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1

Cholinesterase activities as potential biomarkers : characterization in two freshwater1 snails, Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Mollusca, Hydrobiidae, Smith 1889) and Valvata2  

E-print Network

, Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Mollusca, Hydrobiidae, Smith 1889) and Valvata2 piscinalis (Mollusca, Valvatidae, M gastropod mollusks, Potamopyrgus antipodarum and27 Valvata piscinalis, in order to ascertain their value pesticide contamination.40 41 Keywords42 Cholinesterase activity; substrates; Potamopyrgus antipodarum

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

2

Nueva dramaturgia mexicana  

E-print Network

San Diego State University, University of San Diego y Universidad Autónoma de Baja, California, San Diego, California, 4-6 de Abril, 1984. 14 LATIN AMERICAN THEATRE REVIEW Desgranaré algunos nombres de este movimiento de nueva dramaturgia: Osear...: "Diversidad es lo que podríamos señalar, proponen obras sobre temas últimos, con formas neoexpresionistas, exploran la realidad más inmediata a través de un casi naturalismo o de un realismo bien depurado, y no le hacen caso al costumbrismo."4 ¿Y qué...

Schmidhuber, Guillermo

1984-10-01

3

The Complete Mitochondrial Genome of Galba pervia (Gastropoda: Mollusca), an Intermediate Host Snail of Fasciola spp  

PubMed Central

Complete mitochondrial (mt) genomes and the gene rearrangements are increasingly used as molecular markers for investigating phylogenetic relationships. Contributing to the complete mt genomes of Gastropoda, especially Pulmonata, we determined the mt genome of the freshwater snail Galba pervia, which is an important intermediate host for Fasciola spp. in China. The complete mt genome of G. pervia is 13,768 bp in length. Its genome is circular, and consists of 37 genes, including 13 genes for proteins, 2 genes for rRNA, 22 genes for tRNA. The mt gene order of G. pervia showed novel arrangement (tRNA-His, tRNA-Gly and tRNA-Tyr change positions and directions) when compared with mt genomes of Pulmonata species sequenced to date, indicating divergence among different species within the Pulmonata. A total of 3655 amino acids were deduced to encode 13 protein genes. The most frequently used amino acid is Leu (15.05%), followed by Phe (11.24%), Ser (10.76%) and IIe (8.346%). Phylogenetic analyses using the concatenated amino acid sequences of the 13 protein-coding genes, with three different computational algorithms (maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian analysis), all revealed that the families Lymnaeidae and Planorbidae are closely related two snail families, consistent with previous classifications based on morphological and molecular studies. The complete mt genome sequence of G. pervia showed a novel gene arrangement and it represents the first sequenced high quality mt genome of the family Lymnaeidae. These novel mtDNA data provide additional genetic markers for studying the epidemiology, population genetics and phylogeographics of freshwater snails, as well as for understanding interplay between the intermediate snail hosts and the intra-mollusca stages of Fasciola spp.. PMID:22844544

Huang, Wei-Yi; Zhao, Guang-Hui; Wei, Shu-Jun; Song, Hui-Qun; Xu, Min-Jun; Lin, Rui-Qing; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Zhu, Xing-Quan

2012-01-01

4

Comparative genomics of vesicomyid clam (Bivalvia: Mollusca) chemosynthetic symbionts  

PubMed Central

Background The Vesicomyidae (Bivalvia: Mollusca) are a family of clams that form symbioses with chemosynthetic gamma-proteobacteria. They exist in environments such as hydrothermal vents and cold seeps and have a reduced gut and feeding groove, indicating a large dependence on their endosymbionts for nutrition. Recently, two vesicomyid symbiont genomes were sequenced, illuminating the possible nutritional contributions of the symbiont to the host and making genome-wide evolutionary analyses possible. Results To examine the genomic evolution of the vesicomyid symbionts, a comparative genomics framework, including the existing genomic data combined with heterologous microarray hybridization results, was used to analyze conserved gene content in four vesicomyid symbiont genomes. These four symbionts were chosen to include a broad phylogenetic sampling of the vesicomyid symbionts and represent distinct chemosynthetic environments: cold seeps and hydrothermal vents. Conclusion The results of this comparative genomics analysis emphasize the importance of the symbionts' chemoautotrophic metabolism within their hosts. The fact that these symbionts appear to be metabolically capable autotrophs underscores the extent to which the host depends on them for nutrition and reveals the key to invertebrate colonization of these challenging environments. PMID:19055818

Newton, Irene LG; Girguis, Peter R; Cavanaugh, Colleen M

2008-01-01

5

Spermatozoan ultrastructure in the trigonioid bivalve Neotrigonia margaritacea Lamarck (Mollusca): Comparison with other bivalves, especially Trigonioida and Unionoida  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spermatozoa of the trigonioid bivalve Neotrigonia margaritacea (Lamarck) (Trigoniidae, Trigonioida) are examined ultrastructurally. A cluster of discoidal, proacrosomal vesicles (between 9 to 15 in number) constitutes the acrosomal complex at the nuclear apex. The nucleus is short (2.4 2.6 ?m long, maximum diameter 2.2 ?m), blunt-conical in shape, and exhibits irregular lacunae within its contents. Five or sometimes four round mitochondria are impressed into shallow depressions in the base of the nucleus as is a discrete centriolar fossa. The mitochondria surround two orthogonally arranged centrioles to form, collectively, the midpiece region. The distal centriole, anchored by nine satellite fibres to the plasma membrane, acts as a basal body to the sperm flagellum. The presence of numerous proacrosomal vesicles instead of a single, conical acrosomal vesicle sets Neotrigonia (and the Trigonioida) apart from other bivalves, with the exception of the Unionoida which are also known to exhibit this multivesicular condition. Spermatozoa of N. margaritacea are very similar to those of the related species Neotrigonia bednalli (Verco) with the exception that the proacrosomal vesicles of N. margaritacea are noticeably larger than those of N. bednalli.

Healy, J. M.

1996-06-01

6

Multi-Gene Analyses of the Phylogenetic Relationships among the Mollusca, Annelida, and Arthropoda  

Microsoft Academic Search

Donald J. Colgan, Patricia A. Hutchings, and Emma Beacham (2008) Multi-gene analyses of the phylogenetic relationships among the Mollusca, Annelida, and Arthropoda. Zoological Studies 47(3): 338-351. The current understanding of metazoan relationships is largely based on analyses of 18S ribosomal RNA ('18S rRNA'). In this paper, DNA sequence data from 2 segments of 28S rRNA, cytochrome c oxidase subunit I,

Donald J. Colgan; Patricia A. Hutchings; Emma Beacham

7

Lidocaine and prilocaine toxicity in a patient receiving treatment for mollusca contagiosa.  

PubMed

We describe a 3-year-old child with mollusca contagiosa whose caregiver applied a eutectic mixture of 5% lidocaine and prilocaine (EMLA) in excessive amounts with the subsequent development of adverse reactions, including methemoglobinemia and hypoxemia. Because of the significant systemic absorption of lidocaine and prilocaine, the patient required overnight admission to the pediatric intensive care unit for close monitoring. A brief description of the proper dosing, pharmacokinetics, and possible side effects of EMLA cream are reviewed. PMID:11174427

Touma, S; Jackson, J B

2001-02-01

8

Uma nova espécie de Trichodina Ehrenberg, 1838 (Ciliophora: Trichodinidae) em Biomphalaria schrammi (Crosse, 1864) (Mollusca: Planorbidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new species of Trichodina Ehrenberg, 1838 (Ciliophora: Peritrichida) in Biomphalaria schrammi (Crosse, 1864) (Mollusca: Gastropoda). A new species of Peritrichida found in Biomphalaria schrammi (Crosse, 1864) is described. This new species is characterized by a reticular central area of the adhesive disc and a horseshoe-shaped macronucleus, a 80.0 ± 7 µm-diameter celular body and a 41.4 ± 2.9 µm

Hudson A. Pinto; Alfredo H. Wieloch; Alan L de Melo

9

Effects of Cadmium Exposure on Embryogenesis of Stagnicola elodes (Mollusca, Gastropoda): Potential Consequences for Parasite Transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments on the toxicity of cadmium (Cd2+) to the embryonic development of Stagnicola elodes (Mollusca, Gastropoda), obligatory first intermediate host of numerous trematodes of pathogenic importance, were carried\\u000a out as part of a study on the effects of metal pollution on host-parasite relationships. Freshly laid snail eggs were exposed\\u000a to Cd concentrations of 0, 0.02, 0.2, and 2.0 mg Cd2+\\/L,

M. Pietrock; T. Meinelt; D. J. Marcogliese

2008-01-01

10

[Presence of glochidia of Diplodon chilensis Hass 1931 (Mollusca, Pelecypoda) in Patagonian freshwater fishes].  

PubMed

The presence of glochidia of Diplodon chilensis Haas 1931 (Mollusca, Pelecypoda) has been reported in gills of wild freshwater fish in the Argentinian Patagonia. Death occurrences due to glochidiasis have not been observed either in wild fish or in cultured fish. The records of Oncorhynchus mykiss, Galaxias platei, Patagonia hatcheri and Percichtys trucha extend the number of known hosts for D. chilensis and add new localities, thus extending the distributions of the mollusc. PMID:7654294

Semenas, L; Ortubay, S; Ubeda, C

1994-01-01

11

Evolutionary pattern and process within the Vertigo gouldii (Mollusca: Pulmonata, Pupillidae) group of minute North American land snails  

E-print Network

Evolutionary pattern and process within the Vertigo gouldii (Mollusca: Pulmonata, Pupillidae) group in the Vertigo gouldii group was conducted on 73 individuals sampled across North America using DNA sequence data of the traditional V. gouldii group may be more closely related to V. modesta. They also suggest that V. gouldii may

Bergthorsson, Ulfar

12

Freshwater snails (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from the Commonwealth of Dominica with a discussion of their roles in the transmission of parasites  

E-print Network

Freshwater snails (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from the Commonwealth of Dominica with a discussion-13, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, U.S.A. Abstract: We collected six species of freshwater snails from-emerged as a prominent component of the freshwater snail fauna since it disappeared or was locally eradicated

Dillon, Robert T.

13

The mitochondrial genome of the sipunculid Phascolopsis gouldii supports its association with Annelida rather than Mollusca  

SciTech Connect

We have determined the sequence of about half (7470 nts) of the mitochondrial genome of the sipunculid Phascolopsis gouldii, the first representative of this phylum to be so studied. All of the 19 identified genes are transcribed from the same DNA strand. The arrangement of these genes is remarkably similar to that of the oligochaete annelid Lumbricus terrestris. Comparison of both the inferred amino acid sequences and the gene arrangements of a variety of diverse metazoan taxa reveals that the phylum Sipuncula is more closely related to Annelida than to Mollusca. This requires reinterpretation of the homology of several embryological features and of patterns of animal body plan evolution.

Boore, Jeffrey L.; Staton, Joseph

2001-09-01

14

Contrasting Sensitivities to Fluoride Toxicity between Juveniles and Adults of the Aquatic Snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Hydrobiidae, Mollusca)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In contrast to aquatic vertebrates, there is scarce available information on the contrasting tolerance to fluoride of different\\u000a life stages and\\/or sizes of aquatic invertebrates. The purpose of this study was to assess the likely differences in sensitivity\\u000a between juveniles and adults of the aquatic snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Hydrobiidae, Mollusca) to short-term (4 days) toxicity of fluoride ion (F?). LC50 and

Aránzazu Aguirre-Sierra; Álvaro Alonso; Julio A. Camargo

2011-01-01

15

Els Esferíids (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Sphaeriidae) dels Països Catalans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Als Països Catalans han estat trobades 13 especies de bivalves esfenids: Sphaerium (S.)\\u000acorneum, S. (Musculium) lacustre, Pisidiurn (P.) amnicum, P. (Cyclocalyx) casertanum, P. (C.) personatum,\\u000aP. (C.) obtusale, P. (C.) milium, P. (C.) subtruncatum, P. (C.) lilljeborgii, P. (C.) hibernicum,\\u000aP. (C.) nitidum, P. (Neopisidium) moitessierianum<\\/i> i P. (Odhneripisidium) tenuilineatum<\\/i>. Es descriuen i il?lustren les conquilles de cada espècie,

Cristian R. Altaba

1999-01-01

16

A video-based tracking analysis to assess the chronic toxic effects of fluoride ion on the aquatic snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Hydrobiidae, Mollusca).  

PubMed

Short-term lethal bioassays are not suited for assessing the real effects of pollutants in natural ecosystems, as their concentrations are usually unrealistic under an ecological point of view. By contrast, chronic bioassays are more realistic for assessing effects on aquatic animals, especially when behavioural endpoints are used. These endpoints are a good link between physiological and ecological effects. Among behavioural bioassays, those based on automated image analysis following video-recording have the advantage of being quantitative and non-subjective tests. The present study focuses on the assessment of chronic (63 days) effects of fluoride ion (F?) on the survival, proportion of affected animals (dead plus immobile animals) and several behavioural endpoints (monitored by video-recording and image analysis system) of the aquatic snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Hydrobiidae, Mollusca). The bioassay consisted of one control and three actual fluoride concentrations (4.68, 18.6, and 37.1 mg F?/L) with 12 replicates in each treatment. The endpoints were monitored every 7 day of continuous exposure to fluoride ion. The highest fluoride concentrations killed all animals at the end of the bioassay. By contrast no animals died in the lowest fluoride treatment, but snails showed several alterations of behaviour: increase heterogeneity of velocity among successive recording periods, increase of the time to escape from a marked circle, and reduction of the heterogeneity in the utilization of space. Therefore, most of the behavioural endpoints were sensitive to environmentally realistic non-lethal fluoride concentrations, being useful parameters for ecological risk assessment. The ecological relevance of these findings is discussed. PMID:22565089

Alonso, Álvaro; Camargo, Julio A

2012-07-01

17

Fast evolving 18S rRNA sequences from Solenogastres (Mollusca) resist standard PCR amplification and give new insights into mollusk substitution rate heterogeneity  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The 18S rRNA gene is one of the most important molecular markers, used in diverse applications such as molecular phylogenetic analyses and biodiversity screening. The Mollusca is the second largest phylum within the animal kingdom and mollusks show an outstanding high diversity in body plans and ecological adaptations. Although an enormous amount of 18S data is available for higher

Achim Meyer; Christiane Todt; Nina T Mikkelsen; Bernhard Lieb

2010-01-01

18

Contrasting sensitivities to fluoride toxicity between juveniles and adults of the aquatic snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Hydrobiidae, Mollusca).  

PubMed

In contrast to aquatic vertebrates, there is scarce available information on the contrasting tolerance to fluoride of different life stages and/or sizes of aquatic invertebrates. The purpose of this study was to assess the likely differences in sensitivity between juveniles and adults of the aquatic snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Hydrobiidae, Mollusca) to short-term (4 days) toxicity of fluoride ion (F(-)). LC50 and EC50 values for juveniles were significantly lower than those for adults at 24, 48, 72 and 96 h. Based on our results, the use of fluoride data of bioassays with juveniles should provide more protective water quality criteria than data from adult stage. PMID:21424710

Aguirre-Sierra, Aránzazu; Alonso, Alvaro; Camargo, Julio A

2011-05-01

19

A review of the non-bulimulid terrestrial Mollusca from the Region of Atacama, northern Chile  

PubMed Central

Abstract Terrestrial mollusca are sparsely studied in Chile and, for the first time, a formal record of the diversity of land snails in northern Chile is reported. Coastal and desertic areas in the Region of Atacama, in the border of the Atacama desert and the Pacific Ocean, were surveyed with the aim to describe the presence and distribution of this poorly known fauna. Of the fourteen species recorded, the geographic distribution records for nine species are extended, and some taxa are recorded for the first time since their original descriptions. All, except one, of the fourteen terrestrial molluscan species occurring in the area are endemic to Chile; they are all terrestrial species, most of them have a restricted geographic distribution, and none of them is currently protected by law. The results reveal that the region of Atacama has one of the most diverse terrestrial snail biodiversity in Chile, ranking only after the Juan Fernandez Archipelago. Distribution records of all the studied species and a taxonomic key are also provided. PMID:24715800

Araya, Juan Francisco; Catalán, Ricardo

2014-01-01

20

Annotated type catalogue of the Orthalicoidea (Mollusca, Gastropoda) in the Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin.  

PubMed

The type status is described of 96 taxa classified within the superfamily Orthalicoidea and present in the Mollusca collection of the Museum für Naturkunde der Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin. Lectotypes are designated for the following taxa: Orthalicus elegans Rolle, 1895; Bulimus maranhonensis Albers, 1854; Orthalicus nobilis Rolle, 1895; Orthalichus tricinctus Martens, 1893. Orthalicus sphinx tresmariae is introduced as new name for Zebra sphinx turrita Strebel, 1909, not Zebra quagga turrita Strebel, 1909. The following synonyms are established: Zebra crosseifischeri Strebel, 1909 = Orthalicus princeps fischeri Martens, 1893; Orthalicus isabellinus Martens, 1873 = Orthalicus bensoni (Reeve, 1849); Zebra zoniferus naesiotes Strebel, 1909 = Orthalicus undatus (Bruguière, 1789); Porphyrobaphe (Myiorthalicus) dennisoni pallida Strebel, 1909 = Hemibulimus dennisoni (Reeve, 1848); Zebra delphinus pumilio Strebel, 1909 = Orthalicus delphinus (Strebel, 1909); Orthalicus (Laeorthalicus) reginaeformis Strebel, 1909 = Corona perversa (Swainson, 1821); Bulimus (Eurytus) corticosus Sowerby III, 1895 = Plekocheilus (Eurytus) stuebeli Martens, 1885. The taxon Bulimus (Eudioptus) psidii Martens, 1877 is now placed within the family Sagdidae, tentatively in the genus Platysuccinea. Appendices are included with an index to all the types of Orthalicoidea extant (including those listed by Köhler 2007) and a partial list of letters present in the correspondence archives. PMID:23794831

Breure, Abraham S H

2013-01-01

21

Genetic divergence and geographic variation in the deep-water Conus orbignyi complex (Mollusca: Conoidea)  

PubMed Central

Puillandre, N. et al. (2010) Genetic divergence and geographic variation in a deep-water cone lineage: molecular and morphological analyses of the Conus orbignyi complex (Mollusca: Conoidea). The cone snails (family Conidae) are a hyperdiverse lineage of venomous gastropods. Two standard markers, COI and ITS2, were used to define six genetically-divergent groups within a subclade of Conidae that includes Conus orbignyi; each of these was then evaluated based on their shell morphology. We conclude that three forms, previously regarded as subspecies of Conus orbignyi are distinct species, now recognized as Conus orbignyi, Conus elokismenos and Conus coriolisi. In addition, three additional species (Conus pseudorbignyi, Conus joliveti and Conus comatosa) belong to this clade. Some of the proposed species (e.g., Conus elokismenos) are possibly in turn complexes comprising multiple species. Groups such as Conidae illustrate the challenges generally faced in species delimitation in biodiverse lineages. In the case of the Conus orbignyi complex, not only are there definable, genetically divergent lineages, but also considerable geographic variation within each group. Our study suggests that an intensive analysis of multiple specimens within a single locality helps to minimize the confounding effects of geographic variation and can be a useful starting point for circumscribing different species within such a confusing complex. PMID:21712968

Puillandre, Nicolas; Meyer, Christopher P.; Bouchet, Philippe; Olivera, Baldomero M.

2011-01-01

22

Pomacea canaliculata (Mollusca, Gastropoda) in Patagonia: potential role of climatic change in its dispersion and settlement.  

PubMed

Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822) (Mollusca Gastropoda) shows a large native distribution range in South America, reaching as far south as 37º S (Buenos Aires, Argentina). This species was deliberately introduced into Southeast Asia around 1980 and subsequently underwent a rapid intentional or accidental dispersal into many countries in the region. It was also introduced into North and Central America and Hawaii. In this contribution we record the presence of P. canaliculata in Patagonia, assessing the possible influence of climatic change in the new establishment of this species there. Three samplings (between September 2004 and April 2005) were carried out at 38º 58' 20.2" S-68º 11' 27.3" W. In the sampling we found two adult specimens of P. canaliculata and numerous egg clutches. Pomacea canaliculata is naturally distributed in the Plata and Amazon Basins. The southern boundary of this species has been established as the isotherms of 14 ºC and 16 ºC in Buenos Aires province, and precipitations of 900 to 600 mm/year. This study also analysed variations in annual temperature and precipitation in Patagonia. Average temperatures show an increase over the years, although not constantly. Important modifications in precipitation regime in northern Patagonia, triggered by global climatic changes, could be beneficial for the settlement of populations of P. canaliculata in this new area, where precipitation increased enough to reach values similar to those in the southernmost area of distribution of this species. PMID:21437394

Darrigran, G; Damborenea, C; Tambussi, A

2011-02-01

23

Nacre and false nacre (foliated aragonite) in extant monoplacophorans (=Tryblidiida: Mollusca)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extant monoplacophorans (Tryblidiida, Mollusca) have traditionally been reported as having an internal nacreous layer, thus representing the ancestral molluscan condition. The examination of this layer in three species of Neopilinidae ( Rokopella euglypta, Veleropilina zografi, and Micropilina arntzi) reveals that only V. zografi secretes an internal layer of true nacre, which occupies only part of the internal shell surface. The rest of the internal surface of V. zografi and the whole internal surfaces of the other two species examined are covered by a material consisting of lath-like, instead of brick-like, crystals, which are arranged into lamellae. In all cases examined, the crystallographic c-axis in this lamellar material is perpendicular to the surface of laths and the a-axis is parallel to their long dimension. The differences between taxa relate to the frequency of twins, which is much higher in Micropilina. In general, the material is well ordered, particularly towards the margin, where lamellae pile up at a small step size, which is most likely due to processes of crystal competition. Given its morphological resemblance to the foliated calcite of bivalves, we propose the name foliated aragonite for this previously undescribed biomaterial secreted by monoplacophorans. We conclude that the foliated aragonite probably lacks preformed interlamellar membranes and is therefore not a variant of nacre. A review of the existing literature reveals that previous reports of nacre in the group were instead of the aragonitic foliated layer and that our report of nacre in V. zografi is the first undisputed evidence of nacre in monoplacophorans. From the evolutionary viewpoint, the foliated aragonite could easily have been derived from nacre. Assuming that nacre represents the ancestral condition, as in other molluscan classes, it has been replaced by foliated aragonite along the tryblidiidan lineage, although the fossil record does not presently provide evidence as to when this replacement took place.

Checa, Antonio G.; Ramírez-Rico, Joaquín; González-Segura, Alicia; Sánchez-Navas, Antonio

2009-01-01

24

The Politics of Rural School Reform: Escuela Nueva in Colombia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traces evolution of rural-school education plan in Colombia (Escuela Nueva), focusing on importance of Colombia's changing political and social climate in policy development. Identifies three phases of reform development and implementation: grassroots, formalized, and decoupled. Uses Escuela Nueva to demonstrate importance of recognizing dynamic,…

McEwan, Patrick J.; Benveniste, Luis

2001-01-01

25

Neuromuscular development of Aeolidiella stephanieae Vald?z, 2005 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Nudibranchia)  

PubMed Central

Background Studies on the development of the nervous system and the musculature of invertebrates have become more sophisticated and numerous within the last decade and have proven to provide new insights into the evolutionary history of organisms. In order to provide new morphogenetic data on opisthobranch gastropods we investigated the neuromuscular development in the nudibranch Aeolidiella stephanieae Valdéz, 2005 using immunocytochemistry as well as F-actin labelling in conjunction with confocal laser scanning microscopy (cLSM). Results The ontogenetic development of Aeolidiella stephanieae can be subdivided into 8 stages, each recognisable by characteristic morphological and behavioural features as well as specific characters of the nervous system and the muscular system, respectively. The larval nervous system of A. stephanieae includes an apical organ, developing central ganglia, and peripheral neurons associated with the velum, foot and posterior, visceral part of the larva. The first serotonergic and FMRFamidergic neural structures appear in the apical organ that exhibits an array of three sensory, flask-shaped and two non-sensory, round neurons, which altogether disappear prior to metamorphosis. The postmetamorphic central nervous system (CNS) becomes concentrated, and the rhinophoral ganglia develop together with the anlage of the future rhinophores whereas oral tentacle ganglia are not found. The myogenesis in A. stephanieae begins with the larval retractor muscle followed by the accessory larval retractor muscle, the velar or prototroch muscles and the pedal retractors that all together degenerate during metamorphosis, and the adult muscle complex forms de novo. Conclusions Aeolidiella stephanieae comprises features of the larval and postmetamorphic nervous as well as muscular system that represent the ground plan of the Mollusca or even the Trochozoa (e. g. presence of the prototrochal or velar muscle ring). On the one hand, A. stephanieae shows some features shared by all nudibranchs like the postmetamorphic condensation of the CNS, the possession of rhinophoral ganglia and the lack of oral tentacle ganglia as well as the de novo formation of the adult muscle complex. On the other hand, the structure and arrangement of the serotonergic apical organ is similar to other caenogastropod and opisthobranch gastropods supporting their sister group relationship. PMID:20205753

2010-01-01

26

An unusual case of gender-associated mitochondrial DNA heteroplasmy: the mytilid Musculista senhousia (Mollusca Bivalvia)  

PubMed Central

Background Doubly Uniparental Inheritance (DUI) represents the most outstanding exception to matrilinear inheritance of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), typical of Metazoa. In a few bivalve mollusks, two sex-linked mtDNAs (the so-called M and F) are inherited in a peculiar way: both daughters and sons receive their F from the mother, whereas sons inherit M from the father (males do not transmit F to their progeny). This realizes a double mechanism of transmission, in which M and F mtDNAs are inherited uniparentally. DUI systems represent a unique experimental model for testing the evolutionary mechanisms that apply to mitochondrial genomes and their transmission patterns as well as to mtDNA recombination. Results A new case of DUI is described in Musculista senhousia (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Mytilidae). Its heteroplasmy pattern is in line with standard DUI. Sequence variability analysis evidenced two main results: F haplotypes sequence variability is higher than that of M haplotypes, and F mitochondrial haplotypes experience a higher mutation rate in males' somatic tissues than in females' ones. Phylogenetic analysis revealed also that M. senhousia M and F haplotypes cluster separately from that of the other mytilids. Conclusion Sequence variability analysis evidenced some unexpected traits. The inverted variability pattern (the F being more variable than M) was new and it challenges most of the rationales proposed to account for sex-linked mtDNA evolution. We tentatively related this to the history of the Northern Adriatic populations analyzed. Moreover, F sequences evidenced a higher mutation level in male's soma, this variability being produced de novo each generation. This suggests that mechanisms evolved to protect mtDNA in females (f.i. antioxidant gene complexes) might be under relaxed selection in males. Phylogenetic analysis of sex-linked haplotypes confirmed that they have switched their roles during the evolutionary history of mytilids, at variance to what has been observed in unionids. Consequently, reciprocal monophyly of M and F lineages got easily lost because of role-reversals and consequent losses of M lineages, as already observed in Mytilus. PMID:17767735

Passamonti, Marco

2007-01-01

27

Especial2012Agua Produccin de soja  

E-print Network

89 Especial2012Agua Producci�n de soja y uso de agua fre�tica en ambientes medanosos El objetivo de CONICET. Palabras Claves: agua, napa fre�tica, aporte h�drico, salinidad, ambiente medanoso, soja, rendimiento. #12;90 Especial2012Agua RESUMEN Durante los �ltimos 15 a�os el cultivo de soja se ha expandido

Nacional de San Luis, Universidad

28

Assessing metal contamination from construction and demolition (C&D) waste used to infill wetlands: using Deroceras reticulatum (Mollusca: Gastropoda).  

PubMed

Large quantities of construction and demolition waste (C&D) are produced globally every year, with little known about potential environmental impacts. In the present study, the slug, Deroceras reticulatum (Mollusca: Gastropoda) was used as the first biomonitor of metals (Ag, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Ti, Tl, V and Zn) on wetlands post infilling with construction and demolition (C&D) waste. The bioaccumulation of As, Ba, Cd, Co, Sb, Se and Tl were found to be significantly elevated in slugs collected on C&D waste when compared to unimproved pastures (control sites), while Mo, Se and Sr had significantly higher concentrations in slugs collected on C&D waste when compared to known contaminated sites (mining locations), indicating the potential hazardous nature of C&D waste to biota. Identifying exact sources for these metals within the waste can be problematic, due to its heterogenic nature. Biomonitors are a useful tool for future monitoring and impact studies, facilitating policy makers and regulations in other countries regarding C&D waste infill. In addition, improving separation of C&D waste to allow increased reuse and recycling is likely to be effective in reducing the volume of waste being used as infill, subsequently decreasing potential metal contamination. PMID:25298023

Staunton, John A; Mc Donnell, Rory J; Gormally, Michael J; Williams, Chris D; Henry, Tiernan; Morrison, Liam

2014-10-20

29

Informe Especial Supremaca de Concreto Como  

E-print Network

Informe Especial Mayo 2013 Supremacía de Concreto Como Material Estructural Paulo Helene #12;Supremacía de Concreto como Material Estructural* Paulo Helene Prof. Titular da Universidade de São Paulo Asamblea General de la FICEM. 2012. #12;3 supremacía del concreto Por Prof. Paulo Helene * Conferencia

Paraná, Universidade Federal do

30

The Evolution of Cooperation, Especially in Humans  

E-print Network

The Evolution of Cooperation, Especially in Humans Submitted for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy by policing. 66 Chapter 4. Group competition and the evolution of cooperation in humans. 98 Chapter 5. Chapter 5 is in review at Evolution and Human Behaviour as a research paper. I had the original idea

Gardner, Andy

31

Cadernos de F e Cultura Caderno Especial  

E-print Network

MAGIS Cadernos de Fé e Cultura Caderno Especial Número 3 - ano 2007 Não à redução da maioridade EXPEDI��O Centro Loyola de Fé e Cultura da PUC-Rio Telefone: 21 3527-2010 Centro Loyola de Fé e Cultura da Araújo, sj Diretor do Centro Loyola de Fé e Cultura da PUC-Rio Não à redução da maioridade penal

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Screening of antiangiogenic potential of twenty two marine invertebrate extracts of phylum Mollusca from South East Coast of India  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the antiangiogenic potential of twenty two marine invertebrate species of Phylum Mollusca from south east coast of India. Methods Live specimens of molluscan species were collected and their methanolic extracts were evaluated for preliminary antiangiogenic activity using the in ovo chick chorio-allantoic membrane assay. The extracts were further evaluated for in vivo antiangiogenic activity using chemical cautery induced corneal neovascularization assay in rats and oxygen induced retinopathy assay in rat pups. Results In the chick chorio-allantoic membrane assay, four methanolic extracts of marine molluscan species viz. Meretrix meretrix, Meretrix casta, Telescopium telescopium and Bursa crumena methanolic extracts exhibited noticeable antiangiogenic activity at the tested concentration of 200 µg whereby they significantly inhibited the VEGF induced proliferation of new blood vessels. Among these four extracts, the methanolic extract of Meretrix casta exhibited relatively higher degree of antiangiogenic activity with an inhibitiory percentage (64.63%) of the VEGF induced neovascularization followed by the methanolic extracts of Telescopium telescopium (62.02%), Bursa crumena (60.48%) and Meretrix meretrix (47.01%). These four methanolic extracts were further evaluated for in vivo antiangiogenic activity whereby the methanolic extract of Telescopium telescopium exhibited most noticeable inhibition (42.58%) of the corneal neovascularization in rats in comparison to the sham treated group, and also exhibited most noticeable inhibition (31.31%) of the oxygen induced retinal neovascularization in rat pups in comparison to the hyperoxia group that was observed for considerable retinal neovascularization. Conclusions The significant antiangiogenic activity evinced by the extract of Telescopium telescopium merits further investigation for ocular neovascular diseases. PMID:25183067

Gupta, Pankaj; Arumugam, Muthuvel; Azad, Raj Vardhan; Saxena, Rohit; Ghose, Supriyo; Biswas, Nihar Ranjan; Velpandian, Thirumurthy

2014-01-01

33

Subchronic toxic effects of fluoride ion on the survival and behaviour of the aquatic snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Hydrobiidae, Mollusca).  

PubMed

Short-term bioassays usually assess lethal effects of pollutants in animals, whereas subchronic bioassays are more suited for assessing effects on animal behaviour. Among them, videotaped bioassays are an improvement in the behavioural monitoring because they are easily and cheaply implemented. The present study focuses on the assessment of subchronic (14-day) effects of fluoride ion on the survival, proportion of dead plus immobile animals, and velocity (monitored by a videotaping and image analysis system) of the aquatic snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Hydrobiidae, Mollusca). One control and three nominal fluoride concentrations (5, 20, and 40 mg F(-)/l [actual mean concentrations of 5.2, 17.5, and 37.0 mg F(-)/l, respectively]) were used. Each treatment (including the control) was replicated 12 times. Mortality, number of dead plus immobile animals, and velocity were monitored after 0, 7, and 14 days of exposure. After 14 days, animals exposed to 40 mg F(-)/l showed higher mortality, number of dead, and immobile individuals than control animals. Snails exposed to 5 and 20 mg F(-)/l were not affected by fluoride ion regarding these endpoints. In contrast, snails exposed to 20 mg F(-)/l for 7 and 14 days showed lower velocity than control animals. Therefore, velocity was sensitive to environmental fluoride concentrations and as such is a useful parameter for ecologic risk assessment. In addition, videotaping allowed us to detect behavioural patrons in velocity at very short exposures (seconds) during the monitoring process by showing that the velocity of snails must be monitored at least during the course of several minutes. We conclude that in P. antipodarum, velocity is a more sensitive endpoint than the classic mortality and immobility endpoints. PMID:20577728

Alonso, Álvaro; Camargo, Julio A

2011-04-01

34

Las Nuevas Tecnologas de Vehculos Diesel (y sus  

E-print Network

Las Nuevas Tecnologías de Vehículos Diesel (y sus emisiones) Arón Jazcilevich Con la colaboración El 36% de las PM2.5 es emitido por los vehículos a diesel (autobuses y tractocamiones). ahora se consideran las emisiones de Diesel como causantes de cáncer de pulmón (Silverman, et al, 2011). #12;Emisiones

Grutter, Michel

35

Fast evolving 18S rRNA sequences from Solenogastres (Mollusca) resist standard PCR amplification and give new insights into mollusk substitution rate heterogeneity  

PubMed Central

Background The 18S rRNA gene is one of the most important molecular markers, used in diverse applications such as molecular phylogenetic analyses and biodiversity screening. The Mollusca is the second largest phylum within the animal kingdom and mollusks show an outstanding high diversity in body plans and ecological adaptations. Although an enormous amount of 18S data is available for higher mollusks, data on some early branching lineages are still limited. Despite of some partial success in obtaining these data from Solenogastres, by some regarded to be the most "basal" mollusks, this taxon still remained problematic due to contamination with food organisms and general amplification difficulties. Results We report here the first authentic 18S genes of three Solenogastres species (Mollusca), each possessing a unique sequence composition with regions conspicuously rich in guanine and cytosine. For these GC-rich regions we calculated strong secondary structures. The observed high intra-molecular forces hamper standard amplification and appear to increase formation of chimerical sequences caused by contaminating foreign DNAs from potential prey organisms. In our analyses, contamination was avoided by using RNA as a template. Indication for contamination of previously published Solenogastres sequences is presented. Detailed phylogenetic analyses were conducted using RNA specific models that account for compensatory substitutions in stem regions. Conclusions The extreme morphological diversity of mollusks is mirrored in the molecular 18S data and shows elevated substitution rates mainly in three higher taxa: true limpets (Patellogastropoda), Cephalopoda and Solenogastres. Our phylogenetic tree based on 123 species, including representatives of all mollusk classes, shows limited resolution at the class level but illustrates the pitfalls of artificial groupings formed due to shared biased sequence composition. PMID:20214780

2010-01-01

36

Sperm ultrastructure of the giant clam Tridacna maxima (Tridacnidae: Bivalvia: Mollusca) from the Great Barrier Reef  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using transmission electron microscopy, spermatozoa from a member of the Tridacnidae, or giant clams, are described for the\\u000a first time and compared with spermatozoa of other bivalves, especially other heterodonts. The acrosomal vesicle of Tridacna maxima (Röding, 1798) is short (0.37??m), blunt-conical, and exhibits a prominent basal ring. A narrow apical elaboration of the\\u000a nucleus, the nuclear peg, projects deep

J. L. Keys; J. M. Healy

1999-01-01

37

A preliminary study of iron isotope fractionation in marine invertebrates (chitons, Mollusca) in near-shore environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chitons (Mollusca) are marine invertebrates that produce radulae (teeth or rasping tongues) containing high concentrations of biomineralized magnetite and other iron-bearing minerals. As Fe isotope signatures are influenced by redox processes and biological fractionation, Fe isotopes in chiton radulae might be expected to provide an effective tracer of ambient oceanic conditions and biogeochemical cycling. Here, in a pilot study to measure Fe isotopes in marine invertebrates, we examine Fe isotopes in modern marine chiton radulae collected from different locations in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans to assess the range of isotopic values, and to test whether or not the isotopic signatures reflect seawater values. Values of ?56Fe (relative to IRMM-014) in chiton teeth range from -1.90 to 0.00 ‰ (±0.05‰ (2?) uncertainty in ?56Fe), probably reflecting a combination of geographical control and biological fractionation processes. Comparison with published local surface seawater Fe isotope data shows a consistent negative offset of chiton teeth Fe isotope compositions relative to seawater. Strikingly, two different species from the same locality in the North Pacific (Puget Sound, Washington, USA) have distinct isotopic signatures. Tonicella lineata, which feeds on red algae in the sublittoral zone, has a mean ?56Fe of -0.65 ± 0.26‰ (2?, 3 specimens), while Mopalia muscosa, which feeds on both green and red algae in the eulittoral zone, shows lighter isotopic values with a mean ?56Fe of -1.47 ± 0.98‰ (2?, 5 specimens). Three possible pathways are proposed to account for the different isotopic signatures: (i) physiologically controlled processes within the chitons that lead to species-dependent fractionation; (ii) diet-controlled variability due to different Fe isotope fractionation in the red and green algal food sources; and (iii) environmentally controlled fractionation that causes variation in the isotopic signatures of bioavailable Fe in the different tidal regions. Our preliminary results suggest that while chitons are not simple recorders of the ambient seawater Fe isotopic signature, Fe isotopes provide valuable information concerning Fe biogeochemical cycling in near-shore environments, and may potentially be used to probe sources of Fe recorded in different organisms.

Emmanuel, S.; Schuessler, J. A.; Vinther, J.; Matthews, A.; von Blanckenburg, F.

2014-10-01

38

Identification of sequestered chloroplasts in photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic sacoglossan sea slugs (Mollusca, Gastropoda)  

PubMed Central

Background Sacoglossan sea slugs are well known for their unique ability among metazoans to incorporate functional chloroplasts (kleptoplasty) in digestive glandular cells, enabling the slugs to use these as energy source when starved for weeks and months. However, members assigned to the shelled Oxynoacea and Limapontioidea (often with dorsal processes) are in general not able to keep the incorporated chloroplasts functional. Since obviously no algal genes are present within three (out of six known) species with chloroplast retention of several months, other factors enabling functional kleptoplasty have to be considered. Certainly, the origin of the chloroplasts is important, however, food source of most of the about 300 described species is not known so far. Therefore, a deduction of specific algal food source as a factor to perform functional kleptoplasty was still missing. Results We investigated the food sources of 26 sacoglossan species, freshly collected from the field, by applying the chloroplast marker genes tufA and rbcL and compared our results with literature data of species known for their retention capability. For the majority of the investigated species, especially for the genus Thuridilla, we were able to identify food sources for the first time. Furthermore, published data based on feeding observations were confirmed and enlarged by the molecular methods. We also found that certain chloroplasts are most likely essential for establishing functional kleptoplasty. Conclusions Applying DNA-Barcoding appeared to be very efficient and allowed a detailed insight into sacoglossan food sources. We favor rbcL for future analyses, but tufA might be used additionally in ambiguous cases. We narrowed down the algal species that seem to be essential for long-term-functional photosynthesis: Halimeda, Caulerpa, Penicillus, Avrainvillea, Acetabularia and Vaucheria. None of these were found in Thuridilla, the only plakobranchoidean genus without long-term retention forms. The chloroplast type, however, does not solely determine functional kleptoplasty; members of no-retention genera, such as Cylindrobulla or Volvatella, feed on the same algae as e.g., the long-term-retention forms Plakobranchus ocellatus or Elysia crispata, respectively. Evolutionary benefits of functional kleptoplasty are still questionable, since a polyphagous life style would render slugs more independent of specific food sources and their abundance. PMID:24555467

2014-01-01

39

MORE COFFEE TALK Coffee is consumed especially by scien-  

E-print Network

MORE COFFEE TALK Coffee is consumed especially by scien- tists, and Ernesto Illy is in a long Qualities of Coffee and the Art of Making It in the Highest Perfection." This essay is excerpted, even 12 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN OCTOBER 2002 "AS A PERSON WHO ENJOYS Turkish coffee habitually, I

Rose, Michael R.

40

La UA colaborar con el Centro de Parlisis Cerebral Infanta Elena en nuevas tecnologas y Ciencias de Salud  

E-print Network

La UA colaborará con el Centro de Parálisis Cerebral Infanta Elena en nuevas tecnologías y Ciencias Parálisis Cerebral Infanta Elena en materia de nuevas tecnologías y Ciencias de la Salud. Este ha sido el

Escolano, Francisco

41

Megafauna recovered from a cold hydrocarbon seep in the deep Alaskan Beaufort Sea, including a new species of Axinus (Thracidae: Bivalvia: Mollusca)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several specimens of a new species of Axinus and a single well-worn gastropod columella provisionally assigned to the genus Neptunea (Buccinidae: Gastropoda: Mollusca) were recently recovered from at least two cores, the longest of which is 5.72 m long, from a large seafloor mound, informally named the Canning Seafloor Mound (CSM). The CSM is located at 2,530 m water depth on the Alaskan Beaufort Sea slope north of Camden Bay and is a fluid explosion feature containing methane hydrate and methane-saturated sediments overlying a folded and faulted deep basin. Only two modern species of Axinus are currently known. Axinus grandis (Verrill & Smith, 1885) is a northern Atlantic species and the recently described species, A. cascadiensis Oliver and Holmes (2007), is only known from Baby Bare Seamount, Cascadia Basin, northeastern Pacific Ocean. Common fragments, single valves, and a single articulated specimen represent this new Axinus species. These shells were distributed over nearly the entire length of the primary core. All specimens show wear and (or) dissolution. The age of these specimens is unknown and no living representatives were encountered. The genus Axinus has a fossil record back to the early Eocene in England and the Paleocene and Eocene in Egypt. Biogeographically the genus appears to have originated in the Tethys Sea and became established in the Atlantic Ocean during the Eocene, spreading across the Arctic Ocean in the late Tertiary. With the opening of the Bering Strait in the latest Miocene or early Pliocene the genus Axinus migrated southwest into the northeast Pacific. Interestingly, hydrocarbon seep deposits are also present on the adjacent North Slope of Alaska in the Marsh Anticline at Carter Creek, Camden Bay. These rocks, the Nuwok beds, contain abundant Thracidae bivalve of the genus Thracia, but not Axinus, however the rocks also represent cold seep deposits. These rocks have been variously dated from Oligocene to Pliocene and the exact age remains uncertain. Neptunea are a predatory snails well represented in the earliest Miocene to Holocene of the northern Pacific Ocean and in the late Pliocene to Holocene of the northern Atlantic. The presence of Neptunea at CSM, if identified properly, gives a maximum age for these deposits of latest Miocene or early Pliocene, after the opening of the Bering Strait, although they could be as young as Holocene.

Powell, C. L.; Valentich-Scott, P.; Lorenson, T. D.; Edwards, B. D.

2011-12-01

42

INTERNET 2 : Las nuevas redes del futuro Juan Manuel Torres Moreno  

E-print Network

INTERNET 2 : Las nuevas redes del futuro Juan Manuel Torres Moreno Laboratorio Nacional de más virtual) pero aún mas impactante: la revolución de las redes de computadoras. Internet ha supuesto vistas. Internet constituye al mismo tiempo un mecanismo de difusión mundial, de propagación, interacción

Avignon et des Pays de Vaucluse, Université de

43

New Teleostei from the Agua Nueva Formation (Turonian), Vallecillo (NE Mexico)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new genus and new species of an ichthyodectiform fish, a new species of the pachyrizodontid Goulmimichthys, as well as specimens of Araripichthys sp. are described from the Agua Nueva Formation (Turonian) of Vallecillo, State of Nuevo León, NE Mexico. The ichthyodectiform fish shows a combination of characters from different families, warranting the creation of a new genus and questioning

Alberto Blanco; Lionel Cavin

2003-01-01

44

An especial skill in elite wheelchair basketball players.  

PubMed

We aimed to investigate whether an especial skill is present in elite wheelchair basketball players when taking twenty shots with a regular basketball from five different distances (11 ft, 13 ft, 17 ft, & 19 ft) from the basket including the free throw line (15 ft). Twelve elite male basketball players participated. The results showed that as distance increased shot accuracy decreased in line with force by variability predictions for the 11 ft, 13 ft, 17 ft, & 19 ft distances. However, shot performance at the free throw line where players are more familiar with practicing free throw shots did not follow this trend. A linear regression line was drawn to predict performance at the free throw line based on nearer (11 ft & 13 ft) and farer (17 ft & 19 ft) distances to the basket, this was then compared to actual performance. A significant difference between actual and predicted scores was found (p<.05) supporting the presence of an especial skill. Significant positive correlations were found for the 11 ft and 17 ft distance, age, years of playing, and accumulated practice hours with performance at the 15 ft line (p<.05). These correlations imply the operation of generalization in the especial skill. This observation received support from applying a model in which shot accuracy as a function of distance was approximated by two regression lines. PMID:23981485

Fay, K; Breslin, G; Czy?, S H; Pizlo, Z

2013-08-01

45

Arctic is especially sensitive to nearby black carbon emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Black carbon, also known as soot, emitted from combustion of fuels and biomass burning absorbs solar radiation in the atmosphere and is one of the major causes of global warming, after carbon dioxide emissions. When black carbon is deposited on snow and ice, the soot-covered snow or ice absorbs more sunlight, leading to surface warming. Due to the large amount of snow and ice in the Arctic—which has warmed twice as fast as the global average over the past century—the region is likely to be especially sensitive to black carbon.

Balcerak, Ernie

2013-09-01

46

Effects of radiation on development, especially of the nervous system  

SciTech Connect

Humans and other organisms are exposed to ionizing radiations from a variety of natural and man-made sources. Radiation may cause mutations and chromosome abnormalities, cell-killing, alterations and transformations in cell growth, and carcinogenetic changes. This paper considers principally the cell-killing and nonlethal cell alterations in developing laboratory mammals and humans, especially the nervous system, that follow irradiation and often lead to malformation and disturbed function, but at certain stages to restitution of the injury. Most of what researchers know about the mechanisms of these radiation effects in man is derived from animal experiments, especially with rats. The few observations in humans have corresponded closely to them. Researchers illustrate the cellular effects and malformative results with an example of cell-killing in the developing cortex of a human fetus exposed to therapeutic radiation in utero; a current timetable of the malformative and other effects of radiation on rats during development from which expectations of human effects might be extrapolated; examples of hydrocephalus produced in rats; low-dose alterations of nerve cells in rats; and a microcephalic Japanese boy exposed in utero to the atomic bomb at Hiroshima in 1945.

Hicks, S.P.; D'Amato, C.J.

1980-12-01

47

Investigadores de la UA y la UV obtienen una nueva lnea celular de retina para el cribado de frmacos neuroprotectores  

E-print Network

Investigadores de la UA y la UV obtienen una nueva línea celular de retina para el cribado de la Universidad de Valencia han obtenido una nueva línea celular de retina que permite evaluar la, obtenida a partir de un cultivo de células de Müller de retinas de ratones adultos, y es la única en el

Escolano, Francisco

48

[Occupational neurotoxicology due to heavy metals-especially manganese poisoning].  

PubMed

The most hazardous manganese exposures occur in mining and smelting of ore. Recently, the poisoning has been frequently reported to be associated with welding. In occupational exposure, manganese is absorbed mainly by inhalation. Manganese preferentially accumulates in tissues rich in mitochondria. It also penetrates the blood brain barrior and accumulate in the basal ganglia, especially the globus pallidus, but also the striatum. Manganese poisoning is clinically characterized by the central nervous system involvement including psychiatric symptomes, extrapyramidal signs, and less frequently other neurological manifestations, Psychiatric symptomes are well described in the manganese miners and incrude sleep disturbance, disorientation, emotional lability, compulsive acts, hallucinations, illusions, and delusions. The main characteristic manifestations usually begin shortly after the appearance of these psychiatric symptomes. The latter neurological signs are progressive bradykinesia, dystonia, and disturbance of gait. Bradykinesia is one of the most important findings. There is a remarkable slowing of both active and passive movements of the extremities. Micrographia is frequently observed and a characteristic finding. The patients may show some symmetrical tremor, which usually not so marked. The dystonic posture of the limbs is often accompanied by painfull cramps. This attitudal hypertonia has a tenndency to decrease or disappear in the supine position and to increase in orthostation. Cog-wheel rigidity is also elisited on the passive movement of all extremities. Gait disturbance is also characteristic in this poisoning. In the severe cases, cook gait has been reported. The patient uses small steps, but has a tendency to elevate the heels and to rotate them outward. He progress without pressing on the flat of his feet, but only upon the metatarsophalangeal articulations, mainly of the fourth and fifth toes. Increased signal in T1-weighted image in the basal ganglia has been reported in patients with the poisoning. Thus, increasd signal intensities as a target site dose can be a more useful biomakers of the manganese than other biological indicies such as ambient manganese concentration or blood manganese concentration on individual basis. Manganese poisoning ultimately becomes chronic. However, if the disease is diagnosed while still at the early stages and the patient is removed from exposure, the course may be reversed. Once well established, it becomes progressive and irreversible, even when exposure is terminated. Levodopa therapy is not effective for the management of manganese poisoning. Levodopa unresponsiveness may be usefull to distinguish manganese-induced parkinsonism from Parkinson disease. PMID:17585589

Inoue, Naohide

2007-06-01

49

Relaciones entre lo sucedido en la década y las nuevas tendencias teatrales  

E-print Network

1983, el costo de vida aumentó en un 430%. La deuda externa pasó a 43,000 millones de dólares. Las Madres de Plaza de Mayo y otras entidades denunciaban 30,000 desaparecidos. Se estiman en 2,100,000 los argentinos que viven en el exterior. Asume...SPRING 1991 23 Relaciones entre lo sucedido en la década y las nuevas tendencias teatrales Eduardo Rovner Me propongo hurgar, más que en las relaciones entre lo sucedido en los '80 y los discursos de las obras estrenadas en la década, en lo...

Rovner, Eduardo

1991-04-01

50

Nuevas Vistas. A Report of the Annual Conference of the California State Department of Education (3rd, Los Angeles, April 24-26, 1969).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The third Annual Nuevas Vistas Conference focused on the state's responsibility for providing equal educational opportunities for California citizens of Mexican descent. Practical solutions to the problems of educating Mexican American pupils were identified, and progress since the first Nuevas Vistas conference was reviewed. Included in the…

California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

51

Nuevas Vistas, A Report of the Annual Conference of the California State Department of Education (2nd, Sacramento, California, 1968).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Papers presented at the second annual Nuevas Vistas conference of the California State Department of Education are contained in this report. The broad areas covered are: (1) sociological views of the Mexican American; (2) problems of Mexican American students; and (3) reports of research projects concerned with Mexican American education.…

California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

52

DEVELOPMENT OF A SUSTAINABLE AND APPROPRIATE DRINKING WATER SYSTEM FOR MONTANA DE LUZ AND NUEVA ESPERANZA, HONDURAS  

EPA Science Inventory

In this project, we plan to design an appropriate and sustainable water treatment and supply system for a small village (Nueva Esperanza) and nearby orphanage in rural Honduras. The orphanage, named “Montana de Luz,” is a home exclusively for children with HIV/A...

53

Evaluación de la biodiversidad briopteridofítica de la cuenca del río de Nueva (Llanes, Asturias, N Península Ibérica): bases para su protección y conservación. Evaluation of the biodiversity in Bryophytes and Pteridophytes in Nueva's river basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

El valle del río de Nueva, orientado al este, se encuentra muy próximo al mar Cantábrico. Su cuenca alta y media, con una superficie de 5,5 Km2, presenta una elevada biodiversidad de briófitos al haberse identificado 145 taxones (85 musgos,\\u000a59 hepáticas y 1 antocerota), lo que representa el 23% de la flora briofítica de Asturias. El muestreo realizado, por

Tomás E. Díaz González; Miguel Ángel Collado Prieto

2003-01-01

54

Graduate Enrollment Increases in Science and Engineering Fields, Especially in Engineering and Computer Sciences  

NSF Publications Database

... Increases in Science and Engineering Fields, Especially in Engineering and Computer Sciences by Joan ... fields rose, with the exception of chemical engineering. The engineering fields with the greatest ...

