterdam; William J. Blot; Joseph F. Fraumeni

2006-01-01

8

Gene expression in rats with Barrett’s esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma induced by gastroduodenoesophageal reflux  

PubMed Central

AIM: To study the different gene expression profiles in rats with Barrett’s esophagus (BE) and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA) induced by gastro-duodeno-esophageal reflux. METHODS: Esophagoduodenostomy was performed in 8-wk old Sprague-Dawley rats to induce gastro-duodeno-esophageal reflux, and a group of rats that received sham operation served as control. Esophageal epithelial pathological tissues were dissected and frozen in liquid nitrogen immediately. The expression profiles of 4 096 genes in EA and BE tissues were compared to normal esophagus epithelium in normal control (NC) by cDNA microarray. RESULTS: Four hundred and forty-eight genes in BE were more than three times different from those in NC, including 312 upregulated and 136 downregulated genes. Three hundred and seventy-seven genes in EA were more than three times different from those in NC, including 255 upregulated and 142 downregulated genes. Compared to BE, there were 122 upregulated and 156 downregulated genes in EA. In the present study, the interested genes were those involved in carcinogenesis. Among them, the upregulated genes included cathepsin C, aminopeptidase M, arachidonic acid epoxygenase, tryptophan-2,3-dioxygenase, ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, cyclic GMP-stimulated phosphodiesterase, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1, betaine-homocysteine methyltra-nsferase, lysozyme, complement 4b binding protein, complement 9 protein, insulin-like growth factor binding protein, UDP-glucuronosyltransferase, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-3, aldolase B, retinoid X receptor gamma, carboxylesterase and testicular cell adhesion molecule 1. The downregulated genes included glutathione synthetase, lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase, p55CDC, heart fatty acid binding protein, cell adhesion regulator and endothelial cell selectin ligand. CONCLUSION: Esophageal epithelium exposed excessively to harmful ingredients of duodenal and gastric reflux may develop into BE and even EA gradually. The gene expression level is different between EA and BE, and may be related to the occurrence and progression of EA. PMID:16127739

Cheng, Peng; Gong, Jun; Wang, Tao; Chen, Jie; Liu, Gui-Sheng; Zhang, Ru

2005-01-01

9

Endoscopic assessment and management of early esophageal adenocarcinoma  

PubMed Central

Esophageal carcinoma affects more than 450000 people worldwide and the incidence is rapidly increasing. In the United States and Europe, esophageal adenocarcinoma has superseded esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in its incidence. Esophageal cancer has a high mortality rates secondary to the late presentation of most patients at advanced stages. Endoscopic screening is recommended for patients with multiple risk factors for cancer in Barrett’s esophagus. These risk factors include chronic gastroesophageal reflux disease, hiatal hernia, advanced age, male sex, white race, cigarette smoking, and obesity. The annual risk of esophageal cancer is approximately 0.25% for patients without dysplasia and 6% for patients with high-grade dysplasia. Twenty percent of all esophageal adenocarcinoma in the United States is early stage with disease confined to the mucosa or submucosa. The significant morbidity and mortality of esophagectomy make endoscopic treatment an attractive option. The American Gastroenterological Association recommends endoscopic eradication therapy for patients with high-grade dysplasia. Endoscopic modalities for treatment of early esophageal adenocarcinoma include endoscopic resection techniques and endoscopic ablative techniques such as radiofrequency ablation, photodynamic therapy and cryoablation. Endoscopic therapy should be precluded to patients with no evidence of lymphovascular invasion. Local tumor recurrence is low after endoscopic therapy and is predicted by poor differentiation of tumor, positive lymph node and submucosal invasion. Surgical resection should be offered to patients with deep submucosal invasion. PMID:25132925

Hammoud, Ghassan M; Hammad, Hazem; Ibdah, Jamal A

2014-01-01

10

Endoscopic assessment and management of early esophageal adenocarcinoma.  

PubMed

Esophageal carcinoma affects more than 450000 people worldwide and the incidence is rapidly increasing. In the United States and Europe, esophageal adenocarcinoma has superseded esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in its incidence. Esophageal cancer has a high mortality rates secondary to the late presentation of most patients at advanced stages. Endoscopic screening is recommended for patients with multiple risk factors for cancer in Barrett's esophagus. These risk factors include chronic gastroesophageal reflux disease, hiatal hernia, advanced age, male sex, white race, cigarette smoking, and obesity. The annual risk of esophageal cancer is approximately 0.25% for patients without dysplasia and 6% for patients with high-grade dysplasia. Twenty percent of all esophageal adenocarcinoma in the United States is early stage with disease confined to the mucosa or submucosa. The significant morbidity and mortality of esophagectomy make endoscopic treatment an attractive option. The American Gastroenterological Association recommends endoscopic eradication therapy for patients with high-grade dysplasia. Endoscopic modalities for treatment of early esophageal adenocarcinoma include endoscopic resection techniques and endoscopic ablative techniques such as radiofrequency ablation, photodynamic therapy and cryoablation. Endoscopic therapy should be precluded to patients with no evidence of lymphovascular invasion. Local tumor recurrence is low after endoscopic therapy and is predicted by poor differentiation of tumor, positive lymph node and submucosal invasion. Surgical resection should be offered to patients with deep submucosal invasion. PMID:25132925

Hammoud, Ghassan M; Hammad, Hazem; Ibdah, Jamal A

2014-08-15

11

Germline Genetic Contributions to Risk for Esophageal Adenocarcinoma, Barrett’s Esophagus, and Gastroesophageal Reflux  

PubMed Central

Background Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA) is an increasingly common cancer with poor survival. Barrett’s esophagus (BE) is the main precursor to EA, and every year 0.12% to 0.5% of BE patients progress to EA. BE typically arises on a background of chronic gastroesophageal reflux (GERD), one of the risk factors for EA. Methods We used genome-wide association data to investigate the genetic architecture underlying GERD, BE, and EA. We applied a method to estimate the variance explained (array heritability, h2 g) and the genetic correlation (rg) between GERD, BE, and EA by considering all single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) simultaneously. We also estimated the polygenic overlap between GERD, BE, and EA using a prediction approach. All tests were two-sided, except in the case of variance-explained estimation where one-sided tests were used. Results We estimated a statistically significant genetic variance explained for BE (h2 g = 35%; standard error [SE] = 6%; one-sided P = 1 × 10?9) and for EA (h2 g = 25 %; SE = 5%; one-sided P = 2 × 10?7). The genetic correlation between BE and EA was found to be high (rg = 1.0; SE = 0.37). We also estimated a statistically significant polygenic overlap between BE and EA (one-sided P = 1 × 10?6), which suggests, together with the high genetic correlation, that shared genes underlie the development of BE and EA. Conversely, no statistically significant results were obtained for GERD. Conclusions We have demonstrated that risk to BE and EA is influenced by many germline genetic variants of small effect and that shared polygenic effects contribute to risk of these two diseases. PMID:24168968

2013-01-01

12

Epigenetic Patterns in the Progression of Esophageal Adenocarcinoma1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) arises after normal squamous mu- cosa undergoes metaplasia to specialized columnar epithelium (intestinal metaplasia or Barrett's esophagus), which can then ultimately progress to dysplasia and subsequent malignancy. Epigenetic studies of this model have thus far been limited to the DNA methylation analysis of a few genes. In this study, we analyzed a panel of 20 genes using

Cindy A. Eads; Reginald V. Lord; Kumari Wickramasinghe; Tiffany I. Long; Soudamini K. Kurumboor; Leslie Bernstein; Jeffrey H. Peters; Steven R. DeMeester; Tom R. DeMeester; Kristin A. Skinner; Peter W. Laird

2001-01-01

13

Biology of Barrett’s Esophagus and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma  

PubMed Central

Synopsis The past few years have brought new advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the development of Barrett’s esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma. Although knowledge of the genetic basis for these conditions has not yet translated into clinically useful biomarkers, the current pace of biomedical discovery holds endless possibilities for molecular medicine to improve the diagnosis and management of patients with these conditions. This article provides a useful conceptual basis for understanding the molecular events involved in the making of Barrett’s metaplasia and in its neoplastic progression and provides a rationale for evaluating studies on the application of molecular medicine to the diagnosis and management of patients with Barrett’s esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma. PMID:21112495

Wang, David H.; Souza, Rhonda F.

2010-01-01

14

A Large-scale genetic association study of esophageal adenocarcinoma risk  

PubMed Central

The incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA) has been increasing rapidly, particularly among white males, over the past few decades in the USA. However, the etiology of EA and the striking male predominance is not fully explained by known risk factors. To identify susceptible genes for EA risk, we conducted a pathway-based candidate gene association study on 335 Caucasian EA cases and 319 Caucasian controls. A total of 1330 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) selected from 354 genes were analyzed using an Illumina GoldenGate assay. The genotyped common SNPs include missense and exonic SNPs, SNPs within untranslated regions and 2 kb 5? of the gene, and tagSNPs for genes with little functional information available. Logistic regression adjusted for potential confounders was used to assess the genetic effect of each SNP on EA risk. We also tested gene–gender interactions using the likelihood ratio tests. We found that the genetic variants in the apoptosis pathway were significantly associated with EA risk after correcting for multiple comparisons. SNPs of rs3127075 in Caspase-7 (CASP7) and rs4661636 in Caspase-9 (CASP9) genes that play a critical role in apoptosis were found to be associated with an increased risk of EA. A protective effect of SNP rs572483 in the progesterone receptor (PGR) gene was observed among women carrying the variant G allele [adjusted odds ratio (OR)?=?0.19; 95% confidence interval (CI)?= 0.08–0.46] but was not observed among men (adjusted OR?= 1.38; 95% CI?=?0.95–2.00). In conclusion, this study suggests that the genetic variants of CASP7 and CASP9 in the apoptosis pathway may be important predictive markers for EA susceptibility and that PGR in the sex hormone signaling pathway may be associated with the gender differences in EA risk. PMID:20453000

Liu, Chen-yu; Wu, Michael C.; Chen, Feng; Ter-Minassian, Monica; Asomaning, Kofi; Zhai, Rihong; Wang, Zhaoxi; Su, Li; Heist, Rebecca S.; Kulke, Matthew H.; Lin, Xihong; Liu, Geoffrey; Christiani, David C.

2010-01-01

15

Gastroesophageal Reflux in Relation to Adenocarcinomas of the Esophagus: A Pooled Analysis from the Barrett’s and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Consortium (BEACON)  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies have evidenced an association between gastroesophageal reflux and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA). It is unknown to what extent these associations vary by population, age, sex, body mass index, and cigarette smoking, or whether duration and frequency of symptoms interact in predicting risk. The Barrett’s and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Consortium (BEACON) allowed an in-depth assessment of these issues. Methods Detailed information on heartburn and regurgitation symptoms and covariates were available from five BEACON case-control studies of EA and esophagogastric junction adenocarcinoma (EGJA). We conducted single-study multivariable logistic regressions followed by random-effects meta-analysis. Stratified analyses, meta-regressions, and sensitivity analyses were also conducted. Results Five studies provided 1,128 EA cases, 1,229 EGJA cases, and 4,057 controls for analysis. All summary estimates indicated positive, significant associations between heartburn/regurgitation symptoms and EA. Increasing heartburn duration was associated with increasing EA risk; odds ratios were 2.80, 3.85, and 6.24 for symptom durations of <10 years, 10 to <20 years, and ?20 years. Associations with EGJA were slighter weaker, but still statistically significant for those with the highest exposure. Both frequency and duration of heartburn/regurgitation symptoms were independently associated with higher risk. We observed similar strengths of associations when stratified by age, sex, cigarette smoking, and body mass index. Conclusions This analysis indicates that the association between heartburn/regurgitation symptoms and EA is strong, increases with increased duration and/or frequency, and is consistent across major risk factors. Weaker associations for EGJA suggest that this cancer site has a dissimilar pathogenesis or represents a mixed population of patients. PMID:25075959

Cook, Michael B.; Corley, Douglas A.; Murray, Liam J.; Liao, Linda M.; Kamangar, Farin; Ye, Weimin; Gammon, Marilie D.; Risch, Harvey A.; Casson, Alan G.; Freedman, Neal D.; Chow, Wong-Ho; Wu, Anna H.; Bernstein, Leslie; Nyrén, Olof; Pandeya, Nirmala; Whiteman, David C.; Vaughan, Thomas L.

2014-01-01

16

Association between Polymorphisms in Cancer-Related Genes and Early Onset of Esophageal Adenocarcinoma123  

PubMed Central

There is an increasing incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA) among younger people in the western populations. However, the association between genetic polymorphisms and the age of EA onset is unclear. In this study, 1330 functional/tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 354 cancer-related genes were genotyped in 335 white EA patients. Twenty important SNPs that have the highest importance scores and lowest classification error rate were identified by the random forest algorithm to be associated with early onset of EA (age ? 55 years). Subsequent logistic regression analysis indicated that 10 SNPs (rs2070744 of NOS3, rs720321 of BCL2, rs17757541 of BCL2, rs11775256 of TNFRSF10A, rs1035142 of CASP8, rs2236302 of MMP14, rs4740363 of ABL1, rs696217 of GHRL, rs2445762 of CYP19A1, and rs11941492 of VEGFR2/KDR) were significantly associated with early onset of EA (?55 vs >55 years, all P < .05 after adjusting for co-variates and false discovery rate). Among them, five SNPs in the NOS3, BCL2, TNFRSF10A, and CASP8 genes were known to be involved in apoptosis processes. In Kaplan-Meier analyses, rs2070744 of NOS3, rs720321 of BCL2, and rs1035142 of CASP8 were also significantly associated with early onset of EA. Moreover, there was a higher risk of developing EA at a younger age when one had more risk genotypes. In conclusion, polymorphisms in cancer-related genes, especially those in the apoptotic pathway, play an important role in the development of younger-aged EA in a dose-response manner. PMID:21472143

Wu, I-Chen; Zhao, Yang; Zhai, Rihong; Liu, Geoffrey; Ter-Minassian, Monica; Asomaning, Kofi; Su, Li; Liu, Chen-yu; Chen, Feng; Kulke, Matthew H; Heist, Rebecca S; Christiani, David C

2011-01-01

17

Scalp metastasis from esophageal adenocarcinoma: comparative histopathology dictates surgical approach.  

PubMed

Cutaneous metastasis of esophageal cancer, in particular esophageal adenocarcinoma, is rare and metastasis to the scalp is extremely rare. We describe such a case that was originally diagnosed as an adnexal carcinoma. A 77-year-old male with a history of esophageal adenocarcinoma status after esophagectomy at our institution 4.5 years prior, presented to our plastic surgery clinic with a 2-month history of 2 temporoparietal scalp lesions. He was referred to our clinic by a community dermatologist who had performed a shave biopsy of the lesions. The clinical diagnosis was adnexal cyst. The history of esophageal carcinoma was not provided to the pathologist. The dermatopathology report came back as malignant adnexal neoplasm and considerations included apocrine carcinoma. We reexamined the pathologist's slides from the outside facility, comparing them to the histopathology from his esophagectomy. Histopathologic changes were identical. Thus, our surgical and postoperative approach changed significantly. Clinical suspicion should be high for cutaneous metastases in patients with a history of solid organ cancers. It is important for clinicians to illicit a history of malignancy. A biopsy should be performed on any suspicious lesions, and clinical data along with histopathology of the prior cancer resection(s) should be provided to the pathologist for comparison. Diagnosis of the suspicious lesion should be made before definitive excision, as this may change the approach, with the potential for postoperative chemotherapy and radiation. The definitive operative approach consists of surgical debulking with the evidence of negative margins. On the scalp, we feel that 5-mm margins are appropriate to obtain clear margins. One should appreciate the subdermal extent of metastases and adjust the margins accordingly. We recommend excising the galea with the skin as an en bloc resection. This will both assure clear deep margins of resection and assist in a tension-free closure of the scalp. PMID:23407258

Doumit, Gaby; Abouhassan, William; Piliang, Melissa P; Uchin, Jeffrey M; Papay, Francis

2013-07-01

18

Repetitive sequences, genomic instability and Barrett's esophageal adenocarcinoma  

PubMed Central

Barrett's esophageal adenocarcinoma (BAC) is a cancer associated with heartburn. If gastroesophageal reflux is not treated, the exposure to acid over the years, leads to a premalignant condition known as Barrett's esophagus (BE) which then progresses through low grade and high grade dysplasias to Barrett's adenocarcinoma. Genomic instability, which seems to arise early at BE stage, leads to accrual of mutational changes which underlie the the succession of histological and physiological changes associated with this disease. Genomic instability is therefore an important target for prevention and treatment of cancer and it is important to elucidate the mechanisms associated with this problem. We have shown that elevated/deregulated homologous recombination mediates genomic instability in cancer. Recently we also demonstrated that the mutational rates of individual chromosomes in BAC cells correlate with their ALU frequency. The aims of this article are to briefly discuss different types of repetitive sequences and highlight their importance in physiology of normal and cancer cells, especially BAC. PMID:22479688

2011-01-01

19

Exome and whole-genome sequencing of esophageal adenocarcinoma identifies recurrent driver events and mutational complexity  

E-print Network

The incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) has risen 600% over the last 30 years. With a 5-year survival rate of ~15%, the identification of new therapeutic targets for EAC is greatly important. We analyze the mutation ...

Lander, Eric S.

20

Translational research on esophageal adenocarcinoma: from cell line to clinic.  

PubMed

Human esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) cell lines have made a substantial contribution to elucidating mechanisms of carcinogenesis and drug discovery. Model research on EAC relies almost entirely on a relatively small set of established tumor cell lines because appropriate animal models are lacking. Nowadays, more than 20% of all fundamental translational research studies regarding EAC are partially or entirely based on these cell lines. The ready availability of these cell lines to investigators worldwide have resulted in more than 250 publications, including many examples of important biomedical discoveries. The high genomic similarities (but certainly not completely identical) between the EAC cell lines and their original tumors provide rational for their use. Recently, in a collaborative effort all available EAC cell lines have been verified resulting in the establishment of a reliable panel of 10 EAC cell lines. It could be expected that the value of these cell lines increases as unlimited source of tumor material because new biomedical techniques require more tumor cells and the supply of viable tumor cells is diminishing because of neoadjuvant chemo(radio)therapy of patients with EAC. Here, we review the history of the EAC cell lines and their utility in translational research and biomedical discovery. PMID:23795680

Boonstra, J J; Tilanus, H W; Dinjens, W N M

2015-01-01

21

Radiation Therapy, Paclitaxel, and Carboplatin With or Without Trastuzumab in Treating Patients With Esophageal Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adenocarcinoma of the Gastroesophageal Junction; Esophageal Adenocarcinoma; Stage IB Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIA Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIB Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIIA Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIIB Esophageal Cancer

2015-02-09

22

TGM2 A Cell Surface Marker in Esophageal Adenocarcinomas  

PubMed Central

Introduction Esophageal adenocarcinomas (EAC) are aggressive cancers that are increasing in incidence and associated with a poor prognosis. The identification of highly expressed genes in EAC relative to metaplastic Barrett’s esophagus (BE) may provide new targets for novel early cancer detection strategies using endoscopically administered, fluorescently labeled peptides. Methods Gene expression analysis of BE and EACs were used to identify the cell surface marker transglutaminase 2 (TGM2) as overexpressed in cancer. The expression of two major isoforms of TGM2 was determined by qRT-polymerase chain reaction in an independent cohort of 128 EACs. Protein expression was confirmed by tissue microarrays and immunoblot analysis of EAC cell lines. TGM2 DNA copy number was assessed using single nucleotide polymorphism microarrays and confirmed by qPCR. TGM2 expression in neoadjuvantly treated EACs and following small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown in cisplatin-treated EAC cells was used to determine its possible role in chemoresistance. Results TGM2 is overexpressed in 15 EACs relative to 26 BE samples. Overexpression of both TGM2 isoforms was confirmed in 128 EACs and associated with higher tumor stage, poor differentiation, and increased inflammatory and desmoplastic response. Tissue microarrays and immunohistochemistry confirmed elevated TGM2 protein expression in EAC. Single nucleotide polymorphism and qPCR analysis revealed increased TGM2 gene copy number as one mechanism underlying elevated TGM2 expression. TGM2 was highly expressed in resistant EAC after patient treatment with neoadjuvant chemotherapy/radiation suggesting a role for TGM2 in chemoresistance. Conclusion TGM2 may be a useful cell surface biomarker for early detection of EAC. PMID:24828664

Leicht, Deborah T.; Kausar, Tasneem; Wang, Zhuwen; Ferrer-Torres, Daysha; Wang, Thomas D.; Thomas, Dafydd G.; Lin, Jules; Chang, Andrew C.; Lin, Lin; Beer, David G.

2014-01-01

23

Scalp metastasis of gastro-esophageal junction adenocarcinoma: a rare occurrence.  

PubMed

Cutaneous metastasis is one of the many skin changes which are associated with internal malignancies. Breast, lung, and colon are the most common sources of internal primary malignancies. Gastro-esophageal junction adenocarcinoma is a rare cause of cutaneous metastasis to the scalp. Gastric adenocarcinoma usually metastasizes to the liver, peritoneal cavity and regional lymph nodes more often than to skin. We are presenting a case of cutaneous metastasis on the scalp of a 79-year-old man, who was diagnosed and operated for gastro-oesophageal junction adenocarcinoma one year back. PMID:24701517

Roy, Asitava Deb; Sherparpa, Mingma; Prasad, P R K; Lamichanet, Rachna

2014-02-01

24

Biomarkers may help predict progression of Barrett's esophagus to esophageal adenocarcinoma  

Cancer.gov

A series of microRNA expression signatures that may help to define progression of the precancerous condition Barrett's esophagus into esophageal adenocarcinoma was reported recently in Cancer Prevention Research, a journal of the American Association for Cancer Research. The study was conducted by researchers at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, in Houston.

25

Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation Followed by Surgery for Esophageal Adenocarcinoma: Significance of Microscopically Positive Circumferential Radial Margins  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThe incidence and consequence of an isolated involved circumferential radial margin (CRM) after resection for esophageal adenocarcinoma in the setting of neoadjuvant chemoradiation (CRT) has not been reported. We aim to determine the frequency and significance of a close (

John A. Harvin; Guy Lahat; Arlene M. Correa; Jared Lee; Dipen Maru; Jaffer Ajani; Edith M. Marom; James Welsh; Manoop S. Bhutani; Garret Walsh; Jack Roth; Reza Mehran; Ara Vaporciyan; David Rice; Stephen Swisher; Wayne Hofstetter

26

Esophageal Adenocarcinoma and Its Rare Association with Barrett’s Esophagus in Henan, China  

PubMed Central

Incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) has increased sharply in Western Europe and United States over the past three decades. Nearly all cases of EAC in the west are thought to be associated with Barrett’s esophagus (BE) at the time of diagnosis. Regions in the Henan province of China have one of world’s highest incidences of esophageal cancer, yet recent temporal trends in the relative rates of EAC with respect to esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma (ESCC), as well as its association with Barrett’s esophagus (BE), have not been reported. In this report, we present large-scale longitudinal clinical and histological data on 5401 esophageal cancers (EC) patients diagnosed during the recent 10-year period (2002–2011) at Henan Cancer Hospital, China. All 217 esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) patients from these 5401 EC patients were examined to better understand the relationship between Barrett’s esophagus (BE) and EAC. We found that EAC was relatively rare and accounted for approximately 5% of all esophageal cancers each year during 2002–2011. There is no evidence of significant temporal trends in the rate of EAC relative to ESCC. Only 10 out of 217 (4.6%) EAC cases were detected to have any evidence of Barrett’s esophagus. This result raises the possibility of a different etiological basis for EAC in China motivating more detailed epidemiological, clinical and molecular characterization of EAC in China in order to better understand the neoplastic development of EAC. PMID:25333822

Yao, Lena; Li, Xiaohong; Reid, Brian; Self, Steve; Ma, Jie; Chang, Yuxi; Feng, Shixian; de Dieu Tapsoba, Jean; Sun, Xin; Sun, Xibin

2014-01-01

27

Integrative post-genome-wide association analysis of CDKN2A and TP53 SNPs and risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma.  

PubMed

Incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA) in Western countries has increased markedly in recent decades. Although several risk factors have been identified for EA and its precursor, Barrett's esophagus (BE), including reflux, Caucasian race, male gender, obesity, and smoking, less is known about the role of inherited genetic variation. Frequent somatic mutations in the tumor suppressor genes CDKN2A and TP53 were recently reported in EA tumors, while somatic alterations at 9p (CDKN2A) and 17p (TP53) have been implicated as predictors of progression from BE to EA. Motivated by these findings, we used data from a genome-wide association study of 2515 EA cases and 3207 controls to analyze 37 germline single nucleotide polymorphisms at the CDKN2A and TP53 loci. Three CDKN2A polymorphisms were nominally associated (P < 0.05) with reduced risk of EA: rs2518720 C>T [intronic, odds ratio 0.90, P = 0.0121, q = 0.3059], rs3088440 G>A (3'UTR, odds ratio 0.84, P = 0.0186, q = 0.3059), and rs4074785 C>T (intronic, odds ratio 0.85, P = 0.0248, q = 0.3059). None of the TP53 single nucleotide polymorphisms reached nominal significance. Two of the CDKN2A variants identified were also associated with reduced risk of progression from BE to EA, when assessed in a prospective cohort of 408 BE patients: rs2518720 (hazard ratio 0.57, P = 0.0095, q = 0.0285) and rs3088440 (hazard ratio 0.34, P = 0.0368, q = 0.0552). In vitro functional studies of rs3088440, a single nucleotide polymorphism located in the seed sequence of a predicted miR-663b binding site, suggested a mechanism whereby the G>A substitution may attenuate miR-663b-mediated repression of the CDKN2A transcript. This study provides the first evidence that germline variation at the CDKN2A locus may influence EA susceptibility. PMID:25280564

Buas, Matthew F; Levine, David M; Makar, Karen W; Utsugi, Heidi; Onstad, Lynn; Li, Xiaohong; Galipeau, Patricia C; Shaheen, Nicholas J; Hardie, Laura J; Romero, Yvonne; Bernstein, Leslie; Gammon, Marilie D; Casson, Alan G; Bird, Nigel C; Risch, Harvey A; Ye, Weimin; Liu, Geoffrey; Corley, Douglas A; Blount, Patricia L; Fitzgerald, Rebecca C; Whiteman, David C; Wu, Anna H; Reid, Brian J; Vaughan, Thomas L

2014-12-01

28

Gastric juice protects against the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma in the rat.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: The authors investigate the effects of gastric juice on tumorigenesis in a rat model of esophageal adenocarcinoma. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: In rats treated with the carcinogen methyl-n-amyl nitrosamine, squamous cancer of the esophagus develops in a time- and dose-dependent manner. When methyl-n-amyl nitrosamine treatment is preceded by an operation to induce reflux of duodenal and gastric juice into the esophagus, there is an increased yield of esophageal tumors, many of which are adenocarcinomas. When only gastric juice refluxes into the esophagus, the tumor yield is less and adenocarcinomas are not found. METHODS: Two hundred seventy 8-week old Sprague-Dawley rats were studied. Twenty unoperated rats served as controls. The remaining rats underwent the following operations: esophagoduodenostomy with gastric and vagal preservation to induce duodenogastroesophageal reflux (n = 48); esophagoduodenostomy with antrectomy and Billroth 1 reconstruction to produce reflux of duodenogastric juice with the exclusion of the antrum (n = 53); esophagoduodenostomy with proximal gastrectomy to induce hypergastrinemia and reflux of duodenogastric juice with exclusion of the body and forestomach (n = 51); esophagoduodenostomy plus total gastrectomy to produce reflux of duodenal juice alone (n = 50); and esophagoduodenostomy with vagal and gastric preservation but with division of the duodenum just beyond the pylorus and reimplantation into the jejunum, 13 cm distal to the esophagoduodenostomy. This produced reflux of duodenal juice with gastric juice diverted downstream, (n = 48). At 10 weeks of age, all rats were given 4 weekly doses of carcinogen (methyl-n-amyl nitrosamine, 25 mg/kg intraperitoneally), and survivors were killed at 36 weeks of age. RESULTS: The prevalence rate of esophageal adenocarcinoma was 30% in rats with duodenogastroesophageal reflux and 87% in rats with reflux of duodenal juice alone. Fifty-six percent of rats with reflux of duodenogastric juice with exclusion of the antrum and 72% of rats with reflux of duodenogastric juice with the exclusion of the body and forestomach developed adenocarcinoma, showing a progression increase in the prevalence of adenocarcinoma as less gastric juice was permitted to reflux with duodenal juice into the esophagus. CONCLUSION: In this rat model, the presence of gastric juice in refluxed duodenal juice against the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma. The protective effect appears to be due to acid secretion from the stomach. Continuous profound acid suppression therapy may be detrimental by encouraging esophageal metaplasia and tumorigenesis in patients with duodenogastroesophageal reflux. Images Figure 1. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. Figure 7. Figure 9. Figure 10. Figure 11. Figure 12. PMID:8813264

Ireland, A P; Peters, J H; Smyrk, T C; DeMeester, T R; Clark, G W; Mirvish, S S; Adrian, T E

1996-01-01

29

A quantitative investigation of fucosylated serum glycoproteins with application to esophageal adenocarcinoma.  

PubMed

Although glycoproteomic studies provide unique opportunities for cancer research, it has been necessary to develop specific methods for analysis of oncologically interesting glycoproteins. We describe a general, multimethodological approach for quantitative glycoproteomic analysis of fucosylated glycoproteins in human blood serum. A total of 136 putative fucosylated glycoproteins were identified with very high confidence in three clinically relevant sample pools (N=5 for each), with a mean CV of 3.1% observed for replicate analyses. Two samples were collected from subjects diagnosed with esophagus disease states, high-grade dysplasia plus esophageal adenocarcinoma, while the third sample was representative of a disease-free condition. Some glycoproteins, observed to be significantly upregulated in esophageal adenocarcinoma, i.e. more than twofold higher than in the disease-free condition, are briefly discussed. Further investigation will be necessary to validate these findings; however, the method itself is demonstrated to be an effective tool for quantitative glycoproteomics of clinical samples. PMID:20446296

Mann, Benjamin; Madera, Milan; Klouckova, Iveta; Mechref, Yehia; Dobrolecki, Lacey E; Hickey, Robert J; Hammoud, Zane T; Novotny, Milos V

2010-06-01

30

A cross sectional study of p504s, CD133, and Twist expression in the esophageal metaplasia dysplasia adenocarcinoma sequence.  

PubMed

The incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma has increased dramatically over recent years and Barrett's esophagus is considered the most established risk factor for its development. Endoscopic surveillance of Barrett's esophagus is therefore recommended but hinges on histological interpretation of randomly taken biopsies which is poorly reproducible. The use of biomarkers presents an opportunity to improve our ability to risk-stratify these patients.We examined three biomarkers namely p504s, CD133, and Twist in the setting of Barrett's esophagus, low-grade dysplasia, and esophageal adenocarcinoma to evaluate differential expression between benign, dysplastic, and malignant Barrett's tissue in an exploratory cross-sectional study. Twenty-five cases each of Barrett's esophagus, low-grade dysplasia, and esophageal adenocarcinoma were included along-with 25 cases of esophagectomy resections for Barrett's adenocarcinoma. The biomarkers were immunostained on automated Ventana(®) immunostainer. The biopsies were assessed for biomarker expression by two independent observers. Granular cytoplasmic staining of p504s was observed in dysplastic Barrett's biopsies and esophageal adenocarcinoma but not in Barrett's esophagus. Apical and membranous CD133 expression was also observed in dysplastic Barrett's and esophageal adenocarcinoma. Nuclear Twist expression was seen predominantly in stromal cells. There was increased p504s expression in dysplastic Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma compared with controls. CD133 expression was detected for the first time in esophageal adenocarcinoma and dysplastic Barrett's esophagus. Twist expression was not convincing enough to be labeled as Barrett's biomarker. p504s and CD133 have the potential to differentiate benign from malignant Barrett's tissue in this exploratory study. Their validity should be established in prospective longitudinal studies. PMID:24612412

Ahmad, J; Arthur, K; Maxwell, P; Kennedy, A; Johnston, B T; Murray, L; McManus, D T

2014-02-25

31

Effect of freeze-dried berries on the development of reflux-induced esophageal adenocarcinoma.  

PubMed

The incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma in humans is increasing more rapidly than any other malignancy in the United States. Animal studies have demonstrated the efficacy of freeze-dried berry supplementation on carcinogen-induced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in rats; however, no such studies have been done in esophagoduodenal anastomosis (EDA), an animal model for reflux-induced esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) development. Eight-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into 3 groups: EDA + control diet (EDA-CD; n = 10); EDA + 2.5% black raspberry diet (EDA-BRB; n = 11) and EDA + 2.5% blueberry diet (EDA-BB; n = 12). After 2 wk of feeding the respective diets, the rats underwent EDA surgery to induce gastroesophageal reflux and then continued the diet. Measurement of feed intake suggested that all EDA-operated animals had lower feed intake starting at 10 wk after surgery and this was significant close to termination at 24 wk. There were no significant differences in either reflux esophagitis (RE), intestinal metaplasia (IM) (70% in CD, 64% in BRB, and 66% in BB; P = 0.1) or EAC incidence (30% for CD, 34% for BRB, and 25% for BB; P = 0.2) with supplementation. Berry diets did not alter COX-2 levels, but BB diet significantly reduced MnSOD levels (1.23 ± 0.2) compared to control diet (2.05 ± 0.14; P < 0.05). We conclude that a dietary supplementation of freeze-dried BRB and BB at 2.5% (w/w) was not effective in the prevention of reflux-induced esophageal adenocarcinoma in this EDA animal model. PMID:22043833

Aiyer, Harini S; Li, Yan; Losso, Jack N; Gao, Chenfei; Schiffman, Suzanne C; Slone, Stephen P; Martin, Robert C G

2011-11-01

32

Infrared light-absorbing gold/gold sulfide nanoparticles induce cell death in esophageal adenocarcinoma  

PubMed Central

Gold nanoparticles and near infrared-absorbing light are each innocuous to tissue but when combined can destroy malignant tissue while leaving healthy tissue unharmed. This study investigated the feasibility of photothermal ablation therapy for esophageal adenocarcinoma using chitosan-coated gold/gold sulfide (CS-GGS) nanoparticles. A rat esophagoduodenal anastomosis model was used for the in vivo ablation study, and three human esophageal cell lines were used to study the response of cancer cells and benign cells to near infrared light after treatment with CS-GGS. The results indicate that both cancerous tissue and cancer cells took up more gold nanoparticles and were completely ablated after exposure to near infrared light. The benign tissue and noncancerous cells showed less uptake of these nanoparticles, and remained viable after exposure to near infrared light. CS-GGS nanoparticles could provide an optimal endoluminal therapeutic option for near infrared light ablation of esophageal cancer. PMID:23818775

Li, Yan; Gobin, Andre M; Dryden, Gerald W; Kang, Xinqin; Xiao, Deyi; Li, Su Ping; Zhang, Guandong; Martin, Robert CG

2013-01-01

33

Inflammatory and microRNA Gene Expression as Prognostic Classifiers of Barrett's Associated Esophageal Adenocarcinoma  

PubMed Central

Purpose Esophageal cancer is one of the most aggressive and deadly forms of cancer; highlighting the need to identify biomarkers for early detection and prognostic classification. Our recent studies have identified inflammatory gene and microRNA signatures derived from tumor and nontumor tissues as prognostic biomarkers of hepatocellular, lung, and colorectal adenocarcinoma. Here, we examine the relationship between expression of these inflammatory genes and miRNA expression in esophageal adenocarcinoma and patient survival. Experimental Design We measured the expression of 23 inflammation-associated genes in tumors and adjacent normal tissues from 93 patients (58 Barrett's and 35 Sporadic adenocarcinomas) by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. These data were used to build an inflammatory risk model, based on multivariate Cox regression, to predict survival in a training cohort (n=47). We then determined if this model could predict survival in a cohort of 46 patients. Expression data for miRNA-375 was available for these patients and was combined with inflammatory gene expression. Results IFN?, IL-1?, IL-8, IL-21, IL-23, and PRG expression in tumor and nontumor samples were each associated with poor prognosis based on Cox regression ([Z-score]>1.5) and therefore, were used to generate an inflammatory risk score (IRS). Patients with a high IRS had poor prognosis compared to those with a low IRS in the training (P=0.002) and test (P=0.012) cohorts. This association was stronger in the group with Barrett's history. When combining with miRNA-375, the combined IRS/miR signature was an improved prognostic classifier than either one alone. Conclusion Transcriptional profiling of inflammation-associated genes and miRNA expression in resected esophageal Barrett's associated adenocarcinoma tissues may have clinical utility as predictors of prognosis. PMID:20947516

Nguyen, Giang Huong; Schetter, Aaron J.; Chou, David B.; Bowman, Elise D.; Zhao, Ronghua; Hawkes, Jason E.; Mathe, Ewy A.; Kumamoto, Kensuke; Zhao, Yiqiang; Budhu, Anuradha; Hagiwara, Nobutoshi; Wang, Xin Wei; Miyashita, Masao; Casson, Alan G.; Harris, Curtis C.

2010-01-01

34

Esophageal adenocarcinoma and urothelial carcinoma orbital metastases masquerading as infection.  

PubMed

Abstract Orbital metastases can masquerade as other orbital processes. We present two cases of orbital metastases, the first being the first reported adenocarcinoma of the esophagus presenting as an orbital metastasis prior to the primary being known, and the other as the first urothelial carcinoma to present as orbital cellulitis. The first patient presented with left upper eyelid pain. CT scan identified a superolateral subperiosteal fluid collection without concomitant sinus disease, which was drained in the operating room. Two weeks later repeat CT scan showed recurrent orbital subperiosteal fluid. It was drained and a biopsy showed necrotic adenocarcinoma. The second case presented with a painless right proptosis, decreased vision, and globally decreased ocular motility 3 days after bladder resection for urothelial carcinoma. CT scan demonstrated pan sinusitis with a soft tissue mass in the apex of the right orbit with extension through the superior orbital fissure. After no improvement on antibiotics endoscopic drainage was performed. Pathology revealed metastatic urothelial carcinoma within the orbital fat. PMID:25325392

Magrath, George N; Proctor, Charles M; Reardon, Wade A; Patel, Krishna G; Lentsch, Eric J; Eiseman, Andrew S

2015-02-01

35

MMP-1 is a (pre-)invasive factor in Barrett-associated esophageal adenocarcinomas and is associated with positive lymph node status  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Esophageal adenocarcinomas (EACs) arise due to gastroesophageal reflux, with Barrett's esophagus (BE) regarded as precancerous lesion. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) might play a role during the multistep carcinogenetic process. METHODS: Expression of MMP-1 and -13 was analyzed in esophageal cancer (n = 41 EAC with BE, n = 19 EAC without BE, and n = 10 esophageal squamous-cell carcinomas, ESCC),

Martin Grimm; Maria Lazariotou; Stefan Kircher; Luisa Stuermer; Christoph Reiber; Andreas Höfelmayr; Stefan Gattenlöhner; Christoph Otto; Christoph T Germer; Burkhard HA von Rahden

2010-01-01

36

A validated miRNA profile predicts response to therapy in esophageal adenocarcinoma  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND In the current study we present a validated miRNA signature to predict pathologic complete response (pCR) to neoadjuvant chemoradiation in esophageal adenocarcinoma. METHODS Three patient cohorts (discovery, n = 10; model, n = 43; and validation, n = 65) with locally advanced esophageal adenocarcinoma were analyzed. In the discovery cohort 754 miRNAs were examined in pretreatment tumor biopsy specimens using a TaqMan array. Of these, the 44 most significantly altered between tumors with pCR and non-pCR were examined in an additional 43 tumors using a Fluidigm 48.48 array. The 4 miRNAs (mir-505*, mir-99b, mir-451, and mir-145*) significantly predicting pCR in both cohorts were examined in an additional validation cohort (n = 65) using an Illumina array. These 4 miRNAs were used to generate an miRNA expression profile (MEP) score. RESULTS The 4 miRNAs profiled are highly significantly associated with pCR in the model cohort (Ptrend =.008), the validation cohort (Ptrend =.025), and the combined cohort (Ptrend = 4.6 × 10?4). The receiver-operator characteristic areas under the curves (AUCs) for the MEP score were 0.78 for the model cohort, 0.71 for the validation cohort, and 0.72 for the combined cohort. When combined with clinical variables, the MEP score AUCs increased to 0.89, 0.77, and 0.81, respectively Estimates from logistic regression based on the MEP were determined and used to generate a probability of pCR plot, which identifies a group of patients with very high (?80%) and very low (?10%) probability of pCR. CONCLUSIONS The MEP score provides a validated means of predicting pCR to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy in esophageal adenocarcinoma that is robust across several analysis platforms. Cancer 2014;120:3635–3641. PMID:25091571

Skinner, Heath D; Lee, Jeffrey H; Bhutani, Manoop S; Weston, Brian; Hofstetter, Wayne; Komaki, Ritsuko; Shiozaki, Hironori; Wadhwa, Roopma; Sudo, Kazuki; Elimova, Elena; Song, Shumei; Ye, Yuanqing; Huang, Maosheng; Ajani, Jaffer; Wu, Xifeng

2014-01-01

37

Genomic catastrophes frequently arise in esophageal adenocarcinoma and drive tumorigenesis.  

PubMed

Oesophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) incidence is rapidly increasing in Western countries. A better understanding of EAC underpins efforts to improve early detection and treatment outcomes. While large EAC exome sequencing efforts to date have found recurrent loss-of-function mutations, oncogenic driving events have been underrepresented. Here we use a combination of whole-genome sequencing (WGS) and single-nucleotide polymorphism-array profiling to show that genomic catastrophes are frequent in EAC, with almost a third (32%, n=40/123) undergoing chromothriptic events. WGS of 22 EAC cases show that catastrophes may lead to oncogene amplification through chromothripsis-derived double-minute chromosome formation (MYC and MDM2) or breakage-fusion-bridge (KRAS, MDM2 and RFC3). Telomere shortening is more prominent in EACs bearing localized complex rearrangements. Mutational signature analysis also confirms that extreme genomic instability in EAC can be driven by somatic BRCA2 mutations. These findings suggest that genomic catastrophes have a significant role in the malignant transformation of EAC. PMID:25351503

Nones, Katia; Waddell, Nicola; Wayte, Nicci; Patch, Ann-Marie; Bailey, Peter; Newell, Felicity; Holmes, Oliver; Fink, J Lynn; Quinn, Michael C J; Tang, Yue Hang; Lampe, Guy; Quek, Kelly; Loffler, Kelly A; Manning, Suzanne; Idrisoglu, Senel; Miller, David; Xu, Qinying; Waddell, Nick; Wilson, Peter J; Bruxner, Timothy J C; Christ, Angelika N; Harliwong, Ivon; Nourse, Craig; Nourbakhsh, Ehsan; Anderson, Matthew; Kazakoff, Stephen; Leonard, Conrad; Wood, Scott; Simpson, Peter T; Reid, Lynne E; Krause, Lutz; Hussey, Damian J; Watson, David I; Lord, Reginald V; Nancarrow, Derek; Phillips, Wayne A; Gotley, David; Smithers, B Mark; Whiteman, David C; Hayward, Nicholas K; Campbell, Peter J; Pearson, John V; Grimmond, Sean M; Barbour, Andrew P

2014-01-01

38

Age and sex differences in the incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma: results from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Registry (1973-2008).  

PubMed

Risk factors driving sex disparity in esophageal cancer are unclear. Recent molecular evidence suggests hormonal factors. We conducted a national descriptive epidemiological study to assess the hypothesis that estrogen exposure could explain the male predominance in observed esophageal adenocarcinoma incidence. We analyzed the esophageal cancer incidence trends by histology and sex from 1973 to 2008 in nine population-based cancer registries of the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) 9 Registry Database. We used age as a proxy for estrogen exposure in females. The collective age groups annual percentage change in esophageal adenocarcinoma for females is positive (0.03%; 95% confidence interval: 0.02, 0.03%) during the study period. Interestingly, the esophageal adenocarcinoma annual percentage change in incidence rates for females during the same time period is significantly negative from ages 50-54 to ages 60-64. Even though the incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma rises in both males and females, the male-to-female ratio across age peaks in the 50-54 years then decreases. Furthermore, the esophageal adenocarcinoma age-adjusted incidence rate in postmenopausal females age 80 and above increases with age unlike their male counterparts. Taken together, these data support the hypothesis that the endocrine milieu in pre- and perimenopausal females serves as a protective factor against esophageal adenocarcinoma, and with loss of estrogen or because of the increasing time period away from estrogen exposure, the rate of esophageal adenocarcinoma incidence increases in the older postmenopausal female. Because females comprise the largest portion of the elderly population with esophageal adenocarcinoma, these findings are significant. PMID:24118313

Mathieu, L N; Kanarek, N F; Tsai, H-L; Rudin, C M; Brock, M V

2014-01-01

39

Chemoprevention of esophageal adenocarcinoma in a rat model by ursodeoxycholic acid.  

PubMed

Reflux of bile acid into the esophagus induces esophagitis, inflammation-stimulated hyperplasia, metaplasia such as Barrett's esophagus (BE), and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). Caudal-type homeobox 2 (Cdx2) via nuclear factor (NF)-?B induced by bile acid is an important factor in the development of BE and EAC. In colorectal cancer, experimental data suggest a chemopreventive effect of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA). We hypothesized that UDCA may protect against the esophageal inflammation-metaplasia-carcinoma sequence by decreasing the overall proportion of the toxic bile acids. Wistar male rats that underwent a duodenoesophageal reflux procedure were divided into two groups. One group was given commercial chow (control group), and the other was given experimental chow containing UDCA (UDCA group). The animals were killed at 40 weeks after surgery, and their bile and esophagus were examined. In the UDCA group, the esophagitis was milder and the incidence of BE was significantly lower (p < 0.05) than in the control group, and EAC was not observed (p < 0.05). In analysis of the compartment of bile acid, UDCA was markedly increased in the UDCA group compared with the control group (32.7 ± 11.4 vs. 0.82 ± 0.33 mmol/L, p < 0.05) and cholic acid was decreased (32.7 ± 4.05 vs. 60.9 ± 8.26 mmol/L, p < 0.05). Expression intensity of Cdx2 and NF-?B was greater in the control group than in the UDCA group (p < 0.05). UDCA may be a chemopreventive agent against EAC by varying the bile acid composition. PMID:25034655

Ojima, Eisuke; Fujimura, Takashi; Oyama, Katsunobu; Tsukada, Tomoya; Kinoshita, Jun; Miyashita, Tomoharu; Tajima, Hidehiro; Fushida, Sachio; Harada, Shin-Ichi; Mukaisho, Ken-Ichi; Hattori, Takanori; Ohta, Tetsuo

2014-07-18

40

Vitamin D receptor is highly expressed in precancerous lesions and esophageal adenocarcinoma with significant sex difference.  

PubMed

Bile acid reflux into the esophagus is important in the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). Recently, vitamin D receptor (VDR) was recognized as a bile acid receptor as well as a vitamin receptor. Expression of VDR is reported to influence the development of various types of cancer, such as those of the breast, liver, and colon. However, little is known about the role of VDR in esophageal neoplasms. We investigated the clinicopathological role of VDR in esophageal tumors. We analyzed genomic DNA from 116 EACs for copy number aberrations. The VDR locus was amplified in 7% of EACs. Expression of the VDR protein was also detected by immunohistochemistry from tissue microarrays created from tissues of Barrett esophagus (BE), low-grade (LGD) and high-grade dysplasia (HGD), columnar cell metaplasia (CCM), squamous epithelium (SE), EAC, and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). The protein was highly expressed in 88% of CCM (58/66), 95% of BE (35/37), 100% of the 19 LGD, 94% of HGD (15/16), and 79% of EAC (86/109), but expression in SE and ESCC was rare. Female patients with EAC and CCM were significantly less likely to have high VDR expression than male patients. The overall survival rate was significantly different for patients with tumors exhibiting VDR amplification versus nonamplification. Our findings suggest that VDR plays a role in the early development of EAC through a bile acid ligand. The sex difference in VDR expression may help to explain why men have a high incidence of EAC. PMID:24951052

Zhou, Zhongren; Xia, Yinglin; Bandla, Santhoshi; Zakharov, Vladislav; Wu, Shaoping; Peters, Jeffery; Godfrey, Tony E; Sun, Jun

2014-08-01

41

N-Glycan Profiling by Microchip Electrophoresis to Differentiate Disease-States Related to Esophageal Adenocarcinoma  

PubMed Central

We report analysis of N-glycans derived from disease-free individuals and patients with Barrett's esophagus, high-grade dysplasia, and esophageal adenocarcinoma by microchip electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection. Serum samples in 10-?L aliquots are enzymatically treated to cleave the N-glycans that are subsequently reacted with 8-aminopyrene-1,3,6-trisulfonic acid to add charge and a fluorescent label. Separations at 1250 V/cm and over 22 cm yielded efficiencies up to 700,000 plates for the N-glycans and analysis times under 100 s. Principal component analysis (PCA) and analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests of the peak areas and migration times are used to evaluate N-glycan profiles from native and desialylated samples and to determine differences among the four sample groups. With microchip electrophoresis, we are able to distinguish the three patient groups from each other and from disease-free individuals. PMID:22397697

Mitra, Indranil; Zhuang, Zexi; Zhang, Yuening; Yu, Chuan-Yih; Hammoud, Zane T.; Tang, Haixu; Mechref, Yehia; Jacobson, Stephen C.

2012-01-01

42

Circulating SFRP1 promoter methylation status in gastric adenocarcinoma and esophageal square cell carcinoma  

PubMed Central

The secreted frizzled-related protein 1 (SFRP1) gene plays an important role in carcinogenesis of digestive system cancer. Previous studies proved that circulating DNA promoter methylation may be a suitable biomarker for cancer patients. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the promoter methylation status of serum SFRP1 is a potential biomarker for gastric adenocarcinoma (GAC) and esophageal square cell carcinoma (ESCC). The blood samples obtained from 42 GAC and 36 ESCC patients were detected for the promoter methylation status of SFRP1 by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction. The control group included 42 benign gastrointestinal disease volunteers (24 benign gastric disease and 18 benign esophageal disease) and 20 healthy volunteers. Serum SFRP1 methylation was evident in 30.95% (13/42) GAC patients and 38.89% (14/36) ESCC patients, which is clearly higher compared to 8.33% (2/24) in benign gastric disease, 11.11% (2/18) in benign esophageal disease and 5% (1/20) in healthy volunteers (P<0.05). The association between the serum SFRP1 promoter methylation status and the clinical pathological features were further analyzed and methylation of the SFRP1 gene was significantly associated with age >60 years in GAC patients (P=0.027). However, no correlations between the SFRP1 methylation status and other clinicopathological parameters were found. In conclusion, the SFRP1 promoter was detected frequently in the serum of GAC and ESCC patients. The detection of circulating methylated SFRP1 in the serum may be a useful biomarker for upper gastrointestinal cancer patients. PMID:25469261

LIU, CHANG; LI, NAN; LU, HENG; WANG, ZHENGKAI; CHEN, CHUNYAN; WU, LIN; LIU, JIONG; LU, YOUKE; WANG, FANGYU

2015-01-01

43

Genome-wide methylation analysis shows similar patterns in Barrett’s esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma  

PubMed Central

Barrett’s esophagus (BE) is a precursor of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). To identify novel tumor suppressors involved in esophageal carcinogenesis and potential biomarkers for the malignant progression of BE, we performed a genome-wide methylation profiling of BE and EAC tissues. Using Illumina’s Infinium HumanMethylation27 BeadChip microarray, we examined the methylation status of 27 578 CpG sites in 94 normal esophageal (NE), 77 BE and 117 EAC tissue samples. The overall methylation of CpG sites within the CpG islands was higher, but outside of the CpG islands was lower in BE and EAC tissues than in NE tissues. Hierarchical clustering analysis showed an excellent separation of NE tissues from BE and EAC tissues; however, the clustering of BE and EAC tissues was less clear, suggesting that methylation occurs early during the progression of EAC. We confirmed many previously reported hypermethylated genes and identified a large number of novel hypermethylated genes in BE and EAC tissues, particularly genes encoding ADAM (A Disintegrin And Metalloproteinase) peptidase proteins, cadherins and protocadherins, and potassium voltage-gated channels. Pathway analysis showed that a number of channel and transporter activities were enriched for hypermethylated genes. We used pyrosequencing to validate selected candidate genes and found high correlations between the array and pyrosequencing data (rho > 0.8 for each validated gene). The differentially methylated genes and pathways may provide biological insights into the development and progression of BE and become potential biomarkers for the prediction and early detection of EAC. PMID:23996928

Gu, Jian; Ajani, Jaffer; Wu, Xifeng

2013-01-01

44

Circulating SFRP1 promoter methylation status in gastric adenocarcinoma and esophageal square cell carcinoma.  

PubMed

The secreted frizzled-related protein 1 (SFRP1) gene plays an important role in carcinogenesis of digestive system cancer. Previous studies proved that circulating DNA promoter methylation may be a suitable biomarker for cancer patients. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the promoter methylation status of serum SFRP1 is a potential biomarker for gastric adenocarcinoma (GAC) and esophageal square cell carcinoma (ESCC). The blood samples obtained from 42 GAC and 36 ESCC patients were detected for the promoter methylation status of SFRP1 by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction. The control group included 42 benign gastrointestinal disease volunteers (24 benign gastric disease and 18 benign esophageal disease) and 20 healthy volunteers. Serum SFRP1 methylation was evident in 30.95% (13/42) GAC patients and 38.89% (14/36) ESCC patients, which is clearly higher compared to 8.33% (2/24) in benign gastric disease, 11.11% (2/18) in benign esophageal disease and 5% (1/20) in healthy volunteers (P<0.05). The association between the serum SFRP1 promoter methylation status and the clinical pathological features were further analyzed and methylation of the SFRP1 gene was significantly associated with age >60 years in GAC patients (P=0.027). However, no correlations between the SFRP1 methylation status and other clinicopathological parameters were found. In conclusion, the SFRP1 promoter was detected frequently in the serum of GAC and ESCC patients. The detection of circulating methylated SFRP1 in the serum may be a useful biomarker for upper gastrointestinal cancer patients. PMID:25469261

Liu, Chang; Li, Nan; Lu, Heng; Wang, Zhengkai; Chen, Chunyan; Wu, Lin; Liu, Jiong; Lu, Youke; Wang, Fangyu

2015-01-01

45

Environmental Causes of Esophageal Cancer  

PubMed Central

Synopsis This articles reviews the environmental risk factors and predisposing conditions for the two main histological types of esophageal cancer, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA). Tobacco smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, drinking maté, low intake of fresh fruits and vegetables, achalasia, and low socioeconomic status increase the risk of ESCC. Results of investigations on several other potential risk factors, including opium consumption, intake of hot drinks, eating pickled vegetables, poor oral health, and exposure to human papillomavirus, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, N-nitroso compounds, acetaldehyde, and fumonisins are also discussed. Gastroesophageal reflux, obesity, tobacco smoking, hiatal hernia, achalasia, and probably absence of H. pylori in the stomach increase the risk of EA. Results of studies investigating other factors, including low intake of fresh fruits and vegetables, consumption of carbonated soft drink, use of H2 blockers, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and drugs that relax the lower esophageal sphincter are also discussed. PMID:19327566

Kamangar, Farin; Chow, Wong-Ho; Abnet, Christian; Dawsey, Sanford

2009-01-01

46

Esophageal cancer  

MedlinePLUS

Cancer - esophagus ... Esophageal cancer is not common in the United States. It occurs most often in men over 50 years old. There are two main types of esophageal cancer: squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. These two types ...

47

Cyclin E involved in early stage carcinogenesis of esophageal adenocarcinoma by SNP DNA microarray and immunohistochemical studies  

PubMed Central

Background Cyclin E is a cell cycle regulator which is critical for driving G1/S transition. Abnormal levels of cyclin E have been found in many cancers. However, the level changes of cyclin E in esophageal adenocarcinoma and its precancerous lesion have not been well studied. Here, we focus on the gene amplification and expression of cyclin E in these lesions, and aim to ascertain the relationship with clinicopathological characteristics. Methods Genomic DNA was analyzed from 116 esophageal adenocarcinoma and 26 precancerous lesion patients using Affymetrix SNP 6.0 arrays. The protein overexpression of cyclin E was also detected using immunohistochemistry from tissue microarrays containing esophageal adenocarcinoma and precancerous lesions. Patient survival and other clinical data were collected and analyzed. The intensity and percentage of the cyclin E expressing cells in tissue microarrays were scored by two pathologists. Fisher exact tests and Kaplan-Meier methods were used to analyze data. Results By genomic analysis, cyclin E was amplified in 19.0% of the EAC samples. By immunohistochemistry, high expression of cyclin E was observed in 2.3% of squamous mucosa tissues, 3.7% in columnar cell metaplasia, 5.8% in Barrett’s esophagus, 19.0% in low grade dysplasia, 35.7% in high grade dysplasia, and 16.7% in esophageal adenocarcinoma. The differences in cyclin E high expression between neoplastic groups and non-dysplasia groups are statistically significant (p?esophageal lesion to low and high grade dysplasia, suggesting that cyclin E plays an important role in the early stage of carcinogenesis. Importantly, cyclin E is also amplified and highly expressed in a subset of esophageal adenocarcinoma patients, but this increase is not associated with worse prognosis. PMID:24742107

2014-01-01

48

CDC2/CDK1 expression in esophageal adenocarcinoma and precursor lesions serves as a diagnostic and cancer progression marker and potential novel drug target.  

