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1

Nuevas Especies de Algas de Agua Dulce Italiano-Españolas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este modesto, deslabazado e insignificante trabajo de Algas de agua dulce, se lo dedico con mucho cariñ, veneració y respeto, al gran maestro de la Ficologia Prof. De Toni (q. e. p.d.).Las tres especies nuevas y la variedad, se las dedico a él. Oedogonium De-Tonii, Phythelios De-Tonii y Rivularia beccariana var. De toniana, han sido cogidas en las aguas dulces

Pedro González Guerrero

1964-01-01

2

Ciliary ultrastructure of polyplacophorans (Mollusca, Amphineura, Polyplacophora).  

PubMed

This study is part of a series of papers aiming to investigate the phylogenetic significance of ciliary ultrastructure among molluscs and to test the hypothesis of a relationship between Xenoturbella and the molluscs. The ultrastructure of the ciliary apparatus on the gills of the polyplacophorans Leptochiton asellus and Tonicella rubra was studied. The gill cilia of the two species are similar in shape. The free part of the cilium is long with a slender distal part. There are two ciliary rootlets. One of them is short, broad and placed on the anterior face of the basal body. The other rootlet is conical and has a vertical orientation. Among the mollusca, two ciliary rootlets in the ciliary apparatus of multiciliate ectodermal cells have only been reported from the Chaetodermomorpha and Neomeniomorpha. This character state is likely plesiomorphic for the Mollusca and indicates a basal (nonderived) position of these taxa among the molluscs. No possible synapomorphic character with Xenoturbella bocki was found. PMID:11686414

Lundin, K; Schander, C

3

Phylum Mollusca: A Guide to the Mollusca of the Delaware Bay Region.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The guide provides a synopsis of the organ systems of the Mollusca, descriptions of the classes Polyplacophora and Gastropoda and a key to the Gastropoda of the Delaware Bay region. There follows descriptions of the classes Scaphopoda and Bivalvia with a ...

W. Leathem D. Maurer

1976-01-01

4

Digestion and the Production of Sulphuric Acid by Mollusca  

Microsoft Academic Search

WHILE investigating the food of aquatic Mollusca in Uganda, it was observed that cellulose in the gut contents was being digested. Caelatura hauttecoeuri ruellani (Bgt.), a bivalve, was selected for detailed study and also Melanoides tuberculata tuberculata (Müll.), a snail, which belongs to the Prosobranchia, some members of which possess a crystalline style1.

G. R. Fish

1955-01-01

5

Sensitivities of Achatina giant neurones to peptides isolated from mollusca.  

PubMed

Sensitivities of the Achatina giant neurones to the peptides isolated from Mollusca were examined by their local application of the pneumatic pressure ejection under current clamp. The peptides tested and their effects were as follows: Ser2-MIP (inhibitory). CARP (inhibitory), oxytocin (excitatory), SPCB (excitatory), alpha-BCP (no effect). ELH (no effect). APGW-amide (inhibitory) and FMRFamide (inhibitory). Membrane conductance (g) of a neurone, d-RPeAN, measured under voltage clamp, was unexpectedly decreased by SCPB during inward current (Iin) caused by the peptide. PMID:8098562

Liu, G J; Santos, D E; Takeuchi, H

1993-01-01

6

All the three ParaHox genes are present in Nuttallochiton mirandus (Mollusca: polyplacophora): evolutionary considerations.  

PubMed

The ParaHox gene cluster contains three homeobox genes, Gsx, Xlox and Cdx and has been demonstrated to be an evolutionary sister of the Hox gene cluster. Among deuterostomes the three genes are found in the majority of taxa, whereas among protostomes they have so far been isolated only in the phylum Sipuncula. We report the partial sequences of all three ParaHox genes in the polyplacophoran Nuttallochiton mirandus, the first species of the phylum Mollusca where all ParaHox genes have been isolated. This finding has phylogenetic implications for the phylum Mollusca and for its relationships with the other lophotrochozoan taxa. PMID:16331637

Barucca, Marco; Biscotti, Maria A; Olmo, Ettore; Canapa, Adriana

2006-03-15

7

Nacre and false nacre (foliated aragonite) in extant monoplacophorans (=Tryblidiida: Mollusca)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extant monoplacophorans (Tryblidiida, Mollusca) have traditionally been reported as having an internal nacreous layer, thus\\u000a representing the ancestral molluscan condition. The examination of this layer in three species of Neopilinidae (Rokopella euglypta, Veleropilina zografi, and Micropilina arntzi) reveals that only V. zografi secretes an internal layer of true nacre, which occupies only part of the internal shell surface. The rest

Antonio G. Checa; Joaquín Ramírez-Rico; Alicia González-Segura; Antonio Sánchez-Navas

2009-01-01

8

Marine Mollusca of the last 2 million years in New Zealand. Part 5. Summary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evolution occurred equally through allopatric speciation and anagenesis during Pliocene–Early Pleistocene time. However, no anagenesis is observed in Castlecliffian to Recent Mollusca. Possible explanations include (1) increasing shallowness and energy of the environment (Sheldon's ‘plus ça change’ model); (2) lecithotrophs increased with falling temperatures, and are more susceptible than planktotrophs to allopatric speciation; (3) ‘plus ça change’ implies that anagenesis

AG Beu

2012-01-01

9

Nueva Especie de Eleutherodactylus (Anura:Leptodactylidae) del Macizo Sagua-Baracoa, Cuba  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new species of Eleutherodactylus, is described from upland regions of Holguin and Guan- tanamo provinces in eastern Cuba. It is closely related to E. auriculatus, but has a different color pattern and call.

ALBERTO R. ESTRADA; Y S. BLAIR HEDGES

10

Nueva Especie del Grupo limbatus (Leptodactylidae: Eleutherodactylus) de la Region Oriental de Cuba  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new diminutive species of Eleutherodactylus is described from Sierra Maestra in eastern Cuba. It is a member of the limbatus group of the subgenus Euhyas. The new species is most similar to E. limbatus and E. orientalis, but has a relatively wider head and longer snout, and a distinctive orange ground color.

ALBERTO R. ESTRADA; ROBERTO ALONSO; MATERIALES Y METODOS

11

Dos nuevas especies del género Squatina (Chondrichthyes: Squatinidae) del Golfo de México  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two new species of the genus Squatina (Chondrichthyes: Squatinidae) from the Gulf of Mexico. Two undescribed species of the genus Squatina, caught by bottom-trawl during the OGMEX VIII, IX and PROBEMEX II oceanographic cruises were compared with S. dumeril Lesueur, 1818, the only well known spe- cies from the northern Gulf of Mexico. The collections were made off Tamaulipas, Veracruz

José Luis Castro-Aguirre; Héctor Espinosa Pérez; Leticia Huidobro Campos

2006-01-01

12

Comparative genomics of vesicomyid clam (Bivalvia: Mollusca) chemosynthetic symbionts  

PubMed Central

Background The Vesicomyidae (Bivalvia: Mollusca) are a family of clams that form symbioses with chemosynthetic gamma-proteobacteria. They exist in environments such as hydrothermal vents and cold seeps and have a reduced gut and feeding groove, indicating a large dependence on their endosymbionts for nutrition. Recently, two vesicomyid symbiont genomes were sequenced, illuminating the possible nutritional contributions of the symbiont to the host and making genome-wide evolutionary analyses possible. Results To examine the genomic evolution of the vesicomyid symbionts, a comparative genomics framework, including the existing genomic data combined with heterologous microarray hybridization results, was used to analyze conserved gene content in four vesicomyid symbiont genomes. These four symbionts were chosen to include a broad phylogenetic sampling of the vesicomyid symbionts and represent distinct chemosynthetic environments: cold seeps and hydrothermal vents. Conclusion The results of this comparative genomics analysis emphasize the importance of the symbionts' chemoautotrophic metabolism within their hosts. The fact that these symbionts appear to be metabolically capable autotrophs underscores the extent to which the host depends on them for nutrition and reveals the key to invertebrate colonization of these challenging environments.

Newton, Irene LG; Girguis, Peter R; Cavanaugh, Colleen M

2008-01-01

13

Bioactive substances with anti-neoplastic efficacy from marine invertebrates: Bryozoa, Mollusca, Echinodermata and Urochordata  

PubMed Central

The marine environment provides a rich source of natural products with potential therapeutic application. This has resulted in an increased rate of pharmaceutical agents being discovered in marine animals, particularly invertebrates. Our objective is to summarize the most promising compounds which have the best potential and may lead to use in clinical practice, show their biological activities and highlight the compounds currently being tested in clinical trials. In this paper, we focused on Bryozoa, Mollusca, Echinodermata and Urochordata.

Sima, Peter; Vetvicka, Vaclav

2011-01-01

14

Identification of Several Cytoplasmic HSP70 Genes from the Mediterranean Mussel ( Mytilus galloprovincialis ) and Their Long-Term Evolution in Mollusca and Metazoa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The HSP70 protein family consists one of the most conserved and important systems for cellular homeostasis under both stress\\u000a and physiological conditions. The genes of this family are poorly studied in Mollusca, which is the second largest metazoan\\u000a phylum. To study these genes in Mollusca, we have isolated and identified five HSP70 genes from Mytilus galloprovincialis (Mediterranean mussel) and investigated

Antonis Kourtidis; Elena Drosopoulou; Nikolas Nikolaidis; Vasiliki I. Hatzi; Chariton C. Chintiroglou; Zacharias G. Scouras

2006-01-01

15

The mitochondrial genome of the sipunculid Phascolopsis gouldii supports its association with Annelida rather than Mollusca  

SciTech Connect

We have determined the sequence of about half (7470 nts) of the mitochondrial genome of the sipunculid Phascolopsis gouldii, the first representative of this phylum to be so studied. All of the 19 identified genes are transcribed from the same DNA strand. The arrangement of these genes is remarkably similar to that of the oligochaete annelid Lumbricus terrestris. Comparison of both the inferred amino acid sequences and the gene arrangements of a variety of diverse metazoan taxa reveals that the phylum Sipuncula is more closely related to Annelida than to Mollusca. This requires reinterpretation of the homology of several embryological features and of patterns of animal body plan evolution.

Boore, Jeffrey L.; Staton, Joseph

2001-09-01

16

The Politics of Rural School Reform: Escuela Nueva in Colombia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Traces evolution of rural-school education plan in Colombia (Escuela Nueva), focusing on importance of Colombia's changing political and social climate in policy development. Identifies three phases of reform development and implementation: grassroots, formalized, and decoupled. Uses Escuela Nueva to demonstrate importance of recognizing dynamic,…

McEwan, Patrick J.; Benveniste, Luis

2001-01-01

17

Contrasting Sensitivities to Fluoride Toxicity between Juveniles and Adults of the Aquatic Snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Hydrobiidae, Mollusca)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In contrast to aquatic vertebrates, there is scarce available information on the contrasting tolerance to fluoride of different\\u000a life stages and\\/or sizes of aquatic invertebrates. The purpose of this study was to assess the likely differences in sensitivity\\u000a between juveniles and adults of the aquatic snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Hydrobiidae, Mollusca) to short-term (4 days) toxicity of fluoride ion (F?). LC50 and

Aránzazu Aguirre-Sierra; Álvaro Alonso; Julio A. Camargo

2011-01-01

18

[Diversity and microstructure of quitons (Mollusca: Polyplacophora) from the Caribbean of Costa Rica].  

PubMed

Diversity and microstructure of quitons (Mollusca: Polyplacophora) from the Caribbean of Costa Rica. The polyplacophorans of the coral reef on the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica have been insufficiently studied. The examination of coral rubble accumulated in the shallow sublitoral waters on four collection stations in Provincia Limón revealed a higher diversity of chitons than was documented. From the country eight species were previously known: Ischnochiton erythronotus (C.B. Adams 1845); Ischnoplax pectinata (Sowerby 1840); Stenoplax boogii (Haddon 1886); S. purpurascens (C.B. Adams 1845); Acanthopleura granulata (Gmelin 1791); Chiton marmoratus Gmelin 1791; C. tuberculatus Linnaeus 1758 and Acanthochitona rhodea (Pilsbry 1893). This study added five more species that are reported here for the first time: Callistochiton portobelensis Ferreira 1976; Ischnochiton kaasi Ferreira 1987; I. pseudovirgatus Kaas 1972; Acanthochitona balesae Abbott 1954 and Cryptoconchus floridanus (Dall 1889). PMID:21516641

García-Ríos, Cedar I; Alvarez-Ruiz, Migdalia

2011-03-01

19

A new species of Eritrachys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae: Ochlerini) from Ecuador (Especie nueva de Eritrachys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae: Ochlerini) de Ecuador  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A new species of to the genus Eritrachys Ruckes, E. brailovskyi, collected in Ecuador, is described and illustrated. The male of E. bituberculata Ruckes is described and illustrated, with new records from Panama and Ecuador. A key to the species of the genus is provided....

