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1

Clinical Value of Esophageal Motility Testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Esophageal motility testing is the method of choice in evaluating esophageal motor disorders. Some physicians, however, question the clinical utility of esophageal motility testing, since the results are often normal in symptomatic patients. The clinical utility of esophageal motility testing is reviewed for patients with a complaint of noncardiac chest pain, dysphagia or symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease. Esophageal motility

Melvin L. Allen; Richard B. Lynn; Saeed Zamani

1998-01-01

2

Uses of esophageal function testing: dysphagia.  

PubMed

Esophageal function testing should be used for differential diagnosis of dysphagia. Dysphagia can be the consequence of hypermotility or hypomotility of the muscles of the esophagus. Decreased esophageal or esophagogastric junction distensibility can provoke dysphagia. The most well established esophageal dysmotility is achalasia. Other motility disorders can also cause dysphagia. High-resolution manometry (HRM) is the gold standard investigation for esophageal motility disorders. Simultaneous measurement of HRM and intraluminal impedance can be useful to assess motility and bolus transit. Impedance planimetry measures distensibility of the esophageal body and gastroesophageal junction in patients with achalasia and eosinophilic esophagitis. PMID:25216909

Yazaki, Etsuro; Woodland, Philip; Sifrim, Daniel

2014-10-01

3

Drugs, Bugs, and Esophageal pH Profiles  

E-print Network

Until relatively recently, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) was thought to be a relatively trivial problem, and pharmaceutical companies initially had remarkably little interest in clinical trials for GERD. Over the last ten years, GERD therapy has become the subject of intense interest, since reflux disease is now recognized as a major market for antisecretory and prokinetic drugs. Even low-technology antacids are now known to effectively neutralize esophageal acid prevent acid reflux for up to 90 minutes. Esophageal pH profiling is known to be an excellent surrogate for clinical efficacy of GERD drugs, particularly in erosive esophagitis. Years ago, famotidine normalized esophageal mucosal exposure to pH < 4.0 only when administered in doses of 40 mg twice a day. Subsequent studies confirmed that multiple daily dosing of histamine-2 receptor antagonists (H2RAs) was mandatory for GERD treatment, with clear dose-response relationships for each agent. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) have each been carefully assessed in terms esophageal and gastric pH profiles. Omeprazole has a particularly flat dose response curve, making it difficult to differentiate pH or clinical effects of20 vs. 40 mg doses. Improved rapidity of onset and/or enhanced potency is demonstrable in pH data obtained with lansoprazole, rabeprazole and pantoprazole. Such differences

Malcolm Robinson

4

Area under pH 4: a more sensitive parameter for the quantitative analysis of esophageal acid exposure in adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:Traditional quantitative analysis of 24-h esophageal pH monitoring data does not include the pH of reflux episodes. Area under pH 4 (AU4) is a recently introduced parameter that describes the acid exposure rate through both duration and depth of pH falls.Methods:In Study A, we enrolled 20 healthy controls and 42 patients (18 without esophagitis, 24 with Savary I–III esophagitis) in

Marco Dinelli; Sandro Passaretti; Italo Di Francia; Daniela Fossati; Alberto Tittobello

1999-01-01

5

A novel optical probe for pH sensing in gastro-esophageal apparatus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monitoring gastric pH for long periods, usually 24 h, may be essential in analyzing the physiological pattern of acidity, in obtaining information on changes in activity during peptic ulcer disease, and in assessing the effect of antisecretory drugs. Gastro-esophageal reflux, which causes a pH decrease in the esophagus content from pH 7 even down to pH 2, can determine esophagitis with possible strictures and Barrett's esophagus. One of the difficulties of the optical measurement of pH in the gastro-esophageal apparatus lies in the required extended working range from 1 to 8 pH units. The present paper deals with a novel optical pH sensor, using methyl red as optical pH indicator. Contrary to all acidbase indicators characterized by working ranges limited to 2-3 pH units, methyl red, after its covalent immobilization on controlled pore glass (CPG), is characterized by a wide working range which fits with the clinical requirements. The novel probe design here described is suitable for gastro-esophageal applications and allows the optimization of the performances of the CPG with the immobilised indicator. This leads to a very simple configuration characterized by a very fast response time.

Baldini, F.; Ghini, G.; Giannetti, A.; Senesi, F.; Trono, C.

2011-03-01

6

Miniaturised optical fiber pH sensor for gastro-esophageal applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monitoring pH for long periods, usually 24 h, in the stomach and in the esophagus may be essential in the diagnosis of gastro-esophageal diseases. The clinical range of interest is quite extended, between 1 to 8 pH units. Methyl red, after its covalent immobilization on controlled pore glass (CPG), is characterized by a working range which fits well with the clinical one. A novel probe, suitable for gastro-esophageal applications, was designed in order to optimize the performances of the colored CPG. This leads to a very simple probe configuration characterized by a very fast response.

Baldini, F.; Chiavaioli, F.; Cosi, F.; Giannetti, A.; Tombelli, S.; Trono, C.

2013-05-01

7

Urine pH test  

MedlinePLUS

A urine pH test measures the level of acid in urine. ... pH - urine ... meat products or cranberries can decrease your urine pH. ... to check for changes in your body's acid levels.It may be done to ... more effective when urine is acidic or non-acidic (alkaline).

8

Wireless esophageal pH capsule for patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease: A multicenter clinical study  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the feasibility and safety of pH capsule to monitor pH in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). METHODS: Ninety-one patients with symptoms suggestive of GERD were enrolled in this study, 46 of whom were randomized to the pH capsule group; the remaining 45 patients used the conventional catheter and pH capsule simultaneously. The pH data and traces were recorded via automatic analysis, and capsule detachment was assessed using X-ray images. All of the patients were required to complete a questionnaire regarding tolerance with the capsule. RESULTS: The capsules were successfully attached on the first attempt, and no early detachment of the capsules was observed. Compared to the 24-h pH data recorded with the conventional catheter, the data collected with the pH capsule showed no significant differences in 24-h esophageal acid exposure. The measurements of esophageal acid exposure over 24 h collected with the two devices showed a significant correlation (r2 = 0.996, P < 0.001). Capsule detachment occurred spontaneously in 89 patients, and 2 capsules required endoscopic removal due to chest pain. The capsule was associated with less interference with daily activity. CONCLUSION: The wireless pH capsule provides a feasible and safe method for monitoring gastroesophageal reflux and therefore may serve as an important tool for diagnosing GERD. PMID:25356046

Yang, Xiao-Jun; Gan, Tian; Wang, Lei; Liao, Zhuan; Tao, Xiao-Hong; Shen, Wei; Zhao, Xiao-Yan

2014-01-01

9

Exploring the physiologic role of human gastroesophageal reflux by analyzing time?series data from 24?h gastric and esophageal pH recordings  

PubMed Central

Abstract Our previous finding of a fractal pattern for gastric pH and esophageal pH plus the statistical association of sequential pH values for up to 2 h led to our hypothesis that the fractal pattern encodes information regarding gastric acidity and that depending on the value of gastric acidity, the esophagus can signal the stomach to alter gastric acidity by influencing gastric secretion of acid or bicarbonate. Under our hypothesis values of gastric pH should provide information regarding values of esophageal pH and vice versa. We used vector autoregression, a theory?free set of inter?related linear regressions used to measure relationships that can change over time, to analyze data from 24?h recordings of gastric pH and esophageal pH. We found that in pH records from normal subjects, as well as from subjects with gastroesophageal reflux disease alone and after treatment with a proton pump inhibitor, gastric pH values provided important information regarding subsequent values of esophageal pH and values of esophageal pH provided important information regarding subsequent values of gastric pH. The ability of gastric pH and esophageal pH to provide information regarding subsequent values of each other was reduced in subjects with gastroesophageal reflux disease compared to normal subjects. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that depending on the value of gastric acidity, the esophagus can signal the stomach to alter gastric acidity, and that this ability is impaired in subjects with gastroesophageal reflux disease. PMID:25347850

Lu, Luo; Mu, John C.; Sloan, Sheldon; Miner, Philip B.; Gardner, Jerry D.

2014-01-01

10

Esophageal motility disorders.  

PubMed

Esophageal motility disorders consist of a complex array of disturbances in normal esophageal function associated with dysphagia, gastroesophageal reflux, and noncardiac chest pain. A thorough knowledge of normal esophageal anatomy and physiology is important to a full understanding of these motility derangements. Through a complicated interaction of neuromuscular and hormonal influences, the voluntary act of swallowing transforms into an automated sequence of peristaltic waves propelling food and liquids into the stomach in concert with coordinated relaxation of the sphincters. Anatomic and physiologic barriers exist within the esophagus protecting against gastroesophageal reflux and aspiration. With improvements in diagnostic tools such as barium contrast radiography, scintigraphy, pH measurements, and esophageal manometrics with provocative testing, motility disorders have become better defined and understood. Primary motility disorders consist of achalasia, diffuse esophageal spasm (DES), "nutcracker esophagus," hypertensive lower esophageal sphincter, and nonspecific esophageal motility dysfunction (NEMD). A host of secondary and miscellaneous motility disorders also affect the esophagus, including scleroderma and other connective tissue diseases, diabetes mellitus, Chagas' disease, chronic idiopathic intestinal pseudo-obstruction, and neuromuscular disorders of striated muscle. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) may also be promoted by associated motility disturbances. Treatment modalities include surgical myotomy; dilatation; and pharmacologic manipulations, including use of nitrates, calcium-channel blockers, H2-blockers, and psychotropic drugs where appropriate. PMID:3292177

Nelson, J B; Castell, D O

1988-06-01

11

Esophageal intubation with indirect clinical tests during emergency tracheal intubation: a report on patient morbidity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study ObjectiveTo determine the consequences of esophageal intubation (EI) when using standard indirect clinical tests to detect endotracheal tube (ETT) placement in the emergency setting outside the operating room (OR).

Thomas C. Mort

2005-01-01

12

48-Hour Bravo Esophageal pH Test  

MedlinePLUS

... Endocrinology & Metabolism Genomic Medicine Head & Neck Heart & Vascular (Miller Family) Imaging Medicine Institute Neurological ObGyn & Women's Health Ophthalmology (Cole Eye) Orthopaedics & Rheumatology Respiratory (Lungs, Breathing & ... ...

13

Gastroesophageal reflux reported on esophagram does not correlate with pH monitoring and high-resolution esophageal manometry.  

PubMed

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is commonly reported on esophagram (UGI) studies. The correlation of findings suggestive of GERD on UGI with pH monitoring and high-resolution esophageal manometry (HRM) studies is unclear. We investigate the correlation between reflux on UGI with the findings on pH studies and HRM. Subjects completed a symptom questionnaire before their scheduled study. Data from pH and HRM studies were compared with findings of the UGI. Sixty-five patients were evaluated. Reflux was reported on UGI in 19 of 65 (29.2%). Thirty-six patients had both UGI and pH studies; 22 of 36 (61.1%) had reflux on pH studies. UGI had a false-negative finding in 11 of 20 (55%) with no radiographic evidence of reflux. There was a false-positive finding in five of 16 (31.2%) patients on UGI. There was concordance in 11 of 36 (30.5%). Sixty-three patients had both UGI and HRM; there was positive concordance in eight of 63 (12.7%). Using pH monitoring as the gold standard for GERD, sensitivity was 0.50, specificity 0.64, positive predictive value 0.68, and negative predictive value 0.45 for reflux on UGI. The correlation between reflux reported on UGI and 24-hour pH monitoring is poor. Esophagram (UGI) should be reserved for defining structural defects in the esophagus and not reflux. PMID:25264653

Serna-Gallegos, Derek; Basseri, Benjamin; Bairamian, Vahak; Pimentel, Mark; Soukiasian, Harmik J

2014-10-01

14

Fetal scalp pH testing  

MedlinePLUS

... continue labor, or if a forceps delivery or cesarean section might be the best route of delivery. ... be delivered quickly, either by forceps or by cesarean section. Fetal scalp pH testing may need to ...

15

Unsedated peroral wireless pH capsule placement vs. standard pH testing: A randomized study and cost analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Wireless capsule pH-metry (WC) is better tolerated than standard nasal pH catheter (SC), but endoscopic placement is expensive. Aims: to confirm that non-endoscopic peroral manometric placement of WC is as effective and better tolerated than SC and to perform a cost analysis of the available esophageal pH-metry methods. Methods Randomized trial at 2 centers. Patients referred for esophageal pH testing were randomly assigned to WC with unsedated peroral placement or SC after esophageal manometry (ESM). Primary outcome was overall discomfort with pH-metry. Costs of 3 different pH-metry strategies were analyzed: 1) ESM?+?SC, 2) ESM?+?WC and 3) endoscopically placed WC (EGD?+?WC) using publicly funded health care system perspective. Results 86 patients (mean age 51?±?2?years, 71% female) were enrolled. Overall discomfort score was less in WC than in SC patients (26?±?4?mm vs 39?±?4?mm VAS, respectively, p?=?0.012) but there were no significant group differences in throat, chest, or overall discomfort during placement. Overall failure rate was 7% in the SC group vs 12% in the WC group (p?=?0.71). Per patient costs ($Canadian) were $1475 for EGD?+?WC, $1014 for ESM?+?WC, and $906 for ESM?+?SC. Decreasing the failure rate of ESM?+?WC from 12% to 5% decreased the cost of ESM?+?WC to $991. The ESM?+?SC and ESM?+?WC strategies became equivalent when the cost of the WC device was dropped from $292 to $193. Conclusions Unsedated peroral WC insertion is better tolerated than SC pH-metry both overall and during placement. Although WC is more costly, the extra expense is partially offset when the higher patient and caregiver time costs of SC are considered. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier NCT01364610 PMID:22650250

2012-01-01

16

Prevention of relapse of healed reflux esophagitis is related to the duration of intragastric pH > 4.  

PubMed

Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are the preferred treatment for maintenance of healed reflux esophagitis (RE). However, little is known regarding the relationship between prevention of RE relapse and degree of gastric acid suppression. The aim of this review was to examine this relationship in further detail. Data from four comparative studies on maintenance PPI therapy for prevention of relapse of RE were combined with data from two pharmacodynamic studies of duration of intragastric pH >4 during the 24-hour period on day 5 of PPI dosing in healthy subjects. A log-linear model was fitted to the data using the method of maximum likelihood. Variability in relapse rates and pH data was taken into account using a binomial and normal likelihood function, respectively. Pharmacodynamic studies resulted in a wide range of acid-suppressive effect, and based on corresponding maintenance of RE healing rates with different PPIs and doses, an inverse (non-linear) statistically significant relationship between percentage of time with pH >4 and maintenance of RE healing was identified (P<0.001). These findings indicate that long-term maintenance of healed RE is related to the extent of acid suppression in a 24-hour period. PMID:20502348

Johnson, David A; Katz, Philip O; Levine, Doug; Röhss, Kerstin; Astrand, Magnus; Junghard, Ola; Nagy, Péter

2010-08-01

17

Esophageal intraluminal pH recording in the assessment of gastroesophageal reflux and its consequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intraluminal pH in the lower esophagus has been recorded during a 3-hr period following a light meal and a consecutive 12-hr nocturnal period in 20 patients with typical symptoms and radiological evidence of gastroesophageal reflux and in 10 patients without such signs of reflux. Evidence of acid reflux was obtained in 3 of the patients without reflux during the postcibal

Michael Atkinson; A. Van Gelder

1977-01-01

18

Combined Esophageal Intraluminal Impedance, pH and Skin Conductance Monitoring to Detect Discomfort in GERD Infants  

PubMed Central

Background The clinical significance of weakly acidic reflux in infants is unclear. Skin conductance is a novel not-invasive method to evaluate discomfort. The aim of our study was to evaluate reflux-induced discomfort in infants with gastroesophageal reflux disease using simultaneously combined skin conductance and esophageal multichannel intraluminal impedance and pH monitoring. Methodology/Principal Findings Infants with gastroesophageal reflux symptoms were investigated for almost 20 hours divided into 120-second intervals. Temporal relationships between refluxes and discomfort were evaluated calculating the symptom association probability. Twelve infants aged 17–45 days were studied. Out of 194.38 hours of adequate artifact-free MII/pH and skin conductance monitoring, 584 reflux events were observed; 35.78% were positive for stress, of which 16.27% were acid and 83.73% weakly acidic. A significant association between refluxes and discomfort (p<0.05) was present in all infants. The intervals with reflux events showed increased skin conductance values compared to reflux-free intervals (p<0.001); SC values were similar for acid and weakly acidic reflux events. Conclusion/Signficance Discomfort was significantly associated with reflux events and did not differ between weakly acidic and acid refluxes. Our results may raise concerns about the over-prescription use of antacid drugs in the management of gastroesophageal reflux symptoms in infancy. PMID:22927972

Cresi, Francesco; Castagno, Emanuele; Storm, Hanne; Silvestro, Leandra; Miniero, Roberto; Savino, Francesco

2012-01-01

19

The use of skin prick tests and patch tests to identify causative foods in eosinophilic esophagitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Eosinophilic esophagitis is a disease entity in which patients have (1) elevated eosinophils on esophageal biopsy and (2) symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux. The symptoms do not improve on aggressive acid blockade but do improve on elimination diet or corticosteroid treatment, which tentatively links food allergies to this disorder. Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify potential food

Jonathan M. Spergel; Janet L. Beausoleil; Maria Mascarenhas; Chris A. Liacouras

2002-01-01

20

Esophageal Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

Español Esophageal Cancer Definition Cancer that forms in tissues lining the esophagus (the muscular tube through which food passes from ... the upper digestive system. Prevention and Screening Esophageal Cancer Prevention (PDQ®) Esophageal Cancer Screening (PDQ®) Diagnosis and Treatment Esophageal Cancer ...

21

Interlaboratory Test of pH Measurements in Rainwater.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An interlaboratory test of pH measurements in rainwater has been conducted. Various types of electrodes and junction materials were used in the test. The results of the exercise verify that there are significant differences in the pH values of low ionic s...

W. F. Koch, G. Marinenko, R. C. Paule

1985-01-01

22

Chronic cough and eosinophilic esophagitis: an uncommon association.  

PubMed

An increasing number of children, usually with gastrointestinal symptoms, is diagnosed with eosinophilic esophagitis (EE), and a particular subset of these patients complains of airway manifestations. We present the case of a 2-year-old child with chronic dry cough in whom EE was found after a first diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) due to pathological 24-hour esophageal pH monitoring. Traditional allergologic tests were negative, while patch tests were diagnostic for cow's milk allergy. We discuss the intriguing relationship between GERD and EE and the use of patch test for the allergologic screening of patients. PMID:21960955

Orizio, Paolo; Cinquini, Massimo; Minetti, Stefano; Alberti, Daniele; Paolo, Camilla Di; Villanacci, Vincenzo; Torri, Fabio; Crispino, Paola; Facchetti, Susanna; Rizzini, Fabio Lodi; Bassotti, Gabrio; Tosoni, Cinzia

2011-05-01

23

Chronic Cough and Eosinophilic Esophagitis: An Uncommon Association  

PubMed Central

An increasing number of children, usually with gastrointestinal symptoms, is diagnosed with eosinophilic esophagitis (EE), and a particular subset of these patients complains of airway manifestations. We present the case of a 2-year-old child with chronic dry cough in whom EE was found after a first diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) due to pathological 24-hour esophageal pH monitoring. Traditional allergologic tests were negative, while patch tests were diagnostic for cow's milk allergy. We discuss the intriguing relationship between GERD and EE and the use of patch test for the allergologic screening of patients. PMID:21960955

Orizio, Paolo; Cinquini, Massimo; Minetti, Stefano; Alberti, Daniele; Paolo, Camilla Di; Villanacci, Vincenzo; Torri, Fabio; Crispino, Paola; Facchetti, Susanna; Rizzini, Fabio Lodi; Bassotti, Gabrio; Tosoni, Cinzia

2011-01-01

24

Esophageal cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... There are two main types of esophageal cancer: squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. These two types look different from each other under the microscope. Squamous cell esophageal cancer is linked to smoking and ...

25

Esophageal Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... from your throat to your stomach. Early esophageal cancer usually does not cause symptoms. Later, you may ... You're at greater risk for getting esophageal cancer if you smoke, drink heavily, or have acid ...

26

Esophageal motor function: technical aspects of manometry.  

PubMed

High-resolution manometry (HRM) has advanced the understanding of esophageal peristaltic mechanisms and has simplified esophageal motor testing. In this article the technical aspects of HRM are addressed, focusing on test protocols, in addition to concerns and pitfalls in performing esophageal motor studies. Specifically, catheter positioning, equipment-related artifacts, basal data acquisition, adequate swallows, and provocative maneuvers are discussed. PMID:25216901

Gyawali, C Prakash; Patel, Amit

2014-10-01

27

Herpetic esophagitis  

SciTech Connect

Four patients with herpetic esophagitis were examined. In three of them, the presenting symptom was odynophagia. Early in the course of herpetic esophagitis, shallow round and oval ulcers were seen on barium esophagograms. Later, the ulcers filled with fibrinous exudate, forming nodular plaques that projected into the esophageal lumen. Although these findings are diagnostic of esophagitis, they are not specific for a herpes virus infection. The definitive diagnosis must be established by histologic examination, which demonstrates the cytopathic effect of the herpes virus infection within the squamous epithelium.

Shortsleeve, M.J.; Gauvin, G.P.; Gardner, R.C.; Greenberg, M.S.

1981-12-01

28

Esophageal perforation.  

PubMed

Esophageal perforation is uncommon but carries a high morbidity and mortality, particularly if the injury is not detected early before the onset of systemic signs of sepsis. The fact that it is an uncommon problem and it produces symptoms that can mimic other serious thoracic conditions, such as myocardial infarction, contributes to the delay in diagnosis. Patients at risk for iatrogenic perforations (esophageal malignancy) frequently have comorbidities that increase their perioperative morbidity and mortality. The optimal treatment of esophageal perforation varies with respect to the time of presentation, the extent of the perforation, and the underlying esophageal pathologic conditions. PMID:24267495

Nirula, Raminder

2014-02-01

29

Esophageal wall blood perfusion during contraction and transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation in humans  

PubMed Central

We recently reported that esophageal contraction reduces esophageal wall perfusion in an animal study. Our aim was to determine esophageal wall blood perfusion (EWBP) during esophageal contraction and transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxations (TLESRs) in humans. We studied 12 healthy volunteers. A custom-designed laser Doppler probe was anchored to the esophageal wall, 4–6 cm above the LES, by use of the Bravo pH system so that the laser light beam stay directed toward the esophageal mucosa. A high-resolution manometry equipped with impedance electrodes recorded esophageal pressures and reflux events. Synchronized pressure, impedance, pH, and EWBP recordings were obtained during dry and wet swallows and following a meal. Stable recordings of laser Doppler EWBP were only recorded when the laser Doppler probe was firmly anchored to the esophageal wall. Esophageal contractions induced by dry and wet swallows resulted in 46 ± 9% and 60 ± 10% reduction in the EWBP, respectively (compared to baseline). Reduction in EWBP was directly related to the amplitude (curvilinear fit) and duration of esophageal contraction. Atropine reduced the esophageal contraction amplitude and decreased the EWBP reduction associated with esophageal contraction. TLESRs were also associated with reduction in the EWBP, albeit of smaller amplitude (29 ± 3%) but longer duration (19 ± 2 s) compared with swallow-induced esophageal contractions. We report 1) an innovative technique to record EWBP for extended time periods in humans and 2) contraction of circular and longitudinal muscle during peristalsis and selective longitudinal muscle contraction during TLESR causes reduction in the EWBP; 3) using our innovative technique, future studies may determine whether esophageal wall ischemia is the cause of esophageal pain/heartburn. PMID:22790599

Jiang, Yanfen; Bhargava, Valmik; Kim, Young Sun

2012-01-01

30

Eosinophilic esophagitis  

PubMed Central

Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an atopic condition of the esophagus that has become increasingly recognized over the last decade. Diagnosis of the disorder is dependent on the patient’s clinical manifestations and histologic findings on esophageal mucosal biopsies. Patients with eosinophilic esophagitis should be referred to both an allergist and gastroenterologist for optimal management, which may include dietary modifications, pharmacologic agents such as corticosteroids, leukotriene modifiers and biologics as well as mechanical dilatation of the esophagus. The epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of EoE are discussed in this review. PMID:22165816

2011-01-01

31

Eosinophilic esophagitis  

PubMed Central

Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic immune-mediated condition where infiltration of eosinophils into the esophageal mucosa leads to symptoms of esophageal dysfunction. It has rapidly emerged as an important cause of upper GI morbidity in patients of all ages and is encountered in a substantial proportion of patients undergoing diagnostic upper endoscopy. This review discusses the clinical, endoscopic, and histologic features of EoE and presents the most recent guidelines for diagnosis of EoE. It describes selected diagnostic dilemmas including distinguishing EoE from gastroesophageal reflux disease and addressing the newly recognized clinical entity of proton pump inhibitor responsive esophageal eosinophilia. It also highlights evidence to support both pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic treatments, including topical corticosteroids, dietary elimination therapy, and endoscopic dilation. PMID:23452635

Dellon, Evan S.

2012-01-01

32

Esophageal cancer  

SciTech Connect

This book contains the proceedings on esophageal cancer. Topics covered include: Scope of the problem, Diagnostic considerations: Methods of early diagnosis, Staging criteria, Elective surgical management, and Postoperative complications.

Delarue, N.C. (Univ. of Toronto, Toronto (CA)); Wilkins, E.W. Jr. (Harvard Medical School, MA (US)); Wong, J. (Dept. of Surgery, Univ. of Hong Kong (HK))

1988-01-01

33

Eosinophilic Esophagitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eosinophilic esophagitis is a chronic inflammatory disorder characterized by dense eosinophilic infiltration of the esophageal\\u000a mucosa. The pathogenesis is incompletely understood and food allergies and aeroallergens have been implicated. The most common\\u000a clinical presentation in adults is dysphagia to solids. Its associated endoscopic findings are distinct and include concentric\\u000a rings and longitudinal furrows, although endoscopy may be unremarkable in a

Fouad J. Moawad; Ganesh R. Veerappan; Roy K. Wong

2009-01-01

34

[Computerized analysis of esophageal manometry].  

PubMed

Computerized analysis of esophageal manometry should consider the following objectives: a) objectivation of data acquisition; b) precision in calculating the various parameters; c) speed of analysis; d) an easy-to-read and promptly understandable graphic display of the manometric data; e) computation of new parameters capable of defining normal and pathologic function. It is with these objectives in mind that we launched our research project. Five normal subjects and 10 patients, of whom 5 presented esophageal achalasia and 5 gastroesophageal reflux disease, underwent computerized esophageal manometry and were evaluated on the basis of both traditional and innovative parameters, of our own inception. Among the various indexes tested, the "Esophageal transport" parameter, calculated as the ratio of momentum (dp*dT) over speed of propagation of the esophageal contractions, gave rise to particular interest. In our opinion, this parameter can be used as an index of the dynamic function of the organ. PMID:2067691

Spigno, L; Pandolfo, N; Guiddo, G; Calci, G; Mattioli, G; De Salvo, L

1991-04-15

35

Patients with established gastro-esophageal reflux disease might benefit from Helicobacter pylori eradication  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication in selected H. pylori-positive patients with a primary diagnosis of gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) by using the 3-h postprandial esophageal pH monitoring. Methods We recruited patients with erosive esophagitis at endoscopy and H. pylori infection at histology, successfully cured following eradication therapy; the selected H. pylori-positive patients had weekly reflux symptoms for at least six months and endoscopically established Grade A or B esophagitis. Twenty-nine eligible patients were initially subjected to esophageal manometry and ambulatory 3-h postprandial esophageal pH monitoring. All patients received H. pylori triple eradication therapy accompanied by successful H. pylori eradication. After successful eradication of H. pylori (confirmed by 13C urea breath test), a second manometry and 3-h postprandial esophageal pH monitoring were introduced to assess the results of eradication therapy, after a 3-month post-treatment period. Results All 29 selected H. pylori-positive patients became negative due to successful H. pylori eradication, evaluated by 13C urea breath test after a 4-week post-treatment period. Post-eradication, 62.1% patients showed similar manometric pattern at baseline; 17.2% showed improvement; 17.2% normalization; and 3.4% deterioration of the manometric patterns. The DeMeester symptom scoring in the 3-h postprandial ambulatory esophageal pH monitoring was improved after eradication of H. pylori (median 47.47 vs. 22.00, Wilcoxon’s singed rank; P=0.016). On comparing the pH monitoring studies for each patient at baseline and post-eradication period, 82.8% patients showed improvement and 17.2% deterioration of the DeMeester score. Conclusion By using 3-h postprandial esophageal pH monitoring, this study showed, for the first time, that H. pylori eradication may positively influence GERD symptoms. Large-scale controlled relative studies are warranted to confirm these findings.

Moschos, John M.; Kouklakis, George; Vradelis, Stergios; Zezos, Petros; Pitiakoudis, Michael; Chatzopoulos, Dimitrios; Zavos, Christos; Kountouras, Jannis

2014-01-01

36

Esophageal trauma.  

PubMed

The anatomy of the esophagus is unique in that it traverses the neck, chest, and abdomen. As a result, surgeons need to be familiar with the anatomy of all three of these areas to be facile and comfortable in performing esophageal surgery. Traumatic injuries to the esophagus encompass a heterogeneous group of injuries that can be iatrogenic, external, or from physiologic forces. Primary repair of traumatic injuries is preferred when possible; however, if systemic sepsis is present and esophageal resection becomes necessary due to extensive injury or inflammation, immediate reconstruction should be delayed in most cases. Successful management of traumatic esophageal injuries requires prompt and accurate diagnosis and treatment tailored specifically to both the type of injury as well as to the patient's overall clinical condition. PMID:18420126

Johnson, Scott B

2008-01-01

37

Pharmacologic treatments for esophageal disorders.  

PubMed

The following, from the 12th OESO World Conference: Cancers of the Esophagus, includes commentaries on the role for ketamine and other alternative treatments in esophageal disorders; the use of linaclotide in the treatment of esophageal pain; the alginate test as a diagnostic criterion in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD); the use of baclofen in treatment of GERD; the effects of opioids on the esophagus; the use of antagonists on the receptor level in GERD; the effect of local formulation of drugs on the esophageal mucosa; and the use of electroencephalographic fingerprints to predict the effect of pharmacological treatment. PMID:25266012

Blackshaw, L Ashley; Bordin, Dmitry S; Brock, Christina; Brokjaer, Anne; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr; Farmer, Adam D; Krarup, Anne Lund; Lottrup, Christian; Masharova, Antonina A; Moawad, Fouad J; Olesen, Anne Estrup

2014-09-01

38

[Esophageal diverticula].  

PubMed

Esophageal diverticula are classified by location-phrenoesophageal (Zenker's diverticulum-70%), thoracic and mediastinal (10%), and epiphrenic (20%). Almost all esophageal diverticula are acquired pulsion diverticula. The most common symptoms are dysphagia, regurgitation, thoracic pain, and pulmonary manifestations related to aspiration. Barium swallow and upper endoscopy will help to establish the diagnosis while esophageal manometry may reveal underlying dysmotility. Diverticula should not be treated unless they are symptomatic. The treatment of Zenker's diverticulum is surgical and consists of either diverticulectomy or diverticular suspension with a myotomy of the cricopharyngeus muscle via cervical approach. Transoral endoscopic stapled diverticulostomy is a new and simple approach which may become the treatment of choice, particularly in elderly and high-risk patients. Treatment of diverticula of the mid and low esophagus must take into account any motor anomalies or associated lesions. Diverticulectomy with esophageal myotomy and an anti-reflux procedure through a left thoracotomy is the standard approach, but endoscopic approaches seem feasible, particularly for epiphrenic diverticula, and may become the norm in years to come. PMID:15133431

Carrère, N; Pradère, B

2004-03-01

39

Chronic xerostomia increases esophageal acid exposure and is associated with esophageal injury  

SciTech Connect

OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of chronic xerostomia on parameters of gastroesophageal reflux and esophagitis. DESIGN: Observational study of a cohort of male patients with xerostomia and age-matched control subjects. SETTING: Tertiary-care Veterans Affairs Medical Center. SUBJECTS: Sixteen male patients with chronic xerostomia secondary to radiation for head and neck cancers or medications. Nineteen age-matched male control subjects with comparable alcohol and smoking histories. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Esophageal motility was similar in patients with xerostomia and controls. Clearance of acid from the esophagus and 24-hour intraesophageal pH were markedly abnormal in patients with xerostomia. Symptoms and signs of esophagitis were significantly more frequent in subjects with xerostomia. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic xerostomia may predispose to esophageal injury, at least in part, by decreasing the clearance of acid from the esophagus and altering 24-hour intraesophageal pH. Esophageal injury is a previously unreported complication of long-term salivary deficiency.

Korsten, M.A.; Rosman, A.S.; Fishbein, S.; Shlein, R.D.; Goldberg, H.E.; Biener, A. (Gastrointestinal Section, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Bronx, New York (USA))

1991-06-01

40

Esophageal Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Treatment of esophageal cancer by surgery alone, radiotherapy alone, or chemotherapy alone has not given satisfactory results.\\u000a In recent years integrated treatment schedules have been studied including first using intra-arterial chemotherapy as induction\\u000a treatment delivered in greater concentration and more directly to the cancer region. \\u000a Combined simultaneous chemo-radiation achieved a significantly higher rate of complete pCRs in comparison to chemotherapy

Tetsuo Taguchi

41

Gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD): an appraisal of different tests for diagnosis.  

PubMed

Fifty symptomatic patients with GERD, 20 each of non ulcer dyspepsia (NUD) & duodenal ulcer (DU) and 10 healthy controls were subjected to various tests employed for diagnosis of GERD. Among these endoscopy and histology had highest sensitivities (92% & 91% respectively) followed by Bernstein's test (overall 88%; early positivity 72%) and oesophagography (70%). The specificities of various tests were: endoscopy (86%), histology (82%) and Bernstein's test (overall 80%; early positive 94%). The false positivity was mainly in DU subjects where majority (greater than 84%) had two or more of these tests offitive. Any two of the three tests (endoscopy, histology & Bernstein's test) in combination had a sensitivity of 80-91% and a specificity of 90-92%. Our observations suggest that these tests, particularly in combination, are useful in establishing the diagnosis of GERD and that subclinical oesophagitis in DU might be responsible for the false positivity of these tests. PMID:2092023

Gupta, J P; Kumar, A; Jain, A K; Yadav, S K; Kumar, M; Agrawal, A K

1990-09-01

42

Esophageal motility abnormalities in gastroesophageal reflux disease.  

PubMed

Esophageal motility abnormalities are among the main factors implicated in the pathogenesis of gastroesophageal reflux disease. The recent introduction in clinical and research practice of novel esophageal testing has markedly improved our understanding of the mechanisms contributing to the development of gastroesophageal reflux disease, allowing a better management of patients with this disorder. In this context, the present article intends to provide an overview of the current literature about esophageal motility dysfunctions in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease. Esophageal manometry, by recording intraluminal pressure, represents the gold standard to diagnose esophageal motility abnormalities. In particular, using novel techniques, such as high resolution manometry with or without concurrent intraluminal impedance monitoring, transient lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxations, hypotensive LES, ineffective esophageal peristalsis and bolus transit abnormalities have been better defined and strongly implicated in gastroesophageal reflux disease development. Overall, recent findings suggest that esophageal motility abnormalities are increasingly prevalent with increasing severity of reflux disease, from non-erosive reflux disease to erosive reflux disease and Barrett's esophagus. Characterizing esophageal dysmotility among different subgroups of patients with reflux disease may represent a fundamental approach to properly diagnose these patients and, thus, to set up the best therapeutic management. Currently, surgery represents the only reliable way to restore the esophagogastric junction integrity and to reduce transient LES relaxations that are considered to be the predominant mechanism by which gastric contents can enter the esophagus. On that ground, more in depth future studies assessing the pathogenetic role of dysmotility in patients with reflux disease are warranted. PMID:24868489

Martinucci, Irene; de Bortoli, Nicola; Giacchino, Maria; Bodini, Giorgia; Marabotto, Elisa; Marchi, Santino; Savarino, Vincenzo; Savarino, Edoardo

2014-05-01

43

Videoendoscopic diagnosis of esophageal motility disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Esophageal motility disorders are usually diagnosed by manometry. We evaluated videoendoscopy as a diagnostic test. Methods: In this study, 20 patients with achalasia, 13 with scleroderma, and 33 control subjects had a standard endoscopic examination followed by protocol videotaping of swallows to observe contractions in the esophagus and in the lower esophageal sphincter. Tapes were later reviewed by 2

Alan J. Cameron; Allison Malcolm; Charlene M. Prather; Sidney F. Phillips

1999-01-01

44

Evaluation of Esophageal Motor Function With High-resolution Manometry  

PubMed Central

For several decades esophageal manometry has been the test of choice to evaluate disorders of esophageal motor function. The recent introduction of high-resolution manometry for the study of esophageal motor function simplified performance of esophageal manometry, and revealed previously unidentified patterns of normal and abnormal esophageal motor function. Presentation of pressure data as color contour plots or esophageal pressure topography led to the development of new tools for analyzing and classifying esophageal motor patterns. The current standard and still developing approach to do this is the Chicago classification. While this methodical approach is improving our diagnosis of esophageal motor disorders, it currently does not address all motor abnormalities. We will explore the Chicago classification and disorders that it does not address. PMID:23875094

2013-01-01

45

Comparison of the California Mastitis Test, Catalase Test, and pH Readings on Quarter Milk Samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three representative groups from 611 quarter samples of aseptically collected milk were compared for catalase, pH, and California mastitis test readings. Statistical analysis (determination of correlation coefficient) was applied to 102 of the 611 quarter samples. It was found that the correlation coefficient for catalase and pH reading was more significant than the correlation coefficient of the catalase and CMT

C. T. Raby; P. L. Hubbard; R. H. Cobbins

1967-01-01

46

Vaginal pH: Home-Use Tests  

MedlinePLUS

... Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Medical Devices Print this page Share this page E-mail this page Home Medical Devices Products and Medical Procedures In Vitro Diagnostics Home Use Tests Products and Medical ...

47

Snapshot of Esophageal Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... NCI Budget (Billions of $) NCI Esophageal Cancer Research Investment Source: NCI Office of Budget and Finance. If ... which include the Asian Barrett’s Consortium and the International Barrett’s and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Consortium (BEACON), were formed ...

48

An Undergraduate Curriculum for Software Testing Cem Kaner, J.D., Ph.D.  

E-print Network

1 An Undergraduate Curriculum for Software Testing Cem Kaner, J.D., Ph.D. February, 2001 Draft .3 an infinitely large expenditure on the testing of any nontrivial product. Cost/benefit tradeoffs lie: · Computer science · Epistemology · Human factors · Quality control · Engineering economics · Safety

49

Software Testing as a Social Science Cem Kaner, J.D., Ph.D.  

E-print Network

Software Testing as a Social Science Cem Kaner, J.D., Ph.D. Presentation at TASSQ October 2006 will cost money, others will be free.) · All my instructional materials are available, royalty-free, under by analogy What is software testing like? Who should we look to as our role models? ­ Engineers? Mechanical

50

In Vivo Model to Test Implanted Biosensors for Blood pH  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biosensors for monitoring physiologic data continuously through telemetry are available for heart rate, respiration, and temperature but not for blood pH or ions affected by hydrogen ion concentration. A telemetric biosensor for monitoring blood pH on-line could be used to identify and manage problems in fluid and electrolyte metabolism, cardiac and respiratory function during space flight and the acid-base status of patients without the need for venipuncture in patients on Earth. Critical to the development of biosensors is a method for evaluating their performance after implantation. Mature rats, prepared with jugular, cannulas for repeated blood samples, were exposed to a gas mixture containing high levels of carbon dioxide (7%) in a closed environment to induce mild respiratory acidosis. Serial blood gas and pH measurements in venous blood were compared with electrical responses from sensors implanted in the subcutaneous tissue. Animals became slightly tachypneic after exposure to excess CO2, but remained alert and active. After 5 minutes, basal blood pH decreased from 7.404 +/- 0.013 to 7.289 +/- 0.010 (p less than 0.001)and PC02 increased from 45 +/- 6 to 65 +/- 4 mm. Hg (p les than 0.001). Thereafter pH and blood gas parameters remained stable. Implanted sensors showed a decrease in millivolts (mV) which paralleled the change in pH and averaged 5-6 mV per 0.1 unit pH. Implanted sensors remained sensitive to modest changes in tissue pH for one week. A system for inducing acidosis in rats was developed to test the in vivo performance of pH biosensors. The system provides a method which is sensitive, rapid and reproducible in the same and different animals with full recovery, for testing the performance of sensors implanted in subcutaneous tissues.

Arnaud, Sara B.; Somps, Chris J.; Madou, Marc; Hines, John; Wade, Charles E. (Technical Monitor)

1997-01-01

51

Increased risk in esophageal obstruction with slow-release medications.  

PubMed

Although medication-induced (pill) esophagitis has been recognized for a long time, little data are available on the risk of recently introduced slow-release medications. These formulations may have an obstructive capability (undissolved medication blocking an obstructed lumen) or may cause tissue irritation (continuous leakage from a slowly disintegrating pill). We observed a patient with esophageal carcinoma who developed complete obstruction when three Procardia XL (nifedipine) extended-release tablets blocked the narrowed lumen. An intact Procardia XL tablet and a washed shell as a control were implanted subcutaneously in a rat. The intact pill produced a large inflammatory mass: in contrast, no inflammatory response was noted at the control site implanted with a washed shell. In vitro testing of seven different slow-release medications revealed a wide difference in their solubility at a neutral pH and in gastric juice of pH 1.8 (simulation of esophageal or gastric environment). Theolair-SR (anhydrous theophylline, sustained-release) tablets had the highest obstructive, but no irritating potential. Cardizem SR (diltiazem hydrochloride) sustained-release capsules dissolved promptly without obstructive potential. Adalat CC (nifedipine) extended-release tablets also dissolved early at both pH values. Cardizem CD (diltiazem hydrochloride) extended-release capsules and Calan SR (verapamil hydrochloride) sustained-release oral caplets disintegrated into granules that had a low obstructive potential, but their prolonged presence increased the risk of tissue irritation. Ecotrin (enteric-coated aspirin) tablets had a high obstructive and no irritating potential in the first 24 hours, after which they disintegrated and directly contacted the tissue. Procardia XL extended-release tablets had an insoluble shell that continued to leak a tissue-irritating content even after 48 hours, generating a prolonged obstructive and irritating condition. In conclusion, slow-release medications greatly increase the risk of esophageal injury. Their obstructive and tissue-irritating potentials differ widely. Slow-release formulations should be contraindicated in patients who have obstructive esophageal and gastric disorders. PMID:9167415

Simko, V; Joseph, D; Michael, S

1997-01-01

52

Analysis of pH dynamics in the distal esophagus utilizing pH histograms and acid clearance values  

Microsoft Academic Search

Existing scoring systems for 24-h esophageal pH recording rely heavily on total duration of acid reflux; little is known or understood of the significance of dynamic aspects of esophageal acid clearance. The 24-h pH profile and rate of acid clearance in the lower esophagus was analyzed in children with clinical features of gastro-esophageal reflux (GER). Twenty-four-hour histograms of pH and

Yasuhiro Watanabe; Takuji Todani; Akira Toki

1992-01-01

53

Robotic benign esophageal procedures.  

PubMed

Robotic master-slave devices can assist surgeons to perform minimally invasive esophageal operations with approaches that have already been demonstrated using laparoscopy and thoracoscopy. Robotic-assisted surgery for benign esophageal disease is described for the treatment of achalasia, epiphrenic diverticula, refractory reflux, paraesophageal hernias, duplication cysts, and benign esophageal masses, such as leiomyomas. Indications and contraindications for robotic surgery in benign esophageal disease should closely approximate the indications for laparoscopic and thoracoscopic procedures. Given the early application of the technology and paucity of clinical evidence, there are currently no procedures for which robotic esophageal surgery is the clinically proven preferred approach. PMID:24780427

Hanna, Jennifer M; Onaitis, Mark W

2014-05-01

54

Effect of atropine on the frequency of reflux and transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation in normal subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background & Aims Low basal lower esophageal sphincter (LES) pressure is believed to be an important mechanism of reflux. The effects of atropine on the frequency and mechanisms of gastroesophageal reflux under the experimental conditions of a low basal LES pressure in 13 normal subjects were studied. Methods LES pressure, esophageal pressures, esophageal pH, and crural diaphragm electromyogram were recorded

Ravinder K. Mittal; Richard Holloway; John Dent

1995-01-01

55

PILOT TEST OF FATIGUE MANAGEMENT TECHNOLOGIES David F. Dinges, PhD Paper # 05-1234  

E-print Network

PILOT TEST OF FATIGUE MANAGEMENT TECHNOLOGIES David F. Dinges, PhD Paper # 05-1234 Professor fatigue management technologies (FMT) in trucking operations in Canada and the United States. Technologies bundled into a single intervention came from four domains of fatigue management: 1) one that provided

Pennsylvania, University of

56

arXiv:astro-ph/0512327v27Mar2006 Laboratory tests on dark energy  

E-print Network

arXiv:astro-ph/0512327v27Mar2006 Laboratory tests on dark energy Christian Beck School of the currently observed dark energy in the universe is completely unclear, and many different theoretical models co-exist. Nevertheless, if dark energy is produced by vac- uum fluctuations then there is a chance

Beck, Christian

57

Esophageal motility abnormalities in gastroesophageal reflux disease  

PubMed Central

Esophageal motility abnormalities are among the main factors implicated in the pathogenesis of gastroesophageal reflux disease. The recent introduction in clinical and research practice of novel esophageal testing has markedly improved our understanding of the mechanisms contributing to the development of gastroesophageal reflux disease, allowing a better management of patients with this disorder. In this context, the present article intends to provide an overview of the current literature about esophageal motility dysfunctions in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease. Esophageal manometry, by recording intraluminal pressure, represents the gold standard to diagnose esophageal motility abnormalities. In particular, using novel techniques, such as high resolution manometry with or without concurrent intraluminal impedance monitoring, transient lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxations, hypotensive LES, ineffective esophageal peristalsis and bolus transit abnormalities have been better defined and strongly implicated in gastroesophageal reflux disease development. Overall, recent findings suggest that esophageal motility abnormalities are increasingly prevalent with increasing severity of reflux disease, from non-erosive reflux disease to erosive reflux disease and Barrett’s esophagus. Characterizing esophageal dysmotility among different subgroups of patients with reflux disease may represent a fundamental approach to properly diagnose these patients and, thus, to set up the best therapeutic management. Currently, surgery represents the only reliable way to restore the esophagogastric junction integrity and to reduce transient LES relaxations that are considered to be the predominant mechanism by which gastric contents can enter the esophagus. On that ground, more in depth future studies assessing the pathogenetic role of dysmotility in patients with reflux disease are warranted. PMID:24868489

Martinucci, Irene; de Bortoli, Nicola; Giacchino, Maria; Bodini, Giorgia; Marabotto, Elisa; Marchi, Santino; Savarino, Vincenzo; Savarino, Edoardo

2014-01-01

58

21 CFR 862.1120 - Blood gases (PCO2, PO2) and blood pH test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...PO 2) and blood pH test system is a device intended to measure certain gases in blood, serum, plasma or pH of blood, serum, and plasma. Measurements of blood gases (PCO 2, PO 2) and blood pH are used in the diagnosis and...

2012-04-01

59

21 CFR 862.1120 - Blood gases (PCO2, PO2) and blood pH test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PO 2) and blood pH test system is a device intended to measure certain gases in blood, serum, plasma or pH of blood, serum, and plasma. Measurements of blood gases (PCO 2, PO 2) and blood pH are used in the diagnosis and...

2013-04-01

60

21 CFR 862.1120 - Blood gases (PCO2, PO2) and blood pH test system.  

...PO 2) and blood pH test system is a device intended to measure certain gases in blood, serum, plasma or pH of blood, serum, and plasma. Measurements of blood gases (PCO 2, PO 2) and blood pH are used in the diagnosis and...

2014-04-01

61

21 CFR 862.1120 - Blood gases (PCO2, PO2) and blood pH test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood gases (PCO2, PO2) and blood pH test system. 862.1120 Section 862.1120...Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1120 Blood gases (PCO 2, PO 2) and blood pH test...

2010-04-01

62

The Test-Retest Reliability of the Photopic Negative Response (PhNR)  

PubMed Central

Purpose The photopic negative response (PhNR) may be useful as a tool to monitor longitudinal change in retinal ganglion cell (RGC) function. The goal was to assess PhNR test–retest reliability, and to estimate the amount of change between tests that is likely to be statistically significant for an individual test subject. Methods Photopic electroretinograms (ERGs) were recorded from 49 visually normal subjects (mean age, 38.9 years; range, 21–72 years). Signals were acquired using Dawson-Trick-Litzkow (DTL) electrodes in response to red stimulus at four flash energies (0.5, 1, 2.25, 3 cd·s/m2) on a blue background (10 cd/m2). The PhNR amplitude was recorded from prestimulus baseline to trough (BT), prestimulus baseline to fixed time point (BF), and b-wave peak to trough (PT). The ratio of baseline PhNR to b-wave amplitude (BT/b-wave) was calculated. Reliability was assessed using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC2,1) and coefficient of repeatability (CoR). Results Flash energy of 1.00 cd·s/m2 produced reliable, well-defined traces. At this stimulus, the a- and b-wave amplitudes were reproduced with moderate reliability (ICC, 0.62; CoR%, 90.0%; and ICC, 0.74; CoR%, 54.3%; respectively). For PhNR, the order from most to least reliable measurement was: PT (ICC, 0.64; CoR%, 59.1%), BT (ICC, 0.40; CoR%, 148.3%), and BF (ICC, 0.22; CoR%, 166.1%). The BT/b-wave did not improve reliability (ICC, 0.37; CoR%, 181.5). Conclusion The b-wave peak-to-PhNR trough amplitude produced the most reliable measurement. Translational Relevance A relatively large magnitude of change in PhNR amplitude is required to make clinical inferences about changes in RGC function. Refinement to the technique of acquisition and/or processing of the PhNR is recommended to improve reliability. PMID:25374770

Tang, Jessica; Edwards, Thomas; Crowston, Jonathan G.; Sarossy, Marc

2014-01-01

63

Mechanism of enhancement of esophageal tumorigenesis by 6-phenylhexyl isothiocyanate  

Microsoft Academic Search

6-Phenylhexyl isothiocyanate (PHITC) enhances esophageal tumorigenesis induced by the carcinogen N-nitrosomethylben-zylamine (NMBA) in rats while its shorter chain analog, phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), inhibits NMBA-induced esophageal tumorigenesis. A significant increase in O6-methylguanine levels in esophageal DNA at 72 h after NMBA administration to rats pretreated with PHITC suggested that PHITC might enhance NMBA metabolic activation or inhibit DNA repair. To test

Mark A. Morse; Jerry Lu; Rajaram Gopalakrishnan; Lisa A. Peterson; Gulzar Wani; Gary D. Stoner

1997-01-01

64

Barrett's esophagus and reflux esophagitis: is there a missing link?  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES:Barrett's esophagus (BE) is associated with esophageal reflux. The development stage of BE is not well described. Epidemiological evidence indicates that the columnar epithelium in BE is acquired and reaches its full length rapidly. We tested the hypothesis that BE might result from direct replacement of erosions in reflux esophagitis (RE).METHODS:At endoscopy, we compared the length and distribution of esophageal

Alan J. Cameron; Amindra S. Arora

2002-01-01

65

Flow Curve Analysis of 17-4 PH Stainless Steel under Hot Compression Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hot compression behavior of a 17-4 PH stainless steel (AISI 630) has been investigated at temperatures of 950 °C to 1150 °C\\u000a and strain rates of 10?3 to 10 s?1. Glass powder in the Rastegaev reservoirs of the specimen was used as a lubricant material. A step-by-step procedure for\\u000a data analysis in the hot compression test was given. The work hardening rate analysis

Hamed Mirzadeh; Abbas Najafizadeh; Mohammad Moazeny

2009-01-01

66

HER2 amplification, overexpression and score criteria in esophageal adenocarcinoma  

PubMed Central

The HER2 oncogene was recently reported to be amplified and overexpressed in esophageal adenocarcinoma. However, the relationship of HER2 amplification in esophageal adenocarcinoma with prognosis has not been well defined. The scoring systems for clinically evaluating HER2 in esophageal adenocarcinoma are not established. The aims of the study were to establish a HER2 scoring system and comprehensively investigate HER2 amplification and overexpression in esophageal adenocarcinoma and its precursor lesion. Using a tissue microarray, containing 116 cases of esophageal adenocarcinoma, 34 cases of BE, 18 cases of low grade dysplasia and 15 cases of high grade dysplasia, HER2 amplification and overexpression were analyzed by HercepTest and CISH methods. The amplification frequency in an independent series of 116 esophageal adenocarcinoma samples was also analyzed using Affymetrix SNP 6.0 microarrays. In our studies, we have found that HER2 amplification does not associate with poor prognosis in total 232 esophageal adenocarcinoma patients by CISH and high density microarrays. We further confirm the similar frequency of HER2 amplification by CISH (18.10%; 21/116) and SNP 6.0 microarrays (16.4%, 19/116) in esophageal adenocarcinoma. HER2 protein overexpression was observed in 12.1 % (14/116) of esophageal adenocarcinoma and 6.67% (1/15) of HGD. No HER2 amplification or overexpression was identified in BE or LGD. All HER2 protein overexpression cases showed HER2 gene amplification. Gene amplification was found to be more frequent by CISH than protein overexpression in esophageal adenocarcinoma (18.10% vs 12.9%). A modified two-step model for esophageal adenocarcinoma HER-2 testing is recommend for clinical esophageal adenocarcinoma HER-2 trial. PMID:21460800

Hu, Yingchuan; Bandla, Santhoshi; Godfrey, Tony E.; Tan, Dongfeng; Luketich, James D.; Pennathur, Arjun; Qiu, Xing; Hicks, David G.; Peters, Jeffrey; Zhou, Zhongren

2011-01-01

67

21 CFR 862.1120 - Blood gases (PCO2, PO2) and blood pH test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1120 Blood gases (PCO 2, PO 2) and blood pH test...

