Sample records for esophageal ph testing

  1. Ambulatory esophageal pH testing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Patrick Shoenut; Clifford S. Yaffe

    1996-01-01

    Over a 30-month period, 867 esophageal pH studies were conducted in a Canadian teaching hospital; of these, 315 tests were recorded in patients who were first-time referrals having no chest or upper gastrointestinal surgery and taking no medication that would affect the results. Patients were referred by gastroenterologists, general surgeons, ENT surgeons, thoracic surgeons, and a miscellaneous group. Patients were

  2. Esophageal pH monitoring

    MedlinePLUS

    pH monitoring - esophageal; Esophageal acidity test ... to stay in the hospital for the esophageal pH monitoring. ... Esophageal pH monitoring is used to check how much stomach acid is entering the esophagus. It also checks how ...

  3. Ambulatory 24-hour esophageal pH monitoring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. J. Wiener; T. M. Morgan; J. B. Copper; D. O. Castell; J. W. Sinclair; J. E. Richter

    1988-01-01

    If 24-hour esophageal pH monitoring is to be a useful diagnostic tool, it must reliably discriminate gastroesophageal reflux patients despite daily variations in distal esophageal acid exposure. To address this issue, we studied 53 subjects (14 healthy normals, 14 esophagitis patients, and 25 patients with atypical symptoms) with two ambulatory pH tests performed within 10 days of each other. Intrasubject

  4. Ambulatory esophageal pH monitoring using a wireless system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John E Pandolfino; Joel E Richter; Tina Ours; Jason M Guardino; Jennifer Chapman; Peter J Kahrilas

    2003-01-01

    ObjectivesLimitations of catheter-based esophageal pH monitoring are discomfort, inconvenience, and interference with normal activity. An alternative to conventional pH monitoring is the wireless Medtronic Bravo pH System. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety, performance, and tolerability of this system.

  5. Effect of Ambulatory 24Hour Esophageal pH Monitoring on Reflux-Provoking Activities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronnie Fass; Richard Hell; Richard E. Sampliner; Gloria Pulliam; Ellen Graver; Vernon Hartz; Cynthia Johnson; Philip Jaffe

    1999-01-01

    Ambulatory 24-hr esophageal pH monitoring isconsidered the gold standard for diagnosinggastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). The currentapproach is to encourage patients to pursue theireveryday activity in order to obtain near-physiologicalrecordings. However, the effect of the test itself onreflux-provoking activities has never been evaluated.Thus, the aim of our study was to assess daily foodconsumption, habits, symptoms, sleep, and perceivedexperience of patients undergoing

  6. Proximal Sensor Data from Routine Dual-Sensor Esophageal pH Monitoring Is Often Inaccurate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matt McCollough; Abdul Jabbar; Robert Cacchione; Jeff W. Allen; Steve Harrell; John M. Wo

    2004-01-01

    Dual-sensor esophageal pH monitoring is routinely used to diagnose GERD. However, the proximal sensor may not be in proximal esophagus in patients with shortened esophagi. Our objective was to determine how often the proximal sensor was misplaced and to determine the effect on pH monitoring. Superior margins of the upper and lower esophageal sphincters (UES and LES) were determined prospectively

  7. Forty-eight-hour ph monitoring increases sensitivity in detecting abnormal esophageal acid exposure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Tseng; Adnan Z. Rizvi; M. Brian Fennerty; Blair A. Jobe; Brian S. Diggs; Brett C. Sheppard; Steven C. Gross; Lee L. Swanstrom; Nicole B. White; Ralph W. Aye; John G. Hunter

    2005-01-01

    Ambulatory 24-hour esophageal pH measurement is the standard for detecting abnormal esophageal acid exposure (AEAE), but it\\u000a has a false negative rate of 15% to 30%. Wireless 48-hour pH monitoring (Bravo; Medtronic, Shoreview, MN) may allow more accurate\\u000a detection of AEAE versus 24-hour pH monitoring. Forty-eight-hour wireless data were reviewed from 209 patients at three different\\u000a tertiary care referral centers

  8. Comparison of the Bravo™ Wireless and Digitrapper™ Catheter-Based pH Monitoring Systems for Measuring Esophageal Acid Exposure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John E. Pandolfino; Mitchal A. Schreiner; Thomas J. Lee; Qing Zhang; Christopher Boniquit; Peter J. Kahrilas

    2005-01-01

    INTRODUCTION:We compared esophageal acid exposure data obtained during simultaneous esophageal pH studies using the Bravo™ wireless and the Slimline™ catheter-Mark III Digitrapper™ pH systems.METHODS:Twenty-five asymptomatic subjects underwent endoscopy with endoclip placement at the squamocolumnar junction (SCJ) and manometry to localize the lower esophageal sphincter (LES). A Bravo™ capsule was placed 6 cm above the SCJ and a Slimline™ catheter 5

  9. Esophagitis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... following increase your risk of esophagitis: Alcohol use Cigarette smoking Surgery or radiation to the chest (for example, treatment for lung cancer) Taking certain medications without plenty of water, especially ...

  10. Comparative Effects of Liquid Antacids on Esophageal and Gastric pH in Patients with Heartburn.

    PubMed

    Decktor, Dennis L.; Robinson, Malcolm; Gottlieb, Stanley

    1995-07-01

    This double-blind crossover trial compared the postmeal effects of single doses of liquid antacids on esophageal and gastric pH in patients with a history of heartburn. Treatment consisted of one of two antacids containing the same active components---aluminum and magnesium hydroxide---but different in vitro acid-neutralizing capacities (ANCs). The pH was assessed continually from 1 h before a refluxogenic meal to 4 h after its completion in 24 subjects who received 20 ml of Mylanta((R)) Double Strength (MYL-20: ANC = 101.6 mEq), 20 or 30 ml of Extra-Strength Maalox((R)) Plus (MA-20, MA-30: ANC = 116.2 and 174.3 mEq, respectively), or placebo (ANC = 0) in random order. Esophageal pH increased rapidly and significantly (p < 0.05) to peak values of 7.0--7.4 with antacid. The increase in mean esophageal pH values was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than placebo for 30 min with MA-20 and for at least 70 min with MYL-20 and MA-30. In contrast, gastric pH rose slowly to mean peaks of 2.9--3.1 with antacid. During this interval, only MYL-20 was associated with significant improvements (p < 0.05 versus placebo) in total number of reflux episodes and total time that esophageal pH measured >4. Thus, ANC alone is not a useful guide in predicting in vivo antacid behavior, as in this study where the antacid dose with the lowest ANC demonstrated a duration of action as long or longer than that of antacid doses with higher ANC values. The rapid, prolonged increases in esophageal pH that preceded modest changes in gastric pH strongly suggest that the lower esophagus is the primary site of antacid action for heartburn relief. PMID:11850695

  11. PH urine test (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    The urine is tested for acidity or alkalinity (pH) because certain medications are more effective in acidic or alkaline environments. Medications for urinary tract infections are more effective when the urine ...

  12. Esophageal function testing: beyond manometry and impedance.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Ravinder K

    2014-10-01

    Manometry and impedance provide only surrogate information regarding longitudinal wall function and are focused on contractile amplitude and lumen content. Ultrasound imaging provides a unique perspective of esophageal function by providing important information regarding longitudinal muscle contraction. Laser Doppler assessment of perfusion may be an important complementary tool to assess abnormal wall blood perfusion as a possible mechanism of pain. PMID:25216911

  13. Radionuclide transit: a sensitive screening test for esophageal dysfunction

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, C.O.; Hill, L.D.; Holmes, E.R. III; Hull, D.A.; Gannon, R.; Pope, C.E. II

    1981-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to extend existing nuclear medicine techniques for the diagnosis of esophageal motor disorders. A standard homogeneous bolus of 99mtechnetium sulfur colloid in water was swallowed in the supine position under the collimator of a gamma camera linked to a microprocessor. Bolus transit was recorded at 0.4-s intervals, and the movie obtained was used to analyze transit in an objective manner. Ten normal volunteers and 30 subjects with dysphagia not related to mechanical obstruction were studied with this technique. Radionuclide transit studies detected a higher incidence of esophageal motor abnormality than manometry or radiology in the dysphagia group. In addition a definitive description of the functional problem was possible in most cases. Radionuclide transit is a safe noninvasive test and suitable as a screening test for esophageal motor disorders.

  14. Discussing the influence of electrode location in the result of esophageal prolonged pH monitoring

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is a large consensus to preserve the distance of 5 cm above the proximal border of the lower esophageal sphincter (PBLES) as appropriate to the location of the electrode of the pH-metry. The main objective of this study is to determine whether placement of the electrode below the recommended location achieves a significant difference in the calculation of the DeMeester score. Methods The study was made up of 60 GERD patients and 20 control subjects. They were submitted to esophageal manometry and to pH-metric examination with two pH-metric catheters contained antimony electrodes - the distal was positioned 3 cm above the PBLES, leaving the other 5 cm away from it. Results LES pressure (LESP) in the GERD group was significantly lower than in the control group (P?=?0.005). Normal mean DeMeester score was observed simultaneously in the control group, by both the electrodes, but abnormal DeMeester score was much more expressive when observed by the distal electrode in the GERD group. There were significant differences as for DeMeester score, of patients with GERD from that of the control group and of distal from the proximal electrode in the GERD group. Conclusions Acid reflux is directly related to lower levels of LESP. Lower location of the catheter may strongly affect the results of prolonged esophageal pH monitoring in GERD patients. PMID:24708547

  15. Comparisons of Esophageal Function Tests between Chinese and British Patients with Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease.

    PubMed

    Gao, Feng; Leach, Samantha; Hao, Jian Yu; Shang, Zhan Min; Hobson, Anthony Robert

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the esophageal function tests in British and Chinese patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Methods. Patients with GERD were selected from the functional gut clinic, London, and digestive department, Beijing Chao-Yang Hospital, after taking the examinations of High-resolution Manometry and Impedance (HRiM) and 24-hour Multi-Channel Intraluminal Impedance and pH Recording (MII/pH) between 2013 and 2014. Chinese healthy volunteers who undertook HRiM were also selected as control group. Results. Fifty-nine British and 82 Chinese patients with GERD and 62 Chinese healthy volunteers were entered. Values for British patients, Chinese patients, and healthy volunteers were as follows: Lower esophageal sphincter pressure (LESP) 16.0 ± 8.6, 16.5 ± 10.0, and 26.4 ± 10.9?mmHg, peristalsis (normal/small break/large break) 24/12/23, 44/10/28, and 57/1/4, total bolus transit time (TBTT) 7.3 ± 1.3, 7.6 ± 1.2, and 6.9 ± 0.9?s, and complete bolus transit rate (CBTR) 66.7 ± 37.8, 61.7 ± 36.4, and 90.3 ± 14.0%, respectively. Stepwise linear regression analysis showed that age, gender, and ethnicity did not have significant effect on LESP, TBTT, esophageal peristalsis, and CBTR in patients with GERD. Conclusions. British and Chinese patients with GERD presented similar values of LESP, TBTT, and impaired esophageal peristalsis and CBTR. PMID:25784929

  16. Esophageal Multichannel Intraluminal Impedance and pH Monitoring in the Evaluation of Achalasia and Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease in a Child with Down Syndrome: a Case Report.

    PubMed

    Stoicescu, Mihai-Mirel; Mocanu, Mihai; Galos, Felicia; Munteanu, Mihai; Visan, Simina; Ulmeanu, Coriolan; Balgradean, Mihaela

    2014-12-01

    We report the case of a rare association between achalasia and Down syndrome in a child presenting with symptoms that suggest a gastroesophageal reflux. Evaluation of the patient with 24-hour multichannel intraluminal impedance and pH recording and upper endoscopy lead to the diagnosis of achalasia. However, the persistence of the symptoms after the concurrent surgical myomectomy and fundoplication has led to repeat pH-impedance monitoring testing and endoscopy, which identified the presence of gastroesophageal reflux disease. We emphasize in this paper the importance of multichannel intraluminal impedance and pH monitoring in detecting esophageal motility disorders. PMID:25705311

  17. Esophageal Multichannel Intraluminal Impedance and pH Monitoring in the Evaluation of Achalasia and Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease in a Child with Down Syndrome: a Case Report

    PubMed Central

    STOICESCU, Mihai-Mirel; MOCANU, Mihai; GALOS, Felicia; MUNTEANU, Mihai; VISAN, Simina; ULMEANU, Coriolan; BALGRADEAN, Mihaela

    2014-01-01

    We report the case of a rare association between achalasia and Down syndrome in a child presenting with symptoms that suggest a gastroesophageal reflux. Evaluation of the patient with 24-hour multichannel intraluminal impedance and pH recording and upper endoscopy lead to the diagnosis of achalasia. However, the persistence of the symptoms after the concurrent surgical myomectomy and fundoplication has led to repeat pH-impedance monitoring testing and endoscopy, which identified the presence of gastroesophageal reflux disease. We emphasize in this paper the importance of multichannel intraluminal impedance and pH monitoring in detecting esophageal motility disorders. PMID:25705311

  18. General Information about Esophageal Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Treatment (PDQ®) General Information About Esophageal Cancer Key Points Esophageal cancer is a disease in which malignant ( ... NCI Web site . Stages of Esophageal Cancer Key Points After esophageal cancer has been diagnosed, tests are ...

  19. Esophageal motility and 24-h pH profiles of patients with heterotopic gastric mucosa in the cervical esophagus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Esin Korkut; Mehmet Bekta?; Murat Alkan; Yusuf Üstün; Cem Meco; Ali Özden; Irfan Soykan

    2010-01-01

    BackgroundHeterotopic gastric mucosa occurs as a flat island of red mucosa in the proximal third of the esophagus where it gives rise to the cervical inlet patch. The aims of this study were to investigate the esophageal motility pattern and 24-h pH profiles of patients with cervical inlet patch.

  20. Effect of smoking on the results of esophageal pH measurement in clinical routine.

    PubMed

    Pehl, C; Pfeiffer, A; Wendl, B; Nagy, I; Kaess, H

    1997-10-01

    Because data on the effects of smoking on gastroesophageal reflux are controversial, we evaluated the effect of smoking on the results of esophageal 24-hour pH-metry in clinical routine. Participants were 280 consecutive patients with symptoms suggestive of reflux disease, 78 smokers, and 202 nonsmokers. Of the smokers, 45 actually smoked during the pH measurement and 33 abstained from smoking. The frequency of reflux episodes, the fraction of time pH was < 4, and the percentage of abnormal 24-hour pH-metry results were compared among actual smokers, abstaining smokers, and nonsmokers. In actual smokers, the effect of smoking on gastroesophageal reflux was further analyzed by comparing the reflux frequency and the fraction of time that pH was < 4 for a 10-minute period before, during, and after smoking. We found no difference in reflux frequency and fraction of time that pH was < 4 among actual smokers, abstaining smokers, and nonsmokers, regardless of a normal or an abnormal pH-metry result. The percentage of patients with a pH-metry result indicating disease was similar in the three groups, at 53%, 52%, and 50%, respectively. Gastroesophageal reflux was not increased during smoking a cigarette or in the postsmoking period compared with the presmoking period. Neither being a smoker nor actually smoking a cigarette had a negative influence on gastroesophageal reflux. Thus smoking or abstaining from smoking does not modify the results of pH-metry in clinical routine. PMID:9412965

  1. Wireless Esophageal pH Monitoring Is Better Tolerated than the Catheter-Based Technique: Results from a Randomized Cross-Over Trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jörgen Wenner; Folke Johnsson; Jan Johansson; Stefan Öberg

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES:Esophageal pH monitoring using a wireless pH capsule has been suggested to generate less adverse symptoms resulting in improved patient acceptance compared with the catheter-based method although evidence to support this assumption is lacking. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the subjective experience of patients undergoing both techniques for esophageal pH monitoring.METHODS:Using a randomized study design,

  2. Clinical esophageal pH recording: A technical review for practice guideline development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter J Kahrilas; Eamonn M. M Quigley

    1996-01-01

    Our present concept of peptic esophagitis dates back to 1935, when Winkelstein suggested that gastric secretions were the cause of mucosal damage observed in peptic esophagitis.1GASTROENTEROLOGY 1996;110-1982-1996

  3. Altered esophageal pain threshold in irritable bowel syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mario Costantini; Giacomo Carlo Sturniolo; Giovanni Zaninotto; Renata D'Incà; Rita Polo; Remo Naccarato; Ermanno Ancona

    1993-01-01

    Gut motility disorders and altered pain perception were reported in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). To verify foregut involvement in IBS, we studied 30 patients using esophageal manometry and 24-hr pH monitoring of the distal esophagus. Two subgroups of patients underwent esophageal provocative tests (bethanechol 50 µg\\/kg subcutaneously and esophageal balloon distension test). Twelve healthy volunteers formed a control

  4. Treatment Options by Stage (Esophageal Cancer)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Treatment (PDQ®) General Information About Esophageal Cancer Key Points Esophageal cancer is a disease in which malignant ( ... NCI Web site . Stages of Esophageal Cancer Key Points After esophageal cancer has been diagnosed, tests are ...

  5. Addition of Esophageal Impedance Monitoring to pH Monitoring Increases the Yield of Symptom Association Analysis in Patients off PPI Therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Albert J. Bredenoord; Bas L. A. M. Weusten; Robin Timmer; Jose M. Conchillo; Andre J. P. M. Smout

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND:The additional yield of esophageal impedance monitoring in identification of reflux as the cause of reflux symptoms is unknown.OBJECTIVES:To compare the yield of symptom–reflux association analysis of combined esophageal pH-impedance data with the yield of analysis of pH data alone.METHODS:In 60 patients with symptoms of heartburn and regurgitation combined, 24-h pH-impedance monitoring was performed. Acid-suppressive medication was stopped 1 wk

  6. Gastroesophageal reflux reported on esophagram does not correlate with pH monitoring and high-resolution esophageal manometry.

    PubMed

    Serna-Gallegos, Derek; Basseri, Benjamin; Bairamian, Vahak; Pimentel, Mark; Soukiasian, Harmik J

    2014-10-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is commonly reported on esophagram (UGI) studies. The correlation of findings suggestive of GERD on UGI with pH monitoring and high-resolution esophageal manometry (HRM) studies is unclear. We investigate the correlation between reflux on UGI with the findings on pH studies and HRM. Subjects completed a symptom questionnaire before their scheduled study. Data from pH and HRM studies were compared with findings of the UGI. Sixty-five patients were evaluated. Reflux was reported on UGI in 19 of 65 (29.2%). Thirty-six patients had both UGI and pH studies; 22 of 36 (61.1%) had reflux on pH studies. UGI had a false-negative finding in 11 of 20 (55%) with no radiographic evidence of reflux. There was a false-positive finding in five of 16 (31.2%) patients on UGI. There was concordance in 11 of 36 (30.5%). Sixty-three patients had both UGI and HRM; there was positive concordance in eight of 63 (12.7%). Using pH monitoring as the gold standard for GERD, sensitivity was 0.50, specificity 0.64, positive predictive value 0.68, and negative predictive value 0.45 for reflux on UGI. The correlation between reflux reported on UGI and 24-hour pH monitoring is poor. Esophagram (UGI) should be reserved for defining structural defects in the esophagus and not reflux. PMID:25264653

  7. Bolus Transit Assessed by an Esophageal Stress Test in Postfundoplication Dysphagia

    E-print Network

    Brasseur, James G.

    Bolus Transit Assessed by an Esophageal Stress Test in Postfundoplication Dysphagia Roger P. Tatum Surgery, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, November 18­20, 1999 Introduction. Dysphagia is common after Nissen no difficulty (0) to extreme difficulty (3) to compute a dysphagia score (range 0­24). A 16-lumen manometric

  8. 48-Hour Bravo Esophageal pH Test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Main Campus Dining Lodging Parking Shopping Transportation Construction Alerts Download a list of current construction alerts Institutes & Services Explore Institutes/Departments Anesthesiology & Pain Management ...

  9. The use of skin prick tests and patch tests to identify causative foods in eosinophilic esophagitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan M. Spergel; Janet L. Beausoleil; Maria Mascarenhas; Chris A. Liacouras

    2002-01-01

    Background: Eosinophilic esophagitis is a disease entity in which patients have (1) elevated eosinophils on esophageal biopsy and (2) symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux. The symptoms do not improve on aggressive acid blockade but do improve on elimination diet or corticosteroid treatment, which tentatively links food allergies to this disorder. Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify potential food

  10. Acid loading test (pH)

    MedlinePLUS

    The acid loading test (pH) measures the ability of the kidneys to send acid to the urine when there is too much acid in the ... Urine with a pH less than 5.3 is normal. Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Some labs use different ...

  11. Esophageal Microbiome in Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Harris, J. Kirk; Fang, Rui; Wagner, Brandie D.; Choe, Ha Na; Kelly, Caleb J.; Schroeder, Shauna; Moore, Wendy; Stevens, Mark J.; Yeckes, Alyson; Amsden, Katie; Kagalwalla, Amir F.; Zalewski, Angelika; Hirano, Ikuo; Gonsalves, Nirmala; Henry, Lauren N.; Masterson, Joanne C.; Robertson, Charles E.; Leung, Donald Y.; Pace, Norman R.; Ackerman, Steven J.; Furuta, Glenn T.; Fillon, Sophie A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The microbiome has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of allergic and inflammatory diseases. The mucosa affected by eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is composed of a stratified squamous epithelia and contains intraepithelial eosinophils. To date, no studies have identified the esophageal microbiome in patients with EoE or the impact of treatment on these organisms. The aim of this study was to identify the esophageal microbiome in EoE and determine whether treatments change this profile. We hypothesized that clinically relevant alterations in bacterial populations are present in different forms of esophagitis. Design In this prospective study, secretions from the esophageal mucosa were collected from children and adults with EoE, Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) and normal mucosa using the Esophageal String Test (EST). Bacterial load was determined using quantitative PCR. Bacterial communities, determined by 16S rRNA gene amplification and 454 pyrosequencing, were compared between health and disease. Results Samples from a total of 70 children and adult subjects were examined. Bacterial load was increased in both EoE and GERD relative to normal subjects. In subjects with EoE, load was increased regardless of treatment status or degree of mucosal eosinophilia compared with normal. Haemophilus was significantly increased in untreated EoE subjects as compared with normal subjects. Streptococcus was decreased in GERD subjects on proton pump inhibition as compared with normal subjects. Conclusions Diseases associated with mucosal eosinophilia are characterized by a different microbiome from that found in the normal mucosa. Microbiota may contribute to esophageal inflammation in EoE and GERD. PMID:26020633

  12. Unsedated peroral wireless pH capsule placement vs. standard pH testing: A randomized study and cost analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Wireless capsule pH-metry (WC) is better tolerated than standard nasal pH catheter (SC), but endoscopic placement is expensive. Aims: to confirm that non-endoscopic peroral manometric placement of WC is as effective and better tolerated than SC and to perform a cost analysis of the available esophageal pH-metry methods. Methods Randomized trial at 2 centers. Patients referred for esophageal pH testing were randomly assigned to WC with unsedated peroral placement or SC after esophageal manometry (ESM). Primary outcome was overall discomfort with pH-metry. Costs of 3 different pH-metry strategies were analyzed: 1) ESM?+?SC, 2) ESM?+?WC and 3) endoscopically placed WC (EGD?+?WC) using publicly funded health care system perspective. Results 86 patients (mean age 51?±?2?years, 71% female) were enrolled. Overall discomfort score was less in WC than in SC patients (26?±?4?mm vs 39?±?4?mm VAS, respectively, p?=?0.012) but there were no significant group differences in throat, chest, or overall discomfort during placement. Overall failure rate was 7% in the SC group vs 12% in the WC group (p?=?0.71). Per patient costs ($Canadian) were $1475 for EGD?+?WC, $1014 for ESM?+?WC, and $906 for ESM?+?SC. Decreasing the failure rate of ESM?+?WC from 12% to 5% decreased the cost of ESM?+?WC to $991. The ESM?+?SC and ESM?+?WC strategies became equivalent when the cost of the WC device was dropped from $292 to $193. Conclusions Unsedated peroral WC insertion is better tolerated than SC pH-metry both overall and during placement. Although WC is more costly, the extra expense is partially offset when the higher patient and caregiver time costs of SC are considered. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier NCT01364610 PMID:22650250

  13. Lack of Correlation Between a Self-Administered Subjective GERD Questionnaire and Pathologic GERD Diagnosed by 24-h Esophageal pH Monitoring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin Chan; Geoffrey Liu; Linda Miller; Clement Ma; Wei Xu; Christopher M. Schlachta; Gail Darling

    2010-01-01

    Introduction  Self-reported reflux symptoms do not always correspond to pathologic gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). We evaluated\\u000a whether GERD-related symptoms in the self-reported Mayo-GERD questionnaire (GERDQ) were correlated with current gold standard\\u000a definitions of pathologic GERD.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Three hundred thirty-six consecutive consenting individuals with GERD symptoms referred for 24-h esophageal pH monitoring\\u000a completed a baseline GERDQ. Univariate and multivariate analyses identified questions that

  14. Esophageal spasm

    MedlinePLUS

    Diffuse esophageal spasm; Spasm of the esophagus; Distal esophageal spasm ... Brandt LJ, eds. Sleisenger and Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease . 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2010:chap ...

  15. Candida esophagitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Mathieson; Sudhir K. Dutta

    1983-01-01

    Summary Candida esophagitis is being increasingly recognized in the practice of clinical gastroenterology. The widespread use of corticosteroids, immunosuppressive drugs, and cancer chemotherapy, combined with the frequent use of endoscopy for the evaluation of esophageal symptoms, often leads to the identification ofCandida infection in this part of the gastrointestinal tract. The salient clinical features ofCandida esophagitis include odynophagia and dysphagia,

  16. Skip navigation Wireless System Tracks Esophageal Reflux

    E-print Network

    Chiao, Jung-Chih

    better testing than catheters now used MedlinePlus: Wireless System Tracks Esophageal Reflux URL: http://www.nlm.nih.gov Esophageal Reflux URL: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_51164.html #12;

  17. Herpetic esophagitis

    SciTech Connect

    Shortsleeve, M.J.; Gauvin, G.P.; Gardner, R.C.; Greenberg, M.S.

    1981-12-01

    Four patients with herpetic esophagitis were examined. In three of them, the presenting symptom was odynophagia. Early in the course of herpetic esophagitis, shallow round and oval ulcers were seen on barium esophagograms. Later, the ulcers filled with fibrinous exudate, forming nodular plaques that projected into the esophageal lumen. Although these findings are diagnostic of esophagitis, they are not specific for a herpes virus infection. The definitive diagnosis must be established by histologic examination, which demonstrates the cytopathic effect of the herpes virus infection within the squamous epithelium.

  18. Gastric emptying, esophageal 24-hour pH and gastric potential difference measurements in non-ulcer dyspepsia.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, A; Aronbayev, J; Schmidt, T; Wendl, B; Pehl, C; Kaess, H

    1992-01-01

    Pathological gastroesophageal reflux, prolonged gastric emptying and abnormal gastric potential difference have been claimed to be functional disorders often detectable in non-ulcer dyspspsia (NUD). The role of Helicobacter pylori in NUD is still unclear. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of these factors in 47 patients with NUD. According to DeMeester's criteria, 60 percent of NUD patients had abnormal gastroesophageal reflux, while 38 percent had prolonged gastric emptying of a liquid meal. Seventy-nine percent showed abnormal gastric potential difference which was unrelated to Helicobacter pylori colonization, detected in 46 percent of NUD patients. When esophageal pHmetry, gastric emptying evaluation and measurement of gastric potential difference were performed, 89 percent of NUD patients presented at least one abnormal finding. PMID:1526393

  19. Drug-induced esophageal strictures.

    PubMed Central

    Bonavina, L; DeMeester, T R; McChesney, L; Schwizer, W; Albertucci, M; Bailey, R T

    1987-01-01

    A retrospective study of 55 patients with a benign esophageal stricture showed that in 11 patients (20%) the cause was a drug-induced lesion due to potassium chloride (3), tetracyclines (3), aspirin (2), vitamin C (1), phenytoin (1), and quinidine (1). Five of the 11 patients would have been diagnosed as having a reflux etiology of their stricture if 24-hour esophageal pH monitoring was not performed. Six patients responded to dilatation and five patients required resection or bypass. A prospective study of 18 asymptomatic volunteers showed a high incidence of esophageal lodgment of a radiolabeled medicinal capsule, with subsequent dissolution and release of the isotope. This occurred most frequently in elderly subjects and was reduced by increasing the volume of water chaser. The sites of lodgment correspond to the location of the observed strictures in the patient population. An in vitro study showed that, when the causative drugs were mixed with saliva, dissolution occurred within 60 minutes and was associated with significant changes in pH. These investigations show that drug-induced esophageal strictures are more common than previously appreciated, and can be confused with a reflux etiology. Diagnosis is suggested by a history of drug ingestion, location of the stricture, and a normal esophageal acid exposure on 24-hour pH monitoring. The severity of the esophageal injury is variable and requires dilatation to resection for therapy. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:3606243

  20. Esophageal actinomycosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fu-Tsan Chou; Ken-Sheng Cheng; I-Ping Chiang

    2006-01-01

    Esophageal actinomycosis is uncommon and has been reported in immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients. A 41-y-old man\\u000a with a history of heavy alcohol use presented with progressively worsening odynophagia and dysphagia over a 2-wk period. Upper\\u000a gastrointestinal endoscopy and esophageal biopsy revealed ulceration withActinomyces and candidal infection. After therapy with intravenous penicillin G followed by oral amoxicillin that led to clinical

  1. Infectious esophagitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian P. Mulhall; Roy K. H. Wong

    2003-01-01

    Opinion statement  Infectious esophagitis can have significant implications in an impaired host. Described most commonly in immunocompromised\\u000a patients, infectious esophagitis can also occasionally be discovered in immunocompetent individuals in several unique clinical\\u000a settings. Evaluation of the typical presenting complaints, such as dysphagia or odynophagia, are especially important in immunocompetent\\u000a patients, and therapy should be directed at the appropriate predisposing condition and

  2. Pharmacologic treatments for esophageal disorders.

    PubMed

    Blackshaw, L Ashley; Bordin, Dmitry S; Brock, Christina; Brokjaer, Anne; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr; Farmer, Adam D; Krarup, Anne Lund; Lottrup, Christian; Masharova, Antonina A; Moawad, Fouad J; Olesen, Anne Estrup

    2014-09-01

    The following, from the 12th OESO World Conference: Cancers of the Esophagus, includes commentaries on the role for ketamine and other alternative treatments in esophageal disorders; the use of linaclotide in the treatment of esophageal pain; the alginate test as a diagnostic criterion in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD); the use of baclofen in treatment of GERD; the effects of opioids on the esophagus; the use of antagonists on the receptor level in GERD; the effect of local formulation of drugs on the esophageal mucosa; and the use of electroencephalographic fingerprints to predict the effect of pharmacological treatment. PMID:25266012

  3. [Eosinophilic esophagitis].

    PubMed

    Kusunose, Hiroaki; Ohara, Shuichi

    2015-07-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a clinicopathologic condition of increasing recognition and prevalence. Because of elevated total IgE levels and high rates of concurrent allergic diseases compared with the general population, EoE appears to be an antigen-driven immunologic process that caused by allergens like food or aeroallergens. EoE is a disease that features dense intraepithelial infiltration by eosinophils which cause excessive mucosal immunologic reactions which cause several symptoms that mostly involve dysphagia. For establishment of the diagnosis, infiltration of eosinophils (? 20 eosinophils/HPF) should be identified in an esophageal mucosal biopsy specimen. In treatment of patients have a possibility of EoE, proton-pump inhibitors(PPIs) must be tried as first choice. Other proved therapeutic options include topical or systemic corticosteroids, chronic dietary elimination, and esophageal dilation, but local administration of glucocorticoids has recently been reported as useful therapy for EoE. PMID:26165084

  4. Snapshot of Esophageal Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Discovery A Snapshot of Esophageal Cancer Incidence and Mortality Esophageal cancer consists of two primary cancer types, ... ethnic groups have higher esophageal cancer incidence and mortality rates than women. Historically, African American men have ...

  5. Caustic ingestion and esophageal function

    SciTech Connect

    Cadranel, S.; Di Lorenzo, C.; Rodesch, P.; Piepsz, A.; Ham, H.R. (Children University Hospital, Brussels (Belgium))

    1990-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate esophageal motor function by means of krypton-81m esophageal transit scintigraphy and to compare the results with the functional and morphological data obtained by means of triple lumen manometry and endoscopy. In acute and subacute stages of the disease, all clinical, anatomical, and functional parameters were in good agreement, revealing significant impairment. In chronic stages, the severity of the dysphagia was not correlated to the importance of the residual stenosis. Conversely, 81mKr esophageal transit and manometric's findings were in good agreement with the clinical symptoms, during the entire follow-up period ranging between 3 months to 7 years. The 81mKr test is undoubtedly the easiest and probably the most physiological technique currently available for long-term functional evaluation of caustic esophagitis.

  6. Radiation esophagitis.

    PubMed

    Murro, Diana; Jakate, Shriram

    2015-06-01

    The esophagus is frequently exposed to radiation during treatment of advanced stages of common cancers such as lung, breast, and esophagus. However, symptomatic radiation esophagitis requiring endoscopic and histologic evaluation occurs quite rarely, affecting less than 1% of patients receiving radiation treatment. Symptoms occur acutely, generally within the first 2 months. Patients typically present with nonspecific symptoms such as dysphagia and odynophagia. Endoscopic changes such as erythema and ulceration are also nonspecific and nondiagnostic. Biopsies from affected areas show variable inflammatory changes and radiation-related atypia of endothelial and stromal cells. Such atypia mimics cytomegalovirus cytopathic changes, which are ruled out through absence of immunostaining. Radiation esophagitis is thus clinically unsuspected and endoscopically and histologically quite different from the more common and familiar radiation proctitis for which angioectasia is the predominant finding. PMID:26030254

  7. Relationship among esophageal dysfunction, diabetic gastroenteropathy, and peripheral neuropathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. O. H. Russell; R. Gannan; J. Coatsworth; R. Neilsen; F. Allen; L. D. Hill; C. E. Pope

    1983-01-01

    Esophageal motor function was tested in 12 patients with a clinical diagnosis of diabetic gastroenteropathy by radionuclide transit (RT) studies. Other insulin-dependent diabetics with and without symptoms of peripheral neuropathy but with no symptoms of gastrointestinal disease were similarly studied. Eleven of the 12 patients with gastroenteropathy were found to have abnormal esophageal function, even though only five had esophageal

  8. Esophageal Cancer Staging

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Thomas W.

    2015-01-01

    Accurate staging of esophageal cancer is very important to achieving optimal treatment outcomes. The AJCC (American Joint Committee on Cancer) first published TNM esophageal cancer staging recommendations in the first edition of their staging manual in 1977. Thereafter, the staging of esophageal cancer was changed many times over the years. This article reviews the current status of staging of esophageal cancer. PMID:26078921

  9. Clinical characteristics and sensitivity to food and inhalants among children with eosinophilic esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To understand the clinical characteristics and the diagnostic procedures in pediatric patients with eosinophilic esophagitis and to evaluate the sensitivity of the patients to food and inhalant allergens. A cross-sectional study was performed in 35 children with eosinophilic esophagitis during the time period from January 2010 to January 2011. The clinical and epidemiological data were obtained using a questionnaire and medical chart analysis. The body mass index for age was used for the nutritional evaluation (via the Z score). The sensitivity to foods and inhalants was evaluated by performing a skin prick test and atopy patch test. Results Patients (35 in total, median age 10 years) with a diagnosis of eosinophilic esophagitis were evaluated. The most prevalent symptoms in the patients were vomiting (71.4%) and abdominal pain (51.4%). Endoscopic alterations were observed in 97.2% of the patients. A good nutritional state was observed in 82.8% of the children. The tests demonstrated the presence of food sensitivities and/or aeroallergens in 27 (77.1%) patients, whereas 8 (22.9%) patients did not test positive in any of the tests performed. Among the patients with positive tests, 24 (68.5%) exhibited sensitivity to aeroallergens and 16 (45.7%) were sensitive to foods. The comparison between the sensitive and insensitive groups displayed statistically significant results with respect to sex, symptom prevalence, and 24-hour esophageal pH monitoring. Conclusions The patients evaluated in this study displayed clinical characteristics of eosinophilic esophagitis similar to those reported in the literature. The sensitivity to foods determined by the tests was less than that observed in prior studies; however, a marked sensitivity to aeroallergens was observed. The different allergen sensitivity profiles observed in this study suggests that, similar to asthma, the eosinophiic esophagitis disease may exhibit several phenotypes. PMID:24443803

  10. [Eosinophilic esophagitis diagnostic features].

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by eosinophilic infiltration and inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract in the absence of other causes of tissue eosinophilia. The clinical course of EoE like gastroesophageal reflux disease with eosinophilic infiltration of the esophageal epithelium. EoE widely diagnosed abroad in children and adults, whereas in Russia the disease is almost never diagnosed. Upon detection of eosinophilia in the biopsy of the esophagus should exclude other causes. The correct clinical diagnosis in combination with the study of biopsy tissue of the esophagus and other laboratory methods (including allergic testing) is crucial in achieving the effectiveness of therapy EoE. PMID:25993874

  11. Recommended Soil pH and Lime Requirement Tests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald Eckert; J. Thomas Sims

    Soil pH is defined as the negative logarithm (base 10) of the H+ activity (moles per liter) in the soil solution. As the activity of H+ in the soil solution increases, the soil pH value decreases. Soils with pH values below pH 7 are referred to as \\

  12. Esophageal stricture - benign

    MedlinePLUS

    ... stricture can be caused by: Gastroesophageal reflux (GERD) Eosinophilic esophagitis Injuries caused by an endoscope Long-term use ... returning. Surgery is rarely needed. If you have eosinophilic esophagitis, you may need to take medicines or make ...

  13. Esophageal tuberculosis mimicking malignancy.

    PubMed

    Geusens, E; Verschakelen, J A; Flamaing, J; Bogaert, J; Ponette, E; Decramer, M; Baert, A L

    1996-01-01

    A case of pulmonary and esophageal tuberculosis in an 82-year-old female is presented. Esophageal tuberculosis is very rarely seen in Europe and the United States, but the disease is still endemic in India. The major differential diagnosis is esophageal malignancy. Findings that can suggest the diagnosis are tracheo-esophageal fistula formation, enlarged, centrally necrotizing lymph nodes, and a micronodular lung pattern. PMID:8797957

  14. Multiple esophageal rings: an association with eosinophilic esophagitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Constantinos G Siafakas; Charlotte K Ryan; Marilyn R Brown; Tracie L Miller

    2000-01-01

    Esophagitis may present endoscopically with erythema, edema, loss of vascular pattern, friability, and ulceration of the esophageal mucosa. Left untreated, chronic esophagitis may result in stricture formation. The presence of multiple concentric rings involving the entire esophagus has been cited as a chronic form of esophagitis. We present a case of an 8-yr-old boy with multiple concentric esophageal rings and

  15. [Esophageal motility disorders].

    PubMed

    Müller, M; Gockel, I

    2015-06-01

    Esophageal motility disorders are a group of diseases that result in swallowing dysfunction due to changes in neuromuscular structures, which coordinate esophageal function. Besides achalasia, which is the best defined functional disturbance of the esophagus, there are other motility disorders, namely hypercontractile (diffuse esophageal spasm, nutcracker or jackhammer esophagus, hypertensive lower esophageal sphincter) and hypocontractile disorders, whose origins and disease mechanisms are not yet well understood. The main symptoms are dysphagia and thoracic pain. Diagnosis is usually made by means of esophageal manometry, while endoscopy and barium swallow are essential to exclude inflammatory or neoplastic changes. The introduction of high resolution manometry (HRM) with up to 36 pressure points that are simultaneously measured on the esophageal catheter has changed diagnosis and assessment, and has led-with the Chicago Classification-to a new functional classification of esophageal motility disorders. In the following review, the most important motility disorders of the esophagus are introduced. PMID:25940142

  16. Esophageal motility abnormalities in gastroesophageal reflux disease

    PubMed Central

    Martinucci, Irene; de Bortoli, Nicola; Giacchino, Maria; Bodini, Giorgia; Marabotto, Elisa; Marchi, Santino; Savarino, Vincenzo; Savarino, Edoardo

    2014-01-01

    Esophageal motility abnormalities are among the main factors implicated in the pathogenesis of gastroesophageal reflux disease. The recent introduction in clinical and research practice of novel esophageal testing has markedly improved our understanding of the mechanisms contributing to the development of gastroesophageal reflux disease, allowing a better management of patients with this disorder. In this context, the present article intends to provide an overview of the current literature about esophageal motility dysfunctions in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease. Esophageal manometry, by recording intraluminal pressure, represents the gold standard to diagnose esophageal motility abnormalities. In particular, using novel techniques, such as high resolution manometry with or without concurrent intraluminal impedance monitoring, transient lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxations, hypotensive LES, ineffective esophageal peristalsis and bolus transit abnormalities have been better defined and strongly implicated in gastroesophageal reflux disease development. Overall, recent findings suggest that esophageal motility abnormalities are increasingly prevalent with increasing severity of reflux disease, from non-erosive reflux disease to erosive reflux disease and Barrett’s esophagus. Characterizing esophageal dysmotility among different subgroups of patients with reflux disease may represent a fundamental approach to properly diagnose these patients and, thus, to set up the best therapeutic management. Currently, surgery represents the only reliable way to restore the esophagogastric junction integrity and to reduce transient LES relaxations that are considered to be the predominant mechanism by which gastric contents can enter the esophagus. On that ground, more in depth future studies assessing the pathogenetic role of dysmotility in patients with reflux disease are warranted. PMID:24868489

  17. Standard test method for measuring pH of soil for use in corrosion testing

    E-print Network

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1995-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers a procedure for determining the pH of a soil in corrosion testing. The principle use of the test is to supplement soil resistivity measurements and thereby identify conditions under which the corrosion of metals in soil may be accentuated (see G 57 - 78 (1984)). 1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  18. Buspirone, a new drug for the management of patients with ineffective esophageal motility?

    PubMed

    Scheerens, Charlotte; Tack, Jan; Rommel, Nathalie

    2015-06-01

    Ineffective esophageal motility (IEM) is the most frequently encountered esophageal motility disorder. Patients may present with a variety of symptoms, such as dysphagia, heartburn, odynophagia, and regurgitation. Over the past years, the landscape of esophageal motility testing has been revolutionized; however, our current treatment options for IEM still remain limited. Previous studies have suggested that buspirone, a serotonin receptor agonist, enhances esophageal peristalsis and lower esophageal sphincter (LES) function. Recent work provides the first evidence that buspirone may influence LES resting pressure in patients with systemic sclerosis. Future research should evaluate whether the beneficial effects of buspirone also apply to the broad clinical entity of esophageal dysphagia patients with IEM. PMID:26137300

  19. Buspirone, a new drug for the management of patients with ineffective esophageal motility?

    PubMed Central

    Scheerens, Charlotte; Tack, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Ineffective esophageal motility (IEM) is the most frequently encountered esophageal motility disorder. Patients may present with a variety of symptoms, such as dysphagia, heartburn, odynophagia, and regurgitation. Over the past years, the landscape of esophageal motility testing has been revolutionized; however, our current treatment options for IEM still remain limited. Previous studies have suggested that buspirone, a serotonin receptor agonist, enhances esophageal peristalsis and lower esophageal sphincter (LES) function. Recent work provides the first evidence that buspirone may influence LES resting pressure in patients with systemic sclerosis. Future research should evaluate whether the beneficial effects of buspirone also apply to the broad clinical entity of esophageal dysphagia patients with IEM. PMID:26137300

  20. Does surgery correct esophageal motor dysfunction in gastroesophageal reflux

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, C.O.; Pope, C.E.; Gannan, R.M.; Allen, F.D.; Velasco, N.; Hill, L.D.

    1981-09-01

    The high incidence of dysphagia in patients with symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux (GER) but no evidence of peptic stricture suggests esophageal motor dysfunction. Conventional methods for detecting dysfunction (radiologic and manometric examinations) often fail to detect abnormality in these patients. Radionuclide transit (RT), a new method for detecting esophageal motor dysfunction, was used to prospectively assess function in 29 patients with symptomatic GER uncomplicated by stricture before and three months after antireflux surgery (HILL). The preoperative incidence of dysphagia and esophageal dysfunction was 73% and 52%, respectively. During operation (Hill repair), intraoperative measurement of the lower esophageal sphincter pressure was performed and the LESP raised to levels between 45 and 55 mmHg. The preoperative lower esophageal sphincter pressure was raised from a mean of 8.6 mmHg, to mean of 18.5 mmHg after operation. No patient has free reflux after operation. Postoperative studies on 20 patients demonstrated persistence of all preoperative esophageal dysfunction despite loss of dysphagia. RT has demonstrated a disorder of esophageal motor function in 52% of patients with symptomatic GER that may be responsible for impaired esophageal clearance. This abnormality is not contraindication to surgery. The results indicate that construction of an effective barrier to reflex corrects symptoms of reflux, even in the presence of impaired esophageal transit. Radionuclide transit is a safe noninvasive test for assessment of esophageal function.

  1. Eosinophilic esophagitis in patients with esophageal atresia and chronic dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Kassabian, Sirvart; Baez-Socorro, Virginia; Sferra, Thomas; Garcia, Reinaldo

    2014-12-21

    Esophageal atresia (EA) is defined as a discontinuity of the lumen of the esophagus repaired soon after birth. Dysphagia is a common symptom in these patients, usually related to stricture, dysmotility or peptic esophagitis. We present 4 cases of patients with EA who complained of dysphagia and the diagnosis of Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) was made, ages ranging from 9 to 16 years. Although our patients were on acid suppression years after their EA repair, they presented with acute worsening of dysphagia. Esophogastroduodenoscopy and/or barium swallow did not show stricture and biopsies revealed elevated eosinophil counts consistent with EoE. Two of 4 patients improved symptomatically with the topical steroids. It is important to note that all our patients have asthma and 3 out of 4 have tested positive for food allergies. One of our patients developed recurrent anastomotic strictures that improved with the treatment of the EoE. A previous case report linked the recurrence of esophageal strictures in patients with EA repair with EoE. Once the EoE was treated the strictures resolved. On the other hand, based on our observation, EoE could be present in patients without recurrent anastomotic strictures. There appears to be a spectrum in the disease process. We are suggesting that EoE is a frequent concomitant problem in patients with history of congenital esophageal deformities, and for this reason any of these patients with refractory reflux symptoms or dysphagia (with or without anastomotic stricture) may benefit from an endoscopic evaluation with biopsies to rule out EoE. PMID:25548504

  2. Transcutaneous cervical esophagus ultrasound in adults: Relation with ambulatory 24-h pH-monitoring and esophageal manometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sabite Kacar; Selma Uysal; Sedef Kuran; Ulku Dagli; Yasemin Ozin; Erdem Karabulut

    AIM: To determine the gastroesophageal refl uxate in the cervical esophagus (CE) and measure transcutaneous cervical esophageal ultrasound (TCEUS) fi ndings (anterior wall thickness (WT) of CE, esophageal luminal diameter (ELD), esophageal diameter (ED)); to compare TCEUS findings in the patient subgroups divided according to 24-h esophageal pH monitoring and manometry; and to investigate possible cut-off values according to the

  3. Diet and esophageal disease.

    PubMed

    Dawsey, Sanford M; Fagundes, Renato B; Jacobson, Brian C; Kresty, Laura A; Mallery, Susan R; Paski, Shirley; van den Brandt, Piet A

    2014-09-01

    The following, from the 12th OESO World Conference: Cancers of the Esophagus, includes commentaries on macronutrients, dietary patterns, and risk of adenocarcinoma in Barrett's esophagus; micronutrients, trace elements, and risk of Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma; the role of mate consumption in the development of squamous cell carcinoma; the relationship between energy excess and development of esophageal adenocarcinoma; and the nutritional management of the esophageal cancer patient. PMID:25266021

  4. Esophageal duplication cyst.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Reza; Asnaashari, Amir Mohammad Hashem; Afghani, Reza

    2015-03-01

    Esophageal duplication cyst is a rare congenital mediastinal cyst. Most of these cysts become symptomatic in childhood and only rare cases remain asymptomatic until adolescence. They may produce symptoms due to esophageal and respiratory system compression, rupture, and infection. A 25-year-old man presented with pulmonary infection and bronchiectasis that did not improve with medical treatment. A diagnosis of esophageal duplication cyst was made intraoperatively. PMID:24757179

  5. Esophageal lichen planus.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Janine Pichler de; Uribe, Natalia Caballero; Abulafia, Luna Azulay; Quintella, Leonardo Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Lichen planus is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects the skin, mucous membranes, nails and scalp. Esophageal lichen planus is a rarely reported manifestation of lichen planus, presenting itself commonly in middle-aged women, with symptoms such as dysphagia. We report a case of esophageal lichen planus in a 54-year-old woman associated with oral, cutaneous and ungual lichen planus. Although lichen planus is a disorder well known by dermatologists, reports of esophageal lichen planus are rare in dermatologic literature. The esophageal lichen planus is little known and underdiagnosed, with a significant delay between the onset of symptoms and diagnosis. PMID:26131872

  6. The management of eosinophilic esophagitis.

    PubMed

    Greenhawt, Matthew; Aceves, Seema S; Spergel, Jonathan M; Rothenberg, Marc E

    2013-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a clinicopathologic, chronic esophageal inflammatory disease resistant to acid suppressive therapy and is associated with variable symptoms indicative of upper gastrointestinal dysfunction. Per current guidelines established by The International Group of Eosinophil Researchers (TIGERS), the diagnosis is made in symptomatic patients after a biopsy that confirms a peak eosinophil level of ?15 eosinophils/high-powered field (HPF). The esophagus is distinguished by pronounced tissue eosinophilia in which dietary antigens are key inciting factors for disease pathogenesis; EoE being reversed by elimination of triggering food allergens suggests that the disease is mediated in part by allergic sensitization to foods. Moreover, experimental EoE in mice can be induced not only via food exposure but also via aeroallergen exposure. Consistent with an allergic etiology rather than an acid-induced esophagitis, swallowed glucocorticoids are effective for the treatment of EoE. Evaluation by an allergist is a recommended part of the diagnostic workup, especially for management of allergic comorbidities. Clinical practice for the evaluation of patients with EoE mainly relies on prick skin tests due to the ease and validation of these tests in the context of immediate hypersensitivity. However, both atopy patch testing and serum IgE testing have been used in EoE. Herein, we reviewed the basic clinical features of EoE with a focus on the approach to diagnosing causative food allergens and to dietary therapy. PMID:24565538

  7. Correlation between manometric and pH tests for gastro-oesophageal reflux

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C Stanciu; R C Hoare; J R Bennett

    1977-01-01

    A series of tests, including gastro-oesophageal sphincter pressure measurement, short-term pH tests, and 15-hour overnight oesophageal pH recording were applied to 42 normal subjects and 214 patients with typical reflux symptoms. The results were compared by multivariate discriminant analysis. Sphincter pressure measurements misclassified 32%, stressed provocative manoeuvres 14-5%, and the best single discriminator from the overnight pH study was time

  8. Technical problems produced by the Bravo pH test in nonerosive reflux disease patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrés de Hoyos; Fabio Pace; L. Sacco; Esparza EA

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the technical failures of the Bravo pH test in a population with nonerosive gastroesophageal reflux disease. METHODS: Over the course of a year, we prospectively studied a population of 66 nonerosive reflux disease patients who received a Bravo pH test. The number and frequency of all technical failures were documented, quantified and analyzed. RESULTS: A total of

  9. Frequency of eosinophilic esophagitis in patients with esophageal symptoms: a single-center Turkish experience.

    PubMed

    Altun, R; Akbas, E; Y?ld?r?m, A E; Öcal, S; Korkmaz, M; Selcuk, H

    2013-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic, immune/antigen-mediated esophageal disease characterized with symptoms related to esophageal dysfunction and eosinophil-predominant inflammation. There has been a dramatic increase in the diagnosis of this disease in recent years. The primary objective of this study was to determine the frequency of EoE in adult patients who were evaluated by gastroenterologists in our clinic with esophageal symptoms. Between November 2010 and May 2011, 311 adult patients who were evaluated in our clinic with esophageal symptoms were enrolled prospectively. All patients underwent endoscopy and had biopsies taken. Gastroesophageal reflux disease was excluded by either proton pump inhibitory treatment or 24-hour ambulatory pH monitorization. The diagnosis was confirmed by one independent pathologist. Frequency of EoE in patients with esophageal symptoms was 2.6% (n = 8; four men and four women). Mean age at diagnosis was 40.2 ± 8 years. Heartburn was the predominant symptom in patients (75% of the patients), and 87.5% (n = 7) of patients had more than one symptom at diagnosis. Nearly 38% of the patients (n = 3) had a history of allergic disease. Endoscopic findings were as follows: transient/fixed esophageal rings (25%), white exudates (25%), and normal appearance (50%). Median number of circulating eosinophils was 208 (93-659)/mm(3) . Median number of intraepithelial eosinophils in proximal-middle 1/3 part and distal 1/3 part of esophagus were 0 (0-50)/hpf and 37 (16-50)/hpf, respectively. In conclusion, EoE is not rare in Turkey, and it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with esophageal symptoms. PMID:22925366

  10. Drug-induced esophagitis.

    PubMed

    Zografos, G N; Georgiadou, D; Thomas, D; Kaltsas, G; Digalakis, M

    2009-01-01

    Drug-induced esophagitis is being recognized increasingly in the past few years. Since 1970 more than 650 cases have been reported worldwide caused by 30 or more medications. We have reviewed these cases with a view to classifying this disease based on underlying pathological mechanism. Drug-induced esophageal injury tends to occur at the anatomical site of narrowing, with the middle third behind the left atrium predominating (75.6%). The disease is broadly classified into two groups. The first group being transient and self-limiting as exemplified by the tetracycline group induced injury (65.8%). The second is the persistent esophagitis group, often with stricture, with two distinct entities: (i) patients on nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents whose injury is aggravated by gastroesophageal reflux (21.8%) (reflux aggravated); and (ii) patients with potasium chloride and quinidine sulphate induced injury (12.4%) (persistent drug injury). Severe esophageal injury has been reported in some women taking biphosphonates as treatment for postmenopausal osteoporosis. Endoscopic findings in such patients with esophageal injury generally suggested a chemical esophagitis, with erosions or ulcerations and exudative inflammation accompanied by thickening of the esophageal wall. Most cases of medication-induced esophageal injury heal without intervention within a few days. Thus, the most important aspect of therapy is to make the correct diagnosis and then to avoid reinjury with the drug. When possible, potentially caustic oral medications should be discontinued. PMID:19392845

  11. Esophageal cancer in Iran

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Ghavamzadeh; A Moussavi; M Jahani; M Rastegarpanah; M Iravani

    2001-01-01

    Esophageal cancer is among the 10 most frequent cancers in the world. Iran is one of the known areas with a high incidence of esophageal cancer. Most of the patients in Iran have been reported from the north and northeast regions of the country. In one survey by the Iran Cancer Institute, 9% of all cancers and 27% of gastrointestinal

  12. Esophageal endosclerosis in children.

    PubMed

    Stellen, G P; Lilly, J R

    1985-11-01

    During the past 6 years, 25 consecutive patients with esophageal variceal hemorrhage were treated by esophageal endosclerosis (direct injection of varices with a sclerosing agent). The primary disease in the 25 children was portal vein thrombosis (11 patients), biliary atresia (nine patients), and hepatic cirrhosis from cystic fibrosis (three patients), alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency (one patient), and neonatal hepatitis (one patient). Thirteen patients were treated during acute, major variceal hemorrhage. Esophageal endosclerosis was repeated at regular intervals until all esophageal varices were obliterated. Twenty-one patients completed therapy. Four patients died: one of a complication of therapy and three of the primary disease. Other than the one death, complications were minor. Recurrent esophageal variceal hemorrhage has not been encountered in follow-up from 9 months to 6 years after completion of therapy. PMID:3877348

  13. Medical management of esophageal reflux.

    PubMed Central

    Hirschowitz, B. I.

    1994-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux of varying severity is a common disorder for which medical attention is sought at all levels, from pharmacists to specialist physicians and surgeons. This brief overview represents my current understanding of reflux, its effects on the esophagus and my personal approach to treatment of these disorders. Of necessity, because the literature is so extensive (a Medline search on reflux from 1966 to 1993 yielded over 1500 papers.), I have relied in places on the extensive review by Marks and Richter [1]. My paper emphasizes the evaluation and treatment of patients with symptomatic reflux, esophagitis and its complications. It describes why it is important to grade the disorders so that the treatment used is appropriate to the severity of the disease. The more severe the disease, the more specific the diagnostic information needed and the more exacting the treatment. Various treatments and outcomes of therapy are discussed, and a role for surgery is defined. The essence of effective medical treatment of esophagitis is to reduce acidity of the refluxate to a level outside the optimum proteolytic pH range of pepsin, i.e. greater than pH 3.5. PMID:7502531

  14. NF-?B Activation in Esophageal Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Latif, Mohamed M. M.; O'Riordan, James; Windle, Henry J.; Carton, Eleanor; Ravi, Nagunivan; Kelleher, Dermot; Reynolds, John V.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine the expression of the transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) in Barrett's epithelium and adenocarcinoma and the impact of NF-?B expression on tumor stage and response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Summary Background Data: Progression of Barrett's esophagus to adenocarcinoma is associated with a wide range of cellular and molecular abnormalities. Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) regulates several genes involved in inflammatory, immune and apoptotic responses, but its role in esophageal inflammation and tumorigenesis has not been reported. Methods: Mobility shift assay was used to measure NF-?B activity in nuclear extracts of fresh-frozen biopsies from tumor and uninvolved tissues (n = 30) and esophageal cell lines OE33, SKGT-4, and OE21. RelA expression was assessed by immunohistochemical staining (n = 97). The NF-?B/RelA and I?B protein expressions were also examined by Western blotting. Results: NF-?B was not expressed in normal esophageal squamous epithelium, in contrast to increased expression in 40% of patients with Barrett's epithelium. Sixty-one percent of resected tumors (n = 97) displayed NF-?B immunoreactivity, and 87.5% of the NF-?B- positive tumors were Stage IIb and III compared with only 12.5% of patients with Stage I and IIa disease (P < 0.05). The expression of NF-?B inversely correlated with major or complete pathologic responses to neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiation therapy, with 15/20 (75%) responders in the NF-?B-negative group compared with 7/38 (18%) in the NF-?B-positive group (P < 0.00001). Moreover, incubation of esophageal cell lines OE33, SKGT-4, and OE21 with deoxycholic acid or low pH induced NF-?B expression. Conclusions: Bile acids and low pH induce NF-?B expression in esophageal cell lines. NF-?B activation is common in esophageal adenocarcinoma. In patients with Barrett's epithelium and an associated esophageal adenocarcinoma, there is a progressive expression of NF-?B through Barrett's tumorigenesis. The absence of NF-?B expression in esophageal adenocarcinoma correlates with response to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and may be of value in predicting response to neoadjuvant therapy. PMID:15024310

  15. Comparison of the California Mastitis Test, Catalase Test, and pH Readings on Quarter Milk Samples

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. T. Raby; P. L. Hubbard; R. H. Cobbins

    1967-01-01

    Three representative groups from 611 quarter samples of aseptically collected milk were compared for catalase, pH, and California mastitis test readings. Statistical analysis (determination of correlation coefficient) was applied to 102 of the 611 quarter samples. It was found that the correlation coefficient for catalase and pH reading was more significant than the correlation coefficient of the catalase and CMT

  16. Testing the pH of Soft Drinks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christmann, Edwin P.; Holy, Adam J.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe how to use a TI-73/83/84 graphing calculator and Vernier's LabPro/CBL2 probe system to take pH readings. This is not an endorsement of these products, but simply the authors' attempt to give readers an idea of what is involved in using this technology in the classroom. This activity can be accomplished using a…

  17. Radiation Therapy, Paclitaxel, and Carboplatin With or Without Trastuzumab in Treating Patients With Esophageal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-07-09

    Adenocarcinoma of the Gastroesophageal Junction; Esophageal Adenocarcinoma; Stage IB Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIA Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIB Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIIA Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIIB Esophageal Cancer

  18. HCl-induced cell edema in rabbit esophageal epithelium: A bumetanide-sensitive process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nelia A. Tobey; Edward J. Cragoe; Roy C. Orlando

    1995-01-01

    Background & Aims: The morphology of acid damage to esophageal epithelium is characterized by marked cell (swelling) edema. This observation suggests that, in the process of acid damage, an increase in osmotic forces develops within the cell that accounts for the increase in cell water. The aim of this study was to document that esophageal cells swell at acidic pH

  19. Dynamic Tensile Testing of Kevlar 49 Fabrics ; Barzin Mobasher, Ph.D., P.E.2

    E-print Network

    Mobasher, Barzin

    Dynamic Tensile Testing of Kevlar 49 Fabrics Deju Zhu1 ; Barzin Mobasher, Ph.D., P.E.2 of strain. Kevlar-49 fabrics were tested in tension within a strain-rate range of 25 to 170 sÀ1 using a high nature of Kevlar-49 fabric results in large displacements and shape changes during tests. Noncontacting

  20. Network Graph Analysis of Category Fluency Testing Alan J. Lerner, MD,*w Paula K. Ogrocki, PhD,*w and Peter J. Thomas, PhDzyJ

    E-print Network

    Thomas, Peter J.

    ;22:45­52) Measures of verbal fluency are a standard part of neuropsychologic testing, and are sensitive to earlyNetwork Graph Analysis of Category Fluency Testing Alan J. Lerner, MD,*w Paula K. Ogrocki, PhD,*w and Peter J. Thomas, PhDzyJ Background: Category fluency is impaired early in Alzheimer disease (AD). Graph

  1. Esophageal Rupture in a Patient With Idiopathic Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter J Riou; Andrew G Nicholson; Ugo Pastorino

    1996-01-01

    Idiopathic eosinophilic esophagitis is an extremely rare condition with fewer than 20 cases described in the literature. We present a case presenting as an emergency with esophageal perforation that eventually required subtotal esophagectomy.

  2. Esophageal blood flow in the cat. Normal distribution and effects of acid perfusion

    SciTech Connect

    Hollwarth, M.E.; Smith, M.; Kvietys, P.R.; Granger, D.N.

    1986-03-01

    The radioactive microsphere technique was used to estimate blood flow to different regions of the esophagus and to adjacent regions of the stomach before and after perfusion of the esophagus with hydrochloric acid (pH 1.5) for 5 min. Under resting conditions total blood flow, as well as blood flow to the mucosal-submucosal layer and the muscular layer, to both sphincters was significantly higher than to the esophageal body. Blood flow to the adjacent regions of the stomach was significantly higher than esophageal blood flow. Acid perfusion resulted in a large increase in total blood flow in both sphincters and the lower esophageal body. Gastric blood flow was not altered by acid perfusion. The esophageal hyperemia resulted primarily from an increase in blood flow to the muscular layer; mucosal-submucosal blood flow was increased only in the lower esophageal sphincter. The present study indicates that short periods (5 min) of gastroesophageal reflux may increase esophageal blood flow.