20

Especially for High School Teachers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Secondary School Feature Article * JCE Classroom Activity #18: Photochemistry and Pinhole Photography: An Interdisciplinary Experiment, by Angeliki A. Rigos and Kevin Salemme, p 736A High School Program at Anaheim ACS Meeting Congratulations to Barbara Sitzman of Chatsworth High School (Los Angeles) and her committee for organizing an outstanding day of activities! With support from the Southern California Section of the American Chemical Society and the encouragement of Tom Wildeman, CHED Program Committee Chair, the program attracted a large number of Southern California teachers and some from much greater distances. A synopsis of some of the day's activities is included in the Chemical Education Program Meeting Report, p 747. Other workshop topics included gel chromatography, forensic chemistry, art preservation and authentication, well water purification, and toxins in waste water. Also, a workshop on fitting polymers into the chemistry course was conducted by the Polymer Ambassadors. I thank Mickey Sarquis, founding editor of the JCE Secondary School Chemistry Section, for joining me in conducting an information workshop. The pictures appearing on this page were taken at the High School/College Interface Luncheon, which featured an address by Paul Boyer. In addition to the opportunity to visit with colleagues, enjoy a meal together, and win door prizes, those in attendance enjoyed a lively hands-on workshop led by Michael Tinnesand, Department Head of K-12 Science, ACS Education Division. Don't you wish you could have attended the High School Program? Plan Now: High School Program in New Orleans Mark your calendar for Sunday, August 22, 1999. The Fall ACS National Meeting will be held in New Orleans and the High School Program is scheduled on Sunday so that teachers will be able to avoid conflicts with the opening of the school year. Teachers in the Mid-South region are especially encouraged to plan on attending an outstanding program put together by Lillie Tucker Akin and her committee. Watch the Journal for program and registration information. Glenn Seaborg Memorial Periodic Table Quilt Raffle Harvey Gendreau of Framingham High School, MA, reports that Barbara McCarty, award-winning quilter and president of the Wayside Quilters Guild, has made a wall-sized periodic table quilt to honor the memory of Glenn Seaborg. The quilt will be raffled at ChemEd99 and funds from the raffle will be used to defray conference costs. The quilt is 2.5 meters wide by 1.5 meters high and the element squares are 13 cm on each side. Each of the 109 element squares contains the appliqué of the symbol and has stenciling for its atomic number and mass. The major periodic families are color coded and the border fabric has an eye-catching symbolic atom design. Nine colors for the elements include royal blue, deep purple, lilac, pink, burgundy and gold. The element square for seaborgium, atomic number 106, has been autographed by Glenn T. Seaborg. A certificate of authenticity will accompany the quilt. This is a unique opportunity to win a classroom (or home) art treasure. Each ticket is 2 or a book of 3 is 5. Tickets may be purchased on the ChemEd99 registration form and will be included in your conference packet. The quilt will be on display at the exposition hall and additional tickets can be purchased at the Unlimited Potential booth. Drawing will be on Wednesday, August 4th, in the expo area when door prizes are announced. You need not be present to win. Information about ChemEd99 may be obtained online at http://www.sacredheart.edu/chemed/. 1999 CMA Catalyst Awards Special congratulations to the High School and Pre-High School award recipients. National Winners are George R. Hague, Dallas, TX, and Wayne Goates, Goddard, KS. Regional winners are Rhonda Lynn Reist, Olathe, KS, and Anne Marie Holbrook, Cincinnati, OH. A complete list of the awardees, including the post-high-school recipients, is in the News & Announcements section of this issue,

Howell, J. Emory

1999-06-01

21

Especially for High School Teachers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Secondary School Feature Articles * Super Science Connections, by Patricia B. McKean, p 916 * A pHorseshoe, by Roger Plumsky, p 935 National Conferences in Your Part of the Country For the past several months, considerable space in this column has been devoted to forthcoming national conferences and conventions and to highlights of conferences past. For some of us, location is fairly unimportant; but for most of us travel costs and time are both factors to consider when choosing a conference. The community of high school chemistry teachers is favored by the number of national conventions and conferences that are held each year in different locations. In 1999, for example, the spring National Meeting of the American Chemical Society was in Anaheim and the National Science Teachers Association National Convention was in Boston. This summer CHEMED '99 will be held in Fairfield, CT, August 1-5, and the fall National ACS Meeting will be in New Orleans. Teachers from the mid-South especially should consider attending the High School Program at New Orleans, described below by Lillie Tucker Akin, Chairperson of the Division's High School Program Committee. The event will be held on Sunday to minimize conflicts with the beginning of the school year. JCE at CHEMED '99 Stop by the JCE booth at CHEMED '99 in the exhibits area to learn more about the wide array of print and nonprint resources you can use in your classroom and laboratory. Members of the editorial staff will be on hand to talk with you. You are invited to participate in a workshop, "Promoting Active Learning through JCE Activity Sheets and Software", on Monday, August 1, 8:30-10:30. The free hands-on workshop is number WT11 and we encourage you to include it among your choices in the blanks provided on the third page of the registration form. We will also conduct an interactive session to listen to ideas for making the Journal more useful to you. Check the final program for location and time or inquire at the JCE exhibit booth. NSTA in Boston For the representatives of the Journal, the highlight of the National Science Teachers Association Convention was visiting with the many readers who stopped by the JCE booth. Among them were several who have authored an article or reviewed manuscripts. We hope that number increases from year to year. JCE exists for its readers and because many readers are willing to devote the time and effort necessary to write a manuscript and revise it based on peer review. The convention offered such a variety of opportunities to acquire useful information that it is impossible to name a single highlight, or even to list the top ten. Representative of the many outstanding chemistry-oriented sessions presented by high school teachers were "Ultraviolet, Visible and Infrared Spectroscopy in the Chemistry and Physics Laboratory", "Kool Conversions in a Block Schedule", and "Hot Packs, Cold Packs, and a Six-Pack of Chemistry Projects". Reports from Other Journals On pages 882-885, Steve Long and Kathy Thorsen have summarized interesting articles that have appeared recently in The Science Teacher and Chem 13 News, respectively. Even if you are a regular reader of one or both of these journals, you will enjoy reading these summaries. Steve and Kathy have done a great job of highlighting interesting and useful information. I thank both of them for these fine contributions to the Journal. High School Day in New Orleans Mark August 22, 1999, on your calendar now and plan to attend High School Chemistry Day at the National ACS Meeting in New Orleans. The High School Program Committee, with support from local ACS sections, has planned an extravaganza of workshops and presentations, including environmental programs and workshops conducted by Sargent-Welch; an afternoon of instrumentation by Buck Laboratories with the Alabama Science in Motion vans and drivers to show how to transport chemistry on wheels; 12 demonstrations by nationally recognized chemical demonstration experts; a series of nine oral presentations on &

Howell, J. Emory

1999-07-01

22

A video-based tracking analysis to assess the chronic toxic effects of fluoride ion on the aquatic snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Hydrobiidae, Mollusca).  

PubMed

Short-term lethal bioassays are not suited for assessing the real effects of pollutants in natural ecosystems, as their concentrations are usually unrealistic under an ecological point of view. By contrast, chronic bioassays are more realistic for assessing effects on aquatic animals, especially when behavioural endpoints are used. These endpoints are a good link between physiological and ecological effects. Among behavioural bioassays, those based on automated image analysis following video-recording have the advantage of being quantitative and non-subjective tests. The present study focuses on the assessment of chronic (63 days) effects of fluoride ion (F?) on the survival, proportion of affected animals (dead plus immobile animals) and several behavioural endpoints (monitored by video-recording and image analysis system) of the aquatic snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Hydrobiidae, Mollusca). The bioassay consisted of one control and three actual fluoride concentrations (4.68, 18.6, and 37.1 mg F?/L) with 12 replicates in each treatment. The endpoints were monitored every 7 day of continuous exposure to fluoride ion. The highest fluoride concentrations killed all animals at the end of the bioassay. By contrast no animals died in the lowest fluoride treatment, but snails showed several alterations of behaviour: increase heterogeneity of velocity among successive recording periods, increase of the time to escape from a marked circle, and reduction of the heterogeneity in the utilization of space. Therefore, most of the behavioural endpoints were sensitive to environmentally realistic non-lethal fluoride concentrations, being useful parameters for ecological risk assessment. The ecological relevance of these findings is discussed. PMID:22565089

Alonso, Álvaro; Camargo, Julio A

2012-05-06

23

Seasonal variations of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in the edible mollusc Donax trunculus (Mollusca, Bivalvia) from the gulf of Annaba, Algeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seasonal variations in the concentrations of four trace heavy metals (cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn)) were determined in Donax trunculus (Mollusca, Bivalvia) at two contaminated sites in the gulf of Annaba (East of Algeria): El Battah and Sidi Salem . The average concentrations of the metals exhibited the following order: Zn>Cu> Pb>Cd for the two sites.

Hayette Beldi; Frédéric Gimbert; Samuel Maas; Renaud Scheifler; Noureddine Soltani

2006-01-01

24

Deux espèces sous un même masque. Le point de vue paléontologique piégé par les coquilles de deux espèces européennes de Trivia (Mollusca, Gastropoda)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two species behind the same mask. The palaeontological approach caught out by two European species of Trivia (Mollusca, Gastropoda).- The experiment reported in this paper was devised to assess to what extent loss of information as a result of fossilization might affect species discrimination in palaeontology. The test consisted in first conducting a \\

Elisabeth DOMMERGUES; Jean-Louis DOMMERGUES; Cyril Hugues DOMMERGUES

2006-01-01

25

Spread of Cyclope neritea (Mollusca: Gastropoda) along the north-eastern Atlantic coasts in relation to oyster culture and to climatic fluctuations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The geographic distribution ofCyclope neritea (Linné) (Mollusca: Gastropoda) along the Atlantic coasts of Portugal, Spain and France is reported. Analysis of information published over the last 90 yr indicates that, since 1983,C. neritea has extended its range northwards from Arcachon Bay along the coast of the Bay of Biscay. The spread of this small gastropod is directly related to the

P.-G. Sauriau

1991-01-01

26

Contrasting sensitivities to fluoride toxicity between juveniles and adults of the aquatic snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Hydrobiidae, Mollusca).  

PubMed

In contrast to aquatic vertebrates, there is scarce available information on the contrasting tolerance to fluoride of different life stages and/or sizes of aquatic invertebrates. The purpose of this study was to assess the likely differences in sensitivity between juveniles and adults of the aquatic snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Hydrobiidae, Mollusca) to short-term (4 days) toxicity of fluoride ion (F(-)). LC50 and EC50 values for juveniles were significantly lower than those for adults at 24, 48, 72 and 96 h. Based on our results, the use of fluoride data of bioassays with juveniles should provide more protective water quality criteria than data from adult stage. PMID:21424710

Aguirre-Sierra, Aránzazu; Alonso, Alvaro; Camargo, Julio A

2011-03-22

27

Genetic divergence and geographic variation in the deep-water Conus orbignyi complex (Mollusca: Conoidea)  

PubMed Central

Puillandre, N. et al. (2010) Genetic divergence and geographic variation in a deep-water cone lineage: molecular and morphological analyses of the Conus orbignyi complex (Mollusca: Conoidea). The cone snails (family Conidae) are a hyperdiverse lineage of venomous gastropods. Two standard markers, COI and ITS2, were used to define six genetically-divergent groups within a subclade of Conidae that includes Conus orbignyi; each of these was then evaluated based on their shell morphology. We conclude that three forms, previously regarded as subspecies of Conus orbignyi are distinct species, now recognized as Conus orbignyi, Conus elokismenos and Conus coriolisi. In addition, three additional species (Conus pseudorbignyi, Conus joliveti and Conus comatosa) belong to this clade. Some of the proposed species (e.g., Conus elokismenos) are possibly in turn complexes comprising multiple species. Groups such as Conidae illustrate the challenges generally faced in species delimitation in biodiverse lineages. In the case of the Conus orbignyi complex, not only are there definable, genetically divergent lineages, but also considerable geographic variation within each group. Our study suggests that an intensive analysis of multiple specimens within a single locality helps to minimize the confounding effects of geographic variation and can be a useful starting point for circumscribing different species within such a confusing complex.

Puillandre, Nicolas; Meyer, Christopher P.; Bouchet, Philippe; Olivera, Baldomero M.

2011-01-01

28

Hard and soft anatomy in two genera of Dondersiidae (Mollusca, Aplacophora, Solenogastres).  