55

CASAS RIGALL, Juan, ed. (2007). Libro de Alexandre, Nueva Biblioteca de Erudicin y Crtica, 28, Madrid, Castalia, 860  

E-print Network

1 CASAS RIGALL, Juan, ed. (2007). Libro de Alexandre, Nueva Biblioteca de Erudición y Crítica, 28 a la luz la magnífica edición del Libro de Alexandre (a partir de ahora, Alex) realizada por Juan Casas a la página personal del editor, http://web.usc.es/~fejcr/Libro_Alexandre.html, para consultarlos. En

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

56

Efecto del suelo en la tasa de crecimiento de especies tropicales con distribuciones contrastantes  

E-print Network

1 Efecto del suelo en la tasa de crecimiento de especies tropicales con distribuciones contribuir a limitar la distribución de las especies. Uno de ellos es la fertilidad del suelo, la que con frecuencia es menor en los bosques más húmedos. Para evaluar el posible rol de la fertilidad del suelo en la

Bermingham, Eldredge

57

La cachama blanca (Piaractus brachypomus), una especie potencial para el mejoramiento genético  

Microsoft Academic Search

En Colombia, la piscicultura continental es una alternativa de seguridad alimentaria, que tiene un alto incremento (10% anual), considerándose especies como Tilapia (Oreochromis sp) y cachama blanca (Piaractus brachypomus), los dos renglones más importantes para su desarrollo. Aunque la cachama blanca es una especie en la cual se han realizado investigaciones que han demostrado su potencial zootécnico, gracias a características

Martha N Mesa-Granda; Mónica C Botero-Aguirre

58

Loads and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter spp. on fresh chicken meat in Nueva Ecija, Philippines.  

PubMed

This study was performed to determine the prevalence and to semiquantify Campylobacter spp. on chicken meat samples at 4 selected local wet markets in Nueva Ecija, Philippines, and to determine the antimicrobial resistance patterns of the Campylobacter isolates. Out of 120 chicken meat samples, 57 (47.5%) were Campylobacter spp. positive. The majority of isolated Campylobacter strains were identified as Campylobacter coli (54.4%) and 45.6% as Campylobacter jejuni. Most of these positive samples (52.6%) showed a very high quantitative Campylobacter contamination (most probable number > 2,400/g, lower confidence limit 580/g). For antimicrobial resistance testing, 44 C. coli/jejuni isolates were tested using the agar disk diffusion method. Out of these, 77.3% were resistant to ampicillin, followed by ciprofloxacin (70.4%), tetracycline (54.6%), erythromycin (20.2%), and gentamicin (11.4%). Of the isolates, 36.4% (n = 16) were resistant to 1 antimicrobial agent, 34.1% (n = 15) were resistance to 3 antimicrobial agents, 13.6% (n = 6) to 2 antimicrobial agents, 9.1% (n = 4) to 4 antimicrobial agents, and 6.8% (n = 3) to all 5 antimicrobial agents tested. Our data demonstrate a high contamination of fresh chicken meat with Campylobacter spp. at retail in the Philippines. The detected high Campylobacter prevalences and quantitative loads on chicken meat at retail in the Philippines highlight the need to implement efficient intervention measures along the food chain and to encourage sanitary handling of poultry meat. PMID:24795322

Sison, F B; Chaisowwong, W; Alter, T; Tiwananthagorn, S; Pichpol, D; Lampang, K N; Baumann, M P O; Gölz, G

2014-05-01

59

University of Connecticut Theory-based approaches to social issues, especially prejudice, inequality, health.  

E-print Network

psychology, and more specifically promoting health behavior, especially HIV risk psychology theories and methods to the study of health risk and prevention behaviors. Frederick X. Gibbons (@uconn.edu) applies social psychology to the study of health

Alpay, S. Pamir

60

Prescripción electrónica asistida como nueva tecnología para la seguridad del paciente hospitalizado  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concern about patient safety is a priority in the quality policy of health systems. In the pharmacotherapeutic process, from prescription to administration of drugs, failures that cause unwanted effects in patients may occur. This is especially common in patients with multiple pathologies and polypharmacy, common in medical specialities services. To analyze and identify the causes that trigger medical errors is

Elena Villamañán; Alicia Herrero; Rodolfo Álvarez-Sala

2011-01-01

61

Nuevo gobierno de cambio en México ¿Una nueva política de información?  

Microsoft Academic Search

La ponencia trata de describir cual ha sido la política de información en México en los últimos años, pero se enfoca en los cambios que se están tratando de implementar en el actual régimen gubernamental. Se describen los principales proyectos, poniendo especial atención en el proyecto e- México, con el que el gobierno federal pretende crear una infraestructura nacional para

Jesús Cortés

62

Elena Garrigs Mic, nueva presidenta del Consejo de Alumnos de la UA Alicante, 30 de noviembre de 2011  

E-print Network

Elena Garrigós Micó, nueva presidenta del Consejo de Alumnos de la UA Alicante, 30 de noviembre de Alumnos de la Institución. Elena Garrigós Micó ha tomado posesión de su cargo esta mañana y sustituirá sindicato ni afiliación estudiantil. Ahora y con tan sólo 20 años, Elena Garrigós estará al frente del

Escolano, Francisco

63

Delayed and asynchronous ganglionic maturation during cephalopod neurogenesis as evidenced by Sof-elav1 expression in embryos of Sepia officinalis (Mollusca, Cephalopoda).  

PubMed

Among the Lophotrochozoa, centralization of the nervous system reaches an exceptional level of complexity in cephalopods, where the typical molluscan ganglia become highly developed and fuse into hierarchized lobes. It is known that ganglionic primordia initially emerge early and simultaneously during cephalopod embryogenesis but no data exist on the process of neuron differentiation in this group. We searched for members of the elav/hu family in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis, since they are one of the first genetic markers of postmitotic neural cells. Two paralogs were identified and the expression of the most neural-specific gene, Sof-elav1, was characterized during embryogenesis. Sof-elav1 is expressed in all ganglia at one time of development, which provides the first genetic map of neurogenesis in a cephalopod. Our results unexpectedly revealed that Sof-elav1 expression is not similar and not coordinated in all the prospective ganglia. Both palliovisceral ganglia show extensive Sof-elav1 expression soon after emergence, showing that most of their cells differentiate into neurons at an early stage. On the contrary, other ganglia, and especially both cerebral ganglia that contribute to the main parts of the brain learning centers, show a late extensive Sof-elav1 expression. These delayed expressions in ganglia suggest that most ganglionic cells retain their proliferative capacities and postpone differentiation. In other molluscs, where a larval nervous system predates the development of the definitive adult nervous system, cerebral ganglia are among the first to mature. Thus, such a difference may constitute a cue in understanding the peculiar brain evolution in cephalopods. PMID:23047428

Buresi, Auxane; Canali, Ester; Bonnaud, Laure; Baratte, Sébastien

2013-05-01

64

INTRODUCTION The plumage of many birds is highly attractive, especially when the  

E-print Network

3960 INTRODUCTION The plumage of many birds is highly attractive, especially when the feathers's feathers. Orange colours are generally caused by pigments that selectively absorb short-wavelength light. When these pigments are embedded in a diffusive medium, only the long-wavelength part of incident broad

65

1999 Macmillan Magazines Ltd especially as the fully reduced enzyme is out  

E-print Network

© 1999 Macmillan Magazines Ltd especially as the fully reduced enzyme is out of electrostatic translocation by cytochrome c oxidase seems to be coup- led to the enzyme's oxidative catalytic half- cycle1 reported the release of 1­2 H+ . This variation is due to the difficulty of having all the enzyme molecules

Braun, Paul

66

vol. 164, no. 6 the american naturalist december 2004 Cooperation and Punishment, Especially in Humans  

E-print Network

. Instead, the crucial factor is a positive correlation between the punishment strategy of an individualvol. 164, no. 6 the american naturalist december 2004 Cooperation and Punishment, Especially recently received much attention is the threat of punishment. However, punishing behavior is often costly

Gardner, Andy

67

Control system for a gas turbine engine, especially a vehicular gas turbine engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A control system is disclosed for a gas turbine engine, especially a vehicular gas turbine engine, having a speed governor responsive to a controlled variable which is the speed of a gas generator shaft for providing an output to control fuel flow to the engine, a temperature regulator device responsive to a controlled variable which is the gas temperature of

C. Greune; F. Hackl

1979-01-01

68

Ten Errors Regarding End of Life Issues, and Especially Artificial Nutrition and Hydration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent events, including the conflict over Terri Schiavo, and the death of Pope John Paul II, have made necessary renewed attention to the Church’s teaching regarding end of life care and treatment, especially the artificial provision of nutrition and hydration to those unable to feed themselves. According to the Church’s general approach to end of life matters, it is not

Christopher Tollefsen

69

Insect-Plant Interactions Insects & Plants Evolution of land plants (especially  

E-print Network

1 Insect-Plant Interactions Insects & Plants Evolution of land plants (especially flowering plants) a major force driving the diversity of insects As diversity of land plants has increased, the diversity of insects has increased Interaction between plants and insects is an example of coevolution Coevolution

Brown, Christopher A.

70

The use of spectroscopic techniques (especially phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance [31  

E-print Network

with aluminum- and iron hydroxides, and phytic acid (inositol hexakisphosphate). Solution 31 P-NMR spectroscopy1617 The use of spectroscopic techniques (especially phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance [31 P-NMR that receive alum (aluminum sulfate) to reduce water-soluble P and control ammonia emissions from poultry

Sparks, Donald L.

71

Busy moms--especially young moms--are also frustrated by the flood of changing nutrition  

E-print Network

Busy moms--especially young moms--are also frustrated by the flood of changing nutrition advice in season to stretch your food dollar, too. · Stash healthy snacks. Keep healthy, nutritious snacks in key snacks ­ crackers and peanut butter, small boxes of cereal, fresh fruit, pretzels, or plain popcorn. You

Burke, Peter

72

Challenges to Cognitive Bases for an Especial Motor Skill at the Regulation Baseball Pitching Distance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We tested expert baseball pitchers for evidence of especial skills at the regulation pitching distance. Seven college pitchers threw indoors to a target placed at 60.5 feet (18.44 m) and four closer and four further distances away. Accuracy at the regulation distance was significantly better than predicted by regression on the nonregulation…

Simons, Jeffery P.; Wilson, Jacob M.; Wilson, Gabriel J.; Theall, Stephen

2009-01-01

73

Training for Emergencies Need for some uniformity of training across airlines. Concern is especially about  

E-print Network

Training for Emergencies · Need for some uniformity of training across airlines. Concern is especially about variability in amount of training for emergencies. Not enough training in general for emergencies. · What are the criteria for training for success. · Try a "hypertext" approach to simulator

74

Abstract--This paper presents ambient mechanical vibrations as an alternative source for energy harvesting, especially  

E-print Network

Abstract--This paper presents ambient mechanical vibrations as an alternative source for energy harvesting, especially beneficial where alternatives such as light, wind, biomass and thermal energy are limited, e.g., powering underground sensors. Transduction of ambient kinetic energy, e.g., the vibrations

Kumar, Ratnesh

75

Oferta Especial del Banc Sabadell pels alumnes de la Fundaci UPF. Curs 2014  

E-print Network

Oferta Especial del Banc Sabadell pels alumnes de la Fundaci� UPF. Curs 2014 BS Cr�dit Curs Finan,50%. Comissi� d'estudi del 0%. Banc Sabadell es reserva el dret de no fer efectiu aquest pr�stec si durant el criteri de concessi�. Opcionalment es podr� contractar una asseguran�a de vida amb BanSabadell Vida, S

76

Visualizing Vocal Expression Sound, especially speech, is ephemeral. It is a high-  

E-print Network

. It could also provide enabling technology for speech therapy and new creative works. To begin exploringVisualizing Vocal Expression Abstract Sound, especially speech, is ephemeral. It is a high- speed and others have experimented with visual representations of speech, yet little is known about

Karahalios, Karrie G.

77

ll cells contain lots of big molecules, especially proteins, nucleic acids and  

E-print Network

, the mitochondrion and endoplasmic reticulum -- shows that their diffusion rate is reduced by factors in the range 3A ll cells contain lots of big molecules, especially proteins, nucleic acids and complex sugars effects on cellular processes. The high total concentration of macro- molecules inside cells (up to 400

Weston, Ken

78

Analise Matematica III Turma Especial Ficha Extra 2 Termodinamica dos Gases Ideais  

E-print Network

Anâ??alise Matemâ??atica III ­ Turma Especial Ficha Extra 2 ­ Termodinâ??amica dos Gases Ideais N Termodinâ??amica afirma que existe uma funâ?ºcâ?ao E : M # R, dita a energia interna do gâ??as, cuja derivadaâ??amicos gerais pela Segunda Lei da Termodinâ??amica. 2 #12;

Natário, José

79

Investigación translacional para generar datos a favor de la introducción racional y eficiente de vacunas nuevas en países en vías de desarrollo: La experiencia del Instituto Internacional de Vacunas  

Microsoft Academic Search

ExtractoEn los últimos años, la introducción de vacunas nuevas en países opulentos ha tenido lugar a un ritmo asombroso. En comparación, se han introducido pocas vacunas de nueva generación en los programas de salud pública para los pobres de los países en vías de desarrollo, y para aquéllos que sí los tienen, la introducción ha sido penosamente lenta. Los recursos

John Clemens

2008-01-01

80

Sea turtles as a non-consumptive tourism resource especially in Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is substantial economic potential for exploiting wildlife resources for non-consumptive wildlife-oriented recreation (NCWOR) tourism and this type of tourism if well managed, can result in the long-term conservation of wildlife resources. This is especially important in cases where wildlife resources are declining due to habitat destruction, poaching and other human threats, as is so for sea turtles. In this

Clevo Wilson; Clem Tisdell

2001-01-01

81

When Fairness is Especially Important: Reactions to Being Inequitably Paid in Communal Relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article focuses on when justice is especially important to people and, in doing so, explores the social conditions under\\u000a which the importance of justice may change in social interactions. More specifically, the authors examine how different types\\u000a of relationships affect evaluations of equitable and inequitable situations. It is argued that when people are confronted\\u000a with friends as interaction partners,

Susanne Lidewij Peters; Kees van den Bos

2008-01-01

82

NUEVAS VISTAS (NEW VIEWS), A REPORT OF THE ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF THE CALIFORNIA STATE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION (1ST, LOS ANGELES, APRIL 13-14, 1967).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE PROBLEMS TO BE FACED IN MEETING THE EDUCATIONAL NEEDS OF CALIFORNIA'S MEXICAN AMERICAN POPULATION WERE DISCUSSED AT THIS FIRST ANNUAL NUEVAS VISTAS CONFERENCE. THE FIRST PORTION OF THIS REPORT CONTAINS EXCERPTS FROM THE MAJOR ADDRESSES DELIVERED AT THE CONFERENCE. THE SECOND PORTION REPORTS THE PANEL DISCUSSIONS AND WORKSHOPS CONDUCTED AT THE…

CALVO, ROBERT C.

83

Environmental geochemistry on La Nueva Concepción mercury mining area, a comparison with the metallurgical complex of Almadenejos.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Almadenejos is a small town located some 14 km East of Almadén, and was the main mining and metallurgical complex of an area comprising the Vieja Concepción (1699-1800), Nueva Concepción (1794-1965), and El Entredicho (Middle Age s.l., and 1981-1997) mines as well as the old Almadenejos metallurgical precinct (1700?-1860). This combination makes the area one of the most contaminated in the Almadén district. This study covers the Nueva Concepción mine area, a sector that lacked geochemical data before this study. We here present the results of a survey including soils (n = 80), lichens (Evernia prunastri) (n = 73) and total gaseous mercury (n = 61). The analyses of soils and lichens were carried out using an atomic absorption spectrometer AMA254, while total gaseous mercury determinations were in-situ obtained using a portable Lumex RA-915+. We used Surfer 8 for the krigging and subsequent mapping of geochemical data. Mercury contents in soils are in the range of 6 - 721 mg kg-1, clearly higher than critical concentrations in soils by Kabata-Pendias (2001) (0.3 - 5 mg kg-1). This mercury levels are higher in the metallurgical facility of Almadenejos (range = 25 - 15900 mg kg-1), putting forward that the main pollution legacy relates to the metallurgical activities and not to the mining operations. The statistical distribution of data is log-normal and as shown by the krigging Hg shows a remarkable E-W spatial component which closely matches the structural pattern of the main Hg hosting bed: the Criadero Quartzite. On the other hand, total gaseous mercury shows a WNW-ESE tendency most probably controlled by the local main wind direction. A similar spatial trend was found for the lichen's Hg contents. Mercury contents in these lichens are 103 times higher than in pristine areas but lower than those from the abandoned (and highly polluted) Almadenejos metallurgical complex.

Castillo, Washington; Herrera, Edison; Martínez-Coronado, Alba; Oyarzun, Roberto; Higueras, Pablo; María Esbrí, José

2014-05-01

84

Molecular phylogenetics of Caenogastropoda (Gastropoda: Mollusca)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Caenogastropoda is the dominant group of marine gastropods in terms of species numbers, diversity of habit and habitat and ecological importance. This paper reports the first comprehensive multi-gene phylogenetic study of the group. Data were collected from up to six genes comprising parts of 18S rRNA, 28S rRNA (five segments), 12S rRNA, cytochrome c oxidase subunit I, histone H3 and

D. J. Colgan; W. F. Ponder; E. Beacham; J. Macaranas

2007-01-01

85

[Microbiologic depuration of Anadara tuberculosa (Mollusca: Arcidae)].  

PubMed

In Costa Rica the mollusk Anadara tuberculosa represents a risk for human health due to the contamination of the growing waters and the fact that its is consumed raw. The families depending on the income obtained through commercialization of these animals have a low education and economic status. Therefore, it is of great importance to develop and evaluate simple methods of depuration that could be easily used by these families to make these mollusks safe for consumption. Bottles containing 11 of saline solution (25g/l) were prepared in duplicates to test the bactericidal effect of acetic acid. The solution in each bottle was adjusted to ph 4.5, 5.0 or 5.5 or held at ph of 7.0 or 8.0 for the controls. The solution in each bottle was then inoculated with approximately 1 X 104 cfu/ml of coliforms. Counts of coliforms were determined for each bottle 0, 1, 2, 4 and 8 hours after inoculation. For the depuration studies, specimens with diameters ranging from 4.0 to 4.5 cm were collected from a harvester at the estuary of Puntarenas, Gulf of Nicoya. Fifty specimens each were depurated in separate tanks containing 25 1 of oxygenated saline solution adjusted with acetic acid to an initial ph of 4.5 (treatment) or non adjusted ph of 8.0 (control). Counts of Enterobacteriaceae were determined, in duplicates, every 12 hr for 48 hr. An additional fifty animals were depurated using the defined method and tested to determine if they met international standards of microbiological quality for aerobic plate count, Enterobacteriaceae count, Escherichia coli count and presence of Salmonella. A sensory evaluation using a triangle test was performed to compare a typical dish prepared with depurated or non-depurated animals. A significant coliform reduction was determined in a saline solution (25 g/l) at a pH range of 4.5 to 5.5. This reduction, during 8 hr, was higher in the acid treatments compared to the controls. During depuration, the elimination of Enterobacteriaceae bacteria was faster when acetic was used (initial ph = 4.5) than when it was not. This elimination was more important the first 24 hr, time defined as adequate for the application of the method. The method has the advantage of transforming the bivalve in a product that is safe for human consumption, since it guarantees that the international standards of microbiological quality, for raw and depurated mollusks, are reached. On the other hand, the sensory qualities of a typical dish prepared with depurated animals are not affected by the method, which can be easily implemented and applied by the people that work in the extraction of this mollusk. PMID:9698943

Wong, E; Antillón, F; Glenn, E; González, M I

1997-12-01

86

Adhesive Gels from Marine Gastropods (Mollusca)  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The structure and properties of gastropod gels are strikingly different from common commercial glues. Commercial glues are\\u000a generally solids; they may be applied in liquid form and then solidify or they may be deformable, tacky solids. In either\\u000a case, their final form consists entirely of polymers or cross-linked materials. In contrast, adhesive gels typically consist\\u000a of dilute polymer networks that

Hermann Ehrlich

87

A Synoptical Classification of the Bivalvia (Mollusca)  

E-print Network

, Peter J. Harries, Joseph H. Hartman, Michael Hautmann, Walter R. Hoeh, Jorgen Hylleberg, Jiang Bao-yu, Paul Johnston, Lisa Kirkendale, Karl Kleemann, Jens Koppka, Ji?í K?íž, Deusana Machado, Nikolaus Malchus, Ana Márquez-Aliaga, Jean-Pierre Masse... Machado, Nikolaus Malchus, Ana Márquez-Aliaga, Jean-Pierre Masse, Christopher A. McRoberts, Peter U. Middelfart, Simon Mitchell, Lidiya A. Nevesskaja, Sacit Özer, John Pojeta, Jr., Inga V. Polubotko, Jose Maria Pons, Sergey Popov, Teresa Sánchez, André F...

Carter, Joseph G.; Altaba, Cristian R.; Anderson, Laurie C.; Araujo, Rafael; Biakov, Alexander S.; Bogan, Arthur E.; Campbell, David C.; Campbell, Matthew; Chen, Jin-hua; Cope, John C. W.; Delvene, Graciela; Dijkstra, Henk H.; Fang, Zong-jie; Gardner, Ronald N.; Gavrilova, Vera A.; Goncharova, Irina A.; Harries, Peter J.; Hartman, Joseph H.; Hautmann, Michael; Hoeh, Walter R.; Hylleberg, Jorgen; Jiang, Bao-yu; Johnston, Paul; Kirkendale, Lisa; Kleemann, Karl; Koppka, Jens; K?í ž, Ji?í Machado, Deusana; Malchus, Nikolaus; Má rquez-Aliaga, Ana; Masse, Jean-Pierre; McRoberts, Christopher A.; Middelfart, Peter U.; Mitchell, Simon; Nevesskaja, Lidiya A.; Ö zer, Sacit; Pojeta, John Jr.; Polubotko, Inga V.; Pons, Jose Maria; Popov, Sergey; Sá nchez, Teresa; Sartori, André F.; Scott, Robert W.; Sey, Irina I.; Signorelli, Javier H.; Silantiev, Vladimir V.; Skelton, Peter W.; Steuber, Thomas; Waterhouse, J. Bruce; Wingard, G. Lynn; Yancey, Thomas

2011-10-27

88

Family Thraciidae (Mollusca, Bivalvia) from Chinese waters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Species, Thracia granubsa of the Family Thraciidae from the China Seas was first reported and described as new to science by Adams et Reeve (1850). No other species was found there for more than 100 years until the author (1980) in his studies on Chinese bivalvia, discovered the second new species, Trigonothracia jinxingae, described in this article. This paper deals with 6 species, three of which are new to science, collected from the littoral and sublittoral zones of the China Seas. Type specimens are deposited in the Institute of Oceanology, Academia Sinica, Qingdao.

Xu, Fengshan

1989-03-01

89

Women and Alcohol Women's drinking patterns are different from men's--especially when it comes to the type of  

E-print Network

Women and Alcohol Women's drinking patterns are different from men's--especially when it comes to the type of beverage, amounts, and frequency. Women's bodies also react differently to alcohol than men of the health risks associated with drinking alcohol, especially because most women drink at least occasionally

Bandettini, Peter A.

90

Abstract--Our aim in ambient assistive technologies is to reduce long term hospitalization for elderly people, especially  

E-print Network

for elderly people, especially with pathologies such as Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). The smart environment as possible at home. The originality comes from using the robot in the elderly person's home. This robot. INTRODUCTION HE increasing number of elderly people, especially with pathologies such as Alzheimer disease

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

91

(Re)cognizing postmodernity: helps for historians--of science especially.  

PubMed

Postmodernity, a historical era demarcated from modernity by a broad reversal in cultural presuppositions, is distinguished from postmodernism, an intellectual posture adopted by self-identified postmodernists early in postmodernity. Two principal features of postmodernity are addressed: first, the downgrading of science and the upgrading of technology in cultural rank--on which postmodernity and postmodernism are in accord; second, the displacement of the methodical, disinterested scientist, modernity's beau ideal, not by a fragmented subject as postmodernism claims, but by the single-minded entrepreneur, resourcefully pursuing his self-interest in disregard of all rules. The reversal in rank and role as between science and technology, setting in circa 1980, is a marker of the transition from modernity to postmodernity. That reversal is to be cognized primarily as rejection of rule-following, of proceeding methodically--'methodism' being the cultural perspective that uniquely distinguished modernity--but also as rejection of disinterestedness, the quality of mind especially highly esteemed in modernity. Postmodernity is constituted by this transvaluation of values, whose well-spring is the egocentric, transgressive (hence 'risk taking'), postmodern personality and its anti-social presumptions regarding personhood. Within the history of science itself there has been since circa 1980 a corresponding turn of scholarly attention away from science to technology, and a growing distaste for social perspectives, reflected, i.a., in the rejection of causalist 'influence' explanations in favor of voluntarist 'resource' explanations. PMID:20695412

Forman, Paul

2010-06-01

92

Prosaposin regulates coenzyme Q10 levels in HepG2 cells, especially those in mitochondria  

PubMed Central

Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is a key component of the mitochondrial electron transfer chain and is one of the most important cellular antioxidants. We previously reported that glycoprotein saposin B (SapB) binds CoQ10 in human cells. To elucidate the physiological role of SapB and its precursor, prosaposin (Psap), we prepared stable transfectants of HepG2 that overexpress wild-type human Psap (Wt-Tf). We also established a SapB domain mutated Psap (Mt-Tf) in which cysteine198 was replaced with serine to disrupt three dimensional protein structure by the loss of S-S bridging. Psap knockdown (KD) strains were also examined. Western blotting analysis confirmed overexpression or knockdown of Psap in these HepG2 cells. The cellular ratios of CoQ10 to free cholesterol (FC) significantly decreased in the order of Wt-Tf>parental>Mt-Tf>KD. Additionally, the ratios of CoQ10/FC in mitochondrial fractions decreased in the order of Wt-Tf>parental>KD. These data indicate that Psap and/or SapB regulate CoQ10 levels in HepG2 cells, especially in their mitochondria.

Kashiba, Misato; Oizumi, Mikiko; Suzuki, Masaru; Sawamura, Yoshimi; Nagashima, Kohei; Yoshimura, Shinichi; Yamamoto, Yorihiro

2014-01-01

93

Genetic biases for showy males: Are some genetic systems especially conducive to sexual selection?  

PubMed Central

Male secondary sexual characters (conspicuous ornaments, signals, colors) are among nature's most striking features. Yet, it is unclear why certain groups of organisms are more likely than others to evolve these traits. One explanation for such taxonomic biases is that some genetic systems may be especially conducive to sexual selection. Here, we present theory and simulation results demonstrating that rare alleles encoding either male ornaments or female preferences for those ornaments are better protected against random loss in species with ZZ/ZW or ZZ/ZO sex chromosome systems (male homogamety) than in species with XX/XY or XX/XO systems (male heterogamety). Moreover, this protection is much stronger in diploid than haplodiploid species. We also present empirical data showing that male secondary sexual characters are better developed in diploid than haplodiploid species and in diploid species with male homogamety than in those with male heterogamety. Thus, taxonomic biases for showy males may stem from differences in sex chromosome systems. PMID:12540829

Reeve, Hudson Kern; Pfennig, David W.

2003-01-01

94

Nitrogen-doped porous carbons by conversion of azo dyes especially in the case of tartrazine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitrogen-doped porous carbons possessing high surface areas and large pore volumes have been prepared by directly heating the mixture of tartrazine and Ca(OAc)2·H2O at 800 °C especially without further physical or chemical activation, where Ca(OAc)2·H2O serves as the hard template to regulate the surface area and pore structures. It reveals that the addition of Ca(OAc)2·H2O can remarkably improve the surface area and total pore volume. The T-Ca-800-3:1 sample displays the highest BET surface area as 1669 m2 g-1 and largest total pore volume 0.85 cm3 g-1, which is much larger than those without adding Ca(OAc)2·H2O. Furthermore, it exhibits excellent capacitive performances, including high specific capacitance (ca. 224.3 F g-1 at 0.5 A g-1), good rate capability (the retention of 42.6% at 60 A g-1) and good cycling stability (the retention of 92.3% within 5000 cycles).

Zhang, Zhong Jie; Chen, Chong; Cui, Peng; Chen, Xiang Ying

2013-11-01

95

Size and Depth Determination of Defects in Plastic Materials, Especially in CFRP, by Means of Shearography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interferometric methods are known to be very sensitive, allowing metrology with resolutions better than the wavelength of the light used for illumination. On the other hand, those methods are susceptible to environmental and mechanical noise, usually. We use Shearography, a version of Speckle interferometry, which, in contrast, is a robust method, resistant to noise and vibrations and compatible to industrial applications. We survey thermally-induced Shearography in order to detect defects in plastic materials, especially in carbon fiber reinforced plastics. We show that by analyzing out-of-plane-deformations, it is possible to evaluate those data quantitatively, enabling the determination of the size as well as the depth of defects. The method of depth determination is based on a gray-scale evaluation with respect to the deformations induced. It has been applied for defects localized in depths up to 10 mm, so far. The method of size determination is based on modeling the dependence of the apparent defect size as a function of the amount of shearing. Simulations of the out-of-plane-deformations for specific defects in different materials have been performed as well. The simulations' results help to understand how to interpret the experimental data. In addition they suggest that the sensitivity for the detection of defects is essentially higher in thermally-induced shearography- than in thermography-experiments.

Hendorfer, G.; Reiter, C.; Mayr, G.

2009-03-01

96

The influence of visual contextual information on the emergence of the especial skill in basketball.  

PubMed

We examined whether basketball throwing performance in general and motor skill specificity from the free throw distance in particular are influenced by visual contextual information. Experienced basketball players (N = 36) performed basketball set shots at five distances from the basket. Of particular interest was the performance from the free throw distance (4.23 m), at which experienced basketball players are expected to show superior performance compared with nearby locations as a result of massive amounts of practice. Whereas a control group performed the shots on a regular basketball court, the distance between the rim and the free throw line was either increased or decreased by 30 cm in two experimental groups. Findings showed that only the control group had a superior performance from the free throw distance, and the experimental groups did not. Moreover, all groups performed more accurately from the perceived free throw line (independent of its location) compared with nearby locations. The findings suggest that visual context information influences the presence of specificity effects in experienced performers. The findings have theoretical implications for explaining the memory representation underlying the especial skill effect in basketball. PMID:24197721

Stöckel, Tino; Breslin, Gavin

2013-10-01

97

On the Chemical Synthesis and Physical Properties of Iron Pyrite, Especially the (100) Surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Given that iron pyrite (cubic FeS2, fool's gold) is a semiconductor with a ˜1 eV band gap, it has long been investigated for use in technological applications, especially photovoltaics. Unfortunately, numerous measurements indicate that it's properties, as currently synthesized at least, do not allow for effective devices. Photovoltages far below theoretical expectation are found as well as below band gap optical absorption. From a scientific standpoint, our understanding of the cause of these observations, the form of the density of states for instance, remains mired in uncertainty. In this work we have attempted to gain insight into this problem by creating ensembles of pyrite nanocrystals that can then be treated and measured with well-developed wet-chemical nanocrystal techniques. Specifically, we interpret the existing literature to advocate that the surface states of this material dominate its observed electrical properties. In an effort to better understand the most prevalent surface, the (100) face, we developed a synthesis that nucleates small (< 20 nm) pyrite nanoparticles and then changes chemical conditions to grow all other faces besides {100} to extinction, creating ˜37 nm nanocubes. The optical properties of these nanocubes are measured and the phenomenon of resonance light scattering (RLS) is observed. This phenomenon, along with the poor colloidal dispersibility of these nanocubes is then used to promote the idea that an unusual dynamic electronic phenomenon exists on these surfaces. This phenomenon is found to be passivated by introducing charged ligands to the surfaces of these particles. Additionally, after this surface treatment, two very sharp absorption features are observed at 0.73 and 0.88 eV. In connection with recent theoretical work, these transitions are taken as evidence that the (100) surface of pyrite is spin-polarized with each absorption peak being the signal of band edge absorption across a spin-selected direct band gap. A theoretical framework is proposed as a plausible explanation of the observed behavior. To wit, highly localized and energetically disordered Fe d-orbital states fill in the band gap of the (100) pyrite surface that is not perfectly terminated (or nearly so). Frustration between energetic disorder and Coulomb repulsion then results in the formation of metastable states that obscure the observation of these surface transitions and cause the dynamical behavior observed. It is further reasoned that one of these transitions, the one at 0.88 eV, has been observed before in cryogenic absorption and photoconductivity studies, and argued that a plausible reinterpretation of the data from these studies is possible. This reinterpretation can be rationalized within the context of the physical model posited here whereby cryogenic temperatures increase the importance of Coulombic interactions, which results in a decrease in the metastable DOS at the Fermi level and an electronic arrangement closer to that predicted theoretically, despite existing disorder. Finally, it is argued that the frustrated movement of electrons in metastable states can qualitatively explain the apparent conundrum in which surface sensitive probes are unable to measure the effect of isolated defects, despite the highly localized nature of the pyrite (100) surface. Given the range of phenomena this model explains, it may constitute a significant advance in our understanding of the electronic properties of pyrite. Additionally, given that electrochemical conversion of pyrite is a four electron process resulting in a high theoretical discharge capacity of 894 mAh g-1, we have synthesized micron-sized pyrite nanocubes for use in lithium-ion battery research. Previously the use of pyrite in such batteries has only been possible in non-rechargeable architectures. However, work described here shows that a solid state electrolyte can be used to contain the dissolution of these micron sized particles, allowing for battery cycling. This synthesis, especially the effect of pH on morphology, is described within th

Macpherson, Hector Alexander

98

Apolipoprotein E, especially apolipoprotein E4, increases the oligomerization of amyloid ? peptide  

PubMed Central

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common progressive neurodegenerative disorder causing dementia. Massive deposition of amyloid ? peptide (A?) as senile plaques in the brain is the pathological hallmark of AD, but oligomeric, soluble forms of A? have been implicated as the synaptotoxic component. The apolipoprotein E epsilon 4 (apoE ?4) allele is known to be a genetic risk factor for developing AD. However it is still unknown how apoE impacts the process of A? oligomerization. Here, we found that the level of A? oligomers in APOE?4/?4 AD patient brains is 2.7 times higher than those in APOE?3/?3 AD patient brains, matched for total plaque burden, suggesting that apoE4 impacts the metabolism of A? oligomers. To test this hypothesis, we examined apoE’s effect on A? oligomer formation. Using both synthetic A? and a split-luciferase method for monitoring A? oligomers, we observed that apoE increased the level of A? oligomers in an isoform dependent manner (E2 < E3 < E4). This effect appears to be dependent on the ApoE carboxy-terminal domain. Moreover, these results were confirmed using endogenous apoE isolated from the TBS-soluble fraction of human brain, which increased the formation of A? oligomers. Taken together, these data show that lipidated apoE, especially apoE4, increases A? oligomers in the brain. Higher levels of A? oligomers in the brains of APOE?4/?4 carriers compared to APOE?3/?3 carriers may increase the loss of dendritic spines and accelerate memory impairments, leading to earlier cognitive decline in AD. PMID:23100439

Hashimoto, Tadafumi; Serrano-Pozo, Alberto; Hori, Yukiko; Adams, Kenneth W; Takeda, Shuko; Banerji, Adrian Olaf; Mitani, Akinori; Joyner, Daniel; Thyssen, Diana H; Bacskai, Brian J; Frosch, Matthew P; Spires-Jones, Tara L; Finn, Mary Beth; Holtzman, David M; Hyman, Bradley T

2012-01-01

99

NONSPECIFIC ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AGENTS--Some Notes on Their Practical Application, Especially in Rheumatic Disorders  

PubMed Central

A number of acute and chronic inflammatory disorders are amenable to varying degrees of therapeutic control with the administration of nonspecific anti-inflammatory drugs. An evaluation of these suppressive agents in the field of rheumatic diseases and practical suggestions regarding their administration are presented. Eight synthetically modified corticosteroid compounds are available commercially. Each of them exhibits qualitative differences in one or several physiologic actions, each has certain advantages and disadvantages in therapy, and each shares the major deterrent features of corticosteroids. Prednisone, prednisolone, methylprednisolone, fluprednisolone and paramethasone have similar therapeutic indices, and there is little choice between them for the usual rheumatoid patient requiring steroid therapy. Conversely, the therapeutic indices of dexamethasone, betamethasone and triamcinolone are lower than that of prednisolone; they are less desirable for routine use and should be reserved for specially selected cases. Salicylates are preferred to adrenocortical steroids in the treatment of the ordinary patient with acute rheumatic fever. Steroid therapy should be reserved for resistant cases and for those with significant carditis. Salicylates are mainstays for pain relief in rheumatoid arthritis, but with the analgesic doses usually employed their anti-inflammatory action is slight. Phenylbutazone is a highly useful anti-inflammatory agent, especially in management of acute gouty arthritis and ankylosing (rheumatoid) spondylitis; its metabolite, oxyphenylbutazone, does not exhibit clear-cut advantages. Colchicine specifically suppresses acute gouty arthritis. Its analogues, desacetylcolchicine and desacetylthiocolchicine, produce fewer unpleasant gastrointestinal symptoms, but may promote agranulocytosis and alopecia. A number of indole preparations with anti-inflammatory activity have been tested clinically. One of them, indomethacin, has received extensive therapeutic trial; with dosages that can be tolerated the drug is fairly effective in the symptomatic control of ankylosing (rheumatoid) spondylitis but it is of questionable value in peripheral rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:14131394

Boland, Edward W.

1964-01-01

100

Graduate Enrollment Increases in Science and Engineering Fields, Especially in Engineering and Computer Sciences. InfoBrief: Science Resources Statistics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This brief describes graduate enrollment increases in the science and engineering fields, especially in engineering and computer sciences. Graduate student enrollment is summarized by enrollment status, citizenship, race/ethnicity, and fields. (KHR)

Burrelli, Joan S.

101

Nuevas Adquisiciones (Recent Acquisitions).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This bibliography of educational materials lists approximately 100 publications recently acquired by the Colombian National Center for Documentation and Educational Information. The entries are listed according to subject matter; topics range from general educational theory to more specific subject topics. (VM)

Informacion Bibliografica Educativa, 1972

1972-01-01

102

Una Guia para Los Padres sobre La Educacion Especial: El Derecho de Su Hijo(a) a Adquirir una Educacion en el Estado de Nueva York (A Parent's Guide to Special Education: Your Child's Right to an Education in New York State).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide provides information to help parents of special needs children in New York become active partners in the planning and implementation of special education programs. The first part of the guide provides in-depth information related to the special education process in New York State public schools. A historical view of children's rights to…

New York State Education Dept. Albany. Office for the Education of Children with Handicapping Conditions.

103

Two new protist species, Trypanoplasma ojedae sp. n. (Mastigophora: Kinetoplastida) and Trichodina lascrucensis sp. n. (Ciliophora: Peritrichida) in a blenniid fish, Scartichthys viridis, from the coast of Chile Dos nuevas especies de protista: Trypanoplasma ojedae sp. n. (Mastigophora: Kinetoplastida) y Trichodina lascrucensis sp. n. (Ciliophora: Peritrichida) en un pez blénido Scartichthys viridis, de la costa de Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two new protistan species were observed in a blenniid fish, Scartichthys viridis, inhabiting tide pools at Las Cruces, central Chile. Trypanoplasma ojedae sp. n. (Mastigophora: Kinetoplastida) in the blood is characterized by its small size (29.8 ± 5.0 x 5.1 +1.2 ?m), short anterior flagellum (4.9 ± 0.6 ?m), anterior located kinetoplast (2.4 ± 0.2) and a prominent undulating membrane.

Rasul A. Khan; Freddy Díaz; Mario George-Nascimento

2008-01-01

104

Methyl Eugenol: Its Occurrence, Distribution, and Role in Nature, Especially in Relation to Insect Behavior and Pollination  

PubMed Central

This review discusses the occurrence and distribution (within a plant) of methyl eugenol in different plant species (> 450) from 80 families spanning many plant orders, as well as various roles this chemical plays in nature, especially in the interactions between tephritid fruit flies and plants. PMID:22963669

Tan, Keng Hong; Nishida, Ritsuo

2012-01-01

105

Abstract--The dictionaries play an extremely important role in human life, especially in educational activities of various types.  

E-print Network

1 Abstract--The dictionaries play an extremely important role in human life, especially. The dictionary is maximally user-friendly, the child can work with it by herself, with no help from parents dictionary, children perception. I. INTRODUCTION HE dictionaries play an extremely important role in human

Stanchev, Peter

106

The learners' motivation has an impact on the quality of learning, especially in e-Learning envi-  

E-print Network

Abstract The learners' motivation has an impact on the quality of learning, especially in e-Learning and of great importance is motivation, known to be an essential factor for preventing attrition in e-Learning level of detail. Data mining and machine learning techniques can "give meaning" to these data

Cocea, Mihaela

107

Irrigation with polluted water or wastewater is a widespread reality, especially in low-income countries where it is popularly  

E-print Network

Irrigation with polluted water or wastewater is a widespread reality, especially in low are now available to make wastewater use safer and more sustainable without relying on non Partnership (GWP) Advisory Center at IWMI and the GWP Technical Committee. It is based on the book Wastewater

Scott, Christopher

108

Fichas de las especies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sittasomus griseicapillus, Xiphorhynchus flavigaster, Myiopagis viridicata, Mitrephanes phaeocercus, \\u000aEmpidonax difficilis \\/ occidentalis, Myiarchus tuberculifer, Myiarchus cinerascens, Myiarchus nuttingi, Myiarchus tyrannulus, Pitangus sulphuratus, Myiozetetes similis, Myiodynastes luteiventris, Pachyramphus aglaiae, Vireo brevipennis, Vireo bellii, Vireo nelsoni, Vireo hypochryseus, \\u000aVireo gilvus, Vireo flavoviridis, Thryothorus sinaloa, Thryothorus felix, Troglodytes brunneicollis, Troglodytes aedon, Henicorhina leucophrys, Polioptila caerulea, Myadestes occidentalis, Catharus aurantiirostris, Catharus occidentalis, Catharus frantzii,

Santi Guallar; E. Santana; S. Contreras; H. Verdugo; A. Gallés

2009-01-01

109

[The Lichtenstein inguinal hernia-plasty: a simple and complication-free technique, especially suited for ambulatory surgery].  

PubMed

A consecutive series of 353 patients who underwent Lichtenstein mesh repair for inguinal hernia from the 1st of July 1994 to the 30th of July 1995 were studied. We analysed our indication, technique, complications, follow-up and outcome. Special consideration was given to the advantages and acceptance of day-case surgery. Our results suggest that the Lichtenstein repair should be considered as a new standard procedure, especially outside of hernia centres. PMID:9574219

Metzger, J; Vogelbach, P; Lutz, N; Laidlaw, I

1997-01-01

110

MDM2 309 T\\/G polymorphism is associated with colorectal cancer risk especially in Asians: a meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The murine double minute 2 (MDM2) gene encodes an important regulator which mainly functions as an E3 ligase. The role of the MDM2 protein in the P53 pathway\\u000a has been especially well-studied. In this study, our aim was to explore the relationship between MDM2 gene 309 T\\/G polymorphism and colorectal cancer risk. Performing both the overall meta-analysis and the subgroup

Fang Fang; Xiao-Jia Yu; Lu Yu; Lei Yao

111

Short communication: Prevalence and risk factors of subclinical mastitis as determined by the California Mastitis Test in water buffaloes (Bubalis bubalis) in Nueva Ecija, Philippines.  

PubMed

A retrospective analysis using records of lactating Bulgarian Murrah buffaloes subjected to the California Mastitis Test in a herd in Nueva Ecija, Philippines was done to determine the prevalence of subclinical mastitis (SCM) and to identify risk factors that may influence its occurrence and recurrence. Results showed that SCM prevalence was 42.76%, whereas its recurrence was 75.03%. Age and lactation length influenced the occurrence of SCM. In contrast to the conclusions for dairy cows, younger buffalo cows were more susceptible compared with those at least 6 yr old. Dams younger than 3 yr have a 76% probability, whereas those age 3 yr have an 82% probability of having SCM. PMID:22365218

Salvador, R T; Beltran, J M C; Abes, N S; Gutierrez, C A; Mingala, C N

2012-03-01

112

Petrographic Evidence of Microbial Mats in the Upper Cretaceous Fish-Bearing, Organic-Rich Limestone, Agua Nueva Formation, Central Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We document petrographic evidence of microbial mats in the Upper Cretaceous Agua Nueva Formation in the area of Xilitla (San Luis Potosí, Central Mexico), located in the southern part of the Tampico-Misantla basin. The sequence consists predominantly of alternating decimeter-thick beds of fossiliferous dark laminated limestone (C-org > 1.0wt%), and light gray, bioturbated limestone (C-org < 1.0wt%), with occasional brown shale and green bentonite layers. Well-preserved fossil-fish assemblages occur in the laminated dark limestone beds, which include shark teeth (cf. Ptychodus), scales of teleosteans (Ichthyodectiformes), as well as skeletal remains of holosteans (Nursallia. sp), and teleosteans (cf. Rhynchodercetis, Tselfatia, and unidentified Enchodontids). Thin section and SEM analyses of the laminated, dark limestones, reveal a micritic matrix consisting of dark and light sub-parallel wavy laminae, continuous and discontinuous folded laminae with shreds of organic matter, filaments, oncoids, and interlocking structures. The structures are identical to those previously described for the Cenomanian-Turonian Indidura Fm at Parras de la Fuente (Coahuila state) demonstrated to be of microbial origin (Duque-Botero and Maurrasse, 2005; 2008). These structures are also analogous to microbial mats in present environments, and Devonian deposits (Kremer, 2006). In addition, the laminae at Xilitla include filamentous bacterial structures, as thin and segmented red elements. In some thin sections, filaments appear to be embedded within the crinkly laminae and shreds showing the same pattern of folding, suggestive of biomorphic elements that represent the main producers of the organic matter associated with the laminae. Thus, exceptional bacterial activity characterizes sedimentation during the accumulation of the Agua Nueva Formation. Oxygen-deficient conditions related to the microbial mats were an important element in the mass mortality and preservation of the fish assemblages. Absence of bioturbation, pervasive framboidal pyrite, and the high concentration of organic matter (TOC ranges from 1.2% to 8wt%) in the dark limestones are consistent with persistent recurring dysoxic/anoxic conditions, and the light-gray bioturbated limestones represent relatively well-oxygenated episodes. Planktonic foraminifera (Rotalipora cushmani) and Inoceramu labiatus indicate a time interval from the latest Cenomanian through the earliest Turonian, thus this long interval of severe oxygen deficiency is coeval with Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 (OAE-2). [Duque-Botero and Maurrasse. 2005. Jour. Iberian Geology (31), 85-98; 2008. Cret. Res., 29, 957-964; Kremer. 2006. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica (51, 1), 143-154

Blanco, A.; Maurrasse, F. J.; Hernández-Ávila, J.; Ángeles-Trigueros, S. A.; García-Cabrera, M. E.

2013-05-01

113

Glitter-Like Iridescence within the Bacteroidetes Especially Cellulophaga spp.: Optical Properties and Correlation with Gliding Motility  

PubMed Central

Iridescence results from structures that generate color. Iridescence of bacterial colonies has recently been described and illustrated. The glitter-like iridescence class, created especially for a few strains of Cellulophaga lytica, exhibits an intense iridescence under direct illumination. Such color appearance effects were previously associated with other bacteria from the Bacteroidetes phylum, but without clear elucidation and illustration. To this end, we compared various bacterial strains to which the iridescent trait was attributed. All Cellulophaga species and additional Bacteroidetes strains from marine and terrestrial environments were investigated. A selection of bacteria, mostly marine in origin, were found to be iridescent. Although a common pattern of reflected wavelengths was recorded for the species investigated, optical spectroscopy and physical measurements revealed a range of different glitter-like iridescence intensity and color profiles. Importantly, gliding motility was found to be a common feature of all iridescent colonies. Dynamic analyses of “glitter” formation at the edges of C. lytica colonies showed that iridescence was correlated with layer superposition. Both gliding motility, and unknown cell-to-cell communication processes, may be required for the establishment, in time and space, of the necessary periodic structures responsible for the iridescent appearance of Bacteroidetes. PMID:23300811

Kientz, Betty; Ducret, Adrien; Luke, Stephen; Vukusic, Peter; Mignot, Tam; Rosenfeld, Eric

2012-01-01

114

Especially Sockeye Salmon in the Bering Sea and Adjacent Waters from 1972 to the mid 2000s  

E-print Network

Abstract: We present the mean CPUE distributions of five species of Pacific salmon in the Bering Sea and adjacent waters, based on long-term data from Japanese research-gillnet operations, 1972–2002. Many populations of three abundant Pacific salmon species (pink, chum, and sockeye salmon), have feeding migrations in the Bering Sea. There are two distinct patterns in the fluctuations in CPUE of major North Pacific salmon species in the Bering Sea. The CPUEs of pink and Chinook salmon increased after 1988 and remained high to 2005. The CPUEs of sockeye and chum salmon were low prior to 1977, peaked in 1980, declined until 1989, and then increased again until 2005. The trends in CPUE of sockeye and chum salmon seem to coincide with fluctuations in Bering Sea sea surface temperatures (SST) with higher densities of sockeye and chum salmon in the Bering Sea during warm periods and lower densities during cool periods, especially in sockeye. These increases and decreases in CPUE seem to coincide with the hypothesized regime shifts in 1977 and 1989. We also discuss the effects of the semidecadal fluctuations in the Bering Sea SST, and related fluctuations in sockeye salmon abundance.

Toru Nagasawa; Tomonori Azumaya

115

Simultaneous Multi-Antibody Staining in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Strengthens Diagnostic Accuracy Especially in Small Tissue Samples  

PubMed Central

Histological subclassification of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has growing therapeutic impact. In advanced cancer stages tissue specimens are usually bioptically collected. These small samples are of extraordinary value since molecular analyses are gaining importance for targeted therapies. We therefore studied the feasibility, diagnostic accuracy, economic and prognostic effects of a tissue sparing simultaneous multi-antibody assay for subclassification of NSCLC. Of 265 NSCLC patients tissue multi arrays (TMA) were constructed to simulate biopsy samples. TMAs were stained by a simultaneous bi-color multi-antibody assay consisting of TTF1, Vimentin, p63 and neuroendocrine markers (CD56, chromogranin A, synaptophysin). Classification was based mainly on the current proposal of the IASLC with a hierarchical decision tree for subclassification into adenocarcinoma (LAC), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) and NSCLC not otherwise specified. Investigation of tumor heterogeneity showed an explicit lower variation for immunohistochemical analyses compared to conventional classification. Furthermore, survival analysis of our combined immunohistochemical classification revealed distinct separation of each entity's survival curve. This was statistically significant for therapeutically important subgroups (p?=?0.045). As morphological and molecular cancer testing is emerging, our multi-antibody assay in combination with standardized classification delivers accurate and reliable separation of histomorphological diagnoses. Additionally, it permits clinically relevant subtyping of NSCLC including LCNEC. Our multi-antibody assay may therefore be of special value, especially in diagnosing small biopsies. It futher delivers substantial prognostic information with therapeutic consequences. Integration of immunohistochemical subtyping including investigation of neuroendocrine differentiation into standard histopathological classification of NSCLC must, therefore, be considered. PMID:23418554

Kayser, Gian; Csanadi, Agnes; Otto, Claudia; Plones, Till; Bittermann, Nicola; Rawluk, Justyna; Passlick, Bernward; Werner, Martin

2013-01-01

116

Households across All Income Quintiles, Especially the Poorest, Increased Animal Source Food Expenditures Substantially during Recent Peruvian Economic Growth  

PubMed Central

Background Relative to plant-based foods, animal source foods (ASFs) are richer in accessible protein, iron, zinc, calcium, vitamin B-12 and other nutrients. Because of their nutritional value, particularly for childhood growth and nutrition, it is important to identify factors influencing ASF consumption, especially for poorer households that generally consume less ASFs. Objective To estimate differential responsiveness of ASF consumption to changes in total household expenditures for households with different expenditures in a middle-income country with substantial recent income increases. Methods The Peruvian Young Lives household panel (n?=?1750) from 2002, 2006 and 2009 was used to characterize patterns of ASF expenditures. Multivariate models with controls for unobserved household fixed effects and common secular trends were used to examine nonlinear relationships between changes in household expenditures and in ASF expenditures. Results Households with lower total expenditures dedicated greater percentages of expenditures to food (58.4% vs.17.9% in 2002 and 24.2% vs. 21.5% in 2009 for lowest and highest quintiles respectively) and lower percentages of food expenditures to ASF (22.8% vs. 33.9% in 2002 and 30.3% vs. 37.6% in 2009 for lowest and highest quintiles respectively). Average percentages of overall expenditures spent on food dropped from 47% to 23.2% between 2002 and 2009. Households in the lowest quintiles of expenditures showed greater increases in ASF expenditures relative to total consumption than households in the highest quintiles. Among ASF components, meat and poultry expenditures increased more than proportionately for households in the lowest quintiles, and eggs and fish expenditures increased less than proportionately for all households. Conclusions Increases in household expenditures were associated with substantial increases in consumption of ASFs for households, particularly households with lower total expenditures. Increases in ASF expenditures for all but the top quintile of households were proportionately greater than increases in total food expenditures, and proportionately less than overall expenditures. PMID:25372596

Humphries, Debbie L.; Behrman, Jere R.; Crookston, Benjamin T.; Dearden, Kirk A.; Schott, Whitney; Penny, Mary E.