  3. Extra-esophageal gastroesophageal reflux disease and asthma: understanding this interplay.

    PubMed

    Naik, Rishi D; Vaezi, Michael F

    2015-07-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a condition that develops when there is reflux of stomach contents, which typically manifests as heartburn and regurgitation. These esophageal symptoms are well recognized; however, there are extra-esophageal manifestations of GERD, which include asthma, chronic cough, laryngitis and sinusitis. With the rising incidence of asthma, there is increasing interest in identifying how GERD impacts asthma development and therapy. Due to the poor sensitivity of endoscopy and pH monitoring, empiric therapy with proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) is now considered the initial diagnostic step in patients suspected of having GERD-related symptoms. If unresponsive, diagnostic testing with pH monitoring off therapy and/or impedance/pH monitoring on therapy, may be reasonable in order to assess for baseline presence of reflux with the former and exclude continued acid or weakly acid reflux with the latter tests. PPI-unresponsive asthmatics, without overt regurgitation, usually have either no reflux or causes other than GERD. In this group, PPI therapy should be discontinued. In those with GERD as a contributing factor acid suppressive therapy should be continued as well as optimally treating other etiologies requiring concomitant treatment. Surgical fundoplication is rarely needed but in those with a large hiatal hernia, moderate-to-severe reflux by pH monitoring surgery might be helpful in eliminating the need for high-dose acid suppressive therapy. PMID:26067887

  4. Eosinophilic Esophagitis: Strictures, Impactions, Dysphagia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seema Khan; Susan R. Orenstein; Carlo Di Lorenzo; Samuel A. Kocoshis; Philip E. Putnam; Luther Sigurdsson; Theresa M. Shalaby

    2003-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis, long known to be a feature of acid reflux, has recently been described in patients with food allergies and macroscopically furrowed esophagus. The pathophysiology and optimal management of patients with eosinophilic esophagitis is unclear. We describe our clinical experience related to eosinophilic esophagitis and obstructive symptoms in children and propose etiopathogenesis and management guidelines. Twelve children with obstructive

  5. Advances in clinical management of eosinophilic esophagitis.

    PubMed

    Dellon, Evan S; Liacouras, Chris A

    2014-12-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic immune/antigen-mediated clinicopathologic condition that has become an increasingly important cause of upper gastrointestinal morbidity in adults and children over the past 2 decades. It is diagnosed based on symptoms of esophageal dysfunction, the presence of at least 15 eosinophils/high-power field in esophageal biopsy specimens, and exclusion of competing causes of esophageal eosinophilia, including proton pump inhibitor-responsive esophageal eosinophilia. We review what we have recently learned about the clinical aspects of EoE, discussing the clinical, endoscopic, and histological features of EoE in adults and children. We explain the current diagnostic criteria and challenges to diagnosis, including the role of gastroesophageal reflux disease and proton pump inhibitor-responsive esophageal eosinophilia. It is also important to consider the epidemiology of EoE (with a current incidence of 1 new case per 10,000 per year and prevalence of 0.5 to 1 case per 1000 per year) and disease progression. We review the main treatment approaches and new treatment options; EoE can be treated with topical corticosteroids, such as fluticasone and budesonide, or dietary strategies, such as amino acid-based formulas, allergy test-directed elimination diets, and nondirected empiric elimination diets. Endoscopic dilation has also become an important tool for treatment of fibrostenotic complications of EoE. There are a number of unresolved issues in EoE, including phenotypes, optimal treatment end points, the role of maintenance therapy, and treatment of refractory EoE. The care of patients with EoE and the study of the disease span many disciplines; EoE is ideally managed by a multidisciplinary team of gastroenterologists, allergists, pathologists, and dieticians. PMID:25109885

  6. In Vivo Model to Test Implanted Biosensors for Blood pH

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnaud, Sara B.; Somps, Chris J.; Madou, Marc; Hines, John; Wade, Charles E. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Biosensors for monitoring physiologic data continuously through telemetry are available for heart rate, respiration, and temperature but not for blood pH or ions affected by hydrogen ion concentration. A telemetric biosensor for monitoring blood pH on-line could be used to identify and manage problems in fluid and electrolyte metabolism, cardiac and respiratory function during space flight and the acid-base status of patients without the need for venipuncture in patients on Earth. Critical to the development of biosensors is a method for evaluating their performance after implantation. Mature rats, prepared with jugular, cannulas for repeated blood samples, were exposed to a gas mixture containing high levels of carbon dioxide (7%) in a closed environment to induce mild respiratory acidosis. Serial blood gas and pH measurements in venous blood were compared with electrical responses from sensors implanted in the subcutaneous tissue. Animals became slightly tachypneic after exposure to excess CO2, but remained alert and active. After 5 minutes, basal blood pH decreased from 7.404 +/- 0.013 to 7.289 +/- 0.010 (p less than 0.001)and PC02 increased from 45 +/- 6 to 65 +/- 4 mm. Hg (p les than 0.001). Thereafter pH and blood gas parameters remained stable. Implanted sensors showed a decrease in millivolts (mV) which paralleled the change in pH and averaged 5-6 mV per 0.1 unit pH. Implanted sensors remained sensitive to modest changes in tissue pH for one week. A system for inducing acidosis in rats was developed to test the in vivo performance of pH biosensors. The system provides a method which is sensitive, rapid and reproducible in the same and different animals with full recovery, for testing the performance of sensors implanted in subcutaneous tissues.

  7. Gastroesophageal reflux symptoms not responding to proton pump inhibitor: GERD, NERD, NARD, esophageal hypersensitivity or dyspepsia?

    PubMed Central

    Bashashati, Mohammad; Hejazi, Reza A; Andrews, Christopher N; Storr, Martin A

    2014-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is a common gastrointestinal process that can generate symptoms of heartburn and chest pain. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are the gold standard for the treatment of GER; however, a substantial group of GER patients fail to respond to PPIs. In the past, it was believed that acid reflux into the esophagus causes all, or at least the majority, of symptoms attributed to GER, with both erosive esophagitis and nonerosive outcomes. However, with modern testing techniques it has been shown that, in addition to acid reflux, the reflux of nonacid gastric and duodenal contents into the esophagus may also induce GER symptoms. It remains unknown how weakly acidic or alkaline refluxate with a pH similar to a normal diet induces GER symptoms. Esophageal hypersensitivity or functional dyspepsia with superimposed heartburn may be other mechanisms of symptom generation, often completely unrelated to GER. Detailed studies investigating the pathophysiology of esophageal hypersensitivity are not conclusive, and definitions of the various disease states may overlap and are often confusing. The authors aim to clarify the pathophysiology, definition, diagnostic techniques and medical treatment of patients with heartburn symptoms who fail PPI therapy. PMID:24719900

  8. Technical problems produced by the Bravo pH test in nonerosive reflux disease patients

    PubMed Central

    de Hoyos, Andrés; Esparza, Edgar Alain

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the technical failures of the Bravo pH test in a population with nonerosive gastroesophageal reflux disease. METHODS: Over the course of a year, we prospectively studied a population of 66 nonerosive reflux disease patients who received a Bravo pH test. The number and frequency of all technical failures were documented, quantified and analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 66 patients, with a mean age of 41.7 years, were studied. Technical failures occurred in 15.15% of the sample. The most frequent failures were due to poor data reception (4.5%), early dislodgement (4.5%) and capsule removal (6.1%). CONCLUSION: The Bravo capsule pH test involves a low but non-negligible rate of technical problems, a fact that must always be considered by physicians. PMID:20593504

  9. Esophageal hypomotility and spastic motor disorders: current diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Valdovinos, Miguel A; Zavala-Solares, Monica R; Coss-Adame, Enrique

    2014-11-01

    Esophageal hypomotility (EH) is characterized by abnormal esophageal peristalsis, either from a reduction or absence of contractions, whereas spastic motor disorders (SMD) are characterized by an increase in the vigor and/or propagation velocity of esophageal body contractions. Their pathophysiology is not clearly known. The reduced excitation of the smooth muscle contraction mediated by cholinergic neurons and the impairment of inhibitory ganglion neuronal function mediated by nitric oxide are likely mechanisms of the peristaltic abnormalities seen in EH and SMD, respectively. Dysphagia and chest pain are the most frequent clinical manifestations for both of these dysfunctions, and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is commonly associated with these motor disorders. The introduction of high-resolution manometry (HRM) and esophageal pressure topography (EPT) has significantly enhanced the ability to diagnose EH and SMD. Novel EPT metrics in particular the development of the Chicago Classification of esophageal motor disorders has enabled improved characterization of these abnormalities. The first step in the management of EH and SMD is to treat GERD, especially when esophageal testing shows pathologic reflux. Smooth muscle relaxants (nitrates, calcium channel blockers, 5-phosphodiesterase inhibitors) and pain modulators may be useful in the management of dysphagia or pain in SMD. Endoscopic Botox injection and pneumatic dilation are the second-line therapies. Extended myotomy of the esophageal body or peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) may be considered in highly selected cases but lack evidence. PMID:25376746

  10. Two cases of esophageal eosinophilia: eosinophilic esophagitis or gastro-esophageal reflux disease?

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Ozlem; Karagol, Hacer Ilbilge Ertoy; Topal, Erdem; Unlusoy, Aysel Aksu; Egritas, Odul; Gonul, Ipek Isik; Bakirtas, Arzu

    2014-05-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) and gastroesophageal reflux disease are among the major causes of isolated esophageal eosinophilia. Isolated esophageal eosinophilia meeting criteria for EoE may respond to proton pump inhibitor (PPI) treatment. This entity is termed proton pumps inhibitor responsive esophageal eosinophilia (PPI-REE). Gastro-esophageal reflux is thought to comprise a subgroup of patients with PPI-REE. According to the latest guidelines, PPI responsiveness distinguishes people with PPI-REE from patients having EoE (non-responders). In this report, two unusual cases with findings belonging to both EoE and PPI-REE are discussed with known and unknown facts. PMID:24987510

  11. Can esophageal dilation be avoided in the treatment of severe esophageal stricture caused by eosinophilic esophagitis?

    PubMed

    Silva, D; Santos, F; Piedade, S; Morais-Almeida, M

    2015-07-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an inflammatory immune-mediated disease with predominant eosinophilic inflammation characterized by the presence of esophageal dysfunction symptoms. Treatment delay can be associated with disease complications, like esophageal strictures, that can justify the use of invasive procedures which are not deprived of side effects. We present a case report of a 14 year old child with severe esophageal stricture secondary to EoE, that was treated with topical and systemic corticosteroid before any invasive procedure was considered. After 26 weeks of medical treatment, significant improvement of esophageal dysfunction occurred with histological remission and stricture resolution. In patients with severe esophageal strictures secondary to EoE, the need for esophageal dilation procedures should be considered only after anti-inflammatory treatment. PMID:26159479

  12. 21 CFR 862.1120 - Blood gases (PCO2, PO2) and blood pH test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...PO 2) and blood pH test system is a device intended to measure certain gases in blood, serum, plasma or pH of blood, serum, and plasma. Measurements of blood gases (PCO 2, PO 2) and blood pH are used in the diagnosis and...

  13. 21 CFR 862.1120 - Blood gases (PCO2, PO2) and blood pH test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...PO 2) and blood pH test system is a device intended to measure certain gases in blood, serum, plasma or pH of blood, serum, and plasma. Measurements of blood gases (PCO 2, PO 2) and blood pH are used in the diagnosis and...

  14. 21 CFR 862.1120 - Blood gases (PCO2, PO2) and blood pH test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...PO 2) and blood pH test system is a device intended to measure certain gases in blood, serum, plasma or pH of blood, serum, and plasma. Measurements of blood gases (PCO 2, PO 2) and blood pH are used in the diagnosis and...

  15. 21 CFR 862.1120 - Blood gases (PCO2, PO2) and blood pH test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood gases (PCO2, PO2) and blood pH test system. 862.1120 Section 862.1120...Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1120 Blood gases (PCO 2, PO 2) and blood pH test...

  16. 21 CFR 862.1120 - Blood gases (PCO2, PO2) and blood pH test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Blood gases (PCO2, PO2) and blood pH test system. 862.1120 Section 862.1120...Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1120 Blood gases (PCO 2, PO 2) and blood pH test...

  17. Esophageal manometrics in patients with angina-like chest pain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas L. Brand; Doris Martin; Charles E. Pope

    1977-01-01

    Fifty-eight patients with angina-like chest pain had esophageal manometric testing. Forty-three had no evidence of coronary artery disease at the time of referral or at subsequent contact; 15 patients were proven to have coronary artery disease. High-amplitude contraction waves were the most frequently found manometric abnormality (15 patients). Less frequent were increased duration of contractions, achalasia, and diffuse esophageal spasm;

  18. The Genetic Testing Registry (GTR): Genetic Tests and More D. Maglott, PhD1; B.L. Kattman, MS1; A. Malheiro, MS1; J. Lee, PhD1; M. Ovetsky, MS1, V. Hem, MS1, G. Song, MS1, V. Gorelenkov, PhD1, W.S. Rubinstein, MD, PhD1,2; C. Fomous, PhD3; J. Ostell, PhD1

    E-print Network

    Levin, Judith G.

    The Genetic Testing Registry (GTR): Genetic Tests and More D. Maglott, PhD1; B.L. Kattman, MS1; A://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gtr/ How do I submit test information?* Automatically Migrate data from GeneTests Web interface, or only test names. Save preferences for displays. Your preferences for displays and retrieval sets (such

  19. Nutrition and esophageal cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. K. Cheng; N. E. Day

    1996-01-01

    Epidemiologic evidence on the relation between nutrition and esophageal cancer is reviewed. Results from ecologic, case-control, cohort, and intervention studies are included. Most of the findings pertain more to squamous cell carcinoma than adenocarcinoma of the esophagus. The protective effect of fruit and vegetable consumption is supported by a large body of evidence, especially from case-control studies. The effects of

  20. arXiv:astro-ph/0512327v27Mar2006 Laboratory tests on dark energy

    E-print Network

    Beck, Christian

    arXiv:astro-ph/0512327v27Mar2006 Laboratory tests on dark energy Christian Beck School of the currently observed dark energy in the universe is completely unclear, and many different theoretical models co-exist. Nevertheless, if dark energy is produced by vac- uum fluctuations then there is a chance

  1. High Intraepithelial Eosinophil Counts in Esophageal Squamous Epithelium Are Not Specific for Eosinophilic Esophagitis in Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sonali Rodrigo; Gebran Abboud; Daniel Oh; Steven R. DeMeester; Jeffrey Hagen; John Lipham; Tom R. DeMeester; Parakrama Chandrasoma

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVESThe histologic criterion of >20 eosinophils per high power field (hpf) is presently believed to establish the diagnosis of idiopathic eosinophilic esophagitis (IEE). This is based on data that the number of intraepithelial eosinophils in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is less than 20\\/hpf. This study tests this belief.METHODSPathology records were searched for patients who had an eosinophil count >20\\/hpf in

  2. 21 CFR 876.5365 - Esophageal dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5365 Esophageal dilator. (a) Identification. An esophageal...

  3. 21 CFR 876.5365 - Esophageal dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5365 Esophageal dilator. (a) Identification. An esophageal...

  4. 21 CFR 876.5365 - Esophageal dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5365 Esophageal dilator. (a) Identification. An esophageal...

  5. 21 CFR 876.5365 - Esophageal dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5365 Esophageal dilator. (a) Identification. An esophageal...

  6. 21 CFR 876.5365 - Esophageal dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5365 Esophageal dilator. (a) Identification. An esophageal...

  7. The Test–Retest Reliability of the Photopic Negative Response (PhNR)

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Jessica; Edwards, Thomas; Crowston, Jonathan G.; Sarossy, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The photopic negative response (PhNR) may be useful as a tool to monitor longitudinal change in retinal ganglion cell (RGC) function. The goal was to assess PhNR test–retest reliability, and to estimate the amount of change between tests that is likely to be statistically significant for an individual test subject. Methods Photopic electroretinograms (ERGs) were recorded from 49 visually normal subjects (mean age, 38.9 years; range, 21–72 years). Signals were acquired using Dawson-Trick-Litzkow (DTL) electrodes in response to red stimulus at four flash energies (0.5, 1, 2.25, 3 cd·s/m2) on a blue background (10 cd/m2). The PhNR amplitude was recorded from prestimulus baseline to trough (BT), prestimulus baseline to fixed time point (BF), and b-wave peak to trough (PT). The ratio of baseline PhNR to b-wave amplitude (BT/b-wave) was calculated. Reliability was assessed using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC2,1) and coefficient of repeatability (CoR). Results Flash energy of 1.00 cd·s/m2 produced reliable, well-defined traces. At this stimulus, the a- and b-wave amplitudes were reproduced with moderate reliability (ICC, 0.62; CoR%, 90.0%; and ICC, 0.74; CoR%, 54.3%; respectively). For PhNR, the order from most to least reliable measurement was: PT (ICC, 0.64; CoR%, 59.1%), BT (ICC, 0.40; CoR%, 148.3%), and BF (ICC, 0.22; CoR%, 166.1%). The BT/b-wave did not improve reliability (ICC, 0.37; CoR%, 181.5). Conclusion The b-wave peak-to-PhNR trough amplitude produced the most reliable measurement. Translational Relevance A relatively large magnitude of change in PhNR amplitude is required to make clinical inferences about changes in RGC function. Refinement to the technique of acquisition and/or processing of the PhNR is recommended to improve reliability. PMID:25374770

  8. An Overview of Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyojin

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic, immune/antigen-mediated esophageal disease affecting both children and adults. The condition is characterized by an eosinophilic infiltration of the esophageal epithelium. Symptoms of esophageal dysfunction include dysphagia, food impaction and symptoms mimicking gastroesophageal reflux disease. Endoscopic examination typically reveals mucosal fragility, ring or corrugated mucosa, longitudinal furrows, whitish plaques or a small caliber esophagus. Histologic findings of >15 eosinophils per high-power field is the diagnostic hallmark of EoE. An elimination diet, topical corticosteroids or endoscopic dilation for fibrostenotic disease serve as effective therapeutic option. PMID:25368745

  9. CISNET: Esophageal Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    The incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) has been rising at an alarming rate over the past four decades. Although the absolute number of EAC cases per year remains too low to screen the general population, targeted screening may be appropriate. Heartburn, the primary symptom of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), affects 40-60 million Americans and can lead to Barrett's esophagus (BE), a premalignant condition associated with the greatest risk of developing EAC.

  10. Hypnotherapy for Esophageal Disorders.

    PubMed

    Riehl, Megan E; Keefer, Laurie

    2015-01-01

    Hypnotherapy is an evidence based intervention for the treatment of functional bowel disorders, particularly irritable bowel syndrome. While similar in pathophysiology, less is known about the utility of hypnotherapy in the upper gastrointestinal tract. Esophageal disorders, most of which are functional in nature, cause painful and uncomfortable symptoms that impact patient quality of life and are difficult to treat from a medical perspective. After a thorough medical workup and a failed trial of proton pump inhibitor therapy, options for treatment are significantly limited. While the pathophysiology is likely multifactorial, two critical factors are believed to drive esophageal symptoms-visceral hypersensitivity and symptom hypervigilance. The goal of esophageal directed hypnotherapy is to promote a deep state of relaxation with focused attention allowing the patient to learn to modulate physiological sensations and symptoms that are not easily addressed with conventional medical intervention. Currently, the use of hypnosis is suitable for dysphagia, globus, functional chest pain/non-cardiac chest pain, dyspepsia, and functional heartburn. In this article the authors will provide a rationale for the use of hypnosis in these disorders, presenting the science whenever available, describing their approach with these patients, and sharing a case study representing a successful outcome. PMID:26046715

  11. Eosinophilic esophagitis in children.

    PubMed

    Trivedy, Prerna; Teitelbaum, Jonathan E

    2015-06-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a relatively common chronic immune-mediated disease of the esophagus characterized clinically by symptoms of esophageal dysfunction that vary by age. Histologically, EoE results in marked esophageal eosinophilia despite treatment with high-dose proton pump inhibition. The cornerstone of treatment is dietary restriction and/or pharmacologic therapy, mainly with topical steroids. This review briefly describes dietary therapy, but focuses on the various medical options in the treatment of EoE, with an emphasis on steroid-based therapy. Numerous landmark studies are reviewed describing the symptomatic and histologic endpoints as well as safety data. The literature strongly supports the use of topical steroid therapy as a means of significantly decreasing eosinophilic mucosal disease. Specifically, high-dose fluticasone propionate appears to be very effective, and has been shown to result in the resolution of mucosal eosinophilia in a large percentage of treated patients. Long-term studies over many years will need to determine whether mucosal healing will change the natural history of this stricture-causing disease. In addition to topical therapy, various other drug-based therapies are reported, including newer immune-based monoclonal antibodies. PMID:25792526

  12. 21 CFR 868.1920 - Esophageal stethoscope with electrical conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...false Esophageal stethoscope with electrical conductors. 868.1920 Section...1920 Esophageal stethoscope with electrical conductors. (a) Identification. An esophageal stethoscope with electrical conductors is a device...

  13. 21 CFR 868.1920 - Esophageal stethoscope with electrical conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...false Esophageal stethoscope with electrical conductors. 868.1920 Section...1920 Esophageal stethoscope with electrical conductors. (a) Identification. An esophageal stethoscope with electrical conductors is a device...

  14. 21 CFR 868.1920 - Esophageal stethoscope with electrical conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Esophageal stethoscope with electrical conductors. 868.1920 Section 868...Esophageal stethoscope with electrical conductors. (a) Identification. An esophageal stethoscope with electrical conductors is a device that is...

  15. 21 CFR 868.1920 - Esophageal stethoscope with electrical conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Esophageal stethoscope with electrical conductors. 868.1920 Section 868...Esophageal stethoscope with electrical conductors. (a) Identification. An esophageal stethoscope with electrical conductors is a device that is...

  16. Esophageal metastasis from breast carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Vergote, G; Ponette, E; Verschakelen, J; Baert, A L; Rutgeerts, P; Moerman, P

    1994-12-01

    A case of esophageal metastasis from a breast carcinoma is presented. Location was, as usual, midesophageal. The interval of time between breast carcinoma and the onset of esophageal symptoms was rather long. Barium swallow examination enabled correct diagnosis, whereas several series of superficial endoscopical biopsies were negative. Diagnosis was confirmed by deep endoscopical biopsy. PMID:7829460

  17. Pill-induced esophageal injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James Walter Kikendall; Arnold C. Friedman; Morakinyo Anthony Oyewole; David Fleischer; Lawrence F. Johnson

    1983-01-01

    We report four cases of esophageal injury associated with the ingestion of commonly prescribed tablets or capsules. History and clinical characteristics of these cases suggest that the medications failed to transit the esophagus and acted locally to produce esophagitis. A search of English- and foreign-language medical journals documented 221 similar cases due to 26 different types of medication. While most

  18. Lichen Planus With Esophageal Involvement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Valdés; A. Caparrini; J. M. Calzada

    2007-01-01

    Lichen planus is an inflammatory disease of unknown etiology which may affect the esophagus. Patients with esophageal lichen planus are usually elderly women. The most frequent symptoms are dysphagia and odynophagia. There is usually concomitant oral involvement in cases of esophageal lichen planus. Endoscopic findings include erosions, exudates and stenosis. Systemic steroids are the most effective therapy for these patients.

  19. [Invaginated esophageal anastomosis].

    PubMed

    Petrov, V P; Mikhalkin, M P; Rozhkov, A G

    2002-01-01

    Extirpation of the stomach accounts for 55.5% of all radical surgery for gastric cancer. Five hundred and sixty-two operations with creation of invaginated esophageal-intestinal (gastric) anastomosis were performed. The surgical technique is presented, its positive points are demonstrated. Main advantages of the invaginated anastomosis are physiologic function in postoperative period and a decreased rate of sutures insufficiency. Complications after extirpation and proximal resection of the stomach were seen in 17.6% cases, 5.9% patients died. Insufficiency of anastomosis sutures was in 8 (14%) patients, 4 (0.7%) of them died. PMID:12449573

  20. Unreported complication of Bravo pH capsule dislodged into the pyriform sinus

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Akash; Kramer, Elisabeth; Chokhavatia, Sita

    2015-01-01

    We report an unexpected, previously unreported complication of Bravo pH capsule dislodgement. During Bravo pH testing of a 44-year-old man with gastroesophageal reflux disease, we were unable to endoscopically visualize the capsule attached to the esophageal wall after deployment. After multiple attempts to detect the capsule, it was visualized in the left pyriform sinus. As there was significant risk for pulmonary dislodgement, ENT and pulmonary physicians were immediately consulted to review options for safe removal. Ultimately, ENT successfully retrieved the capsule with a foreign body removal forceps. The Bravo pH test is generally a well-tolerated diagnostic tool used to confirm the presence of abnormal esophageal acid reflux. While few complications have been reported, technical difficulties can occur, including poor data reception, misplacement, and early dislodgement. Rarely, more serious complications can occur, ranging from esophageal wall trauma to capsule aspiration. Gastroenterologists performing this procedure should be aware of the low, but non-trivial, risk of complications. PMID:25992198

  1. Unreported complication of Bravo pH capsule dislodged into the pyriform sinus.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Akash; Kramer, Elisabeth; Chokhavatia, Sita

    2015-05-16

    We report an unexpected, previously unreported complication of Bravo pH capsule dislodgement. During Bravo pH testing of a 44-year-old man with gastroesophageal reflux disease, we were unable to endoscopically visualize the capsule attached to the esophageal wall after deployment. After multiple attempts to detect the capsule, it was visualized in the left pyriform sinus. As there was significant risk for pulmonary dislodgement, ENT and pulmonary physicians were immediately consulted to review options for safe removal. Ultimately, ENT successfully retrieved the capsule with a foreign body removal forceps. The Bravo pH test is generally a well-tolerated diagnostic tool used to confirm the presence of abnormal esophageal acid reflux. While few complications have been reported, technical difficulties can occur, including poor data reception, misplacement, and early dislodgement. Rarely, more serious complications can occur, ranging from esophageal wall trauma to capsule aspiration. Gastroenterologists performing this procedure should be aware of the low, but non-trivial, risk of complications. PMID:25992198

  2. Bioimpedance spectroscopy: a new tool to assess early esophageal changes linked to gastroesophageal reflux disease?

    PubMed

    Lundin, P; Karpefors, M; Carlsson, K; Hansen, M B; Ruth, M

    2011-09-01

    Bioimpedance spectroscopy can identify pathological changes related to precancerous lesions of the cervix uteri and esophagus. It therefore has the potential to detect early reflux-related changes in the esophageal mucosa, such as dilated intercellular spaces. The reliable detection of dilated intercellular spaces at the time of endoscopy would yield a significant diagnostic advantage for separating patients with functional heartburn from the large proportion of patients with gastroesophageal reflux symptoms but no macroscopic esophagitis or pathological acid exposure. The bioimpedance of the esophageal mucosa, measured with a small caliber probe, was evaluated in a series of preclinical experiments. First, sections of rabbit esophageal epithelium were mounted in Ussing chambers and exposed to solutions at pH 7.4 or pH 1.5 for 45 minutes. Impedance measurements were taken at varying probe pressures. Second, rabbit esophageal epithelia were perfused for 45 minutes in situ with pH 1.1 or control solutions and impedance measurements taken. Samples from both in vitro and in situ experiments were taken for morphological examination by light microscopy. Finally, esophageal bioimpedance was measured in awake dogs with permanent esophagocutaneous stoma. The in situ experiments demonstrated that morphological changes in the esophageal mucosa could be discerned by the use of bioimpedance spectroscopy. The variability in resistivity was species-independent but was affected by the pressure applied to the probe. The results suggest that evaluation of bioimpedance spectroscopy for use in a clinical setting is warranted. Small morphological differences in the esophageal mucosa may be detected by the use of bioimpedance spectroscopy. PMID:21385284

  3. Berberine protects against esophageal mucosal damage in reflux esophagitis by suppressing proinflammatory cytokines

    PubMed Central

    CHOO, BYUNG KIL; ROH, SEONG-SOO

    2013-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effects of berberine (BB) in a rat model of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), induced by pylorus and forestomach ligation. We evaluated cytotoxicity and proinflammatory biomarkers (nitric oxide, interleukin (IL)-1? and prostaglandin E2) in RAW 264.7 cells in vitro and anti-inflammatory effects in vivo. A total of 54 Sprague Dawley rats were divided into six groups: intact control rats; reflux esophagitis (RE) control rats; RE rats treated with 20 mg/kg omeprazole and RE rats treated with BB at doses of 20, 40 and 60 mg/kg, respectively. All rats were fasted. RE was induced by pylorus and forestomach ligation one hour subsequent to the oral treatment. Six hours subsequent to the surgery, the rats were sacrificed, blood was collected from the abdominal vein and the esophagus and stomach were dissected. The gastric volume and the pH of the gastric juice were evaluated, prior to the esophagus being cut longitudinally and an inner mucosal area being imaged, to analyze mucosal damage indices. Proinflammatory biomarkers in the serum, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, IL-1?, IL-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 were analyzed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit, while the mRNA expression of TNF-?, IL-1?, IL-6 and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 was analyzed using a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Esophagic tissue damage in the BB groups was dose-dependently decreased compared with that in the RE control group. This result was consistent with significant reductions in the levels of proinflammatory biomarkers in the serum and in the expression of proinflammatory mRNA, specifically, TNF-?, IL-1?, IL-6 and PAI-1. The results suggest that the anti-inflammatory and protective effects of BB may attenuate the severity of RE and prevent esophageal mucosal damage, in addition to validating the use of BB as a pharmacological treatment for esophageal reflux disease. PMID:24137243

  4. Treatment of advanced esophageal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Kelsen, D.

    1982-12-01

    When radiation therapy is used for palliation of obstruction in patients with advanced esophageal carcinoma, an improvement in dysphagia can be expected in approximately 50% of patients. Major objective responses have rarely been quantitied but, in one study, were seen in 33% patients. Recurrence of dysphagia is usually seen within 2-6 months of treatment. Radiation toxicities and complications, even when used with palliative intent, can be substantial and include esophagitis, tracheoesophageal or esophageal-aortic fistula, mediastinitis, hemorrhage, pneumonitis, and myelosuppression. (JMT)

  5. White specks in the esophageal mucosa: an endoscopic manifestation of non-reflux eosinophilic esophagitis in children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joel R Lim; Sandeep K Gupta; Joseph M Croffie; Marian D Pfefferkorn; Jean P Molleston; Mark R Corkins; Mary M Davis; Philip P Faught; Steven J Steiner; Joseph F Fitzgerald

    2004-01-01

    BackgroundWhite specks in the esophageal mucosa have been observed in children with eosinophilic esophagitis. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between white specks in the esophageal mucosa and allergic (non-reflux) eosinophilic esophagitis.

  6. Esophageal Irritation due to Alendronate Sodium Tablets (Possible Mechanisms)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. P. Peter; L. K. Handt; S. M. Smith

    1998-01-01

    Animal studies were done using an in vivo dogmodel to examine the possible mechanism for theesophageal adverse events reported with alendronatesodium tablets. These studies showed that under low pHconditions alendronate sodium can cause esophagealirritation. No esophageal irritation occurred at pH 3.5or higher where the drug exists primarily as the sodiumsalt. The animal studies also showed that alendronate sodium can exacerbate

  7. Hypersensitivity to acid is associated with impaired esophageal mucosal integrity in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease with and without esophagitis.

    PubMed

    Weijenborg, Pim W; Smout, André J P M; Verseijden, Caroline; van Veen, Henk A; Verheij, Joanne; de Jonge, Wouter J; Bredenoord, Albert J

    2014-08-01

    Increased esophageal sensitivity and impaired mucosal integrity have both been described in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease, but the relationship between hypersensitivity and mucosal integrity is unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate acid sensitivity in patients with erosive and nonerosive reflux disease and control subjects to determine the relation with functional esophageal mucosal integrity changes as well as to investigate cellular mechanisms of impaired mucosal integrity in these patients. In this prospective experimental study, 12 patients with nonerosive reflux disease, 12 patients with esophagitis grade A or B, and 11 healthy control subjects underwent an acid perfusion test and upper endoscopy. Mucosal integrity was measured during endoscopy by electrical tissue impedance spectroscopy and biopsy specimens were analyzed in Ussing chambers for transepithelial electrical resistance, transepithelial permeability and gene expression of tight junction proteins and filaggrin. Patients with nonerosive reflux disease and esophagitis were more sensitive to acid perfusion compared with control subjects, having a shorter time to perception of heartburn and higher perceived intensity of heartburn. In reflux patients, enhanced acid sensitivity was associated with impairment of in vivo and vitro esophageal mucosal integrity. Mucosal integrity was significantly impaired in patients with esophagitis, displaying higher transepithelial permeability and lower extracellular impedance. Although no significant differences in the expression of tight junction proteins were found in biopsies among patient groups, mucosal integrity parameters in reflux patients correlated negatively with the expression of filaggrin. In conclusion, sensitivity to acid is enhanced in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease, irrespective of the presence of erosions, and is associated with impaired esophageal mucosal integrity. Mucosal integrity of the esophagus is associated with the expression of filaggrin. PMID:24924748

  8. Esophageal stenting in cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Goenka, Mahesh Kumar; White, Russell E

    2014-09-01

    The following, from the 12th OESO World Conference: Cancers of the Esophagus, includes commentaries on nutritional support during chemoradiation, esophageal stents before surgery, and stenting the cervical esophagus. PMID:25266018

  9. Drugs Approved for Esophageal Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for esophageal cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  10. Emerging management concepts for eosinophilic esophagitis in children.

    PubMed

    Heine, Ralf G; Nethercote, Mark; Rosenbaum, Jeremy; Allen, Katrina J

    2011-07-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a newly recognized condition that appears to be increasing in incidence for as yet unknown reasons. It can occur at any age and presents both to gastroenterologists and allergists. Clinical manifestations range from gastrointestinal symptoms (vomiting, feeding difficulties, dysphagia or food bolus impaction) to co-existing atopic conditions (asthma, allergic rhinitis or eczema). The diagnosis requires demonstration of at least 15 eosinophils per high power field on esophageal histology, usually in the context of resistance to proton pump inhibitor treatment or a normal 24-h esophageal pH monitoring study. The differential diagnosis between EoE and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) can be problematic as there is significant clinical overlap between both conditions. Although difficult-to-manage esophageal strictures are well recognized in patients with long-standing EoE, little is known about risk factors for the development of this complication. There is a paucity of data on both the natural history and optimal long-term management of EoE. Current treatment options include food allergen elimination diets, use of topical aerosolized corticosteroids, or a combination of the two. Pediatric case studies have been provided to illustrate the complexity of decision points that often arise in the management of these patients. This paper aims to discuss the various strategies currently available to clinicians in the management of EoE and highlights gaps in the current evidence base that urgently require further research. PMID:21545525

  11. Hyperthermochemoradiotherapy and esophageal carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Sugimachi, K.; Inokuchi, K.

    1986-01-01

    Cancer of the esophagus still poses considerable treatment problems, with a poor 5-year survival rate after surgery, an even worse outlook after radiation and surgery, and a not very satisfactory response to chemotherapy. After several years of continued research, in 1983 we developed a Radio Frequency System with endotract electrode and thermosensors for administering hyperthermochemoradiotherapy to patients with carcinoma of the esophagus. Results in 129 patients are discussed. Immediate improvement of subjective complaints and decrease or elimination of the cancer lesion are so distinct that this treatment, by means of an endotract antenna, shows promise as a modality for esophageal lesions and may find application in diseases such as colorectal cancer or carcinoma of the uterine cervix.

  12. Hyperthermochemoradiotherapy and esophageal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sugimachi, K; Inokuchi, K

    1986-01-01

    Cancer of the esophagus still poses considerable treatment problems, with a poor 5-year survival rate after surgery, an even worse outlook after radiation and surgery, and a not very satisfactory response to chemotherapy. After several years of continued research, in 1983 we developed a Radio Frequency System with endotract electrode and thermosensors for administering hyperthermochemoradiotherapy to patients with carcinoma of the esophagus. Results in 129 patients are discussed. Immediate improvement of subjective complaints and decrease or elimination of the cancer lesion are so distinct that this treatment, by means of an endotract antenna, shows promise as a modality for esophageal lesions and may find application in diseases such as colorectal cancer or carcinoma of the uterine cervix. PMID:2430326

  13. Eosinophilic esophagitis in adults: An emerging problem with unique esophageal features

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jon W Potter; Kia Saeian; Benson T Massey; Richard A Komorowski; Reza Shaker; Walter J Hogan

    2004-01-01

    BackgroundEosinophilic esophagitis is an inflammatory condition in which there is dense eosinophilic infiltration of the surface lining of the esophagus. Reports of eosinophilic esophagitis pertain almost exclusively to pediatric populations. However, eosinophilic esophagitis is emerging as a clinical affliction of adults. This report describes the clinical and endoscopic findings of eosinophilic esophagitis in the largest cohort of adult patients reported

  14. Abnormalities of esophageal and gastric emptying in progressive systemic sclerosis

    SciTech Connect

    Maddern, G.J.; Horowitz, M.; Jamieson, G.G.; Chatterton, B.E.; Collins, P.J.; Roberts-Thomson, P.

    1984-10-01

    Gastric and esophageal emptying were assessed using scintigraphic techniques in 12 patients with progressive systemic sclerosis and 22 normal volunteers. Esophageal emptying was significantly delayed in the patient group, with 7 of the 12 patients beyond the normal range. Gastric emptying was slower in patients than in controls, with 9 patients being outside the normal range for solid emptying and 7 patients outside the normal range for liquid emptying. Findings from gastric and esophageal emptying tests generally correlated well with symptoms of dysphagia and gastroesophageal reflux. However, 2 patients with normal emptying studies had symptomatic heartburn, and 2 patients with delay of both solid and liquid gastric emptying gave no history of gastroesophageal reflux. Delayed gastric emptying may be an important factor in the development of upper gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with progressive systemic sclerosis.

  15. Flow Curve Analysis of 17-4 PH Stainless Steel under Hot Compression Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzadeh, Hamed; Najafizadeh, Abbas; Moazeny, Mohammad

    2009-12-01

    The hot compression behavior of a 17-4 PH stainless steel (AISI 630) has been investigated at temperatures of 950 °C to 1150 °C and strain rates of 10-3 to 10 s-1. Glass powder in the Rastegaev reservoirs of the specimen was used as a lubricant material. A step-by-step procedure for data analysis in the hot compression test was given. The work hardening rate analysis was performed to reveal if dynamic recrystallization (DRX) occurred. Many samples exhibited typical DRX stress-strain curves with a single peak stress followed by a gradual fall toward the steady-state stress. At low Zener-Hollomon ( Z) parameter, this material showed a new DRX flow behavior, which was called multiple transient steady state (MTSS). At high Z, as a result of adiabatic deformation heating, a drop in flow stress was observed. The general constitutive equations were used to determine the hot working constants of this material. Moreover, after a critical discussion, the deformation activation energy of 17-4 PH stainless steel was determined as 337 kJ/mol.

  16. Esophageal perforation during or after conformal radiotherapy for esophageal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hai-yan; Ma, Xiu-mei; Ye, Ming; Hou, Yan-li; Xie, Hua-Ying; Bai, Yong-rui

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the risk factors and prognosis for patients with esophageal perforation occurring during or after radiotherapy for esophageal carcinoma. We retrospectively analyzed 322 patients with esophageal carcinoma. These patients received radiotherapy for unresectable esophageal tumors, residual tumors after operation, or local recurrence. Of these, 12 had radiotherapy to the esophagus before being admitted, 68 patients had concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CRT), and 18 patients had esophageal perforation after RT (5.8%). Covered self-expandable metallic stents were placed in 11 patients. Two patients continued RT after stenting and control of infection; one of these suffered a new perforation, and the other had a massive hemorrhage. The median overall survival was 2 months (0–3 months) compared with 17 months in the non-perforation group. In univariate analysis, the Karnofsky performance status (KPS) being ?70, age younger than 60, T4 stage, a second course of radiotherapy to the esophagus, extracapsular lymph nodes (LN) involving the esophagus, a total dose >100 Gy (biologically effective dose?10), and CRT were risk factors for perforation. In multivariate analysis, age younger than 60, extracapsular LN involving the esophagus, T4 stage, and a second course of radiotherapy to the esophagus were risk factors. In conclusion, patients with T4 stage, extracapsular LN involving the esophagus, and those receiving a second course of RT should be given particular care to avoid perforation. The prognosis after perforation was poor. PMID:24914102

  17. Changes in the esophageal mucosa of patients with non erosive reflux disease: How far have we gone?

    PubMed Central

    Triantos, Christos; Koukias, Nikolaos; Karamanolis, Georgios; Thomopoulos, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    The normal esophageal mucosa creates a protective epithelial barrier that constrains the acidic reflux in the esophageal lumen. Microscopic findings and functional studies indicate that this barrier might be impaired in patients with non erosive reflux disease (NERD) but not in patients with functional heartburn (FH). Whereas endoscopy and pH monitoring are the most important diagnostic tools in the diagnosis of NERD, recent studies suggest that esophageal biopsies might have a complementary role. Particularly in the differential diagnosis between NERD and FH, the application of histological severity scores showed very promising results. Further evaluation of the scores could lead to routine application of histology in specific NERD populations. PMID:26019440

  18. The Pathophysiology of Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Raheem, Mayumi; Leach, Steven T.; Day, Andrew S.; Lemberg, Daniel A.

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an emerging disease characterized by esophageal eosinophilia (>15eos/hpf), lack of responsiveness to acid-suppressive medication and is managed by allergen elimination and anti-allergy therapy. Although the pathophysiology of EoE is currently unsubstantiated, evidence implicates food and aeroallergen hypersensitivity in genetically predisposed individuals as contributory factors. Genome-wide expression analyses have isolated a remarkably conserved gene-expression profile irrespective of age and gender, suggesting a genetic contribution. EoE has characteristics of mainly TH2 type immune responses but also some TH1 cytokines, which appear to strongly contribute to tissue fibrosis, with esophageal epithelial cells providing a hospitable environment for this inflammatory process. Eosinophil-degranulation products appear to play a central role in tissue remodeling in EoE. This remodeling and dysregulation predisposes to fibrosis. Mast-cell-derived molecules such as histamine may have an effect on enteric nerves and may also act in concert with transforming growth factor-? to interfere with esophageal musculature. Additionally, the esophageal epithelium may facilitate the inflammatory process under pathogenic contexts such as in EoE. This article aims to discuss the contributory factors in the pathophysiology of EoE. PMID:24910846

  19. A Treatment Option for Esophageal Intramural Pseudodiverticulosis

    PubMed Central

    Jodorkovsky, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    Esophageal intramural pseudodiverticulosis (EIPD) is a rare condition often presenting with esophageal strictures. Treatment is often limited to endoscopic dilatation and treatment of the underlying esophageal pathology. We present a case of a patient with longstanding GERD on famotidine (she experienced anaphylaxis with proton pump inhibitors [PPIs]) who presented with dysphagia and weight loss. Work-up revealed a diagnosis of EIPD with a 5-mm mid-esophageal stricture. Therapy with dilatation was unsuccessful until the addition of sucralfate, after which dilatation was successful and symptoms resolved. In patients who are unable to take PPIs, the addition of sucralfate may enhance the success of dilatations of esophageal strictures and EIPD.

  20. Sloughing Esophagitis: A Not So Common Entity

    PubMed Central

    Akhondi, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sloughing esophagitis, also known as esophagitis dissecans superficialis, is a very rare and underdiagnosed entity with unknown incidence rate. It can be associated with bullous dermatoses and medications such as central nervous system depressants and those causing esophageal injury. CASE REPORT: A 55-years-old woman was recovering from renal failure due to rhabdomyolysis when she developed dysphagia and odynophagia. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy with biopsy was performed for suspected bullous pemphigus and confirmed sloughing esophagitis. She improved with intravenous steroids. CONCLUSIONS: Sloughing Esophagitis should enter our differential diagnosis more frequently. It is mostly a benign, self-limiting process but when associated with bullous dermatoses will require steroid treatment. PMID:25598761

  1. Photodynamic therapy for esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Yano, Tomonori; Hatogai, Ken; Morimoto, Hiroyuki; Yoda, Yusuke; Kaneko, Kazuhiro

    2014-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a treatment that uses a photosensitizing drug that is administered to the patient, localized to a tumor, and then activated with a laser to induce a photochemical reaction to destroy the cell. PDT using porfimer sodium followed by excimer dye laser irradiation is approved as a curative treatment for superficial esophageal cancer in Japan. While endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is currently more popular for esophageal cancer, there is evidence to support PDT as an alternative treatment and as a salvage treatment for local failure after chemoradiotherapy (CRT). A photosensitizing agent has also been developed that requires a shorter sun shade period after administration, and studies are currently underway to establish an esophageal cancer indication for this next-generation PDT in Japan. PMID:25333005

  2. Photodynamic therapy for esophageal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hatogai, Ken; Morimoto, Hiroyuki; Yoda, Yusuke; Kaneko, Kazuhiro

    2014-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a treatment that uses a photosensitizing drug that is administered to the patient, localized to a tumor, and then activated with a laser to induce a photochemical reaction to destroy the cell. PDT using porfimer sodium followed by excimer dye laser irradiation is approved as a curative treatment for superficial esophageal cancer in Japan. While endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is currently more popular for esophageal cancer, there is evidence to support PDT as an alternative treatment and as a salvage treatment for local failure after chemoradiotherapy (CRT). A photosensitizing agent has also been developed that requires a shorter sun shade period after administration, and studies are currently underway to establish an esophageal cancer indication for this next-generation PDT in Japan. PMID:25333005

  3. [Exfoliative esophagitis while taking dabigatran].

    PubMed

    Scheppach, Wolfgang; Meesmann, Malte

    2015-04-01

    History | A 77-year-old woman was admitted with severe chest pain, heartburn, dysphagia and odynophagia. She had been on dabigatran for 13 months due to atrial fibrillation and arterial hypertension. Investigations and findings | Endoscopy of the esophagus revealed sloughing of mucosal casts, predominantly in the upper half of the organ. Treatment and course | The patient was placed on pantoprazol, local anaesthetic antacid and i.?v. fluids. Dabigatran was discontinued. The symptoms disappeared within 3 days. Control endoscopy after 12 days showed complete healing of the esophageal mucosa. Conclusion | The intake of dabigatran was associated with exfoliative esophagitis, possibly due to caustic tissue damage by prolonged drug contact. PMID:25826037

  4. Double-blind comparison of liquid antacid and placebo in the treatment of symptomatic reflux esophagitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Y. Graham; David J. Patterson

    1983-01-01

    Although antacids have been the mainstay of pharmacologic therapy for reflux esophagitis, their effectiveness has not been tested in a placebo-controlled double-blind trial. We report a double-blind comparison of liquid antacid vs placebo in the treatment of reflux esophagitis in 32 patients with chronic heartburn. Entry criteria included the presence of symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux confirmed by both an acid perfusion

  5. Esophageal manifestations of celiac disease.

    PubMed

    Lucendo, A J

    2011-09-01

    Celiac disease (CD) may often be associated with various motor disorders affecting the different segments of the digestive tract, including the esophagus. Although it has not been universally reported, some available evidences indicate that pediatric and adult celiac patients could manifest a higher frequency of esophagitis and gastroesophageal reflux disease-related symptoms compared to nonceliac patients. In addition, several published studies have consistently shown the efficacy of a gluten-free diet in rapidly controlling esophageal symptoms and in preventing their recurrence. Since the participation of gluten in the esophageal symptoms of CD seems clear, its intimate mechanisms have yet to be elucidated, and several hypothesis have been proposed, including the specific immune alterations characterizing CD, the reduction in nutrient absorption determining the arrival of intact gluten to distal gastrointestinal segments, and various dysregulations in the function of gastrointestinal hormones and peptides. Recent studies have suggested the existence of a possible relationship between CD and eosinophilic esophagitis, which should be more deeply investigated. PMID:21438963

  6. Surgical Management of Esophageal Carcinoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CAROLYN E. REED

    Surgical management of esophageal carcinoma is reviewed. The anatomy and biology are briefly mentioned, since these factors mitigate against the success of surgery. Staging, the key to proper treatment allocation and prog- nosis, is discussed, including the use of endoscopic ultra- sonography, positron emission tomography, and thoracoscopy\\/laparoscopy. Patient selection and preparation for surgery are important considerations. Surgical tech- niques are

  7. Hypertrophic pyloric stenosis following repair of esophageal atresia and tracheo-esophageal fistula.

    PubMed

    Seguier-Lipszyc, Emmanuelle; Klin, Baruch

    2014-01-01

    Two cases of hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (HPS) developed after a few weeks of repair of an esophageal atresia and tracheo-esophageal fistula (EA and TEF). Both cases were dealt successfully with laparoscopic pyloromyotomy. PMID:26023501

  8. The diagnosis of esophageal eosinophilia is not increased in the summer months.

    PubMed

    Elias, Martha K; Kopacova, Jana; Arora, Amindra S; Dierkhising, Ross A; Enders, Felicity T; Katzka, David A; Kryzer, Lori A; Halland, Magnus; Smyrk, Thomas C; Talley, Nicholas J; Alexander, Jeffrey A

    2015-02-01

    Smaller studies have suggested seasonal variation of the diagnosis of eosinophilic esophagitis with more patients being diagnosed in the aeroallergen season. We evaluated a large group of adult patients for a seasonal variation of the diagnosis of symptomatic eosinophilic esophageal infiltration. We performed a retrospective review of adult patients from a large Eosinophilic esophagitis database at the Mayo Clinic Rochester. We only included patients from three states in the upper Midwest, who had 15 or more eosinophils per high-power field on esophageal biopsy, symptomatic dysphagia, and were seen, in our Gastroenterology Clinic between 2000 and 2008. Clinical data were abstracted and the month of diagnosis was determined. The Rayleigh circular test and the Chi-square goodness-of-fit test were used to detect seasonality of symptomatic esophageal eosinophilia diagnosis and seasonality corrected for esophagogastroduodenoscopy monthly volume. The diagnosis of symptomatic eosinophilic esophageal infiltration was made in 372 patients. The mean number of eosinophils was 39.6 per high-power field. The December/January and May/June periods seem to have an increased presentation rate (p = 0.014). Of those tested, reactions to any aeroallergen was present in 69 % (48/70), reactions to >4 aeroallergens in 47 % (33/70) and reactions to any food allergen in 63 % (50/80) of patients. There was no evidence of monthly concentration of symptomatic esophageal eosinophilia diagnosis in the subgroups of patients with any positive aeroallergen, >4 positive aeroallergens, or history of atopy. The diagnosis of symptomatic esophageal eosinophilia is not made more frequently in the summer months. PMID:25288197

  9. The Changing Face of Esophageal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Melhado, Rachel E.; Alderson, Derek; Tucker, Olga

    2010-01-01

    The two main histological esophageal cancer types, adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, differ in incidence, geographic distribution, ethnic pattern and etiology. This article focuses on epidemiology with particular reference to geographic and temporal variations in incidence, along with a review of the evidence supporting environmental and genetic factors involved in esophageal carcinogenesis. Squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus remains predominantly a disease of the developing world. In contrast, esophageal adenocarcinoma is mainly a disease of western developed societies, associated with obesity and gastro-esophageal reflux disease. There has been a dramatic increase in the incidence of adenocarcinoma in developed countries in parallel with migration of both esophageal and gastric adenocarcinomas towards the gastro-esophageal junction. PMID:24281163

  10. Fragility of the esophageal mucosa: A pathognomonic endoscopic sign of primary eosinophilic esophagitis?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alex Straumann; Livio Rossi; Hans-Uwe Simon; Pius Heer; Hans-Peter Spichtin; Christoph Beglinger

    2003-01-01

    Background: Primary eosinophilic esophagitis, a chronic inflammatory disorder of the esophagus, evokes recurrent dysphagia. Endoscopy is often unremarkable, and no consensus exists regarding management of resultant dysphagia. The response of a series of patients with primary eosinophilic esophagitis to dilation is reported together with a description of a possibly pathognomonic sign: fragile esophageal mucosa, for which the term “crêpe-paper” mucosa

  11. The Inhibitory Effect of Quercetin-3-O-?-D-Glucuronopyranoside on Gastritis and Reflux Esophagitis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Min, Young Sil; Lee, Se Eun; Hong, Seung Tae; Kim, Hyun Sik; Choi, Byung-Chul; Sim, Sang Soo; Whang, Wan Kyun

    2009-01-01

    It was evaluated the inhibitory action of quercetin-3-O-?-D-glucuronopyranoside (QGC) on reflux esophagitis and gastritis in rats. QGC was isolated from the herba of Rumex Aquaticus. Reflux esophagitis or gastritis was induced surgically or by administering indomethacin, respectively. Oral QGC decreased ulcer index, injury area, gastric volume, and acid output and increased gastric pH as compared with quercetin. Furthermore, QGC significantly decreased gastric lesion sizes induced by exposing the gastric mucosa to indomethacin. Malondialdehyde levels were found to increase significantly after inducing reflux esophagitis, and were reduced by QGC, but not by quercetin or omeprazole. These results show that QGC can inhibit reflux esophagitis and gastritis in rats. PMID:19885013

  12. Testing Novel pH Proxies through Inorganic Calcite Precipitations and K/Pg Foraminifera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Super, J. R.; Pagani, M.; Wang, Z.

    2013-12-01

    Ocean pH proxies help constrain the carbon system in the paleocean and can be used to infer atmospheric CO2 when coupled with estimates of total alkalinity, aqueous pCO2 or dissolved inorganic carbon. This project investigates two novel pH proxies (cerium abundance and kinetically-controlled oxygen isotopes) through a series of precipitations of inorganic calcite, as well as the previously established boron isotope pH proxy. Precipitations are performed using varied pH and carbonate saturation states that span the range of typical ocean values as well as a 'free drift' that allows pH and saturation state to vary. The light rare earth element cerium speciates, depending on local oxidation-reduction conditions, between the soluble Ce3+ and highly insoluble Ce4+ ions, causing a relative depletion of cerium in ocean water. This project demonstrates how a suite rare earth elements, including cerium, partitions into inorganic calcite and how partitioning varies with changing pH and carbonate saturation state. Oxygen isotope fractionation is primarily controlled by temperature, but this project examines how pH and carbonate saturation state correlate with oxygen isotope values under kinetic conditions during the initial stage of precipitation. The effect of diagenesis on each proxy is simulated by dissolution of precipitated calcite in a pressure vessel. Results from the precipitations are used to inform a record of well-preserved benthic and planktonic foraminifera from DSDP Site 356 that range in age from the K/Pg boundary to the period when the ?13C gradient between the surface and deep ocean returned to pre-event levels. The pH record is used to infer the magnitude and length of the perturbation to the oceanic carbon system following the extinction event, particularly in terms of export productivity.

  13. Corrosive Esophagitis Caused by Ingestion of Picosulfate

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Jae Yong; Kang, Ho Suk; Kim, Seong Eun; Park, Ji Won; Moon, Sung Hoon; Kim, Jong Hyeok; Park, Choong Kee

    2015-01-01

    Corrosive esophagitis is characterized by caustic injury due to the ingestion of chemical agents, mainly alkaline substances such as detergents. Esophageal bleeding, perforation, or stricture can be worsened by high-degree corrosive esophagitis. Picosulfate is a commonly used laxative frequently administered for bowel preparation before colonoscopy or colon surgery. Picosulfate powder should be completely dissolved in water before ingestion because the powder itself may cause chemical burning of the esophagus and stomach. Here, we report a case of corrosive esophagitis due to the ingestion of picosulfate powder that was not completely dissolved in water. PMID:25674529

  14. Esophageal Stenosis Associated With Tumor Regression in Radiotherapy for Esophageal Cancer: Frequency and Prediction

    SciTech Connect

    Atsumi, Kazushige [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Shioyama, Yoshiyuki, E-mail: shioyama@radiol.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Arimura, Hidetaka [Department of Health Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Terashima, Kotaro [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Matsuki, Takaomi [Department of Health Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Ohga, Saiji; Yoshitake, Tadamasa; Nonoshita, Takeshi; Tsurumaru, Daisuke; Ohnishi, Kayoko; Asai, Kaori; Matsumoto, Keiji [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Nakamura, Katsumasa [Department of Radiology, Kyushu University Hospital at Beppu, Oita (Japan); Honda, Hiroshi [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: To determine clinical factors for predicting the frequency and severity of esophageal stenosis associated with tumor regression in radiotherapy for esophageal cancer. Methods and Materials: The study group consisted of 109 patients with esophageal cancer of T1-4 and Stage I-III who were treated with definitive radiotherapy and achieved a complete response of their primary lesion at Kyushu University Hospital between January 1998 and December 2007. Esophageal stenosis was evaluated using esophagographic images within 3 months after completion of radiotherapy. We investigated the correlation between esophageal stenosis after radiotherapy and each of the clinical factors with regard to tumors and therapy. For validation of the correlative factors for esophageal stenosis, an artificial neural network was used to predict the esophageal stenotic ratio. Results: Esophageal stenosis tended to be more severe and more frequent in T3-4 cases than in T1-2 cases. Esophageal stenosis in cases with full circumference involvement tended to be more severe and more frequent than that in cases without full circumference involvement. Increases in wall thickness tended to be associated with increases in esophageal stenosis severity and frequency. In the multivariate analysis, T stage, extent of involved circumference, and wall thickness of the tumor region were significantly correlated to esophageal stenosis (p = 0.031, p < 0.0001, and p = 0.0011, respectively). The esophageal stenotic ratio predicted by the artificial neural network, which learned these three factors, was significantly correlated to the actual observed stenotic ratio, with a correlation coefficient of 0.864 (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Our study suggested that T stage, extent of involved circumference, and esophageal wall thickness of the tumor region were useful to predict the frequency and severity of esophageal stenosis associated with tumor regression in radiotherapy for esophageal cancer.

  15. Effect of Curculigo orchioides on reflux esophagitis by suppressing proinflammatory cytokines.

    PubMed

    Ku, Sae-Kang; Kim, Jae-Soo; Seo, Young-Bae; Kim, Yong-Ung; Hwang, Seung-Lark; Lee, Young-Chul; Yang, Chae-Ha; Kim, Hui-Young; Seo, Bu-Il; Park, Ji-Ha; Min, You-Hong; Roh, Seong-Soo

    2012-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate effects of Curculigo orchioides rhizome (curculiginis rhizome) on acute reflux esophigitis (RE) in rats that are induced by pylorus and forestomach ligation operation. Proinflammatory cytokine, as well as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, interleukin (IL)-1? and IL-6 were all assayed and the expression of TNF-? and COX2 analyzed by RT-PCR. The esophagic tissue damage of reflux esophagitis rat was increased compared to that of normal intact group. However, the esophagic damage percentage from the extract of curculiginis rhizoma (ECR) 600 mg/kg and ECR 300 mg/kg were significantly lower than that of the RE control group. Administration of ?-tocopherol (30 mg/kg) and ECR (600 mg/kg, 300 mg/kg, and 150 mg/kg) had a significant effect on the gastric acid pH in rats with induced reflux esophagitis (p < 0.05). The treatment with ECR significantly reduced the production of cytokines TNF-?, IL-1? and IL-6 levels compared to the model group (p < 0.05). The expression of TNF-? and COX2 in the intact esophageal mucosa was low while those of the RE control group were significantly higher due to an inflammatory reaction in the esophagus. Compare to the model group, treatment with ?-tocopherol or ECR significantly inhibited the expression levels of COX2 and TNF-? in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that anti-inflammatory and protective effects of ECR could attenuate the severity of reflux esophagitis and prevent esophageal mucosal damage. PMID:23227795

  16. Successful Use of Esophageal Stent Placement to Treat a Postoperative Esophageal Stricture in a Toddler

    PubMed Central

    Gebrail, Rami

    2014-01-01

    Esophageal atresia (EA) is the most common type of gastrointestinal atresia. The most common variant (type C) consists of a blind esophageal pouch with a fistula between the trachea and the distal esophagus. Surgical repair can be complicated by the development of benign stricture. Most strictures are amenable to dilation, but refractory strictures may require surgical intervention. A 24-month-old boy born with tracheoesophageal fistula and EA underwent surgical repair on day 1 of life. He developed esophageal stricture that responded to esophageal stent placement. Endoscopic biliary accessories can be safely used to dilate refractory esophageal strictures in children, and should be considered prior to seeking other complex alternatives.

  17. The 'skinny' on eosinophilic esophagitis.

    PubMed

    Katzka, David A

    2015-02-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis--a disease that even most physicians know little about--is becoming increasingly common. Often starting in childhood with eating difficulties and symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease, it progresses with increasing inflammation, fibrosis, and strictures until the esophagus is visibly narrowed on radiography. Early recognition and treatment with an allergen-avoidance diet and steroids are critical to avoiding or postponing complications. PMID:25897596

  18. Esophageal metastasis of breast carcinoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasuo Wada; Nobuko Harada; Kazuhiro Ohara; Hironori Kawata; Hironori Iwasaki; Yuuichiro Kawamura; Takashi Gomi; Masahiro Ohtoshi; Yasuaki Nakashima

    2009-01-01

    Esophageal metastasis from primary breast cancer is an unusual manifestation. We recently treated a patient with dysphagia,\\u000a whose breast cancer had been treated in the distant past. A 70-year-old woman had been followed regularly in our outpatient\\u000a clinic for 14 years after her primary breast cancer treatment, with no apparent tumor recurrence. After 2 years absence, she\\u000a consulted our clinic with progressive

  19. Esophageal reflexes modulate frontoparietal response in neonates: Novel application of concurrent NIRS and provocative esophageal manometry

    PubMed Central

    Pakiraih, Joanna F.; Hasenstab, Kathryn A.; Dar, Irfaan; Gao, Xiaoyu; Bates, D. Gregory; Kashou, Nasser H.