PubMed

Phylogenetic relationships and identifications in the aplacophoran taxon Solenogastres (Neomeniomorpha) are in flux largely because descriptions of hard parts--sclerites, radulae, copulatory spicules--and body shape have often not been adequately illustrated or utilized. With easily recognizable and accessible hard parts, descriptions of Solenogastres are of greater use, not just to solenogaster taxonomists, but also to ecologists, paleontologists, and evolutionary biologists. Phylogenetic studies of Aplacophora, Mollusca, and the Lophotrochozoa as a whole, whether morphological or molecular, would be enhanced. As an example, morphologic characters, both isolated hard parts and internal anatomy, are provided for two genera in the Dondersiidae. Five species are described or redescribed and earlier descriptions corrected and enhanced. Three belong to Dondersia: D. festiva Hubrecht, D. incali (Scheltema), and D. namibiensis n. sp., the latter differentiated unambiguously from D. incali only by sclerites and copulatory spicules. Two species belong to Lyratoherpia: L. carinata Salvini-Plawen and L. californica (Heath). Notes are given for other species in Dondersiidae: L. bracteata Salvini-Plawen, Ichthyomenia ichthyodes (Pruvot), and Heathia porosa (Heath). D. indica Stork is synonymized with D. annulata. A cladistic morphological analysis was conducted to examine the utility of hard parts for reconstructing solenogaster phylogeny. Results indicate monophyly of Dondersia and Lyratoherpia as described here. PMID:22815372

Scheltema, Amélie H; Schander, Christoffer; Kocot, Kevin M

2012-06-01

29

Student Stress Is Rising, Especially among Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reports findings of a 1999 survey of 261,217 college freshmen at 462 two-year and four-year institutions concerning lifestyle and stress. Finds increasing numbers of students, especially women, report feeling overwhelmed and under stress. Also reports declines in drinking and smoking, more students planning to work full-time, more students…

Reisberg, Leo

2000-01-01

30

Asian great lakes, especially Lake Biwa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The geological and biological history of Asian great lakes, especially Lake Biwa in Japan, are reviewed. The origins and affiliations of endemic flora and fauna are interpreted in light of current understanding of Lake Biwa. Recent historical changes in the lake, including detrimental impacts on native fauna and water quality are summarized. The social and cultural values associated with Asian

Hiroya Kawanabe

1996-01-01

31

Efficient electric arc furnace control at Nueva Montana Quijano SA  

SciTech Connect

In March 1991, ABB commissioned a process control system for Nueva Montana Quijano's (NMQ) electric arc furnace in Santander, Spain. The installation consists of a system for controlled scrap meltdown and an electrode regulator. This paper presents the improvements that have been achieved during the first year of production. The improvements have included: Electrode consumption decrease of approximately 14%. Power-on time decrease of approximately 3%. Lining wear decrease of approximately 8%. Experience from operations also provides a theoretical calculation that shows that if the new and old systems are compared at the same power factor or the same power; active power can be increased 8% or operating power factor increased 4%.

Hultin, L. (ABB Automation AB, Vasteras (Sweden)); Vazques, P.A. (Nueva Montana Quijano SA, Cantabria (Spain))

1993-07-01

32

Method and apparatus for recovering raw material, especially uranium, from natural waters, especially from the sea  

SciTech Connect

A method and apparatus are disclosed for recovering raw material, especially uranium, from natural waters, especially from the sea. Carrier bodies capable of sinking are permitted to pass, in a free fall, through a layer of water, especially a natural sea current or stream, by concentration on the carrier bodies, which are collected at an appropriate depth and are then conveyed from there for further treatment. Carrier bodies of inert material are used having a protected outer surface with a thin layer, capable of being concentrated, coated thereon. The distance of falling amounts to approximately 100 meters. The apparatus for carrying out the method includes a carrier body discharge located below water level. One end of a carrier body path has a collection device for collecting carrier bodies and is directed toward the conveyor path. The apparatus also has a conveying device operating especially hydraulically according to the principle of communicating pipes. The conveying device returns the carrier bodies to the outlet or discharge by way of a further treatment location.

Heitkamp, D.; Inden, P.

1983-11-22

33

Una nueva especie de Euglena (Euglenozoa: Euglenales) aislada de ambientes extremófilos en las Pailas de Barro del Volcán Rincón de la Vieja, Costa Rica  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new species of euglena isolated from a hot and acid mud pool located in Las Pailas de Barro, Volcán Rincón de la Vieja, Costa Rica is described. This species inhabits hot and acid environments. Euglena pailasen- sis sp. nov. main features are: the absence of flagella, the presence filaments like \\

Ana Sittenfeld; Maribelle Vargas; Ethel Sánchez; Marielos Mora; Aurelio Serrano

34

Subchronic toxic effects of fluoride ion on the survival and behaviour of the aquatic snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Hydrobiidae, Mollusca).  

PubMed

Short-term bioassays usually assess lethal effects of pollutants in animals, whereas subchronic bioassays are more suited for assessing effects on animal behaviour. Among them, videotaped bioassays are an improvement in the behavioural monitoring because they are easily and cheaply implemented. The present study focuses on the assessment of subchronic (14-day) effects of fluoride ion on the survival, proportion of dead plus immobile animals, and velocity (monitored by a videotaping and image analysis system) of the aquatic snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Hydrobiidae, Mollusca). One control and three nominal fluoride concentrations (5, 20, and 40 mg F(-)/l [actual mean concentrations of 5.2, 17.5, and 37.0 mg F(-)/l, respectively]) were used. Each treatment (including the control) was replicated 12 times. Mortality, number of dead plus immobile animals, and velocity were monitored after 0, 7, and 14 days of exposure. After 14 days, animals exposed to 40 mg F(-)/l showed higher mortality, number of dead, and immobile individuals than control animals. Snails exposed to 5 and 20 mg F(-)/l were not affected by fluoride ion regarding these endpoints. In contrast, snails exposed to 20 mg F(-)/l for 7 and 14 days showed lower velocity than control animals. Therefore, velocity was sensitive to environmental fluoride concentrations and as such is a useful parameter for ecologic risk assessment. In addition, videotaping allowed us to detect behavioural patrons in velocity at very short exposures (seconds) during the monitoring process by showing that the velocity of snails must be monitored at least during the course of several minutes. We conclude that in P. antipodarum, velocity is a more sensitive endpoint than the classic mortality and immobility endpoints. PMID:20577728

Alonso, Álvaro; Camargo, Julio A

2010-06-25

35

Concentrations of trace elements in Meretrix spp. (Mollusca: Bivalva) along the coasts of Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dominant coastal bivalve in Vietnam, hard clams Meretrix spp., collected from the South Key Economic Zone (SKEZ), the Mekong River Delta, and the Central Coastal Zone (CCZ) were\\u000a analyzed for 21 trace elements. Comparison of the results from the three regions indicated that levels of most of the trace\\u000a elements, especially As, Mo, Sn, and Pb, were highest in

Nguyen Phuc Cam Tu; Nguyen Ngoc Ha; Tetsuro Agusa; Tokutaka Ikemoto; Bui Cach Tuyen; Shinsuke Tanabe; Ichiro Takeuchi

2010-01-01

36

Fast evolving 18S rRNA sequences from Solenogastres (Mollusca) resist standard PCR amplification and give new insights into mollusk substitution rate heterogeneity  

PubMed Central

Background The 18S rRNA gene is one of the most important molecular markers, used in diverse applications such as molecular phylogenetic analyses and biodiversity screening. The Mollusca is the second largest phylum within the animal kingdom and mollusks show an outstanding high diversity in body plans and ecological adaptations. Although an enormous amount of 18S data is available for higher mollusks, data on some early branching lineages are still limited. Despite of some partial success in obtaining these data from Solenogastres, by some regarded to be the most "basal" mollusks, this taxon still remained problematic due to contamination with food organisms and general amplification difficulties. Results We report here the first authentic 18S genes of three Solenogastres species (Mollusca), each possessing a unique sequence composition with regions conspicuously rich in guanine and cytosine. For these GC-rich regions we calculated strong secondary structures. The observed high intra-molecular forces hamper standard amplification and appear to increase formation of chimerical sequences caused by contaminating foreign DNAs from potential prey organisms. In our analyses, contamination was avoided by using RNA as a template. Indication for contamination of previously published Solenogastres sequences is presented. Detailed phylogenetic analyses were conducted using RNA specific models that account for compensatory substitutions in stem regions. Conclusions The extreme morphological diversity of mollusks is mirrored in the molecular 18S data and shows elevated substitution rates mainly in three higher taxa: true limpets (Patellogastropoda), Cephalopoda and Solenogastres. Our phylogenetic tree based on 123 species, including representatives of all mollusk classes, shows limited resolution at the class level but illustrates the pitfalls of artificial groupings formed due to shared biased sequence composition.

2010-01-01

37

Food Safety: It's Especially Important for At-Risk Groups  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... Food Safety: It's Especially Important for At-Risk Groups. ... However, the immune systems of transplant patients and people with certain illnesses ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/foodborneillnesscontaminants/peopleatrisk

38

4. OVERALL VIEW OF THE MEDICAL CENTER (ESPECIALLY BUILDING 2 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. OVERALL VIEW OF THE MEDICAL CENTER (ESPECIALLY BUILDING 2 & BUILDING 1) FROM THE 'CAMPUS' GROUNDS; LOOKING NE. (Harms) - Veterans Administration Medical Center, Old State Route 13 West, Marion, Williamson County, IL

39

2. OVERALL VIEW OF THE MEDICAL CENTER (ESPECIALLY BUILDING 1) ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. OVERALL VIEW OF THE MEDICAL CENTER (ESPECIALLY BUILDING 1) FROM THE 'CAMPUS' GROUNDS; LOOKING SW. (Harms) - Veterans Administration Medical Center, Old State Route 13 West, Marion, Williamson County, IL

40

3. OVERALL VIEW OF THE MEDICAL CENTER (ESPECIALLY BUILDING 2 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. OVERALL VIEW OF THE MEDICAL CENTER (ESPECIALLY BUILDING 2 & BUILDING 1) FROM THE 'CAMPUS' GROUNDS; LOOKING NW. (Harms) - Veterans Administration Medical Center, Old State Route 13 West, Marion, Williamson County, IL

41

Competencias social y habilidades sociales en la Educación Especial  

Microsoft Academic Search

La enseñanza y el aprendizaje de habilidades sociales específicas es uno de los principales propósitos que se plantea la Educación Especial, con objeto de que los alumnos adquieran la suficiente competencia social que les permita una plena integración en la comunidad. Muchos han sido los procedimientos utilizados para su instrucción; la mayoría de estos métodos han ejercido influencias beneficiosas en

XI CONGRESO; Consejo de Redacción; REVISTA ELECTRÓNICA

2008-01-01

42

An especial skill in elite wheelchair basketball players.  

PubMed

We aimed to investigate whether an especial skill is present in elite wheelchair basketball players when taking twenty shots with a regular basketball from five different distances (11 ft, 13 ft, 17 ft, & 19 ft) from the basket including the free throw line (15 ft). Twelve elite male basketball players participated. The results showed that as distance increased shot accuracy decreased in line with force by variability predictions for the 11 ft, 13 ft, 17 ft, & 19 ft distances. However, shot performance at the free throw line where players are more familiar with practicing free throw shots did not follow this trend. A linear regression line was drawn to predict performance at the free throw line based on nearer (11 ft & 13 ft) and farer (17 ft & 19 ft) distances to the basket, this was then compared to actual performance. A significant difference between actual and predicted scores was found (p<.05) supporting the presence of an especial skill. Significant positive correlations were found for the 11 ft and 17 ft distance, age, years of playing, and accumulated practice hours with performance at the 15 ft line (p<.05). These correlations imply the operation of generalization in the especial skill. This observation received support from applying a model in which shot accuracy as a function of distance was approximated by two regression lines. PMID:23981485

Fay, K; Breslin, G; Czy?, S H; Pizlo, Z

2013-08-24

43

Nuclear Planetology: Especially Concerning the Moon and Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To approach basic scientific questions on the origin and evolution of planetary bodies such as planets, their satellites and asteroids, one needs data on their chemical composition. The measurements of gamma-rays, X-rays and neutrons emitted from their surface materials provide information on abundances of major elements and naturally radioactive gamma-ray emitters. Neutron spectroscopy can provide sensitive maps of hydrogen- and carbon-containing compounds, even if buried, and can uniquely identify layers of carbon-dioxide frost. Nuclear spectroscopy, as a means of compositional analysis, has been applied via orbital and lander spacecraft to extraterrestrial planetary bodies: the Moon, Venus, Mars, Mercury and asteroids. The knowledge of their chemical abundances, especially concerning the Moon and Mars, has greatly increased in recent years. This paper describes the principle of nuclear spectroscopy, nuclear planetary instruments carried on planetary missions so far, and the nature of observational results and findings of the Moon and Mars, recently obtained by nuclear spectroscopy.