PubMed

Esophageal adenocarcinoma arises through well-defined precursor lesions (Barrett esophagus), although only a subset of these lesions advances to invasive adenocarcinoma. The lack of markers predicting progression in Barrett esophagus, typical presentation at advanced stage, and limitations of conventional chemotherapy result in >90% mortality for Barrett-associated adenocarcinomas. To identify potential prognostic markers and therapeutic targets, we compared gene expression profiles from Barrett-associated esophageal adenocarcinoma cell lines (BIC1, SEG1, KYAE, OE33) and normal esophageal epithelial scrapings utilizing the Affymetrix U133_A gene expression platform. We identified 560 transcripts with >3-fold up-regulation in the adenocarcinoma cell lines compared with normal epithelium. Utilizing tissue microarrays composed of normal esophageal squamous mucosa (n = 20), Barrett esophagus (n = 10), low-grade dysplasia (n = 14), high-grade dysplasia (n = 27), adenocarcinoma (n = 59), and node metastases (n = 27), we confirmed differential up-regulation of three proteins (Cdc2/Cdk1, Cdc5, and Igfbp3) in adenocarcinomas and Barrett lesions. Protein expression mirrored histologic progression; thus, 87% of low-grade dysplasias had at least focal surface Cdc2/Cdk1 and 20% had >5% surface staining; 96% of high-grade dysplasias expressed abundant surface Cdc2/Cdk1, while invasive adenocarcinoma and metastases demonstrated ubiquitous expression. Esophageal adenocarcinoma cell lines treated with the novel CDC2/CDK1 transcriptional inhibitor, tetra-O-methyl nordihydroguaiaretic acid (EM-1421, formerly named M4N) demonstrated a dose-dependent reduction in cell proliferation, paralleling down-regulation of CDC2/CDK1 transcript and protein levels. These findings suggest a role for CDC2/CDK1 in esophageal adenocarcinogenesis, both as a potential histopathologic marker of dysplasia and a putative treatment target. PMID:15725809

Hansel, Donna E; Dhara, Surajit; Huang, RuChih C; Ashfaq, Raheela; Deasel, Mari; Shimada, Yutaka; Bernstein, Harold S; Harmon, John; Brock, Malcolm; Forastiere, Arlene; Washington, M Kay; Maitra, Anirban; Montgomery, Elizabeth

2005-03-01

49

Post-chemoradiation surgical pathology stage can customize the surveillance strategy in patients with esophageal adenocarcinoma.  

PubMed

Current algorithms for surveillance of patients with esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) after chemoradiation and surgery (trimodality therapy [TMT]) remain empiric. The authors hypothesized that the frequency, type, and timing of relapses after TMT would be highly associated with surgical pathology stage (SPS), and therefore SPS could be used to individualize the surveillance strategy. Between 2000 and 2010, 518 patients with EAC were identified who underwent TMT at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center and were frequently surveyed. Frequency, type, and timing of the first relapse (locoregional and/or distant) were tabulated according to SPS. Standard statistical approaches were used. The median follow-up time after esophageal surgery was 55.4 months (range, 1.0-149.2 months). Disease relapse occurred in 215 patients (41.5%). Higher SPS was associated with a higher rate of relapse (0/I vs II/III, P?.001; 0/I vs II, P=.002; SPS 0/I vs III, P?.001; and SPS II vs III, P=.005) and with shorter time to relapse (P<.001). Irrespective of the SPS, approximately 95% of all relapses occurred within 36 months of surgery. The 3- and 5-year overall survival rates were shorter for patients with a higher SPS than those with a lower SPS (0/I vs II/III, P?.001; 0/I vs II, P?.001; 0/I vs III, P?.001; and II vs III, P=.014). The compelling data show an excellent association between SPS and frequency/type/timing of relapses after TMT in patients with EAC. Thus, the surveillance strategy can potentially be customized based on SPS. These data can inform a future evidence-based surveillance strategy that can be efficient and cost-effective. PMID:25099446

Taketa, Takashi; Sudo, Kazuki; Correa, Arlene M; Wadhwa, Roopma; Shiozaki, Hironori; Elimova, Elena; Campagna, Maria-Claudia; Blum, Mariela A; Skinner, Heath D; Komaki, Ritsuko U; Lee, Jeffrey H; Bhutani, Manoop S; Weston, Brian R; Rice, David C; Swisher, Stephen G; Maru, Dipen M; Hofstetter, Wayne L; Ajani, Jaffer A

2014-08-01

50

Locoregional Failure Rate After Preoperative Chemoradiation of Esophageal Adenocarcinoma and the Outcomes of Salvage Strategies  

PubMed Central

Purpose The primary purpose of surveillance of patients with esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) and/or esophagogastric junction adenocarcinoma after local therapy (eg, chemoradiotherapy followed by surgery or trimodality therapy [TMT]) is to implement a potentially beneficial salvage therapy to overcome possible morbidity/mortality caused by locoregional failure (LRF). However, the benefits of surveillance are not well understood. We report on LRFs and salvage strategies in a large cohort. Patients and Methods Between 2000 and 2010, 518 patients with EAC who completed TMT were analyzed for the frequency of LRF over time and salvage therapy outcomes. Standard statistical techniques were used. Results For 518 patients, the median follow-up time was 29.3 months (range, 1 to 149 months). Distant metastases (with or without LRF) occurred in 188 patients (36%), and LRF only occurred in 27 patients (5%). Eleven of 27 patients had lumen-only LRF. Most LRFs (89%) occurred within 36 months of surgery. Twelve patients had salvage chemoradiotherapy, but only five survived more than 2 years. Four patients needed salvage surgery, and three who survived more than 2 years developed distant metastases. The median overall survival of 27 patients with LRF was 17 months, and 10 patients (37%) survived more than 2 years. Thus, only 2% of all 518 patients benefited from surveillance/salvage strategies. Conclusion Our surveillance strategy, which is representative of many others currently being used, raises doubts about its effectiveness and benefits (along with concerns regarding types and times of studies and costs implications) to patients with EAC who have LRF only after TMT. Fortunately, LRFs are rare after TMT, but the salvage strategies are not highly beneficial. Our data can help develop an evidence-based surveillance strategy. PMID:24145339

Sudo, Kazuki; Taketa, Takashi; Correa, Arlene M.; Campagna, Maria-Claudia; Wadhwa, Roopma; Blum, Mariela A.; Komaki, Ritsuko; Lee, Jeffrey H.; Bhutani, Manoop S.; Weston, Brian; Skinner, Heath D.; Maru, Dipen M.; Rice, David C.; Swisher, Stephen G.; Hofstetter, Wayne L.; Ajani, Jaffer A.

2013-01-01

51

Regulation of arachidonic acid in esophageal adenocarcinoma cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes  

PubMed Central

The generation and development of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) are correlated with neuroimmunological factors. The aim of this study was to observe the effectiveness of the neurotransmitter arachidonic acid (AA) on two EAC cell lines, OE19 and SK-GT-4, as well as three isolated tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL1, 2 and 3). C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR-4) and tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1) expression, cell migration, necrosis, cytokine secretion and cytotoxicity of TILs were investigated. AA dose-dependently increased the migration of all cells. However, AA did not increase the percentage of cell death of the three TILs in the presence of a necrosis-inducing agent. AA dose-dependently increased the cytotoxicity of the three ??T cell-enriched TILs compared with the OE19 and SK-GT-4 cell lines. AA also dose-dependently increased the secretion of interferon-? (IFN-?) and TNF-? in TIL1 and 2. However, the cytokine secretion and cytotoxicity activity of TIL3 and ??T cell-enriched TIL3 were the lowest. Furthermore, the percentage of CD4+forkhead box p3 (Foxp3)+ regulatory T cells in TIL3 was the highest. The effect of AA on tumor cells and TILs is different. The degree of malignancy of the tumor and the ratio of regulatory T cells may be the main factors determining the function of AA. PMID:23833663

SONG, WEI; JIANG, RUI; ZHAO, CHUNMING

2013-01-01

52

Ion Mobility-Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Serum N-linked Glycans from Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Phenotypes  

PubMed Central

Three disease phenotypes, Barrett’s esophagus (BE), high-grade dysplasia (HGD), esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), and a set of normal control (NC) serum samples are examined using a combination of ion mobility spectrometry (IMS), mass spectrometry (MS) and principal component analysis (PCA) techniques. Samples from a total of 136 individuals were examined, including: 7 characterized as BE, 12 as HGD, 56 as EAC and 61 as NC. In typical datasets it was possible to assign ~20 to 30 glycan ions based on MS measurements. Ion mobility distributions for these ions show multiple features. In some cases, such as the [S1H5N4+3Na]3+ and [S1F1H5N4+3Na]3+ glycan ions, the ratio of intensities of high-mobility features to low-mobility features vary significantly for different groups. The degree to which such variations in mobility profiles can be used to distinguish phenotypes is evaluated for eleven N-linked glycan ions. An outlier analysis on each sample class followed by an unsupervised PCA using a genetic algorithm for pattern recognition reveals that EAC samples are separated from NC samples based on 46 features originating from the 11-glycan composite IMS distribution. PMID:23126309

Gaye, M. M.; Valentine, S. J.; Hu, Y.; Mirjankar, N.; Hammoud, Z. T.; Mechref, Y.; Lavine, B. K.; Clemmer, D. E.

2012-01-01

53

Intractable Facial Pain and Numb Chin due to Metastatic Esophageal Adenocarcinoma  

PubMed Central

The etiologies of facial pain are innumerable, thus facial pain misdiagnosis and resultant mismanagement is common. Numb chin syndrome presents with hypoesthesia and/or anesthesia in the dermatomal distribution of the inferior alveolar or the mental nerve. In this case report, we will discuss a case of intractable facial pain in a 57-year-old male with a history of esophageal adenocarcinoma who was initially misdiagnosed and treated as trigeminal neuralgia. During clinical examination, the loss of sensation in the inferior alveolar nerve distribution was identified and led to the diagnosis of mandibular metastasis. The details of the clinical presentation will be discussed in the context of accurate identification and diagnosis. Focal radiation to the metastatic location along with sphenopalatine ganglion radiofrequency ablation and medication management provided significant pain relief. This case report provides additional information to the current medical knowledge and it enhances the clinical vigilance of the clinicians when they encounter similar cases. We concluded that patients with a history of neoplasms who present with atypical symptoms of facial pain should undergo further investigation with advanced imaging. Targeted treatment based on an accurate diagnosis is the foundation of pain management. PMID:25606033

Elahi, Foad; Luke, Whitney; Elahi, Fazel

2014-01-01

54

Esophageal adenocarcinoma versus squamous cell carcinoma: retrospective hospital-based analysis of a 12-year temporal trend.  

PubMed

There is a paucity of literature from the Indian subcontinent looking at the prevalence of esophageal cancer by histological type. In our study, we ascertained the relative proportion and location of adenocarcinoma (AC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the esophagus at a referral hospital in Mumbai, India over a 12-year period to assess whether a time-trend existed. A retrospective analysis was carried out on patients who were diagnosed with and/or treated for esophageal cancer at the P D Hinduja Hospital and Research Centre in Mumbai between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2011. Data were procured from histopathology and oncology registers of the institute, the database of the Gastroenterology consultants, the Endoscopy Department records and from the Medical Records Department. Of the 445 cases of esophageal cancer with known histology, 104 (23 %) were AC and 314 (71 %) were SCC. Over the 12-year period, the proportions of AC compared to SCC did not show a statistically significant temporal change (p = 0.145). AC comprised nearly a quarter of esophageal carcinoma in Mumbai. There has been no significant change in the number and proportion of AC and SCC in the 12-year period. PMID:22983840

Bhome, Rohan; Desai, Devendra; Abraham, Philip; Joshi, Anand; Gupta, Tarun; Bhaduri, Anita; Kapadia, Asha; Patel, Krishna; Bhome, Rahul

2012-12-01

55

Endoscopic Resection for Synchronous Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Gastric Adenocarcinoma in Early Stage Is a Possible Alternative to Surgery  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims We investigated the clinical outcomes according to the method of treatment in synchronous esophageal and gastric cancer. Methods Synchronous esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and gastric adenocarcinoma were diagnosed in 79 patients between 1996 and 2010. We divided the patients into four groups according to treatment; Group 1 received surgical resection for both cancers or surgery for gastric cancer with chemoradiotherapy for esophageal cancer (n=27); Group 2 was treated by endoscopic resection with or without additional treatment (n=14); Group 3 received chemoradiotherapy only (n=18); and Group 4 received supportive care only (n=20). Results The median survival times in groups 1 and 2 were 86 and 60 months, respectively. The recurrence rate and mortality were 23% and 48%, respectively, in group 1 and 21% and 4%, respectively, in group 2. The median survival time was 12 months in group 3 and 9 months in group 4. Multivariate analysis showed that age (p<0.001) and treatment group (p=0.019) were significantly associated with death. Compared with group 1, treatment in the intensive care unit (p=0.003), loss of body weight (p=0.042), and decrease in hemoglobin (p=0.033) were worse in group 1. Conclusions Endoscopic resection for synchronous esophageal and gastric cancer could be considered as a possible alternative to surgery for early-stage cancer. PMID:25170061

Park, Se Jeong; Ahn, Ji Yong; Jung, Hwoon-Yong; Na, Shin; Park, So-Eun; Kim, Mi-Young; Choi, Kwi-Sook; Lee, Jeong Hoon; Kim, Do Hoon; Choi, Kee Don; Song, Ho June; Lee, Gin Hyug; Kim, Jin-Ho; Han, Seungbong

2015-01-01

56

Polymorphism at the 3'-UTR of the thymidylate synthase gene: A potential predictor for outcomes in Caucasian patients with esophageal adenocarcinoma treated with preoperative chemoradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To test the hypothesis that TS3'UTR polymorphisms predict outcomes in 146 Caucasian patients with esophageal adenocarcinoma treated with preoperative 5-fluorouracil-based chemoradiation. Methods and Materials: DNA was extracted from hematoxylin-and-eosin stained histologic slides of normal esophageal or gastric mucosa sections from paraffin blocks of esophagectomy specimens. Genotypes of the TS3'UTR polymorphism were determined by polymerase chain reaction for a 6-bp

Liao Zhongxing; Liu Hongji; Stephen G. Swisher; Wang Luo; Tsung-Teh Wu; Arlene M. Correa; Jack A. Roth; James D. Cox; Ritsuko Komaki; Jaffer A. Ajani; Wei Qingyi

2006-01-01

57

Iron intake and markers of iron status and risk of Barrett’s esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To investigate the association between iron intake and iron status with Barrett’s esophagus (BE) and esophageal adenocarcinoma\\u000a (EAC).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A total of 220 BE patients, 224 EAC patients, and 256 frequency-matched controls completed a lifestyle and food frequency\\u000a questionnaire and provided serum and toenail samples between 2002 and 2005. Using multiple logistic regression, odds ratios\\u000a (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%

Mark G. O'DohertyChristian; Christian C. Abnet; Liam J. Murray; Jayne V. Woodside; Lesley A. Anderson; John D. Brockman; Marie M. Cantwell

2010-01-01

58

Comparative Multi-Epitope-Ligand-Cartography reveals essential immunological alterations in Barrett's metaplasia and esophageal adenocarcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background Barrett's esophagus (BE) is caused by gastroesophageal reflux with consecutive mucosal inflammation, predisposing patients to the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). We investigated changes in T cell-related mucosal combinatorial molecular protein patterns in both diseases using the novel Multi-Epitope-Ligand-Cartography, a unique robotic whole-cell imaging technology that simultaneously visualizes dozens of proteins in structurally intact tissues and correlates cellular localization of proteins with function. Results Biopsies were taken during endoscopy from BE, EAC, and normal control tissue, and proteomic microscopy was performed on 32 different epitopes. When the significance level was set to p < 0.0005 and the search depth to five antibody combinations, controls and BE can be differentiated by 63, controls and EAC by 3222, and BE from EAC by 1521 distinct protein combinations. For example, the number of activated apoptotic naïve and memory T cells was significantly increased only in BE, whereas the number of activated apoptotic helper and regulatory T cells was significantly elevated in BE and EAC. In contrast, the number of activated apoptotic cytotoxic T cells was significantly elevated only in EAC. Confirming different pathways in BE and EAC, the number of T lymphocytes with p53 expression and downregulation of bcl2 expression (CD3+p53+Bcl2-NfkB-) was significantly increased in EAC compared to BE and controls. Interestingly, the number of precursor T cells (CD7+) was significantly elevated only in EAC. These cells lack Bax and caspase-8, suggesting impaired apoptosis in the early stages of T cell differentiation. Conclusion Proteomic analysis showed for the first time that proteins, which are critically involved in the mucosal immune system of the esophagus, are distinctly expressed in BE and EAC, whereas others are comparably altered in both diseases, suggesting that many pathogenic events might be shared by both diseases. Topological proteomic analysis, therefore, helps us to understand the different pathogenic events in the underlying disease pathways. PMID:20604962

2010-01-01

59

Adverse Prognostic Impact of Intratumor Heterogeneous HER2 Gene Amplification in Patients With Esophageal Adenocarcinoma  

PubMed Central

Purpose There is increasing recognition of the existence of intratumoral heterogeneity of the human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER2), which affects interpretation of HER2 positivity in clinical practice and may have implications for patient prognosis and treatment. We determined the frequency and prognostic impact of heterogeneous HER2 gene amplification and polysomy 17 in patients with esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). Patients and Methods HER2 amplification (by fluorescence in situ hybridization) was examined in surgical EAC specimens (n = 675). HER2 heterogeneity was defined according to consensus guidelines as gene amplification (HER2/CEP17 ratio ? 2.0) in more than 5% but less than 50% of cancer cells. No patient received neoadjuvant or HER2-targeted therapy. Cox models were used to assess disease-specific survival (DSS) and overall survival (OS). Results Overall, 117 EACs (17%) demonstrated HER2 amplification, of which 20 (17%) showed HER2 heterogeneity. All HER2-heterogeneous tumors were amplified. Among HER2-amplified tumors, heterogeneous tumors had significantly higher frequency of poor histologic grade and polysomy 17. In multivariable models that included number of metastatic lymph nodes, grade, tumor stage, and polysomy 17, only HER2 heterogeneity and node number were prognostic among HER2-amplified tumors, with heterogeneity showing worse DSS (hazard ratio, 2.04; 95% CI, 1.09 to 3.79; P = .025) and OS (P = .026). Among HER2-nonamplified EACs, polysomy 17 was independently associated with worse DSS (P = .012) and OS (P = .023). Conclusion Among HER2-amplified EACs, 17% show HER2 heterogeneity, which independently predicts for worse cancer-specific death. Among HER2-nonamplified EACs, polysomy 17 is independently associated with worse survival. These novel findings demonstrate aggressive subgroups in HER2-amplified and -nonamplified EACs that have important implications for HER2 analysis and determination of benefit from HER2-targeted therapy. PMID:22987085

Yoon, Harry H.; Shi, Qian; Sukov, William R.; Lewis, Mark A.; Sattler, Christopher A.; Wiktor, Anne E.; Wu, Tsung-Teh; Diasio, Robert B.; Jenkins, Robert B.; Sinicrope, Frank A.

2012-01-01

60

Curcumin Promotes Apoptosis, Increases Chemosensitivity, and Inhibits Nuclear Factor ?B in Esophageal Adenocarcinoma1  

PubMed Central

The transcription factor, nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B), plays a central role as a key mediator of cell survival and proliferation, and its activation may confer increased tumor chemoresistance. Curcumin, an orally available naturally occurring compound, has been shown to inhibit NF-?B and has a potential role in cancer chemoprevention. We investigated the effects of curcumin on NF-?B activity, on cell viability, and as a chemosensitizing agent with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) or cisplatin (CDDP) in esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). Oligonucleotide microarray analysis of 46 cases, consisting of Barrett metaplasia, low-grade dysplasia, high-grade dysplasia and EAC, showed increased expression of NF-?B and I?B kinase subunits and decreased effector caspase expression in EAC compared with Barrett metaplasia. Stromal expression of both I?B and phospho-I?B was detected in several EAC samples by tissue microarray analysis. Curcumin alone inhibited NF-?B activity and induced apoptosis in both Flo-1 and OE33 EAC cell lines as determined by Western blot analysis, NF-?B reporter assays, and Caspase-Glo 3/7 assays. It also increased 5-FU- and CDDP-induced apoptosis in both cell lines. These data suggest that activation of NF-?B and inhibition of apoptosis may play a role in the progression from Barrett metaplasia to EAC. In addition, curcumin, a well-known inhibitor of NF-?B activity, was shown to increase apoptosis and enhance both 5-FU- and CDDP-mediated chemosensitivity, suggesting that it may have potential application in the therapy of patients with EAC. PMID:20360934

Hartojo, Wibisono; Silvers, Amy L; Thomas, Dafydd G; Seder, Christopher W; Lin, Lin; Rao, Hyma; Wang, Zhuwen; Greenson, Joel K; Giordano, Thomas J; Orringer, Mark B; Rehemtulla, Alnawaz; Bhojani, Mahaveer S; Beer, David G; Chang, Andrew C

2010-01-01

61

Endothelial-mesenchymal transition in normal human esophageal endothelial cells cocultured with esophageal adenocarcinoma cells: role of IL-1? and TGF-?2.  

PubMed

Endothelial-mesenchymal transition (EndoMT) has been recognized as a key determinant of tumor microenvironment in cancer progression and metastasis. Endothelial cells undergoing EndoMT lose their endothelial markers, acquire the mesenchymal phenotype, and become more invasive with increased migratory abilities. Early stages of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) are characterized by strong microvasculature whose impact in tumor progression remains undefined. Our aim was to determine the role of EndoMT in EAC by investigating the impact of tumor cells on normal primary human esophageal microvascular endothelial cells (HEMEC). HEMEC were either cocultured with OE33 adenocarcinoma cells or treated with IL-1? and transforming growth factor-?2 (TGF-?2) for indicated periods and analyzed for EndoMT-associated changes by real-time PCR, Western blotting, immunofluorescence staining, and functional assays. Additionally, human EAC tissues were investigated for detection of EndoMT-like cells. Our results demonstrate an increased expression of mesenchymal markers [fibroblast-specific protein 1 (FSP1), collagen1?2, vimentin, ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA), and Snail], decreased expression of endothelial markers [CD31, von Willebrand factor VIII (vWF), and VE-cadherin], and elevated migration ability in HEMEC following coculture with OE33 cells. The EndoMT-related changes were inhibited by IL-1? and TGF-?2 gene silencing in OE33 cells. Recombinant IL-1? and TGF-?2 induced EndoMT in HEMEC. Although the level of VEGF expression was elevated in EndoMT cells, the angiogenic property of these cells was diminished. In vivo, by immunostaining EndoMT-like cells were detected at the invasive front of EAC. Our findings underscore a significant role for EndoMT in EAC and provide new insights into the mechanisms and significance of EndoMT in the context of tumor progression. PMID:25163519

Nie, Linghui; Lyros, Orestis; Medda, Rituparna; Jovanovic, Nebojsa; Schmidt, Jamie L; Otterson, Mary F; Johnson, Christopher P; Behmaram, Behnaz; Shaker, Reza; Rafiee, Parvaneh

2014-11-01

62

Everolimus and Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Patients With Metastatic Stomach or Esophageal Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adenocarcinoma of the Esophagus; Adenocarcinoma of the Gastroesophageal Junction; Diffuse Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Intestinal Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Mixed Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Recurrent Esophageal Cancer; Recurrent Gastric Cancer; Stage IV Esophageal Cancer; Stage IV Gastric Cancer

2014-11-06

63

MiR-145 Expression Accelerates Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Progression by Enhancing Cell Invasion and Anoikis Resistance  

PubMed Central

Background Carcinoma of the esophagus has a high case fatality ratio and is now the 6th most common cause of cancer deaths in the world. We previously conducted a study to profile the expression of miRNAs in esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) pre and post induction therapy. Of the miRNAs differentially expressed post induction chemoradiation, miR-145, a known tumor suppressor miRNA, was upregulated 8-fold following induction therapy, however, its expression was associated with shorter disease-free survival. This unexpected result was explored in this current study. Methods In order to study the role of miR-145 in EAC, miRNA-145 was overexpressed in 3 EAC cell lines (OE33, FLO-1, SK-GT-4) and one ESCC cell line (KYSE-410). After validation of the expression of miR-145, hallmarks of cancer such as cell proliferation, resistance to chemotherapy drugs or anoikis, and cell invasion were analyzed. Results There were no differences in cell proliferation and 5 FU resistance between miR145 cell lines and the control cell lines. miR-145 expression also had no effect on cisplatin resistance in two of three cell lines (OE33 and FLO-1), but miR-145 appeared to protect SK-GT-4 cells against cisplatin treatment. However, there was a significant difference in cell invasion, cell adhesion and resistance to anoikis. All three EAC miR-145 cell lines invaded more than their respective controls. Similarly, OE33 and SK-GT-4 miR-145 cell lines were able to survive longer in a suspension state. Discussion While expression of miR-145 in ESCC stopped proliferation and invasion, expression of miR-145 in EAC cells enhanced invasion and anoikis resistance. Although more work is required to understand how miR-145 conveys these effects, expression of miR-145 appears to promote EAC progression by enhancing invasion and protection against anoikis, which could in turn facilitate distant metastasis. PMID:25551563

Derouet, Mathieu Francois; Liu, Geoffrey; Darling, Gail Elizabeth

2014-01-01

64

Whole Genome Expression Array Profiling Highlights Differences in Mucosal Defense Genes in Barrett's Esophagus and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma  

PubMed Central

Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) has become a major concern in Western countries due to rapid rises in incidence coupled with very poor survival rates. One of the key risk factors for the development of this cancer is the presence of Barrett's esophagus (BE), which is believed to form in response to repeated gastro-esophageal reflux. In this study we performed comparative, genome-wide expression profiling (using Illumina whole-genome Beadarrays) on total RNA extracted from esophageal biopsy tissues from individuals with EAC, BE (in the absence of EAC) and those with normal squamous epithelium. We combined these data with publically accessible raw data from three similar studies to investigate key gene and ontology differences between these three tissue states. The results support the deduction that BE is a tissue with enhanced glycoprotein synthesis machinery (DPP4, ATP2A3, AGR2) designed to provide strong mucosal defenses aimed at resisting gastro-esophageal reflux. EAC exhibits the enhanced extracellular matrix remodeling (collagens, IGFBP7, PLAU) effects expected in an aggressive form of cancer, as well as evidence of reduced expression of genes associated with mucosal (MUC6, CA2, TFF1) and xenobiotic (AKR1C2, AKR1B10) defenses. When our results are compared to previous whole-genome expression profiling studies keratin, mucin, annexin and trefoil factor gene groups are the most frequently represented differentially expressed gene families. Eleven genes identified here are also represented in at least 3 other profiling studies. We used these genes to discriminate between squamous epithelium, BE and EAC within the two largest cohorts using a support vector machine leave one out cross validation (LOOCV) analysis. While this method was satisfactory for discriminating squamous epithelium and BE, it demonstrates the need for more detailed investigations into profiling changes between BE and EAC. PMID:21829465

Nancarrow, Derek J.; Clouston, Andrew D.; Smithers, B. Mark; Gotley, David C.; Drew, Paul A.; Watson, David I.; Tyagi, Sonika; Hayward, Nicholas K.; Whiteman, David C.

2011-01-01

65

Utilization of surgery in trimodality-eligible patients with locally advanced esophageal adenocarcinoma in a nonprotocol setting.  

PubMed

Trimodality therapy with neoadjuvant chemoradiation followed by surgery significantly improves the survival of locally advanced (clinical stage IIA-III) esophageal cancer patients compared to treatment with surgery alone. This has resulted in an increased use of neoadjuvant therapy in recent years, yet little is known regarding how this increase has impacted the utilization of surgery in the treatment of locally advanced disease. Although previous reports of experimental protocols suggest that 90-95% of patients complete trimodality therapy including a surgical resection, trimodality therapy completion among adenocarcinoma patients eligible for curative resection has not been evaluated in a nonprotocol setting. We sought to (i) assess the completion of trimodality therapy among locally advanced esophageal adenocarcinoma patients; (ii) characterize the reasons for avoiding surgery; and (iii) identify factors associated with failure to complete trimodality therapy. We identified 296 patients with locally advanced esophageal adenocarcinoma eligible for trimodality therapy at our institution. All patients were evaluated in a multidisciplinary setting and considered eligible for curative resection after initial staging and physiologic assessment. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with failure to complete trimodality therapy. Of 296 trimodality-eligible patients, 33% (97/296) did not complete trimodality therapy. Reasons for not undergoing surgery included patient choice (27.8%, 27/97), distant progression of disease during chemoradiation (23.7%, 23/97), and physician preference for surveillance (23.7%, 23/97). In addition, 17.5% (17/97) of patients had physical deterioration in performance status, and treatment-related deaths occurred in 7.2% (7/97) prior to surgery. In the total study population (n = 296), multivariable logistic regression identified older age (?70 years: odds ratio [OR] = 6.611, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.900-15.071), pretreatment standard uptake value (6.8-10.1: OR = 2.393, 95% CI: 1.050-5.455; ?15.8: OR = 3.623, 95% CI: 1.604-8.186), and a radiation dose of 50.4?Gy (OR = 5.312, 95% CI: 2.365-11.929) as being significantly associated with failure to complete trimodality therapy. Among the subgroup of patients that successfully completed chemoradiation (n = 266), older patients (?70 years: OR = 9.606, 95% CI: 3.637-25.372), those with a comorbidity score of 2 or higher (OR = 4.059, 95% CI: 1.257-13.103), and those that received a radiation dose of 50.4?Gy (OR = 4.878, 95% CI: 1.974-12.054) were at a significantly higher risk of not completing trimodality therapy. Trimodality therapy completion among patients with locally advanced esophageal adenocarcinoma in a nonprotocol setting is considerably lower than what has previously been reported in clinical trials. Our findings suggest that a selective approach to surgery is commonly utilized in clinical practice. Trimodality-eligible patients that are older and have a higher comorbidity score are at risk for not completing trimodality therapy. PMID:23350713

Murphy, C C; Hofstetter, W L; Correa, A M; Ajani, J A; Komaki, R U; Swisher, S G

2013-01-01

66

Assessment of tumor regression of esophageal adenocarcinomas after neoadjuvant chemotherapy: comparison of 2 commonly used scoring approaches.  

PubMed

Histopathologic determination of tumor regression provides important prognostic information for locally advanced gastroesophageal carcinomas after neoadjuvant treatment. Regression grading systems mostly refer to the amount of therapy-induced fibrosis in relation to residual tumor or the estimated percentage of residual tumor in relation to the former tumor site. Although these methods are generally accepted, currently there is no common standard for reporting tumor regression in gastroesophageal cancers. We compared the application of these 2 major principles for assessment of tumor regression: hematoxylin and eosin-stained slides from 89 resection specimens of esophageal adenocarcinomas following neoadjuvant chemotherapy were independently reviewed by 3 pathologists from different institutions. Tumor regression was determined by the 5-tiered Mandard system (fibrosis/tumor relation) and the 4-tiered Becker system (residual tumor in %). Interobserver agreement for the Becker system showed better weighted ? values compared with the Mandard system (0.78 vs. 0.62). Evaluation of the whole embedded tumor site showed improved results (Becker: 0.83; Mandard: 0.73) as compared with only 1 representative slide (Becker: 0.68; Mandard: 0.71). Modification into simplified 3-tiered systems showed comparable interobserver agreement but better prognostic stratification for both systems (log rank Becker: P=0.015; Mandard P=0.03), with independent prognostic impact for overall survival (modified Becker: P=0.011, hazard ratio=3.07; modified Mandard: P=0.023, hazard ratio=2.72). In conclusion, both systems provide substantial to excellent interobserver agreement for estimation of tumor regression after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in esophageal adenocarcinomas. A simple 3-tiered system with the estimation of residual tumor in % (complete regression/1% to 50% residual tumor/>50% residual tumor) maintains the highest reproducibility and prognostic value. PMID:25140894

Karamitopoulou, Eva; Thies, Svenja; Zlobec, Inti; Ott, Katja; Feith, Marcus; Slotta-Huspenina, Julia; Lordick, Florian; Becker, Karen; Langer, Rupert

2014-11-01

67

Diet and esophageal disease.  

PubMed

The following, from the 12th OESO World Conference: Cancers of the Esophagus, includes commentaries on macronutrients, dietary patterns, and risk of adenocarcinoma in Barrett's esophagus; micronutrients, trace elements, and risk of Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma; the role of mate consumption in the development of squamous cell carcinoma; the relationship between energy excess and development of esophageal adenocarcinoma; and the nutritional management of the esophageal cancer patient. PMID:25266021

Dawsey, Sanford M; Fagundes, Renato B; Jacobson, Brian C; Kresty, Laura A; Mallery, Susan R; Paski, Shirley; van den Brandt, Piet A

2014-09-01

68

Nano-curcumin inhibits proliferation of esophageal adenocarcinoma cells and enhances the T cell mediated immune response.  

PubMed

In Western countries the incidence of the esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) has risen at a more rapid rate than that of any other malignancy. Despite intensive therapies this cancer is associated with extreme high morbidity and mortality. For this reason, novel effective therapeutic strategies are urgently required. Dendritic Cell (DC)-based immunotherapy is a promising novel treatment strategy, which combined with other anti-cancer strategies has been proven to be beneficial for cancer patients. Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), is a natural polyphenol that is known for its anti-cancer effects however, in it's free form, curcumin has poor bioavailability. The aim of this study was to investigate whether using a highly absorptive form of curcumin, dispersed with colloidal nano-particles, named Theracurmin would be more effective against EAC cells and to analyze if this new compound affects DC-induced T cell response. As a result, we show efficient uptake of nano-curcumin by the EAC cell lines, OE33, and OE19. Moreover, nano-curcumin significantly decreased the proliferation of the EAC cells, while did not affect the normal esophageal cell line HET-1A. We also found that nano-curcumin significantly up-regulated the expression of the co-stimulatory molecule CD86 in DCs and significantly decreased the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines from in vitro activated T cells. When we combined T cells with nano-curcumin treatment in OE19 and OE33, we found that the basic levels of T cell induced cytotoxicity of 6.4 and 4.1%, increased to 15 and 13%, respectively. In conclusion, we found that nano-curcumin is effective against EAC, sensitizes EAC cells to T cell induced cytotoxicity and decreases the pro-inflammatory signals from T cells. Combining DC immunotherapy with nano-curcumin is potentially a promising approach for future treatment of EAC. PMID:23755374

Milano, Francesca; Mari, Luigi; van de Luijtgaarden, Wendy; Parikh, Kaushal; Calpe, Silvia; Krishnadath, Kausilia K

2013-01-01

69

Nano-Curcumin Inhibits Proliferation of Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Cells and Enhances the T Cell Mediated Immune Response  

PubMed Central

In Western countries the incidence of the esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) has risen at a more rapid rate than that of any other malignancy. Despite intensive therapies this cancer is associated with extreme high morbidity and mortality. For this reason, novel effective therapeutic strategies are urgently required. Dendritic Cell (DC)-based immunotherapy is a promising novel treatment strategy, which combined with other anti-cancer strategies has been proven to be beneficial for cancer patients. Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), is a natural polyphenol that is known for its anti-cancer effects however, in it’s free form, curcumin has poor bioavailability. The aim of this study was to investigate whether using a highly absorptive form of curcumin, dispersed with colloidal nano-particles, named Theracurmin would be more effective against EAC cells and to analyze if this new compound affects DC-induced T cell response. As a result, we show efficient uptake of nano-curcumin by the EAC cell lines, OE33, and OE19. Moreover, nano-curcumin significantly decreased the proliferation of the EAC cells, while did not affect the normal esophageal cell line HET-1A. We also found that nano-curcumin significantly up-regulated the expression of the co-stimulatory molecule CD86 in DCs and significantly decreased the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines from in vitro activated T cells. When we combined T cells with nano-curcumin treatment in OE19 and OE33, we found that the basic levels of T cell induced cytotoxicity of 6.4 and 4.1%, increased to 15 and 13%, respectively. In conclusion, we found that nano-curcumin is effective against EAC, sensitizes EAC cells to T cell induced cytotoxicity and decreases the pro-inflammatory signals from T cells. Combining DC immunotherapy with nano-curcumin is potentially a promising approach for future treatment of EAC. PMID:23755374

Milano, Francesca; Mari, Luigi; van de Luijtgaarden, Wendy; Parikh, Kaushal; Calpe, Silvia; Krishnadath, Kausilia K.

2013-01-01

70

ErbB2 signaling activates the Hedgehog pathway via PI3K-Akt in human esophageal adenocarcinoma: Identification of novel targets for concerted therapy concepts.  

PubMed

The Hedgehog pathway plays an important role in the pathogenesis of several tumor types, including esophageal cancer. In our study, we show an expression of the ligand Indian hedgehog (Ihh) and its downstream mediator Gli-1 in primary resected adenocarcinoma tissue by immunohistochemistry and quantitative PCR in fifty percent of the cases, while matching healthy esophagus mucosa was negative for both proteins. Moreover, a functionally important regulation of Gli-1 by ErbB2-PI3K-mTORC signaling as well as a Gli-1-dependent regulation of Ihh in the ErbB2 amplified esophageal adenocarcinoma cell line OE19 was observed. Treatment of OE19 cells with the Her2 antibody trastuzumab, the PI3K-mTORC1 inhibitor NVP BEZ235 (BEZ235) or the knockdown of Akt1 resulted in a downregulation of Gli-1 and Ihh as well as in a reduction of viable OE19 cells in vitro. Interestingly, the Hedgehog receptor Smo, which acts upstream of Gli-1, was not expressed in OE19 cells and in the majority of primary human esophageal adenocarcinoma, suggesting a non-canonical upregulation of Gli-1 expression by the ErbB2-PI3K axis. To translate our findings into a therapeutic concept, we targeted ErbB2-PI3K-mTORC1 by trastuzumab and BEZ235, combining both compounds with the Gli-1/2 inhibitor GANT61. The triple combination led to significantly stronger reduction of tumor cell viability than cisplatinum or each biological alone. Therefore, concomitant blockage of the ErbB2-PI3K pathway and the Hedgehog downstream mediator Gli-1 may provide a new therapeutic strategy for esophageal cancer. PMID:25435423

Kebenko, Maxim; Drenckhan, Astrid; Gros, Stephanie J; Jücker, Manfred; Grabinski, Nicole; Ewald, Florian; Grottke, Astrid; Schultze, Alexander; Izbicki, Jakob R; Bokemeyer, Carsten; Wellbrock, Jasmin; Fiedler, Walter

2015-02-01

71

Polymorphism at the 3'-UTR of the thymidylate synthase gene: A potential predictor for outcomes in Caucasian patients with esophageal adenocarcinoma treated with preoperative chemoradiation  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To test the hypothesis that TS3'UTR polymorphisms predict outcomes in 146 Caucasian patients with esophageal adenocarcinoma treated with preoperative 5-fluorouracil-based chemoradiation. Methods and Materials: DNA was extracted from hematoxylin-and-eosin stained histologic slides of normal esophageal or gastric mucosa sections from paraffin blocks of esophagectomy specimens. Genotypes of the TS3'UTR polymorphism were determined by polymerase chain reaction for a 6-bp insertion. The genotype groups (0bp/0bp, 6bp/0bp, and 6bp/6bp) were compared for clinical features and overall survival, recurrence-free-survival, locoregional control (LRC), and distant metastasis control. Multivariable Cox regression analyses were performed to find independent predictors for the stated outcomes. Results: There was a trend of association between 6bp/6bp genotype and a decreased risk of local regional recurrence (hazards ratio = 0.211, 95% confidence interval = 0.041-1.095, p = 0.06) compared with other genotypes. There was a trend that patients with 6bp/6bp genotype had a higher 3-year probability of LRC compared with patients with the other two genotypes combined (p = 0.07); however, the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusions: The null hypotheses were not rejected in this study, probably owing to small sample size or the single gene examined. Prospective studies with adequate statistical power analyzing a family of genes involved in the 5-fluorouracil metabolism are needed to assess genetic determinants of treatment-related outcomes in esophageal adenocarcinoma.

Liao Zhongxing [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)]. E-mail: zliao@mdanderson.org; Liu Hongji [Department of Epidemiology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Swisher, Stephen G. [Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Wang Luo [Department of Epidemiology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Wu, Tsung-Teh [Department of Pathology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Correa, Arlene M. [Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Roth, Jack A. [Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Cox, James D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Komaki, Ritsuko [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Ajani, Jaffer A. [Department of Gastrointestinal Medical Oncology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Wei Qingyi [Department of Epidemiology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

2006-03-01

72

Evaluating the effect of four extracts of avocado fruit on esophageal squamous carcinoma and colon adenocarcinoma cell lines in comparison with peripheral blood mononuclear cells.  

PubMed

Most patients with gastrointestinal cancers refer to the health centers at advanced stages of the disease and conventional treatments are not significantly effective for these patients. Therefore, using modern therapeutic approaches with lower toxicity bring higher chance for successful treatment and reduced adverse effects in such patients. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of avocado fruit extracts on inhibition of the growth of cancer cells in comparison with normal cells. In an experimental study, ethanol, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and petroleum extracts of avocado (Persea americana) fruit were prepared. Then, the effects if the extracts on the growth of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and colon adenocarcinoma cell lines were evaluated in comparison with the control group using the MTT test in the cell culture medium. Effects of the four extracts of avocado fruit on three cells lines of peripheral blood mononuclear cells, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, and colon adenocarcinoma were tested. The results showed that avocado fruit extract is effective in inhibition of cancer cell growth in comparison with normal cells (P<0.05). Avocado fruit is rich in phytochemicals, which play an important role in inhibition of growth of cancer cells. The current study for the first time demonstrates the anti-cancer effect of avocado fruit extracts on two cancers common in Iran. Therefore, it is suggested that the fruit extracts can be considered as appropriate complementary treatments in treatment of esophageal and colon cancers. PMID:24901722

Vahedi Larijani, Laleh; Ghasemi, Maryam; AbedianKenari, Saeid; Naghshvar, Farshad

2014-01-01

73

Association of HER2/ErbB2 Expression and Gene Amplification with Pathological Features and Prognosis in Esophageal Adenocarcinomas  

PubMed Central

Purpose We examined the frequency, tumor characteristics, and prognostic impact of HER2 protein expression and gene amplification in patients with curatively resected esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). Experimental Design HER2 expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in surgical EAC specimens (n=713). Gene amplification was examined by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in a large subset (n=344). Most tumors were T3–4 (66%) or node-positive (72%); 95% were located in the esophagus or gastroesophageal junction. No patient received neoadjuvant therapy. Cox models were used. Results Overall, 17% of EACs were HER2-positive (ie, IHC3+ or IHC2+ with amplification), with strong agreement between HER2 amplification (HER2/CEP17 ratio ?2) and expression (?=.83). HER2-positivity was significantly associated with lower tumor grade, less invasiveness, fewer malignant nodes, and the presence of adjacent Barrett’s esophagus (BE). EACs with BE had higher odds of HER2-positivity compared to EACs without BE, independent of pathologic features (odds ratio 1.8 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1–2.8], p=.014). Among all cases, HER2-positivity was significantly associated with disease-specific survival (DSS) in a manner that differed by the presence or absence of BE (p for interaction=.0047). In EACs with BE, HER2-positivity was significantly associated with improved DSS (hazard ratio 0.54 [95% CI 0.35–0.84], p=.0065) and overall survival (p=.0022) independent of pathologic features, but was not prognostic among EACs without BE. Conclusions HER2-positivity was demonstrated in 17% of resected EACs and associated with reduced tumor aggressiveness. EACs with BE had nearly twice the odds of being HER2-positive and, within this subgroup, HER2-positivity was independently associated with improved survival. PMID:22252257

Yoon, Harry H.; Shi, Qian; Sukov, William R.; Wiktor, Anne E.; Khan, Maliha; Sattler, Christopher A.; Grothey, Axel; Wu, Tsung-Teh; Diasio, Robert B.; Jenkins, Robert B.; Sinicrope, Frank A.

2011-01-01

74

Early G1 cyclin-dependent kinases as prognostic markers and potential therapeutic targets in esophageal adenocarcinoma  

PubMed Central

Purpose Chromosomal gain at 7q21 is a frequent event in esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). However, this event has not been mapped with fine resolution in a large EAC cohort and its association with clinical endpoints and functional relevance are unclear. Experimental design We used a cohort of 116 patients to fine map the 7q21 amplification using SNP microarrays. Prognostic significance and functional role of 7q21 amplification and its gene expression were explored. Results Amplification of the 7q21 region was observed in 35% of tumors with a focal, minimal amplicon containing 6 genes. 7q21 amplification was associated with poor survival and analysis of gene expression identified CDK6 as the only gene in the minimal amplicon whose expression was also associated with poor survival. A low level amplification (10%) was observed at the 12q13 region containing the CDK6 homolog, CDK4. Both amplification and expression of CDK4 correlated with poor survival. A combined model of both CDK6 and CDK4 expression is a superior predictor of survival than either alone. Specific knockdown of CDK4 and/or CDK6 by siRNAs shows that they are required for proliferation of EAC cells and that their function is additive. PD-0332991 targets the kinase activity of both molecules and suppresses proliferation and anchorage-independence of EAC cells through activation of the pRB pathway. Conclusions We suggest that CDK6 is the driver of 7q21 amplification and that both CDK4 and CDK6 are prognostic markers and bona fide oncogenes in EAC. Targeting these molecules may constitute a viable new therapy for this disease. PMID:21593195

Ismail, Amin; Bandla, Santhoshi; Reveiller, Marie; Toia, Liana; Zhou, Zhongren; Gooding, William E.; Kalatskaya, Irina; Stein, Lincoln; D’Souza, Mary; Litle, Virginia R.; Peters, Jeffrey H.; Pennathur, Arjun; Luketich, James D.; Godfrey, Tony E.

2011-01-01

75

Image analysis of immunohistochemistry is superior to visual scoring as shown for patient outcome of esophageal adenocarcinoma.  

PubMed

Quantification of protein expression based on immunohistochemistry (IHC) is an important step in clinical diagnoses and translational tissue-based research. Manual scoring systems are used in order to evaluate protein expression based on staining intensities and distribution patterns. However, visual scoring remains an inherently subjective approach. The aim of our study was to explore whether digital image analysis proves to be an alternative or even superior tool to quantify expression of membrane-bound proteins. We analyzed five membrane-binding biomarkers (HER2, EGFR, pEGFR, ?-catenin, and E-cadherin) and performed IHC on tumor tissue microarrays from 153 esophageal adenocarcinomas patients from a single center study. The tissue cores were scored visually applying an established routine scoring system as well as by using digital image analysis obtaining a continuous spectrum of average staining intensity. Subsequently, we compared both assessments by survival analysis as an end point. There were no significant correlations with patient survival using visual scoring of ?-catenin, E-cadherin, pEGFR, or HER2. In contrast, the results for digital image analysis approach indicated that there were significant associations with disease-free survival for ?-catenin, E-cadherin, pEGFR, and HER2 (P = 0.0125, P = 0.0014, P = 0.0299, and P = 0.0096, respectively). For EGFR, there was a greater association with patient survival when digital image analysis was used compared to when visual scoring was (visual: P = 0.0045, image analysis: P < 0.0001). The results of this study indicated that digital image analysis was superior to visual scoring. Digital image analysis is more sensitive and, therefore, better able to detect biological differences within the tissues with greater accuracy. This increased sensitivity improves the quality of quantification. PMID:25156293

Feuchtinger, Annette; Stiehler, Tabitha; Jütting, Uta; Marjanovic, Goran; Luber, Birgit; Langer, Rupert; Walch, Axel

2015-01-01

76

Pilot Trial of CRLX101 in Treatment of Patients With Advanced or Metastatic Stomach, Gastroesophageal, or Esophageal Cancer That Cannot be Removed by Surgery  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adenocarcinoma of the Esophagus; Adenocarcinoma of the Gastroesophageal Junction; Diffuse Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Intestinal Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Mixed Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Recurrent Esophageal Cancer; Recurrent Gastric Cancer; Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Esophagus; Stage IIIB Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIC Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIIC Gastric Cancer; Stage IV Esophageal Cancer; Stage IV Gastric Cancer

2014-11-25

77

Pilot Trial of CRLX101 in Treatment of Patients With Advanced or Metastatic Stomach, Gastroesophageal, or Esophageal Cancer That Cannot be Removed by Surgery  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adenocarcinoma of the Esophagus; Adenocarcinoma of the Gastroesophageal Junction; Diffuse Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Intestinal Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Mixed Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Recurrent Esophageal Cancer; Recurrent Gastric Cancer; Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Esophagus; Stage IIIB Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIC Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIIC Gastric Cancer; Stage IV Esophageal Cancer; Stage IV Gastric Cancer

2015-02-02

78

MMP-1 is a (pre-)invasive factor in Barrett-associated esophageal adenocarcinomas and is associated with positive lymph node status  

PubMed Central

Background Esophageal adenocarcinomas (EACs) arise due to gastroesophageal reflux, with Barrett's esophagus (BE) regarded as precancerous lesion. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) might play a role during the multistep carcinogenetic process. Methods Expression of MMP-1 and -13 was analyzed in esophageal cancer (n = 41 EAC with BE, n = 19 EAC without BE, and n = 10 esophageal squamous-cell carcinomas, ESCC), furthermore in BE without intraepithelial neoplasia (IN) (n = 18), and the cell line OE-33. MMP-1 was co-labelled with Ki-67 (proliferation), Cdx-2 (marker for intestinal metaplasia, BE) and analyzed on mRNA level. MMP-1 staining results were correlated with clinicopatholocical parameters. Results On protein level, MMP-1 expression was found in 39 of 41 (95%) EAC with BE, in 19 of 19 (100%) EAC without BE, in 6 of 10 (60%) ESCC, and in 10 of 18 (56%) BE without IN. No expression of MMP-13 was found in these specimens. Quantification showed 48% MMP-1 positive cells in EAC with BE, compared to 35% in adjacent BE (p < 0.05), 44% in EAC without BE, 32% in ESCC, and 4% in BE without IN. Immunofluorescence double staining experiments revealed increased MMP-1 expressing in proliferating cells (MMP-1+/Ki-67+) (r = 0.943 for BE and r = 0.811 for EAC). On mRNA-level, expression of MMP-1 was significantly higher in EAC compared to BE (p = 0.01) and confirmed immunohistochemical staining results. High MMP-1 levels were associated with lymph node metastases but not with poorer survival (p = 0.307). Conclusions Our findings suggest that MMP-1 plays a role as preinvasive factor in BE-associated EAC. Expression of MMP-1 in proliferating BE and EAC cells suggest malignant proliferation following the clonal expansion model. PMID:20946664

2010-01-01

79

Bile Acid Exposure Up-regulates Tuberous Sclerosis Complex 1/Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Pathway in Barrett’s-Associated Esophageal Adenocarcinoma  

PubMed Central

Barrett’s esophagus, a columnar metaplasia of the lower esophagus epithelium related to gastroesophageal reflux disease, is the strongest known risk factor for the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). Understanding the signal transduction events involved in esophageal epithelium carcinogenesis may provide insights into the origins of EAC and may suggest new therapies. To elucidate the molecular pathways of bile acid–induced tumorigenesis, the newly identified inflammation-associated signaling pathway involving I?B kinases ? (IKK?), tuberous sclerosis complex 1 (TSC1), and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) downstream effector S6 kinase (S6K1) was confirmed to be activated in immortalized Barrett’s CPC-A and CPC-C cells and esophageal cancer SEG-1 and BE3 cells. Phosphorylation of TSC1 and S6K1 was induced in response to bile acid stimulation. Treatment of these cells with the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin or the IKK? inhibitor Bay 11-7082 suppressed bile acid–induced cell proliferation and anchorage-independent growth. We next used an orthotopic rat model to evaluate the role of bile acid in the progression of Barrett’s esophagus to EAC. Of interest, we found high expression of phosphorylated IKK? (pIKK?) and phosphorylated S6K1 (pS6K1) in tumor tissues and the Barrett’s epithelium compared with normal epithelium. Furthermore, immunostaining of clinical EAC tissue specimens revealed that pIKK? expression was strongly correlated with pS6K1 level. Together, these results show that bile acid can deregulate TSC1/mTOR through IKK? signaling, which may play a critical role in EAC progression. In addition, Bay 11-7082 and rapamycin may potentially be chemopreventive drugs against Barrett’s esophagus–associated EAC. PMID:18413730

Yen, Chia-Jui; Izzo, Julie G.; Lee, Dung-Fang; Guha, Sushovan; Wei, Yongkun; Wu, Tsung-Teh; Chen, Chun-Te; Kuo, Hsu-Ping; Hsu, Jung-Mao; Sun, Hui-Lung; Chou, Chao-Kai; Buttar, Navtej S.; Wang, Kenneth K.; Huang, Peng; Ajani, Jaffer; Hung, Mien-Chie

2008-01-01

80

Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is an independent adverse prognostic factor in esophageal adenocarcinoma patients treated with cisplatin-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy.  

PubMed

Neoadjuvant platin-based therapy is accepted as a standard therapy for advanced esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). Patients who respond have a better survival prognosis, but still a significant number of responder patients die from tumor recurrence. Molecular markers for prognosis in neoadjuvantly treated EAC patients have not been identified yet. We investigated the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in prognosis and chemotherapy resistance in these patients. Two EAC patient cohorts, either treated by neoadjuvant cisplatin-based chemotherapy followed by surgery (n=86) or by surgical resection (n=46) were analyzed for EGFR protein expression and gene copy number. Data were correlated with clinical and histopathological response, disease-free and overall survival. In case of EGFR overexpression, the prognosis for neoadjuvant chemotherapy responders was poor as in non-responders. Responders had a significantly better disease-free survival than non-responders only if EGFR expression level (p=0.0152) or copy number (p=0.0050) was low. Comparing neoadjuvantly treated patients and primary resection patients, tumors of non-responder patients more frequently exhibited EGFR overexpression, providing evidence that EGFR is a factor for indicating chemotherapy resistance. EGFR overexpression and gene copy number are independent adverse prognostic factors for neoadjuvant chemotherapy-treated EAC patients, particularly for responders. Furthermore, EGFR overexpression is involved in resistance to cisplatin-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy. PMID:25216514

Aichler, Michaela; Motschmann, Martin; Jütting, Uta; Luber, Birgit; Becker, Karen; Ott, Katja; Lordick, Florian; Langer, Rupert; Feith, Marcus; Siewert, Jörg Rüdiger; Walch, Axel

2014-08-30

81

Guggulsterone, a Plant-Derived Inhibitor of NF-?B, Suppresses CDX2 and COX-2 Expression and Reduces the Viability of Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Cells.  

PubMed

Background/Aims: Induction by bile acid of caudal type homeobox 2 (CDX2) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression via nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) activation is a critical event in the development of Barrett's esophagus (BE) and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). Guggulsterone (GS) is a plant sterol that inhibits NF-?B activity. Here, we evaluated whether GS has either or both chemopreventive or therapeutic effects against EAC. Methods: Two EAC cells lines were treated with deoxycholic acid (DCA) in the presence of GS or vehicle. The levels of transcription and translation of I?B?, CDX2, and COX-2 were determined. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels, cell viability, and cell cycle distribution were assessed as well. Results: GS inhibited DCA-induced I?B? phosphorylation. GS and the NF-?B inhibitor BAY11-7085 suppressed DCA-induced CDX2 and COX-2 expression in EAC cells. GS also suppressed basal transcription levels of CDX2 and COX-2 and reduced constitutive synthesis of COX-2 and PGE2. Further, GS reduced the viability of EAC cells, increased their numbers in the apoptotic sub-G1 fraction. Conclusion: GS suppressed DCA-induced and NF-?B-dependent activation of CDX2 and COX-2 expression. Further, GS also reduced the viability of EAC cells. GS may serve as candidate for preventing and treating EAC and BE. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel. PMID:25427631

Yamada, Takanori; Osawa, Satoshi; Ikuma, Mutsuhiro; Kajimura, Masayoshi; Sugimoto, Mitsushige; Furuta, Takahisa; Iwaizumi, Moriya; Sugimoto, Ken

2014-11-21

82

Population Attributable Risks of Esophageal and Gastric Cancers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Several risk factors have been identified for esophageal adenocarcinoma, gastric cardia adenocarcinoma, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, and noncardia gastric adenocarcinoma, but no study has comprehensively exam- ined their contributions to the cancer burden in the general population. Herein, we estimate the population attributable risks (PARs) for various risk factors observed in a multi- center population-based case-control study. Methods: We

Lawrence S. Engel; Wong-Ho Chow; Thomas L. Vaughan; Marilie D. Gammon; Harvey A. Risch; Janet L. Stanford; Janet B. Schoenberg; Susan T. Mayne; Robert Dubrow; Heidrun Rotterdam; A. Brian West; Martin Blaser; William J. Blot; Mitchell H. Gail; Joseph F. Fraumeni

2003-01-01

83

The Changing Face of Esophageal Cancer  

PubMed Central

The two main histological esophageal cancer types, adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, differ in incidence, geographic distribution, ethnic pattern and etiology. This article focuses on epidemiology with particular reference to geographic and temporal variations in incidence, along with a review of the evidence supporting environmental and genetic factors involved in esophageal carcinogenesis. Squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus remains predominantly a disease of the developing world. In contrast, esophageal adenocarcinoma is mainly a disease of western developed societies, associated with obesity and gastro-esophageal reflux disease. There has been a dramatic increase in the incidence of adenocarcinoma in developed countries in parallel with migration of both esophageal and gastric adenocarcinomas towards the gastro-esophageal junction. PMID:24281163

Melhado, Rachel E.; Alderson, Derek; Tucker, Olga

2010-01-01

84

Phase I and II enzyme polymorphisms as risk factors for Barrett’s esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma: a systematic review and meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Although several studies have examined the association between phase I/II enzyme polymorphisms and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) and/or Barrett’s esophagus (BE), their overall findings remain unclear. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine whether phase I/II polymorphisms are independent risk factors for either BE or EAC. We employed keyword searches in multiple databases to identify studies published before October 1, 2007. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) examined in ?3 studies were meta-analyzed to obtain a pooled estimate of effect. Meta-analysis suggested the minor allele for GSTP1 Val105 conveys modest excess risk (odds ratio [OR]BE = 1.50, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.16–1.95; OREAC = 1.20, 95% CI 0.94–1.54). No excess risk was observed with GSTM1 null (ORBE = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.56–1.08; OREAC = 1.08, 95% CI: 0.79–1.48), GSTT1 null (ORBE = 1.35, 95% CI: 0.91–2.01; OREAC = 0.84, 95% CI: 0.48–1.49), or CYP1A Val462 (OREAC = 0.89, 95% CI: 0.40–1.97). Insufficient data existed to meta-analyze remaining SNPs. Our review identified GSTP1Ile105Val as a possible risk factor for BE and EAC in Caucasian males. No excess risk was observed for other phase I/II polymorphisms with sufficient data to meta-analyze. Additional studies are needed to determine if GSTP1 conveys excess risk in females or non-Caucasians and to evaluate other phase I/II polymorphisms. PMID:19222528

Bull, L. M.; White, D. L.; Bray, M.; Nurgalieva, Z.; El-Serag, H. B.

