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Sample records for esophageal stenosis

  1. Congenital esophageal stenosis owing to tracheobronchial remnants

    PubMed Central

    Rebelo, Priscila Guyt; Ormonde, João Victor C.; Ormonde, João Baptista C.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To emphasize the need of an accurate diagnosis of congenital esophageal stenosis due to tracheobronchial remnants, since its treatment differs from other types of congenital narrowing. CASE DESCRIPTION Four cases of lower congenital esophageal stenosis due to tracheobronchial remnants, whose definitive diagnosis was made by histopathology. Except for the last case, in which a concomitant anti-reflux surgery was not performed, all had a favorable outcome after resection and anastomosis of the esophagus. COMMENTS The congenital esophageal stenosis is an intrinsic narrowing of the organâ€(tm)s wall associated with its structural malformation. The condition can be caused by tracheobronchial remnants, fibromuscular stenosis or membranous diaphragm and the first symptom is dysphagia after the introduction of solid food in the diet. The first-choice treatment to tracheobronchial remnants cases is the surgical resection and end-to-end anastomosis of the esophagus. PMID:24142326

  2. Prevention and Treatment of Esophageal Stenosis after Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection for Early Esophageal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Jing; Lu, Zhongsheng; Liu, Qingsen

    2014-01-01

    Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for the treatment of esophageal mucosal lesions is associated with a risk of esophageal stenosis, especially for near-circumferential or circumferential esophageal mucosal defects. Here, we review historic and modern studies on the prevention and treatment of esophageal stenosis after ESD. These methods include prevention via pharmacological treatment, endoscopic autologous cell transplantation, endoscopic esophageal dilatation, and stent placement. This short review will focus on direct prevention and treatment, which may help guide the way forward. PMID:25386186

  3. Esophageal Stenosis Associated With Tumor Regression in Radiotherapy for Esophageal Cancer: Frequency and Prediction

    SciTech Connect

    Atsumi, Kazushige; Shioyama, Yoshiyuki; Arimura, Hidetaka; Terashima, Kotaro; Matsuki, Takaomi; Ohga, Saiji; Yoshitake, Tadamasa; Nonoshita, Takeshi; Tsurumaru, Daisuke; Ohnishi, Kayoko; Asai, Kaori; Matsumoto, Keiji; Nakamura, Katsumasa; Honda, Hiroshi

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: To determine clinical factors for predicting the frequency and severity of esophageal stenosis associated with tumor regression in radiotherapy for esophageal cancer. Methods and Materials: The study group consisted of 109 patients with esophageal cancer of T1-4 and Stage I-III who were treated with definitive radiotherapy and achieved a complete response of their primary lesion at Kyushu University Hospital between January 1998 and December 2007. Esophageal stenosis was evaluated using esophagographic images within 3 months after completion of radiotherapy. We investigated the correlation between esophageal stenosis after radiotherapy and each of the clinical factors with regard to tumors and therapy. For validation of the correlative factors for esophageal stenosis, an artificial neural network was used to predict the esophageal stenotic ratio. Results: Esophageal stenosis tended to be more severe and more frequent in T3-4 cases than in T1-2 cases. Esophageal stenosis in cases with full circumference involvement tended to be more severe and more frequent than that in cases without full circumference involvement. Increases in wall thickness tended to be associated with increases in esophageal stenosis severity and frequency. In the multivariate analysis, T stage, extent of involved circumference, and wall thickness of the tumor region were significantly correlated to esophageal stenosis (p = 0.031, p < 0.0001, and p = 0.0011, respectively). The esophageal stenotic ratio predicted by the artificial neural network, which learned these three factors, was significantly correlated to the actual observed stenotic ratio, with a correlation coefficient of 0.864 (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Our study suggested that T stage, extent of involved circumference, and esophageal wall thickness of the tumor region were useful to predict the frequency and severity of esophageal stenosis associated with tumor regression in radiotherapy for esophageal cancer.

  4. Management of long segment congenital esophageal stenosis: A novel technique

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Vishesh; Yadav, Devendra Kumar; Sharma, Shilpa; Jana, Manisha; Gupta, Devendra Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Congenital esophageal stenosis (CES) is a rare cause of dysphagia in children. Diagnosis is often apparent on esophagogram. Surgical treatment for the subtype with tracheobronchial remnants (TBR) includes resection and anastomosis of the stenosed segment, myectomy, enucleation of cartilage, etc., These procedures are not suitable if the stenosed segment is long. We present a case of a 5-year-old boy who was diagnosed as CES and was successfully managed with stricturoplasty with some innovative modifications. PMID:27365912

  5. Management of long segment congenital esophageal stenosis: A novel technique.

    PubMed

    Jain, Vishesh; Yadav, Devendra Kumar; Sharma, Shilpa; Jana, Manisha; Gupta, Devendra Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Congenital esophageal stenosis (CES) is a rare cause of dysphagia in children. Diagnosis is often apparent on esophagogram. Surgical treatment for the subtype with tracheobronchial remnants (TBR) includes resection and anastomosis of the stenosed segment, myectomy, enucleation of cartilage, etc., These procedures are not suitable if the stenosed segment is long. We present a case of a 5-year-old boy who was diagnosed as CES and was successfully managed with stricturoplasty with some innovative modifications. PMID:27365912

  6. Review of esophageal injuries and stenosis: Lessons learn and current concepts of management

    PubMed Central

    Ramareddy, Raghu Sampalli; Alladi, Anand

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To review the patients with esophageal injuries and stenosis with respect to their etiology, clinical course, management, and the lessons learnt from these. Materials and Methods: Retrospective descriptive observation review of children with esophageal injuries and stenosis admitted between January 2009 and April 2015. Results: Eighteen children with esophageal injuries of varied etiology were managed and included, seven with corrosive injury, five with perforation due to various causes, three with mucosal erosion, two with trachea esophageal fistula (TEF), and one wall erosion. The five children who had perforation were due to poststricture dilatation in a child with esophageal atresia and secondary to foreign body impaction or its attempted retrieval in four. Alkaline button cell had caused TEF in two. Three congenital esophageal stenosis (CES) had presented with dysphagia and respiratory tract infection. Six corrosive stricture and two CES responded to dilatation alone and one each of them required surgery. Four of the children with esophageal perforation were detected early and required drainage procedure (1), diversion (1), and medical management (2). Pseudo diverticulum was managed expectantly. Among TEF, one had spontaneous closure and other one was lost to follow-up. All the remaining nineteen children have recovered well except one CES had mortality. Conclusion: Esophageal injuries though rare can be potentially devastating and life-threatening. PMID:27365909

  7. Endoscopic management for congenital esophageal stenosis: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Terui, Keita; Saito, Takeshi; Mitsunaga, Tetsuya; Nakata, Mitsuyuki; Yoshida, Hideo

    2015-01-01

    Congenital esophageal stenosis (CES) is an extremely rare malformation, and standard treatment have not been completely established. By years of clinical research, evidence has been accumulated. We conducted systematic review to assess outcomes of the treatment for CES, especially the role of endoscopic modalities. A total of 144 literatures were screened and reviewed. CES was categorized in fibromuscular thickening, tracheobronchial remnants (TBR) and membranous web, and the frequency was 54%, 30% and 16%, respectively. Therapeutic option includes surgery and dilatation, and surgery tends to be reserved for ineffective dilatation. An essential point is that dilatation for TBR type of CES has low success rate and high rate of perforation. TBR can be distinguished by using endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS). Overall success rate of dilatation for CES with or without case selection by using EUS was 90% and 29%, respectively. Overall rate of perforation with or without case selection was 7% and 24%, respectively. By case selection using EUS, high success rate with low rate of perforation could be achieved. In conclusion, endoscopic dilatation has been established as a primary therapy for CES except TBR type. Repetitive dilatation with gradual step-up might be one of safe ways to minimize the risk of perforation. PMID:25789088

  8. Congenital esophageal stenosis because of tracheobronchial remnant and treated by circular myectomy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Saito, Takahiro; Ise, Kazuya; Kawahara, Yoshinori; Yamashita, Michitoshi; Shimizu, Hirofumi; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Gotoh, Mitsukazu

    2008-03-01

    Congenital esophageal stenosis (CES) is a rare anomaly, and appropriate management is not well established. We performed myectomy of the esophageal wall in a child with critical esophageal stenosis caused by tracheobronchial remnant (TBR). An 18-month-old boy was admitted to our hospital having frequent vomiting and failure to thrive. Esophagography and esophagoscopy showed abrupt stenosis at the lower esophageal wall. Balloon dilatation was performed but was ineffective. Surgery was performed under a diagnosis of CES because of TBR. Cartilage was palpable in the stenotic esophageal wall, and extirpation of the muscular layer of the stenotic portion was performed, leaving the mucosal layer intact. The muscular layer was closed loosely using interrupted 5-0 absorbable sutures to match the oral and anal sides together. Postoperatively, the esophageal passage was improved to the point that the patient was able to take solid foods without vomiting. This successful outcome suggests that circular myectomy of the TBR is worth recommending as a surgical procedure for short segment and stenosis of patients with CES because of TBR. PMID:18358309

  9. Endoscopic management of esophageal stenosis in children: New and traditional treatments

    PubMed Central

    Dall’Oglio, Luigi; Caldaro, Tamara; Foschia, Francesca; Faraci, Simona; Federici di Abriola, Giovanni; Rea, Francesca; Romeo, Erminia; Torroni, Filippo; Angelino, Giulia; De Angelis, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Post-esophageal atresia anastomotic strictures and post-corrosive esophagitis are the most frequent types of cicatricial esophageal stricture. Congenital esophageal stenosis has been reported to be a rare but typical disease in children; other pediatric conditions are peptic, eosinophilic esophagitis and dystrophic recessive epidermolysis bullosa strictures. The conservative treatment of esophageal stenosis and strictures (ES) rather than surgery is a well-known strategy for children. Before planning esophageal dilation, the esophageal morphology should be assessed in detail for its length, aspect, number and level, and different conservative strategies should be chosen accordingly. Endoscopic dilators and techniques that involve different adjuvant treatment strategies have been reported and depend on the stricture’s etiology, the availability of different tools and the operator’s experience and preferences. Balloon and semirigid dilators are the most frequently used tools. No high-quality studies have reported on the differences in the efficacies and rates of complications associated with these two types of dilators. There is no consensus in the literature regarding the frequency of dilations or the diameter that should be achieved. The use of adjuvant treatments has been reported in cases of recalcitrant stenosis or strictures with evidence of dysphagic symptoms. Corticosteroids (either systemically or locally injected), the local application of mitomycin C, diathermy and laser ES sectioning have been reported. Some authors have suggested that stenting can reduce both the number of dilations and the treatment length. In many cases, this strategy is effective when either metallic or plastic stents are utilized. Treatment complications, such esophageal perforations, can be conservatively managed, considering surgery only in cases with severe pleural cavity involvement. In cases of stricture relapse, even if such relapses occur following the execution of well

  10. Endoscopic management of esophageal stenosis in children: New and traditional treatments.

    PubMed

    Dall'Oglio, Luigi; Caldaro, Tamara; Foschia, Francesca; Faraci, Simona; Federici di Abriola, Giovanni; Rea, Francesca; Romeo, Erminia; Torroni, Filippo; Angelino, Giulia; De Angelis, Paola

    2016-02-25

    Post-esophageal atresia anastomotic strictures and post-corrosive esophagitis are the most frequent types of cicatricial esophageal stricture. Congenital esophageal stenosis has been reported to be a rare but typical disease in children; other pediatric conditions are peptic, eosinophilic esophagitis and dystrophic recessive epidermolysis bullosa strictures. The conservative treatment of esophageal stenosis and strictures (ES) rather than surgery is a well-known strategy for children. Before planning esophageal dilation, the esophageal morphology should be assessed in detail for its length, aspect, number and level, and different conservative strategies should be chosen accordingly. Endoscopic dilators and techniques that involve different adjuvant treatment strategies have been reported and depend on the stricture's etiology, the availability of different tools and the operator's experience and preferences. Balloon and semirigid dilators are the most frequently used tools. No high-quality studies have reported on the differences in the efficacies and rates of complications associated with these two types of dilators. There is no consensus in the literature regarding the frequency of dilations or the diameter that should be achieved. The use of adjuvant treatments has been reported in cases of recalcitrant stenosis or strictures with evidence of dysphagic symptoms. Corticosteroids (either systemically or locally injected), the local application of mitomycin C, diathermy and laser ES sectioning have been reported. Some authors have suggested that stenting can reduce both the number of dilations and the treatment length. In many cases, this strategy is effective when either metallic or plastic stents are utilized. Treatment complications, such esophageal perforations, can be conservatively managed, considering surgery only in cases with severe pleural cavity involvement. In cases of stricture relapse, even if such relapses occur following the execution of well

  11. Esophageal stenosis in a child presenting a de novo 7q terminal deletion.

    PubMed

    Zen, Paulo R G; Riegel, Mariluce; Rosa, Rafael F M; Pinto, Louise L C; Graziadio, Carla; Schwartz, Ida V D; Paskulin, Giorgio A

    2010-01-01

    We report on the first case of a child with a de novo 7q terminal deletion [46,XX,del(7)(q35 → qter)] presenting esophageal stenosis. This cytogenetic abnormality was confirmed by FISH, using subtelomeric probes, and by a whole-genome array-CGH assay. The child also had phenotypic features previously described in patients with a similar deletion, as growth retardation, microcephaly, coloboma of papilla, ptosis, hearing loss, urinary tract anomalies, partial agenesis of sacrum, hypotonia and neuropsychomotor delay. The odontoid hypoplasia identified, in similarity with the esophageal stenosis, represents an uncommon finding. This report is also the first clinical description of a patient with an abnormality involving the sonic hedgehog gene and an esophageal alteration. It is discussed the possibility of a specific association between them, according to some results observed in studies with animal models. PMID:20601258

  12. Report on a case of Rothmund-Thomson syndrome associated with esophageal stenosis.

    PubMed

    Polese, L; Merigliano, S; Mungo, B; Pennelli, G; Norberto, L

    2011-11-01

    Rothmund-Thomson syndrome (RTS) is a rare autosomal recessive genodermatosis. While its incidence is unknown, approximately 300 cases have been reported in the literature. The syndrome typically presents with a characteristic facial rash (poikiloderma), its diagnostic hallmark, and heterogeneous clinical features including congenital skeletal abnormalities, sparse hair distribution, juvenile cataracts, and a predisposition to osteosarcoma. Gastrointestinal symptoms, such as pyloric stenosis, anal atresia, annular pancreas, and rectovaginal fistula, have also been reported sporadically. This is a report describing a patient diagnosed with RTS referred to us because of dysphagia caused by esophageal stenosis. Long-term results of endoscopic dilation are also presented. PMID:21951866

  13. Clinical profile and management options of children with congenital esophageal stenosis: A single center experience

    PubMed Central

    Kurian, Jujju Jacob; Jehangir, Susan; Varghese, Isaac Tharu; Thomas, Reju Joseph; Mathai, John; Karl, Sampath

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study is to review 7 patients with congenital esophageal stenosis treated in our institution from a diagnostic and therapeutic point of view. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective cohort study of 7 patients treated in Christian Medical College, Vellore from 2008 to 2014. The data were analyzed with regards to age at onset of symptoms, investigative findings, age at definitive treatment, pathology, modalities of treatment, and outcomes. Results: Symptoms started within the 1st year of life in all children with a median age of 4 months. The time of delay in diagnosis ranged from 8 months to 81 months with a mean period of 37 months. About 6 patients had a lower esophageal stenosis and 1 patient had a mid-esophageal stenosis. About 4 of the 7 children underwent endoscopic balloon dilatation from elsewhere, with 2 of the above 4 undergoing a myotomy for a wrongly diagnosed achalasia. The number of dilatations ranged from 2 to 7 with a mean of 4 dilatations. Resection of the stenotic segment with end to end anastomosis was employed in 6 of the 7 patients, and a transverse colon interpositioning was done in 1 patient. An antireflux procedure was performed in one patient. Histopathological examination of the resected specimen revealed tracheobronchial remnant in 3 patients, fibromuscular thickening in 3 patients, and membranous web in 1 patient. Postoperatively, 2 of the 7 patients had asymptomatic gastroesophageal reflux and 1 patient had postoperative stricture requiring one session of endoscopic balloon dilatation. The mean follow-up period was 42 months (range 18-72 months). At the time of the last follow-up, all 7 patients were able to eat solid food, and none of the children were found to have symptoms suggestive of obstruction or gastroesophageal reflux. There was a statistically significant increase in the weight for age after the operation. Conclusion: Congenital esophageal stenosis is rare and often confused with other causes of

  14. Congenital esophageal stenosis diagnosed in an infant at 9 month of age.

    PubMed

    Savino, F; Tarasco, V; Viola, S; Locatelli, E; Sorrenti, M; Barabino, A

    2015-01-01

    Esophageal stenosis is a relatively uncommon condition in pediatrics and requires an accurate diagnostic approach. Here we report the case of a 9-month old female infant who presented intermittent vomiting, dysphagia and refusal of solid foods starting after weaning. She was treated for gastroesophageal reflux. At first, radiological investigation suggested achalasia, while esophagoscopy revelaed a severe congenital esophageal stenosis at the distal third of the esophagus. She underwent four endoscopic balloon dilatations that then allowed her to swallow solid food with intermittent mild dysphagia. After 17 months of esomeprazole treatment off therapy impedance-pH monitoring was normal. At 29 months of follow-up the child is asymptomatic and eats without problems.Infants with dysphagia and refusal of solid foods may have undiagnosed medical conditions that need treatment. Many disorders can cause esophageal luminal stricture; in the pediatric age the most common are peptic or congenital. Careful assessment with endoscopy is needed to diagnose these conditions early and referral to a pediatric gastroenterologic unit may be necessary. PMID:26444666

  15. [Malignant esophageal-respiratory fistula and esophageal stenosis treated with a Gianturco-Z-stent].

    PubMed

    Solt, J; Boros, S; Zoltán, I; Horváth, O P; Andics, L; Bajor, J

    1998-10-11

    Oesophago-respiratory fistula in most instances in a complication of advanced malignant tumours of the oesophagus or the lung. In our patient group eleven oesophago-respiratory and one gastro-respiratory fistulas were encountered. Three patients were operated upon. In one of them with achalasia, early oesophageal carcinoma was discovered in the background of the fistula. Two patients had fistulas without of oesophageal narrowing, therefore, stent implantation into the trachea and bronchus was performed. One of them was previously managed endoscopically with lyodura plug and fibrin glue, but only temporary occlusion of the fistula was obtained. In five patients, seven conventional oesophageal prosthesis (6 Cook, 1 Rüsch) were used to close the fistulas. In one of these patients, three oesophago-respiratory fistulas developed one after the other at the level of the prosthesis funnel. They were closed with three prostheses connected with short silicone tubes. In the last two patients, Gianturco-Z stent was employed. Its advantages over the plastic prostheses include small basic and lager final luminal diameter, lesser predilatation, easier implantation, lower complication and mortality rate. The silicone coated and double funnel stent with expansile force is effective in fistulas closure. On implantation, stent shortening in minimal, allowing precise placement of the stent even in proximal malignant oesophageal stenosis with oesophago-bronchial fistula. The high price of the stent is compensated for by the lower complication rate, shorter hospitalization and subsequent reduction is hospital expenses. Therefore these metal stents should be financed by the National Health Service, at least in specialized centers for managing patients with dysphagia. PMID:9805459

  16. Treatment of nostril and nasal stenosis due to facial burn using a self-expandable metallic esophageal stent.

    PubMed

    Sekine, Kuwon; Matsune, Shoji; Shiiba, Kyoko; Kimura, Maki; Okubo, Kimihiro; Kaneshiro, Tadashi; Tajima, Hiroyuki; Murakami, Masahiro; Kurokawa, Akira

    2015-08-01

    For the treatment of nasal and nostril stenosis caused by facial burn, it is necessary to perform rhinoplasty and nasal vestibuloplasty using various flaps, perform cicatrectomy of the nostrils with a rhinosurgical procedure, and prevent restenosis of the nostrils and nasal cavity for a certain period by methods such as placement of a nasal retainer or transnasal airway and gauze packing of the nasal cavity. With all methods, postoperative placement of a retainer or nasal treatment is necessary for the prevention of postoperative restenosis, and the patient's cooperation is essential. In a patient who did not cooperate in postoperative treatments due to autism and had recurrences of nasal and nostril stenosis after conventional surgical treatments, adequate patency of the nasal cavity and nostrils could be maintained with minimal postoperative treatment by placing a self-expandable metallic esophageal stent. PMID:25748514

  17. Metallic expandable stents in the management of malignant tracheal stenosis due to esophageal cancer with lymph node metastasis

    PubMed Central

    PENG, ZHAOHONG; XU, SHENGDE; LI, HUA; SUN, CHAOBIN; FU, MINYAN

    2013-01-01

    Esophageal cancer with post-operative lymph node metastasis (LNM) compressing and infiltrating the trachea causing dyspnea is considered a serious complication. However, chemotherapy or radiotherapy are often ineffective methods for such patients. Approaches employing metallic expandable stents to relieve airway obstruction are extremely effective in advanced-stage cancer patients. The present study reports the use of metallic expandable stents as a treatment for tracheal stenosis. A total of 11 patients with tracheal stenosis due to LNM compressing and infiltrating the trachea were selected between November 2009 and January 2013. All the patients were diagnosed by computed tomography and presented with varying degrees of dyspnea. A total of 13 stents were placed in 11 patients, without significant intraoperative complications. Post-operatively, all patients presented with significant improvement in respiratory function. The Borg score was determined 1 day after stent application. The mean score of dyspnea declined significantly from 7.0 to 0.9 (P<0.01), the mean heart rate decreased from 128 to 86 bpm (P<0.01), the mean respiratory rate decreased from 34 to 23 breaths/min (P<0.01) and the mean oxygen saturation increased from 85 to 97% (P<0.01). Complications included coughing, hemorrhage, chest pain, retention of secretions, halitosis and tumor regrowth. It may be concluded that metallic expandable stent placement is an effective strategy to palliate malignant tracheal stenosis. PMID:24179541

  18. [Stent implantation in the treatment of pharynx anastomotic stenosis after cervical esophageal resection: a case report].

    PubMed

    Zang, Chuanshan; Sun, Jian; Sun, Yan

    2016-03-01

    We report the treatment of one patient with pharynx anastomotic stenosis after cervical esophagealresection by stent implantation. The patient suffered from serious pharynx anastomotic stenosis after gastric-pha-ryngeal anastomosis. After balloon-dilatation,a domestic self-expanding Z-stents was implanted in the stricture ofthe esophagus under the X-rays. After stent implantation, the patient has been leading a normal life for threeyears. Balloon dilatation and stent implantation is an effective and safe method in the treatment of patients withpharynx anastomotic stenosis. PMID:27382696

  19. Esophagitis

    MedlinePlus

    Esophagitis is often caused by stomach fluid that flows back into the esophagus. The fluid contains acid which irritates the tissue. This problem is called gastroesophageal reflux . An autoimmune disorder called ...

  20. Esophagitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... swelling of the esophagus. The esophagus is the tube that leads from the back of the mouth to the stomach. Causes Esophagitis is often caused by stomach fluid that flows back into the esophagus. The fluid contains acid ...

  1. Spinal stenosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... spinal stenosis; Foraminal spinal stenosis; Degenerative spine disease; Back pain - spinal stenosis ... help your pain during flare-ups. Treatments for back pain caused by spinal stenosis include: Medicines that may ...

  2. Meatal stenosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... the urine Frequent urination Painful urination Urinary incontinence Urinary tract infections Damage to bladder or kidney function in ... opening. Alternative Names Urethral meatal stenosis Images Female urinary tract Male urinary tract Meatal stenosis References Elder JS. ...

  3. [Esophageal mucocele: report of 2 pediatric cases].

    PubMed

    Achour-Arifa, N; Tlili-Graiess, K; El Ouni, F; Mrad-Dali, K; Derbel, F; Yacoubi, M T; Gharbi-Jemni, H; Haj Hmida, R B; Jeddi, M

    2002-01-01

    Two cases of esophageal mucocele in pediatric patients are reported: two children of 5 and 9 years respectively underwent surgical isolation of the esophagus and esophagocoloplasty for caustic stenosis related to accidental ingestion of caustic soda. Clinical pattern of mediastinal compression was proved with cervical fistulous tract in one case. In both cases, thoracic computed tomography was a sensitive imaging method to demonstrate the mucocele and its extension. Esophageal mucocele is rarely described in children, especially following esophageal corrosive stricture. PMID:11965151

  4. Broken Esophageal Stent Successfully Treated by Interventional Radiology Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Zelenak, Kamil; Mistuna, Dusan; Lucan, Jaroslav; Polacek, Hubert

    2010-06-15

    Esophageal stent fractures occur quite rarely. A 61-year-old male patient was previously treated for rupture of benign stenosis, occurring after dilatation, by implanting an esophageal stent. However, a year after implantation, the patient suffered from dysphagia caused by the broken esophageal stent. He was treated with the interventional radiology technique, whereby a second implantation of the esophageal stent was carried out quite successfully.

  5. Pediatric esophageal scintigraphy. Results of 200 studies

    SciTech Connect

    Guillet, J.; Wynchank, S.; Basse-Cathalinat, B.; Christophe, E.; Ducassou, D.; Blanquet, P.

    1983-09-01

    Esophageal transit of a small volume of watery liquid has been observed scintigraphically in 200 studies performed on patients aged between 6 days and 16 years. Qualitative information concerning esophageal morphology and function in the various phases of deglutition, and scintigraphic features of achalasia, stenosis, and other pathologies are described. Measured esophageal transit time and its normal variation, its relevance to the diagnosis of esophagitis, and the monitoring of treatment are discussed. This technique observing distinct deglutitions has proven a useful diagnostic tool. Its advantages and limitations are discussed in comparison with other methods.

  6. Spinal stenosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection (ESI) involves injecting medicine directly into the space around your spinal nerves or spinal cord. Spinal stenosis symptoms often become worse over time, but this may happen slowly. If the pain ...

  7. Glottic stenosis.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Kate A; Wyatt, Michelle E

    2016-06-01

    Glottic stenosis is a fixed, focal narrowing at the level of the laryngeal inlet, the true vocal cords. It may be either congenital or acquired and be related to a wide range of etiologies. The stenosis may be either anterior, posterior, or in rare cases, complete. Isolated glottic stenosis is rare; lesions often involve adjacent regions, namely the subglottis. A diagnosis is made from careful history and examination, including evaluation by microlaryngoscopy and bronchoscopy. The management of glottic stenosis is challenging and should be tailored to each individual case. A secure and adequate airway is the treatment priority alongside optimization of voice and laryngeal competence. Endoscopic and open techniques in either single or multiple stages have been described. PMID:27301598

  8. Spinal Stenosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... all. They include Pain in your neck or back Numbness, weakness, cramping, or pain in your arms or legs Pain going down the leg Foot problems Doctors diagnose spinal stenosis with a physical exam and ...

  9. Spinal stenosis.

    PubMed

    Melancia, João Levy; Francisco, António Fernandes; Antunes, João Lobo

    2014-01-01

    Narrowing of the spinal canal or foramina is a common finding in spine imaging of the elderly. Only when symptoms of neurogenic claudication and/or cervical myelopathy are present is a spinal stenosis diagnosis made, either of the lumbar spine, cervical spine or both (only very rarely is the thoracic spine involved). Epidemiological data suggest an incidence of 1 case per 100 000 for cervical spine stenosis and 5 cases per 100 000 for lumbar spine stenosis. Cervical myelopathy in patients over 50 years of age is most commonly due to cervical spine stenosis. Symptomatic spinal narrowing can be congenital, or, more frequently, acquired. The latter may be the result of systemic illneses, namely endocrinopathies (such as Cushing disease or acromegaly), calcium metabolism disorders (including hyporarthyroidism and Paget disease), inflammatory diseases (such as rheumathoid arthritis) and infectious diseases. Physical examination is more often abnormal in cervical spondylotic myeloptahy whereas in lumbar spinal stenosis it is typically normal. Therefore spinal stenosis diagnosis relies on the clinical picture corresponding to conspicuous causative changes identified by imaging techniques, most importantly CT and MRI. Other ancillary diagnostic tests are more likely to be yielding for establishing a differential diagnosis, namely vascular claudication. Most patients have a progressive presentation and are offered non operative management as first treatment strategy. Surgery is indicated for progressive intolerable symptoms or, more rarely, for the neurologically catastrophic initial presentations. Surgical strategy consists mainly of decompression (depending on the anatomical level and type of narrowing: laminectomy, foraminotomy, discectomy, corporectomy) with additional instrumentation should spinal stability and sagittal balance be at risk. For cervical spine stenosis the main objective of surgery is to halt disease progression. There is class 1b evidence that surgery

  10. Esophageal tissue engineering: a new approach for esophageal replacement.

    PubMed

    Totonelli, Giorgia; Maghsoudlou, Panagiotis; Fishman, Jonathan M; Orlando, Giuseppe; Ansari, Tahera; Sibbons, Paul; Birchall, Martin A; Pierro, Agostino; Eaton, Simon; De Coppi, Paolo

    2012-12-21

    A number of congenital and acquired disorders require esophageal tissue replacement. Various surgical techniques, such as gastric and colonic interposition, are standards of treatment, but frequently complicated by stenosis and other problems. Regenerative medicine approaches facilitate the use of biological constructs to replace or regenerate normal tissue function. We review the literature of esophageal tissue engineering, discuss its implications, compare the methodologies that have been employed and suggest possible directions for the future. Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Library, National Research Register and ClinicalTrials.gov databases were searched with the following search terms: stem cell and esophagus, esophageal replacement, esophageal tissue engineering, esophageal substitution. Reference lists of papers identified were also examined and experts in this field contacted for further information. All full-text articles in English of all potentially relevant abstracts were reviewed. Tissue engineering has involved acellular scaffolds that were either transplanted with the aim of being repopulated by host cells or seeded prior to transplantation. When acellular scaffolds were used to replace patch and short tubular defects they allowed epithelial and partial muscular migration whereas when employed for long tubular defects the results were poor leading to an increased rate of stenosis and mortality. Stenting has been shown as an effective means to reduce stenotic changes and promote cell migration, whilst omental wrapping to induce vascularization of the construct has an uncertain benefit. Decellularized matrices have been recently suggested as the optimal choice for scaffolds, but smart polymers that will incorporate signalling to promote cell-scaffold interaction may provide a more reproducible and available solution. Results in animal models that have used seeded scaffolds strongly suggest that seeding of both muscle and epithelial cells on scaffolds

  11. Caustic ingestion and esophageal function

    SciTech Connect

    Cadranel, S.; Di Lorenzo, C.; Rodesch, P.; Piepsz, A.; Ham, H.R. )

    1990-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate esophageal motor function by means of krypton-81m esophageal transit scintigraphy and to compare the results with the functional and morphological data obtained by means of triple lumen manometry and endoscopy. In acute and subacute stages of the disease, all clinical, anatomical, and functional parameters were in good agreement, revealing significant impairment. In chronic stages, the severity of the dysphagia was not correlated to the importance of the residual stenosis. Conversely, 81mKr esophageal transit and manometric's findings were in good agreement with the clinical symptoms, during the entire follow-up period ranging between 3 months to 7 years. The 81mKr test is undoubtedly the easiest and probably the most physiological technique currently available for long-term functional evaluation of caustic esophagitis.