    2014-01-01

    Central and peripheral neural regulation of swallowing and aerodigestive reflexes is unclear in human neonates. Functional near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a noninvasive method to measure changes in oxyhemoglobin (HbO) and deoxyhemoglobin (HbD). Pharyngoesophageal manometry permits evaluation of aerodigestive reflexes. Modalities were combined to investigate feasibility and to test neonatal frontoparietal cortical changes during pharyngoesophageal (visceral) stimulation and/or swallowing. Ten neonates (45.6 ± 3.0 wk postmenstrual age, 4.1 ± 0.5 kg) underwent novel pharyngoesophageal manometry concurrent with NIRS. To examine esophagus-brain interactions, we analyzed cortical hemodynamic response (HDR) latency and durations during aerodigestive provocation and esophageal reflexes. Data are presented as means ± SE or percent. HDR rates were 8.84 times more likely with basal spontaneous deglutition compared with sham stimuli (P = 0.004). Of 182 visceral stimuli, 95% were analyzable for esophageal responses, 38% for HDR, and 36% for both. Of analyzable HDR (n = 70): 1) HbO concentration (?mol/l) baseline 1.5 ± 0.7 vs. 3.7 ± 0.7 poststimulus was significant (P = 0.02), 2) HbD concentration (?mol/l) between baseline 0.1 ± 0.4 vs. poststimulus ?0.5 ± 0.4 was not significant (P = 0.73), and 3) hemispheric lateralization was 21% left only, 29% right only, and 50% bilateral. During concurrent esophageal and NIRS responses (n = 66): 1) peristaltic reflexes were present in 74% and HDR in 61% and 2) HDR was 4.75 times more likely with deglutition reflex vs. secondary peristaltic reflex (P = 0.016). Concurrent NIRS with visceral stimulation is feasible in neonates, and frontoparietal cortical activation is recognized. Deglutition contrasting with secondary peristalsis is related to cortical activation, thus implicating higher hierarchical aerodigestive protective functional neural networks. PMID:24789204

  20. Esophageal reflexes modulate frontoparietal response in neonates: Novel application of concurrent NIRS and provocative esophageal manometry.

    PubMed

    Jadcherla, Sudarshan R; Pakiraih, Joanna F; Hasenstab, Kathryn A; Dar, Irfaan; Gao, Xiaoyu; Bates, D Gregory; Kashou, Nasser H

    2014-07-01

    Central and peripheral neural regulation of swallowing and aerodigestive reflexes is unclear in human neonates. Functional near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a noninvasive method to measure changes in oxyhemoglobin (HbO) and deoxyhemoglobin (HbD). Pharyngoesophageal manometry permits evaluation of aerodigestive reflexes. Modalities were combined to investigate feasibility and to test neonatal frontoparietal cortical changes during pharyngoesophageal (visceral) stimulation and/or swallowing. Ten neonates (45.6 ± 3.0 wk postmenstrual age, 4.1 ± 0.5 kg) underwent novel pharyngoesophageal manometry concurrent with NIRS. To examine esophagus-brain interactions, we analyzed cortical hemodynamic response (HDR) latency and durations during aerodigestive provocation and esophageal reflexes. Data are presented as means ± SE or percent. HDR rates were 8.84 times more likely with basal spontaneous deglutition compared with sham stimuli (P = 0.004). Of 182 visceral stimuli, 95% were analyzable for esophageal responses, 38% for HDR, and 36% for both. Of analyzable HDR (n = 70): 1) HbO concentration (?mol/l) baseline 1.5 ± 0.7 vs. 3.7 ± 0.7 poststimulus was significant (P = 0.02), 2) HbD concentration (?mol/l) between baseline 0.1 ± 0.4 vs. poststimulus -0.5 ± 0.4 was not significant (P = 0.73), and 3) hemispheric lateralization was 21% left only, 29% right only, and 50% bilateral. During concurrent esophageal and NIRS responses (n = 66): 1) peristaltic reflexes were present in 74% and HDR in 61% and 2) HDR was 4.75 times more likely with deglutition reflex vs. secondary peristaltic reflex (P = 0.016). Concurrent NIRS with visceral stimulation is feasible in neonates, and frontoparietal cortical activation is recognized. Deglutition contrasting with secondary peristalsis is related to cortical activation, thus implicating higher hierarchical aerodigestive protective functional neural networks. PMID:24789204

  1. Effect of crossflow testing conditions, including feed pH and continuous feed filtration, on commercial reverse osmosis membrane performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth M. Van Wagner; Alyson C. Sagle; Mukul M. Sharma; Benny D. Freeman

    2009-01-01

    Crossflow filtration experiments were performed to characterize the water flux and NaCl rejection of three commercial polyamide reverse osmosis (RO) membranes (LE and XLE from DOW Water Solutions and AG from GE Water and Process Technologies). Thorough cleaning of the crossflow system, combined with following the manufacturer's recommended pretreatment and test conditions (i.e., feed pressure, flowrate, temperature, feed pH, and

  2. Axial-Load Fatigue Tests on 17-7 PH Stainless Steel Under Constant-Amplitude Loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leybold, Herbert A.

    1960-01-01

    Axial-load fatigue tests were conducted at room temperature on notched and unnotched sheet specimens of 17-7 PH stainless steel in Condition TH 1050. The notched specimens had theoretical stress-concentration factors of 2.32, 4.00, and 5.00. All specimens were tested under completely reversed loading. S-N curves are presented for each specimen configuration and ratios of fatigue strengths of unnotched specimens to those of notched specimens are given. Predictions of the fatigue behavior of notched specimens near the fatigue limit were made.

  3. pH Testing. Youth Training Scheme. Core Exemplar Work Based Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Further Education Staff Coll., Blagdon (England).

    This trainer's guide is intended to assist supervisors of work-based career training projects in teaching students how to sample and analyze soil to determine its pH value. The guide is one in a series of core curriculum modules that is intended for use in combination on- and off-the-job programs to familiarize youth with the skills, knowledge,…

  4. High-resolution EUS in children with eosinophilic “allergic” esophagitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Victor L. Fox; Samuel Nurko; Jonathan E. Teitelbaum; Kamran Badizadegan; Glenn T. Furuta

    2003-01-01

    Background: The pathophysiology of dysphagia associated with eosinophilic esophagitis is unknown. This study investigated possible anatomic alterations in children with eosinophilic esophagitis in comparison with healthy children by using high-resolution EUS to precisely measure individual tissue layers of the esophagus. Methods: Children with eosinophilic esophagitis (n = 11) and control children (n = 8) without esophagitis were prospectively evaluated by

  5. Esophagitis: old histologic concepts and new thoughts.

    PubMed

    Grin, Andrea; Streutker, Catherine J

    2015-06-01

    Context .- Inflammatory lesions of the esophagus are a diverse group, often with nonspecific histologic findings. These benign changes can produce diagnostic difficulties for pathologists. Objective .- To discuss the typical histologic findings of a variety of the most common causes of esophagitis (reflux, eosinophilic esophagitis, infections, medications) along with less common issues such as sloughing esophagitis and skin disorders involving the squamous mucosa. Data Sources .- The literature has been reviewed to discuss histologic definitions of current and developing issues in the area of esophagitis. Conclusions .- Histologic features are not entirely sensitive and specific for inflammatory esophageal disorders. Awareness of these problems is essential; clinical and endoscopic information can be very useful in distinguishing among the various lesions. PMID:26030241

  6. Technical note: development and testing of a radio transmission pH measurement system for continuous monitoring of ruminal pH in cows.

    PubMed

    Sato, Shigeru; Mizuguchi, Hitoshi; Ito, Kazunori; Ikuta, Kentaro; Kimura, Atushi; Okada, Keiji

    2012-03-01

    An indwelling ruminal pH system has been used for the continuous recording of ruminal pH to evaluate subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) in dairy cows. However this system does not allow the field application. The objective of this study was to develop a new radio transmission pH measurement system, and to assess its performance and usefulness in a continuous evaluation of ruminal pH for use on commercial dairy farms. The radio transmission pH measurement system consists of a wireless pH sensor, a data measurement receiver, a relay unit, and a personal computer installed special software. The pH sensor is housed in a bullet shaped bolus, which also encloses a pH amplifier circuit, a central processing unit (CPU) circuit, a radio frequency (RF) circuit, and a battery. The mean variations of the measurements by the glass pH electrode were +0.20 (n=10) after 2 months of continuous recording, compared to the values confirmed by standard pH solutions for pH 4 and pH 7 at the start of the recording. The mean lifetime of the internal battery was 2.5 months (n=10) when measurements were continuously transmitted every 10 min. Ruminal pH recorded by our new system was compared to that of the spot sampling of ruminal fluid. The mean pH for spot sampling was 6.36 ± 0.55 (n=96), and the mean pH of continuous recording was 6.22 ± 0.54 (n=96). There was a good correlation between continuous recording and spot sampling (r=0.986, P<0.01). We also examined whether our new pH system was able to detect experimentally induced ruminal acidosis in cows and to record long-term changes in ruminal pH. In the cows fed acidosis-inducing diets, the ruminal pH dropped markedly during the first 2h following the morning feeding, and decreased moreover following the evening feeding, with many pulse-like pH changes. The pH of the cows showed the lowest values of 5.3-5.2 in the midnight time period and it recovered to the normal value by the next morning feeding. In one healthy periparturient cow, the circadian changes in ruminal pH were observed as a constant pattern in the pre-parturient period, however that pattern became variable in the post-partum period. The frequency of the ruminal pH lower than 5.5 increased markedly 3 and 4 days after parturition. We demonstrated the possible application of a radio transmission pH measurement system for the assessment and monitoring of the ruminal pH of cows. Our new system might contribute to accurate assessment and prevention of SARA. PMID:21930319

  7. [Acid and non-acid gastro-esophageal reflux in newborns. Preliminar results using intraluminal impedance].

    PubMed

    López Alonso, M; Moya, M J; Cabo, J A; Ribas, J; Macías, M C; Silny, J; Sifrim, D

    2005-07-01

    Preterm infants present often Gastroesophageal refluxes (GER). Esophageal pH monitoring to reflux detection is of limited use in this infants because their gastric pH is normally higher than 4 for 90% of the time. Other methods such as the Intraluminal Impedance Technique (MII) technique and the use of micromanometric catheters try to palliate the difficulties for measuring GER by pH monitoring. The aim of this study, in a first step, was to obtain the normal Intraluminal Impedance values on control children and, in a second step, to study the relationship between GER and cardiorespiratory episodes using simultaneous recording of the end-tidal fraction of expired CO2, 02 saturation by pulse-oximetry, respiratory frequency, esophageal impedance and manometry, gastro-esophageal pHmetry, and electrocardiography in selected patients. Data from simultaneous pH and Intraluminal Impedance during 24 hours in 7 control preterms showed 89 acid refluxes, 192 non-acid refluxes, 79.36% of all refluxes reached the proximal esophagus. Therefore the impedance is an innocuous method which opens new horizons in the study of such a common illness as the GER in the preterm infants. PMID:16209372

  8. Esophagitis: Incidence and Risk of Esophageal Adenocarcinoma—A Population-Based Cohort Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Annmarie Lassen; Jesper Hallas; Ove B Schaffalitzky de Muckadell

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES:Although symptoms of reflux are common, our knowledge of the epidemiology and natural history of gastroesophageal reflux disease is sparse. The risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma is increased among patients with acid reflux, but the contribution of Barrett's lesions is unknown.METHODS:With the aim to estimate the incidence of diagnosed endoscopic esophagitis lesions and the risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma among patients with

  9. Gastro-esophageal Reflux and Esophageal Motility Disorders in Morbidly Obese Patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Suter; G. Dorta; V. Giusti; J. M. Calmes

    2004-01-01

    Background: Morbid obesity has long been considered as a contributing factor to gastro-esophageal reflux, but the literature\\u000a contains conflicting data on the subject. The authors studied a large number of morbidly obese candidates for bariatric surgery\\u000a with objective means, in order to better define the incidence of gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) and esophageal motility\\u000a disorders in this population. Methods: Morbidly

  10. High Resolution Microendoscopy for Quantitative Diagnosis of Esophageal Neoplasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Dongsuk

    Esophageal cancer is the eighth most common cancer in the world. Cancers of the esophagus account for 3.8% of all cases of cancers, with approximately 482,300 new cases reported in 2008 worldwide. In the United States alone, it is estimated that approximately 18,000 new cases will be diagnosed in 2013, and 15,210 deaths are expected. Despite advances in surgery and chemoradiation therapy, these advances have not led to a significant increase in survival rates, primarily because diagnosis often at an advanced and incurable stage when treatment is more difficult and less successful. Accurate, objective methods for early detection of esophageal neoplasia are needed. Here, quantitative classification algorithms for high resolution miscroendoscopic images were developed to distinguish between esophageal neoplastic and non-neoplastic tissue. A clinical study in 177 patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) was performed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of the classification algorithm in collaboration with the Mount Sinai Medical Center in the United States, the First Hospital of Jilin University in China, and the Cancer Institute and Hospital, the Chinese Academy of Medical Science in China. The study reported a sensitivity and specificity of 93% and 92%, respectively, in the training set, 87% and 97%, respectively, in the test set, and 84% and 95%, respectively, in an independent validation set. Another clinical study in 31 patients with Barrett's esophagus resulted in a sensitivity of 84% and a specificity of 85%. Finally, a compact, portable version of the high resolution microendoscopy (HRME) device using a consumer-grade camera was developed and a series of biomedical experimental studies were carried out to assess the capability of the device.

  11. Sucrose (table sugar) permeability as a diagnostic test for equine gastric ulcers 

    E-print Network

    O'Conor, Michael

    2002-01-01

    mucosa, similar to the esophageal mucosa of other mammalian species. 23 There have been few physiological mechanisms proposed that aid in the prevention of peptic injury in the gastric squamous mucosa. These physiological mechanisms include cellular... with gastric ulceration at the squamous mucosa adjacent to the margo plicatus. In a 24-hour ambulatory esophageal pH monitoring study conducted in human beings, symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) correlated with a distal esophageal pH of 4. 0...

  12. Control of Flavobacterium psychrophilum: tests of erythromycin, streptomycin, osmotic and thermal shocks, and rapid pH change.

    PubMed

    Oplinger, Randall W; Wagner, Eric J

    2013-03-01

    Flavobacterium psychrophilum, the etiological agent that causes bacterial coldwater disease, has been implicated in significant reductions in the numbers of salmonids reared at fish hatcheries. In this study, we performed a series of in vitro experiments to test the effectiveness of rapid temperature, pH, and osmotic pressure changes in killing three strains of the bacterium. We also evaluated the effectiveness of antibiotics (erythromycin, streptomycin, and a penicillin-streptomycin mixture) against F. psychrophilum. The bacterium tolerated temperatures of 40-50°C for up to 30 min (when acclimated to 15°C). The bacterium can survive lower temperatures for >60 min. Although temperatures ?55°C appeared to kill F. psychrophilum on contact, we found that eyed eggs of Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss were not able to survive short (<60-s) exposures at these temperatures. We found that rapid changes in pH (15-min exposures to pH 3.0, 4.0, 5.0, 7.0, 9.0, 10.0, and 11.0) and osmotic pressure (15-min exposures to 0, 6, 8, 10, 12% sodium chloride) were not effective at killing the bacterium. Erythromycin concentrations up to 2,000 mg/L for 15 min were also ineffective. However, streptomycin concentrations ?5,000 mg/L killed the bacterium during a 15-min exposure. The combination of penicillin and streptomycin was also effective, killing the bacterium at doses as low as 2.5 × 10(6) IU penicillin + 2,500 mg/L streptomycin. Our trials demonstrate that elevated temperatures and the combination of penicillin and streptomycin can kill F. psychrophilum under in vitro conditions. Erythromycin and rapid changes in pH and osmotic pressure are not effective at killing the bacterium. PMID:23241009

  13. Severe Ulcerative Esophagitis Induced by Crizotinib Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Craig, Jamie; Bajaj, Rajesh; Spurling, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    Crizotinib is an oral tyrosine-kinase inhibitor that inhibits anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) in gene-rearranged non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In 2011, the Food and Drug Administration approved crizotinib for treatment of locally advanced or metastatic ALK-positive NSCLC. The crizotinib adverse events profile included esophageal disorders in 11% of patients treated during trial phases I, II, and III, but none of them had severe events. We describe the development of severe ulcerative esophagitis secondary to crizotinib therapy and the re-introduction of therapy at a lower dose without recurrence of esophageal symptoms.

  14. Resection of esophageal carcinoma during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    ?ahin, Murat; Kocaman, Gökhan; Özkan, Murat; Yüksel, Cabir; Enön, Serkan; Kutlay, Hakan

    2015-01-01

    Esophageal carcinoma diagnosed during pregnancy is a rare occurrence. A 26-year-old pregnant patient was referred to our hospital with dysphagia. A thorough examination showed a tumor in the esophagus. Laparotomy, thoracotomy, and cervical exploration were performed. There are only 2 cases reported in the literature about esophageal carcinoma diagnosed during pregnancy and treated surgically. However, ethical dilemmas arise in managing such situations. Here we report a case of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma diagnosed at 27 weeks of gestation in which surgical resection was performed successfully. PMID:25555961

  15. Esophageal melanocytosis in oral opium consumption.

    PubMed

    Geramizadeh, Bita; Asadian, Fatemeh; Taghavi, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    Esophageal melanocytosis is a rare and benign condition, characterized by melanocytic proliferation of the esophageal squamous epithelium with heavy melanin deposition. The etiology and pathogenesis has not been exactly known but it seems to be a chronic stimulus such as gastroesophageal reflux. This condition is very rare and about 35 cases have been reported so far, most of which have been from India and Japan. Herein, we present a case of esophageal melanocytosis in a patient with long history of oral opium consumption. To the best of our knowledge, such a history has not been reported. PMID:24719715

  16. Temporal evolution in caveolin 1 methylation levels during human esophageal carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Esophageal cancer ranks eighth among frequent cancers worldwide. Our aim was to investigate whether and at which neoplastic stage promoter hypermethylation of CAV1 is involved in human esophageal carcinogenesis. Methods Using real-time quantitative methylation-specific PCR (qMSP), we examined CAV1 promoter hypermethylation in 260 human esophageal tissue specimens. Real-time RT-PCR and qMSP were also performed on OE33 esophageal cancer cells before and after treatment with the demethylating agent, 5-aza-2’-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-dC). Results CAV1 hypermethylation showed highly discriminative ROC curve profiles, clearly distinguishing esophageal adenocarcinomas (EAC) and esophageal squamous cell carcinomas (ESCC) from normal esophagus (NE) (EAC vs. NE, AUROC?=?0.839 and p?test). Treatment of OE33 EAC cells with 5-Aza-dC reduced CAV1 methylation and increased CAV1 mRNA expression. Conclusions CAV1 promoter hypermethylation is a frequent event in human esophageal carcinomas and is associated with early neoplastic progression in Barrett’s esophagus. PMID:24885118

  17. Esophageal papilloma: Flexible endoscopic ablation by radiofrequency.

    PubMed

    Del Genio, Gianmattia; Del Genio, Federica; Schettino, Pietro; Limongelli, Paolo; Tolone, Salvatore; Brusciano, Luigi; Avellino, Manuela; Vitiello, Chiara; Docimo, Giovanni; Pezzullo, Angelo; Docimo, Ludovico

    2015-03-16

    Squamous papilloma of the esophagus is a rare benign lesion of the esophagus. Radiofrequency ablation is an established endoscopic technique for the eradication of Barrett esophagus. No cases of endoscopic ablation of esophageal papilloma by radiofrequency ablation (RFA) have been reported. We report a case of esophageal papilloma successfully treated with a single session of radiofrequency ablation. Endoscopic ablation of the lesion was achieved by radiofrequency using a new catheter inserted through the working channel of endoscope. The esophageal ablated tissue was removed by a specifically designed cup. Complete ablation was confirmed at 3 mo by endoscopy with biopsies. This case supports feasibility and safety of as a new potential indication for Barrx(TM) RFA in patients with esophageal papilloma. PMID:25789102

  18. Eosinophilic Esophagitis (EE) or (EoE)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... These include asthma, allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis and food allergy. EoE has also been shown to occur in ... often part of the EoE evaluation. Eosinophilic Esophagitis: Food Allergies Adverse immune responses to food are the main ...

  19. Cervical esophageal hemangioma combined with thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong Cheol; Kim, Jeong Won; Lee, Yong Jik; Lee, Seong Rok; Park, Chang-Ryul; Jung, Jong-Pil

    2011-08-01

    Hemangiomas that arise in cervical esophagus are extremely rare, representing 3.3% of all benign esophageal tumors. Although endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) and potassium titanyl phosphate/yttrium aluminum garnet (KTP/YAG) laser therapy have been used with success for small tumors, the safety and efficacy in the case of large tumors remains uncertain. We report the successful resection of cervical esophageal hemangioma through a cervical esophagotomy in a patient with thyroid cancer who needed a cervical collar incision. PMID:22263178

  20. Novel low-cost fiber optic colorimetric instrument to rapidly screen premalignant esophageal tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dattamajumdar, Anupam K.; Myers, John A.; Proctor, Andrew H.; Levine, Douglas S.; Blount, Patricia L.; Reid, Brian J.; Martin, Roy W.

    1998-05-01

    A cost-efficient screening device is needed to detect patients who have Barrett's esophagus, a precursor to esophageal adenocarcinoma -- the most rapidly increasing cancer in the US. We have developed a prototype instrument based on colorimetric assessment of esophageal lumen. The system consists of a small diameter fiber-optic probe, interfacing electronics, a probe-head position sensor and a computer for display and analysis. The probe has a central plastic optical fiber through which white light is incident on the collapsed esophageal lumen via c conical mirror in the probe-head. A parabolic mirror in the probe-head focuses the reflected light is applied to a linear 520 X 3 RGB photo-diode array to generate proportional electrical signals. A position sensor tracks probe-head location as it is retracted, allowing generation of a 2D colormap of esophageal lumen. A color change from white to red indicates Barrett's esophagus. The system performed accurately in tests using models of esophageal lumen which simulate patterns observed in Barrett's esophagus.

  1. Nitric oxide: Mediator of nonadrenergic noncholinergic nerve-induced responses of opossum esophageal muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, J.; Du, C.; Conklin, J.L.; Ledlow, A.; Bates, J.N. (Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City (United States))

    1991-03-15

    Nonadrenergic noncholinergic (NANC) nerves of the opossum esophagus mediate relaxation of circular muscle from the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) and the off contraction of circular esophageal muscle. The latencies between the end of the stimulus and the off contraction describe a gradient such that the latency is longest in muscle from the caudad esophagus. N{sup G}-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA), an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, and nitric oxide were used to test the hypothesis that NO is a mediator of these nerve-induced responses. Both electrical field stimulation (EFS) of intrinsic esophageal nerves and exogenous NO relaxed LES muscle. Only EFS-induced relaxation was inhibited by L-NNA. L-arginine, the substrate for NO synthase, antagonized the inhibitory effect of L-NNA. Exogenous NO neither relaxed nor contracted circular esophageal muscle. Both the amplitude and the latency of the off contraction were diminished by L-NNA. L-arginine antagonized the action of L-NNA. N{sup G}-nitro-L-arginine also attenuated the gradient in the latency of the off response by shortening latencies in muscle form the caudad esophagus. It had no effect on cholinergic nerve-induced contraction of longitudinal esophageal muscle. These data support the hypothesis that NO or an NO-containing compound mediates NANC nerve-induced responses of the esophagus and LES.

  2. Effect of total laryngectomy on esophageal motility

    SciTech Connect

    Hanks, J.B.; Fisher, S.R.; Meyers, W.C.; Christian, K.C.; Postlethwait, R.W.; Jones, R.S.

    1981-01-01

    Total laryngectomy for cancer can result in dysphagia and altered esophageal motility. Manometric changes in the upper esophageal sphincter (UES), and in proximal and distal esophageal function have been reported. However, most studies have failed to take into account radiation therapy and appropriate controls. We selected ten male patients (54.3 +/- 1.9 yr) for longitudinal manometric evaluation prior to laryngectomy then at two weeks and again six months later. No patient received preoperative radiation therapy, had a previous history of esophageal surgery, or developed a postoperative wound infection or fistula. Seven of ten patients had positive nodes and received 6,000-6,600 rads postoperative radiation therapy. Preoperatively 4 of 10 patients complained of dysphagia which did not significantly change following surgery and radiation. Two of three patients who did not complain of dysphagia preoperatively and received radiation postoperatively developed dysphagia. No patient without dysphagia preoperatively who received no radiation therapy developed symptoms. Our studies show that laryngectomy causes alterations in the UES resting and peak pressures but not in the proximal or distal esophagus, or the lower esophageal sphincter. These data also imply radiation therapy may be associated with progressive alterations in motility and symptomatology. Further study regarding the effects of radiation on esophageal motility and function are urged.

  3. Management of refractory Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Mukkada, Vincent A.; Furuta, Glenn T.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Whereas most children and adults respond to traditional EoE treatments, such as exclusion of dietary allergens or the use of topical steroids, a small fraction may not. Methods Based on clinical experiences and review of the literature, the aim of this work is to provide practical advice to care for ‘refractory’ patients with EoE. Results The approach to this type of patient continues to evolve and decision-making should consider a number of issues including the patient's age, lack of complete understanding of the natural history of this disease, risks of monitoring and side effects of treatments. Next, one needs to define the term refractory, in that this can refer either to persistent symptoms, or to continued inflammation in the face of presumably effective drug or diet therapy. Before considering alternative treatments, it is important to rule out any other cause of persistent symptoms. For instance, could they be related to an occult esophageal narrowing not identified at the time of endoscopy? Esophagrams may be necessary to identify localized or longitudinal narrowing that could be amenable to dilation. If symptoms and inflammation are persistent and no narrowing is appreciated, an elemental diet can be considered but the long term use of this in older children and adults may be difficult. Prednisone or systemic steroids may be indicated to induce remission but side effects and complications associated with chronic use are limiting. Finally, the use of immunosuppression or biological agents has been reported in case reports and studies; use of these may be limited by side effects or the need to utilize compassionate use protocols. Conclusions As the scope of esophageal eosinophilia continues to evolve, the clinical and molecular characterization of new clinical phenotypes will be important so that new therapeutic targets can be identified. PMID:24603397

  4. The Trailing End Point Phenotype in Antifungal Susceptibility Testing Is pH Dependent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KIEREN A. MARR; TIGE R. RUSTAD; JOHN H. REX; THEODORE C. WHITE

    1999-01-01

    The interpretation of end points in azole antifungal drug susceptibility testing is problematic, in part due to incomplete growth inhibition of Candida species. Such trailing growth can cause the MICs of fluconazole for some isolates to be low (<1 mg\\/ml) after 24 h of growth but much higher (>64 mg\\/ml) after 48 h. Isolates having this type of growth have

  5. Status of epigenetic chromatin modification enzymes and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma risk in northeast Indian population

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Virendra; Singh, Laishram C; Singh, Avninder P; Sharma, Jagannath; Borthakur, Bibhuti B; Debnath, Arundhati; Rai, Avdhesh K; Phukan, Rup K; Mahanta, Jagadish; Kataki, Amal C; Kapur, Sujala; Saxena, Sunita

    2015-01-01

    Esophageal cancer incidence is reported in high frequency in northeast India. The etiology is different from other population at India due to wide variations in dietary habits or nutritional factors, tobacco/betel quid chewing and alcohol habits. Since DNA methylation, histone modification and miRNA-mediated epigenetic processes alter the gene expression, the involvement of these processes might be useful to find out epigenetic markers of esophageal cancer risk in northeast Indian population. The present investigation was aimed to carryout differential expression profiling of chromatin modification enzymes in tumor and normal tissue collected from esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patients. Differential mRNA expression profiling and their validation was done by quantitative real time PCR and tissue microarray respectively. Univariate and multiple logistic regression analysis were used to analyze the epidemiological data. mRNA expression data was analyzed by Student t-test. Fisher exact test was used for tissue microarray data analysis. Higher expression of enzymes regulating methylation (DOT1L and PRMT1) and acetylation (KAT7, KAT8, KAT2A and KAT6A) of histone was found associated with ESCC risk. Tissue microarray done in independent cohort of 75 patients revealed higher nuclear protein expression of KAT8 and PRMT1 in tumor similar to mRNA expression. Expression status of PRMT1 and KAT8 was found declined as we move from low grade to high grade tumor. Betel nut chewing, alcohol drinking and dried fish intake were significantly associated with increased risk of esophageal cancer among the study subject. Study suggests the association of PRMT1 and KAT8 with esophageal cancer risk and its involvement in the transition process of low to high grade tumor formation. The study exposes the differential status of chromatin modification enzymes between tumor and normal tissue and points out that relaxed state of chromatin facilitates more transcriptionally active genome in esophageal carcinogenesis.

  6. R and D, fabrication and testing of pH and CO/sub 2/ sensors for geothermal brines

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, R.D.; Clack, P.J.; Phelan, D.M.; Taylor, R.M.

    1987-03-01

    Reduction or elimination of scaling is a mandatory requirement for the operation of geothermal power plants. The use of downhole sampling and subsequent analysis for solution chemistry has many disadvantages. These disadvantages include composition change with cooling, risk of sample contamination, and non real-time indication. The use of in-line sensing of solution chemistry avoids these drawbacks but requires sensors which can survive the extremely harsh environment of brine at high temperatures and elevated pressures. Leeds and Northrup had previously undertaken a contract to develop sensors for pH and pCO/sub 2/ which would withstand these harsh environments. A number of sensors were tested at a field site under actual operating conditions. Field test results indicated that certain facets of the design were inadequate to give accurate long term measurement. The primary areas addressed here are replacement of polymeric seals with anodic bonding where possible, improved methods of lead attachment, improved sealing of the pCO/sub 2/ reference feed-through, H/sub 2/S getter optimization and improved passivation of the sensing head. Each of these areas is addressed in detail in the report along with laboratory test results pertaining to the particular phase.

  7. Esophageal cancer as second primary tumor after breast cancer radiotherapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beatrix Scholl; Ernane D Reis; Abderrahim Zouhair; Igor Chereshnev; Jean-Claude Givel; Michel Gillet

    2001-01-01

    Background: An increased risk of esophageal cancer has been reported in survivors of breast cancer treated with radiotherapy. This study further characterizes this association.Methods: Through hospital databases, 118 patients (109 men, 9 women) treated for esophageal cancer between 1985 and 1993 were identified, of whom 37 had 60 synchronous or metachronous cancers. 5 women had primary esophageal cancer after having

  8. Ultrasonic esophagoprobe for TNM staging of highly stenosing esophageal carcinoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth F. Binmoeller; Hans Seifert; Uwe Seitz; Jakob R. Izbicki; Mitsuhiro Kida; Nib Soehendra

    1995-01-01

    Background: Endosonographic staging of esophageal carcinoma may be limited in one third of cases by tumor stenoses that cannot be traversed with conventional echoendoscopes. We designed and evaluated a new endosonographic instrument (ultrasonic esophagoprobe) for TNM staging of highly stenosing esophageal carcinomas.Methods: Eighty-seven consecutive patients (64 men, mean age 61 years) with highly stenosing esophageal carcinomas were studied with the

  9. Molecular and cellular features of esophageal cancer cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tetsuro Nishihira; Yu Hashimoto; Masafumi Katayama; Shozo Mori; Toshio Kuroki

    1993-01-01

    More than 70 cell lines were established from esophageal cancer, including 15 TE-series cell lines established by the authors. This article reviews molecular and cellular features of esophageal cancer cells from studies using these cell lines as well as primary tumors. The subjects reviewed include primary cultures of normal epithelium of the esophagus and of esophageal tumors, their growth and

  10. Case Report Alendronate-induced Esophagitis in an Elderly Woman

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Victoria Gómez; Shu-Yuan Xiao

    Ingestion of alendronate sodium (Fosamax) had been reported to sometimes cause erosive or ulcerative esophagitis. Despite its widespread use and several case reports describing the clinical and endoscopic presentation, there has been limited discussion on the histologic appearances of the esophagitis caused by the medication. Here we describe one case of an elderly woman who presented with alendronate-induced esophagitis. The

  11. Comparative Genomic Hybridization of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    E-print Network

    Lin, Chi-Hung

    Comparative Genomic Hybridization of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Correlations between aberrations of 46 samples of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (EC-SCC) were analyzed by comparative genomic of the Department of Health, Taiwan, Re- public of China), and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (EC

  12. Conservative surgical treatment of reflux esophagitis and esophageal stricture.

    PubMed Central

    Herrington, J L; Wright, R S; Edwards, W H; Sawyers, J L

    1975-01-01

    During a recent 3-year period, 17 consecutive patients were seen with advanced fibrotic esophageal strictures secondary to alkaline-acid-pepsin reflux. From detailed preoperative evaluations alone it was impossible to determine whether therapy should consist of excisional surgery, esophagogastroplasty or intra-operative dilatation with correction of reflux. Only at operation could the length, extent, degree and severity of the stricture be fully determined. Each of the 17 patients was treated by controlled dilatation, coupled with an antireflux procedure. This simplified approach proved successful on strictures thought preoperatively to be undilatable. It appears that this conservative approach is applicable to many advanced strictures and excisional and plastic procedures should be reserved for those cases that prove unyielding to intraoperative dilatation. The true appraisal of a reflux stricture and the choice of surgical procedure is best determined at the operating table. Images Fig. 5A. Fig. 5B. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. Fig. 11. Fig. 12. Fig. 13. Fig. 14. Fig. 15. Fig. 16. Fig. 17. Fig. 18. Fig. 19. Fig. 20. Fig. 21. PMID:1130874

  13. Pipeline SCC in near-neutral pH environment: Results of full-scale tests

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, W.; Revie, R.W.; Tyson, W.R.; Shen, G.; MacLeod, F.A.; Kiff, D. [CANMET, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    1996-08-01

    Stress corrosion cracking of pipeline steels in a near-neutral soil environment was studied by testing full-scale pipes in actual soil. Crack growth has been reproduced in both grades of steel used, i.e., X-52 and X-60. Dynamic loading was found to be a key factor in affecting crack growth rate. Growth rates in the order of 10{sup {minus}8} mm/s were measured for most of the cracks on the X-60 pipe at a stress level of 98% SMYS (81% of actual yield), with R = 0.6. Under this loading condition, the total J integral (elastic and plastic) for the sixteen cracks of various depths ranged from 4 to 12 kJ/m{sup 2}. Crack growth from the tips of fatigue precracks on the X-52 pipes was measured at an applied stress of 78% SMYS (67% of actual yield). This loading level was very close to that associated with normal pipeline operation. The stress intensity factor required for the initiation of crack growth from the tips of precracks was considerably lower for the X-52 pipe than for the X-60 pipe; J values are being calculated for comparison. Pressure fluctuation was found to be a key factor in the growth of the cracks reproduced in the full-scale test. No crack growth was observed under a static load of 97% SMYS (80% of actual yield). This indicates that the dynamic component of K or J should be used in describing the crack tip driving force. The applicability of crack tip opening rate as the crack tip mechanical parameter is being explored.

  14. FOLFOX-6 Induction Chemotherapy Followed by Esophagectomy and Post-operative Chemoradiotherapy in Patients With Esophageal Adenocarcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-02-16

    Adenocarcinoma of the Esophagus; Adenocarcinoma of the Gastroesophageal Junction; Adenocarcinoma of the Gastric Cardia; Stage IIIA Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIIB Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIIC Esophageal Cancer

  15. Eosinophilic esophagitis -- clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment.

    PubMed

    Lucendo Villarín, A J

    2009-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EE) is a chronic inflammatory, immunoallergic disease of the esophagus that represents the most common eosinophilic gut disease. Understanding and diagnosis regarding this condition have greatly increased in recent years, particularly in Europe and North America, in parallel with other allergic disorders. It consists of dense esophageal infiltration with eosinophils in the absence of gastro-esophageal reflux (GER). It involves individuals at all ages, and is particularly common in males during childhood and up to the 5th decade of life. It manifests with chronic, intermittent esophageal symptoms that predominantly include dysphagia, food impaction episodes, and GER-attributable complaints that do not respond to antisecretory therapy. Endoscopically, EE is a polymorphous disease that presents with various changes in esophageal caliber, and subtle changes in mucosal appearance, which lead to biopsy collection as a key procedure for diagnosis. Management must be multidisciplinary, including gastroenterologists, pathologists, allergologists, and also nutrition specialists in pediatric cases. Regarding therapy, dietary food restrictions are especially useful in the management of pediatric EE, but effectiveness is lower in the adult, maybe because of a greater involvement of air allergens. Drug use is standard, particularly involving topical steroids, which may revert manifestations and histological lesions, even though recurrence following discontinuation is common. PMID:19335033

  16. Microbiome in Reflux Disorders and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Liying; Chaudhary, Noami; Baghdadi, Jonathan; Pei, Zhiheng

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma has increased dramatically in the United States and Europe since the 1970s without apparent cause. Although specific host factors can affect risk of disease, such a rapid increase in incidence must be predominantly environmental. In the stomach, infection with Helicobacter pylori has been linked to chronic atrophic gastritis, an inflammatory precursor of gastric adenocarcinoma. However, the role of H. pylori in the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma is not well established. Meanwhile, several studies have established that a complex microbiome in the distal esophagus might play a more direct role. Transformation of the microbiome in precursor states to esophageal adenocarcinoma—reflux esophagitis and Barrett’s metaplasia—from a predominance of gram-positive bacteria to mostly gram-negative bacteria raises the possibility that dysbiosis is contributing to pathogenesis. However, knowledge of the microbiome in esophageal adenocarcinoma itself is lacking. Microbiome studies open a new avenue to the understanding of the etiology and pathogenesis of reflux disorders. PMID:24855009

  17. [Sensitivity of esophageal cancer to anticancer agents and supplementary chemotherapy combined with surgical treatment].

    PubMed

    Masaki, Y; Ishigami, K; Oka, M; Matsumoto, N; Honma, K; Uchiyama, T

    1986-04-01

    The authors examined the sensitivities of esophageal cancer to Bleomycin (BLM), Peplomycin (PEP), Cisplatin (CDDP) and 5-FU by the INAS method using 3H-thymidine or 14C-formate as labeled precursors, and determined the concentrations of anticancer agents in cancer lesions by the Band Culture method. On the other hand, the authors investigated the superiority or inferiority of various methods of BLM administration by observing the prevention effect of BLM on the development of experimental esophageal cancer in rats. Forty-three cases out of 76, 57%, showed a sensitivity to BLM, 60% to PEP, 38% to CDDP and 56% to 5-FU. As to the types of roentgenological findings, the superficial and tumorous types showed a high sensitivity rate. As to the types of macroscopical findings, the protruded and superficial types showed a high sensitivity rate. As to the types of histological findings, well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma showed a high sensitivity rate. Sensitivity was higher in metastatic lymph nodes than in main cancer lesions. Tumor tissues which had undergone previous hyperthermic management (at 42 degrees C) showed a higher sensitivity than those which had not. PEP at a half dose brought about the same grade of anticancer effect as BLM. The sensitivities of esophageal cancer to various anticancer agents showed individual differences among clinical cases. Therefore, combination chemotherapy for esophageal cancer was thought to be an effective administration method. The divided administration of small doses of BLM was thought to be more superior than the one-shot administration of a large dose for esophageal cancer. The results of the INAS sensitivity test were perfectly coincident with the effects of chemotherapy in clinical cases of esophageal cancer. PMID:2425741

  18. O-6-methylguanine-deoxyribonucleic acid methyltransferase methylation enhances response to temozolomide treatment in esophageal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hasina, Rifat; Surati, Mosmi; Kawada, Ichiro; Arif, Qudsia; Carey, George B.; Kanteti, Rajani; Husain, Aliya N.; Ferguson, Mark K.; Vokes, Everett E.; Villaflor, Victoria M.; Salgia, Ravi

    2013-01-01

    Background: World-wide, esophageal cancer is a growing epidemic and patients frequently present with advanced disease that is surgically inoperable. Hence, chemotherapy is the predominate treatment. Cytotoxic platinum compounds are mostly used, but their efficacy is only moderate. Newer alkylating agents have shown promise in other tumor types, but little is known about their utility in esophageal cancer. Methods: We utilized archived human esophageal cancer samples and esophageal cancer cell lines to evaluate O-6-methylguanine-deoxyribonucleic acid methyltransferase (MGMT) hypermethylation status and determined sensitivity to the alkylating drug temozolomide (TMZ). Immunoblot analysis was performed to determine MGMT protein expression in cell lines. To assess and confirm the effect of TMZ treatment in a methylated esophageal cancer cell line in vivo, a mouse flank xenograft tumor model was utilized. Results: Nearly 71% (12/17) of adenocarcinoma and 38% (3/8) of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) patient samples were MGMT hypermethylated. Out of four adenocarcinoma and nine SCC cell lines tested, one of each histology was hypermethylated. Immunoblot analyses confirmed that hypermethylated cell lines did not express the MGMT protein. In vitro cell viability assays showed the methylated Kyse-140 and FLO cells to be sensitive to TMZ at an IC50 of 52-420 ?M, whereas unmethylated cells Kyse-410 and SKGT-4 did not respond. In an in vivo xenograft tumor model with Kyse-140 cells, which are MGMT hypermethylated, TMZ treatment abrogated tumor growth by more than 60%. Conclusion: MGMT methylation may be an important biomarker in subsets of esophageal cancers and targeting by TMZ may be utilized to successfully treat these patients. PMID:24319345

  19. Proton Beam Therapy and concurrent chemotherapy for esophageal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Steven H.; Komaki, Ritsuko; Liao, Zhongxing; Wei, Caimiao; Myles, Bevan; Guo, Xiaomao; Palmer, Matthew; Mohan, Radhe; Swisher, Stephen G.; Hofstetter, Wayne L.; Ajani, Jaffer A.; Cox, James D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objective Proton beam therapy (PBT) is a promising modality for the management of thoracic malignancies. We report our preliminary experience of treating esophageal cancer patients with concurrent chemotherapy (CChT) and PBT at MD Anderson Cancer Center. Materials/Methods This is an analysis of 62 esophageal cancer patients enrolled on a prospective study evaluating normal tissue toxicity from CChT/PBT from 2006 to 2010. Patients were treated with Passive Scattering PBT with 2 or 3 field beam arrangement using 180–250 MV protons. We used the method of Kaplan and Meier to assess time to event outcomes and compared the distributions between groups using the log-rank test. Results The median follow-up time was 20.1 months for survivors. The median age was 68 years (range 38–86). Most were males (82%), had adenocarcinomas (76%) and had stage II-III disease (84%). The median radiation dose was 50.4 Gray-Equivalence (Gy(RBE)) (range 36–57.6). The most common grade 2–3 acute toxicities from CChT/PBT were esophagitis (46.8%), fatigue (43.6%), nausea (33.9%), anorexia (30.1%), and radiation dermatitis (16.1%). There were two cases of grade 2 and 3 radiation pneumonitis and two grade 5 toxicities. A total of 29 patients (46.8%) received preoperative CChT/PBT with one postoperative death. The pathologic complete response (pCR) rate for the surgical cohort was 28%, and the pCR and near CR rate (0–1% residual cells) was 50%. While there were significantly fewer local-regional recurrences in the preoperative group (3/29) as compared to the definitive CChT/PBT group (16/33) (log-rank test p=0.005), there were no differences in DM free interval or OS between the two groups. Conclusions This is the first report of patients treated with PBT/CChT for esophageal cancer. Our data suggest that this modality is associated with a few severe toxicities but the pathologic response and clinical outcomes are encouraging. Prospective comparison with more traditional approach is warranted. PMID:22417808

  20. Herpetic esophagitis in immunocompetent medical student.

    PubMed

    Marinho, Andréia Vidica; Bonfim, Vinícius Mendes; de Alencar, Luciana Rodrigues; Pinto, Sebastião Alves; de Araújo Filho, João Alves

    2014-01-01

    Esophagitis caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV) is often documented during periods of immunosuppression in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV); it is rare in immunocompetent diagnosed patients. Case reports of herpetic esophagitis in students of health sciences are extremely rare. The disease presents with a clinical picture characterized by acute odynophagia and retrosternal pain without obvious causes and ulcers, evidenced endoscopically in the middistal esophagus. Diagnosis depends on endoscopy, biopsies for pathology studies, and immunohistochemistry techniques. The disease course is often benign; however, treatment with acyclovir speeds the disappearance of symptoms and limits the severity of infection. In this report, we present a case of herpetic esophagitis in an immunocompetent medical student, with reference to its clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment. The disease may have manifested as a result of emotional stress experienced by the patient. PMID:24707416

  1. [Epithelium constitution for esophageal tissue engineering using electrospinning technology].

    PubMed

    Chen, Ling; Lv, Jingjing; Yu, Xuechan; Kang, Cheng; Zhu, Yabin

    2013-12-01

    The basement membrane (BM) is crucial in regulating the physical and biological activities of esophageal epithelial cells which attach to the underlying BM. In order to simulate the natural construction of BM, we prepared the fibrous scaffolds using biodegradable polylactide (PLA) and silk fibroin (SF) as the materials via electrospinning technology. BM's proteins containing collagen (IV), laminin, entactin and proteoglycan were extracted from porcine esophagus and coated on the eletrospun fibers. Morphology, mechanical strength, biodegradability and cytocompatibility of the coated and uncoated scaffolds were tested and evaluated using scanning electron micrography, mechanical test system, immunofluorescence assay and western blotting with CK14 as the primary antibody. The fibrous scaffold PLA or PLA/SF, generated from the present protocol had good formation and mechanical and biodegradable properties. After coating with BM's proteins, the scaffold could enhance the growth and differentiation of esophageal epithelial cells, which would contribute to remodel and regenerate the tissue engineered epithelium and further contribute to engineer the whole esophagus in future. PMID:24660627

  2. Beneficial effect of the 5-HT1A receptor agonist buspirone on esophageal dysfunction associated with systemic sclerosis: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Panopoulos, Stylianos; Karlaftis, Anastasios; Denaxas, Konstantinos; Kamberoglou, Dimitrios; Sfikakis, Petros P; Ladas, Spiros D

    2015-01-01

    Background Esophageal involvement in systemic sclerosis (SSc) carries significant morbidity and is empirically managed with domperidone, albeit with questionable efficacy. The oral 5-HT1A receptor agonist buspirone may enhance esophageal peristalsis and lower esophageal sphincter (LES) function in healthy volunteers. Aim We aimed to test the hypothesis that buspirone may exert a beneficial acute effect on esophageal motor dysfunction in symptomatic patients with SSc. Methods Twenty consecutive patients with SSc reporting esophageal symptoms underwent high-resolution manometry before and 30?minutes after administration of buspirone (10?mg). Ten other patients received domperidone (10?mg) and served as control group. Changes in LES resting and residual pressure, amplitude, duration, and velocity of distal esophageal body contractions were examined. Results Esophageal hypomotility and hypotensive LES was found in 63% and 67% of patients, respectively. Demographic and clinical characteristics, including baseline manometric parameters, were comparable between groups. Resting pressure of LES increased after buspirone from 9.42?±?2.6 to 11.53?±?3.4?mmHg (p?=?0.0002 by paired t-test), but not after domperidone; a trend for increase of amplitude of contractions was also observed after buspirone (p?=?0.09). Comparison of the individual changes revealed that buspirone was superior to domperidone in enhancing LES pressure (?+?2.11?±?2.0 versus –0.45?±?2.3?mmHg, p?=?0.006). No significant effects of either drug were noted on other examined parameters of esophageal function. Conclusion The beneficial acute effect of buspirone on impaired LES function associated with SSc suggests a role of 5-HT1A receptor-mediated interactions in these patients. Prospective studies to examine whether buspirone is of long-term therapeutic value for SSc-associated esophageal disease are warranted. PMID:26137301

  3. Association of colorectal cancer susceptibility variants with esophageal cancer in a Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Ting-Ting; Xun, Xiao-Jie; Li, Sen; Feng, Tian; Wang, Li-Ping; Jin, Tian-Bo; Hou, Peng

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the association between colorectal cancer (CRC) genetic susceptibility variants and esophageal cancer in a Chinese Han population. METHODS: A case-control study was conducted including 360 esophageal cancer patients and 310 healthy controls. Thirty-one single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with CRC risk from previous genome-wide association studies were analyzed. SNPs were genotyped using Sequenom Mass-ARRAY technology, and genotypic frequencies in controls were tested for departure from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium using a Fisher’s exact test. The allelic frequencies were compared between cases and controls using a ?2 test. Associations between the SNPs and the risk of esophageal cancer were tested using various genetic models (codominant, dominant, recessive, overdominant, and additive). ORs and 95%CIs were calculated by unconditional logistic regression with adjustments for age and sex. RESULTS: The minor alleles of rs1321311 and rs4444235 were associated with a 1.53-fold (95%CI: 1.15-2.06; P = 0.004) and 1.28-fold (95%CI: 1.03-1.60; P = 0.028) increased risk of esophageal cancer in the allelic model analysis, respectively. In the genetic model analysis, the C/C genotype of rs3802842 was associated with a reduced risk of esophageal cancer in the codominant model (OR = 0.52, 95%CI: 0.31-0.88; P = 0.033) and recessive model (OR = 0.55, 95%CI: 0.34-0.87; P = 0.010). The rs4939827 C/T-T/T genotype was associated with a 0.67-fold (95%CI: 0.46-0.98; P = 0.038) decreased esophageal cancer risk under the dominant model. In addition, rs6687758, rs1321311, and rs4444235 were associated with an increased risk. In particular, the T/T genotype of rs1321311 was associated with an 8.06-fold (95%CI: 1.96-33.07; P = 0.004) increased risk in the codominant model. CONCLUSION: These results provide evidence that known genetic variants associated with CRC risk confer risk for esophageal cancer, and may bring risk for other digestive system tumors.

  4. Gastric pH profiles of beagle dogs and their use as an alternative to human testing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masayuki Akimoto; Naokazu Nagahata; Atsushi Furuya; Kiyomi Fukushima; Shohei Higuchi; Toshio Suwa

    2000-01-01

    Gastric pH levels were measured in samples of gastric aspirates from eight fasted beagle dogs. The gastric pH in fasting dogs fluctuated from 2.7 to 8.3, with a mean of 6.8±0.2 (SE). Each dog received the following four treatments in randomly-assigned order: (A) distilled water; (B) a placebo capsule; (C) pentagastrin, and (D) ranitidine. The gastric pH remained relatively constant

  5. Eosinophilic esophagitis in adults: distinguishing features from gastroesophageal reflux disease: a study of 41 patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeremy R Parfitt; James C Gregor; Neville G Suskin; Hani A Jawa; David K Driman

    2006-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis in adults is a recently described entity occurring in young males with dysphagia, in whom esophageal biopsies show eosinophilic infiltration. This study defines the clinical and histological features of patients with eosinophilic esophagitis, distinguishing it from gastroesophageal reflux disease. Esophageal biopsies from patients with dysphagia or esophagitis were reviewed blindly, and assessed for: epithelial eosinophil counts, presence of

  6. IgG4-Related Esophageal Disease Presenting as Esophagitis Dissecans Superficialis With Chronic Strictures.

    PubMed

    Dumas-Campagna, Myriam; Bouchard, Simon; Soucy, Genevieve; Bouin, Mickael

    2014-08-01

    IgG4-related disease is a recently recognized autoimmune systemic disorder that has been described in various organs. The disease is characterized histologically by a dense lymphoplasmocytic infiltrate of IgG4-positive cells, storiform fibrosis and can be associated with tumefactive lesions. IgG4-related disease involving the upper gastrointestinal tract is rare and only two previous case reports have reported IgG4-related esophageal disease. We report the case of a 63-year-old female patient with a long-standing history of severe dysphagia and odynophagia with an initial diagnosis of reflux esophagitis. Symptoms persisted despite anti-acid therapy and control esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) revealed endoscopic images consistent with esophagitis dissecans superficialis (sloughing esophagitis). An underlying autoimmune process was suspected and immunosuppressant agents were tried to control her disease. The patient eventually developed disabling dysphagia secondary to multiple chronic esophageal strictures. A diagnosis of IgG4-related disease was eventually made after reviewing esophageal biopsies and performing an immunohistochemical study with an anti-IgG4 antibody. Treatment attempts with corticosteroids and rituximab was not associated with a significant improvement of the symptoms of dysphagia and odynophagia, possibly because of the chronic nature of the disease associated with a high fibrotic component. Our case report describes this unique case of IgG4-related esophageal disease presenting as chronic esophagitis dissecans with strictures. We also briefly review the main histopathological features and treatment options in IgG4-related disease. PMID:24883156

  7. Clinical features of eosinophilic esophagitis.

    PubMed

    Miehlke, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) may affect individuals at any age with a predominance for Caucasian males. The clinical manifestation of EoE is strongly age dependent. While dysphagia and food impaction are typical lead symptoms in adults and adolescents, infants often present with unspecific symptoms such as feeding problems, abdominal pain and vomiting. Some EoE patients may also experience heartburn. Therefore, EoE should always be considered in cases of heartburn refractory to antireflux therapy. Concomitant allergic diseases such as asthma, rhinitis and eczema are prevalent. Peripheral eosinophilia and elevated total serum IgE values are found in up to 50 and 70% of cases, respectively. Endoscopic features of EoE are variable and none of them is pathognomonic. Frequent findings are mucosal edema, furrows, exudates and corrugated rings. These endoscopic abnormalities have high specificities (90-95%), but low sensitivities (15-48%). A novel grading and classification system for the endoscopic assessment of EoE has been proposed which includes fixed rings, exudates, furrows and edema as major features. This classification system demonstrated good interobserver agreement among pediatric and adult gastroenterologists, and presents a useful tool to standardize endoscopic assessments and to further investigate the relation between endoscopic manifestation, clinical activity and response to treatment in EoE. Long-term follow-up studies have shown that EoE is a chronic disease causing recurrent dysphagia in the majority of cases. The prevalence of strictures significantly increases with the duration of disease, which stresses the importance of early diagnosis and consequent treatment of EoE. PMID:24603382

  8. Aeration with carbon dioxide-supplemented air as a method to control pH drift in toxicity tests with effluents from wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Elphick, James R; Bailey, Howard C; Hindle, Amanda; Bertold, Stanley E

    2005-09-01

    Environment Canada methods for acute toxicity tests with rainbow trout require continuous aeration of test solutions during exposure. Depending on the sample, this procedure can result in an increase in pH as dissolved carbon dioxide (CO2) is stripped from solution as a result of aeration. In samples that contain ammonia, the pH may increase to the point where the unionized fraction results in artifactual toxicity. Consequently, aeration with air supplemented with different CO2 concentrations was investigated as a method for maintaining pH at the level found in the original sample without adversely affecting other water quality parameters. Aeration with CO2 was an effective method for maintaining pH during exposure, depending both on the concentration of CO2 and the alkalinity of the sample. A multiple regression conducted on the data determined an equation that was effective at calculating the CO2 concentration necessary in an aeration mixture to maintain a target pH value as a function of sample alkalinity. PMID:16193749

  9. Eosinophilic Esophagitis: Interactions with Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Edaire; Souza, Rhonda F.; Spechler, Stuart Jon

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis Early authorities on eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) deemed it crucial to distinguish this disorder from gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). However, it has become clear that GERD and EoE are not mutually exclusive disorders, and that their interactions can be complex. The notion that GERD and EoE can be distinguished by the response to PPI treatment is based on the assumption that gastric acid suppression is the only important therapeutic effect of PPIs, and therefore only GERD can respond to PPIs. This assumption appears to be incorrect for two major reasons. First, there are multiple mechanisms whereby PPI-induced acid reduction might benefit patients with EoE. Second, PPIs have acid-independent, anti-inflammatory effects that might be beneficial both for GERD and for EoE. Since the PPIs have multiple effects that might benefit both diseases, for patients who have esophageal symptoms and esophageal eosinophilia, we feel that a clinical and/or histological response to PPIs does not rule in GERD, and does not rule out EoE. However, we do recommend a trial of PPI therapy for patients with symptomatic esophageal eosinophilia, even if the diagnosis of EoE seems clear-cut. PMID:24813513

  10. Esophageal cancer revealing a tracheal diverticulum

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Miao; Wang, Heng; Wu, Wen-Bin

    2015-01-01

    Tracheal diverticulum is a benign entity characterized by single or multiple invaginations of the tracheal wall, and is rarely encountered in clinical practice but frequently in postmortem examination as an incidental finding. Its combination with esophageal cancer is extremely rare. In this case report, we present a patient with these two lesions and analyze their correlation. PMID:25973258

  11. Eosinophilic esophagitis: asthma of the esophagus?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    AMINDRA S. ARORA; Kiyoshi Yamazaki

    2004-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EE) is rapidly emerging as a distinct disease entity in both pediatric and adult gastroenterology. The typical clinical presentation includes solid food dysphagia in young men who have an atopic predisposition. Food impaction necessitating endoscopic intervention is common. EE should be suspected, in particular, in patients with unexplained dysphagia or those with no response to antacid or anti-acid

  12. Histomorphological and Immunophenotypic Features of Pill-Induced Esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Su Hwan; Kim, Won; Lee, Kook Lae; Byeon, Sun-ju; Choi, Euno; Chang, Mee Soo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate histomorphological and immunophenotypic features in pill-induced esophagitis. We comparatively evaluated the histomorphological, immunophenotypic features of pill-induced esophagitis vs. reflux esophagitis, as well as clinical information and endoscopic findings. Fifty-two tissue pieces from 22 cases of pill-induced esophagitis, 46 pieces from 20 reflux esophagitis, and 16 pieces from 14 control samples were subjected to immunohistochemistry for inflammatory infiltrates (CD3 for T lymphocyte, CD20 for B lymphocyte, CD56 for NK cell, CD68 for macrophage, CD117 for mast cell) and eosinophil chemotaxis-associated proteins (Erk, leptin, leptin receptor, pSTAT3, phospho-mTOR). As a result, Histomorphology showed that a diffuse pattern of dilated intercellular spaces was more frequently observed in pill-induced esophagitis, while reactive atypia and subepithelial papillary elongation were more often found in reflux esophagitis (P < 0.05, respectively). Interestingly, intraepithelial eosinophilic microabscess, intraepithelial pustule and diffuse pattern of dilated intercellular spaces were observed in 14% (3 cases), 9% (2 cases) and 32% (7 cases) of pill-induced esophagitis, respectively, but in no cases of reflux esophagitis. Regarding intraepithelial inflammatory infiltrates in pill-induced esophagitis, T lymphocytes were the most common cells, followed by eosinophil; 11 and 7 in one x400 power field, respectively. Intraepithelial pSTAT3-positive pattern was more frequently observed in pill-induced esophagitis than in reflux esophagitis, at 45% (10 cases) versus 10% (2 cases), respectively (P < 0.05). Considering the distal esophageal lesion only, intraepithelial pustule, diffuse dilated intercellular spaces and stromal macrophages were more frequently found in distal pill-induced esophagitis, whereas reactive atypia and intraepithelial mast cells in reflux esophagitis (P < 0.05, respectively). In conclusion, diffuse dilated intercellular spaces, intraepithelial eosinophil microabscess, pustule, T lymphocytes, eosinophils, and pSTAT3 positivity can be added to histopathological features of pill-induced esophagitis, other than non-specific ulcer. Besides, distal pill-induced esophagitis may be histopathologically differentiated from reflux esophagitis. PMID:26047496

  13. Elimination diets in the management of eosinophilic esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Wechsler, Joshua B; Schwartz, Sally; Amsden, Katie; Kagalwalla, Amir F

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis, an increasingly recognized chronic inflammatory disorder isolated to the esophagus, is triggered by an abnormal allergic response to dietary antigens. Current treatment includes swallowed topical steroids and dietary modification, which aim to resolve symptoms and prevent long-term complications such as formation of strictures. The dietary approach has become more widely accepted because long-term steroid therapy is associated with potential risks. Dietary treatment includes elemental and elimination diets. An exclusive elemental diet, which requires replacement of all intact protein with amino acid-based formula, offers the best response of all available therapies, with remission in up to 96% of subjects proving it to be superior to all other available therapies including topical steroids. However, compliance with this approach is challenging because of poor taste and monotony. The high cost of formula and the associated psychosocial problems are additional drawbacks of this approach. Empiric and allergy test-directed elimination diets have gained popularity given that elimination of a limited number of foods is much easier and as such is more readily acceptable. There is a growing body of literature supporting this type of therapy in both children and adults. This paper reviews the evidence for all types of dietary therapy in eosinophilic esophagitis. PMID:24920928

  14. Technical Feasibility of TachoSil Application on Esophageal Anastomoses

    PubMed Central

    Haverkamp, Leonie; Ruurda, Jelle P.; van Hillegersberg, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Sealing esophageal anastomoses with a sealant patch (TachoSil) containing human fibrinogen and thrombin may improve mechanical strength. The aim was to evaluate the technical feasibility of the application of a sealant patch in upper gastrointestinal surgery. Methods. In total 15 patients, 18–80 years old, undergoing thoracolaparoscopic esophagectomy with esophagogastrostomy or laparoscopic total gastrectomy with esophagojejunostomy was included. Different techniques of anastomotic TachoSil patch application were tested and recorded on video. Results. TachoSil was successfully applied to the esophagogastrostomy (n = 11) and to the esophagojejunostomy (n = 4). A median of 2 (1–6) attempts was necessary to reach successful application. The median duration was 7 (3–26) minutes before successful application was accomplished. The best technique in esophagectomy was the application of TachoSil with the use of 2 cellophane sheets. For total gastrectomy, the patch was folded into a harmonica shape and wrapped around the esophagojejunostomy. Although not significant, the number of attempts and time to success showed a decreasing trend along with the increased experience. Conclusion. Application of TachoSil as a sealant of esophageal anastomoses was technically feasible. Future studies may investigate the value of TachoSil application on the prevention of anastomotic leakage.

  15. Effects of neutralizing agents on esophageal burns caused by disc batteries.

    PubMed

    Rivera, E A; Maves, M D

    1987-01-01

    The sequelae associated with ingested disc batteries that lodge in the esophagus may include tracheoesophageal fistula, esophageal perforation, stricture formation, or death. The focus of the current investigation is on whether medical therapy can arrest or lessen the severity of the injury during the time required to transport the patient to a center for treatment. A case of esophageal damage from the ingestion of a 1.5-V manganese dioxide disc battery in a 3-year-old boy is reported also. A two-phase study was completed in which the initial phase was an in vitro experiment to identify potable solutions that might neutralize the alkali contained in disc batteries. An in vivo study in 24 cats was undertaken to determine if bolus administration of these solutions would arrest or lessen the severity of the esophageal injury. None of the solutions tested demonstrated a significant difference in the degree of gross or histologic esophageal damage when compared to controls. PMID:3619278

  16. Non-invasive Predictors of Esophageal Varices

    PubMed Central

    Cherian, Jijo V.; Deepak, Nandan; Ponnusamy, Rajesh Prabhu; Somasundaram, Aravindh; Jayanthi, V.