2014-01-01

85

Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the matrix metalloproteinase gene family and the frequency and duration of gastroesophageal reflux disease influence the risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma  

PubMed Central

The matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family of proteins mediates various cellular pathways, including apoptosis and angiogenesis. Polymorphisms of MMP genes are associated with increased esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) risk. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is an established EAC risk factor. We examined whether MMP polymorphism-EAC risk is modified by GERD. In total, 309 EAC patients and 279 frequency-matched healthy controls underwent MMP1 1G/2G, MMP3 6A/5A, MMP12 ?82A/G and MMP12 1082A/G genotyping. Questionnaires collected GERD history. EAC risk was analyzed using logistic regression, adjusted for key covariates and stratified by GERD. Joint effects models explored GERD severity and duration, whereas additional models explored genotype–GERD interactions in EAC risk. We determined that each MMP1 and MMP3 minor (variant) allele was independently associated with increased EAC risk (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 3.2, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.0–5.1, p < 0.001 and AOR 1.8, 95% CI 1.1–2.7, p = 0.01, respectively) only among those with GERD but not in GERD-free individuals (all p = nonsignificant). There were significant interactions between the MMP1 variants and the presence of GERD (p = 0.002) and between MMP3 variants and GERD (p = 0.04). There was an equally strong interaction between cumulative GERD severity and MMP1 (p = 0.002). The AOR of each variant allele was 14.9 (95% CI 1.6–136) for individuals with severe GERD, 1.7 (95% CI 1.0–2.7) for mild-moderate GERD and 0.98 (95% CI 0.7–1.4) for those without GERD. This was further reflected in separate analyses of frequency and duration of GERD. In conclusion, MMP1 1G/2G (and possibly MMP3 6A/5A) polymorphisms alter EAC risk differentially for GERD and GERD-free individuals. PMID:22422400

Cheung, Winson Y.; Zhai, Rihong; Bradbury, Penny; Hopkins, Jessica; Kulke, Matthew H.; Heist, Rebecca S.; Asomaning, Kofi; Ma, Clement; Xu, Wei; Wang, Zhaoxi; Hooshmand, Suzanne; Su, Li; Christiani, David C.; Liu, Geoffrey

2013-01-01

86

Upper esophageal and pharyngeal cancers.  

PubMed

The following, from the 12th OESO World Conference: Cancers of the Esophagus, includes commentaries on laryngopharyngeal reflux as a risk factor for laryngeal cancer; the role of pepsin in laryngopharyngeal neoplasia; natural fruit and vegetable compounds for the prevention and treatment of pharyngeal and esophageal cancers; and evaluation of cranberry constituents as inhibitors of esophageal adenocarcinoma utilizing in vitro assay and in vivo models. PMID:25266014

Bock, Jonathan M; Howell, Amy B; Johnston, Nikki; Kresty, Laura A; Lew, Daniel

2014-09-01

87

Replacement surgery for esophageal atresia.  

PubMed

Esophageal replacement surgery is the treatment of choice in children with esophageal atresia (EA) when a long defect does not allow restoration of esophageal continuity, or when primary repair has failed. The stomach, colon, and small intestine have been used successfully to create conduits, but there is still no consensus among pediatric surgeons regarding the optimal method for substituting the native esophagus. Current evidence on short- and long-term outcomes of esophageal replacement originates from small-size, retrospective reports and well-designed comparative studies are lacking. Moreover, there is significant heterogeneity in the way outcomes are reported, which makes data pooling and comparison very challenging. In this review, we focus on the most recent evidence on outcomes of the most popular replacement techniques (colonic interposition, gastric transposition, gastric tube reconstruction, and jejunal interposition) used in pediatric patients with EA. PMID:23720209

Loukogeorgakis, Stavros P; Pierro, Agostino

2013-06-01

88

Progression of Barrett's Metaplasia to Adenocarcinoma Is Associated with the Suppression of the Transcriptional Programs of Epidermal Differentiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We did expressional profiling on 24 paired samples of normal esophageal epithelium, Barrett's metaplasia, and esophageal adenocarcinomas. Matching tissue samples representing the three different histologic types were obtained from each patient undergoing esophagectomy for adenocarcinoma. Our analysis compared the molecular changes accompanying the transformation of normal squamous epithelium with Barrett's esophagus and adenocarcinoma in individual patients rather than in a

Erik T. Kimchi; Mitchell C. Posner; James O. Park; Thomas E. Darga; Masha Kocherginsky; Theodore Karrison; John Hart; Kerrington D. Smith; James J. Mezhir; Ralph R. Weichselbaum; Nikolai N. Khodarev

89

Dietary habits and esophageal cancer.  

PubMed

Cancer of the esophagus is an underestimated, poorly understood, and changing disease. Its overall 5-year survival is less than 20%, even in the United States, which is largely a function of a delay in diagnosis until its more advanced stages. Additionally, the epidemiologic complexities of esophageal cancer are vast, rendering screening and prevention limited at best. First, the prevalence of esophageal cancer is unevenly distributed throughout the world. Second, the two histological forms (squamous cell and adenocarcinoma) vary in terms of their geographic prevalence and associated risk factors. Third, some populations appear at particular risk for esophageal cancer. And fourth, the incidence of esophageal cancer is in continuous flux among groups. Despite the varied prevalence and risks among populations, some factors have emerged as consistent associations while others are only now becoming more fully recognized. The most prominent, scientifically supported, and long-regarded risk factors for esophageal cancer are tobacco, alcohol, and reflux esophagitis. Inasmuch as the above are regarded as important risk factors for esophageal cancer, they are not the sole contributors. Dietary habits, nutrition, local customs, and the environment may be contributory. Along these lines, vitamins, minerals, fruits, vegetables, meats, fats, salted foods, nitrogen compounds, carcinogens, mycotoxins, and even the temperature of what we consume are increasingly regarded as potential etiologies for this deadly although potentially preventable disease. The goal of this review is to shed light on the less known role of nutrition and dietary habits in esophageal cancer. PMID:23795778

Palladino-Davis, A G; Mendez, B M; Fisichella, P M; Davis, C S

2015-01-01

90

Efficacy and histopathological esophageal wall damage of biodegradable esophageal stents for treatment of severe refractory esophageal anastomotic stricture in a child with long gap esophageal atresia.  

PubMed

A case in which a self-expandable biodegradable (BD) esophageal stent was used for a refractory esophageal anastomotic stricture (EAS) in a 5-year-old female is presented. The patient underwent closure of a tracheoesophageal fistula and gastrostomy in the neonatal period. Esophagoesophagostomy was performed at 18 months of age after a multistaged extrathoracic esophageal elongation procedure. The patient developed refractory EAS and required repeated esophageal balloon dilation. Four sessions of esophageal BD stenting were performed from the age of 5-8 years. Each BD stenting allowed her to eat chopped food, but the anastomotic stricture recurred 4-7 months after the procedure. No major complications were observed, though transient chest pain and dysphagia were observed after each stenting. Finally, at 8 years of age, EAS resection and esophagoesophageal anastomosis were performed. The resected specimens showed thickened scar formation at the EAS lesion, while the degree of esophageal wall damage, both at the proximal and distal ends of the stricture, was slight. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of this kind of treatment and assessment of damage to the esophageal wall microscopically. The advantages and problems of the use of BD stents in children are discussed. PMID:25399341

Okata, Yuichi; Hisamatsu, Chieko; Bitoh, Yuko; Yokoi, Akiko; Nishijima, Eiji; Maeda, Kosaku; Yoshida, Makiko; Ishida, Tsukasa; Azuma, Takeshi; Kutsumi, Hiromu

2014-12-01

91

Helicobacter pylori Infection and Gastric Atrophy: Risk of Adenocarcinoma and Squamous-Cell Carcinoma of the Esophagus and Adenocarcinoma of the Gastric Cardia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: An inverse association between Helicobacter pylori infection and esophageal adenocarcinoma has been reported that may be attributed to reduced acidity from inducing atrophic gastritis and from producing ammonia. We examined associations between H. pylori infection, gas- tric atrophy, and the risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma, esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma, and gastric cardia ad- enocarcinoma in a large population-based case-control study in

Weimin Ye; Maria Held; Jesper Lagergren; Lars Engstrand; William J. Blot; Joseph K. McLaughlin

2004-01-01

92

No role for glutathione S-transferase genotypes in Caucasian esophageal squamous cell or adenocarcinoma etiology: an European case–control study  

PubMed Central

Background Identifying and monitoring high-risk patients can aid the prevention of esophageal cancer (EC). The interaction of environmental risk factor exposure and genetic susceptibility may contribute to the etiology of EC. Biotransformation enzymes such as Glutathione S-Transferases (GSTs ) detoxify mutagenic and genotoxic compounds and therefore control the rate of detoxification of carcinogens. Functional polymorphisms in the genes coding for GSTs alter their enzyme activity in vitro, and were reported to modify EC risk in Asians. We hypothesized that altered enzyme activity GST genotypes influence the susceptibility for esophageal adeno- (EAC) and squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) in Caucasians. Methods We performed a case–control study including 440 Caucasian patients with EC and 592 healthy Caucasian controls matched for age and sex. Functional polymorphisms were selected and genotypes were determined in GST classes Alpha, Mu, Theta and Pi by means of polymerase chain reaction. Genotypes were classified into predicted high, intermediate and low enzyme activity categories based on in vitro activity data. The distribution of the activity genotypes were compared between patients with EAC or ESCC, and controls. Odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated by logistic regression analyses. Gene-gene interactions were tested and for comparison purposes, the predicted low and intermediate activity genotypes were combined. Genotypes with similar risks for EAC or ESCC were combined and analyzed for multiplicative effects. Results Our analyses includes 327 patients with EAC and 106 patients with ESCC. Low or intermediate activity enzyme genotypes for GSTM1, GSTA1, GSTP1 I105V and A114V as well as for GSTT1, did not significantly modify the risk for ESCC or EAC in our Dutch population. Conclusion Functional genotypes in GST genes are not involved in EAC or ESCC susceptibility in Caucasians, in contrast to results on ESCC from Asia or Africa. PMID:23731957

2013-01-01

93

Esophageal Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... from your throat to your stomach. Early esophageal cancer usually does not cause symptoms. Later, you may ... You're at greater risk for getting esophageal cancer if you smoke, drink heavily, or have acid ...

94

Diet and lifestyle factors and risk of subtypes of esophageal and gastric cancer: classification tree analysis  

PubMed Central

Purpose Although risk factors for squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus (SCC) and adenocarcinomas of the esophagus (EA), gastric cardia (GC) and other (non-cardia) gastric sites (OG) have been identified, little is known about interactions among risk factors. We sought to examine interactions of diet, other lifestyle, and medical factors with risks of subtypes of esophageal and gastric cancer. Methods We used classification tree analysis to analyze data from a population-based case-control study (1,095 cases, 687 controls) conducted in Connecticut, New Jersey, and western Washington State. Results Frequency of reported gastroesophageal reflux (GERD) symptoms was the most important risk stratification factor for EA, GC, and OG, with dietary factors (EA, OG), smoking (EA, GC), wine intake (GC, OG), age (OG), and income (OG) appearing to modify risk of these cancer sites. For SCC, smoking was the most important risk stratification factor, with GERD, income, race, non-citrus fruit, and energy intakes further modifying risk. Conclusion Various combinations of risk factors appear to interact to affect risk of each cancer subtype. Replication of these data-mining analyses are required before suggesting causal pathways; however, the classification tree results are useful in partitioning risk and mapping multi-level interactions among risk variables. PMID:24239095

Navarro Silvera, Stephanie A; Mayne, Susan T; Gammon, Marilie D; Vaughan, Thomas L; Chow, Wong-Ho; Dubin, Joel A; Dubrow, Robert; Stanford, Janet L; West, A Brian; Rotterdam, Heidrun; Blot, William J; Risch, Harvey A

2014-01-01

95

Eosinophilic esophagitis in patients with esophageal atresia and chronic dysphagia.  

PubMed

Esophageal atresia (EA) is defined as a discontinuity of the lumen of the esophagus repaired soon after birth. Dysphagia is a common symptom in these patients, usually related to stricture, dysmotility or peptic esophagitis. We present 4 cases of patients with EA who complained of dysphagia and the diagnosis of Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) was made, ages ranging from 9 to 16 years. Although our patients were on acid suppression years after their EA repair, they presented with acute worsening of dysphagia. Esophogastroduodenoscopy and/or barium swallow did not show stricture and biopsies revealed elevated eosinophil counts consistent with EoE. Two of 4 patients improved symptomatically with the topical steroids. It is important to note that all our patients have asthma and 3 out of 4 have tested positive for food allergies. One of our patients developed recurrent anastomotic strictures that improved with the treatment of the EoE. A previous case report linked the recurrence of esophageal strictures in patients with EA repair with EoE. Once the EoE was treated the strictures resolved. On the other hand, based on our observation, EoE could be present in patients without recurrent anastomotic strictures. There appears to be a spectrum in the disease process. We are suggesting that EoE is a frequent concomitant problem in patients with history of congenital esophageal deformities, and for this reason any of these patients with refractory reflux symptoms or dysphagia (with or without anastomotic stricture) may benefit from an endoscopic evaluation with biopsies to rule out EoE. PMID:25548504

Kassabian, Sirvart; Baez-Socorro, Virginia; Sferra, Thomas; Garcia, Reinaldo

2014-12-21

96

Eosinophilic esophagitis in patients with esophageal atresia and chronic dysphagia  

PubMed Central

Esophageal atresia (EA) is defined as a discontinuity of the lumen of the esophagus repaired soon after birth. Dysphagia is a common symptom in these patients, usually related to stricture, dysmotility or peptic esophagitis. We present 4 cases of patients with EA who complained of dysphagia and the diagnosis of Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) was made, ages ranging from 9 to 16 years. Although our patients were on acid suppression years after their EA repair, they presented with acute worsening of dysphagia. Esophogastroduodenoscopy and/or barium swallow did not show stricture and biopsies revealed elevated eosinophil counts consistent with EoE. Two of 4 patients improved symptomatically with the topical steroids. It is important to note that all our patients have asthma and 3 out of 4 have tested positive for food allergies. One of our patients developed recurrent anastomotic strictures that improved with the treatment of the EoE. A previous case report linked the recurrence of esophageal strictures in patients with EA repair with EoE. Once the EoE was treated the strictures resolved. On the other hand, based on our observation, EoE could be present in patients without recurrent anastomotic strictures. There appears to be a spectrum in the disease process. We are suggesting that EoE is a frequent concomitant problem in patients with history of congenital esophageal deformities, and for this reason any of these patients with refractory reflux symptoms or dysphagia (with or without anastomotic stricture) may benefit from an endoscopic evaluation with biopsies to rule out EoE.

Kassabian, Sirvart; Baez-Socorro, Virginia; Sferra, Thomas; Garcia, Reinaldo

2014-01-01

97

Prostate Adenocarcinoma  

Cancer.gov

Home Cancers Selected for Study Prostate Adenocarcinoma Prostate Adenocarcinoma Last Updated: April 01, 2013 What is prostate cancer? Prostate cancer is a disease of the prostate, a walnut-size gland in the male reproductive system.  Nearly all prostate

98

Cyclooxygenase 2 expression in Barrett's esophagus and adenocarcinoma: Ex vivo induction by bile salts and acid exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background & Aims: Barrett's esophagus (BE) results from chronic, severe gastroesophageal reflux and predisposes to esophageal adenocarcinoma. Cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 is involved in chronic inflammation and epithelial cell growth. We investigated COX-2 expression in BE and esophageal adenocarcinoma to explore a potential relation between COX-2 expression and metaplasia or carcinogenesis. Methods: Endoscopic mucosal biopsy specimens of Barrett's intestinal metaplasia (n =

Vivian N. Shirvani; Rodica Ouatu-Lascar; Baljeet S. Kaur; M. Bishr Omary; George Triadafilopoulos

2000-01-01

99

Toll-Like Receptors in Esophageal Cancer  

PubMed Central

Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and esophageal adenocarcinoma are cancers of high mortality. EAC develops through Barrett’s esophagus (BE) and columnar dysplasia, preceded by gastro-esophageal reflux disease. The risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma is increased by smoking and alcohol consumption. New treatment options for esophageal cancer are desperately needed. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a central role in mammalian immunity and cancer. TLRs are activated by microbial components, such as lipopolysaccharide, flagellin, DNA, and RNA, as well as endogenous ligands, including heat-shock proteins and endogenous DNA. This review summarizes the studies on TLRs in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and EAC. It has been shown that TLRs 1–10 are expressed in the normal esophagus. In esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, TLRs3, 4, 7, and 9 have been studied, showing associations to aggressive disease properties. In BE and EAC, only TLRs4, 5, and 9 have been studied. In the review, we discuss the implications of TLRs in esophageal cancer. PMID:24847326

Kauppila, Joonas H.; Selander, Katri S.

2014-01-01

100

Esophageal Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

Español Esophageal Cancer Definition Cancer that forms in tissues lining the esophagus (the muscular tube through which food passes from the throat to ... Therapies Cancer Clinical Trials More Information Harms of Smoking and Health Benefits of Quitting Metastatic Cancer How ...

101

Esophageal culture  

MedlinePLUS

Culture - esophageal ... There, it is placed in a special dish (culture) and watched for the growth of bacteria, fungus, ... and Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease Pathophysiology/Diagnosis/Management . 9th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Elsevier Saunders; 2010:chap ...

102

Eosinophilic esophagitis  

PubMed Central

Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic immune-mediated condition where infiltration of eosinophils into the esophageal mucosa leads to symptoms of esophageal dysfunction. It has rapidly emerged as an important cause of upper GI morbidity in patients of all ages and is encountered in a substantial proportion of patients undergoing diagnostic upper endoscopy. This review discusses the clinical, endoscopic, and histologic features of EoE and presents the most recent guidelines for diagnosis of EoE. It describes selected diagnostic dilemmas including distinguishing EoE from gastroesophageal reflux disease and addressing the newly recognized clinical entity of proton pump inhibitor responsive esophageal eosinophilia. It also highlights evidence to support both pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic treatments, including topical corticosteroids, dietary elimination therapy, and endoscopic dilation. PMID:23452635

Dellon, Evan S.

2012-01-01

103

Management of refractory and complicated reflux esophagitis.  

PubMed Central

Simple intermittent heartburn with minor or no esophagitis can be treated with simple measures including lifestyle changes and antacids as needed, or H2 receptor antagonists (H2RA), and has a good outcome. Problematic reflux includes resistance to therapy, stricture, Barrett's esophagus and aspiration. Severe reflux esophagitis, often resistant to H2RA therapy, requires more potent treatment with potent acid suppression using proton pump inhibitors, often indefinitely. When complicated by stricture, dilatations with potent acid suppression are needed. Barrett's esophagus is subject to esophagitis, which is no more difficult to treat than other cases of esophagitis. Reflux in Barrett's esophagus should be treated on its own merits without regard to the presence of Barrett's epithelium. Dysplasia leading to adenocarcinoma is a different problem, apparently not influenced by reduced exposure to acid. Indications for antireflux surgery are quite limited and should be carefully analyzed as a cost/risk/benefit problem. PMID:9165696

Hirschowitz, B. I.

1996-01-01

104

Lung Adenocarcinoma  

Cancer.gov

Home Cancers Selected for Study Lung Adenocarcinoma Lung Adenocarcinoma Last Updated: November 19, 2012 What is lung cancer? Lung cancer accounts for more deaths than any other cancer in both men and women, about 28 percent of all cancer deaths. In

105

Occupational exposures and risk of esophageal and gastric cardia cancers among male Swedish construction workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The rising incidence and the strong male predominance among patients with esophageal and gastric cardia adenocarcinoma remain unexplained. We hypothesized that occupational airborne exposures in a traditional male dominated industry might contribute to these observations.

Catarina Jansson; Anna L. V. Johansson; Ingvar A. Bergdahl; Paul W. Dickman; Nils Plato; Johanna Adami; Paolo Boffetta; Jesper Lagergren

2005-01-01

106

Lung Adenocarcinoma  

MedlinePLUS

... quit smoking, your risk decreases over time. Secondary risk factors include age, family history, and exposure to secondhand smoke, mineral and metal dust, asbestos, or radon. What characterizes lung adenocarcinoma? This ...

107

Molecular Pathways: Pathogenesis and clinical implications of microbiome alteration in esophagitis and Barrett’s esophagus  

PubMed Central

Esophageal adenocarcinoma is preceded by the development of reflux-related intestinal metaplasia or Barrett’s esophagus which is a response to inflammation of the esophageal squamous mucosa, reflux esophagitis. Gastroesophageal reflux impairs the mucosal barrier in the distal esophagus, allowing chronic exposure of the squamous epithelium to the diverse microbial ecosystem or microbiome, and inducing chronic inflammation. The esophageal microbiome is altered in both esophagitis and Barrett's esophagus, characterized by a significant decrease in Gram-positive bacteria and an increase in Gram-negative bacteria in esophagitis and Barrett's esophagus. Lipopolysaccharides (LPS), a major structure of the outer membrane in Gram-negative bacteria, can up-regulate gene expression of proinflammatory cytokines via activation of the TLR4 and NF-kB pathway. The potential impact of LPS on reflux esophagitis may be through relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter via iNOS and by delaying gastric emptying via COX-2. Chronic inflammation may be play a critical role in the progression from benign to malignant esophageal disease. Therefore analysis of the pathways leading to chronic inflammation in the esophagus may help to identify biomarkers in Barrett's esophagus patients for neoplastic progression and provide insight into molecular events suitable for therapeutic intervention in prevention of esophageal adenocarcinoma development in patients with reflux esophagitis and Barrett's esophagus. PMID:22344232

Yang, Liying; Francois, Fritz; Pei, Zhiheng

2013-01-01

108

Vitamin intake and risk of subtypes of esophageal cancer in Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. The incidence of adenocarcinoma of the esophagus is increasing in most Western industrialized nations especially in white males. The impact of vitamins on the development of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and adenocarcinoma (AC) of the esophagus has not been elucidated. The goal of this pilot-study was to analyze the influence of daily vitamin consumption on the frequency of esophageal

Elfriede Bollschweiler; Eva Wolfgarten; Thomas Nowroth; Ursula Rosendahl; Stefan P. Mönig; Arnulf H. Hölscher

2002-01-01

109

Refractory strictures post-esophageal atresia repair: what are the alternatives?  

PubMed

Esophageal strictures remain the most frequent complication after esophageal atresia (EA) repair despite refinements in operative techniques. With an incidence of anastomotic stricture between 8% and 49%, EA is the most frequent cause of benign esophageal stricture in children. The mainstay of treatment for esophageal stricture is dilatation with a 58-96% success rate. In order to relieve dysphagia, between 1 and 15 dilatations will be required in each EA patient with an esophageal stricture. However dilatations may lead to complications including perforation (0.1-0.4% of all esophageal benign strictures) and sociopsychological morbidity. Fifty percent of EA strictures will improve in 6 months. However, 30% will persist and require repeat dilatations. The present article explores the variety of non-surgical alternative treatments for anastomotic strictures after EA repair, focusing on triamcinolone acetonide, mitomycin C and esophageal stents. We propose an algorithm for a more standardized therapeutic approach, with the hope that an international panel of experts could meet and establish a consensus. PMID:23679028

Lévesque, D; Baird, R; Laberge, J-M

2013-01-01

110

Leptin Stimulates Proliferation and Inhibits Apoptosis in Barrett's Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Cells by Cyclooxygenase2Dependent, Prostaglandin-E2-Mediated Transactivation of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor and c-Jun NH2Terminal Kinase Activation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obesity is an important risk factor for esophageal adenocar- cinoma (EAC), and elevated serum leptin is characteristic of obesity. We hypothesized that leptin may have biological ef- fectsinpromotingesophagealadenocarcinomaandexamined the effects of leptin on the OE33 Barrett's-derived EAC line. Proliferation was assessed by dimethylthiazoldiphenyltetra- zoliumbromide and 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine incorporation assays and apoptosis by ELISA of intracellular nucleosomes. Intracellular signaling was examined using

O. Ogunwobi; Ian L. P. Beales

2006-01-01

111

Esophageal candidiasis in AIDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we describe the results of oral therapy of esophageal candidiasis with clotrimazole vaginal tablets in 25 homosexual men with AIDS, of whom 19 had oral candidiasis and 16 had esophageal symptoms. Therapy with clotrimazole vaginal tablets, 100 mg, taken by mouth cleared the esophageal symptoms, oral candidiasis, and esophageal lesions completely in all 25 men. Clotrimazole vaginal

Eoin Lalor; Linda Rabeneck

1991-01-01

112

Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma  

Cancer.gov

Home Cancers Selected for Study Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma Last Updated: May 15, 2013 What is pancreatic cancer?Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is the most common form of pancreatic cancer, making up more than

113

[Predisposing factors for development of cardial adenocarcinoma].  

PubMed

After a careful revision of the various papers and on the basis of their personal experience, the persons responsible for this project analyse the factors that, today, influence the development of an adenocarcinoma in the region of the gastro-esophageal junction. They also study therapeutic strategies on the basis of new findings in anatomic-physiological matters of this region. From this analysis, specialists notice an increase in adenocarcinomas which affect the gastric region of the cardia, in comparison with carcinomas which affects the gastric region in toto. By considering Barrett, Hayward, Riedel and Ruol's studies, they maintain that the fundamental factor which causes the development of cardial adenocarcinoma is the gastroesophageal reflux. This reflux acts as a chronic irritative stimulus on the esophageal wall and therefore it provokes an increase in mucous secretion and the formation of metaplasia. This metaplasia is initially mucosecreting, acid-secreting and in the end it becomes intestinal. This also leads to the appearance of absorbent calciform cells; the absorption of toxic or mutagenic substance for the cell itself, will be the next step for the development of an adenocarcinoma. Nowadays the therapy of intestinal metaplasia provides for different therapeutic levels: from the endoscopic monitoring (which is used for the most serious cases of dysplasia), to the PPI medical treatment(today in disuse), to the surgical laparoscopic treatment with non-refluxing plasty (Nissen, Toupet). This last treatment is today associated with endoscopic esophageal mucosectomy in order to achieve a better effectiveness. This happens through the use of various methodologies, for example the multipolar electrocoagulation. PMID:12692493

Tosato, F; Carnevale, L; Corsini, F; Marano, S; Palermo, S; Piraino, A; Leonardo, G; Monsellato, I; Paolini, A

2003-02-01

114

Efficacy of postoperative elective ventilatory support for leakage protection in primary anastomosis of congenital esophageal atresia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anastomotic complications after primary repair of congenital esophageal atresia (EA) are recognized and feared complications.\\u000a A close association exists between anastomotic leakage and the tension of the anastomosis on the suture line. This study aimed\\u000a to evaluate the efficacy of postoperative elective ventilation support (PEVS) under paralysis with neck flexion after primary\\u000a repair of EA. Forty-two EA patients; 4 cases

Keiichi Uchida; Mikihiro Inoue; Kohei Otake; Yoshiki Okita; Yuki Morimoto; Toshimitsu Araki; Chikao Miki; Masato Kusunoki

2006-01-01

115

Eosinophilic esophagitis: the newest esophageal inflammatory disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic esophageal inflammatory disease of undetermined pathophysiology that results in dense mucosal eosinophilia and esophageal dysfunction. In childhood, vague symptoms associated with GERD and feeding difficulties are the first manifestations of EoE. Adults typically present with dysphagia and food impaction. No pathognomonic features have been identified for EoE and, therefore, its diagnosis must be made

Dan Atkins; Robert Kramer; Kelley Capocelli; Mark Lovell; Glenn T. Furuta

2009-01-01

116

Esophageal Dysmotility in patients with Eosinophilic Esophagitis  

PubMed Central

Summary The understanding of esophageal motility alterations in patients with eosinophilic esophagitis is in its infancy despite the common presenting complaint of dysphagia. A diversity of motility disorders has been reported in patients with EE including achalasia, diffuse esophageal spasm, nutcracker esophagus and non-specific motility alterations including high amplitude esophageal body contractions, tertiary contractions, LES pressure abnormalities and other peristaltic problems. Some evidence suggests that treatment of EE will result in some improvements in motility. The advent of technology such as high resolution manometry and combined manometry with impedance may provide new insight into more subtle motility abnormalities. PMID:18061103

Nurko, Samuel; Rosen, Rachel

2008-01-01

117

Esophageal stricture - benign  

MedlinePLUS

Benign esophageal stricture is a narrowing of the esophagus (the tube from the mouth to the stomach) that causes swallowing ... Esophageal stricture can be caused by: Gastroesophageal reflux (GERD) Injuries caused by an endoscope Long-term use of ...

118

Esophageal Cancer Prevention  

MedlinePLUS

... factors may increase the risk of esophageal cancer: Tobacco and alcohol use Squamous cell carcinoma of the ... may decrease the risk of esophageal cancer: Avoiding tobacco and alcohol use Many studies have shown that ...

119

Lymph Node Metastases in Esophageal Carcinoma: An Endoscopist's View.  

PubMed

One of the most important prognostic factors in esophageal carcinoma is lymph node metastasis, and in particular, the number of affected lymph nodes, which influences long-term outcomes. The esophageal lymphatic system is connected longitudinally and transversally; thus, the pattern of lymph node metastases is very complex. Early esophageal cancer frequently exhibits skipped metastasis, and minimal surgery using sentinel node navigation cannot be performed. In Korea, most esophageal cancer cases are squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), although the incidence of adenocarcinoma has started to increase recently. Most previous reports have failed to differentiate between SCC and adenocarcinoma, despite the fact that the Union for International Cancer Control (7th edition) and American Joint Committee on Cancer staging systems both consider these separately because they differ in cause, biology, lymph node metastasis, and outcome. Endoscopic tumor resection is an effective and safe treatment for lesions with no associated lymph node metastasis. Esophageal mucosal cancer confined to the lamina propria is an absolute indication for endoscopic resection, and a lesion that has invaded the muscularis mucosae can be cured by local resection if invasion to the lymphatic system has not occurred. PMID:25505718

Cho, Jin Woong; Choi, Suck Chei; Jang, Jae Young; Shin, Sung Kwan; Choi, Kee Don; Lee, Jun Haeng; Kim, Sang Gyun; Sung, Jae Kyu; Jeon, Seong Woo; Choi, Il Ju; Kim, Gwang Ha; Jee, Sam Ryong; Lee, Wan Sik; Jung, Hwoon-Yong

2014-11-01

120

Current management of esophageal cancer  

PubMed Central

Management of esophageal cancer has evolved since the two last decades. Esophagectomy remains the primary treatment for early stage esophageal cancer although its specific role in superficial cancers is still under debate since the development of endoscopic mucosal treatment. To date, there is strong evidence to consider that locally advanced cancers should be recommended for a multimodal treatment with a neoadjuvant chemotherapy or a combined chemoradiotherapy (CRT) followed by surgery. For locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma or for a part of adenocarcinoma, some centers have proposed treating with definitive CRT to avoid related-mortality of surgery. In case of persistent or recurrent disease, a salvage esophagectomy remains a possible option but this procedure is associated with higher levels of perioperative morbidity and mortality. Despite the debate over what constitutes the best surgical approach (transthoracic versus transhiatal), the current question is if a minimally procedure could reduce the periopertive morbidity and mortality without jeopardizing the oncological results of surgery. Since the last decade, minimally invasive esophagectomy (MIE) or hybrid operations are being done in up to 30% of procedures internationally. There are some consistent data that MIE could decrease the incidence of the respiratory complications and decrease the length of hospital-stay. Nowadays, oncologic outcomes appear equivalent between open and minimally invasive procedures but numerous phase III trials are ongoing. PMID:24868443

Thomas, Pascal Alexandre

2014-01-01

121

High expression of RNA-binding motif protein 3 in esophageal and gastric adenocarcinoma correlates with intestinal metaplasia-associated tumours and independently predicts a reduced risk of recurrence and death  

PubMed Central

Background High nuclear expression of the RNA-binding motif protein 3 (RBM3) has previously been found to correlate with favourable clinicopathological characteristics and a prolonged survival in several cancer forms. Here, we examined the clinicopathological correlates and prognostic significance of RBM3 expression in tumours from a consecutive cohort of upper gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma. Material and methods Immunohistochemical RBM3 expression was analysed in tissue microarrays with primary radiotherapy- and chemotherapy-naive adenocarcinoma of the esophagus, gastroesophageal junction and stomach (n?=?173). In addition paired samples of normal squamous epithelium (n?=?53), gastric mucosa (n?=?117), Barrett’s esophagus/gastric intestinal metaplasia (n?=?61) and lymph node metastases (n?=?71) were analysed. Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards modelling was applied to assess the impact of RBM3 expression on overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS). Results RBM3 expression was similar in primary tumours and lymph node metastases, but significantly higher in primary tumours and metastases arising in a background of intestinal metaplasia compared with cases without intestinal metaplasia (p < 0.001). RBM3 expression was significantly reduced in more advanced tumour stages (p = 0.006). Low RBM3 expression was significantly associated with a shorter OS in cases with radically resected (R0) tumours (HR 2.19, 95% CI 1.33-3.61, p = 0.002) and RFS in curatively treated patients with R0 resection/distant metastasis-free disease (HR = 3.21, 95% CI 1.64-6.30, p = 0.001). These associations remained significant in adjusted analysis (HR = 1.95, 95% CI 1.17-3.25, p = 0.010 for OS and HR = 3.02, 95% CI 1.45-6.29, p = 0.003 for RFS). Conclusion High expression of RBM3 may signify a subset of upper gastrointestinal cancers arising in a background of intestinal metaplasia and independently predicts a reduced risk of recurrence and death in patients with these cancer forms. These findings are of potential clinical utility and merit further validation. PMID:24963396

2014-01-01

122

Esophageal duplication cyst.  

PubMed

Esophageal duplication cyst is a rare congenital mediastinal cyst. Most of these cysts become symptomatic in childhood and only rare cases remain asymptomatic until adolescence. They may produce symptoms due to esophageal and respiratory system compression, rupture, and infection. A 25-year-old man presented with pulmonary infection and bronchiectasis that did not improve with medical treatment. A diagnosis of esophageal duplication cyst was made intraoperatively. PMID:24757179

Bagheri, Reza; Asnaashari, Amir Mohammad Hashem; Afghani, Reza

2015-03-01

123

Epigenetic Biomarkers in Esophageal Cancer  

PubMed Central

The aberrant DNA methylation of tumor suppressor genes is well documented in esophageal cancer, including adenocarcinoma (EAC) and squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) as well as in Barrett's esophagus (BE), a pre-malignant condition that is associated with chronic acid reflux. BE is a well-recognized risk factor for the development of EAC, and consequently the standard of care is for individuals with BE to be placed in endoscopic surveillance programs aimed at detecting early histologic changes that associate with an increased risk of developing EAC. Yet because the absolute risk of EAC in individuals with BE is minimal, a clinical need in the management of BE is the identification of additional risk markers that will indicate individuals who are at a significant absolute risk of EAC so that they may be subjected to more intensive surveillance. The best currently available risk marker is the degree of dysplasia in endoscopic biopsies from the esophagus; however, this marker is suboptimal for a variety of reasons. To date, there are no molecular biomarkers that have been translated to widespread clinical practice. The search for biomarkers, including hypermethylated genes, for either the diagnosis of BE, EAC, or ESCC or for risk stratification for the development of EAC in those with BE is currently an area of active research. In this review, we summarize the status of identified candidate epigenetic biomarkers for BE, EAC, and ESCC. Most of these aberrantly methylated genes have been described in the context of early detection or diagnostic markers; others might prove useful for estimating prognosis or predicting response to treatment. Finally, special attention will be paid to some of the challenges that must be overcome in order to develop clinically useful esophageal cancer biomarkers. PMID:22406828

Kaz, Andrew M.; Grady, William M.

2012-01-01

124

The Current State of Cancer Gene Therapy and Its Application in Esophageal Carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in molecular genetics have accelerated the understanding of the genetic basis of many diseases. This is particularly true for esophageal adenocarcinoma with its well-defined premalignant lesions. At the same time, remarkable progress in recombinant DNA technology has enabled the development of molecular treatments for inherited disorders, infectious diseases and cancer. In recent years, especially the development of gene therapy

Christianne J. Buskens; Willem A. Marsman; Piter J. Bosma; J. Jan B. van Lanschot

2005-01-01

125

Stomach-Esophageal Cancer  

Cancer.gov

Stomach and esophageal cancers are close in anatomical location and have been combined into one project within TCGA. Although they are two separate cancer types, TCGA is collecting samples from various anatomic subsites along the esophageal and gastric tracts for analysis.

126

Esophageal pH monitoring  

MedlinePLUS

pH monitoring - esophageal; Esophageal acidity test ... to stay in the hospital for the esophageal pH monitoring. ... Esophageal pH monitoring is used to check how much stomach acid is entering the esophagus. It also checks how ...

127

Esophageal endosclerosis in children.  

PubMed

During the past 6 years, 25 consecutive patients with esophageal variceal hemorrhage were treated by esophageal endosclerosis (direct injection of varices with a sclerosing agent). The primary disease in the 25 children was portal vein thrombosis (11 patients), biliary atresia (nine patients), and hepatic cirrhosis from cystic fibrosis (three patients), alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency (one patient), and neonatal hepatitis (one patient). Thirteen patients were treated during acute, major variceal hemorrhage. Esophageal endosclerosis was repeated at regular intervals until all esophageal varices were obliterated. Twenty-one patients completed therapy. Four patients died: one of a complication of therapy and three of the primary disease. Other than the one death, complications were minor. Recurrent esophageal variceal hemorrhage has not been encountered in follow-up from 9 months to 6 years after completion of therapy. PMID:3877348

Stellen, G P; Lilly, J R

1985-11-01

128

Human papillomavirus infection in lung and esophageal cancers: analysis of 485 Asian cases.  

PubMed

The role of human papillomavirus (HPV) in the development of lung and esophageal cancer remains inconclusive, which is in contrast to the established role HPV plays in the development of uterine cervical cancer. One of the reasons for this is the difference among reported HPV infection rates in these cancers. An analysis of 485 lung and esophageal cancers (176 lung squamous cell carcinoma, 128 lung adenocarcinoma, 181 esophageal carcinoma) in eight institutions in Asia (Tokyo, Kochi, Kagoshima, and Okinawa, Japan; Seoul and Daegu, Korea; Changhua, Republic of China (Taiwan); Singapore, Singapore) was carried out in order to clarify infection rates with HPV. Samples were examined in one laboratory of the Department of Pathology, the University of Tokyo, Japan in order to avoid inter-laboratory variation using a combination of polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridization (ISH). HPV was found in 6.3%, 7%, and 9.4% of patients with lung squamous cell carcinoma, lung adenocarcinoma, and esophageal cancer, respectively. Among the geographic areas surveyed, Kagoshima exhibited a significantly higher prevalence of HPV infection in cases of esophageal carcinoma (24.1%). There was no geographical difference in the infection rates of HPV in lung carcinomas. Subtype-specific ISH was also performed, which identified the high-risk HPV types 16/18 in the majority (75.7%) of the patients with lung and esophageal cancer positive for HPV. PMID:21678442

Goto, Akiteru; Li, Chih-Ping; Ota, Satoshi; Niki, Toshiro; Ohtsuki, Yuji; Kitajima, Shinichi; Yonezawa, Suguru; Koriyama, Chihaya; Akiba, Suminori; Uchima, Hisataka; Lin, Yueh-Min; Yeh, Kun-Tu; Koh, Jae-Soo; Kim, Chul-Woo; Kwon, Kun-Yong; Nga, Min En; Fukayama, Masashi

2011-08-01

129

Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy for esophageal/gastroesophageal carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background Esophageal/gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) adenocarcinoma is increasingly treated with trimodality therapy. We present our experience using carboplatin/paclitaxel and radiotherapy followed by surgery. Methods Consecutive patients with distal esophageal/GEJ adenocarcinoma (?T2 or N+) treated from July 2010 to October 2011 were identified. Treatment included neoadjuvant carboplatin/paclitaxel with concurrent radiotherapy (CRT) to 50.4 Gy using an IMRT technique and then Ivor Lewis esophagogastrectomy (ILE). PET/CT was performed prior to and after CRT. Patient/treatment characteristics and tumor response were analyzed. Results Over this timeframe, 16 patients completed trimodality therapy. All were male, median age of 60 years (45-72 years). All tumors were grade 2-3 with mean tumor length of 4.4 cm (1-9 cm). A median of 6 cycles (5-9 cycles) neoadjuvant carboplatin/paclitaxel were administered. Average time from diagnosis to CRT completion was 76 days (44-141 days) and 60 days (35-92 days) from CRT end to surgery. Neoadjuvant CRT was well tolerated with mean weight loss of 3.9 kg. All pts had R0 resections. No anastomotic leaks or perioperative mortality occurred. Mean hospital stay was 13 days (8-28 days). Pathologic complete response (pCR) was seen in 38% of patients, microscopic residual disease (isolated tumor cells or <2 mm) in 31%, and macroscopic residual disease remained in 31%. Mean SUV reduction was 41% (0-100%). Of 11 patients with ?35% SUV decrease, 45% had pCR and 27% had microscopic residual disease. Three patients had signet ring features. Of these, 2 had no SUV reduction and all had gross residual disease, including the only patient with positive nodal disease. Conclusions Trimodality therapy utilizing concurrent carboplatin/paclitaxel and radiotherapy to 50.4 Gy followed by surgery was well tolerated and resulted in significant pathologic complete response or minimal residual disease. Further investigation of predictive factors for response is needed to best tailor therapy in the management of esophageal/GEJ adenocarcinoma. PMID:23730509

Nurkin, Steven J.; Fong, Mei Ka; Groman, Adrienne; Flaherty, Leayn; Malhotra, Usha; LeVea, Charles M.; Yendamuri, Sai; Warren, Graham W.; Nava, Hector R.; May, Kilian S.

2013-01-01

130

Mesothelin is a specific biomarker of invasive cancer in the Barrett-associated adenocarcinoma progression model: translational implications for diagnosis and therapy.  

PubMed

Esophageal adenocarcinoma arises in the backdrop of Barrett metaplasia-dysplasia sequence, with the vast majority of patients presenting with late-stage malignancy. Mesothelin, a glycophosphatidylinositol-anchored protein, is aberrantly overexpressed on the surface of many solid cancers. Mesothelin expression was assessed in esophageal tissue microarrays encompassing the entire histological spectrum of Barrett-associated dysplasia and adenocarcinoma. Mesothelin expression was observed in 24/84 (29%) of invasive adenocarcinomas and in 5/34 (15%) lymph node metastases. In contrast, normal squamous and cardiac mucosa, as well as noninvasive Barrett lesions, failed to label with mesothelin. Mesothelin was expressed in the esophageal adenocarcinoma cell line JH-EsoAd1 but not in primary human esophageal epithelial cells. Anti-mesothelin antibody-conjugated CdSe/CDS/ZnS quantum rods were synthesized, and confocal bioimaging confirmed robust binding to JH-EsoAd1 cells. Anti-mesothelin antibody-conjugated nanoparticles can be useful for the diagnosis and therapy of mesothelin-overexpressing esophageal adenocarcinomas. PMID:18691948

Alvarez, Hector; Rojas, Pamela Leal; Yong, Ken-Tye; Ding, Hong; Xu, Gaixia; Prasad, Paras N; Wang, Jean; Canto, Marcia; Eshleman, James R; Montgomery, Elizabeth A; Maitra, Anirban

2008-12-01

131

Tertiary surgery for complicated repair of esophageal atresia.  

PubMed

Aim?The ideal repair of esophageal atresia (EA) is primary anastomosis with closure of the fistula if present. Long gap or local circumstances prompt other procedures that occasionally lead to disastrous complications. The aim of this study was to analyze the management of these complications in a tertiary referral center. Patients and Methods?A retrospective review of patients treated for EA between 1993 and 2013 was conducted. Both the patients were primarily treated by us, and referrals from elsewhere after two or more failed operations were included. Results?In total, 23 patients were included (3/176 cases of EA treated primarily by us and 20 referrals). Of the 23 patients, 6 had type I EA, 15 type III (four long gaps), 1 type IV, and 1 type V. Cardiac anomalies were associated in seven cases, duodenal atresia in three, and Down syndrome in two patients. Primary anastomosis was initially achieved in 12 patients. Primary or secondary Foker lengthening was used in seven cases. The causes of the failure were anastomotic leaks in nine, unmanageable strictures in seven, and refistulization in five patients. These patients required 66 reoperations (median of 3 [2-7]) before inclusion in the study. Radical tertiary treatment consisted of 15 esophageal replacements (11 colonic grafts and 4 gastric pull-ups), and 1 esophageal-gastric disconnection. Five patients previously treated with esophageal replacement and referred for graft problems required 13 interventions. Two families did not give consent for one replacement and one disconnection. Complications appeared in 12 patients, and 9 additional operations were required in 7 patients. With a follow-up of 31 months (range, 4-139 months) 15 patients take all their meals per os, 5 occasionally use the gastrostomy, and 2 and 1 are fed exclusively via gastrostomy or jejunostomy. All tracheoesophageal fistulas were closed, but 15 cases are below p3 for weight and 12 for height. Three patients (13%) ultimately died 32 months (range, 9-56 months) after the first operation (due to aspiration in one, and for causes unrelated to it in the other two [tracheostomy obstruction and Guillain-Barré syndrome]). Conclusions?When repeated complications appear after EA repair, radical surgical attitudes may be justified. If esophageal continuity cannot be reestablished, the native esophagus may have to be discarded and replaced. Many complications should be expected, but the end result can be good. These patients should be referred to centers with large experience in the management of this complex condition. PMID:25144352

Ortiz, Ruben; Galán, Alba Sánchez; Martinez, Leopoldo; Dominguez, Eva; Hernández, Francisco; Santamaria, Manuel Lopez; Tovar, Juan Antonio

2015-02-01

132

Long-term esophageal function following repair of esophageal atresia.  

PubMed Central

Primary repair of esophageal atresia restores gastrointestinal continuity, but does not ensure normal esophageal function. To date 22 patients, six to 32 (average 15) years after repair of their esophageal atresias, have been evaluated by personal interview and esophageal manometrics and acid reflux testing. Previous barium swallow examinations had demonstrated varying degrees of anastomotic narrowing (12 patients), abnormal esophageal motor function (11 patients), gastroesophageal reflux (two patients), and hiatal hernia (one patient). Ten patients experience intermittent dysphagia for solid foods. Seven have typical symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux. Esophageal function tests including manometry and intraesophageal pH recording, have demonstrated varying abnormalities of esophageal motility in 21 patients and moderate to severe gastroesophageal reflux in 13. Two patients have required reconstruction of the esophagogastric junction for control of severe reflux esophagitis. The unexpected high incidence of gastroesophageal reflux in these patients, coupled with their abnormal esophageal motility which impairs normal acid clearing, renders them more prone to reflux esophagitis. Careful long-term evaluation for gastroesophageal reflux and its complications is indicated following primary repair of esophageal atresia. Evaluation of esophageal function with intraesophageal pressure and pH recordings is a far more sensitive indicator of esophageal physiology than the barium swallow examination. PMID:20856

Orringer, M B; Kirsh, M M; Sloan, H

1977-01-01

133

Imaging of esophageal cancer  

PubMed Central

Esophageal cancer is a relatively uncommon gastrointestinal malignancy but carries a poor prognosis unless it is of early stage and can be surgically resected for cure. Resectability is determined by the stage of disease at diagnosis and therefore accurate staging is of importance in patients diagnosed with esophageal cancer. Imaging studies that play a role in the evaluation of esophageal cancer include barium studies, computed tomography, endoscopic ultrasound and positron emission tomography. Imaging provides important information regarding the local extent and any distant spread of disease, which in turn helps in determining optimal management for these patients. This review discusses the imaging findings that may be encountered with various imaging modalities in the diagnosis, staging and follow-up of esophageal cancer. PMID:18250021

Iyer, R; DuBrow, R

2004-01-01

134

Esophageal Chest Pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Esophageal chest pain has come under critical scrutiny recently [1]. Motility disorders in particular have fallen out of favor as a cause of chest pain [1–3], to the extent that chest pain of uncertain origin has now become a rare indication for esophageal manometry in the United\\u000a States [4]. The reasons for this include changing perceptions about the relevance of

John S de Caestecker

135

Long-gap esophageal atresia: traction-growth and anastomosis - before and beyond.  

PubMed

Long-gap esophageal atresia (LGEA) is still a major surgical challenge. Options for esophageal reconstruction include the use of native esophagus or esophageal replacement with stomach, colon, or small intestine. Nonetheless, there is a consensus among most pediatric surgeons that the preservation of the native esophagus is associated with better postoperative outcomes. Thus, every effort should be made to conserve the native esophagus. The present study is aimed at critically reporting our experience focused on a standardized protocol based on the preoperative assessment of the gap in all cases and reviewing the present literature because no consensus is available regarding many aspects of LGEA (from definition to treatment). All newborn infants treated since 1995 for esophageal atresia (EA), regardless of type, were included in the present study. Identification of LGEA patients (gap ?3 vertebral bodies) was performed based on preoperative esophageal gap measurement. The selected patients were grouped based on EA type (A/B vs. C/D) and whether they were referred from an outside institution or not. Postoperative outcome was compared. Statistical analysis was performed with the Fisher's exact test and Mann-Whitney test as appropriate, with P < 0.05 considered statistically significant. Two hundred and nineteen patients have been consecutively treated between 1995 and 2012 with the following EA subtypes: type: A 25 (11.4%); B 6 (2.7%); C 182 (83.1%); D 3 (1.4%); E 3 (1.4%). Fifty-seven patients (26%) were classified as LGEA: type A-B, 31 (54.4%); type C-D, 26 (45.6%). Twenty seven (47%) of these patients were referred after at least one failed attempt at esophageal correction: type A-B, 15 (55%); type C-D, 12 (45%). Only one patient ultimately required esophageal substitution, with an overall survival rate of 94%. A standardized perioperative protocol enhances the possibility of preserving the native esophagus in cases of LGEA. Gap measurement can be accurately defined before surgery in all patients with EA. Esophageal anastomosis (either immediate or delayed repair) is almost always feasible; esophageal substitution should only be considered after a rigorous attempt at achieving end-to-end esophageal anastomosis. PMID:23679026

Bagolan, P; Valfrè, L; Morini, F; Conforti, A

2013-01-01

136

Fluorescence spectroscopy for diagnosis of esophageal cancer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy was employed to measure fluorescence emission of normal and malignant tissue during endoscopy in patients with esophageal adenocarcinoma. A nitrogen/dye laser tuned at 410 nm was used for excitation source. The fluorescence lineshape of each spectrum was determined and sampled at 15 nm intervals from 430 nm to 716 nm. A calibration set from normal and malignant spectra were selected. Using stepwise discriminate analysis, significant wavelengths that separated normal and malignant spectra were selected. The intensities at these wavelengths were used to formulate a classification model using linear discriminate analysis. The model was used to classify additional tissue spectra from 26 malignant and 108 normal sites into either normal or malignant spectra with a sensitivity of 100 percent and specificity of 98 percent.

Panjehpour, Masoud; Overholt, Bergein F.; Vo-Dinh, Tuan; Farris, Christie; Schmidhammer, James L.; Sneed, Rick E.; Buckley, Paul F., III

1994-07-01

137

Systemic treatment of gastric and esophageal adenocarcinoma in elderly patients  

PubMed Central

This article explores the treatment of cancer of the stomach and of the lower esophagus in older individuals. The incidence of both malignancies increases with age and, at present, the biology of the diseases, including sensitivity to chemotherapy, does not seem to change with age. The treatment of these cancers in patients 70 and over includes assessment of life expectancy secondary to physiologic age and evaluation of the individual’s tolerance to stress. For this purpose a comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) is the best validated instrument. For individuals whose life expectancy without cancer exceeds that with cancer, the estimate of the risk of chemotherapy complications may reveal those patients in need of additional care and those patients in whom the risk of treatment may exceed the potential benefits. All older individuals receiving chemotherapy may need adjustment of the doses to the glomerular filtration rate, support with myelopoietic growth factors, and special care to prevent severe and irreversible neurotoxicity. PMID:25642340

2015-01-01

138

Combinatorial Chemoprevention Reveals a Novel Smoothened Independent Role of GLI1 in Esophageal Carcinogenesis  

PubMed Central

Reflux-induced injury promotes esophageal adenocarcinoma, one of the most rapidly increasing, highly lethal cancers in Western countries. Here we investigate the efficacy of a combinatorial chemoprevention strategy for esophageal adenocarcinoma and characterize the underlying molecular mechanisms. Specifically, our approach involves the use of Ursodeoxycholic acid (Urso) due to its ability to decrease injury-inducing bile salts in combination with Aspirin to mitigate the consequences of injury. We find that Urso-Aspirin combination reduces the risk of adenocarcinoma in-vivo in animals with reflux, decreases the proliferation of esophageal adenocarcinoma cells and down-regulates a key cell cycle regulator, CDK2. Mechanistically, using cell growth, luciferase-reporter, expression and ChIP assays, we identify GLI1, a Hedgehog-regulated transcription factor, as a novel target of Urso-Aspirin combination. We demonstrate that GLI1 is upregulated during esophageal carcinogenesis and GLI1 can bind to the CDK2 promoter and activate its expression. While the Urso-Aspirin combination downregulates GLI1, the GLI1 overexpression not only abrogates the effect of this combination on proliferation but it also restores CDK-2 expression. These findings support that the chemopreventive effect of the Urso-Aspirin combination occurs, at least in part, via a novel GLI1-CDK2-dependent mechanism. To further understand the regulation of CDK2 by GLI1, both pharmacologic and RNAi-mediated approaches demonstrate that GLI1 is a transcriptional activator of CDK2 and this regulation occurs independent of Smoothened, the central transducer of the Hedgehog canonical pathway. Collectively, these results identify a novel GLI1-to-CDK2 pathway in esophageal carcinogenesis, which is a bona fide target for effective combinatorial chemoprevention with Urso and Aspirin. PMID:20647328

Rizvi, Sumera; DeMars, Cathrine J.; Comba, Andrea; Gainullin, Vladimir; Rizvi, Zaheer; Almada, Luciana L.; Wang, Kenneth; Lomberk, Gwen; Fernández-Zapico, Martin E.; Buttar, Navtej S.

2010-01-01

139

Genetic landscape of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.  

PubMed

Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is one of the deadliest cancers. We performed exome sequencing on 113 tumor-normal pairs, yielding a mean of 82 non-silent mutations per tumor, and 8 cell lines. The mutational profile of ESCC closely resembles those of squamous cell carcinomas of other tissues but differs from that of esophageal adenocarcinoma. Genes involved in cell cycle and apoptosis regulation were mutated in 99% of cases by somatic alterations of TP53 (93%), CCND1 (33%), CDKN2A (20%), NFE2L2 (10%) and RB1 (9%). Histone modifier genes were frequently mutated, including KMT2D (also called MLL2; 19%), KMT2C (MLL3; 6%), KDM6A (7%), EP300 (10%) and CREBBP (6%). EP300 mutations were associated with poor survival. The Hippo and Notch pathways were dysregulated by mutations in FAT1, FAT2, FAT3 or FAT4 (27%) or AJUBA (JUB; 7%) and NOTCH1, NOTCH2 or NOTCH3 (22%) or FBXW7 (5%), respectively. These results define the mutational landscape of ESCC and highlight mutations in epigenetic modulators with prognostic and potentially therapeutic implications. PMID:25151357

Gao, Yi-Bo; Chen, Zhao-Li; Li, Jia-Gen; Hu, Xue-Da; Shi, Xue-Jiao; Sun, Zeng-Miao; Zhang, Fan; Zhao, Zi-Ran; Li, Zi-Tong; Liu, Zi-Yuan; Zhao, Yu-Da; Sun, Jian; Zhou, Cheng-Cheng; Yao, Ran; Wang, Su-Ya; Wang, Pan; Sun, Nan; Zhang, Bai-Hua; Dong, Jing-Si; Yu, Yue; Luo, Mei; Feng, Xiao-Li; Shi, Su-Sheng; Zhou, Fang; Tan, Feng-Wei; Qiu, Bin; Li, Ning; Shao, Kang; Zhang, Li-Jian; Zhang, Lan-Jun; Xue, Qi; Gao, Shu-Geng; He, Jie

2014-10-01

140

Gastroesophageal reflux disease and non-esophageal cancer  

PubMed Central

The association of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and esophageal cancer is well known. The carcinogenic properties of the gastroduodenal contents may also lead to cancer in target organs for GERD especially considering that they do not have intrinsic protective mechanisms as found in the esophagus. This review focuses on the putative relation between GERD and non-esophageal cancer. Most of the papers reviewed are far from ideal to prove the relationship of extra-esophageal cancer and GERD since a small number of patients is presented, most do not control cases based on tobacco usage and obesity, and the diagnosis of GERD is variable, not always from an objective measurement such as pH monitoring but relying on symptoms in most reports. Nevertheless, head and neck and lung cancer have a growing incidence parallel to GERD and a shift towards non-smoking, female gender and adenocarcinoma (compared to squamous cell carcinoma) is arising, similar to the example of esophageal cancer with the exception of the female gender. PMID:25624714

Herbella, Fernando AM; Neto, Sebastião Pannocchia; Santoro, Ilka Lopes; Figueiredo, Licia Caldas

2015-01-01

141

Epiphrenic esophageal diverticula  

PubMed Central

Epiphrenic esophageal diverticula (EED) are rare. The estimated incidence is about 1:500,000/year. EED usually result from a combination of esophageal obstruction, functional or mechanical and a point of weakness of the muscularis propria. Most of the symptoms are unspecific, but dysphagia is most common. Chest radiograph, barium esophagogram, endoscopy and manometry are diagnostic tools. The treatment methods are conservative medical therapy, myotomy, diverticulectomy and fundoplication. In addition, endoscopic pneumatic dilation and botulinum toxin injection are a good alternative for symptomatic patients with motility disorders who are unfit for or unwilling to undergo surgery. PMID:25422668

Abdollahimohammad, Abdolghani; Masinaeinezhad, Nosratollah; Firouzkouhi, Mohammadreza

2014-01-01

142

[Congenital esophageal atresia].  