2011-04-01

68

Stomach-Esophageal Cancer  

Cancer.gov

Stomach and esophageal cancers are close in anatomical location and have been combined into one project within TCGA. Although they are two separate cancer types, TCGA is collecting samples from various anatomic subsites along the esophageal and gastric tracts for analysis.

69

Ambulatory esophageal pHmetry in healthy dogs with and without the influence of general anesthesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research aimed to determine the value of esophageal pH in awake and anesthetized dogs, to evaluate the esophageal pH\\u000a value in awake dogs, in different body positions, as well as to study the occurrence of gastroesophageal reflux episodes in\\u000a these positions. Thus, 40 healthy male and female adult dogs with mean body weight of 15.5?±?4.6 kg were used. Esophageal\\u000a pHmetry

Evandro Silva Favarato; Maria Verônica de Souza; Paulo Renato dos Santos Costa; Luiz Gonzaga Pompermayer; Lukiya Silva Campos Favarato; José Ivo Ribeiro Júnior

2011-01-01

70

Effect of bolus taste on the esophageal transit of patients with stroke.  

PubMed

Stroke is a frequent cause of oropharyngeal dysphagia but may also cause alterations in esophageal motility. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of bolus taste on the esophageal transit of patients with stroke and controls. Esophageal transit and clearance were evaluated by scintigraphy in 36 patients in the chronic phase of stroke (44-82 years, mean: 63 years) and in 30 controls (33-85 years, mean: 59 years). The patients had a stroke 1-84 months (median: 5.5 months) before the evaluation of esophageal transit. Eight had dysphagia. Each subject swallowed in random order and in the sitting position 5 mL of liquid boluses with bitter (pH=6.0), sour (pH=3.0), sweet (pH=6.9), and neutral (pH=6.8) taste. Transit and clearance duration and the amount of residues were measured in the proximal, middle, and distal esophageal body. There was no difference between patients and controls in esophageal transit or clearance duration. In the distal esophagus, the transit and clearance durations were longer with the sour bolus than with the other boluses in both patients and controls. The amount of residues in the esophageal body was greater in patients than in controls after swallows of the neutral bolus. In control subjects, after swallows of a sour bolus, there was an increase in the amount of residues in the middle and distal esophagus compared with the other boluses. In conclusion, a sour bolus with low pH causes a longer transit and clearance duration in the distal esophageal body. There was no effect of bolus taste or pH on the esophageal transit of patients in the chronic phase of stroke compared with normal volunteers. The longer transit and clearance duration in the distal esophageal body with the sour bolus appears to be a consequence of the low pH of the bolus. PMID:22642501

Alves, L M T; Fabio, S R C; Dantas, R O

2013-04-01

71

[Physiological significance and interpretation of plasma lactate concentration and pH in clinical exercise testing].  

PubMed

According to a widely accepted model, based on the theory of the anaerobic threshold (AT), the increase in plasma lactate concentration which develops after the first ventilatory threshold (VT1, considered as an AT) is due to compensation for insufficient aerobic metabolism by anaerobic glycolysis, with accumulation of lactic acid resulting in a decrease in pH. Bicarbonate is the main buffer of protons (>90%) producing non-metabolic CO2 in muscle and thus increasing the CO2 flux to the lungs. This phenomenon, along with the low pH, triggers hyperventilation. Because of this model, great importance has been placed on plasma lactate and pH. We argue that this importance is excessive and these variables should be used with caution in the interpretation of clinical exercise testing, because the model based on AT is not valid: there is no aerobic failure above VT1 and, thus, there is no evidence of an AT; the increase in plasma lactate does not reflect anaerobiosis but is the marker of the increase in the error signal needed for the stimulation of mitochondrial respiration; bicarbonate is not the main buffer during exercise (these are proteins and phosphocreatine breakdown in the muscle; hemoglobin in the blood); non-metabolic CO2 is not produced in the muscle but in the lung because of the low pH and hyperventilation (the control of which remains unknown); and the flux of CO2 to the lung does not increase at faster rate after than before VT1. PMID:25012038

Péronnet, F; Aguilaniu, B

2014-06-01

72

Treatment-related esophagitis.  

PubMed

Current therapeutic approaches for lung cancer favor treatment intensification, with the presumption that dose-intense chemotherapy regimens and/or higher radiation therapy (RT) doses or novel fractionation schemes will result in increased patient survival. Also, the trend for non-operative therapy has favored concurrent over sequential regimens. The incidence of severe acute esophagitis in patients treated for lung cancer with standard (once daily) RT alone is 1.3%, and induction chemotherapy increases the risk of severe acute esophagitis slightly over that of standard RT alone. In contrast, a strong radiosensitizing effect of chemotherapy given concurrently with standard thoracic RT (chemoRT) is associated with an incidence of severe esophagitis of 14% to 49%. Acute esophagitis may be severe and disabling, and result in hospitalization, placement of a feeding tube in the stomach or intravenous feedings, and steady supportive care. Also, RT may need to be halted temporarily to allow for healing of the esophageal lining; treatment breaks in turn decrease survival of patients with unresectable lung cancer. Therefore, esophagitis as a dose-limiting toxicity of chemoRT may have a direct impact on tumor control and survival. Aggressive types of RT fractionation have also been associated with worsening esophagitis grades and duration. Moreover, it is commonly assumed in the radiation oncology clinic that the longer the length of the esophagus segment included in the RT field the higher the probability of esophageal toxicity, although differing opinions are commonly expressed. Recent advances in 3-dimensional conformal RT allow a unique chance to gain volumetric data pertaining to organ damage rather than rely on older estimates based on organ length (eg, esophagus) or portion (ie, lung, spinal cord). The Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) conducted a large phase III, randomized study RTOG 98-01 examining chemoRT with or without the amifostine (Ethyol; MedImmune, Inc, Gaithersburg, MD), a cyto- and radioprotectant in locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (n = 243). While amifostine did not significantly reduce severe esophagitis based on National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria and weekly physician dysphagia logs, swallowing dysfunction over time (based on patient diaries, the equivalent of Esophagitis Index) was significantly lower in the amifostine arm ( P = .03). Therefore, significant progress has been accomplished in our understanding of the basis of esophageal injury resulting from thoracic RT, and future effort may find other effective strategies to either minimize or eliminate esophagitis. PMID:16015537

Werner-Wasik, Maria

2005-04-01

73

Electrochemical behavior and pH stability of artificial salivas for corrosion tests.  

PubMed

It is assumed that the compositions of artificial salivas are similar to that of human saliva. However, the use of solutions with different compositions in in vitro corrosion studies can lead dissimilar electrolytes to exhibit dissimilar corrosivity and electrochemical stability. This study evaluated four artificial salivas as regards pH stability with time, redox potentials and the polarization response of an inert platinum electrode. The tested solutions were: SAGF medium, Mondelli artificial saliva, UFRJ artificial saliva (prepared at the School of Pharmacy, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil) and USP-RP artificial saliva (prepared at the School of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, SP, Brazil). It was observed that pH variations were less than 1 unit during a 50-hour test. The SAGF medium, and the UFRJ and USP-RP solutions exhibited more oxidizing characteristics, whereas the Mondelli solution presented reducing properties. Anodic polarization revealed oxidation of the evaluated electrolytes at potentials below +600 mV SCE. It was observed that the UFRJ and USP-RP solutions presented more intense oxidation and reduction processes as compared to the Mondelli and SAGF solutions. PMID:17710285

Queiroz, Gláucia Maria Oliveira de; Silva, Leandro Freitas; Ferreira, José Tarcísio Lima; Gomes, José Antônio da Cunha P; Sathler, Lúcio

2007-01-01

74

Esophageal Cancer Prevention  

MedlinePLUS

... the type of cells that become malignant (cancerous): Squamous cell carcinoma : Cancer that begins in squamous cells , the thin, ... chance of developing esophageal cancer increases with age. Squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus is more common in blacks ...

75

Epigenetics in esophageal cancers.  

PubMed

Esophageal cancers are a challenging upper gastrointestinal tract tumor entity for interdisciplinary oncology. For the two main histotypes, namely esophageal squamous cell carcinomas and Barrett's adenocarcinomas, several genetic aberrations have been shown to contribute to carcinogenesis and progression as well as to represent potential novel targets for therapeutic intervention. This is paralleled by growing insight into epigenetic alterations of esophageal cancers. Studies involving the analyses of human tissue specimens predominantly describe altered patterns of miRNA expression, DNA methylation patterns, and histone marks levels. This review provides a critical update on this increasing knowledge of epigenetic alteration in esophageal cancers by specifically focusing on the translational aspects of epigenetic analyses from human tissue specimens. PMID:24816987

Ahrens, Theresa D; Werner, Martin; Lassmann, Silke

2014-06-01

76

Eosinophilic esophagitis and allergy.  

PubMed

Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) has been associated with allergic diseases of the airways and skin. Here, we review the current literature on the sensitization pattern of adult EoE patients and critically discuss the diagnostic and therapeutic tools available. Most EoE patients have elevated total IgE levels in serum and are sensitized to aero- and food allergens as assessed by measuring specific IgE levels and/or the skin prick test. Whereas in children with EoE sensitization to food allergens predominate, in adults EoE symptoms do not correlate with IgE sensitization to specific food allergens. However, in two thirds of adult EoE patients, sensitization to cross-reactive plant allergen components have been be detected, mainly to profilins and PR10 proteins. So far, food triggering EoE can only be identified by an elimination diet and following reintroduction controlled by endoscopy and histology. Further research is required to elucidate the role of allergens in the pathogenesis of EoE and develop appropriate tools for diagnostic and specific treatment. PMID:24603377

Simon, Dagmar; Straumann, Alex; Simon, Hans-Uwe

2014-01-01

77

Determining the leaching characteristics of solidified/stabilized wastes using constant pH leaching tests  

E-print Network

, the pH of the bath would tend to increase. The change in pH is detected by a pH meter (Fisher Scientific model 830) The pH meter sends the digital signal to a data acquisition system (ISAAC Cyborg 9IA) which channels the data to an Apple Ile computer... ISAAC Cyborg 9 lA pH Meter FlSHER Accumet KO Data Processing and Presentation FIGURE 1. Graphical depiction of CPLT hardware system. The computer sends pertinent digital information via the Cyborg to a digital-to- analog (D/A) converter (Analog...

Sofjan, Indratjahja

2012-06-07

78

Esophageal tissue engineering.  

PubMed

Esophageal tissue engineering is still in an early state, and ideal methods have not been developed. Since the beginning of the 20th century, advances have been made in the materials that can be used to produce an esophageal substitute. Three approaches to scaffold-based tissue engineering have yielded good results. The first development concerned non-absorbable constructs based on silicone and collagen. The need to remove the silicone tube is the main disadvantage of this material. Polymeric absorbable scaffolds have been used since the 1990s. The main polymeric material used is poly (glycolic) acid combined with collagen. The problem of stenosis remains prevalent in most studies using an absorbable construct. Finally, decellularized scaffolds have been used since 2000. The promises of this new approach are unfulfilled. Indeed, stenosis occurs when the esophageal defect is circumferential regardless of the scaffold materials. Cell supplementation can decrease the rate of stenosis, but the type(s) of cells and their roles have not been defined. Finally, esophageal tissue engineering cannot provide a functional esophageal substitute, and further development is necessary prior to conducting human clinical studies. PMID:24387697

Luc, Guillaume; Durand, Marlène; Collet, Denis; Guillemot, Fabien; Bordenave, Laurence

2014-03-01

79

Functional esophageal disorders.  

PubMed

Functional esophageal disorders represent processes accompanied by typical esophageal symptoms (heartburn, chest pain, dysphagia, globus) that are not explained by structural disorders, histopathology-based motor disturbances, or gastroesophageal reflux disease. Gastroesophageal reflux disease is the preferred diagnosis when reflux esophagitis or excessive esophageal acid exposure is present or when symptoms are closely related to acid reflux events or respond to antireflux therapy. A singular, well-defined pathogenetic mechanism is unavailable for any of these disorders; combinations of sensory and motor abnormalities involving both central and peripheral neural dysfunction have been invoked for some. Treatments remain empirical, although the efficacy of several interventions has been established in the case of functional chest pain. Management approaches that modulate central symptom perception or amplification often are required once local provoking factors (eg, noxious esophageal stimuli) have been eliminated. Future research directions include further determination of fundamental mechanisms responsible for symptoms, development of novel management strategies, and definition of the most cost-effective diagnostic and treatment approaches. PMID:16678559

Galmiche, Jean Paul; Clouse, Ray E; Bálint, András; Cook, Ian J; Kahrilas, Peter J; Paterson, William G; Smout, Andre J P M

2006-04-01

80

Gastroesophageal reflux symptoms not responding to proton pump inhibitor: GERD, NERD, NARD, esophageal hypersensitivity or dyspepsia?  

PubMed

Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is a common gastrointestinal process that can generate symptoms of heartburn and chest pain. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are the gold standard for the treatment of GER; however, a substantial group of GER patients fail to respond to PPIs. In the past, it was believed that acid reflux into the esophagus causes all, or at least the majority, of symptoms attributed to GER, with both erosive esophagitis and nonerosive outcomes. However, with modern testing techniques it has been shown that, in addition to acid reflux, the reflux of nonacid gastric and duodenal contents into the esophagus may also induce GER symptoms. It remains unknown how weakly acidic or alkaline refluxate with a pH similar to a normal diet induces GER symptoms. Esophageal hypersensitivity or functional dyspepsia with superimposed heartburn may be other mechanisms of symptom generation, often completely unrelated to GER. Detailed studies investigating the pathophysiology of esophageal hypersensitivity are not conclusive, and definitions of the various disease states may overlap and are often confusing. The authors aim to clarify the pathophysiology, definition, diagnostic techniques and medical treatment of patients with heartburn symptoms who fail PPI therapy. PMID:24719900

Bashashati, Mohammad; Hejazi, Reza A; Andrews, Christopher N; Storr, Martin A

2014-06-01

81

Problemas de alimentação em crianças com doença do refluxo gastroesofágico*** Feeding disorders in children with gastro-esophageal reflux disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: feeding\\/eating disorders are frequent in pediatric patients and, in some cases, can be associated to an upper digestive motility disorder. Gastro-esophageal reflux is, nowadays, considered a risk factor for the development of feeding\\/eating disorders. Aim: to verify the occurrence of feeding\\/eating disorders in patients with Gastro-Esophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) determined by the 24-H esophageal pH monitoring evaluation. Method: an

Larissa Vieira Drent; Elizete Aparecida; Lomazi da Costa Pinto

2007-01-01

82

Esophageal hypomotility and spastic motor disorders: current diagnosis and treatment.  

PubMed

Esophageal hypomotility (EH) is characterized by abnormal esophageal peristalsis, either from a reduction or absence of contractions, whereas spastic motor disorders (SMD) are characterized by an increase in the vigor and/or propagation velocity of esophageal body contractions. Their pathophysiology is not clearly known. The reduced excitation of the smooth muscle contraction mediated by cholinergic neurons and the impairment of inhibitory ganglion neuronal function mediated by nitric oxide are likely mechanisms of the peristaltic abnormalities seen in EH and SMD, respectively. Dysphagia and chest pain are the most frequent clinical manifestations for both of these dysfunctions, and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is commonly associated with these motor disorders. The introduction of high-resolution manometry (HRM) and esophageal pressure topography (EPT) has significantly enhanced the ability to diagnose EH and SMD. Novel EPT metrics in particular the development of the Chicago Classification of esophageal motor disorders has enabled improved characterization of these abnormalities. The first step in the management of EH and SMD is to treat GERD, especially when esophageal testing shows pathologic reflux. Smooth muscle relaxants (nitrates, calcium channel blockers, 5-phosphodiesterase inhibitors) and pain modulators may be useful in the management of dysphagia or pain in SMD. Endoscopic Botox injection and pneumatic dilation are the second-line therapies. Extended myotomy of the esophageal body or peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) may be considered in highly selected cases but lack evidence. PMID:25376746

Valdovinos, Miguel A; Zavala-Solares, Monica R; Coss-Adame, Enrique

2014-11-01

83

Epidemiology of esophageal cancer  

PubMed Central

Esophageal cancer (EsC) is one of the least studied and deadliest cancers worldwide because of its extremely aggressive nature and poor survival rate. It ranks sixth among all cancers in mortality. In retrospective studies of EsC, smoking, hot tea drinking, red meat consumption, poor oral health, low intake of fresh fruit and vegetables, and low socioeconomic status have been associated with a higher risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Barrett’s esophagus is clearly recognized as a risk factor for EsC, and dysplasia remains the only factor useful for identifying patients at increased risk, for the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma in clinical practice. Here, we investigated the epidemiologic patterns and causes of EsC. Using population based cancer data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program of the United States; we generated the most up-to-date stage distribution and 5-year relative survival by stage at diagnosis for 1998-2009. Special note should be given to the fact that esophageal cancer, mainly adenocarcinoma, is one of the very few cancers that is contributing to increasing death rates (20%) among males in the United States. To further explore the mechanism of development of EsC will hopefully decrease the incidence of EsC and improve outcomes. PMID:24039351

Zhang, Yuwei

2013-01-01

84

Testing Native Grasses For Survival and Growth in Low pH Mine Overburden1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overburden piles at the Molycorp molybdenum mine in North-Central New Mexico contain neutral rock types as well as mixed volcanic rocks, which are highly weathered materials with low pH and high salinity from pyrite oxidation. The mixing of rock types during overburden pile construction has resulted in heterogeneous substrates with a range of pH and soluble salt levels. An experiment

David R. Dreesen; John T. Harrington; Anne M. Wagner; Leigh Murray; Peixin Sun

85

BPC 157 therapy to detriment sphincters failure-esophagitis-pancreatitis in rat and acute pancreatitis patients low sphincters pressure.  

PubMed

Possibly, acute esophagitis and pancreatitis cause each other, and we focused on sphincteric failure as the common causative key able to induce either esophagitis and acute pancreatitis or both of them, and thereby investigate the presence of a common therapy nominator. This may be an anti-ulcer pentadecapeptide BPC 157 (tested for inflammatory bowel disease, wound treatment) affecting esophagitis, lower esophageal and pyloric sphincters failure and acute pancreatitis (10 ?g/kg, 10 ng/kg intraperitoneally or in drinking water). The esophagitis-sphincter failure procedure (i.e., insertion of the tubes into the sphincters, lower esophageal and pyloric) and acute pancreatitis procedure (i.e., bile duct ligation) were combined in rats. Esophageal manometry was done in acute pancreatitis patients. In rats acute pancreatitis procedure produced also esophagitis and both sphincter failure, decreased pressure 24 h post-surgery. Furthermore, bile duct ligation alone immediately declines the pressure in both sphincters. Vice versa, the esophagitis-sphincter failure procedure alone produced acute pancreatitis. What's more, these lesions (esophagitis, sphincter failure, acute pancreatitis when combined) aggravate each other (tubes into sphincters and ligated bile duct). Counteraction occurred by BPC 157 therapies. In acute pancreatitis patients lower pressure at rest was in both esophageal sphincters in acute pancreatitis patients. We conclude that BPC 157 could cure esophagitis/sphincter/acute pancreatitis healing failure. PMID:22204800

Petrovic, I; Dobric, I; Drmic, D; Sever, M; Klicek, R; Radic, B; Brcic, L; Kolenc, D; Zlatar, M; Kunjko, K; Jurcic, D; Martinac, M; Rasic, Z; Boban Blagaic, A; Romic, Z; Seiwerth, S; Sikiric, P

2011-10-01

86

Tracheo-esophageal fistula: Successful palliation after failed esophageal stent  

PubMed Central

The incidence of tracheo-esophageal (TO) fistula is on the rise, especially after palliative management for esophageal malignancies. We report a case of cancer of esophagus who after chemotherapy and radiotherapy developed TO fistula. Placement of an esophageal stent helped him in taking food orally, but his cough and dyspnoea continued to worsen. Fibreoptic bronchoscopy demonstrated a severely compressed trachea secondary to protrusion of esophageal stent which responded very well to an Ultraflex-covered tracheal stent and the patient achieved relief from cough and dyspnoea. PMID:22919174

Chawla, Rakesh K.; Madan, Arun; Chawla, Kiran

2012-01-01

87

Barrett’s esophagus and reflux esophagitis: is there a missing link?  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES:Barrett’s esophagus (BE) is associated with esophageal reflux. The development stage of BE is not well described. Epidemiological evidence indicates that the columnar epithelium in BE is acquired and reaches its full length rapidly. We tested the hypothesis that BE might result from direct replacement of erosions in reflux esophagitis (RE).METHODS:At endoscopy, we compared the length and distribution of esophageal

Alan J Cameron; Amindra S Arora

2002-01-01

88

Practical management of eosinophilic esophagitis.  

PubMed

CME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES 1. Determine the clinical presentation and diagnostic criteria for eosinophilic esophagitis in children. 2. Discuss the three major treatment strategies for eosinophilic esophagitis. 3. Provide key strategies for practical identification and management of eosinophilic esophagitis in children and adolescents. Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a recently discovered disease that affects patients worldwide. The conceptual definition of EoE is a chronic, immune/antigen-mediated esophageal disease characterized clinically by symptoms related to esophageal dysfunction and histologically by eosinophil-predominant inflammation. As a chronic, antigen-mediated disease causing eosinophilic inflammation in the esophagus, EoE symptoms are similar to gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and it results in significant morbidity. PMID:23805960

Davis, Carla M

2013-07-01

89

Avoidance of low pH and elevated Al concentrations by Brook Charr ( Salvelinus fontinalis ) Alevins in laboratory tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory studies were conducted to test the ability of brook charr (Salvelinus fontinalis) alevins, the earliest free-swimming life stage of the species, to detect and avoid toxic levels of H+ and inorganic Al. Alevins were tested in steep gradient choice tanks using a range of H+ (pH 4.0 to 5.5) and Al (0 to 500 µg L-1) concentrations in low

John M. Gunn; David L. G. Noakes

1986-01-01

90

21 CFR 876.5365 - Esophageal dilator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5365 Esophageal dilator. (a) Identification. An esophageal...

2011-04-01

91

21 CFR 876.5365 - Esophageal dilator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5365 Esophageal dilator. (a) Identification. An esophageal...

2013-04-01

92

21 CFR 876.5365 - Esophageal dilator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5365 Esophageal dilator. (a) Identification. An esophageal...

2012-04-01

93

21 CFR 876.5365 - Esophageal dilator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5365 Esophageal dilator. (a) Identification. An esophageal...

2010-04-01

94

21 CFR 876.5365 - Esophageal dilator.  

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5365 Esophageal dilator. (a) Identification. An esophageal...

2014-04-01

95

In vitro and in vivo analysis of the PABA test compared with the Lundh test--influence of intraluminal pH.  

PubMed Central

Lundh test and PABA test results were compared in 50 patients. In the resulting correlation curve three areas of interest were differentiated: (1) an area with mean tryptic activity, found in the Lundh test, below 4 U/ml, where an abnormal PABA test result was also seen; (2) an intermediate area from 4 to 9 U/ml, where PABA test results may be found in discordance with the Lundh test; (3) the normal level, where PABA excretion was shown to be independent of intestinal chymotrypsin activity. In experiments in vitro on the kinetics of the hydrolysis of BTPABA by chymotrypsin the profound influence of the pH on Km and Vmax was shown. This influence of the pH explains why in the intermediate area of pancreatic dysfunction normal PABA test results were found in a number of cases. A higher mean pH level of the Lundh test aspirates was found for patients with a normal PABA test result than for patients with an abnormal PABA test. PMID:6970154

Hoek, F J; Sanders, G T; Teunen, A; Tijtgat, G N

1981-01-01

96

An Overview of Eosinophilic Esophagitis  

PubMed Central

Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic, immune/antigen-mediated esophageal disease affecting both children and adults. The condition is characterized by an eosinophilic infiltration of the esophageal epithelium. Symptoms of esophageal dysfunction include dysphagia, food impaction and symptoms mimicking gastroesophageal reflux disease. Endoscopic examination typically reveals mucosal fragility, ring or corrugated mucosa, longitudinal furrows, whitish plaques or a small caliber esophagus. Histologic findings of >15 eosinophils per high-power field is the diagnostic hallmark of EoE. An elimination diet, topical corticosteroids or endoscopic dilation for fibrostenotic disease serve as effective therapeutic option. PMID:25368745

Park, Hyojin

2014-01-01

97

QuickTox™ Drug\\/Adulteration Test COC\\/MOR\\/MET\\/THC\\/PCP with Nitrite, Creatinine, pH and Oxidizing Agent Adulteration Test Pads  

Microsoft Academic Search

Additionally QuickTox™ can assess the validity of the urine sample simultaneous to drug-of-abuse testing. The adulteration pads of the QuickTox™ Test are chemical indicator assays that provide visual qualitative results for nitrite, creatinine, pH and oxidizing agents. The QuickTox™ Drug\\/Adulteration Test is intended for the professionals in vitro diagnostic use only, and is not intended for over-the-counter sale. The QuickTox™

COC Benzoylecgonine

98

Esophageal intramucosal hematoma after peripheral blood stem cell transplantation: case report and review of literature  

PubMed Central

Esophageal complications occur after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). There are, however, only limited reports on the etiology or management of esophageal complications. Here, we report the occurrence of intramucosal hematoma presenting continuous esophageal hemorrhage in a 34 year-old man following the second peripheral blood stem cell transplantation for acute myeloid leukemia. His hematemesis started 2 months after HSCT and was repeated in supportive care. On day 156, he underwent total esophagectomy as a result of uncontrollable massive hematemesis. Histopathological testings of the resected esophagus confirmed intramucosal hematoma as a cause of hematemesis. This case highlights intramucosal hematoma as one of the important etiologies of esophageal complications following HSCT. PMID:24966988

Kobayashi, Takashi; Seo, Sachiko; Morita, Shigeki; Goto, Akiteru; Masuda, Akiko; Shimizu, Nobuyuki; Nishida, Masato; Nunobe, Souya; Ichikawa, Motoshi; Takazawa, Yutaka; Seto, Yasuyuki; Fukayama, Masashi; Kurokawa, Mineo

2014-01-01

99

Radiochemotherapy of esophageal cancer.  

PubMed

Cancer of the esophagus continues to be a threat to public health. The common practice is esophagectomy for surgically resectable tumors and radiochemotherapy for locally advanced, unresectable tumors. However, local regional tumor control and overall survival of esophageal cancer patients after the standard therapies remain poor, approximately 30% of patients treated with surgery only will develop local recurrence, and 50% to 60% patients treated with radiochemotherapy only fail local regionally due to persistent disease or local recurrence. Esophagectomy after radiochemotherapy or preoperative radiochemotherapy has increased the complete surgical resection rate and local regional control without a significant survival benefit. Induction chemotherapy followed by preoperative radiochemotherapy has produced encouraging results. In addition to patient-, tumor-, and treatment-related factors, involvement of celiac axis nodes, number of positive lymph nodes after preoperative radiochemotherapy, incomplete pathologic response, high metabolic activity on positron emission tomography scan after radiochemotherapy, and incomplete surgical resection are factors associated with a poor outcome. Radiochemotherapy followed by surgery is associated with significant adverse effects, including treatment-related pneumonitis, postoperative pulmonary complications, esophagitis and pericarditis. The incidence and severity of the adverse effects are associated with chemotherapy and radiotherapy dosimetric factors. Innovative treatment strategies including physically and biologically molecular targeted therapy is needed to improve the treatment outcome of patients with esophageal cancer. PMID:17545853

Liao, Zhongxing; Cox, James D; Komaki, Ritsuko

2007-06-01

100

Screening and selection of peptides specific for esophageal cancer cells from a phage display peptide library  

PubMed Central

Background Esophageal cancer is a common malignant tumor of the gastrointestinal tract and is typically diagnosed at an advanced stage due to the absence of early clinical symptoms. Although surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy represent the major treatment methods employed for this cancer, the prognosis of esophageal cancer remains poor. Methods A Ph.D.-12TM Phage Display Peptide Library was screened using an esophageal cancer cell line, Eca109, and a normal esophageal epithelial cell line to identify novel ligands that selectively bind the surface of esophageal cancer cells with high affinity. Results Two polypeptides were isolated that exhibited higher binding affinities and specificity for the Eca109 cells. These peptides were further validated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), immunofluorescence assays, and immunohistochemistry assays. Conclusion Two polypeptides with high binding affinities to esophageal cancer cells were isolated from the Ph.D.-12TM Phage Display Peptide Library. Further studies are needed to characterize the biological effects of these polypeptides and to explore the potential for these peptides to be used for the early screening of esophageal cancer or for cell-targeted therapies that would reduce the toxic side effects of cancer treatment. PMID:24779651

2014-01-01

101

Effect of bolus composition on esophageal transit: concise communication  

SciTech Connect

The technique of esophageal scintigraphy was developed as a sensitive, quantitative, noninvasive test of esophageal transit. Esophageal scintigraphy was performed in 40 asymptomatic normal volunteers in order to determine the effect on esophageal transit of the following: body posture (sitting vs. supine), liquid vs. solid, the solid being either a standard number4 gelatin capsule of the size used for antibiotic capsules, or a cube of solid food such as cooked chicken liver. The results showed that liquids emptied completely from the esophagus after one swallow, whether supine or sitting. Capsules or liver cubes, when ingested without water, frequently remained in the esophagus for up to two hours without the subject's having any sensation that the solid had not left the esophagus. Both capsules and liver cubes cleared the esophagus better in the upright than in the supine position. When gelatin capsules were swallowed with as little as 15 ml of water, but after a preliminary sip of water, there was complete transit in each case. The study suggests that the practice of assisting patients into a sitting position and instructing them to take a sip of water before attempting to swallow a capsule will assure better transit of the capsule even when swallowed with as little as 15 ml of water. This may reduce the incidence of esophagitis following oral antibiotics, and of esophageal erosions from aspirin-containing medications.

Fisher, R.S.; Malmud, L.S.; Applegate, G.; Rock, E.; Lorber, S.H.

1982-10-01

102

Effect of bolus composition on esophageal transit: concise communication  

SciTech Connect

The technique of esophageal scintigraphy was developed as a sensitive, quantitative, noninvasive test of esophageal transit. Esophageal scintigraphy was performed in 40 asymptomatic normal volunteers in order to determine the effect on esophageal transit of the following: body posture (sitting vs. supine), liquid vs. solid, the solid being either a standard gelatin capsule of the size used for antibiotic capsules, or a cube of solid food such as cooked chicken liver. The results showed that liquids emptied completely from the esophagus after one swallow whether supine or sitting. Capsules or liver cubes, when ingested without water, frequently remained in the esophagus for up to two hours without the subject's having any sensation that the solid had not left the esophagus. Both capsules and liver cubes cleared the esophagus better in the upright than in the supine position. When gelatin capsules were swallowed with as little as 15 ml of water, but after a preliminary sip of water, there was complete transit in each case. The study suggests that the practice of assisting patients into a sitting position and instructing them to take a sip of water before attempting to swallow a capsule will assure better transit of the capsule even when swallowed with as little as 15 ml of water. This may reduce the incidence of esophagitis following oral antibiotics, and of esophageal erosions from aspirin-containing medications.

Fisher, R.S.; Malmud, L.S.; Appelgate, G.; Rock, E.; Lorber, S.H.

1982-10-01

103

Preoperative chemotherapy in esophageal carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preoperative chemotherapy for localized esophageal cancer is an area of increasing interest because neither surgery nor radiation has had a major impact on disease-free or overall survival. This is probably because, as several autopsy series have demonstrated, esophageal cancer is a systemic disease. Preoperative chemotherapy thus, in theory, allows a simultaneous attack on both the primary and metastatic disease. A

D. P. Kelsen

1987-01-01

104

Chemoprevention of Esophageal Adenocarcinoma  

PubMed Central

The incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) is rising rapidly in Western countries, and effective chemoprevention for this malignancy is lacking. Endoscopic surveillance of patients with Barrett's esophagus is currently employed to diagnose EAC at earlier stages, but this strategy has several limitations. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and proton pump inhibitors are the most promising agents for prevention of EAC, and a randomized controlled trial of aspirin and esomeprazole is ongoing. Other agents under investigation include green tea, berries, and antioxidants. Cost-effectiveness analyses have shown that chemopreventive agents need to be highly effective at preventing EAC in order to have benefit beyond endoscopic surveillance. PMID:21180511

2008-01-01

105

[Esophageal scintigraphy during endoscopic treatment of reflux esophagitis].  

PubMed

The paper is concerned with analysis of a method of dynamic esophageal scintigraphy modified by the authors for diagnosis and control of therapy of reflux esophagitis combined with duodenal ulcer in 33 patients aged 17 to 72. The proposed method is technically simple, highly effective and can be recommended for use in hospitals equipped with computer-assisted gamma-cameras. Indices of radionuclide clearance of the esophagus reflect its function of self-purification and well correlate with a degree of inflammatory changes of esophageal mucosa. They disappear more rapidly in patients receiving multimodality therapy including selective drug denervation of the stomach than in patients on conservative therapy alone. PMID:3262191

Glazov, A V; Zubovski?, L G; Sineev, Iu V; Kerin, V V; Rodchenko, Z P

1988-09-01

106

Bile salts disrupt human esophageal squamous epithelial barrier function by modulating tight junction proteins.  

PubMed

Reflux of acid and bile acids contributes to epithelial tissue injury in gastro-esophageal reflux disease. However, the influence of refluxed material on human esophageal stratified epithelial barrier function and tight junction (TJ) proteins has not been fully elucidated. Here, we investigated the influence of acid and bile acids on barrier function and TJ protein distribution using a newly developed air-liquid interface (ALI) in vitro culture model of stratified squamous epithelium based on primary human esophageal epithelial cells (HEECs). Under ALI conditions, HEECs formed distinct epithelial layers on Transwell inserts after 7 days of culture. The epithelial layers formed TJ, and the presence of claudin-1, claudin-4, and occludin were detected by immunofluorescent staining. The NP-40-insoluble fraction of these TJ proteins was significantly higher by day 7 of ALI culture. Exposure of HEECs to pH 2, and taurocholic acid (TCA) and glycocholic acid (GCA) at pH 3, but not pH 4, for 1 h decreased transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and increased paracellular permeability. Exposure of cell layers to GCA (pH 3) and TCA (pH 3) for 1 h also markedly reduced the insoluble fractions of claudin-1 and -4. We found that deoxycholic acid (pH 7.4 or 6, 1 h) and pepsin (pH 3, 24 h) significantly decreased TEER and increased permeability. Based on these findings, ALI-cultured HEECs represent a new in vitro model of human esophageal stratified epithelium and are suitable for studying esophageal epithelial barrier functions. Using this model, we demonstrated that acid, bile acids, and pepsin disrupt squamous epithelial barrier function partly by modulating TJ proteins. These results provide new insights into understanding the role of TJ proteins in esophagitis. PMID:22575221

Chen, Xin; Oshima, Tadayuki; Shan, Jing; Fukui, Hirokazu; Watari, Jiro; Miwa, Hiroto

2012-07-15

107

Berberine protects against esophageal mucosal damage in reflux esophagitis by suppressing proinflammatory cytokines  

PubMed Central

This study was performed to investigate the effects of berberine (BB) in a rat model of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), induced by pylorus and forestomach ligation. We evaluated cytotoxicity and proinflammatory biomarkers (nitric oxide, interleukin (IL)-1? and prostaglandin E2) in RAW 264.7 cells in vitro and anti-inflammatory effects in vivo. A total of 54 Sprague Dawley rats were divided into six groups: intact control rats; reflux esophagitis (RE) control rats; RE rats treated with 20 mg/kg omeprazole and RE rats treated with BB at doses of 20, 40 and 60 mg/kg, respectively. All rats were fasted. RE was induced by pylorus and forestomach ligation one hour subsequent to the oral treatment. Six hours subsequent to the surgery, the rats were sacrificed, blood was collected from the abdominal vein and the esophagus and stomach were dissected. The gastric volume and the pH of the gastric juice were evaluated, prior to the esophagus being cut longitudinally and an inner mucosal area being imaged, to analyze mucosal damage indices. Proinflammatory biomarkers in the serum, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, IL-1?, IL-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 were analyzed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit, while the mRNA expression of TNF-?, IL-1?, IL-6 and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 was analyzed using a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Esophagic tissue damage in the BB groups was dose-dependently decreased compared with that in the RE control group. This result was consistent with significant reductions in the levels of proinflammatory biomarkers in the serum and in the expression of proinflammatory mRNA, specifically, TNF-?, IL-1?, IL-6 and PAI-1. The results suggest that the anti-inflammatory and protective effects of BB may attenuate the severity of RE and prevent esophageal mucosal damage, in addition to validating the use of BB as a pharmacological treatment for esophageal reflux disease. PMID:24137243

CHOO, BYUNG KIL; ROH, SEONG-SOO

2013-01-01

108

Esophageal Lipoma: A Rare Tumor  

PubMed Central

Esophageal lipomas are rare tumors, making up 0.4% of all digestive tract benign neoplasms. Most of these lesions are clinically silent as a result of their small size, however, the majority of lesions over 4 cm have been reported to cause dysphagia, regurgitation and/or epigastralgia. We report a case of a 53 year-old African American female who presented with dysphagia. Computed tomography of the chest and esophagram confirmed esophageal lipoma as the cause of the patient’s symptoms. Accurately diagnosing an esophageal lipoma is crucial in order to rule out potential malignant lesions, relieve patient symptoms and plan the appropriate treatment. PMID:23365708

Feldman, Jeremy; Tejerina, Manfred; Hallowell, Michael

2012-01-01

109

Treatment of advanced esophageal cancer  

SciTech Connect

When radiation therapy is used for palliation of obstruction in patients with advanced esophageal carcinoma, an improvement in dysphagia can be expected in approximately 50% of patients. Major objective responses have rarely been quantitied but, in one study, were seen in 33% patients. Recurrence of dysphagia is usually seen within 2-6 months of treatment. Radiation toxicities and complications, even when used with palliative intent, can be substantial and include esophagitis, tracheoesophageal or esophageal-aortic fistula, mediastinitis, hemorrhage, pneumonitis, and myelosuppression. (JMT)

Kelsen, D.

1982-12-01

110

Evaluation of Esophageal Contractile Propagation using Esophageal Pressure Topography  

PubMed Central

Background High-resolution manometry and esophageal pressure topography have ienhanced our ability to analyze esophageal motor disturbances by improving the detail and accuracy of measurements of peristaltic activity. This has been extremely helpful in the evaluation of disorders of rapid propagation as the technique is able to define important time points and physiologic landmarks that are crucial in defining peristaltic velocity and latency intervals. Purpose The goal of the current review will be to assess how esophageal pressure topography has impacted our ability to define important phenotypes of rapid propagation. Additionally, this review will also be utilized to complement the description of the Chicago Classification of Esophageal Motor Disorders, which is presented in this supplement issue. PMID:22248104

Pandolfino, J.E.; Sifrim, D.

2013-01-01

111

Esophageal tissue engineering: a new approach for esophageal replacement.  

PubMed

A number of congenital and acquired disorders require esophageal tissue replacement. Various surgical techniques, such as gastric and colonic interposition, are standards of treatment, but frequently complicated by stenosis and other problems. Regenerative medicine approaches facilitate the use of biological constructs to replace or regenerate normal tissue function. We review the literature of esophageal tissue engineering, discuss its implications, compare the methodologies that have been employed and suggest possible directions for the future. Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Library, National Research Register and ClinicalTrials.gov databases were searched with the following search terms: stem cell and esophagus, esophageal replacement, esophageal tissue engineering, esophageal substitution. Reference lists of papers identified were also examined and experts in this field contacted for further information. All full-text articles in English of all potentially relevant abstracts were reviewed. Tissue engineering has involved acellular scaffolds that were either transplanted with the aim of being repopulated by host cells or seeded prior to transplantation. When acellular scaffolds were used to replace patch and short tubular defects they allowed epithelial and partial muscular migration whereas when employed for long tubular defects the results were poor leading to an increased rate of stenosis and mortality. Stenting has been shown as an effective means to reduce stenotic changes and promote cell migration, whilst omental wrapping to induce vascularization of the construct has an uncertain benefit. Decellularized matrices have been recently suggested as the optimal choice for scaffolds, but smart polymers that will incorporate signalling to promote cell-scaffold interaction may provide a more reproducible and available solution. Results in animal models that have used seeded scaffolds strongly suggest that seeding of both muscle and epithelial cells on scaffolds prior to implantation is a prerequisite for complete esophageal replacement. Novel approaches need to be designed to allow for peristalsis and vascularization in the engineered esophagus. Although esophageal tissue engineering potentially offers a real alternative to conventional treatments for severe esophageal disease, important barriers remain that need to be addressed. PMID:23322987

Totonelli, Giorgia; Maghsoudlou, Panagiotis; Fishman, Jonathan M; Orlando, Giuseppe; Ansari, Tahera; Sibbons, Paul; Birchall, Martin A; Pierro, Agostino; Eaton, Simon; De Coppi, Paolo

2012-12-21

112

Testing the YerPhI Transimpedance Preamplifier with PPC by the T11 PS Beam  

E-print Network

We report on the test of the preamplifier, described in [1], by the 3 GeV/c positive particle T11 beam of PS/CERN. We have measured the amplitude and time of flight spectrum, the time resolution and detection efficiency. The preamplifier has shown a stable work and hardness to the chamber discharge. The test results are presented.

Parlakian, L K; CERN. Geneva; Martmianov, A N

1997-01-01

113

Counselor Trainees in M.S. versus Ph.D. Programs: Testing Two Models of Supervision.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted which continued the investigation of the underlying structure of supervision by empirically testing Bernard's (1979) two-dimensional model and Littrell et al.'s (1979) unidimensional developmental model of supervision. To test the models, 25 counselor trainees from two master's counselor programs were compared to 23 counselor…

Ellis, Michael V.

114

Gastric analysis with fractional test meals (ethanol, caffeine, and peptone meal), augmented histamine or pentagastrin tests, and gastric pH recording.  

PubMed

For centuries it was recognized that the stomach produces a juice, which has acidic properties, however, it was not until 1824 when Prout demonstrated the presence of hydrochloric acid in gastric juice. At the same time experiments on a patient with gastric fistula began by W. Beaumont showing alterations of acid secretion after meals and under various psychological conditions. After the discovery by L. Popielski in 1920 that histamine is a direct stimulant of oxyntic glands, histamine started to be used in the 1930s in gastric secretory tests. Then in 1949 the dose of histamine was established by K. Kowalewski to induce in humans maximal gastric secretion and in 1953 Kay from UK, using a similar dose of histamine (0.04 mg/kg), introduced augmented histamine test to determine maximal acid output. The digestive period of gastric secretion can be divided into 3 phases: cephalic phase, gastric phase, and intestinal phase. When an acidified meal reaches the antrum or proximal part of the small intestine, the inhibitory autoregulatory mechanisms are triggered. Using a peptone meal as a physiological stimulant of gastric secretion, Fordtran and Walsh designed in 1973 the intragastric titration method. Histamine stimulates H1 and H2 receptors, producing some side effects so Betazole (Histalog), an analogue of histamine was introduced, because of smaller side effects than with histamine. In 1967, pentagastrin, which contains a C-terminal amino-acid sequence of gastrin and does not exert serious side effects, was applied first in Poland as a stimulant of gastric acid secretion instead of histamine. At the present time, a 12 or 24 h pH-metry with a magnetic recording of gastric acidity using the Digitrapper was found to have a greater diagnostic value in assessment of gastric acid secretion under natural conditions including meal than classic gastric secretory tests. This technique has been widely used in detecting the duodeno-gastric or gastro-esophageal reflux (GERD) and testing various drugs affecting gastric acid secretion and healing acid-pepsin disorders. PMID:15075465

Kwiecie?, S; Konturek, S J

2003-12-01

115

Esophageal motor disorders in subjects with incidentally discovered Chagas disease: a study using high-resolution manometry and the Chicago classification.  

PubMed

In patients with chronic indeterminate Chagas disease, conventional manometry has shown that 25-48% had esophageal motor disorders. Recently, esophageal high-resolution manometry (HRM) has revolutionized the assessment of esophageal motor function. In this study, we performed esophageal HRM in a group of subjects with incidentally positive serological findings for Trypanosoma cruzi. In this prospective observational study, we evaluated subjects who had positive serological tests for Chagas disease detected during a screening evaluation for blood donation. All subjects underwent symptomatic evaluation and esophageal HRM with a 36 solid-state catheter. Esophageal abnormalities were classified using the Chicago classification. Forty-two healthy subjects (38 males) aged 18-61 years (mean age, 40.7 years) were included. When specific symptoms questionnaire was applied, 14 (33%) subjects had esophageal symptoms. Esophageal high-resolution manometry revealed that 28 (66%) of the subjects had an esophageal motility disorder according to the Chicago classification. Most common findings were hypocontractile disorders in 18 subjects (43%) and esophagogastric junction (EGJ) outflow obstruction in 6 (15%). Esophageal high-resolution manometry reveals that up to two thirds of the subjects with an incidental diagnosis of Chagas disease have esophageal abnormalities. This technology increases the detection and allows a more complete assessment of esophageal motor function in subjects infected with T.?cruzi even in the early stages of the disease. PMID:23088758

Remes-Troche, J M; Torres-Aguilera, M; Antonio-Cruz, K A; Vazquez-Jimenez, G; De-La-Cruz-Patiño, E

2014-08-01

116

Esophageal Cancer - Featured Clinical Trials  

Cancer.gov

Esophageal Cancer - Featured Clinical Trials The following list shows Featured Clinical Trials for a specific type of cancer. You may also want to view: Multiple Cancer Types - Featured Clinical Trials Supportive Care - Featured Clinical Trials

117

Esophageal stenting in cancer therapy.  

PubMed

The following, from the 12th OESO World Conference: Cancers of the Esophagus, includes commentaries on nutritional support during chemoradiation, esophageal stents before surgery, and stenting the cervical esophagus. PMID:25266018

Goenka, Mahesh Kumar; White, Russell E

2014-09-01

118

CT evaluation of thickened esophageal walls  

SciTech Connect

A study of 200 consecutive chest computed tomographic (CT) examinations revealed thickened esophageal walls (over 3 mm) in 35%. While this is the earliest finding of carcinoma of the esophagus on CT, only half of the cases of thickened walls were due to esophageal carcinoma. Other mediastinal malignancies as well as benign inflammatory, vascular, and fibrotic conditions such as reflux and monilial esophagitis, esophageal varices, and postirradiation scarring were found to cause thickened esophageal walls. Distension with air and intravenous enhancement aid in the optimal evaluation of the esophagus by CT. The thickened esophageal wall is always abnormal, but it is nonspecific, seen in both malignant and nonmalignant conditions.

Reinig, J.W.; Stanley, J.H.; Schabel, S.I.

1983-05-01

119

Hypersensitivity to acid is associated with impaired esophageal mucosal integrity in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease with and without esophagitis.  

PubMed

Increased esophageal sensitivity and impaired mucosal integrity have both been described in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease, but the relationship between hypersensitivity and mucosal integrity is unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate acid sensitivity in patients with erosive and nonerosive reflux disease and control subjects to determine the relation with functional esophageal mucosal integrity changes as well as to investigate cellular mechanisms of impaired mucosal integrity in these patients. In this prospective experimental study, 12 patients with nonerosive reflux disease, 12 patients with esophagitis grade A or B, and 11 healthy control subjects underwent an acid perfusion test and upper endoscopy. Mucosal integrity was measured during endoscopy by electrical tissue impedance spectroscopy and biopsy specimens were analyzed in Ussing chambers for transepithelial electrical resistance, transepithelial permeability and gene expression of tight junction proteins and filaggrin. Patients with nonerosive reflux disease and esophagitis were more sensitive to acid perfusion compared with control subjects, having a shorter time to perception of heartburn and higher perceived intensity of heartburn. In reflux patients, enhanced acid sensitivity was associated with impairment of in vivo and vitro esophageal mucosal integrity. Mucosal integrity was significantly impaired in patients with esophagitis, displaying higher transepithelial permeability and lower extracellular impedance. Although no significant differences in the expression of tight junction proteins were found in biopsies among patient groups, mucosal integrity parameters in reflux patients correlated negatively with the expression of filaggrin. In conclusion, sensitivity to acid is enhanced in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease, irrespective of the presence of erosions, and is associated with impaired esophageal mucosal integrity. Mucosal integrity of the esophagus is associated with the expression of filaggrin. PMID:24924748

Weijenborg, Pim W; Smout, André J P M; Verseijden, Caroline; van Veen, Henk A; Verheij, Joanne; de Jonge, Wouter J; Bredenoord, Albert J

2014-08-01

120

Upper esophageal and pharyngeal cancers.  

PubMed

The following, from the 12th OESO World Conference: Cancers of the Esophagus, includes commentaries on laryngopharyngeal reflux as a risk factor for laryngeal cancer; the role of pepsin in laryngopharyngeal neoplasia; natural fruit and vegetable compounds for the prevention and treatment of pharyngeal and esophageal cancers; and evaluation of cranberry constituents as inhibitors of esophageal adenocarcinoma utilizing in vitro assay and in vivo models. PMID:25266014

Bock, Jonathan M; Howell, Amy B; Johnston, Nikki; Kresty, Laura A; Lew, Daniel

2014-09-01

121

[Management of caustic esophagitis in children].  

PubMed

In children, caustic ingestion is due to accidents at home and inadequate storage of caustic agents. In emergency, it is useful to remove the soiled clothes, rinse the affected area, and prevent vomiting and feeding. Caustic ingestion (pH<2 or>12) induces burns of the upper gastrointestinal tract requiring esophagogastro-duodenoscopy between H12 and H24. Strong alkalis cause necrosis with liquefaction of the esophagus, penetrating deeply with a high-risk of perforation. Management of these children requires a specialized care center with an intensive care unit, endoscopic equipment, and a surgical team. Esophageal stricture is the main complication; no prophylactic treatment (steroids) is effective. Strictures occur after the 3rd week, and barium swallow should be performed by the end of the 1st month. Stricture are often multiple, long, and tortuous; endoscopic dilatation is difficult with a high-rate of perforation and a low-rate of success. In situ application of mitomycin C or injection of triamcinolone could reduce the recurrence rate of stricture. In recalcitrant or recurrent strictures, it is recommended to perform an esophageal replacement using a colonic interposition or a gastric tube. Endoscopy should also be performed 15-20years after caustic ingestion to screen for early neoplastic lesions. Prevention is very important for avoiding caustic ingestions. Information and education should be given specifically to the parents of toddlers; caustic products should be stored out of reach of children and they should not be kept with food. PMID:23141564

Mas, E; Breton, A; Lachaux, A

2012-12-01

122

Emerging management concepts for eosinophilic esophagitis in children.  