2014-01-01

117

Isolation of a potent antibiotic producer bacterium, especially against MRSA, from northern region of the Persian Gulf.  

PubMed

Nowadays, emergence and prevalence of MRSA (Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus) strain have become a great global concern in 21st century, so, it is necessary to discover new antibiotics against this pathogen. The aim of this study was isolation and evaluation marine bacteria from the Persian Gulf in order to finding antibiotic compounds against some pathogenic bacteria. For this purpose, water and sediment samples were collected from the Persian Gulf during March to October 2009. The antibacterial activity of the isolated bacteria was assessed using disc diffusion method. The Growth Curve Interference (GCI) parameter against MRSA was determined for the high potential antibiotic producing strain. The most important factors affecting fermentation conditions in antibiotic production were also optimized. Definite identification of intended isolate was confirmed by 16S rRNA sequencing. Altogether, 51 bacterial colony was isolated and among them only 3 bacterium showed antibacterial activity. Pseudoalteromonas piscicida PG-01 isolated from a sediment sample was chosen as the best antibiotic producing strain. This strain was effective against all tested Gram-positive bacteria, had good anti-MRSA activity and also GCI value against MRSA was two times lower than MIC value. Among the optimized fermentation parameters, carbon and nitrogen sources play major role in efficacy of optimized antibiotic production. Ultrastructural study on the effect of intended antibiotic compounds on MRSA using TEM revealed that the target site for this compound is cell wall. Considering the antibacterial effect of PG-01 strain especially against MRSA, intended antibiotic compounds can gives hope for treatment of diseases caused by multi-drug resistant bacteria. PMID:22642595

Darabpour, Esmaeil; Roayaei Ardakani, Mohammad; Motamedi, Hossein; Taghi Ronagh, Mohammad

2012-05-01

118

StalAge - A new algorithm especially designed for the construction of speleothem age-depth models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A standard approach to construct age-depth models for speleothems on the basis of 230Th/U-ages is not available yet. Some studies apply linear interpolation between dated depths; others use least squares polynomial fits. Other authors, in turn, use various kinds of splines or even more sophisticated methods based on the general growth mechanisms of speleothems. A general approach to estimate the uncertainty of stalagmite age models has neither been developed yet. Since the exact determination of the timing and duration of climatic events recorded in speleothem calcite depends on the method used to calculate the age model, a general technique for the calculation of both the age model and its uncertainty is urgently needed. Here we present a new algorithm, especially designed for constructing age-depth models based on speleothem 230Th/U-ages. The algorithm relies on two basic assumptions: (i) the age model must increase monotonically with increasing distance from top of the stalagmite, and (ii) if possible within the associated error bars, the simplest age-depth relationship (i.e., a straight line) is fitted to the age data. Whereas the first assumption simply arises from the absolute constraint of increasing age with increasing distance from top, the second assumption avoids over-interpretation of the age data. The performance of the algorithm was tested using synthetic speleothem age data. For this purpose, a numerical model simulating (i) speleothem growth, (ii) incorporation and temporal evolution of U-series isotopes and (iii) mass spectrometric analysis was developed. This allows simulation of extreme scenarios, such as stalagmite sections including obvious outliers, age inversions and pronounced detrital contamination, and also to test the performance and robustness of the algorithm under these conditions. The developed algorithm has distinct advantages in comparison with the existing methods. Firstly, it is very robust. Outliers and age inversions are automatically detected and taken into account for the calculation of the age model and its uncertainty. The uncertainty in such sections is appropriately enlarged and, thus, probably more realistic than that calculated by other methods. Secondly, the inclusion of the monotonicity criterion provides additional information apart from the 230Th/U-ages and the corresponding errors. This results in smaller errors than those calculated by other methods in sections without age inversions. The algorithm is written in the free statistical software R and will be made available as a free download to the speleothem community.

Scholz, Denis; Hoffmann, Dirk

2010-05-01

119

Urinary Interleukin-8 Is a Biomarker of Stress in Emergency Physicians, Especially with Advancing Age -- The JOBSTRESS* Randomized Trial  

PubMed Central

Background Emergency physicians are exposed to greater stress during a 24-hour shift (24 hS) than a 14-hour night shift (14 hS), with an impact lasting several days. Interleukin-8 (IL-8) is postulated to be a chronic stress biomarker. However, no studies have tracked IL-8 over several shifts or used it for monitoring short-term residual stress. The IL-8 response to the shifts may also increase with age. Conveniently, IL-8 can be measured non-intrusively from urine. Methods We conducted a shifts-randomized trial comparing 17 emergency physicians’ urinary IL-8 levels during a 24 hS, a 14 hS, and a control day (clerical work on return from leave). Mean levels of IL-8 were compared using a Wilcoxon matched-pairs test. Independent associations of key factors including shifts, stress, and age with IL-8 levels were further assessed in a multivariable generalized estimating equations model. Results Mean urinary IL-8 levels almost doubled during and after a 24 hS compared with a 14 hS or a control day. Furthermore, IL-8 levels failed to return to control values at the end of the third day after the shift despite a rest day following the 24 hS. In the multivariable model, engaging in a 24 hS, self-reported stress, and age were independently associated with higher IL-8 levels. A 24 hS significantly increased IL-8 levels by 1.9 ng (p?=?.007). Similarly, for every unit increase in self-reported stress, there was a 0.11 ng increase in IL-8 levels (p?=?.003); and for every one year advance in age of physicians, IL-8 levels also increased by 0.11 ng (p?=?.018). Conclusion The 24 hS generated a prolonged response of the immune system. Urinary IL-8 was a strong biomarker of stress under intensive and prolonged demands, both acutely and over time. Because elevated IL-8 levels are associated with cardiovascular disease and negative psychological consequences, we suggest that emergency physicians limit their exposure to 24 hS, especially with advancing age. PMID:23977105

Dutheil, Frederic; Trousselard, Marion; Perrier, Christophe; Lac, Gerard; Chamoux, Alain; Duclos, Martine; Naughton, Geraldine; Mnatzaganian, George; Schmidt, Jeannot

2013-01-01

120

Drug addiction is a common problem in this country, especially for adolescents. The detrimental effects of exposure to addictive drugs during adolescence continue to  

E-print Network

Background Drug addiction is a common problem in this country, especially for adolescents. The detrimental effects of exposure to addictive drugs during adolescence continue to affect individuals throughout their lifetimes (Yucel, Lubman, Solowlj & Brewer, 2007). Understanding the nature of drug

Minnesota, University of

121

Cyanobacteria/Foraminifera Association from Anoxic/Dysoxic Beds of the Agua Nueva Formation (Upper Cretaceous - Cenomanian/Turonian) at Xilitla, San Luis Potosi, Central Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Agua Nueva Formation in the vicinity of Xilitla, State of San Luis Potosí, Central Mexico, consists of interbedded brown shale (Grayish orange 10YR 7/4 to Moderate yellowish brown 10YR 5/4) and dark-gray fossiliferous limestone (Bluish gray 5B 6/1 to Dark bluish gray 5B 4/1), varying between 10 and 20 cm in thickness. The sequence also includes 2 to 4 cm- thick intermittent bentonite layers (Moderate greenish yellow 10Y 7/4, to dark greenish yellow 10Y 6/6 and Light olive 10Y 5/4). At the field scale, shaly intervals show no apparent internal structures, whereas most limestone beds show primary lamination at the millimeter scale (1-2 mm), and intermittent layers of black chert of about 5 cm thick. Pyrite is present as disseminated crystals and as 2 cm-thick layers. Bioturbation or macrobenthic organisms other than inoceramids do not occur in the Agua Nueva Formation at Xilitla. Unusual macrofossils are present only in limestone strata, and consist of well- preserved diverse genera of fishes such as sharks, Ptychodus sp. and teleosteans, Rhynchodercetis sp., Tselfatia sp., Goulmimichthys sp., and scales of Ichtyodectiformes, as well as ammonites and inoceramids (Blanco et al., 2006). The presence of Inoceramus (Mytyloides) labiatus (Maldonado-Koederll, 1956) indicates an Early Turonian age for the sequence. Total carbonate content (CaCO3 = TIC) varies between 62 and 94% in the Limestone beds, which yield Total Organic Carbon (TOC) from 0.4% to 2.5%; the shale intervals contain TIC values consistently lower than 33% and TOC lower than 0.8% Microscopically the limestone beds vary from mudstone to packstone composed essentially of coccoid cyanobacteria similar to coeval deposits in northeastern Mexico, Coahuila State, at Parras de La Fuente (Duque- Botero 2006). Similarly, the microspheroids are spherical to sub-spherical, and occur as isolated elements or aggregates forming series of chains of parallel-packed light lamina 1-2 mm thick. Filamentous cyanobacteria (> 1 mm in length) are also present oriented parallel to stratification. In addition to filamentous and coccoid cyanobacteria, the limestone beds contain rare benthic foraminifera, common planktic foraminifera, heterohelicids, Rotalipora spp., Rotalipora cf cushmani, Whiteinella spp, W. praehelvetica, which indicate a time interval from the latest Cenomanian to the earliest Turonian. Lithological, paleontological and microfacies data thus indicate that the sediments accumulated in open-marine to semi-restricted platform environments, under low-energy conditions. Primary lamination, pyrite and excellent degree of preservation of fishes, suggest that low oxygen concentration lead to the formation of anoxic/dysoxic conditions during the accumulation of these exceptional deposits, which are coeval with the worldwide development of OAE-2. Planktonic foraminifera and fishes indicate oxygenated conditions in the photic zone, but dysoxic/anoxic conditions near the bottom, which is consistent with the presence of inoceramids and the absence of bioturbation in the sediment.

Blanco-Piñón, A.; Maurrasse, F. J.; Rojas-León, A.; Duque-Botero, F.

2008-05-01

122

The complete sequences and gene organisation of the mitochondrial genomes of the heterodont bivalves Acanthocardia tuberculata and Hiatella arctica – and the first record for a putative Atpase subunit 8 gene in marine bivalves  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial (mt) gene arrangement is highly variable among molluscs and especially among bivalves. Of the 30 complete molluscan mt-genomes published to date, only one is of a heterodont bivalve, although this is the most diverse taxon in terms of species numbers. We determined the complete sequence of the mitochondrial genomes of Acanthocardia tuberculata and Hiatella arctica, (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Heterodonta)

Hermann Dreyer; Gerhard Steiner

2006-01-01

123

ON EXTRACELLULAR AND INTRACELLULAR VENOM ACTIVATORS OF THE BLOOD, WITH ESPECIAL REFERENCE TO LECITHIN AND FATTY ACIDS AND THEIR COMPOUNDS.  

PubMed

In normal serums of the majority of mammalian and avian blood there exists certain substances capable of activating venom haemolysin. They are extractable from serum by means of ether, and are capable of conferring upon the originally non-activating serum a power to activate venom, when mixed with the latter. The ethereal extract consists of fatty acids, neutral fats and possibly also some ether soluble organic soaps. The fatty acids and soaps, especially of the oleinic series, acquire certain characteristics of complements in general, when they are mixed with serum. They are inactive without the venom in the mixture; they are inactivable with calcium chloride; they exhibit a tendency to go off in activity with age; they are inactive or only weakly active at 0 degrees C., and they are extractable by ether. In testing the serum from which the ether soluble substances are removed, it is found that no venom activating property is left. Warm alcoholic extraction of such serum yields, however, a large quantity of lecithin. In the case of non-activating serums no venom activating fats appear in the ethereal extract. Lecithin exists in such serum in no less quantity than in the activating kind. The addition of oleinic acid or its soluble soaps to a non-activating serum, in a ratio which corresponds to the percentage of fatty acids or soaps contained in some of the easily activating serums, will make the serum highly active in regard to venom. In normal serum of dog there exists, besides the group of activators already mentioned, another kind of venom activators which has been identified as a lecithin compound acting in the manner of free lecithin. A very sharp differentiation of the haemolysis produced by this activator and by the other groups of activators is obtained by means of calcium chloride, which is powerless against lecithin or lecithin compounds, but effective in removing the action of the latter. This lecithin containing proteid can be precipitated by half saturation with ammonium sulphate, but is perfectly soluble in water, and is not coagulated in neutral alkaline salt solutions upon boiling. Alcohol precipitates a proteid-like coagulum and extracts lecithin from it; ether does not extract lecithin from this compound. Non-activating serums do not contain any such lecithin compound. Lecithin contained in other serum proteids, mainly as lecithalbumin, and perhaps as contained in globulin, is not able to activate venom. This is true of all the serums with which I worked; it matters not whether these fractions (obtained with ammonium sulphate) belong to the most activating serum (dog) or to the non-activating serum (ox). The non-coagulable portion of all heated serum contains a venom activator of the nature of lecithin. This activator is contained in a non-coagulable proteid described by Howell which is identical with Chabrie's albumon. As there is no ether-extractable lecithin in this portion of the serum, the activating property of heated serum must be due to this proteid compound of lecithin. That this lecithin proteid does not pre-exist in normal serum but is produced by the action of high temperature is true of all serums except that of the dog. In venom activation we know now that lecithin becomes reactive with venom when it is transformed from other proteid compounds into the non-coagulable form, the albumon. Howell's view of the non-existence of the non-coagulable proteid in normal serum seems to receive a biological support from venom haemolysis. Ovovitellin derived from hen's egg is one of the best venom activators of the lecithin proteid type. The cause of venom susceptibility of various kinds of blood corpuscles does not depend upon the existence of lecithin in the corpuscles, but solely upon the amount of fatty acids, and perhaps, also, soaps and fats, contained in the corpuscles. The protection which calcium chloride gives against venom haemolysis is proof of the absence of lecithin activation. From the stroma of susceptible corpuscles fatty acids or some fats can be extracted with ether. After ethereal e

Noguchi, H

1907-07-17

124

Miocene Vetigastropoda and Neritimorpha (Mollusca, Gastropoda) of central Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Species of Vetigastropoda (Fissurellidae, Turbinidae, Trochidae) and one species of Neritimorpha (Neritidae) from the Navidad area, south of Valpara?´so, and the Arauco Peninsula, south of Concepción, are described. Among these, the Fissurellidae comprise Diodora fragilis n. sp., Diodora pupuyana n. sp., two additional unnamed species of Diodora, and a species resembling Fissurellidea. Turbinidae are represented by Cantrainea sp., and Trochidae include Tegula (Chlorostoma) austropacifica n. sp., Tegula (Chlorostoma) chilena n. sp., Tegula (Chlorostoma) matanzensis n. sp., Tegula (Agathistoma) antiqua n. sp., Bathybembix mcleani n. sp., Gibbula poeppigii [Philippi, 1887] n. comb., Diloma miocenica n. sp., Fagnastesia venefica [Philippi, 1887] n. gen. n. comb., Fagnastesia matanzana n. gen. n. sp., Calliostoma mapucherum n. sp., Calliostoma kleppi n. sp., Calliostoma covacevichi n. sp., Astele laevis [Sowerby, 1846] n. comb., and Monilea riorapelensis n. sp. The Neritidae are represented by Nerita (Heminerita) chilensis [Philippi, 1887]. The new genus Fagnastesia is introduced to represent low-spired trochoideans with a sculpture of nodes below the suture, angulated whorls, and a wide umbilicus. This Miocene Chilean fauna includes genera that have lived at the coast and in shallow, relatively warm water or deeper, much cooler water. This composition therefore suggests that many of the Miocene formations along the central Chilean coast consist of displaced sediments. A comparison with different fossil and Recent faunas from around the Pacific and South America indicates that the vetigastropod and neritid fauna from the Miocene of Chile has only minor affinities with taxa living near New Zealand, Argentina, and the tropical eastern Pacific at that time.

Nielsen, Sven N.; Frassinetti, Daniel; Bandel, Klaus

2004-09-01

125

First molecular phylogeny of the subfamily Polycerinae (Mollusca, Nudibranchia, Polyceridae)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The subfamily Polycerinae includes four genera with around 46 species described to date. This subfamily is characterized by a limaciform body, which may have simple tentacular processes on the margin of the oral veil. Phylogenetic relationships between the genera of the subfamily Polycerinae (Polyceridae) have not yet been studied, and therefore, the only available information is based on morphological descriptions. The present study reports the first phylogenetic analysis of Polycerinae based on the mitochondrial genes cytochrome oxidase subunit I and the large ribosomal subunit (16S rRNA) using maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods. Our results showed that Polycerinae is monophyletic, but the relationships within the subfamily as well as within Polycera remain unresolved. A key finding of this study is that there are clearly two sympatric species of Polycera present in South Africa: Polycera capensis Quoy and Gaimard, 1824 also found in Australia and an undescribed Polycera sp. On the other hand, the studied specimens of the genus Gymnodoris were clustered within Polycerinae, reopening the problem of the systematic position of this genus. Additional genes and species of Polycerinae and Gymnodoris would provide more information and probably fully resolve this situation.

Palomar, Gemma; Pola, Marta; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva

2014-03-01

126

Upper Cambrian chitons (Mollusca, polyplacophora) from Missouri, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Numerous new specimens reveal a greater presence of chitons in Upper Cambrian rocks than previously suspected. Evidence is presented showing that the chiton esthete sensory system is present in all chiton species in this study at the very beginning of the known polyplacophoran fossil record. The stratigraphic occurrences and paleobiogeography of Late Cambrian chitons are documented. The 14 previously-named families of Cambrian and Ordovician chitons are reviewed and analyzed. Aulochitonidae n. fam. is defined, based on Aulochiton n. gen.; A. sannerae n. sp. is also defined. The long misunderstood family Preacanthochitonidae and its type genus Preacanthochiton Bergenhayn, 1960, are placed in synonymy with Mattheviidae and Chelodes Davidson & King, 1874, respectively; Eochelodes Marek, 1962, also is placed in synonymy with Chelodes, and Elongata Stinchcomb & Darrough, 1995, is placed in synonymy with Hemithecella Ulrich & Bridge, 1941. At the species level, H. elongata Stinchcomb & Darrough, 1995, and Elongata perplexa Stinchcomb & Darrough, 1995, are placed in synonymy with H. eminensis Stinchcomb & Darrough, 1995. The Ordovician species H. abrupta Stinchcomb & Darrough, 1995, is transferred to the genus Chelodes as C. abrupta (Stinchcomb & Darrough, 1995). The Ordovician species Preacanthochiton baueri Hoare & Pojeta, 2006, is transferred to the genus Helminthochiton as H. ? baueri (Hoare & Pojeta, 2006). The Ordovician species H. marginatus Hoare & Pojeta, 2006, is transferred to the genus Litochiton as L. marginatus (Hoare & Pojeta, 2006). Matthevia walcotti Runnegar, Pojeta, Taylor, & Collins, 1979, is treated as a synonym of Hemithecella expansa Ulrich & Bridge, 1941. In addition, other multivalved Cambrian mollusks are discussed; within this group, Dycheiidae n. fam. is defined, as well as Paradycheia dorisae n. gen. and n. sp. Cladistic analysis indicates a close relationship among the genera here assigned to the Mattheviidae, and between Echinochiton Pojeta, Eernisse, Hoare, & Henderson, 2003, and mattheviids. The results suggest treating these taxa as stem-lineage chitons, and do not support the hypothesis that they are aplacophorans.

Pojeta, J., Jr.; Vendrasco, M.J.; Darrough, G.

2010-01-01

127

MOLECULAR PHYLOGENY OF COLEOID CEPHALOPODS (MOLLUSCA: CEPHALOPODA) INFERRED FROM THREE  

E-print Network

(octopuses, squids and cuttlefishes) have produced conflicting results. A wide range of sequence alignment homology methods: (1) eye alignment, (2) implied alignment, and three analysis methods: (1) parsimony, (2 extinct at the end of the Cretaceous, and the Neocoleo- idea, which contains the octopuses, squids

McFall-Ngai, Margaret

128

Sublethal foot-predation on Donacidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The incidence of foot nipping was studied on the Donax spp. of the littoral of Málaga (Southern Spain, 2875 specimens collected from February 1990 to January 1991) and of Ré island (French Atlantic coast, 262 specimens of Donax vittatus (Da Costa, 1778) collected in May 1996). In Málaga, Donax trunculus L., 1758 was the species most regularly nipped (18% of individuals), with peaks in summer (25% in August and 48% in September) and winter (34% in December). In Ré island, 27% of the specimens showed a nipped foot. Logistic regression shows that in D. trunculus length is the variable that most influences the probability of foot nipping, followed by weight and chlorophyll a. However, the difference in length between damaged and undamaged individuals was not significant (U-Mann-Whitney test). The size class frequency and the values of Ivlev's index show that the small size classes were avoided, while for the other size classes predation remained balanced throughout the year. Therefore, the avoidance of the small size classes makes length the most influential variable. The logistic regression indicated a coefficient B=-0.03 for weight. This implies a slightly negative influence on the probability of foot nipping. However, without the data of September, there is a positive correlation ( r=0.76, p<0.01) between the monthly percentages of predation and the flesh dry weight of a standard individual (25 mm long). The peak in September could be due to the recruitment peak of bivalves, which may have attracted more predators to the area, and/or to the recruitment of predators such as crabs to the swash zone. Logistic regression and test of comparison of percentages indicate that there was not any influence of the sex of an animal on the probability of foot nipping. Only in February was a significantly higher percentage ( p<0.05) of females nipped (44.44%) than the total of females in the sample (20.20%). The biomass (as flesh dry weight) of D. trunculus lost by foot nipping amounts to more than 20% in most of the size classes. There was an increase from the small sizes to the largest ones, in which it reaches 37%, with a positive correlation ( r=0.84; p<0.005) between size class and loss of biomass. Possible predators responsible for the foot nipping are crabs. Crab species usually found together with the donacids were Portumnus latipes (Pennant, 1777) Liocarcinus vernalis (Risso, 1816) and Atelecyclus undecimdentatus (Herbst, 1783). In aquarium experiments, they demonstrated an ability to nip the foot of clams. Portumnus latipes was the most active foot nipper, but left alive all the damaged clams. Therefore, we conclude that crabs are the most likely foot-nipping predators in the field.

Salas, Carmen; Tirado, Cristina; Manjón-Cabeza, Maria Eugenia

2001-08-01

129

Bacterial symbiosis in Loripes lucinalis (Mollusca: Bivalvia)with comments  

E-print Network

Symbiotic chemoautotrophic bacteria occur in the tissues of a number of invertebrates where sulphide relationships, there are still many unanswered questions. Does the host bene¢t from the symbiosis via direct or not the host can vary its nutritional dependence on the symbiotic bacteria. Obtaining clear answers

Boyer, Edmond

130

A cladistic phylogeny of the family Patellidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda)  

PubMed Central

A phylogenetic hypothesis for the patellid limpets is reconstructed by cladistic analysis of morphological characters from 37 species, representing all but one of the living members of the family. Characters included in the analysis are derived from shell shape and microstructure, headfoot and pallial complex, radula and sperm. The species fall into four clades, providing the basis for a new phylogenetic classification into four monophyletic genera: Helcion (four species; southern Africa), Cymbula (eight species; southern Africa, eastern Atlantic, southern Indian Ocean), Scutellastra (17 species; southern and southwestern Africa, Australia, Indo-West Pacific, Eastern Pacific) and Patella (nine species; northeastern Atlantic and Mediterranean). The analysis suggests sister-group relationships between Helcion and Cymbula, and between Scutellastra and Patella. In combination with present-day patterns of geographical distribution, this phylogenetic hypothesis is used to discuss the historical biogeography of the Patellidae. Scutellastra may have originated in southern Africa and dispersed across the Pacific, or alternatively may be a primitively Tethyan group. Both Helcion and Cymbula appear to have originated in southern Africa, but three Cymbula species have dispersed respectively to northwest Africa, St Helena and the southern Indian Ocean. The patellids of the northeastern Atlantic form a single clade, Patella (including P. pellucida), which may have arrived by northward dispersal of an ancestor from southern Africa, or possibly by vicariance of a widespread ancestral Tethyan distribution. The known fossil record of patellids is too fragmentary to permit choice between these alternatives.

Ridgway, S. A.

1998-01-01

131

Phylogenetics, development, and Cenozoic paleontology of Buccinidae (Mollusca:Gastropoda)  

E-print Network

Anderson & Martin) Agasoma barkerianum Cooper, 1894 AgasomaCooper, 1894 Agasoma santacruzana Arnold, 1908 Agasoma stanfordensis Arnold, 1908 Agasoma acuminatum Anderson & Martin,Cooper) Bruclarkia ellenae Vendetti, 2009………………………….Bruclarkia ellenae Vendetti, 2009 Agasoma gravidum Gabb, 1869 Agasoma columbianum Anderson & Martin,

Vendetti, Jann Elizabeth

2009-01-01

132

Phylogenetics, development, and Cenozoic paleontology of Buccinidae (Mollusca:Gastropoda)  

E-print Network

fossil record that dates to the Cretaceous. Here, the evolution,evolution, speciation, phylogeography, and larval development because the family is species-rich, diverse in life history strategies, and has a rich fossil record.

Vendetti, Jann Elizabeth

2009-01-01

133

Amundsen Sea Mollusca from the BIOPEARL II expedition  

PubMed Central

Abstract Information regarding the molluscs in this dataset is based on the epibenthic sledge (EBS) samples collected during the cruise BIOPEARL II / JR179 RRS James Clark Ross in the austral summer 2008. A total of 35 epibenthic sledge deployments have been performed at five locations in the Amundsen Sea at Pine Island Bay (PIB) and the Amundsen Sea Embayment (ASE) at depths ranging from 476 to 3501m. This presents a unique and important collection for the Antarctic benthic biodiversity assessment as the Amundsen Sea remains one of the least known regions in Antarctica. Indeed the work presented in this dataset is based on the first benthic samples collected with an EBS in the Amundsen Sea. However we assume that the data represented are an underestimation of the real fauna present in the Amundsen Sea. In total 9261 specimens belonging to 6 classes 55 families and 97 morphospecies were collected. The species richness per station varied between 6 and 43. Gastropoda were most species rich 50 species followed by Bivalvia (37), Aplacophora (5), Scaphopoda (3) and one from each of Polyplacophora and Monoplacophora. PMID:23794869

Moreau, Camille; Linse, Katrin; Griffiths, Huw; Barnes, David; Kaiser, Stefanie; Glover, Adrian; Sands, Chester; Strugnell, Jan; Enderlein, Peter; Geissler, Paul

2013-01-01

134

Climate records from a bivalved Methuselah ( Arctica islandica, Mollusca; Iceland)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We measured annual shell growth rates of a 374-year-old (radiometrically confirmed) bivalve mollusk specimen of Arctica islandica (Linnaeus). This bivalve represents the oldest ever reported individual animal. In addition, we analyzed 1051 individual powder samples from ontogenetic years two to 40 (=80% of the entire shell height) for isotope analyses. Oxygen and carbon isotopes exhibit clear intra-annual cycles. The highest

Bernd R. Schöne; Jens Fiebig; Miriam Pfeiffer; Renald Gle?; Jonathan Hickson; Andrew L. A. Johnson; Wolfgang Dreyer; Wolfgang Oschmann

2005-01-01

135

Loss of trematode parthenitae in Planorbella trivolvis (Mollusca: Gastropoda).  

PubMed

Infection by trematode parthenitae (larval, asexual trematodes) has severe consequences for molluscan hosts, resulting in cessation of reproduction and early mortality. Here we present evidence that the freshwater snail Planorbella trivolvis can lose infections by trematode parthenitae. Of 8 P. trivolvis infected by reniferin parthenitae, 6 died within 2 wk, whereas the remaining 2 snails lost their infections within 82 days after initial examination. This phenomenon might suggest that molluscs can resist established trematode infections (i.e., "self-cure") or at least out-survive some trematode parthenitae. PMID:23387507

Sears, B F; Rohr, J R

2013-08-01

136

"Nodules" in the achiasmatic meiosis of Bithynia (Mollusca, Prosobranchia).  

PubMed

In spermatocytes of Bithynia leachi and B. tentaculata, synaptonemal complexes with nodules in an achiasmatic meiosis were demonstrated for the first time by means of the spreading technique. The number and position of the nodules are different in each species and are independent of the length of the chromosomes. Although no crossing over occurs in Bithynia chiasma-like terminal connections of the chromosomes are preserved in diakinesis by the presence of the nodules. --Enzymatic treatments revealed information regarding their composition of alkaline proteins, RNA and DNA. In all proteolytic digestions the nodules more of less retain their position in the central region, while they disappear immediately if SCs are exposed to DNase. On the basis of the results a model of the composition and the function of nodules can be developed considering the concept of a lampbrush-organization of the chromosomes in early meiotic prophase. PMID:738164

Debus, B

1978-10-20

137

“Nodules” in the achiasmatic meiosis of Bithynia (mollusca, prosobranchia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In spermatocytes of Bithynia leachi and B. tentaculata, synaptonemal complexes with nodules in an achiasmatic meiosis were demonstrated for the first time by means of the spreading technique. The number and position of the nodules are different in each species and are independent of the length of the chromosomes. Although no crossing over occurs in Bithynia chiasma-like terminal connections of

Birgit Debus; Postfach I

1978-01-01

138

Östrogenartige wirkungen von bisphenol a auf vorderkiemenschnecken ( Mollusca: Gastropoda: Prosobranchia )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung  Im Rahmen eines vom Umweltbundesamt geförderten Forschungsprojektes zur Entwicklung eines biologischen Tests mit der Süßwasserschnecke\\u000a Marisa cornuarietis für geschlechtshormonähnlich wirkende Substanzen wurden unter anderem die Effekte des als Xenoöstrogen verdächtigten Bisphenols\\u000a A (BPA) untersucht. Zusätzlich zu den Laborversuchsreihen mit der Apfelschnecke M. cornuarietis wurden Versuche mit der Zwergdeckelschnecke Potamopyrgus antipodarum als Süßwasserspezies sowie zwei marinen Arten, der Netzreusenschnecke Nassarius reticulatus

Ulrike Schulte-Oehlmann; Michaela Tillmann; Daire Casey; Martina Duft; Bernd Markert; Jörg Oehlmann

2001-01-01

139

For many of Argentina's Jews, especially those deeply affected by state terror of the military junta of 197684, the Holocaust resonates  

E-print Network

For many of Argentina's Jews, especially those deeply affected by state terror of the military is professor of religious studies at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. His research focuses.m., Temple Israel 2324 Emerson Avenue S, Minneapolis; 612­377­8680 Co­sponsors: U of M Religious Studies

Blanchette, Robert A.

140

The Role and Tasks of Education in the Politic of Evolution of the Modern World (with Especial Regard to the Developing Countries).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper, one of several on the theme of economy and culture in the politics of nation building, was written for the Ninth World Congress of the International Political Science Association. The author's aim is to indicate the role of modern education policy in the world's socio-economic development, especially in developing countries. Access to…

Podoski, Kazimierz

141

Variaciones temporales en la composición y abundancia de cuatro especies de Cancer (Decapoda: Brachyura: Cancridae) capturadas con trampas en bahía San Vicente, Concepción (Chile central)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyzes the composition and distribution of the main brachyuran decapod crustacean species caught by small-scale fishermen in the coastal area off the Hualpén Peninsula (Concepción). These patterns were then compared and related to variations in temperature and extraction depth. The catches throughout the year were basically represented by four Cancer species, especially in autumn 2003, when C. porteri

Carlos A. Muñoz; Luis M. Pardo; Luis A. Henríquez; Álvaro T. Palma

2006-01-01

142

Carbon Sequestration to Mitigate Climate Change Human activities, especially the burning of fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and gas, have caused a substantial increase  

E-print Network

Carbon Sequestration to Mitigate Climate Change Human activities, especially the burning of fossil-caused CO2 emissions and to remove CO2 from the atmosphere. 2.0 What is carbon sequestration? The term "carbon sequestration" is used to describe both natural and deliberate CARBON,INGIGATONSPERYEAR 1.5 Fossil

143

It's Tax Filing Season deadline April 17, 2012! This year, tax time is especially hectic because we have just transitioned from the Glacier system to the  

E-print Network

It's Tax Filing Season ­ deadline April 17, 2012! This year, tax time is especially hectic because we have just transitioned from the Glacier system to the Windstar International Tax Navigation system with both the software transition and 2011 tax filing: For Non-Residents Aliens for US Tax Purposes, we

Bordenstein, Seth

144

There is an increasing order in digitized technology. This increasing order requires high qualitative document management system which can be used in secure fashion especially for organization with  

E-print Network

qualitative document management system which can be used in secure fashion especially for organization. The proposed framework provides the necessary options for creating an effective document management system document management system, the end product will be suitable for organization and guaranteed to satisfy

145

Especially for High School Teachers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Secondary School Feature Articles * Amino Acid Wordsearch, by Terry L. Helser, p 495. Games, Puzzles, and Humor In honor of April Fools' Day this issue contains 22 pages devoted to games and puzzles that can be used to teach aspects of chemistry. Most are designed for high school and first-year college students. The lead article, p 481, contains an

J. Emory Howell

1999-01-01

146

Especially for High School Teachers  

Microsoft Academic Search

More Feature Articles This Month This issue contains a larger-than-usual number of Secondary School Chemistry feature articles (see side-bar). Mary Harris, who teaches in St. Louis, Missouri, and her student, Lauren Picard, contributed an account of student research on the cuprammonium rayon process (p 1512). In addition to being informative and interesting, the article provides a model for student-teacher interaction

J. Emory Howell

1999-01-01

147

Especially for High School Teachers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemistry and the Environment This issue contains more than 20 articles relating to the environment. Several articles of potential interest are indicated in the Table of Contents with the SSC mark (). Others are not so indicated because they depict use of expensive instrumentation or costly procedures, but if you have an interest in environmental chemistry you may wish to

J. Emory Howell

1999-01-01

148

Especially for High School Teachers  

Microsoft Academic Search

It Was Nice to See You It was great to meet and talk to so many high school chemistry teachers who attended the High School Program at the ACS National Meeting in San Francisco or attended the NSTA National Convention in Orlando. Thank you to every teacher who visited the JCE Booth at either meeting and to the approximately 100

J. Emory Howell

2000-01-01

149

Especially for High School Teachers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Secondary School Feature Articles * Super Science Connections, by Patricia B. McKean, p 916 * A pHorseshoe, by Roger Plumsky, p 935 National Conferences in Your Part of the Country For the past several months, considerable space in this column has been devoted to forthcoming national conferences and conventions and to highlights of conferences past. For some of us, location

J. Emory Howell

1999-01-01

150

Especially for High School Teachers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alternative Assessment The trend in several states to use high-stakes achievement test scores to evaluate districts, schools, and teachers appears to be at odds with the intent of the National Science Education Assessment Standards. Recently I read several postings on an Internet discussion list in which several high school teachers expressed differing opinions on how to deal with the situation. There seemed to be general agreement, however, that as increased emphasis is placed on preparation for high-stakes end-of-course examinations it becomes more difficult to assess conceptual understanding. High school chemistry teachers are an innovative lot, and I am confident that ways will be found to evaluate understanding no matter what. This month's issue contains two examples of using student-constructed posters as a means of assessment. Although we most often associate poster presentations with research, such as a science fair project, these articles show that posters may also be used to assess student learning in class settings. The examples are from lower-division college courses, but they may be equally useful in high school chemistry courses. An article titled Using Poster Sessions as an Alternative to Written ExaminationsThe Poster Exam by Pamela Mills and four co-authors contains a detailed explanation of how student-constructed posters can be used to assess student learning. A number of related articles are listed in the Literature Cited section. Another example is found in A Poster Session in Organic Chemistry That Markedly Enhanced Student Learning by P. A. Huddle. The same author also contributed the article How to Present a Paper or Poster in which useful, straightforward suggestions for communicating information and ideas clearly are provided.

Howell, J. Emory

2000-09-01

151

Especially for High School Teachers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alternative Assessment The trend in several states to use high-stakes achievement test scores to evaluate districts, schools, and teachers appears to be at odds with the intent of the National Science Education Assessment Standards. Recently I read several postings on an Internet discussion list in which several high school teachers expressed differing opinions on how to deal with the situation.

J. Emory Howell

2000-01-01

152

Especially for High School Teachers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

More Feature Articles This Month This issue contains a larger-than-usual number of Secondary School Chemistry feature articles (see side-bar). Mary Harris, who teaches in St. Louis, Missouri, and her student, Lauren Picard, contributed an account of student research on the cuprammonium rayon process (p 1512). In addition to being informative and interesting, the article provides a model for student-teacher interaction in carrying out an independent research project. Two North Carolina teachers, Charles Roser and Catherine McCluskey, describe how to use a Calculator Based Laboratory (interface) to measure the kinetics of the reaction that occurs when a lightstick is activated (p 1514). The method and the easy-to-construct device they made could be used with other systems, as well. Don't Throw Away the Carrier Sheet All areas of JCE Online are now accessible to all JCE subscribers. To find out how you can benefit, read the article appearing on p 1599, Now That I Have It, What Can I Do with It? Jon Holmes, Editor of JCE Online, explains in the article how you can use this resource most effectively. Access to several areas, such as full text access to articles, requires that you log in. The mailing label on the carrier sheet that accompanies your Journal each month contains a password that you need to log in. That is why you need to keep the carrier sheet, at least until you have logged in for the first time and either memorized the number or written it in a safe place. Detailed instructions for logging on are found by clicking on the "How to Log On" link, which appears near the upper left corner of the JCE Online Home Page, jchemed.chem.wisc.edu. If you read a school library copy you need to ask your librarian what password you need to log in. Congratulations Among the recipients of the most prestigious American Society Awards (p 1481) are two individuals who have given generously of their time and energy to the cause of chemical education. Both are familiar names to many of our readers. The High School/College Interface Luncheon was part of the very rich day-long High School Program at the New Orleans ACS Meeting. Shown here (from left) are Glenn Crosby, the luncheon speaker; Lillie Tucker-Akin, the High School Day program chair; and Fred Johnson, Assistant Superintendent of Shelby County (TN) schools and Immediate Past President of NSTA. The recipient of the James Bryant Conant Award in High School Chemistry Teaching is Frank G. Cardulla, who taught for many years at Niles North High School, Skokie, Illinois. His extensive record of service to fellow teachers includes editing the JCE "View from My Classroom" feature for several years and writing several articles, as well as his recent appointment to the JCE Board of Publication. The recipient of the George C. Pimentel Award in Chemical Education is Jerry A. Bell of the American Chemical Society in Washington, DC. An author of numerous articles appearing in JCE and a member of the JCE Board of Publication for several years, he currently serves as Board Chair. The 16th Biennial Conference on Chemical Education Readers who attended the 15th BCCE in Waterloo, Ontario, know that much of the programming at these conferences is of interest to high school teachers. Many work shops, papers, and demonstrations are presented by high school teachers. There are many other outstanding papers and posters, plenary speakers, and exciting demonstrations. The 16th BCCE will be held at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, July 30-August 3, 2000. Among the high school teachers already scheduled to present workshops at the 16th BCCE are George Hague, Lynn Hershey, and Jack Randall, and there will be many more before the program is completed. The High School Chemistry Program Chair is Tim Graham, Roosevelt High School (MI). The Organizing Committee is seeking the assistance of local sections of the American Chemical Society within a 300-mile radius of

Emory Howell, J.

1999-11-01

153

Especially for High School Teachers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Care to Share? An Informal Syllabus Exchange A recent email message from Thomas Shiland, who teaches at Saratoga Springs Senior High School, noted that the process of revising the high school chemistry syllabus is underway in New York State. He expressed a strong interest in helping construct a chemistry syllabus that represents the best thinking about appropriate content. He wondered

J. Emory Howell

1999-01-01

154

Especially for High School Teachers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Secondary School Feature Articles * Orbital Models Made of Plastic Soda Bottles, by Vyacheslav V. Samoshin, p. 985. * Experimentally Determining the Molecular Weight of Carbon Dioxide Using a Mylar Balloon, by Barbara Albers Jackson and David J. Crouse, p. 997.

Howell, J. Emory

1998-08-01

155

Especially for High School Teachers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Secondary School Feature Articles * Orbital Models Made of Plastic Soda Bottles, by Vyacheslav V. Samoshin, p. 985. * Experimentally Determining the Molecular Weight of Carbon Dioxide Using a Mylar Balloon, by Barbara Albers Jackson and David J. Crouse, p. 997.

J. Emory Howell

1998-01-01

156

Oceanography Camp Especially for Girls  

E-print Network

American Asian American Hispanic American Native American White American Other/Mix Oceanography Camp admire and why: 14. If your ultimate dream came true, what kind of job would you like to have when you

Meyers, Steven D.

157

Especially for High School Teachers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Secondary School Feature Articles JCE Classroom Activity: #24. The Write Stuff: Using Paper Chromatography to Separate an Ink Mixture, p 176A Teaching Chemistry in the Midwinter Every year, forecasters around the world provide us with long-range predictions of what the seasons will afford us in the coming year. And each year, the weather provides a few surprises that the forecasters did not predict - such as a record amount of snow or record heat indexes, depending on where you live. Although the weatherman didn't predict it, we still must pull out our snow shovels or sun block and take the necessary steps to adapt to the situation. As teachers, we make predictions of teaching and learning goals that we aspire to achieve during a given year, and like the weather, the year brings surprises that aren't in line with our predictions. With that in mind, I would like to offer JCE as the scholastic snow shovel or sun shield you need to jump-start your class and reach the goals you have set. So find a warm (or cool) place, get comfortable, and spend some time with the February issue of JCE. Articles of General Interest in This Issue For readers living where snow falls, Williams's article on page 148 offers some historical background on the use of calcium chloride as a deicer. A diver that depends for its buoyancy upon gas given off by a chemical reaction is described by Derr, Lewis, and Derr in the article beginning on page 171. In her article appearing on pages 249-250, Wang describes a laboratory exercise that makes the mastery of solution preparation skills fun. The students' skill is tested by using the solutions they make to carry out the Briggs-Rauscher oscillating reaction. For high school class applications I recommend use of 3% hydrogen peroxide, described as an option in the article. A well-organized approach to separating an ink mixture, with some possibly new twists, is laid out in the student- and teacher-friendly format of JCE Classroom Activity: #24, pages 176A-176B. Addressing Some Specialized Interests As in any issue of the Journal, there are several articles that are not designated with the secondary school mark (?) but are likely to be of interest to some high school teachers. For example, if you are interested in staying abreast of educational applications of computational chemistry, the articles on pages 199-221 will be among those you will wish to examine even though the focus is on meeting the learning needs of college students. For those with an interest in electronics, there are several articles on pages 252-262, on building on modifying useful devices. Among the topics: building a digital monitor for analyzing spectrophotometer signals, building a digital interface for a graphing calculator, and using an inexpensive commercial analog-to-digital converter. JCE Reviewers The standard of quality in JCE articles is due in great measure to the careful scrutiny and helpful suggestions of reviewers. I am proud to note that the names of several high school teachers are in the list of individuals who have reviewed manuscripts for JCE recently. This month's list, which appears on page 152, is a continuation from page 24 of the January issue. Keep watching if your name has not yet appeared. If you are not currently serving as a reviewer, I encourage you to sign up today. As a reviewer, you would review potential articles that have been submitted to the Journal. You may choose from a variety of subject areas to review and choose as few or as many manuscripts as you can handle. To find out how to become a reviewer, read the information on page 162 or visit our Web site at jchemed.chem.wisc.edu/Journal/Reviewers. NACS 3/2000 Reminder NACS 3/2000 is the heading Carolyn Abbott uses in email correspondence about the High School Day program, which be held Monday, March 27, 2000, at the American Chemical Society National Meeting in San Francisco. Carolyn is High School Program Chair and she and her committee have assembled a full day of interesting and useful sessions for teachers. Among the sessions will be three worksh

Howell, J. Emory

2000-02-01

158

Especies introducidas en el Mediterrneo  

E-print Network

in the Mediterranean. MAP Technical Reports Ser., UNEP, Athens: 51-72 #12;8Sargassum muticum (Stramenopiles fotosint similares (todav�a) no colonizados 8 #12;9 1970s 4. El proceso de expansi�n es l�gico Sargassum muticum (Stramenopiles fotosint�ticos). Oriundo de Jap�n 9 #12;10 1980s Sargassum muticum (Stramenopiles fotosint

Boudouresque, Charles F.

159

Especially for Teens: Birth Control  

MedlinePLUS

... prescription to get it • Whether it protects against sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) • Whether you have any health problems Do ... pregnancy? • Which birth control methods also protect against sexually transmitted diseases (STDs)? • What is the birth control pill? • What ...

160

Especially for High School Teachers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ideas and Resources in This Issue This issue contains a broad spectrum of topics of potential interest to high school teachers, including chemical safety, history, demonstrations, laboratory activities, electrochemistry, small group learning, and instructional software. In his report on articles published recently in The Science Teacher, Steve Long includes annotated references from that journal, and also from JCE, that provide

J. Emory Howell

2000-01-01

161

ESTATUS REGIONAL Y PREFERENCIAS AMBIENTALES DE LA AVIFAUNA MADRILEA DURANTE EL INVIERNO Especie ORO PSA ROQ PAC PAS ESP CAR REG SEC ERI CAM OLI URB URJ  

E-print Network

ORO PSA ROQ PAC PAS ESP CAR REG SEC ERI CAM OLI URB URJ Accipiter nisus 0,0 0,0 0,0 0,0 0,0 0,0 0,0 0 herbáceas y de intenso uso humano (agropecuario y urbano). ORO: piornales con enebro abiertos subalpinos (>2 ajardinadas y parques urbanos. #12;A N UA R I O O R N I T O L � G I CO D E M A D R I D 2 0 0 2 35 Especie ORO

Carrascal, Luis M.

162

Computed tomography imaging spectrometer (CTIS) with 2D reflective grating for ultraviolet to long-wave infrared detection especially useful for surveying transient events  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The optical system of this invention is an unique type of imaging spectrometer, i.e. an instrument that can determine the spectra of all points in a two-dimensional scene. The general type of imaging spectrometer under which this invention falls has been termed a computed-tomography imaging spectrometer (CTIS). CTIS's have the ability to perform spectral imaging of scenes containing rapidly moving objects or evolving features, hereafter referred to as transient scenes. This invention, a reflective CTIS with an unique two-dimensional reflective grating, can operate in any wavelength band from the ultraviolet through long-wave infrared. Although this spectrometer is especially useful for rapidly occurring events it is also useful for investigation of some slow moving phenomena as in the life sciences.

Wilson, Daniel W. (Inventor); Maker, Paul D. (Inventor); Muller, Richard E. (Inventor); Mouroulis, Pantazis Z. (Inventor)

2003-01-01

163

Computed Tomography Imaging Spectrometer (CTIS) with 2D Reflective Grating for Ultraviolet to Long-Wave Infrared Detection Especially Useful for Surveying Transient Events  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The optical system of this invention is an unique type of imaging spectrometer, i.e. an instrument that can determine the spectra of all points in a two-dimensional scene. The general type of imaging spectrometer under which this invention falls has been termed a computed-tomography imaging spectrometer (CTIS). CTIS's have the ability to perform spectral imaging of scenes containing rapidly moving objects or evolving features, hereafter referred to as transient scenes. This invention, a reflective CTIS with an unique two-dimensional reflective grating, can operate in any wavelength band from the ultraviolet through long-wave infrared. Although this spectrometer is especially useful for events it is also for investigation of some slow moving phenomena as in the life sciences.

Wilson, Daniel W. (Inventor); Maker, Paul D. (Inventor); Muller, Richard E. (Inventor); Mouroulis, Pantazis Z. (Inventor)

2003-01-01

164

Single-walled carbon nanohorn (SWNH) aggregates inhibited proliferation of human liver cell lines and promoted apoptosis, especially for hepatoma cell lines.  

PubMed

Single-walled carbon nanohorns (SWNHs) may be useful as carriers for anticancer drugs due to their particular structure. However, the interactions between the material itself and cancerous or normal cells have seldom been studied. To address this problem, the effects of raw SWNH material on the biological functions of human liver cell lines were studied. Our results showed that unmodified SWNHs inhibited mitotic entry, growth, and proliferation of human liver cell lines and promoted their apoptosis, especially in hepatoma cell lines. Individual spherical SWNH particles were found inside the nuclei of human hepatoma HepG2 cells and the lysosomes of normal human liver L02 cells, implying that SWNH particles could penetrate into human liver cells_and the different interacted mechanisms on human normal cell lines compared to hepatoma cell lines. Further research on the mechanisms and application in treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma with SWNHs is needed. PMID:24523586

Zhang, Jinqian; Sun, Qiang; Bo, Jian; Huang, Rui; Zhang, Mengran; Xia, Zhenglin; Ju, Lili; Xiang, Guoan

2014-01-01

165

Variación mensual en el aporte de hojas de cuatro especies forestales nativas del Parque Chaqueño Húmedo (Argentina) Monthly variation of the litterfall in four forestal native species from the Humid  

Microsoft Academic Search

El objetivo del trabajo fue cuantificar la cantidad anual de hojas aportadas al suelo proveniente de cuatro especies forestales nativas del Parque Chaqueño Húmedo, y su relación con algunos elementos del clima, como precipitaciones, temperaturas mínimas mensuales, velocidad del viento, heliofanía relativa. Se ubicaron 5 parcelas de 1000 m 2 cada una y se seleccionaron cuatro especies forestales de importancia

J. Prause; G. Arce de Caram; P. N. Angeloni

2003-01-01

166

Açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.): a tropical fruit with high levels of essential minerals-especially manganese-and its contribution as a source of natural mineral supplementation.  

PubMed

Açaí is a fruit from the Brazilian Amazon region, with an exotic flavor, possessing high antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Based on these properties, the fruit is classified as one of the new "super fruits." The mean daily consumption of açai pulp may reach 300 ml in several Brazilian regions. Further, this fruit is also gaining popularity in Europe and North America. In this context, the aim of this study was to assess the levels of some essential minerals in freeze-dried açaí pulp obtained in different Brazilian locations. It was found that açaí pulp is rich in essential minerals (Ca, Fe, Mg, Zn), but the levels of copper (Cu) and especially manganese (Mn) are surprisingly markedly higher than the traditional sources of these elements in the human diet. A daily consumption of 300 ml açaí pulp leads to a Mn daily intake exceeding at least sixfold (14.6 mg on average) the reference daily intake for an adult. Consequently, Mn intake may surpass the permitted daily maximum intake of 11 mg, which leads to a special concern, particularly for children, vegetarians, and individuals with anemia, since iron (Fe) absorption is impaired by Mn. Our findings demonstrate that this fruit is a potential source of several nutrients and a good dietary supplement to resolve malnutrition problems. However, due to the expressive levels of Mn, further studies are necessary to evaluate potential adverse effects associated with açaí consumption. PMID:24555649

da Silva Santos, Vivian; de Almeida Teixeira, Gustavo Henrique; Barbosa, Fernando

2014-01-01

167

Promoter hypomethylation, especially around the E26 transformation-specific motif, and increased expression of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 in BRCA-mutated serous ovarian cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) overexpression plays a critical role in ovarian cancer progression and the clinical development of PARP1 inhibitors to treat BRCA-mutated ovarian cancer has advanced rapidly. However, the mechanism regulating PARP1 expression remains unknown. Alterations in gene expression mediated by promoter methylation are being increasingly recognized and have frequently been reported in ovarian cancer. We therefore investigated the methylation status of the PARP1 promoter region and its correlation with PARP1 expression in BRCA-mutated ovarian cancer. Methods DNA from BRCA-mutated serous ovarian cancer samples and adjacent normal ovarian tissues were analyzed by bisulfite sequence using primers focusing on the CpG island in the promoter region of PARP1. Expression levels of PARP1 were assessed by immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR. Results Serous ovarian cancer tissues displayed decreased DNA methylation in the promoter region of PARP1 compared to normal tissue, and methylation intensity correlated inversely with PARP1 mRNA levels. More importantly, E26 transformation-specific (ETS) defined CpG sites were significantly less methylated in ovarian cancer samples. Conclusions These results indicate that hypomethylation of the promoter region, especially around the ETS motif might play a role in the upregulation of PARP1 expression in the progression of ovarian cancer. PMID:23442605

2013-01-01

168

ID2 predicts poor prognosis in breast cancer, especially in triple-negative breast cancer, and inhibits E-cadherin expression  

PubMed Central

Background Inhibitors of DNA-binding (ID) proteins are known as important modulators in the regulation of cell proliferation and differentiation. This study sought to investigate the prognostic value of ID proteins in breast cancer. Methods The prognostic role of ID proteins in human breast cancer was investigated in 250 breast cancers, via tissue microarrays. The messenger (m)RNA and protein levels of E-cadherin were examined by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blotting, in cells overexpressing IDs. Dual-luciferase report assay was used to investigate the potential mechanism, and a migration assay was performed to investigate the influence of IDs on cell migratory activity. Results The survival analysis with Kaplan–Meier and Cox regression showed that ID2 expression level, which correlated with estrogen receptor status and E-cadherin abundance, served as an independent prognostic factor for disease-free survival (DFS) (P=0.013). The prognostic value of ID2 for DFS was most significant in triple-negative breast cancer patients (P=0.009). We also found that ID2 was negatively correlated with E-cadherin expression by correlation analysis (P=0.020, Pearson’s R=?0.155). Subsequently, we explored the biological rationale and uncovered that the enforced expression of ID proteins could suppress E-cadherin expression significantly, thus increasing the migration ability of mammary epithelial cells. Then using a combination of ID2 and E-cadherin expression, the patients were classified into four subgroups with different DFS (P=0.023). Conclusion The overexpression of ID2 can be used as a prognostic marker in breast cancer patients, especially in triple-negative breast cancer patients. ID proteins were still, unexpectedly, revealed to inhibit E-cadherin abundance. PMID:24971018

Li, Kai; Yao, Ling; Chen, Li; Cao, Zhi-Gang; Yu, San-Jian; Kuang, Xia-Ying; Hu, Xin; Shao, Zhi-Ming

2014-01-01

169

New type of protective hybrid and nanocomposite hybrid coatings containing silver and copper with an excellent antibacterial effect especially against MRSA.  