PubMed

Current management of congenital esophageal atresia (CEA) is described on the basis of our experience and recent literatures. Primary repair for Gross C type CEA is performed as modern standard treatment in infants without high-risk factors such as associated severe cardiac anomaly and respiratory insufficiency. Surgical strategy depends on preoperative condition of the infant therefore preoperative full assessment of the infant is very important. In general, delayed primary repair or staged repair on CEA is selected for premature infants weighing less than 1,500 g and high-risk infants. Recently, primary repair has become an effective option in premature infants without high-risk factors. In long-gap CEA, gastrostomy and/or closure of tracheoesophageal fistula is performed initially. Esophagoesophagostomy is carried out after attempts to decrease gap length. Intraoperative esophageal elongation is required in some infants. However esophageal replacement should be selected if esophageal elongation fails is impossible due to hypogenesis of lower esophagus. Thoracoscopic primary repair was recently reported as a new optional treatment. This treatment will be able to decrease the damage on the thoracic wall. However this procedure should be adopted after very careful discussion because it is difficult to accomplish without very skillful endoscopic surgical technique. PMID:15362565

Amae, Shintaro; Hayashi, Yutaka

2004-07-01

143

Esophageal Rings and Webs  

MedlinePLUS

... determine if you have a ring or a web, your doctor may order one of these tests: Barium swallow test. This allows the radiologist to ... contribute to the development of esophageal rings and webs, your doctor probably will order a blood test for iron levels and, if you are deficient, ...

144

Anti-EGFR-Targeted Therapy for Esophageal and Gastric Cancers: An Evolving Concept  

PubMed Central

Cancers of the esophagus and stomach present a major health burden worldwide. In the past 30 years we have witnessed some interesting shifts in terms of epidemiology of esophago gastric cancers. Regardless of a world region, the majority of patients diagnosed with esophageal or gastric cancers die from progression or recurrence of their disease. While there are many active cytotoxic agents for esophageal and stomach cancers, their impact on the disease course has been modest at best. Median survival for patients with advanced gastroesophageal cancer is still less than a year. Therefore, novel strategies, based on our understanding of biology and genetics, are desperately needed. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway has been implicated in pathophysiology of many epithelial malignancies, including esophageal and stomach cancers. EGFR inhibitors, small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies, have been explored in patients with esophageal and gastric cancers. It appears that tumors of the distal esophagus and gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) may be more sensitive to EGFR blockade than distal gastric adenocarcinomas. Investigations looking into potential molecular predictors of sensitivity to EGFR inhibitors for patients with esophageal and GEJ cancers are ongoing. While we are still searching for those predictors, it is clear that they will be different from ones identified in lung and colorectal cancers. Further development of EGFR inhibitors for esophageal and GEJ cancers should be driven by better understanding of EGFR pathway disregulation that drives cancer progression in a sensitive patient population. PMID:19636422

Dragovich, Tomislav; Campen, Christopher

2009-01-01

145

Adenocarcinoma of the pancreas  

PubMed Central

Infiltrating ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas is a real enigma. On one hand, it is one of the most deadly of all of the solid malignancies. On the other hand, the neoplastic glands can be remarkably well-differentiated, and it can be difficult to distinguish between a reactive non-neoplastic gland and a gland of invasive adenocarcinoma. In this review, we will present diagnostic criteria that one can “hang your hat on” when establishing the diagnosis of infiltrating ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas. We will also review clinically important features of the disease, and, with the impending incorporation of molecular genetics into everyday practice, we will emphasize clinical applications of cancer genetics. PMID:25441308

Hruban, Ralph H.; Klimstra, David S.

2015-01-01

146

Tracheo-esophageal fistula: Successful palliation after failed esophageal stent  

PubMed Central

The incidence of tracheo-esophageal (TO) fistula is on the rise, especially after palliative management for esophageal malignancies. We report a case of cancer of esophagus who after chemotherapy and radiotherapy developed TO fistula. Placement of an esophageal stent helped him in taking food orally, but his cough and dyspnoea continued to worsen. Fibreoptic bronchoscopy demonstrated a severely compressed trachea secondary to protrusion of esophageal stent which responded very well to an Ultraflex-covered tracheal stent and the patient achieved relief from cough and dyspnoea. PMID:22919174

Chawla, Rakesh K.; Madan, Arun; Chawla, Kiran

2012-01-01

147

Tracheo-esophageal fistula: Successful palliation after failed esophageal stent.  

PubMed

The incidence of tracheo-esophageal (TO) fistula is on the rise, especially after palliative management for esophageal malignancies. We report a case of cancer of esophagus who after chemotherapy and radiotherapy developed TO fistula. Placement of an esophageal stent helped him in taking food orally, but his cough and dyspnoea continued to worsen. Fibreoptic bronchoscopy demonstrated a severely compressed trachea secondary to protrusion of esophageal stent which responded very well to an Ultraflex-covered tracheal stent and the patient achieved relief from cough and dyspnoea. PMID:22919174

Chawla, Rakesh K; Madan, Arun; Chawla, Kiran

2012-07-01

148

Prognostic significance of differentially expressed miRNAs in esophageal cancer  

PubMed Central

Altered microRNA (miRNA) expression has been found to promote carcinogenesis, but little is known about the role of miRNAs in esophageal cancer. In this study, we selected 10 miRNAs and analyzed their expression in 10 esophageal cancer cell lines and 158 tissue specimens using Northern blotting and in situ hybridization, respectively. We found that Let-7g, miR-21, and miR-195p were expressed in all 10 cell lines, miR-9 and miR-20a were not expressed in any of the cell lines, and miR-16-2, miR-30e, miR-34a, miR-126, and miR-200a were expressed in some of the cell lines but not others. In addition, transient transfection of miR-34a inhibited c-Met and cyclin D1 expression and esophageal cancer cell proliferation, whereas miR-16-2 suppressed RAR-?2 expression and increased tumor cell proliferation. Furthermore, we found that miR-126 expression was associated with tumor cell de-differentiation and lymph node metastasis, miR-16-2 was associated with lymph node metastasis, and miR-195p was associated with higher pathologic disease stages in patients with esophageal adenocarcinoma. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that miR-16-2 expression and miR-30e expression were associated with shorter overall and disease-free survival in all esophageal cancer patients. In addition, miR-16-2, miR-30e, and miR-200a expression were associated with shorter overall and disease-free survival in esophageal adenocarcinoma patients; however, miR-16-2, miR-30e, and miR-200a expression was not associated with overall or disease-free survival in squamous cell carcinoma patients. Our data indicate that further evaluation of miR-30e and miR-16-2 as prognostic biomarkers is warranted in patients with esophageal adenocarcinoma. In addition, the role of miR-34a in esophageal cancer also warrants further study. PMID:20309880

Hu, Yuxin; Correa, Arlene M.; Hoque, Ashraful; Guan, Baoxiang; Ye, Fei; Huang, Jie; Swisher, Stephen G.; Wu, Tsung Teh; Ajani, Jaffer A.; Xu, Xiao-chun

2010-01-01

149

An Overview of Eosinophilic Esophagitis  

PubMed Central

Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic, immune/antigen-mediated esophageal disease affecting both children and adults. The condition is characterized by an eosinophilic infiltration of the esophageal epithelium. Symptoms of esophageal dysfunction include dysphagia, food impaction and symptoms mimicking gastroesophageal reflux disease. Endoscopic examination typically reveals mucosal fragility, ring or corrugated mucosa, longitudinal furrows, whitish plaques or a small caliber esophagus. Histologic findings of >15 eosinophils per high-power field is the diagnostic hallmark of EoE. An elimination diet, topical corticosteroids or endoscopic dilation for fibrostenotic disease serve as effective therapeutic option. PMID:25368745

Park, Hyojin

2014-01-01

150

Targeted imaging of esophageal neoplasia with a fluorescently labeled peptide: First in-human results  

PubMed Central

Esophageal adenocarcinoma is rising rapidly in incidence, and usually develops from Barrett’s esophagus, a precursor condition commonly found in patients with chronic acid reflux. Pre-malignant lesions are challenging to detect on conventional screening endoscopy because of their flat appearance. Molecular changes can be used to improve detection of early neoplasia. We have developed a peptide that binds specifically to high-grade dysplasia and adenocarcinoma. We first applied the peptide ex vivo to esophageal specimens from 17 patients to validate specific binding. Next, we performed confocal endomicroscopy in vivo in 25 human subjects after topical peptide administration and found 3.8-fold greater fluorescence intensity for esophageal neoplasia compared with Barrett’s esophagus and squamous epithelium with 75% sensitivity and 97% specificity. No toxicity was attributed to the peptide in either animal or patient studies. Therefore, our first-in-humans results show that this targeted imaging agent is safe, and may be useful for guiding tissue biopsy and for early detection of esophageal neoplasia and potentially other cancers of epithelial origin, such as bladder, colon, lung, pancreas, and stomach. PMID:23658246

Sturm, Matthew B.; Joshi, Bishnu P.; Lu, Shaoying; Piraka, Cyrus; Khondee, Supang; Elmunzer, B. Joseph; Kwon, Richard S.; Beer, David G.; Appelman, Henry; Turgeon, D. Kim; Wang, Thomas D.

2013-01-01

151

Biology of Telomeres: Importance in Etiology of Esophageal Cancer And As Therapeutic Target  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review The purpose of this review is to highlight the importance of telomeres, the mechanisms implicated in their maintenance, and their role in the etiology as well as the treatment of human esophageal cancer. We will also discuss the role of telomeres in the maintenance/preservation of genomic integrity, the consequences of telomere dysfunction, and the various factors that may affect telomere health in esophageal tissue predisposing it to oncogenesis. Recent findings There has been growing evidence that telomeres, which can be affected by various intrinsic and extrinsic factors, contribute to genomic instability, oncogenesis, as well as proliferation of cancer cells. Summary Telomeres are the protective DNA-protein complexes at chromosome ends. Telomeric DNA undergoes progressive shortening with age leading to cellular senescence and/or apoptosis. If senescence/apoptosis is prevented as a consequence of specific genomic changes, continued proliferation leads to very short (i.e. dysfunctional) telomeres that can potentially cause genomic instability thus increasing the risk for activation of telomere maintenance mechanisms and oncogenesis. Like many other cancers, esophageal cancer cells have short telomeres and elevated telomerase, the enzyme that maintains telomeres in most cancer cells. Homologous recombination, which is implicated in the alternate pathway of telomere elongation, is also elevated in Barrett’s-associated esophageal adenocarcinoma. Evidence from our laboratory indicates that both telomerase and homologous recombination contribute to telomere maintenance, DNA repair, and the ongoing survival of esophageal cancer cells. This indicates that telomere maintenance mechanisms may potentially be targeted to make esophageal cancer cells static. The rate at which telomeres in healthy cells shorten is determined by a number of intrinsic and extrinsic factors, including those associated with lifestyle. Avoidance of factors that may directly or indirectly injure esophageal tissue including its telomeric and other genomic DNA can not only reduce the risk of development of esophageal cancer but may also have positive impact on overall health and lifespan. PMID:24090770

Pal, Jagannath; Gold, Jason S.; Munshi, Nikhil C.; Shammas, Masood A.

2013-01-01

152

Esophageal and Gastric Injuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Traumatic lesions of the esophagus can be classified into. Primary lesions, Perforations, Ruptures, Secondary lesions, Fistulas,\\u000a Strictures Perforations: Perforations are due to internal or external forces. The vast majority of esophageal perforations\\u000a occur iatrogenic (e.g., endoscopy, dilatation, transesophageal echocardiography (TEE), Sengstaken–Blakemore tubes, endotracheal\\u000a tubes). Penetrating injuries due to external forces (e.g., stab wounds, gunshots) are less frequent. For the therapeutic

Paul M. Schneider; Georg Lurje; Peter Bauerfeind; Marc Schiesser

153

Management of patients with combined tracheoesophageal fistula, esophageal atresia, and duodenal atresia  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Patients with combined esophageal atresia (EA), tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF), and duodenal atresia (DA) pose a rare management challenge. PRESENTATION OF CASE Three patients with combined esophageal atresia (EA), tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF), and duodenal atresia safely underwent a staged approach inserting a gastrostomy tube and repairing the EA/TEF first followed by a duodenoduodenostomy within one week. None of the patients suffered significant pre- or post-operative complications and our follow-up data (between 12 and 24 months) suggest that all patients eventually outgrow their reflux and respiratory symptoms. DISCUSSION While some authors support repair of all defects in one surgery, we recommend a staged approach. A gastrostomy tube is placed first for gastric decompression before TEF ligation and EA repair can be safely undertaken. The repair of the DA can then be performed within 3–7 days under controlled circumstances. CONCLUSION A staged approach of inserting a gastrostomy tube and repairing the EA/TEF first followed by a duodenoduodenostomy within one week resulted in excellent outcomes. PMID:25460495

Nabzdyk, Christoph S.; Chiu, Bill; Jackson, Carl-Christian; Chwals, Walter J.

2014-01-01

154

Depth of Submucosal Invasion Does Not Predict Lymph Node Metastasis and Survival of Patients with Esophageal Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background & Aims There is controversy over the outcomes of esophageal adenocarcinoma with superficial submucosal invasion. We evaluated the impact of depth of submucosal invasion on the presence of metastatic lymphadenopathy and survival in patients with esophageal adenocarcinoma. Methods Pathology reports were reviewed of esophagectomy samples collected from 1997 to 2007. Specimens from patients with esophageal adenocarcinoma and submucosal invasion were reviewed and classified as superficial (upper one third, sm1) or deep (middle third, sm2 or deepest third, sm3) invasion. Outcomes studied were presence of metastatic lymphadenopathy and overall survival. Variables of interest were analyzed as factors that affect overall and cancer-free survival using Cox proportional hazards modeling. A multivariate model was constructed to establish independent associations with survival. Results The study included 80 patients; 31 (39%) had sm1 carcinoma, 23 (29%) had sm2 carcinoma, and 26 (33%) had sm3 carcinoma. Superficial and deep submucosal invasion were associated with substantial rates of metastatic lymphadenopathy (12.9% and 20.4%, respectively). The mean follow-up time was 40.5±4 months and the mean overall unadjusted survival time was 53.8 ±4.1 months. Factors significantly associated with reduced survival time included the presence of metastatic lymph nodes (hazard ratio [HR] 2.89, confidence interval [CI] 1.13–6.88) and esophageal cancer recurrence (HR 6.39, CI 2.40–16.14), but not depth of submucosal invasion. Conclusions Patients with sm1 esophageal carcinoma have substantial rates of metastatic lymphadenopathy. Endoscopic treatment of superficial submucosal adenocarcinoma is not advised for patients that are candidates for surgery. PMID:19948247

Badreddine, Rami J.; Prasad, Ganapathy A.; Lewis, Jason T.; Lutzke, Lori S.; Borkenhagen, Lynn S.; Dunagan, Kelly T.; Wang, Kenneth K.

2009-01-01

155

Role of preoperative tracheobronchoscopy in newborns with esophageal atresia: A review  

PubMed Central

Preoperative tracheobronchoscopy (TBS) in the diagnostic assessment of newborns affected by esophageal atresia (EA) was described in 1981. Nevertheless, the value of the procedure is actually much debated; only a few studies have clearly explored the advantages of TBS and this procedure is not yet routinely included in the diagnostic and therapeutic assessment in many international pediatric surgery settings. Routine preoperative TBS is a safe procedure that enables the accurate examination of the tracheobronchial tree, the visualization of tracheoesophageal fistula and the diagnosis of tracheomalacia or associated respiratory anomalies. When a distal fistula is found, its occlusion with a Fogarty balloon catheter improves mechanical ventilation and facilitates surgical repair. This review provides a detailed overview on the use of TBS in newborns with EA, focusing on technical aspects, anesthesiological management, indications and limits. The benefits and risks of the procedure are also compared with alternative diagnostic tools, such as an esophageal contrast study, computed tomography scan and ultrasound. PMID:25324919

Parolini, Filippo; Boroni, Giovanni; Stefini, Stefania; Agapiti, Cristina; Bazzana, Tullia; Alberti, Daniele

2014-01-01

156

Src Mutation Induces Acquired Lapatinib Resistance in ERBB2-Amplified Human Gastroesophageal Adenocarcinoma Models  

PubMed Central

ERBB2-directed therapy is now a routine component of therapy for ERBB2-amplified metastatic gastroesophageal adenocarcinomas. However, there is little knowledge of the mechanisms by which these tumors develop acquired resistance to ERBB2 inhibition. To investigate this question we sought to characterize cell line models of ERBB2-amplified gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma with acquired resistance to ERBB2 inhibition. We generated lapatinib-resistant (LR) subclones from an initially lapatinib-sensitive ERBB2-amplified esophageal adenocarcinoma cell line, OE19. We subsequently performed genomic characterization and functional analyses of resistant subclones with acquired lapatinib resistance. We identified a novel, acquired SrcE527K mutation in a subset of LR OE19 subclones. Cells with this mutant allele harbour increased Src phosphorylation. Genetic and pharmacologic inhibition of Src resensitized these subclones to lapatinib. Biochemically, Src mutations could activate both the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and mitogen activated protein kinase pathways in the lapatinib-treated LR OE19 cells. Ectopic expression of Src E527K mutation also was sufficient to induce lapatinib resistance in drug-naïve cells. These results indicate that pathologic activation of Src is a potential mechanism of acquired resistance to ERBB2 inhibition in ERBB2-amplified gastroesophageal cancer. Although Src mutation has not been described in primary tumor samples, we propose that the Src hyperactivation should be investigated in the settings of acquired resistance to ERBB2 inhibition in esophageal and gastric adenocarcinoma. PMID:25350844

Hong, Yong Sang; Kim, Jihun; Pectasides, Eirini; Fox, Cameron; Hong, Seung-Woo; Ma, Qiuping; Wong, Gabrielle S.; Peng, Shouyong; Stachler, Matthew D.; Thorner, Aaron R.; Van Hummelen, Paul; Bass, Adam J.

2014-01-01

157

Esophageal Manifestations of Multisystem Diseases  

PubMed Central

The esophagus may be involved directly or indirectly by numerous disease conditions. On occasion, the esophageal process may be the key to the diagnosis. In some situations, the esophageal manifestation of a disease may be more immediately life-threatening than the primary process. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6 PMID:7310903

Mapp, Esmond

1980-01-01

158

Treatment options for esophageal strictures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Esophageal strictures are a problem commonly encountered in gastroenterological practice and can be caused by malignant or benign lesions. Dysphagia is the symptom experienced by all patients, regardless of whether their strictures are caused by malignant or benign lesions. The methods most frequently used for palliation of malignant esophageal strictures are stent placement (particularly in patients with an expected survival

Peter D Siersema

2008-01-01

159

21 CFR 868.1920 - Esophageal stethoscope with electrical conductors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Esophageal stethoscope with electrical conductors. 868.1920 Section...1920 Esophageal stethoscope with electrical conductors. (a) Identification. An esophageal stethoscope with electrical conductors is a device...

2011-04-01

160

21 CFR 868.1920 - Esophageal stethoscope with electrical conductors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Esophageal stethoscope with electrical conductors. 868.1920 Section...1920 Esophageal stethoscope with electrical conductors. (a) Identification. An esophageal stethoscope with electrical conductors is a device...

2013-04-01

161

21 CFR 868.1920 - Esophageal stethoscope with electrical conductors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Esophageal stethoscope with electrical conductors. 868.1920 Section...1920 Esophageal stethoscope with electrical conductors. (a) Identification. An esophageal stethoscope with electrical conductors is a device...

2012-04-01

162

[Computerized analysis of esophageal manometry].  

PubMed

Computerized analysis of esophageal manometry should consider the following objectives: a) objectivation of data acquisition; b) precision in calculating the various parameters; c) speed of analysis; d) an easy-to-read and promptly understandable graphic display of the manometric data; e) computation of new parameters capable of defining normal and pathologic function. It is with these objectives in mind that we launched our research project. Five normal subjects and 10 patients, of whom 5 presented esophageal achalasia and 5 gastroesophageal reflux disease, underwent computerized esophageal manometry and were evaluated on the basis of both traditional and innovative parameters, of our own inception. Among the various indexes tested, the "Esophageal transport" parameter, calculated as the ratio of momentum (dp*dT) over speed of propagation of the esophageal contractions, gave rise to particular interest. In our opinion, this parameter can be used as an index of the dynamic function of the organ. PMID:2067691

Spigno, L; Pandolfo, N; Guiddo, G; Calci, G; Mattioli, G; De Salvo, L

1991-04-15

163

Glossopexy as an alternative to aortopexy in infants with repaired esophageal atresia and upper airway obstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Purpose: Clinical manifestations of airway obstruction in infants with repaired esophageal atresia or tracheoesophageal fistula (EA\\/TEF) are attributed conventionally to tracheomalacia. In the current study, the authors tested the hypothesis that a retrodisplacement of the tongue (glossoptosis), by causing a functional upper airway obstruction (obstructive apnea\\/hypopnea), may play a role in the pathogenesis of the respiratory problems. Methods: The records

Francesco Cozzi; Francesco Morini; Alessandra Casati; Daniela Camanni; Augusto Zani; Denis A. Cozzi

2002-01-01

164

The changing epidemiology of esophageal cancer in sub-Saharan Africa – the case of Ghana  

PubMed Central

Introduction Esophageal cancer portends a grim prognosis. Most patients present with incurable disease. Scanty epidemiologic data on the disease has contributed to its low priority on the national. We sought to evaluate the current national trend in the presentation and outcome of esophageal cancer using our institutional experience from 1992 – 2010. Methods This is a retrospective study based on 152 patients who were seen in our institution during the study period. The perioperative data of these patients were retrieved and the relevant details recorded. Histopathological reports were available for 75 patients managed over the period. The study setting was The National Cardiothoracic Centre, which serves as the only tertiary referral centre in the country for cardiothoracic problems. Results There were 122 males and 30 females with a mean age of 57.8±11.7 years. The yearly trend from 1992 to 2010 showed a steady increase in the incidence of esophageal cancer. High alcohol consumption and smoking dominated the history of 82.2% of the patients. Squamous cell carcinoma accounted for 78.7% and adenocarcinoma 21.3%. Distribution of esophageal carcinoma by anatomical location was 84.9% for distal third, 11.8% for middle third and 3.3% for upper third. All patients presented with incurable disease. Conclusion The study shows an increasing incidence of esophageal carcinoma in this country. Alcohol abuse and smoking are major risk factors; squamous cell carcinoma is the dominant histological type in this study. PMID:23308313

Tettey, Mark; Edwin, Frank; Aniteye, Ernest; Sereboe, Lawrence; Tamatey, Martin; Ofosu-Appiah, Ernest; Adzamli, Innocent

2012-01-01

165

Esophageal cancer: A Review of epidemiology, pathogenesis, staging workup and treatment modalities  

PubMed Central

Esophageal cancer is a serious malignancy with regards to mortality and prognosis. It is a growing health concern that is expected to increase in incidence over the next 10 years. Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common histological type of esophageal cancer worldwide, with a higher incidence in developing nations. With the increased prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease and obesity in developed nations, the incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma has dramatically increased in the past 40 years. Esophageal cancer is staged according to the widely accepted TNM system. Staging plays an integral part in guiding stage specific treatment protocols and has a great impact on overall survival. Common imaging modalities used in staging include computed tomography, endoscopic ultrasound and positron emission tomography scans. Current treatment options include multimodality therapy mainstays of current treatment include surgery, radiation and chemotherapy. Tumor markers of esophageal cancer are an advancing area of research that could potentially lead to earlier diagnosis as well as playing a part in assessing tumor response to therapy. PMID:24834141

Napier, Kyle J; Scheerer, Mary; Misra, Subhasis

2014-01-01

166

Novel low-cost fiber optic colorimetric instrument to rapidly screen premalignant esophageal tissue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A cost-efficient screening device is needed to detect patients who have Barrett's esophagus, a precursor to esophageal adenocarcinoma -- the most rapidly increasing cancer in the US. We have developed a prototype instrument based on colorimetric assessment of esophageal lumen. The system consists of a small diameter fiber-optic probe, interfacing electronics, a probe-head position sensor and a computer for display and analysis. The probe has a central plastic optical fiber through which white light is incident on the collapsed esophageal lumen via c conical mirror in the probe-head. A parabolic mirror in the probe-head focuses the reflected light is applied to a linear 520 X 3 RGB photo-diode array to generate proportional electrical signals. A position sensor tracks probe-head location as it is retracted, allowing generation of a 2D colormap of esophageal lumen. A color change from white to red indicates Barrett's esophagus. The system performed accurately in tests using models of esophageal lumen which simulate patterns observed in Barrett's esophagus.

Dattamajumdar, Anupam K.; Myers, John A.; Proctor, Andrew H.; Levine, Douglas S.; Blount, Patricia L.; Reid, Brian J.; Martin, Roy W.

1998-05-01

167

Esophageal cancer management controversies: Radiation oncology point of view  

PubMed Central

Esophageal cancer treatment has evolved from single modality to trimodality therapy. There are some controversies of the role, target volumes and dose of radiotherapy (RT) in the literature over decades. The present review focuses primarily on RT as part of the treatment modalities, and highlight on the RT volume and its dose in the management of esophageal cancer. The randomized adjuvant chemoradiation (CRT) trial, intergroup trial (INT 0116) enrolled 559 patients with resected adenocarcinoma of the stomach or gastroesophageal junction. They were randomly assigned to surgery plus postoperative CRT or surgery alone. Analyses show robust treatment benefit of adjuvant CRT in most subsets for postoperative CRT. The Chemoradiotherapy for Oesophageal Cancer Followed by Surgery Study (CROSS) used a lower RT dose of 41.4 Gray in 23 fractions with newer chemotherapeutic agents carboplatin and paclitaxel to achieve an excellent result. Target volume of external beam radiation therapy and its coverage have been in debate for years among radiation oncologists. Pre-operative and post-operative target volumes are designed to optimize for disease control. Esophageal brachytherapy is effective in the palliation of dysphagia, but should not be given concomitantly with chemotherapy or external beam RT. The role of brachytherapy in multimodality management requires further investigation. On-going studies of multidisciplinary treatment in locally advanced cancer include: ZTOG1201 trial (a phase II trial of neoadjuvant and adjuvant CRT) and QUINTETT (a phase III trial of neoadjuvant vs adjuvant therapy with quality of life analysis). These trials hopefully will shed more light on the future management of esophageal cancer. PMID:25132924

Tai, Patricia; Yu, Edward

2014-01-01

168

Esophageal tissue engineering: a new approach for esophageal replacement.  

PubMed

A number of congenital and acquired disorders require esophageal tissue replacement. Various surgical techniques, such as gastric and colonic interposition, are standards of treatment, but frequently complicated by stenosis and other problems. Regenerative medicine approaches facilitate the use of biological constructs to replace or regenerate normal tissue function. We review the literature of esophageal tissue engineering, discuss its implications, compare the methodologies that have been employed and suggest possible directions for the future. Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Library, National Research Register and ClinicalTrials.gov databases were searched with the following search terms: stem cell and esophagus, esophageal replacement, esophageal tissue engineering, esophageal substitution. Reference lists of papers identified were also examined and experts in this field contacted for further information. All full-text articles in English of all potentially relevant abstracts were reviewed. Tissue engineering has involved acellular scaffolds that were either transplanted with the aim of being repopulated by host cells or seeded prior to transplantation. When acellular scaffolds were used to replace patch and short tubular defects they allowed epithelial and partial muscular migration whereas when employed for long tubular defects the results were poor leading to an increased rate of stenosis and mortality. Stenting has been shown as an effective means to reduce stenotic changes and promote cell migration, whilst omental wrapping to induce vascularization of the construct has an uncertain benefit. Decellularized matrices have been recently suggested as the optimal choice for scaffolds, but smart polymers that will incorporate signalling to promote cell-scaffold interaction may provide a more reproducible and available solution. Results in animal models that have used seeded scaffolds strongly suggest that seeding of both muscle and epithelial cells on scaffolds prior to implantation is a prerequisite for complete esophageal replacement. Novel approaches need to be designed to allow for peristalsis and vascularization in the engineered esophagus. Although esophageal tissue engineering potentially offers a real alternative to conventional treatments for severe esophageal disease, important barriers remain that need to be addressed. PMID:23322987

Totonelli, Giorgia; Maghsoudlou, Panagiotis; Fishman, Jonathan M; Orlando, Giuseppe; Ansari, Tahera; Sibbons, Paul; Birchall, Martin A; Pierro, Agostino; Eaton, Simon; De Coppi, Paolo

2012-12-21

169

Esophageal Cancer in Esophageal Diverticula Associated with Achalasia  

PubMed Central

The simultaneous occurrence of achalasia and esophageal diverticula is rare. Here, we report the case of a 68-year-old man with multiple esophageal diverticula associated with achalasia who was later diagnosed with early esophageal cancer. He initially presented with dysphagia and dyspepsia, and injection of botulinum toxin to the lower esophageal sphincter relieved his symptoms. Five years later, however, the patient presented with worsening of symptoms, and esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) was performed. The endoscopic findings showed multifocal lugol-voiding lesions identified as moderate dysplasia. We decided to use photodynamic therapy to treat the multifocal dysplastic lesions. At follow-up EGD 2 months after photodynamic therapy, more lugol-voiding lesions representing a squamous cell carcinoma in situ were found. The patient ultimately underwent surgery for the treatment of recurrent esophageal multifocal neoplasia. After a follow-up period of 3 years, the patient showed a good outcome without symptoms. To manage premalignant lesions such as achalasia with esophageal diverticula, clinicians should be cautious, but have an aggressive approach regarding endoscopic surveillance.

Choi, Ah Ran; Chon, Nu Ri; Youn, Young Hoon; Paik, Hyo Chae; Kim, Yon Hee

2015-01-01

170

Esophageal cancer in esophageal diverticula associated with achalasia.  

PubMed

The simultaneous occurrence of achalasia and esophageal diverticula is rare. Here, we report the case of a 68-year-old man with multiple esophageal diverticula associated with achalasia who was later diagnosed with early esophageal cancer. He initially presented with dysphagia and dyspepsia, and injection of botulinum toxin to the lower esophageal sphincter relieved his symptoms. Five years later, however, the patient presented with worsening of symptoms, and esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) was performed. The endoscopic findings showed multifocal lugol-voiding lesions identified as moderate dysplasia. We decided to use photodynamic therapy to treat the multifocal dysplastic lesions. At follow-up EGD 2 months after photodynamic therapy, more lugol-voiding lesions representing a squamous cell carcinoma in situ were found. The patient ultimately underwent surgery for the treatment of recurrent esophageal multifocal neoplasia. After a follow-up period of 3 years, the patient showed a good outcome without symptoms. To manage premalignant lesions such as achalasia with esophageal diverticula, clinicians should be cautious, but have an aggressive approach regarding endoscopic surveillance. PMID:25674530

Choi, Ah Ran; Chon, Nu Ri; Youn, Young Hoon; Paik, Hyo Chae; Kim, Yon Hee; Park, Hyojin

2015-01-01

171

Esophageal gastric tube airway vs endotracheal tube in prehospital cardiopulmonary arrest.  

PubMed

We evaluated the efficacy of the esophageal airway (EA) by prospectively randomizing 175 prehospital cardiopulmonary arrest patients to receive either an esophageal gastric tube airway (EGTA) or an endotracheal tube (ET). If attempts with the initial airway failed, the alternate airway was attempted. The cost of training paramedics in EA use was considerably less than the ET ($80 vs $1,000). Survival to the emergency room, to hospitalization and to discharge in ET and EGTA groups were 64.4 percent, 25.6 percent, 11.1 percent, and 54.1 percent, 27.1 percent, 12.9 percent, respectively--differences not statistically significant. The incidence of neurologic residual (ET 50 percent, EGTA 36.4 percent) and congestive heart failure (ET 40 percent, EGTA 45.5 percent) in surviving ET and EGTA patients did not differ (NS). An additional 125 consecutive patients with only the opportunity to receive an EA were also evaluated and did not differ in mortality, neurologic residual, or congestive heart failure from ET patients. We conclude that the EA is a satisfactory alternative to the ET for short-term prehospital use in cardiopulmonary arrest patients. PMID:3720391

Goldenberg, I F; Campion, B C; Siebold, C M; McBride, J W; Long, L A

1986-07-01

172

Drugs Approved for Esophageal Cancer  

Cancer.gov

This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for esophageal cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

173

General Information about Esophageal Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... layers of tissue , including mucous membrane , muscle, and connective tissue . Esophageal cancer starts at the inside lining of ... and spread into the muscle layer or the connective tissue layer of the esophagus wall. The cancer cells ...

174

Esophageal Cancer - Featured Clinical Trials  

Cancer.gov

Esophageal Cancer - Featured Clinical Trials The following list shows Featured Clinical Trials for a specific type of cancer. You may also want to view: Multiple Cancer Types - Featured Clinical Trials Supportive Care - Featured Clinical Trials

175

Biomarkers in pancreatic adenocarcinoma.  

PubMed

Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is a highly aggressive cancer, with a median patient survival of less than one year. Clinically useful biomarkers capable of accurately assessing prognosis, as well as response to therapy, are urgently needed. At the 2014 ASCO Annual Meeting, Maus et al. (Abstract #e15199) and Neuzillet et al. (Abstract #e15200) present data on use of c-met as a prognostic biomarker, and Shultz et al. (Abstract #4133) use a multiplex antibody panel to identify predictive markers of response to gemcitabine and erlotinib. PMID:25076328

Joza, Nicholas; Saif, Muhammad Wasif

2014-07-01

176

RFID EAS (electronic article surveillance),  

E-print Network

3 RFID EAS (electronic article surveillance), (half duplex), (full duplex), Sequential 3.1 RFID RFID 3.1 RFID 1 RFID 1 RFID 0 1 RFID RFID ( EAS) #12;80 3.1 RFID EAS 1) (interrogator) 2) (security element) RFID

Kovintavewat, Piya

177

DOE/EA-1570 ENVIRONMENTAL  

E-print Network

DOE/EA-1570 FINAL ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT Environmental Assessment for Construction and Operation. Paul District St. Paul, MN June 2008 #12;(DOE/EA-1570) NOvA Environmental Assessment June 2008ii/EA-1570) NOvA Environmental Assessment June 2008iii SUMMARY Introduction. This Environmental Assessment

Quigg, Chris

178

Drug-induced esophageal strictures.  

PubMed Central

A retrospective study of 55 patients with a benign esophageal stricture showed that in 11 patients (20%) the cause was a drug-induced lesion due to potassium chloride (3), tetracyclines (3), aspirin (2), vitamin C (1), phenytoin (1), and quinidine (1). Five of the 11 patients would have been diagnosed as having a reflux etiology of their stricture if 24-hour esophageal pH monitoring was not performed. Six patients responded to dilatation and five patients required resection or bypass. A prospective study of 18 asymptomatic volunteers showed a high incidence of esophageal lodgment of a radiolabeled medicinal capsule, with subsequent dissolution and release of the isotope. This occurred most frequently in elderly subjects and was reduced by increasing the volume of water chaser. The sites of lodgment correspond to the location of the observed strictures in the patient population. An in vitro study showed that, when the causative drugs were mixed with saliva, dissolution occurred within 60 minutes and was associated with significant changes in pH. These investigations show that drug-induced esophageal strictures are more common than previously appreciated, and can be confused with a reflux etiology. Diagnosis is suggested by a history of drug ingestion, location of the stricture, and a normal esophageal acid exposure on 24-hour pH monitoring. The severity of the esophageal injury is variable and requires dilatation to resection for therapy. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:3606243

Bonavina, L; DeMeester, T R; McChesney, L; Schwizer, W; Albertucci, M; Bailey, R T

1987-01-01

179

Surgical treatment of esophageal carcinoma with curative intent: analysis of a single center experience  

PubMed Central

Background We retrospectively reviewed our series of 76 patients who underwent esophagectomy, with curative intent, for esophageal carcinoma over the last 10 years. Method The mean age was 60 years ranging between 46 to 76 years. Fifty-seven patients had a squamous cell carcinoma and 19 patients had an adenocarcinoma. In 15 cases induction therapy was accomplished prior to surgery. A narrow gastric tube was used to restore continuity in 74 patients (97.3%). Medical records were reviewed and data analysis was performed. Results Peri-operative mortality was 2.6%. Overall survival at 1, 3 and 5 years was 85,5%, 67,7% and 52,7%, respectively, with no significant difference between the squamous cell disease group and the adenocarcinoma group. Although T factor and stage at the time of surgery influenced overall survival, the presence of nodal metastasis had the major impact on survival as confirmed by univariate and multivariate analysis with a 5 year survival rate of 32% regardless of the use or not of adjuvant chemo-radiotherapy and the pathologic stage. Conclusions Esophagectomy still represents a valid treatment for esophageal carcinoma in well selected patients. Both pT stage and N stage appear to be the most important factors determining survival for patients with completely resected esophageal carcinoma. PMID:23509872

2013-01-01

180

Hyperthermochemoradiotherapy and esophageal carcinoma  

SciTech Connect

Cancer of the esophagus still poses considerable treatment problems, with a poor 5-year survival rate after surgery, an even worse outlook after radiation and surgery, and a not very satisfactory response to chemotherapy. After several years of continued research, in 1983 we developed a Radio Frequency System with endotract electrode and thermosensors for administering hyperthermochemoradiotherapy to patients with carcinoma of the esophagus. Results in 129 patients are discussed. Immediate improvement of subjective complaints and decrease or elimination of the cancer lesion are so distinct that this treatment, by means of an endotract antenna, shows promise as a modality for esophageal lesions and may find application in diseases such as colorectal cancer or carcinoma of the uterine cervix.

Sugimachi, K.; Inokuchi, K.

1986-01-01

181

Spontaneous esophageal mucosal dissection in a patient with upper digestive bleeding and esophageal varices.  

PubMed

We present a case of mucosal esophageal dissection in a 44-year-old patient with alcoholic cirrhosis admitted for upper digestive bleeding. The endoscopic aspect was of chronic mucosal dissection in the esophagus and 3rd degree esophageal varices with red signs. To our knowledge, it is the only case with spontaneous esophageal mucosal dissection and portal hypertension with esophageal varices. PMID:21776303

Negreanu, L; Tribus, L C; Purcarea, M; Fierbinteanu Braticevici, C

2011-05-15

182

Spontaneous esophageal mucosal dissection in a patient with upper digestive bleeding and esophageal varices  

PubMed Central

We present a case of mucosal esophageal dissection in a 44–year–old patient with alcoholic cirrhosis admitted for upper digestive bleeding. The endoscopic aspect was of chronic mucosal dissection in the esophagus and 3rd degree esophageal varices with red signs. To our knowledge, it is the only case with spontaneous esophageal mucosal dissection and portal hypertension with esophageal varices. PMID:21776303

Tribus, LC; Purcarea, M; Fierbinteanu Braticevici, C

2011-01-01

183

SATB1 is an independent prognostic factor in radically resected upper gastrointestinal tract adenocarcinoma.  

PubMed

Gastric cancer is the second most common cause of cancer-related death worldwide, and the incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma is rising. While some progress has been made in treatment strategies, overall survival remains very poor for patients with adenocarcinoma in the upper gastrointestinal tract. Special AT-rich sequence binding protein 1 (SATB1) is a global genome organizer that has been demonstrated to promote aggressive tumor behavior in several different types of cancer, including gastric cancer. The prognostic value of SATB1 expression in esophageal cancer has, however, not yet been described. In this study, expression of SATB1 was examined by immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays prepared from tissue samples from 175 patients with adenocarcinoma of the esophagus, cardia, or stomach and containing normal tissue, intestinal metaplasia, primary tumors, and metastases. A well-validated antibody was used. We found SATB1 to be an independent prognostic factor in patients with a radically resected tumor, correlating with shorter overall survival as well as with shorter recurrence-free survival. SATB1 expression was also found to be significantly lower in primary tumors associated with intestinal metaplasia than those without intestinal metaplasia. This observation is of potential biological interest as it has been proposed that intestinal metaplasia-associated tumors constitute a less aggressive phenotype. PMID:25326863

Hedner, Charlotta; Gaber, Alexander; Korkocic, Dejan; Nodin, Björn; Uhlén, Mathias; Kuteeva, Eugenia; Johannesson, Henrik; Jirström, Karin; Eberhard, Jakob

2014-12-01

184

21 CFR 878.3610 - Esophageal prosthesis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3610 Esophageal prosthesis. (a) Identification. An esophageal...

2011-04-01

185

21 CFR 878.3610 - Esophageal prosthesis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3610 Esophageal prosthesis. (a) Identification. An esophageal...

2014-04-01

186

21 CFR 878.3610 - Esophageal prosthesis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3610 Esophageal prosthesis. (a) Identification. An esophageal...

2012-04-01

187

21 CFR 878.3610 - Esophageal prosthesis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3610 Esophageal prosthesis. (a) Identification. An esophageal...

2010-04-01

188

21 CFR 878.3610 - Esophageal prosthesis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3610 Esophageal prosthesis. (a) Identification. An esophageal...

2013-04-01

189

Cytological screening of endocervical adenocarcinoma.  

PubMed

Invasive endocervical adenocarcinoma represents on average 15% of cervical carcinomas and it is associated with the human papillomavirus infection high risk types 16 and 18 in most cases. Its detection has some special features compared to squamous cell carcinoma; glandular precancerous lesions are less known and only adenocarcinoma in situ is diagnosed by consensus among pathologists; adenocarcinoma in situ develops in the squamocolumnar junction by reserve cells but it is hard to be located by colposcopy in the endocervical canal or in the deep glandular recess. Sampling of endocervical cells requires brushes rather than an Ayre spatula. Cytological diagnosis of glandular cells abnormalities is based on the Bethesda System 2001 terminology which redefined endocervical cells abnormalities and also introduced the entity of adenocarcinoma in situ. This entity is characterized by specific morphological features, such as the radial arrangement of nuclei in the periphery, like "at the end of the feathers of a bird's wing"(feathering of cells), images of nuclei palissading or rosette without tumoral diathesis. Glandular cells abnormalities are rare and represent less than 0.1% of all smears and less than 5% of abnormal smears. By improving the collection and the interpretation of abnormal endocervical cells, cytological screening should allow the diagnosis of in situ adenocarcinoma and detection of invasive adenocarcinoma at a very early stage. This will lead to a decrease in mortality from endocervical adenocarcinoma, especially in young women. PMID:23244488

Di Bonito, Luigi; Bergeron, Christine

2012-12-01

190

Esophageal rupture complicated by acute pericarditis.  

PubMed

Esophageal perforation is a serious condition with a high mortality rate. Delayed detection of esophageal perforation may result in devastating complications such as mediastinitis and pericarditis. Esophageal perforation is rarely due to aspiration of foreign bodies. Here we report the case of a 59-year-old male patient with complicated esophageal perforation due to ingestion of a chicken bone, whose first signs are considered to be acute non-specific pericarditis. PMID:25490302

Duman, Hakan; Bak?rc?, Eftal Murat; Karada?, Zakir; U?urlu, Yavuz

2014-10-01

191

Biological identification of ampullary adenocarcinomas.  

PubMed

Ampullary adenocarcinomas have unique biologic and clinical features that result in its improved prognosis versus adenocarcinomas that arise from the distal bile ducts and pancreas. However the histological differentiation and identification of these tumors is not easily accomplished. Two abstracts at this year's ASCO Annual Meeting describe attempts to identify unique methods for distinguishing these tumors. Abstract #4141 described a 92 gene RT-PCR assay that was used for molecular classification of patients with ampullary adenocarcinomas while Abstract #e15175 looked at mutational status of K-ras in patients with these tumors. The results of their abstracts will be discussed. PMID:25076327

Relias, Valerie; Saif, Muhammad Wasif

2014-07-01

192

Esophagitis in Children with Celiac Disease  

PubMed Central

Objectives. To our knowledge, the occurrence of esophagitis in children with celiac disease (CD) has never been evaluated. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of esophagitis in children with CD. Patients and Methods. Between 2003 and 2007, children with biopsy confirmed CD were retrospectively identified. Biopsy reports were reviewed for esophageal inflammation. Biopsy reports of 2218 endoscopies performed during the same period were also evaluated for inflammation. Results. Forty-nine children diagnosed with CD (47% boys). Nineteen of 49 (39%) patients with CD had esophagitis (95% CI 0.23–0.5). Thirty percent of boys and 46% of girls with CD had esophagitis (95% CI 0.12–0.40). Overall, 45% of patients who underwent upper endoscopy had esophagitis. The prevalence of esophagitis in CD (39%) compared to the prevalence of esophagitis (45%) in our practice was not significantly different, P = 0.2526. Conclusion. There was no difference in the prevalence of esophagitis between children diagnosed with CD at the time of their diagnostic EGD and the prevalence of esophagitis in children without CD. A prospective study to determine whether the esophagitis should be treated with acid suppression or whether the esophagitis heals with the gluten-free diet is warranted. PMID:21991513

Sayej, Wael N.; AlKhouri, Razan; Baker, Robert D.; Patel, Raza; Baker, Susan S.

2011-01-01

193

The Pathophysiology of Eosinophilic Esophagitis  

PubMed Central

Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an emerging disease characterized by esophageal eosinophilia (>15eos/hpf), lack of responsiveness to acid-suppressive medication and is managed by allergen elimination and anti-allergy therapy. Although the pathophysiology of EoE is currently unsubstantiated, evidence implicates food and aeroallergen hypersensitivity in genetically predisposed individuals as contributory factors. Genome-wide expression analyses have isolated a remarkably conserved gene-expression profile irrespective of age and gender, suggesting a genetic contribution. EoE has characteristics of mainly TH2 type immune responses but also some TH1 cytokines, which appear to strongly contribute to tissue fibrosis, with esophageal epithelial cells providing a hospitable environment for this inflammatory process. Eosinophil-degranulation products appear to play a central role in tissue remodeling in EoE. This remodeling and dysregulation predisposes to fibrosis. Mast-cell-derived molecules such as histamine may have an effect on enteric nerves and may also act in concert with transforming growth factor-? to interfere with esophageal musculature. Additionally, the esophageal epithelium may facilitate the inflammatory process under pathogenic contexts such as in EoE. This article aims to discuss the contributory factors in the pathophysiology of EoE. PMID:24910846

Raheem, Mayumi; Leach, Steven T.; Day, Andrew S.; Lemberg, Daniel A.

2014-01-01

194

Deoxycholic acid impairs glycosylation and fucosylation processes in esophageal epithelial cells.  

PubMed

It is generally accepted that esophageal adenocarcinoma arises from a Barrett's metaplastic lesion. Altered glycoprotein expression has been demonstrated in tissue from patients with Barrett's esophagus and esophageal cancer but the mechanisms regarding such changes are unknown. The bile acid deoxycholic acid (DCA) alters many cell signaling pathways and is implicated in esophageal cancer progression. We have demonstrated that DCA disrupts Golgi structure and affects protein secretion and glycosylation processes in cell lines derived from normal squamous epithelium (HET-1A) and Barrett's metaplastic epithelium (QH). Cell surface expression of glycans was identified using carbohydrate-specific probes (wheat germ agglutinate, conconavalin A, peanut agglutinin, lithocholic acid and Ulex europaeus agglutinin) that monitored N-glycosylation, O-glycosylation and core fucosylation in resting and DCA-treated cells. DCA altered intracellular localization and reduced cell surface expression of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, ?-methyl-mannopyranoside (Man/Glc) and fucose in both cell lines. Furthermore, DCA reduced the expression of epithelial growth factor receptor and E-cadherin in a manner analogous to treatment of cells with the N-glycan biosynthesis inhibitor tunicamycin. This is the first study to identify an altered Golgi structure and glycomic profile in response to DCA in esophageal epithelial cells, a process which could potentially contribute to metaplasia, dysplasia and cancer of the esophagus. PMID:22223758

Byrne, Anne-Marie; Sharma, Ruchika; Duggan, Gina; Kelleher, Dermot; Long, Aideen

2012-05-01

195

New TNM staging system for esophageal cancer: what chest radiologists need to know.  

PubMed

Esophageal cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide, and the 5-year relative survival rate remains less than 20% in the United States. The treatment of esophageal cancer should be stage specific for better clinical outcomes. Recent treatment paradigms tend to involve a multimodality approach to management, which includes surgical resection and preoperative or definitive chemoradiation therapy. Accurate pretreatment staging of esophageal cancer is integral for assessing operability and determining a suitable treatment plan. The American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) and the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC) have published the seventh edition of the staging manual for cancer in the esophagus and esophagogastric junction. Unlike the sixth edition, the revised staging manual is data driven and harmonized with the staging of stomach cancer. Improvements include new definitions for the anatomic classifications Tis, T4, regional lymph node, N, and M and the addition of nonanatomic cancer characteristics (histopathologic cell type, histologic grade, and cancer location). Given the recent increase in the incidence of adenocarcinoma of the distal esophagus, esophagogastric junction, and gastric cardia, the staging of tumors in the esophagogastric junction has been addressed. Radiologists must understand the details of the seventh edition of the AJCC-UICC staging system for esophageal cancer and use appropriate imaging modalities, such as computed tomography (CT), endoscopic ultrasonography, and positron emission tomography/CT, for initial staging. PMID:25310426

Hong, Su Jin; Kim, Tae Jung; Nam, Kyung Bum; Lee, In Sun; Yang, Hee Chul; Cho, Sukki; Kim, Kwhanmien; Jheon, Sanghoon; Lee, Kyung Won

2014-10-01

196

Expression analysis of miRNA and target mRNAs in esophageal cancer  

PubMed Central

We aimed to investigate miRNAs and related mRNAs through a network-based approach in order to learn the crucial role that they play in the biological processes of esophageal cancer. Esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma (ESCC) and adenocarcinoma (EAC)-related miRNA and gene expression data were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database, and differentially expressed miRNAs and genes were selected. Target genes of differentially expressed miRNAs were predicted and their regulatory networks were constructed. Differentially expressed miRNA analysis selected four miRNAs associated with EAC and ESCC, among which hsa-miR-21 and hsa-miR-202 were shared by both diseases. hsa-miR-202 was reported for the first time to be associated with esophageal cancer in the present study. Differentially expressed miRNA target genes were mainly involved in cancer-related and signal-transduction pathways. Functional categories of these target genes were related to transcriptional regulation. The results may indicate potential target miRNAs and genes for future investigations of esophageal cancer. PMID:25098614

Meng, X.R.; Lu, P.; Mei, J.Z.; Liu, G.J.; Fan, Q.X.

2014-01-01

197

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) with endoscopic ultrasound for the treatment of esophageal cancer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1995, PDT was approved for palliative use in patients with esophageal cancer. We report our experience using PDT to treat esophageal cancer patients previously treated with combination chemotherapy and radiation therapy. In our series, nine patients referred for PDT with persistent esophageal cancer after chemo-radiation therapy. We found: (1) All patients were men with a mean age of 63 years and eight out of nine had adenocarcinoma with Barrett's esophagus; (2) All patients required endoscopic dilation after PDT; (3) At a mean follow up of 4 months, two T2N0 patients had no demonstrable tumor and all three T3N0 patients had greater than 50% tumor reduction (the partially responsive T3N0 patients will be offered repeat PDT); (4) Patients with metastatic disease (T3N1 or M1) had effective dysphagia palliation. Thus, PDT is safe and effective in ablating all or most tumor in patients with persistent esophageal cancer after chemotherapy and radiation therapy.

Woodward, Timothy A.; Wolfsen, Herbert C.

2000-05-01

198

ESOPHAGEAL DYSMOTILITY IN CHILDREN WITH EOSINOPHILIC ESOPHAGITIS. A STUDY USING PROLONGED ESOPHAGEAL MANOMETRY  

PubMed Central

Background The pathophysiology of dysphagia in patients with eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is unknown, but may be related to abnormal esophageal motor function. Symptoms rarely occur during stationary esophageal manometry so it has been difficult to establish an association between symptoms and motor events. Aim To evaluate esophageal motor function in children with EoE with the use of stationary manometry and ambulatory prolonged esophageal manometry and pH-metry (PEMP) Methods PEMP was performed in children with EoE, compared with controls and children with GERD. Effective peristalsis was considered when the esophageal contractions had a normal amplitude and propagation. Results expressed as mean ± S.E. Results Seventeen patients with EoE, 13 with GERD and 11 controls were studied. Values are expressed as mean ± se. Stationary manometry identified abnormal peristalsis in 41% of children with EoE. During PEMP, children with EoE had an increased number of isolated (16.7 ± 3.8 vs 9.5 ± 1.6 vs 6.5 ± 1.1 ; p< 0.03) and high amplitude contractions (4.1 ± 1.2 vs 1.8 ±0.8 vs 0.1 ± 0.1; p< 0.03), and more % ineffective peristalsis both during fasting (70.5% ± 2.5 vs 57.8% ± 3.0 vs 53.8% ± 1.9; p <0.05) and during meals (68.4 ± 3.4 vs 55.3 ± 2.8 vs 48.1 ± 2.8; p < 0.05) when compared with children with GERD and controls. Thirteen patients with EoE experienced 21 episodes of dysphagia and all correlated with simultaneous abnormal motor function. Conclusions PEMP allowed the detection of ineffective peristalsis in children with EoE. Symptoms observed in children with EoE may be related to esophageal motor dysfunction. PMID:19755968

Nurko, Samuel; Rosen, Rachel; Furuta, Glenn T.

2010-01-01

199

Esophageal tissue engineering: A new approach for esophageal replacement  

PubMed Central

A number of congenital and acquired disorders require esophageal tissue replacement. Various surgical techniques, such as gastric and colonic interposition, are standards of treatment, but frequently complicated by stenosis and other problems. Regenerative medicine approaches facilitate the use of biological constructs to replace or regenerate normal tissue function. We review the literature of esophageal tissue engineering, discuss its implications, compare the methodologies that have been employed and suggest possible directions for the future. Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Library, National Research Register and ClinicalTrials.gov databases were searched with the following search terms: stem cell and esophagus, esophageal replacement, esophageal tissue engineering, esophageal substitution. Reference lists of papers identified were also examined and experts in this field contacted for further information. All full-text articles in English of all potentially relevant abstracts were reviewed. Tissue engineering has involved acellular scaffolds that were either transplanted with the aim of being repopulated by host cells or seeded prior to transplantation. When acellular scaffolds were used to replace patch and short tubular defects they allowed epithelial and partial muscular migration whereas when employed for long tubular defects the results were poor leading to an increased rate of stenosis and mortality. Stenting has been shown as an effective means to reduce stenotic changes and promote cell migration, whilst omental wrapping to induce vascularization of the construct has an uncertain benefit. Decellularized matrices have been recently suggested as the optimal choice for scaffolds, but smart polymers that will incorporate signalling to promote cell-scaffold interaction may provide a more reproducible and available solution. Results in animal models that have used seeded scaffolds strongly sug- gest that seeding of both muscle and epithelial cells on scaffolds prior to implantation is a prerequisite for complete esophageal replacement. Novel approaches need to be designed to allow for peristalsis and vascularization in the engineered esophagus. Although esophageal tissue engineering potentially offers a real alternative to conventional treatments for severe esophageal disease, important barriers remain that need to be addressed. PMID:23322987

Totonelli, Giorgia; Maghsoudlou, Panagiotis; Fishman, Jonathan M; Orlando, Giuseppe; Ansari, Tahera; Sibbons, Paul; Birchall, Martin A; Pierro, Agostino; Eaton, Simon; De Coppi, Paolo

2012-01-01

200

Adenocarcinoma of the cervical stump  

SciTech Connect

Sixteen women with adenocarcinoma of the cervical stump were treated over a 15-year period. The median survivals of 40 months for stage IB and 17 months for stages II and III were significantly worse compared with those for patients treated for cervical adenocarcinoma of the intact uterus or squamous carcinoma of the cervical stump. The poor results were due to both local and distant failure. Implications regarding tumor radiosensitivity and adjuvant therapy in these high-risk patients are discussed.

Goodman, H.M.; Niloff, J.M.; Buttlar, C.A.; Welch, W.R.; Marck, A.; Feuer, E.J.; Lahman, E.A.; Jenison, E.; Knapp, R.C. (Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA (USA))

1989-11-01

201

Preoperative Cetuximab, Irinotecan, Cisplatin, and Radiation Therapy for Patients With Locally Advanced Esophageal Cancer  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To determine the efficacy and toxicity of weekly neoadjuvant cetuximab combined with irinotecan, cisplatin, and radiation therapy in patients with locally advanced esophageal or gastroesophageal junction cancer. Methods and Materials. Patients with stage IIA–IVA esophageal or gastroesophageal junction cancer were enrolled in a Simon's two-stage phase II study. Patients received weekly cetuximab on weeks 0–8 and irinotecan and cisplatin on weeks 1, 2, 4, and 5, with concurrent radiotherapy (50.4 Gy on weeks 1–6), followed by surgical resection. Results. In the first stage, 17 patients were enrolled, 16 of whom had adenocarcinoma. Because of a low pathologic complete response (pCR) rate in this cohort, the trial was discontinued for patients with adenocarcinoma but squamous cell carcinoma patients continued to be enrolled; two additional patients were enrolled before the study was closed as a result of poor accrual. Of the 19 patients enrolled, 18 patients proceeded to surgery, and 16 patients underwent an R0 resection. Three patients (16%) had a pCR. The median progression-free survival interval was 10 months, and the median overall survival duration was 31 months. Severe neutropenia occurred in 47% of patients, and severe diarrhea occurred in 47% of patients. One patient died preoperatively from sepsis, and one patient died prior to hospital discharge following surgical resection. Conclusions. This schedule of cetuximab in combination with irinotecan, cisplatin, and radiation therapy was toxic and did not achieve a sufficient pCR rate in patients with localized esophageal adenocarcinoma to undergo further evaluation. PMID:23429739

Lee, Michael S.; Mamon, Harvey J.; Hong, Theodore S.; Choi, Noah C.; Fidias, Panagiotis M.; Kwak, Eunice L.; Meyerhardt, Jeffrey A.; Ryan, David P.; Bueno, Raphael; Donahue, Dean M.; Jaklitsch, Michael T.; Lanuti, Michael; Rattner, David W.; Fuchs, Charles S.

2013-01-01

202

[Histogenesis of human esophageal striated muscle tissue].  