PubMed

Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a newly recognized condition that appears to be increasing in incidence for as yet unknown reasons. It can occur at any age and presents both to gastroenterologists and allergists. Clinical manifestations range from gastrointestinal symptoms (vomiting, feeding difficulties, dysphagia or food bolus impaction) to co-existing atopic conditions (asthma, allergic rhinitis or eczema). The diagnosis requires demonstration of at least 15 eosinophils per high power field on esophageal histology, usually in the context of resistance to proton pump inhibitor treatment or a normal 24-h esophageal pH monitoring study. The differential diagnosis between EoE and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) can be problematic as there is significant clinical overlap between both conditions. Although difficult-to-manage esophageal strictures are well recognized in patients with long-standing EoE, little is known about risk factors for the development of this complication. There is a paucity of data on both the natural history and optimal long-term management of EoE. Current treatment options include food allergen elimination diets, use of topical aerosolized corticosteroids, or a combination of the two. Pediatric case studies have been provided to illustrate the complexity of decision points that often arise in the management of these patients. This paper aims to discuss the various strategies currently available to clinicians in the management of EoE and highlights gaps in the current evidence base that urgently require further research. PMID:21545525

Heine, Ralf G; Nethercote, Mark; Rosenbaum, Jeremy; Allen, Katrina J

2011-07-01

123

Aerodynamic characteristics of the Nijdam voice prosthesis in relation to tracheo-esophageal wall thickness.  

PubMed

Tracheo-esophageal speech using various prostheses is currently the most successful form of voice and speech rehabilitation for laryngectomies. Main inter-device differences are durability and trans-device pressure loss during speech. The valveless indwelling Nijdam voice prosthesis is a new voice prosthesis. A barrier mechanism is created by a combination of the esophageal mucosa and the umbrella-like "hat" of the prosthesis that covers the esophageal side of the tracheo-esophageal fistula. The Nijdam prosthesis can be used clinically for longer periods of time when compared to such other indwelling voice prostheses as the Provox prosthesis and the low-resistance Groningen prosthesis. However, transdevice pressure loss during speech has been unknown. Adjustment of the shft length of the Nijdam voice prosthesis to tracheo-esophageal wall thickness was expected to affect trans-device pressure loss during speech. We report the results of in vitro tests to quantify the effect of tracheo-esophageal wall thickness on trans-device pressure loss. In the present study pressure loss was measured at different air flow rates in relation to tracheo-esophageal wall thickness. Findings demonstrated that when shaft length of the Nijdam prosthesis corresponded exactly to tracheo-esophageal wall thickness, trans-device pressure loss was comparable to that of the Provox prosthesis. If a relatively shorter Nijdam prosthesis was chosen to prevent aspiration from occurring, the pressure loss across the prosthesis increased to that of the low-resistance Groningen prosthesis. PMID:9115703

Veenstra, A; van den Hoogen, F J; Schutte, H K; Nijdam, H F; Manni, J J; Verkerke, G J

1997-01-01

124

Role of peripheral reflexes in the initiation of the esophageal phase of swallowing.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the role of peripheral reflexes in initiation of the esophageal phase of swallowing. In 10 decerebrate cats, we recorded electromyographic responses from the pharynx, larynx, and esophagus and manometric data from the esophagus. Water (1-5 ml) was injected into the nasopharynx to stimulate swallowing, and the timing of the pharyngeal and esophageal phases of swallowing was quantified. The effects of transection or stimulation of nerves innervating the esophagus on swallowing and esophageal motility were tested. We found that the percent occurrence of the esophageal phase was significantly related to the bolus size. While the time delays between the pharyngeal and esophageal phases of swallowing were not related to the bolus size, they were significantly more variable than the time delays between activation of muscles within the pharyngeal phase. Transection of the sensory innervation of the proximal cervical esophagus blocked or significantly inhibited activation of the esophageal phase in the proximal cervical esophagus. Peripheral electrical stimulation of the pharyngoesophageal nerve activated the proximal cervical esophagus, peripheral electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve activated the distal cervical esophagus, and peripheral electrical stimulation the superior laryngeal nerve (SLN) had no effect on the esophagus. Centripetal electrical stimulation of the SLN activated the cervical component of the esophageal phase of swallowing before initiation of the pharyngeal phase. Therefore, we concluded that initiation of the esophageal phase of swallowing depends on feedback from peripheral reflexes acting through the SLN, rather than a central program. PMID:24557762

Lang, Ivan M; Medda, Bidyut K; Babaei, Arash; Shaker, Reza

2014-04-15

125

Repair of complete longitudinal esophageal rupture with preservation of esophageal motility.  

PubMed

There is no consensus on the ideal treatment for esophageal perforation and on the maximal extent of esophageal disruption amenable to primary repair. The effect of extensive esophageal injury on postoperative esophageal motility is also unknown. We report the case of a longitudinal iatrogenic esophageal laceration extending from the hypopharynx to the cardia in a morbidly obese patient treated with primary repair. The patient exhibited no postoperative esophageal leak or stricture and maintained a preserved esophageal peristalsis on manometry at 3 months. An extensively lacerated esophagus can be repaired primarily while maintaining a normal postoperative function. PMID:25282231

Frechette, Eric; Bolca, Ciprian; Lebel, Stefane

2014-10-01

126

Esophageal Helicobacter pylori colonization aggravates esophageal injury caused by reflux  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate esophageal Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) colonization on esophageal injury caused by reflux and the related mechanisms. METHODS: An esophagitis model, with acid and bile reflux, was surgically produced in male rats. The rats were randomly divided into either: (1) an esophagogastroduodenal anastomosis (EGDA) group; (2) an EGDA with H. pylori infection group; (3) a pseudo-operation with H. pylori infection group; or (4) a pseudo-operation group. All rats were kept for 36 wk. Based on the location of H. pylori colonization, the EGDA rats with H. pylori infection were subdivided into those with concomitant esophageal H. pylori colonization or those with only gastric H. pylori colonization. The esophageal injuries were evaluated grossly and microscopically. The expressions of CDX2 and MUC2 were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry. Ki-67 antigen expression was determined by immunohistochemistry. The mRNA levels of cyclin D1, c-Myc, Bax and Bcl-2 were determined by RT-PCR. Cell apoptosis was evaluated using the TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling method. RESULTS: Esophagitis, Barrett’s esophagus (BE), and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) developed in rats that underwent EGDA. When comparing rats with EGDA and concomitant esophageal H. pylori colonization to EGDA-only rats, the severity of injury (87.9 ± 5.2 vs 77.2 ± 8.6, macroscopically, 92.5 ± 8.0 vs 83.8 ± 5.5, microscopically, both P < 0.05) and the incidences of BE (80.0% vs 33.3%, P = 0.055) and EAC (60.0% vs 11.1%, P < 0.05) were increased. These increases were associated with upregulation of CDX2 and MUC2 mRNA (10.1 ± 5.4 vs 3.0 ± 2.9, 8.4 ± 4.6 vs 2.0 ± 3.2, respectively, Ps < 0.01) and protein (8.1 ± 2.3 vs 3.3 ± 3.1, 7.3 ± 4.0 vs 1.8 ± 2.7, respectively, all P < 0.05). The expression of Ki-67 (8.9 ± 0.7 vs 6.0 ± 1.7, P < 0.01) and the presence of apoptotic cells (8.3 ± 1.1 vs 5.3 ± 1.7, P < 0.01) were also increased significantly in rats with EGDA and concomitant esophageal H. pylori colonization compared with rats with EGDA only. The mRNA levels of cyclin D1 (5.8 ± 1.9 vs 3.4 ± 1.3, P < 0.01), c-Myc (6.4 ± 1.7 vs 3.7 ± 1.2, P < 0.01), and Bax (8.6 ± 1.6 vs 5.1 ± 1.3, P < 0.01) were significantly increased, whereas the mRNA level of Bcl-2 (0.6 ± 0.3 vs 0.8 ± 0.3, P < 0.01) was significantly reduced in rats with EGDA and concomitant esophageal H. pylori colonization compared with rats with EGDA only. CONCLUSION: Esophageal H. pylori colonization increases esophagitis severity, and facilitates the development of BE and EAC with the augmentation of cell proliferation and apoptosis in esophageal mucosa.

Chu, Yun-Xiang; Wang, Wei-Hong; Dai, Yun; Teng, Gui-Gen; Wang, Shu-Jun

2014-01-01

127

Esophageal perforation during or after conformal radiotherapy for esophageal carcinoma  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to analyze the risk factors and prognosis for patients with esophageal perforation occurring during or after radiotherapy for esophageal carcinoma. We retrospectively analyzed 322 patients with esophageal carcinoma. These patients received radiotherapy for unresectable esophageal tumors, residual tumors after operation, or local recurrence. Of these, 12 had radiotherapy to the esophagus before being admitted, 68 patients had concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CRT), and 18 patients had esophageal perforation after RT (5.8%). Covered self-expandable metallic stents were placed in 11 patients. Two patients continued RT after stenting and control of infection; one of these suffered a new perforation, and the other had a massive hemorrhage. The median overall survival was 2 months (0–3 months) compared with 17 months in the non-perforation group. In univariate analysis, the Karnofsky performance status (KPS) being ?70, age younger than 60, T4 stage, a second course of radiotherapy to the esophagus, extracapsular lymph nodes (LN) involving the esophagus, a total dose >100 Gy (biologically effective dose?10), and CRT were risk factors for perforation. In multivariate analysis, age younger than 60, extracapsular LN involving the esophagus, T4 stage, and a second course of radiotherapy to the esophagus were risk factors. In conclusion, patients with T4 stage, extracapsular LN involving the esophagus, and those receiving a second course of RT should be given particular care to avoid perforation. The prognosis after perforation was poor. PMID:24914102

Chen, Hai-yan; Ma, Xiu-mei; Ye, Ming; Hou, Yan-li; Xie, Hua-Ying; Bai, Yong-rui

2014-01-01

128

Prevention and Treatment of Esophageal Stenosis after Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection for Early Esophageal Cancer  

PubMed Central

Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for the treatment of esophageal mucosal lesions is associated with a risk of esophageal stenosis, especially for near-circumferential or circumferential esophageal mucosal defects. Here, we review historic and modern studies on the prevention and treatment of esophageal stenosis after ESD. These methods include prevention via pharmacological treatment, endoscopic autologous cell transplantation, endoscopic esophageal dilatation, and stent placement. This short review will focus on direct prevention and treatment, which may help guide the way forward. PMID:25386186

Wen, Jing; Lu, Zhongsheng; Liu, Qingsen

2014-01-01

129

Radiation-induced esophageal injury: A spectrum from esophagitis to cancer  

SciTech Connect

Radiation esophagitis is a common but frequently unrecognized complication of therapeutic radiation to the neck, chest, or mediastinum. The spectrum of injury ranges from acute self-limited esophagitis to life-threatening esophageal perforation. Complications such as stricture or primary esophageal cancer may occur many years after irradiation, and their linkage to radiation may not be considered. Five cases of radiation-induced injury are described, and the spectrum of radiation-induced esophageal injury is reviewed.

Vanagunas, A.; Jacob, P.; Olinger, E. (Northwestern Univ. Medical School, Chicago, IL (USA))

1990-07-01

130

A Comprehensive Review of Esophageal Stents  

PubMed Central

Esophageal stents are important tools for palliative treatment of inoperable esophageal malignancies. With the development of multiple self-expandable stents, there are now several therapeutic options for managing benign and malignant esophageal diseases. This paper discusses the various types of esophageal stents currently available, indications for their placement, challenges and complications that gastroenterologists face when placing these stents, and some of the innovations that will become available in the near future. PMID:23293566

Hong, Jinwha; Lam-Tsai, Yvette; Gress, Frank

2012-01-01

131

Esophageal pathology: a brief guide and atlas.  

PubMed

This article contains a brief atlas for esophageal dysphagia, with an emphasis on endoscopic evaluation. Dysphagia refers to an abnormality with food propulsion, and it may be caused by oropharyngeal or esophageal disorders. Radiological modalities, endoscopy, and manometry play an important role in both the diagnosis and management of esophageal disorders. PMID:24262958

Chokhavatia, Sita; Alli-Akintade, Latifat; Harpaz, Noam; Stern, Richard

2013-12-01

132

Isothiocyanates and plant polyphenols as inhibitors of lung and esophageal cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A group of arylalkyl isothiocyanates were tested for their abilities to inhibit tumorigenicity and DNA methylation induced by both the tobacco-specific nitrosamine, NNK, in A\\/J mouse lung and the esophageal-specific carcinogen, NMBA, in F344 rat esophagus. In addition, ellagic acid was tested for its ability to inhibit NMBA-induced esophageal tumorigenesis. In the strain A lung tumor model, PEITC effectively inhibited

Gary D. Stoner; Mark A. Morse

1997-01-01

133

Surgical treatments for esophageal cancers.  

PubMed

The following, from the 12th OESO World Conference: Cancers of the Esophagus, includes commentaries on the role of the nurse in preparation of esophageal resection (ER); the management of patients who develop high-grade dysplasia after having undergone Nissen fundoplication; the trajectory of care for the patient with esophageal cancer; the influence of the site of tumor in the choice of treatment; the best location for esophagogastrostomy; management of chylous leak after esophagectomy; the optimal approach to manage thoracic esophageal leak after esophagectomy; the choice for operational approach in surgery of cardioesophageal crossing; the advantages of robot esophagectomy; the place of open esophagectomy; the advantages of esophagectomy compared to definitive chemoradiotherapy; the pathologist report in the resected specimen; the best way to manage patients with unsuspected positive microscopic margin after ER; enhanced recovery after surgery for ER: expedited care protocols; and long-term quality of life in patients following esophagectomy. PMID:25266029

Allum, William H; Bonavina, Luigi; Cassivi, Stephen D; Cuesta, Miguel A; Dong, Zhao Ming; Felix, Valter Nilton; Figueredo, Edgar; Gatenby, Piers A C; Haverkamp, Leonie; Ibraev, Maksat A; Krasna, Mark J; Lambert, René; Langer, Rupert; Lewis, Michael P N; Nason, Katie S; Parry, Kevin; Preston, Shaun R; Ruurda, Jelle P; Schaheen, Lara W; Tatum, Roger P; Turkin, Igor N; van der Horst, Sylvia; van der Peet, Donald L; van der Sluis, Peter C; van Hillegersberg, Richard; Wormald, Justin C R; Wu, Peter C; Zonderhuis, Barbara M

2014-09-01

134

Sheri A. Lippman, PhD, PI Reaching transgender women with home-based, self-HIV testing in San Francisco: a pilot  

E-print Network

Sheri A. Lippman, PhD, PI Reaching transgender women with home-based, self-HIV testing in San Francisco: a pilot acceptability and feasibility study Abstract Transgender women are the population most population. Despite elevated risk, the rates of HIV antibody testing in the transgender community

Klein, Ophir

135

Efficacy of Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy After Surgery in Early Stage of Esophageal Carcinoma;  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Esophageal Neoplasm; Esophageal Cancer TNM Staging Primary Tumor (T) T2; Esophageal Cancer TNM Staging Primary Tumor (T) T3; Esophageal Cancer TNM Staging Regional Lymph Nodes (N) N0; Esophageal Cancer TNM Staging Distal Metastasis (M) M0

2012-12-28

136

Radiation Therapy, Paclitaxel, and Carboplatin With or Without Trastuzumab in Treating Patients With Esophageal Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adenocarcinoma of the Esophagus; Adenocarcinoma of the Gastroesophageal Junction; Stage IB Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIA Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIB Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIIA Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIIB Esophageal Cancer

2014-10-30

137

Physiology of Normal Esophageal Motility  

PubMed Central

The esophagus consists of two different parts. In humans, the cervical esophagus is composed of striated muscles and the thoracic esophagus is composed of phasic smooth muscles. The striated muscle esophagus is innervated by the lower motor neurons and peristalsis in this segment is due to sequential activation of the motor neurons in the nucleus ambiguus. Both primary and secondary peristaltic contractions are centrally mediated. The smooth muscle of esophagus is phasic in nature and is innervated by intramural inhibitory (nitric oxide releasing) and excitatory (acetylcholine releasing) neurons that receive inputs from separate sets of preganglionic neurons located in the dorsal motor nucleus of vagus. The primary peristalsis in this segment involves both central and peripheral mechanisms. The primary peristalsis consist of inhibition (called deglutitive inhibition) followed by excitation. The secondary peristalsis is entirely due to peripheral mechanisms and also involves inhibition followed by excitation. The lower esophageal sphincter (LES) is characterized by tonic muscle that is different from the muscle of the esophageal body. The LES, like the esophageal body smooth muscle, is also innervated by the inhibitory and excitatory neurons. The LES maintains tonic closure due to its myogenic property. The LES tone is modulated by the inhibitory and the excitatory nerves. Inhibitory nerves mediate LES relaxation and the excitatory nerves mediate reflex contraction or rebound contraction of the LES. Clinical disorders of esophageal motility can be classified on the basis of disorders of the inhibitory and excitatory innervations and the smooth muscles. PMID:18364578

Goyal, Raj K; Chaudhury, Arun

2009-01-01

138

Pathological characteristics of esophageal cancer  

PubMed Central

The pathological characteristics of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, which include regularly occurring multiple carcinogenic lesions (MLs), severe dysplasia (SD) and direct intramural infiltration (DI), were investigated using large pathological sections. A total of 52 esophageal cancer patients underwent surgical resection and were diagnosed with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Large sections of the surgical resection specimens were then made for pathological examination. The actual length of the carcinoma was calculated during surgery from the length determined microscopically. ML, SD and DI were identified during pathological examination of the large sections by microscope and were statistically analyzed. The lesion lengths obtained by the various inspection methods differed from each other. ML, SD and DI were identified in 15, 28 and 41 patients, respectively. Furthermore, a higher incidence of DI was observed in patients with lymphatic infiltration or those with a later stage of disease. ML, SD and DI were identified as characteristics of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, and ML and DI were found to correlate with lymphatic infiltration. PMID:25013466

SHI, HONG-YUN; ZHU, SHU-CHAI; SHEN, WEN-BIN; LIU, MIAO-LING

2014-01-01

139

Surgical Management of Esophageal Carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surgical management of esophageal carcinoma is reviewed. The anatomy and biology are briefly mentioned, since these factors mitigate against the success of surgery. Staging, the key to proper treatment allocation and prog- nosis, is discussed, including the use of endoscopic ultra- sonography, positron emission tomography, and thoracoscopy\\/laparoscopy. Patient selection and preparation for surgery are important considerations. Surgical tech- niques are

CAROLYN E. REED

140

Treatment of localized esophageal cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The treatment of localized esophageal cancer (LEC) is controversial. The approaches that are used in daily practice include surgery or radiation alone, preoperative or postoperative radiation, preoperative or postoperative chemotherapy, and definitive or preoperative chemoradiation. The varied modalities used to treat LEC reflect both the lack of randomized trial data and the suboptimal results with current therapy. Nonetheless, the available

Baruch Brenner; David H. Ilson; Bruce D. Minsky

2004-01-01

141

[Acute necrotizing esophagitis. Case report].  

PubMed

Acute necrotizing esophagitis, also known as black esophagus, represents an extremely rare clinical entity, defined by the black pigmentation of the esophagus, secondary to necrosis of the mucosa and detected at endoscopy. We present a clinical case of this rare disease, with its manifestation, diagnosis, treatment, and we perform a review of the literature. PMID:23940914

Pierini, Angel; Imhof, Hugo; Burlando, Eduardo; Gianinetti, Leonardo; Pierini, Leandro

2013-06-01

142

Ki-67 and ProExC are useful immunohistochemical markers in esophageal squamous intraepithelial neoplasia.  

PubMed

Esophageal squamous intraepithelial neoplasia has been widely recognized as a precursor lesion for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Early detection offers the best prognosis for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. The differentiation of squamous dysplasia from reactive change and the classification of squamous dysplasia into high-grade or low-grade are sometimes subjective and challenging. In this study, we sought to evaluate multiple biomarkers and to develop clinically useful adjunct tools for difficult esophageal squamous intraepithelial neoplasia cases. Immunohistochemical stains using antibodies against Ki-67, ProExC, p16, and p53 were performed on esophageal biopsy or resection specimens from 25 patients including 35 foci of high-grade dysplasia and 25 foci of low-grade dysplasia, and from 10 control cases containing 52 foci of normal/reactive hyperplasia. In situ hybridization tests for human papillomavirus were performed in 11 cases. The immunostains for all 4 markers were scored as negative, intermediate, and strong according to established criteria. Intermediate and strong Ki-67 and ProExC staining showed similar detecting power and exhibited very high sensitivity and specificity for distinguishing normal/reactive hyperplasia from esophageal squamous intraepithelial neoplasia and normal/reactive hyperplasia from low-grade esophageal squamous intraepithelial neoplasia. Strong Ki-67 staining was exclusively seen in high-grade esophageal squamous intraepithelial neoplasia, which provided additional value in distinguishing high-grade from low-grade esophageal squamous intraepithelial neoplasia. Strong ProExC staining was also seen in most high-grade esophageal squamous intraepithelial neoplasia foci (80%). Although the frequencies of intermediate/strong staining patterns of p53 increased with increasing degree of dysplasia, the sensitivity of p53 was much lower than that of Ki-67 and ProExC. p16 did not show consistent immunostain pattern in the normal/reactive hyperplasia and esophageal squamous intraepithelial neoplasia. Two (18%) of 11 tested cases were positive for human papillomavirus infection. This study demonstrates that both Ki-67 and ProExC can be used as an adjunct tool for diagnosing difficult cases of esophageal squamous intraepithelial neoplasia. PMID:21420715

Wang, Wen-Chuang; Wu, Tsung-Teh; Chandan, Vishal S; Lohse, Christine M; Zhang, Lizhi

2011-10-01

143

Radiation and chemoradiation therapy for esophageal adenocarcinoma.  

PubMed

The aims of preoperative chemoradiation therapy (preop-CRT) for esophageal adenocarcinoma are to reduce incomplete local resection (R1,R2), local and systemic recurrences that are reported in up to 30% of patients who undergo surgery alone. Phase II studies of preop-CRT, with radiation doses in the 40-50 Gy range, and concurrent chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-cisplatin +/- paclitaxel, or cisplatin-paclitaxel, have reported subsequent RO resection rates of 80%-100%, with tumor sterilization achieved in 8%-49% of cases, and consequently improved local control. New chemotherapy regimens omitting 5-FU have reduced the incidence of severe esophagitis, unplanned hospitalization, with comparable efficacy. Among three randomised trials that compared preop-CRT to surgery alone, one shown a debatable survival advantage. Reducing local recurrence rates lead to a switch to more distant failures, and increasing the radiation dose beyond 45 Gy appears to be of little value. However, it should be remembered that preop-CRT has associated toxicity, and may increase postoperative mortality. Novel strategies, which include induction with chemotherapy followed by preop-CRT, and for radiation therapy, three dimensional conformation techniques, image fusioning, and improved definition of treatment volumes, are still considered experimental and should be tested in specialized centers. PMID:16299784

Bosset, Jean-François; Lorchel, F; Mantion, G; Buffet, J; Créhange, G; Bosset, M; Chaigneau, L; Servagi, S

2005-12-01

144

Double-blind comparison of liquid antacid and placebo in the treatment of symptomatic reflux esophagitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although antacids have been the mainstay of pharmacologic therapy for reflux esophagitis, their effectiveness has not been tested in a placebo-controlled double-blind trial. We report a double-blind comparison of liquid antacid vs placebo in the treatment of reflux esophagitis in 32 patients with chronic heartburn. Entry criteria included the presence of symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux confirmed by both an acid perfusion

David Y. Graham; David J. Patterson

1983-01-01

145

Mechanics and hemodynamics of esophageal varices during peristaltic contraction  

E-print Network

Mechanics and hemodynamics of esophageal varices during peristaltic contraction Larry S. Miller,1 Ahmed, and James G. Brasseur. Mechanics and hemodynamics of esophageal varices dur- ing peristaltic hypothesis states that variceal pressure and wall tension increase dramatically during esophageal peristaltic

Brasseur, James G.

146

Radiation-induced esophageal injury: A spectrum from esophagitis to cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiation esophagitis is a common but frequently unrecognized complication of therapeutic radiation to the neck, chest, or mediastinum. The spectrum of injury ranges from acute self-limited esophagitis to life-threatening esophageal perforation. Complications such as stricture or primary esophageal cancer may occur many years after irradiation, and their linkage to radiation may not be considered. Five cases of radiation-induced injury are

A. Vanagunas; P. Jacob; E. Olinger

1990-01-01

147

Effect of monotherapy and combination therapy of pantoprazole and aprepitant in gastric esophageal reflux disease in albino rats.  

PubMed

The present study was undertaken to elucidate the effect of pantoprazole and aprepitant on experimental esophagitis in albino rats. Groups of rats, fasted overnight, received normal saline (3 mL/kg, sham control) or toxic control (3 mL/kg) or pantoprazole (30 mg/kg) or aprepitant (10 mg/kg), or their combinations and were subjected to pylorus and forestomach ligation. Animals were sacrificed after 8 h and evaluated for the gastric pH, volume of gastric juices, total acidity, esophagitis index, and free acidity. Esophageal tissues were further subjected to estimations of TBARS, GSH, catalase, and SOD. Treatment with pantoprazole and aprepitant significantly inhibited the gastric secretion, total acidity, and esophagitis index. The treatment also helped to restore the altered levels oxidative stress parameters to normal. PMID:24790551

Shukla, Kamleshwar; Raj, Prince; Kumar, Arun; Kumar, Mukesh; Kaithwas, Gaurav

2014-01-01

148

Pneumatic dilatation in patients with symptomatic diffuse esophageal spasm and lower esophageal sphincter dysfunction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nine patients with severe symptoms of diffuse esophageal spasm and lower esophageal sphincter dysfunction who were unresponsive to medical therapy and bougienage dilatation were treated by forceful pneumatic dilatation. Treatment with pneumatic dilatation in eight of the nine patients produced a marked improvement in dysphagia and regurgitation (average follow-up of 37.4 months). Esophageal motility performed up to three years (average

E. C. Ebert; A. Ouyang; S. H. Wright; S. Cohen; W. H. Lipshutz

1983-01-01

149

Current Management of Cervical Esophageal Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Pharyngo-laryngo-esophagectomy (PLE) has been regarded as a standard treatment for cervical esophageal cancer, but the morbidity\\u000a and mortality rates associated with PLE are substantial. Chemoradiation (CTRT) is widely used to treat esophageal cancer;\\u000a however, its role in managing cervical esophageal cancer has not been fully elucidated. It was hypothesized that up-front\\u000a CTRT could be an effective alternative treatment option to

Daniel King Hung Tong; Simon Law; Dora Lai Wan Kwong; William I. Wei; Raymond Wai Man Ng; Kam Ho Wong

2011-01-01

150

Esophageal leiomyoma detected by transesophageal contrast echocardiography.  

PubMed

Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) provides valuable information in the evaluation of intra- and extracardiac masses. There is no report demonstrating its usefulness in identifying esophageal mass lesions. This is because generally it is contraindicated in patients with esophageal diseases. However, endoscopic ultrasound is used in the evaluation of gastrointestinal pathology. We report a case of an esophageal tumor detected by TEE and the value of contrast echocardiography in further definition of the tumor. PMID:18177392

Meng, Hong; Lee, Pui Wai; Mathieu, Bernier; Chandrasekaran, Krishnaswamy

2008-03-01

151

Radiation esophagitis: Predictive factors and preventive strategies.  

PubMed

Radiation esophagitis remains the primary dose-limiting acute toxicity in the radiotherapeutic management of thoracic neoplasms. Improved understanding of this toxicity will facilitate dose escalation and enhancement of the therapeutic ratio. This article reviews the predictive factors and preventive strategies for radiation esophagitis. In particular, clinical and dosimetric studies predicting the risk of radiation esophagitis are analyzed. The critical impact of chemotherapy on radiation esophagitis is characterized. Preventive strategies to minimize this toxicity also are explored. Overall, this article reviews the current understanding of radiation toxicity for the esophagus. PMID:15558501

Bradley, Jeffrey; Movsas, Benjamin

2004-10-01

152

Brain abscess after esophageal dilatation: case report.  

PubMed

Brain abscess formation is a serious disease often seen as a complication to other diseases and to procedures. A rare predisposing condition is dilatation therapy of esophageal strictures. A case of brain abscess formation after esophageal dilatations is presented. A 59-year-old woman was admitted with malaise, progressive lethargy, fever, aphasia and hemiparesis. Six days before she had been treated with esophageal dilatation for a stricture caused by accidental ingestion of caustic soda. The brain abscess was treated with surgery and antibiotics. She recovered completely. This clinical case illustrates the possible association between therapeutic esophageal dilatation and the risk of brain abscess formation. PMID:17710371

Gaïni, S; Grand, M; Michelsen, J

2008-02-01

153

Pathophysiology of Portal Hypertension and Esophageal Varices  

PubMed Central

Esophageal varices are the major complication of portal hypertension. It is detected in about 50% of cirrhosis patients, and approximately 5–15% of cirrhosis patients show newly formed varices or worsening of varices each year. The major therapeutic strategy of esophageal varices consists of primary prevention, treatment for bleeding varices, and secondary prevention, which are provided by pharmacological, endoscopic, interventional and surgical treatments. Optimal management of esophageal varices requires a clear understanding of the pathophysiology and natural history. In this paper, we outline the current knowledge and future prospect in the pathophysiology of esophageal varices and portal hypertension. PMID:22666604

Maruyama, Hitoshi; Yokosuka, Osamu

2012-01-01

154

arXiv:1202.5652v1[hep-ph]25Feb2012 Testing Little Higgs Mechanism at Future Colliders  

E-print Network

arXiv:1202.5652v1[hep-ph]25Feb2012 Testing Little Higgs Mechanism at Future Colliders Shigeki Matsumoto IPMU, TODIAS, University of Tokyo Kashiwa-no-ha 277-8583, Kashiwa, Japan In the little higgs boson mass at one-loop level. This relation is called the little higgs mechanism. We discuss how

155

Neoadjuvant therapy for esophageal cancer  

PubMed Central

Esophageal cancer is increasing in incidence more than any other visceral malignancy in North America. Adenocarcinoma has become the most common cell type. Surgery remains the primary treatment modality for locoregional disease. Overall survival with surgery alone has been dismal, with metastatic disease the primary mode of treatment failure after an R0 surgical resection. Cure rates with chemotherapy or radiation therapy alone have been disappointing as well. For these reasons, over the last decade multi-modality treatment has gained increasing acceptance as the standard of care. This review examines the present data and role of neoadjuvant treatment using chemotherapy and radiation therapy followed by surgery for the treatment of esophageal cancer. PMID:25320656

Shah, Rachit D; Cassano, Anthony D; Neifeld, James P

2014-01-01

156

Management of Esophageal Variceal Bleeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Esophageal variceal bleeding is a potentially life-threatening complication of portal hypertension. One-third of cirrhotic\\u000a patients with documented varices bleed within 2 years from the time of initial diagnosis. Mortality rates from an initial\\u000a episode of bleeding are 20–35% and approximately 30% with each additional episode of bleeding. Risk factors for acute bleeding\\u000a episodes include advanced cirrhosis, large or proximal extension

Keki Balsara; Lisa Pickett

157

Radiation-induced esophageal carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiation-induced carcinoma of the esophagus is rare and only 8 cases have been reported since 1957. This article presents 2 additional patients in whom esophageal carcinoma developed in segments previously exposed to large therapeutic doses of irradiation. The first patient had received 5,000 rads to her mediastinum and the second patient 3,200 rads to her neck region. The latent intervals

Elizabeth W. O'Connell; William B. Seaman; Gary G. Ghahremani

1984-01-01

158

Current knowledge on esophageal atresia  

PubMed Central

Esophageal atresia (EA) with or without tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF) is the most common congenital anomaly of the esophagus. The improvement of survival observed over the previous two decades is multifactorial and largely attributable to advances in neonatal intensive care, neonatal anesthesia, ventilatory and nutritional support, antibiotics, early surgical intervention, surgical materials and techniques. Indeed, mortality is currently limited to those cases with coexisting severe life-threatening anomalies. The diagnosis of EA is most commonly made during the first 24 h of life but may occur either antenatally or may be delayed. The primary surgical correction for EA and TEF is the best option in the absence of severe malformations. There is no ideal replacement for the esophagus and the optimal surgical treatment for patients with long-gap EA is still controversial. The primary complications during the postoperative period are leak and stenosis of the anastomosis, gastro-esophageal reflux, esophageal dysmotility, fistula recurrence, respiratory disorders and deformities of the thoracic wall. Data regarding long-term outcomes and follow-ups are limited for patients following EA/TEF repair. The determination of the risk factors for the complicated evolution following EA/TEF repair may positively impact long-term prognoses. Much remains to be studied regarding this condition. This manuscript provides a literature review of the current knowledge regarding EA. PMID:22851858

Pinheiro, Paulo Fernando Martins; Simoes e Silva, Ana Cristina; Pereira, Regina Maria

2012-01-01

159

Esophageal schwannoma: a case report  

PubMed Central

Most tumorous lesions of the esophagus are esophageal cancers. Benign primary tumors of the esophagus are uncommon, and account for approximately 2% of all esophageal tumors. More than 80% of benign esophageal tumors are leiomyomas, with schwannomas being rare. A 55-year-old woman visited our internal medicine department with complaints of palpitations and discomfort during swallowing. A chest computed tomography scan showed a lobulated tumor (75 × 57 × 80 mm) in the upper to middle mediastinum, with homogenous inner opacity, compressing the esophagus. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed a smooth-surfaced elevated lesion covered with normal mucosa, and a schwannoma was diagnosed based on the biopsy result. The tumor was large. It was thus considered to be difficult to repair the esophagus by direct anastomosis after tumor resection. Therefore, subtotal esophagectomy and esophagogastrostomy in the right thorax were performed. Histopathological examination revealed spindle-shaped cells in a fasciculated and disarrayed architecture and nuclei in a palisading pattern. Immunohistochemical studies revealed S100 protein positivity and the absence of staining for ? smooth muscle actin (?SMA), CD34 and CD117, thereby establishing the diagnosis of benign schwannoma. Her postoperative course was uneventful and there has been no evidence of recurrence to date. PMID:24088647

2013-01-01

160

Pharmacologic influence on esophageal varices  

SciTech Connect

Selective catherization of the left gastric vein was performed after percutaneous transhepatic portography (PTP) in patients with portal hypertension and esophageal varices. Following the hypothesis that drugs increasing the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) pressure may obstruct the variceal blood flow throught the lower esophagus, the effect of different drugs (i.e., intravenous injection of vasopressin, pentagastrin, domperidone and somatostatin and subcutaneous injection of metacholine) on the variceal blood flow was examined. Vasopressin did not change the variceal blood flow; pentagastrine, with its known effect of increasing the LES pressure produced a total interruption of the flow in four of eight patients; domperiodone, also known to increase the LES pressure obstructed the variceal blood flow in the only patient examined with this drug; somatostatin has no reported action on the LES but blocked the flow in one of two patients; and metacholine, reported to increase the LES pressure did not produce any change in the flow in the three patients examined. LES pressure was recorded before and during vasopressin infusion in seven patients with portal hypertension and esophageal varices. No reaction on the pressure was found. The patient number in the study is small and the results are nonuniform but still they suggest that drugs increasing the LES tonus might be useful to control variceal blood flow.

Lunderquist, A.; Owman, T.; Alwmark, A.; Gullstrand, P.; Hall-Angeras, M.; Joelsson, B.; Tranberg, K.G.; Pettersson, K.I.

1983-06-01

161

Thallium cardiac stressing by esophageal pacing  

SciTech Connect

Forty-three patients were examined with the transesophageal pacing method of cardiac stressing and thallium imaging. Transesophageal cardiac pacing, using a pill electrode or a permanent pacemaker lead, is a safe alternative for patients who are physically unable to exercise. Prior studies suggest that transvenous right atrial pacing with thallium injection is equivalent to physical exercise thallium studies in the detection of coronary artery disease. The esophageal pacing bipolar electrode similarly increases heart rate without the necessity of transvenous pacing or fluoroscopy and without the adverse side effects often seen when using pharmacologic stressing agents (i.e., dipyridamole). The results compare well with cardiac catheterization, echocardiographic, and electrocardiographic results. Cardiac paced stress testing requires no sedation, is performed on an out-patient basis, and causes little if any discomfort for the patient.

Allen, M.L.; Vacek, J.L.; Preston, D.F.; Robinson, R.G.; Feldkamp, M.J. (Univ. of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City (USA))

1989-09-01

162

Esophageal reflexes modulate frontoparietal response in neonates: Novel application of concurrent NIRS and provocative esophageal manometry.  

PubMed

Central and peripheral neural regulation of swallowing and aerodigestive reflexes is unclear in human neonates. Functional near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a noninvasive method to measure changes in oxyhemoglobin (HbO) and deoxyhemoglobin (HbD). Pharyngoesophageal manometry permits evaluation of aerodigestive reflexes. Modalities were combined to investigate feasibility and to test neonatal frontoparietal cortical changes during pharyngoesophageal (visceral) stimulation and/or swallowing. Ten neonates (45.6 ± 3.0 wk postmenstrual age, 4.1 ± 0.5 kg) underwent novel pharyngoesophageal manometry concurrent with NIRS. To examine esophagus-brain interactions, we analyzed cortical hemodynamic response (HDR) latency and durations during aerodigestive provocation and esophageal reflexes. Data are presented as means ± SE or percent. HDR rates were 8.84 times more likely with basal spontaneous deglutition compared with sham stimuli (P = 0.004). Of 182 visceral stimuli, 95% were analyzable for esophageal responses, 38% for HDR, and 36% for both. Of analyzable HDR (n = 70): 1) HbO concentration (?mol/l) baseline 1.5 ± 0.7 vs. 3.7 ± 0.7 poststimulus was significant (P = 0.02), 2) HbD concentration (?mol/l) between baseline 0.1 ± 0.4 vs. poststimulus -0.5 ± 0.4 was not significant (P = 0.73), and 3) hemispheric lateralization was 21% left only, 29% right only, and 50% bilateral. During concurrent esophageal and NIRS responses (n = 66): 1) peristaltic reflexes were present in 74% and HDR in 61% and 2) HDR was 4.75 times more likely with deglutition reflex vs. secondary peristaltic reflex (P = 0.016). Concurrent NIRS with visceral stimulation is feasible in neonates, and frontoparietal cortical activation is recognized. Deglutition contrasting with secondary peristalsis is related to cortical activation, thus implicating higher hierarchical aerodigestive protective functional neural networks. PMID:24789204

Jadcherla, Sudarshan R; Pakiraih, Joanna F; Hasenstab, Kathryn A; Dar, Irfaan; Gao, Xiaoyu; Bates, D Gregory; Kashou, Nasser H

2014-07-01

163

Esophageal capnometry during hemorrhagic shock and after resuscitation in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Splanchnic perfusion following hypovolemic shock is an important marker of adequate resuscitation. We tested whether the gap between esophageal partial carbon dioxide tension (PeCO2) and arterial partial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2) is increased during graded hemorrhagic hypotension and reversed after blood reinfusion, using a fiberoptic carbon dioxide sensor. MATERIALS AND METHOD: Ten Sprague–Dawley rats were anesthetized, tracheotomized, and cannulated

Balagangadhar R Totapally; Harun Fakioglu; Dan Torbati; Jack Wolfsdorf

2003-01-01

164

pH Scale  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Test the pH of things like coffee, spit, and soap to determine whether each is acidic, basic, or neutral. Visualize the relative number of hydroxide ions and hydronium ions in solution. Switch between logarithmic and linear scales. Investigate whether changing the volume or diluting with water affects the pH. Or you can design your own liquid!

Simulations, Phet I.; Adams, Wendy; Barbera, Jack; Langdon, Laurie; Loeblein, Patricia; Malley, Chris

2008-07-01

165

Scintigraphic Methods to Evaluate Alterations of Gastric and Esophageal Functions in Female Obesity  

PubMed Central

Objective: Altered gastrointestinal function has frequently been observed in obese patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of gastro-esophageal reflux (GER) and to determine the alterations of gastric emptying and esophageal transit by scintigraphic methods in obese patients. Methods: Scintigraphic studies of 50 obese female non-diabetic patients who had not received any treatment for weight control were retrospectively reviewed. Mean Body Mass Index (BMI) was 34.96±3.04 kg/m2 (range:32-39 kg/m2). All subjects were submitted to scintigraphic evaluation of esophageal transit, gastro-esophageal reflux, gastric emptying and presence of Helicobacter pylori infection. The data of obese patients were compared with those of sex-age matched 30 non-obese cases who were selected from our clinical archive. Results: In obese group, seventeen (34%) patients were found to be GER positive scintigraphically; mean gastric emptying time (t½) was 59.18±30.8 min and the mean esophageal transit time was 8.9±7.2 s. Frequency of positive GER scintigraphy and the mean value of esophageal transit time were significantly higher in obese patients than non-obese control subjects. Gastric emptying time and esophageal transit time values were significantly longer in GER positive obese patients than GER negative ones. There was no statistically significant difference in the frequency of positive C14 urea breath test between obese and non-obese subjects and there were also no statistically significant correlations between BMI, GER, esophageal transit time and gastric emptying time. Conclusion: In our study, 42 of the 50 obese patients had esophago-gastric motility alterations. The significance of these alterations in obesity is not fully understood, but it is believed that these changes could be because of potential contributing factors in the development or maintenance of obesity or changes in eating habits. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:24653928

Omur, Ozgur; Erdogan, Mehmet; Ozk?l?c, Hayal; Y?lmaz, Candeger

2014-01-01

166

Multichannel intraluminal impedance and esophageal manometry data for unrestricted swallowing: establishing normal values.  

PubMed

Standard esophageal manometric testing evaluates swallowing in the supine position using small boluses, with a recovery period imposed between swallows. Manometric tests of more physiologic unrestricted swallowing have had limited practical application due to highly variable results. The purpose of this study is to apply multichannel intraluminal impedance and manometry (MII-EM) to test esophageal function during unrestricted upright meal consumption, and to assess results in a normal healthy population. Ten healthy volunteers with normal esophageal impedance and manometry by published criteria underwent MII-EM testing using a combined 5-channel catheter. After transnasal placement of the catheter, each subject sat upright and consumed a meal that consisted of two pieces of toasted bread and two ounces of Gatorade. There were no restrictions placed on chewing, swallowing, or eating time. All data assessed by the MII-EM meal test were normally distributed. Impedance results with limited variability included the meal duration, number of swallows, postprandial emptying time and the percent of bolus presence times at 15, 10, and 5 cm above the lower esophageal sphincter. Manometric results with limited variability included the number of peristaltic sequences, mean time between these sequences and their distal esophageal amplitudes. MII-EM can be used to collect data with minimal variability in healthy subjects during unrestricted upright meal consumption. This technique may be used to identify abnormal motility patterns during physiologic swallowing. PMID:18197939

Wilson, J A; Mainie, I; Tutuian, R; Agrawal, A; Castell, D O

2008-01-01

167

CONCURRENT CHEMORADIATION FOR ESOPHAGEAL CARCINOMA: PRELIMINARY RESULTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite all advances, treatment of esophageal carcinoma is still unsatisfactory. Currently the standard non-surgical treatment of esophageal cancer is concurrent chemotherapy and radiotherapy (chemoradiation), with results comparable to best surgical series. A few years ago, we started a chemoradiation protocol for the cancer of esophagus as a curative treatment, of which we present the preliminary results here. Files of all

P. Haddad; F. Amouzgar-Hashemi

168

Esophageal Cancer: A Review and Update  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although significant advancements have been made in the treatment of esophageal cancer, this aggressive malignancy commonly presents as locally advanced disease with a poor prognosis. Despite improvements in the detection of premalignant pathology, newer preventative strate- gies, and the development of more effective combination therapies, the overall incidence of esophageal carcinomas has risen. A clear association has been established between

JOHN C. LAYKE; DeWitt Daughtry

2006-01-01

169

Sorption mechanisms of Sr and Pb on zeolitized tuffs from the Nevada test site as a function of pH and ionic strength  

SciTech Connect

The sorption of divalent strontium, Sr{sup 2+}, and divalent lead, Pb{sup 2+}, on zeolitized tuffs from the Nevada Test Site (NTS) was investigated using macroscopic batch sorption experiments and x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) as a function of geochemical parameters, including pH, ionic strength, and type of background electrolyte. The sorption of Sr{sup 2+} is dependent on the ionic strength of the medium and independent of pH, suggesting that Sr{sup 2+} sorption is controlled by ion exchange at permanent charge sites. At higher ionic strengths, background electrolyte cations compete effectively with Sr{sup 2+} for cation exchange sites and Sr{sup 2+} sorption is suppressed. At the two lower ionic strengths (0.01 and 0.1 M), Pb{sup 2+} sorption is also consistent with adsorption by cation exchange. At the highest ionic strength (1.0 M), however, exclusion of Pb{sup 2+} from cation exchange sites resulted in pH dependent adsorption, consistent with sorption on amphoteric surface hydroxyl sites or formation of surface precipitates. XAS was used to test these hypotheses. Based on XAS data, Sr{sup 2+} formed hydrated surface complexes coordinated with approximately eight oxygen atoms at an average distance of 2.60 ({+-}0.02) {angstrom}, regardless of conditions, consistent with the formation of mononuclear, outer-sphere surface complexes at the Ca2 site in the B channel of clinoptilolite. The coordination environment of sorbed Pb{sup 2+} was more complex and a function of pH and ionic strength. The first shell consisted of two to three oxygen atoms at an average distance of 2.20 ({+-}0.02) {angstrom}. At low pH and ionic strength, XAS data were consistent with Pb{sup 2+} adsorption at the Na1 and Ca2 cation exchange sites in channels A and B of clinoptilolite, respectively. At the highest ionic strength (1.0 M) and low pH, XAS provides evidence for formation of Pb{sup 2+} monodentate, corner-sharing inner-sphere complexes, while at higher pH, XAS analysis is consistent with formation of edge-sharing bidentate inner-sphere complexes. As surface coverage increased, appearance of a second Pb{sup 2+} peak suggests the formation of polynuclear, inner-sphere surface complexes. These results have significant implications for the transport of radionuclides and other contaminants at the NTS and other nuclear test sites and the modeling of these processes.

Um, Wooyong; Papelis, Charalambos

2003-11-01

170

Association of esophageal candidiasis and squamous cell carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Chronic esophageal candidiasis is an infection that is mostly seen in immunocompromised conditions, among which is chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC). Recently an association between CMC and esophageal carcinoma has been reported. Here we present two patients with chronic esophageal candidiasis who developed esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and we discuss the etiologic role of Candida-induced nitrosamine production, the loss of STAT1 function and impaired tumor surveillance and T-lymphocyte function in the development of esophageal carcinoma. PMID:24371724

Delsing, C.E.; Bleeker-Rovers, C.P.; van de Veerdonk, F.L.; Tol, J.; van der Meer, J.W.M.; Kullberg, B.J.; Netea, M.G.

2012-01-01

171

[Non-neoplastic esophageal stenosis: not always so benign].  

PubMed

Esophageal intramural pseudodiverticulosis is a rare pathology whose etiology is unknown, but which is frequently associated with three highly prevalent entities: esophageal reflux disease, esophageal candidosis and alcoholic esophagitis. With conservative treatment the course of these pathologies is usually benign. However, some severe cases are resistant to conservative treatment and may require more aggressive management. We here present the case of patient suffering from a severe esophagitis complicated by chronic mediastinitis with life-threatening repercussions, requiring esophagectomy as treatment. PMID:24088236

Lorenz, Julie; Vollenweider, Peter; Vuilleumier, Henri; Schwab, Marcos

2013-10-01

172

Thoracoscopic elongation of the esophagus in long gap esophageal atresia.  

PubMed

Long gap esophageal atresia in which a primary anastomosis cannot be achieved remains a challenge. Elongation of the esophagus by traction on the 2 ends has been previously described. With the advent of thoracoscopic repair of esophageal atresia, there have thus far been no reports of thoracoscopic repair of long gap esophageal atresia. This paper describes the first successful repair of long gap esophageal atresia by thoracoscopic traction of the 2 esophageal ends and delayed thoracoscopic anastomosis. PMID:17923217

van der Zee, David C; Vieirra-Travassos, Daisy; Kramer, William L M; Tytgat, Stefaan H A J

2007-10-01

173

[Multimodal treatment of esophageal carcinoma].  

PubMed

Despite major progress in clinical diagnostics and therapy, esophageal carcinoma represents a tumor entity with limited prognosis. In case of carcinoma restricted to mucosa endoscopic resection has developed into an important therapeutic method. Surgical resection represents the standard procedure for patients with locally limited (cT1/T2, N0) and advanced carcinoma (cT3, T4, Nx). In multimodal therapy neoadjuvant treatment concepts with chemotherapy or radiochemotherapy for patients with locally advanced tumors are well established. In case of metastatic disease palliative radio- and chemotherapy represent a treatment concept, however therapy efficiency is very limited. This review reflects the current status of multimodal therapy. PMID:25289924

Graf, D; Vallböhmer, D; Knoefel, W T; Budach, W; Häussinger, D

2014-10-01

174

Medical management of esophageal varices and portal hypertension in children.  

PubMed

Portal hypertension (PH) is a common complication of chronic liver disease in children and represents a cause of morbidity and, rarely, mortality in this group of patients. Although often self-limiting, gastrointestinal bleeding in this setting is regarded as a frightening event by patients and carers, giving the impression of impending death. Therefore, it is important to raise the awareness on the natural history of PH in children, the utility of tools that help preventing and managing acute bleeding, and the signs predicting a poor outcome, thus indicating surgery. There is lack of data on the ability of endoscopy screening, endoscopic treatment of varices, and use of nonselective ?-blockers to alter the outcome of PH in children; major efforts should be made to avoid such treatments empirically and promote multicenter trials instead. Nevertheless, such approach should be balanced against the need of offering the best care to children with PH. In this review, we discuss the advances made in the management of PH in children and compare it with the larger adult experience. A rational approach to acute gastrointestinal bleeding is proposed along with an algorithm suggesting a stepwise protocol to manage children with esophageal varices in the long-term, with some hints on possible future studies. PMID:22800974

D'Antiga, Lorenzo

2012-08-01

175

Animal Model of Acid-Reflux Esophagitis: Pathogenic Roles of Acid/Pepsin, Prostaglandins, and Amino Acids  

PubMed Central

Esophagitis was induced in rats within 3?h by ligating both the pylorus and transitional region between the forestomach and glandular portion under ether anesthesia. This esophageal injury was prevented by the administration of acid suppressants and antipepsin drug and aggravated by exogenous pepsin. Damage was also aggravated by pretreatment with indomethacin and the selective COX-1 but not COX-2 inhibitor, whereas PGE2 showed a biphasic effect depending on the dose; a protection at low doses, and an aggravation at high doses, with both being mediated by EP1 receptors. Various amino acids also affected this esophagitis in different ways; L-alanine and L-glutamine had a deleterious effect, while L-arginine and glycine were highly protective, both due to yet unidentified mechanisms. It is assumed that acid/pepsin plays a major pathogenic role in this model of esophagitis; PGs derived from COX-1 are involved in mucosal defense of the esophagus; and some amino acids are protective against esophagitis. These findings also suggest a novel therapeutic approach in the treatment of esophagitis, in addition to acid suppressant therapy. The model introduced may be useful to test the protective effects of drugs on esophagitis and investigate the mucosal defense mechanism in the esophagus. PMID:24672789

2014-01-01

176

Long-term evaluation of esophageal function in patients treated at birth for esophageal atresia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dysphagia, gastroesophageal reflux (GER) and esophageal metaplasia are reported with various incidence in the long term follow-up of patients treated at birth for esophageal atresia (EA). To evaluate the long term outcomes 26 patients treated at birth for EA with Tracheo Esophageal Fistula (TEF) were examined 8-28 (mean 15.8) years later by clinical evaluation, including barium meal, fiberoptic upper GI

V. Tomaselli; M. Volpi; M. Bini; A. Rossi; A. Indriolo

2003-01-01

177

Gastro-esophageal Reflux and Esophageal Motility Disorders in Morbidly Obese Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Morbid obesity has long been considered as a contributing factor to gastro-esophageal reflux, but the literature\\u000a contains conflicting data on the subject. The authors studied a large number of morbidly obese candidates for bariatric surgery\\u000a with objective means, in order to better define the incidence of gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) and esophageal motility\\u000a disorders in this population. Methods: Morbidly

M. Suter; G. Dorta; V. Giusti; J. M. Calmes

2004-01-01

178

[Infectious complications after esophageal surgery].  