    2011-01-01

    Background/Aim: Current guidelines recommend screening cirrhotic patients with an endoscopy to detect esophageal varices and to institute prophylactic measures in patients with large esophageal varices. In this study, we aimed at identifying non-endoscopic parameters that could predict the presence and grades of esophageal varices. Patients and Methods: In a prospective study, 229 newly diagnosed patients with liver cirrhosis, without a history of variceal bleeding, were included. Demographic, clinical, biochemical and ultrasonographic parameters were recorded. Esophageal varices were classified as small and large, at endoscopy. Univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis were done to identify independent predictors for the presence and grades of varices. Results: Of the 229 patients (141 males; median age 42 years; range 17-73 years) with liver cirrhosis, 97 (42.3%) had small and 81 (35.4%) had large varices. On multivariate analysis, low platelet count (Odd’s Ratio [OR], 4.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2-14.9), Child Pugh class B/C (OR, 3.3; 95% CI, 1.8-6.3), spleen diameter (OR, 4.3; 95% CI, 1.6-11.9) and portal vein diameter (OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.1-5.3) were independent predictors for the presence of varices. Likewise, for the presence of large esophageal varices, low platelet count (OR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.4-5.2), Child Pugh class B/C (OR, 3.8; 95% CI, 2.3-6.5) and spleen diameter (OR, 3.1; 95% CI, 1.6-6.0) were the independent risk factors. Conclusion: The presence and higher grades of varices can be predicted by a low platelet count, Child-Pugh class B/C and spleen diameter. These may be considered as non-endoscopic predictors for the diagnosis and management of large grade varices. PMID:21196656

  17. Esophageal dysphagia and reflux symptoms before and after oral IQoroR training

    PubMed Central

    Hägg, Mary; Tibbling, Lita; Franzén, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To examine whether muscle training with an oral IQoroR screen (IQS) improves esophageal dysphagia and reflux symptoms. METHODS: A total of 43 adult patients (21 women and 22 men) were consecutively referred to a swallowing center for the treatment and investigation of long-lasting nonstenotic esophageal dysphagia. Hiatal hernia was confirmed by radiologic examination in 21 patients before enrollment in the study (group A; median age 52 years, range: 19-85 years). No hiatal hernia was detected by radiologic examination in the remaining 22 patients (group B; median age 57 years, range: 22-85 years). Before and after training with an oral IQS for 6-8 mo, the patients were evaluated using a symptom questionnaire (esophageal dysphagia and acid chest symptoms; score 0-3), visual analogue scale (ability to swallow food: score 0-100), lip force test (? 15 N), velopharyngeal closure test (? 10 s), orofacial motor tests, and an oral sensory test. Another twelve patients (median age 53 years, range: 22-68 years) with hiatal hernia were evaluated using oral IQS traction maneuvers with pressure recordings of the upper esophageal sphincter and hiatus canal as assessed by high-resolution manometry. RESULTS: Esophageal dysphagia was present in all 43 patients at entry, and 98% of patients showed improvement after IQS training [mean score (range): 2.5 (1-3) vs 0.9 (0-2), P < 0.001]. Symptoms of reflux were reported before training in 86% of the patients who showed improvement at follow-up [1.7 (0-3) vs 0.5 (0-2), P < 0.001). The visual analogue scale scores were classified as pathologic in all 43 patients, and 100% showed improvement after IQS training [71 (30-100) vs 22 (0-50), P < 0.001]. No significant difference in symptom frequency was found between groups A and B before or after IQS training. The lip force test [31 N (12-80 N) vs 54 N (27-116), P < 0.001] and velopharyngeal closure test values [28 s (5-74 s) vs 34 s (13-80 s), P < 0.001] were significantly higher after IQS training. The oral IQS traction results showed an increase in mean pressure in the diaphragmatic hiatus region from 0 mmHg at rest (range: 0-0 mmHG) to 65 mmHg (range: 20-100 mmHg). CONCLUSION: Oral IQS training can relieve/improve esophageal dysphagia and reflux symptoms in adults, likely due to improved hiatal competence. PMID:26140003

  18. Diffuse esophageal intramural pseudodiverticulosis and nutcracker esophagus in a 54-year-old man.

    PubMed

    Walker, S; Hippéli, R; Goës, R

    1990-02-01

    Esophageal intramural pseudodiverticulosis, which was first described by Mendl et al. in 1960, is characterized by multiple small flask-shaped outpouchings in the esophageal wall. The pseudodiverticula represent dilated excretory ducts of deep mucous glands in the esophagus. The etiology of this rare condition is unknown. Hiatal hernias, gastroesophageal reflux, esophageal strictures, candida esophagitis, herpes esophagitis, diabetes mellitus, and chronic alcoholism have been found associated with intramural pseudodiverticulosis. We report the second case of esophageal hypermotility in intramural pseudodiverticulosis. PMID:2107356

  19. Esophageal obstruction due to enteral feed bezoar: A case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Marcus, Esther-Lee; Arnon, Ron; Sheynkman, Arkadiy; Caine, Yehezkel G; Lysy, Joseph

    2010-10-16

    This paper describes a rare complication of enteral feeding, esophageal obstruction due to feeding formula bezoar, and reviews the published cases. An attempt to re-insert the nasogastric tube in a chronically ventilated 80-year-old female fed via a nasogastric tube with Jevity(®) failed. An esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed an 18 cm-long concretion of the feeding formula, filling most of the esophageal lumen, which was removed endoscopically. Forty-two cases of feeding formula esophageal bezoars have been reported in the literature. The formation of feeding formula bezoars is triggered by acidic gastroesophageal reflux. The acidic pH in the esophagus causes clotting of the casein in the formula. Predisposing factors for bezoar formation are: mechanical ventilation, supine position, neurological diseases, diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism, obesity and history of partial gastrectomy. Diagnosis and removal of the bezoar is done endoscopically. Feeding in a semi-recumbent position, administration of prokinetic agents and proton pump inhibitors may prevent this complication. PMID:21160586

  20. Genes Regulating Epithelial Polarity Are Critical Suppressors of Esophageal Oncogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiu-Min; Wang, Hui; Zhu, Li-Li; Zhao, Run-Zhen; Ji, Hong-Long

    2015-01-01

    Esophageal cancer is an aggressive disease featured by early lymphatic and hematogenous dissemination, and is the sixth leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. The proper formation of apicobasal polarity is essential for normal epithelium physiology and tissue homeostasis, while loss of polarity is a hallmark of cancer development including esophageal oncogenesis. In this review, we summarized the stages of esophageal cancer development associated with the loss or deregulation of epithelial cell apicobasal polarity. Loss of epithelial apicobasal polarity exerts an indispensable role in the initiation of esophageal oncogenesis, tumor progression, and the advancement of tumors from benign to malignant. In particular, we reviewed the involvement of several critical genes, including Lkb1, claudin-4, claudin-7, Par3, Lgl1, E-cadherin, and the Scnn1 gene family. Understanding the role of apicobasal regulators may lead to new paradigms for treatment of esophageal tumors, including improvement of prognostication, early diagnosis, and individually tailored therapeutic interventions in esophageal oncology. PMID:26185530

  1. Robot assisted thoracoscopic resection of giant esophageal leiomyoma

    PubMed Central

    Compean, Steven D.; Gaur, Puja; Kim, Min P.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Esophageal leiomyoma represents the most common benign esophageal tumor. Robot-assisted thoracoscopic surgery has provided ability to remove it successfully using a minimally invasive approach. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 63-year old female with history of chronic chest pain presented with an esophageal mass on chest CT and endoscopic ultrasound. Robot-assisted surgery was performed using three robot arms, a camera and an assistant port. A 10 cm leiomyoma was enucleated and removed through a 2 cm myotomy. Completion endoscopy confirmed integrity of the esophagus. Patient's chest pain resolved postoperatively, and she was discharged on postoperative day 3. DISCUSSION Our case describes successful removal of the giant esophageal leiomyoma (10 cm) by robot assisted minimally invasive resection through a 2 cm myotomy. CONCLUSION Use of robot allows for removal of large esophageal leiomyoma. The improved dexterity and patient outcome offered by robot suggests its potential as the mainstay technique for giant esophageal leiomyoma removal. PMID:25460487

  2. Influence of Ionizing Radiation on Stromal-Epithelial Communication in Esophageal Carcinogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huff, Janice; Patel, Zarana; Grugan, Katharine; Rustgi, Anil; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    Esophageal cancer is the 6th leading cause of cancer death worldwide and is associated with a variety of risk factors including tobacco use, heavy alcohol consumption, human papilloma virus infection, and certain dietary factors such as trace mineral and vitamin deficiencies. A connection with ionizing radiation exposure is revealed by the high excess relative risk for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma observed in the survivors of the atomic bomb detonations in Japan. Esophageal carcinomas are also seen as secondary malignancies in patients who received radiotherapy for breast and thoracic cancers; additionally, patients with head/neck and oral squamous cell cancers are at increased risk for metachronous esophageal squamous cell cancers. This malignancy is rapidly fatal, mainly because it remains asymptomatic until late, advanced stages when the disease is rarely responsive to treatment. In normal epithelium, the stromal microenvironment is essential for the maintenance and modulation of cell growth and differentiation. Cross talk between the epithelial and stromal compartments can influence many aspects of malignant progression, including tumor cell proliferation, migration, invasion and recruitment of new blood vessels. To test the hypothesis that radiation exposure plays a role in esophageal carcinogenesis via non-targeted mechanisms involving stromal-epithelial cell communication, we are studying radiation effects on hTERT-immortalized human esophageal epithelial cells and genetic variants grown in co-culture with human esophageal stromal fibrob-lasts (Okawa et al., Genes Dev. 2007. 21: 2788-2803). We examined how irradiation of stromal fibroblasts affected epithelial migration and invasion, behaviors associated with cancer promotion and progression. These assays were conducted in modified Boyden chambers using conditioned media from irradiated fibroblasts. Our results using low LET gamma radiation showed a dose-dependent increase in migration of epithelial cells when exposed to conditioned media from irradiated vs. non-irradiated fibroblasts. We also observed enhanced invasion through a basement membrane matrix in similarly treated cells. Candidate factors that me-diate these effects were identified using antibody capture arrays, and their increased secretion in irradiated fibroblasts was confirmed using ELISAs. We are currently analyzing the effect of these individual factors on epithelial migration and invasion, as well as their influence on cell survival and DNA repair. Our current studies using high-LET radiation will elucidate radiation quality effects on these processes. These results should further our understanding of the mechanisms by which radiation impacts the tissue microenvironment and how it influences cancer development processes.

  3. Nitric oxide: mediator of nonadrenergic noncholinergic responses of opossum esophageal muscle.

    PubMed

    Murray, J; Du, C; Ledlow, A; Bates, J N; Conklin, J L

    1991-09-01

    Nonadrenergic noncholinergic (NANC) nerves of the opossum esophagus mediate relaxation of circular muscle from the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) and the off contraction of circular esophageal muscle. The latencies between the end of the stimulus and the off contraction describe a gradient so that the latency is longest in muscle from the caudad esophagus. NG-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA), an inhibitor of nitric oxide (NO) synthase, and NO were used to test the hypothesis whether NO is a mediator of these nerve-induced responses. Both electrical field stimulation (EFS) of intrinsic esophageal nerves and exogenous NO relaxed LES muscle. Only EFS-induced relaxation was inhibited by L-NNA [half-maximal response (EC50) = 60.0 +/- 20.0 microM]. L-Arginine, the substrate for NO synthase, reversed the inhibitory effect of L-NNA. Exogenous NO did not contact circular esophageal muscle. Both the amplitude (EC50 = 14.7 +/- 4.0 microM) and the latency of the off contraction (EC50 = 41.1 +/- 5.6 microM) were diminished by L-NNA. L-Arginine prevented the action of L-NNA. NG-nitro-L-arginine also attenuated the gradient in the latency of the off response by shortening latencies in muscle from the caudad esophagus. It had no effect on cholinergic nerve-induced contraction of longitudinal esophageal muscle. These data support the hypothesis that NO or an NO-containing compound may be a mediator of NANC nerve-induced responses of the esophagus and LES. PMID:1887888

  4. Esophageal perforation. An unusual presentation with a benign clinical course.

    PubMed

    DeLuca, R F; Tedesco, F J; Ballan, K; Wortzel, E; Rogers, A I

    1977-04-01

    A case of esophageal perforation occurring in a 75-year-old man is presented. The clinical presentation was benign and the diagnosis of esophageal perforation was made incidental to an upper gastrointestinal barium examination. Conservative management consisting of nasogastric suctioning, antibiotics and antacids was effective in minimizing the clinical course. This represents a rare instance of a successful nonsurgical approach to esophageal perforation. PMID:879153

  5. Expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in human esophageal squamous cell carcinomas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jian-Gang Jiang; Jiang-Bo Tang; Chun-Lian Chen; Bao-Xing Liu; Xiang-Ning Fu; Zhi-Hui Zhu; Wei Qu; Katherine Cianflone; Michael P. Waalkes; Dao-Wen Wang

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) was expressed in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. METHODS: Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), western blotting, immunohistoc- hemistry and immunofluorescence were used to assess the expression level of COX-2 in esophageal tissue. RESULTS: COX-2 mRNA levels were increased by >80-fold in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma when compared to adjacent noncancerous tissue. COX-2 protein

  6. Botulinum toxin use in pediatric esophageal achalasia: A case report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M Walton; G Tougas

    1997-01-01

    Esophageal achalasia (EA) has been historically treated by esophageal dilatation or myotomy with or without fundoplication. Botulinum toxin (Botox-Allergan) use in pediatric EA has not been previously described. The authors' objective was to observe the efficacy of botulinum toxin injection into the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) for EA. An 11-year-old boy presented with a 9-month history of frequent pneumonia, productive

  7. Esophageal motility impairment in plummer-vinson syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roberto O. Dantas; Marcia G. Villanova

    1993-01-01

    Summary We report the case of a 41-year-old woman with Plummer-Vinson syndrome and an esophageal motility disorder. She complained of dysphagia and odynophagia and had cheilitis, glossitis, and hypochromic anemia. An esophageal motility study showed low amplitude of contraction and high intrabolus pressure in the esophageal body. After iron replacement, the patient was free from symptoms, and a new motility

  8. Molecular factors related to metastasis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yutaka Shimada; Fumiaki Sato

    2007-01-01

    The aggressive behavior of esophageal cancer leads to a low survival rate for patients with this disease. Isolated esophageal\\u000a cancer cells seem to have the potential for regrowth and metastasis. To control the metastasis of esophageal carcinoma, detailed\\u000a analysis of various molecular and biological factors should be done in each patient. Recent progress in molecular biology\\u000a has revealed that oncogenes,

  9. Endoscopic palliation of advanced esophageal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mocanu, A; Bârla, R; Hoara, P; Constantinoiu, S

    2015-01-01

    Esophageal cancer represents one of the most aggressive digestive tumors, with a survival rate at 5 years of only 10%. Globally, during the last three decades, there has been an increasing incidence of the esophageal cancer, approx. 400,000 new esophageal cancers being currently diagnosed annually. This represents the eighth leading cause of cancer incidence and the sixth leading cause of cancer death overall. Taking into account the population’s global aging and thus, the increase in the number of patients who will not bear surgery, PCT and radiation, or the fact that they do not want it especially because of deficiencies and associated pathology, the endoscopic ablative techniques with palliation purposes represent the alternative. If we refer to the Western Europe countries and North America, we notice an increase of esophageal adenocarcinoma rate versus squamous cancer. As for the Asian region, referring in particular to China and Japan, 9 out of 10 esophageal cancers are squamous cell carcinomas. For at least half of the patients with EC (esophageal cancer) there is no hope of healing because of the advanced regional malignant invasion (T3-4, N+, M+) with no chemo and radiotherapy response, poor preoperative patients’ conditions or systemic metastasis. The low life expectancy does not justify the risky medical procedures, the goal of the therapy consisting in the improvement of the quality of life by eliminating dysphagia (reestablishing oral feeding) which represents the most common complication of EC, the respiratory tract complication caused by eso-tracheal fistulas or by eliminating chest pain. To treat dysphagia, which is the main target of palliation, combined methods like endoscopic, chemo and radio-therapy, can be used, each one with indications, benefits and risks. Abbreviations: SEPS = self expanding plastic stent, SREMS = self expanding metal stent, EBRT = Endoscopic brachy radiotherapy, EUS = Ultra sound endoscopy, CT = Computer tomograph, UGE = Upper gastro endoscopy, PET-CT = Positron Emission Tomography, APC = argon plasma coagulation, PDT = photo dynamic therapy, PCT = Poli-chemotherapy, RT = Radio-therapy PMID:25866578

  10. Understanding pH

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Brieske, Joel A.

    The first site related to pH is from the Horiba corporate Web site entitled the Story of pH (1). Visitors can learn what pH is and how it's measured, explore various facts about pH, and read several anecdotes such as "Is the Rain in Our Cities Acidic." The site contains simple text, attractive graphics, and a well-designed layout making it fun and easy for anyone to explore. The second site from the Miami Museum of Science is called the pH Factor (2) kids activity page. This interactive and extensive site contains lessons on testing items for pH, tasting acids and bases, an interactive meter to find the pH of common household items, and much more. Next, is the pH and Water Quality (3) page, which is part of the State of Kentucky Division of Water Web site. The site provides a table of the effects of pH on fish and aquatic life and gives a short description of the most significant environmental impacts of pH. Trout for example, can tolerate a pH range between 4.1 and 9.5 while Mosquito larvae can survive within the 3.3 and 4.7 range. The fourth site from Gardengate Magazine.com is entitled More Soil Stuff: Soil pH (4). Described is the pH range of most soil types, requirements of certain plants, how to test soil for pH, and how to adjust it using sulfur and limestone. Seaworld.org maintains the Understanding the pH Cycle within the Aquarium (5) lesson plan site. The stated objective of the activity is to have students define pH, explain how it affects a tank's water quality, and test the pH level in a classroom aquarium. Although an aquarium is obviously needed, the activity offers a unique and fun way for kids to learn about this basic chemistry concept. About.com offers the next site, which is an interactive pH calculator called pH (6). Users simply enter a pH to get the concentration of Hydrogen ions or, conversely, the Hydrogen ion concentration to get the pH. Another tool to learn about pH and Hydrogen ions is called Acids and Alkalis--the pH Scale (7). Provided by Purchon.com, the interactive pH scale illustrates how the ion concentration changes with pH, common acids associated with each, and whether it is a weak or strong acid or alkali. The last site maintained by the National Park Service is called Acid Rain Lesson Plan: Activity 1 The pH Scale (8). Kids will be able to describe the pH scale and its components, explain why a pH measurement must be accurate, and explain why small changes in pH are important. Everything needed to complete the activity is provided, including a materials list, complete instructions, thinking questions, as well as links for further information.

  11. Gastroesophageal scintigraphy and endoscopy in the diagnosis of esophageal reflux and esophagitis

    SciTech Connect

    Fung, W.P.; Van der Schaaf, A.; Grieve, J.C.

    1985-04-01

    The value of gastroesophageal (G/E) scintigraphy in the diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux was assessed in 51 subjects, who presented with heartburn and had endoscopic evidence of reflux esophagitis. G/E scintigraphy was done using /sup 99m/Tc sulfur-colloid in acidified orange juice. The G/E reflux index was calculated according to previous reports. The mean (+/- SD) G/E reflux index in 18 patients with severe esophagitis and 30 patients with moderate esophagitis were 1.6% (+/- 1.5) and 3.2% (+/- 5.0), respectively. The mean G/E reflux index in 14 control subjects was 2.4% (+/- 1.1). There was no significant difference between the esophagitis and control groups. Furthermore, if 4% was taken as upper limit of normal, this will include almost all the esophagitis patients and controls. It is concluded that the G/E reflux index based on G/E scintigraphy is of little value in the diagnosis of G/E reflux.

  12. Esophageal Motor Disorders in Terms of High-Resolution Esophageal Pressure Topography: What Has Changed?

    PubMed Central

    Kahrilas, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    The concept of high-resolution manometry (HRM) is to use sufficient pressure sensors such that intraluminal pressure can be monitored as a continuum along luminal length much as time is viewed as a continuum in conventional manometry. When HRM is coupled with pressure topography plots, pressure amplitude is transformed into spectral colors with isobaric conditions indicated by same-colored regions on the display. Together, these technologies are called high-resolution esophageal pressure topography (HREPT). HREPT has several advantages compared with conventional manometry, the technology that it was designed to replace. (i) The contractility of the entire esophagus can be viewed simultaneously in a uniform format, (ii) standardized objective metrics can be systematically applied for interpretation, and (iii) topographic patterns of contractility are more easily recognized and have greater reproducibility than with conventional manometry. Compared with conventional manometry, HREPT has improved sensitivity for detecting achalasia, largely due to the objectivity and accuracy with which it identifies impaired esophagogastric junction (EGJ) relaxation. In addition, it has led to the subcategorization of achalasia into three clinically relevant subtypes based on the contractile function of the esophageal body: classic achalasia, achalasia with esophageal compression, and spastic achalasia. Headway has also been made in understanding hypercontractile conditions, including diffuse esophageal spasm and a newly described entity, spastic nutcracker. Ultimately, clinical experience will be the judge, but it seems likely that HREPT data, along with its well-defined functional implications, will improve the clinical management of esophageal motility disorders. PMID:20179690

  13. Esophageal Carcinoma in African Americans: A Five-Decade Experience

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hassan Ashktorab; Zahra Nouri; Mehdi Nouraie; Hadi Razjouyan; Edward E. Lee; Ehsan Dowlati; El-Waleed El-Seyed; Adeyinka Laiyemo; Hassan Brim; Duane T. Smoot

    Background  Esophageal cancer accounts for a considerable proportion of carcinomas of the upper gastrointestinal tract in African Americans.\\u000a Our aim was to describe the epidemiology of esophageal squamous cell cancer (ESCC) and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA) among\\u000a African Americans in the last five decades.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A total of 601 records of patients with documented esophageal cancer between 1959 and 2007 at Howard University

  14. Eosinophilic esophagitis as paraneoplastic syndrome in a patient with ganglioneuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Prader, S; Spalinger, J; Caduff, J; Hürlimann, S; Rischewski, J

    2015-05-01

    A 16-month-old boy presented with failure to thrive despite sufficient caloric intake, hypersalivation, abdominal pain, chronic diarrhea and blepharitis. An eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) was diagnosed by esophageal biopsy. Dietary restrictions and topical steroid treatment lead to no improvement. Further diagnostic work-up revealed an intrathoracal, paraspinal ganglioneuroblastoma. After operative extirpation of the tumour, all initial symptoms resolved. An esophageal control biopsy 4 weeks after tumour resection was normal. This is the first report of eosinophilic esophagitis as part of a paraneoplastic syndrome in a patient with a malignant disease other than a carcinoma. PMID:25985452

  15. Investigation of intra-esophageal air kinetics and esophageal sphincters in patients with total laryngectomy during esophageal speech.

    PubMed

    Bozan, Aykut; Vardar, Rukiye; Akyildiz, Serdar; Kirazli, Tayfun; Ogut, Fatih; Yildirim, Esra; Bor, Serhat

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the air kinetics of well- and poor-speaking patients and their upper (UES) and lower (LES) esophageal sphincter pressures . The esophageal speech capability of 23 total laryngectomy patients was assessed with the Wepman scale. LES and UES points and pressures were measured, and air kinetics were compared. All patients were male, with an average age of 58 years. Both the LES and UES pressures were not statistically different between good-speaking and poor-speaking patients (p > 0.05). The ability to speak was estimated only by looking at tracings. Good speakers are able to retain air successfully and on a long-term basis between the upper and lower esophageal sphincters. During short and/or rapid speech, these patients are able to rapidly suck and then expel the air from their upper esophagus. During long speeches, after sucking the air into their distal esophagus, they used the air in the upper part of the esophagus during the speech, only later seeming to fill the lower esophagus with the air as a possible reserve in the stomach. It has been shown that the basic requirement for speaking is the capacity to suck and store the air within the esophagus. For successful speech, the air should be stored inside the esophagus. MII technology contributes to our understanding of speech kinetics and occupies an important place in patient training as a biofeedback technique. PMID:25763572

  16. Sorption mechanisms of Sr and Pb on zeolitized tuffs from the Nevada test site as a function of pH and ionic strength

    SciTech Connect

    Um, Wooyong; Papelis, Charalambos

    2003-11-01

    The sorption of divalent strontium, Sr{sup 2+}, and divalent lead, Pb{sup 2+}, on zeolitized tuffs from the Nevada Test Site (NTS) was investigated using macroscopic batch sorption experiments and x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) as a function of geochemical parameters, including pH, ionic strength, and type of background electrolyte. The sorption of Sr{sup 2+} is dependent on the ionic strength of the medium and independent of pH, suggesting that Sr{sup 2+} sorption is controlled by ion exchange at permanent charge sites. At higher ionic strengths, background electrolyte cations compete effectively with Sr{sup 2+} for cation exchange sites and Sr{sup 2+} sorption is suppressed. At the two lower ionic strengths (0.01 and 0.1 M), Pb{sup 2+} sorption is also consistent with adsorption by cation exchange. At the highest ionic strength (1.0 M), however, exclusion of Pb{sup 2+} from cation exchange sites resulted in pH dependent adsorption, consistent with sorption on amphoteric surface hydroxyl sites or formation of surface precipitates. XAS was used to test these hypotheses. Based on XAS data, Sr{sup 2+} formed hydrated surface complexes coordinated with approximately eight oxygen atoms at an average distance of 2.60 ({+-}0.02) {angstrom}, regardless of conditions, consistent with the formation of mononuclear, outer-sphere surface complexes at the Ca2 site in the B channel of clinoptilolite. The coordination environment of sorbed Pb{sup 2+} was more complex and a function of pH and ionic strength. The first shell consisted of two to three oxygen atoms at an average distance of 2.20 ({+-}0.02) {angstrom}. At low pH and ionic strength, XAS data were consistent with Pb{sup 2+} adsorption at the Na1 and Ca2 cation exchange sites in channels A and B of clinoptilolite, respectively. At the highest ionic strength (1.0 M) and low pH, XAS provides evidence for formation of Pb{sup 2+} monodentate, corner-sharing inner-sphere complexes, while at higher pH, XAS analysis is consistent with formation of edge-sharing bidentate inner-sphere complexes. As surface coverage increased, appearance of a second Pb{sup 2+} peak suggests the formation of polynuclear, inner-sphere surface complexes. These results have significant implications for the transport of radionuclides and other contaminants at the NTS and other nuclear test sites and the modeling of these processes.

  17. Eosinophils in the Esophagus—Peptic or Allergic Eosinophilic Esophagitis? Case Series of Three Patients with Esophageal Eosinophilia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Ngo; Glenn T. Furuta; Donald A. Antonioli; Victor L. Fox

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES:Scattered eosinophils in the distal esophagus traditionally provide the hallmark for peptic esophagitis, but the upper limit of eosinophils and the longitudinal extent of peptic inflammation along the esophagus are unknown. Recently, adults and children with upper intestinal symptoms and >20 eosinophils\\/high-power field (eos\\/HPF) have been given the diagnosis of allergic esophagitis. Standardized diagnostic criteria for allergic esophagitis are lacking

  18. Effects of pH on the toxicity of cadmium, copper, lead and zinc to Folsomia candida Willem, 1902 (Collembola) in a standard laboratory test system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard D. Sandifer; Stephen P. Hopkin

    1996-01-01

    EC50s for cadmium, copper, lead and zinc were determined for juvenile production of Folsomia candida at pH6.0, 5.0 and 4.5 in a standard laboratory test system. In contrast to most previous studies where metal toxicity was increased at low pHs, in our experiments there was no clear relationship between soil acidity and EC50-reproduction in this species. The EC50-reproduction values (?g

  19. Eosinophilic Esophagitis in Brazilian Pediatric Patients

    PubMed Central

    Pinheiro, Mayra Isabel Correia; de Góes Cavalcanti, Luciano Pamplona; Honório, Rodrigo Schuler; de Alencar Moreno, Luís Hélder; Fortes, Mayara Carvalho; da Silva, Carlos Antônio Bruno

    2013-01-01

    We examined 11 pediatric patients with eosinophilic esophagitis with a tardy diagnosis. The symptoms were initially thought to be related to other diseases, leading to the use of inadequate therapeutic approaches. The patients were between 3 and 17 years old (mean 7.8 ± 3.8 years), and 8 of the patients were male. Common symptoms included abdominal pain, regurgitation, difficulty in gaining weight, vomiting, dysphagia, and coughing. The mean age for the onset of symptoms was 4.3 ± 2.9 years. Endoscopic findings included normal mucosa in five (45%) patients, thickening of the mucosa with longitudinal grooves in three (27%), erosive esophagitis in two (18%), and a whitish stippling in one (9%) patient. Treatment included the use of a topical corticosteroid for 10 patients. In eight (73%) cases, the treatment made the symptoms disappear. Ten patients underwent histopathological management after treatment, with a decrease in the number of eosinophils. PMID:24106430

  20. Esophageal perforation in a sword swallower.

    PubMed

    Scheinin, S A; Wells, P R

    2001-01-01

    We present the case of a 59-year-old man who sustained an esophageal perforation as a result of sword swallowing. An esophagogram established the diagnosis, and surgical repair was attempted. However, 19 days later, a persistent leak and deterioration of the patient's condition necessitated a transhiatal esophagectomy with a left cervical esophagogastrostomy. The patient recovered and has resumed his daily activities at the circus, with the exception of sword swallowing. This case report presents an unusual mechanism for a potentially lethal injury. Our search of the English-language medical literature revealed no other report of esophageal perforation resulting from sword swallowing. Management of such an injury is often difficult, and a favorable outcome is dependent on prompt diagnosis and treatment. PMID:11330747

  1. Esophageal Perforation in a Sword Swallower

    PubMed Central

    Scheinin, Scott A.; Wells, Patrick R.

    2001-01-01

    We present the case of a 59-year-old man who sustained an esophageal perforation as a result of sword swallowing. An esophagogram established the diagnosis, and surgical repair was attempted. However, 19 days later, a persistent leak and deterioration of the patient's condition necessitated a transhiatal esophagectomy with a left cervical esophagogastrostomy. The patient recovered and has resumed his daily activities at the circus, with the exception of sword swallowing. This case report presents an unusual mechanism for a potentially lethal injury. Our search of the English-language medical literature revealed no other report of esophageal perforation resulting from sword swallowing. Management of such an injury is often difficult, and a favorable outcome is dependent on prompt diagnosis and treatment. PMID:11330747

  2. Peroral endoscopic myotomy for esophageal achalasia

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Haruhiro; Ikeda, Haruo; Sato, Hiroki; Sato, Chiaki; Hokierti, Chananya

    2014-01-01

    Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) is one of the alternative treatment for achalasia. Due to concept of natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES), it becomes popular and widely accepted. With the endoluminal technique, submucosal tunnel was created followed by endoscopic myotomy. POEM is not only indicated in classical achalasia but also other abnormal esophageal motility disorders. Moreover, failures of endoscopic treatment or surgical attempted cases are not contraindicated for POEM. The second attempted POEM is also safe and technically feasible. Even though the legend of success of POEM is fruitful, the possible complications are very frightened. Good training and delicate practice will reduce rate of complications. This review provides a summary of current state-of-the-art of POEM, including indication equipments, technique and complications. This perfect procedure may become the treatment of choice of achalasia and some esophageal motility disorders in the near future. PMID:25333007

  3. Successful tubes treatment of esophageal fistula

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ning; Chen, Wei-xing; Li, You-ming; Xiang, Zhun; Gao, Ping; Fang, Ying

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To discuss the merits of “tubes treatment” for esophageal fistula (EF). Methods: A 66-year-old female who suffered from a bronchoesophageal and esophagothoratic fistula underwent a successful “three tubes treatment” (close chest drainage, negative pressure suction at the leak, and nasojejunal feeding tube), combination of antibiotics, antacid drugs and nutritional support. Another 55-year-old male patient developed an esophagopleural fistula (EPF) after esophageal carcinoma operation. He too was treated conservatively with the three tubes strategy as mentioned above towards a favorable outcome. Results: The two patients recovered with the tubes treatment, felt well and became able to eat and drink, presenting no complaint. Conclusion: Tubes treatment is an effective basic way for EF. It may be an alternative treatment option. PMID:17910112

  4. Medical management of iatrogenic esophageal perforations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ryan D. Madanick

    2008-01-01

    Opinion statement  Esophageal perforation is an uncommon, potentially disastrous occurrence with high mortality rates even when managed with\\u000a surgery. Over the past few decades, several case series have shown that nonoperative management is a feasible option in some\\u000a patients, although the criteria for selecting such patients are neither firmly established nor accepted by all those who manage\\u000a these critical patients. The

  5. Significance of feeding dysfunction in eosinophilic esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Menard-Katcher, Calies; Henry, Michelle; Furuta, Glenn T; Atkins, Dan; Maune, Nancy Creskoff; Haas, Angela M

    2014-01-01

    Feeding dysfunction is a frequent presenting symptom of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). Here we present 3 children of various ages whose manifestations of EoE associated feeding dysfunction led to significant and life altering impact on their growth and development. Early identification of presenting symptoms of EoE will allow for prompt diagnosis and initiation of appropriate treatments. Recognition of salient features of dysfunction and treatment by feeding therapists and nutritionists led to symptom resolution and growth. PMID:25152606

  6. Total Thoracic Esophagectomy for Esophageal Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vladimir A Anikin; Kieran G McManus; Alastair N Graham; James A McGuigan

    1997-01-01

    Background: Many current methods of esophageal resection have drawbacks that result in inadequate proximal resection, inadequate lymphadenectomy, and difficult gastric and splenic access. We describe a technique that allows reliable and safe access to the chest, abdomen, and neck.Study Design: From 1988 to 1995, 113 patients (82 men; mean age 65.3 ± 4.5 years) with carcinoma of the esophagus or

  7. Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: Pathology and prognosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroko Ide; Tsutomu Nakamura; Kazuhiko Hayashi; Takeshi Endo; Ataru Kobayashi; Reiki Eguchi; Fujio Hanyu

    1994-01-01

    Between 1985 and 1992 a total of 403 patients with resected thoracic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma were evaluated histopathologically, and various pathologic findings related to survival were examined. Concerning depth of tumor invasion, 8 (2%) cases were pTis, 110 (27%) were pT1, 48 (12%) were pT2, 202 (50%) were pT3, and 35 (9%) were pT4. Lymphatic invasion was detected in

  8. Eosinophilic Esophagitis in Infants and Toddlers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott P. Pentiuk; Claire Kane Miller; Ajay Kaul

    2007-01-01

    Feeding refusal is often described in conjunction with the diagnosis of eosinophilic esophagitis (EE) in pediatric patients;\\u000a however, there are little data regarding the specific clinical manifestations and effective management of this condition in\\u000a very young children. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presentation of EE in infants and toddlers referred to the\\u000a Interdisciplinary Feeding Team Clinic

  9. Esophageal cancer in Germany is associated with Epstein-Barr-virus but not with papillomaviruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Awerkiew; E. Bollschweiler; R. Metzger; P. M. Schneider; A. H. Hölscher; H. Pfister

    2003-01-01

    Esophageal squamous cell carcinomas ( n=23) and adenocarcinomas ( n=14) from German patients were tested for the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) and Epstein-Barr-Virus (EBV) DNA. No DNA for either genital HPV or epidermodysplasia verruciformis-associated HPV was detected in any tumor. In contrast, 35% of squamous cell carcinomas and 36% of adenocarcinomas were shown to contain EBV DNA by nested

  10. Rapid cervical phIGFBP-1 test in asymptomatic twin pregnancies: role in mid-pregnancy prediction of spontaneous preterm delivery.

    PubMed

    Fichera, Anna; Prefumo, Federico; Zanardini, Cristina; Stagnati, Valentina; Frusca, Tiziana

    2014-05-01

    Objective This study aimed to assess the accuracy of a second-trimester rapid cervical phosphorylated insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (phIGFBP-1) test to predict spontaneous preterm delivery in asymptomatic twin pregnancies. Method During the second trimester, a rapid test to detect phIGFBP-1 in cervical secretions was performed on consecutive twin pregnancies between 2009 and 2011, to evaluate its predictive value for spontaneous preterm delivery at <28, <30, <32 and <34?weeks' gestation. Excluded were patients with cerclage, pessary or undergoing indicated preterm delivery. Results A total of 197 pregnancies fulfilled the study criteria and were tested at a median gestational age of 20.3?weeks (interquartile range: 20-20.6). Median gestational age at delivery was 36.4?weeks. Spontaneous preterm delivery at <34?weeks occurred in 21 (10.7%) cases, at <32?weeks in 9 (4.5%), at <30?weeks in 6 (3%) and at <28?weeks in 4 (2%). Seventeen patients (8.7%) were test positive: In this group, three patients delivered before 34?weeks' gestation, whereas none delivered at <32?weeks. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of the test for spontaneous preterm delivery <34?weeks were 14% (95% confidence interval, 3-37%), 92% (86-95%), 17% (4-44%) and 90% (84-93%), respectively, with a positive and negative likelihood ratio of 1.79 (0.56-5.74) and 0.93 (0.78-1.10). Conclusions In the second trimester, rapid cervical phIGFBP-1 testing in asymptomatic twin pregnancies has a poor performance in predicting spontaneous preterm delivery. PMID:24436153

  11. Ion transport mechanisms linked to bicarbonate secretion in the esophageal submucosal glands

    PubMed Central

    Nakhoul, Hani N.; Kalliny, Medhat I.; Gyftopoulos, Alex; Rabon, Edd; Doetjes, Rienk; Brown, Karen; Nakhoul, Nazih L.

    2011-01-01

    The esophageal submucosal glands (SMG) secrete HCO3? and mucus into the esophageal lumen, where they contribute to acid clearance and epithelial protection. This study characterized the ion transport mechanisms linked to HCO3? secretion in SMG. We localized ion transporters using immunofluorescence, and we examined their expression by RT-PCR and in situ hybridization. We measured HCO3? secretion by using pH stat and the isolated perfused esophagus. Using double labeling with Na+-K+-ATPase as a marker, we localized Na+-coupled bicarbonate transporter (NBCe1) and Cl?-HCO3? exchanger (SLC4A2/AE2) to the basolateral membrane of duct cells. Expression of cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator channel (CFTR) was confirmed by immunofluorescence, RT-PCR, and in situ hybridization. We identified anion exchanger SLC26A6 at the ducts' luminal membrane and Na+-K+-2Cl? (NKCC1) at the basolateral membrane of mucous and duct cells. pH stat experiments showed that elevations in cAMP induced by forskolin or IBMX increased HCO3? secretion. Genistein, an activator of CFTR, which does not increase intracellular cAMP, also stimulated HCO3? secretion, whereas glibenclamide, a Cl? channel blocker, and bumetanide, a Na+-K+-2Cl? blocker, decreased it. CFTRinh-172, a specific CFTR channel blocker, inhibited basal HCO3? secretion as well as stimulation of HCO3? secretion by IBMX. This is the first report on the presence of CFTR channels in the esophagus. The role of CFTR in manifestations of esophageal disease in cystic fibrosis patients remains to be determined. PMID:21474426

  12. Use of anti-inflammatory drugs and lower esophageal sphincter relaxing drugs and risk of esophageal and gastric cancers

    PubMed Central

    Fortuny, Joan; Johnson, Christine; Bohlke, Kari; Chow, Wong-Ho; Hart, Gene; Kucera, Gena; Mujumdar, Urvi; Ownby, Dennis; Wells, Karen; Yood, Marianne Ulcickas; Engel, Lawrence S.

    2007-01-01

    Background and aims The incidence of esophageal and gastric cardia adenocarcinoma has increased in western countries in recent decades for largely unknown reasons. We investigated whether use of lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxing drugs was related to an increased risk of esophageal and gastric cardia adenocarcinoma, and whether use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs was related to a reduced risk of esophageal and gastric cancers. Methods We examined these associations using administrative databases in a case-control study in two integrated health care delivery systems. Cases were incident esophageal adenocarcinomas (n= 163) and squamous cell carcinomas (n= 114), and gastric cardia (n= 176) and non-cardia adenocarcinomas (n= 320), diagnosed between 1980 and 2002 in one health system and between 1993 and 2002 in the other. Matched controls (n= 3996) were selected. Complete prescription information was available for the study period. Results Prescription of corticosteroids was associated with a decreased risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma (OR= 0.6, 95% CI= 0.4-0.9), esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OR= 0.4, 95% CI= 0.2-0.6) and gastric non-cardia carcinoma (OR= 0.4, 95% CI=0.3-0.6). Ever use of pharmacy-purchased aspirin was associated with 30-60% decreased risks of the studied cancers. As a group, LES-relaxing drugs showed little evidence of association with increased risk of any esophageal or gastric cancer. Conclusions Corticosteroid and aspirin use were associated with significantly decreased risks of esophageal and gastric cancer. Lower esophageal sphincter relaxing drugs as a group did not affect these risks, although we had limited power to assess individual drugs. The possibility that corticosteroids and aspirin may reduce esophageal cancer risk warrants further consideration. PMID:17644046

  13. A novel approach to cancer staging: application to esophageal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Blackstone, Eugene H.; Apperson-Hansen, Carolyn; Rice, Thomas W.

    2009-01-01

    A novel 3-step random forests methodology involving survival data (survival forests), ordinal data (multiclass forests), and continuous data (regression forests) is introduced for cancer staging. The methodology is illustrated for esophageal cancer using worldwide esophageal cancer collaboration data involving 4627 patients. PMID:19502615

  14. Evolving Options in the Management of Esophageal Perforation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clayton J. Brinster; Sunil Singhal; Lawrence Lee; M. Blair Marshall; Larry R. Kaiser; John C. Kucharczuk

    2004-01-01

    Esophageal perforation remains a devastating event that is difficult to diagnose and manage. The majority of injuries are iatrogenic and the increasing use of endo- scopic procedures can be expected to lead to an even higher incidence of esophageal perforation in coming years. Accurate diagnosis and effective treatment depend on early recognition of clinical features and accurate interpretation of diagnostic

  15. Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma: the scope of the problem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. S. Levine; J. B. Herman; E. E. Furth

    1995-01-01

    Conclusion  Barrett's esophagus is probably a more common condition than previously recognized. Although the classic radiologic findings of Barrett's esophagus are present in only a small percentage of patients, this condition should be suspected whenever reflux esophagitis or peptic strictures are demonstrated on double-contrast esophagography. Recent literature also suggests that Barrett's carcinomas comprise up to 50% of all esophageal cancers. Because

  16. Photodynamic Therapy for Barrett's Esophagus and Esophageal Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Qumseya, Bashar J; David, Waseem; Wolfsen, Herbert C

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the use of photodynamic therapy (PDT) in patients with Barrett's esophagus and esophageal carcinoma. We describe the history of PDT, mechanics, photosensitizers for PDT in patients with esophageal disease. Finally, we discuss its utility and limitations in this setting. PMID:23423151

  17. Vitamin supplement use and risk for oral and esophageal cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeanine Barone; Emanuela Taioli; James R. Hebert; Ernst L. Wynder

    1992-01-01

    In a hospital?based case?control study, 290 oral cancer cases and 133 esophageal cancer cases were queried as to smoking status, alcohol consumption, and dietary exposures, including vitamin supplement history. Among oral cancer cases, vitamin E use appeared to exert a protective effect. Vitamins C and E had protective effects among esophageal cancer cases. When stratified by smoking status, the protective

  18. Eosinophilic Esophagitis: Red on Microscopy, White on Endoscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alex Straumann; Hans-Peter Spichtin; Kathleen A. Bucher; Pius Heer; Hans-Uwe Simon

    2004-01-01

    Background\\/Aims: The presenting symptom of eosinophilic esophagitis, a chronic TH2-type inflammatory disease, is uniform dysphagia attacks. Histology reveals a dense mucosal infiltration with eosinophils. Unfortunately, endoscopic findings are often unremarkable or misleading. This study characterizes the endoscopic manifestations of eosinophilic esophagitis and analyzes the nature and clinical features of the frequently observed white alterations. Methods: Thirty adult patients (22 males,

  19. Clinical and Endoscopic Features of Eosinophilic Esophagitis in Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Croese; Stephen K. Fairley; John W. Masson; André K. H. Chong; David A. Whitaker; Peter A. Kanowski; Neal I. Walker

    2003-01-01

    BackgroundEosinophilic esophagitis in adults is regarded as unusual, being diagnosed mostly in young men presenting with dysphagia. Mucosal furrows are a sentinel endoscopic feature. This study examined the demographic and clinical profile of adults with eosinophilic esophagitis seen from 1981 to 2002.

  20. Depleting ABCE1 expression induces apoptosis and inhibits the ability of proliferation and migration of human esophageal carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Bo; Gong, Xiangnan; Zhou, Hongli; Xiong, Fei; Wang, Siwang

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study aims to explore the clinical characteristics of ABCE1 in esophageal cancers and its roles in the proliferation, invasiveness, migration and apoptosis of the esophageal carcinoma Eca109 cell line. Methods: The expression of ABCE1 and its target protein-RNase L, were first studied in tumor tissues of esophageal carcinoma and adjacent non-tumor tissues. The siRNA green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression vector of ABCE1 was prepared and transfected into the esophageal carcinoma Eca109 cells, then the fluorescence microscope was used to study the transfection efficiency. The MTT assay, cell invasion, the transwell and scratch assay were used to study cell proliferation and migration activity; the apoptosis rate was tested by flow cytometry. Western blot and RT-PCR assay were adopted to measure their silencing efficacy. Results: ABCE1 expression is low in the adjacent non-tumor tissues while the expression is high in the esophageal carcinoma; the expression is reversely proportional to the differentiation degrees. The expression of RNase L was in contrary to ABCE1. After transfected with ABCE1-siRNA, the proliferation, invasiveness and migration capabilities of cells decreased significantly whilst the apoptosis rate enhanced greatly (P<0.01). Meanwhile, the expression of ABCE1 in Eca109 cells was blocked (P<0.01) while the expression of RNase L increased significantly (P<0.01). Conclusion: ABCE1 is closely connected with the pathogenesis and development of esophageal carcinoma, which act through the cellular pathways of 2-5A/RNase L. PMID:24551278

  1. Oropharyngeal/Esophageal Candidiasis ("Thrush")

    MedlinePLUS

    ... how it can be prevented… Sources of Infection Candida species are normal inhabitants of the mouth, throat… Diagnosis & Testing See your healthcare provider… Treatment & Outcomes Antifungal treatment… Additional Information Resources and publications… ...

  2. Proton pump inhibitor responsive esophageal eosinophilia, a distinct disease entity?

    PubMed Central

    Munday, William; Zhang, Xuchen

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested the existence of a patient population with esophageal eosinophilia that responds to proton pump inhibitor therapy. These patients are being referred to as having proton pump inhibitor responsive esophageal eosinophilia (PPI-REE), which is currently classified as a distinct and separate disease entity from both gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). The therapeutic effect of proton pump inhibitor (PPI) on PPI-REE is thought to act directly at the level of the esophageal mucosa with an anti-inflammatory capacity, and completely independent of gastric acid suppression. The purpose of this manuscript is to review the mechanistic data of the proposed immune modulation/anti-inflammatory role of the PPI at the esophageal mucosa, and the existence of PPI-REE as a distinct disease entity from GERD and EoE. PMID:25132757

  3. A fully resolved active musculo-mechanical model for esophageal transport

    E-print Network

    Kou, Wenjun; Griffith, Boyce E; Pandolfino, John E; Kahrilas, Peter J; Patankar, Neelesh A

    2015-01-01

    Esophageal transport is a physiological process that mechanically transports an ingested food bolus from the pharynx to the stomach via the esophagus, a multi-layered muscular tube. This process involves interactions between the bolus, the esophagus, and the neurally coordinated activation of the esophageal muscles. In this work, we use an immersed boundary (IB) approach to simulate peristaltic transport in the esophagus. The bolus is treated as a viscous fluid that is actively transported by the muscular esophagus, which is modeled as an actively contracting, fiber-reinforced tube. A simplified version of our model is verified by comparison to an analytic solution to the tube dilation problem. Three different complex models of the multi-layered esophagus, which differ in their activation patterns and the layouts of the mucosal layers, are then extensively tested. To our knowledge, these simulations are the first of their kind to incorporate the bolus, the multi-layered esophagus tube, and muscle activation i...

  4. An esophageal probe for measuring three-dimensional electric fields during external cardiac defibrillation.

    PubMed

    Fitch, David A; de Jongh Curry, Amy L

    2012-03-01

    External defibrillation is a common treatment for the cardiac arrhythmia atrial fibrillation. Electrode placement has been shown to affect defibrillation efficacy and required energy levels. We suggest investigating the relationship between esophageal electric fields (EEFs) and atrial defibrillation thresholds to determine the feasibility of creating patient-specific electrode placements using EEFs. This study presents the design and implementation of an esophageal probe (EP) that accurately measures three-dimensional electric fields. The root-mean-square error of the EP was 1.69% as determined by measurements performed in an electrolytic tank. The EP also performed well during in vivo testing in a pig. There was a strong positive relationship between EEF(2)s and applied energy during defibrillation strength shocks. The EEF measurements were also repeatable, with less than 4.24% difference between repeated shocks. This is the first description of a probe designed specifically for measuring electric fields in the esophagus. PMID:22373898

  5. Bevacizumab and Combination Chemotherapy Before Surgery in Treating Patients With Locally Advanced Esophageal or Stomach Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-03-17

    Adenocarcinoma of the Esophagus; Adenocarcinoma of the Gastroesophageal Junction; Diffuse Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Intestinal Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Mixed Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Esophagus; Stage IA Esophageal Cancer; Stage IA Gastric Cancer; Stage IB Esophageal Cancer; Stage IB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIA Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIB Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIA Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIB Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIC Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIIC Gastric Cancer

  6. Advanced esophageal cancer with tracheobronchial fistula successfully treated by?esophageal bypass surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Masahiro; Ishiguro, Hideyuki; Tanaka, Tatsuya; Takeyama, Hiromitsu

    2015-01-01

    Introduction When esophageal cancer infiltrates the respiratory tract and forms a fistula, a patient’s quality of life falls remarkably. Abstinence from oral feeding is necessary to prevent respiratory complications including pneumonia. Surgery is sometimes necessary to maintain quality of life. The aim of this study was to examine clinical outcomes of esophageal cancer complicated by tracheobronchial fistula. Presentation of case Twelve patients who underwent esophageal bypass between 2006 and 2011 in our hospital were studied. Patient characteristics, therapeutic course, outcome, and operation type were compared. Six patients among 8 who could not tolerate oral feeding could do so after bypass surgery. Ten patients were able to enjoy oral intake up until the last few days of life. Three patients survived for more than 10 months. In spite of undergoing an operation, 1 patient survived for only 2 months and another for 4 months. The only complication was postoperative delirium in 1 patient. Discussion While surgical bypass is more invasive than procedures such as endoscopic stenting, we had few complications after operative intervention and were able to maintain quality of life in our patients. Conclusion This bypass procedure is a treatment option for patients with tracheobronchial fistula from advanced esophageal cancer. PMID:25765740

  7. Reflux Esophagitis: Sequelae and Differential Diagnosis in Infants and Children Including Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beverly Barrett Dahms

    2004-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a common condition in infants and children and has many clinical mimics. Most pediatric pathology departments process many mucosal biopsies from the proximal gastrointestinal tract to evaluate the presence or absence of reflux esophagitis. Since this subject was last reviewed in the 1997 edition of Perspectives in Pediatric Pathology devoted to gastrointestinal diseases in children

  8. [Anti-metastasis of celastrol on esophageal cancer cells and its mechanism].

    PubMed

    Xu, Jia; Wu, Chun-Lian

    2015-06-25

    Celastrol is a quinone methyl terpene extracted from the traditional Chinese medicine Tripterygium wilfordii, which has anti-inflammatory, immune suppression and pharmacological activities, as well as anti-tumor activity. The effects of celastrol on adhesion, migration and invasion of esophageal cancer cells were investigated in this experiment. Human esophageal cancer cell line ECA-109 was used. The inhibition of ECA-109 cells' adhesion induced by celastrol was measured by MTT test. The inhibition of ECA-109 cells' migration induced by celastrol was measured by scratch test. The invasion inhibition of ECA-109 cells induced by celastrol was measured by Transwell experiment. Quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot were used to determine the effects of different concentrations of celastrol on integrin family and Wnt signaling pathway in ECA-109 cells. The results showed that celastrol inhibited adhesion, migration and invasion of ECA-109 cells and expressions of integrins ?1, ?4, ?v and ?-Catenin, LRP6 in Wnt signal pathway in a dose-dependent manner. Therefore the study suggests that celastrol could inhibit the cell metastasis of esophageal cancer by inhibiting the Wnt signaling pathway and the expressions of integrins. PMID:26109308

  9. Relationship between HER-2 overexpression and brain metastasis in esophageal cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Abu Hejleh, Taher; DeYoung, Barry R; Engelman, Eric; Deutsch, Jeremy M; Zimmerman, Bridget; Halfdanarson, Thorvardur R; Berg, Daniel J; Parekh, Kalpaj R; Lynch, William R; Iannettoni, Mark D; Bhatia, Sudershan; Clamon, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To study if HER-2 overexpression by locally advanced esophageal cancers increase the chance of brain metastasis following esophagectomy. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of esophageal cancer patients who underwent esophagectomy at University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics between 2000 and 2010. Data analyzed consisted of demographic and clinical variables. The brain metastasis tissue was assayed for HER-2 overexpression utilizing the FDA approved DAKO Hercept Test®. RESULTS: One hundred and forty two patients were reviewed. Median age was 64 years (36-86 years). Eighty eight patients (62%) received neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Pathological complete and partial responses were achieved in 17 (19%) and 71 (81%) patients. Cancer relapsed in 43/142 (30%) patients. The brain was the first site of relapse in 9/43 patients (21%, 95% CI: 10%-36%). HER-2 immunohistochemistry testing of the brain metastasis tissue showed that 5/9 (56%) cases overexpressed HER-2 (3+ staining). CONCLUSION: HER-2 overexpression might be associated with increased risk of brain metastasis in esophageal cancer patients following esophagectomy. Further studies will be required to validate this observation. PMID:22645633

  10. Current endoscopic methods of radical therapy in early esophageal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mocanu, A; Bârla, R; Hoara, P; Constantinoiu, S

    2015-01-01

    During the last three decades, there has been an increasing incidence of the esophageal cancer at the global level, approx. 400,000 new esophageal cancers being currently diagnosed annually. This is the eighth leading cause of cancer incidence and the sixth leading cause of cancer death overall. If we refer to the countries of Western Europe and North America, we could see an increase in the esophageal adenocarcinoma in detriment of squamous cancer. As for the Asian region, referring in particular to China and Japan, 9 out of 10 esophageal cancers are squamous cell carcinomas. Considering that the incidence of gastric cancer in Japan is very high, the endoscopic screenings performed inevitably led to an increased rate of early detection of esophageal cancer, reaching approximately 20% of all esophageal cancers detected. This has led to the possibility of developing therapeutic endoscopic techniques with radical visa that we will describe while presenting comparative data from literature. Currently, however, there are not enough data on the effectiveness of these types of therapies, compared to surgery, in order to be transformed into standard therapeutic endoscopic treatment for early esophageal cancer. However, the combined therapy, resection/ endoscopic ablation + chemoradiotherapy, appears as an alternative to be taken into account. Abbreviations EEC = esophageal early cancer, BE = Barrett’s esophagus, HGD = High-grade dysphagia, EUS = Ultra sound endoscopy, CT = Computer tomograph, UGE = Upper gastro endoscopy, PET-CT = Positron Emission Tomography, FNAB = Fine needle aspiration biopsy, EMR = Esophageal mucosal resection, ESD = Esophageal submucosal dissection, SCC = Squamous cellular cancer, PCT = Poli-chemotherapy, RT- Radio-therapy. PMID:25866570

  11. Circumferential intramural esophageal dissection successfully treated by endoscopic procedure and metal stent insertion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seong Hun Kim; Seung-Ok Lee

    2005-01-01

    Spontaneous intramural esophageal dissection is a rare disorder characterized by a lengthy laceration between the mucosal\\u000a and submucosal layers of the esophageal wall, without perforation. The majority of previously reported cases of spontaneous\\u000a intramural esophageal dissection were partial, and the circumferential type of intramural esophageal dissection has not been\\u000a reported previously. Most spontaneous intramural esophageal dissection responds to conservative management,

  12. High dose intravenous methylprednisolone resolves esophageal stricture resistant to balloon dilatation with intralesional injection of dexamethasone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nobuyuki Morikawa; Toshiro Honna; Tatsuo Kuroda; Koji Watanabe; Hideaki Tanaka; Hajime Takayasu; Akihiro Fujino; Hiroko Tanemura; Makoto Matsukubo

    2008-01-01

    One of the most serious problems in patients with long-gap esophageal atresia or corrosive esophagitis is esophageal stricture,\\u000a which may require esophageal resection and replacement. We describe two cases with persistent esophageal stricture successfully\\u000a managed by high dose intravenous methylprednisolone following balloon dilatation. High-dose methylprednisolone with gradual\\u000a tapering (daily 25, 15, 10, 5, 2 mg\\/kg for 4 days each) plus cimetidine and

  13. Unilateral Cervical Nodal Metastasis Is an Independent Prognostic Factor for Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Patients Undergoing Chemoradiotherapy: A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Lei; Li, Qiao-Qiao; He, Liru; Liu, Shiliang; Shen, Jingxian; Liu, Meng-Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine the prognostic significance of unilateral cervical lymph nodal metastasis (CLNM) in patients with inoperable thoracic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and to identify significant prognostic factors in these patients. Patients and methods This retrospective study involved 395 patients with inoperable esophageal SCC treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy. The patients were classified into three groups according to their cervical lymph node status: group A, no evidence of CLNM; group B, unilateral CLNM; group C, other distant metastases. Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were calculated. Significant prognostic factors were identified using univariate and multivariate analyses. Results The 3-year OS rates in groups A, B and C were 46.7%, 33.5% and 8.3%, respectively (p<0.001, log-rank test). The corresponding PFS rates were 40.7%, 26.4% and 4.7% (p<0.001, log-rank test). Group B had a similar prognosis to that of group A and better 3-year OS (p?=?0.009) and PFS (p?=?0.006) rates than those of group C. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that T stage, chemotherapy regimen and cervical lymph node involvement were independent prognostic factors affecting OS and PFS. Conclusions Compared to other distant metastases, unilateral CLNM is associated with longer OS in esophageal SCC and should be regarded as a regional disease. Sex, T stage, concurrent chemotherapy modality and cervical lymph node involvement are independent predictors of survival in esophageal SCC. PMID:24979040

  14. Photographic documentation of the High Power Engine Propulsion HiPEP after a duration test. Also ph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Photographic documentation of the High Power Engine Propulsion HiPEP after a duration test. Also photographed are the instrumentation and installation articles to reveal post test conditions such as corrosion and pitting.

  15. Emerging Therapeutic Options for Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Dougherty, Timothy; Stephen, Sindu; Borum, Marie L.