PubMed

Development of the esophageal striated muscle tissue has been studied in 60 human embryos and fetuses at the age of 6-40 weeks. Stages in differentiation of the muscle fiber have been demonstrated, process of myofibrillogenesis has been studied. In the process of differentiation of the esophageal striated muscle fiber under the basal membrane myosatellitocytes are laid. A conclusion is made about myotomic origin of the human esophageal striated muscle tissue. The developmental peculiarity of the human esophageal striated muscle is formation between muscle fibers of specialized connections. This is explained by conditions of the esophageal functioning, that realizes peristaltic movements. PMID:2803022

Bazhenov, D V

1989-06-01

203

Sloughing Esophagitis: A Not So Common Entity  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Sloughing esophagitis, also known as esophagitis dissecans superficialis, is a very rare and underdiagnosed entity with unknown incidence rate. It can be associated with bullous dermatoses and medications such as central nervous system depressants and those causing esophageal injury. CASE REPORT: A 55-years-old woman was recovering from renal failure due to rhabdomyolysis when she developed dysphagia and odynophagia. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy with biopsy was performed for suspected bullous pemphigus and confirmed sloughing esophagitis. She improved with intravenous steroids. CONCLUSIONS: Sloughing Esophagitis should enter our differential diagnosis more frequently. It is mostly a benign, self-limiting process but when associated with bullous dermatoses will require steroid treatment. PMID:25598761

Akhondi, Hossein

2014-01-01

204

Tissue remodeling in eosinophilic esophagitis  

PubMed Central

Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a recently recognized, immune-mediated disease characterized clinically by symptoms of esophageal dysfunction and histologically by eosinophil-predominant inflammation. The chronic esophageal eosinophilia of EoE is associated with tissue remodeling that includes epithelial hyperplasia, subepithelial fibrosis, and hypertrophy of esophageal smooth muscle. This remodeling causes the esophageal rings and strictures that frequently complicate EoE and underlies the mucosal fragility that predisposes to painful mucosal tears in the EoE esophagus. The pathogenesis of tissue remodeling in EoE is not completely understood, but emerging studies suggest that secretory products of eosinophils and mast cells, as well as cytokines produced by other inflammatory cells, epithelial cells, and stromal cells in the esophagus, all contribute to the process. Interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13, Th2 cytokines overproduced in allergic disorders, have direct profibrotic and remodeling effects in EoE. The EoE esophagus exhibits increased expression of transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1, which is a potent activator of fibroblasts and a strong inducer of epithelial-mesenchymal transition. In addition, IL-4, IL-13, and TGF-? all have a role in regulating periostin, an extracellular matrix protein that might influence remodeling by acting as a ligand for integrins, by its effects on eosinophils or by activating fibrogenic genes in the esophagus. Presently, few treatments have been shown to affect the tissue remodeling that causes EoE complications. This report reviews the potential roles of fibroblasts, eosinophils, mast cells, and profibrotic cytokines in esophageal remodeling in EoE and identifies potential targets for future therapies that might prevent EoE complications. PMID:23019192

Cheng, Edaire; Souza, Rhonda F.

2012-01-01

205

Obesity and related risk factors in gastric cardia adenocarcinoma.  

PubMed

Over recent decades, the incidence of cancers of the gastroesophageal junction, including gastric cardia tumors, has increased markedly. This is a trend that has been well documented, especially in studies from the USA and northern Europe that have also demonstrated a concomitant rise in the ratio of cardia to distal gastric cancers. The rise in the prevalence of gastric cardia adenocarcinoma has been paralleled by the worldwide obesity epidemic, with almost all epidemiological studies reporting increased body mass index and obesity increase the risk of cardia cancer development. However, the strength of this association is less marked than the link between obesity and esophageal adenocarcinoma, and the mechanisms remain poorly understood. Other possible confounders of the relationship between obesity and cardia cancer include the decline in Helicobacter pylori infection and the widespread use of proton pump inhibitors, although these have rarely been controlled for in case-control and cohort studies investigating associations between obesity and cardia cancer. We review these epidemiological trends and discuss proposed mechanisms for the association, drawing attention to controversies over the difficulty of defining cardia cancer. The relative paucity of high-quality epidemiological studies from other regions of the world should prompt further investigation of this issue, especially in populations undergoing rapid socioeconomic change. PMID:25209115

Olefson, Sidney; Moss, Steven F

2015-01-01

206

Study finds molecular 'signature' for rapidly increasing form of esophageal cancer  

Cancer.gov

During the past 30 years, the number of patients with cancers that originate near the junction of the esophagus and stomach has increased approximately 600 percent in the United States. The first extensive probe of the DNA of these esophageal adenocarcinomas (EACs) has revealed that many share a distinctive mix-up of letters of the genetic code, and found more than 20 mutated genes that had not previously been linked to the disease. The research, led by scientists at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, the Broad Institute, and other research centers, may offer clues to why EAC rates have risen so sharply.

207

Ellagic acid inhibits proliferation and induced apoptosis via the Akt signaling pathway in HCT-15 colon adenocarcinoma cells.  

PubMed

Chemoprevention is regarded as one of the most promising and realistic approaches in the prevention of human cancer. Ellagic acid (EA) has been known for its chemopreventive activity against various cancers and numerous investigations have shown its apoptotic activity both in vivo and in vitro. The present study was focused to elucidate the anticancerous effect and the mode of action of EA against HCT-15 colon adenocarcinoma cells. Cell viability was assessed using trypan blue assay at different concentrations. EA also promoted cell cycle arrest substantially at G2/M phase in HCT-15 cells. The activities of alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase were decreased upon EA treatment, which shows the antiproliferative and the cytotoxic effects, respectively. The production of reactive oxygen intermediates, which were examined by 2,7-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (H2DCF-DA), increased with time, after treatment with EA. In further studies, EA inhibited proliferation-associated markers proliferating cell nuclear antigen and cyclin D1. The induction of apoptosis was accompanied by a strong inactivation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway by EA. The expression of PI3K and pAkt was down-regulated in EA-treated cells, compared to normal cells. Further, EA promoted the expression of Bax, caspase-3, and cytochrome c, and suppression of Bcl-2 activity in HCT-15 cells that was determined by western blot analysis. Increased annexin V apoptotic cells and DNA fragmentation also accompanied EA-induced apoptosis. In conclusion, EA increased the production of ROS, decreased cell proliferation, and induced apoptosis in HCT-15 cells, and thus can be used as an agent against colon cancer. PMID:25355159

Umesalma, Syed; Nagendraprabhu, Ponnuraj; Sudhandiran, Ganapasam

2015-01-01

208

Esophageal dilations in eosinophilic esophagitis: A single center experience  

PubMed Central

AIM: To diagnose the clinical and histologic features that may be associated with or predictive of the need for dilation and dilation related complications; examine the safety of dilation in patients with eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). METHODS: The medical records of all patients diagnosed with EoE between January 2002 and July 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. Esophageal biopsies were reexamined by an experienced pathologist to confirm the diagnosis (? 15 eos/hpf per current guidelines). Patients were divided into 2 groups: patients who did not receive dilation therapy and those who did. Demographics, clinical history, the use of pharmacologic therapy, endoscopic and pathology findings, and the number of biopsies and dilations carried out, if any, and their locations were recorded for each patient. The dilation group was further examined based on the interval between diagnosis and dilation, and whether or not a complication occurred. RESULTS: Sixty-one patients were identified with EoE and 22 (36%) of them underwent esophageal dilations for stricture/narrowing. The peak eos/hpf was significantly higher in patients who received a dilation (P = 0.04). Four (18% of pts.) minor complications occurred: deep mucosal tear 1, and small mucosal tears 3. There were no cases of esophageal perforations. Higher peak eos/hpf counts were not associated with increased risk of complications. CONCLUSION: Esophageal dilation appears to be a safe procedure in EoE patients, carrying a low complication rate. No correlation was found between the peak of eosinophil count and complication rate. Complications can occur independently of the histologic features. The long-term outcome of EoE treatment, with or without dilation, needs to be determined. PMID:25071351

Ukleja, Andrew; Shiroky, Jennifer; Agarwal, Amitesh; Allende, Daniela

2014-01-01

209

Efficacy of Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy After Surgery in Early Stage of Esophageal Carcinoma;  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Esophageal Neoplasm; Esophageal Cancer TNM Staging Primary Tumor (T) T2; Esophageal Cancer TNM Staging Primary Tumor (T) T3; Esophageal Cancer TNM Staging Regional Lymph Nodes (N) N0; Esophageal Cancer TNM Staging Distal Metastasis (M) M0

2012-12-28

210

Genetic and cellular mechanisms of the formation of Esophageal Atresia and Tracheoesophageal Fistula  

PubMed Central

Foregut separation involves dynamic changes in the activities of signaling pathways and transcription factors. Recent mouse genetic studies demonstrate that some of these pathways interact with each other to form a complex network, leading to a unique dorsal-ventral patterning in the early foregut. In this review we will discuss how this unique dorsal-ventral patterning is set prior to the foregut separation and how disruption of this patterning affects the separation process. We will further discuss the roles of downstream targets of these pathways in regulating separation at cellular and molecular levels. Understanding the mechanism of normal separation process will provide us insights into the pathobiology of a relatively common birth defect Esophageal Atresia (EA) with/without Tracheo-esophageal Fistula (TEF). PMID:23679023

Jacobs, Ian J.; Que, Jianwen

2015-01-01

211

Role of Proton Pump Inhibitor on Esophageal Carcinogenesis and Pancreatic Acinar Cell Metaplasia Development: An Experimental In Vivo Study  

PubMed Central

Chronic gastro-duodenal reflux in the esophagus is a major risk for intestinal metaplasia and Barrett’s adenocarcinoma. A role for chronic use of proton pump inhibitor (PPI) in the increased incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma in Western countries has been previously suggested. The aim of this work was to study the effect of chronic administration of omeprazole (a proton pump inhibitor) per os in a model of reflux induced esophageal carcinogenesis. One week after esophago-gastro-jejunostomy, 115 Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to receive 10 mg/Kg per day of omeprazole or placebo, 5 days per week. The esophago-gastric specimens were collected 28±2 weeks after randomization and analyzed in a blinded fashion. Mortality and esophageal metaplasia rates did not differ between the two groups (p?=?0.99 for mortality, p?=?0.36 for intestinal metaplasia and p?=?0.66 for multi-layered epithelium). Gastric pancreatic acinar cell metaplasia (PACM) was more frequently observed in PPI-treated rats (p?=?0.003). Severe ulcer lesions significantly prevailed in the placebo group (p?=?0.03). Locally invasive esophageal epithelial neoplasia were observed in 23/39 PPI-treated versus 14/42 placebo-animals (p?=?0.03). In conclusion, chronic omeprazole treatment improved the healing of esophageal ulcerative lesions. Locally invasive neoplastic lesions and PACM prevailed among PPI-treated animals. However, neither an effect on the overall mortality nor on the incidence of pre-neoplastic lesions was observed in this work. PMID:25415190

Dall’Olmo, Luigi; Fassan, Matteo; Dassie, Elisa; Scarpa, Marco; Realdon, Stefano; Cavallin, Francesco; Cagol, Matteo; Battaglia, Giorgio; Pizzi, Marco; Guzzardo, Vincenza; Franceschinis, Erica; Pasut, Gianfranco; Rugge, Massimo; Zaninotto, Giovanni; Realdon, Nicola; Castoro, Carlo

2014-01-01

212

Proton Beam Therapy and concurrent chemotherapy for esophageal cancer  

PubMed Central

Purpose/Objective Proton beam therapy (PBT) is a promising modality for the management of thoracic malignancies. We report our preliminary experience of treating esophageal cancer patients with concurrent chemotherapy (CChT) and PBT at MD Anderson Cancer Center. Materials/Methods This is an analysis of 62 esophageal cancer patients enrolled on a prospective study evaluating normal tissue toxicity from CChT/PBT from 2006 to 2010. Patients were treated with Passive Scattering PBT with 2 or 3 field beam arrangement using 180–250 MV protons. We used the method of Kaplan and Meier to assess time to event outcomes and compared the distributions between groups using the log-rank test. Results The median follow-up time was 20.1 months for survivors. The median age was 68 years (range 38–86). Most were males (82%), had adenocarcinomas (76%) and had stage II-III disease (84%). The median radiation dose was 50.4 Gray-Equivalence (Gy(RBE)) (range 36–57.6). The most common grade 2–3 acute toxicities from CChT/PBT were esophagitis (46.8%), fatigue (43.6%), nausea (33.9%), anorexia (30.1%), and radiation dermatitis (16.1%). There were two cases of grade 2 and 3 radiation pneumonitis and two grade 5 toxicities. A total of 29 patients (46.8%) received preoperative CChT/PBT with one postoperative death. The pathologic complete response (pCR) rate for the surgical cohort was 28%, and the pCR and near CR rate (0–1% residual cells) was 50%. While there were significantly fewer local-regional recurrences in the preoperative group (3/29) as compared to the definitive CChT/PBT group (16/33) (log-rank test p=0.005), there were no differences in DM free interval or OS between the two groups. Conclusions This is the first report of patients treated with PBT/CChT for esophageal cancer. Our data suggest that this modality is associated with a few severe toxicities but the pathologic response and clinical outcomes are encouraging. Prospective comparison with more traditional approach is warranted. PMID:22417808

Lin, Steven H.; Komaki, Ritsuko; Liao, Zhongxing; Wei, Caimiao; Myles, Bevan; Guo, Xiaomao; Palmer, Matthew; Mohan, Radhe; Swisher, Stephen G.; Hofstetter, Wayne L.; Ajani, Jaffer A.; Cox, James D.

2014-01-01

213

Proton Beam Therapy and Concurrent Chemotherapy for Esophageal Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Proton beam therapy (PBT) is a promising modality for the management of thoracic malignancies. We report our preliminary experience of treating esophageal cancer patients with concurrent chemotherapy (CChT) and PBT (CChT/PBT) at MD Anderson Cancer Center. Methods and Materials: This is an analysis of 62 esophageal cancer patients enrolled on a prospective study evaluating normal tissue toxicity from CChT/PBT from 2006 to 2010. Patients were treated with passive scattering PBT with two- or three-field beam arrangement using 180 to 250 MV protons. We used the Kaplan-Meier method to assess time-to-event outcomes and compared the distributions between groups using the log-rank test. Results: The median follow-up time was 20.1 months for survivors. The median age was 68 years (range, 38-86). Most patients were males (82%) who had adenocarcinomas (76%) and Stage II-III disease (84%). The median radiation dose was 50.4 Gy (RBE [relative biologic equivalence]) (range, 36-57.6). The most common grade 2 to 3 acute toxicities from CChT/PBT were esophagitis (46.8%), fatigue (43.6%), nausea (33.9%), anorexia (30.1%), and radiation dermatitis (16.1%). There were two cases of grade 2 and 3 radiation pneumonitis and two cases of grade 5 toxicities. A total of 29 patients (46.8%) received preoperative CChT/PBT, with one postoperative death. The pathologic complete response (pCR) rate for the surgical cohort was 28%, and the pCR and near CR rates (0%-1% residual cells) were 50%. While there were significantly fewer local-regional recurrences in the preoperative group (3/29) than in the definitive CChT/PBT group (16/33) (log-rank test, p = 0.005), there were no differences in distant metastatic (DM)-free interval or overall survival (OS) between the two groups. Conclusions: This is the first report of patients treated with PBT/CChT for esophageal cancer. Our data suggest that this modality is associated with a few severe toxicities, but the pathologic response and clinical outcomes are encouraging. Prospective comparison with more traditional approach is warranted.

Lin, Steven H., E-mail: shlin@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Komaki, Ritsuko; Liao Zhongxing [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Wei, Caimiao [Department of Biostatistics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Myles, Bevan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Guo Xiaomao [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fudan University Cancer Hospital, Shanghai (China); Palmer, Matthew [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Mohan, Radhe [Department of Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Swisher, Stephen G.; Hofstetter, Wayne L. [Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Ajani, Jaffer A. [Department of Gastrointestinal Medical Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Cox, James D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

2012-07-01

214

Esophageal atresia: a critical review of management at a single center in Algeria.  

PubMed

The purpose was to study the outcomes and factors affecting the survival of esophageal atresia in our center. A retrospective analysis of 86 cases of esophageal atresia (EA) over a 10-year period was performed with 46 boys and 42 girls. Demographic data, birth weight, gestational age, consanguinity, incidence of associated anomalies, place of delivery, history of feeding, and outcomes were studied. EA with distal tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF) was the commonest type with 58/86 (67%). The percentage of patients with at least one associated anomaly was 52/86 (60%), with 7/86 (8%) who are from consanguineous parents; most commonly associated anomalies were cardiac 13/86 (15%). The average gestational age and birth weight were 36 ± 2 weeks and 2300 ± 570?g, respectively. Survival rates for the patients according to the Waterston classification was 80% in group A, 58% in group B, and 25% in group C (three patients died before surgery). Prematurity, the gap between the two ends of the esophagus, and preoperative respiratory status were the most significant factors affecting the survival. Late complication of EA/TEF include respiratory symptoms, especially in the first year, associating tracheomalacia and bronchopulmonary infections in about 24/45 (53%), recurrence of TEF 3/45 (7%), esophageal stricture 26/45 (58%), and gastroesophageal reflux 22/45 (49%). The high incidence of delayed diagnosis, low birth weight, and lack of advanced neonatological management are important contributory factors to the poor outcome. The frequency of late complications highlights the need for multidisciplinary clinics to follow these children's. PMID:24467412

Bouguermouh, D; Salem, A

2014-01-28

215

Endoscopic Stenting and Clipping for Anastomotic Stricture and Persistent Tracheoesophageal Fistula after Surgical Repair of Esophageal Atresia in an Infant  

PubMed Central

Anastomotic stricture (AS) and recurrent tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF) are two complications of surgical repair of esophageal atresia (EA). Therapeutic endoscopic modalities include stenting, tissue glue, and clipping for TEF and endoscopic balloon dilation bougienage and stenting for esophageal strictures. We report herein a two-month infant with both EA and TEF who benefited from a surgical repair for EA, at the third day of life. Two months later he experienced deglutition disorders and recurrent chest infections. The esophagogram showed an AS and a TEF confirmed with blue methylene test at bronchoscopy. A partially covered self-expanding metal type biliary was endoscopically placed. Ten weeks later the stent was removed. This allows for easy passage of the endoscope in the gastric cavity but a persistent recurrent fistula was noted. Instillation of contrast demonstrated a fully dilated stricture but with a persistent TEF. Then we proceeded to placement of several endoclips at the fistula site. The esophagogram confirmed the TEF was obliterated. At 12 months of follow-up, he was asymptomatic. Stenting was effective to alleviate the stricture but failed to treat the TEF. At our knowledge this is the second case of successful use of endoclips placement to obliterate recurrent TEF after surgical repair of EA in children. PMID:25580132

Benatta, Mohammed Amine; Benaired, Amine; Khelifaoui, Ahmed

2014-01-01

216

Obesity and outcomes in patients treated with chemoradiotherapy for esophageal carcinoma.  

PubMed

Body mass index (BMI) is a risk factor for comorbid illnesses and cancer development. It was hypothesized that obesity status affects disease outcomes and treatment-related toxicities in esophageal cancer patients treated with chemoradiotherapy (CRT). From March 2002 to April 2010, 405 patients with non-metastatic esophageal carcinoma at MD Anderson Cancer Center treated with either definitive or neoadjuvant CRT were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were categorized as either obese (BMI ? 25?kg/m(2) ) or nonobese (BMI < 25?kg/m(2) ). Progression-free survival and overall survival times were examined using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. One hundred fifteen (28.4%) patients were classified as nonobese and 290 (71.6%) as obese. Obese patients were more likely than others to have several comorbid diseases (P < 0.001), adenocarcinoma located distally (P < 0.001), and have undergone surgery (P = 0.004). Obesity was not associated with either worse operative morbidity/mortality (P > 0.05) or worse positron emission tomography tumor response (P = 0.46) on univariate analysis, nor with worse pathologic complete response (P = 0.98) on multivariate analysis. There was also no difference in overall survival, locoregional control, or metastasis-free survival between obese and nonobese patients (P = 0.86). However, higher BMI was associated with reduced risk of chemoradiation-induced high-grade esophagitis (P = 0.021), esophageal stricture (P < 0.001), and high-grade hematologic toxicity (P < 0.001). In esophageal cancer patients treated with CRT, obesity is not predictive of poorer disease outcomes or operative morbidities; instead, data suggest it may be associated with decreased risk of acute chemotherapy- and radiotherapy-related treatment toxicities. PMID:23621168

Wang, J; Myles, B; Wei, C; Chang, J Y; Hofstetter, W L; Ajani, J A; Swisher, S G; Cox, J D; Komaki, R; Liao, Z; Lin, S H

2014-01-01

217

Gamma knife radiosurgery for management of cerebral metastases from esophageal carcinoma.  

PubMed

Esophageal carcinoma rarely results in intracranial metastases but when it does, the patient prognosis is grim. Because of its rarity outcomes after stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) are not known. We sought to evaluate the outcomes of SRS in the management of esophageal cancer that has spread to the brain. This single institution retrospective analysis reviewed our experience with esophageal metastasis from 1987 to 2013. Thirty patients (36 SRS procedures) with a median age of 59 (37-86 years) underwent Gamma knife(®) SRS. The esophageal origin was adenocarcinoma in 26 patients (87%), squamous cell carcinoma in 3 patients (10%), and mixed neuroendocrine carcinoma in 1 patient (3%). Fifteen patients were treated for a single metastasis and 15 patients were treated for multiple metastases for a total of 87 tumors. The median tumor volume was 5.7 cm(3) (0.5-44 cm(3)) with a median marginal dose of 17 Gy (12-20 Gy). The median survival time from the diagnosis of brain metastasis was 8 months and the median survival from SRS was 4.2 months. This corresponded to a 6-month survival of 45% and a 12-month survival of 19% after SRS. A higher KPS at the time of procedure was associated with an increase in survival (p = 0.023). The local tumor control rate in this group was 92%. Four patients had repeat SRS for new metastatic deposits. One patient developed a new neurological deficit after SRS. SRS proved an effective means of providing local control for esophageal metastases to the brain. Concomitant systemic disease progression at the time of brain metastasis resulted in poor long-term survival. PMID:24736828

Bowden, Greg; Kano, Hideyuki; Tempel, Zachary J; Caparosa, Ellen; Monaco, Edward; Niranjan, Ajay; Flickinger, John; Luketich, James D; Lunsford, L Dade

2014-05-01

218

Reduction of E-cadherin by human defensin-5 in esophageal squamous cells.  

PubMed

Barrett's esophagus (BE) is metaplastic columnar epithelium converted from normal squamous epithelia in the distal esophagus that is thought to be a precancerous lesion of esophageal adenocarcinoma. BE is attributed to gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), and therefore gastric acid or bile acids are thought to be factors that cause epithelial cell damage and inflammation in the gastro-esophageal junction. The decrease of adherent junction molecules, E-cadherin has been reported to be associated with the progression of the Barrett's carcinoma, but the initiation of BE is not sufficiently understood. BE is characterized by the presence of goblet cells and occasionally Paneth cells are observed at the base of the crypts. The Paneth cells possess dense granules, in which human antimicrobial peptide human defensin-5 (HD-5) are stored and secreted out of the cells. This study determined the roles of HD-5 produced from metaplastic Paneth cells against adjacent to squamous cells in the gastro-esophageal junction. A human squamous cell line Het-1A, was incubated with the synthetic HD-5 peptide as a model of squamous cell in the gastro-esophageal junctions, and alterations of E-cadherin were investigated. Immunocytochemistry, flowcytometry, and Western blotting showed that the expression of E-cadherin protein was decreased. And a partial recovery from the decrease was observed by treatment with a CD10/neprilysin inhibitor (thiorphan). In conclusion, E-cadherin expression in squamous cells was reduced by HD-5 using in vitro experiments. In gastro-esophageal junction, HD-5 produced from metaplastic Paneth cells may therefore accelerate the initiation of BE. PMID:23958301

Nomura, Yoshiki; Tanabe, Hiroki; Moriichi, Kentaro; Igawa, Satomi; Ando, Katsuyoshi; Ueno, Nobuhiro; Kashima, Shin; Tominaga, Motoya; Goto, Takuma; Inaba, Yuhei; Ito, Takahiro; Ishida-Yamamoto, Akemi; Fujiya, Mikihiro; Kohgo, Yutaka

2013-09-13

219

Unusual presentation of metastatic adenocarcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background The most common tumours of the adrenal gland are adenoma, pheochromocytoma, adrenocortical carcinoma, and metastases. Although the imaging features of these tumours are established, the imaging characteristics of uncommon adrenal masses are less well known. In patients with extradrenal tumour, incidental discovery of an adrenal mass necessitates excluding the possibility of metastatic malignancy. Case presentation A 52 year-old female was diagnosed with oesophageal adenocarcinoma and treated with oesophagectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy. Sixteen months later on staging CT scan a 2 × 2 cm adrenal mass was detected, which increased in size over a period of time to 3 × 3 cm in size. Adrenalectomy was performed and histological examination revealed metastatic adenocarcinoma within an adrenal adenoma. Conclusion The present case highlights the unusual behaviour of an oesophageal adenocarcinoma causing metastasis to an adrenocortical adenoma. PMID:17949483

Bagwan, Izhar N; Cook, Gary; Mudan, Satvinder; Wotherspoon, Andrew

2007-01-01

220

Esophagitis in distressed infants: Poor diagnostic agreement between esophageal pH monitoring and histopathologic findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Our purpose was to study the relation between gastroesophageal reflux (GER) and esophagitis in infants with persistent distress. Study design: Infants (n = 125, 79 boys; median age, 4.2 months) with persistent distress and clinical symptoms suggestive of GER and esophagitis were retrospectively studied. All had undergone esophageal 24-hour pH monitoring and had upper gastrointestinal biopsy specimens taken. Results:

Ralf G. Heine; Donald J. S. Cameron; Chung W. Chow; David J. Hill; Anthony G. Catto-Smith

2002-01-01

221

Nanoscale markers of esophageal field carcinogenesis: potential implications for esophageal cancer screening  

PubMed Central

Background and study aims Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) has a dismal prognosis unless treated early or prevented at the precursor stage of Barrett’s esophagus-associated dysplasia. However, some patients with cancer or dysplastic Barrett’s esophagus (DBE) may not be captured by current screening and surveillance programs. Additional screening techniques are needed to determine who would benefit from endoscopic screening or surveillance. Partial wave spectroscopy (PWS) microscopy (also known as nanocytology) measures the disorder strength (Ld), a statistic that characterizes the spatial distribution of the intracellular mass at the nanoscale level and thus provides insights into the cell nanoscale architecture beyond that which is revealed by conventional microscopy. The aim of the present study was to compare the disorder strength measured by PWS in normal squamous epithelium in the proximal esophagus to determine whether nanoscale architectural differences are detectable in the field area of EAC and Barrett’s esophagus. Methods During endoscopy, proximal esophageal squamous cells were obtained by brushings and were fixed in alcohol and stained with standard hematoxylin and Cyto-Stain. The disorder strength of these sampled squamous cells was determined by PWS. Results A total of 75 patient samples were analyzed, 15 of which were pathologically confirmed as EAC, 13 were DBE, and 15 were non-dysplastic Barrett’s esophagus; 32 of the patients, most of whom had reflux symptoms, acted as controls. The mean disorder strength per patient in cytologically normal squamous cells in the proximal esophagus of patients with EAC was 1.79-times higher than that of controls (P<0.01). Patients with DBE also had a disorder strength 1.63-times higher than controls (P<0.01). Conclusion Intracellular nanoarchitectural changes were found in the proximal squamous epithelium in patients harboring distal EAC and DBE using PWS. Advances in this technology and the biological phenomenon of the field effect of carcinogenesis revealed in this study may lead to a useful tool in non-invasive screening practices in DBE and EAC. PMID:24019132

Konda, Vani JA; Cherkezyan, Lusik; Subramanian, Hariharan; Wroblewski, Kirsten; Damania, Dhwanil; Becker, Valentin; Gonzalez, Mariano Haba Ruiz; Koons, Ann; Goldberg, Michael; Ferguson, Mark K; Waxman, Irving; Roy, Hermant K; Backman, Vadim

2014-01-01

222

[Esophageal mucocele: report of 2 pediatric cases].  

PubMed

Two cases of esophageal mucocele in pediatric patients are reported: two children of 5 and 9 years respectively underwent surgical isolation of the esophagus and esophagocoloplasty for caustic stenosis related to accidental ingestion of caustic soda. Clinical pattern of mediastinal compression was proved with cervical fistulous tract in one case. In both cases, thoracic computed tomography was a sensitive imaging method to demonstrate the mucocele and its extension. Esophageal mucocele is rarely described in children, especially following esophageal corrosive stricture. PMID:11965151

Achour-Arifa, N; Tlili-Graiess, K; El Ouni, F; Mrad-Dali, K; Derbel, F; Yacoubi, M T; Gharbi-Jemni, H; Haj Hmida, R B; Jeddi, M

2002-01-01

223

Brain abscess after esophageal dilatation: case report.  

PubMed

Brain abscess formation is a serious disease often seen as a complication to other diseases and to procedures. A rare predisposing condition is dilatation therapy of esophageal strictures. A case of brain abscess formation after esophageal dilatations is presented. A 59-year-old woman was admitted with malaise, progressive lethargy, fever, aphasia and hemiparesis. Six days before she had been treated with esophageal dilatation for a stricture caused by accidental ingestion of caustic soda. The brain abscess was treated with surgery and antibiotics. She recovered completely. This clinical case illustrates the possible association between therapeutic esophageal dilatation and the risk of brain abscess formation. PMID:17710371

Gaïni, S; Grand, M; Michelsen, J

2008-02-01

224

Corrosive Esophagitis Caused by Ingestion of Picosulfate  

PubMed Central

Corrosive esophagitis is characterized by caustic injury due to the ingestion of chemical agents, mainly alkaline substances such as detergents. Esophageal bleeding, perforation, or stricture can be worsened by high-degree corrosive esophagitis. Picosulfate is a commonly used laxative frequently administered for bowel preparation before colonoscopy or colon surgery. Picosulfate powder should be completely dissolved in water before ingestion because the powder itself may cause chemical burning of the esophagus and stomach. Here, we report a case of corrosive esophagitis due to the ingestion of picosulfate powder that was not completely dissolved in water. PMID:25674529

Seo, Jae Yong; Kang, Ho Suk; Kim, Seong Eun; Park, Ji Won; Moon, Sung Hoon; Kim, Jong Hyeok; Park, Choong Kee

2015-01-01

225

Telomere maintenance in laser capture microdissection-purified Barrett's adenocarcinoma cells and effect of telomerase inhibition in vivo  

PubMed Central

Purpose: The aims of this study were to investigate telomere function in normal and Barrett's esophageal adenocarcinoma (BEAC) cells purified by laser capture microdissection (LCM) and to evaluate the impact of telomerase inhibition in cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Experimental Design: Epithelial cells were purified from surgically resected esophagi. Telomerase activity was measured by modified “Telomeric Repeat Amplification Protocol” and telomere length determined by Real-Time PCR assay. To evaluate the impact of telomerase inhibition, adenocarcinoma cell lines were continuously treated with a specific telomerase inhibitor (GRN163L) and live cell number determined weekly. Apoptosis was evaluated by annexin labeling and senescence by beta-galactosidase staining. For in vivo studies, SCID-mice were subcutaneously inoculated with adenocarcinoma cells and following appearance of palpable tumors, injected intraperitoneally with saline or GRN163L. Results: Telomerase activity was significantly elevated whereas telomeres were shorter in BEAC cells relative to normal esophageal epithelial cells. The treatment of adenocarcinoma cells with telomerase inhibitor, GRN163L, led to loss of telomerase activity, reduction in telomere length, and growth arrest through induction of both the senescence and apoptosis. GRN163L induced cell death could also be expedited by addition of chemotherapeutic agents, doxorubicin and ritonavir. Finally, the treatment with GRN163L led to a significant reduction in tumor volume in a subcutaneous tumor model. Conclusions: We show that telomerase activity is significantly elevated whereas telomeres are shorter in BEAC and suppression of telomerase inhibits proliferation of adenocarcinoma cells both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:18676772

Shammas, Masood A; Qazi, Aamer; Batchu, Ramesh B; Bertheau, Robert C; Wong, Jason YY; Rao, Manjula Y; Prasad, Madhu; Chanda, Diptiman; Ponnazhagan, Selvarangan; Anderson, Kenneth C; Steffes, Christopher P; Munshi, Nikhil C; De Vivo, Immaculata; Beer, David G.; Gryaznov, Sergei; Weaver, Donald W; Goyal, Raj K

2009-01-01

226

Esophageal Stenosis Associated With Tumor Regression in Radiotherapy for Esophageal Cancer: Frequency and Prediction  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine clinical factors for predicting the frequency and severity of esophageal stenosis associated with tumor regression in radiotherapy for esophageal cancer. Methods and Materials: The study group consisted of 109 patients with esophageal cancer of T1-4 and Stage I-III who were treated with definitive radiotherapy and achieved a complete response of their primary lesion at Kyushu University Hospital between January 1998 and December 2007. Esophageal stenosis was evaluated using esophagographic images within 3 months after completion of radiotherapy. We investigated the correlation between esophageal stenosis after radiotherapy and each of the clinical factors with regard to tumors and therapy. For validation of the correlative factors for esophageal stenosis, an artificial neural network was used to predict the esophageal stenotic ratio. Results: Esophageal stenosis tended to be more severe and more frequent in T3-4 cases than in T1-2 cases. Esophageal stenosis in cases with full circumference involvement tended to be more severe and more frequent than that in cases without full circumference involvement. Increases in wall thickness tended to be associated with increases in esophageal stenosis severity and frequency. In the multivariate analysis, T stage, extent of involved circumference, and wall thickness of the tumor region were significantly correlated to esophageal stenosis (p = 0.031, p < 0.0001, and p = 0.0011, respectively). The esophageal stenotic ratio predicted by the artificial neural network, which learned these three factors, was significantly correlated to the actual observed stenotic ratio, with a correlation coefficient of 0.864 (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Our study suggested that T stage, extent of involved circumference, and esophageal wall thickness of the tumor region were useful to predict the frequency and severity of esophageal stenosis associated with tumor regression in radiotherapy for esophageal cancer.

Atsumi, Kazushige [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Shioyama, Yoshiyuki, E-mail: shioyama@radiol.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Arimura, Hidetaka [Department of Health Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Terashima, Kotaro [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Matsuki, Takaomi [Department of Health Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Ohga, Saiji; Yoshitake, Tadamasa; Nonoshita, Takeshi; Tsurumaru, Daisuke; Ohnishi, Kayoko; Asai, Kaori; Matsumoto, Keiji [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Nakamura, Katsumasa [Department of Radiology, Kyushu University Hospital at Beppu, Oita (Japan); Honda, Hiroshi [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)

2012-04-01

227

Esophageal inflammatory pseudotumor mimicking malignancy.  

PubMed

A 54-year-old man with a complaint of dysphagia was found to have a prominent stricture in the proximal esophagus. A biopsy of the stenotic area indicated sarcoma, leading to subtotal esophagectomy. The surgically removed esophagus demonstrated a well-defined intramural mass, consisting of a mixture of fibroblastic cells with bland cytological appearances and inflammatory cells. Reflux esophagitis which was present distal to the stricture seemed to play a role in the development of this inflammatory pseudotumor. PMID:11201363

Kurihara, K; Mizuseki, K; Ichikawa, M; Okada, K; Miyata, Y

2001-01-01

228

Distal esophageal spasm: an update.  

PubMed

Distal esophageal spasm (DES) is an esophageal motility disorder that presents clinically with chest pain and/or dysphagia and is defined manometrically as simultaneous contractions in the distal (smooth muscle) esophagus in ?20% of wet swallows (and amplitude contraction of ?30 mmHg) alternating with normal peristalsis. With the introduction of high resolution esophageal pressure topography (EPT) in 2000, the definition of DES was modified. The Chicago classification proposed that the defining criteria for DES using EPT should be the presence of at least two premature contractions (distal latency<4.5 s) in a context of normal EGJ relaxation. The etiology of DES remains insufficiently understood, but evidence links nitric oxide (NO) deficiency as a culprit resulting in a disordered neural inhibition. GERD frequently coexists in DES, and its role in the pathogenesis of symptoms needs further evaluation. There is some evidence from small series that DES can progress to achalasia. Treatment remains challenging due in part to lack of randomized placebo-controlled trials. Current treatment agents include nitrates (both short and long acting), calcium-channel blockers, anticholinergic agents, 5-phosphodiesterase inhibitors, visceral analgesics (tricyclic agents or SSRI), and esophageal dilation. Acid suppression therapy is frequently used, but clinical outcome trials to support this approach are not available. Injection of botulinum toxin in the distal esophagus may be effective, but further data regarding the development of post-injection gastroesophageal reflux need to be assessed. Heller myotomy combined with fundoplication remains an alternative for the rare refractory patient. Preliminary studies suggest that the newly developed endoscopic technique of per oral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) may also be an alternative treatment modality. PMID:23892829

Achem, Sami R; Gerson, Lauren B

2013-09-01

229

Spontaneous esophageal-pleural fistula.  

PubMed

Spontaneous esophageal-pleural fistula (EPF) is a rare entity. We describe a case in a middle-aged female who presented with severe retrosternal chest pain and shortness of breadth. Chest computed tomography showed right EPF and hydropneumothorax. She was managed conservatively keeping the chest tube drainage and performing feeding jejunostomy. A brief review of the imaging finding and management of EPF is discussed. PMID:22084548

Vyas, Sameer; Prakash, Mahesh; Kaman, Lileshwar; Bhardwaj, Nidhi; Khandelwal, Niranjan

2011-10-01

230

Spontaneous esophageal-pleural fistula  

PubMed Central

Spontaneous esophageal-pleural fistula (EPF) is a rare entity. We describe a case in a middle-aged female who presented with severe retrosternal chest pain and shortness of breadth. Chest computed tomography showed right EPF and hydropneumothorax. She was managed conservatively keeping the chest tube drainage and performing feeding jejunostomy. A brief review of the imaging finding and management of EPF is discussed. PMID:22084548

Vyas, Sameer; Prakash, Mahesh; Kaman, Lileshwar; Bhardwaj, Nidhi; Khandelwal, Niranjan

2011-01-01

231

De Novo Deletion of Chromosome 20q13.33 in a Patient with Tracheo-esophageal Fistula, Cardiac Defects and Genitourinary Anomalies Implicates GTPBP5 as a Candidate Gene  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Tracheo-esophageal fistula (TEF) with/or without esophageal atresia (EA) is a common congenital malformation that is often accompanied by other anomalies. The causes of this condition are thought to be heterogeneous but are overall not well understood. CASE REPORT We identified a patient with a TEF/EA, as well as cardiac and genitourinary anomalies, who was found to have a 0.7 Mb de novo deletion of chromosome 20q13.33. One gene within the deleted interval, GTPBP5, is of particular interest as a candidate gene. CONCLUSIONS GTPBP5 bears further study as a cause of TEF/EA accompanied by other malformations. Birth Defects Research (Part A) 2011. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:21608104

Solomon, Benjamin D; Pineda–Alvarez, Daniel E; Hadley, Donald W; Keaton, Amelia A; Agochukwu, Nneamaka B; Raam, Manu S; Carlson–Donohoe, Hannah E; Kamat, Aparna; Chandrasekharappa, Settara C

2011-01-01

232

Epidemiological studies of esophageal cancer in the era of genome-wide association studies  

PubMed Central

Esophageal cancer (EC) caused about 395000 deaths in 2010. China has the most cases of EC and EC is the fourth leading cause of cancer death in China. Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is the predominant histologic type (90%-95%), while the incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) remains extremely low in China. Traditional epidemiological studies have revealed that environmental carcinogens are risk factors for EC. Molecular epidemiological studies revealed that susceptibility to EC is influenced by both environmental and genetic risk factors. Of all the risk factors for EC, some are associated with the risk of ESCC and others with the risk of EAC. However, the details and mechanisms of risk factors involved in the process for EC are unclear. The advanced methods and techniques used in human genome studies bring a great opportunity for researchers to explore and identify the details of those risk factors or susceptibility genes involved in the process of EC. Human genome epidemiology is a new branch of epidemiology, which leads the epidemiology study from the molecular epidemiology era to the era of genome wide association studies (GWAS). Here we review the epidemiological studies of EC (especially ESCC) in the era of GWAS, and provide an overview of the general risk factors and those genomic variants (genes, SNPs, miRNAs, proteins) involved in the process of ESCC. PMID:25133033

Wang, An-Hui; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Bo; He, Yi-Xuan; Fang, Ye-Xian; Yan, Yong-Ping

2014-01-01

233

Association of Promoter Methylation of RUNX3 Gene with the Development of Esophageal Cancer: A Meta Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Runt-related transcription factor 3 (RUNX3) is a member of the runt-domain family of transcription factors. Emerging evidence indicates that RUNX3 is a tumor suppressor gene in several types of human cancers including esophageal cancer. However, the association between RUNX3 promoter methylation and esophageal cancer remains unclear. Here we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to quantitatively evaluate the effects of RUNX3 promoter methylation on the incidence of esophageal cancer. Methods A detailed literature search was made on Medline, Pubmed and Web of Science for related research publications written in English and/or Chinese. Methodological quality of the studies was also evaluated. The data were extracted and assessed by two reviewers independently. Analysis of pooled data were performed, the odds ratios (OR) were calculated and summarized respectively. Results Final analysis of 558 patients from 9 eligible studies was performed. The result showed that RUNX3 methylation was significantly higher in esophageal cancer than in normal squamous mucosa from the proximal resection margin or esophageal benign lesions (OR?=?2.85, CI?=?2.01–4.05, P<0.00001). The prevalence of lymph node involvement, tumor size (T1–T2 vs T3–T4) and histological grade was significantly greater in RUNX3-negative cases (RUNX3 unmethylated groups) than in RUNX3-positive cases (OR?=?0.25, CI?=?0.14–0.43, P<0.00001). RUNX3 methylation was significantly higher in esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) than Barrett’s esophagus (OR?=?0.35, CI?=?0.20–0.59, P<0.0001). In addition, the pooled HR for overall survival (OS) showed that decreased RUNX3 expression was associated with worse survival in esophageal cancer (HR?=?4.31, 95% CI?=?2.57–7.37, P<0.00001). Conclusions The results of this meta-analysis suggest that RUNX3 methylation is associated with an increased risk, progression as well as worse survival in esophageal cancer. RUNX3 methylation, which induces the inactivation of RUNX3 gene, plays an important role in esophageal carcinogenesis. PMID:25229459

Wang, Yi; Qin, Xiuguang; Wu, Jieqing; Qi, Bo; Tao, Yipeng; Wang, Wenju; Liu, Fulei; Li, Hanchen; Zhao, Baosheng

2014-01-01

234

EA Shuttle Document Retention Effort  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the effort of code EA at Johnson Space Center (JSC) to identify and acquire databases and documents from the space shuttle program that are adjudged important for retention after the retirement of the space shuttle.

Wagner, Howard A.

2010-01-01

235

A Systematic Review of the Risk of Perforation During Esophageal Dilation for Patients with Eosinophilic Esophagitis  

PubMed Central

Background Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is associated with tissue remodeling that can result in esophageal mucosal fragility, and esophageal dilation for patients with EoE is known to cause painful mucosal lacerations. Clinicians have been admonished that patients with EoE may be exceptionally predisposed to perforation with esophageal dilation, a notion supported primarily by case reports. We have conducted a systematic review of literature on esophageal dilation in EoE in an attempt to better define the risk of perforation. Methods We searched PubMed and abstracts presented at the annual scientific meetings of the American Gastroenterological Association and the American College of Gastroenterology to identify reports on esophageal dilation in EoE. We analyzed reports meeting the following criteria: (1) the diagnosis was established from esophageal biopsy specimens revealing ?15 eosinophils/hpf, (2) esophageal dilation was described, (3) esophageal perforations described were the result of esophageal dilation. Results We identified 18 reports for inclusion in our systematic review. The studies comprised 468 patients who underwent a total of 671 endoscopic dilations. Esophageal mucosal tears were described in most cases, but there was only one perforation among the 671 dilations (0.1%). Conclusions Our systematic review does not reveal an inordinate frequency of esophageal perforation from dilation in patients with EoE, and it is not clear that dilation is any more hazardous for patients with EoE than for patients with other causes of esophageal stricture. Although esophageal dilation must be performed with caution in all patients, the risk of perforation in EoE appears to have been exaggerated. PMID:20238250

Jacobs, John William

2011-01-01

236

Structural and numerical changes of chromosome X in patients with esophageal atresia.  

PubMed

Esophageal atresia with or without tracheoesophageal fistula (EA/TEF) is a relatively common birth defect often associated with additional congenital anomalies such as vertebral, anal, cardiovascular, renal and limb defects, the so-called VACTERL association. Yet, little is known about the causal genetic factors. Rare case reports of gastrointestinal anomalies in children with triple X syndrome prompted us to survey the incidence of structural and numerical changes of chromosome X in patients with EA/TEF. All available (n=269) karyotypes of our large (321) EA/TEF patient cohort were evaluated for X-chromosome anomalies. If sufficient DNA material was available, we determined genome-wide copy number profiles with SNP array and identified subtelomeric aberrations on the difficult to profile PAR1 region using telomere-multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. In addition, we investigated X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) patterns and mode of inheritance of detected aberrations in selected patients. Three EA/TEF patients had an additional maternally inherited X chromosome. These three female patients had normal random XCI patterns. Two male EA/TEF patients had small inherited duplications of the XY-linked SHOX (Short stature HOmeoboX-containing) locus. Patients were small for gestational age at birth (EA/TEF and no duplications of the SHOX gene were reported so far in these patients. As normal patterns of XCI were seen, overexpression of X-linked genes that escape XCI, such as the SHOX gene, could be pathogenic by disturbing developmental pathways. PMID:24398799

Brosens, Erwin; de Jong, Elisabeth M; Barakat, Tahsin Stefan; Eussen, Bert H; D'haene, Barbara; De Baere, Elfride; Verdin, Hannah; Poddighe, Pino J; Galjaard, Robert-Jan; Gribnau, Joost; Brooks, Alice S; Tibboel, Dick; de Klein, Annelies

2014-09-01

237

Unusual Presentation of a Metastatic Esophageal Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Esophageal cancer most commonly presents with upper digestive symptoms such as dysphagia. Lymph nodes are among the most common metastatic sites of this type of cancer. We report the case of a 53-year-old man presenting with unusual sole presenting features of esophageal cancer. The patient sought medical attention for abdominal pain without dysphagia, which was first investigated with an abdominal computed tomography scan. A large abdominal mass was discovered on imaging. Biopsies of this mass were in keeping with esophageal squamous cell cancer. With this finding, gastroscopy was performed, confirming the presence of primary esophageal cancer. This is a rare presentation of esophageal cancer without upper gastrointestinal symptoms. This case reinforces the value of biopsy for any neoplastic mass, especially in a context of unusual symptoms. PMID:22679417

Orlicka, Katarzyna; Maynard, Stéphanie; Bouin, Mickael

2012-01-01

238

Survival Effect of Neoadjuvant Radiotherapy Before Esophagectomy for Patients With Esophageal Cancer: A Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End-Results Study  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The role of neoadjuvant radiotherapy (NeoRT) before definitive surgery for esophageal cancer remains controversial. This study used a large population-based database to assess the effect of NeoRT on survival for patients treated with definitive surgery. Methods and Materials: The overall survival (OS) and cause-specific survival for patients with Stage T2-T4, any N, M0 (cT2-T4M0) esophageal cancer who had undergone definitive surgery between 1998 and 2004 were analyzed by querying the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End-Results database. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were generated and univariate comparisons were made using the log-rank test. Cox proportional hazards survival regression multivariate analysis was performed with NeoRT, T stage (T2 vs. T3-T4), pathologic nodal status (pN0 vs. pN1), number of nodes dissected (>10 vs. {<=}10), histologic type (adenocarcinoma vs. squamous cell carcinoma), age (<65 vs. {>=}65 years), and gender as covariates. Results: A total of 1,033 patients were identified. Of these, 441 patients received NeoRT and 592 underwent esophagectomy alone; 77% were men, 67% had adenocarcinoma, and 72% had Stage T3-T4 disease. The median OS and cause-specific survival were both significantly greater for patients who received NeoRT compared with esophagectomy alone (27 vs. 18 months and 35 vs. 21 months, respectively, p <0.0001). The 3-year OS rate was also significantly greater in the NeoRT group (43% vs. 30%). On multivariate analysis, NeoRT, age <65 years, adenocarcinoma histologic type, female gender, pN0 status, >10 nodes dissected, and Stage T2 disease were all independently correlated with increased OS. Conclusion: These results support the use of NeoRT for patients with esophageal cancer. Prospective studies are needed to confirm these results.

Schwer, Amanda L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Aurora, Colorado (United States)], E-mail: amanda.schwer@uchsc.edu; Ballonoff, Ari; McCammon, Robert; Rusthoven, Kyle [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Aurora, Colorado (United States); D'Agostino, Ralph B. [Department of Biostatistical Science, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Schefter, Tracey E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Aurora, Colorado (United States)

2009-02-01

239

Genome profiling of pancreatic adenocarcinoma.  

PubMed

Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is one of the most aggressive human cancers. It displays many different chromosomal abnormalities and mutations. By using 244 K high-resolution array-comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) we studied the genome alterations of 39 fine-needle aspirations from pancreatic adenocarcinoma and eight human adenocarcinoma pancreatic cell lines. Using both visual inspection and GISTIC analysis, recurrent losses were observed on 1p, 3p, 4p, 6, 8p, 9, 10, 11q, 15q, 17, 18, 19p, 20p, 21, and 22 and comprised several known or suspected tumor suppressor genes such as ARHGEF10, ARID1A, CDKN2A/B, FHIT, PTEN, RB1, RUNX1-3, SMAD4, STK11/LKB1, TP53, and TUSC3. Heterozygous deletion of the 1p35-p36 chromosomal region was identified in one-third of the tumors and three of the cell lines. This region, commonly deleted in human cancers, contains several tumor suppressor genes including ARID1A and RUNX3. We identified frequent genetic gains on chromosome arms 1q, 3q, 5p, 6p, 7q, 8q, 12q, 15q, 18q, 19q, and 20q. Amplifications were observed in 16 tumors. AKT2, CCND3, CDK4, FOXA2, GATA6, MDM2, MYC, and SMURF1 genes were gained or amplified. The most obvious amplification was located at 18q11.2 and targeted the GATA6 gene, which plays a predominant role in the initial specification of the pancreas and in pancreatic cell type differentiation. In conclusion, we have identified novel biomarkers and potential therapeutic targets in pancreatic adenocarcinoma. PMID:21412932

Birnbaum, David J; Adélaïde, José; Mamessier, Emilie; Finetti, Pascal; Lagarde, Arnaud; Monges, Geneviève; Viret, Frédéric; Gonçalvès, Anthony; Turrini, Olivier; Delpero, Jean-Robert; Iovanna, Juan; Giovannini, Marc; Birnbaum, Daniel; Chaffanet, Max

2011-06-01

240

Adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix.  

PubMed

In Finland, the incidence of cervical cancer has shown a decreasing tendency since the 1960s. The same trend, however, has not been noticed in the incidence of cervical adenocarcinoma. The reason for this is not known, although many studies have shown differences in the cause, epidemiology, and biology of the epidermoid and adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix. A total of 106 new patients with cervical adenocarcinoma were treated at our institution from 1976 to 1980, which represents 20.4% of all cervical carcinomas treated. The mean age of the patients was 58.1 years (range, 29 to 82 years) and the peak incidence was in the group 60 to 69 years of age. Most of the patients were postmenopausal (71.7%) and the main symptom was abnormal vaginal bleeding (78.3%). The proportion of Stage I was 61.3%. Combined operative and radiation therapy was used in 74.5% of the patients. The overall 5-year survival rate was 65.1% (corrected 74.5%), which did not differ from that of patients with squamous cell carcinoma. The most significant prognostic factors were the size of the tumor, presence of pelvic lymph node metastases, and the stage of the disease. PMID:2293870

Leminen, A; Paavonen, J; Forss, M; Wahlström, T; Vesterinen, E

1990-01-01

241

Endoscopic management of esophageal varices  

PubMed Central

The rupture of gastric varices results in variceal hemorrhage, which is one the most lethal complications of cirrhosis. Endoscopic therapies for varices aim to reduce variceal wall tension by obliteration of the varix. The two principal methods available for esophageal varices are endoscopic sclerotherapy (EST) and band ligation (EBL). The advantages of EST are that it is cheap and easy to use, and the injection catheter fits through the working channel of a diagnostic gastroscope. Endoscopic variceal ligation obliterates varices by causing mechanical strangulation with rubber bands. The following review aims to describe the utility of EBL and EST in different situations, such as acute bleeding, primary and secondary prophylaxis PMID:22816012

Poza Cordon, Joaquin; Froilan Torres, Consuelo; Burgos García, Aurora; Gea Rodriguez, Francisco; Suárez de Parga, Jose Manuel

2012-01-01

242

Endoscopic management of esophageal varices.  

PubMed

The rupture of gastric varices results in variceal hemorrhage, which is one the most lethal complications of cirrhosis. Endoscopic therapies for varices aim to reduce variceal wall tension by obliteration of the varix. The two principal methods available for esophageal varices are endoscopic sclerotherapy (EST) and band ligation (EBL). The advantages of EST are that it is cheap and easy to use, and the injection catheter fits through the working channel of a diagnostic gastroscope. Endoscopic variceal ligation obliterates varices by causing mechanical strangulation with rubber bands. The following review aims to describe the utility of EBL and EST in different situations, such as acute bleeding, primary and secondary prophylaxis. PMID:22816012

Poza Cordon, Joaquin; Froilan Torres, Consuelo; Burgos García, Aurora; Gea Rodriguez, Francisco; Suárez de Parga, Jose Manuel

2012-07-16

243

Esophageal motility abnormalities in gastroesophageal reflux disease  

PubMed Central

Esophageal motility abnormalities are among the main factors implicated in the pathogenesis of gastroesophageal reflux disease. The recent introduction in clinical and research practice of novel esophageal testing has markedly improved our understanding of the mechanisms contributing to the development of gastroesophageal reflux disease, allowing a better management of patients with this disorder. In this context, the present article intends to provide an overview of the current literature about esophageal motility dysfunctions in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease. Esophageal manometry, by recording intraluminal pressure, represents the gold standard to diagnose esophageal motility abnormalities. In particular, using novel techniques, such as high resolution manometry with or without concurrent intraluminal impedance monitoring, transient lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxations, hypotensive LES, ineffective esophageal peristalsis and bolus transit abnormalities have been better defined and strongly implicated in gastroesophageal reflux disease development. Overall, recent findings suggest that esophageal motility abnormalities are increasingly prevalent with increasing severity of reflux disease, from non-erosive reflux disease to erosive reflux disease and Barrett’s esophagus. Characterizing esophageal dysmotility among different subgroups of patients with reflux disease may represent a fundamental approach to properly diagnose these patients and, thus, to set up the best therapeutic management. Currently, surgery represents the only reliable way to restore the esophagogastric junction integrity and to reduce transient LES relaxations that are considered to be the predominant mechanism by which gastric contents can enter the esophagus. On that ground, more in depth future studies assessing the pathogenetic role of dysmotility in patients with reflux disease are warranted. PMID:24868489

Martinucci, Irene; de Bortoli, Nicola; Giacchino, Maria; Bodini, Giorgia; Marabotto, Elisa; Marchi, Santino; Savarino, Vincenzo; Savarino, Edoardo

2014-01-01

244

47 CFR 11.61 - Tests of EAS procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Tests of EAS procedures. 11.61 Section 11.61 ...COMMISSION GENERAL EMERGENCY ALERT SYSTEM (EAS) Tests § 11.61 Tests of EAS procedures. (a) EAS Participants...

2014-10-01

245

Ordering of mutations in preinvasive disease stages of esophageal carcinogenesis.  

PubMed

Cancer genome sequencing studies have identified numerous driver genes, but the relative timing of mutations in carcinogenesis remains unclear. The gradual progression from premalignant Barrett's esophagus to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) provides an ideal model to study the ordering of somatic mutations. We identified recurrently mutated genes and assessed clonal structure using whole-genome sequencing and amplicon resequencing of 112 EACs. We next screened a cohort of 109 biopsies from 2 key transition points in the development of malignancy: benign metaplastic never-dysplastic Barrett's esophagus (NDBE; n=66) and high-grade dysplasia (HGD; n=43). Unexpectedly, the majority of recurrently mutated genes in EAC were also mutated in NDBE. Only TP53 and SMAD4 mutations occurred in a stage-specific manner, confined to HGD and EAC, respectively. Finally, we applied this knowledge to identify high-risk Barrett's esophagus in a new non-endoscopic test. In conclusion, mutations in EAC driver genes generally occur exceptionally early in disease development with profound implications for diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. PMID:24952744

Weaver, Jamie M J; Ross-Innes, Caryn S; Shannon, Nicholas; Lynch, Andy G; Forshew, Tim; Barbera, Mariagnese; Murtaza, Muhammed; Ong, Chin-Ann J; Lao-Sirieix, Pierre; Dunning, Mark J; Smith, Laura; Smith, Mike L; Anderson, Charlotte L; Carvalho, Benilton; O'Donovan, Maria; Underwood, Timothy J; May, Andrew P; Grehan, Nicola; Hardwick, Richard; Davies, Jim; Oloumi, Arusha; Aparicio, Sam; Caldas, Carlos; Eldridge, Matthew D; Edwards, Paul A W; Rosenfeld, Nitzan; Tavaré, Simon; Fitzgerald, Rebecca C

2014-08-01

246

Updates on esophageal and gastric cancers  

PubMed Central

Esophageal and gastric cancers are both common and deadly. Patients present most often after disease progression and survival is therefore poor. Due to demographic variability and recent changes in disease incidence, much emphasis has been placed on studying risk factors for both esophageal and gastric cancers. However, with increasing understanding of these diseases, low survival rates persist and continued intensive studies are necessary to optimize treatment plans. This review article discusses updates in the evolving epidemiology, clinical presentation, risk factors, and diagnostic and treatment modalities of esophageal and gastric cancers. PMID:16718845

Gallo, Amy; Cha, Charles

2006-01-01

247

Esophageal melanocytosis in oral opium consumption.  