PubMed

Epidemics spread many types of pathogenic bacterial strains, especially strains of MRSA (Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus), which are being increasingly reported in many geographical areas [1]. This is becoming to be a serious global problem, particularly in hospitals. Not only are antibiotics proving to be increasingly ineffective but also the bacteria responsible for more than 70% of hospital-acquired bacterial infections are resistant to at least one of the drugs commonly used to treat them. In this study, hybrid coating A1 and nanocomposite hybrid coating A2 based on TMSPM (3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate, MMA (methyl methacrylate), TEOS (tetraethyl orthosilicate) and IPTI (titanium isopropoxide) containing silver and copper ions with or without nanoparticles of titanium dioxide were prepared by the sol-gel method. They were deposited on glass, poly(methyl methacrylate) and cotton using dip-coating or spin-coating, and then cured at 150°C for 3h or, in the case of poly(methyl methacrylate), at 100°C for 4.5h. The morphology and microstructure of these hybrid coatings were examined by SEM. The abrasion resistance was tested using a washability tester and found to depend heavily on the curing temperature. Seven types of bacterial strains were used to determine the profile of antibacterial activity, namely Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus - MRSA (CCM 4223), MRSA-2 (CCM 7112), Acinetobacter baumanii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Proteus vulgaris (according to ALE-G18, CSNI). All the samples were tested by irradiating with either a UV-A or a daylight fluorescent lamp. All types of hybrid coating A1 and nanocomposite hybrid coating A2 were found to possess an excellent antibacterial effect, including against the pathogenic bacterial strains of MRSA, which present a dangerous threat on a global scale. PMID:25428071

Slamborová, Irena; Zajícová, Veronika; Karpíšková, Jana; Exnar, Petr; Stibor, Ivan

2013-01-01

170

Preoperative serum CA 72.4 as prognostic factor of recurrence and death, especially at TNM stage II, for colorectal cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Nowadays, evaluation of colorectal cancer prognosis and decision-making for treatment continues to be based primarily on TNM tumour stage. Administration of adjuvant chemotherapy is especially challenging for stage II patients that can have very different disease-related outcomes. Therefore, more reliable prognostic markers need to be developed to improve the selection of stage II patients at high risk for recurrence. Our purpose is to assess the prognostic value of preoperative serum CA 72.4 to improve the risk stratification of CRC patients. Methods Preoperative sera collected from 71 unselected patients between January 1994 and February 1997 was assayed for CA 72.4 and CEA levels. Patients were followed-up for at least 30 months or until relapse. Survival curves were estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method and the prognostic value was determined using Log-Rank test and Cox regression analysis. Results Preoperative CA 72.4 levels above 7 U/mL correlate with a worse prognosis, with associated recurrence and death percentages exceeding the displayed by CEA. In a multivariate analysis, its combination with CEA proved the most important independent factor predicting survival. Remarkably, at stage II CA 72.4 also discriminates better than CEA those patients that will relapse or die from those with a favourable prognosis; however, CEA has not a negligible effect on survival. Conclusions The most outstanding finding of the present work is the correct classification of nearly every patient with bad prognosis (relapse or death) at TNM stage II when CEA and CA 72.4 are used altogether. This could improve the decision-making involved in the treatment of stage II colon cancer. Certainly further large-scale studies must be performed to determine whether CA 72.4 can be effectively used in the clinical setting. PMID:24215576

2013-01-01

171

Nuevas perspectivas en el teatro colombiano  

E-print Network

física ejercida legal e ilegalmente en contra de las mujeres. En este momento el grupo está constituido por cuatro mujeres: Lucy Bolaños, Claudia Morales, Pilar Restrepo y Valentina Vivas; quienes con mucho coraje han decidido plantear temas tabú en.... Mario Perroni, "En la búsqueda del uso de la razón," El Espectador, 70 (1984): 11. 15. Guillermo González Uribe, "El Festival es como la vida, pero a toda velocidad," p. 3. FALL 1991 105 16. Guillermo González Uribe, "Diálogo sobre críticos, canas...

Velasco, Marí a Mercedes

1991-10-01

172

SISTEMAS TENSÉGRICOS: NUEVAS ALTERNATIVAS PARA LA ROBÓTICA  

Microsoft Academic Search

in this article an introduction to the tensegrity systems is shown. It is also stated some definitions and the notation used for the elements of this kind of structures. The two morphologies more frequently used in the field of robotics and some applications used around the world are described: geodesic domes, tensegrity masts for space applications, tensegrity robot, sensors and

Rafael Esteban Vásquez; Julio César Correa

2005-01-01

173

Seasonal changes in the biochemical composition of the chiton Chiton iatricus (Polyplacophora: Mollusca) and the marine pulmonate Onchidium verruculatum (Gastropoda: Mollusca) in relation to their reproductive cycles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seasonal changes in the biochemical composition of two molluses, gonochoric Chiton iatricus and a marine pulmonate, Ochnidium verruculatum inhabiting the same tropical area, but having different modes of reproduction, were studied. Protein is the major biochemical component stored in C. iatricus, whereas lipid is predominantly stored in O. verruculatum. The correlation between these quantifications and the annual reproductive cycles of

U. D. Deshpande; R. Nagabhushanam

1983-01-01

174

Cholinesterase activities as potential biomarkers: Characterization in two freshwater snails, Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Mollusca, Hydrobiidae, Smith 1889) and Valvata piscinalis (Mollusca, Valvatidae, Müller 1774)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anti-cholinesterase insecticides constitute a major portion of modern synthetic pesticides and the assessment of cholinesterase (ChE) inhibition is widely used as a specific biomarker for evaluating the exposure of non-target organisms to these pollutants. However, most studies on this biomarker were developed on vertebrates and among invertebrates, gastropod mollusks are rarely used. Gastropods are important members of aquatic habitats and

Beatrice Gagnaire; Olivier Geffard; Benoit Xuereb; Christelle Margoum; Jeanne Garric

2008-01-01

175

Cholinesterase activities as potential biomarkers: characterization in two freshwater snails, Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Mollusca, Hydrobiidae, Smith 1889) and Valvata piscinalis (Mollusca, Valvatidae, Müller 1774).  

PubMed

Anti-cholinesterase insecticides constitute a major portion of modern synthetic pesticides and the assessment of cholinesterase (ChE) inhibition is widely used as a specific biomarker for evaluating the exposure of non-target organisms to these pollutants. However, most studies on this biomarker were developed on vertebrates and among invertebrates, gastropod mollusks are rarely used. Gastropods are important members of aquatic habitats and therefore present a high ecological relevance for freshwater ecosystems. In this context, ChE activities were characterized in two freshwater gastropod mollusks, Potamopyrgus antipodarum and Valvata piscinalis, in order to ascertain their value as sentinel species. Firstly, characterization of ChE activities was performed using different substrates (acetylcholine iodide, butyrylcholine iodide and propionylcholine iodide) and specific inhibitors (eserine, iso-OMPA and BW284c51). Secondly, in vivo effect of a widely used organophosphate insecticide, chlorpyrifos, was tested on ChE activity in both species. Results suggested that P. antipodarum possesses two isoforms of cholinesterases, one isoform which properties are intermediate between an acetyl and a propionyl ChE, and one minor isoform which correspond to a butyryl ChE, while V. piscinalis seems to possess only one isoform which displays typical properties of an acetyl ChE. Chlorpyrifos induced no effect on V. piscinalis ChE. In contrast, P. antipodarum activity was significantly decreased by environmental realistic chlorpyrifos concentrations (2.86 and 14.2 nM) after seven days of contact. The present study suggests that P. antipodarum may be employed as a biological indicator for assessing pesticide contamination. PMID:17998142

Gagnaire, Beatrice; Geffard, Olivier; Xuereb, Benoit; Margoum, Christelle; Garric, Jeanne

2008-03-01

176

Special thanks to Cleveland State University, George Washington University, Cornell University, Lehigh University, University of Pennsylvania, University of Kentucky, University of Arizona and MIT their WorkLife websites were especially helpful and are q  

E-print Network

: Attract, retain, and support a world-class and diverse faculty, staff, and student population. Goal 1 of Pennsylvania, University of Kentucky, University of Arizona and MIT ­ their WorkLife websites were especiallySpecial thanks to Cleveland State University, George Washington University, Cornell University

177

Introduction: Integrating pH sensors in microfluidic systems can provide in-situ measurement functionality for micro-scale fluidic processing and analyzing applications, especially for medicine synthesis, bioanalysis of drugs  

E-print Network

H sensors with a wide sensing range, robustness and high durability for long-term experiments. Sol functionality for micro-scale fluidic processing and analyzing applications, especially for medicine synthesis-dispensing channels was fabricated by molding PDMS polymer onto a SU-8 mold patterned on a silicon wafer. After curing

Chiao, Jung-Chih

178

news & views trochemists are especially interested  

E-print Network

the barrier but rather by tunnelling right through it. Three general cases for exothermic reactions can on the reaction of OH with methanol have now shown that below 200 K there is a major acceleration in the rate Figure 1 | General cases for exothermic reactions. To a good approximation, most chemical reactions

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

179

Earth System Models especially those of  

E-print Network

Lithosphere Freshwater HeatPrecipitation Thermohaline circulation Ablation Isostasy Carbonate Sediments Carbon) Polar ice- caps Species extinctions ~1e5 Insolation (Eccentricity) Sea-level changes Glacial cycles ~1e4...) Atmospheric transport (heat, water, CO2, etc) Hydrology (evaporation, precipitation, run-off...) Ice

Shepherd, John

180

Cooperation and Punishment, Especially in Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Explaining altruistic cooperation is one of the greatest challenges faced by sociologists, economists, and evolutionary biol- ogists. The problem is determining why an individual would carry out a costly behavior that benefits another. Possible solutions to this problem include kinship, repeated interactions, and policing. An- other solution that has recently received much attention is the threat of punishment. However, punishing

Andy Gardner

2004-01-01

181

Art in medical education: Especially plastic surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of art studies in the training of plastic surgeons has not been well recognized. Presently, very few medical schools offer courses on art or include it in the humanities. Because the study of art is a great experience that helps to develop the trained eye, the inclusion of art in medical education is recommended. For plastic and aesthetic

Alma Dea Morani

1992-01-01

182

[Lipoblastoma and lipoblastomatosis: especially in children].  

PubMed

Lipoblastoma and lipoblastomatosis are rare benign fatty tumours that mainly occur in children under the age of 3 years. Several body sites can be affected. The term 'lipoblastoma' is reserved for an encapsulated neoplasm; 'lipoblastomatosis' for tumours demonstrating infiltrative growth. Most of the clinical symptoms arise from a mass effect of the tumour on surrounding tissues. The tumours should be differentiated from lipoma, myxoid liposarcoma and hibernoma. A clear distinction can be made by cytogenetic analysis, since each of these tumours is known for its own typical genetic abnormalities. In lipoblastoma and lipoblastomatosis, these include a breakpoint in the 8q11-13 region or polysomy of chromosome 8, both leading to the activation of the oncogenic pleomorphic adenoma gene 1 (PLAG1) on 8q12. Treatment consists of surgical resection; there is no need for radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Clinical outcome depends on the completeness of the resection and damage that is done to the surrounding tissues during surgery. PMID:21854662

Besouw, Martine T P; Verlinde, Piet F L; Uyttebroeck, Anne M; Renard, Marleen M

2011-01-01

183

African agriculture especially vulnerable to warming climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Malnourishment across Africa could jump 40% by 2050 due to climate change, according to the Africa Agriculture Status Report 2014 (AASR), released on 2 September. With temperatures predicted to rise 1.5°C-2.5°C by midcentury, African smallholder farms, which are generally run by one family, are more vulnerable than ever, the report finds.

Wendel, JoAnna

2014-09-01

184

Especially for Teens: Having a Baby  

MedlinePLUS

... blood tests. You may be tested for certain sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) . What are childbirth classes? In childbirth classes, ... baby. Preterm: Born before 37 weeks of pregnancy. Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs): Diseases that are spread by sexual contact, ...

185

Phenotypic plasticity and genetic isolation-by-distance in the freshwater mussel Unio pictorum (Mollusca: Unionoida)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Freshwater mussels (Unionoida) show high intraspecific morphological variability, and some shell morphological traits are\\u000a believed to be associated with habitat conditions. It is not known whether and which of these ecophenotypic differences reflect\\u000a underlying genetic differentiation or are the result of phenotypic plasticity. Using 103 amplified fragment length polymorphism\\u000a (AFLP) markers, we studied population genetics of three paired Unio pictorum

A. Zieritz; J. I. Hoffman; W. Amos; D. C. Aldridge

2010-01-01

186

Evaluation of Freshwater Mussel (Mollusca: Unionoidea) Fitness Pre and Post Relocation Efforts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Freshwater mussels are often displaced by human activities. Construction of bridges that offer potential impact to large numbers mussels often results in a relocation strategy to minimize loss. While this may reduce mortality, the metabolic consequences of relocation have not been evaluated. In this study we measured glycogen and lipid concentrations and RNA to DNA ratios to determine fitness impairments

H. E. McIntyre; J. L. Farris; A. D. Christian

2005-01-01

187

Evaluation of Freshwater Mussel (Mollusca: Unionoidea) Fitness Pre- and Post- Relocation Efforts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Freshwater mussels are often displaced by human activities. Construction of bridges that offer potential impact to large numbers mussels often results in a relocation strategy to minimize loss. While this may reduce mortality, the metabolic consequences of relocation have not been evaluated. In this study we measured glycogen and lipid concentrations and RNA to DNA ratios to determine fitness impairments on relocated mussels. We hypothesize that organisms subjected to continuous stress should first use stored glycogen, followed by growth cessation measured as a reduction of RNA in relation to the DNA present, and finally a mobilization of tissue lipids, measured as a decrease in tissue lipid concentrations. We collected mantle snips from three surrogate species of mussels from four sites on the White River in eastern Arkansas during late summer, to establish expected glycogen, lipid, and RNA:DNA levels. Mean tissue lipids concentrations (?g/g) were 63.09, 67.96, and 50.46 for Quadrula quadrula, Q. pustulosa and Obliquaria reflexa, respectively. Mean tissue glycogen concentrations (?g/g) were 346.66, 592.26, and 336.58 for Q. quadrula, Q. pustulosa, and O. reflexa, respectively. This study can provide response information on relocated individuals as well as provide estimation of sufficient time required for mussel adaptation to novel environments.

McIntyre, H. E.; Farris, J. L.; Christian, A. D.

2005-05-01

188

Does polyploidy occur in central European species of the family Sphaeriidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia)?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some representatives of the bivalve family Sphaeriidae are assumed to be polyploid. In this study, 11 sphaeriid species (nine\\u000a of the genus Pisidium, one of Musculium, and one of Sphaerium) inhabiting central Europe were studied karyologically, 10 of them for the first time. Analysis revealed high chromosome\\u000a numbers (from 140 to 240). To elucidate the origin of high chromosome numbers,

Tereza Ko?ínková; Alena Morávková

2010-01-01

189

Vestigial phragmocone in the gladius points to a deepwater origin of squid (Mollusca: Cephalopoda)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The microstructure of the gladius cone was investigated in six species of nektonic squid: shallow-water Loligo gahi (Loliginidae), pelagic eurybathic Illex argentinus, Todarodes pacificus, Dosidicus gigas (Ommastrephidae), and deepwater Onykia ingens (Onychoteuthidae) and Gonatus antarcticus (Gonatidae) using state-of-the-art microscopy. Apart from L. gahi, all other species had septa-like layers in the gladius cone, which for the first time were investigated in detail and compared with those in extinct Cretaceous belemnites Hibolithes sp. and Pachyteuthis sp., and spirulid Cyrtobelus sp. It was found that the organic layers of the gladius cone in recent squid can be homologized with the organic components of the shell in fossil phragmocone-bearing coleoids. The septa-like layers in modern gladius cones therefore represent a vestigial phragmocone composed of organic septal rudiments of the ancestral phragmocone that has lost the siphuncle and gas-filled chambers. The well-developed rostrum in onychoteuthids and small rostrum of the gladius in ommastrephids and gonatids can be seen as homologous with the belemnoid rostrum, which may indicate a close phylogenetic relationship between belemnites and at least some squid. Possible evolutionary pathways of the reduction of the functional phragmocone in squid ancestors are discussed. Several features such as the loss of shell calcification, deep water speciation, and the structure of the equilibrium organ point to a deep-water origin of squids.

Arkhipkin, Alexander I.; Bizikov, Vyacheslav A.; Fuchs, Dirk

2012-03-01

190

Ross Sea Mollusca from the Latitudinal Gradient Program: R/V Italica 2004 Rauschert dredge samples  

PubMed Central

Abstract Information regarding the molluscs in this dataset is based on the Rauschert dredge samples collected during the Latitudinal Gradient Program (LGP) on board the R/V “Italica” in the Ross Sea (Antarctica) in the austral summer 2004. A total of 18 epibenthic dredge deployments/samplings have been performed at four different locations at depths ranging from 84 to 515m by using a Rauschert dredge with a mesh size of 500?m. In total 8,359 specimens have been collected belonging to a total of 161 species. Considering this dataset in terms of occurrences, it corresponds to 505 discrete distributional records (incidence data). Of these, in order of abundance, 5,965 specimens were Gastropoda (accounting for 113 species), 1,323 were Bivalvia (accounting for 36 species), 949 were Aplacophora (accounting for 7 species), 74 specimens were Scaphopoda (3 species), 38 were Monoplacophora (1 species) and, finally, 10 specimens were Polyplacophora (1 species). This data set represents the first large-scale survey of benthic micro-molluscs for the area and provides important information about the distribution of several species, which have been seldom or never recorded before in the Ross Sea. All vouchers are permanently stored at the Italian National Antarctic Museum (MNA), Section of Genoa, enabling future comparison and crosschecking. This material is also currently under study, from a molecular point of view, by the barcoding project “BAMBi” (PNRA 2010/A1.10). PMID:24146597

Ghiglione, Claudio; Alvaro, Maria Chiara; Griffiths, Huw J.; Linse, Katrin; Schiaparelli, Stefano

2013-01-01

191

Ross Sea Mollusca from the Latitudinal Gradient Program: R/V Italica 2004 Rauschert dredge samples.  

PubMed

Information regarding the molluscs in this dataset is based on the Rauschert dredge samples collected during the Latitudinal Gradient Program (LGP) on board the R/V "Italica" in the Ross Sea (Antarctica) in the austral summer 2004. A total of 18 epibenthic dredge deployments/samplings have been performed at four different locations at depths ranging from 84 to 515m by using a Rauschert dredge with a mesh size of 500?m. In total 8,359 specimens have been collected belonging to a total of 161 species. Considering this dataset in terms of occurrences, it corresponds to 505 discrete distributional records (incidence data). Of these, in order of abundance, 5,965 specimens were Gastropoda (accounting for 113 species), 1,323 were Bivalvia (accounting for 36 species), 949 were Aplacophora (accounting for 7 species), 74 specimens were Scaphopoda (3 species), 38 were Monoplacophora (1 species) and, finally, 10 specimens were Polyplacophora (1 species). This data set represents the first large-scale survey of benthic micro-molluscs for the area and provides important information about the distribution of several species, which have been seldom or never recorded before in the Ross Sea. All vouchers are permanently stored at the Italian National Antarctic Museum (MNA), Section of Genoa, enabling future comparison and crosschecking. This material is also currently under study, from a molecular point of view, by the barcoding project "BAMBi" (PNRA 2010/A1.10). PMID:24146597

Ghiglione, Claudio; Alvaro, Maria Chiara; Griffiths, Huw J; Linse, Katrin; Schiaparelli, Stefano

2013-01-01

192

Dynamics and ecology of an Indo-Pacific conch, Conomurex persicus (Mollusca: Gastropoda) in southeastern Turkey.  

PubMed

Conomurex persicus, one of the tropical conchs, has been introduced to one of the subtropical regions, the northeastern Mediterranean Sea, and invaded sandy bottoms between 1 and 10 m deep. Population dynamics were studied from specimens collected with a standard dredge (60 x 15 cm mouth opening, 0.5 x 0.5 cm eye opening of net). Samples of C persicus were collected monthly along the 5 and 10 m depth contours off Erdemli, Mersin, Turkey, in February and May 2000. Intra-annual density depended on salinity levels, while inter-annual density was correlated with bottom water temperature. Specimens underwent spring emergences and winter burial and sheltering (disappearance). Emergence took place in March when temperatures rose and the disappearance occurred in October-November when temperatures dropped. Adults live at 10 m, juveniles are recruited at a 5 m depth. Recruitment began in April and continued for the next 6 months. In contrast to shell width or shell lip thickness, shell length was not a convenient index for estimation of growth parameters. Annual production and mortality were calculated to be 7.86 g m(-2) and 3.80 g m(-2), respectively, in April-November. PMID:18457181

Mutlu, Erhan; Ergev, Mehmet Betil

2006-03-01

193

Characterization of 15 microsatellite loci in the pulmonate snail Pseudosuccinea columella (Mollusca, Gastropoda)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We characterized 15 new variable microsatellites in the freshwater snail Pseudosuccinea (Lymnaea) columella, as well as conditions for multiplexing and simultaneously genotyping sets of loci. Two to six alleles were detected per locus over the six populations studied. Gene diversity ranged from 0.000 to 0.498, but essentially no heterozygous individuals were observed. This resulted in extremely high FIS estimates, and

ANTOINE NICOT; MARIE-PIERRE DUBOIS; CHANTAL DEBAIN; PATRICE DAVID; PHILIPPE JARNE

2008-01-01

194

Colonization of Fresh Waters in the Republic of South Africa by Lymnaea columella Say (Mollusca : Gastropoda)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lymnaea (Pseudosuccinea) columella Say 1817, described from specimens probably obtained in the vicinity of Philadelphia1, is widely distributed in still and slow-flowing waters in the eastern United States of America, Mexico, Central America, Cuba and the northern and central regions of South America1,2. Fossil specimens are known from the Pleistocene of North America, and another species of the sub-genus has

J. A. van Eeden

1966-01-01

195

Characterization of 15 microsatellite loci in the pulmonate snail Pseudosuccinea columella (Mollusca, Gastropoda).  

PubMed

We characterized 15 new variable microsatellites in the freshwater snail Pseudosuccinea (Lymnaea) columella, as well as conditions for multiplexing and simultaneously genotyping sets of loci. Two to six alleles were detected per locus over the six populations studied. Gene diversity ranged from 0.000 to 0.498, but essentially no heterozygous individuals were observed. This resulted in extremely high F(IS) estimates, and therefore high selfing rates. The F(ST) estimates ranged from 0.18 to 1 among populations, but was generally high. These markers will constitute efficient tools for investigating the population structure of this invasive species. Cross-species amplification was on the whole unsuccessful. PMID:21586021

Nicot, Antoine; Dubois, Marie-Pierre; Debain, Chantal; David, Patrice; Jarne, Philippe

2008-11-01

196

Comparative Analysis of Chromosome Counts Infers Three Paleopolyploidies in the Mollusca  

PubMed Central

The study of paleopolyploidies requires the comparison of multiple whole genome sequences. If the branches of a phylogeny on which a whole-genome duplication (WGD) occurred could be identified before genome sequencing, taxa could be selected that provided a better assessment of that genome duplication. Here, we describe a likelihood model in which the number of chromosomes in a genome evolves according to a Markov process with one rate of chromosome duplication and loss that is proportional to the number of chromosomes in the genome and another stochastic rate at which every chromosome in the genome could duplicate in a single event. We compare the maximum likelihoods of a model in which the genome duplication rate varies to one in which it is fixed at zero using the Akaike information criterion, to determine if a model with WGDs is a good fit for the data. Once it has been determined that the data does fit the WGD model, we infer the phylogenetic position of paleopolyploidies by calculating the posterior probability that a WGD occurred on each branch of the taxon tree. Here, we apply this model to a molluscan tree represented by 124 taxa and infer three putative WGD events. In the Gastropoda, we identify a single branch within the Hypsogastropoda and one of two branches at the base of the Stylommatophora. We also identify one or two branches near the base of the Cephalopoda. PMID:21859805

Hallinan, Nathaniel M.; Lindberg, David R.

2011-01-01

197

Observational learning does not explain improvement in predation tactics by cuttlefish (Mollusca: Cephalopoda)  

Microsoft Academic Search

When first presented with live crab prey, naive cuttlefish typically approached from the front and were often pinched. In subsequent trials, this initial group rapidly improved their prey capture techniques and attacked from above or behind the crab. Naive cuttlefish that first watched experienced conspecifics prey on crabs captured crabs without getting pinched. However, naive cuttlefish that first watched non-attacking

J. G Boal; K. M Wittenberg; R. T Hanlon

2000-01-01

198

Larval nematodes (Spiruroidea: Cystidicolidae) in Octopus vulgaris (Mollusca: Cephalopoda: Octopodidae) from the northeastern Atlantic Ocean.  

PubMed

Larval nematode parasites (Spiruroidea: Cystidicolidae) are recorded for the first time in Octopus vulgaris Cuvier, 1797 in the northeastern Atlantic Ocean. Prevalence was 16% and mean intensity was 1.46 worms/host. Body length of larval nematodes ranges from 8.3 to 9.3 mm, with a distance from the anterior end to nerve ring from 187.5 to 200 microm, and to excretory pore 194.6-350 microm. Anatomical characteristics, such as deirid, nerve ring, cephalic alae, excretory pore, pseudolabia amphids, sclerotized protuberance, and anus, examined using light microscopy (LM) or scanning electron microscopy (SEM), are illustrated. The nematode was designed as a cystidicolid "Type A" larva. The hemocytic infiltration present in the host tissue around the nematode capsule and the mechanical compression in the infected organs denote the pathogenicity of this nematode. In the study area, O. vulgaris may play the role of an intermediate or paratenic host in the nematode life cycle. PMID:10386445

Gestal, C; Abollo, E; Arias, C; Pascual, S

1999-06-01

199

Development of 10 microsatellite loci in the pulmonate snail Biomphalaria kuhniana (Mollusca, Gastropoda)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We characterized 10 variable microsatellite loci in the freshwater snail Biomphalaria kuhniana, as well as conditions for multiplexing and co-loading sets of loci. Two to five alleles were detected per locus over the two studied populations in Venezuela. High inbreeding coefficients suggest high selfing rates. Cross-species amplification provided some variability at eight and three loci in the other species belonging

VIRGINIE DUPUY; ANTOINE NICOT; PHILIPPE JARNE; PATRICE DAVID

2009-01-01

200

Mechanisms underlying dual effects of serotonin during development of Helisoma trivolvis (Mollusca)  

PubMed Central

Background Serotonin (5-HT) is well known as widely distributed modulator of developmental processes in both vertebrates and invertebrates. It is also the earliest neurotransmitter to appear during neuronal development. In aquatic invertebrates, which have larvae in their life cycle, 5-HT is involved in regulation of stages transition including larval metamorphosis and settlement. However, molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying developmental transition in aquatic invertebrate species are yet poorly understood. Earlier we demonstrated that in larvae of freshwater molluscs and marine polychaetes, endogenous 5-HT released from the neurons of the apical sensory organ (ASO) in response to external stimuli retarded larval development at premetamorphic stages, and accelerated it at metamorphic stages. Here we used a freshwater snail Helisoma trivolvis to study molecular mechanisms underlying these dual developmental effects of 5-HT. Results Larval development of H. trivolvis includes transition from premetamorphic to metamorphic stages and shares the main features of metamorphosis with free-swimming aquatic larvae. Three types of 5-HT receptors (5-HT1-, 5-HT4- and 5-HT7-like) are functionally active at premetamorphic (trochophore, veliger) and metamorphic (veliconcha) stages, and expression patterns of these receptors and respective G proteins undergo coordinated changes during development. Stimulation of these receptors modulated cAMP-dependent regulation of cell divisions. Expression of 5-HT4- and 5-HT7-like receptors and their downstream Gs protein was down-regulated during the transition of pre- to metamorphic stage, while expression of 5-HT1 -like receptor and its downstream Gi protein was upregulated. In accordance with relative amount of these receptors, stimulation of 5-HTRs at premetamorphic stages induces developmental retardation, while their stimulation at metamorphic stages induces developmental acceleration. Conclusions We present a novel molecular mechanism that underlies stage-specific changes in developmental tempo of H. trivolvis larvae in response to endogenous 5-HT produced by the neurons of the ASO. We suggest that consecutive changes in expression patterns of different receptors and their downstream partners in the course of larval development represent the molecular base of larval transition from premetamorphic (non-competent) to metamorphic (competent) state. PMID:24625099

2014-01-01

201

Food intake and growth in reared early juvenile cuttlefish Sepia officinalis L. (Mollusca Cephalopoda)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental rearing of juvenile cuttlefish was carried out in a semi-closed system for 40 days at 19°C. Different quantities of live food were offered to isolated animals. The actual ingestion rate was enhanced by the amount of food offered, this tendency decreasing with age. Frozen food was ingested at the same rate, but was less effective than live food for

N. Koueta; E. Boucaud-Camou

1999-01-01

202

Ultrastructure of euspermatozoa and paraspermatozoa in the volutid snail Adelomelon ancilla (Mollusca: Caenogastropoda)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ultrastructure of the euspermatozoa and the paraspermatozoa is investigated in Adelomelon ancilla, through histological section observed by transmission electron microscopy. Euspermatozoa of A. ancilla consists of: (1) a conical acrosomal vesicle (with a short basal invagination, constricted anteriorly) which is flattened at the apex and associated with an axial rod, a centrally perforated basal plate and a short accessory membrane, (2) a rod-shaped, solid and highly electron-dense nucleus (with a short basal fossa containing a centriolar complex and a initial portion of a 9 + 2 axoneme), (3) an elongate midpiece consisting of the axoneme sheathed by 5-6 helical mitochondrial elements each exhibiting a dense U-shaped outer layer, (4) an elongate glycogen piece (where the axoneme is sheathed by nine tracts of glycogen granules), (5) a dense annulus at the junction of the midpiece and glycogen piece, and (6) a short free tail region (where the axoneme is surrounded only by plasma membrane). We observed a parasperm in A. ancilla. This is vermiform in shape and is composed of multiple axonemes and extensive cytoplasm with numerous vesicles, and mitochondria are scattered inside the axonemes. Sperm of A. ancilla is characterized by the euspermatozoa type 2 and the paraspermatozoa morphology belongs to type 5. The U shaped electrodense mitochondrial element in the midpiece of the eusperm and the constriction in the acrosomal vesicle present in A. ancilla are exclusive. We suggest that these characteristics could have taxonomic importance, because these was observed in other volutids and have not been observed in the rest of caenogastropods studies. We consider that the morphology of paraspermatozoa in A. ancilla corresponds to the “lancet” type.

Zabala, S.; Hermida, G. N.; Giménez, J.

2009-09-01

203

Morphological characterization of the hemocytes of the clam, Ruditapes decussatus (Mollusca: Bivalvia).  

PubMed

Hemocytes play an important role in internal defence in molluscs. The morphology of hemolymph cells was studied for the first time in Ruditapes decussatus. Two main types of hemocytes (hyalinocytes and granulocytes) exist in R. decussatus. Three types of granulocytes were identified by light microscopy, in accordance with the presence of basophilic or acidophilic granules or a mixture of both in the cytoplasm. The existence of hyalinocytes and granulocytes was confirmed by electron microscopy. Some monoclonal antibodies (MABs) raised against hemocytes of Crassostrea gigas showed cross-reactivity with the total population of hemocytes of R. decussatus; however, none of the MABs raised against hemocytes of Mytilus edulis showed cross-reactivity. The MABs assayed did not allow us to distinguish hemocyte subpopulations. PMID:9028928

López, C; Carballal, M J; Azevedo, C; Villalba, A

1997-01-01

204

Size-differential feeding in Pinna nobilis L. (Mollusca: Bivalvia): Exploitation of detritus, phytoplankton and zooplankton  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The endangered fan shell Pinna nobilis is a large bivalve mollusc (<120 cm shell length) endemic to the Mediterranean that lives one-third buried in soft substrata, generally in shallow coastal waters. We hypothesised that P. nobilis of different sizes would ingest different food sources, because small fan shells will inhale material from closer to the substratum than do large fan shells. We studied stomach contents and faeces of 18 fan shells, 6 small (mean 23.0 cm length), 6 medium-sized (mean 41.5 cm length) and 6 large (mean 62.7 cm length) living in a small area of a low-energy coastal detritic bottom characterised by mud, sand and macroalgae at Mali Ston Bay, Croatia. We found that all P. nobilis ingested copious quantities of undetermined detritus (probably at least 95% of ingested material), phytoplankton, micro and mesozooplankton and pollen grains. Large P. nobilis stomach contents showed a preponderance of water column calanoid copepods, while small fan shells had higher numbers of bivalve larvae. All fan shells took in high numbers of harpacticoid copepods that are benthonic, feeding on microbial communities of detritus and benthic vegetation. There was also a significant selection of phytoplankton species, some apparently occurring between inhalation and ingestion. The stomach contents of small P. nobilis had a higher organic matter content than either medium-sized or large fan shells; this indicated that small fan shells ingested detritus of higher organic content than did larger P. nobilis. As the faeces of all P. nobilis had similar organic matter content, this also indicates higher assimilation efficiencies in small fan shells. The demonstration of differential dietary selectivity by different sized animals has implications for future trophic studies of this endangered species. This study also provides the first demonstration of predation on zooplankton by P. nobilis.

Davenport, John; Ezgeta-Bali?, Daria; Peharda, Melita; Skeji?, Sanda; Nin?evi?-Gladan, Živana; Matijevi?, Slavica

2011-04-01

205

Gastrocopta (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pupillidae) in the Pilbara region of Western Australia  

PubMed Central

Abstract Six species of Gastrocopta have been identified from the Pilbara region, Western Australia, by means of comparative analyses of shell and mtDNA variation. Three of these species, Gastrocopta hedleyi, Gastrocopta larapinta and Gastrocopta servilis, have been recorded in the Pilbara for the first time. Gastrocopta sp. CW1 is probably new to science and might be endemic to the region. By contrast, Gastrocopta hedleyi, Gastrocopta larapinta and Gastrocopta mussoni are shown to be widespread. PMID:23653507

Whisson, Corey S.; Kohler, Frank

2013-01-01

206

Mercury and the estuarine clam, Rangia cuneata (Mollusca - Bivalvia): uptake and release, survival and osmoregulation  

E-print Network

in coastal sediments and overlying waters may range from 50 to 800 ppb (Andren and Harriss, 1973; De Wolf, 1975; Floyd, 1975). Occasionally, very high levels will be recorded in association with industrial effluents. Smith, Green and Lutz (1975) recorded... up to 3600 ppb in clams downstream from pulp mills and chlor-alkali factories. Of the heavy metals, mercury is one of the most toxic to aquatic organisms. Green (1975) compiled bioassay results from various in- vestigations and found...

Dillon, T. M

2012-06-07

207

Where's Waldo? A new commensal species, Waldo arthuri (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Galeommatidae), from the Northeastern Pacific Ocean  

PubMed Central

Abstract A galeommatid bivalve mollusk, representing a new species, is described from off the coasts of California and Vancouver Island, British Columbia. The new bivalve has a commensal relationship with the heart urchin, Brisaster latifrons. It has been observed crawling between the oral spines of this urchin, frequently near the peristome. The bivalve has been recorded from 80 (Vancouver Island) to 444 (southern California) meters depth, in muddy sediments. In common with other galeommatoideans, the new species broods its young; however it differs from the large majority of commensal members in lacking planktotrophic larval development. Waldo arthuri, new species, has multiple morphological, ecological and developmental similarities to other members of the genus Waldo Nicol, 1966, from the southern Atlantic and Antarctic Oceans. This is most pronounced for the Argentine species, Waldo paucitentaculatus Zelaya & Ituarte, 2013, Waldo arthuri’s sister speciesin nuclear and mitochondrial gene trees. Despite this close relationship, Waldo arthuri is phylogentically distinct and possesses several hinge, shell sculpture, foot, and mantle tentacle characteristics that merit its description as new. PMID:23878515

Valentich-Scott, Paul; O Foighil, Diarmaid; Li, Jingchun

2013-01-01

208

A new species of the family Thyasiridae (Mollusca: Bivalvia) from the oxygen minimum zone  

E-print Network

are discussed. It occurs between 800 m and 1000 m water depth in a low oxygen environment, where, apparently ideal for chemosymbiotic organisms, yet molluscs are generally rare (Levin, 2003). On the Oman concentrations and in greater abundance than any of those from the Oman margin. Thyasirids have not been reported

Levin, Lisa

209

Geometrical and crystallographic constraints determine the self-organization of shell microstructures in Unionidae (Bivalvia: Mollusca).  

PubMed

Unionid shells are characterized by an outer aragonitic prismatic layer and an inner nacreous layer. The prisms of the outer shell layer are composed of single-crystal fibres radiating from spheruliths. During prism development, fibres progressively recline to the growth front. There is competition between prisms, leading to the selection of bigger, evenly sized prisms. A new model explains this competition process between prisms, using fibres as elementary units of competition. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray texture analysis show that, during prism growth, fibres become progressively orientated with their three crystallographic axes aligned, which results from geometric constraints and space limitations. Interestingly transition to the nacreous layer does not occur until a high degree of orientation of fibres is attained. There is no selection of crystal orientation in the nacreous layer and, as a result, the preferential orientation of crystals deteriorates. Deterioration of crystal orientation is most probably due to accumulation of errors as the epitaxial growth is suppressed by thick or continuous organic coats on some nacre crystals. In conclusion, the microstructural arrangement of the unionid shell is, to a large extent, self-organized with the main constraints being crystallographic and geometrical laws. PMID:11321067

Checa, A G; Rodríguez-Navarro, A

2001-04-01

210

Biomphalaria straminea (Mollusca: Planorbidae) as an intermediate host of Ribeiroia sp. (Trematoda: Psilostomidae) in Brazil.  

PubMed

Species of Ribeiroia are trematode parasites of birds and mammals that have acquired notoriety since Ribeiroia ondatrae was identified as a cause of mortality and malformations in North American amphibians. Although species of Ribeiroia have been reported in vertebrate hosts in South America, the snails involved in its transmission remain unknown in Brazil. During malacological studies conducted at Pampulha Reservoir, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, between January 2009 and February 2012, in total 14,264 specimens of Biomphalaria straminea were collected, of which 192 (1.35%) were infected with gymnocephalous cercariae. The larvae were used for experimental infection of laboratory-reared guppies ( Poecilia reticulata ); metacercariae obtained in these fishes were orally administered to domestic ducks (Cairina moschata); and adult parasites were obtained from the proventriculus 10 days after infection. Based on morphological and molecular analyses, the parasite was identified as Ribeiroia sp., a species morphologically similar to R. ondatrae , but distinctly different at the molecular level. This is the first report of larvae of Ribeiroia in Brazil and B. straminea as a new intermediate host for this genus. PMID:23421393

Pinto, H A; Jadin, R C; Orlofske, S A; Johnson, P T J; Melo, A L

2013-10-01

211

European Lymnaeidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda), intermediate hosts of trematodiases, based on nuclear ribosomal DNA ITS2 sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Freshwater snails of the family Lymnaeidae are of a great parasitological importance because of the very numerous helminth species they transmit, mainly trematodiases of large medical and veterinary impact. The present knowledge on the genetics of lymnaeids and on their parasite–host inter-relationships is far from being sufficient. The family is immersed in a systematic–taxonomic confusion. The necessity for a tool

M. D Bargues; M Vigo; P Horak; J Dvorak; R. A Patzner; J. P Pointier; M Jackiewicz; C Meier-Brook; S Mas-Coma

2001-01-01

212

European Lymnaeidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda), intermediate hosts of trematodiases, based on nuclear ribosomal DNA ITS-2 sequences.  

PubMed

Freshwater snails of the family Lymnaeidae are of a great parasitological importance because of the very numerous helminth species they transmit, mainly trematodiases of large medical and veterinary impact. The present knowledge on the genetics of lymnaeids and on their parasite-host inter-relationships is far from being sufficient. The family is immersed in a systematic-taxonomic confusion. The necessity for a tool which enables species distinction and population characterization is evident. This paper aims to review the European Lymnaeidae basing on the second internal transcribed spacer ITS-2 of the nuclear ribosomal DNA. The ITS-2 sequences of 66 populations of 13 European and 1 North American lymnaeid species, including the five generic (or subgeneric) taxa Lymnaea sensu stricto, Stagnicola, Omphiscola, Radix and Galba, have been obtained. The ITS-2 proves to be a useful marker for resolving supraspecific, specific and population relationships in Lymnaeidae. Three different groupings according to their ITS-2 length could be distinguished: Radix and Galba may be considered the oldest taxa (370-406 bp lengths), and Lymnaea s. str., European Stagnicola and Omphiscola (468-491 bp lengths) the most recent, American Stagnicola and Hinkleyia being intermediate (434-450 bp lengths). This hypothesis agrees with the phylogeny of lymnaeids based on palaeontological data, chromosome numbers and radular dentition. ITS-2 sequences present a conserved central region flanked by two variable lateral regions corresponding to the 5' and 3' ends. The number of repeats of two microsatellites found in this conserved central region allows to differentiate Radix from all other lymnaeids. Phylogenetic trees showed four clades: (A) Lymnaea s. str., European Stagnicola and Omphiscola; (B) Radix species; (C) Galba truncatula; and (D) North American stagnicolines. ITS-2 results suggest that retaining Stagnicola as a subgenus of Lymnaea may be the most appropriate and that genus status for Omphiscola is justified. Radix shows a complexity suggesting different evolutionary lines, whereas G. truncatula appears to be very homogeneous. North American and European stagnicolines do not belong to the same supraspecific taxon; the genus Hinkleyia may be used for the American stagnicolines. Genetic distances and sequence differences allowed us to distinguish the upper limit to be expected within a single species and to how different sister species may be. S. palustris, S. fuscus and S. corvus proved to be valid species, but S. turricula may not be considered a species independent from S. palustris. Marked nucleotide divergences and genetic distances detected between different S. fuscus populations may be interpreted as a process of geographic differentiation developping in the present. Among Radix, six valid species could be distinguished: R. auricularia, R. ampla, R. peregra (=R. ovata;=R. balthica), R. labiata, R. lagotis and Radix sp. The information which the ITS-2 marker furnishes is of applied interest concerning the molluscan host specificity of the different trematode species. The phylogenetic trees inferred from the ITS-2 sequences are able to differentiate between lymnaeids transmitting and those non-transmitting fasciolids, as well as between those transmitting F. hepatica and those transmitting F. gigantica. The Fasciola specificity is linked to the two oldest genera which moreover cluster together in the phylogenetic trees, suggesting an origin of the Fasciola ancestors related to the origin of this branch. European Trichobilharzia species causing human dermatitis are transmitted only by lymnaeids of the Radix and Lymnaea s. str.-Stagnicola groups. Results suggest the convenience of reinvestigating compatibility differences after accurate lymnaeid species classification by ITS-2 sequencing. Similarly, ITS-2 sequencing would allow a step forward in the appropriate rearrangement of the actual systematic confusion among echinostomatids. PMID:12798024

Bargues, M D; Vigo, M; Horak, P; Dvorak, J; Patzner, R A; Pointier, J P; Jackiewicz, M; Meier-Brook, C; Mas-Coma, S

2001-12-01

213

Bibliography of Cuban terrestrial Mollusca, including related and biohistorical papers on Cuban malacology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a comprehensive overview of literature on Cuban terrestrial molluscs since the 18th century. It currently cites approximately 1000 references, dealing with a) primary and secondary sources directly treating Cuban taxa or relevant for the study of the Cuban malacofauna; b) abstracts of congresses, unpublished theses, and internal reports ('grey literature'); and c) biohistorical papers dealing with the

A. S. H. Breure; A. González Guillén

2010-01-01

214

Some temperature responses of Lymnaea tomentosa and L. columella (Mollusca: Gastropoda) and their eggs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under similar laboratory conditions Lymnaea columella invariably produced more eggs than L. tomentosa at temperatures up to 24°c. Both species oviposited at 5°c, and a single egg capsule of L. columella was produced at 2°c. The minimum temperature at which eggs would develop and hatch was between 5°c and 10°c; eggs of both species underwent some development at 5°c, but

R. E. Harris; W. A. G. Charleston

1977-01-01

215

Patterns of Diversity of the Rissoidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda) in the Atlantic and the Mediterranean Region  

PubMed Central

The geographical distribution of the Rissoidae in the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea was compiled and is up-to-date until July 2011. All species were classified according to their mode of larval development (planktotrophic and nonplanktotrophic), and bathymetrical zonation (shallow species—those living between the intertidal and 50?m depth, and deep species—those usually living below 50?m depth). 542 species of Rissoidae are presently reported to the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, belonging to 33 genera. The Mediterranean Sea is the most diverse site, followed by Canary Islands, Caribbean, Portugal, and Cape Verde. The Mediterranean and Cape Verde Islands are the sites with higher numbers of endemic species, with predominance of Alvania spp. in the first site, and of Alvania and Schwartziella at Cape Verde. In spite of the large number of rissoids at Madeira archipelago, a large number of species are shared with Canaries, Selvagens, and the Azores, thus only about 8% are endemic to the Madeira archipelago. Most of the 542-rissoid species that live in the Atlantic and in the Mediterranean are shallow species (323), 110 are considered as deep species, and 23 species are reported in both shallow and deep waters. There is a predominance of nonplanktotrophs in islands, seamounts, and at high and medium latitudes. This pattern is particularly evident in the genera Crisilla, Manzonia, Onoba, Porosalvania, Schwartziella, and Setia. Planktotrophic species are more abundant in the eastern Atlantic and in the Mediterranean Sea. The results of the analysis of the probable directions of faunal flows support the patterns found by both the Parsimony Analysis of Endemicity and the geographical distribution. Four main source areas for rissoids emerge: Mediterranean, Caribbean, Canaries/Madeira archipelagos, and the Cape Verde archipelago. We must stress the high percentage of endemics that occurs in the isolated islands of Saint Helena, Tristan da Cunha, Cape Verde archipelago and also the Azores, thus reinforcing the legislative protective actions that the local governments have implemented in these islands during the recent years. PMID:22693430

Avila, Sergio P.; Goud, Jeroen; de Frias Martins, Antonio M.

2012-01-01

216

Molecular phylogeny of pearl oysters and their relatives (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Pterioidea)  

PubMed Central

Background The superfamily Pterioidea is a morphologically and ecologically diverse lineage of epifaunal marine bivalves distributed throughout the tropical and subtropical continental shelf regions. This group includes commercially important pearl culture species and model organisms used for medical studies of biomineralization. Recent morphological treatment of selected pterioideans and molecular phylogenetic analyses of higher-level relationships in Bivalvia have challenged the traditional view that pterioidean families are monophyletic. This issue is examined here in light of molecular data sets composed of DNA sequences for nuclear and mitochondrial loci, and a published character data set of anatomical and shell morphological characters. Results The present study is the first comprehensive species-level analysis of the Pterioidea to produce a well-resolved, robust phylogenetic hypothesis for nearly all extant taxa. The data were analyzed for potential biases due to taxon and character sampling, and idiosyncracies of different molecular evolutionary processes. The congruence and contribution of different partitions were quantified, and the sensitivity of clade stability to alignment parameters was explored. Conclusions Four primary conclusions were reached: (1) the results strongly supported the monophyly of the Pterioidea; (2) none of the previously defined families (except for the monotypic Pulvinitidae) were monophyletic; (3) the arrangement of the genera was novel and unanticipated, however strongly supported and robust to changes in alignment parameters; and (4) optimizing key morphological characters onto topologies derived from the analysis of molecular data revealed many instances of homoplasy and uncovered synapomorphies for major nodes. Additionally, a complete species-level sampling of the genus Pinctada provided further insights into the on-going controversy regarding the taxonomic identity of major pearl culture species. PMID:21059254

2010-01-01

217

Nickel defends the South African hyperaccumulator Senecio coronatus (Asteraceae) against Helix aspersa (Mollusca: Pulmonidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. The elevated Ni concentration of Ni hyper- accumulator plants has been proposed to be an effec- tive chemical defence against herbivores. To test this hypothesis, we fed leaves from hyperaccumulator and non-hyperaccumulator populations of South African Senecio coronatus to a generalist herbivore species, the brown garden snail (Helix aspersa). Snails fed hyperac- cumulator leaves experienced significantly greater mor- tality

Robert S. Boyd; Micheal A. Davis; Michael A. Wall; Kevin Balkwill

2002-01-01

218

Molecular systematics of the marine gastropod families Trochidae and Calliostomatidae (Mollusca: Superfamily Trochoidea).  

PubMed

This study is the most extensive molecular study of the gastropod families Trochidae and Calliostomatidae published to date, in terms of both numbers of taxa and of gene sequences. As a result of Bayesian phylogenetic analyses of molecular sequence data from one nuclear gene and three mitochondrial genes, we propose dramatic changes to Trochidae family systematics, present the first molecular phylogeny for Calliostomatidae and include the first published sequence data for the enigmatic subfamily Thysanodontinae. Our phylogeny demonstrates that within the family Trochidae there is strong support for three subfamilies new to traditional classifications: Alcyninae subfam. nov., Fossarininae and Chrysostomatinae subfam. nov. As proposed, Alcyninae consists only of the nominotypical genus Alcyna, which is sister to all other trochids. The subfamily Fossarininae, as defined here, includes Fossarina, Broderipia, Synaptocochlea and "Roya"eximia and probably also Clydonochilus and Minopa. The subfamily Chrysostomatinae comprises the genera Chrysostoma and Chlorodiloma. Additional molecular support is also obtained for recently redefined Trochinae, Monodontinae, and Cantharidinae and for the traditionally recognised subfamilies Umboniinae and Stomatellinae. The subfamily Lirulariinae is not supported by the molecular data, but rather is incorporated into Umboniinae. We also demonstrate that the current concept of the subfamily Margaritinae (previously a trochid subfamily, but recently and provisionally assigned to Turbinidae) is not monophyletic. We provide preliminary evidence that whereas Margarella rosea (previously a member of Margaritinae) belongs in the trochid subfamily Cantharidinae, its presumptive congener M. antarctica is not a trochid, but instead clusters with the thysanodontine genus Carinastele. Based on the phylogenetic placement of C. kristelleae, we agree with previous proposals based on morphological data that Thysanodontinae are more closely related to Calliostomatidae than Trochidae. Both Calliostoma and Carinastele are carnivorous and if a sister relationship can be confirmed between Carinastele and Margarella antarctica it might mean that carnivory evolved twice in Trochoidea. The direction of dietary changes was not investigated in this study, but mapping diet onto the phylogeny suggests that true herbivory is predominantly a derived character. The new classification system also means that five trochid subfamilies are predominantly associated with hard substrata, one with soft substrata (Umboniinae) and two with algae and seagrass (Alcyninae and Cantharidinae). There has been a shift back to hard substrata in one umboniine clade. Two of three clades within Calliostomatidae were predominantly associated with hard substrata, but one Japanese clade is associated with sand. The finding of three new, unidentified species from very deep water means that Trochidae, like Calliostomatidae, now includes species found at bathyal depths. More deep-water species may be found as increased sampling leads to the discovery of new species. PMID:19919851

Williams, S T; Donald, K M; Spencer, H G; Nakano, T

2010-03-01

219

Feeding behavior and growth of Hermissenda crassicornis (mollusca: Nudibranchia) in the laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feeding behavior and growth of the nudibranch mollusc Hermissenda crassicomis, a gener?alist carnivore, has been studied; this species is widely used as a biomedical and neurobiological model. Relative to the stalks, polyps of the hydroid prey, Tubularia crocea, were preferentially consumed by adults of H. crassicomis at a fast rate. Starved slugs did not distinguish between reproductive and unreproductive

C. Avila; E. Tyndale; A. M. Kuzirian

1998-01-01

220

The late Cenozoic Viviparidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda) of the Albertine Rift Valley (Uganda—Congo)  

Microsoft Academic Search

During late Cenozoic pre-rift times the viviparid genus Bellamya was probably confined to eastern Africa while in the Congo\\u000a Basin occurred the genera Neothauma and Kaya (a new genus described herein). During the Pliocene, Kaya became extinct and\\u000a Neothauma became a relict in Lake Tanganyika. All African rift lakes formed during or after the Pliocene were colonised by\\u000a populations of

D. Van Damme; M. Pickford

1998-01-01

221

Marine Mollusca from Expedition Fiord, Western Axel Heiberg Island, Northwest Territories, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine molluscs, including bivalves, gastropods and scaphopods, were recovered by dredging at depths of 3 - 82 m in Expedition Fiord, Axel Heiberg Island, Canada. Cluster analysis, based on presence\\/absence data at 27 stations, defined two mollusc associations within the fiord. A Portlandia-Thyasira association, characterized by the abundance of Portlandia arctica and Thyasira gouldi, inhabits silty clay substrates at depths

ALEC E. AITKEN; ROBERT GILBERT

1996-01-01

222

Mollusca from Last Interglacial fluvial deposits of the River Thames at Trafalgar Square, London  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An account is given of the molluscan assemblages recovered from fluvial deposits beneath the Upper Floodplain terrace of the River Thames in the vicinity of Trafalgar Square, central London. A total of 37 aquatic and 28 terrestrial taxa have been recorded, a diversity indicative of full interglacial conditions. Palaeobotanical and vertebrate evidence suggests that these fossiliferous sediments belong to the Last (Ipswichian) Interglacial, a conclusion strongly supported by molluscan evidence. The combination of the presence of certain species, such as Belgrandia marginata, Potomida littoralis and Margaritifera auricularia, together with the absence of other taxa that no longer live in Britain, such as Pisidium clessini, Corbicula fluminalis and Unio crassus, imparts a distinctive character to the fauna. These temperate molluscs were not only present in the Trafalgar Square Sands and Silts, but also in the underlying Spring Gardens Gravel, showing the latter to be an interglacial aggradation that did not accumulate during the late Wolstonian, contrary to previous interpretations.