PubMed

The incidence of wound infection, which is an intrasurgical field infection, is lower than the incidence of pneumonia, which is an extrasurgical field infection, after esophageal cancer surgery. Several trials predicting postoperative infectious complications have been reported. One measured the phytohemagglutinin- and concanavalin A-induced proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in patients; one measured the white blood cell (WBC) count 2 h after surgery and the decrease in WBC count on first postoperative day; and another showed that the decrease in serum IgG2 level can predict the occurrence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections. Useful strategies for managing infectious complications have also been reported. Applying mupirocin calcium hydrate ointment to the nasal cavity decreases the incidence of MRSA infections. Autologous blood collection reduces the need for allogeneic transfusion in patients undergoing resection of esophageal cancer, and avoidance of allogeneic transfusion may reduce the risk of postoperative infection. The total exposure to preoperative chemoradiotherapy should be limited to 40 Gy or less to prevent postoperative pneumonia. PMID:12599924

Ozawa, Soji; Kitagawa, Yuko; Okamoto, Nobuhiko; Shimizu, Yoshimasa; Kitajima, Masaki

2002-12-01

179

High Resolution Microendoscopy for Quantitative Diagnosis of Esophageal Neoplasia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Esophageal cancer is the eighth most common cancer in the world. Cancers of the esophagus account for 3.8% of all cases of cancers, with approximately 482,300 new cases reported in 2008 worldwide. In the United States alone, it is estimated that approximately 18,000 new cases will be diagnosed in 2013, and 15,210 deaths are expected. Despite advances in surgery and chemoradiation therapy, these advances have not led to a significant increase in survival rates, primarily because diagnosis often at an advanced and incurable stage when treatment is more difficult and less successful. Accurate, objective methods for early detection of esophageal neoplasia are needed. Here, quantitative classification algorithms for high resolution miscroendoscopic images were developed to distinguish between esophageal neoplastic and non-neoplastic tissue. A clinical study in 177 patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) was performed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of the classification algorithm in collaboration with the Mount Sinai Medical Center in the United States, the First Hospital of Jilin University in China, and the Cancer Institute and Hospital, the Chinese Academy of Medical Science in China. The study reported a sensitivity and specificity of 93% and 92%, respectively, in the training set, 87% and 97%, respectively, in the test set, and 84% and 95%, respectively, in an independent validation set. Another clinical study in 31 patients with Barrett's esophagus resulted in a sensitivity of 84% and a specificity of 85%. Finally, a compact, portable version of the high resolution microendoscopy (HRME) device using a consumer-grade camera was developed and a series of biomedical experimental studies were carried out to assess the capability of the device.

Shin, Dongsuk

180

Colonic interposition and supercharge for esophageal reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims  We evaluated the techniques of colonic interposition and supercharge for esophageal reconstruction and discussed the main\\u000a considerations related to these procedures.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Patients and methods  In this study, we performed 51 esophageal reconstructions using colonic interposition. Twenty-eight of the 51 patients had\\u000a synchronous or allochronic gastric malignancy. We selected colonic interposition for high anastomosis in 11 patients and also\\u000a for esophageal bypass

Yasuhiro Shirakawa; Yoshio Naomoto; Kazuhiro Noma; Kazufumi Sakurama; Toshio Nishikawa; Tetsuji Nobuhisa; Masahiko Kobayashi; Takaomi Okawa; Shinya Asami; Tomoki Yamatsuji; Minoru Haisa; Junji Matsuoka; Motohiko Hanazaki; Kiyoshi Morita; Takao Hiraki; Noriaki Tanaka

2006-01-01

181

Esophageal schwannoma: report of a case.  

PubMed

We report a case of esophageal schwannoma in a 46-year-old woman who presented with rapidly progressive dyspnea and dysphagia. Chest computed tomography showed a large mediastinal mass, which was extrinsically compressing the trachea, widely adjacent to the upper thoracic esophagus. We performed an axillary right thoracotomy to enucleate the tumor, which was located in the esophageal muscle layer. A definite diagnosis of esophageal schwannoma was made from the pathologic findings, which included positive immunohistochemical staining for S-100 protein and negative staining for c-kit and CD34. PMID:17522770

Tokunaga, Toshiteru; Takeda, Shin-ichi; Sumimura, Jun-ichi; Maeda, Hajime

2007-01-01

182

Esophageal Melanocytosis in Oral Opium Consumption  

PubMed Central

Esophageal melanocytosis is a rare and benign condition, characterized by melanocytic proliferation of the esophageal squamous epithelium with heavy melanin deposition. The etiology and pathogenesis has not been exactly known but it seems to be a chronic stimulus such as gastroesophageal reflux. This condition is very rare and about 35 cases have been reported so far, most of which have been from India and Japan. Herein, we present a case of esophageal melanocytosis in a patient with long history of oral opium consumption. To the best of our knowledge, such a history has not been reported. PMID:24719715

Geramizadeh, Bita; Asadian, Fatemeh; Taghavi, Alireza

2014-01-01

183

Effect of esophageal emptying and saliva on clearance of acid from the esophagus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The clearance of acid from the esophagus and esophageal emptying in normal subjects was studied. A 15-ml bolus of 0.1 N hydrochloric acid (pH 1.2) radiolabeled with (\\/sup -99m\\/Tc)sulfur colloid was injected into the esophagus, and the subject swallowed every 30 seconds. Concurrent manometry and radionuclide imaging showed nearly complete emptying of acid from the esophagus by an immediate secondary

James F. Helm; Wylie J. Dodds; Lorie R. Pelc; David W. Palmer; Walter J. Hogan; Bruce C. Teeter

1984-01-01

184

Aspirin induction of apoptosis in esophageal cancer: a potential for chemoprevention.  

PubMed

The potential use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in the prevention of gastrointestinal cancers has been highlighted recently. However, it is not known whether NSAIDs could also be useful for preventing esophageal cancer, although regular users of these drugs appear to have a decreased incidence of esophageal cancer. Therefore, we examined the effect of aspirin on growth and apoptosis in 10 esophageal cancer cell lines as well as the expression and modulation of its target enzymes, cyclooxygenases (COXs), and their product prostaglandin E2. Growth inhibition of these cells by aspirin was dose- and time-dependent and associated with the induction of apoptosis. COX-1 and COX-2 were expressed in 7 of the 10 cell lines. Bile acids could induce COX-2 expression in six of eight cell lines tested, which was correlated with prostaglandin E2 production, and aspirin could inhibit COX-2 enzymatic activity even after bile acid stimulation but was unable to change the COX-2 protein level in these cell lines. Down-regulation of bcl-2 by aspirin was found in the two cell lines tested. These results suggest that induction of apoptosis by aspirin may be a mechanism by which it can intervene in esophageal carcinogenesis and may be indicative of the potential of NSAIDs as chemopreventive agents in esophageal cancer. PMID:10868686

Li, M; Lotan, R; Levin, B; Tahara, E; Lippman, S M; Xu, X C

2000-06-01

185

Temporal evolution in caveolin 1 methylation levels during human esophageal carcinogenesis  

PubMed Central

Background Esophageal cancer ranks eighth among frequent cancers worldwide. Our aim was to investigate whether and at which neoplastic stage promoter hypermethylation of CAV1 is involved in human esophageal carcinogenesis. Methods Using real-time quantitative methylation-specific PCR (qMSP), we examined CAV1 promoter hypermethylation in 260 human esophageal tissue specimens. Real-time RT-PCR and qMSP were also performed on OE33 esophageal cancer cells before and after treatment with the demethylating agent, 5-aza-2’-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-dC). Results CAV1 hypermethylation showed highly discriminative ROC curve profiles, clearly distinguishing esophageal adenocarcinomas (EAC) and esophageal squamous cell carcinomas (ESCC) from normal esophagus (NE) (EAC vs. NE, AUROC?=?0.839 and p?test). Treatment of OE33 EAC cells with 5-Aza-dC reduced CAV1 methylation and increased CAV1 mRNA expression. Conclusions CAV1 promoter hypermethylation is a frequent event in human esophageal carcinomas and is associated with early neoplastic progression in Barrett’s esophagus. PMID:24885118

2014-01-01

186

Esophageal ulceration induced by intracavitary irradiation for esophageal carcinoma  

SciTech Connect

Twenty-two patients with esophageal carcinoma had no local recurrence after external and intracavitary radiation treatment, but all developed ulcers in the field of intracavitary irradiation. Ten were linear ulcers that appeared 3-12 months after radiation treatment (mean, 5.3 months); the other 12 were the long circumferential type and appeared 1-8 months after irradiation (mean, 3.7 months). Esophagobronchial fistulae developed in two cases in which deep ulcer had been found between the completion of external irradiation and the beginning of intracavitary irradiation. In these cases with deep ulcer, intracavitary irradiation should not be done. For patients receiving intracavitary radiation, the total dosage should be less than 20 Gy.

Hishikawa, Y.; Tanaka, S.; Miura, T.

1984-08-01

187

21 CFR 868.1910 - Esophageal stethoscope.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...stethoscope. (a) Identification. An esophageal stethoscope is a nonpowered device that is inserted into a patient's esophagus to enable the user to listen to heart and breath sounds. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls)....

2013-04-01

188

21 CFR 868.1910 - Esophageal stethoscope.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...stethoscope. (a) Identification. An esophageal stethoscope is a nonpowered device that is inserted into a patient's esophagus to enable the user to listen to heart and breath sounds. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls)....

2012-04-01

189

21 CFR 868.1910 - Esophageal stethoscope.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...stethoscope. (a) Identification. An esophageal stethoscope is a nonpowered device that is inserted into a patient's esophagus to enable the user to listen to heart and breath sounds. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls)....

2011-04-01

190

21 CFR 868.1910 - Esophageal stethoscope.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...stethoscope. (a) Identification. An esophageal stethoscope is a nonpowered device that is inserted into a patient's esophagus to enable the user to listen to heart and breath sounds. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls)....

2010-04-01

191

21 CFR 868.1910 - Esophageal stethoscope.  

...stethoscope. (a) Identification. An esophageal stethoscope is a nonpowered device that is inserted into a patient's esophagus to enable the user to listen to heart and breath sounds. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls)....

2014-04-01

192

21 CFR 878.3610 - Esophageal prosthesis.  

...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3610 Esophageal...rigid, flexible, or expandable tubular device made of a plastic, metal, or polymeric material that is...

2014-04-01

193

21 CFR 878.3610 - Esophageal prosthesis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3610 Esophageal...rigid, flexible, or expandable tubular device made of a plastic, metal, or polymeric material that is...

2012-04-01

194

21 CFR 878.3610 - Esophageal prosthesis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3610 Esophageal...rigid, flexible, or expandable tubular device made of a plastic, metal, or polymeric material that is...

2011-04-01

195

21 CFR 878.3610 - Esophageal prosthesis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3610 Esophageal...rigid, flexible, or expandable tubular device made of a plastic, metal, or polymeric material that is...

2013-04-01

196

Multimodality Therapy of Nonmetastatic Esophageal Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryEsophageal cancer is a highly aggressive malignancy with an exceedingly poor prognosis. Despite improved surgical techniques over the past decades, which increased the rate of complete tumor resection, improved the perioperative management and reduced the perioperative morbidity and mortality,still less than 10% of patients in the Western World with esophageal cancer will survive more than 5 years. Similar unsatisfactory results

M. Schmücking; T. G. Wendt

1998-01-01

197

Bleeding esophageal ulcers caused by NSAIDs  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   This report describes four patients with NSAID-induced esophageal ulcers documented by endoscopy. The cause of injury was\\u000a ibuprofen alone in two patients, aspirin in one patient, and a combination of aspirin and ibuprofen in one patient. The most\\u000a common findings were anemia, retrosternal pain, and dysphagia. Three patients had bleeding esophageal ulcers requiring blood\\u000a transfusions. One patient had massive

C. Sugawa; Y. Takekuma; C. E. Lucas; H. Amamoto

1997-01-01

198

[Clinicopathological study of acute esophageal mucosal lesion].  

PubMed

Acute esophageal mucosal lesion (AEML) is a comprehensive disease that includes necrotizing esophagitis and acute erosive esophagitis, which result in upper gastrointestinal bleeding. However, little is known about AEML. We examined the clinicopathological features of 57 AEML cases. AEML presented as acute diffuse esophagitis showing an endoscopically erosive mucosa. The disease did not include corrosive injury, radiation-induced damage, infectious esophagitis, or acute exacerbation of chronic gastroesophageal reflux disease. AEML predominantly affected elderly men, and upper gastrointestinal bleeding was the frequent presenting symptom. Severe underlying diseases such as cranial nerve disease or pneumonia were observed in 98% of the patients. Esophageal sliding hernia and gastroduodenal ulcers were endoscopically observed in 67% and 63% of the patients, respectively. Deaths due to exacerbation of the underlying diseases accounted for 16%. Most cases rapidly improved with conservative management using a proton pump inhibitor or an H2 blocker. Therefore, AEML should be considered a disease having characteristics different from those of common gastroesophageal reflux disease. PMID:23831655

Kawauchi, Hirohito; Ohta, Tomoyuki; Matsubara, Yu; Yoshizaki, Koji; Sakamoto, Jun; Amitsuka, Hisato; Kimura, Keisuke; Maemoto, Atsuo; Orii, Fumika; Ashida, Toshifumi

2013-07-01

199

Eosinophilic esophagitis, celiac disease, and immunoglobulin E-mediated allergy in a 2-year-old child.  

PubMed

Celiac disease, eosinophilic esophagitis, and urticaria are 3 manifestations of food allergy with different pathogenic mechanisms. We report the case of a 2-year-old child with digestive symptoms, slow growth, and severe asthma. The results of skin prick tests were positive to several foods. Endoscopy revealed eosinophilic esophagitis and celiac disease. Treatment consisted of a gluten-free diet and a 1-month course of oral corticosteroids. Endoscopy and biopsy findings were normal at 5 years of age. A gluten-free diet is the basis of treatment of celiac disease, but the role of an elimination diet in eosinophilic esophagitis is not well established. Our patient also developed urticaria when exposed to milk and egg.We present, to our knowledge, the first report of a patient with celiac disease, eosinophilic esophagitis, and immediate-type immunoglobulin E-mediated food allergy. PMID:21370728

Sánchez-García, S; Ibáñez, M D; Martinez-Gómez, M J; Escudero, C; Vereda, A; Fernández-Rodríguez, M; Rodríguez del Río, P

2011-01-01

200

Lab-scale fermentation tests of microchip with integrated electrochemical sensors for pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen and viable biomass concentration.  

PubMed

This article shows the development and testing of a microchip with integrated electrochemical sensors for measurement of pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen and viable biomass concentration under yeast cultivation conditions. Measurements were done both under dynamic batch conditions as well as under prolonged continuous cultivation conditions. The response of the sensors compared well with conventional measurement techniques. The biomass sensor was based on impedance spectroscopy. The results of the biomass sensor matched very well with dry weight measurements and showed a limit of detection of approximately 1 g/L. The dissolved oxygen concentration was monitored amperometrically using an ultra-microelectrode array, which showed an accuracy of approximately 0.2 mg/L and negligible drift. pH was monitored using an ISFET with an accuracy well below 0.1 pH unit. The platinum thin-film temperature resistor followed temperature changes with approximately 0.1 degrees C accuracy. The dimensions of the multi sensor chip are chosen as such that it is compatible with the 96-well plate format. PMID:17929319

Krommenhoek, Erik E; van Leeuwen, Michiel; Gardeniers, Han; van Gulik, Walter M; van den Berg, Albert; Li, Xiaonan; Ottens, Marcel; van der Wielen, Luuk A M; Heijnen, Joseph J

2008-03-01

201

Pharyngo-Enteral Anastomosis for Esophageal Reconstruction in Diffuse Corrosive Esophageal Stricture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Diseases involving the entire esophagus usually require extensive surgical procedures to accom- plish functional reconstruction. These procedures are extremely stressful for undernourished patients. We have utilized a simpler procedure for total esophageal reconstruction. Methods. This retrospective report reviews the experi- ence in 8 patients who underwent esophageal reconstruc- tion by pharyngo-colo-gastrostomy or jejunostomy with- out any resection of bony

Jae K. Park; Sung B. Sim; Sun H. Lee; Hae M. Jeon; Moon S. Kwack

202

Primary esophageal adenosquamous carcinoma: a retrospective analysis of 24 cases.  

PubMed

Primary adenosquamous carcinoma (ASC) of the esophagus is a rare kind of malignancy characterized by mixed glandular and squamous differentiation as well as a propensity for aggressive clinical behavior. Data on the evaluation of the clinicopathological features and the prognosis of patients suffering from this malignancy are few because of the rarity of this disease. We conducted a retrospective review of 24 patients with primary esophageal ASC among 6546 esophageal cancer patients who underwent transthoracic esophagectomy in our hospital. The clinicopathological presentation, diagnosis, treatment, and prognostic factors of the patients were respectively investigated. The Kaplan-Meier method and the log rank test were used to calculate and compare overall survival (OS). The Cox proportional hazards model was employed to identify independent prognostic factors. There were 18 males and 6 females with a median age of 60 years (range: 40-78 years). The clinical symptoms, macroscopic type, as well as the radiological and endoscopic features of esophageal ASC were similar to those of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Sixteen (88.9%) of the 18 cases who underwent preoperative esophagoscopic biopsy were misdiagnosed as adenocarcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma. The overall median follow-up period was 36 months, and the median survival time was 32 months. The 1, 3, 5-year OS rates were 75.0%, 48.5%, and 19.4%, respectively. Univariate analysis showed that gender (P = 0.047), lymph node metastasis (P = 0.007), and TNM stage (P = 0.037) were important factors associated with OS of the 22 patients who underwent radical resection. Multivariate analysis showed that the pathological N stage was the only independent prognostic factor (P = 0.031, hazard ratio [HR], 5.369, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.167-24.700). These results suggest that esophageal ASC is an uncommon disease prone to be misdiagnosed by endoscopic biopsy. Surgical resection is the primary treatment, but the prognosis of ASC is usually poorer than conventional squamous cell carcinoma. Lymph node metastasis is an independent prognostic factor after radical resection. PMID:24127755

Zhang, H D; Chen, C G; Gao, Y Y; Ma, Z; Tang, P; Duan, X F; Ren, P; Yue, J; Yu, Z T

2014-11-01

203

NQO1 C609T polymorphism and esophageal cancer risk: a HuGE review and meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Many studies have been carried out to test the hypothesis that the NQO1 C609T polymorphism might be associated with the risk of esophageal cancer. However, the results are poorly consistent, partly due to genetic or other sources of heterogeneity. To investigate the association between this polymorphism and the risk of esophageal cancer, a meta-analysis was performed. Methods We used odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to assess the strength of association. The frequency of the putative risk allele in the controls was estimated by the inverse-variance method. Cochran’s Q statistic and the inconsistency index (I2) were used to check heterogeneity. Egger’s test and an inverted funnel plot were used to assess the publication bias. Results Our study included eight published case-control studies about the NQO1 C609T polymorphism and esophageal cancer, including a total of 1,217 esophageal cancer patients and 1,560 controls. Overall, a significant association was found between the NQO1 C609T variant and esophageal cancer under a recessive model (OR?=?1.647; 95% CI?=?1.233-2.200). Regarding histological type, more significant evidence was found for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) (OR?=?2.03; 95% CI?=?1.29-3.19) than esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) (OR?=?1.61; 95% CI?=?1.01-2.56) under a recessive model. Conclusions The meta-analysis suggests that the NQO1 C609T polymorphism considerably increases the risk of esophageal cancer. PMID:23497461

2013-01-01

204

Esophageal varix predictive performance of lower esophageal Doppler signals during the swallowing process.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to assess whether the swallowing action can improve the display of lower esophageal Doppler signals (LEDS) during transabdominal ultrasound (TUS). Eighty-four patients with cirrhosis underwent both TUS and endoscopic examination for esophageal varices (EVs). LEDS were assessed under the esophageal resting state and during the swallowing process. Univariate analysis indicated that spleen diameter, spleen vein diameter, portal vein diameter, LEDS and left gastric vein hepatofugal flow were significantly associated with the presence of EVs. No LEDS were detected in patients without EVs at rest or during swallowing. Of the 69 patients with EVs, LEDS could be detected in 21 cases (30.4%) in the esophageal resting state and in 58 cases (84.1%) during the swallowing process. Compared with the esophageal resting state, the swallowing action can significantly improve display of LEDS during TUS (p = 0.000), which may be beneficial for TUS detection of EVs. PMID:24951299

Zhang, Chao-Xue; Xu, Xiao-Yong; Wang, Ling; Huang, Meng; Li, Liang

2014-09-01

205

High-resolution Manometry: Esophageal Disorders Not Addressed by the "Chicago Classification"  

PubMed Central

The development of the high-resolution esophageal manometry (HRM) and the Chicago classification have improved the diagnosis and management of esophageal motility disorders. However, some conditions have yet to be addressed by this classification. This review describes findings in HRM which are not included in the current Chicago classification based on the experience in our center. This includes the analysis of the upper esophageal sphincter, proximal esophagus, longitudinal muscle contraction, disorders related to gastroesophageal reflux disease and respiratory symptoms. The utility of provocative tests and the use of HRM in the evaluation of rumination syndrome and post-surgical patients will also be discussed. We believe that characterization of the manometric findings in these areas will eventually lead to incorporation of new criteria into the existing classification. PMID:23105996

Yazaki, Etsuro; Sifrim, Daniel

2012-01-01

206

InterSCOPE Study: Associations Between Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Human Papillomavirus Serological Markers  

PubMed Central

Background The role of human papillomavirus (HPV) in the causation of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma is unclear. We examined the associations between esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and 28 centrally measured HPV serological markers in serum from six existing case–control studies conducted in regions with differing background risks of esophageal cancer. Methods We used centralized multiplex serology to test serum samples from 1561 case subjects and 2502 control subjects from six case–control studies for antibodies to the major HPV capsid protein (L1) and/or the early proteins E6 and/or E7 of eight high-risk, two low-risk, and four cutaneous HPV types. Study-specific odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using conditional logistic regression with adjustment for smoking, alcohol consumption, and other potential confounders. Pooled odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using either a linear mixed-effects approach or a joint fixed-effects approach. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results We found statistically significant associations between esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and antibodies to E6 for HPV16 (OR = 1.89, 95% CI = 1.09 to 3.29, P = .023) and HPV6 (OR = 2.53, 95% CI = 1.51 to 4.25, P < .001) but not for other tested HPV types. There were no statistically significant associations between esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and antibodies to E7 for any of the tested HPV types. Simultaneous seropositivity for HPV16 E6 and E7 was rare (four case subjects, two control subjects; OR = 5.57, 95% CI = 0.90 to 34.35; P = .064). We also found statistically significant associations between esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and capsid antibodies for the high-risk mucosal type HPV33 L1 (OR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.00 to 1.69; P = .047) and the low-risk mucosal types HPV6 (OR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.05 to 1.42; P = .010) and HPV11 (OR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.09 to 1.56, P = .0036). Conclusions We found limited serological evidence of an association between esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and HPV in the populations studied. Although HPV does not appear to be an important risk factor for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, we cannot exclude the possibility that certain HPV types may be involved in a small subset of cancers. PMID:22228147

Egger, Sam; Urban, Margaret I.; Taylor, Philip R.; Abnet, Christian C.; Boffetta, Paolo; O'Connell, Dianne L.; Whiteman, David C.; Brennan, Paul; Malekzadeh, Reza; Pawlita, Michael; Dawsey, Sanford M.; Waterboer, Tim; Webb, Penelope M.; Green, Adele C.; Hayward, Nicholas K.; Zaridze, David; Holcatova, Ivana; Mates, Dana; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Ferro, Gilles; Janout, Vladimir; Curado, Maria Paula; Menezes, Ana Maria; Koifman, Sergio; Islami, Farhad; Nasrollahzadeh, Dariush; Hu, Nan; Goldstein, Alisa M.; Gao, Ying; Ding, Ti; Kamangar, Farin

2012-01-01

207

Blunt traumatic esophageal injury: Unusual presentation and approach?  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Blunt esophageal injury is extremely rare event. However, it is a potential morbid injury unless managed early. PRESENTATION OF CASE We report a rare case of blunt esophageal injury for a 28-year old male who presented with history of fall of heavy object over the right side of the chest. Diagnostic work up including chest X-ray, computerized tomography scans and gastrografin esophagogram revealed lower esophageal rupture. Right mini-thoracotomy with esophageal repair was performed. Postoperative course was uneventful. DISCUSSION The exact mechanism of blunt esophageal injury remains uncertain. This report described a unique location of esophageal rupture after blunt trauma that happened on the right side. Diagnosis of esophageal injury needs high index of suspicion and accurate diagnostic workup. CONCLUSION Prompt diagnosis and management are the key for better prognosis in patients with blunt esophageal injury. PMID:24394856

Abdulrahman, Husham; Ajaj, Ahmad; Shunni, Adam; El-Menyar, Ayman; Chaikhouni, Amer; Al-Thani, Hassan; Latifi, Rifat

2013-01-01

208

Inconsistent association of esophageal symptoms, psychometric abnormalities and dysmotility  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES:The aim of this study was to characterize the psychometric profiles of symptomatic patients with abnormal esophageal motility and symptomatic patients with normal manometric findings compared to asymptomatic controls.METHODS:A total of 113 patients with abnormal esophageal motility (7 achalasia, 8 diffuse esophageal spasm, 27 nutcracker esophagus, 37 hypertensive lower esophageal sphincter, 21 hypotensive peristalsis, 13 failed peristalsis), 23 symptomatic controls

Chi W. Song; Seong J. Lee; Yoon T. Jeen; Hoon J. Chun; Soon H. Um; Chang D. Kim; Ho S. Ryu; Jin H. Hyun; Min S. Lee; Peter J. Kahrilas

2001-01-01

209

Secondary esophageal contractions are abnormal in chronic alcoholics  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is known that primary (swallow-induced) esophageal contractions are abnormal in alcoholics. Data concerning acid-induced esophageal contractions, which appear to be important in cleansing refluxed acid from the esophagus, are lacking. To determine whether acid-induced esophageal contractions are also affected by chronic ethanol exposure, we studied secondary (acid or saline-induced) esophageal motor events in 19 male alcoholics [6 actively drinking

A. Keshavarzian; C. Polepalle; F. L. Iber; M. Durkin

1992-01-01

210

Broken Esophageal Stent Successfully Treated by Interventional Radiology Technique  

SciTech Connect

Esophageal stent fractures occur quite rarely. A 61-year-old male patient was previously treated for rupture of benign stenosis, occurring after dilatation, by implanting an esophageal stent. However, a year after implantation, the patient suffered from dysphagia caused by the broken esophageal stent. He was treated with the interventional radiology technique, whereby a second implantation of the esophageal stent was carried out quite successfully.

Zelenak, Kamil, E-mail: zelenak@mfn.s [University Hospital, Department of Radiology (Slovakia); Mistuna, Dusan; Lucan, Jaroslav [University Hospital, Department of Surgery (Slovakia); Polacek, Hubert [University Hospital, Department of Radiology (Slovakia)

2010-06-15

211

Allelic imbalance of 14q32 in esophageal carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been demonstrated that the accumulation of alterations in several oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes plays a role in the initiation and progression of esophageal carcinoma. However, to our knowledge, very few studies have described the molecular genetic changes of chromosome arm 14q in esophageal carcinoma. In this study, we examined 35 primary esophageal carcinomas for allelic imbalance on

Yuji Ihara; Yuji Kato; Tadashi Bando; Fuminori Yamagishi; Tetsuji Minamimura; Takashi Sakamoto; Kazuhiro Tsukada; Masaharu Isobe

2002-01-01

212

Molecular and cellular features of esophageal cancer cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than 70 cell lines were established from esophageal cancer, including 15 TE-series cell lines established by the authors. This article reviews molecular and cellular features of esophageal cancer cells from studies using these cell lines as well as primary tumors. The subjects reviewed include primary cultures of normal epithelium of the esophagus and of esophageal tumors, their growth and

Tetsuro Nishihira; Yu Hashimoto; Masafumi Katayama; Shozo Mori; Toshio Kuroki

1993-01-01

213

ESOPHAGEAL LICHEN PLANUS: A CASE REPORT AND REVIEW OF LITERATURE  

PubMed Central

Lichen planus is a rare cause of esophagitis and esophageal stricture. It is invariably associated with oral mucosal involvement and the diagnosis has to be considered in these patients who present with dysphagia. We present a case of esophageal stricture secondary to lichen planus. PMID:19967015

Madhusudhan, K S; Sharma, Raju

2008-01-01

214

Corrosive esophageal strictures: Predictors of response to endoscopic dilation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-one patients with corrosive esophageal strictures underwent contrast-enhanced CT of the chest to determine (1) the esophageal wall thickness at the stricture site and (2) its correlation with number of sessions required for adequate dilation. Average esophageal wall thickness was defined as the mean thickness of all four walls at the site of the stricture, whereas the size of the

Deepak Lahoti; Sohan L. Broor; Partha P. Basu; Ajay Gupta; Rajesh Sharma; Chandra S. Pant

1995-01-01

215

Esophageal motor abnormalities in scleroderma and related diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Esophageal motor activity was measured by intra-esophageal pressure recordings in 53 patients with scleroderma and 29 patients with other collagen diseases. The purpose of the study was to determine the relationship of motor abnormalities to esophageal symptoms, to compare the abnormalities in scleroderma with those in other collagen diseases, and to try to increase understanding of the responsible mechanism. Methacholine

Thomas A. Saladin; Arthur B. French; Chris J. D. Zarafonetis; H. Marvin Pollard

1966-01-01

216

Design of pH-responsive alginate raft formulation of risedronate for reduced esophageal irritation.  

PubMed

Risedronate sodium (RA), a pyridinyl bisphosphonate, is widely used in the treatment of osteoporosis. However, the free acid form of the bisphosphonate below pH 3.5 has the potential to produce severe impatience of the upper gastrointestinal tract, particularly esophagitis. A pH-responsive raft-forming tablet (PRR-T) was designed to prevent the esophageal irritation, mainly consisting of low-molecular-weight alginate (LFR 5/60, 300mg) as raft-forming polymer, sodium bicarbonate (1000mg) as gas-generating agent and citrate and sodium citrate (600 and 200mg, respectively) as buffer system. A PRR-T was rapidly liquefied in water within 80s with a low viscosity 8.0mPas, offering ease of swallowing in patients. A formulation profoundly neutralized simulated gastric fluid over pH 5.5, leading to an ionization of the bisphosphonate, without raft formation. On the other hand, the raft was rapidly formed on the top layer preventing the reflux of RA, if the contact with acidic medium is much higher than 0.5N of hydrochloric acid. Nevertheless, the release rate of the drug was equivalent, providing over 95% release within 5min. Our study demonstrated the potential usefulness of alginate-based PRR-T for an oral therapy with bisphosphonates for reduced esophageal adverse experiences. PMID:24995633

Jang, Sun Woo; Lee, Jung Woo; Ryu, Dong Sung; Son, Miwon; Kang, Myung Joo

2014-09-01

217

Corrosion tests to determine temperature and pH dependencies of the dissolution rates of sodalite, binder glass, and ceramic waste form.  

SciTech Connect

A glass bonded-sodalite ceramic waste form (CWF) has been developed to immobilize salt wastes from electrometallurgical treatment of sodium-bonded spent nuclear fuel. The CWF is a composite of salt-loaded sodalite and a binder glass formed at high temperature (850-950 C) by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) or pressureless-consolidation (PC) processes. A waste form degradation and radionuclide release model has been developed to support qualification of the CWF for disposal in the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain. Six series of tests were conducted in conjunction with the development of that model. (1) Static tests were conducted to measure the dissolution rate of sodalite, HIP binder glass, and HIP CWF at 40, 70, and 90 C in pH range 4.8-9.8 buffer solution. The parameter values in the degradation model were calculated from the dissolution rates measured by the static tests. (2) Static tests were conducted at 70 C in noncomplexing tertiary amine pH buffers to confirm that the dissolution rate measured with traditional buffers was not affected by the complexation of metal ions. The results showed that the difference between dissolution rate determined with noncomplexing buffer and that determined with traditional buffers was negligible. (3) Static tests were conducted in five buffer solutions in the pH range 4.8-9.8 at 20 C with HIP sodalite, HIP glass, and HIP CWF. The results showed that the model adequately predicts the dissolution rate of these materials at 20 C. (4) Static tests at 20 and 70 C with CWF made by the PC process indicated that the model parameters extracted from the results of tests with HIP CWF could be applied to PC CWF. (5) The dissolution rates of a modified glass made with a composition corresponding to 80 wt% glass and 20 wt% sodalite were measured at 70 C to evaluate the sensitivity of the rate to the composition of binder glass in the CWF. The dissolution rates of the modified binder glass were indistinguishable from the rates of the binder glass. (6) The dissolution rate of a simple five-component glass (CSG) was measured at 70 C using static tests and single-pass flow-through (SPFT) tests. Rates were similar for the two methods; however, the measured rates are about 10X higher than the rates measured previously at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for a glass having the same composition using an SPFT test method. Differences are attributed to effects of the solution flow rate on the glass dissolution rate and how the specific surface area of crushed glass is estimated. This comparison indicates the need to standardize the SPFT test procedure.

Jeong, S.-Y.; Fanning, T. H.; Morss, L. R.; Ebert, W. L.

2003-02-12

218

Esophageal Bezoar in a Patient with Achalasia: Case Report and Literature Review  

PubMed Central

Esophageal bezoars are rare, but are recognized as a distinct clinical entity. They are known to occur in patients with esophageal structural and functional abnormalities, but only a few cases of the development of esophageal bezoars in patients with esophageal motility disorders have only been described. We report a rare case of an esophageal bezoar that developed in a patient with achalasia, and review the literature concerning esophageal bezoars associated with esophageal motility disorders. PMID:20479921

Kim, Ki Hoon; Seo, Geom Seog; Kim, Yong Sung; Choi, Chang Soo; Im, Chong Ju

2010-01-01

219

Pharmacological Management of Esophageal Food Bolus Impaction  

PubMed Central

Background. Soft esophageal bolus impaction is an emergency that requires skilled endoscopic removal if persistent obstructive symptoms do not resolve spontaneously after careful observation. Expedited care of these patients is crucial to avoid respiratory and mechanical complications. Other possible options for management include medical agents used to manage it prior to performing endoscopy if access to endoscopy was not available or declined by the patient. Aim. To review the available pharmacological and other nonmedicinal options and their mechanism of relief for soft esophageal impaction. Method. Pubmed, Medline and Ovid were used for search of MESH terms pertinent including “foreign body, esophageal, esophageal bolus and medical” for pharmacological and non medicinial agents used for management of esophageal soft bolus impaction as well as manual review of the cross-references. Results. Several agents were identified including Buscopan, Glucagon, nitrates, calcium channel blockers, and papaveretum. Non medicinal agents are water, effervescent agents, and papain. No evidence was found to suggest preference or effectiveness of use of a certain pharmacological agent compared to others. Buscopan, Glucagon, benzodiazepines, and nitrates were studied extensively and may be used in selected patients with caution. Use of papain is obsolete in management of soft bolus impaction. PMID:23738071

Khayyat, Yasir Mohammed

2013-01-01

220

Multidisciplinary approach for patients with esophageal cancer  

PubMed Central

Patients with esophageal cancer have a poor prognosis because they often have no symptoms until their disease is advanced. There are no screening recommendations for patients unless they have Barrett’s esophagitis or a significant family history of this disease. Often, esophageal cancer is not diagnosed until patients present with dysphagia, odynophagia, anemia or weight loss. When symptoms occur, the stage is often stage III or greater. Treatment of patients with very early stage disease is fairly straight forward using only local treatment with surgical resection or endoscopic mucosal resection. The treatment of patients who have locally advanced esophageal cancer is more complex and controversial. Despite multiple trials, treatment recommendations are still unclear due to conflicting data. Sadly, much of our data is difficult to interpret due to many of the trials done have included very heterogeneous groups of patients both histologically as well as anatomically. Additionally, studies have been underpowered or stopped early due to poor accrual. In the United States, concurrent chemoradiotherapy prior to surgical resection has been accepted by many as standard of care in the locally advanced patient. Patients who have metastatic disease are treated palliatively. The aim of this article is to describe the multidisciplinary approach used by an established team at a single high volume center for esophageal cancer, and to review the literature which guides our treatment recommendations. PMID:23239911

Villaflor, Victoria M; Allaix, Marco E; Minsky, Bruce; Herbella, Fernando A; Patti, Marco G

2012-01-01

221

FOLFOX-6 Induction Chemotherapy Followed by Esophagectomy and Post-operative Chemoradiotherapy in Patients With Esophageal Adenocarcinoma  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adenocarcinoma of the Esophagus; Adenocarcinoma of the Gastroesophageal Junction; Adenocarcinoma of the Gastric Cardia; Stage IIIA Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIIB Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIIC Esophageal Cancer

2014-07-21

222

In vitro release testing of matrices based on starch-methyl methacrylate copolymers: effect of tablet crushing force, dissolution medium pH and stirring rate.  

PubMed

Direct-compressed matrix tablets were obtained from a variety of potato starch-methyl methacrylate copolymers(1) as sustained-release agents, using anhydrous theophylline as a model drug. The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of the copolymer type, the tablet crushing force and dissolution variables such as the pH of the dissolution medium and the agitation intensity on the in vitro drug release behaviour of such matrices. Commercial sustained-release theophylline products (Theo-Dur(®) 100mg, Theolair(®) 175 mg) were used as standards. Test formulations were compacted into tablets at three different crushing force ranges (70-80, 90-100 and 110-120 N) to examine the effect of this factor on the porous network and drug release kinetics. In vitro release experiments were conducted in a pH-changing medium (1.2-7.5) with basket rotation speeds in the range 25-100 r.p.m. to simulate the physiological conditions of the gastrointestinal tract. The release rate of theophylline was practically not affected by pH in the case of Theo-Dur(®) and HSMMA matrices. In contrast, Theolair(®) and CSMMA tablets demonstrated a biphasic drug release pattern, which appeared to be sensitive to the pH of the dissolution medium. An increase in the crushing force of the copolymer matrices was accompanied by a reduction of the matrix porosity, although the porous network depends markedly on the type of copolymer, having a strong influence on the drug release kinetics. Mathematical modelling of release data shows a Fickian diffusion or anomalous transport mechanism. Based on the similarity factor f2, FD-HSMMA, OD-CSMMA and FD-CSMMA at 90-100 N were selected for agitation studies. In general, all formulations showed an agitation speed-dependent release, with Theo-Dur(®) and FD-CSMMA matrices being the less susceptible to this factor. PMID:24333902

Ferrero, C; Jiménez-Castellanos, M R

2014-01-30

223

Diagnostic performance of CT esophagography in patients with suspected esophageal rupture.  

PubMed

Esophageal rupture is a surgical catastrophe. The gold standard for diagnosing is iodine, water-soluble contrast medium esophagography. CT esophagography has shown promising results. This study aimed to assess the diagnostic performance of CT esophagography in patients with a suspicion of esophageal rupture. This prospective study assessed the performance of a diagnostic test and was approved by local IRB committee. Patients who presented with a clinical suspicion of esophageal rupture were included. CT esophagography findings were described by the emergency radiologist. Clinical outcomes (presence or absence of esophageal rupture) were reported by surgeons. The operative characteristics were calculated. A final predictive scale for rupture was built. A total of 64 patients were recruited (age 26.5 years, 90 % male, 82 % trauma). Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative likelihood ratios (LRs) were 77.7 % (95 % confidence interval (CI) 45-100), 94.3 % (87.2-100), 14 (9.81-19.9), and 0.24 (0.05-1.22), respectively. The final model for predicting rupture included five variables: age (odds ratio (OR) 1.03; 95 % CI, 0.95-1.11; p?=?0.04), leakage of contrast media into the mediastinum or pleural space (OR 10.0; 95 % CI, 0.64-156.9; p?=?0.10), extraluminal air or fluid collections (OR 43.1; 95 % CI, 1.52-1217.3; p?=?0.027), esophageal wall thickening (OR 10.1; 95 % CI, 0.50-202.8; p?=?0.12), and left pneumothorax or pleural effusion (OR 6.5; 95 % CI, 0.31-132.7; p?=?0.2). The overall agreement was 0.40 (95 % CI, 0.09-0.72) for the predictive model. The model sensitivity was 50.0 %, and the specificity was 98.4 %. CT esophagography shows a good diagnostic performance in patients with a suspected esophageal rupture. PMID:24748526

Suarez-Poveda, Tatiana; Morales-Uribe, Carlos H; Sanabria, Alvaro; Llano-Sánchez, Adriana; Valencia-Delgado, Andrés Mauricio; Rivera-Velázquez, Luis Fernando; Bedoya-Ospina, John Fernando

2014-10-01

224

O-6-methylguanine-deoxyribonucleic acid methyltransferase methylation enhances response to temozolomide treatment in esophageal cancer  

PubMed Central

Background: World-wide, esophageal cancer is a growing epidemic and patients frequently present with advanced disease that is surgically inoperable. Hence, chemotherapy is the predominate treatment. Cytotoxic platinum compounds are mostly used, but their efficacy is only moderate. Newer alkylating agents have shown promise in other tumor types, but little is known about their utility in esophageal cancer. Methods: We utilized archived human esophageal cancer samples and esophageal cancer cell lines to evaluate O-6-methylguanine-deoxyribonucleic acid methyltransferase (MGMT) hypermethylation status and determined sensitivity to the alkylating drug temozolomide (TMZ). Immunoblot analysis was performed to determine MGMT protein expression in cell lines. To assess and confirm the effect of TMZ treatment in a methylated esophageal cancer cell line in vivo, a mouse flank xenograft tumor model was utilized. Results: Nearly 71% (12/17) of adenocarcinoma and 38% (3/8) of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) patient samples were MGMT hypermethylated. Out of four adenocarcinoma and nine SCC cell lines tested, one of each histology was hypermethylated. Immunoblot analyses confirmed that hypermethylated cell lines did not express the MGMT protein. In vitro cell viability assays showed the methylated Kyse-140 and FLO cells to be sensitive to TMZ at an IC50 of 52-420 ?M, whereas unmethylated cells Kyse-410 and SKGT-4 did not respond. In an in vivo xenograft tumor model with Kyse-140 cells, which are MGMT hypermethylated, TMZ treatment abrogated tumor growth by more than 60%. Conclusion: MGMT methylation may be an important biomarker in subsets of esophageal cancers and targeting by TMZ may be utilized to successfully treat these patients. PMID:24319345

Hasina, Rifat; Surati, Mosmi; Kawada, Ichiro; Arif, Qudsia; Carey, George B.; Kanteti, Rajani; Husain, Aliya N.; Ferguson, Mark K.; Vokes, Everett E.; Villaflor, Victoria M.; Salgia, Ravi

2013-01-01

225

2011 update on esophageal achalasia  

PubMed Central

There have been some breakthroughs in the diagnosis and treatment of esophageal achalasia in the past few years. First, the introduction of high-resolution manometry with pressure topography plotting as a new diagnostic tool has made it possible to classify achalasia into three subtypes. The most favorable outcome is predicted for patients receiving treatment for type II achalasia (achalasia with compression). Patients with typeI(classic achalasia) and type III achalasia (spastic achalasia) experience a less favorable outcome. Second, the first multicenter randomized controlled trial published by the European Achalasia Trial group reported 2-year follow-up results indicating that laparoscopic Heller myotomy was not superior to endoscopic pneumatic dilation (PD). Although the follow-up period was not long enough to reach a convincing conclusion, it merits the continued use of PD as a generally available technique in gastroenterology. Third, the novel endoscopic technique peroral endoscopic myotomy is a promising option for treating achalasia, but it requires increased experience and cautious evaluation. Despite all this good news, the bottom line is a real breakthrough from the basic studies to identify the actual cause of achalasia that may impede treatment success is still anticipated. PMID:22529685

Chuah, Seng-Kee; Hsu, Pin-I; Wu, Keng-Liang; Wu, Deng-Chyang; Tai, Wei-Chen; Changchien, Chi-Sin

2012-01-01

226

Congenital esophageal stenosis owing to tracheobronchial remnants  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To emphasize the need of an accurate diagnosis of congenital esophageal stenosis due to tracheobronchial remnants, since its treatment differs from other types of congenital narrowing. CASE DESCRIPTION Four cases of lower congenital esophageal stenosis due to tracheobronchial remnants, whose definitive diagnosis was made by histopathology. Except for the last case, in which a concomitant anti-reflux surgery was not performed, all had a favorable outcome after resection and anastomosis of the esophagus. COMMENTS The congenital esophageal stenosis is an intrinsic narrowing of the organâ€(tm)s wall associated with its structural malformation. The condition can be caused by tracheobronchial remnants, fibromuscular stenosis or membranous diaphragm and the first symptom is dysphagia after the introduction of solid food in the diet. The first-choice treatment to tracheobronchial remnants cases is the surgical resection and end-to-end anastomosis of the esophagus. PMID:24142326

Rebelo, Priscila Guyt; Ormonde, Joao Victor C.; Ormonde, Joao Baptista C.

2013-01-01

227

Early esophageal carcinoma treated with intracavitary irradiation  

SciTech Connect

Five patients with early esophageal carcinoma were treated by 6-12 Gy of intracavitary irradiation following 50-60 Gy of external irradiation as a boost therapy. Surgery was not performed in these cases. None of the patients had local recurrence after radiation therapy, as demonstrated by esophagography and endoscopy. Three patients have been alive for 1-3 years 10 months. Esophageal ulceration induced by intracavitary irradiation has occurred in three of the five patients; however, intracavitary irradiation is still a beneficial treatment because of its efficacy in controlling local lesions and because radiation ulceration can eventually be cured. Intracavitary irradiation is recommended to follow external irradiation as a boost therapy for the treatment of early esophageal carcinoma.

Hishikawa, Y.; Tanaka, S.; Miura, T.

1985-08-01

228

MicroRNA involvement in esophageal carcinogenesis.  

PubMed

MicroRNAs (miRs) have recently emerged as a novel class of gene expression regulators. The number of studies documenting an altered miR expression pattern in cancer continues to expand rapidly. Critical information is continuously gained regarding how aberrantly expressed miRs contribute to carcinogenesis. Current studies provide evidence that analyses of miR expression patterns have potential clinical applications toward developing tumor biomarkers to identify the presence and dissemination of esophageal cancer, as well as to assess tumor chemosensitivity or radiosensitivity. The incidence of esophageal cancer is on the rise, and this disease continues to portend a poor prognosis. The current review addresses ways in which altered miR expression contributes to esophageal carcinogenesis, along with how recent discoveries may be applied clinically. PMID:21992930

David, Stefan; Meltzer, Stephen J

2011-12-01

229

Herpetic Esophagitis in Immunocompetent Medical Student  

PubMed Central

Esophagitis caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV) is often documented during periods of immunosuppression in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV); it is rare in immunocompetent diagnosed patients. Case reports of herpetic esophagitis in students of health sciences are extremely rare. The disease presents with a clinical picture characterized by acute odynophagia and retrosternal pain without obvious causes and ulcers, evidenced endoscopically in the middistal esophagus. Diagnosis depends on endoscopy, biopsies for pathology studies, and immunohistochemistry techniques. The disease course is often benign; however, treatment with acyclovir speeds the disappearance of symptoms and limits the severity of infection. In this report, we present a case of herpetic esophagitis in an immunocompetent medical student, with reference to its clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment. The disease may have manifested as a result of emotional stress experienced by the patient. PMID:24707416

Marinho, Andreia Vidica; Bonfim, Vinicius Mendes; de Alencar, Luciana Rodrigues; Pinto, Sebastiao Alves; de Araujo Filho, Joao Alves

2014-01-01

230

Cineradiography identifies esophageal candidiasis in progressive systemic sclerosis.  

PubMed

Cineradiography of the esophagus showed signs of esophageal candidiasis in 11 out of 71 patients with progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS) - both in diffuse scleroderma and the CREST syndrome. Culture of esophageal brushings confirmed the presence of Candida albicans in eight of these 11 patients. Antimycotic treatment decreased the cineradiographic signs of candidiasis and the degree of dysphagia. Since impaired esophageal motility and treatment with immunosuppressive drugs may predispose to candida esophagitis, and since dysphagia will decrease after antimycotic treatment esophageal mycosis should always be sought in patients with PSS. PMID:2706818

Geirsson, A J; Akesson, A; Gustafson, T; Elner, A; Wollheim, F A

1989-01-01

231

Proton Beam Therapy and concurrent chemotherapy for esophageal cancer  

PubMed Central

Purpose/Objective Proton beam therapy (PBT) is a promising modality for the management of thoracic malignancies. We report our preliminary experience of treating esophageal cancer patients with concurrent chemotherapy (CChT) and PBT at MD Anderson Cancer Center. Materials/Methods This is an analysis of 62 esophageal cancer patients enrolled on a prospective study evaluating normal tissue toxicity from CChT/PBT from 2006 to 2010. Patients were treated with Passive Scattering PBT with 2 or 3 field beam arrangement using 180–250 MV protons. We used the method of Kaplan and Meier to assess time to event outcomes and compared the distributions between groups using the log-rank test. Results The median follow-up time was 20.1 months for survivors. The median age was 68 years (range 38–86). Most were males (82%), had adenocarcinomas (76%) and had stage II-III disease (84%). The median radiation dose was 50.4 Gray-Equivalence (Gy(RBE)) (range 36–57.6). The most common grade 2–3 acute toxicities from CChT/PBT were esophagitis (46.8%), fatigue (43.6%), nausea (33.9%), anorexia (30.1%), and radiation dermatitis (16.1%). There were two cases of grade 2 and 3 radiation pneumonitis and two grade 5 toxicities. A total of 29 patients (46.8%) received preoperative CChT/PBT with one postoperative death. The pathologic complete response (pCR) rate for the surgical cohort was 28%, and the pCR and near CR rate (0–1% residual cells) was 50%. While there were significantly fewer local-regional recurrences in the preoperative group (3/29) as compared to the definitive CChT/PBT group (16/33) (log-rank test p=0.005), there were no differences in DM free interval or OS between the two groups. Conclusions This is the first report of patients treated with PBT/CChT for esophageal cancer. Our data suggest that this modality is associated with a few severe toxicities but the pathologic response and clinical outcomes are encouraging. Prospective comparison with more traditional approach is warranted. PMID:22417808

Lin, Steven H.; Komaki, Ritsuko; Liao, Zhongxing; Wei, Caimiao; Myles, Bevan; Guo, Xiaomao; Palmer, Matthew; Mohan, Radhe; Swisher, Stephen G.; Hofstetter, Wayne L.; Ajani, Jaffer A.; Cox, James D.

2014-01-01

232

Transhiatal Esophageal Resection for Corrosive Injury  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To analyze the feasibility and safety of transhiatal approach for resection of corrosively scarred esophagus. Background Summary Data: The unrelenting corrosive strictures of esophagus merit esophageal substitution. Because of the risk of complications in the retained esophagus, such as malignancy, mucocele, gastroesophageal reflux, and bleeding, esophageal resection is deemed necessary. Transthoracic approach for esophageal resection is considered safe. The safety and feasibility of transhiatal resection of the esophagus is not established in corrosive injury of the esophagus. Patients and Methods: Transhiatal approach was used for resection of the scarred esophagus for all patients between January 1986 and December 2001. The intraoperative complications, indications for adding thoracotomy, and postoperative outcome were studied in 51 patients. Follow-up period varied from minimum of 6 months to 15 years. Results: Esophageal resection was achieved in 49 of 51 patients whereas thoracotomy was added in 2 patients. In 1 of the patients tracheal injury occurred whereas in other patient there were dense adhesions between tracheal membrane and esophagus. Gastric tube was used for esophageal substitution in 40 (78.4%) patients whereas colon was transplanted in 11 (21.6%) patients. Colon was used only when stomach was not available. One patient (1.9%) had tracheal membrane injury whereas 4 patients (7.8%) had recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy. One patient each had thoracic duct injury and intrathoracic gastric tube leak. There was no operative mortality. Anastomotic complications like leak were present in 19.6% and stricture in 58.8% patients. All the patients were able to resume their normal duties and swallow normal food within 6 months of the surgery. Conclusion: One-stage transhiatal esophageal resection and reconstruction could be safely used for the extirpation of scarred esophagus. Use of gastric conduit was technically simple, quicker, and offered good functional outcome. Postoperative anastomotic stricture amenable to dilatations was the commonest complication. PMID:15075652

Gupta, Narendar Mohan; Gupta, Rajesh

2004-01-01

233

The quantitative ELISA for inactivated Newcastle disease virus antigen: development of the test system and the way to a Ph. Eur in vitro potency test.  

PubMed

The development of an alternative in vitro potency test required experimental studies, which were performed in-house and in collaboration with other laboratories (Official Medicines Control Laboratories, Manufacturers), coordinated by EDQM (European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines & HealthCare). This paper provides background information concerning the development of the quantitative ELISA for inactivated Newcastle disease virus (NDV) antigen, which was added in the European Pharmacopoeia monograph as an in vitro batch potency test. PMID:22888595

Oei, H L

2012-01-01

234

Etiology, diagnosis and treatment of infectious esophagitis.  