PubMed

Esophageal melanocytosis is a rare and benign condition, characterized by melanocytic proliferation of the esophageal squamous epithelium with heavy melanin deposition. The etiology and pathogenesis has not been exactly known but it seems to be a chronic stimulus such as gastroesophageal reflux. This condition is very rare and about 35 cases have been reported so far, most of which have been from India and Japan. Herein, we present a case of esophageal melanocytosis in a patient with long history of oral opium consumption. To the best of our knowledge, such a history has not been reported. PMID:24719715

Geramizadeh, Bita; Asadian, Fatemeh; Taghavi, Alireza

2014-01-01

248

Resection of esophageal carcinoma during pregnancy.  

PubMed

Esophageal carcinoma diagnosed during pregnancy is a rare occurrence. A 26-year-old pregnant patient was referred to our hospital with dysphagia. A thorough examination showed a tumor in the esophagus. Laparotomy, thoracotomy, and cervical exploration were performed. There are only 2 cases reported in the literature about esophageal carcinoma diagnosed during pregnancy and treated surgically. However, ethical dilemmas arise in managing such situations. Here we report a case of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma diagnosed at 27 weeks of gestation in which surgical resection was performed successfully. PMID:25555961

?ahin, Murat; Kocaman, Gökhan; Özkan, Murat; Yüksel, Cabir; Enön, Serkan; Kutlay, Hakan

2015-01-01

249

Inhibition of Notch signaling enhances transdifferentiation of the esophageal squamous epithelium towards a Barrett's-like metaplasia via KLF4.  

PubMed

Barrett's esophagus (BE) is defined as an incomplete intestinal metaplasia characterized generally by the presence of columnar and goblet cells in the formerly stratified squamous epithelium of the esophagus. BE is known as a precursor for esophageal adenocarcinoma. Currently, the cell of origin for human BE has yet to be clearly identified. Therefore, we investigated the role of Notch signaling in the initiation of BE metaplasia. Affymetrix gene expression microarray revealed that BE samples express decreased levels of Notch receptors (NOTCH2 and NOTCH3) and one of the the ligands (JAG1). Furthermore, BE tissue microarray showed decreased expression of NOTCH1 and its downstream target HES1. Therefore, Notch signaling was inhibited in human esophageal epithelial cells by expression of dominant-negative-Mastermind-like (dnMAML), in concert with MYC and CDX1 overexpression. Cell transdifferentiation was then assessed by 3D organotypic culture and evaluation of BE-lineage specific gene expression. Notch inhibition promoted transdifferentiation of esophageal epithelial cells toward columnar-like cells as demonstrated by increased expression of columnar keratins (K8, K18, K19, K20) and glandular mucins (MUC2, MUC3B, MUC5B, MUC17) and decreased expression of squamous keratins (K5, K13, K14). In 3D culture, elongated cells were observed in the basal layer of the epithelium with Notch inhibition. Furthermore, we observed increased expression of KLF4, a potential driver of the changes observed by Notch inhibition. Interestingly, knockdown of KLF4 reversed the effects of Notch inhibition on BE-like metaplasia. Overall, Notch signaling inhibition promotes transdifferentiation of esophageal cells toward BE-like metaplasia in part via upregulation of KLF4. These results support a novel mechanism through which esophageal epithelial transdifferentiation promotes the evolution of BE. PMID:25558829

Vega, Maria E; Giroux, Véronique; Natsuizaka, Mitsuteru; Liu, Mingen; Klein-Szanto, Andres J; Stairs, Douglas B; Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Wang, Kenneth K; Wang, Timothy C; Lynch, John P; Rustgi, Anil K

2014-12-15

250

Nuclear Nano-architecture Markers of Gastric Cardia and Upper Squamous Esophagus Detect Esophageal Cancer “Field Effect”  

PubMed Central

Background: Barrett's esophagus (BE) affects up to 12 million Americans and confers an increased risk for development of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). EAC is often fatal unless detected early. Given the high prevalence, high cost of surveillance and relatively low risk of most affected individuals, identification of high-risk patients for additional scrutiny, regular surveillance, or ablative therapy is crucial. The exploration of “field effect” by probing uninvolved esophageal mucosa to predict the risk of EAC has the potential as an improved surveillance and prevention strategy. In this study, we evaluate the ability of nuclear nano-architecture markers from normal squamous esophagus and gastric cardia to detect the “field effect” of esophageal dysplasia and EAC, and their response to endoscopic therapy. Methods: Patients with normal esophagus, gastroesophageal reflux, BE and EAC were eligible for enrollment. We performed endoscopic cytology brushings of the gastric cardia, ~1-2 cm below the gastroesophageal junction, and of the normal squamous esophageal mucosa at ~20 cm from the incisors and standard cytology slides were made using Thinprep method. Optical analysis was performed on the cell nuclei of cytologically normal-appearing epithelial cells. Results: The study cohort consisted of 128 patients. The nuclear nano-architecture markers detected the presence of esophageal dysplasia and EAC with statistical significance. The field effect does not exhibit a spatial dependence. These markers reverted toward normal in response to endoscopic therapy. Conclusions: Optical analysis of gastric cardia and upper squamous esophagus represents a potentially viable method to improve risk stratification and ease of surveillance of patients with Barrett's esophagus and to monitor the efficacy of ablative therapy. PMID:24155774

Fasanella, Kenneth E.; Bista, Rajan K.; Staton, Kevin; Rizvi, Sumera; Uttam, Shikhar; Zhao, Chengquan; Sepulveda, Antonia; Brand, Randall E.; McGrath, Kevin; Liu, Yang

2013-01-01

251

A Case of Esophageal Intramural Pseudodiverticulosis  

PubMed Central

Esophageal intramural pseudodiverticulosis (EIP) is a rare benign disease that is characterized by multiple tiny flask-shaped outpouching lesions of the esophageal wall. The etiology is unknown, but the pathologic findings include dilatation of excretory ducts of submucosal glands. The predominant symptom is dysphagia, and esophageal stricture occurs frequently. Diseases such as diabetes mellitus, esophageal candidiasis, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and chronic alcoholism are often combined. Since most EIP cases are benign, the mainstream treatment is symptom relief by endoscopic dilatation or medical treatment of accompanied diseases. This report describes the case of a 68-year-old male patient who suffered from chest tightness for 2 months and was diagnosed with EIP. This symptom disappeared after 2 months of medical treatment, and the patient is now being regularly followed up. PMID:21461080

Chon, Young Eun; Hwang, Sena; Jung, Kyu Sik; Lee, Hyun Jung; Lee, Sang Gil; Shin, Sung Kwan

2011-01-01

252

Resection for Esophageal Cancer in the Elderly  

PubMed Central

This article will focus on the impact of patient age on outcomes following esophageal resection as well as potential strategies to improve perioperative management of geriatric patients undergoing esophagectomy for cancer. PMID:20066945

Chang, Andrew C.; Lee, Julia S.

2009-01-01

253

Esophageal manometry in 95 healthy adult volunteers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although esophageal manometry is widely used in clinical practice, the normal range of esophageal contraction parameters is poorly defined. Therefore, 95 healthy volunteers (mean age: 43 years; range 22–79 years) were studied with a low-compliance infusion system and 4.5-mm-diameter catheter. All subjects were given 10 wet swallows (5 cc H2O) and 38 subjects also were given 10 dry swallows. Results:

Joel E. Richter; Wallace C. Wu; Doree N. Johns; John N. Blackwell; Joseph L. Nelson; June A. Castell; Donald O. Castell

1987-01-01

254

Role of diagnostic tests in esophageal evaluation  

SciTech Connect

In the evaluation of esophageal disease, the appropriate question must be asked before the correct tests can be selected. Reflux can be demonstrated by radiologic methods, pH testing or radioisotopic techniques. Esophageal mucosal damage is best evaluated by x-ray, endoscopy, or biopsy. Chest pain is demonstrated by acid infusion or by manometry. Two algorithms are presented for the evaluation of chest pain and reflux symptoms.

Silverstein, B.D.; Pope, C.E. II

1980-06-01

255

Chronic xerostomia increases esophageal acid exposure and is associated with esophageal injury  

SciTech Connect

OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of chronic xerostomia on parameters of gastroesophageal reflux and esophagitis. DESIGN: Observational study of a cohort of male patients with xerostomia and age-matched control subjects. SETTING: Tertiary-care Veterans Affairs Medical Center. SUBJECTS: Sixteen male patients with chronic xerostomia secondary to radiation for head and neck cancers or medications. Nineteen age-matched male control subjects with comparable alcohol and smoking histories. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Esophageal motility was similar in patients with xerostomia and controls. Clearance of acid from the esophagus and 24-hour intraesophageal pH were markedly abnormal in patients with xerostomia. Symptoms and signs of esophagitis were significantly more frequent in subjects with xerostomia. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic xerostomia may predispose to esophageal injury, at least in part, by decreasing the clearance of acid from the esophagus and altering 24-hour intraesophageal pH. Esophageal injury is a previously unreported complication of long-term salivary deficiency.

Korsten, M.A.; Rosman, A.S.; Fishbein, S.; Shlein, R.D.; Goldberg, H.E.; Biener, A. (Gastrointestinal Section, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Bronx, New York (USA))

1991-06-01

256

[Treatment of esophageal anastomotic leak with self-expanding metal stent].  

PubMed

Esophageal anastomotic leak after resection surgery is very hard to treat and Has a high mortality rate. Surgical treatment is extremely difficult, burdened by complications of subsequent postoperative complications (inability to repair). The authors present a case of a patient who underwent a resection of upper stomach and lower esophagus due to adenocarcinoma of the esophagus- stomach junction (Siewert II). A digestive tract X-ray with water-soluble kontrast was performer after seven days- it show and anastomotic leak. However, the patient was hemodynamically stable. It enabled to implant a self-expanding metal stent (Ultraflex) to the place of leak. In this case the procedure was successful, and radiological examination on the 14th day confirmed closure of the leak. Implantation of a self-expanding metal prosthesis as a way to treat anastomotic leak is a therapeutic option worth recommendation. PMID:24483033

G?uszek, Stanis?aw; Kot, Marta; Nawacki, ?ukasz

2013-01-01

257

The esophageal mucosa and submucosa: immunohistology in GERD and Barrett's esophagus.  

PubMed

This paper presents commentaries on the microscopic morphology of esophageal squamous epithelium; the frequency of duplication of the muscularis mucosae (MM) in Barrett's esophagus (BE); the significance of multilayered epithelium; whether cells in the lamina propria reflect those in the epithelium; how stem cells are identified in the squamous esophagus; dilated intercellular spaces; the metastasizing potential of early carcinoma-dependent, molecular or immunohistochemical tests that improve diagnosis; the role of immunohistochemistry IHC in grading of neoplasia in Barrett's esophagus and defining the risk of progression to adenocarcinoma; the roles of CDX1 and CDX2 in squamous and cardiac mucosa; and the role of desmosomal cadherins and lectins in squamous and cardiac mucosa. PMID:24117640

Appelman, Henry D; Streutker, Catherine; Vieth, Michael; Neumann, Helmut; Neurath, Markus F; Upton, Melissa P; Sagaert, Xavier; Wang, Helen H; El-Zimaity, Hala; Abraham, Susan C; Bellizzi, Andrew M

2013-10-01

258

Clinical and dosimetric factors of radiation-induced esophageal injury: Radiation-induced esophageal toxicity  

PubMed Central

AIM: To analyze the clinical and dosimetric predictive factors for radiation-induced esophageal injury in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) during three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT). METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 208 consecutive patients (146 men and 62 women) with NSCLC treated with 3D-CRT. The median age of the patients was 64 years (range 35-87 years). The clinical and treatment parameters including gender, age, performance status, sequential chemotherapy, concurrent chemotherapy, presence of carinal or subcarinal lymph nodes, pretreatment weight loss, mean dose to the entire esophagus, maximal point dose to the esophagus, and percentage of volume of esophagus receiving >55 Gy were studied. Clinical and dosimetric factors for radiation-induced acute and late grade 3-5 esophageal injury were analyzed according to Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) criteria. RESULTS: Twenty-five (12%) of the two hundred and eight patients developed acute or late grade 3-5 esophageal injury. Among them, nine patients had both acute and late grade 3-5 esophageal injury, two died of late esophageal perforation. Concurrent chemotherapy and maximal point dose to the esophagus ?60 Gy were significantly associated with the risk of grade 3-5 esophageal injury. Fifty-four (26%) of the two hundred and eight patients received concurrent chemotherapy. Among them, 25 (46%) developed grade 3-5 esophageal injury (P = 0.0001<0.01). However, no grade 3-5 esophageal injury occurred in patients who received a maximal point dose to the esophagus <60 Gy (P = 0.0001<0.01). CONCLUSION: Concurrent chemotherapy and the maximal esophageal point dose ?60 Gy are significantly associated with the risk of grade 3-5 esophageal injury in patients with NSCLC treated with 3D-CRT. PMID:15849822

Qiao, Wen-Bo; Zhao, Yan-Hui; Zhao, Yan-Bin; Wang, Rui-Zhi

2005-01-01

259

Activation of GATA binding protein 6 (GATA6) sustains oncogenic lineage-survival in esophageal adenocarcinoma  

E-print Network

Gene amplification is a tumor-specific event during malignant transformation. Recent studies have proposed a lineage-dependency (addiction) model of human cancer whereby amplification of certain lineage transcription factors ...

Lin, Lin

260

21 CFR 868.1920 - Esophageal stethoscope with electrical conductors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Esophageal stethoscope with electrical conductors. 868.1920 Section 868.1920 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION...ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1920 Esophageal stethoscope with electrical...

2010-04-01

261

Systematic review and meta-analysis of tumor biomarkers in predicting prognosis in esophageal cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Esophageal cancer (EC) is a frequently occurring cancer with poor prognosis despite combined therapeutic strategies. Many biomarkers have been proposed as predictors of adverse events. We sought to assess the prognostic value of biomarkers in predicting the overall survival of esophageal cancer and to help guide personalized cancer treatment to give patients the best chance at remission. Methods We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the published literature to summarize evidence for the discriminatory ability of prognostic biomarkers for esophageal cancer. Relevant literature was identified using the PubMed database on April 11, 2012, and conformed to the REMARK criteria. The primary endpoint was overall survival and data were synthesized with hazard ratios (HRs). Results We included 109 studies, exploring 13 different biomarkers, which were subjected to quantitative meta-analysis. Promising markers that emerged for the prediction of overall survival in esophageal squamous cell cancer included VEGF (18 eligible studies, n?=?1476, HR?=?1.85, 95% CI, 1.55-2.21), cyclin D1 (12 eligible studies, n?=?1476, HR?=?1.82, 95% CI, 1.50-2.20), Ki-67 (3 eligible studies, n?=?308, HR?=?1.11, 95% CI, 0.70-1.78) and squamous cell carcinoma antigen (5 eligible studies, n?=?700, HR?=?1.28, 95% CI, 0.97-1.69); prognostic markers for esophageal adenocarcinoma included COX-2 (2 eligible studies, n?=?235, HR?=?3.06, 95% CI, 2.01-4.65) and HER-2 (3 eligible studies, n?=?291, HR?=?2.15, 95% CI, 1.39-3.33); prognostic markers for uncategorized ECs included p21 (9 eligible studies, n?=?858, HR?=?1.27, 95% CI, 0.75-2.16), p53 (31 eligible studies, n?=?2851, HR?=?1.34, 95% CI, 1.21-1.48), CRP (8 eligible studies, n?=?1382, HR?=?2.65, 95% CI, 1.64-4.27) and hemoglobin (5 eligible studies, n?=?544, HR?=?0.91, 95% CI, 0.83-1.00). Conclusions Although some modest bias cannot be excluded, this review supports the involvement of biomarkers to be associated with EC overall survival. PMID:24206575

2013-01-01

262

Concomitant herpetic and eosinophilic esophagitis--a causality dilemma.  

PubMed

Eosinophilic and herpetic esophagitis are listed as independent causes of dysphagia, especially in young adult males. However, herpetic esophagitis rarely affects immunocompetent individuals. We report the case of a young, not immunocompromised patient, admitted because of severe dysphagia secondary to herpes simplex virus esophagitis. After complete resolution, an endoscopic and histologic reevaluation established the diagnosis of eosinophilic esophagitis. The potential association between the two conditions is discussed. PMID:23082710

Monsanto, P; Almeida, N; Cipriano, M A; Gouveia, H; Sofia, C

2012-09-01

263

Broken Esophageal Stent Successfully Treated by Interventional Radiology Technique  

SciTech Connect

Esophageal stent fractures occur quite rarely. A 61-year-old male patient was previously treated for rupture of benign stenosis, occurring after dilatation, by implanting an esophageal stent. However, a year after implantation, the patient suffered from dysphagia caused by the broken esophageal stent. He was treated with the interventional radiology technique, whereby a second implantation of the esophageal stent was carried out quite successfully.

Zelenak, Kamil, E-mail: zelenak@mfn.s [University Hospital, Department of Radiology (Slovakia); Mistuna, Dusan; Lucan, Jaroslav [University Hospital, Department of Surgery (Slovakia); Polacek, Hubert [University Hospital, Department of Radiology (Slovakia)

2010-06-15

264

Chemoprevention of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma  

SciTech Connect

Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is responsible for approximately one-sixth of all cancer-related mortality worldwide. This malignancy has a multifactorial etiology involving several environmental, dietary and genetic factors. Since esophageal cancer has often metastasized at the time of diagnosis, current treatment modalities offer poor survival and cure rates. Chemoprevention offers a viable alternative that could well be effective against the disease. Clinical investigations have shown that primary chemoprevention of this disease is feasible if potent inhibitory agents are identified. The Fischer 344 (F-344) rat model of esophageal SCC has been used extensively to investigate the biology of the disease, and to identify chemopreventive agents that could be useful in human trials. Multiple compounds that inhibit tumor initiation by esophageal carcinogens have been identified using this model. These include several isothiocyanates, diallyl sulfide and polyphenolic compounds. These compounds influence the metabolic activation of esophageal carcinogens resulting in reduced genetic (DNA) damage. Recently, a few agents have been shown to inhibit the progression of preneoplastic lesions in the rat esophagus into tumors. These agents include inhibitors of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and c-Jun [a component of activator protein-1 (AP-1)]. Using a food-based approach to cancer prevention, we have shown that freeze-dried berry preparations inhibit both the initiation and promotion/progression stages of esophageal SCC in F-344 rats. These observations have led to a clinical trial in China to evaluate the ability of freeze-dried strawberries to influence the progression of esophageal dysplasia to SCC.

Stoner, Gary D. [Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, Ohio State University College of Medicine and Comprehensive Cancer Center, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)], E-mail: gary.stoner@osumc.edu; Wang Lishu; Chen Tong [Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, Ohio State University College of Medicine and Comprehensive Cancer Center, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

2007-11-01

265

Occupational asbestos exposure and risk of esophageal, gastric and colorectal cancer in the prospective Netherlands Cohort Study.  

PubMed

The evidence for an association between occupational asbestos exposure and esophageal, gastric and colorectal cancer is limited. We studied this association specifically addressing risk differences between relatively low and high exposure, risk associated with cancer subtypes, the influence of potential confounders and the interaction between asbestos and smoking in relation to cancer risk. Using the Netherlands Cohort Study (n = 58,279 men, aged 55-69 years at baseline), asbestos exposure was estimated by linkage to a job-exposure matrix. After 17.3 years of follow-up, 187 esophageal, 486 gastric and 1,724 colorectal cancer cases were available for analysis. The models adjusted for age and family history of cancer showed that mainly (prolonged) exposure to high levels of asbestos was statistically significantly associated with risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), total and distal colon cancer and rectal cancer. For overall gastric cancer and gastric non-cardia adenocarcinoma (GNCA), also exposure to lower levels of asbestos was associated. Additional adjustment for lifestyle confounders, especially smoking status, yielded non-significant associations with overall gastric cancer and GNCA in the multivariable-adjusted model, except for the prolonged highly exposed subjects (tertile 3 vs. never: HR 2.67, 95% CI: 1.11-6.44 and HR 3.35, 95% CI: 1.33-8.44, respectively). No statistically significant additive or multiplicative interaction between asbestos and smoking was observed for any of the studied cancers. This prospective population-based study showed that (prolonged) high asbestos exposure was associated with overall gastric cancer, EAC, GNCA, total and distal colon cancer and rectal cancer. PMID:24585528

Offermans, Nadine S M; Vermeulen, Roel; Burdorf, Alex; Goldbohm, R Alexandra; Keszei, András P; Peters, Susan; Kauppinen, Timo; Kromhout, Hans; van den Brandt, Piet A

2014-10-15

266

Esophageal intramural pseudodiverticulosis characterized by barium esophagography: a case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Esophageal intramural pseudodiverticulosis is a rare condition characterized by the dilatation of the submucosal glands. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a case of esophageal intramural pseudodiverticulosis in a 72-year-old Caucasian man who presented with dysphagia and with a background history of alcohol abuse. An upper gastrointestinal endoscopy of our patient showed an esophageal stricture with abnormal mucosal appearances, but no

Owen J O'Connor; Adrian Brady; Fergus Shanahan; Eamonn Quigley; Michael O'Riordain; Michael M Maher

2010-01-01

267

Case Report Alendronate-induced Esophagitis in an Elderly Woman  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ingestion of alendronate sodium (Fosamax) had been reported to sometimes cause erosive or ulcerative esophagitis. Despite its widespread use and several case reports describing the clinical and endoscopic presentation, there has been limited discussion on the histologic appearances of the esophagitis caused by the medication. Here we describe one case of an elderly woman who presented with alendronate-induced esophagitis. The

Victoria Gómez; Shu-Yuan Xiao

268

Esophageal cancer as second primary tumor after breast cancer radiotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: An increased risk of esophageal cancer has been reported in survivors of breast cancer treated with radiotherapy. This study further characterizes this association.Methods: Through hospital databases, 118 patients (109 men, 9 women) treated for esophageal cancer between 1985 and 1993 were identified, of whom 37 had 60 synchronous or metachronous cancers. 5 women had primary esophageal cancer after having

Beatrix Scholl; Ernane D Reis; Abderrahim Zouhair; Igor Chereshnev; Jean-Claude Givel; Michel Gillet

2001-01-01

269

Duodenogastroesophageal reflux and esophageal mucosal injury in mechanically ventilated patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background & Aims: Esophagitis has been reported to be the most frequent cause of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in intensive care patients. The mechanisms causing esophagitis are unclear. The aim of this study was to measure esophageal acid and bile reflux and to examine the relationship between reflux and mucosal injury in mechanically ventilated patients. Methods: Twenty-five critically ill, mechanically ventilated

Alexander Wilmer; Jan Tack; Eric Frans; Hilde Dits; Steven Vanderschueren; Anemie Gevers; Hesmann Bobbaers

1999-01-01

270

Molecular and cellular features of esophageal cancer cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than 70 cell lines were established from esophageal cancer, including 15 TE-series cell lines established by the authors. This article reviews molecular and cellular features of esophageal cancer cells from studies using these cell lines as well as primary tumors. The subjects reviewed include primary cultures of normal epithelium of the esophagus and of esophageal tumors, their growth and

Tetsuro Nishihira; Yu Hashimoto; Masafumi Katayama; Shozo Mori; Toshio Kuroki

1993-01-01

271

MYC and gastric adenocarcinoma carcinogenesis  

PubMed Central

MYC is an oncogene involved in cell cycle regulation, cell growth arrest, cell adhesion, metabolism, ribosome biogenesis, protein synthesis, and mitochondrial function. It has been described as a key element of several carcinogenesis processes in humans. Many studies have shown an association between MYC deregulation and gastric cancer. MYC deregulation is also seen in gastric preneoplastic lesions and thus it may have a role in early gastric carcinogenesis. Several studies have suggested that amplification is the main mechanism of MYC deregulation in gastric cancer. In the present review, we focus on the deregulation of the MYC oncogene in gastric adenocarcinoma carcinogenesis, including its association with Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) and clinical applications. PMID:18932273

Calcagno, Danielle Queiroz; Leal, Mariana Ferreira; Assumpção, Paulo Pimentel; Smith, Marília de Arruda Cardoso; Burbano, Rommel Rodríguez

2008-01-01

272

Impact of esophageal bile exposure on the genesis of reflux esophagitis in the absence of gastric acid after total gastrectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE:The role of duodenal contents refluxing into the esophagus in producing reflux esophagitis (RE) remains unclear. We aimed to assess the impact of esophageal bile exposure on the genesis of RE in reference to esophageal pH changes in the absence of gastric acid after total gastrectomy.METHODS:Thirty patients having undergone total gastrectomy were studied with concurrent 24-h esophageal pH and bilimetric

Takeyoshi Yumiba; Hisayoshi Kawahara; Kazuhiro Nishikawa; Yoshifumi Inoue; Toshinori Ito; Hikaru Matsuda

2002-01-01

273

[Esophageal precancerous lesions: early diagnosis, treatment, and preservation of quality of life].  

PubMed

Modern high-resolution video endoscopes allow detailed examination of the esophageal mucosa and diagnosis of early neoplastic changes in the gastrointestinal tract. Whereas Barrett's esophagus is a precancerous condition that can develop into adenocarcinoma, there is no defined precancerous lesion for squamous cell carcinoma. Various diseases are associated with the development of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Chromoendoscopy has become an established method in the diagnostic work-up for better visualization of early neoplasia. If Barrett's esophagus is present, acetic acid spraying or virtual chromoendoscopy can be used to accentuate the display of superficial gyriform structures in the mucosa. The gold standard for detecting squamous cell carcinoma is still the use of Lugol solution. When early neoplasia is suspected, diagnostic endoscopic resection should be performed. This allows precise histological assessment of the tumor. Early diagnosis of neoplastic changes in the esophagus provides patients not only with the option of curative therapy but also with a good quality of life through preservation of the esophagus. PMID:23657618

Behrens, A; May, A; Manner, H; Pohl, J; Ell, C

2013-06-01

274

Management of esophageal stricture after complete circular endoscopic submucosal dissection for superficial esophageal squamous cell carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) permits removal of esophageal epithelial neoplasms en bloc, but is associated with esophageal stenosis, particularly when ESD involves the entire circumference of the esophageal lumen. We examined the effectiveness of systemic steroid administration for control of postprocedural esophageal stricture after complete circular ESD. Methods Seven patients who underwent wholly circumferential ESD for superficially extended esophageal squamous cell carcinoma were enrolled in this study. In 3 patients, prophylactic endoscopic balloon dilatation (EBD) was started on the third post-ESD day and was performed twice a week for 8 weeks. In 4 patients, oral prednisolone was started with 30 mg daily on the third post-ESD day, tapered gradually (daily 30, 30, 25, 25, 20, 15, 10, 5 mg for 7 days each), and then discontinued at 8 weeks. EBD was used as needed whenever patients complained of dysphagia. Results En bloc ESD with tumor-free margins was safely achieved in all cases. Patients in the prophylactic EBD group required a mean of 32.7 EBD sessions; the postprocedural stricture was dilated up to 18 mm in diameter in these patients. On the other hand, systemic steroid administration substantially reduced or eliminated the need for EBD. Corticosteroid therapy was not associated with any adverse events. Post-ESD esophageal stricture after complete circular ESD was persistent, requiring multiple EBD sessions. Conclusions Use of oral prednisolone administration may be an effective treatment strategy for reducing post-ESD esophageal stricture after complete circular ESD. PMID:21542926

2011-01-01

275

Esophageal parakeratosis mimicking endoscopic appearance of superficial esophageal neoplastic lesion such as dysplasia.  

PubMed

The endoscopic findings of esophageal parakeratosis have not been well defined and its clinical significance including malignant potential is unclear. Here, we report a case of esophageal parakeratosis presenting as a discrete flat elevated lesion and mimicking the endoscopic appearance of superficial esophageal neoplastic lesion such as dysplasia or cancer. A 72-year-old woman was referred to our hospital for an esophageal lesion detected by upper endoscopy during a medical check-up. Upper endoscopy revealed a 5-cm sized whitish flat elevated lesion involving the mucosa of the middle esophagus. The surface of this lesion showed mild nodularity and the margin was discrete. When spraying with lugol solution, the lesion was not stained. On microscopic examination, esophageal parakeratosis was noted on the luminal surface with a hyaline eosinophilic cytoplasm and small elongate nuclei oriented parallel to the surface. Although pathological examination of initial biopsy specimens revealed no evidence of neoplasia or infection, we carried out follow-up upper endoscopies 1 month and 1 year later because of endoscopic findings mimicking dysplasia or cancer. Endoscopic and histopathological findings from the first and the second follow-up upper endoscopies were same as those of the first examination and the final diagnosis of esophageal parakeratosis was made. Given the present case, esophageal parakeratosis needs to be considered as a differential diagnosis when a flat elevated lesion is found in the esophagus and biopsy specimens reveal no evidence of dysplasia or cancer. PMID:22348836

Park, Jun Young; Kim, Da-Min; Min, Byung-Hoon; Kim, Kyoung-Mee

2012-03-01

276

A novel laparoscopic approach for severe esophageal stenosis due to reflux esophagitis: how to do it.  

PubMed

We herein report our technique for laparoscopic esophageal myotomy combined with Collis gastroplasty and Nissen fundoplication for severe esophageal stenosis. Our patient had experienced vomiting since childhood, and his dysphagia had gradually worsened. He was referred to our department for surgery because of resistance to pneumatic dilation. He was diagnosed with a short esophagus based on the findings of a preoperative upper gastrointestinal series and GI endoscopy. After exposing the abdominal esophagus, esophageal myotomy around the esophago-gastric junction (EGJ) was undertaken to introduce an esophageal bougie into the stomach. Then, stapled wedge gastroplasty was performed, and a short and loose Nissen fundoplication was performed. In addition, the bulging mucosa after myotomy was patched using the Dor method. The patient's postoperative course was uneventful. Most patients with esophageal stricture require subtotal esophagectomy. Laparoscopic surgery for patients with benign esophageal stricture refractory to repeated pneumatic dilation is challenging. However, our current procedure might abrogate the need for invasive esophagectomy for the surgical management of severe esophageal stenosis. PMID:24647633

Tsuboi, Kazuto; Omura, Nobuo; Yano, Fumiaki; Hoshino, Masato; Yamamoto, Se Ryung; Akimoto, Shunsuke; Kashiwagi, Hideyuki; Yanaga, Katsuhiko

2015-02-01

277

Thoracoscopic approach for congenital esophageal stenosis.  

PubMed

Congenital esophageal stenosis (CES) is an infrequent entity; however, many cases have been reported during the last years. Its incidence falls between 1 per 25,000 and 1 per 50,000 live births and is associated with other congenital malformations in 17% to 33% of cases (mainly esophageal atresia). Congenital esophageal stenosis is defined as an intrinsic alteration of the esophageal wall given by the presence of ectopic tracheobronchial tissue, membranous diaphragm, muscular hypertrophy, or diffuse fibrosis of the submucosa, among other causes. The therapeutic options include endoscopic dilation and resection plus anastomosis (by either laparotomy or thoracotomy, depending on the level of the stenosis). We present the case of a 1-month-old baby boy with a CES located in the distal esophagus that is associated with anophthalmia and micropenis. We treated the lesion by means of a thoracoscopic resection of the affected segment and an esophageal end-to-end anastomosis. The patient's long-term outcome was uneventful. As far as we know, this is the first report on thoracoscopic resolution of a CES. PMID:17011258

Martinez-Ferro, Marcelo; Rubio, Martin; Piaggio, Lisandro; Laje, Pablo

2006-10-01

278

Genetic variants in sex hormone metabolic pathway genes and risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma  

PubMed Central

In China, esophageal cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death where essentially all cases are histologically esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), in contrast to esophageal adenocarcinoma in the West. Globally, ESCC is 2.4 times more common among men than women and recently it has been suggested that sex hormones may be associated with the risk of ESCC. We examined the association between genetic variants in sex hormone metabolic genes and ESCC risk in a population from north central China with high-incidence rates. A total of 1026 ESCC cases and 1452 controls were genotyped for 797 unique tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 51 sex hormone metabolic genes. SNP-, gene- and pathway-based associations with ESCC risk were evaluated using unconditional logistic regression adjusted for age, sex and geographical location and the adaptive rank truncated product (ARTP) method. Statistical significance was determined through use of permutation for pathway- and gene-based associations. No associations were observed for the overall sex hormone metabolic pathway (P = 0.14) or subpathways (androgen synthesis: P = 0.30, estrogen synthesis: P = 0.15 and estrogen removal: P = 0.19) with risk of ESCC. However, six individual genes (including SULT2B1, CYP1B1, CYP3A7, CYP3A5, SHBG and CYP11A1) were significantly associated with ESCC risk (P < 0.05). Our examination of genetic variation in the sex hormone metabolic pathway is consistent with a potential association with risk of ESCC. These positive findings warrant further evaluation in relation to ESCC risk and replication in other populations. PMID:23358850

Hyland, Paula L.

2013-01-01

279

A time-dependent study of passive esophageal wall properties and collagen content in rabbits with esophageal varices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The passive biomechanical wall properties of the esophagus were studied in rabbits with esophageal varices and controls using a four-electrode impedance technique. Stepwise pressure inflation and deflation was done for analysis of esophageal cross-sectional area, compliance, and hysteresis monthly during six months. At sacrifice, the esophageal collagen content was determined. A small but statistically insignificant increase in compliance was observed

H. Gregersen; L. Knudsen; B. Eika; L. Salling Nerstrøm; L. Rasmussen; L. S. Jensen

1991-01-01

280

How Is Small Intestine Adenocarcinoma Staged?  

MedlinePLUS

... found in 4 or more nearby lymph nodes M categories for small intestine adenocarcinoma M categories indicate whether or not the cancer has ... or tissues. Stage grouping The T, N, and M categories are combined (in a process called stage ...

281

Oncocytic adenocarcinoma of the lacrimal sac.  

PubMed

A well-differentiated, oncocytic adenocarcinoma of the lacrimal sac recurred locally in a patient during a period of 13 years. This appears to be the second documented instance of such a neoplasm. PMID:629677

Peretz, W L; Ettinghausen, S E; Gray, G F

1978-02-01

282

Heme iron from meat and risk of adenocarcinoma of the esophagus and stomach  

PubMed Central

Background Iron can cause oxidative stress and DNA damage, and heme iron can catalyze endogenous formation of N-nitroso compounds, which are potent carcinogens. Dietary iron promotes esophageal cancer incidence in animal studies and has been identified as a growth factor for Helicobacter pylori, an established risk factor for stomach cancer. Methods We conducted a population-based case-control study of adenocarcinoma of the esophagus (n=124) and stomach (n=154) and 449 controls in Nebraska. Heme iron and total iron intake were estimated from a food-frequency questionnaire and databases of heme and total iron. We used logistic regression to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) adjusted for known risk factors. Results Esophageal cancer was positively associated with higher intakes of heme iron (ORQ4 vs. Q1 =3.04, 95% CI 1.20–7.72; p-trend=0.009) and total iron from meat sources (ORQ4 vs. Q1 =2.67, 95% CI 0.99–7.16; p-trend=0.050). Risk of stomach cancer was elevated among those with higher intakes of heme iron (ORQ4vs.Q1=1.99, 95% CI 1.00–3.95, p-trend=0.17) and total iron from meat (OR=2.26, 95% CI 1.14–4.46; p-trend=0.11). Iron intake from all dietary sources was not significantly associated with risk of either cancer. Conclusions Our results suggest that high intakes of heme and iron from meat may be important dietary risk factors for esophageal and stomach cancer and may partly explain associations with red meat. PMID:22044848

Ward, Mary H.; Cross, Amanda J.; Abnet, Christian C.; Sinha, Rashmi; Markin, Rodney S.; Weisenburger, Dennis D.

2011-01-01

283

2011 update on esophageal achalasia  

PubMed Central

There have been some breakthroughs in the diagnosis and treatment of esophageal achalasia in the past few years. First, the introduction of high-resolution manometry with pressure topography plotting as a new diagnostic tool has made it possible to classify achalasia into three subtypes. The most favorable outcome is predicted for patients receiving treatment for type II achalasia (achalasia with compression). Patients with typeI(classic achalasia) and type III achalasia (spastic achalasia) experience a less favorable outcome. Second, the first multicenter randomized controlled trial published by the European Achalasia Trial group reported 2-year follow-up results indicating that laparoscopic Heller myotomy was not superior to endoscopic pneumatic dilation (PD). Although the follow-up period was not long enough to reach a convincing conclusion, it merits the continued use of PD as a generally available technique in gastroenterology. Third, the novel endoscopic technique peroral endoscopic myotomy is a promising option for treating achalasia, but it requires increased experience and cautious evaluation. Despite all this good news, the bottom line is a real breakthrough from the basic studies to identify the actual cause of achalasia that may impede treatment success is still anticipated. PMID:22529685

Chuah, Seng-Kee; Hsu, Pin-I; Wu, Keng-Liang; Wu, Deng-Chyang; Tai, Wei-Chen; Changchien, Chi-Sin

2012-01-01

284

Aortoesophageal fistula due to esophageal ulcer.  

PubMed

Aortoesophageal fistula is a rare but fatal disease. Many such fistulas are caused by an aortic aneurysm, a previous operation, or esophageal disease. We report a case of aortoesophageal fistula due to an esophageal ulcer. A 66-year-old man suffered massive hematemesis; he was diagnosed as having an aortoesophageal fistula due to an esophageal ulcer after examination by upper endoscopy, computed tomography, and angiography. He had no aortic aneurysm, nor was there a history of a previous operation. An emergency operation was performed, but we could only accomplish closure because clamping of the aorta was impossible, and the source of the bleeding could not be established. He died 4 days later after sudden hemorrhage. Surgical outcome depends on early surgical intervention before massive hemorrhage occurs. PMID:19440823

Takano, Shinji; Katsuhara, Kazuhiro; Nobuhara, Kenji; Ueda, Shigeharu; Imura, Masato; Hohjo, Yoshihisa

2009-05-01

285

Endoscopic options for early stage esophageal cancer  

PubMed Central

Surgery has traditionally been the preferred treatment for early stage esophageal cancer. Recent advances in endoscopic treatments have been shown to be effective and safe. Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) and endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) allow endoscopists to remove small, superficial lesions, providing tumor specimen that can be examined for accurate pathologic tumor staging and assessment of adequacy of resection. Endoscopic ablation procedures, including photodynamic therapy (PDT) and radio frequency ablation (RFA), have also been shown to safely and effectively treat esophageal dysplasia and early stage neoplasia, with excellent long-term disease control. Both approaches are becoming more widely available around the world, and provide an alternative, safe, low risk strategy for treating early stage disease, making combined endoscopic therapy the recommended treatment of choice for early stage esophageal cancers. PMID:25642334

Shah, Pari M.

2015-01-01

286

Advances in clinical management of eosinophilic esophagitis.  

PubMed

Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic immune/antigen-mediated clinicopathologic condition that has become an increasingly important cause of upper gastrointestinal morbidity in adults and children over the past 2 decades. It is diagnosed based on symptoms of esophageal dysfunction, the presence of at least 15 eosinophils/high-power field in esophageal biopsy specimens, and exclusion of competing causes of esophageal eosinophilia, including proton pump inhibitor-responsive esophageal eosinophilia. We review what we have recently learned about the clinical aspects of EoE, discussing the clinical, endoscopic, and histological features of EoE in adults and children. We explain the current diagnostic criteria and challenges to diagnosis, including the role of gastroesophageal reflux disease and proton pump inhibitor-responsive esophageal eosinophilia. It is also important to consider the epidemiology of EoE (with a current incidence of 1 new case per 10,000 per year and prevalence of 0.5 to 1 case per 1000 per year) and disease progression. We review the main treatment approaches and new treatment options; EoE can be treated with topical corticosteroids, such as fluticasone and budesonide, or dietary strategies, such as amino acid-based formulas, allergy test-directed elimination diets, and nondirected empiric elimination diets. Endoscopic dilation has also become an important tool for treatment of fibrostenotic complications of EoE. There are a number of unresolved issues in EoE, including phenotypes, optimal treatment end points, the role of maintenance therapy, and treatment of refractory EoE. The care of patients with EoE and the study of the disease span many disciplines; EoE is ideally managed by a multidisciplinary team of gastroenterologists, allergists, pathologists, and dieticians. PMID:25109885

Dellon, Evan S; Liacouras, Chris A

2014-12-01

287

Drug-induced esophageal injury with an occult vascular ring.  

PubMed

Drug-induced esophageal injury is an under-recognized clinical problem, and is associated with antibiotic use in more than 50% of cases. The current report describes a teenage girl who presented with symptoms of pill-induced esophagitis following doxycycline use. Subsequent investigations identified a previously undiagnosed vascular ring. Although most patients who experience drug-induced esophageal injury have no underlying anatomical or functional disorder of the esophagus, the condition is more common in areas of esophageal narrowing. The present case illustrates the possibility of an occult esophageal obstruction representing a risk factor for pill esophagitis. The etiologies, mechanisms and management of drug-induced esophageal injury are reviewed, and aspects of vascular rings that are relevant to paediatricians are discussed. PMID:23115494

Guttman, Orlee R; Zachos, Mary

2011-11-01

288

Drug-induced esophageal injury with an occult vascular ring  

PubMed Central

Drug-induced esophageal injury is an under-recognized clinical problem, and is associated with antibiotic use in more than 50% of cases. The current report describes a teenage girl who presented with symptoms of pill-induced esophagitis following doxycycline use. Subsequent investigations identified a previously undiagnosed vascular ring. Although most patients who experience drug-induced esophageal injury have no underlying anatomical or functional disorder of the esophagus, the condition is more common in areas of esophageal narrowing. The present case illustrates the possibility of an occult esophageal obstruction representing a risk factor for pill esophagitis. The etiologies, mechanisms and management of drug-induced esophageal injury are reviewed, and aspects of vascular rings that are relevant to paediatricians are discussed. PMID:23115494

Guttman, Orlee R; Zachos, Mary

2011-01-01

289

MicroRNAs and esophageal cancer  

PubMed Central

Cancer of the esophagus is a highly aggressive disease associated with an overall poor prognosis. There is an insistent need for improving our understanding of the molecular basis of this disease. The recent emergence of observations on the role of microRNAs in cancer and their potential as biomarkers has prompted many investigations to examine their relevance to esophageal cancer. This article provides an introduction to microRNA biology and the techniques involved in studying them, and summates what is now known about their role and utility in regard to neoplastic esophageal diseases. PMID:22811805

Patnaik, Santosh Kumar; Mallick, Reema

2010-01-01

290

EGFR, HER2 and HER3 dimerization patterns guide targeted inhibition in two histotypes of esophageal cancer.  

PubMed

Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are in the focus of targeted therapy for epithelial tumors. Our study addressed the role of EGFR, HER2 and HER3 expression and dimerization in esophageal cancers in situ and in vitro in the context of therapeutic EGFR and HER2 inhibitors. In archival pretreatment biopsies of esophageal carcinomas (n = 110), EGFR was preferentially expressed in esophageal squamous cell carcinomas (ESCCs) (22.4%; p = 0.088) and HER2 (34.4%; p < 0.001) with HER3 (91.5%; p < 0.001) in esophageal (Barrett's) adenocarcinomas (EACs). In situ proximity ligation assays revealed mainly EGFR and HER2 homodimers in ESCC and EAC cases, respectively. However, EAC cases also exhibited HER2/HER3 heterodimers. In vitro ESCC (OE21) cells displayed a significant response to erlotinib, gefitinib and lapatinib, with loss of AKT phosphorylation, G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and induction of apoptosis. In EAC cells (OE19, OE33 and SK-GT-4), lapatinib was similarly effective in strongly HER2-positive (mainly HER2 homodimers and some HER2/EGFR heterodimers) OE19 and OE33 cells. The HER2-targeting antibodies (trastuzumab and pertuzumab) given alone were largely ineffective in ESCC and EAC cells. However, both antibodies significantly induced antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity in EAC (OE19 and OE33) cells upon co-culture with peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The study reveals that overexpression of EGFR and HER2 predominantly results in homodimers in ESCCs and EACs, respectively. Still, some EACs also show HER2 dimerization plasticity, e.g., with HER3. Such RTK dimerization patterns affect responses to EGFR and HER2 targeting inhibitors in ESCC and EAC cells in vitro and hence may influence future prediction for particularly HER2-targeting inhibitors in EACs. PMID:24510732

Fichter, Christiane Daniela; Timme, Sylvia; Braun, Julia Alexandra; Gudernatsch, Verena; Schöpflin, Anja; Bogatyreva, Lioudmilla; Geddert, Helene; Faller, Gerhard; Klimstra, David; Tang, Laura; Hauschke, Dieter; Werner, Martin; Lassmann, Silke

2014-10-01

291

47 CFR 90.761 - EA and Regional licenses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Regulations Governing Licensing and Use of Frequencies in the 220-222 MHz Band Policies Governing the Licensing and Use of Phase II Ea, Regional and Nationwide Systems § 90.761 EA and Regional licenses. (a) EA licenses for spectrum...

2012-10-01

292

47 CFR 90.761 - EA and Regional licenses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Regulations Governing Licensing and Use of Frequencies in the 220-222 MHz Band Policies Governing the Licensing and Use of Phase II Ea, Regional and Nationwide Systems § 90.761 EA and Regional licenses. (a) EA licenses for spectrum...

2010-10-01

293

47 CFR 90.761 - EA and Regional licenses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Regulations Governing Licensing and Use of Frequencies in the 220-222 MHz Band Policies Governing the Licensing and Use of Phase II Ea, Regional and Nationwide Systems § 90.761 EA and Regional licenses. (a) EA licenses for spectrum...

2013-10-01

294

47 CFR 90.761 - EA and Regional licenses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Regulations Governing Licensing and Use of Frequencies in the 220-222 MHz Band Policies Governing the Licensing and Use of Phase II Ea, Regional and Nationwide Systems § 90.761 EA and Regional licenses. (a) EA licenses for spectrum...

2011-10-01

295

Paclitaxel and concurrent radiation therapy for locally advanced adenocarcinomas of the pancreas, stomach, and gastroesophageal junction.  

PubMed

An effective locoregional therapy is needed for adenocarcinomas of the pancreas, stomach, and gastroesophageal junction. Paclitaxel (Taxol; Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, Princeton, NJ) may enhance the effect of radiation therapy (RT). Paclitaxel synchronizes cells at G2/M, a relatively radiosensitive phase of the cell cycle. We have shown that response to paclitaxel and concurrent RT (paclitaxel/RT) was not affected by p53 mutations in non-small cell lung cancer. This finding suggested that paclitaxel/RT was a rational treatment approach for other malignancies that frequently harbor p53 mutations, such as upper gastrointestinal malignancies. We completed a phase I study of paclitaxel/RT for locally advanced pancreatic and gastric cancer. The maximum tolerated dose of paclitaxel was 50 mg/m2/wk for 6 weeks with abdominal RT. The dose-limiting toxicities were abdominal pain within the radiation field, nausea, and anorexia. Phase II studies are now under way. Twenty-five patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer have been entered at the phase II dose level of paclitaxel 50 mg/m2/wk with concurrent RT (total dose, 50 Gy). Thus far, the only grade 3/4 toxicities have been hypersensitivity reactions (n = 2), asymptomatic grade 4 neutropenia (n = 3), and nonneutropenic biliary sepsis (n = 1). Of the first 18 assessable patients with pancreatic cancer treated on the phase II study, six obtained a partial response, for a preliminary response rate of 33%. In the phase II study for locally advanced gastric cancer, 20 patients have been enrolled. Of the first 19 patients who have completed treatment, nine (47%) had grade 3/4 toxicities, including nausea, anorexia, esophagitis, and gastritis. Of the first 16 patients with gastric cancer, complete and partial responses have been observed in one and eight patients, respectively, for a preliminary response rate of 56%. We have also completed treatment on 24 patients with potentially resectable adenocarcinomas of the gastroesophageal junction with neoadjuvant paclitaxel 60 mg/m2 and cisplatin 25 mg/m2, weekly for 4 weeks, with concurrent RT (total dose, 40 Gy) followed by surgical resection. Ten patients (41%) had grade 3/4 toxicities, including neutropenia, nausea, and dehydration. Of 24 patients, four complete responses (17%) and 14 partial responses (58%) were observed, for an overall response rate of 75%. Severe esophagitis was uncommon, making this a well-tolerated outpatient regimen for adenocarcinomas of the distal esophagus. These findings demonstrate that paclitaxel-based chemoradiation for locally advanced upper gastrointestinal malignancies is well-tolerated with substantial activity. PMID:10210540

Safran, H; Akerman, P; Cioffi, W; Gaissert, H; Joseph, P; King, T; Hesketh, P J; Wanebo, H

1999-04-01

296

Targeting metastatic upper gastrointestinal adenocarcinomas  

PubMed Central

Upper gastrointestinal (GI) tumors, including adenocarcinoma of the esophagus, stomach, pancreas, and biliary tree, have traditionally been difficult to treat with cytotoxic chemotherapeutic agents. There has been little drug development success in treating these cancers over the last 20 years, perhaps a reflection of a combination of the aggressive biology of these tumors, the void in effective and specific drug development for these varied tumors, and the lack of properly designed, biologically-based clinical trials. Recently, so called “targeted agents” have risen to the forefront in the care of cancer patients and have made strong impacts in many areas of oncology, particularly gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST), colon, breast, and lung cancers. Unfortunately, slow progress has been made using such agents in upper GI tumors. However, more recently, trials in some tumor types have demonstrated gains in progression free survival and overall survival. In this review, we discuss the drugs and pathways that have been most successful in the treatment of upper GI tumors and present the relevant data supporting their use for each tumor site. Additionally, we will explore a few novel pathways that may prove effective in the treatment of upper GI malignancies in the near future. PMID:21611088

Spratlin, Jennifer L; Chu, Quincy; Koski, Sheryl; King, Karen; Mulder, Karen

2011-01-01

297

A case of metachronous development of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in the patient with esophageal carcinosarcoma.  

PubMed

Esophageal carcinosarcoma is a rare malignant esophageal neoplasm consisting of both carcinomatous and sarcomatous elements, with an incidence of 0.5%. There have been only a few case reports of carcinosarcoma and squamous cell carcinoma coexisting in the esophagus. However, all of these are cases of synchronous or metachronous development of carcinosarcoma after chemoradiotherapy in patients of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. A 53-year-old man underwent esophagogas-troduodenoscopy because of chest pain for several months. Endoscopic examination revealed a huge pedunculated esophageal polypoid mass. Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) was performed and histopathologic examination confirmed spindle cell carcinoma (carcinosarcoma). He refused additional esophagectomy. After 21 months, third follow-up endoscopy showed poorly-demarcated flat, faint discolored lesions at different location from the previous ESD site and endoscopic biopsies confirmed squamous cell carcinoma. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of metachronous development of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in a patient with esophageal carcinosarcoma. (Korean J Gastroenterol 2014;64:364-369). PMID:25530588

Cha, Ra Ri; Jung, Woon Tae; Oh, Hye Won; Kim, Hee Jin; Ha, Chang Yoon; Kim, Hong Jun; Kim, Tae Hyo; Ko, Gyung Hyuck

2014-12-25

298

Acute esophageal necrosis caused by alcohol abuse  

PubMed Central

Acute esophageal necrosis (AEN) is extremely rare and the pathogenesis of this is still unknown. We report a case of AEN caused by alcohol abuse. In our case, the main pathogenesis could be accounted for low systemic perfusion caused by severe alcoholic lactic acidosis. After the healing of AEN, balloon dilatation was effective to manage the stricture. PMID:16222758

Endo, Tetsu; Sakamoto, Juichi; Sato, Ken; Takimoto, Miyako; Shimaya, Koji; Mikami, Tatsuya; Munakata, Akihiro; Shimoyama, Tadashi; Fukuda, Shinsaku

2005-01-01

299

Benign esophageal lesions: Endoscopic and pathologic features  

PubMed Central

Benign esophageal lesions have a wide spectrum of clinical and pathologic features. Understanding the endoscopic and pathologic features of esophageal lesions is essential for their detection, differential diagnosis, and management. The purpose of this review is to provide updated features that may help physicians to appropriately manage these esophageal lesions. The endoscopic features of 2997 patients are reviewed. In epithelial lesions, the frequency of occurrence was in the following order: glycogenic acanthosis, heterotopic gastric mucosa, squamous papilloma, hyperplastic polyp, ectopic sebaceous gland and xanthoma. In subepithelial lesions, the order was as follows: hemangioma, leiomyoma, dysphagia aortica and granular cell tumor. Most benign esophageal lesions can be diagnosed according to their endoscopic appearance and findings on routine biopsy, and submucosal lesions, by endoscopic resection. Management is generally based upon the confidence of diagnosis and whether the lesion causes symptoms. We suggest endoscopic resection of all granular cell tumors and squamous papillomas because, while rare, these lesions have malignant potential. Dysphagia aortica should be considered in the differential diagnosis of dysphagia in the elderly.

Tsai, Shu-Jung; Lin, Ching-Chung; Chang, Chen-Wang; Hung, Chien-Yuan; Shieh, Tze-Yu; Wang, Horng-Yuan; Shih, Shou-Chuan; Chen, Ming-Jen

2015-01-01

300

[Transthoracic-transabdominal resection of esophageal carcinoma].  

PubMed

54 patients suffering from esophageal cancer have been treated in a period from 1990 to 1994. In 29 cases curative resection was possible, corresponding to a resection rate of 54%. Average age of resected patients was 62 years. According to pTNM-classification the stages T1 and T2 amounted to 45%, T3 and T4 to 55%. Lymphatic node metastases were discovered with an incidence of 55%. In patients treated conservatively more unfavourable stage distributions and increased rates of lymphatic node metastasis were shown. Transthoracal-transabdominal esophageal resection was preferred as curative management. Lethality amounted to 13.8%. In 3 of 4 lethal cases after resection autopsy confirmed absence of tumor. Lethal complications were two respiratory insufficiencies, one suture line dehiscence and one alcoholic delirium. Survival rates were calculated by life-table-method. We consider the transthoracal-transabdominal esophageal resection as an acceptable therapeutic option in esophageal cancer offering a real chance of enduring curing. PMID:9206910

Schröder, H; Trebing, G; Trebing, D

1997-01-01

301

Postoperative Intensive Care Treatment after Esophageal Resection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this article is to give a short review of problems associated with the intensive care treatment of patients after esophageal resection. Pulmonary dysfunction, supraventricular tachyarrhythmia, anastomotic leakage and mental disorders are the topics covered. Systemic inflammatory reaction and sepsis is the linking topic between these specific complications. Pulmonary dysfunction having an incidence of up to 40% is

Dirk L. Stippel; K. Tobias E. Beckurts

2004-01-01

302

Syllabus EAS 305(0): Climate Dynamics  

E-print Network

-255-5166 mahowald@cornell.edu http://www.geo.cornell.edu/eas/PeoplePlaces/Faculty/mahowald/ · Gang Chen, Bradfield 1115, 607-255-1503 gchen@cornell.edu http://sunspot.eas.cornell.edu/~gc352/ Lecture will be presentation days. Honor Code The Cornell Academic Integrity code is expected

Chen, Gang

303

Risk factors for adenocarcinoma of the lung  

SciTech Connect

The relation between various risk factors and adenocarcinoma of the lung was evaluated in a case-control study. Subjects were selected from the Colorado Central Cancer Registry from 1979-1982 in the Denver metropolitan area. A total of 102 (50 males and 52 females) adenocarcinoma case interviews and 131 (65 males and 66 females) control interviews were completed. The control group consisted of persons with cancers of the colon and bone marrow. The risk estimates associated with cigarette smoking were significantly elevated among males (odds ratio (OR) = 4.49) and females (OR = 3.95) and were found to increase significantly (p less than 0.01) with increasing levels of cigarette smoking for both males and females. For adenocarcinoma in females, the age- and smoking-adjusted odds ratios at different levels of passive smoke exposure followed an increasing overall trend (p = 0.05). After additional adjustment for potential confounders, prior cigarette use remained the most significant predictor of risk of adenocarcinoma among males and females. Analysis restricted to nonsmoking females revealed a risk of adenocarcinoma of 1.68 (95% confidence interval (Cl) = 0.39-2.97) for passive smoke exposure of four or more hours per day. Neither sex showed significantly elevated risk for occupational exposures, although males bordered on significance (OR = 2.23, 95% Cl = 0.97-5.12). The results suggest the need to develop cell type-specific etiologic hypotheses.

Brownson, R.C.; Reif, J.S.; Keefe, T.J.; Ferguson, S.W.; Pritzl, J.A.

1987-01-01

304

Increased BRAF copy number in lung adenocarcinoma  

PubMed Central

Point mutation of the BRAF gene is a genetic event that occurs in a subset of lung adenocarcinoma cases. For example, BRAF V600E is a driver mutation that can be effectively targeted using selective BRAF and/or MEK inhibitors. The present study hypothesized that an increase in BRAF copy number may be correlated with certain clinicopathological features of lung adenocarcinoma in Japanese patients. The BRAF gene copy number was analyzed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction amplifications in 29 surgically treated lung adenocarcinoma cases without EGFR or Kras mutations from Nagoya City University Hospital (Nagoya, Japan). Seven BRAF-mutant cases were included. Increased BRAF gene copy number was identified in three lung adenocarcinoma patients (10.3%), all of which exhibited the V600E mutation. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization with BRAF-specific and chromosome 7 centromeric probes, increased copy number status was associated with gene amplification or gain of chromosome 7. Although increased BRAF copy number was correlated with BRAF V600E mutations, numerical changes in BRAF copy number were rare and mild in lung adenocarcinoma, resulting in no significant difference in pathological tumor status or tumor stage.

SASAKI, HIDEFUMI; MAEKAWA, MASAHIKO; TATEMATSU, TSUTOMU; OKUDA, KATSUHIRO; MORIYAMA, SATORU; YANO, MOTOKI; FUJII, YOSHITAKA

2015-01-01

305

A human gallbladder adenocarcinoma cell line.  