Preece, R. C.

1999-02-01

223

New records for the shallow-water chiton fauna (Mollusca, Polyplacophora) of the Azores (NE Atlantic)  

PubMed Central

Abstract Published records, original data from recent field work on all of the islands of the Azores (NE Atlantic), and a revision of the entire mollusc collection deposited in the Department of Biology of the University of the Azores (DBUA) were used to compile a checklist of the shallow-water Polyplacophora of the Azores. Lepidochitona cf. canariensis and Tonicella rubra are reported for the first time for this archipelago, increasing the recorded Azorean fauna to seven species. PMID:23825446

Avila, Sergio P.; Sigwart, Julia

2013-01-01

224

Life history of the bathyal octopus Pteroctopus tetracirrhus (Mollusca, Cephalopoda) in the Mediterranean Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The life cycle of the deep-sea octopus Pteroctopus tetracirrhus was studied from monthly samples obtained throughout the year in different areas of the western Mediterranean (mainly around the Balearic Islands and along the coast of the Iberian Peninsula). A total of 373 individuals (205 females, 168 males) were analyzed; females ranged from 4.5 to 14.0 cm mantle length (ML) and males from 4.5 to 11.5 cm ML. There were few small-sized octopuses (<7 cm ML) in the samples, which might indicate that these individuals inhabit rocky grounds that are not accessible to trawlers or waters deeper than the maximum depth sampled (800 m). The species occurred more frequently around the Balearic Islands than along the Iberian Peninsula as they appeared in 20% and 7%, respectively, of the hauls in these areas. The octopus inhabits the lower continental shelf and upper slope in both areas, primarily between 200 and 500 m depth. Modal lengths were followed from autumn, when recruits were caught by trawlers, to summer, when reproduction took place. Females grew from 8 to 10 cm ML from winter to spring, but this modal size did not increase further in summer; males grew from 7 to 9 cm ML from winter to spring. The total disappearance of large individuals after summer suggests a life cycle lasting a single year. The evolution of the monthly mean sizes showed that the growth was best described by log-linear functions in both sexes. The length at first maturity was clearly higher in females (12 cm ML) than in males (8 cm ML). A total of 30 different prey items, belonging to four major taxonomic groups (crustaceans, osteichthyes, cephalopods and gastropods), were identified in the stomach contents. The diet of the octopus was based on crustaceans and teleosts, which accounted for 75% and 23% of the prey items, respectively. Cephalopods and gastropods were accessory prey as they only represented 1.6% and 0.7%, respectively, of the total. The octopus showed a marked preference for the benthic fish Symphurus nigrescens and the endobenthic crustacean Alpheus glaber. The bathymetric distribution of P. tetracirrhus coincides with those of these two main prey, which suggests that the distribution of the octopus might be strongly linked to its trophic resources.

Quetglas, Antoni; Ordines, Francesc; González, María; Franco, Ignacio

2009-08-01

225

Bathymetric records of marine shelled mollusca from the northeastern shelf of Yucatan, Mexico  

E-print Network

Depths 15 17 20 23 25 28 30 39 63 169 260 Illus. ERYCINIDAE (Cont. ) ~Le ton sp. C Gen. Incertus sedis SPORTELLIDAE ~All ena teaasiana CARDITIDAE Venericardia borealis ASTARTIDAE Asterte nana CRASSATELLIDAE Crassinella martinicensis CARDIIDAE... Depths 15 17 20 23 25 28 30 39 63 169 260 Illus. ERYCINIDAE (Cont. ) ~Le ton sp. C Gen. Incertus sedis SPORTELLIDAE ~All ena teaasiana CARDITIDAE Venericardia borealis ASTARTIDAE Asterte nana CRASSATELLIDAE Crassinella martinicensis CARDIIDAE...

Treece, Granvil D

2012-06-07

226

[Predation of Lymnaea (Galba) truncatula Müller by Zonitoides nitidus Müller (Mollusca Gastropoda Pulmonata) (author's transl)].  

PubMed

Zonitoides nitidus is omnivorous with carnivorous tendancies: the presence of food coming from snails is required for growth of this predator. This snail is not selective for the choice of its preys. Zonitoides cannot be taken for an absolute predator for all growing periods of Lymnaea truncatula: eggs and large snails are not eaten. This species can be cannibal. PMID:1211765

Rondelaud, D

1975-01-01

227

Biodiversity among luminescent symbionts from squid of the genera Uroteuthis, Loliolus and Euprymna (Mollusca: Cephalopoda)  

E-print Network

dehydrogenase (gapA) genes to determine phylogenetic relationships between 63 strains of Vibrio bacteria, which data such as carbon use, growth and luminescence. Results demonstrated that certain symbiotic Thai of species of luminescent bacteria that have not been previously described as symbiotic strains colonizing

Ruby, Edward G.

228

Quantification of midkine gene expression in Patella caerulea (Mollusca, Gastropoda) exposed to cadmium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The release of cadmium into many coastal areas represents a threat to ecosystems and human health; cadmium is carcinogenic in mammals and in both marine invertebrates and vertebrates. The use of molluscs to assess the ecologic risk associated with contaminants is strongly recommended on account of their ecological role and on their highly conserved control and regulatory pathways that are often homologous to vertebrate systems. We previously identified a midkine family protein in the limpet Patella caerulea; the midkine is a recently discovered cytokines family with unequivocal informative value on repairing injury and neoplastic processes in mammals. Here we report on midkine ( mdk) and ?-tubulin ( ?-tub) gene expression patterns in P. caerulea exposed to cadmium. Limpets, collected on two occasions from a breakwater at a marina (Tyrrhenian Sea) were exposed to sublethal cadmium concentrations (0.5 and 1 mg l -1 Cd) over a 10-day exposure period. RNA was extracted from the viscera of unexposed and exposed specimens. Real time TaqMan RT-PCR was performed to measure the relative mdk and ?-tub gene expression levels. A remarkable mdk over-expression was observed in all exposed animals with respect to unexposed ones; mdk over-expression was significantly higher in both treatments when compared with un-treatment (mean expression levels: 23- and 38-fold, for 0.5 and 1 mg l -1 Cd treatment, respectively; ANOVA, for both P < 0.01). The study also indicates that the mdk up-regulation was significantly Cd-concentration dependent ( P < 0.05). A significant up-regulation of the constitutive ?-tub gene was also observed in 1 mg l -1 Cd-treated animals (mean expression level: 4-fold; ANOVA, P < 0.05). In conclusion, these data provide the first evidence paving the way for the use of the midkine as a promising new biomarker of effect in the environment risk assessment policy.

Stillitano, Francesca; Mugelli, Alessandro; Cerbai, Elisabetta; Vanucci, Silvana

2007-10-01

229

Preliminary study on the culture and breeding of Bulinus nyassanus (Mollusca: Pulmonata) under  

E-print Network

Charlottenlund, Denmark 3 School of Forest Resources, Penn State University, 12 Ferguson Building, University the tourism industry in the country. Bulinus nyassanus (Smith, 1877), an intermediate host of S. haematobium

Boyer, Elizabeth W.

230

Nucularcidae: A new family of palaeotaxodont Ordovician pelecypods (Mollusca) from North America and Australia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The new Ordovician palaeotaxodont family Nucularcidae and the new genus Nucularca are described. Included in Nucularca are four previously described species that have taxodont dentition: N. cingulata (Ulrich) (the type species), N. pectunculoides (Hall), N. lorrainensis (Foerste), and N. gorensis (Foerste). All four species are of Late Ordovician (Cincinnatian; Katian) age and occur in eastern Canada and the northeastern USA. Ctenodonta borealis Foerste is regarded as a subjective synonym of Nucularca lorrainensis. No new species names are proposed. The Nucularcidae includes the genera Nucularca and Sthenodonta Pojeta and Gilbert-Tomlinson (1977). Sthenodonta occurs in central Australia in rocks of Middle Ordovician (Darriwilian) age. The 12 family group names previously proposed for Ordovician palaeotaxodonts having taxodont dentition are reviewed and evaluated in the Appendix. ?? 2007 NRC Canada.

Pojeta, J., Jr.; Stott, C.A.

2007-01-01

231

Ultrastructure of the mature sperm and spermiogenesis in Callista chione (Mollusca, Bivalvia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ultrastructure of the mature spermatozoon and spermiogenesis of the bivalve Callista chione (Heterodonta, Veneridae) are described.As our TEM and SEM observations show the spermatozoon of C. chione may be considered of primitive type. The head contains a slightly curved nucleus bearing at the apex a short cone-shaped acrosome. The structure of the acrosome is typical of heterodont bivalves and,

ANTONIETTA NICOTRA; STEFANIA ZAPPATA

1991-01-01

232

Temporal dynamics of amino and fatty acid composition in the razor clam Ensis siliqua (Mollusca: Bivalvia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Few studies have been conducted on the temporal dynamics of both amino acid (AA) and fatty acid (FA) profiles in marine bivalves. We investigated the seasonal variation of these compounds in the pod razor clam Ensis siliqua in relation to food availability, salinity, water temperature and reproductive cycle. AA content varied between 46.94 and 54.67 % dry weight (DW), and the AAs found in greater quantity were glutamic acid, glycine and aspartic acid. FA content varied between 34.02 and 87.94 mg g-1 DW and the FAs found in greater quantity were 16:0 and 22:6 n-3. Seasonal trends were observed for AAs and FAs. FAs increased with gametogenesis and decreased with spawning while AA content increased throughout spawning. The effect of increasing temperature and high food availability during the spawning season masked the loss of AAs resulting from gamete release. Still, a comparatively greater increase in the contents of glutamic acid and leucine with spawning indicate their possible involvement in a post-spawning gonad recovery mechanism. A post-spawning decrease in 14:0, 16:0, 16:1 n-7, 18:1 n-7 and 18:1 n-9 is indicative of the importance of these FAs in bivalve eggs. An increase in 18:3 n-3, 18:4 n-3, 20:1 n-9 and 20:2 n-6 during gametogenesis suggests their involvement in oocyte maturation. The FA 22:4 n-6, while increasing with spawning, appears to play a role in post-spawning gonad recovery. Salinity did not have an effect on the AA composition. None of the environmental parameters measured had an effect on FA composition.

Baptista, Miguel; Repolho, Tiago; Maulvault, Ana Luísa; Lopes, Vanessa M.; Narciso, Luis; Marques, António; Bandarra, Narcisa; Rosa, Rui

2014-12-01

233

Notes on land slugs : 11. Arionidae, Milacidae and Limacidae from South Africa (Mollusca, Gastropoda Pulmonata)  

Microsoft Academic Search

New records of Arion intermedius Norm. are given. All known data on the genus Oopelta Mörch have been compiled and supplemented by new observations, mainly on O. nigropunctata Mörch and O. capensis Poll. Of the former species the type specimens were examined and the external variation and anatomy were studied. A fine series of O. capensis, with notes on the

Regteren Altena van C. O

1966-01-01

234

Biology of slugs (Agriolimacidae and Arionidae: Mollusca) in New Zealand hill country pastures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Life cycles of the slugs Deroceras reticulatum and Arion intermedius were studied over a 2.5-year period in a sheep-grazed pasture in the Kaimai Range, New Zealand. D. reticulatum approximated a bivoltine phenology, with intervals between consecutive generations ranging from 4 to 7 months and maximum life span from 8 to 12 months. Egg laying occurred in autumn and spring-early summer.

Gary M. Barker

1991-01-01

235

Use of axonal projection patterns for the homologisation of cerebral nerves in Opisthobranchia, Mollusca and Gastropoda  

PubMed Central

Introduction Gastropoda are guided by several sensory organs in the head region, referred to as cephalic sensory organs (CSOs). These CSOs are innervated by distinct nerves. This study proposes a unified terminology for the cerebral nerves and the categories of CSOs and then investigates the neuroanatomy and cellular innervation patterns of these cerebral nerves, in order to homologise them. The homologisation of the cerebral nerves in conjunction with other data, e.g. ontogenetic development or functional morphology, may then provide insights into the homology of the CSOs themselves. Results Nickel-lysine axonal tracing (“backfilling”) was used to stain the somata projecting into specific nerves in representatives of opisthobranch Gastropoda. Tracing patterns revealed the occurrence, size and relative position of somata and their axons and enabled these somata to be mapped to specific cell clusters. Assignment of cells to clusters followed a conservative approach based primarily on relative location of the cells. Each of the four investigated cerebral nerves could be uniquely identified due to a characteristic set of soma clusters projecting into the respective nerves via their axonal pathways. Conclusions As the described tracing patterns are highly conserved morphological characters, they can be used to homologise nerves within the investigated group of gastropods. The combination of adequate number of replicates and a comparative approach allows us to provide preliminary hypotheses on homologies for the cerebral nerves. Based on the hypotheses regarding cerebral nerve homology together with further data on ultrastructure and immunohistochemistry of CSOs published elsewhere, we can propose preliminary hypotheses regarding homology for the CSOs of the Opisthobranchia themselves. PMID:23597272

2013-01-01

236

Digestive enzymes of the saltmarsh periwinkleLittorina irrorata (Mollusca: Gastropoda).  

PubMed

The saltmarsh periwinkleLittorina irrorata is well adapted for the digestion of a wide range of polysaccharides. Enzyme extracts attacked cellulose, pectin, xylan, bean gum and mannan (common in cell walls of higher plants), as well as starch and laminarin (representative of major polysaccharide classes in fungal, algal, and animal tissues). Activities were generally highes at a ph of 5 or 6. There was no evidence that chitin was digested, but 19 other enzymes, active toward various carbohydrates, lipids and peptides, were demonstrated. Enzymatic activity toward Azocoll, a general substrate for proteinase activity, was weak compared to that of other aquatic detritivores. The maximum was reached at a pH of 8. Enzymatic activities were generally measured with extracts of the entire visceral hump. Separate stomach or intestine extracts also gave strong activities. The stomach was the most acidic section of the digestive system with an average pH of 5.8; the intestine had an average pH of 7.3. PMID:23494343

Bärlocher, F; Arsuffi, T L; Newell, S Y

1989-03-01

237

Supplement 15, Parasite-Subject Catalogue, Parasites: Arthropoda, Mesozoa, Coelenterata, Mollusca, And Annelida  

E-print Network

latifasciata (Piaget), I88O Tetrao urogallus Amyrsidea phaeostoma (Nitzsch), 1866 Pavo ?ristatus Anaiges chelopus (Hermann, ?8?4) Passer montanus Passer domesticus Emberiza citrinella Anaiges (Analgopsis) cor- vinus Megnin, 1877 ?orvus albus..., ?., 1962 f, 7 Fain, ?., 1963 a, 370, 372, figs. 10, 17 Fritsch, W., 1962 a, 237, pl. 1, figs, a-c Speleognathus sturni Boyd 1948 Syn. (Nasenh?le) Sturnus vulgaris Fringilla coelebs Passer montanus Hirundo rustica Motacilla alba Boydaia willmanni...

Humphrey, Judith M.; Segal, Dorothy B.; Beard, Mary I.; Edwards, Shirley J.; Kirby, Margie D.

1966-01-01

238

A tropical Atlantic species of Melibe Rang, 1829 (Mollusca, Nudibranchia, Tethyiidae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract A new species of Melibe is described based on two specimens collected in Florida. This new species is well differentiated morphologically and genetically from other species of Melibe studied to date. The four residue deletions in the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 protein found in all previously sequenced tropical species of Melibe sequenced (and Melibe rosea) are also present in this new species. These deletions do not appear to affect important structural components of this protein but might have fitness implications. This paper provides the first confirmed record of Melibe in the tropical western Atlantic Ocean. PMID:23878514

Espinoza, Erika; DuPont, Anne; Valdés, Ángel

2013-01-01

239

A putative hyperglycemic factor from the cerebral ganglia of Otala lactea (Mollusca: Pulmonata)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mantle tissue pieces from adult Otala lactea continuously synthesized glycogen over a 72-h incubation period. Acid-saline extract of the cerebral ganglia inhibited glycogen\\u000a synthesis by mantle tissue in vitro. This effect was dose-dependent. The glycogen reduction factor from the cerebral ganglia\\u000a was heat stable, protease sensitive, and relatively hydrophobic. The cerebral ganglia extract also stimulated mantle glycogen\\u000a phosphorylase in vitro

A. M. Abdraba; A. S. M. Saleuddin

2000-01-01

240

Correlation of environment and phylogeny with the expression of ?-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase in the mollusca  

Microsoft Academic Search

The enzyme ?-hydroxybutyrate catalyzes the interconversion of the ketone bodies, acetoacetate and ?-hydroxybutyrate. Although the activity of ?-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase is relatively high in freshwater and terrestrial molluscs, it is undetectable in all marine molluscs examined. We tested the effects of conditions of tissue preparation and ionic strength of assay media on the measurement of ?-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase and conclude that the

J. A. Stuart; J. S. Ballantyne

1996-01-01

241

The complete mitochondrial genome of Solemya velum (Mollusca: Bivalvia) and its relationships with Conchifera  

PubMed Central

Background Bivalve mitochondrial genomes exhibit a wide array of uncommon features, like extensive gene rearrangements, large sizes, and unusual ways of inheritance. Species pertaining to the order Solemyida (subclass Opponobranchia) show many peculiar evolutionary adaptations, f.i. extensive symbiosis with chemoautotrophic bacteria. Despite Opponobranchia are central in bivalve phylogeny, being considered the sister group of all Autobranchia, a complete mitochondrial genome has not been sequenced yet. Results In this paper, we characterized the complete mitochondrial genome of the Atlantic awning clam Solemya velum: A-T content, gene arrangement and other features are more similar to putative ancestral mollusks than to other bivalves. Two supranumerary open reading frames are present in a large, otherwise unassigned, region, while the origin of replication could be located in a region upstream to the cox3 gene. Conclusions We show that S. velum mitogenome retains most of the ancestral conchiferan features, which is unusual among bivalve mollusks, and we discuss main peculiarities of this first example of an organellar genome coming from the subclass Opponobranchia. Mitochondrial genomes of Solemya (for bivalves) and Haliotis (for gastropods) seem to retain the original condition of mollusks, as most probably exemplified by Katharina. PMID:23777315

2013-01-01

242

Taxonomy and paleobiology of some Middle Cambrian Scenella (Cnidaria) and Hyolithids (Mollusca) from western North America  

E-print Network

in western North America. Following Yochelson and Gil Cid (1984), specimens of Scenella Billings are considered to be chondrophorine pneumatophores rather than shells of either monoplacophorans or gastropods. An emended generic diagnosis is the first... with articulated opercula and conchs, but without visible helens (Fig. 1, /, right), may have their helens retracted within the conch. Most Paleozoic specimens, however, probably lack helens because of the low poten- tial for preservation. The helens, together...

Babcock, Loren E.; Robison, Richard A.

1988-12-29

243

A study of the distribution of estuarine mollusca in eastern Saint Bernard Parish, Louisiana  

E-print Network

3 1 1 3 0 R R R R R C C 0 R R 0 C R R C R A C R C 0 C 3 3 0 0 R R B 0 0 R R R R R ~Ce ~BR@a Lolliguncula brevis ~Ga ~ro Crepidula plena Rpitonium rupicola Bassarius acutus Bassarius vibex Heritina reel ivata Betusa... Bpitoniun rupicola Littoridine sphinctostona Sassarius acutus Rascal ius vibex Heritina reclivata Retusa canali. culata Snail 0 Planktonic Snails Subtotal Species ~C~o Lolligucoule brevis Total Spmies 10 24, 280 3 57 6 137 1 366 33, 180...

Jones, John Arthur

2012-06-07

244

Zona Localization of Shell Matrix Proteins in Mantle of Haliotis tuberculata (Mollusca, Gastropoda)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic matrix from molluscan shells has the potential to regulate calcium carbonate deposition and crystallization. Control of crystal growth thus seems to depend on control of matrix protein secretion or activation processes in the mantle cells, about which little is known. Biomineralization is a highly orchestrated biological process. The aim of this work was to provide information about the source

Cécile Jolly; Sophie Berland; Christian Milet; Sandrine Borzeix; Evelyne Lopez; Dominique Doumenc

2004-01-01

245

The Continuing Debate on Deep Molluscan Phylogeny: Evidence for Serialia (Mollusca, Monoplacophora + Polyplacophora)  

PubMed Central

Molluscs are a diverse animal phylum with a formidable fossil record. Although there is little doubt about the monophyly of the eight extant classes, relationships between these groups are controversial. We analysed a comprehensive multilocus molecular data set for molluscs, the first to include multiple species from all classes, including five monoplacophorans in both extant families. Our analyses of five markers resolve two major clades: the first includes gastropods and bivalves sister to Serialia (monoplacophorans and chitons), and the second comprises scaphopods sister to aplacophorans and cephalopods. Traditional groupings such as Testaria, Aculifera, and Conchifera are rejected by our data with significant Approximately Unbiased (AU) test values. A new molecular clock indicates that molluscs had a terminal Precambrian origin with rapid divergence of all eight extant classes in the Cambrian. The recovery of Serialia as a derived, Late Cambrian clade is potentially in line with the stratigraphic chronology of morphologically heterogeneous early mollusc fossils. Serialia is in conflict with traditional molluscan classifications and recent phylogenomic data. Yet our hypothesis, as others from molecular data, implies frequent molluscan shell and body transformations by heterochronic shifts in development and multiple convergent adaptations, leading to the variable shells and body plans in extant lineages. PMID:24350268

Stoger, I.; Sigwart, J. D.; Kano, Y.; Knebelsberger, T.; Marshall, B. A.; Schwabe, E.; Schrodl, M.

2013-01-01

246

Spawning, fertilization, and larval development of Potamocorbula amurensis (Mollusca: Bivalvia) from San Francisco Bay, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In Potamocorbula amurensis time for development to the straight-hinge larval stage is 48 hr at 15??C. Potamocorbula amurensis settles at a shell length of approximately 135 ??m 17 to 19 days after fertilization. Our observations of timing of larval devdlopment in P. amurensis support the hypothesis of earlier workers that its route of initial introduction to San Francisco Bay was as veliger larvae transported in ballast water by trans-Pacific cargo ships. The length of the larval period of P. amurensis relative to water mass residence times in San Francisco Bay suggests that it is sufficient to allow substantial dispersal from North Bay to South Bay populations in concordance with previous observations that genetic differentiation among populations of P. amurensis in San Francisco Bay is low. Potamocorbula amurensis is markedly euryhaline at all stages of development. Spawning and fertilization can occur at salinities from 5 to 25 psu, and eggs and sperms can each tolerance at least a 10-psu step increase or decrease in salinity. Embryos that are 2 hr old can tolerate the same range of salinities from (10 to 30 psu), and by the time they are 24 hr old they can tolerate the same range of salinities (2 to 30 psu) that adult clams can. The ability of P. amurensis larvae to tolerate substantial step changes in salinity suggests a strong potential to survive incomplete oceanic exchanges of ballast water and subsequent discharge into receiving waters across a broad range of salinities.

Nicolini, M.H.; Penry, D.L.

2000-01-01

247

Annotated type catalogue of the Amphibulimidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Orthalicoidea) in the Natural History Museum, London  

PubMed Central

Abstract The type status is described of 39 taxa classified within the family Amphibulimidae (superfamily Orthalicoidea) and kept in the London museum. One taxon, Bulimus elaeodes Pfeiffer, 1853, is removed to the Strophocheilidae. Lectotypes are designated for Bulimus adoptus Reeve, 1849; Bulimus (Eurytus) eros Angas, 1878; Helix onca d'Orbigny, 1835; Amphibulima pardalina Guppy, 1868. The type status of the following taxon is changed to lectotype in accordance with Art. 74.6 ICZN: Strophocheilus (Dryptus) jubeus Fulton, 1908. As general introduction to this and following papers on Orthalicoid types in the Natural History Museum, a brief history of the London collection is given and several examples of handwriting from different authors are presented. PMID:22144852

Breure, Abraham S.H.; Ablett, Jonathan D.

2011-01-01

248

Morphological and molecular evidence for cryptic species of springsnails [genus Pseudamnicola ( Corrosella) (Mollusca, Caenogastropoda, Hydrobiidae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract Several Pseudamnicola (Corrosella) populations of the central and eastern Iberian Peninsula have been ascribed to Pseudamnicola (Corrosella) astieri (Dupuy, 1851), though recent evidence demonstrates the species could be endemic to the departments of Var and Alpes-Maritimes in France. Through the identification of cryptic species using a combined morphological and phylogenetic approach, this paper provides a detailed morphological description of Pseudamnicola (Corrosella) astieri, clarifying its taxonomic boundaries and confirming it as a French endemic. In parallel, by comparing Pseudamnicola (Corrosella) populations from the provinces of Castellón and Valencia in Eastern Spain, it was observed that rather than Pseudamnicola (Corrosella) astieri they represented a new species here described as Pseudamnicola (Corrosella) hauffei sp. n. Among other characters, the two species show marked differences in shell shape, male and female genital systems, radular formula and concentration of the nervous system. Pseudamnicola (Corrosella) hauffei sp. n. was also compared morphologically to another two Pseudamnicola (Corrosella) species living in nearby areas [Pseudamnicola (Corrosella) hinzi Boeters, 1986 and Pseudamnicola (Corrosella) navasiana (Fagot, 1907)], molecularly to Pseudamnicola (Corrosella) falkneri (Boeters, 1970), the type species of the subgenus, and to the rest of the Pseudamnicola (Corrosella) species described so far. Morphological differentiation between the species is supported by a genetic divergence of 7.4% inferred from a partial sequence (658 bp) of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI). On the basis of an average 8% (5.39 to 11.15%) divergence estimated for the COI gene in other Pseudamnicola (Corrosella) species reported in GenBank, the existence of two specific entities is here proposed, which will have impact on conservation policies both in France and in Spain. PMID:22639531

Delicado, Diana; Ramos, Marian A.

2012-01-01

249

Lethal and sub-lethal effects of UVB on juvenile Biomphalaria glabrata (Mollusca: Pulmonata)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although Schistosoma mansoni occurs mainly in the tropics, where intense levels of solar radiation are present, the impact of ultraviolet (UV) light on schistosome transmission is not known. The purpose of this study was to investigate potential effects of UVB (290–320nm) on juvenile Biomphalaria glabrata, the snail intermediate host of S. mansoni. Albino and wild-type snails were exposed to doses

Debbie S. Ruelas; Deneb Karentz; John T. Sullivan

2006-01-01

250

A population study of epigean and subterranean Potamolithus snails from southeast Brazil (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Hydrobiidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Population and reproductive biology of four Potamolithus species, two epigean (P. ribeirensis and Potamolithus sp. 1) and two subterranean (P. troglobius and Potamolithus sp. 2), from the Upper Ribeira Valley, southeast Brazil, were studied, from June 1996 to June 1997, using 1 m2 quadrats and counting all individuals found in these quadrats. P. ribeirensis showed the highest variation in population densities

Maria Elina Bichuette; Eleonora Trajano

2003-01-01

251

An ultrastructural examination of developing and mature euspermatozoa in pyrazus ebeninus (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Potamididae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mature and developing euspermatozoa of the prosobranch gastropod Pyrazus ebeninus, have been examined using transmission electron microscopy and phase-contrast light microscopy. The head of the mature euspermatozoon consists of a conical acrosome capping a short, rod-shaped nucleus (laterally compressed posteriorly). A basal invagination in the nucleus contains the proximal portion of the axoneme and a dense attachment matrix. Four apparently

J. M. Healy

1982-01-01

252

Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Mollusca:Hydrobiidae) in continental aquatic gastropod communities: impact of salinity and trematode parasitism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structure of gastropod communities was examined from January to June 1999 in four sites of the streams of Mont Saint-Michel Bay along a gradient of salinity, and the occurrence of larval trematodes infecting snails was studied. Abundance and species richness of gastropods increased from polyhaline (95 snails, 1 species) to oligohaline waters (6672 snails, 6 species). Whatever the salinity,

Claudia Gérard; Alexia Blanc; Katherine Costil

2003-01-01

253

What explains the invading success of the aquatic mud snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Hydrobiidae, Mollusca)?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spread of non-native species is one of the most harmful and least reversible disturbances in ecosystems. Species have\\u000a to overcome several filters to become a pest (transport, establishment, spread and impact). Few studies have checked the traits\\u000a that confer ability to overcome these steps in the same species. The aim of the present study is to review the available

A. Alonso; P. Castro-Díez

2008-01-01

254

Monoplacophorans and the Origin and Relationships of Mollusks  

E-print Network

B. Early evolution of the Mollusca: the fossil record, firstevolution of the Mollusca highlights the importance of integrating data from the fossil recordevolution of the Mollusca, and this body of work highlights the importance of integrating data from the fossil record

Lindberg, David R.

2009-01-01

255

Nuevas Adquisiciones [y] Resumenes (Recent Acquisitions and Abstracts).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This bibliography lists over 130 publications, books, and articles recently acquired by the Colombian National Center for Documentation and Pedagogical Information concerning a variety of educational topics. The acquisitions are listed alphabetically under subject headings; publications from many countries are included. Several of the entries are…

Informacion Bibliografica Educativa, 1971

1971-01-01

256

Complejidad de la EPOC. Tratamiento individualizado, nuevas aproximaciones, fenotipos, comorbilidades  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current definition and severity stages of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) focus excessively on spirometric criteria alone. Measurement of chronic airflow obstruction and its degree of reversibility is complex. The etiology of this disease cannot be fully explained in relation to smoking and the heterogeneity of this systemic disease septiemthat affects mainly the lung cannot be expressed through forced

J. C. Martín-Escudero

2011-01-01

257

Una nueva visión de la degradación del almidón  

Microsoft Academic Search

All plant cells synthesize and degrade starch in determined stage of their development. There are, however, important differences related to its use. In leaves, starch is produced and accumulated at day while it is degraded at night to provide carbon maintaining cellular processes. This means that the pathway regulation is integrated to the whole plant metabolism. Starch degradation is a

Lilia Bernal; Eleazar Martínez-Barajas

258

Modelos de estados y transicines: nuevas aplicaciones en contexto mundial  

E-print Network

vegetación existía en el pasado? ¿Que vegetación existe en otros sitios del mismo clima y suelos, bajo otro, expansión de arbustos a dominar recursos del suelo #12;La respuesta y esperanza Aplicación de herbicida suelo (=anuales) Limitaciones en el potencial de algunos suelos (=plantas escasas)Otros competidores

259

Nuevas Iniciativas con los SIG en el Municipio de  

E-print Network

parcelario #12;Mapa resultante de Calificaci�n de Suelos #12;Se cre� un CD con los mapas en formato PDF para) N�mero de Catastro de la parcela Calificaci�n de suelos (zonificaci�n) Par de Coordenadas X,Y en

Gilbes, Fernando

260

Juan Rulfo en Nueva York: Estreno de Los encuentros  

E-print Network

como la voz de la madre muerta, en esta puesta se expresa a través de Abundio. El propósito, presumiblemente, es que de este modo Juan sienta la presencia más inmediata de su madre ausente. Desde el comienzo, en la medida que Juan Preciado va... llenan el espacio dejan entrever a los "muertos." Al final éstos le entregan una linterna a Juan Preciado. El público, acosado por las luces, también entra en sus sueños cuando éste se confronta con los muertos, y va desapareciendo mágicamente hasta...

Glickman, Nora

1995-04-01

261

El teatro colombiano: Caleidoscopio de nuevos rostros, nuevas voces  

E-print Network

recientes de Buenaventura, El lunar en la frente (1994), Crónica (1995) y El dragón de los mares (1995), bajo la dirección de Jacqueline Vidal. El Colectivo Teatral Matacandelas de Medellín fue elevado a la categoría de Patrimonio Cultural de la ciudad en... futuro del teatro en Colombia. Los programas ofrecidos a nivel de postgrado, la labor de formación y apoyo que se está haciendo a nivel regional (Chocó, Guajira, etc.), los talleres permanentes de laboratorio juvenil, los ciclos de conferencias...

Garavito, Lucí a

2000-10-01

262

Diseño de una nueva herramienta para la exploración auditiva  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionMany presbycusic patients have difficulty in understanding certain words. This could be justified because certain sounds in Spanish are more difficult to perceive, particularly the sounds with energy in the high frequencies. We propose to use a sentence as a tool to check this theory.

Antonio Rodríguez Valiente; Carolina Pérez Sanz; Carmen Górriz; Adoración Juárez; Marc Monfort; José R. García Berrocal; Juana Gil Fernández; Rafael Ramírez Camacho

2009-01-01

263

MINA NUEVA, UNA ALTERNATIVA DE CRECIMIENTO EN SANTA BÁRBARA CHIH  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a result of the strategic actions, given from 2007 to date which consisted in carrying on an aggressive exploration program that included mining work and diamond drilling from which the expected result was to increment the mineral reserves as well as to incorporate new areas for the mining operation, a new mining area was located. When analyzing the results,

JOSÉ PORFIRIO; PÉREZ GUZMÁN

264

Book review Eduardo Reck Miranda (ed.), Musica y nuevas tecnolo-  

E-print Network

with Iazzetta discuss Internet-based musical practices. Philippe Blanchard hypothesises a future where musicians discussion. Various areas of research are addressed in `Music and new technologies', such as Internet

Miranda, Eduardo Reck

265

Hemostasia y tecnología. Energía. Desarrollo de las nuevas tecnologías  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hemostasis systems applied in surgery are based on endothermic heat production resulting from the interaction between energy and tissue.The most frequently used energy source is electrocoagulation, applied through two systems: monopolar and bipolar. More sophisticated electrocoagulation systems have progressively been developed such as the Argon beam, in which coagulation is superficial and does not injure the deep tissues, or

Carmen Balagué

2009-01-01

266

Una nueva estimación astrosismológica de la masa del axión  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

G117-B15A and R548 are the two pulsating white dwarf stars more studied within the class of ZZ Ceti variables (atmospheres rich in H). In this work, we present new asteroseismological models for G117-B15A and R548, and employ the rates of period changes with time for the dominant modes of these stars in order to place new constraints on the axion mass. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

Córsico, A. H.; Althaus, L. G.; Romero, A. D.

267

Un festival para Nueva York: Teatro Popular Latinoamericano  

E-print Network

que se despliega a lo largo de dos vertientes. Por una parte, el destino de un personaje de la pe queña burguesía que, partiendo de un punto cero, llega a conquistar fortuna y posición a través del narcotráfico y, por la otra, el desarrollo durante...

Dí ez, Luys A.

1981-04-01

268

La Raza en Nueva York: Social Pluralism and Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As the size and diversity of the Hispano-American population of New York City has increased, a new tripartite pluralistic cultural situation based upon categories both physical and cultural has been emerging. A politicization of ethnicity is being played out in New York City schools. While Puerto Ricans are legal citizens of the United States,…

Hendricks, Glen L.

269

The idea of flooding in the desert metropolis of Phoenix may seem incongruous, especially when one considers that the average rainfall in the Phoenix area is less than eight inches a year. Yet, since the city was founded in 1867 its residents have had to  

E-print Network

ABSTRACT The idea of flooding in the desert metropolis of Phoenix may seem incongruous, especially, since the city was founded in 1867 its residents have had to contend with periodic flooding. Particularly damaging have been floods on the Salt River, which runs through the middle of the Phoenix

Hall, Sharon J.

270

Los índices de mortalidad por cáncer de pulmón siguen bajando y contribuyen a reducción de índices generales de muertes por cáncer; Informe Anual a la Nación tiene una sección especial de los efectos de otras enfermedades en la supervivencia de pacientes  

Cancer.gov

El Informe Anual a la Nación sobre el Estado del Cáncer (1975 a 2010), mostró un descenso más acelerado que en años anteriores de los índices de mortalidad por cáncer de pulmón. También contiene una sección especial que destaca los efectos significativos que tienen otras enfermedades en la supervivencia de pacientes con cáncer.

271

Informe Anual a la Nación sobre el Estado del Cáncer, de 1975 a 2010, con una sección especial sobre la prevalencia de comorbilidad y su efecto en la supervivencia de personas con cáncer de pulmón, seno, próstata o colorrectal: preguntas y respuestas  

Cancer.gov

El Informe Anual a la Nación sobre el Estado del Cáncer (1975 a 2010), mostró un descenso más acelerado que en años anteriores de los índices de mortalidad por cáncer de pulmón. También contiene una sección especial que destaca los efectos significativos que tienen otras enfermedades en la supervivencia de pacientes con cáncer.

272

Biomphalaria tenagophila (Orbigny, 1835) (Mollusca): adaptation to desiccation and susceptibility to infection with Schistosoma mansoni Sambon, 1907.  

PubMed

Experiments were carried out to test the susceptibility of Biomphalaria tenagophila to the infection with strain SJ of Schistosoma mansoni in the F1, F2 and non-selected parental generation. The potential adaptation of B. tenagophila to desiccation, in healthy mollusks and those exposed to the larvae of S. mansoni of the F1, F2 and non-selected parental generations was also studied. The presence of mucus and soil, at the shell opening, protected the snails against desiccation, favoring survival. The healthy mollusks performed more attempts against desiccation than those exposed to the larvae of the parasite. The mortality rate, during desiccation, was higher among mollusks that remained buried and with the shell opening unobstructed. During the desiccation period the stage of development of the parasite was influenced by the weight loss and the survival of the snails. The longer the period of desiccation, the greater was the weight loss observed, abbreviating survival. The non-selected parental generation was more sensitive to desiccation than the F1 and F2 generations, both in healthy mollusks and in those exposed to S. mansoni larvae. Healthy mollusks were more resistant to desiccation than those exposed to the larvae of the S. mansoni. Desiccation did not interrupt the development of S. mansoni larvae in mollusks, causing a delay in the cercariae elimination. The susceptibility of B. tenagophila to the SJ strain of S. mansoni, in mollusks maintained in water during the larvae incubation period, was similar in all three generations. PMID:12219110

Ohlweiler, Fernanda Pires; Kawano, Toshie

2002-01-01

273

First report of Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda: Metastrongylidae) in Achatina fulica (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from Southeast and South Brazil.  

PubMed

The rat lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a worldwide-distributed zoonotic nematode that can cause human eosinophilic meningoencephalitis. Here, for the first time, we report the isolation of A. cantonensis from Achatina fulica from two Brazilian states: Rio de Janeiro (specifically the municipalities of Barra do Piraí, situated at the Paraiba River Valley region and São Gonçalo, situated at the edge of Guanabara Bay) and Santa Catarina (in municipality of Joinville). The lungworms were identified by comparing morphological and morphometrical data obtained from adult worms to values obtained from experimental infections of A. cantonensis from Pernambuco, Brazil, and Akita, Japan. Only a few minor morphological differences that were determined to represent intra-specific variation were observed. This report of A. cantonensis in South and Southeast Brazil, together with the recent report of the zoonosis and parasite-infected molluscs in Northeast Brazil, provide evidence of the wide distribution of A. cantonensis in the country. The need for efforts to better understand the role of A. fulica in the transmission of meningoencephalitis in Brazil and the surveillance of molluscs and rodents, particularly in ports, is emphasized. PMID:21120369

Maldonado Jr, Arnaldo; Simões, Raquel O; Oliveira, Ana Paula M; Motta, Esther M; Fernandez, Mônica A; Pereira, Zilene M; Monteiro, Simone S; Torres, Eduardo J Lopes; Thiengo, Silvana Carvalho

2010-11-01

274

Detection and genetic distance of resistant populations of Pseudosuccinea columella (Mollusca: Lymnaeidae) to Fasciola hepatica (Trematoda: Digenea) using RAPD markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve natural populations of Pseudosuccinea columella snails, sampled in the western and central regions of Cuba, were analyzed using the RAPD-PCR technique to screen for resistance to Fasciola hepatica. Ten OPA primers previously shown to produce marker bands for resistance and susceptibility were tested. A new population of P. columella (El Azufre, Pinar del R??o) exhibited the amplification patterns of

Aymé Fernandez Calienes; Jorge Fraga; Jean-Pierre Pointier; Mary Yong; Jorge Sanchez; Christine Coustau; Alfredo Gutiérrez; André Théron

2004-01-01

275

Detection and genetic distance of resistant populations of Pseudosuccinea columella (Mollusca: Lymnaeidae) to Fasciola hepatica (Trematoda: Digenea) using RAPD markers.  

PubMed

Twelve natural populations of Pseudosuccinea columella snails, sampled in the western and central regions of Cuba, were analyzed using the RAPD-PCR technique to screen for resistance to Fasciola hepatica. Ten OPA primers previously shown to produce marker bands for resistance and susceptibility were tested. A new population of P. columella (El Azufre, Pinar del Río) exhibited the amplification patterns of resistant snails, and its resistant status was confirmed after experimental exposure to miracidia. No genetic variability was detected across or within the susceptible isolates. Similarly, the novel resistant isolate displayed an RAPD profile identical to the profile of two other isolates previously identified as resistant to F. hepatica. However, clear differences in RAPD banding patterns and genetic distance were observed between resistant and susceptible isolates. PMID:15301979

Calienes, Aymé Fernandez; Fraga, Jorge; Pointier, Jean-Pierre; Yong, Mary; Sanchez, Jorge; Coustau, Christine; Gutiérrez, Alfredo; Théron, André

2004-09-01

276

Cutaneous application of an accessory-gland secretion after sperm exchange in a terrestrial slug (Mollusca: Pulmonata)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Competition for fertilisation in hermaphroditic animals seems to have led to many odd behaviours and complex morphologies involved in the transfer of accessory-gland products to the partner. Terrestrial slugs of the genus Deroceras show remarkably elaborate and interspecifically diverse penis morphologies and mating behaviours. Most species have an appending penial gland, which in Deroceras panormitanum consists of a few long

Mandy Benke; Heike Reise; Kora Montagne-Wajer; Joris M. Koene

2010-01-01

277

Cutaneous application of an accessory-gland secretion after sperm exchange in a terrestrial slug (Mollusca: Pulmonata).  

PubMed

Competition for fertilisation in hermaphroditic animals seems to have led to many odd behaviours and complex morphologies involved in the transfer of accessory-gland products to the partner. Terrestrial slugs of the genus Deroceras show remarkably elaborate and interspecifically diverse penis morphologies and mating behaviours. Most species have an appending penial gland, which in Deroceras panormitanum consists of a few long fingers that are everted after sperm exchange and laid onto the partner's back. To investigate whether this gland transfers a secretion onto the partner's skin, we killed slugs at different mating stages and studied their penial glands and skin histologically. Two types of secretion granules appeared at a very early stage of courtship, and the penial gland was already filled 15min into the courtship. At copulation, the gland everted this secretion onto the partner's body, where it remained for at least 50min. No lysis of skin tissue or other effects on the skin were observed. The slugs tried to lick the received secretion off their own body, and some droplets were observed to be shed with the body mucus. Our results indicate the external application of a glandular substance that could function as either a pheromone or allohormone. The behaviours of the recipients suggest sexual conflict, although mutual interest cannot be ruled out. PMID:20202803

Benke, Mandy; Reise, Heike; Montagne-Wajer, Kora; Koene, Joris M

2010-03-01

278

Opisthobranchs from the western Indian Ocean, with descriptions of two new species and ten new records (Mollusca, Gastropoda)  

PubMed Central

Abstract Seventy species of opisthobranchs are described in this work based on collections from the Persian Gulf, Socotra, Kenya, Zanzibar, Madagascar, La Réunion, Mauritius, the Seychelles, the Maldives, and Sri Lanka. Ten species are newly recorded from the western Indian Ocean and four species are recorded in the scientific literature for the first time since their original descriptions. Two species are described as new: Cyerce bourbonica sp. n. from La Réunion and Doriopsilla nigrocerasp. n. from the Persian Gulf coast of Saudi Arabia. Chromodoris cavae is removed from its synonymy with Chromodoris tennentana and redescribed from specimens from La Réunion, while several new synonyms are proposed for some commonly occurring species. Risbecia bullockii is recorded for the second time from the Indian Ocean and assigned to its correct genus. PMID:22711992

Yonow, Nathalie

2012-01-01

279

THE BEHAVIOR OF LOLIGO OPALESCENS (MOLLUSCA: CEPHALOPODA) AS OBSERVED BY A REMOTELY OPERATED VEHICLE (ROV). (R825381)  

EPA Science Inventory

The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

280

"First" abyssal record of Stenosemus exaratus (G.O. Sars, 1878) (Mollusca, Polyplacophora) in the North-Atlantic Ocean.  

PubMed

The first proven abyssal record of Stenosemus exaratus (G.O. Sars, 1878) is presented on the basis of an ROV study in the Irish Sea. For the first time in situ images of the species and data on the environmental parameters are provided. PMID:23794838

Allcock, Louise; Schwabe, Enrico

2013-01-01

281

Histological and histochemical studies on the albumen gland and capsular gland of Thais bufo (Lamarck) (Mollusca: Gastropoda)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Histology and histochemistry of the albumen and capsular glands are described. Histochemical tests revealed the high proteinaceous\\u000a nature of these glands. The secretion of the albumen gland is rich in carbohydrates besides protein whereas that of the capsular\\u000a gland is a mucoprotein.

R C Rajalakshmi Bhanu; K Shyamasundari; K Hanumantha Rao

1982-01-01

282

Première occurrence fossile du genre Pyramidelloides (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Eulimidae) découvert dans l'Éocène de l'Alabama  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pyramidelloides dolini n. sp., older strongly sculptured eulimid, is described from the Middle Eocene of southwestern Alabama (Gosport Sand). This new species probably had a planktotrophic larval stage similar to the recent Indo-West-Pacific species. Relationship with the species of the genus Palisadia is discussed. Geographic distributions of both the fossil and the recent species of the genera Pyramidelloides and Palisadia support finally a classic pattern in tropical marine biogeography: a discontinuous geographic range between Indo-Pacific and Caribbean provinces.

Lozouet, Pierre; Dockery, David T.

2001-09-01

283

Molecular Data from the 16S rRNA Gene for the Phylogeny of Pectinidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The phylogenetic relationships among the species belonging to the family Pectinidae are still an issue of debate. The mitochondrial\\u000a DNA sequences from the large ribosomal RNA gene may be of great value for systematic and phylogenetic studies within families.\\u000a Partial sequences of the 16S rRNA gene were obtained for the scallop species Adamussium colbecki, Aequipecten opercularis, Chlamys glabra, C.

Adriana Canapa; Marco Barucca; Annalisa Marinelli; Ettore Olmo

2000-01-01

284

A new species of Pulvinites (Mollusca: Bivalvia) from the upper Paleocene Paspotansa Member of the Aquia Formation in Virginia ( USA).  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Pulvinites lawrencei n.sp. is described from the upper Paleocene (Landenian Stage) Paspotansa Member of the Aquia Formation in Stafford County, Virginia. This is the first report of a member of the pteriacean family Pulvinitidae in the Tertiary on either side of the Atlantic, the only other post-Mesozoic records of Pulvinites being in the Paleocene of California and the present-day Pacific off southeast Australia. The stratigraphic setting and co-occurring molluscan assemblage of the new species indicate shallow-shelf, open-marine conditions with near normal salinities. -Authors

Ward, L.W.; Waller, T.R.

1988-01-01

285

Do the changes in temperature and light affect the functional response of the benthic mud snail Heleobia australis (Mollusca: Gastropoda)?  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the influence of temperature increase combined to conditions of light incidence on functional response of Heleobia australis. Experiments were conducted using nine to ten food concentrations for each treatment: 20°C without light; 30°C without light and, 30°C under low light intensity. For each experiment, the functional response type III (sigmoidal) was fitted and equation parameters were determined. Results suggest that, if the sediment temperature increases, H. australis will not have its ingestion rates affected negatively, whilst its feeding behavior seems to be negatively affected by light. Ingestion rates estimated for organic content in the Guanabara Bay were: 0.34 µgC ind-1h-1 at 20°C without light, 1.44 µgC ind-1h-1 at 30°C without light and 0.64 µgC ind-1h-1 at 30°C under light incidence. Higher ingestion rates were estimated at the high temperature, even under light incidence, and temperature seems to have outweighed the light effect. In contrast, if higher carbon content is considered, despite high temperature, the experiment conducted with light incidence showed lower ingestion rates than those from the experiment at 20°C without light. This study provides the first quantification of H. australis ingestion rates and the effects that changes in temperature and light have on its feeding behavior. PMID:25014915

Magalhães, Thaisa R F; Neves, Raquel A F; Valentin, Jean L; Figueiredo, Gisela M

2014-09-01

286

Physiological effects of temperature and a herbicide mixture on the soft-shell clam Mya arenaria (Mollusca, Bivalvia).  