PubMed

Infectious esophagitis may be caused by fungal, viral, bacterial or even parasitic agents. Risk factors include antibiotics and steroids use, chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy, malignancies and immunodeficiency syndromes including acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Acute onset of symptoms such as dysphagia and odynophagia is typical. It can coexist with heartburn, retrosternal discomfort, nausea and vomiting. Abdominal pain, anorexia, weight loss and even cough are present sometimes. Infectious esophagitis is predominantly caused by Candida species. Other important causes include cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex virus infection. PMID:24868280

Roso?owski, Mariusz; Kierzkiewicz, Maciej

2013-01-01

235

Technological advances in radiotherapy for esophageal cancer  

PubMed Central

Radiotherapy with concurrent chemotherapy and surgery represent the main treatment modalities in esophageal cancer. The goal of modern radiotherapy approaches, based on recent technological advances, is to minimize post-treatment complications by improving the gross tumor volume definition (positron emission tomography-based planning), reducing interfraction motion (image-guided radiotherapy) and intrafraction motion (respiratory-gated radiotherapy), and by better dose delivery to the precisely defined planning target volume (intensity-modulated radiotherapy and proton therapy). Reduction of radiotherapy-related toxicity is fundamental to the improvement of clinical results in esophageal cancer, although the dose escalation concept is controversial. PMID:21105188

Vosmik, Milan; Petera, Jiri; Sirak, Igor; Hodek, Miroslav; Paluska, Petr; Dolezal, Jiri; Kopacova, Marcela

2010-01-01

236

[Epithelium constitution for esophageal tissue engineering using electrospinning technology].  

PubMed

The basement membrane (BM) is crucial in regulating the physical and biological activities of esophageal epithelial cells which attach to the underlying BM. In order to simulate the natural construction of BM, we prepared the fibrous scaffolds using biodegradable polylactide (PLA) and silk fibroin (SF) as the materials via electrospinning technology. BM's proteins containing collagen (IV), laminin, entactin and proteoglycan were extracted from porcine esophagus and coated on the eletrospun fibers. Morphology, mechanical strength, biodegradability and cytocompatibility of the coated and uncoated scaffolds were tested and evaluated using scanning electron micrography, mechanical test system, immunofluorescence assay and western blotting with CK14 as the primary antibody. The fibrous scaffold PLA or PLA/SF, generated from the present protocol had good formation and mechanical and biodegradable properties. After coating with BM's proteins, the scaffold could enhance the growth and differentiation of esophageal epithelial cells, which would contribute to remodel and regenerate the tissue engineered epithelium and further contribute to engineer the whole esophagus in future. PMID:24660627

Chen, Ling; Lv, Jingjing; Yu, Xuechan; Kang, Cheng; Zhu, Yabin

2013-12-01

237

Transcutaneous cervical esophagus ultrasound in adults: Relation with ambulatory 24-h pH-monitoring and esophageal manometry  

PubMed Central

AIM: To determine the gastroesophageal refluxate in the cervical esophagus (CE) and measure transcutaneous cervical esophageal ultrasound (TCEUS) findings [anterior wall thickness (WT) of CE, esophageal luminal diameter (ELD), esophageal diameter (ED)]; to compare TCEUS findings in the patient subgroups divided according to 24-h esophageal pH monitoring and manometry; and to investigate possible cut-off values according to the TCEUS findings as a predictor of gastroesophageal reflux (GER). METHODS: In 45/500 patients, refluxate was visualized in TCEUS. 38/45 patients underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD), 24-h pH monitoring and manometry. RESULTS: The 38 patients were grouped according to 24-h pH monitoring as follows: Group A: GER-positive (n = 20) [Includes Group B: isolated proximal reflux (PR) (n = 6), Group C: isolated distal reflux (DR) (n = 6), and Group D: both PR/DR (n = 8)]; Group E: no reflux (n = 13); and Group F: hypersensitive esophagus (HSE) (n = 5). Groups B + D indicated total PR patients (n = 14), Groups E + F reflux-negatives with HSE (n = 18), and Groups A + F reflux-positives with HSE (n = 25). When the 38 patients were grouped according to manometry findings, 24 had normal esophageal manometry; 7 had hypotensive and 2 had hypertensive lower esophageal sphincter (LES); and 5 had ineffective esophageal motility disorder (IEM). The ELD measurement was greater in group A + F than group E (P = 0.023, 5.0 ± 1.3 vs 3.9 ± 1.4 mm). In 27/38 patients, there was at least one pathologic acid reflux and/or pathologic manometry finding. The cut-off value for ELD of 4.83 mm had 79% sensitivity and 61% specificity in predicting the PR between Groups B + D and E (AUC = 0.775, P = 0.015). CONCLUSION: Visualizing refluxate in TCEUS was useful as a pre-diagnostic tool for estimating GER or manometric pathology in 71.1% of adults in our study, but it was not diagnostic for CE WT. PMID:17876896

Kacar, Sabite; Uysal, Selma; Kuran, Sedef; Dagli, Ulku; Ozin, Yasemin; Karabulut, Erdem; Sasmaz, Nurgul

2007-01-01

238

An overview of esophageal sensory receptors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The neurophysiological basis of esophageal pain and discomfort is not well known. Functional disorder, such as noncardiac chest pain, is thought to be associated with hypersensitivity of primary afferents innervating the esophagus and\\/or sensitization of spinal dorsal horn cells receiving input from the organ. Although we have accumulated a large body of information about the morphologic structure and neuropeptide contents

J. N Sengupta

2000-01-01

239

Protection by Indomethacin against Acute Radiation Esophagitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanism of radiation induced damage to the mucosal lining of the gastrointestinal tract, as well as mucositis, is not fully characterized. Prostaglandins may partially mediate the inflammatory response to radiation damage. The effect of the prostaglandin synthetase inhibitor indomethacin on radiation induced esophagitis, pneumonitis, and tumor response was evaluated in the C3H mouse. The effects of indomethacin on radiation

Zelig Tochner; Margaret Barnes; James B. Mitchell; Kathy Orr; Eli Glatstein; Angelo Russo

1990-01-01

240

Combined modality therapy for esophageal cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment approaches for esophageal cancer include primary treatment (surgical or nonsurgical) or adjuvant treatment (preoperative or postoperative). Primary treatments include surgery alone, radiation therapy alone, and radiation therapy plus chemotherapy (combined modality therapy). Adjuvant therapies include preoperative or postoperative radiation therapy, preoperative chemotherapy, and preoperative combined modality therapy. There is considerable controversy as to the ideal therapeutic approach. This review

Bruce D Minsky

2003-01-01

241

Pharmacokinetics and pharmacogenomics in esophageal cancer chemoradiotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Esophageal cancer is one of the most lethal malignancies. Surgical resection of the tumor from the primary site has been the standard treatment, especially for localized squamous cell carcinoma, but considerable clinical efforts during the last decade have resulted in novel courses of treatment. These options include chemoradiotherapy, consisting of a continuous infusion of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), cisplatin (CDDP), and concurrent

Toshiyuki Sakaeda; Motohiro Yamamori; Akiko Kuwahara; Kohshi Nishiguchi

2009-01-01

242

Thoracoscopic treatment of benign esophageal tumors  

PubMed Central

Introduction Gastrointestinal stromal tumors are among the most frequent mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract; the incidence of these tumors in the esophagus is less than 5%. Prognosis depends on localization, size, mitotic activity and possible invasion of surrounding structures. Minimally invasive surgery may be maximally utilized for removal of these tumors from the esophageal wall. This operation is usually performed thoracoscopically or laparoscopically and using the “rendez-vous” method – with endoscopic navigation. Aim To evaluate a set of patients with benign tumor of the esophagus who were operated on at the First Department of Surgery from 2006 to 2011. Material and methods In the years 2006-2011 a total of 11 patients with benign tumors of the esophagus underwent operation. Results Of the 11 patients with esophageal tumor, 5 were diagnosed with gastrointestinal stromal tumor, 5 with leiomyoma and in one patient the lesion was described as heterotopy of the pancreas. We used the minimally invasive rendez-vous method with endoscopic navigation in 9 cases. All patients healed primarily and were released from hospital on the 4th-7th day. These patients are being followed up as outpatients and recurrence of the tumor has not been observed in any of them. Conclusions Minimally invasive treatment of benign tumors of the esophageal wall is considered to the method of choice. Due to possible complications and the need for subsequent therapy in some patients, these procedures should be centralized to departments with experience in esophageal, thoracic and minimally invasive surgery. PMID:23362430

Neoral, Cestmir; Aujesky, Rene; Skarda, Jozef; Vrba, Radek; Chudacek, Josef; Vomackova, Katherine

2012-01-01

243

Barrett’s and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Consortium  

Cancer.gov

An international consortium with epidemiologic studies of Barrett's Esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma. Analyses so far have included alcohol consumption, anthropometry, cigarette smoking, excess risk models, gastroesophageal reflux disease, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, reproductive factors, and genome-wide studies to identify susceptibility loci associated with Barrett’s esophagus and/or adenocarcinomas of the esophagus.

244

Esophageal perforation post pneumatic dilatation for achalasia managed by esophageal stenting  

PubMed Central

Patient: Female, 82 Final Diagnosis: Achalasia Symptoms: Nocturnal regurgtation • weight loss Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Esophageal stenting Specialty: Gastroenterology • Hepatology Objective: Unusual or unexpected effect of treatment Background: Pneumatic dilatation is one of the most effective methods for treating achalasia. Esophageal perforation is the most serious complication after pneumatic dilatation and has been reported to occur in the range of 1 to 4.3%. The appropriate management of esophageal perforation can range from conservative medical treatment to surgical intervention. Case Report: We report a case of an 82-year-old male who had an 8 month history of dysphagia for solid and liquids, a 10 lb weight loss and nocturnal regurgitation. The diagnosis of achalasia was established by endoscopic; barium and manometric criteria. He underwent a pneumatic dilation with a 30 mm Rigiflex balloon. A confined or limited esophageal perforation projecting into the mediastinum and located 1–2 cm above the diaphragm was confirmed by a gastrografin swallow study performed immediately after the procedure. There was some accompanying epigastric abdominal pain. Patient was treated later that day by placing a fully covered metallic esophageal stent in addition to antibiotics, proton pump inhibitor, and fasting. Patient was discharged home 3 days later able to eat liquid-soft foods. Follow up endoscopy 2 weeks later and a gastrografin swallow showed a completely healed perforation and the stent was removed. Symptomatically he has done well, with no dysphagia or heartburn at six and twelve months follow up. Conclusions: Early esophageal stenting for esophageal perforation after pneumatic dilation for achalasia is a treatment option which accelerates healing shortens recovery period, as well as decreasing hospital stay and costs. PMID:24349606

Elhanafi, Sherif; Othman, Mohamed; Sunny, Joseph; Said, Sarmad; Cooper, Chad J.; Alkhateeb, Haider; Quansah, Raphael; McCallum, Richard

2013-01-01

245

Detection of esophageal ulcerations with technetium-99m albumin sucralfate  

SciTech Connect

Technetium-99m albumin-sucralfate ((/sup 99m/Tc)Su) can be used to demonstrate peptic ulcer disease in man and animals. We evaluated the usefulness of (/sup 99m/Tc)Su for detecting various grades of esophagitis. (/sup 99m/Tc)Su adhered to the distal esophagus for up to 3 hr in five of six patients with esophageal ulcers but adhered to only two of nine with lesser degrees of esophagitis. No adherence was seen in five patients without esophagitis. Thus, (/sup 99m/Tc)Su may not be useful for detecting any but the most severe grade of esophagitis. Based on these results, we speculate that the previously documented beneficial effects of sucralfate on mild to moderate esophagitis may be due to other mechanisms besides adherence to the ulcerated mucosa.

Goff, J.S.; Adcock, K.A.; Schmelter, R.

1986-07-01

246

Role of Positron Emission Tomography in Staging Esophageal Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Conventional noninvasive staging of esophageal cancer is inaccurate. This study investigated the role of positron emission tomography (PET) in staging esophageal cancer.Methods. Patients with potentially resectable esophageal cancer were included. A whole-body PET scan was acquired after injection of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose and was evaluated for areas of increased focal uptake. Accuracy was determined by comparing PET with surgical staging.Results. Potentially

James D Luketich; Philip R Schauer; Carolyn Cidis Meltzer; Rodney J Landreneau; G. Kathleen Urso; David W Townsend; Peter F Ferson; Robert J Keenan; Chandra P Belani

1997-01-01

247

Dosimetric and clinical predictors for radiation-induced esophageal injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To evaluate the clinical and three-dimensional dosimetric parameters associated with esophageal injury after radiotherapy (RT) for non-small-cell lung cancer. Methods and materials: The records of 254 patients treated for non-small-cell lung cancer between 1992 and 2001 were reviewed. A variety of metrics describing the esophageal dose were extracted. The Radiation Therapy Oncology Group toxicity criteria for grading of esophageal

Sung-Ja Ahn; Daniel Kahn; Sumin Zhou; Xiaoli Yu; Donna M. S. Hollis; Timothy D. Shafman; Lawrence B.. Marks

2005-01-01

248

Radiation-induced esophageal strictures in children with cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The purpose of this study was to determine the long-term esophageal side effects of irradiation and (doxorubicin) chemotherapy\\u000a given to children with cancer. Barium esophagograms and medical records of 18 patients with esophagitis who received between\\u000a 1200 and 5580 cGy to the chest and chemotherapy were reviewed. The age range was 3–14 years. Esophageal strictures occuring\\u000a 1–10 years after

S. Mahboubi; J. H. Silber

1997-01-01

249

Influence of Ionizing Radiation on Stromal-Epithelial Communication in Esophageal Carcinogenesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Esophageal cancer is the 6th leading cause of cancer death worldwide and is associated with a variety of risk factors including tobacco use, heavy alcohol consumption, human papilloma virus infection, and certain dietary factors such as trace mineral and vitamin deficiencies. A connection with ionizing radiation exposure is revealed by the high excess relative risk for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma observed in the survivors of the atomic bomb detonations in Japan. Esophageal carcinomas are also seen as secondary malignancies in patients who received radiotherapy for breast and thoracic cancers; additionally, patients with head/neck and oral squamous cell cancers are at increased risk for metachronous esophageal squamous cell cancers. This malignancy is rapidly fatal, mainly because it remains asymptomatic until late, advanced stages when the disease is rarely responsive to treatment. In normal epithelium, the stromal microenvironment is essential for the maintenance and modulation of cell growth and differentiation. Cross talk between the epithelial and stromal compartments can influence many aspects of malignant progression, including tumor cell proliferation, migration, invasion and recruitment of new blood vessels. To test the hypothesis that radiation exposure plays a role in esophageal carcinogenesis via non-targeted mechanisms involving stromal-epithelial cell communication, we are studying radiation effects on hTERT-immortalized human esophageal epithelial cells and genetic variants grown in co-culture with human esophageal stromal fibrob-lasts (Okawa et al., Genes Dev. 2007. 21: 2788-2803). We examined how irradiation of stromal fibroblasts affected epithelial migration and invasion, behaviors associated with cancer promotion and progression. These assays were conducted in modified Boyden chambers using conditioned media from irradiated fibroblasts. Our results using low LET gamma radiation showed a dose-dependent increase in migration of epithelial cells when exposed to conditioned media from irradiated vs. non-irradiated fibroblasts. We also observed enhanced invasion through a basement membrane matrix in similarly treated cells. Candidate factors that me-diate these effects were identified using antibody capture arrays, and their increased secretion in irradiated fibroblasts was confirmed using ELISAs. We are currently analyzing the effect of these individual factors on epithelial migration and invasion, as well as their influence on cell survival and DNA repair. Our current studies using high-LET radiation will elucidate radiation quality effects on these processes. These results should further our understanding of the mechanisms by which radiation impacts the tissue microenvironment and how it influences cancer development processes.

Huff, Janice; Patel, Zarana; Grugan, Katharine; Rustgi, Anil; Cucinotta, Francis A.

250

The features of the correlation between the pH values and the dissolved oxygen at the Chistaya Balka test area in the Northern Caspian Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abnormally high pH values (up to 9 NBS units and over) were registered by different expeditions at the seaward edge of the Volga River delta. Within the report, the relationship of the pH values, the dissolved oxygen content, and the water temperature are considered using the equations of the thermodynamic theory of carbonate equilibrium. It is shown that the changes

P. N. Makkaveev

2009-01-01

251

Desmoglein-1 regulates esophageal epithelial barrier function and immune responses in eosinophilic esophagitis.  

PubMed

The desmosomal cadherin desmoglein-1 (DSG1) is an essential intercellular adhesion molecule that is altered in various human cutaneous disorders; however, its regulation and function in allergic disease remains unexplored. Herein, we demonstrate a specific reduction in DSG1 in esophageal biopsies from patients with eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), an emerging allergic disorder characterized by chronic inflammation within the esophageal mucosa. Further, we show that DSG1 gene silencing weakens esophageal epithelial integrity, and induces cell separation and impaired barrier function (IBF) despite high levels of desmoglein-3. Moreover, DSG1 deficiency induces transcriptional changes that partially overlap with the transcriptome of inflamed esophageal mucosa; notably, periostin (POSTN), a multipotent pro-inflammatory extracellular matrix molecule, is the top induced overlapping gene. We further demonstrate that IBF is a pathological feature in EoE, which can be partially induced through the downregulation of DSG1 by interleukin-13 (IL-13). Taken together, these data identify a functional role for DSG1 and its dysregulation by IL-13 in the pathophysiology of EoE and suggest that the loss of DSG1 may potentiate allergic inflammation through the induction of pro-inflammatory mediators such as POSTN. PMID:24220297

Sherrill, J D; Kc, K; Wu, D; Djukic, Z; Caldwell, J M; Stucke, E M; Kemme, K A; Costello, M S; Mingler, M K; Blanchard, C; Collins, M H; Abonia, J P; Putnam, P E; Dellon, E S; Orlando, R C; Hogan, S P; Rothenberg, M E

2014-05-01

252

Pathogenesis of allergen-induced eosinophilic esophagitis is independent of Interleukin (IL)-13  

PubMed Central

Several studies have shown that IL-13 is induced in the esophageal biopsies of EoE patients and promotes esophageal eosinophilia in mice following an IL-13 challenge. However, the role of IL-13 has not been clearly investigated in allergen-induced EoE. Accordingly, we tested the hypothesis that IL-13 is required in allergen-induced EoE. Mice deficient in IL-13, STAT (signal transducer and activator of transcription)6 and both IL-4/IL-13 genes with their respective controls were challenged with aspergillus extract and IL-5 gene-deficient with their control were challenged with recombinant IL-13, intranasally The lung and esophageal eosinophils, mast cells and collagen accumulation were examined. Herein, we report that intranasal delivery of IL-13 promotes IL-5 dependent esophageal eosinophilia. However, allergen-induced EoE is not impaired in the IL-13 gene-deficient mice. In addition, wild type and IL-13 gene-deficient mice demonstrated a comparable level of mast cells and collagen accumulation in the esophagus following allergen-induced experimental EoE. Similarly, we found that esophageal eosinophilia in IL-4/IL-13 double gene-deficient and STAT6 gene-deficient mice were also not reduced following allergen-induced experimental EoE. In contrast, lung eosinophilia was significantly reduced in mice deficient in IL-13, both IL-4/IL-13 and STAT6 genes following allergen challenge. In conclusion, our data establish that allergen-induced EoE pathogenesis is independent of IL-13; whereas, IL-13 is required for allergen-induced lung eosinophilia. PMID:23689305

Niranjan, Rituraj; Rayapudi, Madhavi; Mishra, Akanksha; Dutt, Parmesh; Dynda, Scott; Mishra, Anil

2013-01-01

253

Symptom hypersensitivity to acid infusion is associated with hypersensitivity of esophageal contractility.  

PubMed

Several investigators have observed that repeated acid infusions induce stronger symptoms (symptom hypersensitivity). The goal of our study was to determine whether symptom hypersensitivity is associated with esophageal contractile hypersensitivity. Subjects with chronic heartburn symptoms underwent simultaneous pressure and ultrasound imaging of esophagus. Normal saline and 0.1 N HCl were sequentially infused into the esophagus, and subjects scored heartburn symptoms on a 1-10 scale. Saline and HCl infusions were repeated in 10 subjects with a positive Bernstein test. Esophageal contraction amplitude and duration and muscularis propria thickness were measured using a computerized method during recording. Acid infusion induced heartburn. Esophageal contractions had higher amplitudes (pressure 114.2 +/- 7.0%) and longer duration (116.8 +/- 4.4%) during acid infusion compared with saline infusion. Average muscle thickness was greater during acid infusion than saline infusion (107.0 +/- 2.0%). Sustained esophageal contractions (SECs) were identified during acid infusion. A second acid infusion (acid-2) induced heartburn with shorter latency (93.0 +/- 15.0 vs. 317.0 +/- 43.0 s) and stronger severity (8.5 +/- 0.5 vs. 5.3 +/- 0.8) than the first acid infusion (acid-1). Contraction amplitudes (140.2 +/- 13.0%), average muscle thickness (118.0 +/- 3.3%), and contraction duration (148.5 +/- 5.6 vs. 116.8 +/- 4.4%) were higher during acid-2 than acid-1. Also, numbers of SECs were greater during acid-2 than acid-1 (31 in 8 subjects vs. 11 in 6 subjects). Our data show that acid infusion into esophagus induces esophageal hypersensitivity and that a close temporal correlation exists between symptom hypersensitivity and contractility hypersensitivity. PMID:14977636

Bhalla, Vikas; Liu, Jianmin; Puckett, James L; Mittal, Ravinder K

2004-07-01

254

Innovative techniques in evaluating the esophagus; imaging of esophageal morphology and function; and drugs for esophageal disease.  

PubMed

This paper reporting on techniques for esophageal evaluation and imaging and drugs for esophageal disease includes commentaries on endoscopy techniques including dye-based high-resolution and dye-less high-definition endoscopy; the shift from CT to MRI guidance in tumor delineation for radiation therapy; the role of functional lumen imaging in measuring esophageal distensibility; electrical stimulation of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) as an alternative to fundoduplication for treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD); the morphological findings of reflux esophagitis and esophageal dysmotility on double-contrast esophagography; the value of videofluoroscopy in assessing protecting mechanisms in patients with chronic reflux or swallowing disorders; targeting visceral hypersensitivity in the treatment of refractory GERD; and the symptoms and treatments of nighttime reflux and nocturnal acid breakthrough (NAB). PMID:24117631

Neumann, Helmut; Neurath, Markus F; Vieth, Michael; Lever, Frederiek M; Meijer, Gert J; Lips, Irene M; McMahon, Barry P; Ruurda, J P; van Hillegersberg, R; Siersema, P; Levine, Marc S; Scharitzer, Martina; Pokieser, Peter; Zerbib, Frank; Savarino, Vincenzo; Zentilin, Patrizia; Savarino, Edoardo; Chan, Walter W

2013-10-01

255

Esophageal cancer: Recent advances in screening, targeted therapy, and management  

PubMed Central

The incidence of esophageal cancer remains on the rise worldwide and despite aggressive research in the field of gastrointestinal oncology, the survival remains poor. Much remains to be defined in esophageal cancer, including the development of an effective screening tool, identifying a good tumor marker for surveillance purposes, ways to target esophageal cancer stem cells as well as circulating tumor cells, and developing minimally invasive protocols to treat early-stage disease. The goal of this chapter is to highlight some of the recent advances and ongoing research in the field of esophageal cancer.

Gaur, Puja; Kim, Min P.; Dunkin, Brian J.

2014-01-01

256

A Case of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma with Pancreatic Metastasis  

PubMed Central

Solitary pancreatic metastasis of esophageal cancer is extremely rare. We report the case of a 58-year-old male admitted with esophageal cancer. Additional asymptomatic solitary hepatic and pancreatic masses were observed in the staging work-up for esophageal cancer. The hepatic mass was confirmed as a primary hepatocellular carcinoma with an ultrasound-guided needle biopsy. An esophagectomy with a distal pancreatectomy and radiofrequency ablation for hepatocellular carcinoma were performed. Histologically, the pancreatic mass was confirmed to be a metastasis from the esophageal cancer. The patient has been followed up with chemotherapy. PMID:23614134

Park, Choulki; Kim, Youn Hwa; Hwang, Eun Jung; Na, Ki Yong; Kim, Kyung-Yup; Park, Jae Hyun; Chang, Young Woon

2013-01-01

257

Intramural esophagic hematoma secondary to coumarinic anticoagulation: a case report  

PubMed Central

Esophagic Intramural Hematoma is an uncommon clinical condition, with a prognosis which is essentially benign. On most cases, a predisposing or precipitating factor may be seen, with the most common ones being the history of esophagic instrumentation, food impactations and thrombocytopenia. In the following manuscript, the authors present the case of a 54-years-old male with history of valve replacement surgery, who was treated at the Clinica Cardiovascular (Medellin, Colombia), with a clinical case of Intramural Esophagic Hematoma that was later confirmed to be due to a Coumarinic overanticoagulation. On this case, it is evidenced that Intramural Esophagic Hematoma is an unrecognized complication of Courmarinic anticoagulation therapy. PMID:20069068

2009-01-01

258

A Sequence Variant in the Phospholipase C Epsilon C2 Domain Is Associated With Esophageal Carcinoma and Esophagitis  

PubMed Central

A single-nucleotide polymorphism (rs2274223: A5780G:His1927Arg) in the phospholipase C epsilon gene (PLC?) was recently identified as a susceptibility locus for esophageal cancer in Chinese subjects. To determine the underlying mechanisms of PLC? and this SNP in esophageal carcinogenesis, we analyzed PLC? genotypes, expression, and their correlation in esophageal cancer cell lines, non-transformed esophageal cells, 58 esophageal squamous cell carcinomas and 10,614 non-cancer subjects from China. We found that the G allele (AG or GG) was associated with increased PLC? mRNA and protein expression in esophageal cancer tissues and in esophageal cancer cell lines. G allele was also associated with higher enzyme activity, which might be associated with increased protein expression. Quantitative analysis of the C2 domain sequences revealed that A:G allelic imbalance was strongly linked to esophageal malignancy. Moreover, the analysis of 10,614 non-cancer subjects demonstrated that the G allele was strongly associated with moderate to severe esophagitis in the subjects from the high-incidence areas of China (OR 6.03, 95% CI 1.59–22.9 in high-incidence area vs. OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.33–1.64 in low-incidence area; P = 0.008). In conclusion, the PLC? gene, particularly the 5780G allele, might play a pivotal role in esophageal carcinogenesis via upregulating PLC? mRNA, protein, and enzyme activity, and augmenting inflammatory process in esophageal epithelium. Thus, 5780G allele may constitute a promising biomarker for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma risk stratification, early detection, and progression prediction. PMID:23390063

Wang, Li-Dong; Bi, Xiuli; Song, Xin; Pohl, Nicole M.; Cheng, Yulan; Zhou, Yixing; Shears, Stephen; Ansong, Emmanuel; Xing, Mengtao; Wang, Shaomeng; Xu, Xiao-Chun; Huang, Peng; Xu, Liyan; Wang, Liang; Fan, Zongmin; Zhao, Xueke; Dong, Huali; Meltzer, Stephen J.; Ding, Ivan; Yang, Wancai

2014-01-01

259

Acquired Tracheoesophageal Fistula through Esophageal Diverticulum in Patient Who Had a Prolonged Tracheostomy Tube - A Case Report -  

PubMed Central

Acquired tracheoesophageal fistula through esophageal diverticulum is infrequent. We report tracheoesophageal fistula through esophageal diverticulum in a 55-year-old male who had a prolonged tracheostomy tube during 6 months, and a NG tube during 18 months. He suffered from recurrent pneumonia. He complained of a cough associated with eating, and production of sputum mixed with food. To help evaluate the aspiration to the lung and the cause of aspiration, he was tested using gastrointestinal scintigraphy (gastric emptying study), a chest CT scan (pre & post contrast), and esophagoduodenoscopy. The chest CT scan revealed an acquired tracheoesophageal fistula through esophageal diverticulum, and esophagoduodenoscopy revealed a 3 mm sized fistula that was located -33 cm from the upper incisor. We treated the tracheoesophageal fistula by clipping under esophagoduodenoscopy. The symptoms of fever, cough, and aspiration were no long observed after the clipping was completed. PMID:22506156

Jung, Jae Hwan; Kim, Ji Sung

2011-01-01

260

Current strategies in chemoradiation for esophageal cancer  

PubMed Central

Chemoradiotherapy (CRT) has an important role in the treatment of esophageal cancer in both the inoperable and the pre-operative settings. Pre-operative chemoradiation therapy is generally given to 41.4-50.4 Gy with platinum or paclitaxel based chemotherapy. The most common definitive dose in the U.S. is 50-50.4 Gy. New advances in CRT for esophageal cancer have come from looking for ways to minimize toxicity and maximize efficacy. Recent investigations for minimizing toxicity have focused advanced radiation techniques such as IMRT and proton therapy, have sought to further define normal tissue tolerances, and have examined the use of tighter fields with less elective clinical target volume coverage. Efforts to maximize efficacy have included the use of early positron emission tomography (PET) response directed therapy, molecularly targeted therapies, and the use of tumor markers that predict response. PMID:24982764

Lloyd, Shane

2014-01-01

261

Radiation-Induced Esophagitis Exacerbated by Everolimus  

PubMed Central

Background Everolimus, a potent mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor, has shown anticancer activity against various types of cancer, including renal cell carcinoma (RCC); however, little information is available on the efficacy and safety of the combination of everolimus and radiotherapy. We report a case of radiation-induced esophagitis that might have been exacerbated by the sequential administration of everolimus. Case Presentation A 63-year-old Japanese man with RCC complained of back pain, and magnetic resonance imaging revealed vertebral metastases. He received radiotherapy (30 Gy/10 fractions) to the T6–10 vertebrae. Everolimus was administered immediately after the completion of radiotherapy. One week later, he complained of dysphagia, nausea and vomiting. An endoscopic examination of the esophagus showed erosive esophagitis in the middle to lower portions of his thoracic esophagus, corresponding to the irradiation field. Conclusion Clinicians should be aware that everolimus might lead to the unexpected exacerbation of radiation toxicities. PMID:23898276

Miura, Yuji; Suyama, Koichi; Shimomura, Akihiko; Miyakawa, Jimpei; Kobayashi, Hiroki; Uki, Akiyoshi; Okaneya, Toshikazu; Takano, Toshimi

2013-01-01

262

Esophageal disruption: evaluation with iohexol esophagography.  

PubMed

Twenty-six patients with possible esophageal disruption who were also at risk for aspiration or direct communication of the esophagus with the tracheobronchial tree were examined with iohexol esophagography. Fifteen patients had normal studies confirmed by findings at a barium examination performed immediately after. In 11 patients abnormalities were diagnosed on the basis of iohexol esophagograms; the abnormalities included extraluminal extravasation of contrast material (n = 7), aspiration (n = 1), esophageal stricture with intramural diverticulosis (n = 1), edema of the gastroesophageal junction (n = 1), and epiphrenic diverticulum (n = 1). Eight of these patients were immediately reexamined with barium esophagography, which yielded no additional information. Low-osmolality, water-soluble contrast agents are a safe alternative for patients in whom barium esophagography poses a risk of mediastinitis and esophagography with diatrizoate meglumine and diatrizoate sodium (Gastrografin) poses a risk of pulmonary edema. PMID:3420250

Brick, S H; Caroline, D F; Lev-Toaff, A S; Friedman, A C; Grumbach, K; Radecki, P D

1988-10-01

263

Peroral endoscopic myotomy for esophageal achalasia  

PubMed Central

Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) is one of the alternative treatment for achalasia. Due to concept of natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES), it becomes popular and widely accepted. With the endoluminal technique, submucosal tunnel was created followed by endoscopic myotomy. POEM is not only indicated in classical achalasia but also other abnormal esophageal motility disorders. Moreover, failures of endoscopic treatment or surgical attempted cases are not contraindicated for POEM. The second attempted POEM is also safe and technically feasible. Even though the legend of success of POEM is fruitful, the possible complications are very frightened. Good training and delicate practice will reduce rate of complications. This review provides a summary of current state-of-the-art of POEM, including indication equipments, technique and complications. This perfect procedure may become the treatment of choice of achalasia and some esophageal motility disorders in the near future. PMID:25333007

Inoue, Haruhiro; Ikeda, Haruo; Sato, Hiroki; Sato, Chiaki; Hokierti, Chananya

2014-01-01

264

Reversal of lower esophageal sphincter hypotension and esophageal aperistalsis after treatment for hypothyroidism  

SciTech Connect

A 65-year-old woman suffered from both chronic gastroesophageal reflux, which was complicated by columnar metaplasia (Barrett's epithelium), and profound hypothyroidism. An esophageal motility tracing showed absence of peristalsis in the lower esophagus and the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) could not be identified. Thyroid replacement therapy, in conjunction with antacid and cimetidine treatment, was associated not only with improvement in the gastroesophageal reflux symptoms, but also with a return of esophageal peristalsis and LES pressure to normal. To support our clinical observations, we rendered four cats hypothyroid with /sup 131/I and documented a fall in LES pressure. We propose that abnormal smooth-muscle function of the esophagus may be another manifestation of the gastrointestinal motility disturbances which are associated with hypothyroidism.

Eastwood, G.L.; Braverman, L.E.; White, E.M.; Vander Salm, T.J.

1982-08-01

265

Determination of regional esophageal transit in children by means of krypton-8 1m  

SciTech Connect

Radionuclide methods using Tc-99m have been developed in the last few years for the assessment of the esophageal transit. The method is physiologic, easy to perform and giving thus interesting informations concerning the severity of the disease as well as the effect of the applied treatment. In children, however, one is limited by radiation protection considerations, and the results are often of poor quality due to the low count rate. Furthermore, the risk of external contamination and the impossibility of repeating the test constitute significant disadvantages, particularly in young children. These problems are completely avoided by using Krypton-8lm diluted in a glucose solution. For each swallowing about 8 mCi of Kr-8 lm are administered. Sixty one-second frames are recorded and several parameters of regional transit can be extracted in a few minutes, using time activity curves and parametric images. The test is very sensitive in detecting minor regional transit alterations. The reproducibility of the test is good and phenomenons like intercurrent gastro-esophageal reflux or asynergic peristaltic waves can easily be detected. The test has been applied to 52 children, aged 1 week to 19 years, and provided helpful information concerning the localization and the importance of transit abnormalities in caustic and peptic esophagitis, postoperative cases (atresia or antireflux plasty) and in patients with neuromuscular disorders.

Piepsz, A.; Ham, H.R.; Georges, B.; Delaet, M.H.; Cadranel, S.

1984-01-01

266

Eosinophilic Esophagitis: update on treatment approaches  

PubMed Central

?osinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a clinical entity with continuously increasing incidence in children and adults. Diet therapy and corticosteroids are the most important therapeutic interventions currently used, while new therapies are being developed, based on the research of the disease mechanisms. In this review we assess the results of the latest clinical trials on management of patients with EoE, and the advances in the development of novel drug therapies. Hippokratia 2012; 16 (3): 200-204 PMID:23935283

Fotis, L; Xatzipsalti, M; Papadopoulou, A

2012-01-01

267

Advances in Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma.  

PubMed

Despite advances in diagnosis and therapy, esophageal adenocarcinoma remains an aggressive and usually lethal tumor. This review focuses on the epidemiology of esophageal adenocarcinoma and its presumed precursor lesion, Barrett's esophagus; the pathogenesis of the cancer; advances in treatment of adenocarcinoma and Barrett's esophagus; and strategies for cancer prevention. Emphasis is placed on recent literature. Although the absolute number of cases of adenocarcinoma in the United States is still small, the incidence of this cancer has increased dramatically in the last 40 years, and adenocarcinoma is now the predominant form of esophageal cancer in this country. Recent evidence suggests that Barrett's esophagus is more prevalent in asymptomatic individuals than previously appreciated. The pathogenesis of Barrett's esophagus is poorly understood. Given that some subjects will have repeated bouts of severe erosive esophagitis and never develop Barrett's esophagus, host factors must play an important role. The utility of neoadjuvant radiation and chemotherapy in those with adenocarcinoma, although they are widely practiced, is not of clear benefit, and some authorities recommend against it. Ablative therapies, as well as endoscopic mucosal resection, hold promise for those with superficial cancer or high-grade dysplasia. Most series using these modalities feature relatively short follow-up, and longer-term data will be necessary to better describe the effects of these therapies. The value of chemoprevention in subjects with dysplastic Barrett's esophagus by use of cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitors, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, or proton pump inhibitors is unknown. Similarly, although endoscopic screening is widely practiced, its value in patients with chronic gastroesophageal reflux disease symptoms is of unproven value, and recommending bodies are divided as to its practice. PMID:15887151

Shaheen, Nicholas J

2005-05-01

268

Diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for eosinophilic esophagitis  

PubMed Central

Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a recently recognized allergic disorder, characterized by eosophageal dysfunction, accumulation of ?15 eosinophils/high-powered field, eosinophil microabssess, basal cell hyperplasia, extracellular eosinophilic granules in the esophageal epithelial mucosal biopsy and a lack of response to a 8-week proton pump inhibitor treatment. Despite the increased incidences and considerable progress made in understanding EoE pathogenesis, there are limited diagnostic and therapeutic options available for EoE. Currently, the only criterion for diagnosing EoE is repetitive esophageal endoscopic biopsies and histopathological evaluation. Antigen elimination or corticosteroid therapies are effective therapies for EoE but are expensive and have limitations, if continued in the long term. Hence, there is a great necessity for novel noninvasive diagnostic biomarkers that can easily diagnose EoE and assess effectiveness of therapy. Herein, we have provided an update on key molecules involved in the disease initiation, and progression and proposed novel noninvasive diagnostic molecules and strategies for EoE therapy.

Zaidi, Asifa K; Mussarat, Ahad; Mishra, Anil

2014-01-01

269

Treatment of early and delayed esophageal perforation.  

PubMed

Esophageal perforations are life threatening emergencies associated with high morbidity and mortality. We report on 22 consecutive patients (age 20-86; 13 female and 9 male) with an oesophageal perforation treated at the university hospital Duesseldorf. The patients' charts were reviewed and follow-up was completed for all patients until demission, healed reconstruction or death. Patients' history, clinical presentation, time interval to surgical presentation, and treatment modality were recorded and correlated with patients' outcome. Six esophageal perforations were due to a Boerhaave-syndrome, eleven caused by endoscopic perforation, two after osteosynthesis of the cervical spine and three foreign body induced. In 7 patients a primary local suture was performed, in 4 cases a supplemental muscle flap was interposed, and 7 patients underwent an oesophageal resection. Four patients were treated without surgery (three esophageal stent implantations, one conservative treatment). Eleven patients (50 %) were presented within 24 h of perforation, and 11 patients (50 %) afterwards. Time delay correlates with survival. In 17 (80.9 %) cases a surgical sufficient reconstruction could be achieved. One (4.7 %) patient is waiting for reconstruction after esophagectomy. Four (18.2 %) patients died. A small subset of patients can be treated conservatively by stenting of the Esophagus, if the patient presents early. In the majority of patients a primary repair (muscle flap etc.) can be performed with good prognosis. If the patient presents delayed with extensive necrosis or mediastinitis, oesophagectomy and secondary repair is the only treatment option with high mortality. PMID:24465104

Kroepil, F; Schauer, M; Raffel, A M; Kröpil, P; Eisenberger, C F; Knoefel, W T

2013-12-01

270

Glossopexy as an alternative to aortopexy in infants with repaired esophageal atresia and upper airway obstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Purpose: Clinical manifestations of airway obstruction in infants with repaired esophageal atresia or tracheoesophageal fistula (EA\\/TEF) are attributed conventionally to tracheomalacia. In the current study, the authors tested the hypothesis that a retrodisplacement of the tongue (glossoptosis), by causing a functional upper airway obstruction (obstructive apnea\\/hypopnea), may play a role in the pathogenesis of the respiratory problems. Methods: The records

Francesco Cozzi; Francesco Morini; Alessandra Casati; Daniela Camanni; Augusto Zani; Denis A. Cozzi

2002-01-01

271

The features of the correlation between the pH values and the dissolved oxygen at the Chistaya Balka test area in the Northern Caspian Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abnormally high pH values (up to 9 NBS units and over) were registered by different expeditions at the seaward edge of the\\u000a Volga River delta. Within the report, the relationship of the pH values, the dissolved oxygen content, and the water temperature\\u000a are considered using the equations of the thermodynamic theory of carbonate equilibrium. It is shown that the changes

P. N. Makkaveev

2009-01-01

272

Irinotecan, cisplatin, and radiation in esophageal cancer.  

PubMed

The limited effectiveness of currently available chemotherapy in the treatment of advanced esophageal cancer, and the poor survival achieved in locally advanced disease with combined chemoradiotherapy with or without surgery, have prompted the evaluation of new agents. Irinotecan (CPT-11, Camptosar) has promising single-agent activity in gastrointestinal cancers. In phase II evaluation of weekly irinotecan plus cisplatin, response rates have exceeded 30% in esophageal and gastric cancers. Irinotecan is an active radiosensitizer in preclinical studies and clinical trials in lung cancer. We performed a phase I trial of weekly irinotecan, cisplatin, and concurrent radiotherapy in locally advanced esophageal cancer. Induction chemotherapy with irinotecan and cisplatin was given prior to radiotherapy, over 6 weeks, cycled on a 2-week-on, 1-week-off schedule to relieve dysphagia. Radiotherapy was given subsequently in 180-cGy daily fractions to a total dose of 5,040 cGy. Doses of chemotherapy, when given with concurrent radiotherapy, were cisplatin at 30 mg/m2 followed by irinotecan at escalated doses (40, 50, 65, and 80 mg/m2), on days 1, 8, 22, and 29. Among 18 patients entered in the trial, minimal toxicity has been observed, with no grade 3/4 esophagitis or diarrhea. Hematologic toxicity has been minimal. Dose-limiting toxicity (ie, requiring more than a 2-week delay in radiotherapy) has been seen in one of three patients at the 80-mg/M2 irinotecan dose level, and accrual continues at this dose level. Among 13 evaluable patients, five complete responses have been seen (38%), including three pathologic complete responses in 10 patients undergoing surgery (30%). Asymptomatic pulmonary emboli were noted on the posttreatment computed tomography scan in 3 of 15 patients, prompting the addition of warfarin sodium (Coumadin) prophylaxis on protocol. Full doses of weekly irinotecan (65 mg/ m2) and cisplatin (30 mg/m2) can be combined safely with concurrent radiotherapy in patients with locally advanced esophageal cancer. PMID:12109799

Ilson, David H; Minsky, Bruce; Kelsen, David

2002-05-01

273

Differential effects of transient receptor vanilloid one (TRPV1) antagonists in acid-induced excitation of esophageal vagal afferent fibers of rats.  

PubMed

Gastro-esophageal acid reflux can stimulate esophageal vagal sensory afferents by activating proton-sensitive ion channel transient receptor vanilloid one (TRPV1). The objective of this study was to investigate the response characteristics of vagal afferent fibers of rats to acid (0.1 N HCl) and capsaicin (CAP) following esophagitis and differential effects of two classes of TRPV1 antagonists on responses of vagal afferent fibers. The chronic reflux was induced by ligating the fundus of the stomach and partial constriction of pylorus. Extracellular single fiber recordings were made from the cervical vagal afferent fibers from naive control and fundus-ligated (FL) esophagitis rats. Innervations of fibers were identified to esophageal distension (ED) and subsequently tested to CAP and acid before and after injection of TRPV1 antagonist JYL1421 or AMG9810 (10 micromol/kg i.v.). Seventy-five vagal afferent fibers from 70 rats were identified to ED. Intra-esophageal CAP (0.1 ml of 1 mg/ml) excited 39.5% (17/43, 5/22 from naive and 12/21 from FL rats) fibers. In contrast, i.v. injection of CAP (0.03-0.3 micromol/kg) dose-dependently excited 72% (42/58) fibers. Responses to CAP were significantly greater for fibers from FL rats (n=32) than naive rats (n=25). TRPV1 antagonists JYL1421 and AMG9810 (10 micromol/kg) significantly blocked response to CAP. Intra-esophageal acid infusion stimulated 5/17 (29.4%) fibers from naive rats and 12/28 (42%) from FL rats. Effect of acid was significantly blocked by AMG9810, but not by JYL1421. Results indicate that following esophagitis the number of fibers responsive to CAP and acid is greater than noninflamed esophagus, which may contribute to esophageal hypersensitivity. Acid-induced excitation of vagal sensory afferents can be differentially attenuated by different classes of TRPV1 antagonists. Therefore, TRPV1 antagonists play a key role in attenuation of hypersensitivity following reflux-induced esophagitis. The use of TRPV1 antagonists could be an alternative to the traditional symptoms-based treatment of chronic acid reflux and esophageal hypersensitivity. PMID:19324074

Peles, S; Medda, B K; Zhang, Zhihong; Banerjee, B; Lehmann, A; Shaker, R; Sengupta, J N

2009-06-30

274

Esophageal Toxicity From High-Dose, Single-Fraction Paraspinal Stereotactic Radiosurgery  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To report the esophageal toxicity from single-fraction paraspinal stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and identify dosimetric and clinical risk factors for toxicity. Methods and Materials: A total of 204 spinal metastases abutting the esophagus (182 patients) were treated with high-dose single-fraction SRS during 2003-2010. Toxicity was scored using the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.0. Dose-volume histograms were combined to generate a comprehensive atlas of complication incidence that identifies risk factors for toxicity. Correlation of dose-volume factors with esophageal toxicity was assessed using Fisher's exact test and logistic regression. Clinical factors were correlated with toxicity. Results: The median dose to the planning treatment volume was 24 Gy. Median follow-up was 12 months (range, 3-81). There were 31 (15%) acute and 24 (12%) late esophageal toxicities. The rate of grade {>=}3 acute or late toxicity was 6.8% (14 patients). Fisher's exact test resulted in significant median splits for grade {>=}3 toxicity at V12 = 3.78 cm{sup 3} (relative risk [RR] 3.7, P=.05), V15 = 1.87 cm{sup 3} (RR 13, P=.0013), V20 = 0.11 cm{sup 3} (RR 6, P=0.01), and V22 = 0.0 cm{sup 3} (RR 13, P=.0013). The median split for D2.5 cm{sup 3} (14.02 Gy) was also a significant predictor of toxicity (RR 6; P=.01). A highly significant logistic regression model was generated on the basis of D2.5 cm{sup 3}. One hundred percent (n = 7) of grade {>=}4 toxicities were associated with radiation recall reactions after doxorubicin or gemcitabine chemotherapy or iatrogenic manipulation of the irradiated esophagus. Conclusions: High-dose, single-fraction paraspinal SRS has a low rate of grade {>=}3 esophageal toxicity. Severe esophageal toxicity is minimized with careful attention to esophageal doses during treatment planning. Iatrogenic manipulation of the irradiated esophagus and systemic agents classically associated with radiation recall reactions are associated with development of grade {>=}4 toxicity.

Cox, Brett W., E-mail: coxb@mskcc.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Jackson, Andrew; Hunt, Margie [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Bilsky, Mark [Department of Surgery (Neurosurgical Division), Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Surgery (Neurosurgical Division), Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Yamada, Yoshiya [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)

2012-08-01

275

ESOPHAGEAL TOXICITY FROM HIGH-DOSE, SINGLE-FRACTION PARASPINAL STEREOTACTIC RADIOSURGERY  

PubMed Central

Purpose To report the esophageal toxicity from single-fraction paraspinal stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and identify dosimetric and clinical risk factors for toxicity. Methods and Materials 204 spinal metastases abutting the esophagus (182 patients) were treated with high-dose single-fraction SRS during 2003-2010. Toxicity was scored using NCI CTCAE 4.0. Dose-volume histograms (DVHs) were combined to generate a comprehensive atlas of complication incidence that identifies risk factors for toxicity. Correlation of dose-volume factors with esophageal toxicity were assessed using Fishers exact test and logistic regression. Clinical factors were correlated with toxicity. Results The median dose to the planning treatment volume was 24 Gy. Median follow-up was 12 months (range 3-81). There were 31 (15%) acute and 24 (12%) late esophageal toxicities. The rate of grade ?3 acute or late toxicity was 6.8% (14 patients). Fisher’s exact test resulted in significant median splits for grade ?3 toxicity at V12 = 3.78 cm3 (relative risk [RR] 3.7, p = 0.05), V15 = 1.87 cm3 (RR 13, p = 0.0013), V20 = 0.11 cm3 (RR = 6, p = 0.01), and V22 = 0.0 cm3 (RR 13, p = 0.0013). The median split for D2.5 cm3 (14.02 Gy) was also a significant predictor of toxicity (RR6; p=0.01). A highly significant logistic regression model was generated based on D2.5 cm3. 100% (n = 7) of grade ?4 toxicities were associated with radiation recall reactions after adriamycin or gemcitabine chemotherapy or iatrogenic manipulation of the irradiated esophagus. Conclusions High dose, single fraction paraspinal SRS has a low rate of grade ? 3 esophageal toxicity. Severe esophageal toxicity is minimized with careful attention to esophageal doses during treatment planning. Iatrogenic manipulation of the irradiated esophagus and systemic agents classically associated with radiation recall reactions are associated with development of grade ?4 toxicity. PMID:22572079

Cox, Brett W.; Jackson, Andrew; Hunt, Margie; Bilsky, Mark; Yamada, Yoshiya

2012-01-01

276

Complications following Video-Assisted Transhiatal Esophagectomy for Esophageal Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The aim of the study was to evaluate the clinical safety and usefulness of esophageal dissection under laparoscopic monitoring during transhiatal esophagectomy for esophageal cancer. Patients and Methods: The study group of 115 patients included 102 men and 13 women. The mean age was 57 (range 32-79) years. Tumor histology showed a squamous cell carcinoma in 75% and an

Pawel Lampe; Marek Olakowski; Andrzej Wojtyczka; Andrzej Lekstan; Alex Alli-Balogun

2005-01-01

277

Blood Supply Routes of Recurrent Esophageal Varices following Endoscopic Embolization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aim: The blood supply routes of recurrent esophageal varices following complete endoscopic embolization (EE) are not yet known. The purpose of this study is to identify these blood supply routes by comparing endoscopic varicography and percutaneous transhepatic portography (PTP). Methods: Eleven cases of recurrent esophageal varices following EE are included in this study. The blood supply routes of primary and

Fumio Chikamori; Sadao Nishio; Nobutoshi Kuniyoshi; Susumu Shibuya; Yasuhiro Takase

2000-01-01

278

Proposed Revision Of The Staging Classification For Esophageal Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: This study analyzed survival with respect to lymph node involvement to develop a new staging system for patients with esophageal cancer that accurately reflects prognosis. Methods: The records of patients undergoing resection of primary esophageal cancer from 1989 to 1993 were reviewed. The data collected included patient age and sex, tumor histologic characteristics and location, the use of preoperative

Robert J. Korst; Valerie W. Rusch; Ennapadam Venkatraman; Manjit S. Bains; Michael E. Burt; Robert J. Downey; Robert J. Ginsberg

1998-01-01

279

Peptidergic and nitrinergic denervation in congenital esophageal stenosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Congenital esophageal stenosis (CES) is a rare disorder with narrowed esophageal lumen that presents as dysphagia from childhood and that is often associated with tracheobronchial remnants or webs. The pathogenesis of CES is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the histological and immunohistochemical features of CES. Esophagi from 2 young adults with CES and 3 controls with

Chandar Singaram; Mark A. Sweet; Eric A. Gaumnitz; Alan J. Cameron; Michael Camilleri

1995-01-01

280

Long-term survival after photodynamic therapy for esophageal cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been adapted to the endoscopic treatment of digestive cancer, but its indications and efficacy remain uncertain. The aim of this study was to assess its feasibility in the curative treatment of small esophageal tumors. Methods: From 1983 to 1991, PDT was used to treat 123 patients with esophageal cancer who were recommended for nonsurgical treatment

Alain Sibille; René Lambert; Jean-Christophe Souquet; Ghislaine Sabben; Françoise Descos

1995-01-01

281

Enucleation of a giant esophageal gastrointestinal stromal tumor.  