Kim, Kyeong Ja; Hasebe, Nobuyuki

2012-10-01

44

Educar haciendo uso de las nuevas tecnologías y medios digitales. Algunas pautas básicas. Educating using new technologies and digital media. Some basic guidelines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Las nuevas tecnologías y los medios digitales plantean nuevas posibilidades educativas, dando paso a lo que se conoce como e-learning. Sin embargo, contar con estos medios no garantiza sin más el conseguir los mejores resultados de aprendizaje, pues también se requiere la implantación paralela de nuevos modelos pedagógicos. Estos modelos afectarán tanto al diseño de los materiales educativos en formato

Ana M; Fermoso García; Alberto Pedrero

45

Toxic Effects of Fluoride Ion on Survival, Reproduction and Behaviour of the Aquatic Snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Hydrobiidae, Mollusca)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inorganic fluoride concentrations in aquatic ecosystems have been significantly increased by several human activities during\\u000a the last decades. However, there is still relatively scarce information about its toxicity to freshwater animals, especially\\u000a at long-term exposures. The aim of our study is to assess the short-term (4 days) and long-term (28 days) fluoride (F?) toxicity to the aquatic snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum on the

Álvaro Alonso; Julio A. Camargo

2011-01-01

46

DEVELOPMENT OF A SUSTAINABLE AND APPROPRIATE DRINKING WATER SYSTEM FOR MONTANA DE LUZ AND NUEVA ESPERANZA, HONDURAS  

EPA Science Inventory

In this project, we plan to design an appropriate and sustainable water treatment and supply system for a small village (Nueva Esperanza) and nearby orphanage in rural Honduras. The orphanage, named “Montana de Luz,” is a home exclusively for children with HIV/A...

47

Domestic Hygiene Behaviour of Mothers with Children Aged 0-5 Years Old in Tayabo Village, Nueva Ecija, the Philippines  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cross-sectional survey was carried out in a rural village in Nueva Ecija province in the Philippines to identify the association between mothers' hygiene behaviour and their socioeconomic status and household environment. A total of 206 mothers with children aged 0-5 years old participated in this study. Household visits with face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire and observation of household

Kayako Sakisaka; Susumu Wakai; Som-Arch Wongkhomthong

2002-01-01

48

25 CFR 213.45 - Restrictions especially continued as to certain lands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Restrictions especially continued as to certain lands. 213.45 Section 213.45 Indians...ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF RESTRICTED LANDS OF MEMBERS OF FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA...Restrictions especially continued as to certain lands. Restricted lands...

2011-04-01

49

Investigación translacional para generar datos a favor de la introducción racional y eficiente de vacunas nuevas en países en vías de desarrollo: La experiencia del Instituto Internacional de Vacunas  

Microsoft Academic Search

ExtractoEn los últimos años, la introducción de vacunas nuevas en países opulentos ha tenido lugar a un ritmo asombroso. En comparación, se han introducido pocas vacunas de nueva generación en los programas de salud pública para los pobres de los países en vías de desarrollo, y para aquéllos que sí los tienen, la introducción ha sido penosamente lenta. Los recursos

John Clemens

2008-01-01

50

Especial skill effect across age and performance level: the nature and degree of generalization.  

PubMed

It has been claimed that an especial skill emerges after massive amounts of basketball practice. Despite this no direct evidence is available to support this claim. The authors aimed to shed light on this question. Thirty-seven male basketball players took part representing four groups: 2 groups of senior players, a cadet group, and a group of juniors. Players performed free throw shots from 7 distances including shots from the free throw line (15 ft). It was shown that an especial skill was present in senior players, but not in junior players who had only 3 years of playing experience. The authors present a descriptive model of especial skill and express it using the formalism of a hierarchical Bayesian model to fit the data and estimate the parameters. This model can account not only for the results, which indicate the presence and a substantial degree of generalizability of especial skill to nearby distances, but also for results of the original study on especial skill where it was proposed that specificity in practice leads to the emergence of the especial skill. PMID:23488624

Czy?, S H; Breslin, G; Kwon, O; Mazur, M; Kobia?ka, K; Pizlo, Z

2013-03-14

51

High resolution LA-ICP-MS mapping of U and Th isotopes in an early Pleistocene equid tooth from Fuente Nueva-3 (Orce, Andalusia, Spain)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have produced detailed maps of U and Th isotopes for three cross-sections of an Early Pleistocene equid tooth from the archaeological site of Fuente Nueva-3 (Orce, Andalusia, Spain). This permits us to visualise, for the first time, U migration processes in 3 dimensions. The tooth shows a concentration gradient from the top to the base, indicating the U profile

Mathieu Duval; Maxime Aubert; John Hellstrom; Rainer Grün

2011-01-01

52

Problems of experimental tumourigenesis by fibrous dusts, especially by asbestos (with regard to stanton's hypothesis).  

PubMed

Asbestos dust has got a very great importance because cancerogenicity is imputed into it in occupational and, perhaps, in common environmental conditions too. The short review deals with general problems in experimenting with fibrous dusts, especially the modes of its application, the transferability of results to human pathology and the cause and pathway of cancerisation by fibres and crystals. PMID:2853078

Kühne, W; Schultz, M

1988-01-01

53

Force performance indexes for parallel mechanisms with actuation redundancy, especially for parallel wire-driven manipulators  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents new force performance indexes adapted to parallel mechanisms with actuation redundancy (PMAR) especially parallel wire-driven manipulators (where only tensile forces in cables are possible). Such performance indexes might be used for optimization purpose. At first, the operational force polytope is established. It is the accurate representation of admissible operational forces from the kinetostatic analysis point of view.

Sébastien Krut; François Pierrot

2004-01-01

54

Challenges to Cognitive Bases for an Especial Motor Skill at the Regulation Baseball Pitching Distance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We tested expert baseball pitchers for evidence of especial skills at the regulation pitching distance. Seven college pitchers threw indoors to a target placed at 60.5 feet (18.44 m) and four closer and four further distances away. Accuracy at the regulation distance was significantly better than predicted by regression on the nonregulation…

Simons, Jeffery P.; Wilson, Jacob M.; Wilson, Gabriel J.; Theall, Stephen

2009-01-01

55

Pipe coupling assembly especially suitable for use in the nuclear reactor. [LMFBR  

Microsoft Academic Search

An all metal pipe coupling assembly especially suitable for fluid connecting together certain components submerged within liquid metal in a pool type nuclear reactor is disclosed herein. This coupling assembly which is also submerged within the pool of liquid metal connects the reactor components together using three tubular sections and two joint arrangements which eliminate thermal expansion stresses. The joint

Stolecki

1981-01-01

56

Ten Errors Regarding End of Life Issues, and Especially Artificial Nutrition and Hydration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent events, including the conflict over Terri Schiavo, and the death of Pope John Paul II, have made necessary renewed attention to the Church’s teaching regarding end of life care and treatment, especially the artificial provision of nutrition and hydration to those unable to feed themselves. According to the Church’s general approach to end of life matters, it is not

Christopher Tollefsen

57

When Fairness is Especially Important: Reactions to Being Inequitably Paid in Communal Relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article focuses on when justice is especially important to people and, in doing so, explores the social conditions under\\u000a which the importance of justice may change in social interactions. More specifically, the authors examine how different types\\u000a of relationships affect evaluations of equitable and inequitable situations. It is argued that when people are confronted\\u000a with friends as interaction partners,

Susanne Lidewij Peters; Kees van den Bos

2008-01-01

58

Chemical Properties of Epidermal Lipids, Especially Sphingolipids, of the Antarctic Minke Whale  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well known that sphingolipids specifically exist in the terrestrial mammal epidermis and correlate with skin barrier\\u000a functions. However, the lipid properties of the marine mammal epidermis have not been examined in detail. We thus investigated\\u000a the chemical composition of lipid components, especially sphingolipids, in the black epidermis (outer skin) of Antarctic minke\\u000a whales (six mature and six immature

Keita Yunoki; Hajime Ishikawa; Yutaka Fukui; Masao Ohnishi

2008-01-01

59

La Flûte Indienne: The Early History of Andean Folkloric-Popular Music in France and its Impact on Nueva Canción  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article chronicles the early history of Andean folkloric-popular music in France and discusses its impact on the Nueva Canción movement’s emergence in 1960s Chile and reception in post-1973 Europe. I explain that Argentine artists from Buenos Aires introduced highland Andean instruments and genres into Paris’s artistic milieu, where Andean music became associated with leftism well before the arrival of

Fernando Rios

2008-01-01

60

Exposure limits: the underestimation of absorbed cell phone radiation, especially in children.  

PubMed

The existing cell phone certification process uses a plastic model of the head called the Specific Anthropomorphic Mannequin (SAM), representing the top 10% of U.S. military recruits in 1989 and greatly underestimating the Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) for typical mobile phone users, especially children. A superior computer simulation certification process has been approved by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) but is not employed to certify cell phones. In the United States, the FCC determines maximum allowed exposures. Many countries, especially European Union members, use the "guidelines" of International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), a non governmental agency. Radiofrequency (RF) exposure to a head smaller than SAM will absorb a relatively higher SAR. Also, SAM uses a fluid having the average electrical properties of the head that cannot indicate differential absorption of specific brain tissue, nor absorption in children or smaller adults. The SAR for a 10-year old is up to 153% higher than the SAR for the SAM model. When electrical properties are considered, a child's head's absorption can be over two times greater, and absorption of the skull's bone marrow can be ten times greater than adults. Therefore, a new certification process is needed that incorporates different modes of use, head sizes, and tissue properties. Anatomically based models should be employed in revising safety standards for these ubiquitous modern devices and standards should be set by accountable, independent groups. PMID:21999884

Gandhi, Om P; Morgan, L Lloyd; de Salles, Alvaro Augusto; Han, Yueh-Ying; Herberman, Ronald B; Davis, Devra Lee

2011-10-14

61

The mitochondrial genomes of two scallops, Argopecten irradians and Chlamys farreri (Mollusca: Bivalvia): the most highly rearranged gene order in the family Pectinidae.  

PubMed

Molluscs in general and bivalves in particular, exhibit an extraordinary degree of mitochondrial gene order variation when compared with other metazoans. Here, we determined the mitochondrial genomes of two scallops Argopecten irradians and Chlamys farreri. The complete mitochondrial genome of A. irradians is 16,211 nts in length and the nearly complete mitochondrial genome of C. farreri is 20,789 nts in length. Both of the genomes contain 35 genes including 12 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNAs, and 21 transfer RNAs. In contrast to the typical animal mitochondrial genome, both of them lack one protein-coding gene atp8 and two trnSs, but show an additional copy of trnF in A. irradians and of trnM in C. farreri, respectively. Gene order and genome content were compared among the four sequenced scallops. Gene arrangement of C. farreri closely resembles that of Mizuhopecten yessoensis. However, two genomes of C. farreri and A. irradians show only three small identical gene blocks and two genomes of A. irradians and Placopecten magellanicus share only one gene block. Comparison of the gene arrangement demonstrated that the four scallops share few identical gene blocks although they belong to the same family. This feature is seldom observed in Metazoa, even in other molluscan classes. The dramatic gene rearrangement often occurs in bivalves, especially in marine bivalves. In addition, comparisons of genomic character among bivalves are also presented. PMID:20013337

Ren, Jianfeng; Shen, Xin; Jiang, Feng; Liu, Bin

2009-12-16

62

Protoplasts: a useful research system for plant cell biology, especially dedifferentiation.  

PubMed

As protoplasts have the characteristics of no cell walls, rapid population growth, and synchronicity, they are useful tools for research in many fields, especially cellular biology (Table 1). This article is an overview that focuses on the application of protoplasts to investigate the mechanisms of dedifferentiation, including changes in hormone signals, epigenetic changes, and organelle distribution during the dedifferentiation process. The article also emphasizes the wide range of uses for protoplasts in studying protein positions and signaling during different stresses. The examples provided help to show that protoplast systems, for example the mesophyll protoplast system of Arabidopsis, represent promising tools for studying developmental biology. Meanwhile, specific analysis of protoplast, which comes from different tissue, has specific advantages and limitations (Table 2), and it can provide recommendations to use this system. PMID:23719716

Jiang, Fangwei; Zhu, Jian; Liu, Hai-Liang

2013-05-30

63

Clinical experience with titanium implants, especially with the limited contact dynamic compression plate system.  