  12. Pulmonary valve stenosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... valve pulmonary stenosis; Pulmonary stenosis; Stenosis - pulmonary valve; Balloon valvuloplasty - pulmonary ... water pills) Treat abnormal heartbeats and rhythms Percutaneous balloon pulmonary dilation (valvuloplasty) may be performed when no ...

  13. Esophageal stent placement as a therapeutic option for iatrogenic esophageal perforation in children

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Alsafadi; Wong Kee Song, Louis M.; Absah, Imad

    2016-01-01

    Iatrogenic esophageal perforation (IEP) is a potentially serious adverse event of interventional endoscopy. The approach to IEP varies from surgical repair for large perforations to conservative treatment for small contained perforations. We report a case of an 18-month-old girl with congenital esophageal stenosis suffering a large esophageal perforation after a trial of stricture dilatation, which was successfully managed by the placement of fully covered stent. Hence, in selected cases, esophageal stent placement is a feasible alternative to invasive surgery in managing IEP. PMID:27144142

  14. Esophageal cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer - esophagus ... Esophageal cancer is not common in the United States. It occurs most often in men over 50 years old. There are two main types of esophageal cancer: squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. These two types ...

  15. Esophageal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... esophagus, and chest wall Lung Cancer Esophageal Cancer Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Barrett’s Esophagus Chest Wall Tumors Mediastinal Tumors ... Section Navigation Select Topic Lung Cancer Esophageal Cancer Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Barrett’s Esophagus Chest Wall Tumors Mediastinal Tumors ...

  16. Esophageal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... from your throat to your stomach. Early esophageal cancer usually does not cause symptoms. Later, you may ... You're at greater risk for getting esophageal cancer if you smoke, drink heavily, or have acid ...

  17. Subglottic stenosis.

    PubMed

    Jefferson, Niall D; Cohen, Aliza P; Rutter, Michael J

    2016-06-01

    Subglottic stenosis (SGS) is a congenital or acquired condition characterized by a narrowing of the upper airway extending from just below the vocal folds to the lower border of the cricoid cartilage. With the introduction of prolonged intubation in neonates (mid 1960s), acquired SGS became the most frequent cause of laryngeal stenosis; unlike congenital SGS, it does not improve with time. Laryngeal reconstruction surgery evolved as a consequence of the need to manage these otherwise healthy but tracheotomized children. Ongoing innovations in neonatal care have gradually led to the salvage of premature and medically fragile infants in whom laryngeal pathology is often more severe, and in whom stenosis often involves not only the subglottis, but also the supraglottis or glottis-causing significant morbidity and mortality. The primary objective of intervention in these children is decannulation or preventing the need for tracheotomy. The aim of this article is to present a more detailed description of both congenital and acquired SGS, highlighting the essentials of diagnostic assessment and familiarizing the reader with contemporary management approaches. PMID:27301599

  18. Eosinophilic esophagitis.

    PubMed

    Kedia, Saurabh; Baruah, Bhaskar Jyoti; Makharia, Govind; Ahuja, Vineet

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a clinico-pathological entity characterised by symptoms of esophageal dysfunction and eosinophilia on esophageal mucosal biopsies in the absence of other causes of esophageal eosinophilia. It is a chronic inflammatory condition of esophagus often characterized by refractory reflux symptoms in children and dysphagia in adults. It occurs as a result of Th2 inflammatory response to environmental triggers (food antigens) in genetically predisposed individuals. The diagnostic criteria include symptoms of esophageal dysfunction, esophageal eosinophilia (> 15/hpf), and a PPI trial (persistent eosinophilia after 8 weeks of PPI). Mainstay of treatment at present is topical steroids and dietary therapy. Maintenance treatment should be considered to prevent long term complications. PMID:27522734

  19. Esophageal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Alsop, Benjamin R; Sharma, Prateek

    2016-09-01

    Esophageal cancer carries a poor prognosis among gastrointestinal malignancies. Although esophageal squamous cell carcinoma predominates worldwide, Western nations have seen a marked rise in the incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma that parallels the obesity epidemic. Efforts directed toward early detection have been difficult, given that dysplasia and early cancer are generally asymptomatic. However, significant advances have been made in the past 10 to 15 years that allow for endoscopic management and often cure in early stage esophageal malignancy. New diagnostic imaging technologies may provide a means by which cost-effective, early diagnosis of dysplasia allows for definitive therapy and ultimately improves the overall survival among patients. PMID:27546839

  20. Herpetic esophagitis

    SciTech Connect

    Shortsleeve, M.J.; Gauvin, G.P.; Gardner, R.C.; Greenberg, M.S.

    1981-12-01

    Four patients with herpetic esophagitis were examined. In three of them, the presenting symptom was odynophagia. Early in the course of herpetic esophagitis, shallow round and oval ulcers were seen on barium esophagograms. Later, the ulcers filled with fibrinous exudate, forming nodular plaques that projected into the esophageal lumen. Although these findings are diagnostic of esophagitis, they are not specific for a herpes virus infection. The definitive diagnosis must be established by histologic examination, which demonstrates the cytopathic effect of the herpes virus infection within the squamous epithelium.

  1. Esophageal manometry

    MedlinePlus

    ... its ability to move food toward the stomach ( achalasia ) A weak LES, which causes heartburn (GERD) Abnormal contractions of the esophagus muscles that do not effectively move food to the stomach ( esophageal spasm )

  2. Esophageal culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... for infection-causing germs in a sample of tissue from the esophagus. ... Culture - esophageal ... A sample of tissue from your esophagus is needed. The sample is ... or viruses. Other tests may be done to determine what medicine ...

  3. Esophagitis - infectious

    MedlinePlus

    ... system Organisms (germs) that cause esophagitis include fungi, yeast, and viruses. Common organisms include: Candida albicans Cytomegalovirus ( ... Difficulty swallowing and painful swallowing Fever and chills Yeast infection of the tongue and lining of the ...

  4. Esophageal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources Conducting Clinical Trials Statistical Tools and Data Terminology Resources NCI Data Catalog Cryo-EM NCI's Role ... release mucus and other fluids. Smoking and heavy alcohol use increase the risk of esophageal squamous cell ...

  5. Esophageal perforation

    MedlinePlus

    ... object or caustic chemicals, such as household cleaners, disk batteries, and battery acid Trauma or injury to ... may have esophageal perforation. Prevention These injuries are hard to prevent. Alternative Names Perforation of the esophagus ...

  6. Esophageal Microbiome in Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Harris, J. Kirk; Fang, Rui; Wagner, Brandie D.; Choe, Ha Na; Kelly, Caleb J.; Schroeder, Shauna; Moore, Wendy; Stevens, Mark J.; Yeckes, Alyson; Amsden, Katie; Kagalwalla, Amir F.; Zalewski, Angelika; Hirano, Ikuo; Gonsalves, Nirmala; Henry, Lauren N.; Masterson, Joanne C.; Robertson, Charles E.; Leung, Donald Y.; Pace, Norman R.; Ackerman, Steven J.; Furuta, Glenn T.; Fillon, Sophie A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The microbiome has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of allergic and inflammatory diseases. The mucosa affected by eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is composed of a stratified squamous epithelia and contains intraepithelial eosinophils. To date, no studies have identified the esophageal microbiome in patients with EoE or the impact of treatment on these organisms. The aim of this study was to identify the esophageal microbiome in EoE and determine whether treatments change this profile. We hypothesized that clinically relevant alterations in bacterial populations are present in different forms of esophagitis. Design In this prospective study, secretions from the esophageal mucosa were collected from children and adults with EoE, Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) and normal mucosa using the Esophageal String Test (EST). Bacterial load was determined using quantitative PCR. Bacterial communities, determined by 16S rRNA gene amplification and 454 pyrosequencing, were compared between health and disease. Results Samples from a total of 70 children and adult subjects were examined. Bacterial load was increased in both EoE and GERD relative to normal subjects. In subjects with EoE, load was increased regardless of treatment status or degree of mucosal eosinophilia compared with normal. Haemophilus was significantly increased in untreated EoE subjects as compared with normal subjects. Streptococcus was decreased in GERD subjects on proton pump inhibition as compared with normal subjects. Conclusions Diseases associated with mucosal eosinophilia are characterized by a different microbiome from that found in the normal mucosa. Microbiota may contribute to esophageal inflammation in EoE and GERD. PMID:26020633

  7. Risk Factors for Esophageal Fistula Associated With Chemoradiotherapy for Locally Advanced Unresectable Esophageal Cancer: A Supplementary Analysis of JCOG0303.

    PubMed

    Tsushima, Takahiro; Mizusawa, Junki; Sudo, Kazuki; Honma, Yoshitaka; Kato, Ken; Igaki, Hiroyasu; Tsubosa, Yasuhiro; Shinoda, Masayuki; Nakamura, Kenichi; Fukuda, Haruhiko; Kitagawa, Yuko

    2016-05-01

    Esophageal fistula is a critical adverse event in patients treated with chemoradiotherapy (CRT) for locally advanced esophageal cancer. However, risk factors associated with esophageal fistula formation in patients receiving CRT have not yet been elucidated.We retrospectively analyzed data obtained from 140 patients who were enrolled in a phase II/III trial comparing low-dose cisplatin with standard-dose cisplatin administered in combination with 5-flurouracil and concomitant radiotherapy. Inclusion criteria were performance status (PS) 0 to 2 and histologically proven thoracic esophageal cancer clinically diagnosed as T4 and/or unresectable lymph node metastasis for which definitive CRT was applicable. Risk factors for esophageal fistula were examined with univariate analysis using Fisher exact test and multivariate analysis using logistic regression models.Esophageal fistula was observed in 31 patients (22%). Of these, 6 patients developed fistula during CRT. Median time interval between the date of CRT initiation and that of fistula diagnosis was 100 days (inter quartile range, 45-171). Esophageal stenosis was the only significant risk factor for esophageal fistula formation both in univariate (P = 0.026) and in multivariate analyses (odds ratio, 2.59; 95% confidence interval, 1.13-5.92, P = 0.025). Other clinicopathological factors, namely treatment arm, age, sex, PS, primary tumor location, T stage, lymph node invasion to adjacent organs, blood cell count, albumin level, and body mass index, were not risk factors fistula formation.Esophageal stenosis was a significant risk factor for esophageal fistula formation in patients treated with CRT for unresectable locally advanced thoracic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:27196482

  8. Eosinophilic esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Gupte, Anand R; Draganov, Peter V

    2009-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis is increasingly recognized in adults. The diagnosis is based on the presence of both typical symptoms and pathologic findings on esophageal biopsy. Patients usually present with dysphagia, food impaction and/or reflux-like symptoms, and biopsy of the esophagus shows more than 15 eosinophils per high-power field. In addition, it is essential to exclude the presence of known causes of tissue eosinophilia such as gastroesophageal reflux disease, infections, malignancy, collagen vascular diseases, hypersensitivity, and inflammatory bowel disease. There are no standardized protocols for the therapy of eosinophilic esophagitis. A variety of therapeutic approaches including acid suppression, dietary modifications, topical corticosteroids and endoscopic dilation can be used alone or in combination. PMID:19115464

  9. Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Furuta, Glenn T.; Katzka, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Once considered a rare condition, eosinophilic esophagitis is now one of the most common conditions diagnosed during the assessment of feeding problems in children and during the evaluation of dysphagia and food impaction in adults.1 The entity exists worldwide but has been most extensively studied in Western countries, where its prevalence has been estimated to be 0.4% among all children and adults.2 Whether eosinophilic esophagitis is truly a new disease or simply a recently recognized one is uncertain.3 In this review, we consider the diagnostic criteria, pathophysiological and clinical features, and treatment of this increasingly prevalent disease. PMID:26488694

  10. Esophageal perforation

    MedlinePlus

    ... esophagus into the space around the lungs Collapsed lung. X-rays taken after you drink a non-harmful dye can help pinpoint the location of the perforation. You may also have chest CT scan look for an abscess in the chest or esophageal cancer.

  11. [Eosinophilic esophagitis].

    PubMed

    Couto, Mariana; Rodrigues, Susana; Piedade, Susana; Gaspar, Ângela; Morais-Almeida, Mário; Macedo, Guilherme

    2011-12-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EE) is an inflammatory disease of the esophagus characterized by significant and isolated infiltration of the esophageal mucosa by eosinophils, associated with clinical symptoms of esophageal dysfunction, affecting children and adults. It is an increasingly frequent cause of symptoms similar to gastroesophageal reflux disease but refractory to anti-acid therapeutic. It is commonly associated with food allergies or other atopic diseases. Since there are no symptoms, signs, serological biomarkers or endoscopic findings pathognomonic of EE, the diagnosis requires a high degree of suspicion; moreover, due to its chronic relapsing nature the potential to cause major esophageal structural changes, its early recognition and close cooperation between gastroenterologists and immunoallergologists is essential for the timely institution of appropriate therapy. The treatment is based on two main strategies: diet and / or pharmacotherapy, depending on the co-existence of sensitization to food allergens. It is our aim to review this issue, considering recent guidelines, as well as propose a diagnostic and therapeutic algorithm. PMID:22863504

  12. Unsuccessful alloplastic esophageal replacement with porcine small intestinal submucosa.

    PubMed

    Doede, Thorsten; Bondartschuk, Michail; Joerck, Carsten; Schulze, Eberhard; Goernig, Matthias

    2009-04-01

    In general, there is no perfect method for esophageal replacement under consideration of the numerous associated risks and complications. The aim of this study was to examine a new material--small intestinal submucosa (SIS)--in alloplastic esophageal replacement. We implanted tubular SIS prosthesis about 4 cm in length in the cervical esophagus of 14 piglets (weight 9-13 kg). For the first 10 days, the animals were fed parenterally, supplemented by free given water, followed by an oral feeding phase. Four weeks after surgery, the animals were sacrificed. Only 1 of the 14 animals survived the study period of 4 weeks. The other piglets had to be sacrificed prematurely because of severe esophageal stenosis. On postmortem exploration, the prosthesis could not be found either macroscopically or histologically. Sutures between the prosthesis and the cervical muscles did not improve the results. Until now, the use of alloplastic materials in esophageal replacement has failed irrespective of the kind of material. As well as in our experiments, severe stenosis had been reported in several animal studies. The reasons for this unacceptable high rate of stenosis after alloplastic esophageal replacement seem to be multifactorial. Possible solutions could be transanastomotic splints, less inert materials, the decrease of anastomotic tension by stay sutures, the use of adult stem cells, and tissue engineering. PMID:19335409

  13. Eosinophilic esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Merves, Jamie; Muir, Amanda; Chandramouleeswaran, Prasanna Modayur; Cianferoni, Antonella; Wang, Mei-Lun; Spergel, Jonathan M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To review the understanding of the pathogenesis of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) and the role of the immune system in the disease process. Data Sources Peer-reviewed articles on EoE from PubMed searching for “Eosinophilic Esophagitis and fibrosis” in the period of 1995 to 2013. Study Selection Studies on the clinical and immunologic features, pathogenesis, and management of EoE. Results Recent work has revealed that thymic stromal lymphopoietin and basophil have an increased role in the pathogenesis of disease. Additional understanding on the role of fibrosis in EoE is emerging. Conclusion The incidence of EoE is increasing like most atopic disease. Similar to other allergic diseases, EoE is treated with topical steroids and/or allergen avoidance. PMID:24566295

  14. Radiation esophagitis.

    PubMed

    Murro, Diana; Jakate, Shriram

    2015-06-01

    The esophagus is frequently exposed to radiation during treatment of advanced stages of common cancers such as lung, breast, and esophagus. However, symptomatic radiation esophagitis requiring endoscopic and histologic evaluation occurs quite rarely, affecting less than 1% of patients receiving radiation treatment. Symptoms occur acutely, generally within the first 2 months. Patients typically present with nonspecific symptoms such as dysphagia and odynophagia. Endoscopic changes such as erythema and ulceration are also nonspecific and nondiagnostic. Biopsies from affected areas show variable inflammatory changes and radiation-related atypia of endothelial and stromal cells. Such atypia mimics cytomegalovirus cytopathic changes, which are ruled out through absence of immunostaining. Radiation esophagitis is thus clinically unsuspected and endoscopically and histologically quite different from the more common and familiar radiation proctitis for which angioectasia is the predominant finding. PMID:26030254

  15. Evaluation of urgent esophagectomy in esophageal perforation

    PubMed Central

    de AQUINO, José Luis Braga; de CAMARGO, José Gonzaga Teixeira; CECCHINO, Gustavo Nardini; PEREIRA, Douglas Alexandre Rizzanti; BENTO, Caroline Agnelli; LEANDRO-MERHI, Vânia Aparecida

    2014-01-01

    Background Esophageal trauma is considered one of the most severe lesions of the digestive tract. There is still much controversy in choosing the best treatment for cases of esophageal perforation since that decision involves many variables. The readiness of medical care, the patient's clinical status, the local conditions of the perforated segment, and the severity of the associated injuries must be considered for the most adequate therapeutic choice. Aim To demonstrate and to analyze the results of urgent esophagectomy in a series of patients with esophageal perforation. Methods A retrospective study of 31 patients with confirmed esophageal perforation. Most injuries were due to endoscopic dilatation of benign esophageal disorders, which had evolved with stenosis. The diagnosis of perforation was based on clinical parameters, laboratory tests, and endoscopic images. ‪The main surgical technique used was transmediastinal esophagectomy followed by reconstruction of the digestive tract in a second surgical procedure. Patients were evaluated for the development of systemic and local complications, especially for the dehiscence or stricture of the anastomosis of the cervical esophagus with either the stomach or the transposed colon. Results Early postoperative evaluation showed a survival rate of 77.1% in relation to the proposed surgery, and 45% of these patients presented no further complications. The other patients had one or more complications, being pulmonary infection and anastomotic fistula the most frequent. The seven patients (22.9%) who underwent esophageal resection 48 hours after the diagnosis died of sepsis. At medium and long-term assessments, most patients reported a good quality of life and full satisfaction regarding the surgery outcomes. Conclusions Despite the morbidity, emergency esophagectomy has its validity, especially in well indicated cases of esophageal perforation subsequent to endoscopic dilation for benign strictures. PMID:25626932

  16. Esophageal pH monitoring

    MedlinePlus

    pH monitoring - esophageal; Esophageal acidity test ... esophagitis You may need to have the following tests if your doctor suspects esophagitis : Barium swallow Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (also called upper GI endoscopy)

  17. Mitral stenosis (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... that flows forward to the body. The main risk factor for mitral stenosis is a history of rheumatic fever but it may also be triggered by pregnancy or other stress on the body such as a respiratory infection, ...

  18. Infundibulopelvic stenosis in children

    SciTech Connect

    Lucaya, J.; Enriquez, G.; Delgado, R.; Castellote, A.

    1984-03-01

    Of 11,500 children who underwent excretory urography during a 17-year period, three were found to have the rare renal malformation infundibulopelvic stenosis, characterized by caliceal dilatation, infundibular stenosis, and hypoplasia or stenosis of the renal pelvis. The contralateral kidney was absent in two cases and normal in the other. Voiding cystourethrograms were normal in all three. Renal sonography showed a variable degree of caliceal dilatation without associated pelvic dilatation. The diagnosis was confirmed by retrograde ureteropyelography in one case. Two patients were followed for 12 and 18 months, respectively; both remained asymptomatic with normal renal function, and sequential sonographic examinations of their kidneys have shown no significant changes. The third patient died of an unrelated condition. Infundibulopelvic stenosis has highly characteristic radiographic features, and prognosis is good for most affected patients.

  19. Problem: Heart Valve Stenosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Problem: Heart Valve Stenosis Updated:Aug 10,2016 About ... content was last reviewed May 2016. Heart Valve Problems and Disease • Home • About Heart Valves • Heart Valve ...

  20. What Is Spinal Stenosis?

    MedlinePlus

    ... To order the Sports Injuries Handout on Health full-text version, please contact NIAMS using the contact information ... publication. To order the Spinal Stenosis Q&A full-text version, please contact NIAMS using the contact information ...

  1. Isolated congenital tracheal stenosis in a preterm newborn.

    PubMed

    Krause, Ulrich; Rödel, Ralph M W; Paul, Thomas

    2011-09-01

    Severe tracheal stenosis, resulting in functional atresia of the trachea is a rare congenital malformation with an estimated occurrence of two in 100,000 newborns. If no esophagotracheal fistula is present to allow for spontaneous breathing, this condition is usually fatal. We report on a male infant born at 32 weeks of gestation. The patient presented with respiratory distress immediately after delivery due to severe congenital tracheal stenosis resulting in functional atresia of the trachea. Endotracheal intubation failed and even emergency tracheotomy did not allow ventilation of the patient lungs. The patient finally succumbed to prolonged hypoxia due to functional tracheal atresia. The etiology of tracheal atresia and tracheal stenosis is still unclear, but both conditions are frequently combined with other anomalies of the VACTERL (vertebral anomalies, anal atresia, cardiovascular anomalies, tracheoesophageal fistula, esophageal atresia, renal/radial anomalies and limb defects) and TACRD (tracheal agenesis, cardiac, renal and duodenal malformations) association. Conclusion Successful treatment of severe congenital tracheal stenosis and tracheal atresia depends on either prenatal diagnosis or recognition of this condition immediately after birth to perform tracheotomy without delay. Nevertheless, despite any efforts, the therapeutical results of severe tracheal stenosis and tracheal atresia are still unsatisfactory. PMID:21590265

  2. New Endoscopic Indicator of Esophageal Achalasia: “Pinstripe Pattern”

    PubMed Central

    Minami, Hitomi; Isomoto, Hajime; Miuma, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Yasutoshi; Yamaguchi, Naoyuki; Urabe, Shigetoshi; Matsushima, Kayoko; Akazawa, Yuko; Ohnita, Ken; Takeshima, Fuminao; Inoue, Haruhiro; Nakao, Kazuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Background and Study Aims Endoscopic diagnosis of esophageal achalasia lacking typical endoscopic features can be extremely difficult. The aim of this study was to identify simple and reliable early indicator of esophageal achalasia. Patients and Methods This single-center retrospective study included 56 cases of esophageal achalasia without previous treatment. As a control, 60 non-achalasia subjects including reflux esophagitis and superficial esophageal cancer were also included in this study. Endoscopic findings were evaluated according to Descriptive Rules for Achalasia of the Esophagus as follows: (1) esophageal dilatation, (2) abnormal retention of liquid and/or food, (3) whitish change of the mucosal surface, (4) functional stenosis of the esophago-gastric junction, and (5) abnormal contraction. Additionally, the presence of the longitudinal superficial wrinkles of esophageal mucosa, “pinstripe pattern (PSP)” was evaluated endoscopically. Then, inter-observer diagnostic agreement was assessed for each finding. Results The prevalence rates of the above-mentioned findings (1–5) were 41.1%, 41.1%, 16.1%, 94.6%, and 43.9%, respectively. PSP was observed in 60.7% of achalasia, while none of the control showed positivity for PSP. PSP was observed in 26 (62.5%) of 35 cases with shorter history < 10 years, which usually lacks typical findings such as severe esophageal dilation and tortuosity. Inter-observer agreement level was substantial for food/liquid remnant (k = 0.6861) and PSP (k = 0.6098), and was fair for abnormal contraction and white change. The accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity for achalasia were 83.8%, 64.7%, and 100%, respectively. Conclusion “Pinstripe pattern” could be a reliable indicator for early discrimination of primary esophageal achalasia. PMID:25664812

  3. Congenital tracheobronchial stenosis.

    PubMed

    Hewitt, Richard J; Butler, Colin R; Maughan, Elizabeth F; Elliott, Martin J

    2016-06-01

    Congenital tracheobronchial stenosis is a rare disease characterized by complete tracheal rings that can affect variable lengths of the tracheobronchial tree. It causes high levels of morbidity and mortality both due to the stenosis itself and to the high incidence of other associated congenital malformations. Successful management of this complex condition requires a highly individualized approach delivered by an experienced multidisciplinary team, which is best delivered within centralized units with the necessary diverse expertise. In such settings, surgical correction by slide tracheoplasty has become increasingly successful over the past 2 decades such that long-term survival now exceeds 88%, with normalization of quality of life scores for patients with non-syndrome-associated congenital tracheal stenosis. Careful assessment and planning of treatment strategies is of paramount importance for both successful management and the provision of patients and carers with accurate and realistic treatment counseling. PMID:27301600

  4. Lumbar spinal stenosis.

    PubMed Central

    Ciricillo, S F; Weinstein, P R

    1993-01-01

    Lumbar spinal stenosis, the results of congenital and degenerative constriction of the neural canal and foramina leading to lumbosacral nerve root or cauda equina compression, is a common cause of disability in middle-aged and elderly patients. Advanced neuroradiologic imaging techniques have improved our ability to localize the site of nerve root entrapment in patients presenting with neurogenic claudication or painful radiculopathy. Although conservative medical management may be successful initially, surgical decompression by wide laminectomy or an intralaminar approach should be done in patients with serious or progressive pain or neurologic dysfunction. Because the early diagnosis and treatment of lumbar spinal stenosis may prevent intractable pain and the permanent neurologic sequelae of chronic nerve root entrapment, all physicians should be aware of the different neurologic presentations and the treatment options for patients with spinal stenosis. Images PMID:8434469

  5. Screening for Carotid Artery Stenosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Task Force learned about the potential benefits and harms of screening for carotid artery stenosis: Health professionals ... blood flow through the arteries. Potential Benefits and Harms of Carotid Artery Stenosis Screening and Treatment The ...

  6. Bilateral ostial coronary stenosis and rheumatic aortic valve stenosis.

    PubMed

    Sorokin, Alexeyi; Weich, Hellmuth; Doubell, Anton; Moolman, Johannes A

    2006-01-01

    A 49-year-old patient presented with angina pectoris and clinical findings of aortic valve stenosis and regurgitation. Rheumatic aortic valve stenosis and regurgitation was diagnosed on echocardiography. Coronary angiography findings showed severe calcification in the aorta root with right coronary ostial occlusion, and were suggestive of left main ostial stenosis and proximal main stem stenosis, which was confirmed on CT angiography. Curvilinear calcification of the aorta was present on CT angiography. The findings suggested syphilitic aortitis. Syphilis serology was positive (RPR titre 1/16). The angina was caused by severe coronary ostial disease likely due to syphilitic aortitis and exacerbated by the rheumatic aortic valve stenosis and regurgitation. PMID:16885079

  7. [Use of BICAP by endoscopic route in the palliative treatment of neoplastic stenosis of the esophagus].