PubMed

A cell strain (FU-GBC-1) was established from cancerous ascites of a 68-year-old male patient with well-differentiated adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder. By light and electron microscopy, the cultured cells showed the morphologic features of adenocarcinoma characterized by gland-like structures, intracellular microcystic spaces, and mucous production. Immunoperoxidase stains showed that FU-GBC-1 cells expressed several epithelial tumor antigens including CA 19-9, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), and epithelial membrane antigen (EMA). The cell strain has been in continuous culture up to passage 44 for 1 1/2 years, with the population doubling time of 120 hours. The cytogenetic analysis by a G-band technique showed a constant loss of chromosome Y in FU-GBC-1 cells. The modal chromosome number at passage 12 was 82 with a range of 77 to 85. Flow cytometry with an ethidium bromide technique additionally confirmed aneuploid DNA content (4C) in the cultured cells at passage 12 and 35. Inoculation of FU-GBC-1 cells into the dermis of BALB/c nude mice produced transplantable adenocarcinoma identical to the original tumor. Because no continuous cell lines of the well-differentiated type of gallbladder adenocarcinoma have been reported in the literature currently, the newly established cell strain we report may yield a useful system for studying the morphologic and biologic characteristics of gallbladder adenocarcinoma. PMID:2680052

Johzaki, H; Iwasaki, H; Nishida, T; Isayama, T; Kikuchi, M

1989-12-01

306

Hydraulically controlled magnetic bougienage for correction of long-gap esophageal atresia  

E-print Network

About one in 4000 babies in the United States is born with their esophageal disconnected and separated by a gap, which is called esophageal atresia. Esophageal atresia with a relatively short gap can be directly corrected ...

Noh, Minkyun

2014-01-01

307

Mapping the Hallmarks of Lung Adenocarcinoma with Massively Parallel Sequencing  

E-print Network

Lung adenocarcinoma, the most common subtype of non-small cell lung cancer, is responsible for more than 500,000 deaths per year worldwide. Here, we report exome and genome sequences of 183 lung adenocarcinoma tumor/normal ...

Lander, Eric S.

308

Nucleolar organiser regions in adenocarcinoma in situ and invasive adenocarcinoma of the cervix.  

PubMed Central

Silver binding nucleolar regions (AgNORs) were evaluated in normal endocervix, adenocarcinoma, and its potential precursor, adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS), in an attempt to increase an understanding of the natural history of cervical adenocarcinoma and to identify a marker for abnormal endocervical (atypical glandular) cells which could aid diagnosis and follow up of endocervical lesions. For every 50 cells the mean AgNOR counts were as follows: normal endocervical cells (n = 15) 79.8 (95% Cl 68-91); AIS (n = 20) 200.7 (95% Cl 182-219); and invasive adenocarcinoma (n = 30) 299 (271-328). There was no overlap between the groups of normal endocervical cells and invasive adenocarcinoma, but there was significant overlap between cases of invasive adenocarcinoma and carcinoma in situ. In six out of 17 cases with AIS, NOR count in adjacent morphologically normal glandular cells ("internal" controls) was increased when compared with the "external" (normal endocervical) control group. This suggests the presence of wider field changes not previously identified using routine histological methods. The findings suggest that AIS is a potential premalignant precursor of invasive adenocarcinoma, but that assessment of NORs is of no practical use in discriminating between the histological types of cervical carcinoma. Images PMID:2401734

Darne, J F; Polacarz, S V; Sheridan, E; Anderson, D; Ginsberg, R; Sharp, F

1990-01-01

309

A Phase II Study of a Paclitaxel-Based Chemoradiation Regimen With Selective Surgical Salvage for Resectable Locoregionally Advanced Esophageal Cancer: Initial Reporting of RTOG 0246  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The strategy of definitive chemoradiation with selective surgical salvage in locoregionally advanced esophageal cancer was evaluated in a Phase II trial in Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG)-affiliated sites. Methods and Materials: The study was designed to detect an improvement in 1-year survival from 60% to 77.5% ({alpha} = 0.05; power = 80%). Definitive chemoradiation involved induction chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) (650 mg/mg{sup 2}/day), cisplatin (15 mg/mg{sup 2}/day), and paclitaxel (200 mg/mg{sup 2}/day) for two cycles, followed by concurrent chemoradiation with 50.4 Gy (1.8 Gy/fraction) and daily 5-FU (300 mg/mg{sup 2}/day) with cisplatin (15 mg/mg{sup 2}/day) over the first 5 days. Salvage surgical resection was considered for patients with residual or recurrent esophageal cancer who did not have systemic disease. Results: Forty-three patients with nonmetastatic resectable esophageal cancer were entered from Sept 2003 to March 2006. Forty-one patients were eligible for analysis. Clinical stage was {>=}T3 in 31 patients (76%) and N1 in 29 patients (71%), with adenocarcinoma histology in 30 patients (73%). Thirty-seven patients (90%) completed induction chemotherapy followed by concurrent chemoradiation. Twenty-eight patients (68%) experienced Grade 3+ nonhematologic toxicity. Four treatment-related deaths were noted. Twenty-one patients underwent surgery following definitive chemoradiation because of residual (17 patients) or recurrent (3 patients) esophageal cancer,and 1 patient because of choice. Median follow-up of live patients was 22 months, with an estimated 1-year survival of 71%. Conclusions: In this Phase II trial (RTOG 0246) evaluating selective surgical salvage after definitive chemoradiation in locoregionally advanced esophageal cancer, the hypothesized 1-year RTOG survival rate (77.5%) was not achieved (1 year, 71%; 95% confidence interval< 54%-82%).

Swisher, Stephen G., E-mail: sswisher@mdanderson.org [Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Winter, Kathryn A. [Headquarters, Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Statistical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Komaki, Ritsuko U. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Ajani, Jaffer A. [Department of Gastrointestinal Medical Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Wu, Tsung T. [Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Hofstetter, Wayne L. [Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Konski, Andre A. [Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Willett, Christopher G. [Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States)

2012-04-01

310

Genetic Features of Metachronous Esophageal Cancer Developed in Hodgkin’s Lymphoma or Breast Cancer Long-Term Survivors: An Exploratory Study  

PubMed Central

Background Development of novel therapeutic drugs and regimens for cancer treatment has led to improvements in patient long-term survival. This success has, however, been accompanied by the increased occurrence of second primary cancers. Indeed, patients who received regional radiotherapy for Hodgkin’s Lymphoma (HL) or breast cancer may develop, many years later, a solid metachronous tumor in the irradiated field. Despite extensive epidemiological studies, little information is available on the genetic changes involved in the pathogenesis of these solid therapy-related neoplasms. Methods Using microsatellite markers located in 7 chromosomal regions frequently deleted in sporadic esophageal cancer, we investigated loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and microsatellite instability (MSI) in 46 paired (normal and tumor) samples. Twenty samples were of esophageal carcinoma developed in HL or breast cancer long-term survivors: 14 squamous cell carcinomas (ESCC) and 6 adenocarcinomas (EADC), while 26 samples, used as control, were of sporadic esophageal cancer (15 ESCC and 11 EADC). Results We found that, though the overall LOH frequency at the studied chromosomal regions was similar among metachronous and sporadic tumors, the latter exhibited a statistically different higher LOH frequency at 17q21.31 (p = 0.018). By stratifying for tumor histotype we observed that LOH at 3p24.1, 5q11.2 and 9p21.3 were more frequent in ESCC than in EADC suggesting a different role of the genetic determinants located nearby these regions in the development of the two esophageal cancer histotypes. Conclusions Altogether, our results strengthen the genetic diversity among ESCC and EADC whether they occurred spontaneously or after therapeutic treatments. The presence of histotype-specific alterations in esophageal carcinoma arisen in HL or breast cancer long-term survivors suggests that their transformation process, though the putative different etiological origin, may retrace sporadic ESCC and EADC carcinogenesis. PMID:25611972

Boldrin, Elisa; Rumiato, Enrica; Fassan, Matteo; Cappellesso, Rocco; Rugge, Massimo; Chiarion-Sileni, Vanna; Ruol, Alberto; Alfieri, Rita; Cagol, Matteo; Castoro, Carlo; Amadori, Alberto; Saggioro, Daniela

2015-01-01

311

Primary Gastric Malignant Melanoma Mimicking Adenocarcinoma  

PubMed Central

We report a case of primary gastric malignant melanoma that was diagnosed after curative resection but initially misdiagnosed as adenocarcinoma. A 68-year-old woman was referred to our department for surgery for gastric adenocarcinoma presenting as a polypoid lesion with central ulceration located in the upper body of the stomach. The preoperative diagnosis was confirmed by endoscopic biopsy. We performed laparoscopic total gastrectomy, and the final pathologic evaluation led to the diagnosis of primary gastric malignant melanoma without a primary lesion detected in the body. To the best of our knowledge, primary gastric malignant melanoma is extremely rare, and this is the first case reported in our country. According to the literature, it has aggressive biologic activity compared with adenocarcinoma, and curative resection is the only promising treatment strategy. In our case, the patient received an early diagnosis and underwent curative gastrectomy with radical lymphadenectomy, and no recurrence was noted for about two years. PMID:25580362

Cho, Jun-Min; Lee, Chang Min; Jang, You-Jin; Park, Sung-Soo; Park, Seong-Heum; Kim, Seung-Joo; Mok, Young-Jae; Kim, Chong-Suk; Lee, Ju-Han

2014-01-01

312

Screening pre-bariatric surgery patients for esophageal disease with esophageal capsule endoscopy  

PubMed Central

AIM: To determine if esophageal capsule endoscopy (ECE) is an adequate diagnostic alternative to esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) in pre-bariatric surgery patients. METHODS: We conducted a prospective pilot study to assess the diagnostic accuracy of ECE (PillCam ESO2, Given Imaging) vs conventional EGD in pre-bariatric surgery patients. Patients who were scheduled for bariatric surgery and referred for pre-operative EGD were prospectively enrolled. All patients underwent ECE followed by standard EGD. Two experienced gastroenterologists blinded to the patient’s history and the findings of the EGD reviewed the ECE and documented their findings. The gold standard was the findings on EGD. RESULTS: Ten patients with an average body mass index of 50 kg/m2 were enrolled and completed the study. ECE identified 11 of 14 (79%) positive esophageal/gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) findings and 14 of 17 (82%) combined esophageal and gastric findings identified on EGD. Fisher’s exact test was used to compare the findings and no significant difference was found between ECE and EGD (P = 0.64 for esophageal/GEJ and P = 0.66 for combined esophageal and gastric findings respectively). Of the positive esophageal/GEJ findings, ECE failed to identify the following: hiatal hernia in two patients, mild esophagitis in two patients, and mild Schatzki ring in two patients. ECE was able to identify the entire esophagus in 100%, gastric cardia in 0%, gastric body in 100%, gastric antrum in 70%, pylorus in 60%, and duodenum in 0%. CONCLUSION: There were no significant differences in the likelihood of identifying a positive finding using ECE compared with EGD in preoperative evaluation of bariatric patients. PMID:24115815

Shah, Ashish; Boettcher, Erica; Fahmy, Marianne; Savides, Thomas; Horgan, Santiago; Jacobsen, Garth R; Sandler, Bryan J; Sedrak, Michael; Kalmaz, Denise

2013-01-01

313

Survival After Curative Resection for Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Colorectum  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: Previous reports have suggested that mucinous colorectal adenocarcinomas are more advanced at diagnosis and have a poorer prognosis than nonmucinous colorectal adenocarcinomas. The purpose of this study was to clarify whether the mucin-producing histologic type of carcinoma is associated with a worse prognosis than nonmucinous, differentiated colorectal adenocarcinoma for patients who undergo curative surgery. METHODS: Using a database of

Yukihide Kanemitsu; Tomoyuki Kato; Takashi Hirai; Kenzo Yasui; Takeshi Morimoto; Yasuhiro Shimizu; Yasuhiro Kodera; Yoshitaka Yamamura

2003-01-01

314

Robot assisted thoracoscopic resection of giant esophageal leiomyoma  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Esophageal leiomyoma represents the most common benign esophageal tumor. Robot-assisted thoracoscopic surgery has provided ability to remove it successfully using a minimally invasive approach. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 63-year old female with history of chronic chest pain presented with an esophageal mass on chest CT and endoscopic ultrasound. Robot-assisted surgery was performed using three robot arms, a camera and an assistant port. A 10 cm leiomyoma was enucleated and removed through a 2 cm myotomy. Completion endoscopy confirmed integrity of the esophagus. Patient's chest pain resolved postoperatively, and she was discharged on postoperative day 3. DISCUSSION Our case describes successful removal of the giant esophageal leiomyoma (10 cm) by robot assisted minimally invasive resection through a 2 cm myotomy. CONCLUSION Use of robot allows for removal of large esophageal leiomyoma. The improved dexterity and patient outcome offered by robot suggests its potential as the mainstay technique for giant esophageal leiomyoma removal. PMID:25460487

Compean, Steven D.; Gaur, Puja; Kim, Min P.

2014-01-01

315

Thoracoscopic esophageal atresia repair made easy. An applicable trick.  

PubMed

Thoracoscopic repair of esophageal atresia is becoming more popular but technical difficulties in handsewn anastomosis still remain challenging. This article presents an easy and applicable maneuver by passing the trans-esophageal tube before starting to suture in order to minimize the gap, reduce the tension over primary sutures and provide a better visualization of posterolateral parts of the anastomosis in thoracoscopic esophageal atresia repair. Using this maneuver makes tying easier and minimizes grasping and crushing damages to the anastomotic site. PMID:23480935

Hiradfar, Mehran; Shojaeian, Reza; Gharavi Fard, Mohammad; Joodi, Marjan; Sabzevari, Alireza; Nazarzade, Reza

2013-03-01

316

Correlation Between Number of Eosinophils and Reflux Index on Same Day Esophageal Biopsy and 24 Hour Esophageal pH Monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE:The presence of eosinophils on esophageal biopsy is a marker of esophagitis in children. Eosinophilic inflammation without evidence of gastroesophageal reflux has led to the new diagnosis of eosinophilic, or allergic, esophagitis. The aim of this study was to correlate the number of eosinophils with the reflux index on same day esophageal biopsy and 24 h esophageal pH monitoring.METHODS:A retrospective

Steven J. Steiner; Sandeep K. Gupta; Joseph M. Croffie; Joseph F. Fitzgerald

2004-01-01

317

The history of lymphadenectomy for esophageal cancer and the future prospects for esophageal cancer surgery.  

PubMed

I would herein like to look back upon surgery for esophageal cancer, particularly on lymphadenectomy, and to speculate a little on the future prospects for esophageal surgery. There are two schools of thought on lymphadenectomy in esophageal cancer: one believes in en bloc esophagectomy, which is commonly performed in Western countries; the other believes in three-field lymphadenectomy, which is commonly performed in Japan. We esophageal surgeons at Kurume University have contributed to some advances in three-field lymphadenectomy. For example, we initiated functional mediastinal dissection to ensure patient safety, and we proposed the lymph node compartment theory to assess the clinical importance of regional nodes. Oncological surgery has progressed in terms of its safety, radicality and functional preservation, leading to improved quality-of-life for patients after surgery. This then evolved to the current development of multimodal and individualized tailor-made treatments. I believe that surgery for esophageal cancer will become bipolarized in the future. One strand will evolve as salvage surgery for residual or recurrent tumors, which non-surgical therapies have failed to cure, and the other strand will evolve as less invasive surgery, adjuvant surgery, for cancers at the relatively early stage, for which micro-metastasis can be cured by non-surgical therapies. PMID:24519395

Fujita, Hiromasa

2015-02-01

318

Esophageal Motor Disorders in Terms of High-Resolution Esophageal Pressure Topography: What Has Changed?  

PubMed Central

The concept of high-resolution manometry (HRM) is to use sufficient pressure sensors such that intraluminal pressure can be monitored as a continuum along luminal length much as time is viewed as a continuum in conventional manometry. When HRM is coupled with pressure topography plots, pressure amplitude is transformed into spectral colors with isobaric conditions indicated by same-colored regions on the display. Together, these technologies are called high-resolution esophageal pressure topography (HREPT). HREPT has several advantages compared with conventional manometry, the technology that it was designed to replace. (i) The contractility of the entire esophagus can be viewed simultaneously in a uniform format, (ii) standardized objective metrics can be systematically applied for interpretation, and (iii) topographic patterns of contractility are more easily recognized and have greater reproducibility than with conventional manometry. Compared with conventional manometry, HREPT has improved sensitivity for detecting achalasia, largely due to the objectivity and accuracy with which it identifies impaired esophagogastric junction (EGJ) relaxation. In addition, it has led to the subcategorization of achalasia into three clinically relevant subtypes based on the contractile function of the esophageal body: classic achalasia, achalasia with esophageal compression, and spastic achalasia. Headway has also been made in understanding hypercontractile conditions, including diffuse esophageal spasm and a newly described entity, spastic nutcracker. Ultimately, clinical experience will be the judge, but it seems likely that HREPT data, along with its well-defined functional implications, will improve the clinical management of esophageal motility disorders. PMID:20179690

Kahrilas, Peter J.

2010-01-01

319

Desmoglein-1 regulates esophageal epithelial barrier function and immune responses in eosinophilic esophagitis  

PubMed Central

The desmosomal cadherin desmoglein-1 (DSG1) is an essential intercellular adhesion molecule that is altered in various human cutaneous disorders; however, its regulation and function in allergic disease remains unexplored. Herein, we demonstrate a specific reduction in DSG1 in esophageal biopsies from patients with eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), an emerging allergic disorder characterized by chronic inflammation within the esophageal mucosa. Further, we show that DSG1 gene silencing weakens esophageal epithelial integrity, and induces cell separation and impaired barrier function (IBF) despite high levels of desmoglein-3 (DSG3). Moreover, DSG1 deficiency induces transcriptional changes that partially overlap with the transcriptome of inflamed esophageal mucosa; notably, periostin, a multipotent pro-inflammatory extracellular matrix molecule, is the top induced overlapping gene. We further demonstrate that IBF is a pathological feature in EoE, which can be partially induced through the downregulation of DSG1 by interleukin-13 (IL-13). Taken together, these data identify a functional role for DSG1 and its dysregulation by IL-13 in the pathophysiology of EoE and suggest that the loss of DSG1 may potentiate allergic inflammation through the induction of pro-inflammatory mediators such as periostin. PMID:24220297

Sherrill, J D; KC, K; Wu, D; Djukic, Z; Caldwell, J M; Stucke, E M; Kemme, K A; Costello, M S; Mingler, M K; Blanchard, C; Collins, M H; Abonia, J P; Putnam, P E; Dellon, E S; Orlando, R C; Hogan, S P; Rothenb, M E

2014-01-01

320

Esophageal cancer: Recent advances in screening, targeted therapy, and management  

PubMed Central

The incidence of esophageal cancer remains on the rise worldwide and despite aggressive research in the field of gastrointestinal oncology, the survival remains poor. Much remains to be defined in esophageal cancer, including the development of an effective screening tool, identifying a good tumor marker for surveillance purposes, ways to target esophageal cancer stem cells as well as circulating tumor cells, and developing minimally invasive protocols to treat early-stage disease. The goal of this chapter is to highlight some of the recent advances and ongoing research in the field of esophageal cancer. PMID:25395880

Gaur, Puja; Kim, Min P.; Dunkin, Brian J.

2014-01-01

321

Pulmonary adenocarcinoma occurring 5 years after resection of a primary pancreatic adenocarcinoma: a relevant differential diagnosis.  

PubMed

Ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas is a lethal disease. Surgical extirpation only offers the slim chance for long-term survival in localized disease. We report on a 73 year old female patient who initially underwent successful resection of pancreatic adenocarcinoma in May 2005. She was treated with adjuvant chemotherapy with gemcitabine. In October 2010 the patient noticed increasing dyspnea with haemoptysis. She was soon referred to our center. After the diagnosis of pulmonary adenocarcinoma with widespread metastasis, she was treated with systemic chemotherapy. For a period of next three years, she was treated with different chemotherapy regimens due to repeated episodes of tumor progression. To the best of our knowledge after reviewing the literature, this case represents an unusually clinical course with metachronous pulmonary adenocarcinoma arising after treatment of a primary pancreatic cancer after a long latency period. PMID:24716048

Falkenstern-Ge, R F; Wohlleber, M; Kimmich, M; Huettl, K; Friedel, G; Ott, G; Kohlhäufl, M

2014-01-01

322

A sequence variant in the phospholipase C epsilon C2 domain is associated with esophageal carcinoma and esophagitis.  

PubMed

A single-nucleotide polymorphism (rs2274223: A5780G:His1927Arg) in the phospholipase C epsilon gene (PLC?) was recently identified as a susceptibility locus for esophageal cancer in Chinese subjects. To determine the underlying mechanisms of PLC? and this SNP in esophageal carcinogenesis, we analyzed PLC? genotypes, expression, and their correlation in esophageal cancer cell lines, non-transformed esophageal cells, 58 esophageal squamous cell carcinomas and 10,614 non-cancer subjects from China. We found that the G allele (AG or GG) was associated with increased PLC? mRNA and protein expression in esophageal cancer tissues and in esophageal cancer cell lines. G allele was also associated with higher enzyme activity, which might be associated with increased protein expression. Quantitative analysis of the C2 domain sequences revealed that A:G allelic imbalance was strongly linked to esophageal malignancy. Moreover, the analysis of 10,614 non-cancer subjects demonstrated that the G allele was strongly associated with moderate to severe esophagitis in the subjects from the high-incidence areas of China (OR 6.03, 95% CI 1.59-22.9 in high-incidence area vs. OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.33-1.64 in low-incidence area; P?=?0.008). In conclusion, the PLC? gene, particularly the 5780G allele, might play a pivotal role in esophageal carcinogenesis via upregulating PLC? mRNA, protein, and enzyme activity, and augmenting inflammatory process in esophageal epithelium. Thus, 5780G allele may constitute a promising biomarker for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma risk stratification, early detection, and progression prediction. PMID:23390063

Wang, Li-Dong; Bi, Xiuli; Song, Xin; Pohl, Nicole M; Cheng, Yulan; Zhou, Yixing; Shears, Stephen; Ansong, Emmanuel; Xing, Mengtao; Wang, Shaomeng; Xu, Xiao-Chun; Huang, Peng; Xu, Liyan; Wang, Liang; Fan, Zongmin; Zhao, Xueke; Dong, Huali; Meltzer, Stephen J; Ding, Ivan; Yang, Wancai

2013-11-01

323

Eosinophils in the Esophagus—Peptic or Allergic Eosinophilic Esophagitis? Case Series of Three Patients with Esophageal Eosinophilia  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES:Scattered eosinophils in the distal esophagus traditionally provide the hallmark for peptic esophagitis, but the upper limit of eosinophils and the longitudinal extent of peptic inflammation along the esophagus are unknown. Recently, adults and children with upper intestinal symptoms and >20 eosinophils\\/high-power field (eos\\/HPF) have been given the diagnosis of allergic esophagitis. Standardized diagnostic criteria for allergic esophagitis are lacking

Peter Ngo; Glenn T. Furuta; Donald A. Antonioli; Victor L. Fox

2006-01-01

324

New genetic links in eosinophilic esophagitis.  

PubMed

Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is increasingly diagnosed as a disorder throughout the world. It is characterized by eosinophils in the esophagus due to food allergies. Molecular analysis of esophageal biopsies and mouse models have indicated a clear role for the T helper 2 pathway, in particular interleukins 5 and 13, in this disease. Current treatment options for EoE involve avoidance of the allergens or using anti-inflammatory medications such as topical corticosteroids. In the past year, genomic research has led to the identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the gene encoding thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), and subsequently in the gene encoding its receptor, as disease susceptibility markers for EoE. Identification of this molecule and its receptor suggest the potential for new treatment options in the future. PMID:20822553

Spergel, Jonathan M

2010-01-01

325

Esophageal atresia and prenatal exposure to mycophenolate.  

PubMed

Mycophenolate mofetil is a widely prescribed immunosuppressive agent for transplant patients and autoimmune diseases. Potential teratogenic effects after in utero exposure to mycophenolate mofetil has been described in human clinical observations. The complete clinical pattern is still being delineated. We present four newborns with esophageal atresia and other congenital anomalies, prenatally exposed to mycophenolate mofetil during the first trimester. Two of the cases had other defects related to the embryopathy: microtia, eye abnormalities and oral clefts. Two cases did not show major craniofacial anomalies. We propose that esophageal atresia with or without tracheoesophageal fistula is a feature of mycophenolate embryopathy even without the presence of other major craniofacial anomalies. The human teratogenicity of MMF is reinforced by this report, and the current contraceptive recommendations about its use in fertile women are stressed. PMID:25461910

Martín, M C; Cristiano, E; Villanueva, M; Bonora, M L; Berguio, N; Tocci, A; Groisman, B; Bidondo, M P; Liascovich, R; Barbero, P

2014-12-01

326

Peroral endoscopic myotomy for esophageal achalasia.  

PubMed

Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) is one of the alternative treatment for achalasia. Due to concept of natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES), it becomes popular and widely accepted. With the endoluminal technique, submucosal tunnel was created followed by endoscopic myotomy. POEM is not only indicated in classical achalasia but also other abnormal esophageal motility disorders. Moreover, failures of endoscopic treatment or surgical attempted cases are not contraindicated for POEM. The second attempted POEM is also safe and technically feasible. Even though the legend of success of POEM is fruitful, the possible complications are very frightened. Good training and delicate practice will reduce rate of complications. This review provides a summary of current state-of-the-art of POEM, including indication equipments, technique and complications. This perfect procedure may become the treatment of choice of achalasia and some esophageal motility disorders in the near future. PMID:25333007

Phalanusitthepha, Chainarong; Inoue, Haruhiro; Ikeda, Haruo; Sato, Hiroki; Sato, Chiaki; Hokierti, Chananya

2014-03-01

327

Current strategies in chemoradiation for esophageal cancer  

PubMed Central

Chemoradiotherapy (CRT) has an important role in the treatment of esophageal cancer in both the inoperable and the pre-operative settings. Pre-operative chemoradiation therapy is generally given to 41.4-50.4 Gy with platinum or paclitaxel based chemotherapy. The most common definitive dose in the U.S. is 50-50.4 Gy. New advances in CRT for esophageal cancer have come from looking for ways to minimize toxicity and maximize efficacy. Recent investigations for minimizing toxicity have focused advanced radiation techniques such as IMRT and proton therapy, have sought to further define normal tissue tolerances, and have examined the use of tighter fields with less elective clinical target volume coverage. Efforts to maximize efficacy have included the use of early positron emission tomography (PET) response directed therapy, molecularly targeted therapies, and the use of tumor markers that predict response. PMID:24982764

Lloyd, Shane

2014-01-01

328

Peroral endoscopic myotomy for esophageal achalasia  

PubMed Central

Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) is one of the alternative treatment for achalasia. Due to concept of natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES), it becomes popular and widely accepted. With the endoluminal technique, submucosal tunnel was created followed by endoscopic myotomy. POEM is not only indicated in classical achalasia but also other abnormal esophageal motility disorders. Moreover, failures of endoscopic treatment or surgical attempted cases are not contraindicated for POEM. The second attempted POEM is also safe and technically feasible. Even though the legend of success of POEM is fruitful, the possible complications are very frightened. Good training and delicate practice will reduce rate of complications. This review provides a summary of current state-of-the-art of POEM, including indication equipments, technique and complications. This perfect procedure may become the treatment of choice of achalasia and some esophageal motility disorders in the near future. PMID:25333007

Inoue, Haruhiro; Ikeda, Haruo; Sato, Hiroki; Sato, Chiaki; Hokierti, Chananya

2014-01-01

329

Large retroperitoneal paraganglioma concurrent with periampullary adenocarcinoma  

PubMed Central

Paragangliomas are tumors that originate from extra-adrenal medullary neural crest derivatives. They are rarely located in retroperitoneal space. These tumors are often discovered incidentally during imaging studies performed for other reasons. Periampullary cancers include adenocarcinomas arising from the pancreas, ampulla of Vater, duodenum or distal common bile duct. The exact site of origin of periampullary tumors is often difficult to ascertain pre-operatively. We report the case of a patient who had a retroperitoneal non-functional paraganglioma, concurrent with periampullary adenocarcinoma. An 81-year-old woman was admitted with progressive abdominal fullness. There was an upper paramedian, left sided, large, palpable mass on the physical examination. Laboratory investigations showed an increase in liver enzyme levels. On abdominal computed tomography the patient found to have a large retroperitoneal mass and dilation in biliary tract, which was confirmed by magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography. She had a tumoral papi in Endoscopic Retrograde cholangiopancreatography. Which biopsy revealed adenocarcinoma. She underwent surgery for excision of abdominal mass and pancreaticoduodenectomy. And pathologic study showed paraganglioma. This is the first ever reported case of concurrent paraganglioma and periampullary adenocarcinoma. PMID:24523807

Hakimian, Seyed Mohammadreza; Naimi, Azar; Emami, Seyed Mohammadhasan; Rozatii, Golnar; Goharian, Vahid

2013-01-01

330

Image analysis and grading of prostate adenocarcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

The multitude of grading systems proposed for prostate adenocarcinoma illustrate the putative value of tumor grading as a predictor of prognosis. However, it also indicates the uncertainty and subjectivity of visual grading, as is confirmed by the results of several studies. Recent computer techniques enable fast image processing of microscoping images. Hence, a quantitative assessment of cellular and nuclear features

H. G. van der Poel; J. A. Schalken; F. M. J. Debruyne

1991-01-01

331

Adenocarcinoma - chest x-ray (image)  

MedlinePLUS

This chest x-ray shows adenocarcinoma of the lung. There is a rounded light spot in the right upper lung (left side ... density. Diseases that may cause this type of x-ray result would be tuberculous or fungal granuloma, and ...

332

Gene expression profiling in sinonasal adenocarcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Sinonasal adenocarcinomas are uncommon tumors which develop in the ethmoid sinus after exposure to wood dust. Although the etiology of these tumors is well defined, very little is known about their molecular basis and no diagnostic tool exists for their early detection in high-risk workers. METHODS: To identify genes involved in this disease, we performed gene expression profiling using

Dominique Tripodi; Sylvia Quéméner; Karine Renaudin; Christophe Ferron; Olivier Malard; Isabelle Guisle-Marsollier; Véronique Sébille-Rivain; Christian Verger; Christian Géraut; Catherine Gratas-Rabbia-Ré

2009-01-01

333

Aortoesophageal fistula secondary to reflux esophagitis.  

PubMed

Aortoenteric fistula is a rare cause of massive upper gastrointestinal bleeding and is in the overwhelming majority of cases due to erosion of a suture line of a prosthetic vascular graft into the bowel. We report the case of a massive fatal gastrointestinal hemorrhage from an aortoenteric fistula secondary to erosion from reflux esophagitis. Proper management requires expedient radiographic and endoscopic evaluation, and even with appropriate management mortality remains extremely high. PMID:17369684

Podbielski, Francis J; Rodriguez, Heron E; Zhu, Richard Y; Worley, Todd A; Fontaine, Jacques Pierre; Connolly, Mark M

2007-01-01

334

Esophageal food impaction: treatment with glucagon.  

PubMed

Nineteen patients who had foreign bodies in the distal esophagus were examined prospectively to determine the efficacy of intravenous glucagon in relieving the obstruction. The administration of glucagon resulted in clearance of the impacted food in seven patients. Although the success rate is relatively low, the risk is minimal and justifiable. Use of intravenous glucagon is a safe, worthwhile initial step in the treatment of distal esophageal foreign bodies. PMID:6622682

Trenkner, S W; Maglinte, D D; Lehman, G A; Chernish, S M; Miller, R E; Johnson, C W

1983-11-01

335

Ambulatory Esophageal pH Monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extraesophageal manifestations of gastroesophageal reflux may be best diagnosed using ambulatory esophageal pH monitoring. This test involves the placemenmt of a thin pH probe in the esophagus, which is connected to a small box on a waistbelt. Studies are done in an ambulatory state in the patient’s home and work environment. Data collected assesses acid exposure time over the circadian

Joel E Richter

1997-01-01

336

Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: Pathology and prognosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between 1985 and 1992 a total of 403 patients with resected thoracic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma were evaluated histopathologically, and various pathologic findings related to survival were examined. Concerning depth of tumor invasion, 8 (2%) cases were pTis, 110 (27%) were pT1, 48 (12%) were pT2, 202 (50%) were pT3, and 35 (9%) were pT4. Lymphatic invasion was detected in

Hiroko Ide; Tsutomu Nakamura; Kazuhiko Hayashi; Takeshi Endo; Ataru Kobayashi; Reiki Eguchi; Fujio Hanyu

1994-01-01

337

Dietary freeze dried black raspberry’s effect on cellular antioxidant status during reflux-induced esophagitis in rats  

PubMed Central

Introduction Esophageal cancer consists of two distinct types –esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), both of which differ significantly in their etiology. Freeze dried black raspberry (BRB) has been consistent in its ability to modulate the biomarkers and reduce the incidence of carcinogen-induced SCC in rats. In our previous studies in the esophagoduodenal anastomosis (EDA) model, we have shown that the early modulation of Manganese Superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) significantly correlates with the development of reflux-induced EAC in rats. In this study we looked at the short-term effects of a BRB supplemented diet on the modulation of antioxidant enzymes in reflux-induced esophagitis. Methods Male SD rats (8 wo; n=3–5) were randomized into 3 groups- sham-operated, fed control AIN-93M diet (SH-CD), EDA operated and fed either control diet (EDA-CD) or 2.5% (w/w) BRB diet (EDA-BRB). The effect of both reflux and dietary supplementation was analyzed 2 and 4 weeks after EDA surgery. Results Animals in EDA groups had significantly lower weight gain and diet intake compared to SH-CD (p<0.05). The sham operated animals, received an average esophagitis score of 0.1 ± 0.1, this increased significantly in EDA –CD animals to 1.8 ± 0.14 (p< 0.001 vs SH-CD) and in EDA-BRB group to 1.7 ± 0.06 (p< 0.001 vs SH-CD), with BE changes also present. However, dietary supplementation of BRB did not alter or ameliorate the grade of esophagitis or the induction of BE. BRB diet caused a 43% increase in MnSOD levels compared to EDA-CD (0.73 ± 0.16; p=0.09), however, this effect was not statistically significant and at 4 weeks, EDA-CD (0.58 ±0.12) showed an increase in MnSOD expression compared to SH-CD (0.34 ± 0.01). Conclusions In conclusion, our data suggests that dietary BRB does not increase the levels of cellular antioxidant enzymes or reduce the levels of lipid peroxidation compared to a control diet, in a short-term study of gastroesophageal reflux induction in the EDA animal model. However, it remains to be tested whether this is indicative of its ineffectiveness to inhibit reflux-induced EAC incidence over long-term. PMID:20538426

Aiyer, Harini S; Li, Yan; Liu, Qiao Hong; Reuter, Nathaniel; Martin, Robert C.G.

2010-01-01

338

Salicylic acid ingestion leading to esophageal stricture.  

PubMed

Accidental ingestion of caustic substances (acid and alkali) occurs more frequently in children than in adults. The subsequent injury varies from minimal to severe, with perforation and even death as potential complications. Several factors have been shown to mediate the severity of injury, including the pH, concentration and physical state of the ingested substance, tissue contact time, and quantity (volume) of the ingested material. Liquids with a pH of less than 2 (acidic) or a pH of greater than 12 (alkali) are considered to be extremely corrosive and hold the greatest risk for injury. Esophageal injury after caustic ingestion is endoscopically graded with a score of 0 for no injury to IIIb for significant circumferential injury with ulcers and necrosis. Ingestion of either a strong alkali or acid has been documented to result in esophageal necrosis and ulcers (grade IIIb). Alkali ingestions occur more frequently because of their presence in daily life (detergents, degreasers) and therefore have more reports of injury. Despite more than 8200 documented cases of topical salicylic acid ingestions annually in US children younger than 19 years, there are no reported cases of salicylic acid resulting in gastrointestinal pathology. We report 2 cases of salicylic acid ingestion resulting in esophageal strictures. Both patients had more significant injury than anticipated given their initial clinical presentations. Given our recent experience, we recommend close follow-up and evaluation for strictures in patients with exposure to salicylic acid. PMID:20145508

Waasdorp Hurtado, Christine E; Kramer, Robert E

2010-02-01

339

Esophageal duplication cyst containing a foreign body  

PubMed Central

About 10% to 15% of all duplication cysts in the alimentary tract are esophageal. Esophageal duplication cysts are intimately attached to the alimentary tract, are lined by mucous membrane and have smooth muscle. This paper describes a 2-year-old child who presented with symptoms of progressive respiratory distress. A diagnosis of esophageal duplication cyst was made. At surgery a low cervical incision was made and the sternal manubrium split, thereby providing adequate exposure. The cyst was then removed. The most useful investigations were chest roentgenography and barium esophagography. Computerized tomography showed a small, round foreign body in the middle of the cyst that was subsequently found to be a bingo chip. Communication between the cyst and the esophagus was not obvious at the time of surgery and had not been demonstrated by barium esophagography. When complete excision of the cyst is not possible because of inflammatory reaction all the mucosa must be removed to prevent recurrence. Careful postoperative respiratory support and broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy are recommended. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3 PMID:3971270

Stringel, Gustavo; Mercer, Stanley; Briggs, Valerie

1985-01-01

340

Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma: New Strategies for Success  

PubMed Central

Pancreatic adenocarcinoma ranks as the most challenging of human malignancies, with overall 5-year survivorship being measured in a couple of percent. Major progress has occurred regarding the molecular underpinnings and pathogenesis of pancreatic adenocarcinoma, definition of the epidemiology and genetics of this disease, identification of individuals at risk, and in 2008, the preliminary description of the pancreatic genome. However, clinical developments over the past decade have been modest and incremental at most. The core drug and the backbone of treatment in all settings of pancreatic adenocarcinoma— adjuvant, locally advanced, and metastatic—remains gemcitabine. The past decade of research focused initially on combining cytotoxic therapies with gemcitabine, and more recently, on combining newer “targeted agents.” Some success has been observed by combining the platinum analogs and the fluoropyrimidines with gemcitabine in the advanced pancreatic cancer setting. Three- and four-drug combinations have also been assessed, but the data are limited and the major trade-off becomes a toxicity-benefit equation. In relative terms, more limited incremental gains have been observed by combining erlotinib with gemcitabine, while other randomized phase III trials of targeted agents combined with gemcitabine have essentially shown no benefit. Several of the newer generation anti-vascular agents (VEGF-trap, axitinib) are being evaluated in ongoing phase III trials. In the short-term, expectations for advances in pancreatic adenocarcinoma therapy are reserved, with most progress likely to be made in therapy refinement and patient selection. However, it is reasonable to surmise that major progress will evolve as the molecular biology of pancreatic adenocarcinoma continues to be unraveled, as the infrastructure for translational research is strengthened with new preclinical models, and with recognition of the prerequisite requirement for intensive cross-disciplinary collaboration. PMID:19461915

2009-01-01

341

HER2-positive, trastuzumab-resistant metastatic esophageal cancer presenting with brain metastasis after durable response to dual HER2 blockade: a case report  

PubMed Central

We here report a case of a patient diagnosed with human epithelial growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-amplified esophageal adenocarcinoma. The patient responded well to trastuzumab-based chemotherapy initially, but progressed with liver metastases. Her treatment was then switched to dual HER2 blockade with both trastuzumab and lapatinib in combination with capecitabine. She tolerated therapy and responded remarkably well with radiographic resolution of liver metastases. Unfortunately, she developed multiple brain metastases in the absence of extracranial progression. Discordant negative expression of HER2 and subclonal mutations in brain lesions were discovered, which, at least in part, explained her brain metastases in the presence of capecitabine and lapatinib, as both agents are known to be able to cross the blood brain barrier. The potential mechanism for dual HER2 blockade is discussed in the context of HER2-positive, trastuzumab-resistant, advanced esophageal cancer. The incidence of brain metastasis in advanced gastro-esophageal cancer has been reported to be extremely low, but is expected to increase with more effective systemic therapy. The intratumoral heterogeneity between the metastases, local recurrences and the primary tumor is definitely noteworthy. PMID:25436131

Gelbspan, Deborah; Weitz, David; Markman, Maurie; Quan, Walter

2014-01-01

342

HER2-positive, trastuzumab-resistant metastatic esophageal cancer presenting with brain metastasis after durable response to dual HER2 blockade: a case report.  

PubMed

We here report a case of a patient diagnosed with human epithelial growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-amplified esophageal adenocarcinoma. The patient responded well to trastuzumab-based chemotherapy initially, but progressed with liver metastases. Her treatment was then switched to dual HER2 blockade with both trastuzumab and lapatinib in combination with capecitabine. She tolerated therapy and responded remarkably well with radiographic resolution of liver metastases. Unfortunately, she developed multiple brain metastases in the absence of extracranial progression. Discordant negative expression of HER2 and subclonal mutations in brain lesions were discovered, which, at least in part, explained her brain metastases in the presence of capecitabine and lapatinib, as both agents are known to be able to cross the blood brain barrier. The potential mechanism for dual HER2 blockade is discussed in the context of HER2-positive, trastuzumab-resistant, advanced esophageal cancer. The incidence of brain metastasis in advanced gastro-esophageal cancer has been reported to be extremely low, but is expected to increase with more effective systemic therapy. The intratumoral heterogeneity between the metastases, local recurrences and the primary tumor is definitely noteworthy. PMID:25436131

Niu, Jiaxin; Gelbspan, Deborah; Weitz, David; Markman, Maurie; Quan, Walter

2014-12-01

343

Percutaneous comprehensive cryoablation for metastatic esophageal cancer after failure of radical surgery.  

PubMed

Esophageal cancer is common in China. There is a lack of treatment strategies for metastatic esophageal cancer (MEC) after radical surgery on the primary tumor. Cryoablation is an attractive option because tumor necrosis can be safely induced in a minimally invasive manner. This study assessed its therapeutic effect in MEC after failure of radical surgery. One hundred and forty patients met the inclusion criteria from May, 2003 to March, 2011. Comprehensive cryotherapy of multiple metastases was performed on 105 patients; 35 received chemotherapy. No severe complications occurred during or after cryoablation. Overall survival (OS) was assessed according to therapeutic protocol, pathologic type, treatment timing and number of procedures. The OS of patients who received comprehensive cryoablation (44±20 months) was significantly longer than that of those who underwent chemotherapy (23±24 months; P=0.0006). In the cryotherapy group, the OS for squamous cell carcinoma (45±19 months) was longer than that for adenocarcinoma (33±18 months; P=0.0435); the OS for timely cryoablation (46±19 months) was longer than that for delayed cryoablation (33±20 months; P=0.0193); the OS for multiple cryoablation (50±17 months) was longer than that for single cryoablation (37±20 months; P=0.0172); and the OS for cryo-immunotherapy (56±17 months) was longer than that for cryoablation alone (39±19 months; P=0.0011). Thus, comprehensive cryotherapy may have advantages over chemotherapy in the treatment of metastatic MEC and, in patients with squamous cell carcinoma, supplementary immunotherapy and timely and multiple cryoablation may be associated with a better prognosis. PMID:24513461

Jiongyuan, Xu; Lizhi, Niu; Feng, Mu; Shupeng, Liu; Yin, Leng; Mengtian, Liao; Jianying, Zeng; Fei, Yao; Jibing, Chen; Jialiang, Li; Kecheng, Xu

2013-10-24

344

Increasing toxicity during neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy as positive prognostic factor for patients with esophageal carcinoma.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to correlate acute organ toxicity during preoperative radiochemotherapy with overall survival and tumor regression for patients with primarily operable esophageal carcinoma. From 1995 to 2002, 60 patients with primarily operable esophageal carcinoma were treated in a preoperative setting at our department. Thirty-three percent of the patients had International Union against Cancer (UICC)-stage II tumors, 62% had UICC-stage III tumors, and 5% had UICC-stage IVA tumors. All patients received irradiation (40?Gy at 2?Gy/fraction). Chemotherapy for all patients with adenocarcinoma and, from 2001, also for patients with squamous cell carcinoma consisted of two cycles, 5-fluorouracil and cisplatinum; between 1995 and 2001, patients with squamous cell carcinoma received three courses of chemotherapy (folinic acid, etoposide, 5-fluorouracil, and cisplatinum every 3 weeks) before and further cisplatinum and etoposide during radiotherapy. We found a significant correlation between acute organ toxicity and histopathological tumor regression, as well as overall survival. The probability to achieve tumor regression grade 1 after radiochemotherapy was nearly four times higher for patients with worsening of odynophagia than for those without an increase (odds ratio: 3.97). Patients with worsening of odynophagia had a 5-year overall-survival rate of 66% compared with 39% in patients without (P = 0.048). Our data indicate that normal tissue and tumor tissue may behave similar with respect to treatment response, as acute organ toxicity showed to be an independent prognostic marker in our patient population. The hypothesis should be further analyzed on biomolecular and clinical level in future clinical trials. PMID:23574528

Hennies, S; Hermann, R M; Gaedcke, J; Grade, M; Hess, C F; Christiansen, H; Wolff, H A

2014-01-01

345

Prevention of esophageal strictures after endoscopic submucosal dissection.  

PubMed

Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) and endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) have recently been accepted as less invasive methods for treating patients with early esophageal cancers such as squamous cell carcinoma and dysplasia of Barrett's esophagus. However, the large defects in the esophageal mucosa often cause severe esophageal strictures, which dramatically reduce the patient's quality of life. Although preventive endoscopic balloon dilatation can reduce dysphagia and the frequency of dilatation, other approaches are necessary to prevent esophageal strictures after ESD. This review describes several strategies for preventing esophageal strictures after ESD, with a particular focus on anti-inflammatory and tissue engineering approaches. The local injection of triamcinolone acetonide and other systemic steroid therapies are frequently used to prevent esophageal strictures after ESD. Tissue engineering approaches for preventing esophageal strictures have recently been applied in basic research studies. Scaffolds with temporary stents have been applied in five cases, and this technique has been shown to be safe and is anticipated to prevent esophageal strictures. Fabricated autologous oral mucosal epithelial cell sheets to cover the defective mucosa similarly to how commercially available skin products fabricated from epidermal cells are used for skin defects or in cases of intractable ulcers. Fabricated autologous oral-mucosal-epithelial cell sheets have already been shown to be safe. PMID:25386058

Kobayashi, Shinichiro; Kanai, Nobuo; Ohki, Takeshi; Takagi, Ryo; Yamaguchi, Naoyuki; Isomoto, Hajime; Kasai, Yoshiyuki; Hosoi, Takahiro; Nakao, Kazuhiko; Eguchi, Susumu; Yamamoto, Masakazu; Yamato, Masayuki; Okano, Teruo

2014-11-01

346

Congenital distal esophageal obstruction caused by intraluminal mucosal web.  

PubMed

Here, we report a case with intraluminal membrane (web) located in the lower esophagus causing complete obstruction. Esophagogram revealed complete obstruction near the esophagogastric junction. Surgical excision of the esophageal membrane was performed. To our knowledge, only a few cases with membranous esophageal atresia have been reported. It must be remembered in neonates who cannot tolerate feeding. PMID:23094548

U?uralp, Sema; Ceran, Canan; Demircan, Mehmet

2012-01-01

347

Endoscopic Management of Difficult or Recurrent Esophageal Strictures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Esophageal strictures are a common problem in gastroenterological practice. In general, the management of malignant or benign esophageal strictures is different and requires a different treatment approach. In daily clinical practice, stent placement is a commonly used modality for the palliation of incurable malignant strictures causing dysphagia, whereas, if available, intraluminal brachytherapy can be considered in patients with a good

Laetitia R H de Wijkerslooth; Frank P Vleggaar; Peter D Siersema

2011-01-01

348

Pierre Robin sequence with esophageal atresia and congenital radioulnar synostosis.  

PubMed

A wide spectrum of anomalies can be associated with Pierre Robin sequence. This report presents a 3-day-old infant with micrognathia, U-shaped cleft palate, low-set right ear with microtia, glossoptosis, esophageal atresia, and right congenital radioulnar synostosis. The association of congenital radioulnar synostosis and esophageal atresia with Pierre Robin sequence has not been previously described. PMID:16681404

Ozkan, Keramettin Ugur; Coban, Yusuf Kenan; Uzel, Murat; Ergun, Mehmet; Oksuz, Hafize

2006-05-01

349

The efficacy of ozone therapy in experimental caustic esophageal burn  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionOzone has been proposed as an antioxidant enzyme activator, immunomodulator and cellular metabolic activator. This study was designed to investigate the efficacy of ozone therapy in the prevention of esophageal damage and stricture formation developed after esophageal caustic injuries in the rat.

Ahmet Guven; Gokhan Gundogdu; Serdar Sadir; Turgut Topal; Esra Erdogan; Ahmet Korkmaz; ?lhami Surer; Haluk Ozturk

2008-01-01

350

Photodynamic Therapy for Barrett's Esophagus and Esophageal Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

This paper reviews the use of photodynamic therapy (PDT) in patients with Barrett's esophagus and esophageal carcinoma. We describe the history of PDT, mechanics, photosensitizers for PDT in patients with esophageal disease. Finally, we discuss its utility and limitations in this setting. PMID:23423151

Qumseya, Bashar J.; David, Waseem

2013-01-01

351

Tea and coffee consumption and risk of esophageal cancer: the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition study.  

PubMed

Epidemiological data regarding tea and coffee consumption and risk of esophageal cancer (EC) is still inconclusive. We examined the association of tea and coffee consumption with EC risk among 442,143 men and women without cancer at baseline from 9 countries of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Tea and coffee intakes were recorded using country-specific validated dietary questionnaires. Cox regression models were used to analyze the relationships between tea and coffee intake and EC risk. During a mean follow-up of 11.1 years, 339 participants developed EC, of which 142 were esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) and 174 were esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). In the multivariable models, no significant associations between tea (mostly black tea), and coffee intake and risk of EC, EAC and ESCC were observed. In stratified analyses, among men coffee consumption was inversely related to ESCC (HR for comparison of extreme tertiles 0.42, 95% CI 0.20-0.88; p-trend=0.022), but not among women. In current smokers, a significant and inverse association was observed between ESCC risk and tea (HR 0.46, 95% CI 0.23-0.93; p-trend=0.053) and coffee consumption (HR 0.37, 95% CI 0.19-0.73; p-trend=0.011). However, no statistically significant findings were observed using the continuous variable (per 100 mL/d). These data did not show a significant association between tea and coffee consumption and EC, EAC and ESCC, although a decreased risk of ESCC among men and current smokers is suggested, but need to be confirmed in further prospective studies including more cases. PMID:24535727

Zamora-Ros, Raul; Luján-Barroso, Leila; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Dik, Vincent K; Boeing, Heiner; Steffen, Annika; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Overvad, Kim; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Racine, Antoine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Kuhn, Tilman; Katzke, Verena; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Tumino, Rosario; Panico, Salvatore; Vineis, Paolo; Grioni, Sara; Palli, Domenico; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Skeie, Guri; Huerta, José María; Sánchez, María-José; Argüelles, Marcial; Amiano, Pilar; Ardanaz, Eva; Nilsson, Lena; Wallner, Bengt; Lindkvist, Björn; Wallström, Peter; Peeters, Petra H M; Key, Timothy J; Khaw, Kay-Thee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Freisling, Heinz; Stepien, Magdalena; Ferrari, Pietro; Gunter, Marc J; Murphy, Neil; Riboli, Elio; González, Carlos A

2014-09-15

352

The efficacy of self-expanding metal stents for palliation of malignant esophageal strictures and fistulas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Esophageal strictures and esophagorespiratory fistulas are complications of malignant esophageal tumors, which are difficult to manage. The efficacy of self-expanding metal stents (SEMS) for palliation of malignant esophageal strictures and fistulas was investigated prospectively. Methods: Forty-three SEMS were inserted in 41 patients with malignant esophageal stricture or fistula. Our series included 32 men and nine women, of whom median

Alpay Sarper; Necdet Oz; Cemalettin Cihangir; Abid Demircan; Erol Isin

2003-01-01

353

Relationship of esophageal anastomotic tension to the development of gastroesophageal reflux  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Purpose: Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is a common occurrence after repair of congenital esophageal atresia and is believed to be more frequent when the esophageal anastomosis is performed under tension. This study documents that esophageal anastomotic tension correlates directly with the severity of acid reflux into the esophagus in the rabbit model.Methods: Eight adult rabbits underwent complete esophageal transection with immediate

Weihong Guo; Eric W Fonkalsrud; Fresca Swaniker; Anatoly Kodner

1997-01-01

354

Simultaneous esophageal pH monitoring and scintigraphy during the postprandial period in patients with severe reflux esophagitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

To compare reflux events detected by intraesophageal pH monitoring with that of scintigraphy, we simultaneously performed both techniques along with esophageal manometry in nine patients with severe reflux esophagitis. Two hundred eighteen reflux events were detected in the recumbent posture after a meal during a 40-min interval. Both techniques simultaneously detected only 23% of all reflux events. Scintigraphy alone detected

Steven S. Shay; Douglas Eggli; Lawrence F. Johnson

1991-01-01

355

Early esophageal cancer in Europe: endoscopic treatment by endoscopic submucosal dissection.  

PubMed

Background and study aims: Endoscopic resection is the standard treatment for superficial esophageal cancer. Data on early adenocarcinoma (EAC) are widely restricted to endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR), whereas large studies have been published on endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for early squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). ESD has potential advantages regarding en bloc and R0 resection rates, which have been demonstrated for ESCC. However, studies have failed to confirm these advantages in EAC. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of ESD in early esophageal cancer. Patients and methods: A total of 111 early esophageal cancers (87 EACs and 24 ESCCs) were resected by ESD at a German tertiary referral center. A total of 60 EACs were resected within Barrett's segments ??M3. Resection rates, complications, and follow-up data were recorded prospectively. Results: En bloc resection rates were 95.4?% for EAC and 100?% for ESCC (P?=?0.575), and R0 resection rates were 83.9?% and 91.7?%, respectively (P?=?0.515). The R0 resection rate was higher in Barrett's ??M3 vs. >?M3 (90?% vs. 70.4?%; P?=?0.029). The curative resection rate was 72.4?% for EAC vs. 45.8?% for ESCC (P?=?0.026). Endoluminal recurrence was observed in 2.4?% of EACs (8?% in Barrett's >?M3, 0?% in Barrett's ??M3), and 0?% of ESCCs. Complications included strictures (11.7?%) and bleedings (0.9?%), but no perforation. Disease-specific survival was 97.7?% (EAC) and 95.8?% (ESCC), and overall survival was 96.6?% (EAC) and 66.7?% (ESCC) over a mean follow-up period of 24.3 months and 38.0 months, respectively. Conclusions: ESD was shown to be a safe resection method, achieving high R0 resection rates in both EAC and ESCC. Recurrence rates were low. To improve R0 resection within long Barrett's segments, diagnosis of the lateral extension of the lesion needs to be improved. PMID:25479563

Probst, Andreas; Aust, Daniela; Märkl, Bruno; Anthuber, Matthias; Messmann, Helmut

2014-12-01

356

Endometrioid adenocarcinoma of caecum causing intussusception.  

PubMed

Malignant transformation of endometriosis is rare and is usually seen in ovarian endometriosis. The colon and rectum are the most common sites for extragonadal endometriosis, and although serosal involvement is commonly seen, mucosal involvement is rare. Malignant transformation of endometriosis is a rare but a well-known complication of endometriosis. We report an unusual presentation of endometrioid adenocarcinoma with lymph node metastasis, arising from endometriosis in the caecal wall and causing ileocaecal intussusception. The patient presented with sudden onset of abdominal pain with features suggestive of acute appendicitis. Diagnostic laparoscopy revealed an ileocaecal intussusception. Conversion to open surgery confirmed a caecal mass causing ileocaecal intussusception, and a radical right hemicolectomy was performed. Histology revealed endometrioid adenocarcinoma arising in a focus of endometriosis in the muscularis propria and involving the mucosa, with one regional metastatic lymph node. PMID:23710407

Verma, Rashmi; Osborn, Sally; Horgan, Kieran

2013-01-01

357

Adenocarcinoma associated with tail gut cyst  

PubMed Central

Primary adenocarcinomas of the presacral (retrorectal) space are rare. The diagnosis is usually delayed because of non-specific symptoms, and is made after a biopsy or surgery. These carcinomas arise from cystic lesions developing from remnants of the embryological postanal gut containing mucous-secreting epithelium, known as tail gut cysts. The potential for infection, perianal fistulas and most importantly, malignant change warrants an early complete surgical resection. From an oncologist’s perspective, the management of these carcinomas has varied, and has included adjuvant chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy. We describe here a rare case of adenocarcinoma associated with a tail gut cyst that was discovered incidentally and resected by a posterior approach (Kraske procedure). The patient has had clinical and periodic radiologic surveillance without any evidence of cancer recurrence for over a year and a half. PMID:23450681

Wise, Susannah; Maloney-Patel, Nell; Rezac, Craig; Poplin, Elizabeth

2013-01-01

358

Removable esophageal stents have poor efficacy for the treatment of refractory benign esophageal strictures (RBES).  