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic inflammatory condition of the esophagus that often occurs in atopic persons. Management strategies include pharmacotherapy, dietary modification, and endoscopic therapy, although patients will often have a relapsing and remitting course. Currently, the primary pharmacotherapy for EoE consists of corticosteroids. Immuno-modulators, leukotriene antagonists, biologies, and monoclonal antibodies are currently under study for treatment of EoE. The role of immunoglobulin E-mediated allergic reactions has been well documented and may provide insight into the etiology and effective therapy of EoE. PMID:24803874

  16. Cell sheets engineering for esophageal regenerative medicine

    PubMed Central

    Kanai, Nobuo; Yamato, Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    Recently, cell-based therapies, regenerative medicine, and tissue engineering have been progressing rapidly. We have developed a novel strategy for regenerative medicine to recover tissue functions using temperature-responsive cell culture surfaces. To overcome of conventional methods such as the usage of single-cell suspension injection, we have applied transplantable cell sheets fabricated with temperature-responsive culture surfaces for cell delivery. In the field of gastroenterology, transplantable cell sheets from autologous oral mucosal epithelial cells can prevent esophageal stricture following extensive endoscopic mucosal resection. PMID:25333004

  17. Testing the limits of rational design by engineering pH sensitivity into membrane-active peptides.

    PubMed

    Wiedman, Gregory; Wimley, William C; Hristova, Kalina

    2015-04-01

    In this work, we sought to rationally design membrane-active peptides that are triggered by low pH to form macromolecular-sized pores in lipid bilayers. Such peptides could have broad utility in biotechnology and in nanomedicine as cancer therapeutics or drug delivery vehicles that promote release of macromolecules from endosomes. Our approach to rational design was to combine the properties of a pH-independent peptide, MelP5, which forms large pores allowing passage of macromolecules, with the properties of two pH-dependent membrane-active peptides, pHlip and GALA. We created two hybrid sequences, MelP5_?4 and MelP5_?6, by using the distribution of acidic residues on pHlip and GALA as a guide to insert acidic amino acids into the amphipathic helix of MelP5. We show that the new peptides bind to lipid bilayers and acquire secondary structure in a pH-dependent manner. The peptides also destabilize bilayers in a pH-dependent manner, such that lipid vesicles release the small molecules ANTS/DPX at low pH only. Thus, we were successful in designing pH-triggered pore-forming peptides. However, no macromolecular release was observed under any conditions. Therefore, we abolished the unique macromolecular poration properties of MelP5 by introducing pH sensitivity into its sequence. We conclude that the properties of pHlip, GALA, and MelP5 are additive, but only partially so. We propose that this lack of additivity is a limitation in the rational design of novel membrane-active peptides, and that high-throughput approaches to discovery will be critical for continued progress in the field. PMID:25572997

  18. Endoscopic assessment and management of early esophageal adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Hammoud, Ghassan M; Hammad, Hazem; Ibdah, Jamal A

    2014-01-01

    Esophageal carcinoma affects more than 450000 people worldwide and the incidence is rapidly increasing. In the United States and Europe, esophageal adenocarcinoma has superseded esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in its incidence. Esophageal cancer has a high mortality rates secondary to the late presentation of most patients at advanced stages. Endoscopic screening is recommended for patients with multiple risk factors for cancer in Barrett’s esophagus. These risk factors include chronic gastroesophageal reflux disease, hiatal hernia, advanced age, male sex, white race, cigarette smoking, and obesity. The annual risk of esophageal cancer is approximately 0.25% for patients without dysplasia and 6% for patients with high-grade dysplasia. Twenty percent of all esophageal adenocarcinoma in the United States is early stage with disease confined to the mucosa or submucosa. The significant morbidity and mortality of esophagectomy make endoscopic treatment an attractive option. The American Gastroenterological Association recommends endoscopic eradication therapy for patients with high-grade dysplasia. Endoscopic modalities for treatment of early esophageal adenocarcinoma include endoscopic resection techniques and endoscopic ablative techniques such as radiofrequency ablation, photodynamic therapy and cryoablation. Endoscopic therapy should be precluded to patients with no evidence of lymphovascular invasion. Local tumor recurrence is low after endoscopic therapy and is predicted by poor differentiation of tumor, positive lymph node and submucosal invasion. Surgical resection should be offered to patients with deep submucosal invasion. PMID:25132925

  19. Combining radiation with autophagy inhibition enhances suppression of tumor growth and angiogenesis in esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yongshun; Li, Xiaohong; Guo, Leiming; Wu, Xiaoyuan; He, Chunyu; Zhang, Song; Xiao, Yanjing; Yang, Yuanyuan; Hao, Daxuan

    2015-08-01

    Radiotherapy is an effective treatment for esophageal cancer; however, tumor resistance to radiation remains a major biological problem. The present study aimed to investigate whether inhibition of autophagy may decrease overall tumor resistance to radiation. The effects of the autophagy inhibitor 3?methyladenine (3?MA) on radiosensitivity were tested in the EC9706 human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cell line by colony formation assay. Furthermore, the synergistic cytotoxic effects of 3?MA and radiation were assessed in a tumor xenograft model in nude mice. Mechanistic studies were performed using flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. The results of the present study demonstrated that radiation induced an accumulation of autophagosomes and 3?MA effectively inhibited radiation?induced autophagy. Inhibition of autophagy was shown to significantly increase the radiosensitivity of the tumors in vitro and in vivo. The enhancement ratio of sensitization in EC9706 cells was 1.76 when the cells were treated with 10 mM 3?MA, alongside ionizing radiation. In addition, autophagy inhibition increased apoptosis and reduced tumor cell proliferation. The combination of radiation and autophagy inhibition resulted in a significant reduction in tumor volume and vasculature in the murine model. The present study demonstrated in vitro and in vivo that radiation?induced autophagy has a protective effect against cell death, and inhibition of autophagy is able to enhance the radiosensitivity of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:25891159

  20. Involvement of interleukin-18 in the pathogenesis of human eosinophilic esophagitis.

    PubMed

    Niranjan, Rituraj; Rajavelu, Priya; Ventateshaiah, Sathisha Upparahalli; Shukla, Jai Shankar; Zaidi, Asifa; Mariswamy, Siddesha Jalahalli; Mattner, Jochen; Fortgang, Ilana; Kowalczyk, Monika; Balart, Luis; Shukla, Anshi; Mishra, Anil

    2015-04-01

    IL-18 is induced in food allergy and EoE is food allergen-induced disease. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis whether IL-18 is involved in food allergen-induced EoE pathogenesis. Accordingly, we examined normal SPT+ and SPT- EoE patient blood and biopsy samples for IL-18, IL-18R?, ICAM and VCAM expression. Herein, we show increased IL-18 level is highly significant in food allergen SPT+ compared to SPT- EoE patients. We also report that IL-18R?+ cells and mRNA levels are induced in the esophageal biopsies of EoE patients and blood IL-18 levels correlate with esophageal eosinophilia (P<0.01). Additionally, we report that the levels of esophageal eosinophil and mast cells correlate with ICAM expression in human EoE. Mechanistically, we show that IL-18 in vitro stimulates iNKT cells and endothelial cells and induce eosinophil active cytokines IL-5 and IL-13. We provide the evidence that IL-18 is critical cytokine involved in activation of iNKT cells and ICAM in promoting human EoE. PMID:25638412

  1. Combining radiation with autophagy inhibition enhances suppression of tumor growth and angiogenesis in esophageal cancer

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, YONGSHUN; LI, XIAOHONG; GUO, LEIMING; WU, XIAOYUAN; HE, CHUNYU; ZHANG, SONG; XIAO, YANJING; YANG, YUANYUAN; HAO, DAXUAN

    2015-01-01

    Radiotherapy is an effective treatment for esophageal cancer; however, tumor resistance to radiation remains a major biological problem. The present study aimed to investigate whether inhibition of autophagy may decrease overall tumor resistance to radiation. The effects of the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA) on radiosensitivity were tested in the EC9706 human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cell line by colony formation assay. Furthermore, the synergistic cytotoxic effects of 3-MA and radiation were assessed in a tumor xenograft model in nude mice. Mechanistic studies were performed using flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. The results of the present study demonstrated that radiation induced an accumulation of autophagosomes and 3-MA effectively inhibited radiation-induced autophagy. Inhibition of autophagy was shown to significantly increase the radiosensitivity of the tumors in vitro and in vivo. The enhancement ratio of sensitization in EC9706 cells was 1.76 when the cells were treated with 10 mM 3-MA, alongside ionizing radiation. In addition, autophagy inhibition increased apoptosis and reduced tumor cell proliferation. The combination of radiation and autophagy inhibition resulted in a significant reduction in tumor volume and vasculature in the murine model. The present study demonstrated in vitro and in vivo that radiation-induced autophagy has a protective effect against cell death, and inhibition of autophagy is able to enhance the radiosensitivity of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:25891159

  2. Four-dimensional computed tomographic analysis of esophageal mobility during normal respiration

    SciTech Connect

    Dieleman, Edith [Department of Radiation Oncology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Senan, Suresh [Department of Radiation Oncology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)]. E-mail: s.senan@vumc.nl; Vincent, Andrew [Department of Bioinformatics, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Lagerwaard, Frank J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Slotman, Ben J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Soernsen de Koste, John R. van [Department of Radiation Oncology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2007-03-01

    Background: Chemo-radiotherapy for thoracic tumors can result in high-grade radiation esophagitis. Treatment planning to reduce esophageal irradiation requires organ motion to be accounted for. In this study, esophageal mobility was assessed using four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT). Methods and Materials: Thoracic 4DCT scans were acquired on a 16-slice CT scanner in 29 patients. The outer esophageal wall was contoured in two extreme phases of respiration in 9 patients with nonesophageal malignancies. The displacement of the center of contour was measured at 2-cm intervals. In 20 additional patients with Stage I lung cancer, the esophagus was contoured in all 10 phases of each 4DCT at five defined anatomic levels. Both approaches were then applied to 4DCT scans of 4 patients who each had two repeat scans performed. A linear mixed effects model was constructed with fixed effects: measurement direction, measurement type, and measurement location along the cranio-caudal axis. Results: Measurement location and direction were significant descriptive parameters (Wald F-tests, p < 0.001), and the interaction term between the two was significant (p = 0.02). Medio-lateral mobility exceeded dorso-ventral mobility in the lower half of the esophagus but was of a similar magnitude in the upper half. Margins that would have incorporated all movement in medio-lateral and dorso-ventral directions were 5 mm proximally, 7 mm and 6 mm respectively in the mid-esophagus, and 9 mm and 8 mm respectively in the distal esophagus. Conclusions: The distal esophagus shows more mobility. Margins for mobility that can encompass all movement were derived for use in treatment planning, particularly for stereotactic radiotherapy.

  3. Influence of Preoperative Radiation Field on Postoperative Leak Rates in Esophageal Cancer Patients after Trimodality Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Juloori, Aditya; Tucker, Susan L.; Komaki, Ritsuko; Liao, Zhongxing; Correa, Arlene M.; Swisher, Stephen G.; Hofstetter, Wayne L.; Lin, Steven H.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Postoperative morbidities, such as anastomotic leaks, are common after trimodality therapy (chemoradiation followed by surgery) for esophageal cancer. We investigated for factors associated with an increased incidence of anastomotic leaks. Methods Data from 285 esophageal cancer patients treated from 2000–2011 with trimodality therapy was analyzed. Anastomotic location relative to preoperative radiation field was assessed using postoperative computed tomographic imaging. Logistic regression was used to evaluate for factors associated with any or clinically relevant (CR) (? grade 2) leaks. Results Overall anastomotic leak rate was 11% (31/285), and CR leak rate was 6% (17/285). Multivariable analysis identified body mass index (BMI) (OR 1.09, 95%CI 1.00–1.17; OR 1.11, 95%CI 1.01–1.22), three-field surgery (OR 10.01, 95%CI 3.83–26.21; OR 4.83, 95%CI 1.39–16.71), and within radiation field (“in-field”) anastomosis (OR 5.37, 95%CI 2.21–13.04; OR 8.63, 95%CI 2.90–25.65) as independent predictors of both all grade and CR leaks, respectively. While patients with distal esophageal tumors and Ivor-Lewis surgery had the lowest incidence of all grade (6.5%) and CR leaks (4.2%), most of the leaks were associated with the anastomosis constructed within the field of radiation (in-field: 39% and 30% versus out-of-field: 2.6% and 1.0%, respectively, for total and CR leaks, p<0.0001, Fisher’s Exact test). Conclusions Esophagogastric anastomosis placed within the preoperative radiation field was a very strong predictor for anastomotic leaks in esophageal cancer patients treated with trimodality therapy, among other factors. Surgical planning should include a critical evaluation of the preoperative radiation fields to ensure proper anastomotic placement after chemoradiation therapy. PMID:24736077

  4. Benign Esophageal Stricture in a Tropical African Population

    PubMed Central

    Ajao, Oluwole G.; Solanke, Toriola F.

    1978-01-01

    In North America, the most common causes of benign esophageal stricture are hiatal hernia and reflux esophagitis. These are localized to the lower end of the esophagus. At the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria, the most common cause of benign esophageal stricture is ingestion of corrosives. The ingestion is accidental, suicidal, or for medicinal purposes. This stricture is long, narrow, and irregular. Most extend from the cervical esophagus to the cardioesophageal junction. A surgical procedure that has given good results is the use of left colon pedicled on the left colic artery for retrosternal isoperistaltic esophagocoloplasty. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4 PMID:702578

  5. Genetic landscape of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yi-Bo; Chen, Zhao-Li; Li, Jia-Gen; Hu, Xue-Da; Shi, Xue-Jiao; Sun, Zeng-Miao; Zhang, Fan; Zhao, Zi-Ran; Li, Zi-Tong; Liu, Zi-Yuan; Zhao, Yu-Da; Sun, Jian; Zhou, Cheng-Cheng; Yao, Ran; Wang, Su-Ya; Wang, Pan; Sun, Nan; Zhang, Bai-Hua; Dong, Jing-Si; Yu, Yue; Luo, Mei; Feng, Xiao-Li; Shi, Su-Sheng; Zhou, Fang; Tan, Feng-Wei; Qiu, Bin; Li, Ning; Shao, Kang; Zhang, Li-Jian; Zhang, Lan-Jun; Xue, Qi; Gao, Shu-Geng; He, Jie

    2014-10-01

    Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is one of the deadliest cancers. We performed exome sequencing on 113 tumor-normal pairs, yielding a mean of 82 non-silent mutations per tumor, and 8 cell lines. The mutational profile of ESCC closely resembles those of squamous cell carcinomas of other tissues but differs from that of esophageal adenocarcinoma. Genes involved in cell cycle and apoptosis regulation were mutated in 99% of cases by somatic alterations of TP53 (93%), CCND1 (33%), CDKN2A (20%), NFE2L2 (10%) and RB1 (9%). Histone modifier genes were frequently mutated, including KMT2D (also called MLL2; 19%), KMT2C (MLL3; 6%), KDM6A (7%), EP300 (10%) and CREBBP (6%). EP300 mutations were associated with poor survival. The Hippo and Notch pathways were dysregulated by mutations in FAT1, FAT2, FAT3 or FAT4 (27%) or AJUBA (JUB; 7%) and NOTCH1, NOTCH2 or NOTCH3 (22%) or FBXW7 (5%), respectively. These results define the mutational landscape of ESCC and highlight mutations in epigenetic modulators with prognostic and potentially therapeutic implications. PMID:25151357

  6. Overexpression of interleukin-8 receptor 2 (IL-8R2) indicates better prognosis in esophageal adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma procession.

    PubMed

    Liang, Bing; Zhao, Hui; Che, Jian-Bo; Wang, Hao-Jie; Shi, Gong-Ning

    2014-08-01

    Researches have showed that interleukin family or receptors play a role in many human tumor progressions including esophageal carcinoma. In this study, we examined the expression of interleukin-8 receptor 2 (IL-8R2) and analyze the relationship between it and esophageal carcinoma clinical characteristics. IL-8R2 protein expression was confirmed by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence arrays and was analyzed further via Western blot and qRT-PCR analysis in frozen tissues. The correlation between their expression levels and clinical characteristics were evaluated by Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis test. Via Kaplan-Meier plots and Cox proportional hazard models, overall survival (OS) was analyzed. Compared with normal esophageal tissue, IL-8R2 protein was overexpressed significantly in esophageal cancer (p < 0.05) and was observed both in cytoplasm and nuclear. The lower expression of IL-8R2 protein was observed with higher p staging of esophageal cancer, and the significant association between them was confirmed (p = 0.000), and in advanced p T stage, the similar result was obtained (p = 0.015); however, compared with lymph node metastasis-negative group, it is no significant difference in positive group (p = 0.152). In a Kaplan-Meier analysis, compared with IL-8R2 low expression, IL-8R2 high expression identified a group of patients with the longest OS. Cox proportional hazard models revealed that IL-8R2 predicted long time to OS. The higher expression of IL-8R2 was found in early esophageal carcinoma, which may indicate that IL-8R2 plays an important role and is better prognostic factor in esophageal cancer development. PMID:24972913

  7. BY ERIC M. HINES, P.E., PH.D., AND WILLIAM C. GIBB THE RECENTLY COMMISSIONED Wind Technology Testing

    E-print Network

    Hines, Eric

    . Within this volume are three test stands, two 50-ton cranes, hydraulic testing equipment and office. The presence of such an extensive foundation system made it possible to fix the trussed frames at their bases and achieve a high level of lateral stiffness for a relatively light and slender structural system. In concept

  8. [Esophageal diseases: gastroesophageal reflux disease, Barrett's esophagus, achalasia and eosinophilic esophagitis].

    PubMed

    Calvet, Xavier; Villoria, Albert

    2013-10-01

    Important new advances were presented in esophageal disease in Digestive Disease Week 2013. A highlight was confirmation of the high efficacy of weight loss to treat symptoms of reflux and an interesting pilot study suggesting that a simple ligature with supra- and infracardial bands could be an effective technique in esophageal reflux. If the excellent results and safety and efficacy of this technique are confirmed in the long term, it could revolutionize the management of gastroesophageal reflux disease. Also of note this year was the presentation of multiple studies validating a new technique, peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) for the endoscopic treatment of achalasia. This technique seems to have excellent efficacy and safety. PMID:24160952

  9. Multiple Rapid Swallow Responses During Esophageal High-Resolution Manometry Reflect Esophageal Body Peristaltic Reserve

    PubMed Central

    Shaker, Anisa; Stoikes, Nathaniel; Drapekin, Jesse; Kushnir, Vladimir; Brunt, L. Michael; Gyawali, C. Prakash

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Dysphagia may develop following antireflux surgery as a consequence of poor esophageal peristaltic reserve. We hypothesized that suboptimal contraction response following multiple rapid swallows (MRS) could be associated with chronic transit symptoms following antireflux surgery. METHODS Wet swallow and MRS responses on esophageal high-resolution manometry (HRM) were characterized collectively in the esophageal body (distal contractile integral (DCI)), and individually in each smooth muscle contraction segment (S2 and S3 amplitudes) in 63 patients undergoing antireflux surgery and in 18 healthy controls. Dysphagia was assessed using symptom questionnaires. The MRS/wet swallow ratios were calculated for S2 and S3 peak amplitudes and DCI. MRS responses were compared in patients with and without late postoperative dysphagia following antireflux surgery. RESULTS Augmentation of smooth muscle contraction (MRS/wet swallow ratios > 1.0) as measured collectively by DCI was seen in only 11.1% with late postoperative dysphagia, compared with 63.6% in those with no dysphagia and 78.1% in controls (P?0.02 for each comparison). Similar results were seen with S3 but not S2 peak amplitude ratios. Receiver operating characteristics identified a DCI MRS/wet swallow ratio threshold of 0.85 in segregating patients with late postoperative dysphagia from those with no postoperative dysphagia with a sensitivity of 0.67 and specificity of 0.64. CONCLUSIONS Lack of augmentation of smooth muscle contraction following MRS is associated with late postoperative dysphagia following antireflux surgery, suggesting that MRS responses could assess esophageal smooth muscle peristaltic reserve. Further research is warranted to determine if antireflux surgery needs to be tailored to the MRS response. PMID:24019081

  10. BELGARD EV 2030 ANTISCALANT TESTING AT LOW DOSE RATE IN AL-JUBAIL PH-II PLANT1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Osman A. Hamed; Ghulam M. Mustafa; Khalid Ba-Mardouf; Hamed Al-Washmi; Fahd A. Al-Shamri; Rashid E. Al-Bunaian; Eid Al-Rowely

    SUMMARY The Research & Development Center (RDC) in collaboration with Al-Jubail plant is embarking upon an ambitious research plan to optimize antiscalant dose rate. Based on the successful pilot plant tests which was carried out at 98oC and a dose rate of antiscalant Belgard EV 2030 at 0.8 ppm, a trial test of Belgard EV 2030 was conducted in Unit

  11. Bullous systemic lupus erythematosus associated with esophagitis dissecans superficialis.

    PubMed

    Yogarajah, Meera; Sivasambu, Bhradeev; Jaffe, Eric A

    2015-01-01

    Bullous systemic lupus erythematosus is one of the rare autoantibody mediated skin manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) demonstrating subepidermal blistering with neutrophilic infiltrate histologically. We present a case of a 40-year-old Hispanic female who presented with a several months' history of multiple blistering pruritic skin lesions involving the face and trunk, a photosensitive rash over the face and neck, swelling of the right neck lymph node, and joint pain involving her elbows and wrist. Her malady was diagnosed as bullous systemic lupus erythematosus based on the immunological workup and biopsy of her skin lesions. The patient also complained of odynophagia and endoscopy revealed esophagitis dissecans superficialis which is a rare endoscopic finding characterized by sloughing of the esophageal mucosa. The bullous disorders typically associated with esophagitis dissecans superficialis are pemphigus and rarely bullous pemphigoid. However, this is the first reported case of bullous systemic lupus erythematosus associated with esophagitis dissecans superficialis. PMID:25821624

  12. Bullous Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Associated with Esophagitis Dissecans Superficialis

    PubMed Central

    Jaffe, Eric A.

    2015-01-01

    Bullous systemic lupus erythematosus is one of the rare autoantibody mediated skin manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) demonstrating subepidermal blistering with neutrophilic infiltrate histologically. We present a case of a 40-year-old Hispanic female who presented with a several months' history of multiple blistering pruritic skin lesions involving the face and trunk, a photosensitive rash over the face and neck, swelling of the right neck lymph node, and joint pain involving her elbows and wrist. Her malady was diagnosed as bullous systemic lupus erythematosus based on the immunological workup and biopsy of her skin lesions. The patient also complained of odynophagia and endoscopy revealed esophagitis dissecans superficialis which is a rare endoscopic finding characterized by sloughing of the esophageal mucosa. The bullous disorders typically associated with esophagitis dissecans superficialis are pemphigus and rarely bullous pemphigoid. However, this is the first reported case of bullous systemic lupus erythematosus associated with esophagitis dissecans superficialis. PMID:25821624

  13. Esophageal involvement of pemphigus vulgaris associated with upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

    PubMed

    Chang, Sooyun; Park, Soo Jung; Kim, Sun Wook; Jin, Moo-Nyun; Lee, Jung-Hee; Kim, Hyun Ju; Hong, Sung Pil; Kim, Tae Il

    2014-09-01

    Esophageal involvement of pemphigus vulgaris is rare, and when present, the most common presenting symptoms reported in the medical literature are odynophagia and dysphagia. Here, we present two cases of pemphigus vulgaris presenting with upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage because of esophageal involvement of the disease. In case 1, a 41-year-old female patient with a prior diagnosis of pemphigus vulgaris presented with hematemesis. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy showed diffuse mucosal exfoliation and oozing bleeding of the oropharynx and esophagus. The patient recovered after the administration of high-dose corticosteroids and immunosuppressants. In case 2, a 30-year-old female patient with known pemphigus vulgaris also presented with hematemesis, showing similar endoscopic findings to the first case. She also responded to the same treatment. Esophageal involvement of pemphigus vulgaris responds to high-dose corticosteroids and immunosuppressants. Thus, in patients with pemphigus vulgaris with signs or symptoms of upper gastrointestinal bleeding, an early endoscopy for the evaluation of esophageal involvement is beneficial. PMID:25325007

  14. Esophageal cancer presenting as a brain metastasis: A case report

    PubMed Central

    SPALLONE, ALDO; IZZO, CHIARA

    2013-01-01

    Carcinoma of unknown primary origin (CUP) is defined as the histological diagnosis of metastasis without the detection of a primary tumor. The incidence of CUP in all patients with a malignant disease has been reported to be between 3 and 15%. Esophageal cancer is the third most common type of cancer of the digestive tract and the seventh most common cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. The overall incidence of the disease is highest in males >50 years old. Brain metastases have been reported in only 1.7–3.6% of all patients with different types of esophageal cancer. Brain metastasis as the presenting form of esophageal carcinoma is highly uncommon. The present study reports the case of a patient with an unknown primary tumor who presented with a cerebral metastasis, without extra-neurological symptoms. The CUP was subsequently diagnosed as an esophageal carcinoma. PMID:24137398

  15. [Management of the esophageal candidiasis by the primary care physician].

    PubMed

    Behrens, Garance; Bocherens, Astrid; Senn, Nicolas

    2014-05-14

    Esophageal candidiasis is one of the most common opportunistic infections in patients infected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This pathology is also found in patients without overt immunodeficiency. Other risk factors are known to be associated with this disease like inhaled or systemic corticosteroid treatment or proton-pump inhibitors and H2 receptor antagonists. In the absence of identified risk factors, a primary immune deficiency should be sought. Prevention of esophageal candidiasis is based primarily on the identification of risk factors, and a better control of them. This article presents a review of the physiopathology, clinical presentation and management of esophageal candidiasis by primary care physicians. We will also discuss ways of preventing esophageal candidiasis when necessary. PMID:24930154

  16. Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy for esophageal/gastroesophageal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Nurkin, Steven J.; Fong, Mei Ka; Groman, Adrienne; Flaherty, Leayn; Malhotra, Usha; LeVea, Charles M.; Yendamuri, Sai; Warren, Graham W.; Nava, Hector R.; May, Kilian S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Esophageal/gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) adenocarcinoma is increasingly treated with trimodality therapy. We present our experience using carboplatin/paclitaxel and radiotherapy followed by surgery. Methods Consecutive patients with distal esophageal/GEJ adenocarcinoma (?T2 or N+) treated from July 2010 to October 2011 were identified. Treatment included neoadjuvant carboplatin/paclitaxel with concurrent radiotherapy (CRT) to 50.4 Gy using an IMRT technique and then Ivor Lewis esophagogastrectomy (ILE). PET/CT was performed prior to and after CRT. Patient/treatment characteristics and tumor response were analyzed. Results Over this timeframe, 16 patients completed trimodality therapy. All were male, median age of 60 years (45-72 years). All tumors were grade 2-3 with mean tumor length of 4.4 cm (1-9 cm). A median of 6 cycles (5-9 cycles) neoadjuvant carboplatin/paclitaxel were administered. Average time from diagnosis to CRT completion was 76 days (44-141 days) and 60 days (35-92 days) from CRT end to surgery. Neoadjuvant CRT was well tolerated with mean weight loss of 3.9 kg. All pts had R0 resections. No anastomotic leaks or perioperative mortality occurred. Mean hospital stay was 13 days (8-28 days). Pathologic complete response (pCR) was seen in 38% of patients, microscopic residual disease (isolated tumor cells or <2 mm) in 31%, and macroscopic residual disease remained in 31%. Mean SUV reduction was 41% (0-100%). Of 11 patients with ?35% SUV decrease, 45% had pCR and 27% had microscopic residual disease. Three patients had signet ring features. Of these, 2 had no SUV reduction and all had gross residual disease, including the only patient with positive nodal disease. Conclusions Trimodality therapy utilizing concurrent carboplatin/paclitaxel and radiotherapy to 50.4 Gy followed by surgery was well tolerated and resulted in significant pathologic complete response or minimal residual disease. Further investigation of predictive factors for response is needed to best tailor therapy in the management of esophageal/GEJ adenocarcinoma. PMID:23730509

  17. Successful treatment with alectinib after crizotinib-induced esophageal ulceration.

    PubMed

    Yoneshima, Yasuto; Okamoto, Isamu; Takano, Tomotsugu; Enokizu, Aimi; Iwama, Eiji; Harada, Taishi; Takayama, Koichi; Nakanishi, Yoichi

    2015-06-01

    Crizotinib was the first clinically available inhibitor of the tyrosine kinase ALK, and next-generation ALK inhibitors, such as alectinib, are now under development. Although crizotinib is generally well tolerated, severe esophageal injury has been reported as a rare but serious adverse event of crizotinib therapy. We now describe the successful treatment with alectinib of a patient who developed crizotinib-induced esophageal ulceration. PMID:25837798

  18. Paraneoplastic cutaneous lupus secondary to esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Koritala, Thoyaja; Tworek, Joseph; Schapiro, Brian; Zolotarevsky, Eugene

    2015-06-01

    Sporadic subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus (SCLE) in an elderly man does not fit a typical demographic for the disease process. Using the McLean's criteria we were able to establish a temporal relationship between the patient's diagnosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and his dermatosis, both of which responded to cytotoxic chemotherapy. The clinical presentation and progression of the clinical illness is supportive of a very unusual and not previously reported paraneoplastic SCLE secondary to esophageal SCC. PMID:26029469

  19. Esophageal ruptures: triage using the systemic inflammatory response syndrome score

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kouichi Furugaki; Junichi Yoshida; Koji Hokazono; Takuya Emoto; Jo Nakashima; Mayumi Ohyama; Toshiyuki Ishimitsu; Masahiro Shinohara; Kenichi Matsuo

    2011-01-01

    Esophageal rupture is a rare entity. Delay in the diagnosis and treatment may threaten the patient’s life. The decision for\\u000a surgical or nonsurgical treatment, however, remains controversial because advocates of both treatments have reported comparable\\u000a results. To quantify the decision making, we suggest the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) score for triage of\\u000a an esophageal rupture. Using this criterion for

  20. Helicobacter pylori infection inhibits reflux esophagitis by inducing atrophic gastritis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomoyuki Koike; Shuichi Ohara; Hitoshi Sekine; Katsunori Iijima; Katsuaki Kato; Tooru Shimosegawa; Takayoshi Toyota

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:Although it is widely accepted that Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is an important cause of atrophic gastritis, few studies have examined the relationship between H. pylori-induced atrophic gastritis and the occurrence of reflux esophagitis. The present study was aimed to examine the relationship between H. pylori infection, atrophic gastritis, and reflux esophagitis in Japan.METHODS:A total of 175 patients with

  1. Androgens and esophageal cancer: What do we know?

    PubMed Central

    Sukocheva, Olga A; Li, Bin; Due, Steven L; Hussey, Damian J; Watson, David I

    2015-01-01

    Significant disparities exist between genders for the development and progression of several gastro-intestinal (GI) diseases including cancer. Differences in incidence between men vs women for colon, gastric and hepatocellular cancers suggest a role for steroid sex hormones in regulation of GI carcinogenesis. Involvement of intrinsic gender-linked mechanisms is also possible for esophageal adenocarcinoma as its incidence is disproportionally high among men. However, the cause of the observed gender differences and the potential role of androgens in esophageal carcinogenesis remains unclear, even though the cancer-promoting role of androgen receptors (AR) shown in other cancers such as prostate and bladder suggests this aspect warrants exploration. Several studies have demonstrated expression of ARs in esophageal cancer. However, only one study has suggested a potential link between AR signaling and outcome - poorer prognosis. Two groups have analyzed data from cohorts with prostate cancer and one of these found a decreased incidence of esophageal squamous and adenocarcinoma after androgen deprivation therapy. However, very limited information is available about the effects of androgen and AR-initiated signaling on esophageal cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo. Possible mechanisms for androgens/AR involvement in the regulation of esophageal cancer growth are considered, and the potential use of AR as a prognostic factor and clinical target is highlighted, although insufficient evidence is available to support clinical trials of novel therapies. As esophageal adenocarcinoma is a gender linked cancer with a large male predominance further studies are warranted to clarify the role of androgens and ARs in shaping intracellular signaling and genomic responses in esophageal cancer. PMID:26034350

  2. Beneficial Effects of Immediate Enteral Nutrition After Esophageal Cancer Surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Satoshi Aiko; Yutaka Yoshizumi; Yoshiaki Sugiura; Tomokazu Matsuyama; Yoshihisa Naito; Junichi Matsuzaki; Tadaaki Maehara

    2001-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of immediate enteral nutrition (EN) on nutritional status, immunological\\u000a competence, and the suppression of excessive inflammatory responses in patients following esophageal cancer surgery. Twenty-four\\u000a patients who underwent the same elective operation for thoracic esophageal carcinoma were randomized into an immediate enteral\\u000a nutrition (IEN) group who received EN from postoperative day (POD) 1

  3. Esophageal cancer: staging system and guidelines for staging and treatment

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Survival of esophageal cancer is improving but remains poor. Esophageal cancer stage is based on depth of tumor invasion, involvement of regional lymph nodes, and the presence or absence of metastatic disease. Appropriate work-up is critical to identify accurate pre-treatment staging so that both under-treatment and unnecessary treatment is avoided. Treatment strategy should follow guideline recommendations, and generally should be developed after multidisciplinary evaluation. PMID:24876933

  4. Usefulness of intralesional triamcinolone in treatment of benign esophageal strictures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rakesh Kochhar; Govind K. Makharia

    2002-01-01

    Introduction: The cornerstone treatment for benign esophageal strictures is endoscopic dilation. There are reports suggesting that intralesional corticosteroid injection decreases the frequency of endoscopic dilation. Methods: Seventy-one patients (mean age 42.39 [17.52] years; range, 13-78 years) with benign esophageal strictures (corrosive 29, peptic 14, anastomotic 19, radiation-induced 9) were recruited for this study. All were being managed with a program

  5. Variability in Diagnostic Criteria for Eosinophilic Esophagitis: A Systematic Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Evan S. Dellon; Ademola Aderoju; John T. Woosley; Robert S. Sandler; Nicholas J. Shaheen

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an emerging clinicopathologic entity defined by abnormal esophageal eosinophilic infiltration. Our understanding of this disease is hampered by the lack of a uniform diagnostic standard. The aim of this systematic review was to determine the range of diagnostic strategies and histologic criteria in the EoE literature.METHODS:The MEDLINE-indexed literature from 1950 through December 31, 2006 was independently

  6. Viewpoints on Acid-Induced Inflammatory Mediators in Esophageal Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Harnett, Karen M; Rieder, Florian; Behar, Jose

    2010-01-01

    We have focused on understanding the onset of gastroesophageal reflux disease by examining the mucosal response to the presence of acid in the esophageal lumen. Upon exposure to HCl, inflammation of the esophagus begins with activation of the transient receptor potential channel vanilloid subfamily member-1 (TRPV1) in the mucosa, and production of IL-8, substance P (SP), calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) and platelet activating factor (PAF). Production of SP and CGRP, but not PAF, is abolished by the neural blocker tetrodotoxin suggesting that SP and CGRP are neurally released and that PAF arises from non neural pathways. Epithelial cells contain TRPV1 receptor mRNA and protein and respond to HCl and to the TRPV1 agonist capsaicin with production of PAF. PAF, SP and IL-8 act as chemokines, inducing migration of peripheral blood leukocytes. PAF and SP activate peripheral blood leukocytes inducing the production of H2O2. In circular muscle, PAF causes production of IL-6, and IL-6 causes production of additional H2O2, through activation of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases. Among these, NADPH oxidase 5 cDNA is significantly up-regulated by exposure to PAF; H2O2 content of esophageal and lower esophageal sphincter circular muscle is elevated in human esophagitis, causing dysfunction of esophageal circular muscle contraction and reduction in esophageal sphincter tone. Thus esophageal keratinocytes, that constitute the first barrier to the refluxate, may also serve as the initiating cell type in esophageal inflammation, secreting inflammatory mediators and pro-inflammatory cytokines and affecting leukocyte recruitment and activity. PMID:21103419

  7. An Approximate Solution for Ph/Ph/1 and Ph/Ph/1/N Queues

    E-print Network

    Begin, Thomas

    An Approximate Solution for Ph/Ph/1 and Ph/Ph/1/N Queues Alexandre Brandwajn Baskin School approximation to assess the steady-state probabilities of the number of customers in Ph/Ph/1 and Ph/Ph/1/N for the Ph/Ph/1/N queue. The phase-type distributions considered are assumed to be acyclic. Our method

  8. Reconstruction techniques for hypopharyngeal and cervical esophageal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Ming; He, Xiaotian; Wu, Duoguang; Han, Yuanyuan

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the incidence of perioperative complications in patients with hypopharyngeal and cervical esophageal carcinoma who underwent three types of esophageal defect reconstruction procedures. Methods Clinical data from 105 patients with hypopharyngeal and cervical esophageal carcinoma who were treated at SUN YAT-SEN Memorial Hospital from January 2003 to February 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. Among these patients, 45 underwent a pectoral major muscle skin flap reconstruction following carcinoma resection (group A); 32 patients were treated with stomach replacement of the esophagus (group B), and 28 patients were treated with tube stomach replacement of the esophagus (group C). The incidences of perioperative complications were compared among these three groups. Results The incidences of anastomotic leakage, neck swelling, and incision infection were significantly lower in group C than in group A (P<0.05). The incidences of anastomotic leakage, reflux esophagitis, and thoracic stomach syndrome were significantly lower in group C than in group B (P<0.05). Conclusions Tube stomach replacement of the esophagus in the setting of hypopharyngeal and cervical esophageal carcinoma reduced the incidence of complications; therefore, it is a reasonable procedure for the management of esophageal defects. PMID:25922724

  9. Association between glutathione S-transferases M1 and T1 gene polymorphisms and esophageal cancer prognosi

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ge-Nan; Li, Xue-Min; Liu, Yang-Qi; Bao, Zhi-Qin; Yang, Li-Xia; Wang, Xiao; Li, Min-Wei; Du, Jin-Lin; Chen, Ting-Ting; Huang, Zhi-Gang

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the independent factors affecting the prognosis of patients after resection of esophageal cancer, and to inquire into the relationship between GSTM1, GSTT1 gene polymorphisms and esophageal cancer prognosis. Methods: The clinical data of 273 patients with esophageal cancer were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were followed-up after their surgery, and the gene polymorphisms of GSTM1 and GSTT1 in each individual were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The clinical features along with the gene polymorphisms of GSTM1 and GSTT1 associated with the prognosis of patients were analyzed by using the method of univariate analysis and Cox proportional hazard model. The cumulative survival rate was estimated by Kaplan-Meier methods, and the survival curves were compared by using the log-rank test. Results: The overall cumulative survival rate of first year, third year and fifth year is 94.6%, 58.5% and 17.8%, respectively. The median survival time (MST) is 38.7 months. The results of univariate analysis showed that: infiltration depth, length of tumor, the number of lymph node metastasis, the region of lymph node metastasis and the genetic polymorphism of GSTM1 and GSTT1 gene loci were associated with the survival of postoperative patients. Cox multivariate analysis further indicated that the length of tumor, the number of lymph node metastasis and the combined genotype (1) [GSTM1 (+/+) or (+/-) & GSTT1 (-/-)] were the independent prognostic factors. The length of tumor, the number of lymph node metastasis were the risk factors for the prognosis, and the combined genotype (1) had protective effect on survival when compared with reference [GSTM1 (+/+) or (+/-) & GSTT1 (+/+) or (+/-)]. Conclusion: The length of tumor, the number of lymph node metastasis were confirmed as the independent prognostic factors of esophageal carcinoma, and the null genotypes for GSTT1 (-/-) might be a protective factor for survival and GSTM1 (-/-) might be a potential negative prognostic factor in patients with esophageal cancer.

  10. Appropriateness of Using Patient-Derived Xenograft Models for Pharmacologic Evaluation of Novel Therapies for Esophageal/Gastro-Esophageal Junction Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Dodbiba, Lorin; Teichman, Jennifer; Fleet, Andrew; Thai, Henry; Starmans, Maud H. W.; Navab, Roya; Chen, Zhuo; Girgis, Hala; Eng, Lawson; Espin-Garcia, Osvaldo; Shen, Xiaowei; Bandarchi, Bizhan; Schwock, Joerg; Tsao, Ming-Sound; El-Zimaity, Hala; Der, Sandy D.; Xu, Wei; Bristow, Robert G.; Darling, Gail E.; Boutros, Paul C.

    2015-01-01

    The high morbidity and mortality of patients with esophageal (E) and gastro-esophageal junction (GEJ) cancers, warrants new pre-clinical models for drug testing. The utility of primary tumor xenografts (PTXGs) as pre-clinical models was assessed. Clinicopathological, immunohistochemical markers (p53, p16, Ki-67, Her-2/neu and EGFR), and global mRNA abundance profiles were evaluated to determine selection biases of samples implanted or engrafted, compared with the underlying population. Nine primary E/GEJ adenocarcinoma xenograft lines were further characterized for the spectrum and stability of gene/protein expression over passages. Seven primary esophageal adenocarcinoma xenograft lines were treated with individual or combination chemotherapy. Tumors that were implanted (n=55) in NOD/SCID mice had features suggestive of more aggressive biology than tumors that were never implanted (n=32). Of those implanted, 21/55 engrafted; engraftment was associated with poorly differentiated tumors (p=0.04) and older patients (p=0.01). Expression of immunohistochemical markers were similar between patient sample and corresponding xenograft. mRNA differences observed between patient tumors and first passage xenografts were largely due to loss of human stroma in xenografts. mRNA patterns of early vs late passage xenografts and of small vs large tumors of the same passage were similar. Complete resistance was present in 2/7 xenografts while the remaining tumors showed varying degrees of sensitivity, that remained constant across passages. Because of their ability to recapitulate primary tumor characteristics during engraftment and across serial passaging, PTXGs can be useful clinical systems for assessment of drug sensitivity of human E/GEJ cancers. PMID:25826681

  11. Protection against esophageal cancer in rodents with lyophilized berries: potential mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Stoner, Gary D; Chen, Tong; Kresty, Laura A; Aziz, Robeena M; Reinemann, Tiffany; Nines, Ronald

    2006-01-01

    For several years, our laboratory has been evaluating the ability of lyophilized (freeze-dried) black raspberries (Rubus occidentalis, BRBs), blackberries (R. fructicosus, BBs), and strawberries (Fragaria ananasia, STRWs) to inhibit carcinogen-induced cancer in the rodent esophagus. To assure "standardized" berry preparations for study, each berry type is of the same cultivar, picked at about the same degree of ripeness, washed and frozen within 2-4 h of the time of picking, and freeze-dried under conditions that preserve the components in the berries. Some of the known chemopreventive agents in berries include vitamins A, C, and E and folic acid; calcium and selenium; beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, and lutein; polyphenols such as ellagic acid, ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid, quercetin, and several anthocyanins; and phytosterols such as beta-sitosterol, stigmasterol, and kaempferol. In initial bioassays, freeze-dried STRW, BRB, and BB powders were mixed into AIN-76A synthetic diet at concentrations of 5% and 10% and fed to Fischer 344 rats before, during, and after treatment with the esophageal carcinogen N-nitrosomethylbenzylamine (NMBA). At 25 wk of the bioassay, all three berry types were found to inhibit the number of esophageal tumors (papillomas) in NMBA-treated animals by 24-56% relative to NMBA controls. This inhibition correlated with reductions in the formation of the NMBA-induced O6-methylguanine adduct in esophageal DNA, suggesting that the berries influenced the metabolism of NMBA leading to reduced DNA damage. Studies are ongoing to determine the mechanisms by which berries influence NMBA metabolism and DNA adduct formation. BRBs and STRWs were also tested in a postinitiation scheme and were found to inhibit NMBA-induced esophageal tumorigenesis by 31-64% when administered in the diet following treatment of the animals with NMBA. Berries, therefore, inhibit tumor promotion and progression events as well as tumor initiation. In vivo mechanistic studies with BRBs indicate that they reduce the growth rate of premalignant esophageal cells, in part, through down-regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 leading to reduced prostaglandin production and of inducible nitric oxide synthase leading to reduced nitrate/nitrite levels in the esophagus. Based upon the preclinical data on rodents, we have initiated prevention trials in humans to determine if berries might exhibit chemopreventive effects in the esophagus. PMID:16800771

  12. Gastro-esophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Patient Education Institute

    This patient education program discusses Gastro-Esophageal Reflux Disease, or GERD, including the anatomy of the digestive system, causes and effects, signs and symptoms, possible complications, and treatment options for GERD with their benefits and side effects. This resource is a MedlinePlus Interactive Health Tutorial from the National Library of Medicine, designed and developed by the Patient Education Institute. NOTE: This tutorial requires a special Flash plug-in, version 4 or above. If you do not have Flash, you will be prompted to obtain a free download of the software before you start the tutorial. You will also need an Acrobat Reader, available as a free download, in order to view the Reference Summary.

  13. Characteristics of brain metastases from esophageal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Takahiro; Kuroda, Jun-ichiro; Takezaki, Tatsuya; Shinojima, Naoki; Hide, Takuichiro; Makino, Keishi; Nakamura, Hideo; Yano, Shigetoshi; Nishi, Toru; Kuratsu, Jun-ichi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Esophageal carcinoma (EC) is a major malignancy with a poor prognosis. Although esophageal cancers rarely metastasize to the brain, the number of patients diagnosed with brain metastases (BM) from EC is steadily increasing. Therefore, the risk factors for BM from EC should be known. Here we reviewed our experiences and the previous literature regarding BM from EC. Methods: Between 2000 and 2013, we retrospectively reviewed the clinical features and neurological findings of 19 patients diagnosed with and treated for BM from EC to determine the clinical risk factors and features. Results: In all patients, the lesions were partially or completed located in the thoracic esophagus, and the average size of the EC lesion at diagnosis was 5.8 ± 2.9 cm, which was smaller than the previously reported size of EC lesions accompanied by BM. Patients without lung metastases were more common than those with lung metastases. The lesions in the 13 patients included squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC) in 9 (69.2%) and small cell carcinoma (SmCC) in 3 (23.0%). Six patients were not examined. Although there was no trend toward a higher incidence of BM in patients with adenocarcinoma and SqCC, this trend was observed in patients with SmCC. Excluding a single patient with SmCC, all patients had beyond stage III disease at EC diagnosis. Conclusions: Our study suggests that BM can occur in patients with EC lesions smaller than those previously reported; moreover, SmCC may be a risk factor for BM from EC. PMID:25317352

  14. T-helper 2 Cytokines, Transforming Growth Factor ?1, and Eosinophil Products Induce Fibrogenesis and Alter Muscle Motility in Patients with Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Rieder, Florian; Nonevski, Ilche; Ma, Jie; Ouyang, Zhufeng; West, Gail; Protheroe, Cheryl; DePetris, Giovanni; Schirbel, Anja; Lapinski, James; Goldblum, John; Bonfield, Tracey; Lopez, Rocio; Harnett, Karen; Lee, James; Hirano, Ikuo; Falk, Gary; Biancani, Piero; Fiocchi, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS Patients with eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) often become dysphagic from the combination of organ fibrosis and motor abnormalities. We investigated mechanisms of dysphagia, assessing the response of human esophageal fibroblasts (HEF), muscle cells (HEMC), and esophageal muscle strips to eosinophil-derived products. METHODS Biopsies were collected via endoscopy from the upper, middle and lower thirds of the esophagus of 18 patients with EoE and 21 individuals undergoing endoscopy for other reasons (controls). Primary cultures of esophageal fibroblasts and muscle cells were derived from 12 freshly resected human esophagectomy specimens. Eosinophil distribution was investigated by histologic analyses of full-thickness esophageal tissue. Active secretion of EoE-related mediators was assessed from medium underlying mucosal biopsy cultures. We quantified production of fibronectin and collagen I by HEF and HEMC in response to eosinophil products. We also measured expression of ICAM1 and VCAM1 by, and adhesion of human eosinophils to, HEF and HEMC. Eosinophil products were tested in an esophageal muscle contraction assay. RESULTS Activated eosinophils were present in all esophageal layers. Significantly higher concentrations of eosinophil-related mediators were spontaneously secreted in mucosal biopsies from patients with EoE than controls. Exposure of HEF and HEMC to increasing concentrations of eosinophil products or co-culture with eosinophils caused HEF and HEMC to increase secretion of fibronectin and collagen I; this was inhibited by blocking transforming growth factor (TGF)?1 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAKP) signaling. Eosinophil binding to HEF and HEMC increased following incubation of mesenchymal cells with eosinophil-derived products, and decreased following blockade of TGF?1 and p38MAPK blockade. Eosinophil products reduced electrical field-induced contraction of esophageal muscle strips, but not acetylcholine-induced contraction. CONCLUSION In an analysis of tissues samples from patients with EoE, we linked the presence and activation state of eosinophils in EoE with altered fibrogenesis and motility of esophageal fibroblasts and muscle cells. This process might contribute to the development of dysphagia. PMID:24486052

  15. Breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) and excision repair cross complement-1 (ERCC1) expression in esophageal cancers and response to cisplatin and irinotecan based chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Bharthuar, Anubha; Black, Jennifer D.; Levea, Charles; Malhotra, Usha; Mashtare, Terry L.; Iyer, Renuka

    2014-01-01

    Background Esophageal cancer patients face a dismal outcome despite tri-modality management and median survival remains 15-18 months. Breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) is an ATP-dependent efflux protein associated with chemotherapy resistance. The role of BCRP expression in esophageal cancer and normal esophageal cells is not known. Excision repair cross complement-1 (ERCC1) overexpression has been correlated with poorer response to cisplatin based chemotherapy. We examined the expression of BCRP and ERCC1 in patients with esophageal cancer and correlated it with survival in patients receiving irinotecan and cisplatin based chemotherapy. Methods With IRB approval, 40 cases of esophageal cancer diagnosed from 2004-2008, were stained for BCRP and ERCC1 expression by immunohistochemistry and scored by a pathologist blinded to clinical data. Baseline demographics, therapy given and survival data were collected and correlated with BCRP and ERCC1 expression. Fisher’s exact test was used to determine association between BCRP and ERCC1 expression and demographics. Cox proportional hazards model was used for association of BCRP and ERCC1 with survival. Results On immunohistochemistry, 30/40 cancers (75%) expressed BCRP. Interestingly, down-regulation of BCRP expression in tumor compared with normal cells was seen in 40% of patients. ERCC1 positivity was seen in 15/30 cases (50%). Median overall survival (OS) was 19 months with no difference in survival between BCRP positive and negative patients (P=0.13) or ERCC1 positive and negative patients (P=0.85). Estimated hazard ratio (HR) of death for BRCP positive patients was 2.29 (95% CI: 0.79-6.64) and for ERCC1 positive patients was 1.09 (95% CI: 0.46-2.56). There was no association of BCRP and ERCC1 expression with disease stage, age, gender or histology. For patients who received cisplatin and irinotecan as first line chemotherapy, there was no difference in survival based on BCRP or ERCC1 status. Conclusions BCRP expression is seen in a majority of esophageal cancers and normal esophageal mucosa. ERCC1 expression is seen in about half of the patients with esophageal cancer. Irinotecan based studies with esophageal and gastric cancer suggest response rates of 14-65%. Whether the 40% of tumors in our study found with down regulation of BCRP expression, constitute a majority of these responders needs to be prospectively validated in a larger data set. It should include markers such as ERCC1 predicting response to 5-fluorouracil and platinum based chemotherapy, to enable individualizing therapy for this cancer. PMID:25083297

  16. The quantitative ELISA for inactivated Newcastle disease virus antigen: development of the test system and the way to a Ph. Eur in vitro potency test.

    PubMed

    Oei, H L

    2012-01-01

    The development of an alternative in vitro potency test required experimental studies, which were performed in-house and in collaboration with other laboratories (Official Medicines Control Laboratories, Manufacturers), coordinated by EDQM (European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines & HealthCare). This paper provides background information concerning the development of the quantitative ELISA for inactivated Newcastle disease virus (NDV) antigen, which was added in the European Pharmacopoeia monograph as an in vitro batch potency test. PMID:22888595

  17. Colonization with cagA-Positive Helicobacter pylori Strains Inversely Associated with Reflux Esophagitis and Barrett’s Esophagus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. L. F. Loffeld; B. F. M. Werdmuller; J. G. Kuster; G. I. Pérez-Pérez; M. J. Blaser; E. J. Kuipers

    2000-01-01

    Aim: The hypothesis that colonization with cagA+Helicobacter pylori strains protects against the development of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and its complications is tested. Methods: Patients with reflux esophagitis and Barrett’s esophagus were studied. Antral biopsy specimens were obtained for detection of H. pylori. A serum sample was obtained for determination of IgG antibodies to H. pylori and to the CagA

  18. The Function and Interaction of Genes Related to Esophageal Squamous Cell Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu Long Chen; Su Gai Yin; Yao Song Wu

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study the function and interaction of genes related to esophageal squamous cell cancer and discuss esophageal cancer molecular mechanism.Methods: The gene microarray date set of esophageal was downloaded from the GEO BRB-ArrayTools and online tool was used to analysis the difference expression genes between esophageal squamous cell cancer and normal tissue, and analysis the functional and interaction of

  19. Does Dysphagia Indicate Recurrence of Benign Esophageal Strictures?

    PubMed Central

    Borgström, Anders; Fork, Frans-Thomas; Lövdahl, Eje

    1995-01-01

    Esophageal dilatation in dysphagic patients with benign strictures is usually considered successful if the patients' dysphagia is alleviated. However, the relation between dysphagia and the diameter of a stricture is not well understood. Moreover, the dysphagia may also be caused by an underlying esophageal motor disorder. In order to compare symptoms and objective measurements of esophageal stricture, 28 patients were studied with interview and a radiologic esophagram. The latter included swallowing of a solid bolus. All patients underwent successful balloon dilatation at least one month prior to this study. Recurrence of a stricture with a diameter of less than 13 mm was diagnosed by the barium swallow in 21 patients. Recurrence of dysphagia was seen in 15 patients. Thirteen patients denied any swallowing symptoms. Chest pain was present in 9 patients. Of 15 patients with dysphagia 2 (13%) had no narrowing but severe esophageal dysmotility. Of 13 patients without dysphagia 9 (69%) had a stricture with a diameter of 13 mm or less. Of 21 patients with a stricture of 13 mm or less 14 (67%) were symptomatic while 7 (33%) were asymptomatic. Four of 11 patients with retrosternal pain had a stricture of less than 10 mm. Three patients with retrosternal pain and obstruction had severe esophageal dysmotility. Whether or not the patients have dysphagia may be more related to diet and eating habits than to the true diameter of their esophageal narrowing. We conclude that the clinical history is non-reliable for evaluating the results of esophageal stricture dilatation. In order to get an objective measurement of therapeutic outcome, barium swallow including a solid bolus is recommended. PMID:18493375

  20. Contractile profile of esophageal and gastric fundus strips in experimental doxorubicin-induced esophageal atresia

    PubMed Central

    Capeto, F.A.; Lima, F.J.B.; Okoba, W.; Ramos, F.L.; Messias, T.F.A.; Rigonatto, G.A.; Sbragia, L.; Magalhães, P.J.C.; Melo-Filho, A.A.

    2015-01-01

    Esophageal atresia (EA) is characterized by esophageal and gastric motility changes secondary to developmental and postsurgical damage. This study evaluated the in vitro contractile profile of the distal esophagus and gastric fundus in an experimental model of EA induced by doxorubicin (DOXO). Wistar pregnant rats received DOXO 2.2 mg/kg on the 8th and 9th gestational days. On day 21.5, fetuses were collected, sacrificed, and divided into groups: control, DOXO without EA (DOXO-EA), and DOXO with EA (DOXO+EA). Strips from the distal esophagus and gastric fundus were mounted on a wire myograph and isolated organ-bath system, respectively, and subjected to increasing concentrations of carbamylcholine chloride (carbachol, CCh). The isolated esophagus was also stimulated with increasing concentrations of KCl. In esophagus, the concentration-effect curves were reduced in response to CCh in the DOXO+EA and DOXO-EA groups compared to the control group (P<0.05). The maximum effect values (Emax) for DOXO+EA and DOXO-EA were significantly lower than control (P<0.05), but the half-maximal effective concentration (EC50) values were not significantly different when the three groups were compared (P>0.05). In response to KCl, the distal esophagus samples in the three groups were not statistically different with regard to Emax or EC50 values (P>0.05). No significant difference was noted for EC50 or Emax values in fundic strips stimulated with CCh (P>0.05). In conclusion, exposure of dams to DOXO during gestation inhibited the contractile behavior of esophageal strips from offspring in response to CCh but not KCl, regardless of EA induction. The gastric fundus of DOXO-exposed offspring did not have altered contractile responsiveness to cholinergic stimulation. PMID:25760030

  1. Predictors of Postoperative Complications After Trimodality Therapy for Esophageal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jingya; Wei, Caimiao; Tucker, Susan L.; Myles, Bevan; Palmer, Matthew; Hofstetter, Wayne L.; Swisher, Stephen G.; Ajani, Jaffer A.; Cox, James D.; Komaki, Ritsuko; Liao, Zhongxing; Lin, Steven H.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose While trimodality therapy for esophageal cancer has improved patient outcomes, surgical complication rates remain high. The goal of this study was to identify modifiable factors associated with postoperative complications after neoadjuvant chemoradiation. Methods and Materials From 1998 to 2011, 444 patients were treated at our institution with surgical resection after chemoradiation. Postoperative (pulmonary, gastrointestinal [GI], cardiac, wound healing) complications were recorded up to 30 days postoperatively. Kruskal-Wallis tests and ?2 or Fisher exact tests were used to assess associations between continuous and categorical variables. Multivariate logistic regression tested the association between perioperative complications and patient or treatment factors that were significant on univariate analysis. Results The most frequent postoperative complications after trimodality therapy were pulmonary (25%) and GI (23%). Lung capacity and the type of radiation modality used were independent predictors of pulmonary and GI complications. After adjusting for confounding factors, pulmonary and GI complications were increased in patients treated with 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) versus intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT; odds ratio [OR], 2.018; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.104–3.688; OR, 1.704; 95% CI, 1.03–2.82, respectively) and for patients treated with 3D-CRT versus proton beam therapy (PBT; OR, 3.154; 95% CI, 1.365–7.289; OR, 1.55; 95% CI, 0.78–3.08, respectively). Mean lung radiation dose (MLD) was strongly associated with pulmonary complications, and the differences in toxicities seen for the radiation modalities could be fully accounted for by the MLD delivered by each of the modalities. Conclusions The radiation modality used can be a strong mitigating factor of postoperative complications after neoadjuvant chemoradiation. PMID:23845841

  2. Pralatrexate and Oxaliplatin in Treating Patients With Unresectable or Metastatic Esophageal, Stomach, or Gastroesophageal Junction Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-03-05

    Adenocarcinoma of the Esophagus; Adenocarcinoma of the Gastroesophageal Junction; Diffuse Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Intestinal Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Mixed Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Recurrent Esophageal Cancer; Recurrent Gastric Cancer; Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Esophagus; Stage III Esophageal Cancer; Stage III Gastric Cancer; Stage IV Esophageal Cancer; Stage IV Gastric Cancer

  3. Clinicopathologic Characteristics of Esophageal Cancer Patients in Northwest Iran - Very Low Incidence of Adenocarcinomas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yousef Bafandeh; Shahriar Hashemzadeh; Mohsen Sokouti; Heidar Esmaili

    2006-01-01

    Aims: Iran is one of the known countries with a high incidence of esophageal cancer in Asia .We have recently shown that the incidence of Barrett's esophagus , a precancerous lesion for esophageal adenocarcinoma (AC) is very low in the north -west of the country . Therefore, we hypothesized that esophageal AC would also be lower than in the Western

  4. Clinical Symptoms in Endoscopic Reflux Esophagitis: Evaluation in 8031 Adult Subjects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazuyo Okamoto; Ryuichi Iwakiri; Mitsuru Mori; Megumi Hara; Kayoko Oda; Akiko Danjo; Akifumi Ootani; Hiroyuki Sakata; Kazuma Fujimoto

    2003-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the correlation between symptoms and endoscopic findings in reflux esophagitis. Subjects, 8031 persons without medication for gastrointestinal disease, were briefly asked about the presence of heartburn, dysphagia, odynophagia, and acid regurgitation by associated medical staff before endoscopy for assessment of esophagitis utilizing the Los Angeles Classification. Endoscopically, 1199 (14.9%) were classified as positive reflux esophagitis,

  5. Thoughts on the Complex Relationship Between Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease and Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stuart Jon Spechler; Robert M. Genta; Rhonda F. Souza

    2007-01-01

    Recent data suggest that the interaction between gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and eosinophilic esophagitis can be complex, and that the notion of establishing a clear distinction between the two disorders may be too simplistic. There are at least four situations in which GERD might be associated with esophageal eosinophils: (a) GERD causes esophageal injury that results in a mild eosinophilic

  6. Failed Nissen fundoplication in two patients who had persistent vomiting and eosinophilic esophagitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chris A Liacouras

    1997-01-01

    The following report describes two patients who had chronic symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux and persistent histological esophagitis, despite aggressive medical antireflux therapy, who continued to have esophagitis and remained symptomatic post antireflux surgery (Nissen fundoplication). Both patients demonstrated a severe eosinophilic esophagitis with normal gastric and duodenal histology before and after surgery. Postoperatively, each received the diagnosis of allergic enteritis

  7. A Comparison of Postoperative Early Enteral Nutrition with Delayed Enteral Nutrition in Patients with Esophageal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Gongchao; Chen, Hongbo; Liu, Jun; Ma, Yongchen; Jia, Haiyong

    2015-01-01

    We examined esophageal cancer patients who received enteral nutrition (EN) to evaluate the validity of early EN compared to delayed EN, and to determine the appropriate time to start EN. A total of 208 esophagectomy patients who received EN postoperatively were divided into three groups (Group 1, 2 and 3) based on whether they received EN within 48 h, 48 h–72 h or more than 72 h, respectively. The postoperative complications, length of hospital stay (LOH), days for first fecal passage, cost of hospitalization, and the difference in serum albumin values between pre-operation and post-operation were all recorded. The statistical analyses were performed using the t-test, the Mann-Whitney U test and the chi square test. Statistical significance was defined as p < 0.05. Group 1 had the lowest thoracic drainage volume, the earliest first fecal passage, and the lowest LOH and hospitalization expenses of the three groups. The incidence of pneumonia was by far the highest in Group 3 (p = 0.019). Finally, all the postoperative outcomes of nutritional conditions were the worst by a significant margin in Group 3. It is therefore safe and valid to start early enteral nutrition within 48 h for postoperative esophageal cancer patients. PMID:26043031

  8. Volumetric modulated arc radiotherapy for esophageal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Vivekanandan, Nagarajan, E-mail: viveknaren@hotmail.com [Department of Medical Physics, Cancer Institute, Chennai (India); Sriram, Padmanaban; Syam Kumar, S.A.; Bhuvaneswari, Narayanan; Saranya, Kamalakannan [Department of Medical Physics, Cancer Institute, Chennai (India)

    2012-04-01

    A treatment planning study was performed to evaluate the performance of volumetric arc modulation with RapidArc (RA) against 3D conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) and conventional intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) techniques for esophageal cancer. Computed tomgraphy scans of 10 patients were included in the study. 3D-CRT, 4-field IMRT, and single-arc and double-arc RA plans were generated with the aim to spare organs at risk (OAR) and healthy tissue while enforcing highly conformal target coverage. The planning objective was to deliver 54 Gy to the planning target volume (PTV) in 30 fractions. Plans were evaluated based on target conformity and dose-volume histograms of organs at risk (lung, spinal cord, and heart). The monitor unit (MU) and treatment delivery time were also evaluated to measure the treatment efficiency. The IMRT plan improves target conformity and spares OAR when compared with 3D-CRT. Target conformity improved with RA plans compared with IMRT. The mean lung dose was similar in all techniques. However, RA plans showed a reduction in the volume of the lung irradiated at V{sub 20Gy} and V{sub 30Gy} dose levels (range, 4.62-17.98%) compared with IMRT plans. The mean dose and D{sub 35%} of heart for the RA plans were better than the IMRT by 0.5-5.8%. Mean V{sub 10Gy} and integral dose to healthy tissue were almost similar in all techniques. But RA plans resulted in a reduced low-level dose bath (15-20 Gy) in the range of 14-16% compared with IMRT plans. The average MU needed to deliver the prescribed dose by RA technique was reduced by 20-25% compared with IMRT technique. The preliminary study on RA for esophageal cancers showed improvements in sparing OAR and healthy tissue with reduced beam-on time, whereas only double-arc RA offered improved target coverage compared with IMRT and 3D-CRT plans.