    PubMed

    Pantuso, G; Bottino, A; Cipolla, C; Gitto, C; Farro, G; Talarico, F; Latteri, M; Florena, M

    1990-12-01

    Over the years the palliative treatment of neoplastic stenosis of the esophagus in patients who cannot be operated has seen a variation of endoscopic methods which aimed to reopen the alimentary canal either using simple dilatation, or the insertion of endoprostheses, or sclerosing injection or antiblastic therapy, or lastly using disobstructive laser therapy. In particular, the use of Neodymium YAG laser in endoscopic therapy for the deobstruction of neoplastic esophageal stenosis is currently widely used. More recently deobstruction of the stenosis may also be achieved using bipolar diathermocoagulation with BICAP following esophageal dilatation. Recent comparative studies of the use of BICAP and laser therapy in the treatment of neoplastic esophageal stenosis have tended to reveal the complementary characteristics of the two techniques. The present paper reports the Authors' experience in this respect which has been satisfactory with regard to both methods, in line with the findings of other studies. In the study of two groups of 8 patients treated with BICAP and laser therapy respectively, recanalisation was obtained in 100% of cases with good functional results in 75% of patients treated with BICAP and 87.5% of those receiving laser therapy. The time interval between one treatment session and the next in relation to the efficacy of the therapy was similar in both methods and ranged from a minimum of 4 weeks to a maximum of 12 weeks. Complications were scarce in both groups. PMID:1708116

  8. Nitinol Esophageal Stents: New Designs and Clinical Indications

    SciTech Connect

    Strecker, Ernst-Peter; Boos, Irene; Vetter, Sylvia; Strohm, Michael; Domschke, Sigurd

    1996-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the clinical use of covered and noncovered, knitted nitinol stents in patients presenting new stent indications. Methods: Self-expandable, knitted nitinol stents were implanted in four patients for treatment of dysphagia. In two patients who had malignant strictures and had esophago-respiratory fistulae and in one patient with an esophagocutaneous fistula, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)-covered stents were implanted. One patient received a noncovered stent, but a retrograde approach through a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) fistula had to be chosen for recanalization of an esophageal occlusion. Two patients received stents for treatment of benign strictures. Results: Recanalization of the stricture and stent implantation were performed under fluoroscopic control without any procedure-related morbidity or mortality. Dysphagia improved in all patients and the esophageal fistulae could be sealed off by covered stents. During a maximum follow-up of 18 months, there was no stent migration or esophageal perforation. Complications observed were stent stenosis due to food impaction (1/4) and benign stent stenosis (2/2). Most complications could be treated by the interventional radiologist. Conclusion: Self-expandable, covered Nitinol stents provide an option for the treatment of dysphagia combined with esophageal fistulae. In combination with interventional radiology techniques, even complex strictures are accessible. For benign strictures, the value of stent treatment has not yet been proven.

  9. Lumbar Spinal Stenosis.

    PubMed

    Feeney, Richard

    2016-06-01

    Questions from patients about pain conditions and analgesic pharmacotherapy and responses from authors are presented to help educate patients and make them more effective self-advocates. In reply to a question, lumbar spinal stenosis, commonly a multifactorial disease that can have profound functional consequences, is considered, along with a discussion of physical and pharmacologic treatments and quality of life. PMID:27145444

  10. Lumbar Spinal Canal Stenosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... happen any time, not just when you stand up or start walking like it does with stenosis. Symptoms What ... feel cramped, tired or weak. These symptoms usually start when you are ... your knees tucked up to your chest). It's thought that these positions " ...

  11. Diet and esophageal disease

    PubMed Central

    Dawsey, Sanford M.; Fagundes, Renato B.; Jacobson, Brian C.; Kresty, Laura A.; Mallery, Susan R.; Paski, Shirley; van den Brandt, Piet A.

    2014-01-01

    The following, from the 12th OESO World Conference: Cancers of the Esophagus, includes commentaries on macronutrients, dietary patterns, and risk of adenocarcinoma in Barrett’s esophagus; micronutrients, trace elements, and risk of Barrett’s esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma; the role of mate consumption in the development of squamous cell carcinoma; the relationship between energy excess and development of esophageal adenocarcinoma; and the nutritional management of the esophageal cancer patient. PMID:25266021

  12. Eosinophilic esophagitis: From pathophysiology to treatment

    PubMed Central

    D’Alessandro, Alessandra; Esposito, Dario; Pesce, Marcella; Cuomo, Rosario; De Palma, Giovanni Domenico; Sarnelli, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic immune disease, characterized by a dense eosinophilic infiltrate in the esophagus, leading to bolus impaction and reflux-like symptoms. Traditionally considered a pediatric disease, the number of adult patients with EoE is continuously increasing, with a relatively higher incidence in western countries. Dysphagia and food impaction represent the main symptoms complained by patients, but gastroesophageal reflux-like symptoms may also be present. Esophageal biopsies are mandatory for the diagnosis of EoE, though clinical manifestations and proton pump inhibitors responsiveness must be taken into consideration. The higher prevalence of EoE in patients suffering from atopic diseases suggests a common background with allergy, however both the etiology and pathophysiology are not completely understood. Elimination diets are considered the first-line therapy in children, but this approach appears less effective in adults patients, who often require steroids; despite medical treatments, EoE is complicated in some cases by esophageal stricture and stenosis, that require additional endoscopic treatments. This review summarizes the evidence on EoE pathophysiology and illustrates the safety and efficacy of the most recent medical and endoscopic treatments. PMID:26600973

  13. Esophageal lichen planus*

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Janine Pichler; Uribe, Natalia Caballero; Abulafia, Luna Azulay; Quintella, Leonardo Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Lichen planus is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects the skin, mucous membranes, nails and scalp. Esophageal lichen planus is a rarely reported manifestation of lichen planus, presenting itself commonly in middle-aged women, with symptoms such as dysphagia. We report a case of esophageal lichen planus in a 54-year-old woman associated with oral, cutaneous and ungual lichen planus. Although lichen planus is a disorder well known by dermatologists, reports of esophageal lichen planus are rare in dermatologic literature. The esophageal lichen planus is little known and underdiagnosed, with a significant delay between the onset of symptoms and diagnosis. PMID:26131872

  14. Predictors for postoperative esophageal stricture after balloon-based radiofrequency ablation for early esophageal squamous neoplasia: a multicenter validation study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wen-Lun; Chang, I-Wei; Chen, Chien-Chuan; Chang, Wei-Lun; Chu, Yin-Yi; Wu, Ping-Hsiu; Tai, Wei-Chen; Chen, Po-Yueh; Hsieh, Ping-Hsin; Chung, Chen-Shuan; Chang, Chi-Yang; Lin, Jaw-Town; Wang, Hsiu-Po; Lee, Ching-Tai

    2016-01-01

    Background: Endoscopic radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a rapidly evolving therapeutic modality for early flat esophageal squamous cell neoplasms (ESCNs), but the risk factors for postoperative stricture have not been elucidated. The objective of this study was to identify and validate a predictor for post-RFA stenosis. Methods: We consecutively enrolled patients with flat-type ‘large’ (length no less than 3 cm extending no less than half the circumference of the esophagus), early ESCNs, treated with balloon-based RFA (12 J/cm2–clean–12 J/cm2 regimen). The tumor and technical factors for postoperative stricture were investigated and we validated the results externally with a society-based multicenter cohort using the same ablation regimen. Results: A total of 51 patients were enrolled (30 in the development set and 21 in the validation set). The complete remission rate at 12 months was 93%, and the rates of perforation and postoperative stenosis were 0% and 17%, respectively. Patients with post-RFA stenosis had a significantly larger longitudinal tumor size (mean 115 versus 61 mm, p = 0.003). There were no significant differences in age, body mass index, tumor circumferential extension, pretreatment histological grade, treatment efficacy or size of balloon catheter between the groups with or without stenosis. The optimal cut-off value was set as 9 cm to predict post-RFA stenosis by receiver operating characteristic curve [area under curve (AUC) = 0.881], which was then confirmed to be a reliable predictor by multivariate analysis (odds ratio, 12.7, 95% confidence interval, 1.18–136.28, p = 0.03) and have a good predictive performance in the validation set (AUC = 0.876). Conclusions: The most frequent adverse event of RFA was esophageal stenosis, for which the longitudinal tumor size was a significant predictive factor. Early intervention or prevention for stricture should be applied for those with long segment (⩾9 cm) ESCNs. PMID:27134656

  15. Concomitant slide tracheoplasty and cardiac operation for congenital tracheal stenosis associated with VACTERL.

    PubMed

    Wu, En-Ting; Wang, Ching-Chia; Lin, Ming-Tai; Huang, Pei-Ming; Chen, Shyh-Jye; Huang, Chi-Hsiang; Hwang, Haw-Kwei; Chen, Ming-Ren; Huang, Shu-Chien

    2013-10-01

    The association of congenital tracheal stenosis and tracheoesophageal (TE) fistula is rare. Here, we report 2 patients with tracheobronchial stenosis (complete cartilage ring) involving the lower trachea and right bronchus. Both patients had associated VACTERL (vertebral anomalies, anal atresia, cardiovascular anomalies, TE, renal, and limb defects) congenital cardiac defects and tracheal diverticula after repair of the TE fistula in type C esophageal atresia. The stenotic segment began at the orifice of the TE fistula, which became diverticula after the TE fistula was repaired. Concomitant repair of congenital cardiac defects and a slide tracheoplasty with elimination of the diverticula were performed successfully. PMID:24088476

  16. Functional esophageal disorders

    PubMed Central

    Clouse, R; Richter, J; Heading, R; Janssens, J; Wilson, J

    1999-01-01

    The functional esophageal disorders include globus, rumination syndrome, and symptoms that typify esophageal diseases (chest pain, heartburn, and dysphagia). Factors responsible for symptom production are poorly understood. The criteria for diagnosis rest not only on compatible symptoms but also on exclusion of structural and metabolic disorders that might mimic the functional disorders. Additionally, a functional diagnosis is precluded by the presence of a pathology-based motor disorder or pathological reflux, defined by evidence of reflux esophagitis or abnormal acid exposure time during ambulatory esophageal pH monitoring. Management is largely empirical, although efficacy of psychopharmacological agents and psychological or behavioral approaches has been established for serveral of the functional esophageal disorders. As gastroesophageal reflux disease overlaps in presentation with most of these disorders and because symptoms are at least partially provoked by acid reflux events in many patients, antireflux therapy also plays an important role both in diagnosis and management. Further understanding of the fundamental mechanisms responsible for symptoms is a priority for future research efforts, as is the consideration of treatment outcome in a broader sense than reduction in esophageal symptoms alone. Likewise, the value of inclusive rather than restrictive diagnostic criteria that encompass other gastrointestinal and non-gastrointestinal symptoms should be examined to improve the accuracy of symptom-based criteria and reduce the dependence on objective testing.


Keywords: globus; rumination; chest pain; esophageal motility disorders; esophageal spasm; gastroesophageal reflux disease; Rome II PMID:10457042

  17. Eosinophilic esophagitis: an autoimmune esophageal disorder.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Neha; Levine, Jeremiah

    2014-12-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) represents a chronic, immune/antigen-mediated esophageal inflammatory disease associated with esophageal dysfunction resulting from severe inflammation. The incidence and prevalence of EoE have been increasing in the past decade; however, the reason for this increase is unclear. There is a chronic inflammatory infiltrate that is present in EoE which promotes inflammation, symptoms, and dysfunction. In addition to eosinophils, interleukin (IL)-5 expressing T cells, B cells, eotaxin-3, IL-13, and IgE-bearing mast cells are present in EoE and are thought to contribute to the disease process. Eosinophils are pro-inflammatory and modulate multiple aspects of the immune response. Eosinophils produce a wide range of inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, granulocyte-monocyte colony-stimulating factors, and tumor necrosis factors. Once activated, eosinophils release granule components, which are toxic to a variety of tissues. Transforming growth factor β1 is a pro-fibrotic molecule produced by epithelial and inflammatory cells, is overexpressed in EoE, and plays a role in esophageal remodeling. Fibrous remodeling in EoE could be associated with symptoms of dysphagia and may explain and predict future esophageal strictures and dysmotility. EoE is a complex disease involving multiple activation pathways, a large number of cells, and various inflammatory molecules. It, along with other atopic disease, is becoming increasingly prevalent and has an important genetic load and may represent as an immunological tolerance disorder of the GI tract. PMID:25499460

  18. Surgical treatment analysis of idiopathic esophageal achalasia

    PubMed Central

    de AQUINO, José Luis Braga; SAID, Marcelo Manzano; PEREIRA, Douglas Rizzanti; do AMARAL, Paula Casals; LIMA, Juliana Carolina Alves; LEANDRO-MERHI, Vânia Aparecida

    2015-01-01

    Background Idiopathic esophageal achalasia is an inflammatory disease of unknown origin, characterized by aperistalsis of the esophageal body and failure of the lower esophageal sphincter in response to swallowing, with consequent dysphagia. Aim To demonstrate the results of surgical therapy in these patients, evaluating the occurred local and systemic complications. Methods Were studied retrospectively 32 patients, 22 of whom presented non-advanced stage of the disease (Stage I/II) and 10 with advanced disease (Stage III/IV). All of them had the clinical conditions to be submitted to surgery. The diagnoses were done by clinical, endoscopic, cardiological, radiological and esophageal manometry analysis. Pre-surgical evaluation was done with a questionnaire based on the most predisposing factors in the development of the disease and the surgical indication was based on the stage of the disease. Results The patients with non-advanced stages were submitted to cardiomyotomy with fundoplication, wherein in the post-surgical early assessment, only one (4,4%) presented pulmonary infection, but had a good outcome. In patients with advanced disease, seven were submitted to esophageal mucosectomy preserving the muscular layer, wherein one patient (14,2%) presented dehiscence of gastric cervical esophagus anastomosis as well as pulmonary infection; all of these complications were resolved with proper specific treatment; the other three patients with advanced stage were submitted to transmediastinal esophagectomy; two of them presented hydropneumothorax with good evolution, and one of them also presented fistula of the cervical esophagogastric anastomosis, but with spontaneous healing after conservative treatment and nutritional support. The two patients with fistula of the cervical anastomosis progressed to stenosis, with good results after endoscopic dilations. In the medium and long term assessment done in 23 patients, all of them reported improvement in life quality, with

  19. Subglottic tracheal stenosis.

    PubMed

    D'Andrilli, Antonio; Venuta, Federico; Rendina, Erino Angelo

    2016-03-01

    Benign subglottic stenosis represents a major therapeutic challenge. Interventional bronchoscopic treatment has a limited role in this setting due to anatomical and technical reasons. The benefit with these techniques is generally temporary, due to frequent recurrences, need for repeated procedures and risk of extending the area of damage. Laryngotracheal resection is at present the curative treatment of choice. Literature data show that surgical treatment may allow very high success rates at long term with low perioperative morbidity and mortality. Technical aspects and results are reported and discussed. PMID:26981264

  20. Subglottic tracheal stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Venuta, Federico; Rendina, Erino Angelo

    2016-01-01

    Benign subglottic stenosis represents a major therapeutic challenge. Interventional bronchoscopic treatment has a limited role in this setting due to anatomical and technical reasons. The benefit with these techniques is generally temporary, due to frequent recurrences, need for repeated procedures and risk of extending the area of damage. Laryngotracheal resection is at present the curative treatment of choice. Literature data show that surgical treatment may allow very high success rates at long term with low perioperative morbidity and mortality. Technical aspects and results are reported and discussed. PMID:26981264

  1. Radiation Therapy, Paclitaxel, and Carboplatin With or Without Trastuzumab in Treating Patients With Esophageal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-09-15

    Adenocarcinoma of the Gastroesophageal Junction; Esophageal Adenocarcinoma; Stage IB Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIA Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIB Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIIA Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIIB Esophageal Cancer

  2. [Atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis].

    PubMed

    Sauguet, A; Honton, B

    2014-12-01

    Atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis can cause ischaemic nephropathy and arterial hypertension. Renal artery stenosis (RAS) continues to be a problem for clinicians, with no clear consensus on how to investigate and assess the clinical significance of stenotic lesions and manage the findings. RAS caused by fibromuscular dysplasia is probably commoner than previously appreciated, should be actively looked for in younger hypertensive patients and can be managed successfully with angioplasty. Atheromatous RAS is associated with increased incidence of cardiovascular events and increased cardiovascular mortality, and is likely to be seen with increasing frequency. Many patients with RAS may be managed effectively with medical therapy for several years without endovascular stenting, as demonstrated by randomized, prospective trials including the cardiovascular outcomes in Renal Atherosclerotic Lesions (CORAL) trial, the Angioplasty and Stenting for Renal Artery Lesions (ASTRAL) trial. These trials share the limitation of excluding subsets of patients with high-risk clinical presentations, including episodic pulmonary edema and rapidly progressing renal failure and hypertension. Blood pressure control and medication adjustment may become more difficult with declining renal function and may prevent the use of angiotensin receptor blocker and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. The objective of this review is to evaluate the current management of RAS for cardiologists in the context of recent randomized clinical trials. There is now interest in looking more closely at patient selection for intervention, with focus on intervening only in patients with the highest-risk presentations such as flash pulmonary edema, rapidly declining renal function and severe resistant hypertension. PMID:25450992

  3. Esophageal stricture - benign

    MedlinePlus

    ... medicines) can keep a peptic stricture from returning. Surgery is rarely needed. If you have eosinophilic esophagitis, you may need to take medicines or make changes to your diet to reduce the inflammation. In some cases, dilation is done.

  4. [Esophageal motor disturbances in sclerodermia].

    PubMed

    Stanciu, C; Cijevschi, C; Dobrescu, A; Petrescu, Z

    1981-01-01

    By the manometric method the esophageal motility in 14 patients with sclerodermia was studied. All patients presented an esophageal motor dysfunction characterized by the decrease in amplitude of the spohageal contractions, presence of aperistaltic contractions, decrease of basal pressure of the lower esophageal sphincter and its incomplete relaxation at deglutition. These esophageal motor disturbances may appear in association or separately in the same patient. The pathogenesis of the esophageal motor dysfunction in sclerodermia is not yet fully understood. Besides the theoretical interest, the knowledge of the esophageal motor dysfunction in sclerodermia has also a practical value in respect of the tretment which is to be set up. PMID:25528800

  5. [Congenital Esophageal Atresia].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Makoto; Kuwano, Hiroyuki

    2015-07-01

    In this report, we describe the esophageal atresia in terms of current surgical management on the basis of our experience and literatures. Traditionally, infants with esophageal atresia have presented shortly after birth because of an inability to pass an orogastric tube, respiratory distress, or an inability to tolerate feeding. And also, an isolated trachea-esophageal fistula (TEF) usually cases coughing, recurrent pneumonia, or choking during feedings. To ignore these symptoms is to risk a delayed diagnosis. The condition may be associated with other major congenital anomalies such as those seen in the vertebral, anal, cardiac, tracheo-esophageal, renal/radial (VACTER) association, or it may be an isolated defect. Therapeutic strategies for esophageal atresia are a prevention of pulmonary complication by TEF closing and an early establishment of enteral alimentation. We promptly repair healthy infants without performing a gastrostomy and delay repair in infants with high-risk factors such as associated severe cardiac anomaly and respiratory insufficiency. Esophageal atresia has been classically approached through a thoracotomy. The disadvantages of such a thoracotomy have been recognized for a long time, for example winged scapula, elevation of fixation of shoulder, asymmetry of the chest wall, rib fusion, scoliosis, and breast and pectoral muscle maldevelopment. To avoid such disadvantages, thoracoscopic repair was recently reported. PMID:26197921

  6. Value of two-phase dynamic multidetector computed tomography in differential diagnosis of post-inflammatory strictures from esophageal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Karmazanovsky, Grigory G; Buryakina, Svetlana A; Kondratiev, Evgeny V; Yang, Qin; Ruchkin, Dmitry V; Kalinin, Dmitry V

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To characterize the computed tomography (CT) findings in patients with post-inflammatory esophageal strictures (corrosive and peptic) and reveal the optimal scanning phase protocols for distinguishing post-inflammatory esophageal stricture and esophageal cancer. METHODS: Sixty-five patients with esophageal strictures of different etiology were included in this study: 24 patients with 27 histopathologically confirmed corrosive strictures, 10 patients with 12 peptic strictures and 31 patients with esophageal cancer were evaluated with a two-phase dynamic contrast-enhanced MDCT. Arterial and venous phases at 10 and 35 s after the attenuation of 200 HU were obtained at the descending aorta, with a delayed phase at 6-8 min after the start of injection of contrast media. For qualitative analysis, CT scans of benign strictures were reviewed for the presence/absence of the following features: “target sign”, luminal mass, homogeneity of contrast medium uptake, concentric wall thickening, conically shaped suprastenotic dilatation, smooth boundaries of stenosis and smooth mucous membrane at the transition to stenosis, which were compared with a control group of 31 patients who had esophageal cancer. The quantitative analysis included densitometric parameter acquisition using regions-of-interest measurement of the zone of stenosis and normal esophageal wall and the difference between those measurements (ΔCT) at all phases of bolus contrast enhancement. Esophageal wall thickening, length of esophageal wall thickening and size of the regional lymph nodes were also evaluated. RESULTS: The presence of a concentric esophageal wall, conically shaped suprastenotic dilatation, smooth upper and lower boundaries, “target sign” and smooth mucous membrane at the transition to stenosis were suggestive of a benign cause, with sensitivities of 92.31%, 87.17%, 94.87%, 76.92% and 82.05%, respectively, and specificities of 70.96%, 89.66%, 80.65%, 96.77% and 93.55%, respectively

  7. Idiopathic laryngotracheal stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Costantino, Christina L.

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic laryngotracheal stenosis (ILTS) is a rare inflammatory disease of unknown etiology. Infectious, traumatic and immunologic processes must first be excluded. The majority of patients affected are female who present with progressive symptoms of upper airway obstruction, which can extend over a number of years. ILTS is characterized by short segment, circumferential stenotic lesions, located particularly at the level of the cricoid. Bronchoscopic evaluation is essential for establishing the diagnosis and operative planning. Various temporizing interventions have historically been utilized, including dilation and laser ablation, for symptomatic management. However these interventions have demonstrated diminishing returns and poor long-term outcomes. Patients with ILTS should be considered early for definitive surgical intervention to minimize complications and optimize outcomes. Laryngotracheal resection and reconstruction is a viable intervention, which has demonstrated good long-term results and low recurrence rates for this patient population. PMID:26981272

  8. Idiopathic laryngotracheal stenosis.

    PubMed

    Costantino, Christina L; Mathisen, Douglas J

    2016-03-01

    Idiopathic laryngotracheal stenosis (ILTS) is a rare inflammatory disease of unknown etiology. Infectious, traumatic and immunologic processes must first be excluded. The majority of patients affected are female who present with progressive symptoms of upper airway obstruction, which can extend over a number of years. ILTS is characterized by short segment, circumferential stenotic lesions, located particularly at the level of the cricoid. Bronchoscopic evaluation is essential for establishing the diagnosis and operative planning. Various temporizing interventions have historically been utilized, including dilation and laser ablation, for symptomatic management. However these interventions have demonstrated diminishing returns and poor long-term outcomes. Patients with ILTS should be considered early for definitive surgical intervention to minimize complications and optimize outcomes. Laryngotracheal resection and reconstruction is a viable intervention, which has demonstrated good long-term results and low recurrence rates for this patient population. PMID:26981272

  9. Neuroimaging of Spinal Canal Stenosis.

    PubMed

    Cowley, Peter

    2016-08-01

    Spinal stenosis is common and presents in a variety of forms. Symptomatic lumbar stenosis occurs in approximately 10% of the population and cervical stenosis in 9% over age 70. Imaging is central to the management decision process and first-choice MR imaging may be substituted with CT and CT myelography. A review of the literature is presented with particular emphasis on the clinical-radiologic correlation in both neurogenic intermittent claudication and cervical spondylotic myelopathy. Advanced techniques promise improvements, particularly with radicular compressive lesions, but remain underutilized in routine clinical practice. PMID:27417399

  10. Clinical Implications and Pathogenesis of Esophageal Remodeling in Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Hirano, Ikuo; Aceves, Seema S.

    2014-01-01

    In eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), remodeling changes are manifest histologically in both the epithelium as well as in the subepithelium where lamina propria (LP) fibrosis, expansion of the muscularis propria and increased vascularity occur. The major clinical symptoms and complications of EoE are largely consequences of esophageal remodeling. Important mediators of the process include IL-5, IL-13, TGFβ1, mast cells, fibroblasts and eosinophils. Methods to detect remodeling effects include upper endoscopy, histopathology, barium esophagram, endoscopic ultrasonography, esophageal manometry, and functional luminal imaging. These modalities provide evidence of organ dysfunction that include focal and diffuse esophageal strictures, expansion of the mucosa and subepithelium, esophageal motor abnormalities and reduced esophageal distensibility. Complications of food impaction and perforations of the esophageal wall have been associated with reduction in esophageal caliber and increased esophageal mural stiffness. The therapeutic benefits of topical corticosteroids and elimination diet therapy in resolving mucosal eosinophilic inflammation of the esophagus are evident. Available therapies, however, have demonstrated variable ability to reverse existing remodeling changes of the esophagus. Systemic therapies that include novel, targeted biologic agents have the potential of addressing subepithelial remodeling. Esophageal dilation remains a useful, adjunctive therapeutic maneuver in symptomatic adults with esophageal stricture. As novel treatments emerge, it is essential that therapeutic endpoints account for the fundamental contributions of esophageal remodeling to overall disease activity. PMID:24813517

  11. Esophageal pH monitoring

    MedlinePlus

    ... into the stomach. It is a test for gastroesophageal reflux disease ( GERD ). In infants, this test is also ... to: Barrett's esophagus Difficulty swallowing (dysphagia) Esophageal scarring Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) Heartburn Reflux esophagitis You may need ...

  12. Achalasia and Esophageal Motility Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... esophagus, and chest wall Lung Cancer Esophageal Cancer Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Barrett’s Esophagus Chest Wall Tumors Mediastinal Tumors ... Section Navigation Select Topic Lung Cancer Esophageal Cancer Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Barrett’s Esophagus Chest Wall Tumors Mediastinal Tumors ...

  13. General Information about Esophageal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research Esophageal Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Esophageal Cancer Go to Health Professional Version ... the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  14. Esophageal Atresia and Tracheoesophageal Fistula

    MedlinePlus

    ... Return to Web version Esophageal Atresia and Tracheoesophageal Fistula Overview What is esophageal atresia? In babies who ... gets into the stomach. What is a tracheoesophageal fistula? A fistula (say “fist-you-lah”) is a ...

  15. Cervical Stenosis, Myelopathy and Radiculopathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... between the vertebrae results in narrowing of the space for the spinal cord and its branches, known ... and cervical stenosis refers to narrowing of the space for the spinal cord or nerve branches in ...