PubMed

The aim of the current study was to investigate effects of temperature and a mixture of herbicides on the physiological status of the bivalve Mya arenaria. Bivalves acclimated to two temperatures (7 and 18°C) were exposed for 28?d to 0.01?mg/L of a pesticide formulation containing dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 2-(2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxy) propionic acid (mecoprop), and 3,6-dichloro-2-methoxybenzoic acid (dicamba). At days 7, 14, and 28, mortality, immune parameters (hemocyte number, phagocytic activity, and efficiency), biomarkers of oxidative stress (catalase [CAT] and superoxide dismutase [SOD] activities and malondialdehyde [MDA] content), the metabolic enzyme cytochrome C oxidase (CCO), a biomarker of pesticide exposure (acetylcholinesterase [AChE]), and the activity of an enzyme related to gametogenesis (aspartate transcarbamylase [ATCase]) were monitored in clam tissues. Gonadosomatic index (GSI), condition factor (CF), and sex were also assessed. In clams acclimated to 7°C, exposure to pesticide enhanced CCO activity and CF and decreased MDA content, hemocyte number, CAT, and SOD activities. In clams kept at 18°C, pesticide effects appeared minor compared with samples kept at 7°C. In bivalves acclimated to 18°C, CCO, SOD, and ATCase activity and MDA content were enhanced, and hemocyte number, CAT, and AchE activities and phagocytosis were suppressed. In samples exposed to pesticides, increased temperature enhanced MDA content and CCO and SOD activity and suppressed hemocyte number and CAT and AchE activity. A gradual sexual maturation was observed in both sexes through experimental time, but females had a higher sensitivity to temperature and pesticides compared to males. Increased temperature altered the ability of the sentinel species Mya arenaria to respond to pesticide exposures. Further work is needed to understand the impacts of increasing temperature on the whole St. Lawrence estuary ecosystem. PMID:20853449

Greco, Luna; Pellerin, Jocelyne; Capri, Ettore; Garnerot, Florent; Louis, Séverine; Fournier, Michel; Sacchi, Angela; Fusi, Marco; Lapointe, Dominique; Couture, Patrice

2011-01-01

287

Impacts associated with the recent range shift of the aeolid nudibranch Phidiana hiltoni (Mollusca, Opisthobranchia) in California  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1977, Phidiana hiltoni (O’Donoghue in J. Entomol Zool (Pomona College, Claremont, California) 19:77–119, 1927) began spreading northward from Monterey, California. By 1992, it had reached Duxbury Reef (37° 53? 23? N, 122° 41? 59? W),\\u000a 100 km to the north, where other nudibranchs subsequently appeared to decline. The role of P. hiltoni in this decline was investigated through diet analysis,

Jeffrey H. R. GoddardTerrence; Terrence M. Gosliner; John S. Pearse

2011-01-01

288

The genetic dynamics of the rapid and recent colonization of Denmark by Arion lusitanicus (Mollusca, Pulmonata, Arionidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the genetic dynamics of the recent establishment of the ‘Iberian slug’, Arion lusitanicus J. Mabille 1868, in Denmark and compare its population structure to two other members of the ‘large Arion complex’, Arion ater ater, native to Denmark, and Arion ater rufus, introduced into Denmark in the early 1900s. Assaying allozyme polymorphism at seven enzyme loci, we found

S. Engelke; J. Kömpf; K. Jordaens; J. Tomiuk; E. D. Parker

2011-01-01

289

A cybertaxonomic revision of the micro-landsnail genus Plectostoma Adam (Mollusca, Caenogastropoda, Diplommatinidae), from Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra and Indochina  

PubMed Central

Abstract Plectostoma is a micro land snail restricted to limestone outcrops in Southeast Asia. Plectostoma was previously classified as a subgenus of Opisthostoma because of the deviation from regular coiling in many species in both taxa. This paper is the first of a two-part revision of the genus Plectostoma, and includes all non-Borneo species. In the present paper, we examined 214 collection samples of 31 species, and obtained 62 references, 290 pictures, and 155 3D-models of 29 Plectostoma species and 51 COI sequences of 19 species. To work with such a variety of taxonomic data, and then to represent it in an integrated, scaleable and accessible manner, we adopted up-to-date cybertaxonomic tools. All the taxonomic information, such as references, classification, species descriptions, specimen images, genetic data, and distribution data, were tagged and linked with cyber tools and web servers (e.g. Lifedesks, Google Earth, and Barcoding of Life Database). We elevated Plectostoma from subgenus to genus level based on morphological, ecological and genetic evidence. We revised the existing 21 Plectostoma species and described 10 new species, namely, P. dindingensis sp. n., P. mengaburensis sp. n., P. whitteni sp. n., P. kayiani sp. n., P. davisoni sp. n., P. relauensis sp. n., P. kubuensis sp. n., P. tohchinyawi sp. n., P. tenggekensis sp. n., and P. ikanensis sp. n. All the synthesised, semantic-tagged, and linked taxonomic information is made freely and publicly available online. PMID:24715783

Liew, Thor-Seng; Vermeulen, Jaap Jan; Marzuki, Mohammad Effendi bin; Schilthuizen, Menno

2014-01-01

290

Macoma balthica in the White and Barents Seas: properties of a widespread marine hybrid swarm (Mollusca: Bivalvia).  

PubMed

A main molecular subdivision in the circumpolar Macoma balthica complex has been described between Atlantic and Pacific taxa. In NE Europe, the clams of the White and Barents Seas, however, show deviant genetic structures. Using allozyme and mitochondrial DNA data, we explore the hypothesis that these deviations result from hybridization between an Atlantic (M. b. rubra) and an invading Pacific (M. b. balthica) lineage. A practically pure Atlantic Macoma extends from France north to the Varanger Peninsula (NE Norway), whereas populations farther east have genetic compositions intermediate between true Atlantic and true Pacific. Admixture estimates range from 32 to 90% Pacific contribution, with a notable deviation in a nearly pure Atlantic outpost in the Mezen Bay (NE White Sea). The pattern of variation is not one of a simple collinear mixing however. Different characters exhibit different degrees of introgression, and the relative introgression varies regionally. Yet, there are practically no interlocus genotypic disequilibria between the diverged loci, which brings out the White Sea-Barents Sea M. balthica as the best-documented marine animal hybrid swarms so far, arisen through amalgamation of genomes previously isolated since pre-Pleistocene times. On top of the main admixture pattern, strong geographical structuring is also seen in characters unrelated to the principal systematic distinction. The persistence of the regional patterns indicates restricted gene flow at the present time, despite the high dispersal potential of the species. The causes of this structuring could be in a complex history of colonization events and features of local hydrography enhancing isolation and divergence of populations. PMID:17725573

Strelkov, Petr; Nikula, Raisa; Väinölä, Risto

2007-10-01

291

Evolutionary pattern and process within the Vertigo gouldii (Mollusca: Pulmonata, Pupillidae) group of minute North American land snails  

Microsoft Academic Search

A phylogenetic analysis of 19 sibling taxa in the Vertigo gouldii group was conducted on 73 individuals sampled across North America using DNA sequence data of the mitochondrial genes cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) and 16S ribosomal RNA (16S), and the internal transcribed spacer-2 of the nuclear ribosomal RNA (ITS-2) gene. The results of these analyses were found incongruent with

Jeffrey C. Nekola; Brian F. Coles; Ulfar Bergthorsson

2009-01-01

292

Evolutionary pattern and process within the Vertigo gouldii (Mollusca: Pulmonata, Pupillidae) group of minute North American land snails.  

PubMed

A phylogenetic analysis of 19 sibling taxa in the Vertigo gouldii group was conducted on 73 individuals sampled across North America using DNA sequence data of the mitochondrial genes cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) and 16S ribosomal RNA (16S), and the internal transcribed spacer-2 of the nuclear ribosomal RNA (ITS-2) gene. The results of these analyses were found incongruent with previous taxonomic concepts used to define the V. gouldii group and its composite taxa that were based entirely on conchological features. The mtDNA sequence data suggest that some previous members of the traditional V. gouldii group may be more closely related to V. modesta. They also suggest that V. gouldii may itself consist of seven species-level branches spread across two deeply rooted clades. Revision of geographical distributions on the basis of these analyses suggests that these Vertigo species may commonly possess continental-sized ranges in spite of their minute size and limited active dispersal ability. High levels of sympatry within the group are also confirmed, with up to four species being known to co-occur within single microsites. These data also suggest that rates of diversification have been non-constant. Assuming a 1%/my rate of base pair substitution, a 10-fold diversification pulse is indicated from 6.7-7.0 myBP, which would be co-incident with known mid-late Miocene global climate changes. PMID:19766197

Nekola, Jeffrey C; Coles, Brian F; Bergthorsson, Ulfar

2009-12-01

293

[Abundance and morphometry of tuberculosa Anadara and A. similis (Mollusca: Bivalvia) in the Manglar de Purruja, Dulce Gulf, Costa Rica].  

PubMed

The density, population, length, yield and sex proportion of the mollusks Anadara tuberculosa and A. similis were studied in Bahía de Golfito, Golfo Dulce, Pacific coast of Costa Rica from February 1998 to February 1999. A. tuberculosa was more abundant (0.9 units m(-2)), than A. similis (0.2 units m(-2)); the highest abundance was found at the canal mouths. The average lengths were 43.3 mm for A. tuberculosa and 42.8 mm for A. similis (both under the Costa Rican legal minimal length for exploitation: 47 mm). Maximum lengths were measured in the middle and upstream Canal Mayor, respectively: 43.0 mm and 43.4 mm. The correlation between length and fresh weight was 0.81 (Pearson). The average total weights were 26.2 g for A. tuberculosa and 19.1 g for A. similis. The condition index (a meat yield measurement) was higher in A. similis (21.2%) than in A. tuberculosa (17.2%). The maximum yield for both species lies in the 31-35 mm range. The male ratio was 43.7%. A species recovery plan is urgent because these results suggest both a decrease in density and illegal exploitation. PMID:15264545

Silva Benavides, A M; Bonilla Carrión, R

2001-12-01

294

Growth estimation of mangrove cockle Anadara tuberculosa (Mollusca: Bivalvia): application and evaluation of length-based methods.  

PubMed

Growth is one of the key processes in the dynamic of exploited resources, since it provides part of the information required for structured population models. Growth of mangrove cockle, Anadara tuberculosa was estimated through length-based methods (ELEFAN I y NSLCA) and using diverse shell length intervals (SLI). The variability of L(infinity), k and phi prime (phi') estimates and the effect of each sample were quantified by jackknife techniques. Results showed the same L(infinity) estimates from ELEFAN I and NSLCA across each SLI used, and all L(infinity) were within the expected range. On the contrary, k estimates differed between methods. Jackknife estimations uncovered the tendency of ELEFAN I to overestimate k with increases in SLI, and allowed the identification of differences in uncertainty (PE and CV) between both methods. The average values of phi' derived from NSCLA1.5 and length-age sources were similar and corresponded to ranges reported by other authors. Estimates of L(infinity), k and (phi' from NSCLA1.5 were 85.97 mm, 0.124/year and 2.953 with jackknife and 86.36mm de L(infinity), 0.110/year de k and 2.914 de phi' without jackknife, respectively. Based on the observed evidence and according to the biology of the species, NSCLA is suggested to be used with jackknife and a SLI of 1.5 mm as an ad hoc approach to estimate the growth parameters of mangrove cockle. PMID:21513195

Flores, Luis A

2011-03-01

295

Establishment of the green mussel, Perna viridis (Linnaeus 1758) (Mollusca: Mytilidae) on the West Coast of Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1999, the green mussel, Perna viridis, was first observed in Tampa Bay, Florida. This was the first reported occurrence of this Indo-Pacific marine bivalve in North America. The mussels found in Tampa Bay were confirmed to be P. viridis based on both morphological and genetic characteristics. Since the initial discovery, surveys in Tampa Bay and on the west coast of Florida have documented the growth, recruitment, and range expansion of P. viridis. From November 1999 to July 2000, the mean shell length of a Tampa Bay population increased from 49.0 mm to 94.1 mm, an increase of 97%. Populations of P. viridis are successfully reproducing in Tampa Bay. Recruitment was observed on sampling plates in May and continued through July 2000. The full extent of mussel colonization is not clear, but mussels were found outside Tampa Bay in St. Petersburg, Florida, south to Venice. Based on these studies it is evident that P. viridis has successfully invaded Tampa Bay and the west coast of Florida. The long-term impact of P. viridis on native communities off the west coast of Florida cannot be predicted at this time.

Benson, A. J.; Marelli, D. C.; Frischer, M. E.; Danforth, J. M.; Williams, J. D.

2001-01-01

296

[Evolutionary history of Metazoa, ancestral status of the bilateria clonal reproduction, and semicolonial origin of the mollusca].  

PubMed

Evolutionary history of any metazoan group is a history of the entire ontogenetic cycles instead of separate stages and genes only. Ontogeny in the most objective way links two key components of the biological systematics: historically-independent characters attribution and phylogeny itself. A general theory encompassing "static" traditional taxonomy and dynamic evolutionary process, based on the ontogenetic transformation of the organisms' shape is suggested here to term as ontogenetic systematics. As an important practical implication of the ontogenetic systematics, a new model of the bilaterian metazoans evolution is suggested. The new model considers asexual clonal reproduction as a central feature of the ancestral ontogenetic cycles of basal Bilateria. The new scenario resolves several notable contradictions, e.g. morphological, ontogenetic and molecular similarities of Pogonophora, Vestimentifera, Phoronida simultaneously to protostomian Spiralia (Lophotrochozoa) and Deuterostomia. The suggested model implies individuation (possibly multiple) of ancestral semicolonial sedentary group as a major factor of the basal Bilateria diversification. In the late Ediacaran and early Cambrian thus existed ancestral bilaterian group that shared characters of both Spiralia and Deuterostomia and possessed polyp-shape body and cephalic secretory shield (like in modern Pterobranchia and Vestimentifera), that later on reduced in various lines. This ancestral taxon in rank of supraphylum is suggested to term as Carmaphora (shield-bearers). Presence of the enigmatic sedentary fossil of the genus Cloudina with vestimentiferan-like tubes and evident clonal reproduction already in the late Ediacaran, and most recent found of an unquestionable pterobranch already in the early Cambrian support the new model of Bilateria evolution. PMID:24163984

Martynov, A V

2013-01-01

297

Characterization of nineteen microsatellite markers and development of multiplex PCRs for the wedge clam Donax trunculus (Mollusca: Bivalvia).  

PubMed

The wedge clam Donax trunculus is an Atlantic-Mediterranean warm-temperate species found from Senegal to the northern coast of France, including the Mediterranean and Black Sea. It is commercially exploited in several European countries and constitutes an important fishing resource due to its high economical value. To contribute to its conservation and management, nineteen microsatellite markers were isolated from two enriched genomic libraries. These loci were characterized in 30 clams from a single population from northwest Spain. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 17 and observed and expected heterozygosity varied from zero to 0.714 and from 0.078 to 0.950, respectively. Linkage disequilibrium was not detected and nine loci were in agreement with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Fifteen polymorphic markers were arranged into three multiplex PCR sets to reduce both time and cost of microsatellite genotyping. This is the first time that polymorphic microsatellite markers have been reported for D. trunculus. These new markers provide a valuable resource for future population genetics studies and management and culture of this species. PMID:24852303

Nantón, Ana; Arias-Pérez, Alberto; Méndez, Josefina; Freire, Ruth

2014-08-01

298

Some effects of heavy metals and polychlorinated biphenyls on the estuarine organisms Brachidontes recurvus (Mollusca) and Penaeus setiferus (Crustacea  

E-print Network

the range studied is not signifi- cantly different (Table 1}. In addition, it is interesting that long term pre-exposure to low levels of mercury resulted in no distinguishable difference in the acute toxicity (96-hour LC ) to shrimp (Table 2... the range studied is not signifi- cantly different (Table 1}. In addition, it is interesting that long term pre-exposure to low levels of mercury resulted in no distinguishable difference in the acute toxicity (96-hour LC ) to shrimp (Table 2...

Green, Felton Allen

2012-06-07

299

New lucinid bivalves from shallow and deeper water of the Indian and West Pacific Oceans (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Lucinidae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract Four new species and a new genus of lucinid bivalves are described from shallow and deeper waters in the Indian and West Pacific Oceans. The new genus Scabrilucina (subfamily Lucininae) includes the little-known Scabrilucina victorialis (Melvill, 1899) from the Arabian Sea and Scabrilucina vitrea (Deshayes, 1844) from the Andaman Sea as well as a new species Scabrilucina melvilli from the Torres Strait off northeastern Australia. Ferrocina brunei new species (Lucininae) was recovered from 60 m near oil drilling activities off Borneo; its anatomy confirmed the presence of symbiotic bacteria. Two unusual deeper water species of Leucosphaerinae are described, both species included in on-going molecular analyses; Gonimyrtea ferruginea from 400–650 m in the southwest Pacific and Myrtina reflexa from 200–825 m off Zanzibar and Madagascar. PMID:24039537

Taylor, John D.; Glover, Emily A.

2013-01-01

300

Genetic diversity of isolated populations of Nautilus pompilius (Mollusca, Cephalopoda) in the Great Barrier Reef and Coral Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nautilus species are the only remaining cephalopods with an external shell. Targeted heavily by the shell trade across their distribution\\u000a area, these species have a poorly known population structure and genetics. Molecular techniques have been used to assess levels\\u000a of inter- and intra-population genetic diversity in isolated populations of Nautilus in the northern sections of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR),

Billy Sinclair; Leica Briskey; William Aspden; Graham Pegg

2007-01-01

301

Morphology of the rediae of Echinostoma paraensei (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae) from its intermediate host Lymnaea columella (Mollusca, Gastropoda)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The morphology of the rediae of Echinostoma paraensei obtained from Lymnaea columella was studied using light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The measurements of the mature rediae differ from those described originally, and the taxonomic importance of the ambulatory buds and papilliform process is discussed. Uniciliated papillae were observed in the mouth region. The birth papilla is a bulb-like structure,

J. Pinheiro; A. Maldonado Júnior; M. Attias; R. M. Lanfredi

2004-01-01

302

An examination of the marsh microhabitats of Lymnaea tomentosa and L. columella (Mollusca: Gastropoda) by path analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some physical and biological characteristics of marsh microhabitats of the pulmonate snails Lymnaea tamentosa (Pfeiffer) and L. columella (Say), intermediate hosts of Fasciola hepatica in New Zealand, are compared by path analysis. The most significant variable suggested by the various path coefficients is the relative importance of flocculence of mud in the substratum. L. tomentosa was more likely to be

R. E. Harris; W. A. G. Charleston

1977-01-01

303

A cybertaxonomic revision of the micro-landsnail genus Plectostoma Adam (Mollusca, Caenogastropoda, Diplommatinidae), from Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra and Indochina.  

PubMed

Plectostoma is a micro land snail restricted to limestone outcrops in Southeast Asia. Plectostoma was previously classified as a subgenus of Opisthostoma because of the deviation from regular coiling in many species in both taxa. This paper is the first of a two-part revision of the genus Plectostoma, and includes all non-Borneo species. In the present paper, we examined 214 collection samples of 31 species, and obtained 62 references, 290 pictures, and 155 3D-models of 29 Plectostoma species and 51 COI sequences of 19 species. To work with such a variety of taxonomic data, and then to represent it in an integrated, scaleable and accessible manner, we adopted up-to-date cybertaxonomic tools. All the taxonomic information, such as references, classification, species descriptions, specimen images, genetic data, and distribution data, were tagged and linked with cyber tools and web servers (e.g. Lifedesks, Google Earth, and Barcoding of Life Database). We elevated Plectostoma from subgenus to genus level based on morphological, ecological and genetic evidence. We revised the existing 21 Plectostoma species and described 10 new species, namely, P. dindingensis sp. n., P. mengaburensis sp. n., P. whitteni sp. n., P. kayiani sp. n., P. davisoni sp. n., P. relauensis sp. n., P. kubuensis sp. n., P. tohchinyawi sp. n., P. tenggekensis sp. n., and P. ikanensis sp. n. All the synthesised, semantic-tagged, and linked taxonomic information is made freely and publicly available online. PMID:24715783

Liew, Thor-Seng; Vermeulen, Jaap Jan; Marzuki, Mohammad Effendi Bin; Schilthuizen, Menno

2014-01-01

304

Congruence between allozyme and RAPD data in assessing macrogeographical genetic variation in the periwinkle Littorina striata (Mollusca, Gastropoda)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The population genetic structure of the Macaronesian planktonic-developing periwinkle Littorina striata was analysed, using random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis (RAPD). Two primers, yielding six polymorphic loci, were surveyed to infer the population genetic structure of five geographically separated populations (i.e. 10–2000 km). Biased and unbiased allele frequency and heterozygosity levels were estimated and were found to be highly similar. As

H de Wolf; T Backeljau; R Verhagen

1998-01-01

305

Susceptibility of North American Native and Non-native Slugs (Mollusca: Gastropoda) to Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita (Nematoda: Rhabditidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita caused significant mortality of the two native species, Deroceras laeve and Leidyula floridana, and of one introduced species D. reticulatum, but not of the other three introduced species, Arion hortensis, A. subfuscus and Limax maximus. Even the juvenile stages of A. subfuscus and L. maximus showed no mortality in nematode treatments. However, treatments with nematodes resulted in rapid

Sukhbir K. Grewal; Parwinder S. Grewal; Ronald B. Hammond

2003-01-01

306

Dopaminergic neurons in the brain and dopaminergic innervation of the albumen gland in mated and virgin helisoma duryi (mollusca: pulmonata)  

PubMed Central

Background Dopamine was shown to stimulate the perivitelline fluid secretion by the albumen gland. Even though the albumen gland has been shown to contain catecholaminergic fibers and its innervation has been studied, the type of catecholamines, distribution of fibers and the precise source of this neural innervation has not yet been deduced. This study was designed to address these issues and examine the correlation between dopamine concentration and the sexual status of snails. Results Dopaminergic neurons were found in all ganglia except the pleural and right parietal, and their axons in all ganglia and major nerves of the brain. In the albumen gland dopaminergic axons formed a nerve tract in the central region, and a uniform net in other areas. Neuronal cell bodies were present in the vicinity of the axons. Dopamine was a major catecholamine in the brain and the albumen gland. No significant difference in dopamine quantity was found when the brain and the albumen gland of randomly mating, virgin and first time mated snails were compared. Conclusions Our results represent the first detailed studies regarding the catecholamine innervation and quantitation of neurotransmitters in the albumen gland. In this study we localized catecholaminergic neurons and axons in the albumen gland and the brain, identified these neurons and axons as dopaminergic, reported monoamines present in the albumen gland and the brain, and compared the dopamine content in the brain and the albumen gland of randomly mating, virgin and first time mated snails. PMID:11513757

Kiehn, Lana; Saleuddin, Saber; Lange, Angela

2001-01-01

307

Review of Baeolidia, the largest genus of Aeolidiidae (Mollusca: Nudibranchia), with the description of five new species.  

PubMed

This paper discusses the systematics of the aeolid genus Baeolidia Bergh, 1888. To date, this monophyletic genus is the most diverse within Aeolidiidae with sixteen valid species. Excluding Baeolidia cryoporos Bouchet, 1977, the genus is restricted to the Indo-Pacific and Eastern Pacific. Species of Baeolidia show a huge intrageneric variability in several morphological characters. Only oral glands, if present, may distinguish Baeolidia from other aeolidiids genera. Aeolidiella occidentalis Bergh, 1875, Aeolidiella faustina Bergh, 1900 and Spurilla orientalis Bergh, 1905 are transferred to Baeolidia but they are considered nomina dubia. Five new species, Baeolidia rieae sp. nov., Baeolidia variabilis sp. nov., Baeolidia lunaris sp. nov., Baeolidia gracilis sp. nov. and Baeolidia scottjohnsoni sp. nov. are described. PMID:24871026

Carmona, Leila; Pola, Marta; Gosliner, Terrence M; Cervera, Juan Lucas

2014-01-01

308

Long-Term Effects of Ammonia on the Behavioral Activity of the Aquatic Snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Hydrobiidae, Mollusca)  

Microsoft Academic Search

An appropriate approach to assess the effect of toxicants on aquatic animals is to monitor behavioral endpoints, as they are\\u000a a link between physiological and ecological processes. A group that can be exposed long-term to low toxic concentrations is\\u000a benthic macroinvertebrates, as their mobility in aquatic ecosystems is relatively limited. Therefore, the study of behavioral\\u000a long-term effects in this group

Álvaro Alonso; Julio A. Camargo

2009-01-01

309

Assimilation of terrigenous organic matter via bacterial biomass as a food source for a brackish clam, Corbicula japonica (Mollusca: Bivalva)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Corbicula japonica collected from the Kitakami River estuary, northeastern Japan, showed lower ?34S values in soft-body parts (+1.7 to +11.0‰) than the ambient seawater sulfate sulfur (+21‰), and this value gradually decreased at successive sites up to 15.8 km upstream from the river mouth. Previous study using carbon and nitrogen isotopes suggests that the bivalve nonselectively assimilates particulate organic matter of marine and terrestrial origin by filter feeding. This pattern in ?34S values may indicate a considerable contribution of a food source derived from terrigenous organic matter, which has low ?34S values close to 0‰, and the bivalve has been reported to have cellulase and hemicellulase activities. Unique fatty acids (iso 17:0 and anteiso 17:0 acids), both characteristic of sulfate-reducing bacteria, were observed in the salt-free, soft-body parts of the bivalve. The concentration of monounsaturated fatty acids, possibly derived from bacteria, was also high. Trace amounts of a polyunsaturated fatty acid (20:5?3) specific to dinoflagellates were detected. In Corbicula habitats, reductive sandy layers with ample sulfides that were sporadically intercalated into the oxidative sandy sediment were often observed. The stable isotopic signatures of sediment sulfides (acid-volatile sulfide) and associated pore-water sulfates were -8.9 to +8.6‰ and +22.4 to +26.3‰, respectively, indicating the existence of bacterial sulfate-reducing activity and thiobios biomass. These isotopic signatures of the sediment, with the fatty acid composition of the bivalve, confirm the importance of a food source derived from bacteria belonging to the thiobios in the substrate sediments via pedal feeding, rather than direct digestion of terrigenous organic matter, in this estuarine ecosystem.

Yamanaka, Toshiro; Mizota, Chitoshi; Maki, Yonosuke; Matsumasa, Masatoshi

2013-07-01

310

Polyplacophora (Mollusca) from the San Diego Formation: A remarkable assemblage of fossil chitons from the Pliocene of southern Califoria  

USGS Publications Warehouse

taphonomic factors bias valve ratios long after valves are disarticulated. New foraminiferan and molluscan data indicate a middle or late Pliocene age of deposition for these beds, between 3.3 to 2.5 million years ago (Ma), and possibly about 3.0 Ma.

Vendrasco, Michael J.; Eernisse, Douglas J.; Powell, Charles L., III; Fernandez, Christine Z.

2012-01-01

311

Numerical Quantification of Perkinsus Marinus in the American Oyster Crassostrea virginicata (Gmelin 1791) (Mollusca: Bivalvia) by Modern Stereology  

EPA Science Inventory

Species of Perkinsus are responsible for high mortalities of bivalve molluscs world-wide. Techniques to accurately estimate parasites in tissues are required to improve understanding of perkinsosis. This study quantifies the number and tissue distribution of Perkinsus marinus in ...

312

Annotated type catalogue of Bothriembryon (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Orthalicoidea) in Australian museums, with a compilation of types in other museums  

PubMed Central

Abstract Type material of 41 Australian Bothriembryon taxa present in Australian museums is critically listed, indicating systematic issues that need to be resolved in further studies. Information on additional type material of 22 taxa in non-Australian museums is compiled. The seven fossil taxa known so far are included in this catalogue. Based on the current systematic position, 38 species are treated in this paper. Bothriembryon jacksoni Iredale, 1939, Bothriembryon notatus Iredale, 1939, Bothriembryon praecelsus Iredale, 1939 and Bothriembryon serpentinus Iredale, 1939 are elevated to species level. Bothriembryon gratwicki (Cox, 1899) is listed as status to be determined. PMID:22679384

Breure, Abraham S.H.; Whisson, Corey S.

2012-01-01

313

Phylogenetic implications and diagenetic stability of macromolecules from pleistocene and recent shells of Mercenaria mercenaria (mollusca, bivalvia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phylogeny and diagenesis of Pleistocene and Recent bivalves were studied immunologically by use of a conventional antiserum elicited against an EDTA?soluble macromolecular extract from shells of the modern bivalve mollusc Mercenaria mercenaria. ELISA tests of the antiserum with shell fragments of a wide range of modern bivalves gave taxonomically significant results. The antiserum reacted with palaeoheterodonts and heterodonts but

Gerard Muyzer; Peter Westbroek; John F. Wehmiller

1988-01-01

314

Evolutionary dynamics of rDNA clusters in chromosomes of five clam species belonging to the family Veneridae (Mollusca, Bivalvia).  

PubMed

The chromosomal changes accompanying bivalve evolution are an area about which few reports have been published. To improve our understanding on chromosome evolution in Veneridae, ribosomal RNA gene clusters were mapped by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) to chromosomes of five species of venerid clams (Venerupis corrugata, Ruditapes philippinarum, Ruditapes decussatus, Dosinia exoleta, and Venus verrucosa). The results were anchored to the most comprehensive molecular phylogenetic tree currently available for Veneridae. While a single major rDNA cluster was found in each of the five species, the number of 5S rDNA clusters showed high interspecies variation. Major rDNA was either subterminal to the short arms or intercalary to the long arms of metacentric or submetacentric chromosomes, whereas minor rDNA signals showed higher variability. Major and minor rDNAs map to different chromosome pairs in all species, but in R. decussatus one of the minor rDNA gene clusters and the major rDNA cluster were located in the same position on a single chromosome pair. This interspersion of both sequences was confirmed by fiber FISH. Telomeric signals appeared at both ends of every chromosome in all species. FISH mapping data are discussed in relation to the molecular phylogenetic trees currently available for Veneridae. PMID:24967400

Pérez-García, Concepción; Hurtado, Ninoska S; Morán, Paloma; Pasantes, Juan J

2014-01-01

315

Biomonitoring study of an estuarine coastal ecosystem, the Sacca di Goro lagoon, using Ruditapes philippinarum (Mollusca: Bivalvia).  

PubMed

Coastal lagoons are constantly subjected to releases of chemical pollutants, and so organisms may be exposed to such toxicants. This study investigated through a multivariate approach the physiological status of bivalve Ruditapes philippinarum, farmed in Sacca di Goro lagoon. Biomarkers at different levels of biological organization (catalase, superoxide dismutase, genotoxicity, reburrowing behavior) were evaluated at three sites exposed to different environmental conditions. A seasonal trend was observed, and micronucleus frequency was significantly lowest at the relatively pristine reference site. Enzymatic activity toward oxyradicals be quite efficient since variations in responsiveness were not consistent. However, behavioral impairment was observed in reburrowing rates. Sediment concentrations showed low PAH levels and high natural levels of trace metals Cr and Ni. DistLM statistical analysis revealed a non-significant relationship between selected biomarkers and xenobiotics. Therefore other potentially toxic compounds in admixture at low doses may be involved in driving differing spatial distribution of physiological impairment. PMID:23474981

Sacchi, Angela; Mouneyrac, Catherine; Bolognesi, Claudia; Sciutto, Andrea; Roggieri, Paola; Fusi, Marco; Beone, Gian Maria; Capri, Ettore

2013-06-01

316

Dye-coupling between blastomeres in early embryos of Patella vulgata (mollusca, gastropoda): Its relevance for cell determination  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the early development of the molluscPatella, the dorsoventral axis is established after the fifth cleavage due to direct interaction between the animal micromeres and one of the vegetal macromeres. This vegetal macromere is thereby induced to become the mesentoblast mother cell (3D). In this study we have examined intercellular communication in earlyPatella embryos by monitoring the transfer of the

Adriaan W. C. Dorresteijn; Huibert A. Wagemaker; Siegfried W. Laat; Jo A. M. Biggelaar

1983-01-01

317

On the family lyonsiidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia), with description of a new genus and species from the China Seas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present paper deals with 4 species of Family Lyonsiidae, collected from the China Seas: one new genus and new species, Sinolyonsia sinica gen. et sp. nov, one species, Lyonsia kawamurai recorded for the first time from the China Seas, and 2 species L. ventricosa Gould and Agriodesma navicula (Adams et Reeve) reported previously from the Yellow Sea by the author.

Xu, Fengshan

1992-06-01

318

Ecotoxicological studies with newly hatched larvae of Concholepas concholepas (Mollusca, Gastropoda): bioassay with secondary-treated kraft pulp mill effluents.  

PubMed

The Chilean abalone or "loco" (Concholepas concholepas, Bruguière 1789) represent the most economically important marine recourse exploited from inner inshore Management and Exploitation Areas for Benthic Resources along the Chilean coast. In this study, newly-hatched larvae of C. concholepas were investigated as a potential model species for marine ecotoxicological studies. The study developed a behavioral standard protocol for assessing the impact that kraft pulp mill effluents after secondary treatment have on C. concholepas larvae. Under controlled laboratory conditions, newly-hatched larvae were exposed to a series of different concentrations of kraft pulp mill effluents with secondary treatment (Pinus spp. and Eucalyptus spp.), potassium dichromate as standard reference toxicant and effluent-free control conditions. Regardless of the type of effluent the results indicated that diluted kraft pulp effluent with secondary treatment had reduced effect on larval survival. Low larval survivals were only recorded when they were exposed to high concentrations of the reference toxicant. This suggests that C. concholepas larval bioassay is a simple method for monitoring the effects of kraft pulp mill effluents with secondary treatment discharged into the sea. The results indicated that dilution of ca. 1% of the effluent with an elemental chlorine free (ECF) secondary treatment is appropriate for achieving low larval mortalities, such as those obtained under control conditions with filtered seawater, and to minimize their impact on early ontogenetic stages of marine invertebrates such as newly-hatched larvae of C. concholepas. The methodological aspects of toxicological testing and behavioral responses described here with newly-hatched larvae of C. concholepas can be used to evaluate in the future the potential effects of other stressful conditions as other pollutants or changes in seawater pH associated with ocean acidification. PMID:24099753

Manríquez, Patricio H; Llanos-Rivera, Alejandra; Galaz, Sylvana; Camaño, Andrés

2013-12-01

319

New insight in lymnaeid snails (Mollusca, Gastropoda) as intermediate hosts of Fasciola hepatica (Trematoda, Digenea) in Belgium and Luxembourg  

PubMed Central

Background The present study aims to assess the epidemiological role of different lymnaeid snails as intermediate hosts of the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica in Belgium and Luxembourg. Methods During summer 2008, 7103 lymnaeid snails were collected from 125 ponds distributed in 5 clusters each including 25 ponds. Each cluster was located in a different biogeographic area of Belgium and Luxembourg. In addition, snails were also collected in sixteen other biotopes considered as temporary wet areas. These snails were identified as Galba truncatula (n?=?2474) (the main intermediate host of F. hepatica in Europe) and Radix sp. (n?=?4629). Moreover, several biological and non-biological variables were also recorded from the different biotopes. DNA was extracted from each snail collected using Chelex® technique. DNA samples were screened through a multiplex PCR that amplifies lymnaeid internal transcribed spacer 2 gene sequences (500–600 bp) (acting as an internal control) and a 124 bp fragment of repetitive DNA from Fasciola sp. Results Lymnaeid snails were found in 75 biotopes (53.2%). Thirty individuals of G. truncatula (1.31%) and 7 of Radix sp. (0.16%) were found to be positive for Fasciola sp. The seven positive Radix sp. snails all belonged to the species R. balthica (Linnaeus, 1758). Classification and regression tree analysis were performed in order to better understand links and relative importance of the different recorded factors. One of the best explanatory variables for the presence/absence of the different snail species seems to be the geographic location, whereas for the infection status of the snails no obvious relationship was linked to the presence of cattle. Conclusions Epidemiological implications of these findings and particularly the role of R. balthica as an alternative intermediate host in Belgium and Luxembourg were discussed. PMID:24524623

2014-01-01

320

Temporal and spatial distribution of glochidial larval stages of European unionid mussels (Mollusca: Unionidae) on host fishes.  

PubMed

Glochidia are the larval stage of freshwater unionid mussels that parasitize the fins and gill apparatus of fish. A total of 22 fish species were examined for the presence of glochidia whose distribution on individual hosts was studied on three common fish species, the roach Rutilus rutilus (L.), perch Percafluviatilis L. and bitterling Rhodeus sericeus (Pallas). Between 1997 and 1999, the fish were obtained from the rivers Morava and Kyjovka and surrounding water pools in the Czech Republic. The glochidia of two genera, Unio and Anodonta, were found. Anodonta glochidia were observed on 10 fish species, Unio glochidia on 17 fish species. There was a difference in spatial distribution of glochidia on the body of the host fish. Unio glochidia were predominantly located on the gills, whereas most Anodonta glochidia were found on the fins, with the highest numbers of glochidia were observed on the margin of the pectoral fins. For the gill apparatus, Unio glochidia were found predominantly on the second and third arch. Anodonta glochidia were predominantly found during winter and spring (November-May), whereas Unio glochidia were more abundant during May and June. The number of glochidia was positively correlated with fish length in perch highly infected by Anodonta glochidia and perch infected by Unio glochidia. Of the three fish species, the highest occurrence of parasites was found on perch with fewer observed on roach. In spite of the close relationship between bitterling and unionid mussels, glochidiosis was rare on this fish species. PMID:16898123

Blazek, Radim; Gelnar, Milan

2006-06-01

321

Preliminary phytochemical screening and molluscicidal activity of the aqueous extract of Bidens pilosa Linné (Asteraceae) in Subulina octona (Mollusca, Subulinidade).  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to establish reference concentrations (LC?? e LC??) of aqueous extracts of Bidens pilosa on the land snail Subulina octona, in order to assess the changes caused by 24 and 48 h exposure to the sublethal concentration regarding species' fecundity, hatchability and in offspring produced after exposure to confirm the presence of tannins, saponins and flavonoids in this plant species. Eggs newly hatched and 30 day-old snails were exposed to sublethal concentration, calculated for adults. The phytochemical analysis confirmed the presence of flavonoids, condensed tannins and saponins in the aqueous extract of B. pilosa. The LC?? and LC?? obtained were 51.4 mg/mL and 74.1 mg/mL respectively. The exposure to sublethal concentration reduced significantly the hatchability and the survival of the offspring hatched from exposed eggs and also caused a reduction on survival and growth in snails exposed for both time period. The exposure time also caused a reduction at the evaluated parameters. PMID:24141417

Souza, Bruna A; Silva, Lidiane C da; Chicarino, Evelyn D; Bessa, Elisabeth C A

2013-01-01

322

Growth of Argopecten purpuratus (Mollusca: Bivalvia) on a natural bank in Northern Chile: sclerochronological record and environmental controls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Daily striae on the shell of the scallop, Argopecten purpuratus, were used to investigate its growth in a protected population within La Rinconada Bay, near Antofagasta (2nd Region, Northern Chile), and to determine how environmental forcings control shell growth. This sclerochronological approach was useful to describe daily shell growth a posteriori. Mean shell growth rates were calculated daily between February

Julien Thébault; Gérard Thouzeau; Laurent Chauvaud; Marcela Cantillánez; Miguel Avendaño

2008-01-01

323

Freshwater snails (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from the Commonwealth of Dominica with a discussion of their roles in the transmission of parasites  

Microsoft Academic Search

We collected six species of freshwater snails from Dominica, including Biomphalaria kuhniana (Clessin, 1883), Gundlachia radiata (Guilding, 1828), Helisoma (=Planorbella) trivolvis (Say, 1817), Melanoides tuberculata (Müller, 1774), Neritina punctulata Lamarck, 1816, and Physa marmorata Guilding, 1828. Our collections indicate that un-reported species such as G. radiata and H. trivolvis are established on Dominica, West Indies. We tested a limited number

Will K. Reeves; Robert T. Dillon; Gregory A. Dasch

2008-01-01

324

Opisthobranchia (Mollusca, Gastropoda) - more than just slimy slugs. Shell reduction and its implications on defence and foraging  

PubMed Central

Background In general shell-less slugs are considered to be slimy animals with a rather dull appearance and a pest to garden plants. But marine slugs usually are beautifully coloured animals belonging to the less-known Opisthobranchia. They are characterized by a large array of interesting biological phenomena, usually related to foraging and/or defence. In this paper our knowledge of shell reduction, correlated with the evolution of different defensive and foraging strategies is reviewed, and new results on histology of different glandular systems are included. Results Based on a phylogeny obtained by morphological and histological data, the parallel reduction of the shell within the different groups is outlined. Major food sources are given and glandular structures are described as possible defensive structures in the external epithelia, and as internal glands. Conclusion According to phylogenetic analyses, the reduction of the shell correlates with the evolution of defensive strategies. Many different kinds of defence structures, like cleptocnides, mantle dermal formations (MDFs), and acid glands, are only present in shell-less slugs. In several cases, it is not clear whether the defensive devices were a prerequisite for the reduction of the shell, or reduction occurred before. Reduction of the shell and acquisition of different defensive structures had an implication on exploration of new food sources and therefore likely enhanced adaptive radiation of several groups. PMID:15715915

Wagele, Heike; Klussmann-Kolb, Annette

2005-01-01

325

Evidence for accumulation of Synechococcus elongatus (Cyanobacteria: Cyanophyceae) in the tissues of the oyster Crassostrea gigas (Mollusca: Bivalvia).  

PubMed

Cyanobacteria appear to have direct relations with mollusks in several aspects. This is the first time, distinguishing Gram-negative cyanoprokaryotic Synechococcus elongatus as bright yellow-gold autofluorescence by Lillie's and Hiss' staining methods on paraffin-embedded tissues of Crassostrea gigas. Three diets: cyanoprokaryotes, cyanoprokaryotes with microalgae, and only microalgae were evaluated. Cyanoprokaryotes were intact, densely bundled, and immersed in the cytosol of the digestive gland, connective tissue, mantle, and gonad of C. gigas, revealing an accumulation systemic without tissue damage observed by histology. Unexpectedly, cyanoprokaryotes were slightly most accumulated with microalgae diet by each of the tissues of the C. gigas than with any other diets. Cyanoprokaryotes tend to be in mean slightly higher in the digestive gland than in any other tissues respectively for each diet, although these values are closely similar to connective tissue. A possible order of exposure of the oyster tissues to accumulation of cyanoprokaryotes was digestive gland, connective tissue, mantle, and gonad. Thereby, the digestive gland could be the major target tissue for the accumulation. Our observations provide a valuable insight regarding the ability of cyanoprokaryotes to penetrate, spread, and remain inside the oyster tissues, suggesting for S. elongatus: (1) a pre-accumulation in oyster tissues from the natural environment, (2) a phagocytosis and/or endocytosis process rather than ingestion and extracellular digestion, (3) an apparent cellular division in the cytosol of oyster tissues, (4) an apparent inter-tissue movement, and (5) a possible endosymbiosis between C. gigas and S. elongatus. Hereby, it is possible that S. elongatus have a well-developed host-endobiont relationship with oysters, and thereby support future work toward a description of the escape and spreading mechanisms of S. elongatus inside the tissues of mollusks, and put forward questions as why it is there? and are the cells active or inactive? PMID:25109761

Avila-Poveda, Omar Hernando; Torres-Ariño, Alejandra; Girón-Cruz, Diego Ademir; Cuevas-Aguirre, Angel

2014-10-01

326

On growth and form of irregular coiled-shell of a terrestrial snail: Plectostoma concinnum (Fulton, 1901) (Mollusca: Caenogastropoda: Diplommatinidae).  

PubMed

The molluscan shell can be viewed as a petrified representation of the organism's ontogeny and thus can be used as a record of changes in form during growth. However, little empirical data is available on the actual growth and form of shells, as these are hard to quantify and examine simultaneously. To address these issues, we studied the growth and form of a land snail that has an irregularly coiled and heavily ornamented shell-Plectostoma concinnum. The growth data were collected in a natural growth experiment and the actual form changes of the aperture during shell ontogeny were quantified. We used an ontogeny axis that allows data of growth and form to be analysed simultaneously. Then, we examined the association between the growth and the form during three different whorl growing phases, namely, the regular coiled spire phase, the transitional constriction phase, and the distortedly-coiled tuba phase. In addition, we also explored the association between growth rate and the switching between whorl growing mode and rib growing mode. As a result, we show how the changes in the aperture ontogeny profiles in terms of aperture shape, size and growth trajectory, and the changes in growth rates, are associated with the different shell forms at different parts of the shell ontogeny. These associations suggest plausible constraints that underlie the three different shell ontogeny phases and the two different growth modes. We found that the mechanism behind the irregularly coiled-shell is the rotational changes of the animal's body and mantle edge with respect to the previously secreted shell. Overall, we propose that future study should focus on the role of the mantle and the columellar muscular system in the determination of shell form. PMID:24883245

Liew, Thor-Seng; Kok, Annebelle C M; Schilthuizen, Menno; Urdy, Severine

2014-01-01

327

Where's Waldo? A new commensal species, Waldo arthuri (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Galeommatidae), from the Northeastern Pacific Ocean.  

PubMed

A galeommatid bivalve mollusk, representing a new species, is described from off the coasts of California and Vancouver Island, British Columbia. The new bivalve has a commensal relationship with the heart urchin, Brisaster latifrons. It has been observed crawling between the oral spines of this urchin, frequently near the peristome. The bivalve has been recorded from 80 (Vancouver Island) to 444 (southern California) meters depth, in muddy sediments. In common with other galeommatoideans, the new species broods its young; however it differs from the large majority of commensal members in lacking planktotrophic larval development. Waldo arthuri, new species, has multiple morphological, ecological and developmental similarities to other members of the genus Waldo Nicol, 1966, from the southern Atlantic and Antarctic Oceans. This is most pronounced for the Argentine species, Waldo paucitentaculatus Zelaya & Ituarte, 2013, Waldo arthuri's sister speciesin nuclear and mitochondrial gene trees. Despite this close relationship, Waldo arthuri is phylogentically distinct and possesses several hinge, shell sculpture, foot, and mantle tentacle characteristics that merit its description as new. PMID:23878515

Valentich-Scott, Paul; O Foighil, Diarmaid; Li, Jingchun

2013-01-01

328

Spatial diversity of rocky midlittoral macro-invertebrates associated with the endangered species Patella ferruginea (Mollusca: Gastropoda) of Tunisian coastline  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study focuses on horizontal spatial variability of benthic macrofauna associated with Patella ferruginea. Thirty-six samples collected at 12 transects belonging to 4 midlittoral sites along the rocky Tunisian coastline, were examined. A total of 44 species belonging to 5 taxa were found. Multivariate analysis applied on gathered data did not show a horizontal spatial variability at small scale (between transects), but at large scale, between sites as well as sectors. Thus, three groups of communities were identified (GI: Korbous and El Haouaria; GIIa: Zembra Island and GIIb: Kelibia). The distribution of species abundance within these groups revealed that crustaceans were the most abundant taxon, due to the overwhelming dominance of Chthamalus stellatus. This substratum appeared to create favourable micro-habitats for the installation of molluscs including gastropods. Regarding the low diversity index ( H') and evenness ( J), they seemed to reflect a disturbance and a demographic unbalance within these communities. The heterogeneity of substrate surface, created by C. stellatus specimens appeared to be caused by various complex interactions established between the key components of these communities in particular suspension feeders, predators, herbivorous molluscs and macroalgae. Thus, the dynamic status of each of these communities is the result of these complex interactions.

Tlig-Zouari, Sabiha; Rabaoui, Lotfi; Fguiri, Hosni; Diawara, Moctar; Ben Hassine, Oum Kalthoum

2010-04-01

329

Evolutionary Pattern and Process within the Vertigo gouldii (Mollusca: Pulmonata, Pupillidae) group of minute North American Land Snails  

PubMed Central

A phylogenetic analysis of 19 sibling taxa in the Vertigo gouldii group was conducted on 73 individuals sampled across North America using DNA sequence data of the mitochondrial genes cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) and 16S ribosomal RNA (16S), and the internal transcribed spacer-2 of the nuclear ribosomal RNA (ITS-2) gene. The results of these analyses were found incongruent with previous taxonomic concepts used to define the V. gouldii group and its composite taxa that were based entirely on conchological features. The mtDNA sequence data suggest that some previous members of the traditional V. gouldii group may be more closely related to V. modesta. They also suggest that V. gouldii may itself consist of seven species-level branches spread across two deeply rooted clades. Revision of geographical distributions on the basis of these analyses suggests that these Vertigo species may commonly possess continental-sized ranges in spite of their minute size and limited active dispersal ability. High levels of sympatry within the group are also confirmed, with up to four species being known to co-occur within single microsites. These data also suggest that rates of diversification have been non-constant. Assuming a 1%/my rate of base pair substitution, a 10-fold diversification pulse is indicated from 6.7-7.0 myBP, which would be co-incident with known mid-late Miocene global climate changes. PMID:19766197

Nekola, Jeffrey C.; Coles, Brian F.; Bergthorsson, Ulfar

2010-01-01

330

The mitochondrial genome of Ifremeria nautilei and the phylogenetic position of the enigmatic deep-sea Abyssochrysoidea (Mollusca: Gastropoda).  

PubMed

The complete nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial (mt) genome of the deep-sea vent snail Ifremeria nautilei (Gastropoda: Abyssochrysoidea) was determined. The double stranded circular molecule is 15,664 pb in length and encodes for the typical 37 metazoan mitochondrial genes. The gene arrangement of the Ifremeria mt genome is most similar to genome organization of caenogastropods and differs only on the relative position of the trnW gene. The deduced amino acid sequences of the mt protein coding genes of Ifremeria mt genome were aligned with orthologous sequences from representatives of the main lineages of gastropods and phylogenetic relationships were inferred. The reconstructed phylogeny supports that Ifremeria belongs to Caenogastropoda and that it is closely related to hypsogastropod superfamilies. Results were compared with a reconstructed nuclear-based phylogeny. Moreover, a relaxed molecular-clock timetree calibrated with fossils dated the divergence of Abyssochrysoidea in the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous indicating a relatively modern colonization of deep-sea environments by these snails. PMID:24967939

Osca, David; Templado, José; Zardoya, Rafael

2014-09-01

331

Sequence analysis of the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer region in some scallop species (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Pectinidae).  

PubMed

The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the ribosomal DNA from the European scallops Aequipecten opercularis, Mimachlamys varia, Hinnites distortus, and Pecten maximus was PCR amplified and sequenced. For each species, three or five clones were examined. The size ranged between 636 and 713 bp (ITS1, 209-276 bp; 5.8S rRNA gene, 157 bp; ITS2, 270-294 bp) and GC content ranged between 47 and 50% (ITS1, 43-49%; 5.8S rRNA gene, 56-57%; ITS2, 44-49%). Variation within repeats was minimal; only clones from M. varia and P. maximus displayed a few variable sites in ITS2. Among scallops, including Chlamys farreri whose ITS sequence appears in databases, significant variation was observed in both ITS1 and ITS2. Phylogenetic analysis using ITS1, ITS2, or both spacer sequences always yielded trees with similar topology. Aequipecten opercularis and P. maximus grouped in one clade and the other three scallops (C. farreri, M. varia, and H. distortus) in another, where M. varia and H. distortus are the more closely related species. These results provide new insights into the evolutionary relationships of scallop species and corroborate the close evolutionary relationship between the tribes Aequipectinini and Pectinini previously deduced from 18S rDNA sequences. PMID:12897868

Insua, Ana; López-Piñón, María J; Freire, Ruth; Méndez, Josefina

2003-08-01

332

Long-term effects of ammonia on the behavioral activity of the aquatic snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Hydrobiidae, Mollusca).  

PubMed

An appropriate approach to assess the effect of toxicants on aquatic animals is to monitor behavioral endpoints, as they are a link between physiological and ecological processes. A group that can be exposed long-term to low toxic concentrations is benthic macroinvertebrates, as their mobility in aquatic ecosystems is relatively limited. Therefore, the study of behavioral long-term effects in this group is suitable from an ecological point of view, as behavioral effects can appear before mortality. During the last decades there has been an increase in ammonia concentrations in freshwater ecosystems, threatening aquatic animals. The present study focuses on the long-term effects (40 days) of nonionized ammonia on the behavioral activity of the aquatic snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum. One control and three ammonia concentrations (0.02, 0.07, and 0.13 mg N-NH(3)/L) were used in triplicate, and the activity of snails (as mean time to start normal movement) and immobility were recorded for each treatment after 0, 10, 20, 30, and 40 days of continuous exposure to nonionized ammonia. The results show that P. antipodarum presented a high tolerance to lethal long-term effects of nonionized ammonia, as no animal died during the bioassay. However, the behavioral activity of snails was a very sensitivity endpoint, as a mean nonionized ammonia concentration of 0.07 mg N-NH(3)/L affected P. antipodarum. The results are discussed and compared with the available literature on long-term effects of ammonia on freshwater macroinvertebrates. Additionally, the ammonia water quality criteria, NOECs, LOECs, and long-term LCs are discussed on the basis of the current available data for freshwater macroinvertebrates. PMID:19039513

Alonso, Alvaro; Camargo, Julio A

2009-05-01

333

Subchronic Toxic Effects of Fluoride Ion on the Survival and Behaviour of the Aquatic Snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Hydrobiidae, Mollusca)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Short-term bioassays usually assess lethal effects of pollutants in animals, whereas subchronic bioassays are more suited\\u000a for assessing effects on animal behaviour. Among them, videotaped bioassays are an improvement in the behavioural monitoring\\u000a because they are easily and cheaply implemented. The present study focuses on the assessment of subchronic (14-day) effects\\u000a of fluoride ion on the survival, proportion of dead

Álvaro Alonso; Julio A. Camargo

2011-01-01

334

Nitrate causes deleterious effects on the behaviour and reproduction of the aquatic snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Hydrobiidae, Mollusca).  