PubMed

AO/ASIF with its collaborating laboratories has developed cold worked pure titanium material for implants with an outstanding biocompatibility. The first prospectively controlled clinical series dates back to 1966 and was reported to be most successful. Pure titanium also became the material of choice for implants to be used in patients suffering from metal allergy. Today, a long-term and well-documented experience with these implants exists. It therefore seemed logical to use pure titanium for the new limited contact dynamic compression plate (LC-DCP) system described in the previous article by Perren. Pilot clinics started to implant titanium LC-DCP in 1987, and already 271 plates have been used, mainly for the treatment of fresh fractures. Some 57 plates have so far been removed. The preliminary results are most favourable; they confirm especially the outstanding biocompatibility of pure titanium. PMID:2073448

Matter, P; Burch, H B

1990-01-01

64

Surveillance of endometrial pathologies, especially for endometrial cancer, of breast cancer patients under tamoxifen treatment.  

PubMed

Tamoxifen is the antihormonal treatment of choice for postmenopausal breast cancer patients with positive estrogen receptors. One of the most significant and deleterious side-effects of TAM treatment appears to be a proliferative effect on the endometrium, including endometrial cancer. Today no active screening for patients treated with tamoxifen other than routine annual gynecologic surveillance is recommended, however many investigators have recommended that those women should warrant closer gynecological surveillance for endometrial cancer during treatment, especially those with high-risk factors. This article evaluates the diagnostic flow chart for the surveillance of endometrial pathologies in tamoxifen-treated breast cancer patients, according to the literature and to the Committee Opinion of the Triveneto Directors of Gynecological and Obstetrical Departments (North-east Italy). PMID:19761121

Neri, F; Maggino, T

2009-01-01

65

Previously undocumented diversity and abundance of cryptic species: a phylogenetic analysis of Indo-Pacific Arminidae Rafinesque, 1814 (Mollusca: Nudibranchia) with descriptions of 20 new species of Dermatobranchus  

PubMed Central

The phylogenetic relationships amongst the Arminidae were analysed based upon morphological characters of 58 presently described species or nudibranchs, including 35 previously described Arminidae and 20 new species of Dermatobranchus. From the literature review and anatomical examinations, 43 characters were considered for 78 taxa. These characters were polarized using Berthella canariensis as the outgroup taxon and the type species of several other genera identified from recent publications. The resulting phylogeny supports the monophyly of Arminidae, Dermatobranchus, Doridina, and Proctonotidae. The paraphyly of the Arminina is further demonstrated in this study. Two previously described, but poorly known, species of Indo-Pacific Armina are redescribed, Armina magna Baba, 1955 and Armina paucifoliata Baba, 1955. The anatomy and taxonomic status of nine previously described species of Dermatobranchus were examined in this study. The anatomy of Dermatobranchus pustulosus (van Hasselt, 1824) has been overlooked since Bergh (1888) illustrated the radula of van Hasselt's specimen. It is redescribed and its range is extended to several new localities in the western Pacific. Dermatobranchus pulcherrimus Miller & Willan, 1986 is considered here as a new synonym of Dermatobranchus rubidus (Gould, 1852). The following 20 species of Dermatobranchus are new and are described in the present paper: Dermatobranchus albineus sp. nov., Dermatobranchus arminus sp. nov., Dermatobranchus caesitius sp. nov., Dermatobranchus caeruleomaculatus sp. nov., Dermatobranchus cymatilis sp. nov., Dermatobranchus dendonephthyphagus sp. nov., Dermatobranchus diagonalis sp. nov., Dermatobranchus earlei sp. nov., Dermatobranchus fasciatus sp. nov., Dermatobranchus funiculus sp. nov., Dermatobranchus kalyptos sp. nov., Dermatobranchus kokonas sp. nov., Dermatobranchus leoni sp. nov., Dermatobranchus microphallus sp. nov., Dermatobranchus oculus sp. nov., Dermatobranchus phyllodes sp. nov., Dermatobranchus piperoides sp. nov., Dermatobranchus rodmani sp. nov., Dermatobranchus semilunus sp. nov., and Dermatobranchus tuberculatus sp. nov. Eighteen of these new taxa are found in the Indo-Pacific tropics and two are found in temperate South Africa, D. albineus and D. arminus. Unique combinations of morphological characters distinguish these as new species of Dermatobranchus. Several species that are externally similar have radically divergent internal morphology, are members of different clades of Dermatobranchus, and represent cryptic species. Especially important is the radular morphology, which shows remarkable diversity of form, probably related directly to the diversification of feeding of members of this clade on various octocorals.

Gosliner, Terrence M; Fahey, Shireen J

2011-01-01

66

[Arthropod-borne parasites of dogs, especially Leishmania, in the Kosovo and Albania].  

PubMed

Currently no information is available regarding canine arthropod-borne parasites in Albania and the Kosovo, especially the zoonotic protozoan Leishmania infantum. Presumably autochtonous cases of human leishmaniosis have been described for some areas (Kosovo: Ferizaj, Gjakovo, Pec, Malisevo; Albania: Tirana, Durres, Elbasan, Shkodra, Vlore). In order to investigate the infection status of dogs of different origin sera from 272 animals (151 from Albania - Tirana, Kamza and Durres; 121 from the Kosovo - Gjakovo, Ferizaj and Prishtina) were obtained. Corresponding blood samples were available from 36 Albanian stray dogs. Antibody titres were determined by Indirect Immunofluorescence Test against L. infantum and Babesia canis. Antigens of Dirofilaria immitis were determined using the DiroCheck-Test. Blood samples were tested for L. infantum, B. canis, Hepatozoon canis, D. immitis and Dirofilaria repens by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Specific antibodies against Babesia were found in 7.3% of the animals, against Leishmania in 3.3% and 7.0% were positive for D. immitis antigen. DNA of Babesia, Leishmania or D. repens was detected in 11.1%, respectively. H. canis was found in 52.8% of the blood samples. D. immitis DNA was not detected. Since the Babesia- and Leishmania-PCR-positive animals were all serologically negative it can be assumed that infections were acquired only recently. All Leishmania-positive animals were stray dogs. These animals contribute to the maintenance of Leishmania transmission in endemic areas, and a control of the canine stray population should be considered. PMID:19066774

Lazri, Tune; Duscher, Georg; Edelhofer, Renate; Bytyci, Burim; Gjino, Paskal; Joachim, Anja

2008-01-01

67

Double layered self-expanding metal stents for malignant esophageal obstruction, especially across the gastroesophageal junction  

PubMed Central

AIM: To evaluate the clinical outcomes of double-layered self-expanding metal stents (SEMS) for treatment of malignant esophageal obstruction according to whether SEMS crosses the gastroesophageal junction (GEJ). METHODS: Forty eight patients who underwent the SEMS insertion for malignant esophageal obstruction were enrolled. Patients were classified as GEJ group (SEMS across GEJ, 18 patients) and non-GEJ group (SEMS above GEJ, 30 patients) according to SEMS position. Double layered (outer uncovered and inner covered stent) esophageal stents were placed. RESULTS: The SEMS insertion and the clinical improvement were achieved in all patients in both groups. Stent malfunction occurred in seven patients in the GEJ group and nine patients in the non-GEJ group. Tumor overgrowth occurred in five and eight patients, respectively, food impaction occurred in one patient in each group, and stent migration occurred in one and no patient, respectively. There were no significant differences between the two groups. Reflux esophagitis occurred more frequently in the GEJ group (eight vs five patients, P = 0.036) and was controlled by proton pump inhibitor. Aspiration pneumonia occurred in zero and five patients, respectively, and tracheoesophageal fistula occurred in zero and two patients, respectively. CONCLUSION: Double-layered SEMS are a feasible and effective treatment when placed across the GEJ for malignant esophageal obstruction. Double-layered SEMS provide acceptable complications, especially migration, although reflux esophagitis is more common in the GEJ group.

Kim, Min Dae; Park, Su Bum; Kang, Dae Hwan; Lee, Jae Hyung; Choi, Cheol Woong; Kim, Hyung Wook; Chung, Chung Uk; Jeong, Young Il

2012-01-01

68

[The quality of medical examination of persons who underwent the impact of especially harmful chemical factors].  

PubMed

The comprehensive analysis of the results of dynamic clinical functional examination of the contingent working or worked with especially harmful chemical substances and the corresponding medical documentation was made. The research approved the effectiveness of the system of medical examination of servicemen and mandatory medical check-ups of civilian personnel selected to service or work with toxic chemicals relevant to chemical weapon at the expense of optimization of the procedure of selection and dynamic observation. General morbidity among servicemen with maximal professional risk was on 20% lower than in the group with minimal risk and on 64% lower than in the control group. The algorithm was developed to apply the diagnostic techniques during medical examination of servicemen and mandatory medical check-ups of the civilian personnel of Military Forces of Russian Federation. The system differentiating approach was implemented to take into account the specifics of disease course and the succession in medical maintenance of this group of the examined. The optimization was applied to the system of quality management in medical examination of servicemen and mandatory medical check-ups of the civilian personnel, selected to service or work with toxic chemicals relevant to chemical weapon in accordance with requirements of the Federal Law On the social support of citizen employed to work with chemical weapon. PMID:20731148

Goncharova, A G

69

RESSIGNIFICAÇÃO DO PAPEL DA ESCOLA ESPECIAL E DO PROFESSOR ESPECIALISTA ITINERANTE FRENTE À INCLUSÃO EDUCACIONAL DA CRIANÇA COM DEFICIÊNCIA INTELECTUAL  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO - Este estudo objetiva repensar a ressignificação do papel da escola especial, frente ao desafio da inclusão educacional de alunos com deficiência intelectual, bem como a relevância da atuação do professor especialista itinerante neste processo. O texto é fundamentado nas experiências da autora como professora regente de sete alunos da Escola Especial de Educação Estimulação e Desenvolvimento - CEDAE

Nádia Aparecida Poleto

70

Nuevas Adquisiciones (Recent Acquisitions).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This bibliography of educational materials lists approximately 100 publications recently acquired by the Colombian National Center for Documentation and Educational Information. The entries are listed according to subject matter; topics range from general educational theory to more specific subject topics. (VM)|

Informacion Bibliografica Educativa, 1972

1972-01-01

71

Process for Improving the Resistance of Polychloroprene Rubbers in the Presence of Aggressive Media, Especially Freezing Agents and Oils.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the invention is to develop a process that enables the polychloroprene rubbers to resist corrosive materials especially refrigerants and oils, to be so improved that the polychloroprene rubbers, preferably in the form of sealing elements, c...

A. Heger G. Carius

1971-01-01

72

Two new protist species, Trypanoplasma ojedae sp. n. (Mastigophora: Kinetoplastida) and Trichodina lascrucensis sp. n. (Ciliophora: Peritrichida) in a blenniid fish, Scartichthys viridis, from the coast of Chile Dos nuevas especies de protista: Trypanoplasma ojedae sp. n. (Mastigophora: Kinetoplastida) y Trichodina lascrucensis sp. n. (Ciliophora: Peritrichida) en un pez blénido Scartichthys viridis, de la costa de Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two new protistan species were observed in a blenniid fish, Scartichthys viridis, inhabiting tide pools at Las Cruces, central Chile. Trypanoplasma ojedae sp. n. (Mastigophora: Kinetoplastida) in the blood is characterized by its small size (29.8 ± 5.0 x 5.1 +1.2 ?m), short anterior flagellum (4.9 ± 0.6 ?m), anterior located kinetoplast (2.4 ± 0.2) and a prominent undulating membrane.

Rasul A. Khan; Freddy Díaz; Mario George-Nascimento

2008-01-01

73

Short communication: Prevalence and risk factors of subclinical mastitis as determined by the California Mastitis Test in water buffaloes (Bubalis bubalis) in Nueva Ecija, Philippines.  

PubMed

A retrospective analysis using records of lactating Bulgarian Murrah buffaloes subjected to the California Mastitis Test in a herd in Nueva Ecija, Philippines was done to determine the prevalence of subclinical mastitis (SCM) and to identify risk factors that may influence its occurrence and recurrence. Results showed that SCM prevalence was 42.76%, whereas its recurrence was 75.03%. Age and lactation length influenced the occurrence of SCM. In contrast to the conclusions for dairy cows, younger buffalo cows were more susceptible compared with those at least 6 yr old. Dams younger than 3 yr have a 76% probability, whereas those age 3 yr have an 82% probability of having SCM. PMID:22365218

Salvador, R T; Beltran, J M C; Abes, N S; Gutierrez, C A; Mingala, C N

2012-03-01

74

Occurrence of Collagen in the Phylum Mollusca  

Microsoft Academic Search

CONSIDERABLE interest has recently been shown in the occurrence of a collagen type of protein among the various invertebrate groups. X-ray diffraction1,2 studies have explored a wide range of examples, and more recently chemical investigations have used various chromatographic techniques to determine the composition of certain preparations3-5. Most of this work has been performed on tissues from single species bearing

S. C. Melnick

1958-01-01

75

Regulating device for an electromagnetic control element especially in an internal combustion engine with auto-ignition  

SciTech Connect

A regulating device for an electromagnetic control element, especially for an internal combustion engine with auto-ignition, is proposed in which a non-linear regulator with preferably a PD characteristic is coupled with a pulse regulator, preferably a two-point regulator with PID characteristic. Of special advantage is the interposition of a limiting device, which allows an increase in the D portion of the non-linear regulator, while at the same time suppressing interference. This results in an excellent control behavoir, especially in the face of small control deviations and in a control element or control circuit afflicted with friction and/or (magnetic) hysteresis.