  16. Contemporary management of pyloric stenosis.

    PubMed

    Jobson, Matthew; Hall, Nigel J

    2016-08-01

    Hypertrophic pyloric stenosis is a common surgical cause of vomiting in infants. Following appropriate fluid resuscitation, the mainstay of treatment is pyloromyotomy. This article reviews the aetiology and pathophysiology of hypertrophic pyloric stenosis, its clinical presentation, the role of imaging, the preoperative and postoperative management, current surgical approaches and non-surgical treatment options. Contemporary postoperative feeding regimens, outcomes and complications are also discussed. PMID:27521712

  17. Management of carotid artery stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Louridas, George; Junaid, Asad

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To clarify the definition of carotid artery diseases, the appropriateness of screening for disease, investigation and management of patients presenting with transient ischemic attacks, and management of asymptomatic carotid bruits. SOURCES OF INFORMATION MEDLINE was searched using the terms carotid endarterectomy, carotid disease, and carotid stenosis. Most studies offer level II or III evidence. Consensus statements and guidelines from various neurovascular societies were also consulted. MAIN MESSAGE Patients with symptoms of hemispheric transient ischemic attacks associated with >70% stenosis of the internal carotid artery are at highest risk of major stroke or death. Risk is greatest within 48 hours of symptom onset; patients should have urgent evaluation by a vascular surgeon for consideration of carotid endarterectomy (CEA). Patients with 50% to 69% stenosis might benefit from urgent surgical intervention depending on clinical features and associated comorbidity. Patients with <50% stenosis do not benefit from surgery. Asymptomatic patients with >60% stenosis should be considered for elective CEA. CONCLUSION Symptomatic carotid artery syndromes need urgent carotid duplex evaluation to determine the need for urgent surgery. Those with the greatest degree of stenosis derive the greatest benefit from timely CEA. PMID:16060177

  18. Discrete subaortic stenosis.

    PubMed Central

    Khan, M M; Varma, M P; Cleland, J; O'Kane, H O; Webb, S W; Mulholland, H C; Adgey, A A

    1981-01-01

    Data concerning 17 consecutive patients with discrete subaortic stenosis are recorded. Twelve patients underwent operative resection of the obstructing lesion. Of these all except one were symptomatic and all had electrocardiographic evidence of left ventricular hypertrophy or left ventricular hypertrophy with strain. They had a peak resting systolic left ventricular outflow tract gradient of greater than 50 mmHg as predicted from the combined cuff measurement of systolic blood pressure and the echocardiographically estimated left ventricular systolic pressure and/or as determined by cardiac catheterisation. The outflow tract gradient as predicted from M-mode echocardiography and peak systolic pressure showed close correlation with that measured at cardiac catheterisation or operation. During the postoperative follow-up from one month to 11 years, of 11 patients, one patient required a further operation for recurrence of the obstruction four years after the initial operation. All patients are now asymptomatic. Five patients have not had an operation. The left ventricular outflow tract gradient as assessed at the time of cardiac catheterisation was greater than 50 mmHg. One patient has been lost to follow-up. The remaining four have been followed from four to eight years and have remained asymptomatic and the electrocardiograms have remained unchanged. Careful follow-up of all patients is essential with continuing clinical assessment, electrocardiograms, M-mode and two-dimensional echocardiograms, and if necessary cardiac catheterisation. Prophylaxis against bacterial endocarditis is also essential. Images PMID:6457617

  19. Minimally invasive surgery for esophageal achalasia

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Huan-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Esophageal achalasia is due to the esophagus of neuromuscular dysfunction caused by esophageal functional disease. Its main feature is the lack of esophageal peristalsis, the lower esophageal sphincter pressure and to reduce the swallow’s relaxation response. Lower esophageal muscular dissection is one of the main ways to treat esophageal achalasia. At present, the period of muscular layer under the thoracoscope esophagus dissection is one of the treatment of esophageal achalasia. Combined with our experience in minimally invasive esophageal surgery, to improved incision and operation procedure, and adopts the model of the complete period of muscular layer under the thoracoscope esophagus dissection in the treatment of esophageal achalasia. PMID:27499977

  20. Modified end-to-end anastomosis for the treatment of congenital tracheal stenosis with a bridging bronchus.

    PubMed

    Stock, Cameron; Nathan, Meena; Murray, Ryan; Rahbar, Reza; Fynn-Thompson, Francis

    2015-01-01

    An infant with a ventricular septal defect; Vertebral anomalies, Anal atresia, Cardiac anomalies, Tracho Esophageal fistula (TEF), Renal anomalies, Limb anomalies syndrome; and tracheal stenosis with a bridging bronchus underwent repair of the ventricular septal defect and trachea-bronchial reconstruction at age 11 months. Herein we describe our surgical approach to resection of the bridging bronchus and a technique using a modified end-to-end tracheal anastomosis for the correction of this complex anomaly. PMID:25555968

  1. Management of Symptomatic Intracranial Stenosis.

    PubMed

    Hoak, David A; Lutsep, Helmi L

    2016-09-01

    Intracranial atherosclerotic disease is a common cause of stroke worldwide, causing approximately 10 % of strokes in the USA and up to 50 % in Asian populations. Recurrent stroke risks are particularly high in those with a stenosis of 70 % or more and a recent transient ischemic attack or stroke. Warfarin has been associated with higher major hemorrhage rates and no reduction of recurrent stroke compared to aspirin in patients with symptomatic intracranial stenosis. After early trials showed the feasibility of stenting, two randomized trials compared stenting plus medical management to medical management alone in symptomatic intracranial stenosis. Stenting was linked with increased risk and showed no benefit in any subpopulation of patients. Aggressive medical management in the Stenting and Aggressive Medical Management for Preventing Recurrent Stroke in Intracranial Stenosis (SAMMPRIS) trial was associated with half the risk of stroke compared to that in similar patients in a previous symptomatic intracranial stenosis trial after adjustment of confounding characteristics. Aggressive medical management comprises risk factor control, including a target systolic blood pressure <140 mmHg, a low density lipoprotein <70 mg/dL, hemoglobin A1C <7.0 %, and lifestyle management that incorporates exercise, smoking cessation and weight management, and the use of antithrombotics. PMID:27443379

  2. Molecular Phenotyping in Predicting Response in Patients With Stage IB-III Esophageal Cancer Receiving Combination Chemotherapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-12-18

    Stage IB Esophageal Adenocarcinoma; Stage IIA Esophageal Adenocarcinoma; Stage IIB Esophageal Adenocarcinoma; Stage IIIA Esophageal Adenocarcinoma; Stage IIIB Esophageal Adenocarcinoma; Stage IIIC Esophageal Adenocarcinoma

  3. Esophagitis in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Putnam, Philip E

    2016-01-01

    Esophagitis is the end result of a variety of insults to epithelial homeostasis. Eosinophilic esophagitis is a manifestation of non-IgE-mediated food allergy that most commonly affects the esophagus of males who have other atopic phenomena. Reflux esophagitis reflects repeated exposure to acidic gastric contents because of failure of the normal protections afforded by the LES. Because certain histologic features can be present in either condition, endoscopic biopsy alone does not distinguish them. Their symptoms overlap, but the treatment options are very different, such that making a formal diagnosis by following consensus guidelines is essential. A treatment protocol designed to manage the inflammation by controlling the provocative factors (acid for GERD and food antigens for EoE) or suppressing the inflammation (ie, topical steroids for EoE) should result in normalization of the mucosa and resolution of symptoms. Eosinophilic esophagitis is a chronic condition that rarely remits spontaneously, so any therapeutic modality will need to be continued indefinitely. PMID:27363230

  4. Asymptomatic Stenosis in the Cervical and Thoracic Spines of Patients with Symptomatic Lumbar Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Moon Soo; Moon, Seong-Hwan; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Oh, Jae Keun; Lyu, Ho Dong; Lee, Jae-Hoo; Riew, K. Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective study. Objective Studies on age-related degenerative changes causing concurrent stenoses in the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spines (triple stenosis) are rare in the literature. Our objectives were to determine: (1) the incidence of asymptomatic radiologic cervical and thoracic stenosis in elderly patients with symptomatic lumbar stenosis, (2) the incidence of concurrent radiologic spinal stenosis in the cervical and thoracic spines, and (3) the radiologic features of cervical stenosis that might predict concurrent thoracic stenosis. Methods Whole-spine T2 sagittal magnetic resonance images of patients older than 80 and diagnosed with lumbar spinal stenosis between January 2003 and January 2012 were evaluated retrospectively. We included patients with asymptomatic spondylotic cervical and thoracic stenosis. We measured the anteroposterior diameters of the vertebral body, bony spinal canal, and spinal cord, along with the Pavlov ratio and anterior or posterior epidural stenosis at the level of the disk for each cervical and thoracic level. We compared the radiologic parameters between the subgroups of cervical stenosis with and without thoracic stenosis. Results Among the 460 patients with lumbar stenosis, 110 (23.9%) had concurrent radiologic cervical stenosis and 112 (24.3%) had concurrent radiologic thoracic stenosis. Fifty-six patients (12.1%) had combined radiologic cervical and thoracic stenosis in addition to their symptomatic lumbar stenosis (triple stenosis). Anterior epidural stenosis at C7–T1 was associated with a high prevalence of thoracic stenosis. Conclusions It appears that asymptomatic radiologic cervical and thoracic stenosis is common in elderly patients with symptomatic lumbar stenosis. PMID:26430589

  5. Eosinophilic esophagitis in children with esophageal atresia.

    PubMed

    Dhaliwal, J; Tobias, V; Sugo, E; Varjavandi, V; Lemberg, D; Day, A; Bohane, T; Ledder, O; Jiwane, A; Adams, S; Henry, G; Dilley, A; Shi, E; Krishnan, U

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) has only rarely been reported in esophageal atresia (EA) patients. A retrospective case analysis of all EA patients born at our center between January 1999 and April 2012 was performed. A total of 113 of patients were identified; 10 patients were excluded as a result of inadequate data. Eighteen patients (17%) were diagnosed with EoE. The average number of eosinophilis was 30/high-power field (HPF) (19/HPF-80/HPF). The median age for diagnosis of EoE was 1 year and 6 months (8 months-8 years and 7 months). Children with EoE had a significantly greater incidence of reflux symptoms, dysphagia, tracheomalacia, and 'hypoxic spells' (P < 0.05). EoE patients also underwent significantly more surgery including fundoplication and aortopexy when compared with those without EoE (P < 0.0001). Although the incidence of gastrostomy was greater in the EoE group (33% vs. 13%), this was not statistically significant. Half of the EoE patients had a coexisting atopic condition at time of diagnosis. The commonest condition was asthma 7/18 (38%) followed by specific food allergy 6/18 (33%). EoE was treated in 11 patients with either swallowed fluticasone or budesonide slurry. All improved clinically. Histologically, five had complete resolution and six had partial improvement. Six children with EoE were treated with acid suppression alone. All improved clinically, and 5/6 had subsequent histological resolution. One child who received acid suppression and an exclusion diet also improved. Seven patients (38%) had an esophageal stricture at time of EoE diagnosis. Five were dilated at time of the initial endoscopy, prior to the diagnosis of EoE being available. Two patients had resolution of their strictures on medical treatment of their EoE alone and did not require further dilatation. EoE was seen in 17% of children with EA in this study. EoE should be considered in EA patients with persistent symptoms on standard reflux treatment, increasing

  6. Photodynamic therapy in early esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinelli, Pasquale; Dal Fante, Marco; Mancini, Andrea; Massetti, Renato; Meroni, Emmanuele

    1995-03-01

    From 1/1985 to 7/1993, 18 patients underwent endoscopic photodynamic therapy (PDT) for early stage esophageal squamous cell carcinoma -- as two patients had two synchronous esophageal cancers, 20 lesions were treated. Tumors were staged as Tis in 7 cases and T1 in 13. The average light energy delivered was 50 J/cm2 and 70 J/cm2 for the treatment of Tis and T1, respectively. To obtain a more uniform distribution of laser light in 12 cases the irradiation was performed through the wall of a transparent tube previously placed over the endoscope and advanced into the stomach. The overall results show a complete response in 14/20 (70%) tumors. Three patients developed a local recurrence, 6, 12, and 14 months after therapy. After a follow-up of 5 to 75 months, there was no evidence of disease in 10/18 patients (56%). The actuarial survival rate was 95%, 79%, and 26% at 1, 3, and 5 years, respectively. Complications were skin reaction in one patient and esophageal stenosis at the treatment site, that gradually responded to endoscopic bougienage, in 2 patients. Endoscopic PDT proved to be safe and effective in the treatment of superficial carcinoma of the esophagus.

  7. Esophageal trichomoniasis in chickens.

    PubMed

    Willoughby, D H; Bickford, A A; Charlton, B R; Cooper, G L

    1995-01-01

    Esophageal trichomoniasis has been rarely reported in chickens. At the California Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory System-Turlock Branch, this disease was recently diagnosed in two cases submitted from backyard chicken flocks. The esophageal lesions observed were similar to those seen in several other important diseases of chickens. The causative trichomonad organisms were readily demonstrated on wet smears and by histologic studies. In both cases, the investigated flocks were afflicted with several concurrent diseases. California has experienced an increase in the number of small nontraditional chicken production operations. These facilities are sometimes in close proximity to commercial poultry operations and biosecurity barriers occasionally fail. The poor husbandry practices often used in these small flocks make them a potential reservoir for rare diseases such as trichomoniasis and also for disease organisms that are devastating to commercial poultry. PMID:8719231

  8. Hypnotherapy for Esophageal Disorders.

    PubMed

    Riehl, Megan E; Keefer, Laurie

    2015-07-01

    Hypnotherapy is an evidence based intervention for the treatment of functional bowel disorders, particularly irritable bowel syndrome. While similar in pathophysiology, less is known about the utility of hypnotherapy in the upper gastrointestinal tract. Esophageal disorders, most of which are functional in nature, cause painful and uncomfortable symptoms that impact patient quality of life and are difficult to treat from a medical perspective. After a thorough medical workup and a failed trial of proton pump inhibitor therapy, options for treatment are significantly limited. While the pathophysiology is likely multifactorial, two critical factors are believed to drive esophageal symptoms--visceral hypersensitivity and symptom hypervigilance. The goal of esophageal directed hypnotherapy is to promote a deep state of relaxation with focused attention allowing the patient to learn to modulate physiological sensations and symptoms that are not easily addressed with conventional medical intervention. Currently, the use of hypnosis is suitable for dysphagia, globus, functional chest pain/non-cardiac chest pain, dyspepsia, and functional heartburn. In this article the authors will provide a rationale for the use of hypnosis in these disorders, presenting the science whenever available, describing their approach with these patients, and sharing a case study representing a successful outcome. PMID:26046715

  9. Dysphagia among adult patients who underwent surgery for esophageal atresia at birth

    PubMed Central

    Huynh-Trudeau, Valérie; Maynard, Stéphanie; Terzic, Tatjana; Soucy, Geneviève; Bouin, Mickael

    2015-01-01

    %, diverticula in 14% and stenosis in 7% of patients. There was more than one anomaly in 14% of patients. CONCLUSION: Dysphagia was a highly prevalent symptom in adults who underwent surgery for esophageal atresia. The present study is the first to demonstrate that motor and anatomical abnormalities may be implicated in causes of dysphagia in this population. Furthermore, these anomalies may be demonstrated with simple investigations such as endoscopy, manometry and barium swallow. PMID:25803019

  10. [Eosinophilic esophagitis: an "emerging disease"].

    PubMed

    Collardeau-Frachon, Sophie; Hervieu, Valérie; Scoazec, Jean-Yves

    2007-12-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis is a recently identified disease. The histological examination of esophageal biopsies is essential for its diagnosis, which is made with steadily increasing frequency. Eosinophilic esophagitis is an anatomoclinical entity, involving both children and adults, characterized by a dense and isolated infiltration of the esophageal mucosa by eosinophils, revealed by clinical symptoms of upper digestive tract origin and resistant to anti-acid treatment with IPP at high doses. Eosinophilic esophagitis is currently interpreted as an allergic disease, even though its pathogenesis remains unclear. The disease has a chronic course with persistent or relapsing symptoms, present with symptoms similar to those of gastro-esophageal reflux or with dysphagia. Endoscopic examination shows the presence of characteristic, but not pathognomonic, lesions (stenoses, strictures, circular rings, reduction of calibre, white specks, granularity of the mucosa). The histological diagnosis requires multiple biopsies taken all along the esophagus. The main sign is the presence of a dense eosinophilic infiltrate of the mucosa: a peak density of more than 15 eosinophils in at least one x400 field is the minimal criteria required for diagnosis. Associated lesions correspond to tissue damage and repair secondary to eosinophil activation (basal hyperplasia, microabscesses, fibrosis of the lamina propria). The treatment is based on dietary measures (allergen exclusion) and on the use of anti-inflammatory drugs, mainly corticoids. In conclusion, eosinophilic esophagitis is an emerging disease, important to identify, since it requires a specific treatment, different from that of reflux esophagitis. PMID:18554551

  11. Esophageal Manifestations of Multisystem Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Mapp, Esmond

    1980-01-01

    The esophagus may be involved directly or indirectly by numerous disease conditions. On occasion, the esophageal process may be the key to the diagnosis. In some situations, the esophageal manifestation of a disease may be more immediately life-threatening than the primary process. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6 PMID:7310903

  12. [Endoscopic Therapy for Esophageal Cancer].

    PubMed

    Sakai, Makoto; Kuwano, Hiroyuki

    2016-07-01

    Endoscopic treatment for esophageal neoplasms includes endoscopic resection, argon plasma coagulation(APC), photodynamic therapy( PDT) and stent placement. Endoscopic resection is widely used as an effective, less invasive treatment for superficial esophageal carcinoma in Japan. APC is considered to be safe and effective treatment for superficial esophageal carcinoma which cannot be resected endoscopically because of severe comorbidities, as well as for local recurrence after endoscopic resection or chemoradiotherapy. PDT is thought to be an effective option as salvage treatment for local failure after chemoradiotherapy. Stent placement mainly using self-expanding metallic stents have been used as a minimally invasive and effective modality for the palliative treatment of malignant esophageal obstruction. Endoscopic treatment is expected to have more important role in the treatment of esophageal neoplasms in the future. PMID:27440040

  13. Eosinophilic Esophagitis: Biology to Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Rothenberg, Marc E.

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis, a recently recognized and growing clinical disorder over the past decade, is characterized by antigen-driven eosinophil accumulation in the esophagus. Symptoms frequently mimic those of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) but the two diseases are quite distinct in terms of their histopathology, genetic signature, response to therapy, hereditary risk and association with allergy. Disease pathogenesis involves the interplay of external and genetic factors, particularly food antigens and the eosinophil chemoattractant eotaxin-3, respectively. Transcript signatures and animal models have uncovered the importance of adaptive T cell immunity involving IL-5 and IL-13 elicited esophageal epithelial cell responses. Notably, symptoms, dysregulated esophageal gene expression and pathology are largely reversible following reduction of specific food antigen exposure, as well as anti-inflammatory therapy, but chronic treatment is necessary to prevent relapse. As such, eosinophilic esophagitis is a disease with the unique features of chronic esophagitis, atopy, immune sensitization to oral antigens, reversibility and familial association. PMID:19596009

  14. Mitral Stenosis Presenting as Asthma.

    PubMed

    Li, Shenjing; Jbeli, Aiham; Stys, Maria; Stys, Adam

    2016-02-01

    Although wheezing is one of the most common symptoms and physical findings in asthma, other causes of wheezing should be kept in mind: vocal cord dysfunction, postnasal drip syndrome, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, bronchiectasis, and non-pulmonary diseases, like heart failure and pulmonary edema. Here, we present a case of severe mitral stenosis with pulmonary edema treated for resistant asthma. If asthma is difficult to control, other etiologies of wheezing, including cardiac disease, should be taken into consideration during diagnosis. PMID:26999914

  15. Management of lumbar spinal stenosis.

    PubMed

    Lurie, Jon; Tomkins-Lane, Christy

    2016-01-01

    Lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) affects more than 200,000 adults in the United States, resulting in substantial pain and disability. It is the most common reason for spinal surgery in patients over 65 years. Lumbar spinal stenosis is a clinical syndrome of pain in the buttocks or lower extremities, with or without back pain. It is associated with reduced space available for the neural and vascular elements of the lumbar spine. The condition is often exacerbated by standing, walking, or lumbar extension and relieved by forward flexion, sitting, or recumbency. Clinical care and research into lumbar spinal stenosis is complicated by the heterogeneity of the condition, the lack of standard criteria for diagnosis and inclusion in studies, and high rates of anatomic stenosis on imaging studies in older people who are completely asymptomatic. The options for non-surgical management include drugs, physiotherapy, spinal injections, lifestyle modification, and multidisciplinary rehabilitation. However, few high quality randomized trials have looked at conservative management. A systematic review concluded that there is insufficient evidence to recommend any specific type of non-surgical treatment. Several different surgical procedures are used to treat patients who do not improve with non-operative therapies. Given that rapid deterioration is rare and that symptoms often wax and wane or gradually improve, surgery is almost always elective and considered only if sufficiently bothersome symptoms persist despite trials of less invasive interventions. Outcomes (leg pain and disability) seem to be better for surgery than for non-operative treatment, but the evidence is heterogeneous and often of limited quality. PMID:26727925

  16. Successful esophageal bypass surgery in a patient with a large tracheoesophageal fistula following endotracheal stenting and chemoradiotherapy for advanced esophageal cancer: case report.

    PubMed

    Miyata, Tatsunori; Watanabe, Masayuki; Nagai, Yohei; Iwatsuki, Masaaki; Iwagami, Shiro; Baba, Yoshifumi; Furushou, Chiyo; Ikuta, Yoshihiro; Yamamoto, Tatsuro; Baba, Hideo

    2013-03-01

    A 63-year-old man with esophageal achalasia for more than 20 years complained of respiratory distress. He was admitted as an emergency to the referral hospital three months previously. Computed tomography revealed tracheobronchial stenosis due to advanced esophageal cancer with tracheal invasion. He underwent tracheobronchial stenting and chemoradiotherapy. A large tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF) developed after irradiation (18 Gy) and chemotherapy, and he was unable to eat. Thereafter, he was referred to our hospital, where we performed esophageal bypass surgery using a gastric conduit. A percutaneous cardiopulmonary support system was prepared due to the risk of airway obstruction during anesthesia. A small-diameter tracheal tube inserted into the stent achieved ordinary respiratory management. No anesthesia-related problems were encountered. Oral intake commenced on postoperative day 9. He was discharged on postoperative day 23 and was able to take in sustenance orally right up to the last moment of his life. Esophageal bypass under general anesthesia can be performed in patients with large TEF with sufficient preparation for anesthetic management. PMID:23482402

  17. Challenges in the Management of Laryngeal Stenosis.

    PubMed

    Nair, Satish; Nilakantan, Ajith; Sood, Amit; Gupta, Atul; Gupta, Abhishek

    2016-09-01

    Laryngeal stenosis is one of the most complex and challenging problems in the field of head and neck surgery. The management involves a multidisciplinary approach with multiple complex procedures. In this study we discuss our experience of laryngeal stenosis with regards to patient characteristics, cause and management. A retrospective analysis of 35 patients of laryngeal stenosis treated at a tertiary care centre was evaluated. Inclusion criteria were all patients with laryngeal stenosis who required surgical intervention. Exclusion criteria were patients with associated tracheal stenosis and laryngeal stenosis due to cancer. Demographic data was recorded and findings relating to aetiology, characteristics of stenosis and the various aspects of therapeutic procedures performed are discussed with review of literature. Among 35 patients, 24 were males and 11 females of the age group 2-79 years. 2 (5.7 %) patients had supraglottic stenosis, 11 (31.4 %) had glottis stenosis, 16 (45.7 %) had subglottic stenosis and 6 (17.1 %) had combined multiple sites stenosis. Each patient underwent an average of 3.22 surgical procedures like microlaryngoscopy and excision with cold instrument, CO2 laser excision or open procedures like laryngofissure and excision and laryngoplasty. Montgomery t tube insertion was a common procedure in 17 patients (48.6 %). Of the total 35 patients with severe LS, 27 (77.1 %) patients were successfully decanulated. The results of glottic (100 %) and supraglottic stenosis (100 %) are excellent as compared to subglottic (68.8 %) and combined stenosis (50 %) of multiple sites. Laryngeal stenosis with airway compromise causes significant morbidity to the patients and is a difficult condition to treat in both adult and pediatric population. The need for multiple surgical procedures is common in the treatment of laryngeal stenosis with the t-tube being an important aid in the management of this condition. Trauma especially post intubation

  18. Esophageal impacted dentures.

    PubMed Central

    Nwaorgu, Onyekwere G.; Onakoya, Paul A.; Sogebi, Olusola A.; Kokong, Daniel D.; Dosumu, Oluwole O.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study aims to highlight the problems associated with impacted acrylic dentures and proffers advice to check them. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Retrospective review of all cases of impacted acrylic dentures over a 16-year period. RESULTS: Twenty-two adults had impacted esophageal acrylic dentures of which 16 (72.7%) and six (27.3%) were males and females, respectively (M:F ratio = 2.7:1) with age range 23-77 years. Fourteen patients (63.6%) had worn their dentures for more than 10 years without check-up, and 54.5% presented within 48 hours of impaction. The common symptoms in all the patients were difficulty with swallowing, throat pain and discomfort, followed by tenderness in the neck in 15 (68.2%). Dentures were extracted through esophagoscopy (17 cases) and cervical (three cases) esophagotomy, respectively. Observed complications included pulmonary edema in one and esophageal perforation in five patients. CONCLUSION: Endoscopic extraction of dentures carries a high risk of perforation. Extraction of an impacted denture via esophagoscopy can be undertaken under direct vision and in an ideal situation with judicious use of the Shears forceps. In the absence of these, the safest option is an esophagotomy. Proper treatment planning in the fabrication of dentures with incorporation of radiopaque materials in the dental resins and adequate postdenture delivery instructions are necessary as preventive measures. PMID:15540888

  19. Esophageal Lipoma: A Rare Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, Jeremy; Tejerina, Manfred; Hallowell, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Esophageal lipomas are rare tumors, making up 0.4% of all digestive tract benign neoplasms. Most of these lesions are clinically silent as a result of their small size, however, the majority of lesions over 4 cm have been reported to cause dysphagia, regurgitation and/or epigastralgia. We report a case of a 53 year-old African American female who presented with dysphagia. Computed tomography of the chest and esophagram confirmed esophageal lipoma as the cause of the patient’s symptoms. Accurately diagnosing an esophageal lipoma is crucial in order to rule out potential malignant lesions, relieve patient symptoms and plan the appropriate treatment. PMID:23365708

  20. Treatment of advanced esophageal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Kelsen, D.

    1982-12-01

    When radiation therapy is used for palliation of obstruction in patients with advanced esophageal carcinoma, an improvement in dysphagia can be expected in approximately 50% of patients. Major objective responses have rarely been quantitied but, in one study, were seen in 33% patients. Recurrence of dysphagia is usually seen within 2-6 months of treatment. Radiation toxicities and complications, even when used with palliative intent, can be substantial and include esophagitis, tracheoesophageal or esophageal-aortic fistula, mediastinitis, hemorrhage, pneumonitis, and myelosuppression. (JMT)

  1. Nuclear medicine and esophageal surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Taillefer, R.; Beauchamp, G.; Duranceau, A.C.; Lafontaine, E.

    1986-06-01

    The principal radionuclide procedures involved in the evaluation of esophageal disorders that are amenable to surgery are illustrated and briefly described. The role of the radionuclide esophagogram (RE) in the diagnosis and management of achalasia, oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy and its complications, tracheoesophageal fistulae, pharyngeal and esophageal diverticulae, gastric transposition, and fundoplication is discussed. Detection of columnar-lined esophagus by Tc-99m pertechnetate imaging and of esophageal carcinoma by Ga-67 citrate and Tc-99m glucoheptonate studies also is presented. 37 references.

  2. Environmental Causes of Esophageal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kamangar, Farin; Chow, Wong-Ho; Abnet, Christian; Dawsey, Sanford

    2009-01-01

    Synopsis This articles reviews the environmental risk factors and predisposing conditions for the two main histological types of esophageal cancer, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA). Tobacco smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, drinking maté, low intake of fresh fruits and vegetables, achalasia, and low socioeconomic status increase the risk of ESCC. Results of investigations on several other potential risk factors, including opium consumption, intake of hot drinks, eating pickled vegetables, poor oral health, and exposure to human papillomavirus, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, N-nitroso compounds, acetaldehyde, and fumonisins are also discussed. Gastroesophageal reflux, obesity, tobacco smoking, hiatal hernia, achalasia, and probably absence of H. pylori in the stomach increase the risk of EA. Results of studies investigating other factors, including low intake of fresh fruits and vegetables, consumption of carbonated soft drink, use of H2 blockers, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and drugs that relax the lower esophageal sphincter are also discussed. PMID:19327566

  3. Drugs Approved for Esophageal Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for esophageal cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  4. Understanding the sensory irregularities of esophageal disease.