PubMed

Nitrate (NO3 (-)) is present in aquatic ecosystems as a natural component of the nitrogen cycle. However, in the last decades, several human activities are the causes of the rising amounts of organic matter and inorganic nitrogen nutrients in aquatic ecosystems, causing notable increase of nitrate above background natural levels. In spite of the toxicity of nitrate to aquatic animals, there are relatively few studies on the chronic toxicity of this compound to invertebrates. The aim of our study is to assess the effect of chronic (35 days) exposure to nitrate on the behaviour (velocity of movement) and reproduction (number of newborns) of the aquatic snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum. Four actual concentrations of nitrate were used (21.4, 44.9, 81.8 and 156.1 mg?N-NO3 (-)/L). In each treatment, 12 animals were individually monitored for velocity (weekly) and newborn production (every 3-4 days). Velocity was recorded using quantitative video monitoring. Our results showed that nitrate did not cause mortality, but it reduced the velocity of movement (at 44.9, 81.8 and 156.1 mg?N-NO3 (-)/L) and number of live newborns (in all tested concentrations). Reproductive impairment was caused at realistic nitrate concentrations which is relevant to the risk assessment of this compound. Our study contributes to the knowledge of the chronic effects of nitrate on the behaviour and reproduction of an aquatic snail. PMID:23417439

Álonso, Alvaro; Camargo, Julio A

2013-08-01

335

Purification of cadmium-binding proteins from related species of terrestrial helicidae (gastropoda, mollusca): A comparative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three species of terrestrial Helicidae (Helix pomatia, Cepaea hortensis andArianta arbustorum) were fed cadmium-rich diet in the laboratory. The snails accumulated high amounts of the metal in their hepatopancreas. Most cadmium and some zinc were found, after centrifugation, in the soluble fractions from which a cadmium-binding protein was isolated for each species by ion exchange and gel chromatography. The proteins

Reinhard Dallinger; Burkhard Berger; Andrea Bauer-Hilty

1989-01-01

336

Effect of heavy metals (Cu, Cd and Pb) on aspartate and alanine aminotransferase in Ruditapes philippinarum (Mollusca: Bivalvia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accumulation of cadmium, copper and lead and their effects on aspartate and alanine aminotransferases in digestive gland, gills, foot and soft body in the clam Ruditapes philippinarum were examined. The animals were exposed to different concentrations: Cd (200–600 ?g·l?1), Pb (350–700 ?g·l?1) and Cu (10–20 ?g·l?1) for 7 days. The highest concentrations were found in digestive gland for cadmium

J Blasco; J Puppo

1999-01-01

337

Differential transcriptomic responses of Biomphalaria glabrata (Gastropoda, Mollusca) to bacteria and metazoan parasites, Schistosoma mansoni and Echinostoma paraensei (Digenea, Platyhelminthes)  

PubMed Central

A 70-mer oligonucleotide-based microarray (1152 features) that emphasizes stress and immune responses factors was constructed to study transcriptomic responses of the snail Biomphalaria glabrata to different immune challenges. In addition to sequences with relevant putative ID and Gene Ontology (GO) annotation, the array features non-immune factors and unknown B. glabrata ESTs for functional gene discovery. The transcription profiles of B. glabrata (3 biological replicates, each a pool of 5 snails) were recorded at 12 hours post wounding, exposure to Gram negative or Gram positive bacteria (Escherichia coli and Micrococcus luteus, respectively), or infection with compatible trematode parasites (S. mansoni or E. paraensei, 20 miracidia/snail), relative to controls, using universal reference RNA. The data were subjected to Significance Analysis for Microarrays (SAM), with a false positive rate (FPR) ?10%. Wounding yielded a modest differential expression profile (27 up/21 down) with affected features mostly dissimilar from other treatments. Partially overlapping, yet distinct expression profiles were recorded from snails challenged with E. coli (83 up/20 down) or M. luteus (120 up/42 down), mostly showing up-regulation of defense and stress-related features. Significantly altered expression of selected immune features indicates that B. glabrata detects and responds differently to compatible trematodes. Echinostoma paraensei infection was associated mostly with down regulation of many (immune-) transcripts (42 up/68 down), whereas S. mansoni exposure yielded a preponderance of up-regulated features (140 up/23 down), with only few known immune genes affected. These observations may reflect the divergent strategies developed by trematodes during their evolution as specialized pathogens of snails to negate host defense responses. Clearly, the immune defenses of B. glabrata distinguish and respond differently to various immune challenges. PMID:19962194

Adema, Coen M; Hanington, Patrick C.; Lun, Cheng-Man; Rosenberg, George H.; Aragon, Anthony D; Stout, Barbara A; Richard, Mara L. Lennard; Gross, Paul S.; Loker, Eric S

2009-01-01

338

Especially for High School Teachers: The Chat Stool  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A new classroom technique called "stool time", which can be used while teaching chemistry to students is described. It is advised that in a break from lecture, the teacher should shift to a wooden stool to share an anecdote, a bit of information about a famous figure of science, which will help the students to see the teacher more as a person.

Jacobson, Erica K.

2004-01-01

339

Timber-Frame Houses Especially for Allergic Families.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A strategy for dwellings adapted to allergic persons (families) has been developed and a case-study on the indoor air quality (IAQ) in six (6) prefabricated timber-frame houses has been performed. A list of criteria for the IAQ was established before the ...

B. I. Andersson, S. Saloe

1995-01-01

340

Water is Vital--Especially after a Disaster  

E-print Network

Dehydration can be a serious threat after a disaster, when supplies of clean drinking water may be limited. Learn how you can find and use hidden sources of water in your home and purify water to make it safe for drinking....

Crocker, Andrew

2005-10-10

341

Approaches to Costing Adult Literacy Programmes, Especially in Africa  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: This study was originally prepared for the African Inter-Ministerial Conference on Literacy (September 2007) with the objective of analysing the costs of successful adult literacy programmes run both by government ministries, as well as international and national non-governmental organisations. Objectives: This study aims to increase…

Carr-Hill, Roy; Roberts, Fiona; Currie, Elizabeth

2010-01-01

342

Immune mechanisms in atherosclerosis, especially in diabetes type 2.  

PubMed

Atherosclerosis and ensuing cardiovascular disease (CVD) are major complications of diabetes type 2. Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory condition involving immunocompetent cells of different types present in the lesions. Even though inflammation and immune activation may be more pronounced in atherosclerosis in diabetes type 2, there does not appear to be any major differences between diabetics and non-diabetics. Similar factors are thus implicated in atherosclerosis-associated immune activation in both groups. The cause of immune activation is not known and different mutually non-exclusive possibilities exist. Oxidized and/or enzymatically modified forms of low-density lipoprotein (OxLDL) and dead cells are present in atherosclerotic plaques. OxLDL could play a role, being pro-inflammatory and immunostimulatory as it activates T-cells and is cytotoxic at higher concentrations. Inflammatory phospholipids in OxLDL are implicated, with phosphorylcholine (PC) as one of the exposed antigens. Antibodies against PC (anti-PC) are anti-atherogenic in mouse studies, and anti-PC is negatively associated with development of atherosclerosis and CVD in humans. Bacteria and virus have been discussed as potential causes of immune activation, but it has been difficult to find direct evidence supporting this hypothesis, and antibiotic trials in humans have been negative or inconclusive. Heat shock proteins (HSP) could be one major target for atherogenic immune reactions. More direct causes of plaque rupture include cytokines such as interleukin 1? (IL-1?), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and also lipid mediators as leukotrienes. In addition, in diabetes, hyperglycemia and oxidative stress appear to accelerate the development of atherosclerosis, one mechanism could be via promotion of immune reactions. To prove that immune reactions are causative of atherosclerosis and CVD, further studies with immune-modulatory treatments are needed. PMID:24194733

Frostegård, Johan

2013-01-01

343

Problem Based Learning, Especially in the Context of Large Classes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This webpage from McMaster University in Canada describes one approach using small groups for using problem-based learning in teaching large classes. The focus of the authors is on teaching medical students but they also describe use of this approach in teaching civil engineering students, geography, etc. Links are provided to pdf files containing useful resources for instructors on being a good coach, assessment, and literature references to pbl.

2011-04-21

344

SURVIVAL AND MOVEMENTS OF AFRICAN PENGUINS, ESPECIALLY AFTER OILING.  

E-print Network

Thesis Presented for the Degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY in the Department of Statistical Sciences. of Statistical Sciences University of Cape Town Rondebosch 7701 South Africa Doctor R.J.M. Crawford Marine rates for adult penguins and for those in their first year of life. The proportion of hand

de Villiers, Marienne

345

LOS ÓRDENES DE LA VIOLENCIA: ESPECIE, SEXO Y GÉNERO 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

En la actualidad estamos asistiendo a un ejercicio de ingeniería social consistente en presentar, como un hecho, como conocimiento de sentido común, la contrapos ición violentos\\/demócratas. Se considera incuestionable que violencia y democracia forman una antinomia, dos formas de abordar las cuestiones políticas opuestas y mutu amente excluyentes. Un trabajo paralelo es el que se está haciendo en relación a

MARÍA JESÚS IZQUIERDO

1998-01-01

346

Radiation reaction: general approach and applications, especially to electrodynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiation reaction (but, more generally, fluctuations and dissipation) occurs when a system interacts with a heat bath, a particular case being the interaction of an electron with the radiation field. We have developed a general theory for the case of a quantum particle in a general potential (but, in more detail, an oscillator potential) coupled to an arbitrary heat bath

R. F. OConnell

2012-01-01

347

INFORME ESPECIAL Explosin de Caribbean Petroleum en Bayamn, PR  

E-print Network

origen no natural de interés: el "World Trade Center", el colapso de la Mina "Crandall Canyon" y la explosión del submarino nuclear ruso Kursk. Para el caso del "World Trade Center" (11 de septiembre de 2001

Gilbes, Fernando

348

Physical Activity May Boost School Performance, Especially for Boys  

MedlinePLUS

... Researchers assessed the activity levels and reading and math skills of 186 Finnish children in grades 1 ... connection between participation in organized sports and higher math test scores. In particular, boys with higher levels ...

349

Water is Vital--Especially after a Disaster (Spanish)  

E-print Network

ER-030S 10-07 El agua es vital ? especialmente despu?s de un desastre La deshidrataci?n tiene lugar cuando el cuerpo pierde demasiada agua. Cuando usted deja de tomar agua, sus c?lulas y tejidos pierden fluidos esenciales, sus m?sculos comienzan... a cansarse y puede sufrir calambres en las piernas o sentirse d?bil. La deshidrataci?n extrema puede colapsar los vasos sangu?neos. Una persona normalmente activa necesita beber al menos 2 cuartos de gal?n de agua por d?a. En un ambiente caluroso...

Crocker, Andrew

2007-10-08

350

Progress Lags in High School, Especially for Advanced Achievers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report by the Center on Education Policy (CEP), an independent nonprofit organization, examines trends in the achievement of high school students on the state reading/English language arts (ELA) and mathematics tests used for accountability under the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB). This study confirms that there is reason for concern about…

Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2012

2012-01-01

351

The Importance of Archived Programmatic Collections: Minerals Management Service and Department of  

E-print Network

species and coastal pollution effects. - Data useful for Census of Life study and environmental impact that Compare Changes in Biodiversity over Time Porifera Cnidaria Echinodermata Annelida Mollusca Arthropoda

Mathis, Wayne N.

352

Foods of Spectacled Eiders Somateria fischeri in the Bering Sea, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The winter diet of Spectacled Eiders living in marine habitats is known only from two individuals described by Cottam (1939). Here we examine marine diets from 36 stomachs collected near St. Lawrence Island, Bering Sea, Alaska, during May-June in 1987 and 1992. All Spectacled Eiders ate Mollusca, including Gastropoda (snails; frequency of occurrence 20.0%; sole taxon 0.0%) and Bivalvia (bivalves; 80.0%; 48.0%), and Crustacea (barnacles, amphipods and crabs; 30.6%; 0.0%). One bird ate a cod. The predominant species group eaten was Macoma Clams (72.0%; 36.0%). Prey species of Spectacled Eiders occur predominantly in waters 25-60 m deep in the Bering Sea. To obtain these prey, especially the bivalves, on the winter area Spectacled Eiders must forage in waters exceeding 40 m. We speculate that Spectacled Eiders regularly forage at depths of 45-70 m throughout winter.

Petersen, M. R.; Piatt, J. F.; Trust, K. A.

1998-01-01

353

The effects of predation and unionid burrowing on bivalve communities in a Laurentian Great Lake coastal wetland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unionid (Mollusca: Unionidae) densities have declined dramatically throughout the Laurentian Great Lakes after the introduction of dreissenid mussels (Mollusca: Dreissenidae). Recent surveys in some Great Lake coastal wetlands have found abundant unionid populations, but the factors that reduce zebra mussels on unionids in these habitats are not well understood. In 2001–2002, we tested effects of predation and unionid burrowing on

Richard Bowers; Judy C. Sudomir; Mark W. Kershner; Ferenc A. de Szalay

2005-01-01

354

NOTES ON THE PHARMACOLOGY OF THE HEARTS OF ARIOLIMAX COLUMBIANUS AND ASTACUS TROWBRIDGEI  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Mollusca the mediator acetyicholine has been found to be a cardiac inhibitor, while in the Arthropoda it is strongly stimulatory to cardiac action. Atropine has been found to abolish the action of acetyl choline in Arthropoda (Welsh, 1939a, 1939b ; Hamilton, 1939) but not in Mollusca (Jullien, 1936; Prosser, 1940, etc.). In both groups, as well as in

DEMOREST DAVENPORT; J. W. LOOMIS; CHARLOTTE F. OPLER

355

The fine structure of the polymorphic spermatozoa of Fusitriton oregonensis (Mollusca: Gastropoda), with notes on the cytochemistry of the internal secretions.  

PubMed

The prosobranch Fusitriton oregonensis exhibits an unusual form of sperm polymorphism. The viable, eupyrene sperm are attached in groups of about fifty to worm-shaped, apyrene, carrier sperm. There is a second apyrene sperm, which is lancet-shaped and has a different internal organization than the carrier, but does not transport eupyrene sperm. The eupyrene sperm are filiform (185 microns long), with a conical acrosome, elongate nucleus and midpiece. They contain large stores of glycogen in the principal piece, together with an unusually high proportion of protein. The latter is due to a complex interconnecting system of fibres that supports the tail internally. A distinct annulus is located, characteristically, at the junction between midpiece and principal piece. The carrier sperm has a core of about 112 axonemes that arise from basal bodies in the anterior end and extend through its entire length of 36 microns. The basal bodies have unstriated rootlets that are embedded in a granular cap. Large membrane-bound "yolk bodies" are arranged along the length of the carrier sperm, on either side of the median axonemal core. Dense bodies, which may be indigestible residues formed from the degeneration of the nucleus, are excreted by exocytosis. Individual carrier sperm are capable of "corkscrew" propulsion, resembling that of spirochaetes. The lancet sperm is three times as long as the carrier. The sixteen or so axonemes, which are arranged peripherally like a cage enclosing the cytoplasm, originate from a dense centriolar plate in the anterior end. The cytoplasm is filled with secretions including small yolk granules, dense bodies (also excreted), clear vesicles, and a membranated granular secretion that resembles mucus. The possible functions of the lancet and carrier sperm are discussed. PMID:7151124

Buckland-Nicks, J; Williams, D; Chia, F S; Fontaine, A

1982-01-01

356

Mitochondrial phylogenomics of the Bivalvia (Mollusca): searching for the origin and mitogenomic correlates of doubly uniparental inheritance of mtDNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Doubly uniparental inheritance (DUI) is an atypical system of animal mtDNA inheritance found only in some bivalves. Under DUI, maternally (F genome) and paternally (M genome) transmitted mtDNAs yield two distinct gender-associated mtDNA lineages. The oldest distinct M and F genomes are found in freshwater mussels (order Unionoida). Comparative analyses of unionoid mitochondrial genomes and a robust phylogenetic framework

Hélène Doucet-Beaupré; Sophie Breton; Eric G. Chapman; Pierre U. Blier; Arthur E. Bogan; Donald T. Stewart; Walter R. Hoeh

2010-01-01

357

Mitochondrial phylogenomics of the Bivalvia (Mollusca): searching for the origin and mitogenomic correlates of doubly uniparental inheritance of mtDNA  

PubMed Central

Background Doubly uniparental inheritance (DUI) is an atypical system of animal mtDNA inheritance found only in some bivalves. Under DUI, maternally (F genome) and paternally (M genome) transmitted mtDNAs yield two distinct gender-associated mtDNA lineages. The oldest distinct M and F genomes are found in freshwater mussels (order Unionoida). Comparative analyses of unionoid mitochondrial genomes and a robust phylogenetic framework are necessary to elucidate the origin, function and molecular evolutionary consequences of DUI. Herein, F and M genomes from three unionoid species, Venustaconcha ellipsiformis, Pyganodon grandis and Quadrula quadrula have been sequenced. Comparative genomic analyses were carried out on these six genomes along with two F and one M unionoid genomes from GenBank (F and M genomes of Inversidens japanensis and F genome of Lampsilis ornata). Results Compared to their unionoid F counterparts, the M genomes contain some unique features including a novel localization of the trnH gene, an inversion of the atp8-trnD genes and a unique 3'coding extension of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit II gene. One or more of these unique M genome features could be causally associated with paternal transmission. Unionoid bivalves are characterized by extreme intraspecific sequence divergences between gender-associated mtDNAs with an average of 50% for V. ellipsiformis, 50% for I. japanensis, 51% for P. grandis and 52% for Q. quadrula (uncorrected amino acid p-distances). Phylogenetic analyses of 12 protein-coding genes from 29 bivalve and five outgroup mt genomes robustly indicate bivalve monophyly and the following branching order within the autolamellibranch bivalves: ((Pteriomorphia, Veneroida) Unionoida). Conclusion The basal nature of the Unionoida within the autolamellibranch bivalves and the previously hypothesized single origin of DUI suggest that (1) DUI arose in the ancestral autolamellibranch bivalve lineage and was subsequently lost in multiple descendant lineages and (2) the mitochondrial genome characteristics observed in unionoid bivalves could more closely resemble the DUI ancestral condition. Descriptions and comparisons presented in this paper are fundamental to a more complete understanding regarding the origins and consequences of DUI. PMID:20167078

2010-01-01

358

It's not what it looks like: molecular data fails to substantiate morphological differences in two sea hares (Mollusca, Heterobranchia, Aplysiidae) from southern Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Species of sea hares have been recognized traditionally based on morphological traits, mainly the radula, external coloration, and reproductive anatomy. However, recent studies have shown substantial color variation in some sea slug species. Molecular data have been successfully used to differentiate morphologically similar species of "opisthobranchs" and resolve questions on the taxonomic value of color. The objective of this paper is to use molecular data in an attempt to elucidate whether specimens of Aplysia brasiliana with distinct colorations and morphologies are actually the same species. To this end, DNA from 14 specimens of A. brasiliana was extracted, including five specimens identified as a distinct morphotype from typical A. brasiliana. Although the two morphotypes have consistent differences in their external morphology and radula, the molecular data confirmed that there are no significant genetic differences between them. This is another example of the need to re-evaluate taxonomic decisions based on morphology in light of molecular evidence.

Saad, Luiza de Oliveira; Cunha, Carlo Magenta; Colpo, Karine Delevati; Valdés, Ángel

2014-12-01

359

The Complete Mitochondrial Genome of the Land Snail Cornu aspersum (Helicidae: Mollusca): Intra-Specific Divergence of Protein-Coding Genes and Phylogenetic Considerations within Euthyneura  

PubMed Central

The complete sequences of three mitochondrial genomes from the land snail Cornu aspersum were determined. The mitogenome has a length of 14050 bp, and it encodes 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and two ribosomal RNA genes. It also includes nine small intergene spacers, and a large AT-rich intergenic spacer. The intra-specific divergence analysis revealed that COX1 has the lower genetic differentiation, while the most divergent genes were NADH1, NADH3 and NADH4. With the exception of Euhadra herklotsi, the structural comparisons showed the same gene order within the family Helicidae, and nearly identical gene organization to that found in order Pulmonata. Phylogenetic reconstruction recovered Basommatophora as polyphyletic group, whereas Eupulmonata and Pulmonata as paraphyletic groups. Bayesian and Maximum Likelihood analyses showed that C. aspersum is a close relative of Cepaea nemoralis, and with the other Helicidae species form a sister group of Albinaria caerulea, supporting the monophyly of the Stylommatophora clade. PMID:23826260

Gaitan-Espitia, Juan Diego; Nespolo, Roberto F.; Opazo, Juan C.

2013-01-01

360

Studies on the anatomy and ecological distribution of Dentalium texasianum Philippi 1848 in West Bay of the Galveston Bay complex (Mollusca: scaphopoda  

E-print Network

Galveston Bay and the north shore of Bolivar peninsula. Shell was present 25 only near Redfish and Hanna reefs. In West Bay the sediment east of Carancahua Reef was described as silty sand to clayey silt, Sand was prevalent near San Luis Pass, the north... Galveston Bay and the north shore of Bolivar peninsula. Shell was present 25 only near Redfish and Hanna reefs. In West Bay the sediment east of Carancahua Reef was described as silty sand to clayey silt, Sand was prevalent near San Luis Pass, the north...

Peterson, Larry Randal

2012-06-07

361

Remarks on the fossil genus Vultogryphaea Vyalov (Pelecypoda: Mollusca) with description of a new species from Cretaceous beds of South India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presence of orbicular muscle mark close to hinge margin and typical exogyriid ligamental area characterised by twisted nature,\\u000a indistinct anterior bourrelet and sharp-crested posterior bourrelet as revealed in our recently acquired material confirms\\u000a placement of the genusVultogryphaea Vyalov to subfamily Exogyrinae as proposed by Stenzel. New speciesVultogryphaea erumanurensis comes from Erumanur, Vriddachalam area, Tamil Nadu. The present material takes the

R M Badve

1981-01-01

362

Emergence, Development, and Maturity of the Gonad of Two Species of Chitons "Sea Cockroach" (Mollusca: Polyplacophora) through the Early Life Stages  

PubMed Central

This study describes and recognises, using histological and microscopical examinations on a morphometrical basis, several gonad traits through the early life stages of Chiton articulatus and C. albolineatus. Gonadal ontogenesis, gonad development stages, sexual differentiation, onset of the first sexual maturity, and growth sequences or “early life stages” were determined. In addition, allometry between lengths and body weight pooled for both sexes per each chiton were calculated using equation Y?=?aXb. A total of 125 chitons (4?TL?40 mm, in total length “TL”) were used. All allometric relations showed a strong positive correlation (r), close to 1, with b-values above three, indicating an isometric growth. Gonadal ontogenesis and gonad development stages were categorised into three periods (“Pw” without gonad, “Pe” gonad emergence, and “Pf” gonadal sac formed) and four stages (“S0” gametocytogenesis, “S1” gametogenesis, “S2” mature, and “S3” spawning), respectively. Compound digital images were attained for each process. Periods and stages are overlapped among them and between species, with the following overall confidence intervals in TL: Pw 6.13–14.32 mm, Pe 10.32–16.93 mm, Pf 12.99–25.01 mm, S0 16.08–24.34 mm (females) and 19.51–26.60 mm (males), S1 27.15–35.63 mm (females) and 23.45–32.27 mm (males), S2 24.48–40.24 mm (females) and 25.45–32.87 mm (males). Sexual differentiation (in S0) of both chitons occurs first as a female then as a male; although, males reach the onset of the first sexual maturity earlier than females, thus for C. articulatus males at 17 mm and females at 32 mm, and for C. albolineatus males at 23.5 mm and females at 28 mm, all in TL. Four early life stages (i.e., subjuvenile, juvenile, subadult, and adult) are described and proposed to distinguish growth sequences. Our results may be useful to diverse disciplines, from developmental biology to fisheries management. PMID:23936353

Avila-Poveda, Omar Hernando; Abadia-Chanona, Quetzalli Yasu

2013-01-01

363

Emergence, development, and maturity of the gonad of two species of chitons "sea cockroach" (Mollusca: Polyplacophora) through the early life stages.  

PubMed

This study describes and recognises, using histological and microscopical examinations on a morphometrical basis, several gonad traits through the early life stages of Chiton articulatus and C. albolineatus. Gonadal ontogenesis, gonad development stages, sexual differentiation, onset of the first sexual maturity, and growth sequences or "early life stages" were determined. In addition, allometry between lengths and body weight pooled for both sexes per each chiton were calculated using equation Y?=?aX(b) . A total of 125 chitons (4?TL?40 mm, in total length "TL") were used. All allometric relations showed a strong positive correlation (r), close to 1, with b-values above three, indicating an isometric growth. Gonadal ontogenesis and gonad development stages were categorised into three periods ("Pw" without gonad, "Pe" gonad emergence, and "Pf" gonadal sac formed) and four stages ("S0" gametocytogenesis, "S1" gametogenesis, "S2" mature, and "S3" spawning), respectively. Compound digital images were attained for each process. Periods and stages are overlapped among them and between species, with the following overall confidence intervals in TL: Pw 6.13-14.32 mm, Pe 10.32-16.93 mm, Pf 12.99-25.01 mm, S0 16.08-24.34 mm (females) and 19.51-26.60 mm (males), S1 27.15-35.63 mm (females) and 23.45-32.27 mm (males), S2 24.48-40.24 mm (females) and 25.45-32.87 mm (males). Sexual differentiation (in S0) of both chitons occurs first as a female then as a male; although, males reach the onset of the first sexual maturity earlier than females, thus for C. articulatus males at 17 mm and females at 32 mm, and for C. albolineatus males at 23.5 mm and females at 28 mm, all in TL. Four early life stages (i.e., subjuvenile, juvenile, subadult, and adult) are described and proposed to distinguish growth sequences. Our results may be useful to diverse disciplines, from developmental biology to fisheries management. PMID:23936353

Avila-Poveda, Omar Hernando; Abadia-Chanona, Quetzalli Yasú

2013-01-01

364

Abra segmentum (Mollusca: Pelecypoda) of the Lesina Lagoon (Southern Adriatic coast, Italy): Observations on variations in the population in relation to the main environmental parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of the main chemical and physical environmental 1 - parameters on the dynamics of the population of A. segmentum living in the Lesina Lagoon, as a part of a wider study aimed at characterizing all the phases of the species' reproduction cycle in relation to the specific environmental conditions of

Adele Fabbrocini; Ombretta Di Matteo; Raffaele D'Adamo

365

[Effect of excretion-secretion products of some fouling species on the biochemical parameters of blue mussel Mytilus edulis L. (Mollusca: Bivalvia) in the White Sea].  

PubMed

The effect of excretion-secretion products (ESP) of five abundant fouling invertebrate species (bivalve mollusks Hiatella arctica and Mytilus edulis, solitary ascidia Styela rustica, sponge Halichondria panicea, and sea starAsterias rubens, inhabiting the White Sea) on the biochemical status of blue mussel M. edulis was assessed by the dynamics of lysosomal enzymes activity (nucleases, glycoside hydrolases, and cathepsins). ESP of conspecific species had no effect on the metabolism of the mollusks of this species. ESP of A. rubens, S. rustica, and H. panicea activated the same enzymes. First, acid RNase and glycoside hydrolases activity increased, but in different ways. The metabolites of H. arctica affected the activity of proteometabolism enzymes. PMID:22292287

Skidchenko, V S; Vysotskaia, R U; Krupnova, M Iu; Khalaman, V V

2011-01-01

366

A potential species-specific molecular marker suggests interspecific hybridization between sibling species Littorina arcana and L. saxatilis (Mollusca, Caenogastropoda) in natural populations.  

PubMed

Three sister species of rough periwinkles, viz. Littorina saxatilis (Olivi 1792), L. arcana (Hannaford Ellis 1978) and L. compressa (Jeffreys 1865) from the Barents Sea (Russia), the White Sea (Russia) and the Norwegian Sea (Norway) were studied. The identification of two sibling species L. saxatilis and L. arcana is often difficult as both species have extremely similar shell morphology and reproductive systems. Only mature females can be unambiguously distinguished, with a jelly gland present in female L. arcana, but which is replaced by a brood pouch containing developing embryos in L. saxatilis. No clear-cut diagnostic features have been found to discriminate between males or juveniles of the two species. The very first diagnostic DNA marker (DNA fragment A2.8, 271 bp length) for L. arcana and L. saxatilis separation was developed. The marker was derived from apparently species-specific L. arcana DNA fragments obtained via Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. This fragment was cloned and sequenced, whereupon specific primers were designed and the amplification was surveyed in a large number of morphologically well-identified females of both species. Subsequently, the specific DNA marker was used for the identification of male L. arcana and partners in copulating pairs. In this way, we obtained evidence of possible interspecific hybridization between the sibling species L. arcana and L. saxatilis living in sympatry in natural populations: the presence of A2.8 fragment in 12% of morphologically well identified L. saxatilis females and its absence in 14% of morphologically well identified L. arcana females. The A2.8 fragment never amplified in L. saxatilis from sites without L. arcana. The A2.8 fragment did not amplify in L. compressa, not even in microsympatric populations, and we did not observe interspecific copulations between L. arcana and L. compressa. PMID:19690967

Mikhailova, Natalia A; Gracheva, Yulia A; Backeljau, Thierry; Granovitch, Andrey I

2009-12-01

367

[Freshwater Pearl mussels of the genus Margaritifera (Mollusca: Bivalvia) described as M. elongata (Lamarck, 1819) and M. borealis (Westerlund, 1871) should be classified with M. margaritifera (Linnaeus, 1758)].  

PubMed

The shells of Pearl mussels from the basins of the Solza, Keret', and Umba rivers flowing into the White Sea have been measured to determine the ratio of shell convexity to its maximum height. This ratio is the main character that, according to Bogatov et al. (2003), allows one to distinguish between three species of the genus Margaritifera: M. margaritifera, M. elongata, and M. borealis. It has been found that the above ratio gradually increases as the shell grows. Therefore, this character is unsuitable for species diagnosis, the more so that no hiatus in it between the three forms of pearl mussels has been revealed in any of the samples studied. On this basis, it may be concluded that Northern Europe, including Russia, is inhabited by only one species of pearl mussels, M. margaritifera. PMID:18491570

Sergeeva, I S; Bolotov, I N; Bespalaia, Iu V; Makhrov, A A; Bukhanova, A L; Artamonova, V S

2008-01-01

368

Taxonomical study on the mollusks collected in Marion-Dufresne (MD55) and other expeditions to SE Brazil: the Fissurellidae (Mollusca, Vetigastropoda).  

PubMed

The Fissurellidae collected by the Marion-Dufresne Expedition, as well as other regional expeditions to SE Brazil are examined taxonomically, treating 21 species, of which 20 are new. The following new species are described (order according to depth range; species marked with * are from expeditions other than MD55): Cornisepta uirapa (790-940 m), Cornisepta arrepiata (295-1,050 m), Cornisepta aninga (295-1,050 m), Cranopsis hycavis (637 m), Cranopsis nymphalis (295 m), Cranopsis enigmatica (790-940 m), Cranopsis cearensis* (250 m), Cranopsis apostrema (110-940 m), Cranopsis alaris (250-450 m), Cranopsis canopa* (250 m), Cranopsis columbaris* (250 m), Emarginula suspira (54-940 m), Emarginula icosisculpta (10-12 m), Manganesepta atiaia (950-1,570 m), Profundisepta denudata* (3,000 m), Puncturella volcano (607-620 m), Rimula leptarcis (85-105 m), Zeidora pussa (607-940 m), Zeidora crepidula (790-940 m), Hemimarginula hemitoma (1-105 m). Diodora mirifica Métivier, 1972 (10-12 m), common in Brazilian oceanic islands, is the only fissurellid species previously known from that area. The genera Cornisepta, Cranopsis, Manganesepta, Profundisepta, Zeidora, and Hemimarginula are reported for the first time from Brazil. Emarginula suspira is named for material that has been misidentified as E. tuberculosa, a Miocene Mediterranean fossil. PMID:25081465

Simone, Luiz Ricardo L; Cunha, Carlo M

2014-01-01

369

Intra-specific variability in life-history traits of Anadara tuberculosa (Mollusca: Bivalvia) in the mangrove ecosystem of the Southern coast of Ecuador.  

PubMed

Anadara tuberculosa is one of the most important bivalves along the Western Pacific coast because of its commercial value. Nevertheless, the variability in growth, long-life span, natural mortality and reproductive parameters of this mangrove cockle has not yet been described. The aim of this study was to analyze these life-history traits in three areas of the Southern coast of Ecuador. Empirical and length-based methods were used to estimate these biological parameters. Body size data were collected from the commercial fishery between 2004 and 2011 in landing ports near to the Archipelago of Jambeli [Puerto Bolivar (PB), Puerto Jeli (PJ) and Puerto Hualtaco (PH)]. The von Bertalanffy growth parameters for combined sex were estimated between 70.87 to 93.45mm for L(infinity) and 0.22 to 0.80/year for k. The growth indices (PHI') ranged from 3.17 to 3.85, while the overall growth performance (OGP) ranged from 5.03 to 5.82. The mean of long-life span (t(max)), size and age at maturity (L50% and t50%) were estimated in 7.71 +/- 2.53 years, 39.13 +/- 2.24mm and 1.46 +/- 0.56 years for PB; 9.51 +/- 2.85 years, 37.78 +/- 1.95mm and 1.37 +/- 0.41 years for PJ and 5.81 +/- 2.11 years, 39.73 +/- 3.31mm and 0.94 +/- 0.41 years for PH. Natural mortality (M) ranged from 0.46 to 1.28/year. We concluded that significant intra-specific variation was observed in a temporal scale in PHI' and OGP indices as well as L50% and M. Therefore, temporal changes in these life-history traits should be taken into account when assessing the status of the mangrove cockle fishery. PMID:25102632

Flores, Luis; Licandeo, Roberto; Cubillos, Luis A; Mora, Elba

2014-06-01

370

The introduced snail Melanoides Tuberculatus (Muller, 1774) (Mollusca: Thiaridae) in aquatic ecosystems of the Brazilian semiarid Northeast (Piranhas-Assu River basin, State of Rio Grande do Norte).  

PubMed

Records of the gastropod Melanoides tuberculatus (Müller, 1774), family Thiaridae, in the Piranhas-Assu River basin in Rio Grande do Norte reveal the dispersal of this native Southeast Asian and East African species into aquatic environments of the Brazilian semiarid region, including artificial environments (reservoirs) and lotic systems. The eutrophic conditions of the local waterbodies appear to favor the present situation, where this invasive species reaches extremely high densities, sometimes over 10,000 ind x m(-2) as in Armando Ribeiro Gonçalves Reservoir. These observations indicate the immediate need for new studies on the spatial distribution of the species and its potential impact on the biodiversity and water quality of the waterbodies of the semiarid region of the state. Implantation of regular and systematic monitoring of the aquatic resources of the region is urgently required. PMID:20231954

Santos, C M; Eskinazi-Sant'Anna, E M

2010-02-01

371

Activation of anaerobic metabolism in Biomphalaria glabrata (Mollusca: Gastropoda) experimentally infected by Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda, Metastrongylidae) by high-performance liquid chromatography.  

PubMed

The activity of lactate dehydrogenase and the concentrations of glucose in the hemolymph and of glycogen in the digestive gland and cephalopedal mass of Biomphalaria glabrata experimentally infected with Angiostrongylus cantonensis were evaluated. Additionally, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to determine the hemolymph concentrations of some carboxylic acids (oxalic, piruvic, lactic and succinic). After one, two and three weeks of infection, the snails were dissected to collect the hemolymph and separate the tissues. A significant reduction of the levels of glucose in the hemolymph was observed as of the first week of infection in relation to the control group. The lactate dehydrogenase activity of the infected group was significantly higher than the average of the control group. This increase was accompanied by a reduction of the levels of piruvic acid and an increase in the levels of lactic acid in the hemolymph of the parasited snails, confirming the acceleration of the anaerobic metabolism, necessary for the host to obtain energy and maintain its redox balance. In parallel, there was a decrease in the glycogen content of the storage tissues, with that reduction being significantly greater in the cephalopedal mass than the digestive gland, demonstrating that in this interaction system, the mobilization of glycogen was not sufficient to maintain and reestablish the normal glycemia of the infected snails. PMID:24042059

Tunholi-Alves, Vinícius Menezes; Tunholi, Victor Menezes; Castro, Rosane N; Sant'Ana, Luiza D'Oliveira; Santos-Amaral, Luciana; de Oliveira, Ana Paula Martins; Garcia, Juberlan; Thiengo, Silvana Carvalho; Pinheiro, Jairo; Maldonado, Arnaldo

2014-02-01

372

On the identities of the molluscan names described in A Short Zoology of Tahiti in the Society Islands by Anthony Curtiss in 1938 (Mollusca: Cephalopoda, Gastropoda).  

PubMed

Anthony Curtiss described two species of cephalopod and nine species of gastropod molluscs from Tahiti. Herein, we discuss and determine the identities of these eleven names. Ten of these names are considered to be junior subjective synonyms of well-known taxa, and one an unavailable name. PMID:24870642

Low, Martyn E Y; Tan, Siong Kiat

2014-01-01

373

Physiological changes in Lymnaea columella (Say, 1817) (Mollusca, Gastropoda) in response to Echinostoma paraensei Lie and Basch, 1967 (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae) infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physiological interaction between the digenean Echinostoma paraensei larvae and the intermediate snail host Lymnaea columella was studied. The carbohydrate content was significantly altered in the digestive gland tissue of snails, decreasing after\\u000a 20 days postinfection. At the end of the prepatent period, the carbohydrate content was reduced by 60% when compared to uninfected\\u000a snails. The total protein was reduced by

J. Pinheiro; A. Maldonado Júnior; R. M. Lanfredi

2009-01-01

374

The first report in new zealand of Lymnaea columella say (Mollusca: gastropoda) an intermediate host of the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica L  

Microsoft Academic Search

ExtractSir—In New Zealand, the common liver fluke Fasciola hepatica L. has within the last ten years, spread progressively to parts where it was previously not considered to be a problem (R. M. Salisbury, pers. comm.; B. Fraser, pers. comm.; and Moxham et al., 1969). This has prompted an interest in the Lymnaeid snail intermediate hosts.

N. B. Pullan

1969-01-01

375

Large Vesicomyidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia) from cold seeps in the Gulf of Guinea off the coasts of Gabon, Congo and northern Angola  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two new genera and three new species of large Vesicomyidae are described from cold-seep sites on pockmarks and other sulfide-rich environments in the Gulf of Guinea (tropical east Atlantic) off Gabon, Congo (Brazzaville) and northern Angola, from 500 to 4000 m depth: " Calyptogena" (s.l.) regab n. sp., Wareniconcha (n.g.) guineensis (Thiele and Jaeckel 1931), Elenaconcha guiness n.g. n. sp., and Isorropodon atalantae n. sp. For two other species already taken by the R/V Valdivia in 1898, Calyptogena valdiviae (Thiele and Jaeckel 1931) and Isorropodon striatum (Thiele and Jaeckel 1931) new localities were discovered, and the species are rediscussed. E. guiness n.g. n.sp. is also recorded from off Banc d'Arguin, Mauritania, collected by commercial fishing vessels. The vesicomyid species here treated were encountered in different depth ranges along the Gabon-Congo-Angola margin, between 500 and 4000 m depth, and it was found that, in comparison with the dredge samples taken by the Valdivia expedition off southern Cameroon and off Rio de Oro (both at 2500 m), the same species occur in other depth ranges, in some cases with a vertical difference of more than 1000 m. .That means that the species are not confined to a given depth thought being typical for them and that the characteristics of the biotope are likely to play a major role in the distribution of the vesicomyids associated to cold seeps or other reduced environments along the West African margin.

von Cosel, Rudo; Olu, Karine

2009-12-01

376

[Effects of 2 metal salts (FeCl3, CuCl2) on predatory activity and egg laying of Zonitoides nitidus Müller (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pulmonata)].  

PubMed

Laboratory observations were made on the effects of two metal salts, FeCl3 and CuCl2, on the life of a terrestrial predatory snail, Zonitoides nitidus. These effects were studied, either by direct dipping of predators in the salts with the study of their predation on living lymnaeid snails during the 10 days after dipping, or by exposure of intoxicated, living snails to predators during 28 days. The number of eaten preys and the number of egg laids steadily decreased in the Z. nitidus groups dipped in the toxics during more and more long times. The same results were observed in the Z. nitidus groups eating intoxicated preys after day 7 of experiment. More toxic effects were obtained in all the egg laids of predators in contact with CuCl2 than with FeCl3. The significance of these results is discussed in relation with the joint and alternate control of L. truncatula by chemical and biological means. PMID:3777802

Vincent, M; Rondelaud, D

1986-01-01

377

Annotated type catalogue of the Orthalicoidea (Mollusca, Gastropoda) in the Royal Belgian Institute of Sciences, Brussels, with descriptions of two new species  

PubMed Central

Abstract The type status is described of 57 taxa from the superfamily Orthalicoidea in the collection of the Brussels museum. Two new species are described: Stenostylus perturbatus sp. n., and Suniellus adriani sp. n. New lectotypes are designated for Bulimulus (Naesiotus) amastroides Ancey, 1887; Bulimulus blanfordianus Ancey, 1903; Bulimulus montivagus chacoensis Ancey, 1897; Bulimus coloratus Nyst, 1845; Plecochilus dalmasi Dautzenberg, 1900; Placostylus porphyrostomus elata Dautzenberg, 1923; Bulimulus ephippium Ancey, 1904; Bulimus fulminans Nyst, 1843; Bulimus funckii Nyst, 1843; Orphnus thompsoni lutea Cousin, 1887; Bulimus melanocheilus Nyst, 1845; Orphnus thompsoni nigricans Cousin, 1887; Orphnus thompsoni olivacea Cousin, 1887; Bulimulus pollonerae Ancey, 1897; Orphnus thompsoni zebra Cousin, 1887. New combinations are: Bostryx borellii (Ancey, 1897); Bostryx carandaitiensis (Preston, 1907); Protoglyptus mazei (Crosse, 1874); Kuschelenia (Vermiculatus) sanborni (Haas, 1947). New synonymies are established for the following nominal taxa: Orphnus thompsoni var. lutea Cousin, 1887 = Kara thompsonii (Pfeiffer, 1845); Orphnus thompsoni var. nigricans Cousin, 1887 = Kara thompsonii (Pfeiffer, 1845); Thaumastus nystianus var. nigricans Cousin, 1887 = Drymaeus (Drymaeus) nystianus (Pfeiffer, 1853); Orphnus thompsoni var. olivacea Cousin, 1887 = Kara thompsonii (Pfeiffer, 1845); Orphnus thompsoni var. zebra Cousin, 1887 = Kara thompsonii (Pfeiffer, 1845). PMID:21747669

Breure, Abraham S.H.

2011-01-01

378

Prevalence of a protozoan parasite Cristigera sp. (Ciliophora:Ciliatea) from edible oysters (Mollusca:Bivalvia) of Sundarbans, West Bengal, India.  

PubMed

The coastal region of West Bengal is bestowed with a wide range of natural forest and aquatic resources. The estuarine complex is a culmination of the interaction of land, sea and freshwater. It offers diverse specialised habitats such as mangroves, non vegetated mudflats, inter tidal zones and reclaimed areas. Such areas are home to a number of terrestrial, freshwater and marine communities. Edible oyster resources in these regions are Crassostrea gryphoides and Saccostrea cucullata, which are the keystone species found in the intertidal zone and can tolerate huge variation of salinity. These are used as food by local people and marketed to earn cash. The population of this species has been declined due to parasitic infection and pollution. There are many protozoan parasites which infect these oysters causing diseases. During survey period, a protozoan parasite of the genus Cristigera have been observed only from the edible oyster Crassostrea gryphoides collected from Kaikhali and Frasergunj among three selected sites namely Kaikhali, Frasergunj and Digha of West Bengal mainly during monsoon and post-monsoon season. Considering such rare and specific prevalence of Cristigera sp, it may be considered as potential bio-indicator. PMID:25035589

Biswas, Tanima; Bandyopadhyay, Probir Kumar

2014-09-01

379

Insights into the relationships of Palearctic and Nearctic lymnaeids (Mollusca: Gastropoda) by rDNA ITS-2 sequencing and phylogeny of stagnicoline intermediate host species of Fasciola hepatica.  

PubMed

Fascioliasis by Fasciola hepatica is the vector-borne disease presenting the widest latitudinal, longitudinal and altitudinal distribution known. F. hepatica shows a great adaptation power to new environmental conditions which is the consequence of its own capacities together with the adaptation and colonization abilities of its specific vector hosts, freshwater snails of the family Lymnaeidae. Several lymnaeid species only considered as secondary contributors to the liver fluke transmission have, however, played a very important role in the geographic expansion of this disease. Many of them belong to the so-called "stagnicoline" type group. Stagnicolines have, therefore, a very important applied interest in the Holarctic region, to which they are geographically restricted. The present knowledge on the genetics of stagnicolines and on their parasite-host interrelationships is, however, far from being sufficient. The present paper analyses the relationships between Palaearctic and Nearctic stagnicoline species on the base of the new light furnished by the results obtained in nuclear rDNA ITS-2 sequencing and corresponding phylogenetic studies of the lymnaeid taxa Lymnaea (Stagnicola) occulta, L. (S.) palustris palustris (topotype specimens) and L. (S.) p. turricula from Europe. Natural infections with F. hepatica have been reported in all of them. Surprisingly, ITS-2 length and GC content of L. occulta were similar and perfectly fitted within the respective ranges known in North American stagnicolines. Nucleotide differences and genetic distances were higher between L. occulta and the other European stagnicolines than between L. occulta and the North American ones. The ITS-2 sequence of L. p. turricula from Poland differed from the other genotypes known from turricula in Europe. The phylogenetic trees using the maximum-parsimony, distance and maximum-likelihood methods confirmed (i) the inclusion of L. occulta in the branch of North American stagnicolines, (ii) the link between the North American stagnicolines-L. occulta group with Galba truncatula, and (iii) the location of the L. p. turricula genotype from Poland closer to L. p. palustris than to other European L. p. turricula genotypes. The Palaearctic species occulta is included in the genus Catascopia, together with the Nearctic species catascopium, emarginata and elodes. The results suggest a potential of transmission capacity for C. occulta higher than that of other European stagnicolines or Omphiscola glabra. The relatively low genetic distances between C. occulta and G. truncatula and the clustering of both species in the same clade suggest that C. occulta may be potentially considered as the second lymnaeid intermediate host species of F. hepatica in importance in eastern and northern Europe, and probably also western and central Asia, after G. truncatula. L. p. turricula may be considered as a potential secondary vector of F. hepatica, at a level similar to that of L. p. palustris. PMID:14535164

Bargues, M D; Horák, P; Patzner, R A; Pointier, J P; Jackiewicz, M; Meier-Brook, C; Mas-Coma, S

2003-09-01

380

Amer. Malac. Bull. 30: 1-7 (2012) Morphology of Elimia livescens (Mollusca: Pleuroceridae) in Indiana, U.S.A. covaries  

E-print Network

with low water flow, low conductivity, large, coarse substrate (rip-rap), low frequency of woody debris, conductivity, substrate type, and the presence of woody debris. Individuals with smaller apertures

Pyron, Mark

381

The detection and decay of Cry1Ab Bt-endotoxins within non-target slugs, Deroceras reticulatum (Mollusca: Pulmonata), following consumption of transgenic corn  

Microsoft Academic Search

With greater acreages being planted to transgenic crops, the exposure of non-target species to bioengineered material is increasing. Although the slug, Deroceras reticulatum (Müller), is a major agricultural pest throughout the world, Bacillus thuringiensis crops were not intended to target these species. Molluscs are readily consumed by many generalist predators; if these Cry1Ab-endotoxins are taken up by slugs during feeding

J. D. Harwood; J. J. Obrycki

2006-01-01

382

Chemical defense of common antarctic shallow-water nudibranch Tritoniella belli eliot (Mollusca: Tritonidae) and its prey, Clavularia frankliniana rouel (Cnidaria: Octocorallia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extracts of the dorid nudibranchTritoniella belli and stoloniferan coralClavularia frankliniana were chromatographed and analyzed by1H NMR and thin-layer chromatography. Three glycerol ethers were detected inT. belli, primarily 1-O-hexadecyl glycerol (chimyl alcohol). Chimyl alcohol was also detected after gradient flash chromatography and reverse-phase HPLC purification in the tissues ofC. frankliniana. The common omnivorous predatory Antarctic sea starOdontaster validus, a likely predator

J. B. McClintock; B. J. Baker; M. Slattery; J. N. Heine; P. J. Bryan; W. Yoshida; M. T. Davies-Coleman; D. J. Faulkner

1994-01-01

383

Polar localization of plasma membrane Ca 2+ \\/Mg 2+ ATPase correlates with the pattern of steady ionic currents in eggs of Lymnaea stagnalis and Bithynia tentaculata (Mollusca)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary During extrusion of the first polar body in eggs ofLymnaea stagnalis andBithynia tentaculata a localized Ca2+ \\/Mg2+ ATPase activity was detected, using Ando's enzyme-cytochemical method for electron microscopy [Ando et al. (1981) Acta Histochem Cytochem 14:705–726]. The enzyme activity was distributed in a polar fashion, along the cytoplasmic face of the plasma membrane. In the eggs ofLymnaea it was

Danica Zivkovic; Robbert Créton; Gideon Zwaan; Willem C. de Bruijn; M. René Dohmen

1990-01-01

384

First record of the New Zealand mud snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum J.E. Gray 1843 (Mollusca: Hydrobiidae) in Greece – Notes on its population structure and the associated microalgae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Gastropoda: Hydrobiidae), a New Zealand native species, is recorded for the first time in waterbodies of Greece, being dominant in the gastropod fauna present; waterfowl transportation is suggested as its invasion mode. This species was collected (November 2007) from the aquatic plants Myriophyllum spicatum and Nasturtium officinale in Lake Trichonis (CW Greece) and an adjacent stream. Totally, 332

Canella Radea; Thaddeus K. Graczyk; Ioanna Louvrou; Athena Economou-Amilli

2008-01-01

385

A comparative study of the diet of Loligo vulgaris (Lamarck, 1799) (Mollusca:Cephalopoda) from the south coast of Portugal and the Saharan Bank (Central-East Atlantic)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents data on the diet of the squid, Loligo vulgaris (Lamarck, 1799) from the south coast of Portugal (Algarve) and from the Saharan Bank (Central-East Atlantic). A total of 964 squid was collected from the Algarve coast, between March 1993 and October 1994, from bottom trawling. An additional sample of 70 stomachs was obtained in the Algarve coast

M. Coelho; P. Domingues; E. Balguerias; M. Fernandez; J. P. Andrade

1997-01-01

386

Tecnologias mas nuevas para la seguridad escolar (Newer Technologies for School Security). ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This digest in Spanish describes several technologies that can be used to control access to, and improve surveillance of, school grounds. Access can be controlled by using "smart" cards to control keyed entries. Many schools have problems with multiple copies of keys, and these card systems are integrated with computer software that allows for…

Schneider, Tod

387

ELSEVIER LANZA NUEVAS BECAS PARA ESTUDIANTES DE CIENCIAS DE LA SALUD EN SU PROGRAMA DE AYUDAS  

E-print Network

Madrid, 1 de septiembre de 2014.- Elsevier, editorial l�der en el �rea de Medicina y Ciencias de la Salud de estudiantes de Medicina y Ciencias de la Salud Generaci�n Elsevier (http distintos canales sociales, en un referente entre los estudiantes de Medicina y Ciencias de la Salud

Rey Juan Carlos, Universidad

388

DISPOSITIVOS INTRAUTERINOS CON LEVONORGESTREL: UNA NUEVA ALTERNATIVA TERAPÉUTICA EN EL SANGRADO UTERINO ANORMAL DE ORIGEN ORGÁNICO  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMEN El uso de dispositivos intrauterinos con levonorgestrel (DIU-LNG) además de su efecto anticoncepti- vo, disminuye significativamente el sangrado uterino. Esto hace que los DIU-LNG expresen beneficios tales como el control del sangrado uterino, especialmente en metrorragias o menometrorragias por enfermedades orgánicas como miomatosis uterina. Sin embargo, en nuestro medio existen dudas sobre los beneficios reales de estos métodos y

2004-01-01

389

Nueva opción de tratamiento para mujeres jóvenes con cáncer de seno sensible a las hormonas  

Cancer.gov

Un fármaco usado para el tratamiento del cáncer de seno (mama), conocido como exemestano, es más eficaz que tamoxifeno, un fármaco preventivo de uso común para el cáncer de seno, en la prevención de la recidiva del cáncer de seno en mujeres jóvenes que también reciben tratamiento posoperativo para suprimir el funcionamiento ovárico. Los resultados de este estudio se presentaron en mujeres que tenían un tipo de cáncer de seno en estadio inicial sensible al tratamiento hormonal.

390

Nueva investigacion sobre kindergarten de dia completo (Recent Research on All-Day Kindergarten). ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Noting that much of the early research on the effects of all-day kindergarten had serious problems with internal and external validity due to inadequate methodological standards, this Spanish-language digest reviews research conducted in the 1990s. The digest discusses the academic, social, and behavioral effects of all-day kindergarten, as well…

Clark, Patricia

391

Osteoporosis experimental en conejas albinas Nueva Zelanda : ensayo con flavonoides : apigenina potásica y naringenina.  