Locher, J.; Schaller, D.

1985-02-12

76

Methyl Eugenol: Its Occurrence, Distribution, and Role in Nature, Especially in Relation to Insect Behavior and Pollination  

PubMed Central

This review discusses the occurrence and distribution (within a plant) of methyl eugenol in different plant species (> 450) from 80 families spanning many plant orders, as well as various roles this chemical plays in nature, especially in the interactions between tephritid fruit flies and plants.

Tan, Keng Hong; Nishida, Ritsuo

2012-01-01

77

Especially for Daughters: Parent Education to Address Alcohol and Sex-Related Risk Taking Among Urban Young Adolescent Girls  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluates the Especially for Daughters intervention, which aims to provide urban Black and Latino parents with information and skills to support their daughters in delaying sexual initiation and alcohol use. In a randomized field trial, 268 families with sixth-graders were recruited from New York City public schools and assigned either to the intervention, a set of audio CDs

Lydia ODonnell; Athi Myint-U; Richard Duran; Ann Stueve

2010-01-01

78

O MÉTODO DE HISTÓRIA DE VIDA NA PESQUISA EM EDUCAÇÃO ESPECIAL THE LIFE HISTORY METHOD IN SPECIAL EDUCATION RESEARCH  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO: este artigo tem por objetivo apresentar uma síntese de um conjunto de pesquisas desenvolvidas na área de Educação Especial que utilizaram o método de História de Vida, com diversas populações. Essa metodologia de pesquisa vem sendo empregada no Brasil desde o final da década de 80, e tem como principal instrumento a entrevista aberta, sem roteiro pré-determinado. Busca encontrar,

Rosana GLAT; Rosangela da Silva SANTOS; Márcia Denise PLETSCH; Mario Lúcio de Lima; Maria Auxiliadora Ferreira; Tiburcio DUQUE

79

The Non American Manager, Especially as Third Country National, in U.S. Multinationals: A Separate But Equal Doctrine?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Foreign managers with United States international companies perceive that they are effectively excluded from the so-called better jobs and that United States nationals generally receive better treatment and opportunity, especially when cross-national transfers may be involved. This could in the future affect the ability to attract qualified local managers abroad.© 1974 JIBS. Journal of International Business Studies (1974) 5, 25–40

John D Daniels

80

The Non American Manager, Especially as Third Country National, in U.S. Multinationals: A Separate But Equal Doctrine?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Foreign managers with United States international companies perceive that they are effectively excluded from the so-called better jobs and that United States nationals generally receive better treatment and opportunity, especially when cross-national transfers may be involved. This could in the future affect the ability to attract qualified local managers abroad.© 1974 JIBS. Journal of International Business Studies (1974) 5, 25–40

John D. Daniels

1974-01-01

81

MDM2 309 T\\/G polymorphism is associated with colorectal cancer risk especially in Asians: a meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The murine double minute 2 (MDM2) gene encodes an important regulator which mainly functions as an E3 ligase. The role of the MDM2 protein in the P53 pathway\\u000a has been especially well-studied. In this study, our aim was to explore the relationship between MDM2 gene 309 T\\/G polymorphism and colorectal cancer risk. Performing both the overall meta-analysis and the subgroup

Fang Fang; Xiao-Jia Yu; Lu Yu; Lei Yao

82

Shear stress increases endothelial hyaluronan synthase 2 and hyaluronan synthesis especially in regard to an atheroprotective flow profile.  

PubMed

Recent studies revealed that in vivo the inner blood vessel surface is lined with an endothelial surface layer at least 0.5 ?m thick, which serves as an aegis, protecting the vessel wall from arteriosclerosis. Hyaluronan seems to be a constitutive component in regard to the atheroprotective properties of this surface structure. It has been shown that arterial pulsatile laminar blood flow increases the thickness of this surface layer in vivo, while it is significantly reduced at atheroprone regions with disturbed flow. This study was undertaken to reveal whether endothelial hyaluronan synthesis via hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2) can be changed by different shear stress conditions in vitro, especially in regard to an undisturbed, arterial-like pulsatile flow profile. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells, exposed to constant or pulsatile shear stress in a cone-and-plate system, were analysed for HAS2 expression by real-time RT-PCR and immunoblotting, and for hyaluronan by ELISA. Hyaluronan synthase 2 mRNA and protein were found to be transiently increased in a shear stress-dependent manner via the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt pathway. Especially pulsatile, arterial-like shear stress conditions induced enzyme and hyaluronan effectively, while lower shear stress that continuously changed its direction did not induce any differences in comparison with control cultures not exposed to shear stress. These experiments provide a link between the production of a constitutive component of the endothelial surface layer by endothelial cells and blood flow. PMID:21551265

Maroski, Julian; Vorderwülbecke, Bernd J; Fiedorowicz, Katarzyna; Da Silva-Azevedo, Luis; Siegel, Günter; Marki, Alex; Pries, Axel Radlach; Zakrzewicz, Andreas

2011-05-06

83

Supercapacitor electrodes with especially high rate capability and cyclability based on a novel Pt nanosphere and cysteine-generated graphene.  

PubMed

In the present work, supercapacitors based on graphene/Pt films show especially high rate capability (120 F g(-1) even at 50 A g(-1)) and cyclability (no attenuation over 10,000 cycles) and peculiar nanosphere morphology after electrochemical cycling. Furthermore, supercapacitors based on the graphene powder with a binder exhibit high specific capacitance (249 F g(-1) at 0.1 A g(-1)), long cycle life (no attenuation over 40,000 cycles) and high rate capability (150 F g(-1) even at 50 A g(-1)), which are much better than those of most graphene electrode materials. These indicate the great potential of the cysteine reduced graphene electrodes in energy storage. PMID:22772748

Zhang, Dacheng; Zhang, Xiong; Chen, Yao; Wang, Changhui; Ma, Yanwei; Dong, Huanli; Jiang, Lang; Meng, Qing; Hu, Wenping

2012-07-06

84

[A study of relationships among solvent inhalation, personality and expectancy; especially on affinity to hallucination, sensation seeking and neurotic tendency].  

PubMed

94 delinquents in two homes for resocialization were surveyed to elucidate the relationship among the status of volatile solvent inhalation, expectancy and personality. The subjects were classified into solvent-inhalation group and non-solvent-inhalation group, and the former was divided into solvent dependence group and abuse group according to DSM-III-R. Each group was given personality tests; general health questionnaire (GHQ), sensation seeking scale (SSS), the vividness of visual imagery (VVIQ), test of visual imagery control (TVIC) and Yatabe-Guilford test (YG). In addition we investigated expectancy and mental symptoms caused by inhalation in it. The results are summarized as follows; 1. Inhalation group scored higher on SSS than non-inhalation group. 2. Compared with abuse group, dependence group presented with 1) higher GHQ score meaning neurotic tendency; 2) higher TVIC score meaning imagery-control-ability; 3) a higher incidence of day-dream and hallucination, especially egosyntonic type; 4) higher expectancy of "enhancement of positive affection", "reduction of negative affection" and "hallucination seeking"; 5) lower expectancy of "association with friends". 3. Higher scored inhalers on TVIC showed visual hallucinations, especially egosyntonic type more frequently than lower ones. 4. Significant correlations were recognized between GHQ score and expectancy of "reduction of negative affection", and between lack of objectiveness score of YG subscale and "hallucination seeking" expectancy. These results suggested that 1) beginning of inhalation is associated with sensation seeking trait, 2) progression to solvent dependence is correlated with three expectancies, i.e., seeking egosyntonic hallucinations paralleling high imagery-control-ability and subjectivity, reducing negative affection paralleling neurotic tendency, and enhancing positive affection. According to the findings, indulgence to drug induced positive imagery led delinquents into splitting of personality. In their treatment we need to help them to integrate high imagery ability and sensation seeking for recovery. PMID:7826303

Morita, N; Satoh, S; Oda, S; Tomita, H; Shoji, M; Seno, E; Abe, K; Konishi, T

1994-10-01

85

Cyanobacteria/Foraminifera Association from Anoxic/Dysoxic Beds of the Agua Nueva Formation (Upper Cretaceous - Cenomanian/Turonian) at Xilitla, San Luis Potosi, Central Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Agua Nueva Formation in the vicinity of Xilitla, State of San Luis Potosí, Central Mexico, consists of interbedded brown shale (Grayish orange 10YR 7/4 to Moderate yellowish brown 10YR 5/4) and dark-gray fossiliferous limestone (Bluish gray 5B 6/1 to Dark bluish gray 5B 4/1), varying between 10 and 20 cm in thickness. The sequence also includes 2 to 4 cm- thick intermittent bentonite layers (Moderate greenish yellow 10Y 7/4, to dark greenish yellow 10Y 6/6 and Light olive 10Y 5/4). At the field scale, shaly intervals show no apparent internal structures, whereas most limestone beds show primary lamination at the millimeter scale (1-2 mm), and intermittent layers of black chert of about 5 cm thick. Pyrite is present as disseminated crystals and as 2 cm-thick layers. Bioturbation or macrobenthic organisms other than inoceramids do not occur in the Agua Nueva Formation at Xilitla. Unusual macrofossils are present only in limestone strata, and consist of well- preserved diverse genera of fishes such as sharks, Ptychodus sp. and teleosteans, Rhynchodercetis sp., Tselfatia sp., Goulmimichthys sp., and scales of Ichtyodectiformes, as well as ammonites and inoceramids (Blanco et al., 2006). The presence of Inoceramus (Mytyloides) labiatus (Maldonado-Koederll, 1956) indicates an Early Turonian age for the sequence. Total carbonate content (CaCO3 = TIC) varies between 62 and 94% in the Limestone beds, which yield Total Organic Carbon (TOC) from 0.4% to 2.5%; the shale intervals contain TIC values consistently lower than 33% and TOC lower than 0.8% Microscopically the limestone beds vary from mudstone to packstone composed essentially of coccoid cyanobacteria similar to coeval deposits in northeastern Mexico, Coahuila State, at Parras de La Fuente (Duque- Botero 2006). Similarly, the microspheroids are spherical to sub-spherical, and occur as isolated elements or aggregates forming series of chains of parallel-packed light lamina 1-2 mm thick. Filamentous cyanobacteria (> 1 mm in length) are also present oriented parallel to stratification. In addition to filamentous and coccoid cyanobacteria, the limestone beds contain rare benthic foraminifera, common planktic foraminifera, heterohelicids, Rotalipora spp., Rotalipora cf cushmani, Whiteinella spp, W. praehelvetica, which indicate a time interval from the latest Cenomanian to the earliest Turonian. Lithological, paleontological and microfacies data thus indicate that the sediments accumulated in open-marine to semi-restricted platform environments, under low-energy conditions. Primary lamination, pyrite and excellent degree of preservation of fishes, suggest that low oxygen concentration lead to the formation of anoxic/dysoxic conditions during the accumulation of these exceptional deposits, which are coeval with the worldwide development of OAE-2. Planktonic foraminifera and fishes indicate oxygenated conditions in the photic zone, but dysoxic/anoxic conditions near the bottom, which is consistent with the presence of inoceramids and the absence of bioturbation in the sediment.

Blanco-Piñón, A.; Maurrasse, F. J.; Rojas-León, A.; Duque-Botero, F.

2008-05-01

86

Glitter-Like Iridescence within the Bacteroidetes Especially Cellulophaga spp.: Optical Properties and Correlation with Gliding Motility  

PubMed Central

Iridescence results from structures that generate color. Iridescence of bacterial colonies has recently been described and illustrated. The glitter-like iridescence class, created especially for a few strains of Cellulophaga lytica, exhibits an intense iridescence under direct illumination. Such color appearance effects were previously associated with other bacteria from the Bacteroidetes phylum, but without clear elucidation and illustration. To this end, we compared various bacterial strains to which the iridescent trait was attributed. All Cellulophaga species and additional Bacteroidetes strains from marine and terrestrial environments were investigated. A selection of bacteria, mostly marine in origin, were found to be iridescent. Although a common pattern of reflected wavelengths was recorded for the species investigated, optical spectroscopy and physical measurements revealed a range of different glitter-like iridescence intensity and color profiles. Importantly, gliding motility was found to be a common feature of all iridescent colonies. Dynamic analyses of “glitter” formation at the edges of C. lytica colonies showed that iridescence was correlated with layer superposition. Both gliding motility, and unknown cell-to-cell communication processes, may be required for the establishment, in time and space, of the necessary periodic structures responsible for the iridescent appearance of Bacteroidetes.