    PubMed

    Farmer, Adam D; Brock, Christina; Frøkjaer, Jens Brøndum; Gregersen, Hans; Khan, Sheeba; Lelic, Dina; Lottrup, Christian; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr

    2016-08-01

    Symptoms relating to esophageal sensory abnormalities can be encountered in the clinical environment. Such sensory abnormalities may be present in demonstrable disease, such as erosive esophagitis, and in the ostensibly normal esophagus, such as non-erosive reflux disease or functional chest pain. In this review, the authors discuss esophageal sensation and the esophageal pain system. In addition, the authors provide a primer concerning the techniques that are available for investigating the autonomic nervous system, neuroimaging and neurophysiology of esophageal sensory function. Such technological advances, whilst not readily available in the clinic may facilitate the stratification and individualization of therapy in disorders of esophageal sensation in the future. PMID:26890720

  5. Uses of esophageal function testing: dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Yazaki, Etsuro; Woodland, Philip; Sifrim, Daniel

    2014-10-01

    Esophageal function testing should be used for differential diagnosis of dysphagia. Dysphagia can be the consequence of hypermotility or hypomotility of the muscles of the esophagus. Decreased esophageal or esophagogastric junction distensibility can provoke dysphagia. The most well established esophageal dysmotility is achalasia. Other motility disorders can also cause dysphagia. High-resolution manometry (HRM) is the gold standard investigation for esophageal motility disorders. Simultaneous measurement of HRM and intraluminal impedance can be useful to assess motility and bolus transit. Impedance planimetry measures distensibility of the esophageal body and gastroesophageal junction in patients with achalasia and eosinophilic esophagitis. PMID:25216909

  6. Eosinophilic Esophagitis and Gastroenteritis.

    PubMed

    Cianferoni, Antonella; Spergel, Jonathan M

    2015-09-01

    Eosinophilic gastrointestinal disease (EGID) can be classified as eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) when the eosinophilia is limited to the esophagus or as eosinophilic gastritis (EG) if it is limited to the gastric tract, eosinophilic colitis (EC) if it is limited to the colon, and eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EGE) if the eosinophilia involves one or more parts of the gastrointestinal tract. EoE is by far the most common EGID. It is a well-defined chronic atopic disease due to a T helper type 2 (Th2) inflammation triggered often by food allergens. EoE diagnosis is done if an esophageal biopsy shows at least 15 eosinophils per high power field (eos/hpf). Globally accepted long-term therapies for EoE are the use of swallowed inhaled steroids or food antigen avoidance. The treatment of EoE is done not only to control symptoms but also to prevent complications such as esophageal stricture and food impaction. EGE cause non-specific gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms and are diagnosed if esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD)/colonoscopy show eosinophilia in one or more parts of the GI tract. They are rare diseases with an unclear pathogenesis, and they are poorly defined in terms of diagnostic criteria and treatment. Before initiating treatment of any EGE, it is imperative to conduct a differential diagnosis to exclude other causes of hypereosinophilia with GI localization. EGE are often poorly responsive to therapy and there is no commonly accepted long-term treatment. EG has many characteristics similar to EoE, including the fact that it is often due to a food allergen-driven Th2 inflammation; transcriptome analysis however shows that it is more a systemic disease and has a different gene signature than EoE. EC is a benign form of delayed food allergy in infant and is instead a difficult-to-treat severe inflammatory condition in older children and adults. EC in the latter groups can be a manifestation of drug allergy or autoimmune disease. Overall EGE, EC, and EG are rare and

  7. Esophageal malignancy: A growing concern

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Jianyuan; Jamal, M Mazen

    2012-01-01

    Esophageal cancer is mainly found in Asia and east Africa and is one of the deadliest cancers in the world. However, it has not garnered much attention in the Western world due to its low incidence rate. An increasing amount of data indicate that esophageal cancer, particularly esophageal adenocarcinoma, has been rising by 6-fold annually and is now becoming the fastest growing cancer in the United States. This rise has been associated with the increase of the obese population, as abdominal fat puts extra pressure on the stomach and causes gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Long standing GERD can induce esophagitis and metaplasia and, ultimately, leads to adenocarcinoma. Acid suppression has been the main strategy to treat GERD; however, it has not been proven to control esophageal malignancy effectively. In fact, its side effects have triggered multiple warnings from regulatory agencies. The high mortality and fast growth of esophageal cancer demand more vigorous efforts to look into its deeper mechanisms and come up with better therapeutic options. PMID:23236223

  8. Iatrogenic tracheal stenosis presenting as persistent asthma.

    PubMed

    Barreiro, Timothy J; Ghattas, Christian; Valino, Cherry Ann

    2013-09-01

    Although the incidence of post-intubation tracheal stenosis has markedly decreased with the advent of large volume, low pressure endotracheal tube cuffs, it still occurs, commonly in patients after prolonged intubation. We report a case of tracheal stenosis that developed after a brief period of endotracheal intubation, and that was misdiagnosed and treated as asthma and panic attacks. PMID:23345469

  9. Cardiovascular syphilis with coronary stenosis and aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Tewari, Satyendra; Moorthy, Nagaraja

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular manifestations of tertiary syphilis include aortitis, aortic root dilation, aneurysm formation, aortic regurgitation, and coronary ostial stenosis. Coronary ostial lesions have been detected in as many as 26% of patients with syphilitic aortitis. However nonostial coronary stenosis and coronary aneurysms in same patient is rarely described in cardiovascular syphilis. PMID:25634420

  10. Syphilitic aortitis causing bilateral coronary ostial stenosis.

    PubMed

    Hosoba, Soh; Suzuki, Tomoaki; Koizumi, Yusuke; Asai, Tohru

    2011-02-01

    Coronary ostial stenosis in otherwise normal coronary vessels is a rare complication of syphilitic aortitis. A 47-year-old man with no coronary risk factors developed severe isolated ostial stenosis in the left main coronary artery and right coronary artery. He underwent coronary artery bypass grafting using the bilateral internal thoracic arteries and gastroepiploic artery and recovered uneventfully. PMID:21345777

  11. Misdiagnosis of an α-fetoprotein-producing esophageal carcinoma: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    SUN, NINGBO; YIN, XUNLU; ZHONG, YUREN; ZHANG, XIAOTIAN; XIE, YAN; MENG, XIANGFANG; ZANG, QI

    2016-01-01

    α-fetoprotein (AFP)-producing esophageal carcinoma is a rare type of esophageal cancer, with its characteristics not yet fully clarified. In the present study, a case of esophageal carcinoma was misdiagnosed as an AFP-producing esophageal carcinoma. The patient was a 50-year-old woman who was referred to Qianfoshan Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University in November 2014 with a 3-month history of progressive dysphagia. A chest computed tomography (CT) scan showed thickening of the wall of the esophagus, corresponding regions of luminal stenosis and massive lymph node swelling around the lesser curvature of the esophagus. A laboratory investigation showed that the serum AFP levels of the patient were elevated to 18.97 ng/ml (normal range <12 ng/ml). These laboratory investigation findings combined with the aforementioned pathological diagnosis supported a diagnosis of AFP-producing esophageal carcinoma. An abdominal ultrasound was performed and a cystic low-density measuring 5×4 mm was identified. No metastases were revealed in the liver. The boundary of the focal low density was clear, which indicated a clinical diagnosis of liver cyst. A radical esophagectomy was performed on December 5, 2014. Microscopically, the tumor was a moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma invading the serous layer, with no hepatoid features. Immunohistochemistry showed that the cells were diffusely negative for AFP expression. Histopathological examination revealed the absence of hepatoid features. According to these findings, the tumor was diagnosed as a moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. In the present study, the case of a patient with squamous cell carcinoma that was misdiagnosed as an α-fetoprotein-producing esophageal carcinoma was reported, with a review of the literature. PMID:27347186

  12. Can clinicians accurately assess esophageal dilation without fluoroscopy?

    PubMed

    Bailey, A D; Goldner, F

    1990-01-01

    This study questioned whether clinicians could determine the success of esophageal dilation accurately without the aid of fluoroscopy. Twenty patients were enrolled with the diagnosis of distal esophageal stenosis, including benign peptic stricture (17), Schatski's ring (2), and squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus (1). Dilation attempts using only Maloney dilators were monitored fluoroscopically by the principle investigator, the physician and patient being unaware of the findings. Physicians then predicted whether or not their dilations were successful, and they examined various features to determine their usefulness in predicting successful dilation. They were able to predict successful dilation accurately in 97% of the cases studied; however, their predictions of unsuccessful dilation were correct only 60% of the time. Features helpful in predicting passage included easy passage of the dilator (98%) and the patient feeling the dilator in the stomach (95%). Excessive resistance suggesting unsuccessful passage was an unreliable feature and was often due to the dilator curling in the stomach. When Maloney dilators are used to dilate simple distal strictures, if the physician predicts successful passage, he is reliably accurate without the use of fluoroscopy; however, if unsuccessful passage is suspected, fluoroscopy must be used for confirmation. PMID:2210278

  13. Covered Biodegradable Stent: New Therapeutic Option for the Management of Esophageal Perforation or Anastomotic Leak

    SciTech Connect

    Cerna, Marie; Koecher, Martin Valek, Vlastimil; Aujesky, Rene; Neoral, Cestmir; Andrasina, Tomas; Panek, Jiri; Mahathmakanthi, Shankari

    2011-12-15

    Purpose: This study was designed to evaluate our experience with the treatment of postoperative anastomotic leaks and benign esophageal perforations with covered biodegradable stents. Materials and Methods: From 2008 to 2010, we treated five men with either an anastomotic leak or benign esophageal perforation by implanting of covered biodegradable Ella-BD stents. The average age of the patients was 60 (range, 38-74) years. Postoperative anastomotic leaks were treated in four patients (1 after esophagectomy, 1 after resection of diverticulum, 2 after gastrectomy). In one patient, perforation occurred as a complication of the treatment of an esophageal rupture (which occurred during a balloon dilatation of benign stenosis) with a metallic stent. Results: Seven covered biodegradable stents were implanted in five patients. Primary technical success was 100%. Clinical success (leak sealing) was achieved in four of the five patients (80%). Stent migration occurred in three patients. In two of these patients, the leak had been sealed by the time of stent migration, therefore no reintervention was necessary. In one patient an additional stent had to be implanted. Conclusion: The use of biodegradable covered stents for the treatment of anastomotic leaks or esophageal perforations is technically feasible and safe. The initial results are promising; however, larger number of patients will be required to evaluate the capability of these biodegradable stents in the future. The use of biodegradable material for coverage of the stent is essential.

  14. Eosinophilic Esophagitis in Pediatric and Adolescent Patients

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Adolescent Patients Eosinophilic Esophagitis in Pediatric and Adolescent Patients Basics Overview Eosinophilic esophagitis also known as ( ... children may have vomiting and abdominal pain, and adolescents may complain of the feeling of food getting ...

  15. 21 CFR 876.5365 - Esophageal dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... and weighted with mercury or a metal olive-shaped weight that slides on a guide, such as a string or... esophageal or gastrointestinal bougies and the esophageal dilator (metal olive). (b) Classification. Class...

  16. 21 CFR 876.5365 - Esophageal dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... and weighted with mercury or a metal olive-shaped weight that slides on a guide, such as a string or... esophageal or gastrointestinal bougies and the esophageal dilator (metal olive). (b) Classification. Class...

  17. 21 CFR 876.5365 - Esophageal dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... and weighted with mercury or a metal olive-shaped weight that slides on a guide, such as a string or... esophageal or gastrointestinal bougies and the esophageal dilator (metal olive). (b) Classification. Class...

  18. 21 CFR 876.5365 - Esophageal dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... and weighted with mercury or a metal olive-shaped weight that slides on a guide, such as a string or... esophageal or gastrointestinal bougies and the esophageal dilator (metal olive). (b) Classification. Class...

  19. Endoscopic incisional therapy for benign esophageal strictures: Technique and results

    PubMed Central

    Samanta, Jayanta; Dhaka, Narendra; Sinha, Saroj Kant; Kochhar, Rakesh

    2015-01-01

    Benign esophageal strictures refractory to the conventional balloon or bougie dilatation may be subjected to various adjunctive modes of therapy, one of them being endoscopic incisional therapy (EIT). A proper delineation of the stricture anatomy is a prerequisite. A host of electrocautery and mechanical devices may be used, the most common being the use of needle knife, either standard or insulated tip. The technique entails radial incision and cutting off of the stenotic rim. Adjunctive therapies, to prevent re-stenosis, such as balloon dilatation, oral or intralesional steroids or argon plasma coagulation can be used. The common strictures where EIT has been successfully used are Schatzki’s rings (SR) and anastomotic strictures (AS). Short segment strictures (< 1 cm) have been found to have the best outcome. When compared with routine balloon dilatation, EIT has equivalent results in treatment naïve cases but better long term outcome in refractory cases. Anecdotal reports of its use in other types of strictures have been noted. Post procedure complications of EIT are mild and comparable to dilatation therapy. As of the current evidence, incisional therapy can be used for management of refractory AS and SR with relatively short stenosis (< 1 cm) with good safety profile and acceptable long term patency. PMID:26722613

  20. Endoscopic incisional therapy for benign esophageal strictures: Technique and results.

    PubMed

    Samanta, Jayanta; Dhaka, Narendra; Sinha, Saroj Kant; Kochhar, Rakesh

    2015-12-25

    Benign esophageal strictures refractory to the conventional balloon or bougie dilatation may be subjected to various adjunctive modes of therapy, one of them being endoscopic incisional therapy (EIT). A proper delineation of the stricture anatomy is a prerequisite. A host of electrocautery and mechanical devices may be used, the most common being the use of needle knife, either standard or insulated tip. The technique entails radial incision and cutting off of the stenotic rim. Adjunctive therapies, to prevent re-stenosis, such as balloon dilatation, oral or intralesional steroids or argon plasma coagulation can be used. The common strictures where EIT has been successfully used are Schatzki's rings (SR) and anastomotic strictures (AS). Short segment strictures (< 1 cm) have been found to have the best outcome. When compared with routine balloon dilatation, EIT has equivalent results in treatment naïve cases but better long term outcome in refractory cases. Anecdotal reports of its use in other types of strictures have been noted. Post procedure complications of EIT are mild and comparable to dilatation therapy. As of the current evidence, incisional therapy can be used for management of refractory AS and SR with relatively short stenosis (< 1 cm) with good safety profile and acceptable long term patency. PMID:26722613

  1. Esophageal perforation during or after conformal radiotherapy for esophageal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hai-yan; Ma, Xiu-mei; Ye, Ming; Hou, Yan-li; Xie, Hua-Ying; Bai, Yong-rui

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the risk factors and prognosis for patients with esophageal perforation occurring during or after radiotherapy for esophageal carcinoma. We retrospectively analyzed 322 patients with esophageal carcinoma. These patients received radiotherapy for unresectable esophageal tumors, residual tumors after operation, or local recurrence. Of these, 12 had radiotherapy to the esophagus before being admitted, 68 patients had concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CRT), and 18 patients had esophageal perforation after RT (5.8%). Covered self-expandable metallic stents were placed in 11 patients. Two patients continued RT after stenting and control of infection; one of these suffered a new perforation, and the other had a massive hemorrhage. The median overall survival was 2 months (0–3 months) compared with 17 months in the non-perforation group. In univariate analysis, the Karnofsky performance status (KPS) being ≤70, age younger than 60, T4 stage, a second course of radiotherapy to the esophagus, extracapsular lymph nodes (LN) involving the esophagus, a total dose >100 Gy (biologically effective dose−10), and CRT were risk factors for perforation. In multivariate analysis, age younger than 60, extracapsular LN involving the esophagus, T4 stage, and a second course of radiotherapy to the esophagus were risk factors. In conclusion, patients with T4 stage, extracapsular LN involving the esophagus, and those receiving a second course of RT should be given particular care to avoid perforation. The prognosis after perforation was poor. PMID:24914102

  2. Gallium-67 imaging in candidal esophagitis

    SciTech Connect

    Rundback, J.H.; Goldfarb, C.R.; Ongseng, F. )

    1990-01-01

    Ga-67 scanning has been used to evaluate esophageal carcinoma. It has demonstrated candidal infection in other body sites and, in one previous case, in the esophagus. The authors present a case of diffuse esophageal uptake of Ga-67 in esophageal candidiasis.

  3. Surgical management of subaortic stenosis.

    PubMed

    Edwards, H; Mulder, D G

    1983-01-01

    The two most common causes for left ventricular outflow tract obstruction are discrete fibromuscular membrane (DMS) and idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis (IHSS). From 1955 to 1980, 195 patients were seen with subaortic obstruction, 50 of whom required operation. Thirty patients had excision of a subaortic membrane; 20 had resection of the hypertrophic muscular obstruction. The average preoperative gradient across the left ventricular outflow tract was 79 mm Hg. Postoperatively 40 patients were catheterized; two had gradients over 40 mm Hg, and both were in the DMS group. There were four operative and six late deaths (mean follow-up, 8.5 years), five occurring in the IHSS group (25%) and one in the DMS group (3.5%). Recurrent symptoms required reoperation in three patients with IHSS and one with DMS. Both groups benefitted from operation, but those with DMS had a better overall survival rate and fewer postoperative symptoms than those with IHSS. PMID:6681528

  4. Outcomes of esophageal surgery, especially of the lower esophageal sphincter.

    PubMed

    Bonavina, Luigi; Siboni, Stefano; Saino, Greta I; Cavadas, Demetrio; Braghetto, Italo; Csendes, Attila; Korn, Owen; Figueredo, Edgar J; Swanstrom, Lee L; Wassenaar, Eelco

    2013-10-01

    This paper includes commentaries on outcomes of esophageal surgery, including the mechanisms by which fundoduplication improves lower esophageal sphincter (LES) pressure; the efficacy of the Linx™ management system in improving LES function; the utility of radiologic characterization of antireflux valves following surgery; the correlation between endoscopic findings and reported symptoms following antireflux surgery; the links between laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy and decreased LES pressure, endoscopic esophagitis, and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD); the less favorable outcomes following fundoduplication among obese patients; the application of bioprosthetic meshes to reinforce hiatal repair and decrease the incidence of paraesophageal hernia; the efficacy of endoluminal antireflux procedures, and the limited efficacy of revisional antireflux operations, underscoring the importance of good primary surgery and diligent work-up to prevent the necessity of revisional procedures. PMID:24117632

  5. Esophageal fistula associated with intracavitary irradiation for esophageal carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Hishikawa, Y.; Tanaka, S.; Miura, T.

    1986-05-01

    Fifty-three patients with esophageal carcinoma were treated with high-dose-rate intracavitary irradiation following external irradiation. Ten patients developed esophageal fistula. Perforations were found in the bronchus (four), major vessels (four), pericardium (one), and mediastinum (one). The frequency of fistula occurrence in these patients was not remarkably different from that in 30 other patients treated only with greater than or equal to 50 Gy external irradiation. From the time of the development of esophageal fistula, intracavitary irradiation did not seem to accelerate the development of fistula. The fistulas in our ten patients proved to be associated with tumor, deep ulcer (created before intracavitary irradiation), chemotherapy, infection, and trauma rather than the direct effect of intracavitary irradiation.

  6. The pathophysiology of eosinophilic esophagitis.

    PubMed

    Raheem, Mayumi; Leach, Steven T; Day, Andrew S; Lemberg, Daniel A

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an emerging disease characterized by esophageal eosinophilia (>15eos/hpf), lack of responsiveness to acid-suppressive medication and is managed by allergen elimination and anti-allergy therapy. Although the pathophysiology of EoE is currently unsubstantiated, evidence implicates food and aeroallergen hypersensitivity in genetically predisposed individuals as contributory factors. Genome-wide expression analyses have isolated a remarkably conserved gene-expression profile irrespective of age and gender, suggesting a genetic contribution. EoE has characteristics of mainly TH2 type immune responses but also some TH1 cytokines, which appear to strongly contribute to tissue fibrosis, with esophageal epithelial cells providing a hospitable environment for this inflammatory process. Eosinophil-degranulation products appear to play a central role in tissue remodeling in EoE. This remodeling and dysregulation predisposes to fibrosis. Mast-cell-derived molecules such as histamine may have an effect on enteric nerves and may also act in concert with transforming growth factor-β to interfere with esophageal musculature. Additionally, the esophageal epithelium may facilitate the inflammatory process under pathogenic contexts such as in EoE. This article aims to discuss the contributory factors in the pathophysiology of EoE. PMID:24910846

  7. The Pathophysiology of Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Raheem, Mayumi; Leach, Steven T.; Day, Andrew S.; Lemberg, Daniel A.

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an emerging disease characterized by esophageal eosinophilia (>15eos/hpf), lack of responsiveness to acid-suppressive medication and is managed by allergen elimination and anti-allergy therapy. Although the pathophysiology of EoE is currently unsubstantiated, evidence implicates food and aeroallergen hypersensitivity in genetically predisposed individuals as contributory factors. Genome-wide expression analyses have isolated a remarkably conserved gene-expression profile irrespective of age and gender, suggesting a genetic contribution. EoE has characteristics of mainly TH2 type immune responses but also some TH1 cytokines, which appear to strongly contribute to tissue fibrosis, with esophageal epithelial cells providing a hospitable environment for this inflammatory process. Eosinophil-degranulation products appear to play a central role in tissue remodeling in EoE. This remodeling and dysregulation predisposes to fibrosis. Mast-cell-derived molecules such as histamine may have an effect on enteric nerves and may also act in concert with transforming growth factor-β to interfere with esophageal musculature. Additionally, the esophageal epithelium may facilitate the inflammatory process under pathogenic contexts such as in EoE. This article aims to discuss the contributory factors in the pathophysiology of EoE. PMID:24910846

  8. Spontaneous intramural esophageal dissection: an unusual onset of eosinophilic esophagitis.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez-Sanz, Gemma; Rodríguez Alonso, Lorena; Romero Martínez, Natalia M

    2016-03-01

    A 35-year-old man, with a history of rhinitis, eczema and a dubious achalasia was admitted due to chest pain and sialorrhea. Upper endoscopy showed a little hole and a narrowing of the distal esophagus. A CT-scan with oral contrast exposed a discontinuity of the lumen of the middle third of the esophagus and a dissection of submucosal space 16 cm long. The patient recovered after parenteral nutrition. After four months, an esophageal endoscopic showed transient whitish exudates, longitudinal furrows and esophageal lacerations. The biopsies illustrated significant eosinophilic inflammation, eosinophilic microabscesses and basal cell hyperplasia. PMID:26949147

  9. Rheumatic aortic stenosis in young patients presenting with combined aortic and mitral stenosis.

    PubMed Central

    Vijayaraghavan, G; Cherian, G; Krishnaswami, S; SUKUMAR, I P; John, S

    1977-01-01

    This report describes 30 patients under the age of 30 years with rheumatic aortic stenosis, presenting with combined aortic and mitral stenosis. Three patients had additional tricuspid stenosis. Twenty-eight patients gave a history of rheumatic polyarthritis. The diagnosis was confirmed by right and left heart catheterisation in all. The murmur of aortic stenosis was not initially present in 8 out of 10 patients in congestive heart failure. Aortic valve calcification was not seen. Cineangiography showed a tricuspid aortic valve in all, unlike congenital aortic stenosis. A unique feature of this group was the raised pulmonary vascular resistance in 87 per cent of the patients. The present study shows that patients in India developing aortic stenosis after rheumatic fever do so early in the natural history of the disease. PMID:849390

  10. A Treatment Option for Esophageal Intramural Pseudodiverticulosis.

    PubMed

    Tyberg, Amy; Jodorkovsky, Daniela

    2014-04-01

    Esophageal intramural pseudodiverticulosis (EIPD) is a rare condition often presenting with esophageal strictures. Treatment is often limited to endoscopic dilatation and treatment of the underlying esophageal pathology. We present a case of a patient with longstanding GERD on famotidine (she experienced anaphylaxis with proton pump inhibitors [PPIs]) who presented with dysphagia and weight loss. Work-up revealed a diagnosis of EIPD with a 5-mm mid-esophageal stricture. Therapy with dilatation was unsuccessful until the addition of sucralfate, after which dilatation was successful and symptoms resolved. In patients who are unable to take PPIs, the addition of sucralfate may enhance the success of dilatations of esophageal strictures and EIPD. PMID:26157852

  11. Surgical treatments for esophageal cancers

    PubMed Central

    Allum, William H.; Bonavina, Luigi; Cassivi, Stephen D.; Cuesta, Miguel A.; Dong, Zhao Ming; Felix, Valter Nilton; Figueredo, Edgar; Gatenby, Piers A.C.; Haverkamp, Leonie; Ibraev, Maksat A.; Krasna, Mark J.; Lambert, René; Langer, Rupert; Lewis, Michael P.N.; Nason, Katie S.; Parry, Kevin; Preston, Shaun R.; Ruurda, Jelle P.; Schaheen, Lara W.; Tatum, Roger P.; Turkin, Igor N.; van der Horst, Sylvia; van der Peet, Donald L.; van der Sluis, Peter C.; van Hillegersberg, Richard; Wormald, Justin C.R.; Wu, Peter C.; Zonderhuis, Barbara M.

    2015-01-01

    The following, from the 12th OESO World Conference: Cancers of the Esophagus, includes commentaries on the role of the nurse in preparation of esophageal resection (ER); the management of patients who develop high-grade dysplasia after having undergone Nissen fundoplication; the trajectory of care for the patient with esophageal cancer; the influence of the site of tumor in the choice of treatment; the best location for esophagogastrostomy; management of chylous leak after esophagectomy; the optimal approach to manage thoracic esophageal leak after esophagectomy; the choice for operational approach in surgery of cardioesophageal crossing; the advantages of robot esophagectomy; the place of open esophagectomy; the advantages of esophagectomy compared to definitive chemoradiotherapy; the pathologist report in the resected specimen; the best way to manage patients with unsuspected positive microscopic margin after ER; enhanced recovery after surgery for ER: expedited care protocols; and long-term quality of life in patients following esophagectomy. PMID:25266029

  12. Neoadjuvant treatment of esophageal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Nicholas P; Villaflor, Victoria M

    2010-01-01

    The management of esophageal cancer has been evolving over the past 30 years. In the United States, multimodality treatment combining chemotherapy and radiotherapy (RT) prior to surgical resection has come to be accepted by many as the standard of care, although debate about its overall effect on survival still exists, and rightfully so. Despite recent improvements in detection and treatment, the overall survival of patients with esophageal cancer remains lower than most solid tumors, which highlights why further advances are so desperately needed. The aim of this article is to provide a complete review of the history of esophageal cancer treatment with the addition of chemotherapy, RT, and more recently, targeted agents to the surgical management of resectable disease. PMID:20698042

  13. Prevalence of Eosinophilic Esophagitis and Lymphocytic Esophagitis in Adults with Esophageal Food Bolus Impaction

    PubMed Central

    Truskaite, Kotryna

    2016-01-01

    Background. The relation of esophageal food bolus impaction (FBI) to eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) and lymphocytic esophagitis (LyE) is unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of EoE and LyE among adults with FBI. Methods. In this retrospective study we analyzed data from all patients referred for gastroscopy during the past 5 years, because of a present or recent episode of FBI. Results. We found 238 patients with FBI (median age 51 (17–96), 71% males). Endoscopic therapy was required in 143 patients. Esophageal biopsies were obtained in 185 (78%) patients. All biopsies were assessed for numbers of eosinophils and lymphocytes. EoE was found in 18% of patients who underwent biopsy. We found 41 patients (22%) who fulfilled the criteria for both EoE and LyE (EoE/LyE). LyE was found in the 9% of patients with FBI. EoE together with EoE/LyE was the leading cause of FBI in patients ≤50 years (64%). GERD was the leading cause of FBI among patients older than 50 years (42%). Conclusions. Our study showed that EoE was the leading cause of FBI in particular among young adults. Our study highlights the need for esophageal biopsies in any patient with FBI. PMID:27547221

  14. Prevalence of Eosinophilic Esophagitis and Lymphocytic Esophagitis in Adults with Esophageal Food Bolus Impaction.

    PubMed

    Truskaite, Kotryna; Dlugosz, Aldona

    2016-01-01

    Background. The relation of esophageal food bolus impaction (FBI) to eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) and lymphocytic esophagitis (LyE) is unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of EoE and LyE among adults with FBI. Methods. In this retrospective study we analyzed data from all patients referred for gastroscopy during the past 5 years, because of a present or recent episode of FBI. Results. We found 238 patients with FBI (median age 51 (17-96), 71% males). Endoscopic therapy was required in 143 patients. Esophageal biopsies were obtained in 185 (78%) patients. All biopsies were assessed for numbers of eosinophils and lymphocytes. EoE was found in 18% of patients who underwent biopsy. We found 41 patients (22%) who fulfilled the criteria for both EoE and LyE (EoE/LyE). LyE was found in the 9% of patients with FBI. EoE together with EoE/LyE was the leading cause of FBI in patients ≤50 years (64%). GERD was the leading cause of FBI among patients older than 50 years (42%). Conclusions. Our study showed that EoE was the leading cause of FBI in particular among young adults. Our study highlights the need for esophageal biopsies in any patient with FBI. PMID:27547221

  15. Atherosclerotic carotid stenosis and cognitive function.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Mei, Bin; Zhang, Junjian

    2016-07-01

    Atherosclerosis carotid stenosis is associated with stroke and cognitive impairment. Progressive cognitive decline may be an even greater problem than stroke, but it has not been widely recognized and therefore must be adequately addressed. Although both Carotid Endarterectomy (CEA) and Carotid Artery Stenting (CAS) have been proven can prevent future stroke in patients with atherosclerotic carotid stenosis, the influence of CEA and CAS on cognitive function is not clear. In the first part of this review, we evaluated the literature concerning carotid stenosis and the risk of cognitive impairment. Studies have suggested that both symptomatic and asymptomatic carotid stenosis are associated with cognitive impairment. In the second part, we reviewed the impact of CEA and CAS on cognitive function, some studies have shown benefits, but others have not. PMID:27152468

  16. Reslizumab for pediatric eosinophilic esophagitis.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Garry M

    2010-07-01

    Pediatric eosinophilic esophagitis is an inflammatory condition associated with marked eosinophil accumulation in the mucosal tissues of the esophagus. Eosinophils are major proinflammatory cells thought to make a major contribution to allergic diseases that affect the upper and lower airways, skin and GI tract. IL-5 is central to eosinophil maturation and release from the bone marrow, and their subsequent accumulation, activation and persistence in the tissues. Reslizumab (Cinquil, Ception Therapeutics Inc., PA, USA) is a humanized monoclonal antibody with potent IL-5 neutralizing effects that represents a potential treatment for eosinophilic diseases. This article considers the current status of the clinical development of reslizumab for pediatric eosinophilic esophagitis. PMID:20636000

  17. Eosinophilic esophagitis: diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Jay A; Chehade, Mirna

    2012-02-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis is a clinicopathologic disease that can present with a constellation of upper gastrointestinal symptoms and endoscopic findings in conjunction with significant infiltration of the esophageal tissue with eosinophils. Clinical and histologic resolution of the disease can be seen with dietary restriction therapies and systemic and topical corticosteroids. Because most patients have an atopic background and the disease seems to have an underlying T-helper type 2 pathogenesis, allergists and gastroenterologists need to be familiar with the diagnosis and management of this disease. In this review, clinical characteristics, endoscopic and histologic findings, and available therapy options are discussed. PMID:22244233

  18. Imaging and Clinicopathologic Features of Esophageal Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Winant, Abbey J.; Gollub, Marc J.; Shia, Jinru; Antonescu, Christina; Bains, Manjit S.; Levine, Marc S.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this article is to describe the imaging and clinicopathologic characteristics of esophageal gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) and to emphasize the features that differentiate esophageal GISTs from esophageal leiomyomas. MATERIALS AND METHODS A pathology database search identified all surgically resected or biopsied esophageal GISTs, esophageal leiomyomas, and esophageal leiomyosarcomas from 1994 to 2012. Esophageal GISTs were included only if imaging studies (including CT, fluoroscopic, or 18F-FDG PET/CT scans) and clinical data were available. RESULTS Nineteen esophageal mesenchymal tumors were identified, including eight esophageal GISTs (42%), 10 esophageal leiomyomas (53%), and one esophageal leiomyosarcoma (5%). Four patients (50%) with esophageal GIST had symptoms, including dysphagia in three (38%), cough in one (13%), and chest pain in one (13%). One esophageal GIST appeared on barium study as a smooth submucosal mass. All esophageal GISTs appeared on CT as well-marginated predominantly distal lesions, isoattenuating to muscle, that moderately enhanced after IV contrast agent administration. Compared with esophageal leiomyomas, esophageal GISTs tended to be more distal, larger, and more heterogeneous and showed greater IV enhancement on CT. All esophageal GISTs showed marked avidity (mean maximum standardized uptake value, 16) on PET scans. All esophageal GISTs were positive for c-KIT (a cell-surface transmembrane tyrosine kinase also known as CD117) and CD34. On histopathology, six esophageal GISTs (75%) were of the spindle pattern and two (25%) were of a mixed spindle and epithelioid pattern. Five esophageal GISTs had exon 11 mutations (with imatinib sensitivity). Clinical outcome correlated with treatment strategy (resection plus adjuvant therapy or resection alone) rather than risk stratification. CONCLUSION Esophageal GISTs are unusual but clinically important mesenchymal neoplasms. Although esophageal GISTs and

  19. Hemodynamics of Curved Vessels with Stenosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boghosian, Michael E.; Cassel, Kevin W.