  9. Conventional X-ray examination in esophageal cancer: an opinion.

    PubMed

    Ponette, E; Dekeyzer, M; Van Steen, A; Lerut, T; Broeckaert, L; Geboes, K

    1991-01-01

    Double contrast is the best radiological technique for the detection of small esophageal cancer. Gastrografin is indicated when a blind mediastinal fistula is suspected; in cases of choking or suspicion of a fistula with the airways, a low osmotic hydrosoluble Iodium compound must be used. Conventional radiology and endoscopy are complementary techniques for the detection of esophageal cancer, as some lesions may be missed or misinterpreted by both. The need for endoscopic biopsy being incontestable for diagnostic confirmation and characterization, radiology presents some advantages over classic esophagoscopy for preoperative and the general pretherapeutic staging of esophageal carcinoma: assessment of topographical relation with the surrounding organs is possible and with the upper esophageal sphincter is easier; appreciation of tumoral extension along the longitudinal axis (tumor length, gastric invasion) remains mostly possible even in cases of severe stenosis; tumoral extension along the transverse axis (kinking, fistula) may be evaluated; detection of a second tumor or concomitant pathology distally from a stenosing tumor is mostly possible; moreover radiology is important before starting radiotherapy; and finally, previous radiology may reduce the (small) risk of endoscopic perforation. Radiology is indispensable or indicated in the posttherapeutic follow-up of esophageal carcinoma, as well after surgery as after endoscopic interventions, radiotherapy or chemotherapy. PMID:1797799

  10. Free radical scavengers prevent reflux esophagitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Wetscher, G J; Hinder, P R; Bagchi, D; Perdikis, G; Redmond, E J; Glaser, K; Adrian, T E; Hinder, R A

    1995-06-01

    Free radical damage in reflux esophagitis of rats induced by 24-hr duodenojejunal ligation was studied. Oxygen free radicals were selectively blocked. Groups were: sham operation, reflux, reflux + superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, dimethylthiourea, allopurinol, and inactivated SOD or inactivated catalase alone or in the combination SOD + catalase or SOD + catalase + dimethylthiourea + allopurinol. Macroscopic esophagitis was inhibited only by SOD, alone or in combination with other agents. Esophageal mucosal lipid peroxidation was 10-fold increased in the reflux group compared to the sham group (P < 0.05). This response was damped by SOD > catalase (P < 0.05) but not by the inactivated enzymes, dimethylthiourea or allopurinol. SOD + catalase showed no significant improvement on SOD alone. Total inhibition of lipid peroxidation was achieved by combining all scavengers. Total glutathione (GSH) in the esophageal mucosa was stimulated by reflux. This response was inhibited by scavengers equivalent to their efficacy in preventing lipid peroxidation. It is concluded that reflux esophagitis is associated with free radical release with O2- being the main source. Free radicals appear to stimulate GSH production in this prolonged oxidative stress. PMID:7781450

  11. Do We Know What Causes Eosinophilic Esophagitis? A Mechanistic Update.

    PubMed

    Runge, Thomas M; Dellon, Evan S

    2015-09-01

    The mechanisms underlying eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) have been intensely investigated, and significant advances have been made in understanding the pathogenesis of EoE. EoE is defined as a chronic immune/antigen-mediated disease, characterized clinically by symptoms of esophageal dysfunction and histologically by an esophageal eosinophilic infiltrate. In this paper, we will review the current knowledge of EoE pathophysiology based on both animal and human data and discuss possible etiologic mechanisms from the genetic and environmental perspectives. EoE is a Th2-predominant inflammatory process triggered by allergens. Proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines recruit eosinophils and other effector cells, such as mast cells, into the esophageal epithelium, where they cause direct damage and promote esophageal remodeling. The genetic expression profile of EoE has been described, and several single nucleotide polymorphisms have been identified and associated with EoE. While this genetic contribution is important, it is difficult to postulate that EoE is primarily a genetic disease. Given the rapid epidemiologic changes in the incidence and prevalence of EoE over the past two decades, environmental factors may be the driving force. While it is not known what causes EoE in an individual patient at a specific time, the current hypothesis is that there is a complex interaction between genetic factors and environmental exposures that remains to be elucidated. PMID:26205715

  12. C-Met Inhibitor AMG 337, Oxaliplatin, Leucovorin Calcium, and Fluorouracil in Treating Patients With Advanced Stomach or Esophageal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-01-16

    Adenocarcinoma of the Esophagus; Adenocarcinoma of the Gastroesophageal Junction; Diffuse Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Gastrointestinal Cancer; Intestinal Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Mixed Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Stage IIIA Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIB Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIC Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIIC Gastric Cancer; Stage IV Esophageal Cancer; Stage IV Gastric Cancer

  13. HCl-induced and ATP-dependent upregulation of TRPV1 receptor expression and cytokine production by human esophageal epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jie; Altomare, Annamaria; Guarino, Michele; Cicala, Michele; Rieder, Florian; Fiocchi, Claudio; Li, Dan; Cao, Weibiao; Behar, Jose; Biancani, Piero

    2012-01-01

    The pathogenesis of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) remains elusive, but recent evidence suggests that early secretion of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines by the mucosa leads to influx of immune cells followed by tissue damage. We previously showed that exposure of esophageal mucosa to HCl causes ATP release, resulting in activation of acetyl-CoA:1-O-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine acetyltransferase (lyso-PAF AT), the enzyme responsible for the production of platelet-activating factor (PAF). In addition, HCl causes release of IL-8 from the esophageal mucosa. We demonstrate that esophageal epithelial cells secrete proinflammatory mediators in response to HCl and that this response is mediated by ATP. Monolayers of the human esophageal epithelial cell line HET-1A were exposed to acidified cell culture medium (pH 5) for 12 min, a total of seven times over 48 h, to simulate the recurrent acid exposure clinically occurring in GERD. HCl upregulated mRNA and protein expression for the acid-sensing transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily vanilloid member 1 (TRPV1), lyso-PAF AT, IL-8, eotaxin-1, -2, and -3, macrophage inflammatory protein-1?, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1. The chemokine profile secreted by HET-1A cells in response to repeated HCl exposure parallels similar findings in erosive esophagitis patients. In HET-1A cells, the TRPV1 agonist capsaicin reproduced these findings for mRNA of the inflammatory mediators lyso-PAF AT, IL-8, and eotaxin-1. These effects were blocked by the TRPV1 antagonists iodoresiniferatoxin and JNJ-17203212. These effects were imitated by direct application of ATP and blocked by the nonselective ATP antagonist suramin. We conclude that HCl/TRPV-induced ATP release upregulated secretion of various chemoattractants by esophageal epithelial cells. These chemoattractants are selective for leukocyte subsets involved in acute inflammatory responses and allergic inflammation. The data support the validity of HET-1A cells as a model of the response of the human esophageal mucosa in GERD. PMID:22790593

  14. An etiological role for aeroallergens and eosinophils in experimental esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Anil; Hogan, Simon P.; Brandt, Eric B.; Rothenberg, Marc E.

    2001-01-01

    Eosinophil infiltration into the esophagus is observed in diverse diseases including gastroesophageal reflux and allergic gastroenteritis, but the processes involved are largely unknown. We now report an original model of experimental esophagitis induced by exposure of mice to respiratory allergen. Allergen-challenged mice develop marked levels of esophageal eosinophils, free eosinophil granules, and epithelial cell hyperplasia, features that mimic the human disorders. Interestingly, exposure of mice to oral or intragastric allergen does not promote eosinophilic esophagitis, indicating that hypersensitivity in the esophagus occurs with simultaneous development of pulmonary inflammation. Furthermore, in the absence of eotaxin, eosinophil recruitment is attenuated, whereas in the absence of IL-5, eosinophil accumulation and epithelial hyperplasia are ablated. These results establish a pathophysiological connection between allergic hypersensitivity responses in the lung and esophagus and demonstrate an etiologic role for inhaled allergens and eosinophils in gastrointestinal inflammation. PMID:11134183

  15. Esophageal and esophagogastric junction cancers, version 1.2015.

    PubMed

    Ajani, Jaffer A; D'Amico, Thomas A; Almhanna, Khaldoun; Bentrem, David J; Besh, Stephen; Chao, Joseph; Das, Prajnan; Denlinger, Crystal; Fanta, Paul; Fuchs, Charles S; Gerdes, Hans; Glasgow, Robert E; Hayman, James A; Hochwald, Steven; Hofstetter, Wayne L; Ilson, David H; Jaroszewski, Dawn; Jasperson, Kory; Keswani, Rajesh N; Kleinberg, Lawrence R; Korn, W Michael; Leong, Stephen; Lockhart, A Craig; Mulcahy, Mary F; Orringer, Mark B; Posey, James A; Poultsides, George A; Sasson, Aaron R; Scott, Walter J; Strong, Vivian E; Varghese, Thomas K; Washington, Mary Kay; Willett, Christopher G; Wright, Cameron D; Zelman, Debra; McMillian, Nicole; Sundar, Hema

    2015-02-01

    Esophageal cancer is the sixth most common cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Adenocarcinoma is more common in North America and Western European countries, originating mostly in the lower third of the esophagus, which often involves the esophagogastric junction (EGJ). Recent randomized trials have shown that the addition of preoperative chemoradiation or perioperative chemotherapy to surgery significantly improves survival in patients with resectable cancer. Targeted therapies with trastuzumab and ramucirumab have produced encouraging results in the treatment of advanced or metastatic EGJ adenocarcinomas. Multidisciplinary team management is essential for patients with esophageal and EGJ cancers. This portion of the NCCN Guidelines for Esophageal and EGJ Cancers discusses management of locally advanced adenocarcinoma of the esophagus and EGJ. PMID:25691612

  16. An Update on Modern Approaches to Localized Esophageal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Welsh, James; Amini, Arya; Likhacheva, Anna; Erasmus, Jeremy; Gomez, Daniel; Davila, Marta; Mehran, Reza J; Komaki, Ritsuko; Liao, Zhongxing; Hofstetter, Wayne L; Bhutani, Manoop; Ajani, Jaffer A

    2014-01-01

    Esophageal cancer treatment continues to be a topic of wide debate. Based on improvements in chemotherapy drugs, surgical techniques, and radiotherapy advances, esophageal cancer treatment approaches are becoming more specific to the stage of the tumor and the overall performance status of the patient. While surgery continues to be the standard treatment option for localized disease, the current direction favors multimodality treatment including both radiation and chemotherapy with surgery. In the next few years, we will continue to see improvements in radiation techniques and proton treatment, with more minimally invasive surgical approaches minimizing postoperative side effects, and the discovery of molecular biomarkers to help deliver more specifically targeted medication to treat esophageal cancers. PMID:21365188

  17. [Rubber-band ligation of esophageal and cardiac varices].

    PubMed

    Arnon, R; Zimmerman, J; Keret, D; Lysy, J; Wengrower, D; Fich, A; Goldin, E

    1993-01-15

    Esophageal sclerotherapy was the treatment of choice for bleeding esophageal varices in the past decade. It is effective for treating acute variceal bleeding, as well as eradicating esophageal varices for secondary prevention of bleeding. However, in more than 20% of patients sclerotherapy involves complications, some of which are serious. The high complication rate suggested the development of a new method that should be at least as effective and as easy to perform as sclerotherapy, but with fewer complications and side-effects. Endoscopic variceal ligation was developed at the University of Colorado and described in 1986. It is reported to control active variceal bleeding in about 90% of patients, and to eradicate varices in about 80% of surviving patients. Complications are rare. We have adapted the method in our unit and here describe out preliminary experience in 11 patients. PMID:8436323

  18. [Esophageal toxicity of radiation therapy: clinical risk factors and management].

    PubMed

    Challand, T; Thureau, S; Dubray, B; Giraud, P

    2012-09-01

    Acute radiation-induced esophagitis includes all clinical symptoms (odynophagia, dysphagia) occurring within 90 days after thoracic irradiation start. Its severity can be graded using RTOG and CTCAE scales. The clinical risk factors are: age, female gender, initial performance status, pre-therapeutic body mass index, pre-therapeutic dysphagia, tumoral and nodal stage, delivered dose, accelerated hyperfractionned radiotherapy, concomitant association of chemotherapy to radiotherapy and response to the treatment. The dosimetric parameters predictive of esophagitis are: mean dose, V(20Gy), V(30Gy), V(40Gy), V(45Gy) and V(50Gy). Amifostine is the only drug to have a proven radioprotective efficacy (evidence level C, ESMO recommendation grade III). The medical management of esophagitis associates a diet excluding irritant food, medication against gastroesophageal reflux, analgesic treatment according to the WHO scale and management of dehydration and denutrition by enteral feeding. PMID:22925486

  19. Eosinophilic esophagitis: a practical approach to diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Molina-Infante, Javier; Lucendo, Alfredo J

    2014-11-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) has emerged as a common cause of dysphagia and food impaction in children and adults. A trial of proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy is a mandatory diagnostic first step, given that at least one third of patients with suspected EoE will have PPI-responsive esophageal eosinophilia. Once EoE is diagnosed, short-and long-term therapeutic decision making may rely on patient symptoms, phenotype (inflammatory vs fibrostenotic) and preferences. Currently, the most reliable therapeutic targets are mucosal healing and caliber abnormalities resolution. Topical steroids followed by endoscopic dilation are recommended in symptomatic narrow caliber esophagus/strictures, whereas either topical steroids or dietary therapy are good short-term options for mucosal inflammation. Maintenance anti-inflammatory therapy is necessary to prevent esophageal fibrotic remodeling and stricture formation. PMID:24830679

  20. Self-expanding plastic stent removed after radiochemotherapy for advanced esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Laquière, A; Grandval, P; Heresbach, D; Prat, F; Arpurt, J P; Bichard, P; D'Halluin, P-N; Berthillier, J; Boustière, C; Laugier, R

    2014-01-01

    Endoscopic evaluation after chemoradiotherapy (CR) is impossible with an esophageal stent in place. The main study objective was to evaluate self-expanding plastic stent (SEPS) removal post-CR. Secondary end-points were the improvement of dysphagia and patients' quality of life. From October 2008 to March 2011, 20 dysphagic patients who suffered from advanced esophageal cancer were enrolled in a multicenter, prospective study. SEPS was inserted prior to CR and then removed endoscopically. SEPS efficiency (dysphagia score) and tolerance, as well as the patients' quality of life (European Organization for the Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire validated for the esophagus), were monitored. Continuous variables were compared using a paired t-test analysis for matched data. A P-value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Twenty patients (15 men and 5 women), aged 61.5 years (±9.88) (range 43-82 years), with adenocarcinoma (n = 12) and squamous cell carcinoma (n = 8), were enrolled. SEPS were successfully inserted in all patients (100%). There was one perforation and three episodes of migration. All of these complications were medically treated. The mean dysphagia score at the time of stent placement was 2.79 (0.6). Mean dysphagia scores obtained on day 1 and day 30 post-SEPS placement were 0.7 (0.9) (P < 0.0001) and 0.45 (0.8) (P < 0.0001), respectively. Quality of Life Questionnaire validated for the esophagus score showed an improvement in dysphagia (P = 0.01) and quality of oral feeding (P = 0.003). All SEPS were removed endoscopically without complications. In two patients, the stent was left in place due to metastatic disease. SEPS are extractable after CR of esophageal cancer. Early stenting by SEPS prior to and during CR may reduce dysphagia and improve quality of oral alimentation. PMID:23651038

  1. Treatment of gastro-esophageal reflux disease: the new kids to block.

    PubMed

    Blondeau, K

    2010-08-01

    Refractory gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD), defined as persistent symptoms despite proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy, is an increasingly prevalent condition and is becoming a major challenge for the clinician. Since non-acidic reflux may be associated with symptoms persisting during PPI treatment, the lower esophageal sphincter (LES), the most important barrier protecting against reflux, has become an important target for the treatment of (refractory) GERD. Preclinical research has identified several receptors that are involved in the control of transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxations (TLESRs), the predominant mechanism of both acid and non-acidic reflux events, and several drugs have now been tested in humans. The GABA(B) agonist baclofen has demonstrated to effectively reduce the rate of TLESRs and the amount of reflux in both GERD patients and healthy volunteers. Nevertheless, the occurrence of central side effects limits its clinical use for the treatment of GERD. Several analogues are being developed to overcome this limitation and have shown promising results. Additionally, metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) receptor antagonists have shown to reduce both acid and non-acidic reflux in GERD patients and several molecules are currently being evaluated. Although CB(1) antagonists have been shown to reduce TLESRs, they are also associated with central side effects, limiting their clinical applicability. Despite the identification of several potentially interesting drugs, the main challenge for the future remains the reduction of central side effects. Moreover, future studies will need to demonstrate the efficacy of these treatments in patients with refractory GERD. PMID:20663054

  2. Inflammatory and microRNA Gene Expression as Prognostic Classifiers of Barrett's Associated Esophageal Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Giang Huong; Schetter, Aaron J.; Chou, David B.; Bowman, Elise D.; Zhao, Ronghua; Hawkes, Jason E.; Mathe, Ewy A.; Kumamoto, Kensuke; Zhao, Yiqiang; Budhu, Anuradha; Hagiwara, Nobutoshi; Wang, Xin Wei; Miyashita, Masao; Casson, Alan G.; Harris, Curtis C.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Esophageal cancer is one of the most aggressive and deadly forms of cancer; highlighting the need to identify biomarkers for early detection and prognostic classification. Our recent studies have identified inflammatory gene and microRNA signatures derived from tumor and nontumor tissues as prognostic biomarkers of hepatocellular, lung, and colorectal adenocarcinoma. Here, we examine the relationship between expression of these inflammatory genes and miRNA expression in esophageal adenocarcinoma and patient survival. Experimental Design We measured the expression of 23 inflammation-associated genes in tumors and adjacent normal tissues from 93 patients (58 Barrett's and 35 Sporadic adenocarcinomas) by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. These data were used to build an inflammatory risk model, based on multivariate Cox regression, to predict survival in a training cohort (n=47). We then determined if this model could predict survival in a cohort of 46 patients. Expression data for miRNA-375 was available for these patients and was combined with inflammatory gene expression. Results IFN?, IL-1?, IL-8, IL-21, IL-23, and PRG expression in tumor and nontumor samples were each associated with poor prognosis based on Cox regression ([Z-score]>1.5) and therefore, were used to generate an inflammatory risk score (IRS). Patients with a high IRS had poor prognosis compared to those with a low IRS in the training (P=0.002) and test (P=0.012) cohorts. This association was stronger in the group with Barrett's history. When combining with miRNA-375, the combined IRS/miR signature was an improved prognostic classifier than either one alone. Conclusion Transcriptional profiling of inflammation-associated genes and miRNA expression in resected esophageal Barrett's associated adenocarcinoma tissues may have clinical utility as predictors of prognosis. PMID:20947516

  3. Molecular Pathways: Pathogenesis and clinical implications of microbiome alteration in esophagitis and Barrett’s esophagus

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Liying; Francois, Fritz; Pei, Zhiheng

    2013-01-01

    Esophageal adenocarcinoma is preceded by the development of reflux-related intestinal metaplasia or Barrett’s esophagus which is a response to inflammation of the esophageal squamous mucosa, reflux esophagitis. Gastroesophageal reflux impairs the mucosal barrier in the distal esophagus, allowing chronic exposure of the squamous epithelium to the diverse microbial ecosystem or microbiome, and inducing chronic inflammation. The esophageal microbiome is altered in both esophagitis and Barrett's esophagus, characterized by a significant decrease in Gram-positive bacteria and an increase in Gram-negative bacteria in esophagitis and Barrett's esophagus. Lipopolysaccharides (LPS), a major structure of the outer membrane in Gram-negative bacteria, can up-regulate gene expression of proinflammatory cytokines via activation of the TLR4 and NF-kB pathway. The potential impact of LPS on reflux esophagitis may be through relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter via iNOS and by delaying gastric emptying via COX-2. Chronic inflammation may be play a critical role in the progression from benign to malignant esophageal disease. Therefore analysis of the pathways leading to chronic inflammation in the esophagus may help to identify biomarkers in Barrett's esophagus patients for neoplastic progression and provide insight into molecular events suitable for therapeutic intervention in prevention of esophageal adenocarcinoma development in patients with reflux esophagitis and Barrett's esophagus. PMID:22344232

  4. Esophagitis in Sprague-Dawley rats is mediated by free radicals.

    PubMed

    Wetscher, G J; Perdikis, G; Kretchmar, D H; Stinson, R G; Bagchi, D; Redmond, E J; Adrian, T E; Hinder, R A

    1995-06-01

    Free radical-mediated esophagitis was studied during duodenogastroesophageal reflux (mixed reflux) or acid reflux in rats. The influence of reflux on esophageal glutathione levels was also examined. Mixed reflux caused more gross mucosal injury than acid reflux. Gross mucosal injury occurred in the mid-esophagus. Total glutathione (GSH) in the esophageal mucosa of control rats was highest in the distal esophagus. The time course of esophageal GSH in rats treated by mixed reflux showed a significant decrease 4 hr after initiation of reflux, followed by a significant increase from the 12th hour on. Mucosal GSH was increased in both reflux groups after 24 hr but significantly more so in the mixed than in the acid reflux group. The free radical scavenger superoxide dismutase (SOD) prevented esophagitis and was associated with decreased GSH levels. GSH depletion by buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) prevented esophagitis and stimulated SOD production in the esophageal mucosa. It is concluded that gastroesophageal reflux is associated with oxidative stress in the esophageal mucosa. The lower GSH levels in the mid-esophagus may predispose to damage in this area. Duodenogastroesophageal reflux causes more damage than pure acid reflux. Oxidative stress leads to GSH depletion of the esophageal mucosa in the first few hours following damage but then stimulates GSH production. GSH depletion by BSO does not worsen esophagitis since it increases the esophageal SOD concentration. PMID:7781451

  5. A Novel Approach to Management of Esophageal Pill Impaction

    PubMed Central

    Caufield, Sean; Lavery, Eric; Partridge, Brett

    2014-01-01

    A 26-year-old male presented with symptoms of acute esophageal obstruction immediately after swallowing an 800-mg ibuprofen tablet. Multiple attempts to extract the pill with a variety of traditional endoscopic retrieval devices were unsuccessful. We successfully destroyed the pill using a threaded-tip biliary stent retrieval device to drill a hole in the center of the pill, which allowed us to use a rat-tooth forceps to crush the pill. This case report demonstrates a novel use of this device in a challenging esophageal pill extraction.

  6. Paraneoplastic cutaneous lupus secondary to esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Tworek, Joseph; Schapiro, Brian; Zolotarevsky, Eugene

    2015-01-01

    Sporadic subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus (SCLE) in an elderly man does not fit a typical demographic for the disease process. Using the McLean’s criteria we were able to establish a temporal relationship between the patient’s diagnosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and his dermatosis, both of which responded to cytotoxic chemotherapy. The clinical presentation and progression of the clinical illness is supportive of a very unusual and not previously reported paraneoplastic SCLE secondary to esophageal SCC. PMID:26029469

  7. Recent advances in the recognition and management of eosinophilic esophagitis.

    PubMed

    Eustace, Gregory; Gui, Xianyong; Iacucci, Marietta

    2015-01-01

    The incidence and recognition of eosinophilic esophagitis is increasing. Pathophysiological understanding of eosinophilic esophagitis is improving and an immunological reaction to ingested food is likely to play a significant role. Patients present with dysphagia and food bolus obstruction. Both histological and endoscopic criteria have been developed and validated. Dietary therapy, topical steroid therapy, proton pump inhibitors and endoscopic dilation are the main approaches to therapy; however, novel targeted therapies are being developed. Among the food items commonly implicated are wheat, dairy, nuts, soy, shellfish and eggs. A multidisciplinary approach to management in dedicated clinics may yield the best results. PMID:26076223

  8. A case of eosinophilic esophagitis caused by a cedar ball.

    PubMed

    Fukuoka, Keiko; Izumi, Toshinobu; Yaku, Hiroaki; Okada, Hirokazu; Tsubosaka, Mako; Okada, Yuki; Ikemura, Takahiro; Kawase, Yoshito

    2015-01-01

    A 65-year-old woman presented to our hospital with chief complaints of a strange sensation in her pharynx, dysphagia, and odynophagia. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy showed multiple aphthae in the esophagus and she was diagnosed with eosinophilic esophagitis based on the results of biopsy. Swallowing therapy with fluticasone was scheduled; however, she subsequently developed urticaria. She was treated with systemic steroid therapy at another hospital, which improved her symptoms and endoscopic images. A detailed history revealed that she had experienced significant facial edema after making a cedar ball. It was considered that the eosinophilic esophagitis was possibly caused by cedar pollen. PMID:26050724

  9. Esophageal perforation after radiofrequency ablation for atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Manouchehri, Namdar; Turner, Simon R; Lockwood, Evan; Sterns, Laurence D; Bédard, Eric Lr

    2014-11-01

    A 69-year-old man underwent left atrial radiofrequency ablation for atrial fibrillation. After 10 minutes, the procedure was terminated due to pericardial tamponade secondary to perforation during mapping. Pericardiocentesis resolved the tamponade. Ablation was completed one week later, and the patient was discharged. Two days later, he presented with odynophagia. Computed tomography demonstrated small bilateral pleural effusions. He was judged to be stable and was discharged again, but returned 2 days later with chest pain. He was found to have esophageal perforation with empyema, which was repaired using a muscle patch and esophageal stenting, successfully treating the lesion with minimal morbidity. PMID:24887888

  10. The Acid Test: pH Tolerance of the Eggs and Larvae of the Invasive Cane Toad (Rhinella marina) in Southeastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Wijethunga, Uditha; Greenlees, Matthew; Shine, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Invasive cane toads are colonizing southeastern Australia via a narrow coastal strip sandwiched between unsuitable areas (Pacific Ocean to the east, mountains to the west). Many of the available spawning sites exhibit abiotic conditions (e.g., temperature, salinity, and pH) more extreme than those encountered elsewhere in the toad's native or already invaded range. Will that challenge impede toad expansion? To answer that question, we measured pH in 35 ponds in northeastern New South Wales and 8 ponds in the Sydney region, in both areas where toads occur (and breed) and adjacent areas where toads are likely to invade, and conducted laboratory experiments to quantify effects of pH on the survival and development of toad eggs and larvae. Our field surveys revealed wide variation in pH (3.9-9.8) among natural water bodies. In the laboratory, the hatching success of eggs was increased at low pH (down to pH 4), whereas the survival, growth, and developmental rates of tadpoles were enhanced by higher pH levels. We found that pH influenced metamorph size and shape (relative head width, relative leg length) but not locomotor performance. The broad tolerance range of these early life-history stages suggests that pH conditions in ponds will not significantly slow the toad's expansion southward. Indeed, toads may benefit from transiently low pH conditions, and habitat where pH in wetlands is consistently low (such as coastal heath) may enhance rather than reduce toad reproductive success. A broad physiological tolerance during embryonic and larval life has contributed significantly to the cane toad's success as a widespread colonizer. PMID:26052640

  11. Identification of New Candidate Genes and Chemicals Related to Esophageal Cancer Using a Hybrid Interaction Network of Chemicals and Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Junbao; Li, Li-Peng; He, Yi-Chun; Gao, Ru-Jian; Cai, Yu-Dong; Jiang, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is a serious disease responsible for many deaths every year in both developed and developing countries. One reason is that the mechanisms underlying most types of cancer are still mysterious, creating a great block for the design of effective treatments. In this study, we attempted to clarify the mechanism underlying esophageal cancer by searching for novel genes and chemicals. To this end, we constructed a hybrid network containing both proteins and chemicals, and generalized an existing computational method previously used to identify disease genes to identify new candidate genes and chemicals simultaneously. Based on jackknife test, our generalized method outperforms or at least performs at the same level as those obtained by a widely used method - the Random Walk with Restart (RWR). The analysis results of the final obtained genes and chemicals demonstrated that they highly shared gene ontology (GO) terms and KEGG pathways with direct and indirect associations with esophageal cancer. In addition, we also discussed the likelihood of selected candidate genes and chemicals being novel genes and chemicals related to esophageal cancer. PMID:26058041

  12. Proton radiotherapy dose perturbations caused by esophageal stents of varying material composition are negligible in an experimental model

    PubMed Central

    Jalaj, Sujai; Lee, Sang Yeob; McGaw, Camille; John, Bijo K; Li, Zuofeng; Awad, Ziad T; Scolapio, James S; Munoz, Juan C

    2015-01-01

    Background: Self-expanding metal and plastic esophageal stents (SEMS and SEPS, respectively) are used in conjunction with chemoradiation for palliation of malignant dysphagia. To date, the dosimetric effects of stents undergoing proton radiotherapy are not known. Study aim: To investigate the proton radiotherapy dose perturbations caused by esophageal stents of varying designs and materials undergoing external beam treatment for esophageal cancer. Patients and methods: Simulated clinical protocol. Solid acrylic phantom was used to mimic the esophageal tissue environment. Stents made of nitinol, stainless steel and polyester were tested. Proton beam dose of 2 Gy-E was delivered to each stent in a single anterior to posterior field. Film and image based evidence of dose perturbation were main outcomes measured. Results: Only the stainless steel and plastic stents demonstrated slight overall dose attenuations (–?0.5?% and –?0.4?%, respectively). All the nitinol-based stents demonstrated minimal overall dose perturbations ranging from 0.0?% to 1.2?%. Negligible dose perturbations were observed on each of the stent surfaces proximal to the radiation source, ranging from –?0.8?% (stainless steel stent) to 1.0?% (nitinol stent). Negligible dose effects were also observed on the distal surfaces of each stent ranging from –?0.5?% (plastic and stainless steel stents) to 1.0?% (nitinol stent). Conclusion: Proton radiotherapy dose perturbations caused by stents of varying designs and material composition are negligible. Negligible dose perturbation is in keeping with the inherent advantage of proton therapy over traditional radiotherapy composed of photons – given its relative large mass, protons have little side scatter.

  13. Early diagnosis of esophageal cancer. Analysis of 11 cases of esophageal mucosal cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Misumi, A; Harada, K; Murakami, A; Arima, K; Kondo, H; Akagi, M; Yagi, Y; Ikeda, T; Kobori, Y; Matsukane, H

    1989-01-01

    We reviewed 11 patients with esophageal mucosal carcinoma in various aspects to improve the early diagnosis of the disease. Eighteen lesions measuring 0.5 to 5.0 cm were confirmed histologically in the 11 cases. Histologically 10 of the 18 lesions were carcinomas in situ (ep cancer), and the other 8 lesions were carcinomas confined to the mucosa other than ep cancer (mm cancer); all 18 lesions were squamous cell carcinomas. Six (85.7%) of the seven mm cancers showed abnormal radiographic findings regardless of the size. Similarly these findings were noted on four of five (80%) ep carcinomas 2 cm or larger in size. All 15 lesions diagnosed before operation showed abnormal findings on conventional endoscopy regardless of the size and depth of transmural invasion. Morphologic change was observed in 9 lesions (53.3%), while 13 (86.7%) showed color change; most of the lesions (80%) were manifested as redness. Dyeing of the resected specimen with Lugol solution (Katayama Chemical Industries, Osaka, Japan) showed all 18 cancerous lesions as unstained areas. Among the 18 lesions, two lesions were unstained areas, which agreed with the areas determined histologically. An additional lesion was visible with dye endoscopy as an unstained area but it was not visible with radiography or conventional endoscopy. Dye endoscopy using Lugol solution is very important because it allows detection and evaluation of the extent of esophageal mucosal cancer. Images Figs. 3A and B. Fig. 4. Figs. 5A and B. Figs. 6A and B. Figs. 7A and B. Figs. 8A and B. Figs. 9A and B. Fig. 10. PMID:2589886

  14. Diagnosis and surgical treatment of esophageal gastrointestinal stromal tumors

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fang-Biao; Shi, Hong-Can; Shu, Yu-Sheng; Shi, Wei-Ping; Lu, Shi-Chun; Zhang, Xiang-Yan; Tu, Shao-Song

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To retrospectively evaluate our experience with the diagnosis and surgical resection of esophageal gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs). METHODS: Between January 2003 and August 2014, five esophageal GIST cases were admitted to our hospital. In this study, the hospital records, surgery outcomes, tumor recurrence and survival of these patients were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: The median age of the patients was 45.6 years (range: 12-62 years). Three patients presented with dysphagia, and one patient presented with chest discomfort. The remaining patient was asymptomatic. Four patients were diagnosed with esophageal GISTs by a preoperative endoscopic biopsy. Three patients underwent esophagectomy, and two patients underwent video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery. The mean operating time was 116 min (range: 95-148 min), and the mean blood loss was 176 mL (range: 30-300 mL). All tumors were completely resected. The mean length of postoperative hospital stay was 8.4 d (range: 6-12 d). All patients recovered and were discharged successfully. The median postoperative follow-up duration was 48 mo (range: 29-72 mo). One patient was diagnosed with recurrence, one patient was lost to follow-up, and three patients were asymptomatic and are currently being managed with close radiologic and clinical follow-up. CONCLUSION: Surgery is the standard, effective and successful treatment for esophageal GISTs. Long-term follow-up is required to monitor recurrence and metastasis. PMID:25987788

  15. Intrathoracic esophageal perforation: The merit of primary repair

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard I. Whyte; Mark D. Iannettoni; Mark B. Orringer

    1995-01-01

    Between 1976 and 1993, 22 patients with intrathoracic esophageal perforations, none associated with carcinoma, underwent primary repair regardless of the interval between perforation and the time of repair. Eighteen perforations were iatrogenic and four were spontaneous. The interval from perforation to operation was less than 12 hours in 10 patients, 12 to 24 hours in 3, and more than 24

  16. Nitinol Esophageal Stents: New Designs and Clinical Indications

    SciTech Connect

    Strecker, Ernst-Peter; Boos, Irene; Vetter, Sylvia; Strohm, Michael; Domschke, Sigurd [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Diakonissen-Krankenhaus, Diakonissenstr. 28, D-76191 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    1996-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the clinical use of covered and noncovered, knitted nitinol stents in patients presenting new stent indications. Methods: Self-expandable, knitted nitinol stents were implanted in four patients for treatment of dysphagia. In two patients who had malignant strictures and had esophago-respiratory fistulae and in one patient with an esophagocutaneous fistula, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)-covered stents were implanted. One patient received a noncovered stent, but a retrograde approach through a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) fistula had to be chosen for recanalization of an esophageal occlusion. Two patients received stents for treatment of benign strictures. Results: Recanalization of the stricture and stent implantation were performed under fluoroscopic control without any procedure-related morbidity or mortality. Dysphagia improved in all patients and the esophageal fistulae could be sealed off by covered stents. During a maximum follow-up of 18 months, there was no stent migration or esophageal perforation. Complications observed were stent stenosis due to food impaction (1/4) and benign stent stenosis (2/2). Most complications could be treated by the interventional radiologist. Conclusion: Self-expandable, covered Nitinol stents provide an option for the treatment of dysphagia combined with esophageal fistulae. In combination with interventional radiology techniques, even complex strictures are accessible. For benign strictures, the value of stent treatment has not yet been proven.

  17. Coincidence of Nutritional Habits and Esophageal Cancer in Germany

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Wolfgarten; U. Rosendahl; T. Nowroth; J. Leers; R. Metzger; A. H. Hölscher; E. Bollschweiler

    2001-01-01

    Summary Introduction: The incidence rates for adenocarcinoma (AC) of the esophagus have risen rapidly in Western nations, whereas the incidence rates for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) have remained nearly stable. There are studies about body mass index, smoking, alcohol, and development of AC or SCC. The aim of this study was to evaluate differences in nutritional habits of patients

  18. Etiology and chemoprevention of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary D. Stoner; Ashok Gupta

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the human esophagus has a multifactorial etiology involving several environ- mental and\\/or genetic factors. Current modalities of therapy for this disease offer poor survival and cure rates. Although a number of approaches could be undertaken to reduce the occurrence of esophageal SCC, including changes in lifestyle and improved nutrition, such approaches are not easily implemented.

  19. Esophageal atresia with tracheoesophageal fistula associated with situs inversus totalis.

    PubMed

    Barman, Shibsankar; Mandal, Kartik Chandra; Shukla, Ram Mohan; Mukhopadhyay, Biswanath

    2014-06-01

    Esophageal atresia with tracheoesophageal fistula with situs inversus totalis is an extremely rare association. We are presenting a case of a preterm neonate suffering from similar condition. Fistula ligation with primary repair was done via left thoracotomy to avoid technical difficulties. Preoperative echocardiography should be done to confirm dextrocardia and disposition of the aortic arch. PMID:25177126

  20. Preparation and characterization of a biologic scaffold from esophageal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Keane, Timothy J; Londono, Ricardo; Carey, Ryan M; Carruthers, Christopher A; Reing, Janet E; Dearth, Christopher L; D'Amore, Antonio; Medberry, Christopher J; Badylak, Stephen F

    2013-09-01

    Biologic scaffolds composed of extracellular matrix (ECM) are commonly used to facilitate a constructive remodeling response in several types of tissue, including the esophagus. Surgical manipulation of the esophagus is often complicated by stricture, but preclinical and clinical studies have shown that the use of an ECM scaffold can mitigate stricture and promote a constructive outcome after resection of full circumference esophageal mucosa. Recognizing the potential benefits of ECM derived from homologous tissue (i.e., site-specific ECM), the objective of the present study was to prepare, characterize, and assess the in-vivo remodeling properties of ECM from porcine esophageal mucosa. The developed protocol for esophageal ECM preparation is compliant with previously established criteria of decellularization and results in a scaffold that maintains important biologic components and an ultrastructure consistent with a basement membrane complex. Perivascular stem cells remained viable when seeded upon the esophageal ECM scaffold in-vitro, and the in-vivo host response showed a pattern of constructive remodeling when implanted in soft tissue. PMID:23777917

  1. Cyclosporine in the management of esophageal lichen planus

    PubMed Central

    Chaklader, M; Morris-Larkin, C; Gulliver, W; McGrath, J

    2009-01-01

    Lichen planus (LP) is an uncommon disorder of unknown etiology, mostly affecting patients in their fifth and sixth decade of life. It is believed to be an autoimmune process involving T cells directed against basal keratinocytes. It affects the skin, nails, oral pharynx and genitals. Esophageal involvement is quite rare and can cause strictures, ulcerations and squamous cell cancer. The present article describes the case of a 54-year-old woman who was referred for assessment of dysphagia that initially occurred with solids, which then progressed to soft foods but spared liquids. The patient reported a weight loss of 9.1 kg. An esophagogastroduodenoscopy was performed and she was subsequently diagnosed with pill esophagitis. At the same time, she was also diagnosed with oral LP, with no involvement of the esophagus. She was treated with a proton pump inhibitor that resolved her gastrointestinal symptoms. The symptoms returned one year later and a repeat esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed white plaques due to LP. She was treated with intermittent glucocorticoids. Diagnosis of esophageal LP is crucial for the proper treatment. Some patients may require systemic immunosuppression and mechanical dilation to prevent weight loss. Surveillance endoscopies should be performed to monitor for squamous cell cancer. Cyclosporine has been used for genital and oral LP, but the present case is the first in which it has been used successfully to treat esophageal LP. PMID:19826643

  2. Preparation and Characterization of a Biologic Scaffold from Esophageal Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Keane, Timothy J.; Londono, Ricardo; Carey, Ryan M.; Carruthers, Christopher A.; Reing, Janet E.; Dearth, Christopher L.; D’Amore, Antonio; Medberry, Christopher J.; Badylak, Stephen F.

    2013-01-01

    Biologic scaffolds composed of extracellular matrix (ECM) are commonly used to facilitate a constructive remodeling response in several types of tissue, including the esophagus. Surgical manipulation of the esophagus is often complicated by stricture, but preclinical and clinical studies have shown that the use of an ECM scaffold can mitigate stricture and promote a constructive outcome after resection of full circumference esophageal mucosa. Recognizing the potential benefits of ECM derived from homologous tissue (i.e., site-specific ECM), the objective of the present study was to prepare, characterize, and assess the in-vivo remodeling properties of ECM from porcine esophageal mucosa. The developed protocol for esophageal ECM preparation is compliant with previously established criteria of decellularization and results in a scaffold that maintains important biologic components and an ultrastructure consistent with a basement membrane complex. Perivascular stem cells remained viable when seeded upon the esophageal ECM scaffold in vitro, and the in-vivo host response showed a pattern of constructive remodeling when implanted in soft tissue. PMID:23777917

  3. Palliative Chemotherapy Does Not Improve Survival in Metastatic Esophageal Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antoine Adenis; Nicolas Penel; Samy Horn; Sophie Dominguez; Marie Vanhuyse; Xavier Mirabel

    2010-01-01

    Background: The role of chemotherapy in metastatic esophageal carcinoma (MEC) remains a matter of debate. The aim of this retrospective study was to analyze the survival impact of chemotherapy after stratification for prognostic factors. Methods: Consecutive patients with MEC (1995 to 2008) were randomly assigned to a development (n = 171) and a validation cohort (n = 113). We had

  4. Esophageal foreign body in a 2-day-old calf

    PubMed Central

    Haas, Jackie

    2010-01-01

    A 2-day-old male Charolais crossbred calf presented with a section of an esophageal feeding tube partially obstructing his esophagus. External palpation of the neck confirmed the location of the obstruction to be within the cervical esophagus. A rumenotomy was performed and the foreign body was successfully removed. PMID:20592832

  5. [Tracheoesophageal fistula after the removal of esophageal foreign body].

    PubMed

    Szmeja, Z; Kruk-Zagajewska, A; Wa?niewska, E

    1999-01-01

    A case of 18 years old male with tracheoesophageal fistula as a result of esophageal foreign body (chestnut) is described. Foreign body was removed using esophagoscopy. Bronchofiberoscopy performed because of difficulties with swallowing and frequent airway infections revealed tracheoesophageal fistula. Fistula was closed from intratracheal access. Symptoms of dysfagia disappeared after surgery. PMID:10689920

  6. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Roshandel, Gholamreza; Semnani, Shahryar; Malekzadeh, Reza; Dawsey, Sanford M

    2012-11-01

    Esophageal cancer (EC) is the 8th most common cancer and the 6th most frequent cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is the most common type of EC. Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been suggested as a risk factor for developing ESCC. In this paper we will review different aspects of the relationship between PAH exposure and ESCC. PAHs are a group of compounds that are formed by incomplete combustion of organic matter. Studies in humans have shown an association between PAH exposure and development of ESCC in many populations. The results of a recent case-control study in a high risk population in northeastern Iran showed a dramatic dose-response relationship between PAH content in non-tumor esophageal tissue (the target tissue for esophageal carcinogenesis) and ESCC case status, consistent with a causal role for PAH exposure in the pathogenesis of ESCC.  Identifying the main sources of exposure to PAHs may be the first and most important step in designing appropriate PAH-reduction interventions for controlling ESCC, especially in high risk areas. Coal smoke and drinking mate have been suggested as important modifiable sources of PAH exposure in China and Brazil, respectively. But the primary source of exposure to PAHs in other high risk areas for ESCC, such as northeastern Iran, has not yet been identified. Thus, environmental studies to determining important sources of PAH exposure should be considered as a high priority in future research projects in these areas. PMID:23102250

  7. Doctors, Engineers Develop New Wireless System To Detect Esophageal Reflux

    E-print Network

    Chiao, Jung-Chih

    that takes photos as it goes through the digestive tract, and Bravo capsule, another wireless systemDoctors, Engineers Develop New Wireless System To Detect Esophageal Reflux Science Daily -- UT Southwestern Medical Center doctors and UT Arlington engineers have developed a wireless monitoring system

  8. Clinical and immunopathologic effects of swallowed fluticasone for eosinophilic esophagitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard J Noel; Philip E Putnam; Margaret H Collins; Amal H Assa’ad; Jesus R Guajardo; Sean C Jameson; Marc E Rothenberg

    2004-01-01

    Background & Aims: Eosinophilic esophagitis (EE) is a recently recognized clinical disorder that is understood poorly. We aimed to determine the efficacy of swallowed fluticasone propionate on the immunopathologic features associated with EE. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on 20 pediatric patients with EE. Inclusion criteria specified a peak eosinophil density of ?24 cells per 400× field in the

  9. Endoscopy in eosinophilic esophagitis: “feline” esophagus and perforation risk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mitchell Kaplan; Ece A. Mutlu; Shriram Jakate; Keith Bruninga; John Losurdo; Joseph Losurdo; Ali Keshavarzian

    2003-01-01

    Background & Aims: Idiopathic eosinophilic esophagitis is an underdiagnosed disease with typical endoscopic findings, which have not been well described. Methods: Charts and pathology reports at two tertiary care centers from June 1993 to April 2002 were reviewed to describe the endoscopic findings of this disease and to correlate them with clinical characteristics. Eight patients were identified as having eosinophilic

  10. An Audit of Endoscopic Complications in Adult Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew S. Cohen; Adam B. Kaufman; Juan P. Palazzo; Daniel Nevin; Anthony J. DiMarino; Sidney Cohen

    2007-01-01

    Background & Aims: Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) in adults, characterized by the triad of dysphagia, a ringed esophagus, and mucosal eosinophilic infiltration, has asso- ciated complications that include vertical mucosal lacera- tions, instrumental perforation, and emesis-induced rup- ture. The aim of this study was to determine whether clinical, endoscopic, and histologic features can be used to predict the risk for development

  11. Biopsy-negative malignant esophageal stricture: diagnosis by endoscopic ultrasound

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas O. Faigel; Clifford Deveney; Daniel Phillips; M. Brian Fennerty

    1998-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) of the esophagus has been used primarily in staging biopsy-proven cancers. Its use as a primary diagnostic modality for esophageal malignancy has not been previously described. We report our recent experience in four patients with dysphagia and endoscopic biopsies negative for malignancy, including one patient with clinical and manometric features suggestive of achalasia. In all cases, EUS

  12. Molecular, genetic, and cellular bases for treating eosinophilic esophagitis.

    PubMed

    Rothenberg, Marc E

    2015-05-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) was historically distinguished from gastroesophageal reflux disease on the basis of histology and lack of responsiveness to acid suppressive therapy, but it is now appreciated that esophageal eosinophilia can respond to proton pump inhibitors. Genetic and environmental factors contribute to risk for EoE, particularly early-life events. Disease pathogenesis involves activation of epithelial inflammatory pathways (production of eotaxin-3 [encoded by CCL26]), impaired barrier function (mediated by loss of desmoglein-1), increased production and/or activity of transforming growth factor-?, and induction of allergic inflammation by eosinophils and mast cells. Susceptibility has been associated with variants at 5q22 (TSLP) and 2p23 (CAPN14), indicating roles for allergic sensitization and esophageal specific protease pathways. We propose that EoE is a unique disease characterized by food hypersensitivity; strong hereditability influenced by early-life exposures and esophageal-specific genetic risk variants; and allergic inflammation and that the disease is remitted by disrupting inflammatory and T-helper type 2 cytokine-mediated responses and through dietary elimination therapy. PMID:25666870

  13. A three-protein signature and clinical outcome in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhi-Yong; Wu, Jian-Yi; Wang, Shao-Hong; Li, En-Min; Xu, Li-Yan

    2015-01-01

    Current staging is inadequate to precisely predict clinical outcome of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and determine treatment choices, which vary from operation alone to intensive multimodal regimens. The purpose of this study is to investigate the prognostic values of an immunohistochemistry-based three-protein signature model in patients with ESCC. We determined the protein expression of Annexin II, cofilin 1, ezrin, fascin, kindlin-2, moesin, MTSS1, myosin-9, profilin-1, Rac1, radixin, ROCK2, talin, tensin and villin 1 in a test cohort including 110 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded esophageal curative resection specimens by tissue microarrays (TMAs). A three-protein signature elicited from the protein cluster, Annexin II, kindlin-2, and myosin-9, was validated by TMAs on an independent cohort of 147 specimens. The expression of three-protein signature was highly predictive of ESCC overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) in both generation and validation datasets. Regression analysis shows that this three-protein signature is an independent predictor for OS and DFS. Furthermore, the predictive ability of these 3 biomarkers in combination is more robust than that of each individual biomarker. This study demonstrates a clinically applicable prognostic model that accurately predicts ESCC patient survival and/or tumor recurrence, and thus could serve as a complement to current risk stratification approaches. PMID:25605255

  14. Nitric oxide: Mediator of nonadrenergic noncholinergic hyperpolarization of opossum esophageal circular smooth muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Du, C.; Murray, J.; Conklin, J.L.; Bates, J.N. (Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City (United States))

    1991-03-15

    The electromyogram recorded from circular smooth muscle (SM) of opossum esophagus, either during peristalsis or when the intrinsic esophageal nerves are stimulated by an electrical field (EFS), consists of a hyperpolarization followed by a depolarization. This membrane response results from the interaction of a nonadrenergic-noncholinergic (NANC) neurotransmitter with its receptors on SM membrane. N{sup G}-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA), an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, and nitric oxide (NO) were used to test the hypothesis that NO is a mediator of this NANC nerve-induced response. The transmembrane potential difference of circular SM cells of opossum esophagus was recorded with glass microelectrode. The nerve-mediated membrane response was evoked by EFS. L-NNA (50uM) abolished the initial hyperpolarization and reduced the amplitude of and the time to maximal depolarization. L-arginine (1mM), the substrate for NO synthase, antagonized the effect of L-NNA. Neither L-NNA nor L-arginine altered the resting membrane potential. Exogenous NO produced hyperpolarization of SM membrane potential and attenuated the amplitude of EFS-induced hyperpolarization and depolarization. Nitrosocysteine, a NO-containing compound, also hyperpolarized the membrane potential. Effect of NO was neither blocked by L-NNA nor by TTX. The data support the hypothesis that NO or an NO-containing compound mediates NANC nerve-induced responses of the esophageal SM membrane.

  15. Evolution of a physiological pH 6.8 bicarbonate buffer system: application to the dissolution testing of enteric coated products.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang; Merchant, Hamid A; Kulkarni, Rucha P; Alkademi, Maram; Basit, Abdul W

    2011-05-01

    The use of compendial pH 6.8 phosphate buffer to assess dissolution of enteric coated products gives rise to poor in vitro-in vivo correlations because of the inadequacy of the buffer to resemble small intestinal fluids. A more representative and physiological medium, pH 6.8 bicarbonate buffer, was developed to evaluate the dissolution behaviour of enteric coatings. The bicarbonate system was evolved from pH7.4 Hanks balanced salt solution to produce a pH 6.8 bicarbonate buffer (modified Hanks buffer, mHanks), which resembles the ionic composition and buffer capacity of intestinal milieu. Prednisolone tablets were coated with a range of enteric polymers: hypromellose phthalate (HP-50 and HP-55), cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP), hypromellose acetate succinate (HPMCAS-LF and HPMCAS-MF), methacrylic acid copolymers (EUDRAGIT® L100-55, EUDRAGIT® L30D-55 and EUDRAGIT® L100) and polyvinyl acetate phthalate (PVAP). Dissolution of coated tablets was carried out using USP-II apparatus in 0.1M HCl for 2h followed by pH 6.8 phosphate buffer or pH 6.8 mHanks bicarbonate buffer. In pH 6.8 phosphate buffer, the various enteric polymer coated products displayed rapid and comparable dissolution profiles. In pH 6.8 mHanks buffer, drug release was delayed and marked differences were observed between the various coated tablets, which is comparable to the delayed disintegration times reported in the literature for enteric coated products in the human small intestine. In summary, the use of pH 6.8 physiological bicarbonate buffer (mHanks) provides more realistic and discriminative in vitro release assessment of enteric coated formulations compared to compendial phosphate buffer. PMID:21255647

  16. Endoscopic evaluation of gastro-esophageal reflux disease.

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, D.

    1999-01-01

    Endoscopy is, currently, the initial investigation of choice for the investigation of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in clinical practice and clinical research. Erosion severity is predictive of a patient's response to therapy and of the likelihood of relapse after therapy. It is, therefore, important to grade the severity of erosive reflux esophagitis, particularly in the context of clinical trials. The Savary-Miller endoscopic classification system is used widely but usage and interpretation are very variable. The "MUSE" (metaplasia [M], ulceration [U], stricturing [S] and erosions [E]) classification provides clear definitions of the relevant endoscopic features, and it is based on a standardized report form, which allows the endoscopist to make a clear record of esophagitis severity. Recent studies confirm that endoscopists can identify erosions or mucosal breaks, ulcers, strictures, and metaplasia reproducibly. The "L.A." (Los Angeles) classification describes four grades of esophagitis severity (A to D), based on the extent of esophageal lesions known as "mucosal breaks," but it does not record the presence or severity of other GERD lesions. Thus, for patients with "complicated" reflux disease, the "MUSE" classification offers a more comprehensive description of esophagitis severity. Endoscopy is not universally applicable: 40 to 60 percent of patients with typical reflux symptoms do not have esophageal erosions and are now considered to have "endoscopy negative reflux disease" (ENRD). Thus, endoscopy is not the final arbiter as to a diagnosis of reflux disease, and it is not, therefore, a necessary prerequisite to therapy. Endoscopy is indicated at first presentation for patients with alarm symptoms referable to the upper gastrointestinal tract. It has also been proposed that all patients with chronic GERD should have a "once-in-a-lifetime" endoscopy; in the absence of Barrett's esophagus or other complications, no follow-up is required unless the patient's symptoms change significantly. A surveillance program with multiple biopsies should be instituted if there is evidence of Barrett's esophagus. Endoscopic evaluation should document the presence and extent of esophageal erosions using the L.A. or MUSE classification systems; complications should also be documented and may be recorded using the MUSE classification. Non-erosive changes such as erythema may be ignored on the basis of present evidence, and there are no clear data to support the use of endoscopic biopsies for the diagnosis of GERD. PMID:10780570

  17. p53 negativity, CDC25B positivity, and metallothionein negativity are predictors of a response of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma to chemoradiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Sunada, Fumiko; Itabashi, Masayuki; Ohkura, Hisanao; Okumura, Toshiyuki

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma is generally sensitive to chemoradiotherapy (CRT), but some cases are not. Using a retrospective analysis, we aimed to identify the predictors of the response by esophageal squamous cell carcinoma to definitive CRT. METHODS: The intensities of expression of p53, Ki67, Bcl-2, Bax, cyclin D1, VEGF, CDC25B, and metallothionein (MT) were evaluated immunohistochemically in the biopsy specimens obtained before CRT, and the intensities of their expression were tested for correlations with the clinical effects of CRT. RESULTS: The esophageal squamous cell carcinomas with negative p53, positive CDC25B, and negative MT expression were found to be significantly more sensitive to CRT. In addition, p53 positivity and CDC25B positivity respond well to CRT. CONCLUSION: Esophageal squamous cell carcinomas with negative p53,positive CDC25B, and negative MT expressions respond well to CRT. Even with p53 positivity, if with CDC25B positivity, CRT can be expected. PMID:16237768

  18. Esophageal Motion During Radiotherapy: Quantification and Margin Implications

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Randi J.; Paskalev, Kamen; Litwin, Samuel; Price, Robert; Feigenberg, Steven J.; Konski, Andre

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate inter- and intra-fraction esophageal motion in the right-left (RL) and anterior-posterior (AP) directions using computed tomography (CT) in esophageal cancer patients. Methods and Materials Eight patients underwent CT simulation and CT-on-rails imaging before and after radiotherapy. Inter-fraction displacement was defined as differences between pre-treatment and simulation images. Intra-fraction displacement was defined as differences between pre- and post-treatment images. Images were fused using bone registries, adjusted to the carina. The mean, average of the absolute, and range of esophageal motion were calculated in RL and AP directions, above and below the carina. Results Thirty-one CT image sets were obtained. The incidence of esophageal inter-fraction motion ?5 was 24% and ?10 mm was 3%; intra-fraction motion ? 5mm was 13% and ?10 mm was 4%. The average RL motion was 1.8±5.1 mm, favoring leftward movement, and the average AP motion was 0.6±4.8 mm, favoring posterior movement. Average absolute motion was 4.2 mm or less in RL and AP directions. Motion was greatest in the RL direction above the carina. Coverage of 95% of esophageal mobility requires 12mm left, 8mm right, 10mm posterior, and 9mm anterior margins. Conclusion In all directions, the average of the absolute inter-fraction and intra-fraction displacement was 4.2 mm or less. These results support a 12 mm left, 8 mm right, 10 mm posterior, and 9 mm anterior margin for ITV and can guide margins for future IMRT trials to account for organ motion and set up error in 3-dimesional planning. PMID:20095993

  19. PH DEPENDENT TOXICITY OF FIVE METALS TO THREE MARINE ORGANISMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The pH of natural marine systems is relatively stable; this may explain why metal toxicity changes with pH have not been well documented. However, changes in metal toxicity with pH in marine waters are of concern in toxicity testing. During porewater toxicity testing pH can chang...

  20. Comparison of air-coupled balloon esophageal and anorectal manometry catheters with solid-state esophageal manometry and water-perfused anorectal manometry catheters.

    PubMed

    Fang, John C; Hilden, Kristen; Tuteja, Ashok K; Peterson, Kathryn A

    2004-10-01

    Clinical gastrointestinal manometry studies are currently performed with multilumen water-perfused polyvinyl or strain gauge sensor solid-state catheters. A disposable catheter incorporating air-filled balloons has been developed with performance characteristics suitable for esophageal and anorectal manometry studies. Our aim was to compare esophageal and anorectal pressure measurements using this newly developed catheter with measurements obtained using standard solid-state or water-perfused catheters. Measurements of resting LES pressure, esophageal contraction amplitudes, and anorectal rest and squeeze pressures were obtained in 10 healthy volunteers using a solid-state esophageal catheter, a water-perfused anorectal catheter, and air-filled balloon esophageal and anorectal catheters. Correlation coefficient analysis demonstrated that LES pressures, esophageal contraction amplitudes, and anorectal resting and squeeze pressures were not significantly among between the different catheters. We conclude that recently developed air-filled balloon esophageal and anorectal manometry catheters provide very similar measurements of LES, esophageal body, and anorectal sphincter pressures compared to presently used manometry catheters. PMID:15573923

  1. Behaviors Associated With Onset of Gastroesophageal Reflux Episodes in InfantsProspective Study Using Split-Screen Video and pH Probe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew P. Feranchak; Susan R. Orenstein; Jeffrey F. Cohn

    1994-01-01

    To identify behaviors associated with the onset of gastroesophageal reflux episodes in infants both systematically and prospectively, each of 10 patients (aged 2 to 32 weeks) was studied during 2 hours of intraluminal esophageal pH probe monitoring, using a split-screen audiovisual recording technique. Videotape analysis of eight infants who had scoreable reflux events revealed six discrete behaviors closely associated temporally

  2. Relationships Between Eosinophilic Inflammation, Tissue Remodeling and Fibrosis in Eosinophilic Esophagitis*

    PubMed Central

    Aceves, Seema S.; Ackerman, Steven J.

    2009-01-01

    SYNOPSIS The clinical and pathologic features of Eosinophilic Esophagitis (EE) include extensive tissue remodeling. Increasing evidence supports a key role for the eosinophil in multiple aspects of the esophageal remodeling and fibrosis seen in this allergic disease, including epithelial hyperplasia, subepithelial fibrosis, smooth muscle hyperplasia, and angiogenesis. These structural changes contribute to the endoscopic findings of esophageal thickening, luminal narrowing, furrowing, transient and fixed rings (trachealization) and stricture, as well as the clinical features of dysmotility, dysphagia and food impactions in pediatric and adult EE. This chapter reviews the clinical implications of esophageal remodeling and fibrosis in EE and discusses the possible pathogenic mechanisms inducing and regulating these responses. We focus specifically on eosinophil and cytokine interactions with the esophageal epithelium, vascular endothelium, resident fibroblasts, and smooth muscle. Current and potential therapeutic interventions are discussed that may impact the development or resolution of chronic esophageal remodeling and fibrosis in EE. PMID:19141355

  3. Various Upper Endoscopic Findings of Acute Esophageal Thermal Injury Induced by Diverse Food: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yu Mi; Kim, Ji Young; Song, Hyun Jung; Koo, Hoon Sup; Song, Kyung Ho; Kim, Yong Seok; Huh, Kyu Chan

    2014-01-01

    Esophageal thermal injury caused by food has been reported to occur mostly after drinking hot liquid food, and is known to produce alternating white and red linear mucosal bands. In addition, thermal injury caused by ingestion of hot solid foods is documented to be a cause of esophageal ulcers or pseudomembranes. From January 2006 to August 2012, five patients with suspected esophageal thermal injury underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy with biopsy. A "candy-cane" appearance was observed in one case, pseudomembrane was observed in two cases, an esophageal ulcer was observed in one case, and a friable and edematous mucosa was noted in one case. We believe that the endoscopic findings of esophageal thermal injury depend on the following factors: causative materials, amount of food consumed, exposure period, and time to endoscopy after the incident. Therefore, physicians who encounter patients with suspected esophageal thermal injury should carefully take the patient's history considering these factors. PMID:25325006

  4. Recurrent cervical esophageal stenosis after colon conduit failure: use of myocutaneous flap.

    PubMed

    Sa, Young Jo; Kim, Young Du; Kim, Chi Kyung; Park, Jong Kyung; Moon, Seok Whan

    2013-01-14

    A 53-year-old male developed cervical esophageal stenosis after esophageal bypass surgery using a right colon conduit. The esophageal bypass surgery was performed to treat multiple esophageal strictures resulting from corrosive ingestion three years prior to presentation. Although the patient underwent several endoscopic stricture dilatations after surgery, he continued to suffer from recurrent esophageal stenosis. We planned cervical patch esophagoplasty with a pedicled skin flap of sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscle. Postoperative recovery was successful, and the patient could eat a solid meal without difficulty and has been well for 18 mo. SCM flap esophagoplasty is an easier and safer method of managing complicated and recurrent cervical esophageal strictures than other operations. PMID:23345956

  5. Analysis of Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT), Proton and 3D Conformal Radiotherapy (3D-CRT) for Reducing Perioperative Cardiopulmonary Complications in Esophageal Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Ted C.; Slater, Jerry M.; Nookala, Prashanth; Mifflin, Rachel; Grove, Roger; Ly, Anh M.; Patyal, Baldev; Slater, Jerry D.; Yang, Gary Y.

    2014-01-01

    Background. While neoadjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy has improved outcomes for esophageal cancer patients, surgical complication rates remain high. The most frequent perioperative complications after trimodality therapy were cardiopulmonary in nature. The radiation modality utilized can be a strong mitigating factor of perioperative complications given the location of the esophagus and its proximity to the heart and lungs. The purpose of this study is to make a dosimetric comparison of Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT), proton and 3D conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) with regard to reducing perioperative cardiopulmonary complications in esophageal cancer patients. Materials. Ten patients with esophageal cancer treated between 2010 and 2013 were evaluated in this study. All patients were simulated with contrast-enhanced CT imaging. Separate treatment plans using proton radiotherapy, IMRT, and 3D-CRT modalities were created for each patient. Dose-volume histograms were calculated and analyzed to compare plans between the three modalities. The organs at risk (OAR) being evaluated in this study are the heart, lungs, and spinal cord. To determine statistical significance, ANOVA and two-tailed paired t-tests were performed for all data parameters. Results. The proton plans showed decreased dose to various volumes of the heart and lungs in comparison to both the IMRT and 3D-CRT plans. There was no difference between the IMRT and 3D-CRT plans in dose delivered to the lung or heart. This finding was seen consistently across the parameters analyzed in this study. Conclusions. In patients receiving radiation therapy for esophageal cancer, proton plans are technically feasible while achieving adequate coverage with lower doses delivered to the lungs and cardiac structures. This may result in decreased cardiopulmonary toxicity and less morbidity to esophageal cancer patients. PMID:25489937

  6. Original Article The Frequency of Lymphocytic and Reflux Esophagitis in Non-Human Primates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlos A. Rubio; Edward J. Dick Jr; Abiel Orrego; Gene B. Hubbard

    We previously reported in humans a novel histologic phenotype of non-gastro-esophageal reflux disease called lymphocytic esophagitis. In this work, the esophagi of 121 non-human primates (103 baboons and 18 macaques) were investigated. 45 baboons (43.7%) and 9 macaques (50%) had lymphocytic esophagitis. The lymphocytic infiltration in the squamous epithelium involved not only papillary but also inter-papillary fields. Microscopic examination around

  7. Co-Infection with Paracoccidioidomycosis and Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Report of a Case with Esophageal Involvement

    PubMed Central

    Brunaldi, Mariângela O.; Rezende, Rosamar E. F.; Zucoloto, Sérgio; Garcia, Sérgio B.; Módena, José L. P.; Machado, Alcyone A.

    2010-01-01

    Paracoccidioiodomycosis (PCM) is a systemic and deep mycosis endemic in Latin America, especially in Brazil. In patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), PCM can manifest with prominent involvement of the reticuloendothelial system. There are no reports in the literature of esophageal involvement by PCM in that population. We report a case of PCM with pulmonary and esophageal involvement without radiologic evidence of an esophageal-bronchial fistula in an HIV-infected patient. PMID:20519606

  8. Co-infection with paracoccidioidomycosis and human immunodeficiency virus: report of a case with esophageal involvement.