PubMed

Despite development of novel chemotherapy for gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs), complete resection remains the gold standard treatment. Because of the small number of reported esophageal gastrointestinal stromal tumors, the optimal extent of resection is not well defined. We present a case of an 82-year-old man with an 11-cm esophageal gastrointestinal stromal tumor who was successfully treated with enucleation. PMID:19379921

Milman, Steven; Kim, Anthony W; Farlow, Erin; Liptay, Michael J

2009-05-01

282

Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy for Esophageal Cancer With Malignant Fistula  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: We reviewed clinical results of chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in the treatment of patients with advanced esophageal cancer with fistulae that developed before or during CRT. Methods and Materials: The study group included 16 patients with fistulous esophageal cancer treated by means of CRT between 1999 and 2006. Nine patients had fistulae before CRT, whereas 7 developed fistulae during CRT. The

Ryuta Koike; Yasumasa Nishimura; Kiyoshi Nakamatsu; Shuichi Kanamori; Toru Shibata

2008-01-01

283

Esophageal Carcinoma with Celiac Nodal Metastases; Curative or Palliative?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: To determine the prognostic value of celiac lymph- adenopathy for patients with esophageal or gastroesophageal junc- tion carcinomas treated with neoadjuvant or definitive chemoradio- therapy. Methods: The records of patients undergoing chemoradiation ther- apy for esophageal cancer, who received a dose of at least 45 Gy, were retrospectively reviewed. Results: One hundred forty-four patients were eligible for this retrospective

Marco Trovo; Jeffrey Bradley; Issam El Naqa; Ethan Foster; Bryan Meyers; Ramaswamy Govindan; Alexander Patterson

2008-01-01

284

Endoscopic Management of Difficult or Recurrent Esophageal Strictures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Esophageal strictures are a common problem in gastroenterological practice. In general, the management of malignant or benign esophageal strictures is different and requires a different treatment approach. In daily clinical practice, stent placement is a commonly used modality for the palliation of incurable malignant strictures causing dysphagia, whereas, if available, intraluminal brachytherapy can be considered in patients with a good

Laetitia R H de Wijkerslooth; Frank P Vleggaar; Peter D Siersema

2011-01-01

285

Prevention of esophageal strictures after endoscopic submucosal dissection  

PubMed Central

Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) and endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) have recently been accepted as less invasive methods for treating patients with early esophageal cancers such as squamous cell carcinoma and dysplasia of Barrett’s esophagus. However, the large defects in the esophageal mucosa often cause severe esophageal strictures, which dramatically reduce the patient’s quality of life. Although preventive endoscopic balloon dilatation can reduce dysphagia and the frequency of dilatation, other approaches are necessary to prevent esophageal strictures after ESD. This review describes several strategies for preventing esophageal strictures after ESD, with a particular focus on anti-inflammatory and tissue engineering approaches. The local injection of triamcinolone acetonide and other systemic steroid therapies are frequently used to prevent esophageal strictures after ESD. Tissue engineering approaches for preventing esophageal strictures have recently been applied in basic research studies. Scaffolds with temporary stents have been applied in five cases, and this technique has been shown to be safe and is anticipated to prevent esophageal strictures. Fabricated autologous oral mucosal epithelial cell sheets to cover the defective mucosa similarly to how commercially available skin products fabricated from epidermal cells are used for skin defects or in cases of intractable ulcers. Fabricated autologous oral-mucosal-epithelial cell sheets have already been shown to be safe. PMID:25386058

Kobayashi, Shinichiro; Kanai, Nobuo; Ohki, Takeshi; Takagi, Ryo; Yamaguchi, Naoyuki; Isomoto, Hajime; Kasai, Yoshiyuki; Hosoi, Takahiro; Nakao, Kazuhiko; Eguchi, Susumu; Yamamoto, Masakazu; Yamato, Masayuki; Okano, Teruo

2014-01-01

286

Incision of recurrent distal esophageal (Schatzki) ring after dilation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Distal esophageal (Schatzki) ring is a frequent cause of dysphagia. Bougienage is generally effective but relapse is common. Outcomes for patients treated by endoscopic incision of distal esophageal rings after symptomatic relapses after bougienage are described. Methods: Eleven patients (2 women, 9 men; median age 61 years; range 24 to 81 years) with recurrent dysphagia after bougienage with large

James A. DiSario; Peder J. Pedersen; Cristina Bichi?-Canoutas; Stephen C. Alder; John C. Fang

2002-01-01

287

Esophageal laceration and obstruction caused by a foreign body in 2 young foals  

PubMed Central

This report describes 2 foals with esophageal laceration due to ingestion of foreign bodies. Endoscopic examination of the esophagus revealed full thickness esophageal laceration in 1 colt and partial thickness laceration of the esophagus in the other. The esophageal obstruction was relieved by repetitive esophageal lavages and flush under general anesthesia in both foals. PMID:22210941

Abutarbush, Sameeh M.

2011-01-01

288

Thoracoscopic stapled resection of multiple esophageal duplication cysts with different pathological findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Esophageal duplication cyst is a rare congenital esophageal anomaly of the foregut. This cyst usually occurs in isolation, and thus far, was treated by enucleation through thoracoscopic or thoracotomic surgery. Here we report a case of multiple esophageal duplication cysts that showed different pathological findings, i.e., the cysts were lined with pseudostratified ciliated columnar and stratified squamous epithelium. Esophageal cysts

Chul Ung Kang; Deog Gon Cho; Kyu Do Cho; Min Seop Jo

2008-01-01

289

Thoracoscopic stapled resection of multiple esophageal duplication cysts with different pathological findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Esophageal duplication cyst is a rare congenital esophageal anomaly of the foregut. This cyst usually occurs in isolation, and thus far, was treated by enucleation through thoracoscopic or thoracotomic surgery. Here we report a case of multiple esophageal duplication cysts that showed different pathological findings, i.e., the cysts were lined with pseudostratified ciliated columnar and stratified squamous epithelium. Esophageal cysts

Chul Ung Kang; Deog Gon Cho; Kyu Do Cho; Min Seop Jo

290

The effect of manometric assembly diameter on intraluminal esophageal pressure recording  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies indicate that lower esophageal sphincter pressure is influenced by manometric assembly diameter. This study determines the effect of assembly diameter on both esophageal sphincter pressure and peristaltic pressure in the esophageal body. We performed esophageal manometric studies in 6 normal subjects using graded assembly diameters. High-fidelity recording was achieved by using a noncompliant catheter-infusion system. The results indicate

Sean B. Lydon; Wylie J. Dodds; Walter J. Hogan; Ronald C. Arndorfer

1975-01-01

291

Single nucleotide polymorphisms of DNA mismatch repair genes MSH2 and MLH1 confer susceptibility to esophageal cancer  

PubMed Central

Defects in DNA mismatch repair genes like MSH2 and MLH1 confer increased risk of cancers. Here, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in MSH2 and MLH1 were investigated for their potential contribution to the risk of esophageal cancer. This study recruited 614 participants from Affiliated Yancheng Hospital, School of Medicine, Southeast University, of which 289 were patients with esophageal cancer, and the remainder was healthy individuals who served as a control group. Two SNPs, MSH2 c.2063T>G and MLH1 IVS14-19A>G, were genotyped using PCR-RFLP. Statistical analysis was performed using chi-square test and logistic regression analysis. Carriers of the MSH2 c.2063G allele were at significantly higher risk for esophageal cancer compared to individuals with the TT genotype [OR = 3.36, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.18-11.03]. The MLH1 IVS14-19A>G allele also conferred significantly increased (1.70-fold) for esophageal cancer compared to the AA genotype (OR = 1.70, 95% CI: 1.13-5.06). Further, the variant alleles interacted such that individuals with the susceptible genotypes at both MSH2 and MLH1 had a significantly exacerbated risk for esophageal cancer (OR = 12.38, 95% CI: 3.09-63.11). In brief, SNPs in the DNA mismatch repair genes MSH2 and MLH1 increase the risk of esophageal cancer. Molecular investigations are needed to uncover the mechanism behind their interaction effect.

Sun, Ming-Zhong; Ju, Hui-Xiang; Zhou, Zhong-Wei; Jin, Hao; Zhu, Rong

2014-01-01

292

Depleting ABCE1 expression induces apoptosis and inhibits the ability of proliferation and migration of human esophageal carcinoma cells  

PubMed Central

Objective: This study aims to explore the clinical characteristics of ABCE1 in esophageal cancers and its roles in the proliferation, invasiveness, migration and apoptosis of the esophageal carcinoma Eca109 cell line. Methods: The expression of ABCE1 and its target protein-RNase L, were first studied in tumor tissues of esophageal carcinoma and adjacent non-tumor tissues. The siRNA green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression vector of ABCE1 was prepared and transfected into the esophageal carcinoma Eca109 cells, then the fluorescence microscope was used to study the transfection efficiency. The MTT assay, cell invasion, the transwell and scratch assay were used to study cell proliferation and migration activity; the apoptosis rate was tested by flow cytometry. Western blot and RT-PCR assay were adopted to measure their silencing efficacy. Results: ABCE1 expression is low in the adjacent non-tumor tissues while the expression is high in the esophageal carcinoma; the expression is reversely proportional to the differentiation degrees. The expression of RNase L was in contrary to ABCE1. After transfected with ABCE1-siRNA, the proliferation, invasiveness and migration capabilities of cells decreased significantly whilst the apoptosis rate enhanced greatly (P<0.01). Meanwhile, the expression of ABCE1 in Eca109 cells was blocked (P<0.01) while the expression of RNase L increased significantly (P<0.01). Conclusion: ABCE1 is closely connected with the pathogenesis and development of esophageal carcinoma, which act through the cellular pathways of 2-5A/RNase L. PMID:24551278

Huang, Bo; Gong, Xiangnan; Zhou, Hongli; Xiong, Fei; Wang, Siwang

2014-01-01

293

Bevacizumab and Combination Chemotherapy Before Surgery in Treating Patients With Locally Advanced Esophageal or Stomach Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adenocarcinoma of the Esophagus; Adenocarcinoma of the Gastroesophageal Junction; Diffuse Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Intestinal Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Mixed Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Esophagus; Stage IA Esophageal Cancer; Stage IA Gastric Cancer; Stage IB Esophageal Cancer; Stage IB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIA Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIB Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIA Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIB Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIC Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIIC Gastric Cancer

2014-03-17

294

Serum pepsinogens and risk of esophageal squamous dysplasia  

PubMed Central

Pepsinogens are a class of endopeptidases that are secreted by the gastric epithelium and released into the circulation. Low serum pepsinogen I (PGI) and low serum pepsinogen I / pepsinogen II ratio (PGI/II ratio) are markers of gastric fundic atrophy, and have recently been shown to be associated with increased risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). We conducted the current study to test whether these markers are also associated with esophageal squamous dysplasia (ESD), the precursor lesion of ESCC. We measured serum PGI and PGII, using enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA) assays, in 125 case subjects (patients with moderate or severe ESD) and 250 sex-matched control subjects (no ESD) selected from an endoscopic screening study in Linxian, China. We used conditional logistic regression models adjusted for age, smoking, and place of residence to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Serum PGI showed no statistically significant association with ESD, whether analyzed as a dichotomous, ordinal (quartiles), or continuous variable. Lower serum PGI/II ratio, however, showed a dose-response association with increased risk of ESD, with an adjusted OR (95% CI) of 2.12 (1.08 ? 4.18), comparing the lowest versus the highest quartile. The association between lower serum PGI/II ratio and log OR of ESD was nearly linear, and the p-value for the continuous association was 0.03. Lower serum PGI/II ratio was linearly associated with higher risk of ESD. This result is consistent with recent findings that gastric atrophy may increase the risk of ESCC. PMID:18844222

Kamangar, Farin; Diaw, Lena; Wei, Wen-Qiang; Abnet, Christian C.; Wang, Guo-Qing; Roth, Mark J.; Liu, Bing; Lu, Ning; Giffen, Carol; Qiao, You-Lin; Dawsey, Sanford M.

2008-01-01

295

Removable esophageal stents have poor efficacy for the treatment of refractory benign esophageal strictures (RBES).  

PubMed

With the recent availability of removable esophageal stents, endoscopic stenting has been utilized to treat refractory benign esophageal strictures (RBES). The objective of this study was to review the feasibility and effectiveness of removable esophageal stents to treat RBES. Patients who received removable esophageal stents for the treatment of RBES at the institution between 2004-2010 using its stent implantation logs and endoscopic database were retrospectively identified. Patient demographics, stricture etiology and location, stent and procedure characteristics, and clinical outcomes were obtained. Twenty-five patients with a mean age of 70 (72% male) underwent initial stent placement; 24 were successful. Overall clinical success was achieved in five of the 19 patients (26%) ultimately undergoing stent removal. RBES etiologies included anastomotic (13), radiation (5), peptic (3), chemotherapy (1), scleroderma (1), and unknown (2). Alimaxx-E (Merit-Endotek, South Jordan, UT, USA) stents were placed in 20 patients and Polyflex (Boston Scientific, Natick, MA, USA) stents were used in five patients. Immediate complications included failed deployment (1) and chest pain (7). Five patients died prior to stent removal. Stent migration was found in 53% (10/19) of patients who underwent stent removal: nine required additional therapy and one had symptom resolution. Out of the nine patients without stent migration, five required additional therapy and four had symptom resolution. Although placement of removable esophageal stents for RBES is technically feasible, it is frequently complicated by stent migration and chest pain. In addition, few patients achieved long-term stricture resolution after initial stenting. In this study, most patients ultimately required repeated stenting and/or dilations to maintain relief of dysphagia. PMID:23121426

Dan, D T; Gannavarapu, B; Lee, J G; Chang, K; Muthusamy, V R

2014-08-01

296

Prediagnostic serum levels of inflammatory biomarkers are correlated with future development of lung and esophageal cancer.  

PubMed

This study tests the hypothesis that prediagnostic serum levels of 20 cancer-associated inflammatory biomarkers correlate directly with future development of head and neck, esophageal, and lung cancers in a high-risk prospective cohort. This is a nested case-control pilot study of subjects enrolled in the Golestan Cohort Study, an ongoing epidemiologic project assessing cancer trends in Golestan, Iran. We measured a panel of 20 21cytokines, chemokines, and inflammatory molecules using Luminex technology in serum samples collected 2 or more years before cancer diagnosis in 78 aerodigestive cancer cases and 81 controls. Data was analyzed using Wilcoxon rank sum test, odds ratios, receiver operating characteristic areas of discrimination, and multivariate analysis. Biomarkers were profoundly and globally elevated in future esophageal and lung cancer patients compared to controls. Odds ratios were significant for association between several biomarkers and future development of esophageal cancer, including interleukin-1R? (IL-1Ra; 35.9), interferon ?2 (IFN-a2; 34.0), fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2; 17.4), and granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF; 17.4). The same pattern was observed among future lung cancer cases for G-CSF (27.7), GM-CSF (13.3), and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-a; 8.6). By contrast, the majority of biomarkers studied showed no significant correlation with future head and neck cancer development. This study provides the first direct evidence that multiple inflammatory biomarkers are coordinately elevated in future lung and esophageal cancer patients 2 or more years before cancer diagnosis. PMID:25040886

Keeley, Brieze R; Islami, Farhad; Pourshams, Akram; Poustchi, Hossein; Pak, Jamie S; Brennan, Paul; Khademi, Hooman; Genden, Eric M; Abnet, Christian C; Dawsey, Sanford M; Boffetta, Paolo; Malekzadeh, Reza; Sikora, Andrew G

2014-09-01

297

Pathophysiological mechanisms linking obesity and esophageal adenocarcinoma.  

PubMed

In recent decades there has been a dramatic rise in the incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) in the developed world. Over approximately the same period there has also been an increase in the prevalence of obesity. Obesity, especially visceral obesity, is an important independent risk factor for the development of gastro-esophageal reflux disease, Barrett's esophagus and EAC. Although the simplest explanation is that this mediated by the mechanical effects of abdominal obesity promoting gastro-esophageal reflux, the epidemiological data suggest that the EAC-promoting effects are independent of reflux. Several, not mutually exclusive, mechanisms have been implicated, which may have different effects at various points along the reflux-Barrett's-cancer pathway. These mechanisms include a reduction in the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection enhancing gastric acidity and possibly appetite by increasing gastric ghrelin secretion, induction of both low-grade systemic inflammation by factors secreted by adipose tissue and the metabolic syndrome with insulin-resistance. Obesity is associated with enhanced secretion of leptin and decreased secretion of adiponectin from adipose tissue and both increased leptin and decreased adiponectin have been shown to be independent risk factors for progression to EAC. Leptin and adiponectin have a set of mutually antagonistic actions on Barrett's cells which appear to influence the progression of malignant behaviour. At present no drugs are of proven benefit to prevent obesity associated EAC. Roux-en-Y reconstruction is the preferred bariatric surgical option for weight loss in patients with reflux. Statins and aspirin may have chemopreventative effects and are indicated for their circulatory benefits. PMID:25400997

Alexandre, Leo; Long, Elizabeth; Beales, Ian Lp

2014-11-15

298

Pathophysiological mechanisms linking obesity and esophageal adenocarcinoma  

PubMed Central

In recent decades there has been a dramatic rise in the incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) in the developed world. Over approximately the same period there has also been an increase in the prevalence of obesity. Obesity, especially visceral obesity, is an important independent risk factor for the development of gastro-esophageal reflux disease, Barrett’s esophagus and EAC. Although the simplest explanation is that this mediated by the mechanical effects of abdominal obesity promoting gastro-esophageal reflux, the epidemiological data suggest that the EAC-promoting effects are independent of reflux. Several, not mutually exclusive, mechanisms have been implicated, which may have different effects at various points along the reflux-Barrett’s-cancer pathway. These mechanisms include a reduction in the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection enhancing gastric acidity and possibly appetite by increasing gastric ghrelin secretion, induction of both low-grade systemic inflammation by factors secreted by adipose tissue and the metabolic syndrome with insulin-resistance. Obesity is associated with enhanced secretion of leptin and decreased secretion of adiponectin from adipose tissue and both increased leptin and decreased adiponectin have been shown to be independent risk factors for progression to EAC. Leptin and adiponectin have a set of mutually antagonistic actions on Barrett’s cells which appear to influence the progression of malignant behaviour. At present no drugs are of proven benefit to prevent obesity associated EAC. Roux-en-Y reconstruction is the preferred bariatric surgical option for weight loss in patients with reflux. Statins and aspirin may have chemopreventative effects and are indicated for their circulatory benefits.

Alexandre, Leo; Long, Elizabeth; Beales, Ian LP

2014-01-01

299

[Physiology of the upper esophageal sphincter].  

PubMed

The upper esophageal sphincter (UES) forms a barrier between the pharynx and the esophagus. When opened, the UES allows the food bolus to pass into the esophagus, as well as permitting emesis and eructation. The basal sphincter tone constitutes a barrier function which serves to prevent reflux and passive aerophagia in the case of deep breathing. Basal sphincter tone is dependent on several influencing factors; during swallowing, sphincter opening and closure follow a complex multiphase pattern. This article presents an overview of the current understanding of UES physiology. PMID:24916353

Jungheim, M; Miller, S; Kühn, D; Schwemmle, C; Schneider, J P; Ochs, M; Ptok, M

2014-06-01

300

Esophageal stricture in a cougar (Puma concolor).  

PubMed

A 7-mo-old female cougar (Puma concolor) was presented with a 2-wk history of anorexia and a 1-wk history of regurgitation. Barium contrast esophagogram and gastroesophagoscopy revealed the presence of a segmental intraluminal esophageal stricture in the middle third of the esophagus. The stricture was potentially secondary to a previous anesthetic episode. Three endoscopic balloon dilations allowed increasing the luminal diameter to a size that enabled the cougar to eat food softened with water without any signs of discomfort or regurgitation. Two months after being discharged, the cougar was doing well, had gained weight and was eating horsemeat softened with water. PMID:19569481

Desmarchelier, Marion; Lair, Stéphane; Defarges, Alice; Lécuyer, Manon; Langlois, Isabelle

2009-06-01

301

Cell sheets engineering for esophageal regenerative medicine  

PubMed Central

Recently, cell-based therapies, regenerative medicine, and tissue engineering have been progressing rapidly. We have developed a novel strategy for regenerative medicine to recover tissue functions using temperature-responsive cell culture surfaces. To overcome of conventional methods such as the usage of single-cell suspension injection, we have applied transplantable cell sheets fabricated with temperature-responsive culture surfaces for cell delivery. In the field of gastroenterology, transplantable cell sheets from autologous oral mucosal epithelial cells can prevent esophageal stricture following extensive endoscopic mucosal resection.

Kanai, Nobuo; Yamato, Masayuki

2014-01-01

302

Emerging Therapeutic Options for Eosinophilic Esophagitis  

PubMed Central

Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic inflammatory condition of the esophagus that often occurs in atopic persons. Management strategies include pharmacotherapy, dietary modification, and endoscopic therapy, although patients will often have a relapsing and remitting course. Currently, the primary pharmacotherapy for EoE consists of corticosteroids. Immuno-modulators, leukotriene antagonists, biologies, and monoclonal antibodies are currently under study for treatment of EoE. The role of immunoglobulin E-mediated allergic reactions has been well documented and may provide insight into the etiology and effective therapy of EoE. PMID:24803874

Dougherty, Timothy; Stephen, Sindu; Borum, Marie L.

2014-01-01

303

Unilateral Cervical Nodal Metastasis Is an Independent Prognostic Factor for Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Patients Undergoing Chemoradiotherapy: A Retrospective Study  

PubMed Central

Purpose To determine the prognostic significance of unilateral cervical lymph nodal metastasis (CLNM) in patients with inoperable thoracic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and to identify significant prognostic factors in these patients. Patients and methods This retrospective study involved 395 patients with inoperable esophageal SCC treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy. The patients were classified into three groups according to their cervical lymph node status: group A, no evidence of CLNM; group B, unilateral CLNM; group C, other distant metastases. Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were calculated. Significant prognostic factors were identified using univariate and multivariate analyses. Results The 3-year OS rates in groups A, B and C were 46.7%, 33.5% and 8.3%, respectively (p<0.001, log-rank test). The corresponding PFS rates were 40.7%, 26.4% and 4.7% (p<0.001, log-rank test). Group B had a similar prognosis to that of group A and better 3-year OS (p?=?0.009) and PFS (p?=?0.006) rates than those of group C. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that T stage, chemotherapy regimen and cervical lymph node involvement were independent prognostic factors affecting OS and PFS. Conclusions Compared to other distant metastases, unilateral CLNM is associated with longer OS in esophageal SCC and should be regarded as a regional disease. Sex, T stage, concurrent chemotherapy modality and cervical lymph node involvement are independent predictors of survival in esophageal SCC. PMID:24979040

Zhao, Lei; Li, Qiao-Qiao; He, Liru; Liu, Shiliang; Shen, Jingxian; Liu, Meng-Zhong

2014-01-01

304

Endoscopic assessment and management of early esophageal adenocarcinoma.  

PubMed

Esophageal carcinoma affects more than 450000 people worldwide and the incidence is rapidly increasing. In the United States and Europe, esophageal adenocarcinoma has superseded esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in its incidence. Esophageal cancer has a high mortality rates secondary to the late presentation of most patients at advanced stages. Endoscopic screening is recommended for patients with multiple risk factors for cancer in Barrett's esophagus. These risk factors include chronic gastroesophageal reflux disease, hiatal hernia, advanced age, male sex, white race, cigarette smoking, and obesity. The annual risk of esophageal cancer is approximately 0.25% for patients without dysplasia and 6% for patients with high-grade dysplasia. Twenty percent of all esophageal adenocarcinoma in the United States is early stage with disease confined to the mucosa or submucosa. The significant morbidity and mortality of esophagectomy make endoscopic treatment an attractive option. The American Gastroenterological Association recommends endoscopic eradication therapy for patients with high-grade dysplasia. Endoscopic modalities for treatment of early esophageal adenocarcinoma include endoscopic resection techniques and endoscopic ablative techniques such as radiofrequency ablation, photodynamic therapy and cryoablation. Endoscopic therapy should be precluded to patients with no evidence of lymphovascular invasion. Local tumor recurrence is low after endoscopic therapy and is predicted by poor differentiation of tumor, positive lymph node and submucosal invasion. Surgical resection should be offered to patients with deep submucosal invasion. PMID:25132925

Hammoud, Ghassan M; Hammad, Hazem; Ibdah, Jamal A

2014-08-15

305

A newly-designed shape-memory coil stent for esophageal stricture: a preliminary report.  

PubMed

A newly designed coil esophageal endoprosthesis was developed using a thermal shape-memory titanium-nickel alloy. The major advantages of this stent lie in (a) its small diameter while in its compressed state in ice water and (b) the large lumen which is achieved once it has been warmed to body temperature. The technical feasibility and tissue compatibility of this stent were tested on four beagle dogs: two with an anastomotic stricture and two with a stenosis induced by the injection of monoethanolamine oleate. The teflon-coated stent was inserted under fluoroscopy and removed 4 weeks after implantation. No signs of esophageal reobstruction were observed in any of the animals after implantation or extraction of the stent, although the dog which had received the first stent without teflon coating developed obstruction caused by granulation tissue. Our preliminary experience strongly suggests that the shape-memory alloy stent with teflon coating may be used in the endoscopic treatment of anastomotic stenosis after esophagectomy, as well as of esophageal obstruction caused by carcinoma. PMID:8931232

Tamura, S; Hirao, M; Shiozaki, H; Inoue, M; Hashimoto, T; Hori, S; Ohkata, I; Asano, H; Monden, M

1996-01-01

306

Genetic landscape of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.  

PubMed

Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is one of the deadliest cancers. We performed exome sequencing on 113 tumor-normal pairs, yielding a mean of 82 non-silent mutations per tumor, and 8 cell lines. The mutational profile of ESCC closely resembles those of squamous cell carcinomas of other tissues but differs from that of esophageal adenocarcinoma. Genes involved in cell cycle and apoptosis regulation were mutated in 99% of cases by somatic alterations of TP53 (93%), CCND1 (33%), CDKN2A (20%), NFE2L2 (10%) and RB1 (9%). Histone modifier genes were frequently mutated, including KMT2D (also called MLL2; 19%), KMT2C (MLL3; 6%), KDM6A (7%), EP300 (10%) and CREBBP (6%). EP300 mutations were associated with poor survival. The Hippo and Notch pathways were dysregulated by mutations in FAT1, FAT2, FAT3 or FAT4 (27%) or AJUBA (JUB; 7%) and NOTCH1, NOTCH2 or NOTCH3 (22%) or FBXW7 (5%), respectively. These results define the mutational landscape of ESCC and highlight mutations in epigenetic modulators with prognostic and potentially therapeutic implications. PMID:25151357

Gao, Yi-Bo; Chen, Zhao-Li; Li, Jia-Gen; Hu, Xue-Da; Shi, Xue-Jiao; Sun, Zeng-Miao; Zhang, Fan; Zhao, Zi-Ran; Li, Zi-Tong; Liu, Zi-Yuan; Zhao, Yu-Da; Sun, Jian; Zhou, Cheng-Cheng; Yao, Ran; Wang, Su-Ya; Wang, Pan; Sun, Nan; Zhang, Bai-Hua; Dong, Jing-Si; Yu, Yue; Luo, Mei; Feng, Xiao-Li; Shi, Su-Sheng; Zhou, Fang; Tan, Feng-Wei; Qiu, Bin; Li, Ning; Shao, Kang; Zhang, Li-Jian; Zhang, Lan-Jun; Xue, Qi; Gao, Shu-Geng; He, Jie

2014-10-01

307

Development of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory(TM) Eosinophilic Esophagitis Module items: qualitative methods  

PubMed Central

Background Currently there is no disease-specific outcome measure to assess the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of pediatric patients with Eosinophilic Esophagitis (EoE). Therefore, the objective of this qualitative study was to further develop and finalize the items and support the content validity for the new Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory™ (PedsQL™) Eosinophilic Esophagitis Module. Methods Multiphase qualitative methodology was utilized in the development of the PedsQL™ EoE Module conceptual model. Focus interview transcripts of pediatric patients with EoE and their parents and expert review were previously used to develop the initial items and domains for the PedsQL™ EoE Module. In the current investigation, utilizing the respondent debriefing methodology, cognitive interviewing was conducted individually with pediatric patients with EoE and their parents on each newly developed item. Results Information from a total of 86 participants was obtained in combination from the previous investigation and the current study. From the previous 42 focus interviews, items were developed around the domain themes of symptoms, difficulties with eating food, treatment adherence, worry about symptoms and illness, feelings of being different than family and peers, and problems discussing EoE with others. In the current study’s cognitive interviewing phase, a separate cohort of 44 participants systematically reviewed and provided feedback on each item. Items were added, modified or deleted based on this feedback. Items were finalized after this feedback from patients and parents. Conclusions Using well-established qualitative methods, the content validity of the new PedsQL™ Eosinophilic Esophagitis Module items was supported in the current investigation. In the next iterative instrument development phase, the PedsQL™ Eosinophilic Esophagitis Module is now undergoing multisite national field testing. PMID:23009120

2012-01-01

308

Four-dimensional computed tomographic analysis of esophageal mobility during normal respiration  

SciTech Connect

Background: Chemo-radiotherapy for thoracic tumors can result in high-grade radiation esophagitis. Treatment planning to reduce esophageal irradiation requires organ motion to be accounted for. In this study, esophageal mobility was assessed using four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT). Methods and Materials: Thoracic 4DCT scans were acquired on a 16-slice CT scanner in 29 patients. The outer esophageal wall was contoured in two extreme phases of respiration in 9 patients with nonesophageal malignancies. The displacement of the center of contour was measured at 2-cm intervals. In 20 additional patients with Stage I lung cancer, the esophagus was contoured in all 10 phases of each 4DCT at five defined anatomic levels. Both approaches were then applied to 4DCT scans of 4 patients who each had two repeat scans performed. A linear mixed effects model was constructed with fixed effects: measurement direction, measurement type, and measurement location along the cranio-caudal axis. Results: Measurement location and direction were significant descriptive parameters (Wald F-tests, p < 0.001), and the interaction term between the two was significant (p = 0.02). Medio-lateral mobility exceeded dorso-ventral mobility in the lower half of the esophagus but was of a similar magnitude in the upper half. Margins that would have incorporated all movement in medio-lateral and dorso-ventral directions were 5 mm proximally, 7 mm and 6 mm respectively in the mid-esophagus, and 9 mm and 8 mm respectively in the distal esophagus. Conclusions: The distal esophagus shows more mobility. Margins for mobility that can encompass all movement were derived for use in treatment planning, particularly for stereotactic radiotherapy.

Dieleman, Edith [Department of Radiation Oncology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Senan, Suresh [Department of Radiation Oncology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)]. E-mail: s.senan@vumc.nl; Vincent, Andrew [Department of Bioinformatics, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Lagerwaard, Frank J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Slotman, Ben J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Soernsen de Koste, John R. van [Department of Radiation Oncology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

2007-03-01

309

Acute Esophageal Necrosis: An Uncommon Cause of Hematemesis  

PubMed Central

Acute esophageal necrosis or black esophagus is an uncommon clinical entity, diagnosed at the upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with the presence of strikingly black necrotic esophagus. Very often no definite etiology will be identified even though a large list of potential associations has been postulated. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding is the most common clinical presentation, others being epigastric pain, retrosternal chest discomfort and dysphagia. Only about a hundred cases of acute esophageal necrosis have been described in medical literature till this date. We report a case of acute esophageal necrosis in an elderly female who had presented with hematemesis. PMID:25170416

Zacharia, George Sarin; Sandesh, K; Ramachandran, TM

2014-01-01

310

Esophageal gastrointestinal stromal tumor: diagnostic complexity and management pitfalls.  

PubMed

Introduction. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors of the esophagus are rare. Case Presentation. This is a case of a 50-year-old male patient who was referred to our department complaining of atypical chest pain. A chest computed tomographic scan and endoscopic ultrasound revealed a submucosal esophageal tumor measuring 5 cm in its largest diameter. Suspecting a leiomyoma, we performed enucleation via right thoracotomy. The pathology report yielded a diagnosis of an esophageal gastrointestinal stromal tumor. The patient has shown no evidence of recurrence one year postoperatively. Conclusions. This report illustrates the complexity and dilemmas inherent in diagnosing and treating esophageal GISTs. PMID:23738186

Markakis, Charalampos G; Spartalis, Eleftherios D; Liarmakopoulos, Emmanouil; Kavoura, Evangelia G; Tomos, Periklis

2013-01-01

311

Esophageal Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor: Diagnostic Complexity and Management Pitfalls  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors of the esophagus are rare. Case Presentation. This is a case of a 50-year-old male patient who was referred to our department complaining of atypical chest pain. A chest computed tomographic scan and endoscopic ultrasound revealed a submucosal esophageal tumor measuring 5 cm in its largest diameter. Suspecting a leiomyoma, we performed enucleation via right thoracotomy. The pathology report yielded a diagnosis of an esophageal gastrointestinal stromal tumor. The patient has shown no evidence of recurrence one year postoperatively. Conclusions. This report illustrates the complexity and dilemmas inherent in diagnosing and treating esophageal GISTs. PMID:23738186

Markakis, Charalampos G.; Spartalis, Eleftherios D.; Liarmakopoulos, Emmanouil; Kavoura, Evangelia G.; Tomos, Periklis

2013-01-01

312

Overexpression of interleukin-8 receptor 2 (IL-8R2) indicates better prognosis in esophageal adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma procession.  

PubMed

Researches have showed that interleukin family or receptors play a role in many human tumor progressions including esophageal carcinoma. In this study, we examined the expression of interleukin-8 receptor 2 (IL-8R2) and analyze the relationship between it and esophageal carcinoma clinical characteristics. IL-8R2 protein expression was confirmed by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence arrays and was analyzed further via Western blot and qRT-PCR analysis in frozen tissues. The correlation between their expression levels and clinical characteristics were evaluated by Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis test. Via Kaplan-Meier plots and Cox proportional hazard models, overall survival (OS) was analyzed. Compared with normal esophageal tissue, IL-8R2 protein was overexpressed significantly in esophageal cancer (p < 0.05) and was observed both in cytoplasm and nuclear. The lower expression of IL-8R2 protein was observed with higher p staging of esophageal cancer, and the significant association between them was confirmed (p = 0.000), and in advanced p T stage, the similar result was obtained (p = 0.015); however, compared with lymph node metastasis-negative group, it is no significant difference in positive group (p = 0.152). In a Kaplan-Meier analysis, compared with IL-8R2 low expression, IL-8R2 high expression identified a group of patients with the longest OS. Cox proportional hazard models revealed that IL-8R2 predicted long time to OS. The higher expression of IL-8R2 was found in early esophageal carcinoma, which may indicate that IL-8R2 plays an important role and is better prognostic factor in esophageal cancer development. PMID:24972913

Liang, Bing; Zhao, Hui; Che, Jian-Bo; Wang, Hao-Jie; Shi, Gong-Ning

2014-08-01

313

Thoracoscopic repair of esophageal atresia and tracheo-esophageal fistula in neonates: the current state of the art.  

PubMed

The first thoracoscopic esophageal atresia with tracheo-esophageal fistula (EATEF) repair was performed in March of 2000. This report evaluates the results and evolution of the technique over the last decade. Thoracoscopic esophageal atresia repair has proven to be an effective and safe technique. Initial experience resulted in a higher stricture rate but this improved with experience and changes in technique over the last decade. The outcomes are similar to or superior to that of an open thoracotomy and avoid the musculoskeletal morbidity associated with that technique. PMID:25169923

Rothenberg, Steven

2014-10-01

314

Clinical and dosimetric factors of radiation-induced esophageal injury: Radiation-induced esophageal toxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Abstract Abstract Abstract AIM: To analyze the clinical and dosimetric predictive factors for radiation-induced esophageal injury in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) during three- dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT). METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 208 consecutive patients (146 men and 62 women) with NSCLC treated with 3D-CRT. The median age of the patients was 64 years (range 35-87 years). The

Wen-Bo Qiao; Yan-Hui Zhao; Yan-Bin Zhao; Rui-Zhi Wang

315

Multiple Rapid Swallow Responses During Esophageal High-Resolution Manometry Reflect Esophageal Body Peristaltic Reserve  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES Dysphagia may develop following antireflux surgery as a consequence of poor esophageal peristaltic reserve. We hypothesized that suboptimal contraction response following multiple rapid swallows (MRS) could be associated with chronic transit symptoms following antireflux surgery. METHODS Wet swallow and MRS responses on esophageal high-resolution manometry (HRM) were characterized collectively in the esophageal body (distal contractile integral (DCI)), and individually in each smooth muscle contraction segment (S2 and S3 amplitudes) in 63 patients undergoing antireflux surgery and in 18 healthy controls. Dysphagia was assessed using symptom questionnaires. The MRS/wet swallow ratios were calculated for S2 and S3 peak amplitudes and DCI. MRS responses were compared in patients with and without late postoperative dysphagia following antireflux surgery. RESULTS Augmentation of smooth muscle contraction (MRS/wet swallow ratios > 1.0) as measured collectively by DCI was seen in only 11.1% with late postoperative dysphagia, compared with 63.6% in those with no dysphagia and 78.1% in controls (P?0.02 for each comparison). Similar results were seen with S3 but not S2 peak amplitude ratios. Receiver operating characteristics identified a DCI MRS/wet swallow ratio threshold of 0.85 in segregating patients with late postoperative dysphagia from those with no postoperative dysphagia with a sensitivity of 0.67 and specificity of 0.64. CONCLUSIONS Lack of augmentation of smooth muscle contraction following MRS is associated with late postoperative dysphagia following antireflux surgery, suggesting that MRS responses could assess esophageal smooth muscle peristaltic reserve. Further research is warranted to determine if antireflux surgery needs to be tailored to the MRS response. PMID:24019081

Shaker, Anisa; Stoikes, Nathaniel; Drapekin, Jesse; Kushnir, Vladimir; Brunt, L. Michael; Gyawali, C. Prakash

2014-01-01

316

Making pH Tangible.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a laboratory exercise in which students test the pH of different substances, study the effect of a buffer on acidic solutions by comparing the behavior of buffered and unbuffered solutions upon the addition of acid, and compare common over-the-counter antacid remedies. (MKR)

McIntosh, Elizabeth; Moss, Robert

1995-01-01

317

Esophageal involvement of pemphigus vulgaris associated with upper gastrointestinal bleeding.  

PubMed

Esophageal involvement of pemphigus vulgaris is rare, and when present, the most common presenting symptoms reported in the medical literature are odynophagia and dysphagia. Here, we present two cases of pemphigus vulgaris presenting with upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage because of esophageal involvement of the disease. In case 1, a 41-year-old female patient with a prior diagnosis of pemphigus vulgaris presented with hematemesis. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy showed diffuse mucosal exfoliation and oozing bleeding of the oropharynx and esophagus. The patient recovered after the administration of high-dose corticosteroids and immunosuppressants. In case 2, a 30-year-old female patient with known pemphigus vulgaris also presented with hematemesis, showing similar endoscopic findings to the first case. She also responded to the same treatment. Esophageal involvement of pemphigus vulgaris responds to high-dose corticosteroids and immunosuppressants. Thus, in patients with pemphigus vulgaris with signs or symptoms of upper gastrointestinal bleeding, an early endoscopy for the evaluation of esophageal involvement is beneficial. PMID:25325007

Chang, Sooyun; Park, Soo Jung; Kim, Sun Wook; Jin, Moo-Nyun; Lee, Jung-Hee; Kim, Hyun Ju; Hong, Sung Pil; Kim, Tae Il

2014-09-01

318

Diffuse esophageal spasm in patients with undiagnosed chest pain.  

PubMed

Many previous studies have shown diffuse esophageal spasm (DES) to be an infrequent clinical disorder. Over a 15-month period, 122 patients were evaluated by low-compliance pneumohydrolic esophageal manometry. The patients were referred for obscure undiagnosed chest pain. Diffuse esophageal spasm or its variance was found in 22 patients (18%). All patients had chest pain and 77% had associated solid and liquid food dysphagia. Medical therapy included treatment with a combination of anticholinergic medications, short- and long-acting nitrates, mild sedatives, and dietary adjustments. Follow-up clinical evaluation have been obtained in 73% of patients: medical treatment alone has been successful in impressively relieving symptoms in 10 patients, two have benefited from repeat pneumatic dilatations, and one patient has improved after pneumatic dilatation and subsequent Heller myotomy. A combination of accurate clinical history, endoscopy, barium swallow, and esophageal manometry should allow a reliable diagnosis of DES with a good chance of successful medical therapy. PMID:7175146

Patterson, D R

1982-10-01

319

Metastases of esophageal carcinoma to skeletal muscle: Single center experience  

PubMed Central

Metastases of esophageal carcinoma to the skeletal muscle are rare, but the incidence may be increasing because of better diagnosis resulting from widespread use of positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT). A cohort of 205 patients with esophageal carcinoma treated at our center who had PET/CT between 2006 and 2010 was retrospectively evaluated for the presence of skeletal muscle metastases. Four patients had skeletal muscle metastases of esophageal carcinoma, including two patients with squamous cell carcinoma. In another patient with squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus and synchronous skeletal muscle metastases, muscle metastases were subsequently shown to be related to second primary pancreatic adenocarcinoma. In all cases, skeletal muscle metastases were the first manifestation of systemic disease. In three patients palliation was obtained with the combination of external beam radiation therapy, systemic chemotherapy or surgical resection. Skeletal muscle metastases are a rare complication of esophageal carcinoma. PMID:23002370

Cincibuch, Jan; Myslivecek, Miroslav; Melichar, Bohuslav; Neoral, Cestmir; Metelkova, Iva; Zezulova, Michaela; Prochazkova-Studentova, Hana; Flodr, Patrik; Zlevorova, Miloslava; Aujesky, Rene; Cwiertka, Karel

2012-01-01

320

Squamous dysplasia - the precursor lesion for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) accounts for 80% of all esophageal cancers worldwide, and esophageal squamous dysplasia (ESD) is the only histopathology that predicts the development of ESCC. The prevalence of ESD parallels rates of invasive ESCC, and is typically found in 25% or more of adults above the age of 35 years in populations in north central China, where risk for ESCC is among the highest in the world. Results of chemoprevention and early detection studies to prevent progression of ESD suggest that these approaches, coupled with emerging endoscopic therapies, offer promise for the prevention of esophageal cancer mortality in high-risk populations. Future research on ESD and ESCC should focus on finding additional modifiable risk factors and on identifying biomarkers to incorporate into early detection strategies. PMID:23549398

Taylor, Philip R; Abnet, Christian C; Dawsey, Sanford M

2013-01-01

321

Metastases of esophageal carcinoma to skeletal muscle: single center experience.  

PubMed

Metastases of esophageal carcinoma to the skeletal muscle are rare, but the incidence may be increasing because of better diagnosis resulting from widespread use of positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT). A cohort of 205 patients with esophageal carcinoma treated at our center who had PET/CT between 2006 and 2010 was retrospectively evaluated for the presence of skeletal muscle metastases. Four patients had skeletal muscle metastases of esophageal carcinoma, including two patients with squamous cell carcinoma. In another patient with squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus and synchronous skeletal muscle metastases, muscle metastases were subsequently shown to be related to second primary pancreatic adenocarcinoma. In all cases, skeletal muscle metastases were the first manifestation of systemic disease. In three patients palliation was obtained with the combination of external beam radiation therapy, systemic chemotherapy or surgical resection. Skeletal muscle metastases are a rare complication of esophageal carcinoma. PMID:23002370

Cincibuch, Jan; Myslive?ek, Miroslav; Melichar, Bohuslav; Neoral, Cestmír; Metelková, Iva; Zezulová, Michaela; Procházková-Študentová, Hana; Flodr, Patrik; Zlevorová, Miloslava; Aujeský, René; Cwiertka, Karel

2012-09-21

322

Notch signaling drives stemness and tumorigenicity of esophageal adenocarcinoma.  

PubMed

Esophageal adenocarcinoma ranks sixth in cancer mortality in the world and its incidence has risen dramatically in the Western population over the last decades. Data presented herein strongly suggest that Notch signaling is critical for esophageal adenocarcinoma and underlies resistance to chemotherapy. We present evidence that Notch signaling drives a cancer stem cell phenotype by regulating genes that establish stemness. Using patient-derived xenograft models, we demonstrate that inhibition of Notch by gamma-secretase inhibitors (GSI) is efficacious in downsizing tumor growth. Moreover, we demonstrate that Notch activity in a patient's ultrasound-assisted endoscopic-derived biopsy might predict outcome to chemotherapy. Therefore, this study provides a proof of concept that inhibition of Notch activity will have efficacy in treating esophageal adenocarcinoma, offering a rationale to lay the foundation for a clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy of GSI in esophageal adenocarcinoma treatment. Cancer Res; 74(21); 6364-74. ©2014 AACR. PMID:25164006

Wang, Zhiqiang; Da Silva, Thiago G; Jin, Ke; Han, Xiaoqing; Ranganathan, Prathibha; Zhu, Xiaoxia; Sanchez-Mejias, Avencia; Bai, Feng; Li, Bin; Fei, Dennis Liang; Weaver, Kelly; Carpio, Rodrigo Vasquez-Del; Moscowitz, Anna E; Koshenkov, Vadim P; Sanchez, Lilly; Sparling, Lynne; Pei, Xin-Hai; Franceschi, Dido; Ribeiro, Afonso; Robbins, David J; Livingstone, Alan S; Capobianco, Anthony J

2014-11-01

323

21 CFR 868.1920 - Esophageal stethoscope with electrical conductors.  

...conductors. (a) Identification. An esophageal stethoscope with electrical conductors is a device that is inserted into the esophagus to listen to a patient's heart and breath sounds and to monitor electrophysiological signals. The device may also...

2014-04-01

324

Pericardioesophagoplasty-(A New Operation for Partial Esophageal Replacement).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new operation for partial esophageal replacement or repair is described. This procedure involves the use of a vascularized pedicle graft of pericardium. Two technics are depicted in which all or part of the midesophagus was replaced. Eleven dogs underwe...

A. G. Coran

1973-01-01

325

21 CFR 868.1920 - Esophageal stethoscope with electrical conductors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...conductors. (a) Identification. An esophageal stethoscope with electrical conductors is a device that is inserted into the esophagus to listen to a patient's heart and breath sounds and to monitor electrophysiological signals. The device may also...

2013-04-01

326

21 CFR 868.1920 - Esophageal stethoscope with electrical conductors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...conductors. (a) Identification. An esophageal stethoscope with electrical conductors is a device that is inserted into the esophagus to listen to a patient's heart and breath sounds and to monitor electrophysiological signals. The device may also...

2012-04-01

327

Esophageal Involvement of Pemphigus Vulgaris Associated with Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding  

PubMed Central

Esophageal involvement of pemphigus vulgaris is rare, and when present, the most common presenting symptoms reported in the medical literature are odynophagia and dysphagia. Here, we present two cases of pemphigus vulgaris presenting with upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage because of esophageal involvement of the disease. In case 1, a 41-year-old female patient with a prior diagnosis of pemphigus vulgaris presented with hematemesis. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy showed diffuse mucosal exfoliation and oozing bleeding of the oropharynx and esophagus. The patient recovered after the administration of high-dose corticosteroids and immunosuppressants. In case 2, a 30-year-old female patient with known pemphigus vulgaris also presented with hematemesis, showing similar endoscopic findings to the first case. She also responded to the same treatment. Esophageal involvement of pemphigus vulgaris responds to high-dose corticosteroids and immunosuppressants. Thus, in patients with pemphigus vulgaris with signs or symptoms of upper gastrointestinal bleeding, an early endoscopy for the evaluation of esophageal involvement is beneficial.

Chang, Sooyun; Kim, Sun Wook; Jin, Moo-Nyun; Lee, Jung-Hee; Kim, Hyun Ju; Hong, Sung Pil; Kim, Tae Il

2014-01-01

328

Current treatment options for the management of esophageal cancer  

PubMed Central

In recent years, esophageal cancer characteristics and management options have evolved significantly. There has been a sharp increase in the frequency of esophageal adenocarcinoma and a decline in the frequency of squamous cell carcinoma. A more comprehensive understanding of prognostic factors influencing outcome has also been developed. This has led to more management options for esophageal cancer at all stages than ever before. A multidisciplinary, team approach to management in a high volume center is the preferred approach. Each patient should be individually assessed based on type of cancer, local or regional involvement, and his or her own functional status to determine an appropriate treatment regimen. This review will discuss management of esophageal cancer relative to disease progression and patient functional status. PMID:23152702

Mawhinney, Mark R; Glasgow, Robert E

2012-01-01

329

[Esophagobronchial fistula and empyema resulting from esophageal carcinoma].  

PubMed

A 59-year-old woman was admitted to the hospital with a one-month history of hemoptysis, generalized fatigue, and a high fever. A chest X-ray film obtained on admission showed a massive right-sided pleural effusion. Examination of an aspirate showed a high level of amylase, and bacteria that were the same as oral bacteria. Closed drainage yielded ichorous pus and food residues, which led us to the diagnosis of empyema caused by esophageal perforation. Esophagography and fiberoptic esophagoscopy revealed that an esophagobronchial fistula related to an advanced esophageal carcinoma had caused the empyema. Surgical resection was done, and the patient was alive at the time of this writing, 7 months after she was first treated. Esophageal carcinoma is sometimes accompanied by esophagobronchial fistula. Patients with this condition usually have severe respiratory symptoms; those presenting with empyema are rare. Esophageal carcinoma must be carefully ruled out as the cause of empyema. PMID:9234640

Hippo, Y; Kawana, A; Yoshizawa, A; Koshino, T; Toyota, E; Kobayashi, N; Kobori, O; Arai, T; Kudo, K; Kabe, J

1997-05-01

330

Cetuximab and Chemoradiotherapy for Locally Advanced Esophageal Cancer  

Cancer.gov

In this trial, patients with locally advanced esophageal cancer will undergo chemoradiotherapy using the drugs cisplatin and paclitaxel, and half of them will be randomly assigned to also receive the biologic agent cetuximab.

331

Beneficial effects of Ebselen on corrosive esophageal burns of rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

AimThis study was evaluated to investigate the efficacy of Ebselen, which is an organoselenium compound and glutathione peroxidase mimic, on the prevention of stricture development after esophageal caustic injuries in the rat.

Ayse Ocakci; Omer Coskun; Levent Tumkaya; Mehmet Kanter; Ahmet Gurel; Mubin Hosnuter; Lokman Uzun

2006-01-01

332

Synchronous squamous esophageal carcinoma and urothelial renal cancer.  

PubMed

Synchronous development of a second primary cancer in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma was reported in 2.73%-11% of the cases. Although the synchronous association between esophageal and renal cancer is very rare, an increasingly number of cases is reported in medical literature. This study's aim is to report a case of synchronous esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and an urothelial carcinoma of the right kidney. Patient G.D. was admitted in our clinic with esophageal cancer diagnosis; during the preoperative work-up protocol, an asymptomatic right renal mass was discovered. A nephroureteroscopy with biopsy was performed and the urothelial renal cancer diagnosis was established. The patient is proposed for seriate surgery: nephroureterectomy on the first stage, then esophagectomy with gastric reconstruction was performed. Postoperative evolution was unfavourable, patient being finally discharged, on his request, with severely altered status. PMID:21351703

Vilcea, I D; Vasile, I; Tomescu, P; Mirea, C; Vilcea, A M; Stoica, L; Mesina, C; Dumitrescu, T; Cheie, M; Enache, M A

2010-01-01

333

Reflux esophagitis in war-related sulfur mustard lung disease  

PubMed Central

Background Sulfur mustard (SM) has acute and chronic effects on skin and mucosal surfaces. The aim of the study was to evaluate the frequency of esophagitis in a historical cohort of veterans who had been exposed to SM in Iran-Iraq war nearly 25 years ago. Methods: One hundred two veterans with dyspepsia and/or heartburn underwent esophago-gastroduodenoscopy. Of them, 52 cases had been exposed to SM and had chronic mustard lung disease. Controls included 50 veterans without SM exposure. Esophagitis was defined according to standard criteria. Results: 81.6% of cases and 70.6% of controls had heart burn and/or regurgitation (p= 0.224). Esophagitis was seen in 40% of cases and 26.5% of controls (p= 0.155). Conclusion: Based on our findings, SM exposure seems not to be associated with increased esophagitis.

Roushan, Nader; Zali, Fateme; Abtahi, Hamidreza; Asadi, Mehrnaz; Taslimi, Reza; Aletaha, Najme

2014-01-01

334

The intelligibility of time-domain-edited esophageal speech.  

PubMed

The intelligibility of esophageal speech has been shown to be significantly lower than that of normal laryngeal speech. The current study investigated the possibility of enhancing the intelligibility of esophageal speech by manipulating samples in the time domain. Specifically, injection noises and nonphrasal pauses were digitally edited from the speech samples of 5 esophageal talkers. Twenty-five sentences were selected and edited in the time domain and presented to 15 naive listeners who were instructed to write down the words that they heard. The percentage of correct words heard for each sentence was determined and compared across listeners, sentences, and talkers. The overall effect of the editing was a small but significant gain in the intelligibility of the esophageal speech. The improvement in intelligibility, however, depended on the individual talker, the speech material, and the number of editing changes made to a particular sample. PMID:11407558

Prosek, R A; Vreeland, L L

2001-06-01

335

Tracheal Penetration and Tracheoesophageal Fistula Caused by an Esophageal Self-Expanding Metallic Stent  

PubMed Central

Tracheal penetration of esophageal self-expanding metallic stents (SEMS) with/without tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF) formation is a rare occurrence. We report the case of a 66-year-old female patient with advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma who had undergone palliative esophageal stenting on three occasions for recurrent esophageal stent obstruction. On evaluation of symptoms of breathing difficulty and aspiration following third esophageal stent placement, tracheal erosion and TEF formation due to the tracheal penetration by esophageal stent were diagnosed. The patient was successfully managed by covered tracheal SEMS placement under flexible bronchoscopy.