    2007-11-01

    In hemodialysis access, the brachiocephalic or upper-arm fistula has less than optimal functional rates. The cause of this reduced patency is stenosis due to intimal hyperplasia in the cephalic vein. Stenosis typically leads to thrombosis and ultimately failure of the fistula. To increase our understanding of this process, numerical simulations of the unsteady, two-dimensional, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved for the flow in an infinite channel having curvature and stenosis. Physiologically relevant Reynolds numbers ranging from 300 to 1500 and stenosis percentages of 0, 25, 50, and 75 are modeled. The post-stenotic flow is characterized by strong shear layers and recirculation regions. The largest shear stresses are found just upstream of the stenosis apex. The maximum shear stress increases with increasing Reynolds number and percent stenosis. The results indicate that hemodynamic conditions in the vein after fistula creation combined with curvature of the cephalic arch lead to shear stresses that exceed normal physiological values (both minimum and maximum). In some cases, the shear stresses are sufficiently large to cause damage to the endothelium and possibly denudation.

  20. Combined chemotherapy plus endostar with sequential stereotactic radiotherapy as salvage treatment for recurrent esophageal cancer with severe dyspnea: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    XU, MINGFANG; HUANG, HUAN; XIONG, YANLI; PENG, BO; ZHOU, ZEJUN; WANG, DONG; YANG, XUEQIN

    2014-01-01

    For the majority of inoperable esophageal cancer cases, chemoradiotherapy is the most suitable treatment option. Cetuximab may provide certain benefits, however, this can be an expensive therapy. Additionally, stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is typically contraindicated for esophageal cancer due to the potential for esophageal perforation and stenosis. The use of combined chemotherapy plus endostar with sequential SBRT for the treatment of esophageal squamous cancer has not been reported. In the current study, the case of a 71-year-old female with esophageal squamous cancer diagnosed 2 years prior is presented. Surgery and four cycles of cisplatin plus 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy had been administered. The patient showed recurrence at the paratracheal lymph node, exhibited severe dyspnea (grade III) and required a semi-liquid diet. Four cycles of the docetaxel, 5-fluorouracil and nedaplatin regimen plus endostar (3 mg; days 1–14; intravenously) with sequential SBRT (3300 cGy in 10 fractions) was administered. Following treatment, the symptoms of the patient completely disappeared, and objective efficacy evaluation indicated complete remission. At the time of writing, the patient is living without discomfort and the progression-free survival is >8 months. In conclusion, the present case indicates that combined treatment of chemotherapy and endostar with sequential stereotactic radiotherapy is a safe and effective option for the management of esophageal cancer. PMID:24959263

  1. Efficacy of Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy After Surgery in Early Stage of Esophageal Carcinoma;

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-12-09

    Esophageal Neoplasm; Esophageal Cancer TNM Staging Primary Tumor (T) T2; Esophageal Cancer TNM Staging Primary Tumor (T) T3; Esophageal Cancer TNM Staging Regional Lymph Nodes (N) N0; Esophageal Cancer TNM Staging Distal Metastasis (M) M0

  2. Multimodality Imaging of Carotid Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Adla, Theodor; Adlova, Radka

    2015-01-01

    Four diagnostic modalities are used to image the following internal carotid artery: digital subtraction angiography (DSA), duplex ultrasound (DUS), computed tomography angiography (CTA), and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). The aim of this article is to describe the potentials of these techniques and to discuss their advantages and disadvantages. Invasive DSA is still considered the gold standard and is an indivisible part of the carotid stenting procedure. DUS is an inexpensive but operator-dependent tool with limited visibility of the carotid artery course. Conversely, CTA and MRA allow assessment of the carotid artery from the aortic arch to intracranial parts. The disadvantages of CTA are radiation and iodine contrast medium administration. MRA is without radiation but contrast-enhanced MRA is more accurate than noncontrast MRA. The choice of methods depends on the clinical indications and the availability of methods in individual centers. However, the general approach to patient with suspected carotid artery stenosis is to first perform DUS and then other noninvasive methods such as CTA, MRA, or transcranial Doppler US. PMID:26417185

  3. External beam radiation therapy followed by high-dose-rate brachytherapy for inoperable superficial esophageal carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Pasquier, David . E-mail: d-pasquier@o-lambret.fr; Mirabel, Xavier; Adenis, Antoine; Rezvoy, Nicolas; Hecquet, Genevieve; Fournier, Charles; Coche-Dequeant, Bernard; Prevost, Bernard; Castelain, Bernard; Lartigau, Eric

    2006-08-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the feasibility, efficacy, and tolerance of external beam radiotherapy followed by high-dose-rate brachytherapy in inoperable patients with superficial esophageal cancer. Patients and Methods: From November 1992 to May 1999, 66 patients with superficial esophageal cancer were treated with exclusive radiotherapy. The median age was 60 years (range, 41-85). Fifty-three percent of them were ineligible for surgery owing to synchronous or previously treated head-and-neck cancer. Most of the patients (n = 49) were evaluated with endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) or computed tomography (CT). The mean doses of external beam radiotherapy and high-dose rate brachytherapy were 57.1 Gy ({+-}4.83) and 8.82 Gy ({+-}3.98), respectively. The most frequently used regimen was 60 Gy followed by 7 Gy at 5 mm depth in two applications. Results: Among patients evaluated with EUS or CT, the complete response rate was 98%. The 3-, 5-, and 7-year survival rates were 57.9%, 35.6%, and 26.6%, respectively. Median overall survival was 3.8 years. The 5-year relapse-free survival and cause-specific survival were 54.6% and 76.9%. The 5-year overall, relapse-free, and cause-specific survival of the whole population of 66 patients was 33%, 53%, and 77%, respectively. Local failure occurred in 15 of 66 patients; 6 were treated with brachytherapy. Severe late toxicity (mostly esophageal stenosis) rated according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer scale occurred in 6 of 66 patients (9%). Conclusion: This well tolerated regimen may be a therapeutic alternative for inoperable patients with superficial esophageal cancer. Only a randomized study could be able to check the potential benefit of brachytherapy after external beam radiation in superficial esophageal cancer.

  4. Etiology and management of esophageal impaction in children: A review of 11 years

    PubMed Central

    Alrazzak, Baraa Alabd; Al-Subu, Awni; Elitsur, Yoram

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Esophageal impaction in children is a medical emergency that needs an immediate medical attention. In the last years multiple objects have been detected and were removed endoscopically. In the last decade, Eosinophilic Esophagitis (EoE) has been associated with esophageal stenosis, leading to esophageal impaction with various objects including toys, food, coins and other. AIM: To determine the various objects and symptoms associated with impactions and to develop algorithm that guides Emergency Department Physicians and Primary care Providers when facing such problem in pediatric patient. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective chart review of all children referred to the pediatric gastroenterology service at Marshall University for FB impaction between 2000 and 2010 was performed. Foreign bodies treated by other specialties were excluded from this review. Clinical and demographic data were retrieved. RESULTS: A total of 291 charts with the diagnosis of foreign body reviewed of which only 126 met the inclusion criteria and considered for final calculation. Male/Female ratio and mean age were 1.17:1.0, and 3.65 ± 0.75 years, respectively. Time of impaction before ER evaluation was: < 24hrs in 75 patients, >24hrs in 17 and in 34 the time of ingestion was not known. Radiology was performed in 118 patients, of whom 1 had pneumo-mediastinum and 1 had pneumothorax. Endoscopic localization of the objects showed: 81- proximal, 23- middle esophagus, and 22- in the distal esophagus. The esophageal mucosa showed non-specific changes in 37 patients, 5 with EoE features, 1 patient with hiatal hernia, 1 patient with candidiasis, and in 5 pts had no mucosal description. CONCLUSION: Children with foreign body in the esophagus are commonly seen in our Hospital ER. Those children may harbor undiagnosed medical conditions that will need future therapy. Careful endoscopic assessment with mucosal biopsies is needed to diagnose those conditions earlier. Referral to a GI

  5. Esophageal Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Cancer.gov

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing esophageal cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  6. Treatment of eosinophilic esophagitis by dilation.

    PubMed

    Schoepfer, Alain

    2014-01-01

    Treatment options for eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) include drugs, diets and esophageal dilation. Esophageal dilation can be performed using either through-the-scope balloons or wire-guided bougies. Dilation can lead to long-lasting symptom improvement in EoE patients presenting with esophageal strictures. Esophageal strictures are most often diagnosed when the 8- to 9-mm outer diameter adult gastroscope cannot be passed any further or only against resistance. A defined esophageal diameter to be targeted by dilation is missing, but the majority of patients have considerable symptomatic improvement when a diameter of 16-18 mm has been reached. A high complication rate, especially regarding esophageal perforations, has been reported in small case series until 2006. Several large series were published in 2007 and later that demonstrated that the complication risk (especially esophageal perforation) was much lower than what was reported in earlier series. The procedure can therefore be regarded as safe when some simple precautions are followed. It is noteworthy that esophageal dilation does not influence the underlying eosinophil-predominant inflammation. Patients should be informed before the procedure that postprocedural retrosternal pain may occur for some days, but that it usually responds well to over-the-counter analgesics such as paracetamol. Dilation-related superficial lacerations of the mucosa should not be regarded and reported as complications, but instead represent a desired effect of the therapy. Patient tolerance and acceptance for esophageal dilation have been reported to be good. PMID:24603396

  7. Clinical Study of Time Optimizing of Endoscopic Photodynamic Therapy on Esophageal and/or Gastric Cardiac Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-12-10

    Stage I Esophageal Adenocarcinoma; Stage II Esophageal Adenocarcinoma; Stage III Esophageal Adenocarcinoma; Stage I Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage II Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  8. Causes and Consequences of Adult Laryngotracheal Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Gelbard, Alexander; Francis, David O.; Sandulache, Vlad C.; Simmons, John C.; Donovan, Donald T.; Ongkasuwan, Julina

    2015-01-01

    Objective Laryngotracheal stenosis is largely considered a structural entity, defined on anatomic terms (i.e. percent stenosis, distance from vocal folds, overall length). This has significant implications for identifying at-risk populations, devising systems-based preventive strategies, and promoting patient-centered treatment. The present study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that LTS is heterogeneous in regard to etiology, natural history, and clinical outcome. Study Design Retrospective cohort study of consecutive adult tracheal stenosis patients from 1998–2013. Methods Subjects diagnosed with laryngotracheal stenosis (ICD-9: 478.74, 519.19) between January 1, 1998 and January 1, 2013 were identified. Patient characteristics (age, gender, race, follow-up duration), and comorbidities were extracted. Records were reviewed for etiology of stenosis, treatment approach, and surgical dates. Stenosis morphology was derived from intraoperative measurements. The presence of tracheostomy at last follow-up was recorded. Results 150 patients met inclusion criteria. 54.7% had an iatrogenic etiology followed by idiopathic (18.5%), autoimmune (18.5%), and traumatic (8%). Tracheostomy dependence differed based on etiology (p<0.001). Significantly more patients with iatrogenic (66%) and autoimmune (54%) etiologies remained tracheostomy dependent compared to traumatic (33%) or idiopathic (0%) groups. On multivariate regression analysis, each additional point on Charlson Comorbidity Index was associated with a 67% increased odds of tracheostomy dependence (OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.04 – 2.69; p=0.04). Conclusions Laryngotracheal stenosis is not a homogeneous clinical entity. It has multiple distinct etiologies that demonstrate disparate rates of long-term tracheostomy dependence. Understanding the mechanism of injury and contribution of comorbid illnesses is critical to systems-based preventive strategies and patient-centered treatment. PMID:25290987

  9. Restoring esophageal continuity following a failed colonic interposition for long-gap esophageal atresia

    PubMed Central

    Dionigi, Beatrice; Bairdain, Sigrid; Smithers, Charles Jason; Jennings, Russell W.; Hamilton, Thomas E.

    2015-01-01

    The Foker process is a method of esophageal lengthening through axial tension-induced growth, allowing for subsequent primary reconstruction of the esophagus in esophageal atresia (EA). In this unique case, the Foker process was used to grow the remaining esophageal segment long enough to attain esophageal continuity following failed colonic interpositions for long-gap esophageal atresia (LGEA). Initially developed for the treatment of LGEA in neonates, this case demonstrates that (i) an active esophageal lengthening response may still be present beyond the neonate time-period; and, (ii) the Foker process can be used to restore esophageal continuity following a failed colonic interposition if the lower esophageal segment is still present. PMID:25907539

  10. ESOPHAGEAL DYSMOTILITY IN CHILDREN WITH EOSINOPHILIC ESOPHAGITIS. A STUDY USING PROLONGED ESOPHAGEAL MANOMETRY

    PubMed Central

    Nurko, Samuel; Rosen, Rachel; Furuta, Glenn T.

    2010-01-01

    Background The pathophysiology of dysphagia in patients with eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is unknown, but may be related to abnormal esophageal motor function. Symptoms rarely occur during stationary esophageal manometry so it has been difficult to establish an association between symptoms and motor events. Aim To evaluate esophageal motor function in children with EoE with the use of stationary manometry and ambulatory prolonged esophageal manometry and pH-metry (PEMP) Methods PEMP was performed in children with EoE, compared with controls and children with GERD. Effective peristalsis was considered when the esophageal contractions had a normal amplitude and propagation. Results expressed as mean ± S.E. Results Seventeen patients with EoE, 13 with GERD and 11 controls were studied. Values are expressed as mean ± se. Stationary manometry identified abnormal peristalsis in 41% of children with EoE. During PEMP, children with EoE had an increased number of isolated (16.7 ± 3.8 vs 9.5 ± 1.6 vs 6.5 ± 1.1 ; p< 0.03) and high amplitude contractions (4.1 ± 1.2 vs 1.8 ±0.8 vs 0.1 ± 0.1; p< 0.03), and more % ineffective peristalsis both during fasting (70.5% ± 2.5 vs 57.8% ± 3.0 vs 53.8% ± 1.9; p <0.05) and during meals (68.4 ± 3.4 vs 55.3 ± 2.8 vs 48.1 ± 2.8; p < 0.05) when compared with children with GERD and controls. Thirteen patients with EoE experienced 21 episodes of dysphagia and all correlated with simultaneous abnormal motor function. Conclusions PEMP allowed the detection of ineffective peristalsis in children with EoE. Symptoms observed in children with EoE may be related to esophageal motor dysfunction. PMID:19755968

  11. Treatment and long-term outcome of chronic radiation esophagitis after radiation therapy for head and neck tumors: A report of 13 cases

    SciTech Connect

    Silvain, C.; Barrioz, T.; Besson, I.; Babin, P.; Fontanel, J.P.; Daban, A.; Matuchansky, C.; Beauchant, M. )

    1993-05-01

    The natural history of chronic radiation esophagitis occurring in previously normal esophagus is still unknown. The authors describe here the long-term outcome of chronic esophagitis arising after neck irradiation for oropharynx and larynx carcinomas in 13 consecutive adult patients. The first clinical signs of radiation esophagitis were dysphagia or impossibility of oral intake, which appeared within 26 months (range 2--120 months) after the end of radiation for pyriform fossae carcinoma (N = 5), tonsil carcinoma (N = 2), larynx carcinoma (N = 2), pharynx carcinoma (N = 2), base of the tongue (N = 1), and thyroid carcinomas (N = 1). During upper endoscopy, an esophageal stenosis was found in 11 cases and was associated with ulceration in three cases. An isolated esophageal ulceration was present in only two cases. Chronic radiation esophagitis diagnosis was confirmed by histology and surgery in seven cases. In the last six cases, diagnosis was supported by the absence of first cancer relapses within a median follow-up of two years (16 months to nine years) and by endoscopic findings. Seven patients received parenteral or enteral nutrition. Ten patients were treated by peroral dilatations. These treatments allowed nearly normal oral diet in 11/13 patients. Only one patient was lost of follow-up after 20 months. Four patients died from chronic radiation esophagitis. One of these patients died from massive hemorrhage after peroral dilatation. Four patients died of a second carcinoma with no first cancer recurrence. Four patients were alive after six months to nine years of follow-up. Moderate dysphagia was still present, allowing nearly normal oral feeding. In conclusion, chronic radiation esophagitis is a severe disease with an underestimated frequency. In this study, peroral dilatations appeared to be necessary and were not associated with an increased morbidity. 21 refs., 1 tab.

  12. Adenosine-induced activation of esophageal nociceptors.

    PubMed

    Ru, F; Surdenikova, L; Brozmanova, M; Kollarik, M

    2011-03-01

    Clinical studies implicate adenosine acting on esophageal nociceptive pathways in the pathogenesis of noncardiac chest pain originating from the esophagus. However, the effect of adenosine on esophageal afferent nerve subtypes is incompletely understood. We addressed the hypothesis that adenosine selectively activates esophageal nociceptors. Whole cell perforated patch-clamp recordings and single-cell RT-PCR analysis were performed on the primary afferent neurons retrogradely labeled from the esophagus in the guinea pig. Extracellular recordings were made from the isolated innervated esophagus. In patch-clamp studies, adenosine evoked activation (inward current) in a majority of putative nociceptive (capsaicin-sensitive) vagal nodose, vagal jugular, and spinal dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons innervating the esophagus. Single-cell RT-PCR analysis indicated that the majority of the putative nociceptive (transient receptor potential V1-positive) neurons innervating the esophagus express the adenosine receptors. The neural crest-derived (spinal DRG and vagal jugular) esophageal nociceptors expressed predominantly the adenosine A(1) receptor while the placodes-derived vagal nodose nociceptors expressed the adenosine A(1) and/or A(2A) receptors. Consistent with the studies in the cell bodies, adenosine evoked activation (overt action potential discharge) in esophageal nociceptive nerve terminals. Furthermore, the neural crest-derived jugular nociceptors were activated by the selective A(1) receptor agonist CCPA, and the placodes-derived nodose nociceptors were activated by CCPA and/or the selective adenosine A(2A) receptor CGS-21680. In contrast to esophageal nociceptors, adenosine failed to stimulate the vagal esophageal low-threshold (tension) mechanosensors. We conclude that adenosine selectively activates esophageal nociceptors. Our data indicate that the esophageal neural crest-derived nociceptors can be activated via the adenosine A(1) receptor while the placodes

  13. Thoracoscopic Esophageal Atresia with Tracheoesophageal Fistula Repair: The First Iranian Group Report, Passing the Learning Curve

    PubMed Central

    Hiradfar, Mehran; Gharavifard, Mohammad; Shojaeian, Reza; Joodi, Marjan; Nazarzadeh, Reza; Sabzevari, Alireza; Yal, Nazila; Eslami, Reza; Mohammadipour, Ahmad; Azadmand, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background: Thoracoscopic treatment of esophageal atresia and tracheoesophageal fistula (EA+TEF) is accepted as a superior technique at least in cosmetic point of view but it is considered as an advance endoscopic procedure that needs a learning curve to be performed perfectly. This is the first report of Iranian group pediatric surgeons in thoracoscopic approach to EA. Methods and Materials: Since 2010, twenty four cases with EA+TEF underwent thoracoscopic approach in Sarvar Children Hospital (Mashhad -Iran). During the first 6 months, thoracoscopic approach to 6 cases of EA+TEF was converted to open procedure because of technical and instrumental problems. The first case of successful thoracoscopic EA repair was accomplished in 2010 and since then, 10 cases of EA+ TEF among 18 patients were treated successfully with thoracoscopic approach Results: Overall conversion rate was 58.3% but conversion rate after the primary learning curve period, was 35.7%. The main conversion causes include difficulties in esophageal anastomosis, limited exposure and deteriorating the patient's condition. Anastomotic leak and stenosis were observed in 20% and 40% respectively. Overall mortality rate was 4.2%. Conclusion: Thoracoscopic repair of esophageal atresia seems feasible and safe with considerable superiorities to the conventional method although acceptable results needs a prolonged learning curve and advanced endoscopic surgical skill. Clear judgment about the best surgical intervention for EA according to all cosmetic and functional outcomes needs further studies. PMID:27471677

  14. Esophageal mucosa exfoliation induced by oxalic acid poisoning: A case report

    PubMed Central

    WANG, JIERU; KAN, BAOTIAN; JIAN, XIANGDONG; WU, XIAOPENG; YU, GUANCAI; SUN, JING

    2016-01-01

    This study reports the case of a 44-year-old woman with oral oxalic acid poisoning. As the illness progressed, the patient exhibited severe metabolic acidosis, large-area esophageal mucosa injury and acute kidney injury, which required dialysis. A guide wire slipped out of position during the process of hemodialysis and moved back and forth in the veins, but was removed successfully by interventional endovascular treatment. However, the patient's esophageal mucosa exfoliated, which lead to severe benign esophageal stenosis and dysphagia. Balloon distention was conducted twice in the upper digestive tract using X-ray location in combination with a dumb-bell bladder and interventional wire. The patient exhibited convulsions, shock, embolism and loss of consciousness while undergoing the second balloon distention procedure. Following symptomatic treatment, the patient eventually remained in a stable condition, the digestive tract expansion procedure was not resumed and a jejunostomy was performed in order to facilitate enteral nutrition, which was administered via the jejunum and had little stimulatory effect on the pancreas. Following various treatments, the patient's condition improved markedly, with renal function returning to normal. PMID:26889241

  15. Eosinophilic esophagitis: an immune-mediated esophageal disease.

    PubMed

    Weinbrand-Goichberg, Jenny; Segal, Idit; Ovadia, Adi; Levine, Arie; Dalal, Ilan

    2013-07-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an emerging disease defined by esophageal dysfunction, by typical endoscopic findings and by abnormal eosinophilic inflammation within the esophagus. Eosinophilic accumulation in the esophagus occurs as a result of esophageal overexpression of pro-inflammatory mediators, including T cells and mast cells, cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-13, IL-5 and IL-15, as well as chemoattractants (eotaxin and transforming growth factor-β1, fibroblast growth factor and the newly characterized gene--thymic stromal lymphopoietin, which is a key regulator of allergic sensitization initiation). The role of allergy, particularly food allergy in EoE is indisputable, as elimination diet is a proven commonly used treatment for the disease. However, unlike classical immediate IgE-mediated reaction to allergen, EoE is associated with an altered immune response, characterized by a combination of IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated mechanisms. In this review, we aim to discuss the many typical aspects of EoE as opposed to other entities involving the esophagus, with focusing on the aberrant immune-mediated key players contributing to the pathogenesis of this unique disease. PMID:23579771

  16. Corrosive Esophagitis Caused by Ingestion of Picosulfate

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Jae Yong; Kang, Ho Suk; Kim, Seong Eun; Park, Ji Won; Moon, Sung Hoon; Kim, Jong Hyeok; Park, Choong Kee

    2015-01-01

    Corrosive esophagitis is characterized by caustic injury due to the ingestion of chemical agents, mainly alkaline substances such as detergents. Esophageal bleeding, perforation, or stricture can be worsened by high-degree corrosive esophagitis. Picosulfate is a commonly used laxative frequently administered for bowel preparation before colonoscopy or colon surgery. Picosulfate powder should be completely dissolved in water before ingestion because the powder itself may cause chemical burning of the esophagus and stomach. Here, we report a case of corrosive esophagitis due to the ingestion of picosulfate powder that was not completely dissolved in water. PMID:25674529

  17. [Eosinophilic esophagitis: a rare cause of dysphagia].

    PubMed

    Billot, D; Pernin, M; Pillot, C; Bredin, C; Hoeffler, P; Graffin, B; Rey, P

    2010-12-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis is an unrecognized and emerging entity. Its incidence increases with allergic disorders. A 29-year-old man presented with a 4-year history of intermittent and paroxysmal dysphagia. The triad including allergy, young age, and impaction of foreign bodies, combined with a chronic dysphagia is almost pathognomonic of eosinophilic esophagitis. Endoscopic esophageal features can be diverse, so systematic esophageal biopsies are required. Diagnosis is established with the demonstration of an eosinophilic infiltrate with a cell count exceeding 15 eosinophils per high power field (×400). First line therapy includes swallowed topical corticosteroids and removal of an allergic cause, when it could be identified. PMID:20605659

  18. New techniques in measuring nonacidic esophageal reflux.

    PubMed

    Vaezi, M F; Shay, S S

    2001-07-01

    New techniques in esophageal monitoring are allowing for better differentiation in the role of different gastric refluxates in esophageal mucosal damage and patient symptoms. The Bilitec 2001 (Synectics, Stockholm, Sweden) is a portable spectrophotometer that measures bilirubin as a surrogate marker for bile reflux and multichannel intraluminal impedance (MII) (Sandhill Scientific Inc, Highlands Ranch, CO) is a new technique allowing measurement of esophageal volume refluxate. Both techniques assess the role of nonacidic esophageal reflux. Despite their novel approach in assessing nonacid reflux, both methods have limitations. Future studies in this area, however, will prove beneficial in identifying their role in diagnosis and management of patients with suspected nonacid reflux disease. PMID:11568871

  19. Esophageal motility abnormalities in gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    PubMed

    Martinucci, Irene; de Bortoli, Nicola; Giacchino, Maria; Bodini, Giorgia; Marabotto, Elisa; Marchi, Santino; Savarino, Vincenzo; Savarino, Edoardo

    2014-05-01

    Esophageal motility abnormalities are among the main factors implicated in the pathogenesis of gastroesophageal reflux disease. The recent introduction in clinical and research practice of novel esophageal testing has markedly improved our understanding of the mechanisms contributing to the development of gastroesophageal reflux disease, allowing a better management of patients with this disorder. In this context, the present article intends to provide an overview of the current literature about esophageal motility dysfunctions in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease. Esophageal manometry, by recording intraluminal pressure, represents the gold standard to diagnose esophageal motility abnormalities. In particular, using novel techniques, such as high resolution manometry with or without concurrent intraluminal impedance monitoring, transient lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxations, hypotensive LES, ineffective esophageal peristalsis and bolus transit abnormalities have been better defined and strongly implicated in gastroesophageal reflux disease development. Overall, recent findings suggest that esophageal motility abnormalities are increasingly prevalent with increasing severity of reflux disease, from non-erosive reflux disease to erosive reflux disease and Barrett's esophagus. Characterizing esophageal dysmotility among different subgroups of patients with reflux disease may represent a fundamental approach to properly diagnose these patients and, thus, to set up the best therapeutic management. Currently, surgery represents the only reliable way to restore the esophagogastric junction integrity and to reduce transient LES relaxations that are considered to be the predominant mechanism by which gastric contents can enter the esophagus. On that ground, more in depth future studies assessing the pathogenetic role of dysmotility in patients with reflux disease are warranted. PMID:24868489

  20. Postpartum Vaginal Stenosis Due to Chemical Vaginitis.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Gurcharan; Sinha, Maruti; Gupta, Ridhima

    2016-05-01

    Acquired vaginal stenosis is a rare obstructing anomaly, which can be caused by use of chemicals in the vagina. A 21-year-old gravida 1 para 1, presented with secondary amenorrhea and inability to have sexual intercourse, after normal spontaneous vaginal delivery complicated by post partum bleeding. The delivery was conducted by untrained traditional birth attendant at home. The wash cloth soaked with caustic soda was packed in the patient's vagina and was left in situ for 10 days, which ultimately led to the severe scarring and stenosis of the vagina. Patient underwent surgical management and the extensive vaginal adhesions were excised and a patent vagina was reconstructed. Patient then reported successful vaginal intercourse without dyspareunia. Post partum vaginal stenosis due to chemical vaginitis is rare. These cases can be prevented by adequate training of untrained health care workers. PMID:27437311

  1. Tracheal Reconstruction for Comlex Acute Tracheal Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Fatimi, Saulat H.; Qasim Raza, M.; Ghani, Alina; Shah, Nilay; Ashfaq, Awais

    2013-01-01

    Tracheal stenosis refers to a reduction in the size of the tracheal lumen and can be due to a myriad of reasons, but the most common remains trauma. In iatrogenic situations, internal trauma is the most likely culprit, resulting from prolonged intubation. Our case reviews a patient who developed severe tracheal stenosis (90% reduction in lumen size) within a month of a threeday- long intubation, and presented to the emergency room with dyspnea, orthopnea, and stridor. Tracheal reconstruction with resection of the stenosed segment and end-to-end anastomosis was done. The patient returned a month later with re-stenosis, and underwent tracheal dilatation. Subsequently, he was discharged with a tracheostomy with no problems thereafter. PMID:25628886

  2. Postpartum Vaginal Stenosis Due to Chemical Vaginitis

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Gurcharan; Gupta, Ridhima

    2016-01-01

    Acquired vaginal stenosis is a rare obstructing anomaly, which can be caused by use of chemicals in the vagina. A 21-year-old gravida 1 para 1, presented with secondary amenorrhea and inability to have sexual intercourse, after normal spontaneous vaginal delivery complicated by post partum bleeding. The delivery was conducted by untrained traditional birth attendant at home. The wash cloth soaked with caustic soda was packed in the patient’s vagina and was left in situ for 10 days, which ultimately led to the severe scarring and stenosis of the vagina. Patient underwent surgical management and the extensive vaginal adhesions were excised and a patent vagina was reconstructed. Patient then reported successful vaginal intercourse without dyspareunia. Post partum vaginal stenosis due to chemical vaginitis is rare. These cases can be prevented by adequate training of untrained health care workers. PMID:27437311

  3. Nanobacteria-associated calcific aortic valve stenosis.

    PubMed

    Jelic, Tomislav M; Chang, Ho-Huang; Roque, Rod; Malas, Amer M; Warren, Stafford G; Sommer, Andrei P

    2007-01-01

    Calcific aortic valve stenosis is the most common valvular disease in developed countries, and the major reason for operative valve replacement. In the US, the current annual cost of this surgery is approximately 1 billion dollars. Despite increasing morbidity and mortality, little is known of the cellular basis of the calcifications, which occur in high-perfusion zones of the heart. The case is presented of a patient with calcific aortic valve stenosis and colonies of progressively mineralized nanobacteria in the fibrocalcific nodules of the aortic cusps, as revealed by transmission electron microscopy. Consistent with their outstanding bioadhesivity, nanobacteria might serve as causative agents in the development of calcific aortic valve stenosis. PMID:17315391

  4. Coronary Ostial Stenosis after Aortic Valve Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Ziakas, Antonios G.; Economou, Fotios I.; Charokopos, Nicholas A.; Pitsis, Antonios A.; Parharidou, Despina G.; Papadopoulos, Thomas I.; Parharidis, Georgios E.