    PubMed

    Brunaldi, Mariângela O; Rezende, Rosamar E F; Zucoloto, Sérgio; Garcia, Sérgio B; Módena, José L P; Machado, Alcyone A

    2010-06-01

    Paracoccidioiodomycosis (PCM) is a systemic and deep mycosis endemic in Latin America, especially in Brazil. In patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), PCM can manifest with prominent involvement of the reticuloendothelial system. There are no reports in the literature of esophageal involvement by PCM in that population. We report a case of PCM with pulmonary and esophageal involvement without radiologic evidence of an esophageal-bronchial fistula in an HIV-infected patient. PMID:20519606

  9. Effect of Freeze-Dried Berries on the Development of Reflux-Induced Esophageal Adenocarcinoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harini S. Aiyer; Yan Li; Jack N. Losso; Chenfei Gao; Suzanne C. Schiffman; Stephen P. Slone; Robert C. G. Martin

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma in humans is increasing more rapidly than any other malignancy in the United States. Animal studies have demonstrated the efficacy of freeze-dried berry supplementation on carcinogen-induced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in rats; however, no such studies have been done in esophagoduodenal anastomosis (EDA), an animal model for reflux-induced esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) development. Eight-week-old male Sprague-Dawley

  10. Fluconazole compared with endoscopy for human immunodeficiency virus- infected patients with esophageal symptoms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CM Wilcox; LN Alexander; WS Clark; SE Thompson

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: The best initial treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with esophageal symptoms is unknown. The outcome, including safety and cost-effectiveness, of fluconazole compared with endoscopy as a treatment strategy for HIV-infected patients with new-onset esophageal symptoms was evaluated. METHODS: During a 53-month period, 134 HIV-infected patients with esophageal symptoms were randomized prospectively to groups receiving either

  11. How the Body Position Can Influence High-resolution Manometry Results in the Study of Esophageal Dysphagia and Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ciriza-de-los-Ríos, Constanza; Canga-Rodríguez-Valcárcel, Fernando; Lora-Pablos, David; De-La-Cruz-Bértolo, Javier; Castel-de-Lucas, Isabel; Castellano-Tortajada, Gregorio

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims The body position can influence esophageal motility data obtained with high-resolution manometry (HRM). To examine whether the body position influences HRM diagnoses in patients with esophageal dysphagia and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Methods HRM (Manoscan) was performed in 99 patients in the sitting and supine positions; 49 had dysphagia and 50 had GERD assessed by 24-hour pH monitoring. HRM plots were analyzed according to the Chicago classification. Results HRM results varied in the final diagnoses of the esophageal body (EB) in patients with dysphagia (P = 0.024), the result being more distal spasm and weak peristalsis while sitting. In patients with GERD, the HRM diagnoses of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES), the esophagogastric junction (EGJ) morphology, and EB varied depending on the position; (P = 0.063, P = 0.017, P = 0.041 respectively). Hypotensive LES, EGJ type III (hiatal hernia), and weak peristalsis were more frequently identified in the sitting position. The reliability (kappa) of the position influencing HRM diagnoses was similar in dysphagia and GERD (“LES diagnosis”: dysphagia 0.32 [0.14–0.49] and GERD 0.31 [0.10–0.52], P = 0.960; “EB diagnosis”: dysphagia 0.49 [0.30–0.69] and GERD 0.39 [0.20–0.59], P = 0.480). The reliability in “EGJ morphology” studies was higher in dysphagia 0.81 (0.68–0.94) than in GERD 0.55 (0.37–0.73), P = 0.020. Conclusions HRM results varied according to the position in patients with dysphagia and GERD. Weak peristalsis was more frequently diagnosed while sitting in dysphagia and GERD. Hypotensive LES and EGJ type III (hiatal hernia) were also more frequently diagnosed in the sitting position in patients with GERD. PMID:26130633

  12. Relevance of N-nitrosamines to esophageal cancer in China

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, S.H.; Montesano, R.; Zhang, M.S.; Feng, L.; Luo, F.J.; Chui, S.X.; Umbenhauer, D.; Saffhill, R.; Rajewsky, M.F.

    1986-01-01

    Studies on the relevance of the N-nitrosamines to esophageal cancer in China are reviewed. Although a causal association between nitrosamines exposure and esophageal cancer in China has not yet been rigorously established, exposure of Lin-Xian subjects to nitrosamines either directly or as a result of their in vivo formation has been detected in our study. Several N-nitrosamines (NDMA, NDEA, NMBzA, NPyr, NPip, and NSAR) in gastric juice collected from Lin-Xian inhabitants have been detected. A correlation was found between the lesions of esophageal epithelium and the amount of nitrosamines present. In addition, the amounts of N-nitrosamino acids excreted in 24-hr urine of subjects in Lin-Xian were significantly higher than those in Fan-Xian, indicating a higher exposure to N-nitroso compound and their precursors of the inhabitants in the high-risk area. The effect of nitrosamines on human esophagus has been investigated at the cellular levels. The amounts of O/sup 6/-MedG in DNA of esophageal or stomach mucosa of patients from Lin-Xian were higher than that from Europe. The presence of O/sup 6/-MedG in the human fetal esophagus cultured with NMBzA was also detected. These findings indicate that the elevated levels of O/sup 6/-MedG in esophageal DNA could be the result of a recent exposure to N-nitroso compounds or a genetically determined reduced cellular capacity for repair of O/sup 6/-MedG from DNA. The hyperplasia was induced in the esophagus of human fetus that cultured with NMBzA for 2 weeks to 2 months. The intervention studies of esophageal cancer in Lin-Xian have been pursued. Intake of moderate doses of ascorbic acids by Lin-Xian subjects effectively reduced the urinary levels of N-nitrosamino acids to those found in undosed subjects in the low-risk area.

  13. Amiloride and guggulsterone suppression of esophageal cancer cell growth in vitro and in nude mouse xenografts

    PubMed Central

    GUAN, Baoxiang; HOQUE, Ashraful; XU, Xiaochun

    2014-01-01

    Esophageal adenocarcinoma is increasing in the US and Western countries and frequent gastresophageal reflux or gastresophageal reflux disease carrying gastric acid and bile acid could contribute to esophageal adenocarcinogenesis. This study was designed to detect the expression of gastric acid-inducing gene Na + /H + exchanger-1 (NHE-1) ex vivo and then to explore targeting of NHE-1 expression or activity to control esophageal cancer cell viability in vitro and in nude mouse xenografts. The data showed that NHE-1 was highly expressed in esophageal adenocarcinoma tissues (66 of 101 cases [65.3%], but not in normal esophageal squamous cell epithelium (1 of 26 cases [3.8%]). Knockdown of NHE-1 expression using NHE-1 shRNA or inhibition of NHE-1 activity using the NHE-1 inhibitor amiloride suppressed viability and induced apoptosis in esophageal cancer cells. Molecularly, amiloride inhibited expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and matrix metallopeptidase-9 but not NHE-1 mRNA in esophageal cancer cells. A combination of amiloride and guggulsterone (a natural bile acid receptor inhibitor) showed more than additive effects in suppressing esophageal cancer cell growth in vitro and in nude mouse xenografts. This study suggests that inhibition of NHE-1 expression or activity or combination of amiloride and guggulsterone could be useful in control of esophageal adenocarcinoma. PMID:24999355

  14. Right atrial invasion by metastatic esophageal adenocarcinoma with direct connection to liver.

    PubMed

    Nomani, Ali Zohair; Toori, Kaleem Ullah

    2014-05-01

    Common causes of right sided intra-cardiac atrial masses include primary cardiac tumors (atrial myxoma), atrial thrombus, tumor thrombus with hepatocellular or other thoracoabdominal cancers and metastatic lesions. Invasion of atria by gastrointestinal tumors is rare and that with esophageal ones seldom observed. Esophageal cancers rather present with dysphagia, odynophagia or systemic symptoms. Due to the lack of a serosal layer, esophageal tumors usually spread early in their course. Typical sites of spread include liver, gut, mediastinum, lungs and draining lymph nodes. We report a case of metastatic esophageal adenocarcinoma presenting with direct extension of metastatic tumor thrombus from liver to right atrium via inferior vena cava. PMID:24906258

  15. Sudden death of an alcoholic elderly man with acute esophageal necrosis (black esophagus).

    PubMed

    Unuma, Kana; Harada, Kazuki; Funakoshi, Takeshi; Uemura, Koichi

    2011-10-10

    We report a fatal case of acute esophageal necrosis (black esophagus) in an elderly male with alcohol abuse who was found dead with coffee-ground vomiting. A postmortem examination revealed severe anemia and marked black coloring of the esophagus from the upper to the bottom end. This was accompanied by histologic evidence of extensive mucosal necrosis. Alcohol abuse and esophagitis-related vomiting were both considered to be factors that led to the acute fatal esophageal necrosis. The cause of death was undetermined. We discuss the possible role of acute esophageal necrosis in the cause of sudden death. PMID:21684699

  16. Esophagitis, Treatment-Related Toxicity in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bar-Ad, Voichita; Ohri, Nitin; Werner-Wasik, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Radiation esophagitis represents a significant complication experienced by non-small cell cancer (NSCLC) patients receiving thoracic irradiation. The objective of the current review was to assess the clinical and dosimetrical parameters that may predict radiation esophagitis. Methods Studies were identified by searching PubMed electronic databases. Both prospective and retrospective studies were included. Information regarding clinical and dosimetrical parameters predicting for radiation-induced esophagitis was extracted and analyzed. Results The esophageal clinical and dosimetric parameters that best predict acute esophagitis remain unclear. In many reports, Vx (the volume of esophagus receiving x Gy) stands out, with values of x ranging from 20–70 Gy. Other studies conclude that the maximal dose received by any point of the esophagus is the best predictor of esophagitis. Another metric implicated with esophageal toxicity in some reports is the proportion of the esophageal circumference or surface area that receives high doses of radiation. Conclusions Technological advancements in patient immobilization, setup verification, and radiotherapy delivery are increasingly being employed to limit the toxicity of thoracic irradiation. Future efforts are required to determine how these complex techniques should best be implemented to minimize the risks of acute and long-term esophageal injury. PMID:21864251

  17. Serological cross-reactivity of three commercial in-house immunoassays for detection of Dirofilaria immitis antigens with Spirocerca lupi in dogs with benign esophageal spirocercosis.

    PubMed

    Aroch, Itamar; Rojas, Alicia; Slon, Paul; Lavy, Eran; Segev, Gilad; Baneth, Gad

    2015-07-30

    The nematode Spirocerca lupi infects dogs and is endemic in Israel. It leads to formation of esophageal nodules and neoplasia. Infection is diagnosed by coproscopy, endoscopy and radiography. Dirofilaria immitis causes heartworm disease in dogs, and has a world-wide distribution, but autochthonous infection has never been detected in Israel. Infection is confirmed based on identifying D. immitis microfilariae, in concentrated blood specimens by microscopy (Knott's test or other tests) and serological tests specifically detecting circulating adult worm antigens. In the first part of this study, sera from dogs definitively diagnosed with esophageal spirocercosis by endoscopy were examined using three in-house immunoassays for detecting D. immitis antigen, and were positive in 2/19 (10.5%), 5/35 (14.3%) and 14/48 (29.2%) dogs, in assays 1 to 3, respectively, with no statistical difference between assays (P=0.08). Next, sera from 32 additional dogs with confirmed esophageal spirocercosis, which were confirmed to be negative for D. immitis and Dirofilaria repens DNA using a sensitive high-resolution melt PCR were tested using assay 3 and 8/32 (25%) were positive. These results demonstrate serological cross-reactivity between D. immitis and S. lupi in blood samples of dogs. In areas where the distributions of both nematodes overlap, this cross-reactivity should be considered when dog are screened for heartworm disease. PMID:26116456

  18. BMP-driven NRF2 activation in esophageal basal cell differentiation and eosinophilic esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Ming; Ku, Wei-Yao; Zhou, Zhongren; Dellon, Evan S.; Falk, Gary W.; Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Wang, Mei-Lun; Liu, Kuancan; Wang, Jun; Katzka, David A.; Peters, Jeffrey H.; Lan, Xiaopeng; Que, Jianwen

    2015-01-01

    Tissue homeostasis requires balanced self-renewal and differentiation of stem/progenitor cells, especially in tissues that are constantly replenished like the esophagus. Disruption of this balance is associated with pathological conditions, including eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), in which basal progenitor cells become hyperplastic upon proinflammatory stimulation. However, how basal cells respond to the inflammatory environment at the molecular level remains undetermined. We previously reported that the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling pathway is critical for epithelial morphogenesis in the embryonic esophagus. Here, we address how this pathway regulates tissue homeostasis and EoE development in the adult esophagus. BMP signaling was specifically activated in differentiated squamous epithelium, but not in basal progenitor cells, which express the BMP antagonist follistatin. Previous reports indicate that increased BMP activity promotes Barrett’s intestinal differentiation; however, in mice, basal progenitor cell–specific expression of constitutively active BMP promoted squamous differentiation. Moreover, BMP activation increased intracellular ROS levels, initiating an NRF2-mediated oxidative response during basal progenitor cell differentiation. In both a mouse EoE model and human biopsies, reduced squamous differentiation was associated with high levels of follistatin and disrupted BMP/NRF2 pathways. We therefore propose a model in which normal squamous differentiation of basal progenitor cells is mediated by BMP-driven NRF2 activation and basal cell hyperplasia is promoted by disruption of BMP signaling in EoE. PMID:25774506

  19. Personalized targeted therapy for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Xiaozheng; Chen, Keneng; Li, Yicheng; Li, Jianying; D'Amico, Thomas A; Chen, Xiaoxin

    2015-01-01

    Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma continues to heavily burden clinicians worldwide. Researchers have discovered the genomic landscape of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, which holds promise for an era of personalized oncology care. One of the most pressing problems facing this issue is to improve the understanding of the newly available genomic data, and identify the driver-gene mutations, pathways, and networks. The emergence of a legion of novel targeted agents has generated much hope and hype regarding more potent treatment regimens, but the accuracy of drug selection is still arguable. Other problems, such as cancer heterogeneity, drug resistance, exceptional responders, and side effects, have to be surmounted. Evolving topics in personalized oncology, such as interpretation of genomics data, issues in targeted therapy, research approaches for targeted therapy, and future perspectives, will be discussed in this editorial.

  20. Ulcer in the basis of Zenker's diverticulum mimicking esophageal malignancy.

    PubMed Central

    Odemis, Bolent; Ataseven, Hilmi; Basar, Omer; Ertugrul, Ibrahim; Yüksel, Osman; Turhan, Nesrin

    2006-01-01

    Complications of Zenker's diverticulum are rare and include ulcer, bleeding and malignancy. Ulcer in the basis of diverticulum is a very rare complication and to date only four cases have been reported in the literature. Herein, we report a new case of ulcer in Zenker's diverticulum mimicking esophageal malignancy presumed to be due to aspirin and/or alcohol consumption. The exact diagnosis was troublesome and needed to perform diagnostic procedures repeatedly. The patient underwent external pharyngoesophageal diverticulectomy. We emphasize that endoscope should be withdrawn if any resistance is encountered during esophageal intubation-even with forward-viewing endoscope-especially when there is a Zenker's diverticulum suspicion and the patient receives ulcerogenic agents. Endoscopic examination should be performed prior to any definitive surgical procedure in all patients with Zenker's diverticulum. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:16895291

  1. [Esophageal Cancer Initially Presenting as Severe Paraneoplastic Hypercalcemia Requiring Hemodialysis].

    PubMed

    Ahn, Hye Shin; Yun, Jong Min; Lee, Yeong Bok; Ko, Yu Mi; Lee, Jung Eun; Won, Hye Sung; Kim, Sung Soo; Kim, Young Ok

    2015-06-25

    Paraneoplastic hypercalcemia without bone metastasis occurs rarely in esophageal cancer. A 75-year-old man was admitted for general weakness and lethargy. Laboratory data showed high serum calcium level (corrected calcium 14.6 mg/dL), low parathyroid hormone level (3.3 pg/mL) and high parathyroid hormone-related peptide level (3.5 pmol/L). Esophagogastroscopy showed a malignant tumor in the esophagus. Histology showed moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. Bone scan showed no evidence of bone metastasis. Since the patient's calcium levels remained high and mental state did not show improvement despite intravenous fluid therapy, diuretics and intravenous bisphosphonate, hemodialysis was started. After hemodialysis treatment, the serum calcium level subsequently normalized and his mental status improved. Herein, we report a rare case of paraneoplastic hypercalcemia in a patient with esophageal cancer. PMID:26087691

  2. Mast cell density in cardio-esophageal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Mahjoub, Fatemeh E; Asefi, Hoda; Farahmand, Fatemeh; Pourpak, Zahra; Amini, Zahra

    2014-12-01

    Mast cells are related to certain gastrointestinal complaints. Mast cell density has not been studied in cardio-esophageal region to the best of our knowledge. In this study we wanted to obtain an estimate of mast cell density in this region and compare it with mast cell density in antrum. From April 2007 till March 2010, we chose children (<14 years old) who underwent upper endoscopy and from whom the taken biopsy was stated to be from lower third of esophagus, but in microscopic examination either cardio- esophageal mucosa or only cardiac mucosa was seen. Mast cells were counted by Giemsa stain at ×1000 magnification in 10 fields. 71 children (<14 years old) were included in this study of which, 63.4% (n=45) were female and 36.6% (n=26) were male. The mean age of patients was 7.20±4.21 years (range: 0.2 -14 years). The most common clinical manifestations were recurrent abdominal pain (64.8%) and vomiting (23.9%) followed by symptoms of gastro-esophageal reflux disorder, poor weight gain, hematemesis and dysphagia. The mean mast cell density in the cardiac mucosa was 33.41±32.75 in 0.25 mm2 (range: 0-155), which was two times of that in antral mucosa. We found a significant but weak positive correlation at the 0.05 level between mast cell density of cardiac mucosa and the antrum. Higher mast cell counts were seen in cardiac mucosa in this study. Significant positive correlation between mast cell density of cardiac mucosa and the antrum could hint to a single underlying etiology for the inflammatory process in gastro- esophageal junction and gastric mucosa. PMID:25148804

  3. Exploring the role of mast cells in eosinophilic esophagitis.

    PubMed

    Wershil, Barry K

    2009-02-01

    The mast cell plays a critical role in allergic responses in the gastrointestinal tract and other sites. Emerging evidence indicates that mast cells also participate in the pathogenesis of eosinophilic esophagitis, although their precise role has not been defined. This article reviews the biology of mast cells and examines the potential involvement of the cell as an effector of the inflammatory response and tissue remodeling, and as a cell that has the potential to function as an immunomodulator and limit inflammation. PMID:19141354

  4. Mate Drinking, Alcohol, Tobacco, Diet, and Esophageal Cancer in Uruguay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    eduardo De Stefani; Nubia Munoz; Jacques Esteve; Alberto Vasallo; Cesar G. Victora; Sibylle Teuchmann

    1990-01-01

    Acase-control study was conducted in Uruguay-to investigate the role of mate drinking; alcohol, tobacco, and certain dietary factors in the etiology of esophageal cancer. The study included 261 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus and 522 hospital controls matched by sex and age. A strong association with a clear dose-response relationship was observed with the amount of mate

  5. Inhibitory motor neurons of the esophageal myenteric plexus are mechanosensitive.

    PubMed

    Dong, Hui; Jiang, Yanfen; Dong, Jane; Mittal, Ravinder K

    2015-03-01

    Mechanosensitivity of enteric neurons has been reported in the small intestine and colon, but not in the esophagus. Our earlier in vivo studies show that mechanical stretch of the esophagus in the axial direction induces neurally mediated relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter, possibly through mechanosensitive motor neurons. However, this novel notion that the motor neurons are mechanosensitive has not been examined in isolated esophageal myenteric motor neurons. The goal of our present study was to examine the mechanosensitivity of esophageal motor neurons in primary culture and elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms. Immmunocytochemical analysis revealed that >95% cells were positive for the neuronal marker protein gene product 9.5 and that 66% of these cells costained with protein gene product 9.5 and neuronal nitric oxide (NO) synthase. Hypotonic solution induced an increase in the cytoplasm volume in all cells that was independent of extracellular Ca(2+). Hypotonic solution and mechanical stretch induced cytoplasmic free Ca(2+) signaling in ~65% of neurons in the presence, but not absence, of extracellular Ca(2+). Neurons grown on the elastic membrane responded to mechanical stretch by an increase in neuronal size and Ca(2+) signaling simultaneously. Hypotonic stretch-induced cytoplasmic free Ca(2+) signaling was not affected by extracellular Mg(2+), 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)benzoic acid, and nifedipine but was attenuated by 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate, Gd(3+), and Grammostola mechanotoxin 4, blockers of the stretch-activated ion channels. In ~57% of the neurons, hypotonic stretch also induced Ca(2+)-dependent cytoplasmic NO production, which was abolished by Grammostola mechanotoxin 4. These results prove that the esophageal inhibitory motor neurons possess a mechanosensitive property and also provide novel insights into the stretch-activated ion channel-Ca(2+)-NO signaling pathway in these neurons. PMID:25540174

  6. Investigation of cholecystokinin receptors in the human lower esophageal sphincter

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jun-Feng; Zhang, Jian; Liu, Xin-Bo; Drew, Paul A

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To compare the binding of cholecystokinin (CCK)-8 to CCK receptors in sling and clasp fibers of the human lower esophageal sphincter. METHODS: Esophageal sling and clasp fibers were isolated from eight esophagectomy specimens, resected for squamous cell carcinoma in the upper two thirds of the esophagus, which had been maintained in oxygenated Kreb’s solution. Western blot was used to measure CCK-A and CCK-B receptor subtypes in the two muscles. A radioligand binding assay was used to determine the binding parameters of 3H-CCK-8S to the CCK receptor subtypes. The specificity of binding was determined by the addition of proglumide, which blocks the binding of CCK to both receptor subtypes. RESULTS: There was no significant difference between the sling and clasp fibers of the human lower esophageal sphincter in the amount of CCK-A [integrated optical density (IOD) value: 22.65 ± 0.642 vs 22.328 ± 1.042, P = 0.806] or CCK-B receptor protein (IOD value: 13.20 ± 0.423 vs 12.45 ± 0.294, P = 0.224) as measured by Western blot. The maximum binding of radio-labeled CCK-8S was higher in the sling fibers than in the clasp fibers (595.75 ± 3.231 cpm vs 500.000 ± 10.087 cpm, P < 0.001) and dissociation constant was lower (Kd: 1.437 ± 0.024 nmol/L vs 1.671 ± 0.024 nmol/L, P < 0.001). The IC50 of the receptor specific antagonists were lower for the CCK-A receptors than for the CCK-B (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: CCK binding modulates the contractile function of the lower esophageal sphincter through differential binding to the CCK-A receptor on the sling and clasp fibers. PMID:24914377

  7. Posterior left atrial–esophageal relationship throughout the cardiac cycle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jasbir Sra; David Krum; Angela Malloy; Atul Bhatia; Ryan Cooley; Zalmen Blanck; Anwer Dhala; Alfred J. Anderson; Masood Akhtar

    2006-01-01

    Background  Radiofrequency energy delivered throughout the cardiac cycle has the potential to cause thermal injury to the esophagus if the anatomical relationship between the posterior left atrium and the esophagus changes during cardiac motion.Objective  To assess the posterior left atrial–esophageal relationship throughout the cardiac cycle.Methods  In this study, the anatomical relationship between the posterior left atrium and the esophagus was assessed throughout the

  8. Herpes simplex virus esophagitis in the immunocompetent host: an overview

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jambunathan Ramanathan; Majed Rammouni; Joseph Baran; Riad Khatib

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to delineate the characteristics of herpes simplex virus esophagitis (HSVE) in the immunocompetent host.METHODS:The study entailed a case report and a review of relevant literature through a MEDLINE search back to 1966. All cases with documented HSVE in patients without immunosuppression were selected and their characteristics defined.RESULTS:A total of 38 cases were identified. The

  9. [Reflux esophagitis: operative procedures in the adult: gastropexy (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Kümmerle, F; Grönniger, J

    1978-11-01

    Fundophrenicopexy is an effective procedure for repairing important mechanical parts of the LES. Pre- and postoperative measurement of pressure in 52 patients demonstrated an increase from x = 20.1 mm Hg to x = 39.25 mm Hg. Fundophrenicopexy is the more simple surgical management compared with fundoplication and is followed less frequently by complications. If anatomical conditions allow, fundophrenicopexy is preferred in surgical treatment of reflux esophagitis. PMID:732433

  10. Cervical screw missing secondary to delayed esophageal fistula: case report.

    PubMed

    Cagli, Sedat; Isik, H Serdar; Zileli, Mehmet

    2009-10-01

    Although anterior surgical approaches to the cervical spine have become popular and safe in recent years, they also have some complications. We present a case of loss of an anterior cervical plate screw by the natural tracts. The patient was a 47- year-old woman who was operated on for cervical spondylotic myelopathy at another institution. Surgical interference included two levels of anterior discectomy, iliac graft placement and fixation using plate and screws. Two years later, plate dislocation and partial migration of the upper screws were observed. After 7 years the patient complained of dysphagia and she accepted removal of the osteosynthesis. Radiographical examination showed that one of the upper screws was missing and two lower screws were broken. Esophageal perforation was found during the surgery and repaired. Further progress was favourable. Complications associated with esophageal perforation may range from massive infection and death to spontaneous recovery. Erosion of the esophageal wall due to extruded bulky constructs may lead to a persistent fistula, abscess or septic diffusion. Spontaneous perforation of the esophagus and screw loss via the gastrointestinal tract make this case interesting.. PMID:19847769

  11. Engineering Stent Based Delivery System for Esophageal Cancer Using Docetaxel.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Mohsin; Choudhury, Namita Roy; Knott, Robert; Garg, Sanjay

    2015-07-01

    Esophageal cancer patients are often diagnosed as "advanced" cases. These patients are subjected to palliative stenting using self-expanding metallic stents (SEMS) to maintain oral alimentation. Unfortunately, SEMS get reoccluded due to tumor growth, in and over the stent struts. To investigate potential solutions to this problem, docetaxel (DTX) delivery films were prepared using PurSil AL 20 (PUS), which can be used as a covering material for the SEMS. Drug-polymer miscibility and interactions were studied. Bilayer films were prepared by adhering the blank film to the DTX loaded film in order to maintain the unidirectional delivery to the esophagus. In vitro release and the local DTX delivery were studied using in vitro permeation experiments. It was found that DTX and PUS were physically and chemically compatible. The bilayer films exhibited sustained release (>30 days) and minimal DTX permeation through esophageal tissues in vitro. The rate-determining step for the DTX delivery was calculated. It was found that >0.9 fraction of rate control lies with the esophageal tissues, suggesting that DTX delivery can be sustained for longer periods compared to the in vitro release observed. Thus, the bilayer films can be developed as a localized sustained delivery system in combination with the stent. PMID:25936529

  12. [Hyperfractionated radiotherapy with concurrent chemotherapy for advanced esophageal cancer].

    PubMed

    Asakura, Hirofumi; Takashima, Hitoshi; Yokoe, Koiku; Togami, Taro; Mitani, Masahiro; Kiuchi, Takaaki; Hosokawa, Nobuyuki; Seo, Hiroyuki; Ohkawa, Motoomi

    2005-09-01

    The clinical efficacy and safety of hyperfractionated radiotherapy with concurrent chemotherapy were studied retrospectively in patients with primary advanced esophageal cancer. The subjects were 31 patients who were treated with hyperfractionated radiotherapy and concurrent chemotherapy in our institution between 1990 and 2001. The chemoradiotherapy consisted of cisplatin 70-80 mg/m2 on day one, and continuous infusion of 5-fluorouracil 700-800 mg/m2/24 hours on days 1 to 3, with concurrent hyperfractionated radiotherapy (57.6-72 Gy). Complete remission (CR) was observed in 17 cases, and partial response in 13 cases (response rate: 96. 7%). Three-year survival rate and 5-year survival rate were 35.5% and 26.3%, respectively. Grade 3/4 hematological toxicities included leukocytes in 7 patients (22.6%), hemoglobin in 6 patients (19.4%), and platelets in 4 patients (12.9%). Grade 3 dysphagia-esophageal related to radiation was observed in 3 patients (9.7%). Late toxicities occurred with the following incidences: hypothyroidism in 2 patients, benign esophageal strictures in 2 patients, pericardial effusion in 8 patients, and pleural effusion in 8 patients. The results suggest that combined chemotherapy and hyperfractionated radiotherapy is an effective and well-tolerated regimen. PMID:16184924

  13. Prognostic significance of phosphorylated RON in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hui, Marco K C; Lai, Kenneth K Y; Chan, Kwok Wah; Luk, John M; Lee, Nikki P; Chung, Yvonne; Cheung, Leo C; Srivastava, Gopesh; Tsao, Sai Wah; Tang, Johnny C; Law, Simon

    2012-09-01

    Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is the most common type of esophageal cancer. RON is a transmembrane receptor overexpressed in various cancers; however, the clinical significance of its phosphorylated form (pRON) is not fully deciphered. This report is the first to investigate the expression and clinical significance of pRON in human ESCC. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction revealed an up-regulation of RON mRNA in 70% (7/10) of ESCC tissues when compared to the adjacent nontumor tissues. An overexpression of pRON protein was found in most of the ESCC cell lines studied (4/5) when compared to two non-neoplastic esophageal epithelial cells using immunoblot. In 64 ESCC tissues, pRON was localized at the cell membrane, cytoplasm and nucleus in 15 (23.4%), 63 (98.4%) and 61 (95.3%) cases using immunohistochemistry. Patients having high expression of cytoplasmic pRON significantly associated with shorter median survival when compared to those with low expression (25.41 months vs. 14.43 months), suggesting cytoplasmic pRON as a potential marker for poor prognosis in ESCC patients. PMID:22086736

  14. Sitting and Supine Esophageal Pressures in Overweight and Obese Subjects Authors

    PubMed Central

    Owens, Robert L.; Campana, Lisa M.; Hess, Lauren; Eckert, Danny J.; Loring, Stephen H.; Malhotra, Atul

    2012-01-01

    Esophageal pressure can be used to approximate pleural pressure and might be clinically useful, particularly in the obese e.g to guide mechanical ventilator settings in critical illness. However, mediastinal artifact (the difference between true pleural pressure and esophageal pressure) may limit acceptance of the measurement, and reproducibility of esophageal pressure measurements remains unknown. Therefore, we aimed to assess the effect of body posture on esophageal pressure in a cohort of obese but healthy subjects, some of whom had multiple measurements, to address the clinical robustness of esophageal manometry. Twenty-five overweight and obese subjects (BMI>25kg/m2) and 11 control lean subjects (BMI<25kg/m2) underwent esophageal manometry with pressures measured seated and supine. Twenty overweight and obese subjects had measurements repeated after ~1-2 weeks. Anthropometric data and sitting and supine spirometry were recorded. The average end-expiratory esophageal pressures sitting and supine were greater in the overweight and obese group than the lean group (sitting ?0.1±2.1 vs. ?3.3±1.2cmH2O, supine 9.3±3.3 vs. 6.9±2.8cmH2O, respectively). The mean differences between repeated measurements were small (?0.3 ± 1.7cmH2O sitting and ?0.1 ± 1.5cmH2O supine). Esophageal pressures correlated with a number of anthropometric and spirometric variables. In conclusion, esophageal pressures are slightly greater in overweight and obese subjects than lean subjects; but changes with position are similar in both groups. These data indicate that mediastinal weight and postural effects on esophageal pressure are within a clinically acceptable range, and suggest that esophageal manometry can be used to inform clinical decision making across wide range of body types. PMID:22695479

  15. Activin A expression in esophageal carcinoma and its association with tumor aggressiveness and differentiation

    PubMed Central

    WANG, ZHENHUA; ZHANG, NING; SONG, RUIFENG; FAN, RUITAI; YANG, LIUQIN; WU, LIPING

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression of activin A in esophageal carcinoma and its association with tumor differentiation and metastasis. A total of 57 esophageal carcinoma patients and 36 controls were included in the current study. The mRNA and protein expression levels of activin A in esophageal tumors or normal esophageal tissues were determined by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical analysis. In addition, the association of activin A expression with esophageal carcinoma differentiation, metastasis and recurrence postoperatively was analyzed. The mRNA and protein expression levels of activin A in esophageal carcinoma were significantly higher compared with those in normal esophageal tissues (P<0.05). The expression of activin A was higher in poorly-/moderately-differentiated esophageal tumor tissues compared with that of well-differentiated or control tissues (P<0.05). Furthermore, the expression of activin A in poorly-differentiated esophageal tumor tissues was higher compared with that of moderately-differentiated tissues (P<0.05). A positive correlation was also observed between differentiation degree and activin A expression. The expression of activin A was higher in patients with lymph node metastasis compared with those without metastasis (P<0.05). The cumulative survival rate of patients with a high expression of activin A at 1, 2 and 3 years postoperatively was significantly decreased compared with that of patients with a lower expression of activin A (P<0.05); by contrast, the cumulative recurrence rate was significantly higher in patients with a lower activin A expression (P<0.05). In conclusion, abnormal expression of activin A was detected in esophageal tumor tissues, which was correlated with the tumor differentiation, metastasis, survival and recurrence. In conclusion, activin A may be used as an auxiliary index in the diagnosis and prognosis of clinical esophageal carcinoma.

  16. Effect of endoscopic submucosal dissection for superficial esophageal neoplasms and risk factors for postoperative stricture.

    PubMed

    Funakawa, Keita; Uto, Hirofumi; Sasaki, Fumisato; Nasu, Yuichiro; Mawatari, Seiichi; Arima, Shiho; Nakazawa, Junichi; Taguchi, Hiroki; Hashimoto, Shinichi; Kanmura, Shuji; Setoyama, Hitoshi; Numata, Masatsugu; Tsubouchi, Hirohito; Ido, Akio

    2015-01-01

    Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) enables wider tumor resection compared with endoscopic mucosal resection and en bloc resection of superficial esophageal neoplasms. However, ESD may cause difficult-to-treat stricture of the esophagus, and therefore, prediction of and measures against postoperative esophageal stricture are critical. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ESD on superficial esophageal neoplasms and identify risk factors associated with esophageal stricture after ESD.This study included 165 lesions in 120 patients with superficial esophageal neoplasms, including cancer and neoplasia, who underwent ESD from 2009 to 2013.The complete resection rate of superficial esophageal neoplasms by ESD was 90.9%. After ESD, 22 subjects (18.3%) had symptomatic esophageal stricture, 12 (10.0%) had aspiration pneumonia of grade 2, and 7 (5.8%) had mediastinal emphysema of grade 2. Comparison of the 22 subjects with stricture with the 98 subjects without stricture showed significant differences in the rate of resection of >75% of the esophageal circumference, rate of whole circumference resection, and the required time for resection. The tumor size and the size of the resected tissue sample also differed between the 2 groups. The groups did not differ in age, sex, alcohol intake, and smoking; location, macroscopic, and histological tumor findings; chest pain; or use of anticoagulants for comorbidities. In multivariate analysis, tumor size and whole circumference resection were independent risk factors for stricture. Furthermore, in 45 subjects with resection of >75% of the esophageal circumference, whole resection of the esophagus was the only independent risk factor for stricture.This study suggests that ESD has a strong therapeutic effect on superficial esophageal neoplasms; however, a greater extent of resection of the esophagus increases the risk of postoperative esophageal stricture. Preventive measures against development of postoperative stricture require further study. PMID:25569662

  17. Irritable Bowel Syndrome Is Associated With Gastroesophageal Reflux Symptom but Not Erosive Esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Kum Hei; Park, Bum Joon

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims Although several studies have suggested overlaps between gastroesophageal reflux symptom and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), the studies for the association between erosive esophagitis and IBS are rare. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association among IBS, non-erosive reflux disease (NERD), and erosive esophagitis. Methods A total of 2,769 participants completed questionnaires and underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy and colonoscopy. IBS was diagnosed by Rome III; NERD was defined as heartburn or acid regurgitation occurring at least once per week without erosive esophagitis. Erosive esophagitis was defined by Los Angeles classification. Psychological distress was evaluated with modified 4 dimensions from revised Hopkins symptom checklist 90. Results Psychological distress was associated with both IBS and NERD, but not with erosive esophagitis. IBS was associated with somatization (adjusted OR, 2.88; 95% CI, 1.55-5.36; P < 0.001), anxiety (adjusted OR, 2.82; 95% CI, 1.36-5.88; P = 0.005), and hostility (adjusted OR, 2.06; 95% CI, 1.10-3.87; P = 0.024) and NERD was associated with somatization (adjusted OR, 5.65; 95% CI, 2.92-10.98; P < 0.001) and anxiety (adjusted OR, 3.29; 95% CI, 1.47-7.34; P = 0.004). Erosive esophagitis was associated with somatization (adjusted OR, 2.69; 95% CI, 1.26-7.91; P < 0.001). Hiatal hernia and male sex were related with erosive esophagitis but not with IBS or NERD. H. pylori had an inverse relationship with erosive esophagitis, but had no association with IBS. Whereas IBS was positively associated with NERD (adjusted OR, 2.72; 95% CI, 1.84-4.03; P < 0.001), it had no association with erosive esophagitis. Conclusions IBS shared many risk factors with NERD but not with erosive esophagitis. It partially explains why IBS was associated with NERD, but not with erosive esophagitis. PMID:24199014

  18. Radiation-Induced Esophagitis Masquerading as Disease Progression in Case of Esophageal Carcinoma: A Diagnostic Dilemma Solved on Follow-up FDG PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Anirban; Chakraborty, Partha Sarathi; Behera, Abhishek; Bal, Chandrasekhar; Kumar, Rakesh

    2015-07-01

    Radiation esophagitis is one of the commonest complications of the radiotherapy involving esophagus. It is characterized by diffuse radiotracer uptake in the esophagus on F-FDG PET/CT. Thus, it can be often confused with the esophageal malignancy. We present the sequential F-FDG PET/CT images of a 45-year-old woman with locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus who developed radiation esophagitis after chemoradiotherapy. It was confused with the progression of the disease, and the dilemma was resolved by the follow-up PET/CT. PMID:25706793

  19. Heat treatment of human esophageal tissues: Effect on esophageal cancer detection using oxygenated hemoglobin diffuse reflectance ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Q. L.; Guo, Z. Y.; Si, J. L.; Wei, H. J.; Yang, H. Q.; Wu, G. Y.; Xie, S. S.; Guo, X.; Zhong, H. Q.; Li, L. Q.; Li, X. Y.

    2011-03-01

    The main objective of the present work is to study the influence of heat treatment on the esophageal cancer detection using the diffuse reflectance (DR) spectral intensity ratio R540/R575 of oxygenated hemoglobin (HbO2) absorption bands to distinguish the epithelial tissues of normal human esophagus and moderately differentiated esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) at different heat treatment temperature of 20, 37, 42, 50, and 60°C, respectively. The DR spectra for the epithelial tissues of the normal esophagus and ESCC in vitro at different heat-treatment temperature in the wavelength range 400-650 nm were measured with a commercial optical fiber spectrometer. The results indicate that the average DR spectral intensity overall enhancement with concomitant increase of heat-treatment temperature for the epithelial tissues of normal esophagus and ESCC, but the average DR spectral intensity for the normal esophageal epithelial tissues is relatively higher than that for ESCC epithelial tissues at the same heat-treatment temperature. The mean R540/R575 ratios of ESCC epithelial tissues were always lower than that of normal esophageal epithelial tissues at the same temperature, and the mean R540/R575 ratios of the epithelial tissues of the normal esophagus and ESCC were decreasing with the increase of different heat-treatment temperatures. The differences in the mean R540/R575 ratios between the epithelial tissues of normal esophagus and ESCC were 13.33, 13.59, 11.76, and 11.11% at different heat-treatment temperature of 20, 37, 42, and 50°C, respectively. These results also indicate that the DR intensity ratio R540/R575 of the hemoglobin bands is a useful tool for discrimination between the epithelial tissues of normal esophagus and ESCC in the temperature range from room temperature to 50°C, but it was non-effective at 60°C or over 60°C.

  20. Esophageal cancer: results of an American College of Surgeons patient care evaluation study 1 1 No competing interests declared

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John M Daly; Willard A Fry; Alex G Little; David P Winchester; Rosemary F McKee; Andrew K Stewart; Amy M Fremgen

    2000-01-01

    Background: The last two decades have seen changes in the prevalence, histologic type, and management algorithms for patients with esophageal cancer. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the presentation, stage distribution, and treatment of patients with esophageal cancer using the National Cancer Database of the American College of Surgeons.Study Design: Consecutively accessed patients (n = 5,044) with esophageal

  1. Preoperative evaluation of cardiopulmonary reserve with the use of expired gas analysis during exercise testing in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the thoracic esophagus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshinori Nagamatsu; Ichirou Shima; Hideaki Yamana; Hiromasa Fujita; Kazuo Shirouzu; Tatsuya Ishitake

    2001-01-01

    Objective: We evaluated the usefulness of analyzing expired gas during exercise testing for the prediction of postoperative cardiopulmonary complications in patients with esophageal carcinoma. Background data: Radical esophagectomy with 3-field lymphadenectomy is performed in patients with thoracic esophageal carcinoma but has a high risk of postoperative complications. To reduce the surgical risk, we performed preoperative risk analysis using 8 factors.

  2. Testing

    MedlinePLUS

    ... curesma.org > learn about sma > causes & diagnoses > testing Testing An SMA diagnosis must be confirmed through genetic ... and must be identified through further testing. Prenatal Testing Prenatal testing is used to determine if a ...

  3. Salt tea consumption and esophageal cancer: a possible role of alkaline beverages in esophageal carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Dar, Nazir Ahmad; Bhat, Gulzar Ahmad; Shah, Idrees Ayoub; Iqbal, Beenish; Rafiq, Rumaisa; Nabi, Sumaiya; Lone, Mohd Maqbool; Islami, Farhad; Boffetta, Paolo

    2015-03-15

    Salt tea is the most commonly used beverage in Kashmir, India, where esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is the most common cancer. Salt tea is brewed in a unique way in Kashmir, usually with addition of sodium bicarbonate, which makes salt tea alkaline. As little information about the association between salt tea drinking and ESCC was available, we conducted a large-scale case-control study to investigate this association in Kashmir. We recruited 703 histologically confirmed cases of ESCC and 1664 controls individually matched to cases for age, sex, and district of residence. Conditional logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Participants who consumed >1,250 ml day(-1) showed an increased risk of ESCC (OR?=?2.60, 95% CIs?=?1.68-4.02). Samovar (a special vessel for the beverage preparation) users (OR?=?1.77, 95% CIs 1.25-2.50) and those who ate cereal paste with salt tea (OR?=?2.14, 95% CIs?=?1.55-2.94) or added bicarbonate sodium to salt tea (OR?=?2.12, 95% CIs?=?1.33-3.39) were at higher risk of ESCC than others. When analysis was limited to alkaline tea drinkers only, those who both consumed cereal paste with salt tea and used samovar vessel were at the highest risk (OR?=?4.58, 95% CIs?=?2.04-10.28). This study shows significant associations of salt tea drinking and some related habits with ESCC risk. PMID:25209106

  4. Temporary gastric banding in a premature infant with esophageal atresia and severe respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Laeven, Nina F A; Derikx, Joep P M; van Hoorn, Jeroen H L; van Heurn, L W Ernest

    2015-04-01

    The management of premature, very low birth weight infants with esophageal atresia and tracheo-esophageal fistula complicated by respiratory insufficiency is still challenging. We present a case of a premature, very low weight infant in whom we used a technique of temporary gastric banding to control the air leak through the fistula. PMID:25630811

  5. Hospital volume is related to clinical and economic outcomes of esophageal resection in Maryland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Justin B Dimick; Stephen M Cattaneo; Pamela A Lipsett; Peter J Pronovost; Richard F Heitmiller

    2001-01-01

    Background. Previous studies have documented a relationship between hospital volume and perioperative and economic outcomes. Our objective was to determine the effect of hospital volume on outcomes of esophageal resection.Methods. Statewide database was analyzed for patients who underwent esophageal resection in Maryland (n = 1,136 patients) from 1984 to 1999. Multivariate regression was used to determine the association of hospital

  6. [Esophageal aspergillosis in a patient with acute myelogenous leukemia and febrile neutropenia].

    PubMed

    Besa, Santiago; Kattan, Eduardo; Cid, Ximena; Claro, Juan C

    2014-04-01

    Aspergillosis usually compromises the respiratory system, but can also affect others. We report a 46 yo female with acute myeloid leukemia, developed febrile neutropenia and dysphagia. Endoscopy revealed esophageal cytomegalovirus-like ulcers, but biopsies showed Aspergillus spp. It's important to consider aspergillosis in the differential diagnosis of esophageal lesions in high-risk patients. PMID:24878914

  7. Endoscopic injection sclerotherapy for esophageal varices prolonged survival of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma complicating liver cirrhosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ryuichi Iwakiri; Takanori Koyama; Masahiro Hirano; Yasufumi Uchida; Sadatoshi Ishibashi; Atsuo Kuwahara; Keiji Matsunaga; Hiroyuki Sakata; Kazuma Fujimoto

    2000-01-01

    Background: A prospective controlled study was performed between 1982 and 1991 to evaluate the efficacy of endoscopic injection sclerotherapy (EIS) in patients with esophageal varices complicated by hepatocellular carcinoma and liver cirrhosis. Methods: The study included 83 patients with esophageal varices, hepatocellular carcinoma, and liver cirrhosis. Forty-three patients (group 1) underwent prophylactic EIS or emergent EIS for bleeding varices. EIS

  8. Narrow-band imaging system with magnifying endoscopy for superficial esophageal lesions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tatsuya Yoshida; Haruhiro Inoue; Shinsuke Usui; Hitoshi Satodate; Norio Fukami; Shin-ei Kudo

    2004-01-01

    BackgroundBy assessing the intrapapillary capillary loop in esophageal mucosa, magnifying endoscopy can play an important role in the evaluation of superficial esophageal lesions. A newly developed narrow-band imaging system was applied to magnifying endoscopy in a clinical setting; the benefit of the narrow-band imaging system was evaluated.

  9. Nissen fundoplication has a vagolytic effect on the lower esophageal sphincter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Sarani; T. Chan; R. Wise; S. Evans

    2003-01-01

    Background: Laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication is an increasingly utilized option for the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). However, many questions remain as to the mechanism by which this operation prevents GERD in those without hiatal hernias or incompetent lower esophageal sphincters (LES). It is known that these patients experience reflux due to excess transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxations (TLESR), inappropriate

  10. MITOMYCIN C IN THE MANAGEMENT OF PEDIATRIC CAUSTIC ESOPHAGEAL STRICTURES. A CASE REPORT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although the incidence of caustic ingestion is declining, the management of caustic esophageal strictures remains a challenge. Mitomycin C (MMC) inhibits fibroblast proliferation and is effective in reducing scar in animal experiments. We report the case of a child with a distal esophageal stricture...

  11. Endoscopic dilation of esophageal stricture without fluoroscopy is safe and effective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yong-Guang Wang; Thian-Lok Tio; Nib Soehendra

    AIM: Endoscopic dilation of esophageal strictures is a commonly performed procedure in the management of dysphagia. The procedure is usually done with fluoroscopic guidance. The aim of this study was to assess the use of Tracer guide wire in conjunction with Savary-Gilliard dilators in the dilation of tight esophageal strictures without fluoroscopy. METHODS: Fifty-five patients with significant dysphagia from strictures

  12. Gene expression profiles at different stages of human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jin Zhou; Li-Qun Zhao; Mo-Miao Xiong; Xiu-Qin Wang; Guan-Rui Yang; Zong-Liang Qiu; Min Wu; Zhi-Hua Liu

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To characterize the gene expression profiles in different stages of carcinogenesis of esophageal epithelium. METHODS: A microarray containing 588 cancer related genes was employed to study the gene expression profile at different stages of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma including basal cell hyperplasia, high-grade dysplasia, carcinoma in situ, early and late cancer. Principle component analysis was performed to search the

  13. Prevention of Radiochemotherapy-Induced Esophagitis With Glutamine: Results of a Pilot Study

    SciTech Connect

    Algara, Manuel [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital de l'Esperanca, Institut Municipal d'Assistencia Sanitaria (IMAS), Barcelona (Spain); Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail: malgara@imas.imim.es; Rodriguez, Nuria; Vinals, Pedro [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital de l'Esperanca, Institut Municipal d'Assistencia Sanitaria (IMAS), Barcelona (Spain); Lacruz, Marti [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital de l'Esperanca, Institut Municipal d'Assistencia Sanitaria (IMAS), Barcelona (Spain); Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona (Spain); Foro, Palmira; Reig, Anna [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital de l'Esperanca, Institut Municipal d'Assistencia Sanitaria (IMAS), Barcelona (Spain); Quera, Jaume [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital de l'Esperanca, Institut Municipal d'Assistencia Sanitaria (IMAS), Barcelona (Spain); Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona (Spain); Lozano, Joan; Fernandez-Velilla, Enric; Membrive, Ismael; Dengra, Josefa; Sanz, Xavier [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital de l'Esperanca, Institut Municipal d'Assistencia Sanitaria (IMAS), Barcelona (Spain)

    2007-10-01

    Purpose: To assess the usefulness of oral glutamine to prevent radiochemotherapy-induced esophagitis in patients with lung cancer, and to determine the dosimetric parameter predictive of esophagitis. Methods and Materials: Seventy-five patients were enrolled; 34.7% received sequential radiochemotherapy, and 65.3% received concomitant radiochemotherapy. Every patient received prophylactic glutamine powder in doses of 10 g/8 h. Prescribed radiation doses were 45-50 Gy to planning target volume (PTV)1 (gross tumor volume plus wide margins) and 65-70 Gy to PTV2 (reduced margins). The primary endpoint was the incidence of Grade 2 or greater acute esophagitis. Results: No patient experienced glutamine intolerance or glutamine-related toxicity. Seventy-three percent of patients who received sequential chemotherapy and 49% of those who received concomitant chemotherapy did not present any form of esophagitis. V50 was the dosimetric parameter with better correlation between esophagitis and its duration. A V50 of {<=}30% had a 22% risk of esophagitis Grade {>=}2, which increased to 71% with a V50 of >30% (p = 0.0009). Conclusions: The use of oral glutamine may have an important role in the prevention of esophageal complications of concomitant radiochemotherapy in lung cancer patients. However, randomized trials are needed to corroborate that effect. V50 is the dosimetric parameter with better correlation with esophagitis grade and duration.

  14. Localization of nitric oxide synthase in the brain stem neural circuit controlling esophageal peristalsis in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ellen Bart Wiedner; Xinmin Bao; Steven M. Altschuler

    1995-01-01

    Background\\/Aims: The central subnucleus of the nucleus of the solitary tract has been implicated in central reflex control of esophageal peristalsis. This study determined the presence of nitric oxide synthase in the brain stem circuit controlling esophageal peristalsis by combining transsynaptic retrograde tract tracing with pseudorabies virus and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate diaphorase (NADPH) histochemistry. Methods: Virus was injected into

  15. Current status of esophageal cancer – West versus East: the European point of view

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Rüdiger Siewert; Burkhard H. A. von Rahden; Hubert J. Stein

    2004-01-01

    Esophageal cancer and its treatment differ largely between the West and the East because West and East are concerned – at least in part – with different diseases: squamous cell cancers are the prevailing tumor type in Japan and other parts of Asia whereas this entity is now clearly outnumbered in Europe and North America by esophageal adenocarcinoma. The latter

  16. Impact of Preoperative Dental Plaque Culture for Predicting Postoperative Pneumonia in Esophageal Cancer Patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasunori Akutsu; Hisahiro Matsubara; Shinichi Okazumi; Hideaki Shimada; Kiyohiko Shuto; Toru Shiratori; Takenori Ochiai

    2008-01-01

    Background\\/Aims: In esophageal cancer patients, postoperative pneumonia frequently occurs. In the oral cavity, dental plaque is a major reservoir of bacteria, and it is possible that oral bacteria are aspirated into the upper respiratory tract after esophagectomy. We evaluated the interaction between preoperative dental plaque and postoperative pneumonia in patients undergoing esophagectomy. Patients and Methods: Thirty-nine patients with thoracic esophageal

  17. Esophageal and rectal temperatures as estimates of core temperature during therapeutic whole-body hypothermia.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Subrata; Donn, Steven M; Bhagat, Indira; Dechert, Ronald E; Barks, John D

    2013-01-01

    We monitored whole-body cooling concurrently by both esophageal and rectal probes. Esophageal temperature was significantly higher compared with simultaneous rectal temperature during cooling, with a temperature gradient ranging from 0.46 to 1.03°C (median, 0.8°C; IQR, 0.6-0.8°C). During rewarming, this temperature difference disappeared. PMID:23063267

  18. Curing Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with duodenal ulcer may provoke reflux esophagitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Labenz; AL Blum; E Bayerdorffer; A Meining; M Stolte; G Borsch

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: We have shown previously that cure of Helicobacter pylori infection leads to the disappearance of acid-neutralizing substances. Also, patients with ulcer after cure may gain weight. The aim of this study was to investigate whether cure of the infection increases the risk of reflux esophagitis. METHODS: Patients with duodenal ulcer without reflux esophagitis at the time of

  19. Evaluation of an electronic esophageal detector device in patients with morbid obesity and pulmonary failure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy R. Wolfe; Edward J. Kimball; L. Lazarre Ogden; Pat Schafer; Stephen C. Hartsell; Scott Richardson; Matthew R. Moog; Richard Barton

    2002-01-01

    Objective. Undetected esophageal intubation can result in permanent injury or death. Clinical confirmation of tube location may be misleading. Adjunctive methods should be used to supplement clinical judgment. Unfortunately, end-tidal carbon dioxide may misidentify properly placed tracheal tubes in low perfusion situations, while esophageal detector devices (EDDs) may misidentify properly placed tracheal tubes in situations where little airway dead space

  20. Symptom relief effect of palliative high dose rate intracavitary radiotherapy for advanced esophageal cancer with dysphagia

    PubMed Central

    YAMASHITA, MAMI; YAMASHITA, HIDEOMI; SHIBATA, SHINO; OKUMA, KAE; NAKAGAWA, KEIICHI

    2015-01-01

    Intracavitary radiotherapy (ICRT) for the palliative treatment of advanced esophageal cancer with dysphagia is currently performed at the University of Tokyo Hospital (Tokyo, Japan). In the present study, 24 patients exhibiting advanced esophageal cancer with dysphagia received palliative ICRT. ICRT, which was delivered 5 mm below the esophageal mucous membrane, with the exception of one case, was administered at a dose of 6 Gy/fraction. Specific patients additionally underwent definitive or palliative external beam radiation therapy for esophageal cancer a minimum of three months prior to ICRT. The effect of treatment on symptom alleviation was examined by comparing the dysphagia score prior to and following ICRT, with the patients’ medical records and a questionnaire used to calculate a dysphagia score ranging from zero (no dysphagia) to four (total dysphagia). In consideration of the individual efficacy of the treatment, the maximum number of repeated ICRT fractions was four (median, 1.7 times). A trend in the improvement of the symptom of dysphagia was observed in response to esophageal ICRT, with the average dysphagia score markedly decreasing from 2.54 to 1.65, however, the difference was not significant (P=0.083). Furthermore, pain was the most frequent side-effect of the esophageal ICRT and no patients exhibited severe complications. Thus, esophageal ICRT at a dose of 6 Gy/fraction may present an effective strategy for relieving the symptom of dysphagia in cases of advanced esophageal cancer. PMID:25789035

  1. Exhaled breath concentrations of acetic acid vapour in gastro-esophageal reflux disease.

    PubMed

    Dryahina, Kseniya; Pospíšilová, Veronika; Sovová, Kristýna; Shestivska, Violetta; Kubišta, Ji?í; Spesyvyi, Anatolii; Pehal, František; Turzíková, Jarmila; Votruba, Ji?í; Span?l, Patrik

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this experimental study was to discover volatile metabolites present in exhaled breath that could be used as biomarkers of gastro-esophageal reflux disease, GERD, one of the most common causes of chronic cough. An in vitro model based on pork tissue samples exposed to a challenge by artificial gastric fluid was used to identify specific volatile compounds to be chosen for quantification in directly exhaled breath of GERD patients and controls using selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry, SIFT-MS. GC/MS analyses of the headspace of this in vitro model indicated that the only volatile compound significantly increased was acetic acid. End expiratory concentration of acetic acid measured by SIFT-MS in mouth exhaled breath of 22 GERD patients (median 85 ppbv) was found to be significantly higher than that in breath of a control group (median 48 ppbv). Breath acetic acid may be useful for non-invasive diagnostics of GERD and other conditions resulting in the lowering of pH of the lining of the airways. PMID:25189108

  2. Accurate positioning of the 24-hour pH monitoring catheter: Agreement between manometry and pH step-up method in two patient positions

    PubMed Central

    Can, Mehmet Fatih; Yagci, Gokhan; Cetiner, Sadettin; Gulsen, Mustafa; Yigit, Taner; Ozturk, Erkan; Gorgulu, Semih; Tufan, Turgut

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the agreement between esophageal manometry and pH step-up method in two different patient positions. METHODS: Eighteen subjects were included in the study. First, the distance from the nose to the proximal border of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) was measured manometrically. Then a different investigator, who was blinded to the results of the first study, measured the same distance using the pH step-up method, with the patient in both upright and supine positions. An assessment of agreement between the two techniques was performed. RESULTS: In the supine position, the measurement of only one subject was outside the range accepted for correct positioning (? 3 cm distal or proximal to the LES). In the upright position, errors in measurement were recognized in five subjects. Bland-Altman plots revealed good agreement between measurements obtained manometrically and by the pH-step up method with the patient in the supine position. CONCLUSION: In the case of nonavailability of manometric detection device, the pH step-up method can facilitate the positioning of the 24 h pH monitoring catheter with the patient in the supine position. This should increase the use of pH-metry in clinical practice for subjects with suspected gastroesophageal reflux disease if our results are supported by further studies. PMID:18069759

  3. [Long-term survival of a patient with esophageal metastasis from breast cancer treated with esophagectomy].

    PubMed

    Kawabata, Ryohei; Kimura, Yutaka; Kawase, Tomono; Kamigaki, Shunji; Yamamura, Jun; Nakamura, Yukio; Munakata, Satoru; Fukunaga, Mutsumi; Ohzato, Hiroki

    2014-11-01

    Esophageal metastasis from breast cancer is rarely observed. We encountered a case of long-term survival after esophageal metastasis from breast cancer that was treated with esophagectomy. A 79-year-old woman developed dysphagia 26 years after radical mastectomy. Endoscopic examination revealed stenosis at the mid-thoracic esophagus. An esophageal biopsy led to a diagnosis of undifferentiated cancer. A computed tomography (CT) scan revealed a massive tumor in the esophagus, but no distant metastases. Esophagectomy was performed with the suspicion of primary or metastatic esophageal cancer. Histopathologically, the excised tumor was an adenocarcinoma, which had histopathological features similar to that of the breast cancer. Accordingly, the adenocarcinoma was diagnosed as esophageal metastasis of the breast cancer. The patient is still alive 8 years after the esophagectomy. PMID:25731410

  4. Rare complication after thyroidectomy-cervical esophageal stenosis: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Peng, Hanwei; Wang, Steven J; Li, Weixiong

    2014-01-01

    The most common complications after thyroidectomy are injuries associated with the recurrent laryngeal nerve and parathyroid gland. Cervical esophagus perforation is an exceptionally rare complication after thyroidectomy; it can usually be resolved by conservative care. Cervical esophageal stenosis secondary to intraoperative esophageal injury during thyroidectomy is much rarer and has not been reported in the literature to date. We report a case of esophageal stenosis following thyroidectomy performed at a peripheral hospital. The patient initially underwent a thyroidectomy for papillary thyroid carcinoma involving the cervical esophagus; esophageal perforation was noted intraoperatively, and closed using three number 4 silk sutures. Cervical esophageal stenosis subsequently developed after conservative care. The patient was successfully treated with cervical esophagectomy and reconstruction using a tubed forearm free flap after a failed attempt at endoscopic recanalization. This case is discussed in conjunction with a review of the literature. PMID:25305782

  5. Association of Esophageal Inflammation, Obesity and Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease: From FDG PET/CT Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yi-Chia; Wang, Shan-Ying; Chiu, Han-Mo; Tu, Chia-Hung; Wang, Hsiu-Po; Lin, Jaw-Town; Wu, Ming-Shiang; Yang, Wei-Shiung

    2014-01-01

    Objective Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is associated with bothersome symptoms and neoplastic progression into Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma. We aim to determine the correlation between GERD, esophageal inflammation and obesity with 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT). Methods We studied 458 subjects who underwent a comprehensive health check-up, which included an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, FDG PET/CT and complete anthropometric measures. GERD symptoms were evaluated with Reflux Disease Questionnaire. Endoscopically erosive esophagitis was scored using the Los Angeles classification system. Inflammatory activity, represented by standardized uptake values (SUVmax) of FDG at pre-determined locations of esophagus, stomach and duodenum, were compared. Association between erosive esophagitis, FDG activity and anthropometric evaluation, including body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue volumes were analyzed. Results Subjects with erosive esophagitis (n?=?178, 38.9%) had significantly higher SUVmax at middle esophagus (2.69±0.74 vs. 2.41±0.57, P<.001) and esophagogastric junction (3.10±0.89 vs. 2.38±0.57, P<.001), marginally higher at upper esophageal sphincter (2.29±0.42 vs. 2.21±0.48, P?=?.062), but not in stomach or duodenum. The severity of erosive esophagitis correlated with SUVmax and subjects with Barrett's esophagus had the highest SUVmax at middle esophagus and esophagogastric junction. Heartburn positively correlated with higher SUVmax at middle oesophagus (r?=?.262, P?=?.003). Using multivariate regression analyses, age (P?=?.027), total cholesterol level (P?=?.003), alcohol drinking (P?=?.03), subcutaneous adipose tissue (P<.001), BMI (P<.001) and waist circumference (P<.001) were independently associated with higher SUVmax at respective esophageal locations. Conclusions Esophageal inflammation demonstrated by FDG PET/CT correlates with endoscopic findings and symptomatology of GERD. Obesity markers, both visceral and general, are independent determinants of esophageal inflammation. PMID:24642729

  6. Comparison of Air-Coupled Balloon Esophageal and Anorectal Manometry Catheters with Solid-State Esophageal Manometry and Water-Perfused Anorectal Manometry Catheters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John C. Fang; Kristen Hilden; Ashok K. Tuteja; Kathryn A. Peterson

    2004-01-01

    Clinical gastrointestinal manometry studies are currently performed with multilumen water-perfused polyvinyl or strain gauge sensor solid-state catheters. A disposable catheter incorporating air-filled balloons has been developed with performance characteristics suitable for esophageal and anorectal manometry studies. Our aim was to compare esophageal and anorectal pressure measurements using this newly developed catheter with measurements obtained using standard solid-state or water-perfused catheters.