Madan, Karan; Venuthurimilli, Arun; Ahuja, Vineet; Mohan, Anant; Guleria, Randeep

2014-01-01

336

Tracheal penetration and tracheoesophageal fistula caused by an esophageal self-expanding metallic stent.  

PubMed

Tracheal penetration of esophageal self-expanding metallic stents (SEMS) with/without tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF) formation is a rare occurrence. We report the case of a 66-year-old female patient with advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma who had undergone palliative esophageal stenting on three occasions for recurrent esophageal stent obstruction. On evaluation of symptoms of breathing difficulty and aspiration following third esophageal stent placement, tracheal erosion and TEF formation due to the tracheal penetration by esophageal stent were diagnosed. The patient was successfully managed by covered tracheal SEMS placement under flexible bronchoscopy. PMID:25276461

Madan, Karan; Venuthurimilli, Arun; Ahuja, Vineet; Hadda, Vijay; Mohan, Anant; Guleria, Randeep

2014-01-01

337

Viewpoints on Acid-Induced Inflammatory Mediators in Esophageal Mucosa  

PubMed Central

We have focused on understanding the onset of gastroesophageal reflux disease by examining the mucosal response to the presence of acid in the esophageal lumen. Upon exposure to HCl, inflammation of the esophagus begins with activation of the transient receptor potential channel vanilloid subfamily member-1 (TRPV1) in the mucosa, and production of IL-8, substance P (SP), calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) and platelet activating factor (PAF). Production of SP and CGRP, but not PAF, is abolished by the neural blocker tetrodotoxin suggesting that SP and CGRP are neurally released and that PAF arises from non neural pathways. Epithelial cells contain TRPV1 receptor mRNA and protein and respond to HCl and to the TRPV1 agonist capsaicin with production of PAF. PAF, SP and IL-8 act as chemokines, inducing migration of peripheral blood leukocytes. PAF and SP activate peripheral blood leukocytes inducing the production of H2O2. In circular muscle, PAF causes production of IL-6, and IL-6 causes production of additional H2O2, through activation of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases. Among these, NADPH oxidase 5 cDNA is significantly up-regulated by exposure to PAF; H2O2 content of esophageal and lower esophageal sphincter circular muscle is elevated in human esophagitis, causing dysfunction of esophageal circular muscle contraction and reduction in esophageal sphincter tone. Thus esophageal keratinocytes, that constitute the first barrier to the refluxate, may also serve as the initiating cell type in esophageal inflammation, secreting inflammatory mediators and pro-inflammatory cytokines and affecting leukocyte recruitment and activity. PMID:21103419

Harnett, Karen M; Rieder, Florian; Behar, Jose

2010-01-01

338

Drug-induced esophagitis detected by double-contrast radiography  

SciTech Connect

Patients with esophageal symptoms following drug ingestion underwent double-contrast upper gastrointestinal studies, and radiographic findings are described. Superficial esophageal ulceration and subtle mucosal abnormalities, which have not been seen on single-contrast radiographs, were confirmed on double-contrast radiographs. Erosions or ulcers usually occur in the region of the aortic arch and occasionally lower in the esophagus. Repeat esophagrams after withdrawal of the medication indicate resolution of the symptoms.

Creteur, V. (Hospital of the Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia); Laufer, I.; Kressel, H.Y.; Caroline, D.F.; Goren, R.A.; Evers, K.A.; Glick, S.N.; Gatenby, R.A.

1983-05-01

339

Esophageal Surgery for Malignant Disease in the Elderly  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Neoplasms of the esophagus and gastroesophageal junction are aggressive tumors that often present at an advanced stage, and\\u000a that historically have been associated with poor survival despite therapy. 16,470 Americans are diagnosed with and 14,280\\u000a die of esophageal cancer annually, and the incidence is increasing. In fact, the incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC)\\u000a has increased in the last 25 years,

Philip A. Rascoe; John C. Kucharczuk

340

Neoadjuvant, Surgery and Adjuvant Chemotherapy without Radiation for Esophageal Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: A phase II trial to evaluate neoadjuvant (NAD), surgery and adjuvant (AD) combination chemotherapy without radiation therapy (RT) for patients with esophageal ade- nocarcinoma staged with endoscopic ultrasound and CT as T3N1 was carried out. Methods: Thirty-three eligible patients were enrolled. NAD therapy was administered in two 49-day cycles and included cisplatin, floxuridine, paclitaxel and leucovorin. Esophageal resec- tion

Bach Ardalan; Seth A. Spector; Alan S. Livingstone; Dido Franceschi; Dmitry Mezentsev; Mayra Lima; Carol P. Bowen-Wells; Lynne Sparling; Eli Avisar; Michelle Sapp; Joyce Rios; Gail Walker; Parvin Ganjei-Azar

341

Eosinophilic Esophagitis in Patients with Refractory Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Eosinophilic esophagitis is among the causes of refractory reflux disease. Biopsy of esophagus is the gold standard for diagnosis.\\u000a In this study we determined the frequency of eosinophilic esophagitis (EE) in refractory reflux cases referred to Motility\\u000a Department of Shahid Beheshti Research Center of Gastroenterology and Liver Disease, Tehran, Iran. Methods In this cross-sectional study, 68 cases with refractory

Mojgan Foroutan; Alireza Norouzi; Mahsa Molaei; Seyed Amir Mirbagheri; Shahrokh Irvani; Amir Sadeghi; Faramarz Derakhshan; Samaneh Tavassoli; Sima Besharat; Mohammadreza Zali

2010-01-01

342

Esophageal tolerance to high-dose stereotactic ablative radiotherapy.  

PubMed

Dose-volume parameters are needed to guide the safe administration of stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR). We report on esophageal tolerance to high-dose hypofractionated radiation in patients treated with SABR. Thirty-one patients with spine or lung tumors received single- or multiple-fraction SABR to targets less than 1 cm from the esophagus. End points evaluated include D(5cc) (minimum dose in Gy to 5 cm(3) of the esophagus receiving the highest dose), D(2cc) , D(1cc) , and D(max) (maximum dose to 0.01 cm(3) ). Multiple-fraction treatments were correlated using the linear quadratic and linear quadratic-linear/universal survival models. Three esophageal toxicity events occurred, including esophagitis (grade 2), tracheoesophageal fistula (grade 4-5), and esophageal perforation (grade 4-5). Chemotherapy was a cofactor in the high-grade events. The median time to development of esophageal toxicity was 4.1 months (range 0.6-6.1 months). Two of the three events occurred below a published D(5cc) threshold, all three were below a D(2cc) threshold, and one was below a D(max) threshold. We report a dosimetric analysis of incidental dose to the esophagus from SABR. High-dose hypofractionated radiotherapy led to a number of high-grade esophageal adverse events, suggesting that conservative parameters to protect the esophagus are necessary when SABR is used, especially in the setting of chemotherapy or prior radiotherapy. PMID:22168251

Abelson, J A; Murphy, J D; Loo, B W; Chang, D T; Daly, M E; Wiegner, E A; Hancock, S; Chang, S D; Le, Q-T; Soltys, S G; Gibbs, I C

2012-01-01

343

Esophageal tolerance to high-dose stereotactic radiosurgery  

PubMed Central

Purpose Esophageal tolerance is needed to guide the safe administration of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). We evaluated comprehensive dose-volume parameters of acute esophageal toxicity in patients with spinal metastasis treated with SRS. Materials and Methods From May 2008 to May 2011, 30 cases in 27 patients with spinal metastasis received single fraction SRS to targets neighboring esophagus. Endpoints evaluated include length (mm), volume (mL), maximal dose (Gy), and series of dose-volume thresholds from the dose-volume histogram (volume of the organ treated beyond a threshold dose). Results The median time from the start of irradiation to development of esophageal toxicity was 2 weeks (range, 1 to 12 weeks). Six events of grade 1 esophageal toxicity occurred. No grade 2 or higher events were observed. V15 of external surface of esophagus was found to predict acute esophageal toxicity revealed by multivariate analysis (odds radio = 1.272, p = 0.047). Conclusion In patients with spinal metastasis who received SRS for palliation of symptoms, the threshold dose-volume parameter associated with acute esophageal toxicity was found to be V15 of external surface of esophagus. Restrict V15 to external surface of esophagus as low as possible might be safe and feasible in radiosurgery. PMID:24501712

Lee, Bo Mi; Chang, Sei Kyung; Ko, Seung Young; Yoo, Seung Hoon

2013-01-01

344

Primary esophageal sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma with "tissue eosinophilia".  

PubMed

Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) is a rare primary esophageal malignancy. It is characterized by poor clinical recognition, pre-operative diagnostic challenges and a lack of standardized therapeutic guidelines. We report the clinicopathological features of a hitherto unreported variant of esophageal MEC, sclerosing MEC with "tissue eosinophilia", in a mid-esophageal location in a 51-year-old female. The diagnosis of the initial biopsy was challenging, because of the small size, poor orientation and inadequate representation of the MEC components. Recognition of the resectability of the tumor prompted surgical resection and enabled a demonstration of the low grade foci containing intermediate cells, mucin pools and the hitherto undescribed presence of stromal sclerosis and tissue eosinophils in esophageal MEC. Heightened clinicopathological awareness of esophageal MEC facilitated a definitive diagnosis and patient management. Increased recognition and global documentation of esophageal sclerosing MEC with "tissue eosinophilia" is necessary to improve the understanding and diagnosis of this malignancy in this location and to improve management guidelines. PMID:24944502

Mewa Kinoo, Suman; Maharaj, Kapil; Singh, Bhugwan; Govender, Michelle; Ramdial, Pratistadevi Kanaye

2014-06-14

345

Analysis of esophageal cancer time trends in China, 1989- 2008.  

PubMed

National cancer incidence data were utilized to analyze trends in esophageal cancer incidence in China in order to provide basic information for making cancer control strategy. We retrieved and re-sorted valid esophageal cancer incidence data from National Central Cancer Registry Database over 20 years period from 1989 to 2008. Crude incidence and age-standardized incidence rates were calculated for analysis, with annual percent change estimated by Joinpoint software for long term trend analysis. The crude incidence rate of esophageal cancer was found to have remained relatively stable in both urban and rural areas over the 20 year period. Age standardized incidence rate (ASR) in cancer registration areas decreased from 39.5/100,000 in 1989 to 23.0/100,000 in 2008 in all areas (AAPC=-3.3%, 95% CI:-2.8~-3.7). The trend was no change in urban areas and 2.1% average annual decrease observed in rural aras. Before the year of 2000, esophageal cancer incidence rates significant decreased with 2.8% annually and then the rates kept stable. Over 20 years from 1989 to 2008, esophageal cancer age standardized incidence rate in cancer registration areas decreased with time. However, esophageal cancer is still a big issue and efforts for control should be continuously enhanced. Cancer registration is playing an important role in cancer control with the number of registries increasing and data quality improving in China. PMID:23167389

Zhao, Jun; He, Yu-Tong; Zheng, Rong-Shou; Zhang, Si-Wei; Chen, Wan-Qing

2012-01-01

346

Primary esophageal sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma with "tissue eosinophilia"  

PubMed Central

Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) is a rare primary esophageal malignancy. It is characterized by poor clinical recognition, pre-operative diagnostic challenges and a lack of standardized therapeutic guidelines. We report the clinicopathological features of a hitherto unreported variant of esophageal MEC, sclerosing MEC with “tissue eosinophilia”, in a mid-esophageal location in a 51-year-old female. The diagnosis of the initial biopsy was challenging, because of the small size, poor orientation and inadequate representation of the MEC components. Recognition of the resectability of the tumor prompted surgical resection and enabled a demonstration of the low grade foci containing intermediate cells, mucin pools and the hitherto undescribed presence of stromal sclerosis and tissue eosinophils in esophageal MEC. Heightened clinicopathological awareness of esophageal MEC facilitated a definitive diagnosis and patient management. Increased recognition and global documentation of esophageal sclerosing MEC with “tissue eosinophilia” is necessary to improve the understanding and diagnosis of this malignancy in this location and to improve management guidelines. PMID:24944502

Mewa Kinoo, Suman; Maharaj, Kapil; Singh, Bhugwan; Govender, Michelle; Ramdial, Pratistadevi Kanaye

2014-01-01

347

In Vivo Cancer Biomarkers of Esophageal Neoplasia  

PubMed Central

Summary The emergence of in vivo cancer biomarkers is promising tool for early detection, risk stratification, and therapeutic intervention in the esophagus, where adenocarcinoma is increasing at a rate that is faster than any other in industrialized nations. Exciting advances in target identification, probe development, and optical instrumentation are creating tremendous new opportunities for advancing techniques of molecular imaging. Progress in these areas is being made with small animal models of esophageal cancer using surgical approaches to induce reflux of acid and bile, and these findings are beginning to be evaluated in the clinic. Further identification of relevant targets, characterization of specific probes, and development of endoscopic imaging technologies are needed to further this direction in the field of molecular medicine. In the future, new methods that use in vivo cancer biomarkers for the early detection of neoplastic changes in the setting of Barrett's esophagus will become available. PMID:19126962

Lu, Shaoying; Wang, Thomas D

2011-01-01

348

Characteristics of brain metastases from esophageal carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background: Esophageal carcinoma (EC) is a major malignancy with a poor prognosis. Although esophageal cancers rarely metastasize to the brain, the number of patients diagnosed with brain metastases (BM) from EC is steadily increasing. Therefore, the risk factors for BM from EC should be known. Here we reviewed our experiences and the previous literature regarding BM from EC. Methods: Between 2000 and 2013, we retrospectively reviewed the clinical features and neurological findings of 19 patients diagnosed with and treated for BM from EC to determine the clinical risk factors and features. Results: In all patients, the lesions were partially or completed located in the thoracic esophagus, and the average size of the EC lesion at diagnosis was 5.8 ± 2.9 cm, which was smaller than the previously reported size of EC lesions accompanied by BM. Patients without lung metastases were more common than those with lung metastases. The lesions in the 13 patients included squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC) in 9 (69.2%) and small cell carcinoma (SmCC) in 3 (23.0%). Six patients were not examined. Although there was no trend toward a higher incidence of BM in patients with adenocarcinoma and SqCC, this trend was observed in patients with SmCC. Excluding a single patient with SmCC, all patients had beyond stage III disease at EC diagnosis. Conclusions: Our study suggests that BM can occur in patients with EC lesions smaller than those previously reported; moreover, SmCC may be a risk factor for BM from EC.

Yamamoto, Takahiro; Kuroda, Jun-ichiro; Takezaki, Tatsuya; Shinojima, Naoki; Hide, Takuichiro; Makino, Keishi; Nakamura, Hideo; Yano, Shigetoshi; Nishi, Toru; Kuratsu, Jun-ichi

2014-01-01

349

Multidisciplinary Modalities Achieve Encouraging Long-Term Survival in Resectable Limited-Disease Esophageal Small Cell Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background The management of limited-disease esophageal small cell carcinoma is not well defined, and the role of surgery is still controversial. We aim to determine the optimal treatment strategy in limited-disease of esophageal small cell carcinoma. Methods and Findings We conducted a retrospective review of 141 patients with limited-disease esophageal small cell carcinoma from 3 institutions in China who underwent treatment between July 1994 and September 2008, July 1994 and July 2011, and June 2004 and December 2010, respectively. The survival rate was calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method, and the log-rank test was used to assess the survival differences between the groups. Cox proportional hazards model were used to further determine the independent factors impacting overall survival. The median survival time was 16.1 months for the entire cohort of patients, with a 5-year survival rate of 6.7%. The median survival times for surgery alone, surgery combined with chemotherapy, surgery combined with radiotherapy, surgery combined with chemotherapy and radiotherapy, chemotherapy plus radiotherapy, and chemotherapy alone were 18.0 months, 15.0 months, 23.0 months, 25.0 months, 17.1 months, and 6.1 months, respectively; the corresponding 5-year survival rates were 0%, 15.4%, 0%, 38.9%, 0%, and 0%, respectively. For the 105 patients who underwent R0 resection, the median disease-free survival time was 12.0 months, with a 95% confidence interval of 9.5 months to 14.5 months. The multivariate Cox regression analysis demonstrated that advanced pathological staging (p?=?0.003), and pure esophageal small cell carcinoma (p?=?0.035) were independent factors decreasing overall survival. Conclusions Our data suggested that multidisciplinary modalities achieved encouraging long-term survival in patients with resectable limited-disease of esophageal small cell carcinoma. PMID:23874925

Wu, Jing-Xun; Wang, Xin; Fu, Jian-Hua; Lin, Peng; Yang, Hao-Xian

2013-01-01

350

Context-dependent adaption of EpCAM expression in early systemic esophageal cancer.  

PubMed

The role of the epithelial cell adhesion molecule EpCAM in cancer progression remains largely unclear. High expression of EpCAM in primary tumors is often associated with more aggressive phenotypes and EpCAM is the prime epithelial antigen in use to isolate circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and characterize disseminated tumor cells (DTCs). However, reduced expression of EpCAM was associated with epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and reports on a lack of EpCAM on CTCs emerged. These contradictory observations might reflect a context-dependent adaption of EpCAM expression during metastatic progression. To test this, EpCAM expression was monitored in esophageal cancer at different sites of early systemic disease. Although most of the primary esophageal tumors expressed high levels of EpCAM, the majority of DTCs in bone marrow lacked EpCAM. In vitro, downregulation of EpCAM expression at the plasma membrane was observed in migrating and invading cells, and was associated with a partial loss of the epithelial phenotype and with significantly decreased proliferation. Accordingly, induction of EMT through the action of TGF? resulted in substantial loss of EpCAM cell surface expression on esophageal cancer cells. Knock-down or natural loss of EpCAM recapitulated these effects as it reduced proliferation while enhancing migration and invasion of cancer cells. Importantly, expression of EpCAM on DTCs was significantly associated with the occurrence of lymph node metastases and with significantly decreased overall survival of esophageal cancer patients. We validated this observation by showing that high expression of EpCAM promoted tumor outgrowth after xenotransplantation of esophageal carcinoma cells. The present data disclose a dynamic expression of EpCAM throughout tumor progression, where EpCAM(high) phenotypes correlate with proliferative stages, whereas EpCAM(low/negative) phenotypes associated with migration, invasion and dissemination. Thus, differing expression levels of EpCAM must be taken into consideration for therapeutic approaches and during clinical retrieval of disseminated tumor cells. PMID:24141784

Driemel, C; Kremling, H; Schumacher, S; Will, D; Wolters, J; Lindenlauf, N; Mack, B; Baldus, S A; Hoya, V; Pietsch, J M; Panagiotidou, P; Raba, K; Vay, C; Vallböhmer, D; Harréus, U; Knoefel, W T; Stoecklein, N H; Gires, O

2014-10-01

351

Influence of Ionizing Radiation on Stromal-Epithelial Intercellular Communication in Esophageal Carcinogenesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Esophageal cancer is the 6th leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Its development is associated with a variety of risk factors including tobacco use, heavy alcohol consumption, human papilloma virus infection, and certain dietary factors such as trace mineral and vitamin deficiencies. An association with ionizing radiation exposure is revealed by the high excess relative risk for squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus observed in the survivors of the atomic bomb detonations in Japan. It is also seen as a secondary malignancy in patients who received radiotherapy for breast and thoracic cancers; additionally, patients with head/neck and oral squamous cell cancers are at increased risk for metachronous esophageal squamous cell cancers. This malignancy is rapidly fatal, mainly because it remains asymptomatic until late, advanced stages when the disease is rarely curable. The stromal microenvironment plays an essential role in the maintenance and modulation of normal epithelial cell growth and differentiation and cross talk between the epithelial and stromal compartments can influence many aspects of malignant progression, including tumor cell proliferation, migration, invasion and recruitment of new blood vessels. To test the hypothesis that radiation exposure plays a role in esophageal carcinogenesis via non-targeted mechanisms involving stromal-epithelial cell communication, we are studying radiation effects on hTERT-immortalized human esophageal epithelial cells and genetic variants grown in co-culture with human esophageal stromal fibroblasts (Okawa et al., Genes & Dev. 2007. 21: 2788-2803). We examined how radiation treatment of stromal fibroblasts affected epithelial migration and invasion, behaviors associated with cancer promotion and progression. Chemotactic and haptotactic migration of epithelial cells stimulated by conditioned media from irradiated fibroblasts was measured using assays conducted in Transwell cell culture chambers. Our results using low LET radiation showed a dose-dependent increase in migration of epithelial cells when exposed to conditioned media from irradiated vs. non-irradiated fibroblasts. We also observed enhanced invasion through a basement membrane simulant. To identify chemotactic proteins secreted by irradiated stromal fibroblasts, we used antibody capture cytokine arrays and have identified several proteins as candidates. Increased secretion of these factors by irradiated fibroblasts was confirmed using ELISA. We are currently analyzing the contribution of these individual factors on epithelial migration and invasion, as well as their influence on cell survival and DNA repair. Studies using high-LET radiation will help determine radiation quality effects on these processes. These results should further our understanding of the mechanisms by which radiation impacts the tissue microenvironment and how it influences cancer development processes.

Patel, Zarana S.; Kalabis, Jiri; Rustgi, Anil K.; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Huff, Janice L.

2010-01-01

352

Protection Against Esophageal Cancer in Rodents With Lyophilized Berries: Potential Mechanisms  

PubMed Central

For several years, our laboratory has been evaluating the ability of lyophilized (freeze-dried) black raspberries (Rubus occidentalis, BRBs), blackberries (R. fructicosus, BBs), and strawberries (Fragaria ananasia, STRWs) to inhibit carcinogen-induced cancer in the rodent esophagus. To assure “standardized” berry preparations for study, each berry type is of the same cultivar, picked at about the same degree of ripeness, washed and frozen within 2–4 h of the time of picking, and freeze-dried under conditions that preserve the components in the berries. Some of the known chemopreventive agents in berries include vitamins A, C, and E and folic acid; calcium and selenium; ?-carotene, ?-carotene, and lutein; polyphenols such as ellagic acid, ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid, quercetin, and several anthocyanins; and phytosterols such as ?-sitosterol, stigmasterol, and kaempferol. In initial bioassays, freeze-dried STRW, BRB, and BB powders were mixed into AIN-76A synthetic diet at concentrations of 5% and 10% and fed to Fischer 344 rats before, during, and after treatment with the esophageal carcinogen N-nitrosomethylbenzylamine (NMBA). At 25 wk of the bioassay, all three berry types were found to inhibit the number of esophageal tumors (papillomas) in NMBA-treated animals by 24–56% relative to NMBA controls. This inhibition correlated with reductions in the formation of the NMBA-induced O6-methylguanine adduct in esophageal DNA, suggesting that the berries influenced the metabolism of NMBA leading to reduced DNA damage. Studies are ongoing to determine the mechanisms by which berries influence NMBA metabolism and DNA adduct formation. BRBs and STRWs were also tested in a postinitiation scheme and were found to inhibit NMBA-induced esophageal tumorigenesis by 31–64% when administered in the diet following treatment of the animals with NMBA. Berries, therefore, inhibit tumor promotion and progression events as well as tumor initiation. In vivo mechanistic studies with BRBs indicate that they reduce the growth rate of premalignant esophageal cells, in part, through down-regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 leading to reduced prostaglandin production and of inducible nitric oxide synthase leading to reduced nitrate/nitrite levels in the esophagus. Based upon the preclinical data on rodents, we have initiated prevention trials in humans to determine if berries might exhibit chemopreventive effects in the esophagus. PMID:16800771

Stoner, Gary D.; Chen, Tong; Kresty, Laura A.; Aziz, Robeena M.; Reinemann, Tiffany; Nines, Ronald

2010-01-01

353

Breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) and excision repair cross complement-1 (ERCC1) expression in esophageal cancers and response to cisplatin and irinotecan based chemotherapy  

PubMed Central

Background Esophageal cancer patients face a dismal outcome despite tri-modality management and median survival remains 15-18 months. Breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) is an ATP-dependent efflux protein associated with chemotherapy resistance. The role of BCRP expression in esophageal cancer and normal esophageal cells is not known. Excision repair cross complement-1 (ERCC1) overexpression has been correlated with poorer response to cisplatin based chemotherapy. We examined the expression of BCRP and ERCC1 in patients with esophageal cancer and correlated it with survival in patients receiving irinotecan and cisplatin based chemotherapy. Methods With IRB approval, 40 cases of esophageal cancer diagnosed from 2004-2008, were stained for BCRP and ERCC1 expression by immunohistochemistry and scored by a pathologist blinded to clinical data. Baseline demographics, therapy given and survival data were collected and correlated with BCRP and ERCC1 expression. Fisher’s exact test was used to determine association between BCRP and ERCC1 expression and demographics. Cox proportional hazards model was used for association of BCRP and ERCC1 with survival. Results On immunohistochemistry, 30/40 cancers (75%) expressed BCRP. Interestingly, down-regulation of BCRP expression in tumor compared with normal cells was seen in 40% of patients. ERCC1 positivity was seen in 15/30 cases (50%). Median overall survival (OS) was 19 months with no difference in survival between BCRP positive and negative patients (P=0.13) or ERCC1 positive and negative patients (P=0.85). Estimated hazard ratio (HR) of death for BRCP positive patients was 2.29 (95% CI: 0.79-6.64) and for ERCC1 positive patients was 1.09 (95% CI: 0.46-2.56). There was no association of BCRP and ERCC1 expression with disease stage, age, gender or histology. For patients who received cisplatin and irinotecan as first line chemotherapy, there was no difference in survival based on BCRP or ERCC1 status. Conclusions BCRP expression is seen in a majority of esophageal cancers and normal esophageal mucosa. ERCC1 expression is seen in about half of the patients with esophageal cancer. Irinotecan based studies with esophageal and gastric cancer suggest response rates of 14-65%. Whether the 40% of tumors in our study found with down regulation of BCRP expression, constitute a majority of these responders needs to be prospectively validated in a larger data set. It should include markers such as ERCC1 predicting response to 5-fluorouracil and platinum based chemotherapy, to enable individualizing therapy for this cancer. PMID:25083297

Bharthuar, Anubha; Black, Jennifer D.; Levea, Charles; Malhotra, Usha; Mashtare, Terry L.; Iyer, Renuka

2014-01-01

354

Reliability-based econometrics of aerospace structural systems: Design criteria and test options. Ph.D. Thesis - Georgia Inst. of Tech.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design criteria and test options for aerospace structural reliability were investigated. A decision methodology was developed for selecting a combination of structural tests and structural design factors. The decision method involves the use of Bayesian statistics and statistical decision theory. Procedures are discussed for obtaining and updating data-based probabilistic strength distributions for aerospace structures when test information is available and for obtaining subjective distributions when data are not available. The techniques used in developing the distributions are explained.

Thomas, J. M.; Hanagud, S.

1974-01-01

355

Everolimus and Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Patients With Metastatic Stomach or Esophageal Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adenocarcinoma of the Esophagus; Adenocarcinoma of the Gastroesophageal Junction; Diffuse Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Intestinal Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Mixed Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Recurrent Esophageal Cancer; Recurrent Gastric Cancer; Stage IV Esophageal Cancer; Stage IV Gastric Cancer

2014-08-15

356

[Genetic base of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma susceptibility].  

PubMed

The esophageal squamous cell carcinoma is multifactorial disease involving genetic and environmental factors. The paper presents most important human data on the polymorphisms of selected genes that have been linked with higher risk of the neoplasm. The most widely studied group were genes encoded molecules engaged in biotransformations of xenobiotics, in particular potential carcinogens, like alcohol (ADH2) and aldehyde (ALDH2) dehydrogenases, various isoenzymes of cytochrome P450 (CYP1A1, CYP2E1) and glutathione S-transferase (GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTP1). High interest was also put for polymorphism in DNA repair genes, i.e., OGG1, XRCC1, XPD, XPG and MGMT as well as genes associated with nucleotide biosyntesis like methylenotetrahydrofolate reductase and thymidylate synthase and in control of cell cycle and apoptosis e.g., p53, Fas, FasL or TNF. Furthermore, it was revealed that predisposition to cancer in certain individual could be determined by coexistence of unprofitable allele of a few genes. Introduction of genetic screening test allows effective, purpose-oriented methods of prevention and in patients suffered from the cancer--application of optimal therapy and minimization of side-effects. PMID:19388510

Szumi?o, Justyna; Marzec, Barbara; Szumi?o, Micha?; Korobowicz, Agnieszka; Burdan, Franciszek

2009-02-01

357

Water contamination and esophageal cancer at Gassim Region, Saudi Arabia  

SciTech Connect

Between January 1980 and December 1982, 183 patients with histologically confirmed carcinoma of the esophagus who were referred to a tertiary referral hospital were studied. Thirty-two (17%) patients were referred from Gassim Region at the north central part of Saudi Arabia. In contrast, only 5% of total cancer patient referrals were from this area. A case-control study showed a significant regional difference within Saudi Arabia and the most referrals from Gassim area. A prospective case-control study showed persistently high numbers of referrals from that region during 1983-1987. When patients from Gassim Region were compared with those referred from other locations, no statistical differences were noted between the two groups except for the source of drinking water. Water analysis from Gassim area showed a high solid content with elevated levels of calcium, magnesium, and to a lesser extent, chromium iron, cadmium, and cobalt. Traces of petroleum oil were found in five of six water samples from Gassim during 1983, compared with 3 of 49 samples from other areas. Mutagenicity tests on water specimens form Gassim Region indicated the presence of possible carcinogens. It is being suggested that the high prevalence of esophageal cancer in this region may be related to contamination of water by impurities such as petroleum oils. Malnutrition, particularly vitamin A deficiency, as well as other factors may have promoted such malignancies.

Amer, M.H.; El-Yazigi, A.; Hannan, M.A.; Mohamed, M.E. (King Faisal Specialist Hospital, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia))

1990-05-01

358

Ordering of mutations in preinvasive disease stages of esophageal carcinogenesis.  

PubMed

Cancer genome sequencing studies have identified numerous driver genes, but the relative timing of mutations in carcinogenesis remains unclear. The gradual progression from premalignant Barrett's esophagus to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) provides an ideal model to study the ordering of somatic mutations. We identified recurrently mutated genes and assessed clonal structure using whole-genome sequencing and amplicon resequencing of 112 EACs. We next screened a cohort of 109 biopsies from 2 key transition points in the development of malignancy: benign metaplastic never-dysplastic Barrett's esophagus (NDBE; n=66) and high-grade dysplasia (HGD; n=43). Unexpectedly, the majority of recurrently mutated genes in EAC were also mutated in NDBE. Only TP53 and SMAD4 mutations occurred in a stage-specific manner, confined to HGD and EAC, respectively. Finally, we applied this knowledge to identify high-risk Barrett's esophagus in a new non-endoscopic test. In conclusion, mutations in EAC driver genes generally occur exceptionally early in disease development with profound implications for diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. PMID:24952744

Weaver, Jamie M J; Ross-Innes, Caryn S; Shannon, Nicholas; Lynch, Andy G; Forshew, Tim; Barbera, Mariagnese; Murtaza, Muhammed; Ong, Chin-Ann J; Lao-Sirieix, Pierre; Dunning, Mark J; Smith, Laura; Smith, Mike L; Anderson, Charlotte L; Carvalho, Benilton; O'Donovan, Maria; Underwood, Timothy J; May, Andrew P; Grehan, Nicola; Hardwick, Richard; Davies, Jim; Oloumi, Arusha; Aparicio, Sam; Caldas, Carlos; Eldridge, Matthew D; Edwards, Paul A W; Rosenfeld, Nitzan; Tavaré, Simon; Fitzgerald, Rebecca C

2014-08-01

359

Thoracic Discitis as a Complication of Self-Expanding Metallic Stents in Esophageal Carcinoma  

SciTech Connect

The role of metallic stents in the palliation of esophageal cancer is well established. Self-expanding metal stents (SEMSs) are frequently used, as they provide an effective and safe method of relieving malignant dysphagia. A number of complications are associated with the use of SEMSs, including esophageal perforation. We report a case of thoracic discitis occurring in a patient with advanced esophageal malignancy, treated with SEMSs. We propose that the likely etiology in this patient was esophageal perforation by a metallic stent.

McQueen, A. S.; Eljabu, W.; Latimer, J., E-mail: joanne.latimer@nth.nhs.uk; Raju, P. P. J. [University Hospital of North Tees, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom)

2011-02-15

360

Nitrous oxide produces minimal hemodynamic changes in patients receiving a propofol-based anesthetic: an esophageal Doppler ultrasound study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a frequently used adjunct to propofol anesthesia. Although N2O reduces the requirement of propofol for induction and maintenance, the effects of both drugs on overall hemodynamics remain\\u000a controversial. We tested the hypothesis that the addition of N2O to therapeutic doses of propofol alters hemodynamics and Doppler-derived variables evaluated with the esophageal Doppler\\u000a monitor in a randomized,

Toshiya Shiga; Zen’ichiro Wajima; Tetsuo Inoue; Ryo Ogawa

2003-01-01

361

[Lymphocytic esophagitis: an entity to be excluded in chronic inflammatory diseases of the esophagus].  

PubMed

Lymphocytic esophagitis is a rare, ill-defined inflammatory disease of the esophagus and is characterized by an increased number of intraepithelial lymphocytes. Up to now no distinct clinical symptom or endoscopic finding could be linked to histopathological changes. Hence lymphocytic esophagitis remains a diagnosis by exclusion after ruling out other possible causes of esophageal intraepithelial lymphocytosis. PMID:23420514

Veits, L; Drgac, J; Rieker, R J

2013-03-01

362

Free radicals and antioxidant systems in reflux esophagitis and Barrett's esophagus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Abstract Abstract Abstract AIM: Experimental studies suggest that free radicals are involved in acid and pepsin-induced damage of esophageal mucosa. The profile and balance between free radicals and antioxidant systems in human esophagitis are unknown. METHODS: Superoxide anion and its powerful oxidant reaction with nitric oxide (peroxynitrite) generation were determined in esophageal mucosal biopsies from 101 patients with different

Pilar Jiménez; Elena Piazuelo; M. Teresa Sánchez; Javier Ortego; Fernando Soteras; Angel Lanas

363

Efficacy of Intense Screening and Treatment for Synchronous Second Primary Cancers in Patients with Esophageal Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The optimum management of esophageal cancers with synchronous second pri- mary cancer (SPC) has not been determined. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of intense screening and treatment for esophageal cancers with synchronous SPC. Methods: Between 1981 and 1997, 1479 patients with esophageal cancers were screened for synchronous SPC during the process of initial staging.

Kenji Kagei; Masao Hosokawa; Hiroki Shirato; Takaya Kusumi; Yuichi Shimizu; Akihito Watanabe; Michihiro Ueda

364

Videothoracoscopic management of middle esophageal diverticulum with secondary bronchoesophageal fistula: report of a case.  

PubMed

Middle esophageal diverticulum is rare, but can result in bronchoesophageal fistula. Previous reports have described open surgical techniques to treat esophageal diverticula, but few have evaluated the effectiveness of a videothoracoscopy approach. We report a case of middle esophageal diverticulum associated with bronchoesophageal fistula, managed successfully with videothoracoscopy. We also review the relevant literature. PMID:19039640

Braghetto, Italo; Cardemil, Gonzalo; Schwartz, Eitan; Valladares, Hector; Rencoret, Guillermo; Estay, Rene; Rodriguez-Navarro, Alberto J

2008-01-01

365

Helicobacter pylori Infection, Reflux Esophagitis, and Atrophic Gastritis: An Unexplored Triangle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:H. pylori causes chronic gastritis, which may progress to peptic ulcer, gastric atrophy, or gastric cancer. However, little is known about the role of H. pylori infection in reflux esophagitis and the relationship between reflux esophagitis and atrophic gastritis needs to be clarified. We sought to identify the possible interrelationships among Helicobacter pylori infection, reflux esophagitis, and atrophic gastritis, to

Harry Hua-Xiang Xia; Nicholas J. Talley

1998-01-01

366

Endoscopic findings of radiation esophagitis in concurrent chemoradiotherapy for intrathoracic malignancies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and purpose: The incidence and extent of radiation esophagitis were assessed endoscopically in patients treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy.Patients and methods: Eighty-two patients who received thoracic radiotherapy for lung, thymic, or esophageal cancer were investigated endoscopically from July 1991 to the end of 1997. Among them, 23 esophageal cancer patients were treated with radiation alone, and the others were treated

Saeko Hirota; Kayoko Tsujino; Yoshio Hishikawa; Hirokazu Watanabe; Koichi Kono; Toshinori Soejima; Kayoko Obayashi; Yoshiki Takada; Michio Kono; Mitsuyuki Abe

2001-01-01

367

Irradiated Esophageal Cells are Protected from Radiation-Induced Recombination by MnSOD Gene Therapy  

E-print Network

Irradiated Esophageal Cells are Protected from Radiation-Induced Recombination by MnSOD Gene. Irradiated Esophageal Cells are Protected from Radiation- Induced Recombination by MnSOD Gene Therapy. Radiat in esophageal cells. These results demonstrate the efficacy of MnSOD-PL for suppressing radiation-induced HR

Engelward, Bevin

368

BETA: Behavioral testability analyzer and its application to high-level test generation and synthesis for testability. Ph.D. Thesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this thesis, a behavioral-level testability analysis approach is presented. This approach is based on analyzing the circuit behavioral description (similar to a C program) to estimate its testability by identifying controllable and observable circuit nodes. This information can be used by a test generator to gain better access to internal circuit nodes and to reduce its search space. The results of the testability analyzer can also be used to select test points or partial scan flip-flops in the early design phase. Based on selection criteria, a novel Synthesis for Testability approach call Test Statement Insertion (TSI) is proposed, which modifies the circuit behavioral description directly. Test Statement Insertion can also be used to modify circuit structural description to improve its testability. As a result, Synthesis for Testability methodology can be combined with an existing behavioral synthesis tool to produce more testable circuits.

Chen, Chung-Hsing

1992-01-01

369

Predictors of Postoperative Complications After Trimodality Therapy for Esophageal Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: While trimodality therapy for esophageal cancer has improved patient outcomes, surgical complication rates remain high. The goal of this study was to identify modifiable factors associated with postoperative complications after neoadjuvant chemoradiation. Methods and Materials: From 1998 to 2011, 444 patients were treated at our institution with surgical resection after chemoradiation. Postoperative (pulmonary, gastrointestinal [GI], cardiac, wound healing) complications were recorded up to 30 days postoperatively. Kruskal-Wallis tests and ?{sup 2} or Fisher exact tests were used to assess associations between continuous and categorical variables. Multivariate logistic regression tested the association between perioperative complications and patient or treatment factors that were significant on univariate analysis. Results: The most frequent postoperative complications after trimodality therapy were pulmonary (25%) and GI (23%). Lung capacity and the type of radiation modality used were independent predictors of pulmonary and GI complications. After adjusting for confounding factors, pulmonary and GI complications were increased in patients treated with 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) versus intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT; odds ratio [OR], 2.018; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.104-3.688; OR, 1.704; 95% CI, 1.03-2.82, respectively) and for patients treated with 3D-CRT versus proton beam therapy (PBT; OR, 3.154; 95% CI, 1.365-7.289; OR, 1.55; 95% CI, 0.78-3.08, respectively). Mean lung radiation dose (MLD) was strongly associated with pulmonary complications, and the differences in toxicities seen for the radiation modalities could be fully accounted for by the MLD delivered by each of the modalities. Conclusions: The radiation modality used can be a strong mitigating factor of postoperative complications after neoadjuvant chemoradiation.

Wang, Jingya [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Wei, Caimiao [Department of Biostatistics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Tucker, Susan L. [Department of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Myles, Bevan; Palmer, Matthew [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Hofstetter, Wayne L.; Swisher, Stephen G. [Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Ajani, Jaffer A. [Department of Gastrointestinal Medical Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Cox, James D.; Komaki, Ritsuko; Liao, Zhongxing [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Lin, Steven H., E-mail: SHLin@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

2013-08-01

370

Physical activity is associated with reduced risk of esophageal cancer, particularly esophageal adenocarcinoma: a systematic review and meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Physical activity has been inversely associated with risk of several cancers. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the association between physical activity and risk of esophageal cancer (esophageal adenocarcinoma [EAC] and/or esophageal squamous cell carcinoma [ESCC]). Methods We conducted a comprehensive search of bibliographic databases and conference proceedings from inception through February 2013 for observational studies that examined associations between recreational and/or occupational physical activity and esophageal cancer risk. Summary adjusted odds ratio (OR) estimates with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using the random-effects model. Results The analysis included 9 studies (4 cohort, 5 case–control) reporting 1,871 cases of esophageal cancer among 1,381,844 patients. Meta-analysis demonstrated that the risk of esophageal cancer was 29% lower among the most physically active compared to the least physically active subjects (OR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.57-0.89), with moderate heterogeneity (I2?=?47%). On histology-specific analysis, physical activity was associated with a 32% decreased risk of EAC (4 studies, 503 cases of EAC; OR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.55-0.85) with minimal heterogeneity (I2?=?0%). There were only 3 studies reporting the association between physical activity and risk of ESCC with conflicting results, and the meta-analysis demonstrated a null association (OR, 1.10; 95% CI, 0.21-5.64). The results were consistent across study design, geographic location and study quality, with a non-significant trend towards a dose–response relationship. Conclusions Meta-analysis of published observational studies indicates that physical activity may be associated with reduced risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma. Lifestyle interventions focusing on increasing physical activity may decrease the global burden of EAC. PMID:24886123

2014-01-01

371

Exercise and Pulmonary Hypertension (PH)  

MedlinePLUS

... International PH News and Projects Let Me Breathe Music Video PATIENTS Patients Newly Diagnosed Request an Envelope ... International PH News and Projects Let Me Breathe Music Video Help spread PH awareness and share PH ...

372

Volumetric modulated arc radiotherapy for esophageal cancer  

SciTech Connect

A treatment planning study was performed to evaluate the performance of volumetric arc modulation with RapidArc (RA) against 3D conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) and conventional intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) techniques for esophageal cancer. Computed tomgraphy scans of 10 patients were included in the study. 3D-CRT, 4-field IMRT, and single-arc and double-arc RA plans were generated with the aim to spare organs at risk (OAR) and healthy tissue while enforcing highly conformal target coverage. The planning objective was to deliver 54 Gy to the planning target volume (PTV) in 30 fractions. Plans were evaluated based on target conformity and dose-volume histograms of organs at risk (lung, spinal cord, and heart). The monitor unit (MU) and treatment delivery time were also evaluated to measure the treatment efficiency. The IMRT plan improves target conformity and spares OAR when compared with 3D-CRT. Target conformity improved with RA plans compared with IMRT. The mean lung dose was similar in all techniques. However, RA plans showed a reduction in the volume of the lung irradiated at V{sub 20Gy} and V{sub 30Gy} dose levels (range, 4.62-17.98%) compared with IMRT plans. The mean dose and D{sub 35%} of heart for the RA plans were better than the IMRT by 0.5-5.8%. Mean V{sub 10Gy} and integral dose to healthy tissue were almost similar in all techniques. But RA plans resulted in a reduced low-level dose bath (15-20 Gy) in the range of 14-16% compared with IMRT plans. The average MU needed to deliver the prescribed dose by RA technique was reduced by 20-25% compared with IMRT technique. The preliminary study on RA for esophageal cancers showed improvements in sparing OAR and healthy tissue with reduced beam-on time, whereas only double-arc RA offered improved target coverage compared with IMRT and 3D-CRT plans.

Vivekanandan, Nagarajan, E-mail: viveknaren@hotmail.com [Department of Medical Physics, Cancer Institute, Chennai (India); Sriram, Padmanaban; Syam Kumar, S.A.; Bhuvaneswari, Narayanan; Saranya, Kamalakannan [Department of Medical Physics, Cancer Institute, Chennai (India)

2012-04-01

373

Methylation of TIMP3 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma  

PubMed Central

AIM: To measure the frequency of DNA methylation of the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 3 (TIMP3) promoter and relate this to any change of gene expression in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in patients from a region of high incidence in China. METHODS: Cancer cell lines were treated with or without the demethylating reagent 5-aza-2’-deoxycytidine. Methylation of the TIMP3 promoter was assessed in three regions by melt curve analysis and its expression was assessed by real-time RT-PCR. Tumors and proximal resection margins were obtained from 64 patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma from a region of high incidence in China. Methylation was assessed by melt curve analysis and expression by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Methylation in one of the three promoter regions assessed correlated with gene silencing in esophageal cell lines. A degree of methylation of TIMP3 was found in only four esophageal squamous cell carcinomas, and partial loss of TIMP3 protein expression in just one. CONCLUSION: Methylation and loss of expression of TIMP3 occurs infrequently in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in a region of high incidence in China. PMID:18186556

Smith, Eric; Young, Neville J De; Tian, Zi-Qiang; Caruso, Maria; Ruszkiewicz, Andrew R; Liu, Jun-Feng; Jamieson, Glyn G; Drew, Paul A

2008-01-01

374

Esophageal stent fracture: Case report and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Endoscopic esophageal stent placement is widely used in the treatment of a variety of benign and malignant esophageal conditions. Self expanding metal stents (SEMS) are associated with significantly reduced stent related mortality and morbidity compared to plastic stents for treatment of esophageal conditions; however they have known complications of stent migration, stent occlusion, tumor ingrowth, stricture formation, reflux, bleeding and perforation amongst others. A rare and infrequently reported complication of SEMS is stent fracture and subsequent migration of the broken pieces. There have only been a handful of published case reports describing this problem. In this report we describe a case of a spontaneously fractured nitinol esophageal SEMS, and review the available literature on the unusual occurrence of SEMS fracture placed for benign or malignant obstruction in the esophagus. SEMS fracture could be a potentially dangerous event and should be considered in a patient having recurrent dysphagia despite successful placement of an esophageal SEMS. It usually requires endoscopic therapy and may unfortunately require surgery for retrieval of a distally migrated fragment. Early recognition and prompt management may be able to prevent further problems. PMID:24627608

Khara, Harshit S; Diehl, David L; Gross, Seth A

2014-01-01

375

Esophageal smooth muscle dysfunction in oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy.  

PubMed

Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD) is a rare genetic disorder with late-onset progressive myopathy affecting mainly head and neck striated muscles. It is more common in certain ethnic communities. Dysphagia was usually attributed to the malfunction of striated pharyngeal muscles. We studied a group of Bukharan immigrants affected by this disorder (N = 13). Esophageal studies, including endoscopy, manometry, and scintigraphic emptying were performed. Very low pharyngeal pressures were measured. Upper esophageal pressures (UEP) were in the normal range in eight patients, and above normal in three patients. Four also had low lower esophageal sphincter pressure. Esophageal body peristaltic activity was grossly impaired in all patients: mainly nonpropulsive, simultaneous, retrograde, and failed activity was recorded. Marked retention of isotopic material was demonstrated in all patients studied, usually in the middle and lower parts of the body, ranging from 17 to 100% retention. The dysphagia in OPMD is due not only to dysfunction of pharyngeal and upper esophageal striated muscle, but also has a significant smooth muscle component. PMID:8689911

Tiomny, E; Khilkevic, O; Korczyn, A D; Kimmel, R; Hallak, A; Baron, J; Blumen, S; Asherov, A; Gilat, T

1996-07-01

376

pH Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this resource is to teach students about the acidity levels of liquids and other substances around their school so they understand what pH levels tell us about the environment. Students will create mixtures of water samples, soil samples, plants and other natural materials to better understand the importance of pH levels.

The GLOBE Program, UCAR (University Corporation for Atmospheric Research)

2003-08-01

377

Evaluation of crystalline amino acid test diets including pH adjustment with red drum ( Sciaenops ocellatus) and hybrid striped bass ( Morone chrysops × Morone saxatilis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The red drum and hybrid striped bass are cultured in the United States for both stock enhancement and food production. Based on previous observations in this laboratory, the hybrid striped bass appeared to use pH-adjusted crystalline amino acid test diets more readily than the red drum. Therefore, the present study was conducted to directly compare responses of red drum and

Kasey W. Whiteman; Delbert M. Gatlin

2005-01-01

378

Physicochemical basis for dilated intercellular spaces in non-erosive acid-damaged rabbit esophageal epithelium.  

PubMed

Dilated intercellular spaces (DIS) within esophageal epithelium (EE) is a histopathologic feature of non-erosive reflux disease and early lesion in acid-damaged rabbit EE associated with increased paracellular permeability. Its cause remains unknown, but the lesion's morphology suggests a significant fluid shift into the intercellular spaces (ICS). Since water follows osmotic forces and consequently ion movements, we explored the role of active (ion) transport and ion gradients in its pathogenesis. This was done by quantifying the effect of inhibited active transport and altered ion gradients on electrical resistance (R(T)) and ICS diameter in acid-exposed Ussing-chambered rabbit EE. Compared with normal Ringer, pH 7.5, 30 minutes of luminal HCl (100 mmol/L), pH 1.1, increased permeability (R(T): +5 +/- 4% vs-52 +/- 4%) and ICS diameter (0.25 +/- 0.01 microm vs 0.42 +/- 0.02 microm), but had no effect on cell morphology or diameter. Ouabain pretreatment significantly reduced active transport but had no effect on the acid-induced changes. However, negating the chloride gradient created by luminal HCl either by adding choline chloride, 100 mmol/L, serosally or by replacing luminal HCl, pH 1.1, with luminal H(2)SO(4), pH 1.1, prevented the development of DIS while maintaining the increase in permeability. DIS was also prevented in the presence of a 100 mmol/L (choline) chloride gradient by luminal exposure at neutral pH. DIS in HCl-damaged EE is caused by an H(+)-induced increase in epithelial permeability; this enables Cl(-) to diffuse along its gradient into the ICS, creating an osmotic force for water movement into and (hydrostatic) dilation of the ICS. PMID:18522636

Tobey, N A; Gambling, T M; Vanegas, X C; Carson, J L; Orlando, R C

2008-01-01

379

[Surgical treatment of esophageal stenosis with recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa--esophageal dilatation using balloon catheter method].  

PubMed

We report the details of our treatment of 5 patients with recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB). Good results were obtained by esophageal dilatation using the balloon catheter method. Prior to the operation, we corrected the patients' nutritional status with oral supplementation of Hinex-R as well as intravenous drip infusion of Intra-lipid, based on the nutrition index obtained by body weight, serum albumin, rapid turnover proteins, and blood minimum essence. After sufficient anesthesia of the nasopharyngeal mucosa with xylocain spray, we inserted a Microvasive Rigiflex Balloon Dilator into the stenotic region while scanning the upper GI. Then we dilated gradually by barium injection. The patients' condition improved after this treatment and follow up X-ray examination revealed no recurrence of stenosis. There were several advantages to this method: 1) It was safer and could be done repeatedly. 2) It caused less stress for patients. 3) Its effectiveness appeared rapidly. We analyzed the frequency and severity of esophageal stenosis of 12 cases with EB in our department. Ten out of 12 cases complained of subjective esophageal symptoms. Esophageal stenosis was observed in all 8 cases examined by esophagogram. We concluded that this surgical procedure for esophageal stenosis was as important as digit reconstruction in the management of RDEB. PMID:2746969

Yaguchi, H; Miura, J; Naito, K; Manabe, M; Ogawa, H; Amagai, T; Sanada, Y; Hirai, Y

1989-02-01

380

Esophageal intramural pseudodiverticulosis treated by endoscopic balloon dilatation.  