    2010-01-01

    Coronary ostial stenosis is a rare but potentially serious sequela after aortic valve replacement. It occurs in the left main or right coronary artery after 1% to 5% of aortic valve replacement procedures. The clinical symptoms are usually severe and may appear from 1 to 6 months postoperatively. Although the typical treatment is coronary artery bypass grafting, patients have been successfully treated by means of percutaneous coronary intervention. Herein, we present the cases of 2 patients in whom coronary ostial stenosis developed after aortic valve replacement. In the 1st case, a 72-year-old man underwent aortic valve replacement and bypass grafting of the saphenous vein to the left anterior descending coronary artery. Six months later, he experienced a non-ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction. Coronary angiography revealed a critical stenosis of the right coronary artery ostium. In the 2nd case, a 78-year-old woman underwent aortic valve replacement and grafting of the saphenous vein to an occluded right coronary artery. Four months later, she experienced unstable angina. Coronary angiography showed a critical left main coronary artery ostial stenosis and occlusion of the right coronary artery venous graft. In each patient, we performed percutaneous coronary intervention and deployed a drug-eluting stent. Both patients were asymptomatic on 6-to 12-month follow-up. We attribute the coronary ostial stenosis to the selective ostial administration of cardioplegic solution during surgery. We conclude that retrograde administration of cardioplegic solution through the coronary sinus may reduce the incidence of postoperative coronary ostial stenosis, and that stenting may be an efficient treatment option. PMID:20844624

  5. [Surgical treatment of esophageal diverticula].

    PubMed

    Constantinoiu, S; Constantin, A; Predescu, D; Mates, I N; Mocanu, A; Gheorghe, M; Hoară, P; Achim, F; Cociu, L

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the methods and therapeutic principles of esophageal diverticula pathology. We analyze the main pathological mechanisms which establish the therapeutic attitude linked with a complex pretherapeutic evaluation. In our study we enrolled 12 patients operated between 2001-2009 for esophageal diverticula with different topography. In this period of time there were much more patients diagnosed with this pathology, but the need for surgery was establish very tight regarding the actual practical guide which impose the identification and interception of physiological mechanisms by the surgical procedure. We highlight the particular technical details, as well as the important differences of postoperatory complications according to the topography of the diverticula pouch. PMID:21523958

  6. Neoadjuvant therapy for esophageal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Rachit D; Cassano, Anthony D; Neifeld, James P

    2014-01-01

    Esophageal cancer is increasing in incidence more than any other visceral malignancy in North America. Adenocarcinoma has become the most common cell type. Surgery remains the primary treatment modality for locoregional disease. Overall survival with surgery alone has been dismal, with metastatic disease the primary mode of treatment failure after an R0 surgical resection. Cure rates with chemotherapy or radiation therapy alone have been disappointing as well. For these reasons, over the last decade multi-modality treatment has gained increasing acceptance as the standard of care. This review examines the present data and role of neoadjuvant treatment using chemotherapy and radiation therapy followed by surgery for the treatment of esophageal cancer. PMID:25320656

  7. Allergic Mechanisms in Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Wechsler, Joshua B; Bryce, Paul J

    2014-01-01

    Paralleling the overall trend in allergic diseases, Eosinophilic Esophagitis is rapidly increasing in incidence. It is associated with food antigen-triggered, eosinophil-predominant inflammation and the pathogenic mechanisms have many similarities to other chronic atopic diseases, such as eczema and allergic asthma. Studies in animal models and from patients over the last 15 years have suggested that allergic sensitization leads to food-specific IgE and T-helper lymphocyte type 2 cells, both of which appear to contribute to the pathogenesis along with basophils, mast cells, and antigen-presenting cells. This review will outline our current understandings of the allergic mechanisms that drive eosinophilic esophagitis, drawing from clinical and translational studies in humans as well as experimental animal models. PMID:24813516

  8. Ventricular Tachycardia in Congenital Pulmonary Stenosis.

    PubMed

    Ruckdeschel, Emily Sue; Schuller, Joseph; Nguyen, Duy Thai

    2016-03-01

    With modern surgical techniques, there is significantly increased life expectancy for those with congenital heart disease. Although congenital pulmonary valve stenosis is not as complex as tetralogy of Fallot, there are many similarities between the 2 lesions, such that patients with either of these conditions are at risk for ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. Those patients who have undergone surgical palliation for congenital pulmonary stenosis are at an increased risk for development of ventricular arrhythmias and may benefit from a more aggressive evaluation for symptoms of palpitations or syncope. PMID:26920196

  9. DEGENERATIVE STENOSIS OF THE LUMBAR SPINE

    PubMed Central

    Zylbersztejn, Sérgio; Spinelli, Leandro de Freitas; Rodrigues, Nilson Rodinei; Werlang, Pablo Mariotti; Kisaki, Yorito; Rios, Aldemar Roberto Mieres; Bello, Cesar Dall

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an update on degenerative stenosis of the lumbar spine, which is a common pathological condition among patients over the age of 65 years. The anamnesis and physical examination need to be precise, since radiography often only provides indirect signs. Magnetic resonance imaging is necessary if the symptoms persist. The treatment for lumbar stenosis is a matter of controversy. However, there seems to be some benefit from surgical treatment rather than conservative treatment, such that surgery brings improvements in symptoms and functions for a period of up to two years. PMID:27042635

  10. Lumbar stenosis: clinical case☆☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Sá, Pedro; Marques, Pedro; Alpoim, Bruno; Rodrigues, Elisa; Félix, António; Silva, Luís; Leal, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Lumbar stenosis is an increasingly common pathological condition that is becoming more frequent with increasing mean life expectancy, with high costs for society. It has many causes, among which degenerative, neoplastic and traumatic causes stand out. Most of the patients respond well to conservative therapy. Surgical treatment is reserved for patients who present symptoms after implementation of conservative measures. Here, a case of severe stenosis of the lumbar spine at several levels, in a female patient with pathological and surgical antecedents in the lumbar spine, is presented. The patient underwent two different decompression techniques within the same operation. PMID:26229836

  11. Supravalvular aortic stenosis after arterial switch operation.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Takuya; Koide, Masaaki; Kunii, Yoshifumi; Watanabe, Kazumasa; Kanzaki, Tomohito; Ohashi, Yuko

    2016-07-01

    Supravalvular aortic stenosis as a late complication of transposition of the great arteries is very rare, and only a few cases have been reported. We describe the case of a 14-year-old girl who developed supravalvular aortic stenosis as a late complication of the arterial switch operation for transposition of the great arteries. The narrowed ascending aorta was replaced with a graft. The right pulmonary artery was transected to approach the ascending aorta which adhered severely to the main pulmonary trunk, and we obtained a good operative field. PMID:25957091

  12. The Evolution and Current Utility of Esophageal Stent Placement for the Treatment of Acute Esophageal Perforation.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Argenis; Freeman, Richard K

    2016-08-01

    Esophageal stent placement was used primarily for the treatment of malignant strictures until the development of a new generation of biomaterials allowed the production of easily removable, occlusive stents in 2001. Since then, thoracic surgeons have gained experience using esophageal stents for the treatment of acute esophageal perforation. As part of a hybrid treatment strategy, including surgical drainage of infected spaces, enteral nutrition, and aggressive supportive care, esophageal stent placement has produced results that can exceed those of traditional surgical repair. This review summarizes the evolution of esophageal stent use for acute perforation and provides evidence-based recommendations for the technique. PMID:27427525

  13. Successful Use of Esophageal Stent Placement to Treat a Postoperative Esophageal Stricture in a Toddler.

    PubMed

    Gebrail, Rami; Absah, Imad

    2014-10-01

    Esophageal atresia (EA) is the most common type of gastrointestinal atresia. The most common variant (type C) consists of a blind esophageal pouch with a fistula between the trachea and the distal esophagus. Surgical repair can be complicated by the development of benign stricture. Most strictures are amenable to dilation, but refractory strictures may require surgical intervention. A 24-month-old boy born with tracheoesophageal fistula and EA underwent surgical repair on day 1 of life. He developed esophageal stricture that responded to esophageal stent placement. Endoscopic biliary accessories can be safely used to dilate refractory esophageal strictures in children, and should be considered prior to seeking other complex alternatives. PMID:26157909

  14. Acute Esophageal Necrosis: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Inayat, Faisal; Hurairah, Abu; Virk, Hafeez Ul Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Acute esophageal necrosis (AEN) or “black esophagus” is a rare clinical entity with an unclear etiology. It is diagnosed at upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with the presence of strikingly black necrotic esophagus. The treatment is primarily medical, but the prognosis is generally poor due to advanced age and comorbid illnesses in patients who develop AEN. Herein, we discussed the implications of poor glycemic control in regards with AEN and undertook a literature review of this rare diagnosis. PMID:27583242

  15. Eosinophilic Esophagitis: A Comprehensive Review.

    PubMed

    Cianferoni, Antonella; Spergel, Jonathan

    2016-04-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an emerging chronic atopic clinical-pathologic disease with an estimated prevalence of 1/1000 similar to the one of Crohn's diseases. Usually, EoE is firstly suspected due to symptoms that are caused by esophageal dysfunction and/or fibrosis. EoE diagnosis is confirmed if the esophageal biopsy shows at least 15 eosinophils per high power field (eos/hpf) as a peak value in one or more of at least four specimens obtained randomly from the esophagus. Most of the patients affected by EoE have other atopic diseases such as allergic rhinitis, asthma, IgE-mediated food allergies, and/or atopic dermatitis. The local inflammation is a T helper type 2 (Th2) flogosis, which most likely is driven by a mixed IgE and non-IgE-mediated reaction to food and/or environmental allergens. Recently published genetic studies showed also that EoE is associated with single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) on genes which are important in atopic inflammation such as thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) located close to the Th2 cytokine cluster (IL-4, IL-5, IL-13) on chromosome 5q22. When the EoE diagnosis is made, it is imperative to control the local eosinophilic inflammation not only to give symptomatic relief to the patient but also to prevent complications such as esophageal stricture and food impaction. EoE is treated like many other atopic diseases with a combination of topical steroids and/or food antigen avoidance. PMID:26194940

  16. Pharmacologic influence on esophageal varices

    SciTech Connect

    Lunderquist, A.; Owman, T.; Alwmark, A.; Gullstrand, P.; Hall-Angeras, M.; Joelsson, B.; Tranberg, K.G.; Pettersson, K.I.

    1983-06-01

    Selective catherization of the left gastric vein was performed after percutaneous transhepatic portography (PTP) in patients with portal hypertension and esophageal varices. Following the hypothesis that drugs increasing the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) pressure may obstruct the variceal blood flow throught the lower esophagus, the effect of different drugs (i.e., intravenous injection of vasopressin, pentagastrin, domperidone and somatostatin and subcutaneous injection of metacholine) on the variceal blood flow was examined. Vasopressin did not change the variceal blood flow; pentagastrine, with its known effect of increasing the LES pressure produced a total interruption of the flow in four of eight patients; domperiodone, also known to increase the LES pressure obstructed the variceal blood flow in the only patient examined with this drug; somatostatin has no reported action on the LES but blocked the flow in one of two patients; and metacholine, reported to increase the LES pressure did not produce any change in the flow in the three patients examined. LES pressure was recorded before and during vasopressin infusion in seven patients with portal hypertension and esophageal varices. No reaction on the pressure was found. The patient number in the study is small and the results are nonuniform but still they suggest that drugs increasing the LES tonus might be useful to control variceal blood flow.

  17. Esophageal tuberculosis presenting with hematemesis

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Samit S; Somani, Piyush O; Mahey, Rajeshkumar C; Shah, Dharmesh K; Contractor, Qais Q; Rathi, Pravin M

    2013-01-01

    Esophageal tuberculosis is rare, constituting about 0.3% of gastrointestinal tuberculosis. It presents commonly with dysphagia, cough, chest pain in addition to fever and weight loss. Complications may include hemorrhage from the lesion, development of arterioesophageal fistula, esophagocutaneous fistula or tracheoesophageal fistula. There are very few reports of esophageal tuberculosis presenting with hematemesis due to ulceration. We report a patient with hematemesis that was due to the erosion of tuberculous subcarinal lymph nodes into the esophagus. A 15-year-old boy presented with hemetemesis as his only complaint. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) revealed an eccentric ulcerative lesion involving 50% of circumference of the esophagus. Biopsy showed caseating epitheloid granulomas with lymphocytic infiltrates suggestive of tuberculosis. Computerised tomography of the thorax revealed thickening of the mid-esophagus with enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes in the subcarinal region compressing the esophagus along with moderate right sided pleural effusion. Patient was treated with anti-tuberculosis therapy (Rifampicin, Isoniazid, Pyrazinamide, Ethambutol) for 6 mo. Repeat EGD showed scarring and mucosal tags with complete resolution of the esophageal ulcer. PMID:24255751

  18. Novel device to sample the esophageal microbiome--the esophageal string test.

    PubMed

    Fillon, Sophie A; Harris, J Kirk; Wagner, Brandie D; Kelly, Caleb J; Stevens, Mark J; Moore, Wendy; Fang, Rui; Schroeder, Shauna; Masterson, Joanne C; Robertson, Charles E; Pace, Norman R; Ackerman, Steven J; Furuta, Glenn T

    2012-01-01

    A growing number of studies implicate the microbiome in the pathogenesis of intestinal inflammation. Previous work has shown that adults with esophagitis related to gastroesophageal reflux disease have altered esophageal microbiota compared to those who do not have esophagitis. In these studies, sampling of the esophageal microbiome was accomplished by isolating DNA from esophageal biopsies obtained at the time of upper endoscopy. The aim of the current study was to identify the esophageal microbiome in pediatric individuals with normal esophageal mucosa using a minimally invasive, capsule-based string technology, the Enterotest™. We used the proximal segment of the Enterotest string to sample the esophagus, and term this the "Esophageal String Test" (EST). We hypothesized that the less invasive EST would capture mucosal adherent bacteria present in the esophagus in a similar fashion as mucosal biopsy. EST samples and mucosal biopsies were collected from children with no esophageal inflammation (n = 15) and their microbiome composition determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Microbiota from esophageal biopsies and ESTs produced nearly identical profiles of bacterial genera and were different from the bacterial contents of samples collected from the nasal and oral cavity. We conclude that the minimally invasive EST can serve as a useful device for study of the esophageal microbiome. PMID:22957025

  19. Clinical Application of Esophageal High-resolution Manometry in the Diagnosis of Esophageal Motility Disorders

    PubMed Central

    van Hoeij, Froukje B; Bredenoord, Albert J

    2016-01-01

    Esophageal high-resolution manometry (HRM) is replacing conventional manometry in the clinical evaluation of patients with esophageal symptoms, especially dysphagia. The introduction of HRM gave rise to new objective metrics and recognizable patterns of esophageal motor function, requiring a new classification scheme: the Chicago classification. HRM measurements are more detailed and more easily performed compared to conventional manometry. The visual presentation of acquired data improved the analysis and interpretation of esophageal motor function. This led to a more sensitive, accurate, and objective analysis of esophageal motility. In this review we discuss how HRM changed the way we define and categorize esophageal motility disorders. Moreover, we discuss the clinical applications of HRM for each esophageal motility disorder separately. PMID:26631942

  20. Clinical Application of Esophageal High-resolution Manometry in the Diagnosis of Esophageal Motility Disorders.

    PubMed

    van Hoeij, Froukje B; Bredenoord, Albert J

    2016-01-31

    Esophageal high-resolution manometry (HRM) is replacing conventional manometry in the clinical evaluation of patients with esophageal symptoms, especially dysphagia. The introduction of HRM gave rise to new objective metrics and recognizable patterns of esophageal motor function, requiring a new classification scheme: the Chicago classification. HRM measurements are more detailed and more easily performed compared to conventional manometry. The visual presentation of acquired data improved the analysis and interpretation of esophageal motor function. This led to a more sensitive, accurate, and objective analysis of esophageal motility. In this review we discuss how HRM changed the way we define and categorize esophageal motility disorders. Moreover, we discuss the clinical applications of HRM for each esophageal motility disorder separately. PMID:26631942

  1. Pralatrexate and Oxaliplatin in Treating Patients With Unresectable or Metastatic Esophageal, Stomach, or Gastroesophageal Junction Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-01-11

    Adenocarcinoma of the Gastroesophageal Junction; Esophageal Undifferentiated Carcinoma; Gastric Adenocarcinoma; Gastric Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Esophageal Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Gastric Carcinoma; Stage IIIB Esophageal Adenocarcinoma; Stage IIIB Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IIIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIC Esophageal Adenocarcinoma; Stage IIIC Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IIIC Gastric Cancer; Stage IV Esophageal Adenocarcinoma; Stage IV Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Gastric Cancer; Undifferentiated Gastric Carcinoma

  2. The changing presentation of pyloric stenosis.

    PubMed

    Papadakis, K; Chen, E A; Luks, F I; Lessin, M S; Wesselhoeft, C W; DeLuca, F G

    1999-01-01

    Metabolic abnormalities described in pyloric stenosis are now rare, probably because of prompter recognition of the disease. This report reviews the trend in presentation over three decades. All infants treated for pyloric stenosis during three mid-decade target periods were reviewed. Comparison between the 1975 group and the 1985 group and between the 1995 group and previous decades were designed to identify the impact of ultrasonography, since this modality has only been available in the last decade. Parameters included age at diagnosis and incidence of water and electrolyte imbalance as measures of delay in presentation. Two hundred eighty-three patients were reviewed. Mean age (weeks) at presentation was 5.4+/-3.0 in 1975, 4.6+/-2.0 in 1985, and 3.4+/-1.3 in 1995 (P < .05, ANOVA). Overall, 88% had no electrolyte anomalies on admission. There was no statistical difference in frequency of abnormal results between the three decades. Total and postoperative hospitalization was significantly shorter in the recent period: in 1985, 5.34 and 4.36 days; in 1985, 4.48 and 3.4 days; and in 1995, 3.8 and 2.8 days. These data show that pyloric stenosis is now recognized earlier than in previous decades. The availability of ultrasonography cannot solely be credited for earlier diagnosis, since this trend was already apparent before its introduction. The "classic" metabolic derangements associated with pyloric stenosis have been highly uncommon for the past three decades. PMID:9928704

  3. Nitric oxide transport in an axisymmetric stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiao; Fan, Yubo; Xu, X. Yun; Deng, Xiaoyan

    2012-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that disturbed flow can impede the transport of nitric oxide (NO) in the artery and hence induce atherogenesis, we used a lumen–wall model of an idealized arterial stenosis with NO produced at the blood vessel–wall interface to study the transport of NO in the stenosis. Blood flows in the lumen and through the arterial wall were simulated by Navier–Stokes equations and Darcy's Law, respectively. Meanwhile, the transport of NO in the lumen and the transport of NO within the arterial wall were modelled by advection–diffusion reaction equations. Coupling of fluid dynamics at the endothelium was achieved by the Kedem–Katchalsky equations. The results showed that both the hydraulic conductivity of the endothelium and the non-Newtonian viscous behaviour of blood had little effect on the distribution of NO. However, the blood flow rate, stenosis severity, red blood cells (RBCs), RBC-free layer and NO production rate at the blood vessel–wall interface could significantly affect the transport of NO. The theoretical study revealed that the transport of NO was significantly hindered in the disturbed flow region distal to the stenosis. The reduced NO concentration in the disturbed flow region might play an important role in the localized genesis and development of atherosclerosis. PMID:22593099

  4. 21 CFR 868.1910 - Esophageal stethoscope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Esophageal stethoscope. 868.1910 Section 868.1910 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1910 Esophageal stethoscope....

  5. 21 CFR 868.1910 - Esophageal stethoscope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Esophageal stethoscope. 868.1910 Section 868.1910 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1910 Esophageal stethoscope....

  6. 21 CFR 868.1910 - Esophageal stethoscope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Esophageal stethoscope. 868.1910 Section 868.1910 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1910 Esophageal stethoscope....

  7. 21 CFR 868.1910 - Esophageal stethoscope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Esophageal stethoscope. 868.1910 Section 868.1910 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1910 Esophageal stethoscope....

  8. 21 CFR 868.1910 - Esophageal stethoscope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Esophageal stethoscope. 868.1910 Section 868.1910 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1910 Esophageal stethoscope....

  9. 21 CFR 876.5365 - Esophageal dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Esophageal dilator. 876.5365 Section 876.5365 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5365 Esophageal dilator....

  10. 21 CFR 878.3610 - Esophageal prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Esophageal prosthesis. 878.3610 Section 878.3610 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3610 Esophageal...

  11. 21 CFR 878.3610 - Esophageal prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Esophageal prosthesis. 878.3610 Section 878.3610 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3610 Esophageal...

  12. 21 CFR 878.3610 - Esophageal prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Esophageal prosthesis. 878.3610 Section 878.3610 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3610 Esophageal...

  13. 21 CFR 878.3610 - Esophageal prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Esophageal prosthesis. 878.3610 Section 878.3610 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3610 Esophageal...

  14. Esophageal Impedance Monitoring: Clinical Pearls and Pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Ravi, Karthik; Katzka, David A

    2016-09-01

    The development of intraluminal esophageal impedance monitoring has improved our ability to detect and measure gastroesophageal reflux without dependence on acid content. This ability to detect previously unrecognized weak or nonacid reflux episodes has had important clinical implications in the diagnosis and management of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). In addition, with the ability to assess bolus transit within the esophageal lumen, impedance monitoring has enhanced the recognition and characterization of esophageal motility disorders in patients with nonobstructive dysphagia. The assessment of the intraluminal movement of gas and liquid has also been proven to be of diagnostic value in conditions such as rumination syndrome and excessive belching. Further, alternative applications of impedance monitoring, such as the measurement of mucosal impedance, have provided novel insights into assessing esophageal mucosal integrity changes as a consequence of inflammatory change. Future applications for esophageal impedance monitoring also hold promise in esophageal conditions other than GERD. However, despite all of the clinical benefits afforded by esophageal impedance monitoring, important clinical and technical shortcomings limit its diagnostic value and must be considered when interpreting study results. Overinterpretation of studies or application of impedance monitoring in patients can have deleterious clinical implications. This review will highlight the clinical benefits and limitations of esophageal impedance monitoring and provide clinical pearls and pitfalls associated with this technology. PMID:27325223

  15. Quantification of coronary artery Stenosis by Area Stenosis from cardiac CT angiography.

    PubMed

    Jiayin Zhou; Weimin Huang; Yanling Chi; Yuping Duan; Liang Zhong; Xiaodan Zhao; Junmei Zhang; Wei Xiong; Ru San Tan; Kyaw Kyar Toe

    2015-08-01

    Non-invasive cardiac computed tomography angiography (CTA) is widely used to assess coronary artery stenosis and give clinical decision-making support to clinicians. The severity of stenosis lesion is commonly graded by a range of percent Diameter Stenosis (DS), which can introduce false positive diagnoses or over-estimation, triggering unnecessary further procedures. In this paper, a system and the associate methods to quantify stenosis by the percent Area Stenosis (AS) from cardiac CTA is presented. In the process, coronary artery tree is segmented and the centerline is extracted by Hessian filtering and the minimal path method. After a serial of 2D cross-sectional artery images along the artery centerline are obtained, lumen areas are segmented by ellipse-fitting with deformable models, and consequently to compute the lesion's AS. Experimental results on 5 CTA data sets show that compared to DS, AS better correlates to the reference standard for stenosis quantification, suggesting the efficacy of the proposed system. PMID:26736357

  16. Management of carotid stenosis. History and today

    PubMed Central

    Jargiełło, Tomasz; Drelich-Zbroja, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Internal carotid stenosis constitutes a significant clinical challenge, since it is the cause of 20–25% of ischemic brain strokes. The management of the internal carotid stenosis for many years has been raising controversies amongst neurologists, vascular surgeons and interventional radiologists mainly due to the introduction of endovascular stenting as an alternative to surgical treatment. Its application, however, requires knowledge of specific selection criteria for this kind of treatment as well as of the methods of monitoring patients after stent implantation into the internal carotid artery. Duplex Doppler ultrasound examination is currently a basis for the diagnosis of the arterial stenosis of precranial segments of the carotid arteries. It allows a reliable assessment of not only the course and morphology of the walls, but also of the hemodynamics of blood flow. Interventional treatment is applicable in patients with internal carotid stenosis of ≥70%, which is accompanied by an increase of the systolic flow velocity above 200 cm/s and the end-diastolic velocity above 50–60 cm/s in the stenotic lumen. In most cases, such a diagnosis in duplex Doppler ultrasound examination does not require any confirmation by additional diagnostic methods and if neurological symptoms are also present, it constitutes a single indication for interventional treatment. When deciding about choice of surgical or endovascular method of treatment, the following factors are of crucial importance: morphology of atherosclerotic plaque, its size, echogenicity, homogeneity of its structure, its surface and outlines. By means of ultrasound examinations, patients can be monitored after endovascular stent implantation. They enable evaluation of the degree of stent patency and allow for an early detection of symptoms indicating stenosis recurrence or presence of in-stent thrombosis. When interpreting the findings of the US checkup, it is essential to refer to the initial examination

  17. Improving imaging to optimize screening strategies for carotid artery stenosis.

    PubMed

    Pandya, Ankur; Gupta, Ajay

    2016-01-01

    Carotid stenosis is a major risk factor for ischemic stroke. Recently, the United States Preventive Services Task Force issued a recommendation against screening for carotid stenosis in the general population. There is the potential for efficient risk-stratifying or staged screening approaches that identify individuals at highest risk for carotid stenosis and stroke, but these tools have yet to be proven effective in external validation studies. In this paper, we review how medical imaging can be used to detect carotid stenosis and highlight several areas that could be improved to identify potentially efficient screening strategies for carotid stenosis. PMID:26275846

  18. Management of Post-traumatic Laryngotracheal Stenosis: Our Experience.

    PubMed

    Kandakure, Vinod T; Mishra, Swati; Lahane, Vaibhav J

    2015-09-01

    To describe our experience in management of post-traumatic laryngo-tracheal stenosis by study of various surgical methods. To compare our results with different studies. To find out best surgical procedure. Retrospective study. 13 patients of LTS were analyzed within the period of 2009-2013 highlighting the important causes of stenosis, management based on type and severity of stenosis and outcome following the treatment given. Cases were diagnosed in detail with help of flexible laryngoscopy. Finer details of stenosis like site, length, associated injuries were studied with help of CT scan. Various modalities of treatment were used and outcome was assessed. There were 13 patients 9 males and 4 females. Of these 54 % had iatrogenic stenosis and 46 % had traumatic stenosis. 46 % had true stenosis, remaining cases suffered from either soft stenosis or had associated injuries rendering the stenosis as a complex one. The patients underwent a combined surgical approach which included treatment modalities like T-tube insertion, endoscopic dilatation, laser, and open surgical intervention (tracheal resection and anastomosis). Of all the patient treated 69.2 % were successfully decannulated and recovered well with a satisfactory airway outcome, (23.07 %) cases remained T-tube dependent, 8 % case died due to septicemia. It was evident that prolonged intubation remained most common cause of tracheal stenosis and the management varied depending on the type of stenosis. Simple soft stenosis could be managed well by endoscopic dilatation and laser while complete, complex stenosis required surgical intervention in form of T-tube stenting or open surgical intervention. Tracheal stenosis is a life threatening complication and difficult to manage. It requires multiple approaches and the successful outcome is assessed by patent airway and voice quality. PMID:26405660