  7. Cox2 and ?-Catenin/T-cell Factor Signaling Intestinalize Human Esophageal Keratinocytes When Cultured under Organotypic Conditions12

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Jianping; Crissey, Mary Ann S; Stairs, Douglas B; Sepulveda, Antonia R; Lynch, John P

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) is rising in the United States. An important risk factor for EAC is the presence of Barrett esophagus (BE). BE is the replacement of normal squamous esophageal epithelium with a specialized columnar epithelium in response to chronic acid and bile reflux. However, the emergence of BE from squamous keratinocytes has not yet been demonstrated. Our research has focused on this. Wnt and cyclooxygenase 2 (Cox2) are two pathways whose activation has been associated with BE and progression to EAC, but their role has not been tested experimentally. To explore their contribution, we engineered a human esophageal keratinocyte cell line to express either a dominant-active Wnt effector CatCLef or a Cox2 complementary DNA. In a two-dimensional culture environment, Cox2 expression increases cell proliferation and migration, but neither transgene induces known BE markers. In contrast, when these cells were placed into three-dimensional organotypic culture conditions, we observed more profound effects. CatCLef-expressing cells were more proliferative, developed a thicker epithelium, and upregulated Notch signaling and several BE markers including NHE2. Cox2 expression also increased cell proliferation and induced a thicker epithelium. More importantly, we observed cysts form within the epithelium, filled with intestinal mucins including Muc5B and Muc17. This suggests that Cox2 expression in a three-dimensional culture environment induces a lineage of mucin-secreting cells and supports an important causal role for Cox2 in BE pathogenesis. We conclude that in vitro modeling of BE pathogenesis can be improved by enhancing Wnt signaling and Cox2 activity and using three-dimensional organotypic culture conditions. PMID:21969813

  8. A nomogram that predicts pathologic complete response to neoadjuvant chemoradiation also predicts survival outcomes after definitive chemoradiation for esophageal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jingya; Allen, Pamela K.; Correa, Arlene M.; Maru, Dipen M.; Swisher, Stephen G.; Hofstetter, Wayne L.; Liao, Zhongxing; Ajani, Jaffer A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Pathologic complete response (pCR) to neoadjuvant chemoradiation for esophageal cancer is associated with improved outcomes. We evaluated whether a nomogram designed to predict who would have a pCR after trimodality therapy could also predict outcome after definitive chemoradiation. Methods Patients in this retrospective, single-institution analysis had received chemoradiation without surgery for esophageal cancer from 1998 through 2010; 333 such patients had complete information on all variables required for the pCR nomogram: sex; T status (by endoscopic sonography); tumor grade; tumor avidity on positron emission tomography (PET); and esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD)-directed biopsy results after chemoradiation. We used multivariate Cox regression to test potential associations between clinical outcomes [overall survival (OS), locoregional recurrence, and distant metastasis] and patient or treatment factors and the pCR nomogram score; the component variables of the nomogram were not reintroduced into the multivariate analysis. Results The median follow-up time for all patients (median age 66 years) was 18.2 months (30.7 months for those alive at the time of analysis). Patients with nomogram scores ?125 (median for all patients) had significantly worse outcomes than patients with scores >125: median OS time 19.7 vs. 48.2 months; disease-free survival (DFS) time 6.1 vs. 31.1 months; locoregional failure-free survival time 17.7 months vs. not reached; and distant metastasis-free survival time 11.7 months vs. not reached (all P<0.001). Multivariate Cox regression analysis indicated that nomogram score independently predicted each survival outcome, along with other patient and disease factors. Conclusions The pCR nomogram score predicted survival outcomes in patients receiving definitive chemoradiation for esophageal cancer. Although this nomogram requires further validation, it may prove useful for stratifying patients for clinical trials designed to intensify treatments for patients at the highest risk of relapse. PMID:25642337

  9. Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killoran, James, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    This journal issue addresses the issue of testing in the social studies classroom. The first article, "The Role of Testing" (Bragaw), focuses on the need for tests to reflect the objectives of the study completed. The varying functions of pop quizzes, weekly tests, and unit tests are explored. "Testing Thinking Processes" (Killoran, Zimmer, and…

  10. [Esophago-bronchial fistula which developed after the insertion of an expandable metallic stent for corrosive esophageal stenosis].

    PubMed

    Tagawa, T; Itoh, S; Ide, S; Tanaka, K; Sumida, Y; Ohe, H

    1997-07-01

    A 69-year-old man attempted suicide by abdominal penetrating injury and taking sulfonyl acid. After a laparotomic drainage operation, corrosive esophageal stenosis occurred. Esophageal bougienage was not effective. An expandable metallic stent (GIANTURCO-ROCHE Z stent, Cook Bloomington U.S.A.) was inserted aiming to achieve temporary oral diet and nutritional improvement. But diet did not improve sufficiently because of the awareness of the prosthesis, severe hiccup, uncontrolled regurgitation esophagitis and restenosis caused by intraluminal mucosal growth. After 4 months of insertion, an esophago-bronchial fistula was produced by the wire of EMS. An operation became necessary for this complication. No data exist on the long-term use of the EMS and it is not suitable for benign esophageal stenosis. Unavoidably if the palliative treatment of endoprosthesis is necessary for benign esophageal stenosis such as corrosive esophageal stenosis, a removable esophageal tube prosthesis is preferable. PMID:9256648

  11. Esophageal leiomyosarcoma: clinical analysis and surgical treatment of 12 cases.

    PubMed

    Zhang, B H; Zhang, H T; Wang, Y G

    2014-08-01

    Leiomyosarcoma of the esophagus is a rare malignant tumor with slow growth and late metastasis. The aim of this study was to reassess the clinical characteristics and treatment modality in one of the largest series of esophageal leiomyosarcomas from a single institution. From February 1973 to December 2011, 12 cases of esophageal leiomyosarcoma were identified. The principal symptoms included progressive dysphagia in 11 cases (91.7%), retrosternal/back pain in four (33.3%), weight loss in four (33.3%), upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage in two (16.7%), and emesis in two (16.7%). The average duration of symptoms was 10.6 months. The location of the primary tumor was in the middle thoracic esophagus in five cases, and lower thoracic esophagus in seven cases. Six cases were classified as the polypoid type, five cases as the infiltrative type, and only one case as the intramural type. All 12 of the patients underwent esophagectomies, and radical resections were achieved in these patients. Based on the Kaplan-Meier Method, the 3-, 5-, and 10-year survival rates were 80.0%, 58.3%, and 31.1%, respectively, with a median survival of 63 months. Five-year survival rates for patients with polypoid or intramural tumors (n = 7) was 83.3%, and for patients with infiltrative tumor (n = 5) it was 25.0%. One of the patients had tumor resected four times and survived for 161 months. In conclusion, patients presenting with esophageal leiomyosarcomas have an excellent prognosis, and radical resection may achieve acceptable results. PMID:23163522

  12. Esophageal Cancer Dose Escalation Using a Simultaneous Integrated Boost Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Welsh, James, E-mail: jwelsh@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Palmer, Matthew B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Ajani, Jaffer A. [Department of Gastrointestinal Medical Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Liao Zhongxing [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Swisher, Steven G.; Hofstetter, Wayne L. [Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Allen, Pamela K.; Settle, Steven H.; Gomez, Daniel; Likhacheva, Anna; Cox, James D.; Komaki, Ritsuko [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: We previously showed that 75% of radiation therapy (RT) failures in patients with unresectable esophageal cancer are in the gross tumor volume (GTV). We performed a planning study to evaluate if a simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) technique could selectively deliver a boost dose of radiation to the GTV in patients with esophageal cancer. Methods and Materials: Treatment plans were generated using four different approaches (two-dimensional conformal radiotherapy [2D-CRT] to 50.4 Gy, 2D-CRT to 64.8 Gy, intensity-modulated RT [IMRT] to 50.4 Gy, and SIB-IMRT to 64.8 Gy) and optimized for 10 patients with distal esophageal cancer. All plans were constructed to deliver the target dose in 28 fractions using heterogeneity corrections. Isodose distributions were evaluated for target coverage and normal tissue exposure. Results: The 50.4 Gy IMRT plan was associated with significant reductions in mean cardiac, pulmonary, and hepatic doses relative to the 50.4 Gy 2D-CRT plan. The 64.8 Gy SIB-IMRT plan produced a 28% increase in GTV dose and comparable normal tissue doses as the 50.4 Gy IMRT plan; compared with the 50.4 Gy 2D-CRT plan, the 64.8 Gy SIB-IMRT produced significant dose reductions to all critical structures (heart, lung, liver, and spinal cord). Conclusions: The use of SIB-IMRT allowed us to selectively increase the dose to the GTV, the area at highest risk of failure, while simultaneously reducing the dose to the normal heart, lung, and liver. Clinical implications warrant systematic evaluation.

  13. Esophageal gastrointestinal stromal tumor: report of 7 patients

    PubMed Central

    Zukotynski, K.A.; Krajewski, K.M.; Jagannathan, J.P.; Butrynski, J.; Hornick, J.L.; Ramaiya, N.H.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Abstract Purpose: To evaluate imaging features of esophageal gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) with clinical and histopathologic correlation and imaging follow-up. Materials and methods: In this institutional review board-approved, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant retrospective study, 14 patients with pathologically proven esophageal GIST seen from January 2001 to October 2011, 7 patients (4 women; mean age 70 years, range 56–87 years) who had imaging of primary tumor and follow-up imaging at our institution were included. Imaging studies were evaluated by 3 radiologists in consensus. Location, size and imaging features of primary tumor and metastases, if any, were recorded, and correlated with pathologic (histopathologic subtype, presence of necrosis, mitotic rate, immunohistochemical profile) and clinical (treatment-related changes, distant spread and outcome) parameters. Results: Of 7 tumors, 5 were located in the lower esophagus and 2 in mid-esophagus. Four were intraluminal, 2 were exophytic, and 1 was intramural. All 7 patients underwent computed tomography (CT); tumors appeared as well-circumscribed, hypoattenuating masses showing mild enhancement, with mean size of 5.7?×?4.2?cm. Necrosis and calcification were seen in 1 tumor each. Five patients underwent fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET)/CT. GISTs were FDG avid with mean standardized uptake value (SUV)max of 9.5 (4.5–12.3). All tumors were positive for KIT (7/7) and CD34 (6/6). Distant metastases to liver and pleura were seen in 1 patient. On imatinib treatment, the tumors responded with decreased attenuation values and unchanged size on CT, and decreased SUVmax of primary tumor and metastases on FDG-PET/CT. Conclusion: Esophageal GISTs are well-circumscribed, FDG-avid, hypoattenuating masses that can metastasize to liver and pleura, and respond to imatinib treatment with decreased attenuation value on CT and decreased SUVmax on FDG-PET/CT. PMID:22542728

  14. Albumin and magnetic resonance imaging-liver volume to identify hepatitis B-related cirrhosis and esophageal varices

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hang; Chen, Tian-Wu; Li, Zhen-Lin; Zhang, Xiao-Ming; Li, Cheng-Jun; Chen, Xiao-Li; Chen, Guang-Wen; Hu, Jia-Ni; Ye, Yong-Quan

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether liver lobe volume and albumin (ALB) could predict the presence and severity of liver cirrhosis, and esophageal varices. METHODS: Seventy-one cirrhotic patients with hepatitis B and 21 healthy individuals were enrolled in this study. All the participants underwent abdominal enhanced magnetic resonance imaging to measure each liver lobe volume, and biochemical workup for testing ALB and Child-Pugh class. All cirrhotic patients underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy to show the presence of cirrhotic esophageal varices. Right liver lobe volume (RV), left medial liver lobe volume (LMV), left lateral liver lobe volume (LLV), and caudate lobe volume (CV) were measured using enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. The ratios of RV to ALB (RV/ALB), LMV to ALB (LMV/ALB), LLV to ALB (LLV/ALB) and CV to ALB (CV/ALB) were calculated. Statistical analyses were performed to determine whether and how the combination of liver lobe volume measured using magnetic resonance imaging and albumin could predict the presence and severity of liver cirrhosis, and the presence of esophageal varices. RESULTS: RV, LMV, LLV and CV decreased (r = -0.51-0.373; all P < 0.05), while RV/ALB increased (r = 0.424; P < 0.05), with the progress of Child-Pugh class of liver cirrhosis. RV, LMV, CV, LLV/ALB and CV/ALB could identify presence of liver cirrhosis; LLV and LMV could distinguish Child-Pugh class A from B; RV, LMV, LLV, CV, RV/ALB and LLV/ALB could distinguish class A from C; RV and LLV/ALB could differentiate B from C; and RV, RV/ALB and CV/ALB could identify presence of esophageal varices (all P < 0.05). Among these parameters, CV/ALB could best identify the presence of liver cirrhosis, with an area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.860, a sensitivity of 82.0% and a specificity of 83.0%. LLV could best distinguish class A from B, with an AUC of 0.761, a sensitivity of 74.4% and a specificity of 73.1%. RV could best distinguish class A from C, with an AUC of 0.900, a sensitivity of 90.3% and a specificity of 84.5%. LLV/ALB could best distinguish class B from C, with an AUC of 0.900, a sensitivity of 93.8% and a specificity of 81.5%. RV/ALB could best identify esophageal varices, with an AUC of 0.890, a sensitivity of 80.0% and a specificity of 83.5%. CONCLUSION: The combination of liver lobe volume and ALB has potential to identify presence and severity of cirrhosis, and presence of esophageal varices. PMID:25624735

  15. Esophageal obstruction and intracardiac "mass" in association with omphalocele closure.

    PubMed

    Victoria, Teresa; Kramer, Sandra S; Markowitz, Richard; Servaes, Sabah; Mong, Andrew; Jaramillo, Diego; Adzick, N Scott

    2009-02-01

    Patients with large omphaloceles are subject to anatomical displacement and morphological distorsion after surgical repair. We report 2 such complications in an infant after repair of a giant omphalocele that contained both liver and bowel. Esophageal obstruction resulted from sharp, anterior angulation of the distal esophagus that hindered placement of a feeding tube in the neonatal period. At 1 year of age, routine cardiac evaluation led to the discovery of a "mass" within the heart caused by invagination of a tongue of liver tissue into the right atrium. Knowledge of these less well-recognized anatomical variations is important to avoid unnecessary interventions. PMID:19231555

  16. Laparoscopic anatomy of the region of the esophageal hiatus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. G. R. Kuster; F. A. Innocenti

    1997-01-01

    Background: The wide patient acceptance of hiatal and gastroesophageal surgery performed by laparoscopy has suddenly generated a large\\u000a volume of procedures frequently done by surgeons with limited experience in this area. This has resulted in an excessive number\\u000a of complications. Knowledge of the normal and pathologic laparoscopic anatomy is essential for safe dissection around the\\u000a esophageal hiatus.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods: This description

  17. Esophageal Contractions in Patients with Chronic Progressive External Ophthalmoplegia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Danielle Ramos Domenis; Paula Macedo Carvalho Issa Okubo; Cláudia Sobreira; Roberto Oliveira Dantas

    2011-01-01

    Background  Chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia is a mitochondrial myopathy that causes muscular or multisystem symptoms and\\u000a has dysphagia as one manifestation.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Aim  To evaluate esophageal contractions in patients with chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We studied 14 patients with chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia and 16 asymptomatic volunteers. The diagnosis of\\u000a the disease was established by the clinical picture and by mitochondrial DNA analysis

  18. Bouveret's Syndrome with Severe Esophagitis and a Purulent Fistula

    PubMed Central

    Bonam, Rami; Vahora, Zahid; Leland, William

    2014-01-01

    Bouveret's syndrome is a rare variant of gallstone ileus with an overall incidence of 1–3%. It is a rare cause of gastric outlet obstruction resulting from the passage and impaction of a large gallstone through a cholecysto-duodenal fistula. A combination of diagnostic modalities is often required for a diagnosis. Management options include endoscopy and surgery. The most commonly performed procedures are enterolithotomy or gastrostomy, either alone or with cholecystectomy and fistula repair. We describe a unique variant of chronic Bouveret's syndrome with the unusual associations of severe esophagitis and a purulent fistula.

  19. Echocardiographic Manifestation of Esophagitis Mimicking a Posterior Mediastinal Mass

    PubMed Central

    Swarup, Supreeya; Kantamneni, Sowmya; Kabir, Sarah; Zeltser, Roman; Makaryus, Amgad N

    2014-01-01

    Incidental extracardiac findings (ECFs) are commonly noted on cardiac imaging. The majority of the ECFs are noticed on computed tomography (CT), cardiac magnetic resonance scanning, and myocardial perfusion imaging. Although transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) is a widely used cardiac modality, there is scarcity of data describing ECF on TTE. ECFs have the potential to alter patient management. We present a rare case of a cystic mass seen in the posterior mediastinum on TTE, which led to further evaluation and diagnosis of esophagitis with ulceration. PMID:25780343

  20. Left atrio-esophageal fistula of a possibly iatrogenic aetiology.

    PubMed

    Arkuszewski, Piotr; Barzdo, Maciej; Ostrowski, Stanis?aw; Szram, Stefan; Berent, Jaros?aw

    2015-07-01

    The study presents an exceptionally rare case of an esophago-left atrial fistula, which was diagnosed during a forensic post-mortem examination. Due to complex nature of the disease and many attempts to cure the patient, the authors did not manage to identify the aetiology of the fistula. It was only implied that the fistula might have been a distant complication of intraoperative endocardial ablation or it might have appeared as a consequence of perforation of the esophageal wall or left atrial wall of the enlarged heart with the end of an intubation tube or nasogastric tube. PMID:25952079

  1. Identification of signature genes for detecting hedgehog pathway activation in esophageal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ling; Bian, Yuehong; Huang, Shuhong; Ma, Xiaoli; Zhang, Chi; Su, Xiulan; Chen, Zi-Jiang; Xie, Jingwu; Zhang, Hongwei

    2011-01-01

    The hedgehog signaling pathway plays an important role in cell growth and differentiation both in normal embryonic development and in tumors. Our previous work shows that hedgehog pathway is frequently activated in esophageal cancers. To further elucidate the role of hedgehog pathway in esophageal cancers we examined the expression of the target genes, hedgehog-interacting protein (HIP) and platelet derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFR?) and hedgehog signaling molecules, smoothened (SMO), suppressor of fused (Su(Fu)) in the specimens using in situ hybridization and RT-PCR. We found that HIP, PDGFR?, SMO and Su(Fu) gene highly expressed in the primary esophageal squamous cell carcinomas but not in normal esophageal tissue. The transcripts of HIP, PDGFR? and SMO were expressed in 13 of 15 esophageal cancers. Su(Fu) expression was missing in 2 esophageal cancers. The results from in-situ hybridization were further confirmed by RT-PCR. Our results revealed a set of genes for detecting hedgehog signaling activation in esophageal cancer. PMID:21210262

  2. Thoracoscopic repair of esophageal atresia with a distal fistula – lessons from the first 10 operations

    PubMed Central

    Zaborowska, Kamila; Rogowski, B?a?ej; Kali?ska, Anita; Nosek, Marzena; Golonka, Anna; Lesiuk, Witold; Obel, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Thoracoscopic esophageal atresia (EA) repair was first performed in 1999, but still the technique is treated as one of the most complex pediatric surgical procedures. Aim The study presents a single-center experience and learning curve of thoracoscopic repair of esophageal atresia and tracheo-esophageal (distal) fistula. Material and methods From 2012 to 2014, 10 consecutive patients with esophageal atresia and tracheo-esophageal fistula were treated thoracoscopically in our center. There were 8 girls and 2 boys. Mean gestational age was 36.5 weeks and mean weight was 2230 g. Four children had associated anomalies. The surgery was performed after stabilization of the patient between the first and fourth day after birth. Five patients required intubation before surgery for respiratory distress. Bronchoscopy was not performed before the operation. Results In 8 patients, the endoscopic approach was successfully used thoracoscopically, while in 2 patients conversion to an open thoracotomy was necessary. In all patients except 1, the anastomosis was patent, with no evidence of leak. One patient demonstrated a leak, which did not resolve spontaneously, necessitating surgical repair. In long-term follow-up, 1 patient required esophageal dilatation of the anastomosis. All patients are on full oral feeding. Conclusions The endoscopic approach is the method of choice for the treatment of esophageal atresia in our center because of excellent visualization and precise atraumatic preparation even in neonates below a weight of 2000 g. PMID:25960794

  3. HtrA1 expression associated with the occurrence and development of esophageal cancer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The purposes of this study were to measure both the mRNA and protein expression levels of high-temperature requirement serine peptidase 1 (HtrA1) in human esophageal cancer tissues and their adjacent, comparatively normal esophageal tissues. Methods The expression levels of HtrA1 mRNA and protein in both tissue types were measured by semi-quantitative RT-PCR (reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction) and Western blotting. The clinical and pathological correlation between HtrA1 expression levels and the occurrence and development of esophageal cancer was analyzed. Results The expression levels of HtrA1 mRNA and protein in esophageal carcinoma were significantly lower than the levels expressed in their adjacent normal esophageal tissue (p?esophageal tumor cells expressed lower HtrA1 mRNA and protein expression levels (p?esophageal cancer. PMID:22935172

  4. Primary esophageal Burkitt’s lymphoma: a rare case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Madabhavi, Irappa; Patel, Apurva; Revannasiddaiah, Swaroop; Choudhary, Mukesh; Anand, Asha; Das, Priyanka; Panchal, Harsha; Parikh, Sonia; Aagre, Suhas; Bhardava, Vishalkumar; Talele, Avinash

    2014-01-01

    Esophageal lymphoma is a rare condition, accounting for less than 1% of all gastrointestinal lymphomas. Primary extra nodal esophageal lymphoma constitutes less than 0.2% cases of the total esophageal lymphomas. The definition of primary GI lymphoma has differed among authors. The etiology of the disease is unknown, with the role of Epstein-Barr virus being controversial. The common symptoms of patients with esophageal lymphoma include dysphasia, odynophagia, weight loss, chest pain or present as a result of complications. Burkitt’s lymphoma is one of the fastest growing human malignancies, with a 100% replication rate. Endemic, sporadic (non-endemic) and immunodeficient variants have been recognized. The diagnosis of Burkitt’s lymphoma relies on morphologic findings, immunophenotyping results, and cytogenetic features. Burkitt’s lymphoma is usually treated with LMB-96 protocol depending on the risk stratification. We present a case of primary esophageal Burkitt’s lymphoma, which has been successfully treated with LMB-96 protocol. An extensive review of literature did not reveal a single case of esophageal Burkitt’s lymphoma. To the best of our knowledge this is the first case report in the world literature with diagnosis of primary esophageal Burkitt’s lymphoma. PMID:25289138

  5. Primary esophageal Burkitt's lymphoma: a rare case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Madabhavi, Irappa; Patel, Apurva; Revannasiddaiah, Swaroop; Choudhary, Mukesh; Anand, Asha; Das, Priyanka; Panchal, Harsha; Parikh, Sonia; Aagre, Suhas; Bhardava, Vishalkumar; Talele, Avinash

    2014-01-01

    Esophageal lymphoma is a rare condition, accounting for less than 1% of all gastrointestinal lymphomas. Primary extra nodal esophageal lymphoma constitutes less than 0.2% cases of the total esophageal lymphomas. The definition of primary GI lymphoma has differed among authors. The etiology of the disease is unknown, with the role of Epstein-Barr virus being controversial. The common symptoms of patients with esophageal lymphoma include dysphasia, odynophagia, weight loss, chest pain or present as a result of complications. Burkitt's lymphoma is one of the fastest growing human malignancies, with a 100% replication rate. Endemic, sporadic (non-endemic) and immunodeficient variants have been recognized. The diagnosis of Burkitt's lymphoma relies on morphologic findings, immunophenotyping results, and cytogenetic features. Burkitt's lymphoma is usually treated with LMB-96 protocol depending on the risk stratification. We present a case of primary esophageal Burkitt's lymphoma, which has been successfully treated with LMB-96 protocol. An extensive review of literature did not reveal a single case of esophageal Burkitt's lymphoma. To the best of our knowledge this is the first case report in the world literature with diagnosis of primary esophageal Burkitt's lymphoma. PMID:25289138

  6. Reliability-based econometrics of aerospace structural systems: Design criteria and test options. Ph.D. Thesis - Georgia Inst. of Tech.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, J. M.; Hanagud, S.

    1974-01-01

    The design criteria and test options for aerospace structural reliability were investigated. A decision methodology was developed for selecting a combination of structural tests and structural design factors. The decision method involves the use of Bayesian statistics and statistical decision theory. Procedures are discussed for obtaining and updating data-based probabilistic strength distributions for aerospace structures when test information is available and for obtaining subjective distributions when data are not available. The techniques used in developing the distributions are explained.

  7. In Vitro Model for Studying Esophageal Epithelial Differentiation and Allergic Inflammatory Responses Identifies Keratin Involvement in Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    KC, Kiran; Rothenberg, Marc E.; Sherrill, Joseph D.

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial differentiation is an essential physiological process that imparts mechanical strength and barrier function to squamous epithelia. Perturbation of this process can give rise to numerous human diseases, such as atopic dermatitis, in which antigenic stimuli can penetrate the weakened epithelial barrier to initiate the allergic inflammatory cascade. We recently described a simplified air-liquid interface (ALI) culture system that facilitates the study of differentiated squamous epithelia in vitro. Herein, we use RNA sequencing to define the genome-wide transcriptional changes that occur within the ALI system during epithelial differentiation and in response to allergic inflammation. We identified 2,191 and 781 genes that were significantly altered upon epithelial differentiation or dysregulated in the presence of interleukin 13 (IL-13), respectively. Notably, 286 genes that were modified by IL-13 in the ALI system overlapped with the gene signature present within the inflamed esophageal tissue from patients with eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), an allergic inflammatory disorder of the esophagus that is characterized by elevated IL-13 levels, altered epithelial differentiation, and pro-inflammatory gene expression. Pathway analysis of these overlapping genes indicated enrichment in keratin genes; for example, the gene encoding keratin 78, an uncharacterized type II keratin, was upregulated during epithelial differentiation (45-fold) yet downregulated in response to IL-13 and in inflamed esophageal tissue from patients. Thus, our findings delineate an in vitro experimental system that models epithelial differentiation that is dynamically regulated by IL-13. Using this system and analyses of patient tissues, we identify an altered expression profile of novel keratin differentiation markers in response to IL-13 and disease activity, substantiating the potential of this combined approach to identify relevant molecular processes that contribute to human allergic inflammatory disease. PMID:26039063

  8. pH [Measure of Acidity].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Paula

    This autoinstructional program deals with the study of the pH of given substances by using litmus and hydrion papers. It is a learning activity directed toward low achievers involved in the study of biology at the secondary school level. The time suggested for the unit is 25-30 minutes (plus additional time for further pH testing). The equipment…

  9. Oral Bisphosphonate and Risk of Esophageal Cancer: A Nationwide Claim Study

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Gi Hyeon

    2015-01-01

    Background Epidemiology studies suggest that oral bisphosphonate may increase the risk of esophageal cancer. The present study aimed to investigate the association between exposure of oral bisphosphonate and risk of esophageal cancer. Methods Using the nationwide medical claim database in South Korea, 2,167,955 subjects, who initiated osteoporosis treatment (oral bisphosphonate, intravenous bisphosphonate or raloxifene) or performed dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) between 2008 and 2012, were analyzed. Diagnosis of esophageal cancer was estimated from medical claim database. Standardized incidence ratio (SIR) was estimated by comparing with incidence in the general population. Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to investigate age-adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) of esophageal cancer. Results The present study included oral bisphosphonate group (N=1,435,846), comparator group 1 (intravenous bisphosphonate or raloxifene, N=78,363) and comparator group 2 (DXA, N=653,746). Mean age was 65.6±8.8 years and mean observation duration was 30.9±17.7 months. During 5,503,688 patient-years, 205 esophageal cancer incidences were observed. The annual incidence of esophageal cancer was 3.88, 4.21, and 3.30 for oral bisphosphonate group, comparator group 1 and comparator group 2, respectively. SIR of esophageal cancer was 1.24, 1.38, and 1.40 for oral bisphosphonate group, comparator group 1 and comparator group 2, respectively. Esophageal cancer risk of oral bisphosphonate group was not significantly different from comparator group 1 and comparator group 2 (aHR 0.87; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.39-1.98 and aHR 0.94; 95% CI 0.68-1.30, respectively). Conclusions The use of oral bisphosphonate was not associated with increased risk of esophageal cancer in real clinical practice using large scale nationwide database. PMID:26082917

  10. Aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 genotypes and HLA haplotypes in Japanese patients with esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Seishiro; Sasahara, Katsuyuki; Kinekawa, Fumihiko; Uchida, Naohito; Masaki, Tsutomu; Kurokohchi, Kazutaka; Murota, Masayuki; Touge, Tetsuo; Kawauchi, Kazuyoshi; Oda, Syuji; Kuriyama, Shigeki

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine how aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) genotypes and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) haplotypes contribute to the risk for esophageal cancer. We examined ALDH2 genotypes and HLA haplotypes in 29 Japanese patients with esophageal cancer. The ratio of patients who experienced current or former intense vasodilatation upon consuming alcohol (flushing type) was much higher in individuals with the inactive form of ALDH2 encoded by the ALDH2(2)/2(2) or ALDH2(1)/2(2) genotype than in those with the active form of ALDH2 encoded by the ALDH2(1)/2(1) genotype. The ratio of inactive ALDH2 was significantly higher in patients with esophageal cancer than in control normal subjects, suggesting that alcoholics with inactive ALDH2 were susceptible to esophageal cancer. HLA haplotypes A24, A26, B54, B61 and DR9 were prevalent in patients with esophageal cancer (82.8, 24.1, 34.5, 37.9 and 44.8%, respectively). HLA haplotype of A24 and inactive ALDH2 were simultaneously found in 58.6% of patients with esophageal cancer. Furthermore, we found other primary malignancies in 6 of 29 (20.7%) patients with esophageal cancer, and 4 of these 6 patients had both the inactive form of ALDH2 and the HLA A24 haplotype. The present study showed the high prevalence of the inactive form of ALDH2 and HLA haplotypes A24, A26, B54, B61 and DR9 in Japanese patients with esophageal cancer. Therefore, the examination of genotypes of ALDH2 loci and HLA haplotypes may allow the early detection of esophageal cancer in the Japanese population. PMID:12168074

  11. Esophageal epithelial cells acquire functional characteristics of activated myofibroblasts after undergoing an epithelial to mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    Muir, Amanda B.; Dods, Kara; Noah, Yuli; Toltzis, Sarit; Chandramouleeswaran, Prasanna Modayur; Lee, Anna; Benitez, Alain; Bedenbaugh, Adam; Falk, Gary W.; Wells, Rebecca G.; Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Wang, Mei-Lun

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an allergic inflammatory disease that leads to esophageal fibrosis and stricture. We have recently shown that in EoE, esophageal epithelial cells undergo an epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), characterized by gain of mesenchymal markers and loss of epithelial gene expression. Whether epithelial cells exposed to profibrotic cytokines can also acquire the functional characteristics of activated myofibroblasts, including migration, contraction, and extracellular matrix deposition, is relevant to our understanding and treatment of EoE-associated fibrogenesis. In the current study, we characterize cell migration, contraction, and collagen production by esophageal epithelial cells that have undergone cytokine-induced EMT in vitro. Methods and Results Stimulation of human non-transformed immortalized esophageal epithelial cells (EPC2-hTERT) with profibrotic cytokines TNF?, TGF?, and IL1? for three weeks led to acquisition of mesenchymal ?SMA and vimentin, and loss of epithelial E-cadherin expression. Upon removal of the profibrotic stimulus, epithelial characteristics were partially rescued. TGF? stimulation had a robust effect upon epithelial collagen production. Surprisingly, TNF? stimulation had the most potent effect upon cell migration and contraction, exceeding the effects of the prototypical profibrotic cytokine TGF?. IL1? stimulation alone had minimal effect upon esophageal epithelial migration, contraction, and collagen production. Conclusions Esophageal epithelial cells that have undergone EMT acquire functional characteristics of activated myofibroblasts in vitro. Profibrotic cytokines exert differential effects upon esophageal epithelial cells, underscoring complexities of fibrogenesis in EoE, and implicating esophageal epithelial cells as effector cells in EoE-associated fibrogenesis. PMID:25183431

  12. The feasibility of a randomized controlled trial of esophagectomy for esophageal cancer - the ROMIO (Randomized Oesophagectomy: Minimally Invasive or Open) study: protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is a need for evidence of the clinical effectiveness of minimally invasive surgery for the treatment of esophageal cancer, but randomized controlled trials in surgery are often difficult to conduct. The ROMIO (Randomized Open or Minimally Invasive Oesophagectomy) study will establish the feasibility of a main trial which will examine the clinical and cost-effectiveness of minimally invasive and open surgical procedures for the treatment of esophageal cancer. Methods/Design A pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT), in two centers (University Hospitals Bristol NHS Foundation Trust and Plymouth Hospitals NHS Trust) will examine numbers of incident and eligible patients who consent to participate in the ROMIO study. Interventions will include esophagectomy by: (1) open gastric mobilization and right thoracotomy, (2) laparoscopic gastric mobilization and right thoracotomy, and (3) totally minimally invasive surgery (in the Bristol center only). The primary outcomes of the feasibility study will be measures of recruitment, successful development of methods to monitor quality of surgery and fidelity to a surgical protocol, and development of a core outcome set to evaluate esophageal cancer surgery. The study will test patient-reported outcomes measures to assess recovery, methods to blind participants, assessments of surgical morbidity, and methods to capture cost and resource use. ROMIO will integrate methods to monitor and improve recruitment using audio recordings of consultations between recruiting surgeons, nurses, and patients to provide feedback for recruiting staff. Discussion The ROMIO study aims to establish efficient methods to undertake a main trial of minimally invasive surgery versus open surgery for esophageal cancer. Trial registration The pilot trial has Current Controlled Trials registration number ISRCTN59036820(25/02/2013) at http://www.controlled-trials.com; the ROMIO trial record at that site gives a link to the original version of the study protocol. PMID:24888266

  13. Effects of cisapride on parameters of oesophageal motility and on the prolonged intraoesophageal pH test in infants with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease.

    PubMed Central

    Cucchiara, S; Staiano, A; Boccieri, A; De Stefano, M; Capozzi, C; Manzi, G; Camerlingo, F; Paone, F M

    1990-01-01

    The effect of cisapride, a new gastrointestinal prokinetic drug, on oesophageal motility and acid reflux was studied in 14 children with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, receiving either placebo or cisapride 0.15 mg/kg intravenously. Cisapride significantly (p less than 0.01) increased the lower oesophageal sphincter pressure (+124%), the amplitude (+84%) and duration (+24%) of oesophageal peristaltic waves, whereas the placebo treatment did not produce any changes. Subsequently, all 14 children underwent 24 hour oesophageal pH-monitoring before and after four weeks of treatment with oral cisapride 0.2 mg/kg tid given in addition to postural therapy and thickened feedings. The 24 hour intraoesophageal pH recordings and symptomatic scores were compared with those of 10 control patients treated only by postural therapy and thickened feedings. When compared with baseline pH data, cisapride significantly reduced the oesophageal acid exposure time, the mean duration of each reflux episode, the duration of the longest reflux episode and the number of long lasting reflux episodes; the number of reflux episodes was not influenced. The effect of cisapride was marked and consistent during fasting and sleep periods. Oesophageal acid exposure was reduced more significantly in patients given cisapride (-61%) than in controls (-24%; p less than 0.001). Symptom improvement was greater after four weeks of cisapride treatment (score reduction: 61%) than after postural and dietary therapy alone (score reduction: 42%; p less than 0.01). No adverse effects occurred. These findings suggest that cisapride is a valuable drug in the management of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease in children. PMID:2180792

  14. Laparoscopic Partial Fundoplication in Case of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Patient with Absent Esophageal Motility

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Kyung Won; Yoon, Ki Young; Park, Seun Ja; Kim, Sung Eun

    2015-01-01

    The surgical indications for the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in patients with esophageal motility disorders have been debated. We report a case of antireflux surgery performed in a patient with absent esophageal motility as categorized by the Chicago classification (2011). A 54-year-old man underwent laparoscopic Toupet fundoplication due to apparent GERD and desire to discontinue all medications. After surgery, his subjective symptoms improved. Furthermore, objective findings including manometry and 24-hour pH-metry also improved. In our experience, antireflux surgery can improve GERD symptoms patients, even with absent esophageal motility.

  15. miR223 regulates migration and invasion by targeting Artemin in human esophageal carcinoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shujun Li; Zhigang Li; Fengjie Guo; Xuebo Qin; Bin Liu; Zhe Lei; Zuoqing Song; Liya Sun; Hong-Tao Zhang; Jiacong You; Qinghua Zhou

    2011-01-01

    Background  Artemin (ARTN) is a neurotrophic factor belonging to the glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor family of ligands. To develop\\u000a potential therapy targeting ARTN, we studied the roles of miR-223 in the migration and invasion of human esophageal carcinoma.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  ARTN expression levels were detected in esophageal carcinoma cell lines KYSE-150, KYSE-510, EC-9706, TE13, esophageal cancer\\u000a tissues and paired non-cancerous tissues by Western

  16. Salivary influences upon levels of certain chemical constituents in forage residues collected from esophageally cannulated sheep 

    E-print Network

    Radde, Kenneth Albert

    1967-01-01

    fulfillment of the reouiremente for +he degree o+ NAS vR Oi' SCI NCE January 1967 Range Science SALIVARY INFLU. . NC, 'S UPON LEVELS OF CERTAIN CHEHICAL CONSTITUENTS IN FORAGE R SIDUES COLLECT D FROH ESOPHAGEALLY CANNULATED SHEEP A Thesis By Kenneth... and changes in the ash, water soluble carbohydrates, and total nitrogen of esophageally collected forage residues. 4o Yiean scuares from analysis of variance of ash levels of uncontaminated s liva 4l i/eights of esophageally collected forage residues. 42...

  17. Chloramphenicol and acute esophagitis in the emergency department

    PubMed Central

    Andicochea, Chad T.; Portouw, Steven J.; Bokan, Melissa M.

    2015-01-01

    Even with its broad spectrum and low cost, concern over chloramphenicol's adverse effects limited its use in the United States during the 1980s. Reports from United Kingdom and China in the 1990s demonstrated a low incidence of blood dyscrasias with the topical preparation of chloramphenicol, and showed continued good efficacy and low cost. Today, topical chloramphenicol is being used by some groups within otolaryngology and ophthalmology in the United States. As a result, emergency physicians are once again considering chloramphenicol-induced side effects in patients presenting to the emergency department. To date, there have been no published reports associating chest pain, dyspnea with chloramphenicol use, and there has only been one report of fungal esophagitis associated with topical chloramphenicol. We present a 31-year-old woman, 4 months status post tympanoplasty with a modified radical canal wall down mastoidectomy due to a cholesteatoma involving the epitympanum who had a residual tympanic membrane defect. She presented to the emergency department with chest “burning”, with no other symptoms shortly after starting treatment with an insufflated combination antibiotic containing chloramphenicol. After ruling out cardiopulmonary or vascular etiology, she was treated successfully with a gastrointestinal cocktail cocktail for presumed esophagitis secondary to newly prescribed chloramphenicol. PMID:25709259

  18. Cell sheet technology for regeneration of esophageal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Ryo; Yamato, Masayuki; Kanai, Nobuo; Murakami, Daisuke; Kondo, Makoto; Ishii, Takaaki; Ohki, Takeshi; Namiki, Hideo; Yamamoto, Masakazu; Okano, Teruo

    2012-10-01

    The progress of tissue-engineering technology has realized development of new therapies to treat various disorders by using cultured cells. Cell- and tissue-based therapies have been successfully applied to human patients, and several tissue-engineered products have been approved by the regulatory agencies and are commercially available. In the review article, we describe our experience of development and clinical application of cell sheet-based regenerative medicine. Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) and endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) have been shown to be useful for removal of gastrointestinal neoplasms with less invasiveness compared with open surgery, especially in esophageal surgery. However, postoperative inflammation and stenosis are major complications observed after intensive mucosal resection. Therefore, we have developed novel regenerative medicine to prevent such complications and promote wound healing of esophageal mucosa after EMR or ESD. Transplantable oral mucosal epithelial cell sheets were fabricated from patients' own oral mucosa. Immediately after EMR or ESD, fabricated autologous cell sheets were endoscopically transplanted to the ulcer sites. We performed a preclinical study with a canine model. In human clinical settings, cell culture and cell sheet fabrication were performed in clean rooms according to good manufacturing practice guidelines, and pharmaceutical drugs were used as supplements to culture medium in place of research regents used in animal study. We believe that cell-based regenerative medicine would be useful to improve quality of life of patients after EMR or ESD. PMID:23066307

  19. Genomic and molecular characterization of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lin, De-Chen; Hao, Jia-Jie; Nagata, Yasunobu; Xu, Liang; Shang, Li; Meng, Xuan; Sato, Yusuke; Okuno, Yusuke; Varela, Ana Maria; Ding, Ling-Wen; Garg, Manoj; Liu, Li-Zhen; Yang, Henry; Yin, Dong; Shi, Zhi-Zhou; Jiang, Yan-Yi; Gu, Wen-Yue; Gong, Ting; Zhang, Yu; Xu, Xin; Kalid, Ori; Shacham, Sharon; Ogawa, Seishi; Wang, Ming-Rong; Koeffler, H. Phillip

    2014-01-01

    Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is a world-wide prevalent cancer, which is particularly common in certain regions of Asia. Here we report the whole-exome or targeted deep sequencing of 139 paired ESCC cases, and analysis of somatic copy number variations (SCNV) of over 180 ESCCs. We identified novel significantly mutated genes such as FAT1, FAT2, ZNF750 and KMT2D, in addition to previously discovered ones (TP53, PIK3CA and NOTCH1). Further SCNV evaluation, immunohistochemistry and biological analysis suggested their functional relevance in ESCC. Notably, RTK-MAPK-PI3K pathways, cell cycle and epigenetic regulation are frequently dysregulated by multiple molecular mechanisms in this cancer. Moreover, our approaches uncovered many novel druggable candidates, and XPO1 was further explored as a therapeutic target because of its mutation and protein overexpression. Together, our integrated study unmasks a number of novel genetic lesions in ESCC and provides an important molecular foundation for understanding esophageal tumors and developing therapeutic targets. PMID:24686850

  20. Tracheo-esophageal shunt speech: report of an unusual case.

    PubMed

    Sakakura, A; Yamamoto, Y; Imanaka, M; Saka, T; Makimoto, K; Takahashi, H

    1995-01-01

    A rare case of laryngectomee who acquired TE shunt speech is reported. Our patient was a 64-year-old woman with laryngeal cancer (glottic type T3N0M0). She underwent laryngectomy in 1990, and a Komorn tracheo-esophageal shunt operation was performed simultaneously. A voice prosthesis (BIVONA) was inserted into the shunt, but the voice valve was not used. She acquired shunt speech soon after the operation, and there was no need to close the tracheostoma during phonation. Fiberoptic, X-ray and aerodynamic findings of the shunt and esophagus were as follows: (i) The one-way valve of the voice prosthesis was open during inspiration and closed during phonation. (ii) Swallowing of air, as seen in esophageal speech, was not observed. (iii) The neoglottis was in the upper part of the esophagus. It was concluded that the air for the vibration of the neoglottis entered the esophagus through the T-E shunt during inspiration. PMID:8561703

  1. Quality Improvement Guidelines for Placement of Esophageal Stents

    SciTech Connect

    Sabharwal, Tarun, E-mail: tarun.sabharwal@gstt.sthames.nhs.uk; Morales, Jose P.; Irani, Farah G.; Adam, Andreas [Guy's and St. Thomas' Hospital Trust, Department of Interventional Radiology (United Kingdom)

    2005-04-15

    Esophageal cancer is now the sixth leading cause of death from cancer worldwide. During the past three decades, important changes have occurred in the epidemiologic patterns associated with this disease. Due to the distensible characteristics of the esophagus, patients may not recognize any symptoms until 50% of the luminal diameter is compromised, explaining why cancer of the esophagus is generally associated with late presentation and poor prognosis. Esophageal cancer has a poor outcome, with an overall 5 year survival rate of less than 10%, and fewer than 50% of patients are suitable for resection at presentation. As a result palliation is the best option in this group of patients]. The aims of palliation are maintenance of oral intake, minimizing hospital stay, relief of pain, elimination of reflux and regurgitation, and prevention of aspiration. For palliative care, current treatment options include thermal ablation, photodynamic therapy, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, chemical injection therapy, argon beam or bipolar electrocoagulation therapy, enteral feeding (nasogastric tube/percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy), and intubation (self-expanding metal stents (SEMS) or semi-rigid prosthetic tubes) with different success and complications rates.

  2. Esophageal Cancer in Kashmir (India): An Enigma for Researchers

    PubMed Central

    Mir, M. Muzaffar; Dar, Nazir Ahmad

    2009-01-01

    About 90% of esophageal cancers worldwide are Squamous Cell Carcinomas (SCC), mostly occurring in defined high-incidence areas of low and middle-resource countries. Historically, the highest incidences are reported in regions of Central Asia. One such region is Kashmir Valley in Northern India. In this review, we summarize a large body of epidemiological, toxicological and observational information on occurrence, dietary patterns and lifestyles to discuss factors that may be involved in the etiology of SCC in Kashmir Valley. To date, no single factor can be identified as the main cause of the excess incidence of SCC as compared to other regions of India. Three main components emerge as important factors: a societal component with poor, rural lifestyle and general deprivation, status in particular in vitamins and oligoelements; a lifestyle component with the use of copper utensil in cooking, the consumption of spicy, deep fried foodstuffs, and the drinking of hot salty tea; and an environmental component with exposure to high levels of dietary nitrosamines from diverse sources. Overall, these three components are similar to the general pattern of factors that have been involved in causing SCC in other high-incidence area in the so-called “esophageal cancer belt”, namely in central China (Cixian, Lixian) and in Northern Iran (Golestan). Further comparative studies between these regions are needed to identify the contributions of these various components. PMID:21475514

  3. Update on topical steroid therapy for eosinophilic esophagitis.

    PubMed

    Molina-Infante, Javier; Lucendo, Alfredo J

    2015-01-01

    This review aims to summarize evolving evidence on topical steroid (TS) therapy for eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). Currently, we still use "off-label" TS, originally designed for bronchial or intranasal delivery. Direct oral administration (i.e., oral viscous budesonide) achieves better histological results than the aerosolized swallowed route, due to longer mucosal contact time. High-dose fluticasone (880?g bid) has recently shown higher cure rates in children and adults. Steroid resistance is present in around 25-40% of patients. Nonetheless, novel steroid formulations specifically designed for EoE have exhibited outstanding preliminary results (cure rates around 100%). Narrow caliber esophagus (<13mm) might explain persistent dysphagia despite histological remission on TS therapy and endoscopic dilation should be considered. TS are currently considered safe drugs, but we lack long-term safety data. Maintenance anti-inflammatory therapy is recommended in all patients to prevent disease recurrence and esophageal fibrotic remodeling, although this strategy is yet to be defined. PMID:25630928

  4. Endoscopic Stenting and Clipping for Anastomotic Stricture and Persistent Tracheoesophageal Fistula after Surgical Repair of Esophageal Atresia in an Infant

    PubMed Central

    Benatta, Mohammed Amine; Benaired, Amine; Khelifaoui, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Anastomotic stricture (AS) and recurrent tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF) are two complications of surgical repair of esophageal atresia (EA). Therapeutic endoscopic modalities include stenting, tissue glue, and clipping for TEF and endoscopic balloon dilation bougienage and stenting for esophageal strictures. We report herein a two-month infant with both EA and TEF who benefited from a surgical repair for EA, at the third day of life. Two months later he experienced deglutition disorders and recurrent chest infections. The esophagogram showed an AS and a TEF confirmed with blue methylene test at bronchoscopy. A partially covered self-expanding metal type biliary was endoscopically placed. Ten weeks later the stent was removed. This allows for easy passage of the endoscope in the gastric cavity but a persistent recurrent fistula was noted. Instillation of contrast demonstrated a fully dilated stricture but with a persistent TEF. Then we proceeded to placement of several endoclips at the fistula site. The esophagogram confirmed the TEF was obliterated. At 12 months of follow-up, he was asymptomatic. Stenting was effective to alleviate the stricture but failed to treat the TEF. At our knowledge this is the second case of successful use of endoclips placement to obliterate recurrent TEF after surgical repair of EA in children. PMID:25580132

  5. Ion Mobility-Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Serum Nlinked Glycans from Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Phenotypes

    E-print Network

    Clemmer, David E.

    Ion Mobility-Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Serum Nlinked Glycans from Esophageal Adenocarcinoma) serum samples are examined using a combination of ion mobility spectrometry (IMS), mass spectrometry (MS: ion mobility, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, glycans, cancer, genetic algorithm, principal

  6. Incidence and treatment of brain metastasis in patients with esophageal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Wei; Zhang, Peng; Zheng, Xiao; Chen, Ming; Mao, Wei-Min

    2015-01-01

    Brain metastasis from esophageal carcinoma (BMEC) is very rare, but its incidence has increased in the United States, Japan, China and other counties. Reports on BMEC have largely been focused on examining whether adjuvant therapy for esophageal cancer influences the survival duration of BMEC patients and on the imaging characteristics of BMEC determined using new medical equipment. The difference between different pathological types of esophageal cancer, especially adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, is one important factor used to assess the influence of BMEC. Adjuvant therapy, including radiotherapy and chemotherapy, for esophageal cancer with different characteristics in different countries may affect BMEC treatment outcomes. The degree of popularization of advanced medical equipment is a major concern related to the prevalence of BMEC. Furthermore, targeted BMEC treatment is under development in developed countries. In this article, we reviewed the debate surrounding BMEC and analyzed BMEC studies from different perspectives. PMID:26019444

  7. Treatment of a Malignant Esophageal Perforation with a Prototype Conical Wallstent

    SciTech Connect

    Scott-Mackie, Pauline L. [Department of Radiology, Guy's and St. Thomas NHS Trust, Guy's Hospital, St. Thomas Street, London SE1 9RT (United Kingdom); Morgan, Robert A. [Department of Radiology, St. Mary's Hospital, Praed Street, London W2 1NY (United Kingdom); Mason, Robert [Department of General Surgery, Guy's and St. Thomas NHS Trust, Guy's Hospital, St. Thomas Street, London SE1 9RT (United Kingdom); Adam, Andreas [Department of Radiology, Guy's and St. Thomas NHS Trust, Guy's Hospital, St. Thomas Street, London SE1 9RT (United Kingdom)

    1998-11-15

    A 60-year-old man with a malignant esophageal perforation could not be treated by conventional covered metallic stents because the upper esophagus was dilated. The perforation was eventually closed by deployment of a prototype, conical covered Wallstent.

  8. Saccharomyces Fungemia Associated with Esophageal Disease Identified by D1/D2 Ribosomal RNA Gene Sequence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Disseminated Saccharomyces infection has been reported in immunosuppressed patients treated with probiotics, but disseminated Saccharomyces cerevisiae infection associated with underlying esophageal disease is not previously described. Saccharomyces cerevisiae (which occasionally colonizes the gast...

  9. Carotid-esophageal fistula following a penetrating neck injury: case report.

    PubMed

    Levine, E A; Alverdy, J C

    1990-12-01

    Carotid arterial injuries frequently are associated with injuries to adjacent structure of the neck, particularly the esophagus and trachea. Complications from these repairs are common and fistula formation is herein described between the carotid artery and esophageal repair. PMID:2258978

  10. [Transarterial embolization in the treatment of hepatoma complicated with cirrhosis, esophageal varices and hypersplenism].

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Y; Nishimura, A; Yasuda, T; Katsuki, Y

    1988-08-01

    A case of hepatoma with cirrhosis for whom hepatectomy was impossible because of a severe complication is reported. The case has been treated with various treatments, so long survival has been obtained. The patient is a 56-year-old female with hepatoma with cirrhosis. The initial symptom was bleeding from esophageal varices. Her condition was not suitable for hepatectomy because of hypersplenism and remarkable hepatic disorder. Consequently, she was given endoscopic sclerotherapy for esophageal varices, partial splenic embolization for hypersplenism, and transarterial embolization with ADM, Lipiodol and Spongel powder for hepatoma. Although abdominal pain, pleural effusion and bleeding from gastric ulcer appeared after embolization, esophageal varices and hypersplenism were significantly improved; reduction of 75% of hepatoma was observed and AFP decreased from 18.7 ng to 3 ng. At 12 months after the embolization, there is no sign of hepatoma growth, rupture of esophageal varices or hypersplenism. PMID:2843116

  11. A NOVEL GENE, NMES1, DOWNREGULATED IN HUMAN ESOPHAGEAL SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA

    E-print Network

    Tian, Weidong

    A NOVEL GENE, NMES1, DOWNREGULATED IN HUMAN ESOPHAGEAL SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA Jin ZHOU 1 , Huixin function of NMES1 still needs further investigation. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Key words: esophagus; squamous

  12. Proton Pump Inhibitors Decrease Eotaxin-3 Expression in the Proximal Esophagus of Children with Esophageal Eosinophilia

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jason Y.; Zhang, Xi; Nguyen, Nathalie; Souza, Rhonda F.; Spechler, Stuart J.; Cheng, Edaire

    2014-01-01

    Objective Besides reducing gastric acid secretion, proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) suppress Th2-cytokine-stimulated expression of an eosinophil chemoattractant (eotaxin-3) by esophageal epithelial cells through acid-independent, anti-inflammatory mechanisms. To explore acid-inhibitory and acid-independent, anti-inflammatory PPI effects in reducing esophageal eosinophilia, we studied eotaxin-3 expression by the proximal and distal esophagus of children with esophageal eosinophilia before and after PPI therapy. In vitro, we studied acid and bile salt effects on IL-13-stimulated eotaxin-3 expression by esophageal epithelial cells. Design Among 264 children with esophageal eosinophilia seen at a tertiary pediatric hospital from 2008 through 2012, we identified 10 with esophageal biopsies before and after PPI treatment alone. We correlated epithelial cell eotaxin-3 immunostaining with eosinophil numbers in those biopsies. In vitro, we measured eotaxin-3 protein secretion by esophageal squamous cells stimulated with IL-13 and exposed to acid and/or bile salt media, with or without omeprazole. Results There was strong correlation between peak eosinophil numbers and peak eotaxin-3-positive epithelial cell numbers in esophageal biopsies. Eotaxin-3 expression decreased significantly with PPIs only in the proximal esophagus. In esophageal cells, exposure to acid-bile salt medium significantly suppressed IL-13-induced eotaxin-3 secretion; omeprazole added to the acid-bile salt medium further suppressed that eotaxin-3 secretion, but not as profoundly as at pH-neutral conditions. Conclusion In children with esophageal eosinophilia, PPIs significantly decrease eotaxin-3 expression in the proximal but not the distal esophagus. In esophageal squamous cells, acid and bile salts decrease Th2 cytokine-stimulated eotaxin-3 secretion profoundly, possibly explaining the disparate PPI effects on the proximal and distal esophagus. In the distal esophagus, where acid reflux is greatest, a PPI-induced reduction in acid reflux (an effect that could increase eotaxin-3 secretion induced by Th2 cytokines) might mask the acid-independent, anti-inflammatory PPI effect of decreasing cytokine-stimulated eotaxin-3 secretion. PMID:24988451

  13. Dosimetric correlations of acute esophagitis in lung cancer patients treated with radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Takeda, Ken [Department of Radiology, National Hospital Organization Sendai Medical Center, Sendai (Japan)]. E-mail: takedak41@yahoo.co.jp; Nemoto, Kenji [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan); Saito, Haruo [Department of Radiology, National Hospital Organization Sendai Medical Center, Sendai (Japan); Ogawa, Yoshihiro [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan); Takai, Yoshihiro [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan); Yamada, Shogo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan)

    2005-07-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the factors associated with acute esophagitis in lung cancer patients treated with thoracic radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: We examined 35 patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (n = 27, 77%) and small-cell lung cancer (n = 8, 23%) treated with thoracic radiotherapy between February 2003 and November 2004. The median patient age was 70 years (range, 50-83 years). The disease stage was Stage I in 2 patients (6%), Stage II in 1 (3%), Stage IIIa in 10 (28%), Stage IIIb in 9 (26%), and Stage IV in 9 (26%); 4 patients (11%) had recurrent disease after surgery. A median dose of 60 Gy (range, 50-67 Gy) was given to the isocenter and delivered in single daily fractions of 1.8 or 2 Gy. With heterogeneity corrections, the median given dose to the isocenter was 60.3 Gy (range, 49.9-67.2 Gy). Of the 35 patients, 30 (86%) received concurrent chemotherapy consisting of a platinum agent, cisplatin or carboplatin, combined with paclitaxel in 18 patients (52%), irinotecan hydrochloride in 7 (20%), vincristine sulfate and etoposide in 2 (5%), vinorelbine ditartrate in 1 (3%), etoposide in 1 (3%), and docetaxel in 1 patient (3%). Three of these patients underwent induction therapy with cisplatin and irinotecan hydrochloride, administered before thoracic radiotherapy, and concurrent chemotherapy. Esophageal toxicity was graded according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group criteria. The following factors were analyzed with respect to their association with Grade 1 or worse esophagitis by univariate and multivariate analyses: age, gender, concurrent chemotherapy, chemotherapeutic agents, maximal esophageal dose, mean esophageal dose, and percentage of esophageal volume receiving >10 to >65 Gy in 5-Gy increments. Results: Of the 35 patients, 25 (71%) developed acute esophagitis, with Grade 1 in 20 (57%) and Grade 2 in 5 (14%). None of the patients had Grade 3 or worse toxicity. The most significant correlation was between esophagitis and percentage of esophageal volume receiving >35 Gy on univariate (p = 0.002) and multivariate (p = 0.018) analyses. Conclusion: The percentage of esophageal volume receiving >35 Gy was the most statistically significant factor associated with mild acute esophagitis.

  14. Skewed X-chromosome inactivation in patients with esophageal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Skewed X-chromosome inactivation (SXCI) was found in some apparently healthy females mainly from Western countries. It has been linked to development of ovarian, breast and pulmonary carcinomas. The present study aimed to observe the SXCI frequencies in apparently healthy Chinese females and patients with esophageal carcinoma. DNA was extracted from the peripheral blood cells from 401 Chinese females without a detectable tumor and 143 female patients with esophageal carcinoma. Exon 1 of androgen receptor (AR) gene was amplified, and the products of different CAG alleles were resolved on denaturing polyacrylamide gels and visualized after silver staining. The corrected ratios (CR) of the products before and after HpaII digestion were calculated. As to the healthy females, when CR???3 was used as a criterion, SXCI was found in two (4.3%) of the 46 neonates, 13 (7.8%) of the 166 younger adults (16–50 years) and 37 (25.7%) of the 144 elderly females (51–96 years), with the frequency higher in the elderly subjects than in the two former groups (P?esophageal carcinoma. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1542364337927656 PMID:23556484

  15. Helicobacter pylori Infection: A Protective Factor for Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma in a Taiwanese Population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deng-Chyang Wu; I-Chen Wu; Jang-Ming Lee; Hon-Ki Hsu; Ein-Long Kao; Shah-Hwa Chou; Ming-Tsang Wu

    2005-01-01

    AIM:Many researchers have reported the inverse relationship between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and esophageal adenocarcinoma risk, but very few studies have examined the association between H. pylori infection and the development of esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma (ESCC). Therefore, the aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between H. pylori infection and ESCC risk.METHOD:Subjects were cancer cases, pathologically proven

  16. Theophylline Improves Esophageal Chest Pain—A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Satish S. C. Rao; Ranjit S. Mudipalli; Jose M. Remes-Troche; Craig L. Utech; Bridget Zimmerman

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND AIM:The treatment of esophageal (noncardiac) chest pain is unsatisfactory and there is no approved therapy. A previous uncontrolled study suggested that theophylline may be useful. Our aims were to investigate the effects of theophylline on esophageal sensorimotor function and chest pain.METHODS:In a double-blind study, sensory and biomechanical properties of the esophagus were assessed using impedance planimetry in 16 patients

  17. Multiple Management Modalities in Esophageal Cancer: Epidemiology, Presentation and Progression, Work-up, and Surgical Approaches

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MARY KOSHY; NATIA ESIASHVILLI; JEROME C. LANDRY; CHARLES R. THOMAS JR

    Annually, approximately 13,200 people in the U.S. are diagnosed with esophageal cancer and 12,500 die of this malignancy. Of new cases, 9,900 occur in men and 3,300 occur in women. In part I of this two-part series, we explore the epidemiology, presentation and progression, work-up, and surgical approaches for esophageal cancer. In the 1960s, squamous cell cancers made up greater

  18. Case report: Esophageal histoplasmosis associated with disseminated tuberculosis in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rezende, Rosamar Eulira Fontes; Brunaldi, Mariângela Ottoboni; Girão, Milena Santana; Zucoloto, Sérgio; Garcia, Sérgio Britto; Machado, Alcyone Artioli; Módena, José Luiz Pimenta

    2009-03-01

    Bacterial and fungal infections are common in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Histoplasmosis is a common fungal disease in severely immunocompromised patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in endemic areas. In this population the most frequent form of presentation of histoplasmosis is disseminated, with the clinical manifestations being similar to those of disseminated tuberculosis. Esophageal histoplasmosis and the association of histoplasmosis with tuberculosis are infrequent. We report here a rare case of esophageal histoplasmosis associated with disseminated tuberculosis in AIDS. PMID:19270280

  19. Improvement in Staging of Esophageal Cancer With the Addition of Positron Emission Tomography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark I Block; G. Alexander Patterson; R. Sudhir Sundaresan; Marci S Bailey; Fidelma L Flanagan; Farrokh Dehdashti; Barry A Siegel; Joel D Cooper

    1997-01-01

    Background. Positron emission tomography with the glucose analogue 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) has been used to detect and stage a variety of malignancies. We hypothesized that FDG–positron emission tomography would improve staging of patients with esophageal cancer and thereby facilitate selection of candidates for resection.Methods. Fifty-eight patients (42 men and 16 women) with biopsy-proven esophageal cancer were evaluated with both FDG–positron emission

  20. Fluconazole versus Amphotericin B in the Treatment of Esophageal Candidiasis in Cancer Patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. E. E. Lake; J. Kumweiler; M. Beer; D. N. Buell; M. Z. Islam

    1996-01-01

    Thirty-one patients with malignancy and endoscopy-confirmed symptomatic esophageal candidiasis were randomly assigned to receive oral fluconazole, 200 mg once daily, or intravenous amphotericin B, 0.3 mg\\/kg, over 1–4 weeks. Clinical efficacy was determined weekly and follow-up esophageal endoscopy with biopsy and culture performed whenever possible. Both agents produced rapid resolution of symptoms, especially dysphagia and odynophagia. All 13 evaluable patients