PubMed

With the recent availability of removable esophageal stents, endoscopic stenting has been utilized to treat refractory benign esophageal strictures (RBES). The objective of this study was to review the feasibility and effectiveness of removable esophageal stents to treat RBES. Patients who received removable esophageal stents for the treatment of RBES at the institution between 2004-2010 using its stent implantation logs and endoscopic database were retrospectively identified. Patient demographics, stricture etiology and location, stent and procedure characteristics, and clinical outcomes were obtained. Twenty-five patients with a mean age of 70 (72% male) underwent initial stent placement; 24 were successful. Overall clinical success was achieved in five of the 19 patients (26%) ultimately undergoing stent removal. RBES etiologies included anastomotic (13), radiation (5), peptic (3), chemotherapy (1), scleroderma (1), and unknown (2). Alimaxx-E (Merit-Endotek, South Jordan, UT, USA) stents were placed in 20 patients and Polyflex (Boston Scientific, Natick, MA, USA) stents were used in five patients. Immediate complications included failed deployment (1) and chest pain (7). Five patients died prior to stent removal. Stent migration was found in 53% (10/19) of patients who underwent stent removal: nine required additional therapy and one had symptom resolution. Out of the nine patients without stent migration, five required additional therapy and four had symptom resolution. Although placement of removable esophageal stents for RBES is technically feasible, it is frequently complicated by stent migration and chest pain. In addition, few patients achieved long-term stricture resolution after initial stenting. In this study, most patients ultimately required repeated stenting and/or dilations to maintain relief of dysphagia. PMID:23121426

Dan, D T; Gannavarapu, B; Lee, J G; Chang, K; Muthusamy, V R

2014-08-01

359

Siglec-F Inhibition Reduces Esophageal Eosinophilia and Angiogenesis in a Mouse Model of Eosinophilic Esophagitis  

PubMed Central

Objectives Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a disorder characterized histologically by tissue eosinophilia. Sialic acid–binding immunoglobulin-like lectin (Siglec-F) is a receptor highly expressed on mouse eosinophils and mediates eosinophilic apoptosis. We investigated whether administration of an anti-Siglec-F Ab would reduce esophageal eosinophilic inflammation and remodeling in a mouse model of egg ovalbumin (OVA)–induced EoE. Subjects and Methods Three groups of mice were studied (no OVA, OVA + anti-Siglec-F Ab, and OVA + isotype control Ab). Mice were sensitized intraperitoneally and then challenged chronically with intraesophageal OVA. Levels of esophageal eosinophils and features of remodeling (angiogenesis, vascular endothelial growth factor expression, deposition of fibronectin, basal zone hyperplasia, and fibrosis) were quantitated by immunohistochemistry and image analysis. Results Administration of an anti-Siglec-F Ab to OVA-challenged mice significantly reduced levels of esophageal eosinophils, down to levels noted in non-OVA-challenged mice. The anti-Siglec-F Ab also reduced features of OVA-induced remodeling, including angiogenesis, basal zone hyperplasia, and fibronectin deposition. The reduced angiogenesis in anti-Siglec-F Ab-treated mice was associated with reduced numbers of vascular endothelial growth factor–positive cells in the esophagus. The anti-Siglec-F antibody did not significantly reduce esophageal fibrosis as assessed by trichrome staining. Conclusions Administration of an anti-Siglec-F antibody significantly decreased the number of eosinophils in the esophagus in a mouse model of OVA-induced EoE. The reduction in eosinophilic inflammation was associated with a significant decrease in levels of angiogenesis, deposition of fibronectin, and basal zone hyperplasia. Studies in this pre-clinical model of EoE suggest that Siglec-F (and its human paralog Siglec-8) may be novel therapeutic targets to reduce eosinophilic inflammation in EoE. PMID:21970996

Rubinstein, Eitan; Cho, Jae Youn; Rosenthal, Peter; Chao, James; Miller, Marina; Pham, Alexa; Aceves, Seema S.; Varki, Ajit; Broide, David H.

2014-01-01

360

Esophageal candidiasis in AIDS. Successful therapy with clotrimazole vaginal tablets taken by mouth.  

PubMed

In this paper we describe the results of oral therapy of esophageal candidiasis with clotrimazole vaginal tablets in 25 homosexual men with AIDS, of whom 19 had oral candidiasis and 16 had esophageal symptoms. Therapy with clotrimazole vaginal tablets, 100 mg, taken by mouth cleared the esophageal symptoms, oral candidiasis, and esophageal lesions completely in all 25 men. Clotrimazole vaginal tablets are a useful alternative to other antifungal agents for the treatment of esophageal candidiasis in AIDS patients. PMID:1995261

Lalor, E; Rabeneck, L

1991-03-01

361

Single cerebral metastasis from colorectal adenocarcinoma.  

PubMed

Single cases are described in 50% of reported intracranial metastases. Single cerebral metastasis from colorectal adenocarcinoma is not very common, with a frequency varying between 0.5% and 1%. In our institute between 1960 and 2000, 44 patients affected by single metastasis from colorectal carcinoma were surgically treated. Surgical treatment with postoperative radiant therapy is necessary. These patients show improved quality of life, above all in relation to the maintenance of functional autonomy during the survival period. PMID:12884056

D'Andrea, Giancarlo; Isidori, Alessandra; Caroli, Emanuela; Orlando, Epimenio Ramundo; Salvati, Maurizio

2004-01-01

362

Psoas Muscle Infiltration Masquerading Distant Adenocarcinoma  

PubMed Central

Malignant metastasis to the psoas muscle is rare. We report a case that clinically mimicked psoas abscess that was subsequently proven to be from metastatic disease secondary to adenocarcinoma of the duodenum. A 62-year-old male presented with a seven-month history of right lower quadrant abdominal pain and progressive dysphagia. CT scan of abdomen-pelvis revealed a right psoas infiltration not amenable to surgical drainage. Patient was treated with two courses of oral antibiotics without improvement. Repeated CT scan showed ill-defined low-density area with inflammatory changes involving the right psoas muscle. Using CT guidance, a fine needle aspiration biopsy of the right psoas was performed that reported metastatic undifferentiated adenocarcinoma. Patient underwent upper endoscopy, which showed a duodenal mass that was biopsied which also reported poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. In this case, unresponsiveness to medical therapy or lack of improvement in imaging studies warrants consideration of differential diagnosis such as malignancy. Iliopsoas metastases have shown to mimic psoas abscess on their clinical presentation and in imaging studies. To facilitate early diagnosis and improve prognosis, patients who embody strong risk factors and symptoms compatible with underlying malignancies who present with psoas imaging concerning for abscess should have further investigations. PMID:25309762

Gharaibeh, Kamel A.; Yousuf, Tauqeer

2014-01-01

363

Epidemiology of adenocarcinoma of the cervix.  

PubMed

Three hundred thirty-three patients who presented with cervical carcinoma from November 1980 through June 1985 were compared for potential factors associated with histology. Sixteen percent of all patients presenting with cervical carcinoma during this 5-year period had an adenocarcinomatous histology. Emphasis was placed on demographic and socioeconomic factors. The histologic distribution was the following: epidermoid carcinoma 279, adenocarcinoma 28, and adenoepidermoid carcinoma 26. The latter two histologies were not different for any factors and therefore combined for statistical comparison with epidermoid carcinoma. When epidermoid (E) carcinoma of the cervix was compared with the histologies having an adenocarcinomatous component (A), the following demographic and socioeconomic factors were statistically, different (P less than 0.05): Unemployment (E 69% vs. A 46%) P less than 0.002; Income less than $6000/yr (E 48% vs. A 26%) P less than 0.005; Less than a 12th-grade education (E 85% vs. A 72%) P less than 0.05; Smokers (E 67% vs. A 40%) P less than 0.001; First coital experience less than 18 years (E 58% vs. A 39%) P less than 0.05. Age, parity, and number of sexual partners were not significantly different between the epidermoid and adenocarcinoma groups. The number of patients with stages II, III, and IV was too small to provide a meaningful statistical comparison of survival for the two histologies. Our data suggest that epidermoid and adenocarcinoma of the cervix may represent diseases with distinct populations at risk. PMID:3410353

Horowitz, I R; Jacobson, L P; Zucker, P K; Currie, J L; Rosenshein, N B

1988-09-01

364

Comprehensive molecular profiling of lung adenocarcinoma.  

PubMed

Adenocarcinoma of the lung is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Here we report molecular profiling of 230 resected lung adenocarcinomas using messenger RNA, microRNA and DNA sequencing integrated with copy number, methylation and proteomic analyses. High rates of somatic mutation were seen (mean 8.9 mutations per megabase). Eighteen genes were statistically significantly mutated, including RIT1 activating mutations and newly described loss-of-function MGA mutations which are mutually exclusive with focal MYC amplification. EGFR mutations were more frequent in female patients, whereas mutations in RBM10 were more common in males. Aberrations in NF1, MET, ERBB2 and RIT1 occurred in 13% of cases and were enriched in samples otherwise lacking an activated oncogene, suggesting a driver role for these events in certain tumours. DNA and mRNA sequence from the same tumour highlighted splicing alterations driven by somatic genomic changes, including exon 14 skipping in MET mRNA in 4% of cases. MAPK and PI(3)K pathway activity, when measured at the protein level, was explained by known mutations in only a fraction of cases, suggesting additional, unexplained mechanisms of pathway activation. These data establish a foundation for classification and further investigations of lung adenocarcinoma molecular pathogenesis. PMID:25079552

2014-07-31

365

Expression of galectin-3 in gastric adenocarcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: Galectin-3 a member of the galectin family is an endogenous ?-galactoside binding lectin. It has been found to be associated with cell adhesion, recognition, proliferation, differentiation, immunomodulation, angiogenesis, apoptosis and can be a reliable marker for cancer aggressiveness. The aim of this study was to verify protein expression in gastric adenocarcinoma tissues and correlate the results with the clinical aspects in the study population. Methods: Galectin-3 expression was examined by immunohistochemistry in 57 samples of gastric adenocarcinomas tissues. Galectin-3 protein expression was observed in the cytoplasm and the nucleus of examined tissues. Results: Thirty one (54.4%) samples had strong or moderate staining and 26 (45.6%) tumours had negative or weak staining. The galectin-3 did not show association with the sex (P=0.347), age (P=0.999), Lauren's classification (P=0.731) and TNM stage (P=0.222). Regarding the TNM stage, 66.7 per cent of stage I tumours had strong or moderate staining; with tumours stage IV this percentage was 33.3 per cent. Interpretation & conclusion: Our results suggest that gal-3 is not a reliable biomarker for prognosis of the gastric adenocarcinoma by immunohistochemistry. Further studies need to be done on a large sample of tumour tissues in different clinical staging. PMID:25222780

Gomes, Thiago Simão; Oshima, Celina Tizuko Fujiyama; Forones, Nora Manoukian; De Oliveira Lima, Flávio; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki

2014-01-01

366

Black esophagus: Acute esophageal necrosis syndrome  

PubMed Central

Acute esophageal necrosis (AEN), commonly referred to as “black esophagus”, is a rare clinical entity arising from a combination of ischemic insult seen in hemodynamic compromise and low-flow states, corrosive injury from gastric contents in the setting of esophago-gastroparesis and gastric outlet obstruction, and decreased function of mucosal barrier systems and reparative mechanisms present in malnourished and debilitated physical states. AEN may arise in the setting of multiorgan dysfunction, hypoperfusion, vasculopathy, sepsis, diabetic ketoacidosis, alcohol intoxication, gastric volvulus, traumatic transection of the thoracic aorta, thromboembolic phenomena, and malignancy. Clinical presentation is remarkable for upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Notable symptoms may include epigastric/abdominal pain, vomiting, dysphagia, fever, nausea, and syncope. Associated laboratory findings may reflect anemia and leukocytosis. The hallmark of this syndrome is the development of diffuse circumferential black mucosal discoloration in the distal esophagus that may extend proximally to involve variable length of the organ. Classic “black esophagus” abruptly stops at the gastroesophageal junction. Biopsy is recommended but not required for the diagnosis. Histologically, necrotic debris, absence of viable squamous epithelium, and necrosis of esophageal mucosa, with possible involvement of submucosa and muscularis propria, are present. Classification of the disease spectrum is best described by a staging system. Treatment is directed at correcting coexisting clinical conditions, restoring hemodynamic stability, nil-per-os restriction, supportive red blood cell transfusion, and intravenous acid suppression with proton pump inhibitors. Complications include perforation with mediastinal infection/abscess, esophageal stricture and stenosis, superinfection, and death. A high mortality of 32% seen in the setting of AEN syndrome is usually related to the underlying medical co-morbidities and diseases. PMID:20614476

Gurvits, Grigoriy E

2010-01-01

367

Gastric choriocarcinoma admixed with an ?-fetoprotein-producing adenocarcinoma and separated adenocarcinoma  

PubMed Central

We report a case of gastric choriocarcinoma admixed with an ?-fetoprotein (AFP)-producing adenocarcinoma. A 70-year-old man was hospitalized for gastric cancer that was detected during screening by esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD). Initial laboratory data showed the increased serum level of AFP and EGD revealed a 5-cm ulcerofungating mass in the greater curvature of the gastric antrum. The patient underwent radical subtotal gastrectomy with D2 lymph node dissection and Billroth II gastrojejunostomy. Histopathological evaluation confirmed double primary gastric cancer: gastric choriocarcinoma admixed with an AFP-producing adenocarcinoma and separated adenocarcinoma. At 2 wk postoperatively, his human chorionic gonadotropin and AFP levels had reduced and six cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy were initiated. No recurrence or distant metastasis was observed at 4 years postoperatively. PMID:19860007

Eom, Bang Wool; Jung, So-Youn; Yoon, Hongman; Kook, Myeong-Cherl; Ryu, Keun Won; Lee, Jun Ho; Kim, Young-Woo

2009-01-01

368

Emerging Therapeutic Options for Eosinophilic Esophagitis  

PubMed Central

Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic inflammatory condition of the esophagus that often occurs in atopic persons. Management strategies include pharmacotherapy, dietary modification, and endoscopic therapy, although patients will often have a relapsing and remitting course. Currently, the primary pharmacotherapy for EoE consists of corticosteroids. Immuno-modulators, leukotriene antagonists, biologies, and monoclonal antibodies are currently under study for treatment of EoE. The role of immunoglobulin E-mediated allergic reactions has been well documented and may provide insight into the etiology and effective therapy of EoE. PMID:24803874

Dougherty, Timothy; Stephen, Sindu; Borum, Marie L.

2014-01-01

369

Eponyms in esophageal surgery, part 2.  

PubMed

Eponyms in medicine are frequently criticized because they may not represent the person who first described a syndrome or disease. Although eponyms are very commonly used, most readers are probably unaware of who it was that named the diseases and whether the original description of the disease still corresponds to the modern definition. The 10 most common eponyms in esophageal diseases were revisited. The men and the disease behind Barrett's esophagus, Boerhaave's syndrome, Mallory-Weiss syndrome, Cameron ulcer, Schatzki ring, Paterson-Kelly syndrome, Plummer-Vinson, Chagas's disease, Zenker diverticulum and Killian diverticulum are reviewed here. PMID:15773835

Herbella, F A M; Matone, J; Del Grande, J C

2005-01-01

370

Esophageal stricture in a cougar (Puma concolor).  

PubMed

A 7-mo-old female cougar (Puma concolor) was presented with a 2-wk history of anorexia and a 1-wk history of regurgitation. Barium contrast esophagogram and gastroesophagoscopy revealed the presence of a segmental intraluminal esophageal stricture in the middle third of the esophagus. The stricture was potentially secondary to a previous anesthetic episode. Three endoscopic balloon dilations allowed increasing the luminal diameter to a size that enabled the cougar to eat food softened with water without any signs of discomfort or regurgitation. Two months after being discharged, the cougar was doing well, had gained weight and was eating horsemeat softened with water. PMID:19569481

Desmarchelier, Marion; Lair, Stéphane; Defarges, Alice; Lécuyer, Manon; Langlois, Isabelle

2009-06-01

371

Combined choriocarcinoma, hepatoid adenocarcinoma, small cell carcinoma and tubular adenocarcinoma in the oesophagus.  

PubMed

We describe an oesophageal tumour composed of choriocarcinoma, hepatoid adenocarcinoma, small cell carcinoma and tubular adenocarcinoma. The choriocarcinomatous areas and hepatoid adenocarcinomatous areas contained beta human chorionic gonadotropin-positive cells and alpha fetoprotein-positive cells, respectively. The small cell carcinomatous areas contained cells positive for serotonin or adrenocorticotrophic hormone, while the tubular adenocarcinomatous areas contained cells positive for carcinoembryonic antigen. Non-neoplastic gastric type columnar epithelium was found directly adjoing the tumour at the oral side. This tumour, with its unprecedented histology combination of tissues may have originated in Barrett's oesophagus, although we could not confirm a history of chronic gastro-oesophageal reflux. PMID:8548132

Motoyama, T; Higuchi, M; Taguchi, J

1995-01-01

372

Clinical and endoscopic characteristics of drug-induced esophagitis  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate clinical, endoscopic and pathological characteristics of drug-induced esophagitis. METHODS: Data for patients diagnosed with drug-induced esophagitis from April 2002 to May 2013 was reviewed. Patients diagnosed with malignancy, viral or fungal esophagitis were excluded. Clinical, endoscopic and pathological characteristics of patients diagnosed with drug-induced esophagitis were analyzed. RESULTS: Seventy-eight patients were diagnosed with drug-induced esophagitis. Their mean age was 43.9 ± 18.9 years and 35.9% were male. Common symptoms were chest pain (71.8%), odynophagia (38.5%) and dysphagia (29.5%). The endoscopic location was in the middle third of esophagus in 78.2%. Endoscopic findings were ulcer (82.1%), erosion (17.9%), ulcer with bleeding (24.4%), coating with drug material (5.1%), impacted pill fragments (3.8%) and stricture (2.6%). Kissing ulcers were observed in 43.6%. The main causative agents were antibiotics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. All the patients were treated with proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) or sucralfate, and the causative drugs were discontinued. Nineteen patients with drug-induced esophagitis were followed up with endoscopy and revealed normal findings, scars or healing ulcers. CONCLUSION: Drug-induced esophagitis mainly presents as chest pain, odynophagia and dysphagia, and may be successfully treated with PPIs and discontinuation of the causative drug. Kissing ulcers were observed in 43.6%. PMID:25152603

Kim, Su Hwan; Jeong, Ji Bong; Kim, Ji Won; Koh, Seong-Joon; Kim, Byeong Gwan; Lee, Kook Lae; Chang, Mee Soo; Im, Jong Pil; Kang, Hyoun Woo; Shin, Cheol Min

2014-01-01

373

Esophageal hypomotility and spastic motor disorders: current diagnosis and treatment.  

PubMed

Esophageal hypomotility (EH) is characterized by abnormal esophageal peristalsis, either from a reduction or absence of contractions, whereas spastic motor disorders (SMD) are characterized by an increase in the vigor and/or propagation velocity of esophageal body contractions. Their pathophysiology is not clearly known. The reduced excitation of the smooth muscle contraction mediated by cholinergic neurons and the impairment of inhibitory ganglion neuronal function mediated by nitric oxide are likely mechanisms of the peristaltic abnormalities seen in EH and SMD, respectively. Dysphagia and chest pain are the most frequent clinical manifestations for both of these dysfunctions, and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is commonly associated with these motor disorders. The introduction of high-resolution manometry (HRM) and esophageal pressure topography (EPT) has significantly enhanced the ability to diagnose EH and SMD. Novel EPT metrics in particular the development of the Chicago Classification of esophageal motor disorders has enabled improved characterization of these abnormalities. The first step in the management of EH and SMD is to treat GERD, especially when esophageal testing shows pathologic reflux. Smooth muscle relaxants (nitrates, calcium channel blockers, 5-phosphodiesterase inhibitors) and pain modulators may be useful in the management of dysphagia or pain in SMD. Endoscopic Botox injection and pneumatic dilation are the second-line therapies. Extended myotomy of the esophageal body or peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) may be considered in highly selected cases but lack evidence. PMID:25376746

Valdovinos, Miguel A; Zavala-Solares, Monica R; Coss-Adame, Enrique

2014-11-01

374

The effect of concurrent esophageal pathology on bariatric surgical planning.  

PubMed

In the presence of esophageal pathology, there is risk of worse outcomes after laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) and sleeve gastrectomy (SG). This study reviewed how an esophageal workup affected a bariatric operative plan in patients with concurrent esophageal pathology. We retrospectively reviewed patients planning bariatric surgery referred with significant reflux, dysphagia, and hiatal hernia (>3 cm) to determine how and why a thorough esophageal workup changed a bariatric operative plan. We identified 79 patients for analysis from 2009 to 2013. In 10/41 patients (24.3 %) planning LAGB and 5/9 patients planning SG (55.5 %), a Roux was preferred because of severe symptoms of reflux and aspiration, dysphagia, manometric abnormalities (aperistaltic or hypoperistaltic esophagus with low mean wave amplitudes), large hiatal hernia (>5 cm), and/or presence of Barrett's esophagus. Patients without these characteristics had a decreased risk of foregut symptoms after surgery. We recommend a thorough esophageal workup in bariatric patients with known preoperative esophageal pathology. The operative plan might need to be changed to a Roux to prevent adverse outcomes including dysphagia, severe reflux, or suboptimal weight loss. An esophageal workup may improve surgical decision making and improve patient outcomes. PMID:25213580

Bradley, Daniel Davila; Louie, Brian E; Chen, Judy; Aye, Ralph W; McMahon, Ross; Farivar, Alexander S

2015-01-01

375

New Endoscopic Indicator of Esophageal Achalasia: “Pinstripe Pattern”  

PubMed Central

Background and Study Aims Endoscopic diagnosis of esophageal achalasia lacking typical endoscopic features can be extremely difficult. The aim of this study was to identify simple and reliable early indicator of esophageal achalasia. Patients and Methods This single-center retrospective study included 56 cases of esophageal achalasia without previous treatment. As a control, 60 non-achalasia subjects including reflux esophagitis and superficial esophageal cancer were also included in this study. Endoscopic findings were evaluated according to Descriptive Rules for Achalasia of the Esophagus as follows: (1) esophageal dilatation, (2) abnormal retention of liquid and/or food, (3) whitish change of the mucosal surface, (4) functional stenosis of the esophago-gastric junction, and (5) abnormal contraction. Additionally, the presence of the longitudinal superficial wrinkles of esophageal mucosa, “pinstripe pattern (PSP)” was evaluated endoscopically. Then, inter-observer diagnostic agreement was assessed for each finding. Results The prevalence rates of the above-mentioned findings (1–5) were 41.1%, 41.1%, 16.1%, 94.6%, and 43.9%, respectively. PSP was observed in 60.7% of achalasia, while none of the control showed positivity for PSP. PSP was observed in 26 (62.5%) of 35 cases with shorter history < 10 years, which usually lacks typical findings such as severe esophageal dilation and tortuosity. Inter-observer agreement level was substantial for food/liquid remnant (k = 0.6861) and PSP (k = 0.6098), and was fair for abnormal contraction and white change. The accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity for achalasia were 83.8%, 64.7%, and 100%, respectively. Conclusion “Pinstripe pattern” could be a reliable indicator for early discrimination of primary esophageal achalasia. PMID:25664812

Minami, Hitomi; Isomoto, Hajime; Miuma, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Yasutoshi; Yamaguchi, Naoyuki; Urabe, Shigetoshi; Matsushima, Kayoko; Akazawa, Yuko; Ohnita, Ken; Takeshima, Fuminao; Inoue, Haruhiro; Nakao, Kazuhiko

2015-01-01

376

Potassium conductance in rabbit esophageal epithelium.  

PubMed

K+ conductance in apical and basolateral cell membranes of rabbit esophageal epithelial cells was investigated within intact epithelium by impalement with conventional microelectrodes from luminal or serosal sides. Under steady-state conditions, K+ conductance was demonstrated in basolateral, but not apical, membranes by showing 1) membrane depolarization upon exposure to either solutions high in K+ (20-65 mM) or containing Ba2+, tetraethylammonium, or quinine, and 2) a resistance ratio that increased on exposure to high K+ solution and decreased on exposure to Ba2+, quinine, and tetraethylammonium. From exposures to high K+, the apparent K+ transference number and electromotive force generated at the basolateral membrane were calculated and found to be 0.42 +/- 0.01 and -83 +/- 3 mV, respectively. Furthermore, basolateral K+ conductance was shown to be important for maintaining resting net transepithelial Na+ absorption in that high K+ or barium inhibited the transepithelial potential difference and short-circuit current of Ussing-chambered epithelia. We conclude that under steady-state conditions the basolateral, but not apical, membranes of esophageal epithelial cells contain a K(+)-conductive pathway and that this pathway is important for active sodium absorption. PMID:8338171

Khalbuss, W E; Alkiek, R; Marousis, C G; Orlando, R C

1993-07-01

377

Electrodes for long-term esophageal electrocardiography.  

PubMed

The emerging application of long-term and high-quality ECG recording requires alternative electrodes to improve the signal quality and recording capability of surface skin electrodes. The esophageal ECG has the potential to overcome these limitations but necessitates novel recorder and lead designs. The electrode material is of particular interest, since the material has to ensure conflicting requirements like excellent biopotential recording properties and inertness. To this end, novel electrode materials like PEDOT and silver-PDMS as well as established electrode materials such as stainless steel, platinum, gold, iridium oxide, titanium nitride, and glassy carbon were investigated by long-term electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and model-based signal analysis using the derived in vitro interfacial properties in conjunction with a dedicated ECG amplifier. The results of this novel approach show that titanium nitride and iridium oxide featuring microstructured surfaces did not degrade when exposed to artificial acidic saliva. These materials provide low electrode potential drifts and insignificant signal distortion superior to surface skin electrodes making them compatible with accepted standards for ambulatory ECG. They are superior to the noble and polarizable metals such as platinum, silver, and gold that induced more signal distortions and are superior to esophageal stainless steel electrodes that corrode in artificial saliva. The study provides rigorous criteria for the selection of electrode materials for prolonged ECG recording by combining long-term in vitro electrode material properties with ECG signal quality assessment. PMID:23649132

Niederhauser, Thomas; Haeberlin, Andreas; Marisa, Thanks; Jungo, Michael; Goette, Josef; Jacomet, Marcel; Abacherli, Roger; Vogel, Rolf

2013-09-01

378

Antesternal colonic interposition for corrosive esophageal stricture.  

PubMed

Restoration of swallowing in a patient with dysphagia due to nondilatable corrosive stricture of esophagus remains a surgical challenge. Organs available for replacement are stomach, jejunum, or colon. Jejunum is useful to replace a small segment, whereas stomach and colon are required for a long-segment replacement. In cases where the stomach is also injured, colon remains the only option. The route of colonic interposition has also been a subject of debate over the years. Antesternal, retrosternal, or esophageal bed passage are the routes described. In the present series, the data of antesternal colonic interposition (ACI) performed for nondilatable benign esophageal strictures in 32 patients (1988-2011) have been retrospectively analyzed. The results indicate that ACI for corrosive strictures is a quick and simple procedure. Thoracotomy is avoided and anastomosis is easily performed in the neck, and mortality rate due to anastomotic failure or graft failure is diminished. This retrospective analysis discusses the ease, effectiveness, quality of life, morbidity, and mortality of ACI and compares the pros and cons of ACI with other procedures described in the literature. PMID:24799785

Gvalani, Anil Kumar; Deolekar, Samir; Gandhi, Jignesh; Dalvi, Abhay

2014-02-01

379

[Management of caustic esophagitis in children].  

PubMed

In children, caustic ingestion is due to accidents at home and inadequate storage of caustic agents. In emergency, it is useful to remove the soiled clothes, rinse the affected area, and prevent vomiting and feeding. Caustic ingestion (pH<2 or>12) induces burns of the upper gastrointestinal tract requiring esophagogastro-duodenoscopy between H12 and H24. Strong alkalis cause necrosis with liquefaction of the esophagus, penetrating deeply with a high-risk of perforation. Management of these children requires a specialized care center with an intensive care unit, endoscopic equipment, and a surgical team. Esophageal stricture is the main complication; no prophylactic treatment (steroids) is effective. Strictures occur after the 3rd week, and barium swallow should be performed by the end of the 1st month. Stricture are often multiple, long, and tortuous; endoscopic dilatation is difficult with a high-rate of perforation and a low-rate of success. In situ application of mitomycin C or injection of triamcinolone could reduce the recurrence rate of stricture. In recalcitrant or recurrent strictures, it is recommended to perform an esophageal replacement using a colonic interposition or a gastric tube. Endoscopy should also be performed 15-20years after caustic ingestion to screen for early neoplastic lesions. Prevention is very important for avoiding caustic ingestions. Information and education should be given specifically to the parents of toddlers; caustic products should be stored out of reach of children and they should not be kept with food. PMID:23141564

Mas, E; Breton, A; Lachaux, A

2012-12-01

380

Esophageal Thermal Injury by Hot Adlay Tea  

PubMed Central

Reversible thermal injury to the esophagus as the result of drinking hot liquids has been reported to generate alternating white and red linear mucosal bands, somewhat reminiscent of a candy cane. This phenomenon is associated with chest pain, dysphagia, odynophagia, and epigastric pain. Here, we report a case of thermal injury to the esophageal and oral cavity due to the drinking of hot tea, including odynophagia and dysphagia. A 69-year-old man was referred due to a difficulty in swallowing which had begun a week prior to referral. The patient, at the time of admission, was unable to swallow even liquids. He had recently suffered from hiccups, and had consumed five cups of hot adlay tea one week prior to admission, as a folk remedy for the hiccups. Upon physical examination, the patient's oral cavity evidenced mucosal erosion, hyperemia, and mucosa covered by a whitish pseudomembrane. Nonspecific findings were detected on the laboratory and radiological exams. Upper endoscopy revealed diffuse hyperemia, and erosions with thick and whitish pseudomembraneous mucosa on the entire esophagus. The stomach and duodenum appeared normal. We diagnosed the patient with thermal esophageal injury inflicted by the hot tea. He was treated with pantoprazole, 40 mg/day, for 14 days, and evidenced significant clinical and endoscopic improvement. PMID:17427650

Go, Hoon; Jung, Sung Hee; Park, Young A; Lee, Jung Yun; Kim, Sae Hee; Lim, Sin Hyung

2007-01-01

381

Benign Esophageal Stricture in a Tropical African Population  

PubMed Central

In North America, the most common causes of benign esophageal stricture are hiatal hernia and reflux esophagitis. These are localized to the lower end of the esophagus. At the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria, the most common cause of benign esophageal stricture is ingestion of corrosives. The ingestion is accidental, suicidal, or for medicinal purposes. This stricture is long, narrow, and irregular. Most extend from the cervical esophagus to the cardioesophageal junction. A surgical procedure that has given good results is the use of left colon pedicled on the left colic artery for retrosternal isoperistaltic esophagocoloplasty. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4 PMID:702578

Ajao, Oluwole G.; Solanke, Toriola F.

1978-01-01

382

Acute Esophageal Necrosis: An Uncommon Cause of Hematemesis  

PubMed Central

Acute esophageal necrosis or black esophagus is an uncommon clinical entity, diagnosed at the upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with the presence of strikingly black necrotic esophagus. Very often no definite etiology will be identified even though a large list of potential associations has been postulated. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding is the most common clinical presentation, others being epigastric pain, retrosternal chest discomfort and dysphagia. Only about a hundred cases of acute esophageal necrosis have been described in medical literature till this date. We report a case of acute esophageal necrosis in an elderly female who had presented with hematemesis. PMID:25170416

Zacharia, George Sarin; Sandesh, K; Ramachandran, TM

2014-01-01

383

Esophageal obstruction 14 years after treatment for Hodgkin's disease  

SciTech Connect

The incidence of late radiation injury of the esophagus is not precisely determined but, overall, the occurrence of clinically apparent damage is infrequent. The authors report a complete esophageal obstruction in a 21-year-old man, 14 years after chemo-radiation therapy for Hodgkin's lymphoma. Although endoscopy failed to demonstrate a gross morphologic abnormality, an esophagogram detected abnormal peristalsis and stricture, and esophageal manometry coupled with dynamic isotopic study clearly demonstrated a multilevel secondary neuronal damage. Data in the literature suggest that alteration in motility is by far the most frequent radiologic manifestation. Further prospective studies will probably clarify the actual incidence of late esophageal damage after chemo-radiation therapy.

Kaplinsky, C.; Kornreich, L.; Tiomny, E.; Cohen, I.J.; Loven, D.; Zaizov, R. (Beilinson Medical Center, Petah Tiqva (Israel))

1991-08-15

384

[Advances in the research of scar stricture after esophageal burn].  

PubMed

Caustic esophageal burn is a common ailment in clinical practice. In some patients, scar stricture was formed in the late stage of injury, and it seriously undermined quality of life of the patients. We adopted various clinical interventions at an early stage in order to relieve and alleviate the formation and development of corrosive esophageal stricture as a result of chemical injury as well as to avoid invasive operations to make it more acceptable for the patients. This article summarized the progress in etiology, pathological changes, identification, early prevention, and surgical management of corrosive esophageal stricture. PMID:24360005

Zhao, Shi-lei; Gu, Chun-dong

2013-10-01

385

Isolated nasal tip metastasis from esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.  

PubMed

Cutaneous metastatic tumors to the nasal tip are very rare. A 74-year-old woman presented with progressive dysphagia for 4 months and a painless red violaceous nodule in the nasal tip for the last 6 weeks. Gastroendoscopy showed midesophageal wall thickening, which corresponded to esophageal squamous cell carcinoma confirmed by endoscopic biopsy. F-FDG PET/CT showed intense FDG uptake of the esophageal carcinoma (SUVmax, 19.0) and the nasal tip nodule (SUVmax, 29.1). The patient underwent biopsy of the nasal tip nodule. Nasal tip metastasis from the esophageal squamous cell carcinoma was confirmed by pathologic examination. PMID:24566414

Dong, Aisheng; Zuo, Changjing; Wang, Yang; Zhai, Zhijun; Wen, Wu

2015-01-01

386

Intrathoracic esophagojejunostomy using OrVil™ for gastric adenocarcinoma involving the esophagus  

PubMed Central

AIM: To demonstrate a new surgical technique of lower mediastinal lymphadenectomy and intrathoracic anastomosis of esophagojejunostomy using OrVil™. METHODS: After a total median phrenotomy, the supradiaphragmatic and lower thoracic paraesophageal lymph nodes were transhiatally dissected. The esophagus was cut off using a liner stapler and OrVil™was inserted. Finally, end-to-side esophagojejunostomy was created by using a circular stapler. From July 2009, we adopted this surgical technique for five patients with gastric cancer involving the lower esophagus. RESULTS: The median operation time was 314 min (range; 210-367 min), and median blood loss was 210 mL (range; 100-838 mL). The median numbers of dissected lower mediastinal nodes were 3 (range; 1-10). None of the patients had postoperative complications including anastomotic leakage and stenosis. The median hospital stay was 16 d (range: 15-20 d). The median length of esophageal involvement was 14 mm (range: 6-48 mm) and that of the resected esophagus was 40 mm (range: 35-55 mm); all resected specimens had tumor-free margins. CONCLUSION: This surgical technique is easy and safe intrathoracic anastomosis for the patients with gastric adenocarcinoma involving the lower esophagus.

Yajima, Kazuhito; Kanda, Tatsuo; Kosugi, Shin-ichi; Kano, Yosuke; Ishikawa, Takashi; Ichikawa, Hiroshi; Hanyu, Takaaki; Wakai, Toshifumi

2014-01-01

387

Targeting AMCase reduces esophageal eosinophilic inflammation and remodeling in a mouse model of egg induced eosinophilic esophagitis  

PubMed Central

Studies of AMCase inhibition in mouse models of lung eosinophilic inflammation have produced conflicting results with some studies demonstrating inhibition of eosinophilic inflammation and others not. No studies have investigated the role of AMCase inhibition in eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). We have used a mouse model of egg (OVA) induced EoE to determine whether pharmacologic inhibition of AMCase with allosamidin reduced eosinophilic inflammation and remodeling in the esophagus in EoE. Administration of intra-esophageal OVA for 6 weeks to BALB/c mice induced increased levels of esophageal eosinophils, mast cells, and features of esophageal remodeling (fibrosis, basal zone hyperplasia, deposition of the extracellular matrix protein fibronectin). Administration of intraperitoneal (ip) allosamidin to BALB/c mice significantly inhibited AMCase enzymatic activity in the esophagus. Pharmacologic inhibition of AMCase with ip allosamidin inhibited both OVA induced increases in esophageal eosinophilic inflammation and OVA induced esophageal remodeling (fibrosis, epithelial basal zone hyperplasia, extracellular matrix deposition of fibronectin). This inhibition of eosinophilic inflammation in the esophagus by ip allosamidin was associated with reduced eotaxin-1 expression in the esophagus. Oral allosamidin inhibited eosinophilic inflammation in the epithelium but did not inhibit esophageal remodeling. These studies suggest that pharmacologic inhibition of AMCase results in inhibition of eosinophilic inflammation and remodeling in the esophagus in a mouse model of egg induced EoE partially through effects in the esophagus on reducing chemokines (i.e. eotaxin-1) implicated in the pathogenesis of EoE. PMID:24239745

Cho, Jae Youn; Rosenthal, Peter; Miller, Marina; Pham, Alexa; Aceves, Seema; Sakuda, Shohei; Broide, David H

2014-01-01

388

Esophageal emptying and acid neutralization in patients with symptoms of esophageal reflux.  

PubMed Central

Clearance of refluxed acid from the distal esophagus is due to bolus emptying and salivary neutralization of acid. We compared results of 24-hour pH monitoring with acid clearance tests (ACT) and radioisotope swallows (RIS) in 26 symptomatic patients to determine which of the components of acid clearance is better correlated with gastroesophageal acid reflux (GER). Seven of eight patients with GER had delayed esophageal emptying on RIS. Abnormal salivary clearance of acid was present in nine of 18 patients without GER, accounting for a high false-positive rate of ACT. Delayed esophageal bolus emptying, not deficient acid neutralization by saliva, is the predominant component of abnormal acid clearance in patients with GER. RIS is superior to ACT as part of the evaluation of reflux symptoms, and may prove to be a valuable screening test for this condition. Images FIG. 2A. PMID:4004384

Ferguson, M K; Ryan, J W; Little, A G; Skinner, D B

1985-01-01

389

Multiple Rapid Swallow Responses During Esophageal High-Resolution Manometry Reflect Esophageal Body Peristaltic Reserve  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES Dysphagia may develop following antireflux surgery as a consequence of poor esophageal peristaltic reserve. We hypothesized that suboptimal contraction response following multiple rapid swallows (MRS) could be associated with chronic transit symptoms following antireflux surgery. METHODS Wet swallow and MRS responses on esophageal high-resolution manometry (HRM) were characterized collectively in the esophageal body (distal contractile integral (DCI)), and individually in each smooth muscle contraction segment (S2 and S3 amplitudes) in 63 patients undergoing antireflux surgery and in 18 healthy controls. Dysphagia was assessed using symptom questionnaires. The MRS/wet swallow ratios were calculated for S2 and S3 peak amplitudes and DCI. MRS responses were compared in patients with and without late postoperative dysphagia following antireflux surgery. RESULTS Augmentation of smooth muscle contraction (MRS/wet swallow ratios > 1.0) as measured collectively by DCI was seen in only 11.1% with late postoperative dysphagia, compared with 63.6% in those with no dysphagia and 78.1% in controls (P?0.02 for each comparison). Similar results were seen with S3 but not S2 peak amplitude ratios. Receiver operating characteristics identified a DCI MRS/wet swallow ratio threshold of 0.85 in segregating patients with late postoperative dysphagia from those with no postoperative dysphagia with a sensitivity of 0.67 and specificity of 0.64. CONCLUSIONS Lack of augmentation of smooth muscle contraction following MRS is associated with late postoperative dysphagia following antireflux surgery, suggesting that MRS responses could assess esophageal smooth muscle peristaltic reserve. Further research is warranted to determine if antireflux surgery needs to be tailored to the MRS response. PMID:24019081

Shaker, Anisa; Stoikes, Nathaniel; Drapekin, Jesse; Kushnir, Vladimir; Brunt, L. Michael; Gyawali, C. Prakash

2014-01-01

390

Berberine protects against esophageal mucosal damage in reflux esophagitis by suppressing proinflammatory cytokines  

PubMed Central

This study was performed to investigate the effects of berberine (BB) in a rat model of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), induced by pylorus and forestomach ligation. We evaluated cytotoxicity and proinflammatory biomarkers (nitric oxide, interleukin (IL)-1? and prostaglandin E2) in RAW 264.7 cells in vitro and anti-inflammatory effects in vivo. A total of 54 Sprague Dawley rats were divided into six groups: intact control rats; reflux esophagitis (RE) control rats; RE rats treated with 20 mg/kg omeprazole and RE rats treated with BB at doses of 20, 40 and 60 mg/kg, respectively. All rats were fasted. RE was induced by pylorus and forestomach ligation one hour subsequent to the oral treatment. Six hours subsequent to the surgery, the rats were sacrificed, blood was collected from the abdominal vein and the esophagus and stomach were dissected. The gastric volume and the pH of the gastric juice were evaluated, prior to the esophagus being cut longitudinally and an inner mucosal area being imaged, to analyze mucosal damage indices. Proinflammatory biomarkers in the serum, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, IL-1?, IL-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 were analyzed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit, while the mRNA expression of TNF-?, IL-1?, IL-6 and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 was analyzed using a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Esophagic tissue damage in the BB groups was dose-dependently decreased compared with that in the RE control group. This result was consistent with significant reductions in the levels of proinflammatory biomarkers in the serum and in the expression of proinflammatory mRNA, specifically, TNF-?, IL-1?, IL-6 and PAI-1. The results suggest that the anti-inflammatory and protective effects of BB may attenuate the severity of RE and prevent esophageal mucosal damage, in addition to validating the use of BB as a pharmacological treatment for esophageal reflux disease. PMID:24137243

CHOO, BYUNG KIL; ROH, SEONG-SOO

2013-01-01

391

24Hour esophageal pH monitoring before and after medical therapy for reflux esophagitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medical treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease often results in improvement of symptoms. The purpose of this study was to determine if improvement in symptoms and endoscopic appearance after treatment was associated with a reduction in reflux, as measured with 24-hr pH recordings. Twenty patients with severe chronic reflux esophagitis participated in an eight-week double-blind trial of medical therapy with metoclopramide

David A. Lieberman

1988-01-01

392

Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To report the outcomes and toxicities in patients treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Methods and Materials: Forty-seven patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma were treated with IMRT between 2003 and 2008. Of these 47 patients, 29 were treated adjuvantly and 18 definitively. All received concurrent 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy. The treatment plans were optimized such that 95% of the planning target volume received the prescription dose. The median delivered dose for the adjuvant and definitive patients was 50.4 and 54.0 Gy, respectively. Results: The median age at diagnosis was 63.9 years. For adjuvant patients, the 1- and 2-year overall survival rate was 79% and 40%, respectively. The 1- and 2-year recurrence-free survival rate was 58% and 17%, respectively. The local-regional control rate at 1 and 2 years was 92% and 80%, respectively. For definitive patients, the 1-year overall survival, recurrence-free survival, and local-regional control rate was 24%, 16%, and 64%, respectively. Four patients developed Grade 3 or greater acute toxicity (9%) and four developed Grade 3 late toxicity (9%). Conclusions: Survival for patients with pancreatic cancer remains poor. A small percentage of adjuvant patients have durable disease control, and with improved therapies, this proportion will increase. Systemic therapy offers the greatest opportunity. The present results have demonstrated that IMRT is well tolerated. Compared with those who received three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy in previously reported prospective clinical trials, patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma treated with IMRT in our series had improved acute toxicity.

Abelson, Jonathan A.; Murphy, James D.; Minn, Ann Yuriko; Chung, Melody [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Fisher, George A.; Ford, James M.; Kunz, Pamela [Department of Medical Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Norton, Jeffrey A.; Visser, Brendan C.; Poultsides, George A. [Department of Surgical Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Koong, Albert C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Chang, Daniel T., E-mail: dtchang@stanford.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States)

2012-03-15

393

TRANSPORT PROPERTY MEASUREMENTS OF HFC-236EA  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an evaluation of transport properties of 1,1,1,2,3,3,-hexafluoropropane (HFC-236ea), with liquid viscosity and thermal conductivity being the two main transport properties of interest. In addition, the specific heat and density of refrigerant/lubrican...

394

TRANSPORT PROPERTY MEASUREMENTS OF HFC-236EA  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an evaluation of transport properties of 1, 1, 1, 2, 3, 3-hexafluoropropane (HFC-236ea), with liquid viscosity and thermal conductivity being the two main transport properties of interest. In addition, the specific heat and density of refrigerant/lubri...

395

47 CFR 11.33 - EAS Decoder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...the capability to receive at least two audio inputs from EAS monitoring assignments...or externally, at least two minutes of audio or text messages. A decoder manufactured...without an internal means to record and store audio or text must be equipped with a...

2014-10-01

396

Endometrial Adenocarcinoma Presenting in a Premenopausal Patient with Tuberous Sclerosis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Endometrial adenocarcinoma is very uncommon in women under 40 years of age. Case: A 39-year-old woman with tuberous sclerosis and severe intellectual disability presented with irregular bleeding unresponsive to oral contraceptive therapy. She was subsequently found to have a deeply invasive endometrial adenocarcinoma. Conclusion:…

Jaffe, J. S.; Chambers, J. T.

2005-01-01

397

Comparison of esophageal capsule endoscopy and esophagogastroduodenoscopy for diagnosis of esophageal varices  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the utility of esophageal capsule endoscopy in the diagnosis and grading of esophageal varices. METHODS: Cirrhotic patients who were undergoing esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) for variceal screening or surveillance underwent capsule endoscopy. Two separate blinded investigators read each capsule endoscopy for the following results: variceal grade, need for treatment with variceal banding or prophylaxis with beta-blocker therapy, degree of portal hypertensive gastropathy, and gastric varices. RESULTS: Fifty patients underwent both capsule and EGD. Forty-eight patients had both procedures on the same day, and 2 patients had capsule endoscopy within 72 h of EGD. The accuracy of capsule endoscopy to decide on the need for prophylaxis was 74%, with sensitivity of 63% and specificity of 82%. Inter-rater agreement was moderate (kappa = 0.56). Agreement between EGD and capsule endoscopy on grade of varices was 0.53 (moderate). Inter-rater reliability was good (kappa = 0.77). In diagnosis of portal hypertensive gastropathy, accuracy was 57%, with sensitivity of 96% and specificity of 17%. Two patients had gastric varices seen on EGD, one of which was seen on capsule endoscopy. There were no complications from capsule endoscopy. CONCLUSION: We conclude that capsule endoscopy has a limited role in deciding which patients would benefit from EGD with banding or beta-blocker therapy. More data is needed to assess accuracy for staging esophageal varices, PHG, and the detection of gastric varices. PMID:18680226

Frenette, Catherine T; Kuldau, John G; Hillebrand, Donald J; Lane, Jill; Pockros, Paul J

2008-01-01

398

[A necrobiotic nodule indistinguishable from lung adenocarcinoma].  

PubMed

A 43-year-old woman was referred for examination because of an abnormal shadow on a chest X-ray film. She had a 12-year history of seropositive rheumatoid arthritis. Chest X-ray films and CT scans showed a pleurabased solitary nodule without a cavity. Cytological examination of a transbronchial biopsy specimen did not lead to a diagnosis, so thoracoscopic enucleation was performed. Histologically, the nodule consisted of lymphocytes and fibroblasts surrounding a central necrotic area, which indicated that it was a rheumatoid nodule. This solitary necrobiotic nodule was radiographically indistinguishable from lung adenocarcinoma, so histologic confirmation was necessary. PMID:7739185

Hanada, T; Hizawa, N; Ogura, S; Isobe, H; Miyamoto, K; Narita, Y; Kawakami, Y

1995-03-01

399

Renal paraneoplastic vasculitis complicating lung adenocarcinoma.  

PubMed

Renal paraneoplastic vasculitis (RNPV) is rare. It can be revealed by glomerulonephritis, microaneurysms or renal failure. RPNV may precede the onset of the primary tumor, and treatment and prognosis depend on the etiology (primary tumor). A 54-year-old man who had a primary lung adenocarcinoma was admitted for nephrotic syndrome. The investigations revealed RNPV. The patient was treated with corticosteroids at high dose and cyclophosphamide with improvement of the renal condition; however, the patient died from worsening of his pulmonary neoplasia. PMID:25193910

Dhaou, Besma Ben; Boussema, Fatma; Aydi, Zohra; Ketari, Sonia; Baili, Lilia; Moussa, Fatma Ben; Rokbani, Lilia

2014-09-01

400

Pathology Case Study: History of Colonic Adenocarcinoma  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 69-year-old man with a history of colonic adenocarcinoma has metastasis to the liver, bladder and rectum. Visitors are given the gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in gastrointestinal pathology.

Grant, Maurice R.; Huth, Joseph

2009-03-27

401

Novel multimodality endoscopic closure of postoperative esophageal fistula  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Esophageal fistula following esophagectomy is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. PRESENTATION OF CASE We present the case of a 71-year-old man who underwent salvage Ivor-Lewis esophagectomy, following definitive chemoradiotherapy 1 year previously. On postoperative day 9 the patient complained of chest pain, and a CT scan demonstrated extravasation of oral contrast from the gastric conduit into the right chest. A right chest drain and fully covered esophageal stent were placed at this time. Despite these measures, after 8 weeks, the esophageal fistula persisted. Ultimately, fistula closure was achieved using an interventional radiology-guided, endoscopically placed over-the-scope clip (OTSC). The patient had no further complications and was well at 3 months follow-up. DISCUSSION The case reported herein describes this novel, combined-modality approach to esophageal fistula closure. CONCLUSION This case report demonstrates a novel, minimally invasive, multidisciplinary approach to the closure of a post-esophagectomy anastamotic leak. PMID:22943885

Markar, Sheraz R.; Koehler, Richard; Low, Donald E.; Ross, Andrew

2012-01-01

402

Reflux esophagitis in war-related sulfur mustard lung disease  

PubMed Central

Background Sulfur mustard (SM) has acute and chronic effects on skin and mucosal surfaces. The aim of the study was to evaluate the frequency of esophagitis in a historical cohort of veterans who had been exposed to SM in Iran-Iraq war nearly 25 years ago. Methods: One hundred two veterans with dyspepsia and/or heartburn underwent esophago-gastroduodenoscopy. Of them, 52 cases had been exposed to SM and had chronic mustard lung disease. Controls included 50 veterans without SM exposure. Esophagitis was defined according to standard criteria. Results: 81.6% of cases and 70.6% of controls had heart burn and/or regurgitation (p= 0.224). Esophagitis was seen in 40% of cases and 26.5% of controls (p= 0.155). Conclusion: Based on our findings, SM exposure seems not to be associated with increased esophagitis. PMID:25250271

Roushan, Nader; Zali, Fateme; Abtahi, Hamidreza; Asadi, Mehrnaz; Taslimi, Reza; Aletaha, Najme

2014-01-01

403

Surgical indications and optimization of patients for resectable esophageal malignancies  

PubMed Central

Esophageal cancer is a devastating diagnosis with very dire long-term survival rates. This is largely due to its rather insidious progression, which leads to most patients being diagnosed with advanced disease. Recently, however, a greater understanding of the pathogenesis of esophageal malignancies has afforded surgeons and oncologists with new opportunities for intervention and management. Coupled with improvements in imaging, staging, and medical therapies, surgeons have continued to enhance their knowledge of the nuances of esophageal resection, which has resulted in the development of minimally invasive approaches with similar overall oncologic outcomes. This marriage of more efficacious induction therapy and diminished morbidity after esophagectomy offers new promise to patients diagnosed with this aggressive form of cancer. The following review will highlight these most recent advances and will offer insight into our own approach to patients with resectable esophageal malignancy. PMID:24624289

Grimm, Joshua C.; Valero, Vicente

2014-01-01

404

Cetuximab and Chemoradiotherapy for Locally Advanced Esophageal Cancer  

Cancer.gov

In this trial, patients with locally advanced esophageal cancer will undergo chemoradiotherapy using the drugs cisplatin and paclitaxel, and half of them will be randomly assigned to also receive the biologic agent cetuximab.

405

Fatal aorto-esophageal fistula in child: a case report.  

PubMed

Esophageal foreign body ingestion is especially frequent in childhood and may cause fatal complications in case of late diagnosis and delayed treatment. We present a case of 2-year old girl who was admitted to emergency department with massive bleeding. However, she died due to an unrecognized foreign body resulted an aorto-esophageal fistula. At autopsy an aorto-esophageal fistula was detected by gross examination. Tissue samples were obtained from the organs and fistula region. In histopathological examination, a calcified body with multinucleated giant cell and surrounding granulation tissue was detected at the bleeding site. An ulcerated fistula tract ran from the intima to the adventitia, passing through layers of esophageal wall was also noticed. The mortality rate for foreign body ingestion is less than 1%, except in cases of perforation. Therefore the presented case is among rare examples of fatal foreign body ingestions. PMID:24485434

Pehlivan, Sultan; Kara, Dogus Ozdemir; Turkkan, Dilhan; Akçan, Ramazan; Gokmen, Asude; Akduman, Baris; Karapirli, Mustafa

2014-02-01

406

The sternocleidomastoid myocutaneous "patch esophagoplasty" for cervical esophageal stricture.  

PubMed

Esophageal strictures may be caused by many etiologies. Patients suffer from dysphagia and many are tube-feed dependent. Cervical esophageal reconstruction is challenging for the plastic surgeon, and although there are reports utilizing chest wall flaps or even free flaps, the use of a sternocleidomastoid (SCM) myocutaneous flap provides an ideal reconstruction in select patients who require noncircumferential "patch" cervical esophagoplasty. We present two cases of esophageal reconstruction in which we demonstrate our technique for harvesting and insetting the SCM flap, with particular emphasis on design of the skin paddle and elucidation of the vascular anatomy. We believe that the SCM flap is simple, reliable, convenient, and technically easy to perform. There is minimal donor site morbidity with no functional loss. The SCM myocutaneous flap is a viable option for reconstructing partial esophageal defects and obviates the need to perform staged procedures or more extensive operations such as free tissue transfer. PMID:21500276

Noland, Shelley S; Ingraham, John M; Lee, Gordon K

2011-05-01

407

XAF1 is frequently methylated in human esophageal cancer  

PubMed Central

AIM: To explore epigenetic changes in the gene encoding X chromosome-linked inhibitor of apoptosis-associated factor 1 (XAF1) during esophageal carcinogenesis. METHODS: Methylation status of XAF1 was detected by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP) in four esophageal cancer cell lines (KYSE30, KYSE70, BIC1 and partially methylated in TE3 cell lines), nine cases of normal mucosa, 72 cases of primary esophageal cancer and matched adjacent tissue. XAF1 expression was examined by semi-quantitative reverse transcriptional polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting before and after treatment with 5-aza-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dc), a demethylating agent. To investigate the correlation of XAF1 expression and methylation status in primary esophageal cancer, immunohistochemistry for XAF1 expression was performed in 32 cases of esophageal cancer and matched adjacent tissue. The association of methylation status and clinicopathological data was analyzed by logistic regression. RESULTS: MSP results were as follows: loss of XAF1 expression was found in three of four esophageal cell lines with promoter region hypermethylation (completely methylated in KYSE30, KYSE70 and BIC1 cell lines and partially in TE3 cells); all nine cases of normal esophageal mucosa were unmethylated; and 54/72 (75.00%) samples from patients with esophageal cancer were methylated, and 25/72 (34.70%) matched adjacent tissues were methylated (75.00% vs 34.70%, ?2 = 23.5840, P = 0.000). mRNA level of XAF1 measured with semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was detectable only in TE3 cells, and no expression was detected in KYSE30, KYSE70 or BIC1 cells. Protein expression was not observed in KYSE30 cells by Western blotting before treatment with 5-aza-dc. After treatment, mRNA level of XAF1 was detectable in KYSE30, KYSE70 and BIC1 cells. Protein expression was detected in KYSE30 after treatment with 5-aza-dc. Immunohistochemistry was performed on 32 cases of esophageal cancer and adjacent tissue, and demonstrated XAF1 in the nucleus and cytoplasm. XAF1 staining was found in 20/32 samples of adjacent normal tissue but was present in only 8/32 samples of esophageal cancer tissue (?2= 9.143, P = 0.002). XAF1 expression was decreased in cancer samples compared with adjacent tissues. In 32 cases of esophageal cancer, 24/32 samples were methylated, and 8/32 esophageal cancer tissues were unmethylated. XAF1 staining was found in 6/8 samples of unmethylated esophageal cancer and 2/24 samples of methylated esophageal cancer tissue. XAF1 staining was inversely correlated with XAF1 promoter region methylation (Fisher’s exact test, P = 0.004). Regarding methylation status and clinicopathological data, no significant differences were found in sex, age, tumor size, tumor stage, or metastasis with respect to methylation of XAF1 for the 72 tissue samples from patients with esophageal cancer. CONCLUSION: XAF1 is frequently methylated in esophageal cancer, and XAF1 expression is regulated by promoter region hypermethylation. PMID:22719195

Chen, Xiang-Yu; He, Qiao-Yu; Guo, Ming-Zhou

2012-01-01

408

Erlotinib Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With Previously Treated Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer, Head and Neck Cancer, or Esophageal Cancer and Precancerous Lesions of the Lung  

ClinicalTrials.gov

High-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Low-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Occult Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Salivary Gland Acinic Cell Tumor; Salivary Gland Adenocarcinoma; Salivary Gland Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Anaplastic Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Malignant Mixed Cell Type Tumor; Salivary Gland Poorly Differentiated Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Squamous Lung Dysplasia; Stage 0 Esophageal Cancer; Stage 0 Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage I Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage I Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Lip; Stage I Esthesioneuroblastoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage I Inverted Papilloma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage I Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx; Stage I Lymphoepithelioma of the Oropharynx; Stage I Midline Lethal Granuloma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage I Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage I Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage I Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage I Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage I Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IA Esophageal Cancer; Stage IB Esophageal Cancer; Stage II Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage II Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Lip; Stage II Esthesioneuroblastoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage II Inverted Papilloma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage II Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx; Stage II Lymphoepithelioma of the Oropharynx; Stage II Midline Lethal Granuloma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage II Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage II Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage II Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage II Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage II Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IIA Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIB Esophageal Cancer; Stage III Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage III Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Lip; Stage III Esthesioneuroblastoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage III Inverted Papilloma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage III Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx; Stage III Lymphoepithelioma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Midline Lethal Granuloma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage III Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage III Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IIIA Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIC Esophageal Cancer; Stage IV Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IV Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Lip; Stage IV Esophageal Cancer; Stage IV Esthesioneuroblastoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IV Inverted Papilloma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IV Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IV Lymphoepithelioma of the Oropharynx; Stage IV Midline Lethal Granuloma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IV Mucoepidermoid Carc

2014-09-12

409

Adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder, mesonephroid type: a rare case  

PubMed Central

Primary adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder is a rare disease. It occurs in 0.5–2% of all bladder cancers and is discussed as the malignant counterpart of nephrogenic adenomas. We report a 46-year-old white female presented with gross hematuria for clinical examination. Histopathology revealed pT2, Pn1, L1, G2 adenocarcinoma of the bladder and carcinoma in situ according to the TNM classification. Computed tomography scan diagnostic was unremarkable. Patients with adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder should be treated vigorously and without time delay. Only 7 cases of adenocarcinoma in the urinary bladder (mesonephroid) have been described until now. We present a case of clear cell adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder, mesonephroid type that early diagnosed and till now 3 months after the cystectomy without symptoms and without complications. PMID:23772302

Abbas, Mahmoud; Kramer, Mario W.; Wolters, Mathias; Herrman, Thomas R.W.; Becker, Jan U.; Kreipe, Hans-Heinrich

2013-01-01