  19. Esophageal stents: when and how.

    PubMed

    Kachaamy, Toufic; Pannala, Rahul

    2016-06-01

    Esophageal stents are devices used to alleviate dysphagia and treat leaks and perforations. Successful esophageal stenting requires definition of the abnormal anatomy such as stricture length or location of the leak, proper stent selection and deployment. This requires detailed knowledge of characteristics of the currently available stents. Self-expanding metal stents whether fully or partially covered have become the mainstay of treatment of esophageal cancer-related dysphagia as they provide quick relief of symptoms and have a favorable safety and efficacy profile, compared to other modalities such as radiation, laser, and argon plasma coagulation. They are also the initial treatment of choice for both malignant and benign fistulae. Stents are also used in benign refractory strictures but long-term stricture resolution rates are low in this setting. Fully covered metal stents are relatively easier to remove compared to partially covered stents; optimal time interval for removal depends on the indication for stenting and the clinical status of the patient. Stent related adverse events include chest pain, reflux, migration, and recurrent obstruction. Serious adverse events occur in less than 5% with procedure-related mortality of less than 2%. Techniques such as placement of hemostatic clips, Over The Scope clips, and endoscopic suturing are being used to decrease the migration risk but the optimal approach has not been defined. Antireflux measures are needed when a stent is placed across the gastroesophageal junction. Stents with antireflux designs do not appear to offer additional benefit compared to the conventional stent designs. Newer stent designs including biodegradable, drug eluting and radioactive stents are currently being investigated. PMID:26824424

  20. Endoscopic management of esophageal varices

    PubMed Central

    Poza Cordon, Joaquin; Froilan Torres, Consuelo; Burgos García, Aurora; Gea Rodriguez, Francisco; Suárez de Parga, Jose Manuel

    2012-01-01

    The rupture of gastric varices results in variceal hemorrhage, which is one the most lethal complications of cirrhosis. Endoscopic therapies for varices aim to reduce variceal wall tension by obliteration of the varix. The two principal methods available for esophageal varices are endoscopic sclerotherapy (EST) and band ligation (EBL). The advantages of EST are that it is cheap and easy to use, and the injection catheter fits through the working channel of a diagnostic gastroscope. Endoscopic variceal ligation obliterates varices by causing mechanical strangulation with rubber bands. The following review aims to describe the utility of EBL and EST in different situations, such as acute bleeding, primary and secondary prophylaxis PMID:22816012

  1. Current Gene Expression Studies in Esophageal Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Wei; Jiang, Yao-Guang

    2009-01-01

    Esophageal carcinoma is one of the deadliest cancers with highly aggressive potency, ranking as the sixth most common cancer among males and ninth most common cancer among females globally. Due to metastasis and invasion of surrounding tissues in early stage, the 5-year overall survival rate (14%) of esophageal cancer remains poor, even in comparison with the dismal survival rates (4%) from the 1970s. Numerous genes and proteins with abnormal expression and function involve in the pathogenesis of esophageal cancer, but the concrete process remains unclear. Microarray technique has been applied to investigating esophageal cancer. Many gene expression studies have been undertaken to look at the specific patterns of gene transcript levels in esophageal cancer. Human tissues and cell lines were used in these geneprofiling studies and a very valuable and interesting set of data has resulted from various microarray experiments. These expression studies have provided increased understanding of the complex pathological mechanisms involved in esophageal cancer. The eventual goal of microarray is to discover new markers for therapy and to customize therapy based on an individual tumor genetic composition. This review summarized the current state of gene expression profile studies in esophageal cancer. PMID:20514215

  2. Esophageal motility abnormalities in gastroesophageal reflux disease

    PubMed Central

    Martinucci, Irene; de Bortoli, Nicola; Giacchino, Maria; Bodini, Giorgia; Marabotto, Elisa; Marchi, Santino; Savarino, Vincenzo; Savarino, Edoardo

    2014-01-01

    Esophageal motility abnormalities are among the main factors implicated in the pathogenesis of gastroesophageal reflux disease. The recent introduction in clinical and research practice of novel esophageal testing has markedly improved our understanding of the mechanisms contributing to the development of gastroesophageal reflux disease, allowing a better management of patients with this disorder. In this context, the present article intends to provide an overview of the current literature about esophageal motility dysfunctions in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease. Esophageal manometry, by recording intraluminal pressure, represents the gold standard to diagnose esophageal motility abnormalities. In particular, using novel techniques, such as high resolution manometry with or without concurrent intraluminal impedance monitoring, transient lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxations, hypotensive LES, ineffective esophageal peristalsis and bolus transit abnormalities have been better defined and strongly implicated in gastroesophageal reflux disease development. Overall, recent findings suggest that esophageal motility abnormalities are increasingly prevalent with increasing severity of reflux disease, from non-erosive reflux disease to erosive reflux disease and Barrett’s esophagus. Characterizing esophageal dysmotility among different subgroups of patients with reflux disease may represent a fundamental approach to properly diagnose these patients and, thus, to set up the best therapeutic management. Currently, surgery represents the only reliable way to restore the esophagogastric junction integrity and to reduce transient LES relaxations that are considered to be the predominant mechanism by which gastric contents can enter the esophagus. On that ground, more in depth future studies assessing the pathogenetic role of dysmotility in patients with reflux disease are warranted. PMID:24868489

  3. Role of advanced diagnostics for eosinophilic esophagitis.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Ikuo

    2014-01-01

    In eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), diagnostic tests aid in the identification of pathophysiologic consequences and accurate detection of the disease. The EoE Endoscopic Reference Score (EREFS) classifies and grades the severity of the five major endoscopically identified esophageal features of EoE (edema, rings, exudates, furrows and strictures). The EREFS may be useful in the evaluation of disease severity and as an objective outcome of response to therapy. pH monitoring identifies the presence of abnormal degrees of acid exposure in the esophagus that characterizes gastroesophageal reflux disease. The presence of acid reflux, however, does not indicate that the reflux is responsible for esophageal eosinophilia. Esophageal manometry has not demonstrated a characteristic abnormality with sufficient sensitivity to make the test of diagnostic value in clinical practice. On the other hand, manometric characteristics of esophageal pressurization and longitudinal muscle dysfunction may help identify important pathophysiologic consequences of EoE. Esophageal impedance testing has demonstrated increased baseline mucosal impedance that correlates with increased epithelial permeability in EoE. Reduced mucosal integrity may provide intraluminal allergens access to antigen-presenting cells, serving as an early event in the pathogenesis of EoE. The functional luminal impedance probe (FLIP) provides quantitative assessment of esophageal mural compliance, a physiologic correlate of remodeling in EoE. Studies using FLIP have associated reductions in esophageal distensibility in EoE with the important outcome of food impaction risk. Finally, confocal endomicroscopy, multiphoton fluorescence microscopy and novel eosinophil-enhancing contrast agents are emerging methods that may allow for in vivo visualization of esophageal eosinophilic inflammation, thereby improving the detection and understanding of this emerging disease. PMID:24603385

  4. Esophageal Distensibility as a Measure of Disease Severity in Patients with Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Nicodème, Frédéric; Hirano, Ikuo; Chen, Joan; Robinson, Kenika; Lin, Zhiyue; Xiao, Yinglian; Gonsalves, Nirmala; Kwasny, Mary J; Kahrilas, Peter J; Pandolfino, John E

    2013-01-01

    Background & Aims The aim of this study was to assess whether measurements of esophageal distensibility, made by high-resolution impedance planimetry, correlated with important clinical outcomes in patients with eosinophilic esophagitis. Methods Seventy patients with eosinophilic esophagitis (50 male, ages 18–68) underwent endoscopy with esophageal biopsy collection and high-resolution impedance planimetry using the functional lumen-imaging probe. The patients were followed prospectively for an average of 9.2 months (range 3–14 months), and the risk of food impaction, requirement for dilation; symptom severity during the follow-up period was determined from medical records. Esophageal distensibility metrics and the severity of mucosal eosinophilia at baseline were compared between patients presenting with and without food impaction and those requiring or not requiring esophageal dilation. Logistic regression and stratification assessments were used to assess the predictive value of esophageal distensibility metrics in assessing risk of food impaction, the need for dilation, and continued symptoms. Results Patients with prior food impactions had significantly lower distensibility plateau (DP) values than those with solid food dysphagia alone. Additionally, patients sustaining food impaction and requiring esophageal dilation during the follow-up period had significantly lower DP values than those who did not. The severity of mucosal eosinophilia did not correlate with risk for food impaction, the requirement for dilation during follow up, or DP values. Conclusions Reduced esophageal distensibility predicts risk for food impaction and the requirement for esophageal dilation in patients with eosinophilic esophagitis. The severity of mucosal eosinophilia was not predictive of these outcomes and had a poor correlation with esophageal distensibility. PMID:23591279

  5. [Current management of renal artery stenosis].

    PubMed

    Lenz, T

    2013-12-01

    Severe renal artery stenosis may cause renovascular hypertension; in case of bilateral narrowing or in a stenotic solitary kidney, renal insufficiency (ischemic kidney disease) or rarely pulmonary flush edema may occur. Renal artery stenosis may be treated by revascularization, using either percutaneous (balloon angioplasty, stenting) or less common open surgical procedures, both with excellent primary patency rates. However, randomized trials of renal artery angioplasty or stenting have failed to demonstrate a longer-term benefit with regard to blood pressure control and renal function over medical management alone (except for fibromuscular disease). Furthermore, endovascular procedures are associated with substantial risks. It has not yet been demonstrated that renal revascularization leads to a prolongation of event-free survival. Careful patient selection is essential to maximize the potential benefit. PMID:24217529

  6. Pulmonary Vein Stenosis Mimicking Nonspecific Interstitial Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Linga, Karthika R.; Khoor, Andras; Phelan, Jonathan A.; Mira-Avendano, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary vein stenosis (PVS) is a known complication after catheter ablation of arrhythmias. Surprisingly, little information is available on its manifestations in the lung. We describe the case of a 39-year-old woman who presented from an outside hospital with worsening shortness of breath after catheter ablation of pulmonary veins for atrial fibrillation. After an initial diagnosis of pneumonia and its nonimprovement with antibiotics, a surgical lung biopsy was done and interpreted as nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) with vascular changes consistent with pulmonary arterial hypertension. Later, she was admitted to our institution where a transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE) and subsequent computed tomography (CT) angiogram of the heart showed severe stenosis of all four pulmonary veins. The previous lung biopsy was rereviewed and reinterpreted as severe parenchymal congestion mimicking NSIP. Our case demonstrates that PVS is an underrecognized complication of catheter ablation, and increased awareness among both clinicians and pathologists is necessary to avoid misdiagnosis. PMID:26779359

  7. Diagnosis and Management of Nasopharyngeal Stenosis.

    PubMed

    Berent, Allyson C

    2016-07-01

    Choanal atresia is rare in small animal veterinary medicine, and most cases are misdiagnosed and are actually a nasopharyngeal stenosis (NPS), which is frustrating to treat because of the high recurrence rates encountered after surgical intervention. Minimally invasive treatment options like balloon dilation (BD), metallic stent placement (MS), or covered metallic stent (CMS) placement have been met with success but are associated with various complications that must be considered. The most common complication with BD alone is stenosis recurrence. The most common complications encountered with MS placement is tissue in-growth, chronic infections and the development of an oronasal fistula. The most common complications with a CMS is chronic infections and the development of an oronasal fistula, but stricture recurrence is avoided. PMID:27059368

  8. Laparoscopic management of infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis.

    PubMed

    Gogolja, D; Visnjić, S; Maldini, B; Radesić, L; Roić, G; Zganjer, M; Fattorini, I

    2001-01-01

    Infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis is a common problem in pediatric surgery. Conventional management by the upper laparotomy was the method of choice over the last few decades. Advanced minimally invasive surgery allows successful endoscopic management of this entity too. We report on our initial experience with endoscopic surgery in the treatment of infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis with respect to some technical details. The operative procedure was well tolerated by the infant. After a short and uneventful postoperative course, the infant regained eating habits and was discharged from the hospital on the fifth postoperative day. Our favourable initial experience suggests that laparoscopic pyloromyotomy could be a safe and efficient alternative to the open surgery. PMID:11428282

  9. Eosinophilic esophagitis: emerging therapies and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Straumann, Alex

    2014-06-01

    Twenty years have passed since eosinophilic esophagitis was first recognized as a new and distinct entity. Current treatment modalities for eosinophilic esophagitis include the "3 Ds": drugs, allergen avoidance with diet, and esophageal dilation. Drugs entail the limitation that only corticosteroids have a proven efficacy; most other compounds evoke only a minimal effect. Diets must be maintained continuously and they interfere markedly with the quality of life, possibly even involving some risk of malnutrition. A greater understanding of the immunopathogenesis, natural history, and disease spectrum will inevitably lead to improved therapeutic outcomes for this emerging entity. PMID:24813523

  10. Esophageal melanocytosis in oral opium consumption.

    PubMed

    Geramizadeh, Bita; Asadian, Fatemeh; Taghavi, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    Esophageal melanocytosis is a rare and benign condition, characterized by melanocytic proliferation of the esophageal squamous epithelium with heavy melanin deposition. The etiology and pathogenesis has not been exactly known but it seems to be a chronic stimulus such as gastroesophageal reflux. This condition is very rare and about 35 cases have been reported so far, most of which have been from India and Japan. Herein, we present a case of esophageal melanocytosis in a patient with long history of oral opium consumption. To the best of our knowledge, such a history has not been reported. PMID:24719715

  11. [Oral blastomycosis, laryngeal papillomatosis and esophageal tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Montoya, Manuel; Chumbiraico, Robert; Ricalde, Melvin; Cazorla, Ernesto; Hernández-Córdova, Gustavo

    2012-06-01

    Esophageal involvement is an extremely rare complication of tuberculosis even in countries with high prevalence of infection. We report the case of a 57 year-old hiv-seronegative patient with simultaneous diagnoses of oral blastomycosis and laryngeal papillomatosis. Both were confirmed by anatomopathological analysis. The esophageal biopsy revealed granulomatous esophagitis with necrosis and ziehl-neelsen stain showed acid-fast alcohol resistant bacilli suggestive of tuberculosis. The patient's history included pulmonary tuberculosis twice and previous abandonment of therapy. Thus, it was necessary to use oral itraconazole combined with second-line anti-tuberculosis drugs administered through a gastrostomy tube. The clinical development was favorable. PMID:22858774

  12. Developmental spinal canal stenosis and somatotype.

    PubMed Central

    Nightingale, S

    1989-01-01

    The hypothesis that somatotype and cervical spine developmental canal stenosis may be associated has been investigated by anthropometry and measurement of lateral projection cervical spine radiographs. A significant association of canal size with somatotype has been found such that those with developmentally narrow canals are more likely to have relatively shorter long-bones, particularly in the upper arm, and longer trunks. Images PMID:2769282

  13. Carbon dioxide laser stomaplasty for tracheostomal stenosis.

    PubMed

    Sani, A

    1998-05-01

    A method of treating tracheostomal stenosis post-laryngectomy is described. The carbon dioxide (CO2) laser is used to fashion and ablate two triangular areas lateral to the stenosed stoma to provide an immediate enlarged stoma for comfortable breathing. This simple procedure is done under local anaesthesia, is almost bloodless, safe and takes just 10 minutes. Over the last five years eight patients underwent this procedure and seven had a satisfactory stoma without the need to use a tracheostomy tube. PMID:9747477

  14. Post Intubation Tracheal Stenosis in Children

    PubMed Central

    Caruselli, Marco; Amici, Mirco; Galante, Dario; Paut, Olivier; De Francisci, Giovanni; Carboni, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Many authors have reported that tracheal stenosis is a complication that can follow tracheal intubation in both adults and children. The symptoms, when they do appear, can be confused with asthma, with subsequent treatment providing only mild and inconsistent relief. We report here the case of an 8 year old girl admitted to our hospital for whooping cough that was not responding to therapy. PMID:25635215

  15. Punctal stenosis: definition, diagnosis, and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Soiberman, Uri; Kakizaki, Hirohiko; Selva, Dinesh; Leibovitch, Igal

    2012-01-01

    Acquired punctal stenosis is a condition in which the external opening of the lacrimal canaliculus is narrowed or occluded. This condition is a rare cause of symptomatic epiphora, but its incidence may be higher in patients with chronic blepharitis, in those treated with various topical medications, including antihypertensive agents, and especially in patients treated with taxanes for cancer. The purpose of this review is to cover the medical literature, focusing in particular on definition, incidence, risk factors, etiology and treatment options. PMID:22848141

  16. Duplex scan sonography of renal artery stenosis.

    PubMed

    Rabbia, C; Valpreda, S

    2003-06-01

    Renal artery stenosis is the most common cause of potentially remediable secondary hypertension. The most common causes include atherosclerosis and fibromuscular dysplasia. Particularly the atherosclerotic form is a progressive disease that may lead to gradual and silent loss of renal functional tissue. Thus, early diagnosis of renal artery stenosis is an important clinical objective since interventional therapy may improve or cure hypertension and preserve renal function. Screening for renal artery stenosis is indicated in the suspicion of renovascular hypertension or ischemic nephropathy in order to identify patients in which an endoluminal or a surgical revascularization is advisable. In the recent years many noninvasive tests have been proposed and evaluated in the clinical practice, in alternative to arteriography. These include nuclear scan, color Doppler sonography, CT angiography and MR angiography. Sonography is usually the first diagnostic modality for the non invasive evaluation of renal vascular disease with 95% sensitivity and 90% specificity when performed in dedicated laboratories. Despite sonography is highly affected by operator dependence, and it takes a lot of time to train good operators, actually is the best screening test because it is not expensive, non invasive and accurate. When a discrepancy exists between the clinical data and the results of US, other tests are mandatory. PMID:12865875

  17. [Idiopathic Progressive Subglottic Stenosis: Surgical Techniques].

    PubMed

    Hoetzenecker, K; Schweiger, T; Klepetko, W

    2016-09-01

    Idiopathic subglottic stenosis is a disease characterized by slow, progressive scarring and constriction of the subglottic airway. It almost always occurs in females between the 3rd and 5th decade of life. Symptoms are frequently misinterpreted as asthma and patients are referred for endoscopic evaluation only when asthma medications fail to alleviate their symptoms. Treatment options can be divided into endoscopic and open surgical techniques. Microlaryngoscopic scar reduction by laser followed by balloon dilation usually delivers good short-term results. However, the majority of patients will experience restenosis within a short period of time. Open surgical correction techniques are based on a complete removal of the affected airway segment. This must be combined with various extended resection techniques in patients with advanced stenosis. Depending on the extent and severity of the stenosis the following surgical techniques are required: standard cricotracheal resection (Grillo's technique), cricoplasty with dorsal and lateral mucosaplasty, or a combination of resection and enlargement techniques using rib cartilage grafts. In experienced centres, success rates of over 95 % are reported with good functional outcome of voice and deglutition. PMID:27607884

  18. Vascular stenosis asymmetry influences considerably pressure gradient and flow volume.

    PubMed

    Novakova, L; Kolinsky, J; Adamec, J; Kudlicka, J; Malik, J

    2016-01-01

    Vascular stenosis is often described only by its percentage in both clinical and scientific praxis. Previous studies gave inconclusive results regarding the effect of stenosis eccentricity on its hemodynamic effect. The aim of this experimental study was to investigate and quantify the effect of stenosis severity and eccentricity on the pressure drop. A combination of pressure and flow measurements by Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV) method was used. Models of the same stenosis significance but with different levels of eccentricity were studied in vitro by PIV. This study has shown that stenosis asymmetry is associated with more profound pressure drop and flow volume decrease. On the contrary, pressure drop and flow volume decrease were not further significantly influenced by the level of asymmetry. Hemodynamic changes associated with stenosis eccentricity must be taken into account in both clinical and scientific studies. PMID:26596320

  19. Alcohol, Obesity Could Raise Esophageal Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160133.html Alcohol, Obesity Could Raise Esophageal Cancer Risk A third of ... at the American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR). "Obesity is now linked to 11 types of cancer ...

  20. Multidisciplinary management for esophageal and gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Boniface, Megan M; Wani, Sachin B; Schefter, Tracey E; Koo, Phillip J; Meguid, Cheryl; Leong, Stephen; Kaplan, Jeffrey B; Wingrove, Lisa J; McCarter, Martin D

    2016-01-01

    The management of esophageal and gastric cancer is complex and involves multiple specialists in an effort to optimize patient outcomes. Utilizing a multidisciplinary team approach starting from the initial staging evaluation ensures that all members are in agreement with the plan of care. Treatment selection for esophageal and gastric cancer often involves a combination of chemotherapy, radiation, surgery, and palliative interventions (endoscopic and surgical), and direct communication between specialists in these fields is needed to ensure appropriate clinical decision making. At the University of Colorado, the Esophageal and Gastric Multidisciplinary Clinic was created to bring together all experts involved in treating these diseases at a weekly conference in order to provide patients with coordinated, individualized, and patient-centered care. This review details the essential elements and benefits of building a multidisciplinary program focused on treating esophageal and gastric cancer patients. PMID:27217796

  1. 21 CFR 878.3610 - Esophageal prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3610 Esophageal prosthesis... of a plastic, metal, or polymeric material that is intended to be implanted to restore the...

  2. Esophageal papilloma: Flexible endoscopic ablation by radiofrequency

    PubMed Central

    del Genio, Gianmattia; del Genio, Federica; Schettino, Pietro; Limongelli, Paolo; Tolone, Salvatore; Brusciano, Luigi; Avellino, Manuela; Vitiello, Chiara; Docimo, Giovanni; Pezzullo, Angelo; Docimo, Ludovico

    2015-01-01

    Squamous papilloma of the esophagus is a rare benign lesion of the esophagus. Radiofrequency ablation is an established endoscopic technique for the eradication of Barrett esophagus. No cases of endoscopic ablation of esophageal papilloma by radiofrequency ablation (RFA) have been reported. We report a case of esophageal papilloma successfully treated with a single session of radiofrequency ablation. Endoscopic ablation of the lesion was achieved by radiofrequency using a new catheter inserted through the working channel of endoscope. The esophageal ablated tissue was removed by a specifically designed cup. Complete ablation was confirmed at 3 mo by endoscopy with biopsies. This case supports feasibility and safety of as a new potential indication for BarrxTM RFA in patients with esophageal papilloma. PMID:25789102

  3. Tissue engineering: an option for esophageal replacement?

    PubMed

    Zani, Augusto; Pierro, Agostino; Elvassore, Nicola; De Coppi, Paolo

    2009-02-01

    Esophageal replacement is required in several pediatric surgical conditions, like long-gap esophageal atresia. Although several techniques have been described to bridge the gap, all of them could be followed by postoperative complications. Esophageal tissue engineering could represent a valid alternative thanks to the recent advances in biomaterial science and cellular biology. Numerous attempts to shape a new esophagus in vitro have been described in the last decade. Herein, we review the main studies on the experimental use of nonabsorbable and absorbable materials as well as the development of cellularized patches. Furthermore, we describe the future perspectives of esophageal tissue engineering characterized by the use of stem cells seeded on new biopolymers. This opens to the construction of a functional allograft that could allow an anatomical replacement that grows with the children and does not severely impair their anatomy. PMID:19103424

  4. Management of delayed intrathoracic esophageal perforation with modified intraluminal esophageal stent.

    PubMed

    Zhou, J-H; Gong, T-Q; Jiang, Y-G; Wang, R-W; Zhao, Y-P; Tan, Q-Y; Ma, Z; Lin, Y-D; Deng, B

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we reviewed our experience of treatment of the delayed intrathoracic nonmalignant esophageal perforation employing modified intraluminal esophageal stent. Between February 1990 and August 2006, eight patients were included in this study. Five patients experienced sepsis. The interval time between perforation and stent placement ranged from 36 h to 27 days (average, 8.6 days). Esophageal stenting and throracotomy for foreign body removal were performed in four patients. The remaining four patients underwent stent placement and thoracostomy. Nutrition was initiated through gastrostomy after 7 to 10 days after the stenting. The stent was removed after the patients resumed oral intake of food and the esophagogram showed that perforation was closed. There was no death in this group. Signs of sepsis remitted 1 week after stent placement. Complications included stress ulcer, stimulative cough, and pneumonia each. Stent removal ranged 32 to 120 days (average 66.7) after its placement. The stent was kept in place for 4 months to prevent formation of esophageal stricture in one patient with caustic esophageal burns. The follow-up was completed in all the patients. The mean follow-up period was 59 months (range 12-180). One patient with caustic esophageal burn underwent cicatricial esophagectomy and gastric transposition 3 years later due to the esophageal stricture. Barium swallow demonstrated that there was a diverticulum-like outpouching in one patient and slight esophageal stricture at T2 and T3 level in another. One patient developed reflux esophagitis 5 years after stent removal. All the patients finally had a normal intake of food. Modified esophageal stenting is an effective method to manage the delayed intrathoracic esophageal perforation. Prevention of stent migration and its convenient adjustment might be the major advantages of this method. PMID:19191858

  5. Takayasu Arteritis with Bilateral Renal Artery Stenosis and Left Subclavian Artery Stenosis in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Nalini, Sharma; Santa, Singh Ahanthem

    2015-09-01

    Takayasu arteritis (TA) is a rare, systemic, chronic inflammatory, progressive, idiopathic disease of aorta and its main branches. It causes narrowing, occlusion and aneurysm of arteries. It affects mainly young females in about 80-90% of cases (young female arteritis). TA has adverse effect on pregnancy in the form of abortion, superimposed preeclampsia, IUGR (Intrauterine growth restriction), IUFD (intrauterine fetal death), abruption and CCF (congestive cardiac failure). Careful assessment, treatment of TA complication, regular antenatal followup and multidisciplinary approach involving obstetrician, cardiologist, rheumatologist and anaesthetist improve maternal and fetal outcome. We described here a case of pregnancy with TA with bilateral renal artery stenosis and left subclavian artery stenosis. PMID:26500964

  6. Takayasu Arteritis with Bilateral Renal Artery Stenosis and Left Subclavian Artery Stenosis in Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Santa, Singh Ahanthem

    2015-01-01

    Takayasu arteritis (TA) is a rare, systemic, chronic inflammatory, progressive, idiopathic disease of aorta and its main branches. It causes narrowing, occlusion and aneurysm of arteries. It affects mainly young females in about 80-90% of cases (young female arteritis). TA has adverse effect on pregnancy in the form of abortion, superimposed preeclampsia, IUGR (Intrauterine growth restriction), IUFD (intrauterine fetal death), abruption and CCF (congestive cardiac failure). Careful assessment, treatment of TA complication, regular antenatal followup and multidisciplinary approach involving obstetrician, cardiologist, rheumatologist and anaesthetist improve maternal and fetal outcome. We described here a case of pregnancy with TA with bilateral renal artery stenosis and left subclavian artery stenosis. PMID:26500964

  7. Clinical application of endoscopic ultrasonography for esophageal achalasia.

    PubMed

    Minami, Hitomi; Inoue, Haruhiro; Isomoto, Hajime; Urabe, Shigetoshi; Nakao, Kazuhiko

    2015-04-01

    Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) has been widely used for evaluating the nature of diseases of various organs. The possibility of applying EUS for esophageal motility diseases has not been well discussed despite its versatility. At present, peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) for esophageal achalasia and related diseases has brought new attention to esophageal diseases because POEM provides a more direct approach to the inner structures of the esophageal wall. In the present study, we discuss the clinical utility of EUS in evaluating and treating esophageal motility diseases such as esophageal achalasia and related diseases. PMID:25573637

  8. Pancreaticoduodenal Artery Aneurysm Formation with Superior Mesenteric Artery Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Kitaoka, Tadashi; Kamiya, Chiaki; Suzuki, Jun; Sato, Osamu

    2014-01-01

    Celiac stenosis or occlusion is attributed partly to increase blood flow at pancreatic arcade from the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) system and may play a causal role in true aneurysm of pancreaticoduodenal artery (PDAA) formation. However, despite possible increased blood flow in the pancreatic arcades like celiac stenosis, PDAAs with a stenotic SMA are extremely rare, with only three cases have been reported in the literature. We report a case of PDAA with SMA stenosis and review the literature. PMID:25298835

  9. The medical management of renal artery stenosis in transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Jachuck, S J; Wilkinson, R; Uldall, P R; Elliott, R W; Taylor, R M; Hacking, P M

    1979-01-01

    The investigation, management and clinical course of 12 patients developing stenosis of the renal artery following transplantation are described. The possible aetiology of the three arteriographic patterns of stenosis is discussed. Surgical correction of graft arterial stenosis is difficult and may lead to graft loss, whereas the outcome with antihypertensive drug treatment with or without anticoagulants is good. Surgery should only be contemplated if medical treatment is failing or if renal function is deteriorating. PMID:369641

  10. Pulmonary Vein Stenosis in a Newborn: A Commonly Overlooked Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Bravo-valenzuela, Nathalie Jeanne Magioli; Silva, Guilherme Ricardo Nunes; Varella, Marcela Pinto

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis of primary pulmonary vein stenosis is often overlooked because its symptoms overlap lung diseases and pulmonary arterial hypertension. Its diagnosis may be difficult because the condition is progressive and associated with other defects. We present a case of pulmonary vein stenosis in a newborn with stenosis of the left-sided common pulmonary vein, diffuse hypoplasia of the superior right pulmonary vein, and atresia of the inferior right pulmonary vein. PMID:26457207