E-print Network

??En nuestro trabajo nos planteamos conocer los posibles efectos de los flavonoides apigenina y naringenina potásicas sobre un modelo experimental de osteoporosis inducida mediante ovariectomía… (more)

Bautista Muñoz, Enrique

2013-01-01

392

Enseñar geografía en la educación secundaria: nuevos objetivos, nuevas competencias. Un estudio de caso  

Microsoft Academic Search

La necesidad creciente de una educación que forme ciudadanos con opinión propia y capaces de actuar ante los fenómenos y problemas de su sociedad debería plantear a los docentes una serie de cuestiones acerca de su profesión y del papel de las enseñanzas que imparten: ¿cómo adquieren los alumnos las competencias necesarias? En el caso de la geografía, pueden añadirse

Montserrat Oller Freixa; Maria Villanueva i Margalef

2007-01-01

393

"Escuela Nueva" in Spain: Origins and Implications in Teacher Professional Development for the 21st Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During the Spanish Second Republican government (April 1931-July 1939), there was an institutional initiative in the country called "Misiones Pedagogicas", deeply based in the early Deweyan conception of Progressive Education. The aim of this project was bringing access to culture, entertainment and some sort of progress to rural areas…

Jorrin Abellan, Ivan M.; Villagra Sobrino, Sara L.; Garcia Sastre, Sara

2013-01-01

394

Nuevas fuentes de energía para un futuro sostenible. ¿Petróleo caro o protección del medio?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Los medios de comunicación no cesan de advertir sobre el creciente grado de emisiones de CO2 a la atmósfera y su responsabilidad directa en la creación del “efecto invernadero”, que puede amenazar en un futuro no muy lejano la civilización actual. También se sabe que no está garantizado que la extracción de energías fósiles –carbón, petróleo y gas- pueda continuar

Mercedes Arroyo Huguet

2008-01-01

395

MANUSCRITO 975 DE LA BIBLIOTECA DE MANUEL DE FALLA: UNA NUEVA FUENTE POLIFÓNICA DEL SIGLO XVI  

Microsoft Academic Search

En el Archivo Manuel de Falla se ha localizado un manuscrito de 1575 aproximadamente. Esta antología de más de un centenar de obras sacras y profanas, es fiel reflejo de las tendencias y gustos musicales de la época ya que contiene obras de siete importantes compositores españoles y trece extranjeros, la mayoría de los cuales mantenía estrechos lazos con la

Michael Christoforidis; Juan Ruiz Jiménez

1994-01-01

396

Tratamiento de la hiperfosfatemia asociada a la enfermedad renal crónica con carbonato de lantano. Nuevas evidencias  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hyperphosphatemia associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD) seems to be involved in the development of vascular calcifications and can be considered as a risk factor for cardiovascular events in addition to classical risk factors. A new phosphate-binding drug, lanthanum carbonate, has recently been marketed and has rapidly been added to the available therapeutic arsenal for hyperphosphatemia together with calcium salts

María Luisa González Casaús; Emilio González Parra; Víctor Manuel Navas Serrano; Carolina Gracia Iguacel; Pilar de Ribera Pieras; Jesús Egido de Los Ríos

2011-01-01

397

NUEVAS CITAS PARA LA FLORA ARGENTINA: COLLOMIA GRANDIFLORA (POLEMONIACEAE) Y POTENTILLA RECTA (ROSACEAE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Puntieri, J. G. & Brion, C. A. M. 2005. New records for the Argentinian flora: Collomia grandiflora (Polemoniaceae) and Potentilla recta (Rosaceae). Hickenia 3(54): 227-232. The present study reports for the first time the presence of the North American annual herb Collomia grandiflora and the European perennial herb Potentilla recta in northern Patagonia. A population of Collomia grandiflora was found

JAVIER G. PUNTIERI; CECILIA A. M. BRION; CIENTÍFICAS Y TÉCNICAS

2005-01-01

398

Modelado de las Distribuciones Espectrales de Energía de tres nuevas estrellas jóvenes de tipo FU Orionis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work we present the modeling of the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of three protostellar objects of the FU Orionis type, for which an outburst was observed in the last two years. We applied the code developed by Whitney et al. (ApJ 591, 1049, 2003) to model the SEDs. We derived physical and geometric parameters for each object, which agree with those previously obtained for other FU Orionis type stars. Furthermore, the three objects were studied in their stages of high and low activity. Our results suggest that the disk plays a key role in the outburst event, which is reflected in an increase of at least one order of magnitude of the mass accretion rate from the disk to the central object, with respect to the low activity period. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

Gramajo, L. V.; Rodón, J.; Gómez, M.; Whitney, B.

399

Su Nueva Vida en los Estados Unidos. (Your New Life in the United States).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An illustrated guide to aspects of life in the United States is presented in Spanish for recent Hispanic arrivals. The guidelines address such topics as resettlement agencies, community relations and national customs, the U.S. government, local and long distance transport, mail and telephone communication systems, employment practices, the…

Escobar, Vivian; And Others

400

El efecto invernadero producido por el CO2 atmosférico: una nueva interpretación termodinámica  

Microsoft Academic Search

The glasshouse effect caused by atmospheric CO2: a new thermodynamic interpretation: At present times the use of models to simulate and predict the climate change and its consequences on global ecological processes has contributed to a better understanding of the phenomena in several disciplines. However, there is evidence that current models fail to simulate a number of well known climatic

EDUARDO R ABRIL

401

The 'other faunivory' revisited: Insectivory in human and non-human primates and the evolution of human diet.  

PubMed

The role of invertebrates in the evolution of human diet has been under-studied by comparison with vertebrates and plants. This persists despite substantial knowledge of the importance of the 'other faunivory', especially insect-eating, in the daily lives of non-human primates and traditional human societies, especially hunters and gatherers. Most primates concentrate on two phyla, Mollusca and Arthropoda, but of the latter's classes, insects (especially five orders: Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, Isoptera, Lepidoptera, Orthoptera) are paramount. An insect product, bees' honey, is particularly important, and its collection shows a reversal of the usual sexual division of labor. Human entomophagy involves advanced technology (fire, containers) and sometimes domestication. Insectivory provides comparable calorific and nutritional benefits to carnivory, but with different costs. Much insectivory in hominoids entails elementary technology used in extractive foraging, such as termite fishing by chimpanzees. Elucidating insectivory in the fossil and paleontological record is challenging, but at least nine avenues are available: remains, lithics, residues, DNA, coprolites, dental microwear, stable isotopes, osteology, and depictions. All are in play, but some have been more successful so far than others. PMID:24560030

McGrew, William C

2014-06-01

402

Special Education: Parent and Student Rights = Educacion Especial: Los Derechos de los Padres y Estudiantes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended for parents of children with possible disabilities in Texas, these two combined booklets (one in English and one in Spanish) outline the step-by-step process qualifying the child for special education services and explain the parent's rights and responsibilities under federal and state law. Introductory material includes a letter to…

Texas Education Agency, Austin. Div. of Special Education Programs.

403

All life transitions offer both opportunities and challenges--especially so for youth as they transition  

E-print Network

risk for chronic lung problems, bleeding in the brain that causes cerebral palsy, long-term cognitive Kennedy Center interim associate director. Investigating the causes of preterm birth is one aspect of his response. The question of the causes of preterm birth is not only a biological problem but also an enormous

Sarkar, Nilanjan

404

Comparative bioactivity studies on two Mimosa species (Estudios comparativos de dos especies de Mimosa)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparative antioxidant, antibacterial activities and general toxicity studies on the n-hexane, dichloromethane (DCM) and methanol (MeOH) extracts of Mimosa pudica and Mimosa rubicaulis, two Bangladeshi medicinal plants, were carried out, using the 2,2-diphenyl- 1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) assay, the resazurin microtitre plate based assay, and the brine shrimp lethality assay, respectively. The DCM and MeOH extracts of both M. pudica and M.

Samuel GENEST; Conor KERR; Ankit SHAH; M. Mukhlesur RAHMAN; Gadria M. M. SAIF-E-NASER; Poonam NIGAM; Lutfun NAHAR; Satyajit D. SARKER

2008-01-01

405

Recent Trends in Chorangiomas, Especially Those of Multiple and Recurrent Chorangiomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nomenclature and occurrence of chorangioma of the placenta are reviewed here. Recurrence of multiple chorangiomas has\\u000a been described, but it is apparently an uncommon or underreported event. There is a strong relationship between placental\\u000a chorangiomas and gestation at high altitude, suggesting the occurrence of vascular growth factors induced by hypoxia. Fluid\\u000a transitions may exist between chorangioma, chorangiomatosis, and chorangiosis,

Kurt Benirschke

1999-01-01

406

Fracture Testing with Surface Crack Specimens. [especially the residual tensile strength test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recommendations are given for the design, preparation, and static fracture testing of surface crack specimens. The recommendations are preceded by background information including discussions of stress intensity factors, crack opening displacements, and fracture toughness values associated with surface crack specimens. Cyclic load and sustained load tests are discussed briefly.

Orange, T. W.

1974-01-01

407

The Compositional Classification of Chondrules and the Petrologic Type of an Especially Primitive H Chondrite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While LL chondrites of petrologic type <3.4 are relatively common, it has been only recently that a few H chondrites of type <3.4 have been reported. One of them is the heavily weathered Roosevelt County 075 [1]. Weathering and the lack of equilibration make classification uncertain, but it is probably an H chondrite. Weathering also makes it very difficult to assign a petrologic type. For example, removal of the weathering products by acid washing increased the TL sensitivity of RC075 by a factor of ~7, equivalent to a change in petrologic type estimate from 3.0 to 3.3, a major difference. The compositional classification scheme for chondrules [2,3] summarizes considerably more information than previous schemes [4-6], not least being that it tracks metamorphic effects as well as more thoroughly monitoring primary chondrule differences. It is also very easy to apply and almost 100% of the chondrules can be classified. As an example of its utility, we here show that application of the scheme to the chondrules in RC075 provides the best means of determining the petrologic type of this highly weathered, but very important, unequilibrated chondrite. The compositional classification scheme for chondrules divides them into eight classes (A1, A2, A3, A4, A5, B1, B2, B3) on the basis of the composition of the two major phases (phenocrysts and mesostasis) [2,3]. Among the changes that occur during metamorphism, olivines lose CaO and acquire uniform FeO, while the mesostases acquire oligoclase compositions having originally included compositions that were SiO2 rich (the B series), CaO rich (the A series), and Na2O rich (A5). These changes give rise to CL properties that can be used as an alternative to microprobe analysis and which, like microprobe data, are insensitive to weathering. Thus we were able to assign all of the almost 100 chondrules present in a 7 x 5-mm section of RC075 to compositional classes. The results are shown in Fig. 1, along with similar data from [3]. The relative abundance and classes of chondrules present provides an excellent method of assigning petrographic type. The relative abundance of group B chondrules in RC075 is less than Semarkona (3.0), and comparable with the higher types, while the abundance of A5 chondrules is comparable to that in Krymka (3.1) and intermediate between that in Semarkona and Chainpur (3.4). Most significantly, the fraction of A1 chondrules is very large and comparable (within error) to that of Semarkona, while the large number of group A3 chondrules is comparable only to Krymka. Apparently, RC075 is intermediate to Semarkona and Chainpur and comparable to Krymka in its petrologic type. McCoy et al. [1] report means ranging from 0.07 to 7.2 mol% Fa and 0.11 to 0.36 wt% CaO for olivine in six type-IA chondrules and 12.3-20.2 mol% Fa for five type-II chondrules in RC075 [1]. Four of the type IA chondrules resembled those of Semarkona in olivine composition (<2 mol% Fa). Unlike the compositional classification scheme, which leads fairly simply to unambiguous petrologic type assignment, it seems difficult to assign RC075 to a petrologic type on the basis of olivine compositions and texture alone. Other advantages of the new scheme are (1) that it applies to individual chondrules and makes no assumptions about average response of chondrules to metamorphism; (2) it is insensitive to brecciation, which is common in UOC [7]; and (3) it is quantitative, and does not require subjective evaluations of texture, although textural descriptions may be used with the compositional class (just as they are for chondrites). The compositional classification scheme is certainly subject to improvement(e.g. class A5, both in type 3 and higher types). However, as it currently stands the scheme clearly provides the best way of not only describing individual chondrules, but of assessing primary chondrule properties and the extent of changes experienced during metamorphism. Thus it provides the best method for assigning the weathered and highly unequilibrated RC075 meteorite to a petrologic ty

Sears, D. W. G.; Huang, S.; Benoit, P. H.

1993-07-01

408

Geothermal Resource Analysis and Structure of Basin and Range Systems, Especially Dixie Valley Geothermal Field, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

Publish new thermal and drill data from the Dizie Valley Geothermal Field that affect evaluation of Basin and Range Geothermal Resources in a very major and positive way. Completed new geophysical surveys of Dizie Valley including gravity and aeromagnetics and integrated the geophysical, seismic, geological and drilling data at Dizie Valley into local and regional geologic models. Developed natural state mass and energy transport fluid flow models of generic Basin and Range systems based on Dizie Valley data that help to understand the nature of large scale constraints on the location and characteristics of the geothermal systems. Documented a relation between natural heat loss for geothermal and electrical power production potential and determined heat flow for 27 different geothermal systems. Prepared data set for generation of a new geothermal map of North American including industry data totaling over 25,000 points in the US alone.

David Blackwell; Kenneth Wisian; Maria Richards; Mark Leidig; Richard Smith; Jason McKenna

2003-08-14

409

Patterns of discoloration and oxidation by direct and scattered fluxes, especially oxygen on silicon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A number of interesting discoloration patterns are clearly evident on M0002-1 which resides on three faces of LDEF: front face, rear face, and earth face. Most interesting is the pattern of blue oxidation on polished single crystal silicon apparently produced by once-scattered ram oxygen atoms along the earth face. Most of the other patterns are seen in the Thermal Control Paint. Also, severe oxidation of CR-39 polycarbonate occurred on the front face of LDEF, as expected. A complete explanation for the patterns has not yet been obtained.

Frederickson, A. R.; Filz, R. C.; Rich, F. J.; Sagalyn, Paul L.

1991-01-01

410

Memorandum on the infections hazards of the common communion cup with especial reference to aids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacteriological studies on the communion cup have shown that there is a low level of contamination with mouth organisms on the rim. The death rate of bacteria on the cup surface would not be significant, but the wine had a bactericidal effect on most but not all organisms tested. However droplets of saliva did not readily mix with the wine.

1988-01-01

411

Liquid crystal devices especially for use in liquid crystal point diffraction interferometer systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Liquid crystal point diffraction interferometer (LCPDI) systems that can provide real-time, phase-shifting interferograms that are useful in the characterization of static optical properties (wavefront aberrations, lensing, or wedge) in optical elements or dynamic, time-resolved events (temperature fluctuations and gradients, motion) in physical systems use improved LCPDI cells that employ a "structured" substrate or substrates in which the structural features are produced by thin film deposition or photo resist processing to provide a diffractive element that is an integral part of the cell substrate(s). The LC material used in the device may be doped with a "contrast-compensated" mixture of positive and negative dichroic dyes.

Marshall, Kenneth L. (Inventor)

2009-01-01

412

Galemys 19 (n especial): 3-15, 2007 ISSN: 1137-8700  

E-print Network

IBÃ?RICO (Lynx pardinus), LINCE BOREAL (L. lynx) Y LINCE ROJO (L. rufus) PARA EL ESTABLECIMIENTO DE UN and cells from Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus), Eurasian lynx (L. lynx) and bobcats (L. rufus) to establish natural conditions. This is the case of the Iberian lynx, the most endangered felid in the world. Despite

Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales

413

ESTATUS REGIONAL Y PREFERENCIAS AMBIENTALES DE LA AVIFAUNA MADRILEA DURANTE EL INVIERNO Especie CONIFERA DECIDUOS  

E-print Network

Coccothraustes coccothraustes Columba livia Corvus corax Corvus corone Cyanopica cyana Dendrocopos major Columba oenas 5,1 0,00 0,06 0,00 0,94 1,00 0,00 0,47 673 Columba palumbus 3,2 0,53 0,29 0,00 0,04 0,36 0

Carrascal, Luis M.

414

Effects of partially ionised medical oxygen, especially with O2•-, in vibration white finger patients.  

PubMed

A major symptom of hand-arm vibration syndrome is a secondary Raynaud's phenomenon-vibration white finger (VWF)-which results from a vasospasm of the digital arteries caused by work with vibration devices leading to occupational disease. Pharmacotherapy of VWF is often ineffective or has adverse effects. The aim of this work was to verify the influence of inhalation of partially ionized oxygen (O2•-) on peripheral blood vessels in the hands of patients with VWF. Ninety one (91)patients with VWF underwent four-finger adsorption plethysmography, and the pulse wave amplitude was recorded expressed in numeric parameters-called the native record. Next, a cold water test was conducted following with second plethysmography. The patients were divided in to the three groups. First and second inhaled 20-min of ionized oxygen O2•- or oxygen O2 respectively. Thirth group was control without treatment. All three groups a follow-up third plethysmography-the post-therapy record. Changes in the pulse wave amplitudes were evaluated. Inpatients group inhaling O2•- a modest increase of pulse wave amplitude was observed compared to the native record; patients inhaling medical oxygen O2 and the control showed a undesirable decline of pulse wave amplitude in VWF fingers. Strong vasodilatation were more frequent in the group inhaling O2•- compare to O2 (p < 0.05). Peripheral vasodilatation achieved by inhalation of O2•- could be used for VWF treatment without undesirable side effect in hospital as well as at home environment. PMID:24871260

Pere?inský, Slavomír; Murínová, Lenka; Engler, Ivan; Doni?, Viliam; Murín, Pavol; Varga, Marek; Legáth, Lubomír

2014-06-01

415

ment of taste neuronal circuitries, especially in combination with the gene-targeted mutant  

E-print Network

assessed whether this bias in fear conditioning extends to social groups defined by race. Our results Science Center for Basic Research and Development, Hiroshima University, for supporting animal experiment and M. I. Simon for Ga15, and P. Mombaerts for ETLpA-/LTNL. This research was supported by a Grant

Phelps, Elizabeth

416

Diciembre de 2008 ECOHIDROLOGA DE LLANURAS Y CAMBIO DE VEGETACIN 305 Seccin especial  

E-print Network

a plantaciones forestales, sobre la regulación hidrológica y la salinización de aguas y suelos de llanuras. La atmosférico y derivadas de la meteorización en los suelos, y mantienen niveles freáticos profundos. El ingreso una fuerte movilización de sales disueltas, lo que afecta la fertilidad de los suelos cuando los

Nacional de San Luis, Universidad

417

Bipolar outflows from the most luminous evolved stars, especially the unique case of eta CAR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

If recent experience is a valid guide, very massive evolved stars typically show outward signs of axial (non-spherical) symmetry; some cases are dramatic. Large-scale bipolar structure has lately been identified around most well-studied Luminous Blue Variables (LBVs), while their country cousins the B[e] stars (not the same as Be stars) have long been thought to have equatorial disks. Radiation pressure makes these stars fundamentally different from ordinary massive stars, helping in more than one way to encourage axial and equatorial structures. Two general questions have thus arisen: (1) Is bipolar structure practically universal among very massive evolved stars? (2) Does the crucial LBV instability occur in an essentially equatorial or axial way, to the extent that spherical theories are misleading? The special case of eta Carinae provides insights largely because its structure is so obvious and well-defined. Its polar lobes are dramatic enough by themselves, but the large-scale equatorial debris are even more wonderfully suggestive. HST spectroscopy and imaging are giving information about the equatorial structure over a wide range of size scales. Additional questions particularly inspired by eta Car are (3) How seriously are mass-loss estimates modified by this type of structure? The latitudinal distribution of ejected mass is not yet known, but it is clear that any analysis of the spectrum assuming spherical symmetry would be invalid, for this or any star with similar structure. (4) Did this prominent equatorial structure result from a much smaller wind-compressed disk, or is it the result of preferentially equatorial ejection in the LBV eruption? (5) How can we tell the difference between the effects of stellar rotation and of a close companion, for such a luminous star? (Radiation pressure prevents mass exchange in a very massive close binary, so the two cases look almost alike.) Finally, we must eventually compare the axially symmetric structures of hot evolved stars (LBV and B[e] stars) with those of the most massive cooler hypergiants, which are beginning to be observed well. Much of this work has been supported by NASA/HST/STScI grant GO-6041.

Davidson, K.

1996-05-01

418

ome of our fondest childhood memories are of home-cooked meals--especially those  

E-print Network

) Monounsaturated fats (olive oil) Polyunsaturated fats (corn oil) Trans fatty acids (margarine) Sunsweet For food demonstration 1 - Can opener 1 - Package plastic wrap 1 - Package foil 1 - Roll paper towels 1

419

Richness of lichen species, especially of threatened ones, is promoted by management methods furthering stand continuity.  

PubMed

Lichens are a key component of forest biodiversity. However, a comprehensive study analyzing lichen species richness in relation to several management types, extending over different regions and forest stages and including information on site conditions is missing for temperate European forests. In three German regions (Schwäbische Alb, Hainich-Dün, Schorfheide-Chorin), the so-called Biodiversity Exploratories, we studied lichen species richness in 631 forest plots of 400 m(2) comprising different management types (unmanaged, selection cutting, deciduous and coniferous age-class forests resulting from clear cutting or shelterwood logging), various stand ages, and site conditions, typical for large parts of temperate Europe. We analyzed how lichen species richness responds to management and habitat variables (standing biomass, cover of deadwood, cover of rocks). We found strong regional differences with highest lichen species richness in the Schwäbische Alb, probably driven by regional differences in former air pollution, and in precipitation and habitat variables. Overall, unmanaged forests harbored 22% more threatened lichen species than managed age-class forests. In general, total, corticolous, and threatened lichen species richness did not differ among management types of deciduous forests. However, in the Schwäbische-Alb region, deciduous forests had 61% more lichen species than coniferous forests and they had 279% more threatened and 76% more corticolous lichen species. Old deciduous age classes were richer in corticolous lichen species than young ones, while old coniferous age-classes were poorer than young ones. Overall, our findings highlight the importance of stand continuity for conservation. To increase total and threatened lichen species richness we suggest (1) conserving unmanaged forests, (2) promoting silvicultural methods assuring stand continuity, (3) conserving old trees in managed forests, (4) promoting stands of native deciduous tree species instead of coniferous plantations, and (5) increasing the amount of deadwood in forests. PMID:23383196

Boch, Steffen; Prati, Daniel; Hessenmöller, Dominik; Schulze, Ernst-Detlef; Fischer, Markus

2013-01-01

420

ApoE Deficiency Compromises the Blood Brain Barrier Especially after Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Apolipoprotein E (apoE) mediates lipopro- tein uptake by receptors such as the LDL receptor (LDLR). The isoform apoE4 has been linked to Alzheimer's disease and to poor outcomes after brain injury. Astrocytes that in- duce blood brain barrier (BBB) properties in endothelium also produce apoE. We decided to investigate the role of apoE in BBB function and in the

Nassia Methia; Patrick André; Ali Hafezi-Moghadam; Maria Economopoulos; Kennard L. Thomas; Denisa D. Wagner

2001-01-01

421

Was the Sun especially active at the end of the late glacial epoch?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In their pioneering work, the geophysicists A. Brekke and A. Egeland (1983) collected beliefs of different peoples, associated with northern lights. Our analyses of this collection show that these beliefs are mainly related to the mythological idea of ``abnormal'' deads (dead, childless old maids in Finnish beliefs; killed people; spirits dangerous to children). We find similar motifs in Slavic fairy tales about the ``Thrice-Nine Land,'' regarded as the other world in folkloric studies (in the Land where mobile and agitated warlike girls live, whose Head Girl is characterized by the words ``white snow, pretty light, the prettiest in the World,'' but whose name ``Mariya Morevna'' refers to the word ``mort''; where a river flows with its banks covered by human bones; where the witch Baba-Yaga dwells, being extremely dangerous for children). Moreover, it can be noted that similar narrative fabulous myths deal with the concept of auroral oval northern lights, since some specific features of the natural auroral forms are mentioned there, with their particular spatial orientations (to the North or West). This resembles the manner in which Ancient Greek myths describe the real properties of the heavenly phenomena in a mythological language. It is interesting that myths on the high-latitude northern lights spread even to the South of Europe (and, might be, to India and Iran). This fact can be understood in view of the following. It has been established that, during the late glacial epoch, the environmental and cultural conditions were similar over the area from Pyrenean to the Ural Mountains; the pattern of hunters' settlements outlined the glacial sheet from the outside. Relics of the hunters' beliefs can now be found in Arctic, where the environment and lifestyle remain nearly unchanged. The ethnographer Yu.B. Simchenko (1976) has reconstructed the most archaic Arctic myths. According to them, the World of dead is associated with the world of ice governed by the ``Ice mother,'' who takes human souls to the World of dead. At the beginning of glacial-sheet degradation, people lived by hunting for wild reindeer. The animal moved to high latitudes behind the edge of the thawing glacial sheet, and the people followed the main object of their hunting. Thus, they went in the direction of their mythological World of dead. As they unexpectedly discovered the enchanting eye-catcher of northern lights, they should assume that they encountered the border of the World of dead. Emotional experience gained from such direct contact with the World of dead, as also from the narratives about the fascinating and spectacular view of this World seen by their own eyes, was recorded in the cosmological myths. Later, the descendants of the hunters scattered over the drying earth, which rapidly became overgrown with forest. The relics of their cosmological myths persist as a cultural phenomenon. Thus, the cultural inheritance looks like evidence of high auroral and solar activity at the epoch when the glacial sheet was thawing. If so, we deal with a mirror reflection of the correlation between the space weather and climate known for Maunder's minimum.

Alekseeva, Liliya

422

The Efficacy of Extracts from Plants – Especially from Coconut and Onion – Against Tapeworms, Trematodes, and Nematodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Nematodes and cestodes are present in almost all animals and humans. These parasites spread to a considerable degree among\\u000a animals that are continuously grazing because in the case of nematodes, the eggs or larvae excreted in the feces leas to and\\u000a immediate subsequent infection when they are ingested orally with food. Infections also occur very simply in the case of

Heinz Mehlhorn; Gülendem Aksu; Katja Fischer; Bianca Strassen; Fathy Abdel Ghaffar; Khaled A. S. Al-Rasheid; Sven Klimpel

423

Toward Better Research on--and Thinking about--Evaluation Influence, Especially in Multisite Evaluations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluation is typically carried out with the intention of making a difference in the understandings and actions of stakeholders and decision makers. The author provides a general review of the concepts of evaluation "use," evaluation "influence," and "influence pathways," with connections to multisite evaluations. The study of evaluation influence…

Mark, Melvin M.

2011-01-01

424

Many alcoholics in an active recovery (especially 12-step programs) who My employee periodically  

E-print Network

by way of books, fee-based services, and even TV shows. However, managers should not approve them with younger supervisors. Should I be concerned? Plenty of research demonstrates these are stereotypes

Kim, Duck O.

425

www.frontiersinecology.org The Ecological Society of America especially clear for journals published  

E-print Network

output in highly ranked general medical journals. Eur J Epidemiol 19: 811­17. Meneghini R and Packer AL for journals published in English-speaking countries (Figure 1b). This means that the science pro- duced by ecologists who are NoNES is adequate enough to raise the aver- age citation rates of journals, or is at least

Harvell, Catherine Drew

426

In Memoriam Cynthia Driscoll The University, and especially North Central Research & Outreach Center, lost a  

E-print Network

and all things green never ended. While she officially stopped "formal" volunteer work in the mid-2000's of their home in Grand Rapids and cabin on Blue Heron Island, Lake Vermilion. Survived by her husband Charles P

Minnesota, University of

427

INFORME: Un Proyecto Especial para Estudiantes Muy Especiales (Report: A Special Project for Very Special Students).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses a special education program for children with lower intelligence quotients and emotional problems, to study introductory level Spanish with a teacher whose native language is Spanish. In addition to language content, the classes included instruction in social science. The program assisted these children in improving their knowledge of…

Herrera, Rosa

1996-01-01

428

Nonspiking local interneurones are widely distributed in the central nervous system of arthropods, especially insects and  

E-print Network

; Reichert et al. 1983). LDS has no measurable output effect upon the motor neurones innervating the tailfan of neurones in the terminal ganglion. A combination of intracellular staining using Lucifer Yellow

Nagayama, Toshiki

429

Are High Hypnotizables Especially Vulnerable to False Memory Effects? A Sociocognitive Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines issues raised by a recent UK legal case in which the defense argued that the accusations made by the highly hypnotizable plaintiff were likely based on false memories. The authors argue that the evidence related to hypnotizability and false memory production is inconsistent but may be illuminated by a sociocognitive perspective. They present 2 preliminary studies that

Graham F. Wagstaff; Jacqueline M. Wheatcroft; Anna Christina Jones

2011-01-01

430

Are high hypnotizables especially vulnerable to false memory effects? A sociocognitive perspective.  

PubMed

This article examines issues raised by a recent UK legal case in which the defense argued that the accusations made by the highly hypnotizable plaintiff were likely based on false memories. The authors argue that the evidence related to hypnotizability and false memory production is inconsistent but may be illuminated by a sociocognitive perspective. They present 2 preliminary studies that indicate that when the instructions imply that accurate reporting is a feature of hypnosis, higher hypnotizables may actually be more resistant than low or medium hypnotizables to false memories arising from misleading information given during hypnosis. They conclude that, when memory accuracy is emphasized rather than productivity, there is little evidence to link high hypnotizability with a propensity to produce false memories. PMID:21644123

Wagstaff, Graham F; Wheatcroft, Jacqueline M; Jones, Anna Christina

2011-07-01

431

Effects of listening to music with headphones on hearing--especially under noisy conditions.  

PubMed

The purpose of this experiment was to clarify the effects of exposure to music using headphones under noisy conditions on hearing. The most comfortable loudness (MCL) for three kinds of music (Rock, Popular, Japanese songs) decided by two normal hearing subjects was measured under 6 noisy conditions (Train, Subway, Tram, Bus, Underground, Street) in a soundproof room. In the same manner, the MCL of favorite tunes of five subjects were measured. Temporary threshold shift 2 min after exposure (TTS2) to music for 30 min at the highest MCL was obtained. Furthermore, the characteristics such as spectral structures in one-third octave band or level fluctuations (coefficient of variation) were obtained for noise and music and compared. Statistical analysis revealed that MCL in Street was significantly higher than under other conditions and there was no significant differences in MCL among the various types of music. However, the highest MCL was found for Rock. About 20 dB of TTS was observed in one ear and the hazardous of headphones use in noisy conditions was suggested. PMID:3809814

Miyake, S; Kumashiro, M

1986-12-01

432

The prospect of nuclear energy in Türkiye especially after Fukushima accident  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Türkiye considers since mid-50's to use nuclear electricity, but Government and bureaucracy have continuously postponed reactor construction. However, since 2010 the case has gained a real shape. Official agreement has been signed for the construction of 4 units of Russian VVER type reactors with installed power of 4×1200 MWel. It is expected that they will begin to deliver electricity early 20's. Further negotiations are being conducted with Japanese Mitsubashi and French AREVA. The target is to have nuclear electricity by 2023 at the 100th anniversary of Turkish Republic. Turkish Nuclear Energy Strategy aims; • Decrease country's dependency on foreign suppliers of energy sources • Provide fuel supply mix diversification • Utilization of environmentally friendly energy production technologies Possess advanced and prestigious power generation technologies.

?ahin, Sümer

2014-09-01

433

HYPOPHYSECTOMY FOR PALLIATION OF BREAST CANCER--With Especial Reference to Surgical Technique  

PubMed Central

In a series of 19 patients who had hypophysectomy for palliation of cancer of the breast, all had striking relief of pain. Objective evidence of remission of disease was observed in ten patients. The survival time after operation averaged 19.8 months for patients who had remission and 2.1 months for patients who did not. Results were better in patients who had had cancer for a long time before operation than in those who had had the disease a relatively short time. Also it was noted that results were better in patients who had had preoperative response to endocrine therapy than in those who had not. Hence these factors may be considered in selection of patients for hypophysectomy. PMID:13638835

Cobb, Norman L.; Scoville, William B.

1959-01-01

434

Memorandum on the infections hazards of the common communion cup with especial reference to AIDS.  

PubMed

Bacteriological studies on the communion cup have shown that there is a low level of contamination with mouth organisms on the rim. The death rate of bacteria on the cup surface would not be significant, but the wine had a bactericidal effect on most but not all organisms tested. However droplets of saliva did not readily mix with the wine. In considering the spread of AIDS, extensive studies of people infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in hospital or at home have shown that the established routes of spread are the injection of blood or blood products, sexual intercourse or at birth. There are only very rare examples of spread by other means. The virus is rarely isolated from the saliva and a study of homosexuals indulging in oral sexual intercourse suggests that it is very poorly infectious when taken into the mouth or swallowed. It is concluded that the risk of transmission of HIV by the common communion cup can be neglected under ordinary circumstances. Suggestions are made for improving the hygiene of the communion service which may be useful under special circumstances: there is no evidence that disease is spread in this way under normal conditions. PMID:3402575

Kingston, D

1988-06-01

435

Analysis of the visual artifact in range-gated active imaging, especially in burst mode.  

PubMed

After the demonstration of the occurrence of visual artifacts with an active imaging system in burst mode in a previous paper, the analysis of this phenomenon was realized. A visual artifact resulting from a remote zone in the scene can appear in the image of the real visualized zone when the duty cycle of laser pulses is close to 50%, as in the burst mode. Therefore, the elements of this remote zone will create confusion in the image, with erroneous estimated distances. These misinterpretations can be very embarrassing to those attempting to determine the distance of a target in the scene. From the modeling realized and validated in the previous paper, the behavior of the visual artifact was analyzed with two types of burst mode used in active imaging, the duration of the laser pulse being identical to the duration of the temporal aperture of the imager. In the first mode, the width of the visualized zone is set, depending on the distance. The second mode increases the width of the visualized zone so that the foreground of the zone is constantly visible. The results showed that the distance of the visual artifacts in variable mode increased much more quickly than the distance in fixed mode. In both modes, the most intense visual artifacts appear when the range of the visualized zone remains within the first kilometer. When this range is very short, the illuminance of the visual artifact in fixed mode is much more intense than the illuminance in variable mode. On the other hand, for long distances, the illuminance of the visual artifact in variable mode is greater than the illuminance in fixed mode, but decreases quickly beyond a certain distance, making it insignificant. PMID:25322113

Matwyschuk, Alexis

2014-09-20

436

RESPUESTAS AL DÉFICIT HÍDRICO EN ESPECIES FORRAJERAS DE Brachiaria (TRIN.) GRISEB. (POACEAE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Some Brachiaria species are economically important because they are valuable forages in the Neotropics. In this study the re- sponse to soil water stress among five species is compared. When subjected to drought, B. humidicola and B. dictyoneura showed relatively less variation in biomass production, leaf water poten- tial, relative water content and photosynthesis. B. mutica showed a typical

Orlando Guenni; José L. Gil; Zdravko Baruch; Liliana Márquez; Carolina Núñez

437

INFORMACIÓN SOBRE LA DISTRIBUCIÓN DE ALGUNAS ESPECIES DE AVES DE ECUADOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

New records or confirmation of recently reported distributional range extensions or altitudinal movements are given or 14 species of birds from Ecuador: Cairina moschata, Netta erythrophthalma, Leucopternis semiplumbeus, Forpus coelestis, Crotophaga sulcirostris, Eriocnemis mosquera, Furnarius cinnamomeus, Pseudocolaptes boissonneautii, Phlegopsis nigromaculata, Querula purpurata, Cyclarhis gujanensis, Progne subis, Haplospiza rustica y Carduelis olivacea. The new records and their releva nce to the

Diego F. Cisneros-Heredia

438

Genetic-based prediction of disease traits: prediction is very difficult, especially about the future†  

PubMed Central

Translation of results from genetic findings to inform medical practice is a highly anticipated goal of human genetics. The aim of this paper is to review and discuss the role of genetics in medically-relevant prediction. Germline genetics presages disease onset and therefore can contribute prognostic signals that augment laboratory tests and clinical features. As such, the impact of genetic-based predictive models on clinical decisions and therapy choice could be profound. However, given that (i) medical traits result from a complex interplay between genetic and environmental factors, (ii) the underlying genetic architectures for susceptibility to common diseases are not well-understood, and (iii) replicable susceptibility alleles, in combination, account for only a moderate amount of disease heritability, there are substantial challenges to constructing and implementing genetic risk prediction models with high utility. In spite of these challenges, concerted progress has continued in this area with an ongoing accumulation of studies that identify disease predisposing genotypes. Several statistical approaches with the aim of predicting disease have been published. Here we summarize the current state of disease susceptibility mapping and pharmacogenetics efforts for risk prediction, describe methods used to construct and evaluate genetic-based predictive models, and discuss applications. PMID:24917882

Schrodi, Steven J.; Mukherjee, Shubhabrata; Shan, Ying; Tromp, Gerard; Sninsky, John J.; Callear, Amy P.; Carter, Tonia C.; Ye, Zhan; Haines, Jonathan L.; Brilliant, Murray H.; Crane, Paul K.; Smelser, Diane T.; Elston, Robert C.; Weeks, Daniel E.

2014-01-01

439

Heterogeneous growth of meteorites and planets, especially the earth and moon  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is pointed out that enough information remains in meteorites to show that the solar nebula was chemically inhomogeneous, and that it did not develop under physical and chemical equilibrium. It is found that the earth is not in chemical equilibrium, and that it still retains vestiges of its heterogeneous growth in spite of prolonged convection and volcanism. The present

J. V. Smith

1982-01-01

440

Anatomía foliar y caulinar de Stemodia hassleriana (Scrophulariaceae), una especie endémica del Paraguay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: Foliar and caulinar anatomy of Stemodia hassleriana (Scrophulariaceae), a species endemic to Paraguay. Foliar and caulinar anatomy of Stemodia hassleriana Chodat, a species endemic to Paraguay is studied. This species is distinguished from the remaining species of Stemodia from Paraguay since it presents the stems with collenchyma and six notorious ribs. Stem and leaves anatomical structures are described and

MARÍA DE LAS MERCEDES SOSA

441

Anatomía de seis especies de helechos del género Dryopteris (Dryopteridaceae) de México  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anatomy of six species of Dryopteris ferns (Dryopteridaceae) from Mexico. Rhizome and foliar anatomy of the Mexican Dryopteris Adans. species were studied and compared with other Dryopteridaceae and other fern families to identify anatomical features with diagnostic value. The anatomy of rhizome, stipe, and blade is similar in species of the Dryopteris patula complex. The cells with un-lignified, thickened wall,

Victoria Hernández; Teresa Terrazas; Guillermo Angeles

442

ANATOMÍA ECOLÓGICA DE ALGUNAS ESPECIES DEL GÉNERO PASPALUM (POACEAE, PANICOIDEAE, PANICEAE) 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aliscioni, S. S. 2000. Ecological anatomy of some species of the genus Paspalum (Poaceae, Panicoideae, Paniceae). Darwiniana 38(3-4): 187-207. Paspalum L. has a large number of species with a wide morphological variability and extensive geographical distribution. Species of the genus grow in very diverse habitats, from humid or aquatic environments to dry places with clay or sandy soils, frequently saline.

SANDRA S. ALISCIONI

2000-01-01

443

Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) of supra-aortic arteries especially the internal carotid artery  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present our experience with 105 patients in whom percutaneous transluminal angioplasty was performed in 112 stenosed or occluded supra-aortic arteries. Symptoms of cerebrovascular and\\/or vertebrobasilar insufficiency were present in 104 of the 105 patients. The angioplasty was successful in 35 stenoses of the internal carotid artery, 2 stenoses of the common carotid artery, 1 stenosis of the external carotid

R. Kachel; St. Basche; I. Heerklotz; K. Grossmann; S. Endler

1991-01-01

444

Biological Evolution on the Earth Influenced by Astronomical Objects: Especially Gamma-ray Sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Taking in to account 20,000 explosions of intragalactic supernovae per million years, the sources estimated at 1056 - 1057 MeV producing the high intensity of gamma- and xray-radiation even after its reduction through the Earth atmosphere, may have a significant mutagenic action. During the time period of the last 4 billion years not less than one hundred explosions up to the mean distance 126 pc from the Earth. All such explosions were able to evoke a genetic revolution among most taxonomic groups of terrestrial organisms. For mountain organisms, the more frequent supernova explosions in distance up to 400-900 pc are of importance, maritime organisms could be influenced mainly by secondary radiation products, rather than directly by the gamma and X-rays from the supernovae. The mechanisms of macroevolution depending on supernovae is elucidated. Smaller genetical revolutions in the macroevolutional process (formation of genera) took place on the average once every 10 millions or more years, fundamental genetic revolutions once in 100 millions or more years. Also other newly discovered astronomical gamma-ray sources have to be taken in account.

Ponert, J.; Príhoda, P.

2009-12-01

445

Compartiendo el paisaje En Belice existen cinco especies de gato silvestre, los  

E-print Network

principalmente en bosques y humedales en donde cazan diferentes animales; tales como gibnut (tepezcuintle hogar y cazan diferentes animales, particularmente aquellos de mayor tamaño como venados y pecaríes animales de mayor tamaño. Los pumas son felinos grandes con cabezas menos anchas que de los jaguares. Las

Mazzotti, Frank

446

Ternary mixes provide excellent workability and finishing characteristics, especially in hot weather.  

E-print Network

weather. Type IS with 20% Class C fly ash replacement Type IP with 20% Class C fly ash replacement Ternary paving has been placed in Iowa utilizing the following ternary blends: Type IS with 20% Class C fly ash replacement ·8.5 million yd2 (7.1 million m2) Type IP with 20% Class C fly ash replacement ·2.7 million yd2 (2

447

without harmful fixatives is ideal for classroom use, especially when visualized  

E-print Network

plastic bags Handling Packaging: Screw cap plastic vials contained within foil bag. Storage: Store equipment and solutions (eg from HoeferTM) " UV transilluminator " Small plastic box lids or sealable when stored in sterile detergent free glass or plastic bottles at 2-8°C in the dark. Figure 1. SDS

Lebendiker, Mario

448

A review of non-cancer effects, especially circulatory and ocular diseases.  

PubMed

There is a well-established association between high doses (>5 Gy) of ionizing radiation exposure and damage to the heart and coronary arteries, although only recently have studies with high-quality individual dosimetry been conducted that would enable quantification of this risk adjusting for concomitant chemotherapy. The association between lower dose exposures and late occurring circulatory disease has only recently begun to emerge in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors and in various occupationally exposed cohorts and is still controversial. Excess relative risks per unit dose in moderate- and low-dose epidemiological studies are somewhat variable, possibly a result of confounding and effect modification by well-known (but unobserved) risk factors. Radiation doses of 1 Gy or more are associated with increased risk of posterior subcapsular cataract. Accumulating evidence from the Japanese atomic bomb survivors, Chernobyl liquidators, US astronauts, and various other exposed groups suggests that cortical cataracts may also be associated with ionizing radiation, although there is little evidence that nuclear cataracts are radiogenic. The dose-response appears to be linear, although modest thresholds (of no more than about 0.6 Gy) cannot be ruled out. A variety of other non-malignant effects have been observed after moderate/low-dose exposure in various groups, in particular respiratory and digestive disease and central nervous system (and in particular neuro-cognitive) damage. However, because these are generally only observed in isolated groups, or because the evidence is excessively heterogeneous, these associations must be treated with caution. PMID:23903347

Little, Mark P

2013-11-01

449

A View of International It Security Standards, Especially ISO\\/IEC 17799  

Microsoft Academic Search

In late 2000, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) published ISO\\/IEC [International Electrotechnical Commission]17799: 2000, Information Technology—Code of Practice for Information Security Management. The stated objective of ISO\\/IEC 17799: 2000 is to enable business enterprises to mitigate those IT threats that arise from physical disaster, fraud, and industrial espionage. (ISO\\/IEC 17799: 2000 can be ordered from the American National Standards

Bob Ashton

2001-01-01

450

[Myoglobinuria due to enzyme abnormalities in glycolytic pathway--especially lactate dehydrogenase M subunit deficiency].  

PubMed

Glycolysis is an important energy productive system. Enzyme abnormalities the in glycolytic pathway, which cause myoglobinuria, are deficiencies of phosphofructokinase, phosphoglycerate kinase, phosphoglycerate mutase, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Common symptoms of these enzyme abnormalities are muscle cramp, muscle pain, and rhabdomyolysis after strenuous exercise. Acute renal failure owing to myoglobinuria is the most noteworthy symptom. In daily life, symptoms are rarely observed and prognosis is usually good. Correct and fast diagnosis of such latent symptomatic disorders is important to prevent a turn for the worse of these symptoms. LDH M subunit deficiency was first discovered by urinary discoloration and a discrepancy of laboratory data. Since then, only four cases have been reported in the Japanese population. The response to ischemic forearm work is characteristic (an increase of venous lactate concentration after ischemic work is not observed and a marked increase of venous pyruvate is found). The increase of pyruvate concentration is specific in LDH-M subunit deficiency, and is not observed in other abnormalities of the glycolytic pathway. Glycolysis was markedly retarded in the patient's muscle in the glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GA3PD) step, possibly due to the impaired reoxidation of NADH produced by GA3PD activity. Then, the excess NADH is reoxidized by alpha-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase and triose phosphates are drained to alpha-glycerophosphate and glycerol. Therefore ATP production is significantly impaired and muscle tissue is damaged. A genetical study revealed a deletion of 20 base-pairs in exon 6 in LDH-M subunit deficiency. This mutation results in a frame-shift translation and premature termination. PMID:1828277

Maekawa, M; Kanno, T; Sudo, K

1991-02-01

451

Pyridine derivatives, especially 2,6-di-tert-butylpyridine, labeled with nitrogen-15.  

PubMed

Pyridine derivatives labeled with (15) N can be prepared by the reaction of the corresponding pyrylium salts with (15) NH4 Cl in close to a stoichiometric ratio, in a sodium acetate-acetic acid buffer. In particular, the reaction of 2,6-di-tert-butylpyrylium perchlorate gave 2,6-di-tert-butylpyridine with a conversion of 95%. The compound is valuable for studies of acid-base interactions on solid acid catalysts by (15) N nuclear magnetic resonance. PMID:24285241

F?rca?iu, Dan; Lezcano, Marta

2013-10-01

452

Fault tree analysis in case of multiple faults, especially covered and uncovered ones  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is shown that by a proper adaptation of Boolean algebra, multiple faults can be modeled for a subsequent fault tree analysis in an exceptionally convenient way. Specifically, the problem of properly modeling coverage can be solved satisfactorily. The approach is not only very simple to understand, but also, due to symbolic calculations, very attractive in cases where many sets

Winfrid G. Schneeweiss

1998-01-01

453

Electronic Structures of Molecules XIV. Linear Triatomic Molecules, Especially Carbon Dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electron configurations of the triatomic linear molecules CO2, BO2—, N2O, CS2, COS, NO2+, N3—, NCO—, NCS—, BeF2, HgCl2, ClCN, ClBO, etc. are given. The electron configurations probably of all of these are formally analogous, or formally identical in the case of isoelectronic molecules, such as CO2, N2O, BeF2, etc. The BeH2 type is also touched on. The relations of the

Robert S. Mulliken

1935-01-01

454

Missouri Professional School Counselors: Ratios Matter, Especially in High-Poverty Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Results link lower student-to-school-counselor ratios to better graduation rates and lower disciplinary incidents across Missouri high schools. An interaction favorable for promoting student success in school was found between increasing percentages of students receiving free or reduced-price lunch and smaller student-to-school-counselor ratios.…

Lapan, Richard T.; Gysbers, Norman C.; Stanley, Bragg; Pierce, Margaret E.

2012-01-01

455

Geothermal Resource Analysis and Structure of Basin and Range Systems, Especially Dixie Valley Geothermal Field, Nevada.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The following chapters in this report summarize the research completed over the 3 years of this DOE contract. Articles were published in the Geothermal Resources Council Bulletin, GRC Transactions, the Stanford Geothermal Reservoir Engineering Workshops, ...

D. D. Blackwell, K. W. Wisian, M. C. Richards, M. Leidig, R. Smith, J. McKenna

2003-01-01

456

Processing of plastic waste and scrap tires into chemical raw materials, especially by pyrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

An account of the occurrence of pyrolyzable material and the state of development of pyrolysis processes in the USA and Japan is followed by a description of laboratory and pilot-scale experiments designed to exploit the raw material content of pyrolyzable substances rather than the heating value. Plastic waste and scrap tires can be pyrolyzed to give up to 40 percent

Walter Kaminsky

1976-01-01

457

Steam generator for nuclear power plants, especially for pressurized water reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Steam generator for nuclear power plants includes a cylindrical housing, a tube bundle for conducting primary medium enclosed by the housing, and at least one tube support plate holding the tube bundle. The cylindrical housing includes a base member secured to the tube support plate and defining therewith inlet and outlet chambers for the primary medium, the cylindrical housing having

H. Grimm; M. Sawitzki; Z. Sterk

1980-01-01

458

Statins, especially atorvastatin, may improve survival following brachytherapy for clinically localized prostate cancer.  

PubMed

This is the largest and longest clinical study to date to examine statin usage and overall patient survival following clinically localized prostate cancer. In a retrospective examination of 938 consecutive patients with early-stage prostate cancer treated with brachytherapy, 191 patients were documented to be taking statin medications. The patients taking statin medications had significantly lower prostate-specific antigen values, percent positive biopsies, and prostate volume than those patients not taking statin medications. Statin usage resulted in a nonstatistical improvement in all survival parameters with the results most pronounced for atorvastatin. Improving prostate cancer survival with statins could have important treatment implications and could potentially limit or even improve the role of supplemental therapies. A prospective trial of statin medications in conjunction with definitive local treatment for prostate cancer is recommended. PMID:16939047

Moyad, Mark A; Merrick, Gregory S; Butler, Wayne M; Wallner, Kent E; Galbreath, Robert W; Butler, Earnest G; Allen, Zachariah A; Adamovich, Edward

2006-08-01

459

Abstract--Distributed generation (DG) has brought great attention from the power community, especially  

E-print Network

, are placing new challenges to the power grid. Now the grid is more constrained and it is expected to perform. Those variations on generation, if not properly accounted for, may bring different challenges, including and their location. Choi [3] shows that inclusion of distributed generation in a distribution system would reduce

Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

460

Leak detecting arrangement especially suitable for a steam condenser and method  

SciTech Connect

The detection of leaks in tubes, particularly cooling tubes in a steam condenser, is disclosed herein. In accomplishing this, a discrete amount of helium or similar tracer gas is initially directed into the front ends of the tubes while, at the same time , this gas is prevented from escaping into the ambient surroundings. Thereafter, the gas is drawn or otherwise moved by positive force through the tubes to the backends thereof, causing a portion of the gas to escape through leaks in the tubes, if any such leaks exist. The escaping gas, if any, is detected to indicate the presence of a leak and, at the same time, the nonescaping tracer gas reaching the backends of the tubes is captured and directed to a remote location.

Barefoot, E.D.; Pelletier, C.A.

1980-10-07

461

What Play by a Playwright Other than Shakespeare Has Been Especially Effective with Your Students?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many high school teachers have described their favorite non-Shakespearean books that are effective with their students. Reginald Rose's "Twelve Angry Men", Arthur Miller's "The Crucible" and Henrik Ibsen's "A Doll's House" are some of the commonly taught books in high schools, as these books enlighten the students about the connections between…

Bell, Patricia L.

2005-01-01

462

Heat pipe dynamics. Final report, April 30, 1981. [Uses of heat pipe, especially in solar collector  

Microsoft Academic Search

A heat-pipe flat plate solar collector is constructed like a typical flat plate collector with the exception that individual heat pipes are attached to the collector surface to transfer collected heat via a phase change from collector surface into an attached jacket containing a phase change material. The efficiency of such a collector was measured roughly. Also briefly described are:

R. M. Sr

1981-01-01

463

CO2 emission mitigation by geothermal development - especially with geothermal heat pumps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geothermal technologies for power generation or direct use operate with little or no greenhouse gas emissions. Since no burning processes are involved they are low in CO2 emissions. Geothermal energy development has thus great CO2 emission reduction potential when substituting fossil sources of energy. Geothermal heat pumps (GHP) represent the fastest growing branch of geothermal technology; they use the ubiquitous shallow geothermal resource. GHPs are electricity consumers, nevertheless they can contribute to the fight against climatic warming. Such systems are now increasingly used for space heating, cooling, and to provide domestic hot water. With heat pump systems the use of fossil primary energy sources can be avoided, thus GHPs contribute to energy security: many countries must rely in their space heating systems on imported fossil fuels. The degree of dependence on these can be reduced. Since heat pumps are usually driven by electric components the origin of the electricity and the corresponding CO2 emission must be considered. A compilation shows that there are great differences in this respect from country to country. The same (=electricity need with CO2 emission consequences) applies to GHPs too. This means that by new geothermal heat pumps only additional CO2 emission can be avoided ("saving"), not a reduction of actual emissions. When GHPs are installed in refurbishment (to replace fossil-fueled systems) actual emission reduction can be achieved. Emission reduction is also evident when electric heater/cooler installations, driven by fossil-based electricity, are replaced by GHP systems. Numerical examples are presented about saving and reduction.

Rybach, L.

2009-04-01

464

Enjoy our classic pashmina embroidered especially for Newnham College use as a wrap  

E-print Network

a lovely Christmas present. Gold, Blue and Cream (please indicate choice on booking form) Viscose material (please indicate choice on booking form) Keyring The disc of this keyring is exactly the same weight and size as a one pound coin. When you arrive at the airport, or need a trolley at the supermarket

Lasenby, Joan