Kientz, Betty; Ducret, Adrien; Luke, Stephen; Vukusic, Peter; Mignot, Tam; Rosenfeld, Eric

2012-01-01

87

Roles of unsaturated fatty acids (especially omega-3 fatty acids) in the brain at various ages and during ageing.  

PubMed

Among various organs, in the brain, the fatty acids most extensively studied are omega-3 fatty acids. Alpha-linolenic acid (18:3omega3) deficiency alters the structure and function of membranes and induces minor cerebral dysfunctions, as demonstrated in animal models and subsequently in human infants. Even though the brain is materially an organ like any other, that is to say elaborated from substances present in the diet (sometimes exclusively), for long it was not accepted that food can have an influence on brain structure, and thus on its function. Lipids, and especially omega-3 fatty acids, provided the first coherent experimental demonstration of the effect of diet (nutrients) on the structure and function of the brain. In fact the brain, after adipose tissue, is the organ richest in lipids, whose only role is to participate in membrane structure. First it was shown that the differentiation and functioning of cultured brain cells requires not only alpha-linolenic acid (the major component of the omega-3, omega3 family), but also the very long omega-3 and omega-6 carbon chains (1). It was then demonstrated that alpha-linolenic acid deficiency alters the course of brain development, perturbs the composition and physicochemical properties of brain cell membranes, neurones, oligodendrocytes, and astrocytes (2). This leads to physicochemical modifications, induces biochemical and physiological perturbations, and results in neurosensory and behavioural upset (3). Consequently, the nature of polyunsaturated fatty acids (in particular omega-3) present in formula milks for infants (premature and term) conditions the visual and cerebral abilities, including intellectual. Moreover, dietary omega-3 fatty acids are certainly involved in the prevention of some aspects of cardiovascular disease (including at the level of cerebral vascularization), and in some neuropsychiatric disorders, particularly depression, as well as in dementia, notably Alzheimer's disease. Recent results have shown that dietary alpha-linolenic acid deficiency induces more marked abnormalities in certain cerebral structures than in others, as the frontal cortex and pituitary gland are more severely affected. These selective lesions are accompanied by behavioural disorders more particularly affecting certain tests (habituation, adaptation to new situations). Biochemical and behavioural abnormalities are partially reversed by a dietary phospholipid supplement, especially omega-3-rich egg yolk extracts or pig brain. A dose-effect study showed that animal phospholipids are more effective than plant phospholipids to reverse the consequences of alpha-linolenic acid deficiency, partly because they provide very long preformed chains. Alpha-linolenic acid deficiency decreases the perception of pleasure, by slightly altering the efficacy of sensory organs and by affecting certain cerebral structures. Age-related impairment of hearing, vision and smell is due to both decreased efficacy of the parts of the brain concerned and disorders of sensory receptors, particularly of the inner ear or retina. For example, a given level of perception of a sweet taste requires a larger quantity of sugar in subjects with alpha-linolenic acid deficiency. In view of occidental eating habits, as omega-6 fatty acid deficiency has never been observed, its impact on the brain has not been studied. In contrast, omega-9 fatty acid deficiency, specifically oleic acid deficiency, induces a reduction of this fatty acid in many tissues, except the brain (but the sciatic nerve is affected). This fatty acid is therefore not synthesized in sufficient quantities, at least during pregnancy-lactation, implying a need for dietary intake. It must be remembered that organization of the neurons is almost complete several weeks before birth, and that these neurons remain for the subject's life time. Consequently, any disturbance of these neurons, an alteration of their connections, and impaired turnover of their constituents at any stage of life, will tend to accelerate ageing. The enzymatic activities of s

Bourre, J M

2004-01-01

88

Identification of Optimum Sequencing Depth Especially for De Novo Genome Assembly of Small Genomes Using Next Generation Sequencing Data  

PubMed Central

Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) is a disruptive technology that has found widespread acceptance in the life sciences research community. The high throughput and low cost of sequencing has encouraged researchers to undertake ambitious genomic projects, especially in de novo genome sequencing. Currently, NGS systems generate sequence data as short reads and de novo genome assembly using these short reads is computationally very intensive. Due to lower cost of sequencing and higher throughput, NGS systems now provide the ability to sequence genomes at high depth. However, currently no report is available highlighting the impact of high sequence depth on genome assembly using real data sets and multiple assembly algorithms. Recently, some studies have evaluated the impact of sequence coverage, error rate and average read length on genome assembly using multiple assembly algorithms, however, these evaluations were performed using simulated datasets. One limitation of using simulated datasets is that variables such as error rates, read length and coverage which are known to impact genome assembly are carefully controlled. Hence, this study was undertaken to identify the minimum depth of sequencing required for de novo assembly for different sized genomes using graph based assembly algorithms and real datasets. Illumina reads for E.coli (4.6 MB) S.kudriavzevii (11.18 MB) and C.elegans (100 MB) were assembled using SOAPdenovo, Velvet, ABySS, Meraculous and IDBA-UD. Our analysis shows that 50X is the optimum read depth for assembling these genomes using all assemblers except Meraculous which requires 100X read depth. Moreover, our analysis shows that de novo assembly from 50X read data requires only 6–40 GB RAM depending on the genome size and assembly algorithm used. We believe that this information can be extremely valuable for researchers in designing experiments and multiplexing which will enable optimum utilization of sequencing as well as analysis resources.

Desai, Aarti; Marwah, Veer Singh; Yadav, Akshay; Jha, Vineet; Dhaygude, Kishor; Bangar, Ujwala; Kulkarni, Vivek; Jere, Abhay

2013-01-01

89

Isolation of a potent antibiotic producer bacterium, especially against MRSA, from northern region of the Persian Gulf.  

PubMed

Nowadays, emergence and prevalence of MRSA (Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus) strain have become a great global concern in 21st century, so, it is necessary to discover new antibiotics against this pathogen. The aim of this study was isolation and evaluation marine bacteria from the Persian Gulf in order to finding antibiotic compounds against some pathogenic bacteria. For this purpose, water and sediment samples were collected from the Persian Gulf during March to October 2009. The antibacterial activity of the isolated bacteria was assessed using disc diffusion method. The Growth Curve Interference (GCI) parameter against MRSA was determined for the high potential antibiotic producing strain. The most important factors affecting fermentation conditions in antibiotic production were also optimized. Definite identification of intended isolate was confirmed by 16S rRNA sequencing. Altogether, 51 bacterial colony was isolated and among them only 3 bacterium showed antibacterial activity. Pseudoalteromonas piscicida PG-01 isolated from a sediment sample was chosen as the best antibiotic producing strain. This strain was effective against all tested Gram-positive bacteria, had good anti-MRSA activity and also GCI value against MRSA was two times lower than MIC value. Among the optimized fermentation parameters, carbon and nitrogen sources play major role in efficacy of optimized antibiotic production. Ultrastructural study on the effect of intended antibiotic compounds on MRSA using TEM revealed that the target site for this compound is cell wall. Considering the antibacterial effect of PG-01 strain especially against MRSA, intended antibiotic compounds can gives hope for treatment of diseases caused by multi-drug resistant bacteria. PMID:22642595

Darabpour, Esmaeil; Roayaei Ardakani, Mohammad; Motamedi, Hossein; Taghi Ronagh, Mohammad

2012-05-01

90

Association of HLA alleles with response (especially biochemical response) to interferon therapy in Japanese patients with chronic hepatitis C.  

PubMed

The response of chronic hepatitis C to interferon (IFN) treatment is classified as complete response (CR), biochemical response (BR), or no response (NR). Several studies have found no difference in prevention of hepatocellular carcinoma by IFN therapy between patients with CR and those with BR. We investigated whether specific human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles were associated with response to IFN, especially BR, in 138 patients with chronic hepatitis C. Comparing patients with and without CR, male, a low viral titer, genotype 2a or 2b, HLA-B55, and HLA-DRB1-0803 were more common in the group with CR. Multivariate analysis showed that age (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 0.95 by every year [95% confidence interval [CI] 0.90 - 0.99], p = 0.028), genotype 2a or 2b (5.21 [95% CI 1.63 - 16.6], p = 0.005), and low viral titer (8.58 (2.66 - 27.7), p < 0.001) were associated with CR. Comparing patients with BR and NR, the pretreatment alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level was lower in the BR group (p < 0.001). Both HLA-B7 and HLA-DRB1-0101 were more common in this group (p = 0.002). As the alleles HLA-B7 and HLA-DRB1-0101 were in linkage disequilibrium, the HLA-B7-DRB1-0101 haplotype may be associated with BR. Multivariate analysis indicated that a low ALT level (0.98 by every 1 IU/L [95% CI 0.98 - 0.99], p = 0.001) and HLA-B7-DRB1-0101 haplotype (32.3 [95% CI 1.50 - 693.1], p = 0.026) contributed significantly to BR. This study suggested that host HLA expression, but not viral factors, can influence BR. PMID:12716485

Nishiguchi, Shuhei; Kaneshiro, Satoshi; Tanaka, Motoharu; Enomoto, Masaru; Akihiro, Tamori; Habu, Daiki; Takeda, Tadashi; Fujino, Keizo; Tanaka, Takashi; Yano, Yoshihisa; Shiomi, Susumu

2003-03-01

91

Simultaneous multi-antibody staining in non-small cell lung cancer strengthens diagnostic accuracy especially in small tissue samples.  

PubMed

Histological subclassification of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has growing therapeutic impact. In advanced cancer stages tissue specimens are usually bioptically collected. These small samples are of extraordinary value since molecular analyses are gaining importance for targeted therapies. We therefore studied the feasibility, diagnostic accuracy, economic and prognostic effects of a tissue sparing simultaneous multi-antibody assay for subclassification of NSCLC. Of 265 NSCLC patients tissue multi arrays (TMA) were constructed to simulate biopsy samples. TMAs were stained by a simultaneous bi-color multi-antibody assay consisting of TTF1, Vimentin, p63 and neuroendocrine markers (CD56, chromogranin A, synaptophysin). Classification was based mainly on the current proposal of the IASLC with a hierarchical decision tree for subclassification into adenocarcinoma (LAC), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) and NSCLC not otherwise specified. Investigation of tumor heterogeneity showed an explicit lower variation for immunohistochemical analyses compared to conventional classification. Furthermore, survival analysis of our combined immunohistochemical classification revealed distinct separation of each entity's survival curve. This was statistically significant for therapeutically important subgroups (p?=?0.045). As morphological and molecular cancer testing is emerging, our multi-antibody assay in combination with standardized classification delivers accurate and reliable separation of histomorphological diagnoses. Additionally, it permits clinically relevant subtyping of NSCLC including LCNEC. Our multi-antibody assay may therefore be of special value, especially in diagnosing small biopsies. It futher delivers substantial prognostic information with therapeutic consequences. Integration of immunohistochemical subtyping including investigation of neuroendocrine differentiation into standard histopathological classification of NSCLC must, therefore, be considered. PMID:23418554

Kayser, Gian; Csanadi, Agnes; Otto, Claudia; Plönes, Till; Bittermann, Nicola; Rawluk, Justyna; Passlick, Bernward; Werner, Martin

2013-02-13

92

Simultaneous Multi-Antibody Staining in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Strengthens Diagnostic Accuracy Especially in Small Tissue Samples  

PubMed Central

Histological subclassification of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has growing therapeutic impact. In advanced cancer stages tissue specimens are usually bioptically collected. These small samples are of extraordinary value since molecular analyses are gaining importance for targeted therapies. We therefore studied the feasibility, diagnostic accuracy, economic and prognostic effects of a tissue sparing simultaneous multi-antibody assay for subclassification of NSCLC. Of 265 NSCLC patients tissue multi arrays (TMA) were constructed to simulate biopsy samples. TMAs were stained by a simultaneous bi-color multi-antibody assay consisting of TTF1, Vimentin, p63 and neuroendocrine markers (CD56, chromogranin A, synaptophysin). Classification was based mainly on the current proposal of the IASLC with a hierarchical decision tree for subclassification into adenocarcinoma (LAC), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) and NSCLC not otherwise specified. Investigation of tumor heterogeneity showed an explicit lower variation for immunohistochemical analyses compared to conventional classification. Furthermore, survival analysis of our combined immunohistochemical classification revealed distinct separation of each entity's survival curve. This was statistically significant for therapeutically important subgroups (p?=?0.045). As morphological and molecular cancer testing is emerging, our multi-antibody assay in combination with standardized classification delivers accurate and reliable separation of histomorphological diagnoses. Additionally, it permits clinically relevant subtyping of NSCLC including LCNEC. Our multi-antibody assay may therefore be of special value, especially in diagnosing small biopsies. It futher delivers substantial prognostic information with therapeutic consequences. Integration of immunohistochemical subtyping including investigation of neuroendocrine differentiation into standard histopathological classification of NSCLC must, therefore, be considered.