PubMed

We here report a rare case of esophageal intramural pseudodiverticulosis with dysphagia. A 65-year-old man was suffering from intermittent dysphagia for 10 years, which had been worsening in recent months. Endoscopic examination revealed multiple, small, saccular diverticula and mild annular stricture with numerous white plaques from the cervical esophagus to the middle thoracic esophagus. Barium esophagography revealed stricture of the upper thoracic esophagus with multiple tiny flask-shaped outpouchings. Based on this characteristic appearance, we diagnosed esophageal intramural pseudodiverticulosis and inflammation of a narrow segment of the esophagus. Biopsy specimen showed acute and chronic esophagitis with Candida infection. Dysphagia persisted despite resolution of candidiasis, for which we successfully performed endoscopic balloon dilatation of the stricture. After the treatment, the patient has been well and has not been suffering from dysphagia. PMID:25248429

Chino, Osamu; Makuuchi, Hiroyasu; Kondo, Yasumasa; Nakamura, Tomoki; Tanaka, Yoichi; Hanashi, Tomoko; Yokoyama, Daiki; Kajiwara, Hiroshi

2014-01-01

381

A rare cause of chronic dysphagia: eosinophilic esophagitis  

PubMed Central

Eosinophilic esophagitis (EE) is attributable to environmental factors, allergens and several immunological causes. The most typical symptoms include dysphagia and sensation of food impingement in the retrosternal area. Although its clinical features resemble those of gastroesophageal reflux, proton pump inhibitors are not effective for its treatment. The diagnosis of EE is dependent on the pathological detection of eosinophilic infiltration in esophageal mucosa. In this study, we evaluated a patient who applied to our clinic with complaints of long-term difficulty in swallowing, sensation of food sticking while eating and weight loss; the patient was diagnosed with EE, following biochemical, radiological, endoscopic and pathological assessments and was treated with steroids. The results show that EE should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with dysphagia and food impingement in the retrosternal area, and the diagnosis should be confirmed through multiple esophageal biopsies. PMID:25249002

Destek, Sebahattin; Gul, Vahit Onur; Ahioglu, Serkan; Tatar, Zeynep; Erbil, Yesim

2014-01-01

382

Endosymbiotic Bacteria in the Esophageal Organ of Glossiphoniid Leeches  

PubMed Central

We characterized the intracellular symbiotic bacteria of the hematophagous glossiphoniid leeches Placobdelloides siamensis and a Parabdella sp. These leeches have a specialized structure called an “esophageal organ,” the cells of which harbor bacterial symbionts. From the esophageal organ of each species, a 1.5-kb eubacterial 16S rRNA gene segment was amplified by PCR, cloned, and sequenced. Diagnostic PCR detected the symbiont in the esophageal organ and intestine. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene(s) demonstrated that the symbionts from the leeches formed a monophyletic group in a well-defined clade containing endosymbiotic bacteria of plant sap-feeding insects in the ?-subdivision of the Proteobacteria. The nucleotide compositions of the 16S rRNA gene from the leech symbionts were highly AT biased (53.7%). PMID:12200323

Kikuchi, Yoshitomo; Fukatsu, Takema

2002-01-01

383

NEOadjuvant therapy monitoring with PET and CT in Esophageal Cancer (NEOPEC-trial)  

PubMed Central

Background Surgical resection is the preferred treatment of potentially curable esophageal cancer. To improve long term patient outcome, many institutes apply neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. In a large proportion of patients no response to chemoradiotherapy is achieved. These patients suffer from toxic and ineffective neoadjuvant treatment, while appropriate surgical therapy is delayed. For this reason a diagnostic test that allows for accurate prediction of tumor response early during chemoradiotherapy is of crucial importance. CT-scan and endoscopic ultrasound have limited accuracy in predicting histopathologic tumor response. Data suggest that metabolic changes in tumor tissue as measured by FDG-PET predict response better. This study aims to compare FDG-PET and CT-scan for the early prediction of non-response to preoperative chemoradiotherapy in patients with potentially curable esophageal cancer. Methods/design Prognostic accuracy study, embedded in a randomized multicenter Dutch trial comparing neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy for 5 weeks followed by surgery versus surgery alone for esophageal cancer. This prognostic accuracy study is performed only in the neoadjuvant arm of the randomized trial. In 6 centers, 150 consecutive patients will be included over a 3 year period. FDG-PET and CT-scan will be performed before and 2 weeks after the start of the chemoradiotherapy. All patients complete the 5 weeks regimen of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy, regardless the test results. Pathological examination of the surgical resection specimen will be used as reference standard. Responders are defined as patients with < 10% viable residual tumor cells (Mandard-score). Difference in accuracy (area under ROC curve) and negative predictive value between FDG-PET and CT-scan are primary endpoints. Furthermore, an economic evaluation will be performed, comparing survival and costs associated with the use of FDG-PET (or CT-scan) to predict tumor response with survival and costs of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy without prediction of response (reference strategy). Discussion The NEOPEC-trial could be the first sufficiently powered study that helps justify implementation of FDG-PET for response-monitoring in patients with esophageal cancer in clinical practice. Trial registration ISRCTN45750457 PMID:18671847

2008-01-01

384

Subcritical fracture propagation in rocks: An examination using the methods of fracture mechanics and non-destructive testing. Ph.D. Thesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental investigation of tensile rock fracture is presented with an emphasis on characterizing time dependent crack growth using the methods of fracture mechanics. Subcritical fracture experiments were performed in moist air on glass and five different rock types at crack velocities using the double torsion technique. The experimental results suggest that subcritical fracture resistance in polycrystals is dominated by microstructural effects. Evidence for gross violations of the assumptions of linear elastic fracture mechanics and double torsion theory was found in the tests on rocks. In an effort to obtain a better understanding of the physical breakdown processes associated with rock fracture, a series of nondestructive evaluation tests were performed during subcritical fracture experiments on glass and granite. Comparison of the observed process zone shape with that expected on the basis of a critical normal principal tensile stress criterion shows that the zone is much more elongated in the crack propagation direction than predicted by the continuum based microcracking model alone.

Swanson, P. L.

1984-01-01

385

Hyperfractionated Concomitant Boost Proton Beam Therapy for Esophageal Carcinoma  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of hyperfractionated concomitant boost proton beam therapy (PBT) for patients with esophageal cancer. Methods and Materials: The study participants were 19 patients with esophageal cancer who were treated with hyperfractionated photon therapy and PBT between 1990 and 2007. The median total dose was 78 GyE (range, 70-83 GyE) over a median treatment period of 48 days (range, 38-53 days). Ten of the 19 patients were at clinical T Stage 3 or 4. Results: There were no cases in which treatment interruption was required because of radiation-induced esophagitis or hematologic toxicity. The overall 1- and 5-year actuarial survival rates for all 19 patients were 79.0% and 42.8%, respectively, and the median survival time was 31.5 months (95% limits: 16.7- 46.3 months). Of the 19 patients, 17 (89%) showed a complete response within 4 months after completing treatment and 2 (11%) showed a partial response, giving a response rate of 100% (19/19). The 1- and 5-year local control rates for all 19 patients were 93.8% and 84.4 %, respectively. Only 1 patient had late esophageal toxicity of Grade 3 at 6 months after hyperfractionated PBT. There were no other nonhematologic toxicities, including no cases of radiation pneumonia or cardiac failure of Grade 3 or higher. Conclusions: The results suggest that hyperfractionated PBT is safe and effective for patients with esophageal cancer. Further studies are needed to establish the appropriate role and treatment schedule for use of PBT for esophageal cancer.

Mizumoto, Masashi [Proton Medical Research Center, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Sugahara, Shinji [Proton Medical Research Center, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Tokyo Medical University Ibaraki Medical Center, Ibaraki (Japan); Okumura, Toshiyuki; Hashimoto, Takayuki; Oshiro, Yoshiko; Fukumitsu, Nobuyoshi [Proton Medical Research Center, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Nakahara, Akira [Department of Gastroenterological Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Terashima, Hideo [Department of Surgery, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Tsuboi, Koji [Proton Medical Research Center, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Sakurai, Hideyuki, E-mail: hsakurai@pmrc.tsukuba.ac.jp [Proton Medical Research Center, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

2011-11-15

386

Thioproline inhibits development of esophageal adenocarcinoma induced by gastroduodenal reflux in rats.  

PubMed

Several epidemiological cohort studies have suggested that duodeno-gastroesophageal reflux per se induces Barrett's esophagus leading to increased risk of the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). However, the exact causative factors behind EAC remain unclear. Recently, we designed a new duodenal contents reflux model which retained normal stomach function. In this model, duodenal contents flowed back into the esophagus and stomach resulting in repeated re-entry into the esophagus through the site of esophagojejunostomy. To elucidate the factors underlying the development of EAC, thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (thioproline, TPRO) was applied to the new reflux models as a nitrite scavenger and as a probe to detect reactive nitrogen species (RNS). Post-operatively, 31 animals were divided into two groups according to diet. Animals belonging to the control group were given normal diet (n = 18), while the TPRO group was given food containing 0.5% TPRO (n = 13). All esophageal sections in both groups were examined using hematoxylin and eosin staining and immunohistochemical analysis of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). EACs developed in 7 of 18 rats (38.9%) of the control group, whereas no EACs were detected in the TPRO group (Fisher's exact test, P < 0.05). Conversely, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) was detected in 1 of 18 rats (5.6%) of the control group and in 1 of 13 rats (7.7%) of the TPRO group. The incidence of ESCC was not significantly different between the two groups (P = 0.671). iNOS protein was overexpressed in Barrett's esophagus of both groups. The present results suggest that RNS such as nitric oxide and peroxynitrite and nitroso compounds derived from reflux of duodenal contents play an important role in the development of EAC, and that the primary causes of ESCC and EAC may differ. PMID:14754873

Kumagai, Hitomi; Mukaisho, Ken-ichi; Sugihara, Hiroyuki; Miwa, Koichi; Yamamoto, Gaku; Hattori, Takanori

2004-05-01

387

Inflammatory and microRNA Gene Expression as Prognostic Classifiers of Barrett's Associated Esophageal Adenocarcinoma  

PubMed Central

Purpose Esophageal cancer is one of the most aggressive and deadly forms of cancer; highlighting the need to identify biomarkers for early detection and prognostic classification. Our recent studies have identified inflammatory gene and microRNA signatures derived from tumor and nontumor tissues as prognostic biomarkers of hepatocellular, lung, and colorectal adenocarcinoma. Here, we examine the relationship between expression of these inflammatory genes and miRNA expression in esophageal adenocarcinoma and patient survival. Experimental Design We measured the expression of 23 inflammation-associated genes in tumors and adjacent normal tissues from 93 patients (58 Barrett's and 35 Sporadic adenocarcinomas) by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. These data were used to build an inflammatory risk model, based on multivariate Cox regression, to predict survival in a training cohort (n=47). We then determined if this model could predict survival in a cohort of 46 patients. Expression data for miRNA-375 was available for these patients and was combined with inflammatory gene expression. Results IFN?, IL-1?, IL-8, IL-21, IL-23, and PRG expression in tumor and nontumor samples were each associated with poor prognosis based on Cox regression ([Z-score]>1.5) and therefore, were used to generate an inflammatory risk score (IRS). Patients with a high IRS had poor prognosis compared to those with a low IRS in the training (P=0.002) and test (P=0.012) cohorts. This association was stronger in the group with Barrett's history. When combining with miRNA-375, the combined IRS/miR signature was an improved prognostic classifier than either one alone. Conclusion Transcriptional profiling of inflammation-associated genes and miRNA expression in resected esophageal Barrett's associated adenocarcinoma tissues may have clinical utility as predictors of prognosis. PMID:20947516

Nguyen, Giang Huong; Schetter, Aaron J.; Chou, David B.; Bowman, Elise D.; Zhao, Ronghua; Hawkes, Jason E.; Mathe, Ewy A.; Kumamoto, Kensuke; Zhao, Yiqiang; Budhu, Anuradha; Hagiwara, Nobutoshi; Wang, Xin Wei; Miyashita, Masao; Casson, Alan G.; Harris, Curtis C.

2010-01-01

388

Esophageal perforation after radiofrequency ablation for atrial fibrillation.  

PubMed

A 69-year-old man underwent left atrial radiofrequency ablation for atrial fibrillation. After 10 minutes, the procedure was terminated due to pericardial tamponade secondary to perforation during mapping. Pericardiocentesis resolved the tamponade. Ablation was completed one week later, and the patient was discharged. Two days later, he presented with odynophagia. Computed tomography demonstrated small bilateral pleural effusions. He was judged to be stable and was discharged again, but returned 2 days later with chest pain. He was found to have esophageal perforation with empyema, which was repaired using a muscle patch and esophageal stenting, successfully treating the lesion with minimal morbidity. PMID:24887888

Manouchehri, Namdar; Turner, Simon R; Lockwood, Evan; Sterns, Laurence D; Bédard, Eric Lr

2014-11-01

389

Multimodality Imaging Evaluation of an Uncommon Entity: Esophageal Heterotopic Pancreas  

PubMed Central

A 25-year-old male was referred to the Radiology Department with new onset of right upper quadrant and epigastric abdominal pain. He had no past medical or surgical history. Physical exam was unremarkable. The patient underwent computed tomography (CT), fluoroscopic upper gastrointestinal (GI) evaluation, endoscopic ultrasound (EUS), and positron emission tomography (PET) evaluation, revealing the presence of a heterogeneous esophageal mass. In light of imaging findings and clinical workup, the patient was ultimately referred for thorascopic surgery. Surgical findings and histology confirmed the diagnosis of esophageal heterotopic pancreas. PMID:24744946

Mack, Takman; Lowry, Debra; Carbone, Peter; Barbick, Brian; Kindelan, Joshua; Marks, Robert

2014-01-01

390

Salivary pH: A diagnostic biomarker  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Saliva contains a variety of host defense factors. It influences calculus formation and periodontal disease. Different studies have been done to find exact correlation of salivary biomarkers with periodontal disease. With a multitude of biomarkers and complexities in their determination, the salivary pH may be tried to be used as a quick chairside test. The aim of this study was to analyze the pH of saliva and determine its relevance to the severity of periodontal disease. Study Design: The study population consisted of 300 patients. They were divided into three groups of 100 patients each: Group A had clinically healthy gingiva, Group B who had generalized chronic gingivitis and Group C who had generalized chronic periodontitis. The randomized unstimulated saliva from each patient was collected and pH was tested. Data was analyzed statistically using analysis of variance technique. Results: The salivary pH was more alkaline for patients with generalized chronic gingivitis as compared with the control group (P = 0.001) whereas patients with generalized chronic periodontitis had more acidic pH as compared with the control group (P = 0.001). Conclusion: These results indicate a significant change in the pH depending on the severity of the periodontal condition. The salivary pH shows significant changes and thus relevance to the severity of periodontal disease. Salivary pH may thus be used as a quick chairside diagnostic biomarker. PMID:24174725

Baliga, Sharmila; Muglikar, Sangeeta; Kale, Rahul

2013-01-01

391

What is the optimal management of dysphagia in metastatic esophageal cancer?  

PubMed Central

Background The palliation of dysphagia in metastatic esophageal cancer remains a challenge, and the optimal approach for this difficult clinical scenario is not clear. We therefore sought to define and determine the efficacy of various treatment options used at our institution for this condition. Methods We reviewed a prospective database for all patients managed in an esophageal cancer referral centre over a 5-year period. All patients receiving palliation of malignant dysphagia were reviewed for demographics, palliative treatment modalities, complications, and dysphagia scores (0 = none to 4 = complete). The Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to determine significance (p < 0.05). Results During 2004–2009, 63 patients with inoperable esophageal cancer were treated for palliation of dysphagia. The primary treatment was radiotherapy in 79% (brachytherapy in 18 of 50; external-beam in 10 of 50; both types in 22 of 50), and stenting in 21%. Mean wait time from diagnosis to treatment was 22 days in the stent group and 54 days in the radiotherapy group (p = 0.003). Mean duration of treatment was 1 day in the stent group and 40 days in the radiotherapy group (p = 0.001). In patients treated initially by stenting, dysphagia improved within 2 weeks of treatment in 85% of patients (dysphagia score of 0 or 1). However, 20% of patients presented with recurrence of dysphagia at 10 weeks of treatment. In the radiotherapy group, the onset of palliation was slower, with only 50% of patients palliated at 2 weeks (dysphagia score of 0 or 1). However, long-term palliation was more satisfactory, with 90% of patients remaining palliated after 10 weeks of treatment. Conclusions In inoperable esophageal cancer at our centre, radiation treatment provided durable long-term relief, but came at a high price of a long wait time for initiation of treatment and a long lag time between initiation of treatment and relief of symptoms. On the other hand, endoluminal stenting provided more rapid and effective early relief from symptoms, but was affected by recurrence of dysphagia in the long-term. It is now time for a prospective randomized trial to assess the safety and efficacy of combined-modality treatment with both endoluminal stenting and radiation therapy compared with either treatment alone. PMID:22514498

Hanna, W.C.; Sudarshan, M.; Roberge, D.; David, M.; Waschke, K.A.; Mayrand, S.; Alcindor, T.; Ferri, L.E.

2012-01-01

392

An Evidence of Esophageal Decompensation in Patients With Achalasia in the View of Its Subtype: A Retrospective Study  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims Achalasia is a primary motility disorder of esophagus. Many parameters represent esophageal function and morphologic changes, but their interrelationship is not yet established. We hypothesized that esophageal body would need to generate unusual pressure to empty the food bolus through the non-relaxing lower esophageal sphincter in patients with achalasia; therefore, higher is the residual lower esophageal sphincter pressure, greater would be the contraction pressure in the esophageal body in these patients. To verify the hypothesis, correlations among parameters from esophageal manometry, esophagography and esophageal transit study had been investigated. Methods A retrospective review of 34 patients was conducted. Resting lower esophageal sphincter pressure and contraction pressure of esophageal body were obtained from conventional esophageal manometry. Diameter of esophageal body was measured from barium column under esophagography. Radionuclide imaging was performed to assess the esophageal transit, designated as R30, which was the residual radioactivity at 30 seconds after ingesting radioactive isotope. Results In vigorous achalasia group, contraction pressure of esophageal body was negatively correlated to dilated diameter of esophageal body (P = 0.025, correlation coefficient = -0.596). Esophageal transit was more delayed as dimensions of esophageal body increased in classic achalasia group (P = 0.039, correlation coefficient = 0.627). Conclusions Diameter of esophageal body in classic achalasia was relatively wider than that of vigorous achalasia group and the degree of delayed esophageal transit was proportionate to the luminal widening. Patients with vigorous achalasia had narrower esophageal lumen and relatively shorter transit time than that of classic achalasia group. Proper peristalsis is not present in achalasia patients but remaining neuromuscular activity in vigorous achalasia patients might have caused the luminal narrowing and shorter transit time. PMID:23875098

Rhee, Kwangwon; Jeon, Hanho; Kim, Jie-Hyun; Yoon, Young Hoon; Lee, Sang In

2013-01-01

393

Ambulatory High Resolution Manometry, Lower Esophageal Sphincter Lift and Transient Lower Esophageal Sphincter Relaxation  

PubMed Central

Introduction Lower esophageal sphincter (LES) lift seen on high resolution manometry (HRM) is a possible surrogate marker of the longitudinal muscle contraction of the esophagus. Recent studies suggest that longitudinal muscle contraction of the esophagus induces LES relaxation. Aim Our goal was to determine, 1) the feasibility of prolonged ambulatory HRM and 2) to detect LES lift with LES relaxation using ambulatory HRM color isobaric contour plots. Methods In vitro validation studies were performed to determine the accuracy of HRM technique in detecting axial movement of the LES. Eight healthy normal volunteers were studied using a custom designed HRM catheter and a 16 channel data recorder, in the ambulatory setting of subject’s home environment. Color HRM plots were analyzed to determine the LES lift during swallow-induced LES relaxation as well as during complete and incomplete transient LES relaxations. Results Satisfactory recordings were obtained for 16 hours in all subjects. LES lift was small (2 mm) in association with swallow-induced LES relaxation. LES lift could not be measured during complete transient LES relaxations (TLESR) because the LES is not identified on the HRM color isobaric contour plot once it is fully relaxed. On the other hand, LES lift, mean 7.6 ± 1.4 mm, range 6–12 mm was seen with incomplete TLESRs (n = 80). Conclusions Our study demonstrates the feasibility of prolonged ambulatory HRM recordings. Similar to a complete TLESR, longitudinal muscle contraction of the distal esophagus occurs during incomplete TLESRs, which can be detected by the HRM. Using prolonged ambulatory HRM, future studies may investigate the temporal correlation between abnormal longitudinal muscle contraction and esophageal symptoms. PMID:22074595

Mittal, Ravinder K.; Karstens, Anna; Leslie, Eric; Babaei, Arash; Bhargava, Valmik

2011-01-01

394

Chyluria after ligation of the thoracic duct: a rare complication after thoracoscopic-assisted esophagectomy for esophageal cancer.  

PubMed

Chyluria is leakage of lymphatic fluid into the urine, following trauma to or obstruction of the lymphatic system. We herein report a rare case of chyluria after esophagectomy for esophageal cancer. A 69-year-old male complaining of epigastric pain and reflux symptoms was diagnosed with advanced esophageal cancer and regional lymph node metastases. After receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy to control the regional lymph node metastases, the patient underwent transthoracic excision of the esophagus assisted by thoracoscopy, with excision of the azygos vein and thoracic duct, esophagostomy and tube gastrostomy. On postoperative day 22, the urine appeared ivory white in color, and urine tests showed a high triglyceride level, thus confirming the diagnosis of chyluria. The chyluria decreased temporarily after switching the patient from enteral nutrition (EN) to parental nutrition, but it emerged again after the resumption of EN. Lymphangiography at that stage showed the flow of lipiodol into the pelvis of the left kidney. Resolution of the chyluria was noted after lymphangiography. He underwent esophageal reconstruction with a gastric tube through an anterior mediastinal route, and was discharged 36 days after the second operation. He was thereafter followed up at the outpatient clinic with radiotherapy. PMID:23229840

Takeno, Atsushi; Tamura, Shigeyuki; Miki, Hirofumi; Tanigawa, Noboru; Taniguchi, Hirokazu; Nakahira, Shin; Suzuki, Rei; Nakata, Ken; Takeda, Yutaka; Kato, Takeshi

2014-04-01

395

[Radiochemotherapy for esophageal cancer: Which nodes should be irradiated?].  

PubMed

Esophageal cancer has a high likelihood of distant lymphatic spread even at an early stage. Radiotherapy plays a major role in the management of localized or locally-advanced esophageal cancer with a regional or distant lymph node involvement. Radiotherapy can sterilize micrometastatic nodes and cancer cells in transit in the peri-esophageal fat that are not removed by surgery. After preoperative chemoradiotherapy followed by monobloc esophagectomy including lymph node dissection above and below the diaphragm, the locoregional failure rate was around 3% in the Chemoradiotherapy for Esophageal Cancer followed by Surgery Study Group (CROSS) trial. This is significantly lower than that observed with surgery alone or following exclusive chemoradiotherapy delivering 50Gy over 5 weeks. Patterns of failure usually combine local and nodal failure. These results suggest that: (1) radiotherapy plays a major role in the management of micrometastatic nodes that are not removed by surgery; (2) the total dose of radiotherapy without surgery may be too low to control macroscopic disease. Better knowledge of regional failure sites and the enhancement of clinical practices through homogenized nodal radiotherapy could lead to a decrease in regional relapses, but at the expense of irradiated volumes greater than the macroscopic tumor volume. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy or volumetric modulated arctherapy makes it possible to increase mediastinal irradiated volumes while effectively protecting healthy tissues. PMID:25201634

Créhange, G; Quivrin, M; Vulquin, N; Serre, A-A; Maingon, P

2014-10-01

396

Preparation and characterization of a biologic scaffold from esophageal mucosa.  

PubMed

Biologic scaffolds composed of extracellular matrix (ECM) are commonly used to facilitate a constructive remodeling response in several types of tissue, including the esophagus. Surgical manipulation of the esophagus is often complicated by stricture, but preclinical and clinical studies have shown that the use of an ECM scaffold can mitigate stricture and promote a constructive outcome after resection of full circumference esophageal mucosa. Recognizing the potential benefits of ECM derived from homologous tissue (i.e., site-specific ECM), the objective of the present study was to prepare, characterize, and assess the in-vivo remodeling properties of ECM from porcine esophageal mucosa. The developed protocol for esophageal ECM preparation is compliant with previously established criteria of decellularization and results in a scaffold that maintains important biologic components and an ultrastructure consistent with a basement membrane complex. Perivascular stem cells remained viable when seeded upon the esophageal ECM scaffold in-vitro, and the in-vivo host response showed a pattern of constructive remodeling when implanted in soft tissue. PMID:23777917

Keane, Timothy J; Londono, Ricardo; Carey, Ryan M; Carruthers, Christopher A; Reing, Janet E; Dearth, Christopher L; D'Amore, Antonio; Medberry, Christopher J; Badylak, Stephen F

2013-09-01

397

Management of esophageal varices in children by endoscopic variceal ligation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endoscopic variceal sclerotherapy (EVS) has been considered the mainstay of therapy for bleeding esophageal varices in adults. However, recent data have shown that endoscopic variceal ligation (EVL) is just as efficacious and has fewer complications than EVS. Although there are many reports concerning EVL in adults, only a few studies have been done in children. This report describes experience with

Mitchell R. Price; Kennith H. Sartorelli; Frederick M. Karrer; Michael R. Narkewicz; Ronald J. Sokol; John R. Lilly

1996-01-01

398

Clinical application of metallic stents in treatment of esophageal carcinoma  

PubMed Central

AIM: To evaluate the effects of self-expanding metal stents (SEMS) in patients with malignant esophageal obstruction and to analyze their prognosis and complications. METHODS: Seventy-four metallic stents were placed under fluoroscopic guidance in 66 patients with esophageal obstruction secondary to carcinoma, of whom, 6 cases were complicated by fistula. RESULTS: After seventy-two stents were successfully used in 66 cases without any severe complications (technical successful rate was 97%), the dysphagia score improved from 3.3±0.6 to 0.8±0.5 (P<0.01), and life quality improved significantly in all these patients. All fistulae were sealed immediately after coated stents were inserted in the six patients. New stents were placed in two patients: the stent migrated more than 2 cm, in one patient and the stent slipped into stomach in the other. Minor bleeding was found only in 28 patients during the operation. Reobstruction was found in 12 patients, but was successfully cured under endoscopy. The survival rate was 78%, 57% and 11% for 6 mo, 1 year and 2 years respectively. CONCLUSION: Placement of SEMS is a simple, safe, quick and efficient surgical method for treating esophageal carcinoma obstruction. It may be used mainly as a palliative treatment of esophageal obstruction secondary to carcinoma. PMID:15637767

Yang, Hai-Shan; Zhang, Lin-Bo; Wang, Tian-Wei; Zhao, Yong-Sheng; Liu, Lin

2005-01-01

399

Reevaluation of postoperative radiotherapy for thoracic esophageal carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To reevaluate postoperative radiotherapy for thoracic esophageal carcinoma.Methods and Materials: Reviewed were the outcome of 89 patients who underwent esophagectomy with systematic dissection of regional lymph nodes between 1988 and 1993. Of the 89 patients, 19 underwent no adjuvant treatment, 22 underwent adjuvant chemotherapy alone, and 48 underwent postoperative radiotherapy. Twelve of the 48 also underwent adjuvant chemotherapy.Results: All

Michinori Yamamoto; Takashi Yamashita; Toshiki Matsubara; Tadashi Kitahara; Kenji Sekiguchi; Masahiko Furukawa; Akiyoshi Uki; Masao Kobayashi; Emiko Tanaka; Mamoru Ueda; Toshifusa Nakajima

1997-01-01

400

Prediction of Response to Multimodality Treatment in Esophageal Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients with locally advanced esophageal cancer have a dismal prognosis when treated exclusively by surgery. This fact prompted many investigators to apply neoadjuvant treatment strategies in an effort to improve survival. Results from phase III randomised trials are encouraging however, they revealed that only patients with major histopathological response will benefit from treatment. Therefore, predictive molecular markers indicating response or

Ralf Metzger; Huan Xi; Futoshi Miyazono; Hiroshi Higashi; Ute Warnecke-Eberz; Stephan E. Baldus; Jan Brabender; Paul M. Schneider

2004-01-01

401

Esophageal smooth muscle dysfunction in oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD) is a rare genetic disorder with late-onset progressive myopathy affecting mainly head and neck striated muscles. It is more common in certain ethnic communities. Dysphagia was usually attributed to the malfunction of striated pharyngeal muscles. We studied a group of Bukharan immigrants affected by this disorder (N=13). Esophageal studies, including endoscopy, manometry, and scintigraphic emptying were

E. Timony; O. Khilkevic; A. D. Korczyn; R. Kimmel; A. Hallak; J. Baron; S. Blumen; A. Asherov; T. Gilat

1996-01-01

402

Nitinol Esophageal Stents: New Designs and Clinical Indications  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the clinical use of covered and noncovered, knitted nitinol stents in patients presenting new stent indications. Methods: Self-expandable, knitted nitinol stents were implanted in four patients for treatment of dysphagia. In two patients who had malignant strictures and had esophago-respiratory fistulae and in one patient with an esophagocutaneous fistula, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)-covered stents were implanted. One patient received a noncovered stent, but a retrograde approach through a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) fistula had to be chosen for recanalization of an esophageal occlusion. Two patients received stents for treatment of benign strictures. Results: Recanalization of the stricture and stent implantation were performed under fluoroscopic control without any procedure-related morbidity or mortality. Dysphagia improved in all patients and the esophageal fistulae could be sealed off by covered stents. During a maximum follow-up of 18 months, there was no stent migration or esophageal perforation. Complications observed were stent stenosis due to food impaction (1/4) and benign stent stenosis (2/2). Most complications could be treated by the interventional radiologist. Conclusion: Self-expandable, covered Nitinol stents provide an option for the treatment of dysphagia combined with esophageal fistulae. In combination with interventional radiology techniques, even complex strictures are accessible. For benign strictures, the value of stent treatment has not yet been proven.

Strecker, Ernst-Peter; Boos, Irene; Vetter, Sylvia; Strohm, Michael; Domschke, Sigurd [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Diakonissen-Krankenhaus, Diakonissenstr. 28, D-76191 Karlsruhe (Germany)

1996-11-15

403

[Esophageal cancer: common health problems and health management].  

PubMed

Esophageal cancer is the 9th leading cause of cancer death in Taiwan. Lack of obvious symptoms or signs during its early stages means that patients are often already in the terminal stage or metastasis at their first diagnosis. A diagnosis of cancer greatly impacts both patients and their families. The purpose of this paper is to explore the current diagnostic methods and treatments used for esophageal cancer. We discuss the effects of physical, psychological and social problems such as dysphagia, fatigue, pain, uncertainty, and social isolation. We also explore the nursing interventions related to these problems. Understanding the health issues related to esophageal cancer will not only help nurses who take care of patients with esophageal cancer provide holistic care, it will also reduce patients' suffering through the treatment and recovery process. By applying interventions that effectively address the physical, psychological, and social realms, healthcare professionals can help patients feel more secure when dealing with related problems. This will improve patients' dignity, value and quality of life through their cancer journey. PMID:23386531

Huang, Mei-Chi; Chang, Wen; Han, Chin-Yen; Wang, Shou-Yu

2013-02-01

404

Preparation and Characterization of a Biologic Scaffold from Esophageal Mucosa  

PubMed Central

Biologic scaffolds composed of extracellular matrix (ECM) are commonly used to facilitate a constructive remodeling response in several types of tissue, including the esophagus. Surgical manipulation of the esophagus is often complicated by stricture, but preclinical and clinical studies have shown that the use of an ECM scaffold can mitigate stricture and promote a constructive outcome after resection of full circumference esophageal mucosa. Recognizing the potential benefits of ECM derived from homologous tissue (i.e., site-specific ECM), the objective of the present study was to prepare, characterize, and assess the in-vivo remodeling properties of ECM from porcine esophageal mucosa. The developed protocol for esophageal ECM preparation is compliant with previously established criteria of decellularization and results in a scaffold that maintains important biologic components and an ultrastructure consistent with a basement membrane complex. Perivascular stem cells remained viable when seeded upon the esophageal ECM scaffold in vitro, and the in-vivo host response showed a pattern of constructive remodeling when implanted in soft tissue. PMID:23777917

Keane, Timothy J.; Londono, Ricardo; Carey, Ryan M.; Carruthers, Christopher A.; Reing, Janet E.; Dearth, Christopher L.; D’Amore, Antonio; Medberry, Christopher J.; Badylak, Stephen F.

2013-01-01

405

Preoperative Chemotherapy, Radiation Improve Survival in Esophageal Cancer  

Cancer.gov

Patients with esophageal cancer who received chemotherapy and radiation before surgery survived, on average, nearly twice as long as patients treated with surgery alone, according to results of a randomized clinical trial published May 31, 2012, in the New England Journal of Medicine.

406

Adding Targeted Therapy to Treatment for Esophageal Cancer  

Cancer.gov

In this phase III clinical trial, people with confirmed HER2-positive locally advanced esophageal cancer will be randomly assigned to receive preoperative radiation therapy and chemotherapy, with or without trastuzumab. Following surgery, patients assigned to the trastuzumab arm of the study will receive maintenance therapy with trastuzumab for 1 year.

407

Acid-induced release of platelet-activating factor by human esophageal mucosa induces inflammatory mediators in circular smooth muscle.  

PubMed

In a human in vitro model of esophagitis, we investigated the genesis of esophagitis-associated dysmotility by examining HCl-induced production of inflammatory mediators in the mucosa and investigating their effect on esophageal circular muscle. Muscularis propria was removed from organ donors' esophagi, leaving the mucosal tube intact. The tube was tied at both ends, forming a sac, and filled with HCl at pH 4. After 3 h of incubation, the supernatant surrounding the sac was analyzed or applied to circular muscle strips. HCl alone did not affect circular muscle contraction in response to electrical field stimulation (EFS), but supernatant of HCl-treated mucosa abolished contraction. The inhibition was reversed by the platelet-activating factor (PAF) antagonist CV3988 [(+/-)-3-(N-octadecylcarbamoyl)-2-methoxy) propyl-(2-thiazolioethyl) phosphate], whereas the PAF analog 2-O-methyl platelet-activating factor C-16 (PAF-16) inhibited EFS-induced contraction and acetylcholine (ACh) release in circular muscle strips. The hydrogen peroxide scavenger catalase reversed the inhibition in contraction, to the same extent as CV3988. We therefore measured PAF and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) in mucosa, mucosa supernatant, and circular muscle. HCl increased PAF and interleukin (IL)-1beta (but not IL-6, prostaglandin E(2), or H(2)O(2)) in mucosa, and only PAF was released into the supernatant, presumably to affect circular muscle. In circular muscle, exogenous PAF induced sequential formation of IL-6, H(2)O(2), IL-1beta, and PAF. Release of PAF by the mucosa inhibits ACh release from circular muscle layer neurons and initiates sequential formation of inflammatory mediators in muscle, resulting in production of PAF by the muscle itself, possibly initiating in a self-sustaining cycle. PMID:16807360

Cheng, Ling; Cao, Weibiao; Behar, Jose; Fiocchi, Claudio; Biancani, Piero; Harnett, Karen M

2006-10-01

408

Multi-disciplinary approach for management of refractory benign occlusive esophageal strictures  

PubMed Central

Background: Benign occlusive esophageal strictures create substantial morbidity and have poor surgical outcomes. Various endoscopic techniques have been described to manage these strictures. The challenge remains to maintain adequate long-term esophageal patency and to limit the need for serial endoscopic dilations. Little has been reported regarding the management of these benign occlusive strictures. Methods: We report a case series describing the management of technically challenging benign occlusive esophageal strictures. Three patients with occlusive esophageal strictures of differing etiologies were treated using a variety of endoscopic methodologies. Results: The first patient sustained a caustic oropharyngeal injury resulting in a proximal esophageal stricture which was treated by using a combined antegrade retrograde dilation (CARD) with argon plasma coagulation (APC) and needle knife dissection resulting in the successful recanalization and patency of his stricture. A second patient developed an esophageal stricture following radiotherapy, and was treated with a CARD procedure and serial balloon dilations in combination with APC to successfully achieve esophageal luminal patency. The final patient acquired an occlusive esophageal stricture after treatment for thyroid cancer which was treated with endoscopic needle knife dissection followed by serial balloon dilations to successfully manage this stricture. Conclusions: Occlusive esophageal strictures pose a difficult challenge to gastroenterologists and little has been reported with regards to their endoscopic management. Using the CARD technique, needle knife dissection and APC, individually or in combination, luminal patency of occlusive esophageal strictures can be accomplished safely with good results. PMID:24003337

Hasan, Syed S.; Cohen, Dan C.; Pfanner, Timothy; Reznik, Scott; Duddempudi, Sushil

2013-01-01

409

Evaluation of linear discriminant analysis for automated Raman histological mapping of esophageal high-grade dysplasia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rapid Raman mapping has the potential to be used for automated histopathology diagnosis, providing an adjunct technique to histology diagnosis. The aim of this work is to evaluate the feasibility of automated and objective pathology classification of Raman maps using linear discriminant analysis. Raman maps of esophageal tissue sections are acquired. Principal component (PC)-fed linear discriminant analysis (LDA) is carried out using subsets of the Raman map data (6483 spectra). An overall (validated) training classification model performance of 97.7% (sensitivity 95.0 to 100% and specificity 98.6 to 100%) is obtained. The remainder of the map spectra (131,672 spectra) are projected onto the classification model resulting in Raman images, demonstrating good correlation with contiguous hematoxylin and eosin (HE) sections. Initial results suggest that LDA has the potential to automate pathology diagnosis of esophageal Raman images, but since the classification of test spectra is forced into existing training groups, further work is required to optimize the training model. A small pixel size is advantageous for developing the training datasets using mapping data, despite lengthy mapping times, due to additional morphological information gained, and could facilitate differentiation of further tissue groups, such as the basal cells/lamina propria, in the future, but larger pixels sizes (and faster mapping) may be more feasible for clinical application.

Hutchings, Joanne; Kendall, Catherine; Shepherd, Neil; Barr, Hugh; Stone, Nicholas

2010-11-01

410

Extrapericardial and esophageal pressures with positive end-expiratory pressure in dogs.  

PubMed

Using flat balloon techniques to minimize distortion and artifacts, we studied the effect of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on local surface pressures between the lung and pericardium overlying the right (R) and left (L) ventricles of ventilated closed-chest anesthetized dogs in right lateral decubitus position. To test the hypothesis that local extrapericardial [Pep(L) and Pep(R)] and average pleural pressures change equally with PEEP, we also measured esophageal pressure (Pes). When 10-cmH2O PEEP was applied, mean increases in Pes, Pep(L), and Pep(R) were 6.2, 5.6, and 5.3 cmH2O, respectively. When PEEP was raised to 20 cmH2O, further average increases in Pes, Pep(L), and Pep(R) were 5.8, 5.0, and 5.4 cmH2O. At each level of PEEP, volume infusion was used to increase stroke volume. Volume infusion at 20-cmH2O PEEP was associated with small 1.0- and 1.5-cmH2O increases in Pep but no change in Pes. Analysis of confidence limits showed that application of up to 20-cmH2O PEEP, with or without volume infusion to restore stroke volume, is associated with nearly equal changes in esophageal and local extrapericardial pressures. PMID:7298420

Craven, K D; Wood, L D

1981-10-01

411

Investigating pH of common household substances  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is a classroom lab where students test common household liquids for pH level on the pH continuum, 1-14. They compare and contrast everyday use of the liquids, and how this relates to the liquids' pH property.

412

Theory of mind deficits in patients with esophageal cancer combined with depression  

PubMed Central

AIM: To characterize the two components of theory of mind (ToM) in patients with esophageal cancer combined with depression. METHODS: Sixty-five patients with esophageal cancer combined with depression (depressed group) and 62 normal controls (control group) were assessed using reading the mind in the eyes test, faux pas task, verbal fluency test, digit span test and WAIS IQ test. The depressed group was divided into two subgroups including psychotic depressed (PD) group (32 cases) and nonpsychotic depressed (NPD) group (33 cases). The clinical symptoms of patients were assessed using Beck depression inventory version?II?and brief psychiatric reacting scale (BPRS). RESULTS: There was a significant difference between the depressed group and the control group on tasks involving ToM social perceptual components (mind reading: t = 7.39, P < 0.01) and tests involving ToM social cognitive components (faux pas questions: t = 13.75, P < 0.01), respectively. A significant difference was also found among the PD group, the NPD group and the control group on mind reading (F = 32.98, P < 0.01) and faux pas questions (?2 = 78.15, P < 0.01), respectively. The PD group and NPD group performed worse than normal group controls both on mind reading and faux pas questions (P < 0.05). The PD group performed significantly worse than the NPD group on tasks involving ToM (mind reading: F = 18.99, P < 0.01; faux pas questions: F = 36.01, P < 0.01). In the depressed group, there was a negative correlation between ToM performances and BPRS total score (mind reading: r = -0.35, P < 0.01; faux pas questions: r = -0.51, P < 0.01), and between ToM performances and hostile suspiciousness factor score (mind reading: r = -0.75, P < 0.01; faux pas questions: r = -0.73, P < 0.01), respectively. CONCLUSION: The two components of ToM are both impaired in patients with esophageal cancer combined with depression. This indicates that there may be an association between ToM deficits and psychotic symptoms in clinical depression. PMID:23704831

Cao, Yin; Zhao, Quan-Di; Hu, Li-Jun; Sun, Zhi-Qin; Sun, Su-Ping; Yun, Wen-Wei; Yuan, Yong-Gui

2013-01-01

413

Virological Diagnosis of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Esophagitis by Quantitative Real-Time PCR Assay  

PubMed Central

Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) esophagitis diagnosis is routinely based on the endoscopic findings confirmed by histopathological examination of the esophagitis lesions. Virological diagnosis is not systematically performed and restricted to viral culture or to qualitative PCR assay from esophagitis biopsy specimens. The aim of this study was to assess the interest of quantitative real-time PCR assay in HSV-1 esophagitis diagnosis by comparing the results obtained to those of histological examination associated with immunohistochemical staining, which is considered the “gold standard.” From 53 esophagitis biopsy specimens, the PCR assay detected HSV-1 in 18 of 19 histologically proven to have herpetic esophagitis and in 9 of 34 that had esophagitis related to other causes, demonstrating sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of 94.7%, 73%, 66.7%, and 96%, respectively. Interestingly, HSV-1 was not detected in 16 specimens without the histological aspect of esophagitis. The viral loads normalized per ?g of total extracted DNA in each biopsy specimen detected positive by HSV PCR were then compared and appeared to be significantly higher in histopathologically positive herpetic esophagitis (median = 2.9 × 106 ± 1.1 × 108) than in histopathologically negative herpetic esophagitis (median = 3.1 × 103 ± 6.2 × 103) (P = 0.0009). Moreover, a receiver operating characteristics analysis revealed that a viral load threshold greater than 2.5 × 104 copies would allow an HSV-1 esophagitis diagnosis with a sensitivity and specificity of 83.3% and 100%, respectively. In conclusion, this work demonstrated that HSV quantitative PCR results for paraffin-embedded esophageal tissue was well correlated to histopathological findings for an HSV-1 esophagitis diagnosis and could be diagnostic through viral load assessment when histopathological results are missing or uncertain. PMID:22170921

Jazeron, Jean-Francois; Barbe, Coralie; Frobert, Emilie; Renois, Fanny; Talmud, Deborah; Brixi-Benmansour, Hedia; Brodard, Veronique; Andreoletti, Laurent; Diebold, Marie-Daniele

2012-01-01

414

Role of metallic stents in benign esophageal stricture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Simple esophageal strictures, which are focal, straight, and large in diameter, usually require 1 - 3 dilation sessions to relieve symptoms. However, complex strictures, which are long, tortuous, or associated with a severely compromised luminal diameter, are usually more difficult to treat with conventional bougie or balloon dilation techniques, and often have high recurrence rates. Although the permanent placement of self-expandable metal stents (SEMS) has been used to manage refractory benign esophageal strictures, this procedure is associated with additional problems, such as stricture from tissue hyperplasia, stent migration, and fistula formation. Thus, several new types of stents have been developed, including temporary SEMS, self-expandable plastic stents (SEPS), and biodegradable stents. The use of these new products has produced varied results. Temporary SEMS that have been used to relieve benign esophageal conditions have caused granulation tissue at both ends of the stent because of contact between the mucosa and the exposed metal components of the stent, thus hindering stent removal. We examined the tissue response to two new types of SEMS, a flange-type and a straighttype, each coated with a silicone membrane on the outside of the metal mesh. These two SEMS were evaluated individually and compared with a conventional control stent in animal experiments. Although the newly designed stents resulted in reduced tissue hyperplasia, and were thus more easily separated from the esophageal tissue, some degree of tissue hyperplasia did occur. We suggest that newly designed DES (drug-eluting stents) may provide an alternative tool to manage refractory benign esophageal stricture.

Shim, Chan Sup

2012-10-01

415

Esophageal transection may well be the approach of choice for patient with portal venous obstruction and esophageal varices.  

PubMed

Thirty patients with esophageal varices, portal venous obstruction and a histologically proven normal liver underwent either one of 2 different types of surgery. Shunt surgery was performed on 20 patients: 9 had a mesocaval shunt, 3, a splenorenal shunt, 4, a left gastric venacaval shunt, and 4, a distal splenorenal shunt. Conversely, direct interruption was performed on the other 10 patients; 6 underwent an esophageal transection, and 4 underwent a resection of the proximal stomach. Re-hemorrhage occurred in 7 of the former 20 patients but not in any of the 10 on whom the direct interruption method was used. In 6 of these 7 patients who experienced rebleeding, subsequent direct interruption surgery led to control of the bleeding. One patient died of a variceal hemorrhage one month postoperatively. The total 10 year cumulative survival rate was 86.3 per cent. In the light of these findings, we believe that methods of direct interruption, such as esophageal transection, may well be the approach of choice for patients with esophageal varices caused by extrahepatic portal venous obstruction. PMID:2810956

Kitano, S; Iso, Y; Iwanaga, T; Koyanagi, N; Sugimachi, K

1989-07-01

416

Twenty-Four-Hour Ambulatory versus Stationary Esophageal Manometry in the Evaluation of Esophageal Motility in Patients with Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Although stationary manometry commonly reveals esophageal body motility disorders in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), esophageal function cannot be fully and precisely assessed during normal daily activities by this investigatory modality. Aim: To compare the results of 24-hour ambulatory manometry with those of stationary manometry and to determine the specificity and accuracy of the former to detect motility

Emmanuel Chrysos; Elias H. Athanasakis; Odysseus John Zoras; John Tsiaoussis; Evaghelos Xynos

2002-01-01

417

A Case of Esophageal Candidiasis in an Adolescent Who Had Frequently Received Budesonide Nebulizing Therapy  

PubMed Central

Corticosteroid (budesonide) nebulizer therapy is commonly performed. Its side effects have been considered as being safe or ignorable. The authors present a case of esophageal candidiasis in a healthy female adolescent who was treated with budesonide nebulizer therapy a few times for a cough during the previous winter season. This child presented with dysphagia and epigastric pain for 1 month. Esophageal endoscopy showed a whitish creamy pseudomembrane and erosions on the esophageal mucosa. Pathologic findings showed numerous candidal hyphae. She did not show any evidence of immunodeficiency, clinically and historically. The esophageal lesion did not resolve naturally. The esophageal lesion completely improved with the antifungal therapy for 2 weeks; the symptoms disappeared, and the patient returned to normal health. It is important that frequent esophageal exposure to topical corticosteroids application can cause unexpected side effects. PMID:24224152

Kang, Hae Ryong; Kwon, Yong Hoon

2013-01-01

418

External air compression: A rare cause of blunt esophageal injury, managed by a stent  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Blunt esophageal injuries secondary to external air compression of anterior chest and abdomen complicated with esophageal perforation are uncommon events associated with worse outcomes. PRESENTATION OF CASE We reported a rare case of esophageal perforation following an external air-compression injury along with the relevant review of literatures. The patient presented with chest pain and shortness of breath and was managed with tube thoracostomy, followed by thoracotomy and eventually with temporary endoscopic stenting. DISCUSSION In such trauma case, the external pressurized air forms a shock wave which usually directed to the hollow viscus. Patients with external air-compression injury presented with chest pain and pneumothorax should be suspected for esophageal perforation. CONCLUSION High index of suspicion is needed for early diagnosis of esophageal perforation after blunt trauma. Appropriate drainage, antibiotic and temporary endoscopic esophageal stenting may be an optimal approach in selected patients, especially with delayed diagnosis. PMID:25128727

Muneer, Mohammed; Abdelrahman, Husham; El-Menyar, Ayman; Afifi, Ibrahim; Al-Hassani, Ammar; AlMadani, Ammar; Latifi, Rifat; Al-Thani, Hassan

2014-01-01

419

Various Upper Endoscopic Findings of Acute Esophageal Thermal Injury Induced by Diverse Food: A Case Series  

PubMed Central

Esophageal thermal injury caused by food has been reported to occur mostly after drinking hot liquid food, and is known to produce alternating white and red linear mucosal bands. In addition, thermal injury caused by ingestion of hot solid foods is documented to be a cause of esophageal ulcers or pseudomembranes. From January 2006 to August 2012, five patients with suspected esophageal thermal injury underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy with biopsy. A "candy-cane" appearance was observed in one case, pseudomembrane was observed in two cases, an esophageal ulcer was observed in one case, and a friable and edematous mucosa was noted in one case. We believe that the endoscopic findings of esophageal thermal injury depend on the following factors: causative materials, amount of food consumed, exposure period, and time to endoscopy after the incident. Therefore, physicians who encounter patients with suspected esophageal thermal injury should carefully take the patient's history considering these factors. PMID:25325006

Lee, Yu Mi; Kim, Ji Young; Song, Hyun Jung; Koo, Hoon Sup; Song, Kyung Ho; Kim, Yong Seok; Huh, Kyu Chan

2014-01-01

420

Complete fundoplication is not associated with increased dysphagia in patients with abnormal esophageal motility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abnormal esophageal motility is a relative contraindication to complete (360-degree) fundoplication because of a purported\\u000a risk of postoperative dysphagia. Partial fimdoplication, however, may be associated with increased postoperative esophageal\\u000a acid exposure. Our aim was to determine if complete fundoplication is associated with increased postoperative dysphagia in\\u000a patients with abnormal esophageal motor function. Medical records of 140 patients (79 females; mean

T. Ryan Heider; Timothy M. Farrell; Amanda P. Kircher; Craig C. Colliver; Mark J. Koruda; Kevin E. Behrns

2001-01-01

421

Production of a human single-chain variable fragment antibody against esophageal carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: To construct a phage display library of human single- chain variable fragment (scFv) antibodies associated with esophageal cancer and to preliminarily screen a scFv antibody against esophageal cancer. METHODS: Total RNA extracted from metastatic lymph nodes of esophageal cancer patients was used to construct a scFv gene library. Rescued by M13K07 helper phage, the scFv phage display library was

Ming-Yan Xu; Xiao-Hu Xu; Geng-Zhen Chen; Xiao-Ling Deng; Jonathan Li; Xiao-Jun Yu; Mei-Zhen Chen

2004-01-01

422

The role of excessive esophageal acid exposure in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), especially reflux esophagitis (RE), is characterized by excessive esophageal acid\\u000a exposure. Transient lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxation is the major mechanism of acid reflux episodes in both healthy\\u000a subjects (HS) and patients with GERD. In the sitting position, where acid reflux episodes often occur, there is no difference\\u000a in the frequency of transient LES relaxations between

Katsuhiko Iwakiri

2009-01-01

423

Esophageal duplication cyst continuously extending into the peritoneal cavity on the proximal portion of the stomach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although bronchogenic or esophageal duplication cysts are foregut-derived developmental anomalies most commonly encountered\\u000a in the mediastinum and rarely in the abdomen, a cyst continuously extending into the abdomen via the esophageal hiatus has\\u000a not been reported previously. We report a case of esophageal duplication cyst that occurred in the distal esophagus and extended\\u000a continuously into the proximal portion of the

Yoichi Sakurai; Shuhei Tonomura; Kazuki Inaba; Mitsutaka Shoji; Yasuko Nakamura; Ichiro Uyama; Yoshiyuki Komori; Masahiro Ochiai; Yoshinobu Hattori; Makoto Kuroda

2006-01-01

424

The Miscellaneous Mystery of Esophageal Cancer: New pathogenetic and clinical insights  

Microsoft Academic Search

Esophageal cancer is the 8th most common type of malignancy and the 6th most\\u000acommon cause of cancer mortality in the world. Worldwide more than 400,000\\u000apatients are newly diagnosed with esophageal cancer each year. The majority of\\u000apatients (>90%) is diagnosed with the two most common histological subtypes:\\u000asquamous cell carcinoma or adenocarcinoma of the esophagus. Esophageal squamous\\u000acell

B. A. Grotenhuis

2010-01-01

425

Relevance of N-nitrosamines to esophageal cancer in China  

SciTech Connect

Studies on the relevance of the N-nitrosamines to esophageal cancer in China are reviewed. Although a causal association between nitrosamines exposure and esophageal cancer in China has not yet been rigorously established, exposure of Lin-Xian subjects to nitrosamines either directly or as a result of their in vivo formation has been detected in our study. Several N-nitrosamines (NDMA, NDEA, NMBzA, NPyr, NPip, and NSAR) in gastric juice collected from Lin-Xian inhabitants have been detected. A correlation was found between the lesions of esophageal epithelium and the amount of nitrosamines present. In addition, the amounts of N-nitrosamino acids excreted in 24-hr urine of subjects in Lin-Xian were significantly higher than those in Fan-Xian, indicating a higher exposure to N-nitroso compound and their precursors of the inhabitants in the high