Kayser, Gian; Csanadi, Agnes; Otto, Claudia; Plones, Till; Bittermann, Nicola; Rawluk, Justyna; Passlick, Bernward; Werner, Martin

2013-01-01

93

Special Project of Regional and National Significance to Promote and Support Breastfeeding in West Virginia, Especially Among Low-Income Women.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the Breastfeeding Implementation Incentive, MCHIP Grant was to initiate breastfeeding promotion and support and to increase breastfeeding rates in West Virginia, especially among low-income women. This was needed because West Virginia's rat...

D. Ferris

1993-01-01

94

Especially for High School Teachers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Secondary School Feature Article * JCE Classroom Activity #18: Photochemistry and Pinhole Photography: An Interdisciplinary Experiment, by Angeliki A. Rigos and Kevin Salemme, p 736A High School Program at Anaheim ACS Meeting Congratulations to Barbara Sitzman of Chatsworth High School (Los Angeles) and her committee for organizing an outstanding day of activities! With support from the Southern California Section of

J. Emory Howell

1999-01-01

95

Especially for High School Teachers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mark April 3, 2001, on your calendar now! An outstanding one-day event for chemistry teachers will be held in conjunction with the ACS National Meeting in San Diego. Program Organizer Joe Baron (La Jolla High School) is planning a full day of interesting workshops that will provide you with new ideas and techniques that you can use in your classroom. Full program information will be carried in the March issue of the Journal of Chemical Education and in the Winter issue of the ACS Division of Chemical Education Newsletter. Program information will also be disseminated directly to San Diego area teachers. Joe Baron may be contacted by email at albaron@sdcoe.k12.ca.us.

Howell, J. Emory

2000-12-01

96

Especially for High School Teachers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Secondary School Feature Articles * Why Do Alcoholic Beverages Have "Legs"?, by Todd P. Silverstein, p 723. * Audience-Appropriate Analogies: Collision Theory, by Kent W. Piepgrass, p 724. * Using Balls from Different Sports To Model the Variation of Atomic Sizes, by Gabriel Pinto, p 725. * The Convergent Evolution of a Chemistry Project: Using Laboratory Posters as a Platform for Web Page Construction, by Sally Rigeman, p 727. * Process Development in the Teaching Laboratory, by Leonard C. Klein and Susanne M. Dana, p 745.

Howell, J. Emory

1998-06-01

97

Especially for High School Teachers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Secondary School Feature Articles * Amino Acid Wordsearch, by Terry L. Helser, p 495. Games, Puzzles, and Humor In honor of April Fools' Day this issue contains 22 pages devoted to games and puzzles that can be used to teach aspects of chemistry. Most are designed for high school and first-year college students. The lead article, p 481, contains an

J. Emory Howell

1999-01-01

98

Especially for High School Teachers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Secondary School Feature Articles * Heat Capacity, Body Temperature, and Hypothermia, by Doris Kimbrough, p 48. * The Electromotive Series and Other Non-Absolute Scales, by Gavin Peckham, p 49. * Demonstrations on Paramagnetism with an Electronic Balance, by Adolf Cortel, p 61. * Toward More Performance Evaluation in Chemistry, by Sharon Rasp, p 64. A Wealth of Useful Information

Howell, J. Emory

1998-01-01

99

Especially for High School Teachers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

JCE publications regularly make connections to a wide variety of interests, of which art is but one. Interdisciplinary Connections is a High School Feature Column designed to meet this challenge. Articles have been published relating literature (2) and writing (3) to chemistry. If you have developed interdisciplinary connections that you would like to share with other teachers, I encourage you to contact the feature editor, Mark Alber.2 Additional examples of annotated bibliographies on chemical connections to other disciplines or applications include food science (4), environmental concerns (5), and writing (6,7). The online "Search" link in the left-hand column of the home page of HS CLIC can lead to the discovery of articles relevant to many other interests. Happy connecting!

Note

  1. For more information about NCW, visit their Web site.
  2. For the feature mission statement and contact information see the HS CLIC Web site.

Literature Cited

  1. Chem. Eng. News 2001, 79 (Feb 26), 50.
  2. Thoman, C. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 495.
  3. Alber, M. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 478.
  4. Jacobsen, E. K. J. Chem. Educ.2000, 77, 1256.
  5. Moore, J. W.; Moore, E. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 167; 1976, 53, 240; 1975, 52, 288.
  6. Shires, N. P. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 494.
  7. Waterman, E. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 826.

Howell, J. Emory

2001-10-01

100

Especially for High School Teachers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Secondary School Feature Articles * An Elementary Outreach Program-Have Demo Will Travel, by James Swim, p 628 * Pressure and Stoichiometry, by Charles E. Roser and Catherine L. McCluskey, p 638 Making Connections vs Relevance: Chemistry and Biology For many years there has been a movement to make chemistry more relevant to learners, particularly in introductory chemistry courses. Sidebars describing

J. Emory Howell

1999-01-01

101

Especially for High School Teachers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Secondary School Feature Articles * Super Science Connections, by Patricia B. McKean, p 916 * A pHorseshoe, by Roger Plumsky, p 935 National Conferences in Your Part of the Country For the past several months, considerable space in this column has been devoted to forthcoming national conferences and conventions and to highlights of conferences past. For some of us, location

J. Emory Howell

1999-01-01

102

Especially for High School Teachers  

Microsoft Academic Search

More Feature Articles This Month This issue contains a larger-than-usual number of Secondary School Chemistry feature articles (see side-bar). Mary Harris, who teaches in St. Louis, Missouri, and her student, Lauren Picard, contributed an account of student research on the cuprammonium rayon process (p 1512). In addition to being informative and interesting, the article provides a model for student-teacher interaction

J. Emory Howell

1999-01-01

103

Especially for High School Teachers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemistry and the Environment This issue contains more than 20 articles relating to the environment. Several articles of potential interest are indicated in the Table of Contents with the SSC mark (). Others are not so indicated because they depict use of expensive instrumentation or costly procedures, but if you have an interest in environmental chemistry you may wish to examine all the environmentally related articles. While many of the articles, both marked and unmarked, are targeted to college-level environmental chemistry curricula or to introductory courses for non-major, the methods described in several could be readily adapted to high school chemistry courses. One article likely to be of interest to teachers is found in News from Online, pp 1608-1609. The author explains how to use the U.S. Environment Protection Agency's EnviroMapper Web site to view and query environmental information. She mentioned finding a hazardous waste handler located near her home, so I decided to check the area near my home. I quickly located a natural gas salt dome storage facility marked on the map and, with a few more mouse clicks, I found information that included status of compliance with regulations, amounts of each compound released to the air in tons per year, and how to contact the corporation owning the site. Email and Web site addresses were included for the convenience of anyone wishing to contact the corporation. Students could learn a great deal about where they live that is relevant to chemistry by using the EPA site. Additional Web sites dealing with environmental issues and chemistry are cited in the sidebar at the bottom of p 1609. Among the articles that could be adapted to an advanced high school chemistry class or possibly even to an introductory class is one titled Bridge of Mandolin County (pp 1671-1672). It describes a case-study strategy similar to the scenarios used in ChemStudy. Students analyze information from various sources, including laboratory experiments if desired, discuss their findings, and make a recommendation regarding which of two road deicers should be used on the bridge. The article Pesticides in Drinking Water: Project-Based Learning within the Introductory Chemistry Curriculum (pp 1673-1667) describes class involvement in field data collection and analysis. Since more sophisticated instrumentation than is possessed by many schools is required, 6th grade science and high school chemistry classes work with a college class to obtain and analyze data. Everyone involved in this approach wins. The 6th graders, high school students, and college students all gain experience in sampling, preparing samples for analysis, determining pollutant levels, and drawing conclusions, each at an appropriate level of understanding. Plus, the high school students are exposed to instrumentation that otherwise would not be accessible, such as gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Although the project described was started by the college faculty members who wrote the article, such an approach to many interesting environmental chemistry problems could be initiated by a high school teacher by seeking out a nearby college or university with whom to partner. An article that probably would not have received the SSC mark had I not noticed that two of the coauthors are high school students, is titled Remediation of Water Contaminated with an Azo Dye (pp 1680-1683). In addition to being interesting, the article is a good reminder that research opportunities for high school students exist. Still another article that received the SSC mark because of a high school connection is Chemical Analysis of Soils (pp 1693-1694). The authors mention that with modification their techniques could be used in high school chemistry. They cite a reference to an article published several years ago, titled Soil Analysis for High School Chemistry Students (J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 897-899). It was published in a feature titled the 50-Minute Experiment. Block scheduling has brought

Howell, J. Emory

1999-12-01

104

Especially for High School Teachers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemistry and the Environment This issue contains more than 20 articles relating to the environment. Several articles of potential interest are indicated in the Table of Contents with the SSC mark (). Others are not so indicated because they depict use of expensive instrumentation or costly procedures, but if you have an interest in environmental chemistry you may wish to

J. Emory Howell

1999-01-01

105

Especially for High School Teachers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

More Feature Articles This Month This issue contains a larger-than-usual number of Secondary School Chemistry feature articles (see side-bar). Mary Harris, who teaches in St. Louis, Missouri, and her student, Lauren Picard, contributed an account of student research on the cuprammonium rayon process (p 1512). In addition to being informative and interesting, the article provides a model for student-teacher interaction in carrying out an independent research project. Two North Carolina teachers, Charles Roser and Catherine McCluskey, describe how to use a Calculator Based Laboratory (interface) to measure the kinetics of the reaction that occurs when a lightstick is activated (p 1514). The method and the easy-to-construct device they made could be used with other systems, as well. Don't Throw Away the Carrier Sheet All areas of JCE Online are now accessible to all JCE subscribers. To find out how you can benefit, read the article appearing on p 1599, Now That I Have It, What Can I Do with It? Jon Holmes, Editor of JCE Online, explains in the article how you can use this resource most effectively. Access to several areas, such as full text access to articles, requires that you log in. The mailing label on the carrier sheet that accompanies your Journal each month contains a password that you need to log in. That is why you need to keep the carrier sheet, at least until you have logged in for the first time and either memorized the number or written it in a safe place. Detailed instructions for logging on are found by clicking on the "How to Log On" link, which appears near the upper left corner of the JCE Online Home Page, jchemed.chem.wisc.edu. If you read a school library copy you need to ask your librarian what password you need to log in. Congratulations Among the recipients of the most prestigious American Society Awards (p 1481) are two individuals who have given generously of their time and energy to the cause of chemical education. Both are familiar names to many of our readers. The High School/College Interface Luncheon was part of the very rich day-long High School Program at the New Orleans ACS Meeting. Shown here (from left) are Glenn Crosby, the luncheon speaker; Lillie Tucker-Akin, the High School Day program chair; and Fred Johnson, Assistant Superintendent of Shelby County (TN) schools and Immediate Past President of NSTA. The recipient of the James Bryant Conant Award in High School Chemistry Teaching is Frank G. Cardulla, who taught for many years at Niles North High School, Skokie, Illinois. His extensive record of service to fellow teachers includes editing the JCE "View from My Classroom" feature for several years and writing several articles, as well as his recent appointment to the JCE Board of Publication. The recipient of the George C. Pimentel Award in Chemical Education is Jerry A. Bell of the American Chemical Society in Washington, DC. An author of numerous articles appearing in JCE and a member of the JCE Board of Publication for several years, he currently serves as Board Chair. The 16th Biennial Conference on Chemical Education Readers who attended the 15th BCCE in Waterloo, Ontario, know that much of the programming at these conferences is of interest to high school teachers. Many work shops, papers, and demonstrations are presented by high school teachers. There are many other outstanding papers and posters, plenary speakers, and exciting demonstrations. The 16th BCCE will be held at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, July 30-August 3, 2000. Among the high school teachers already scheduled to present workshops at the 16th BCCE are George Hague, Lynn Hershey, and Jack Randall, and there will be many more before the program is completed. The High School Chemistry Program Chair is Tim Graham, Roosevelt High School (MI). The Organizing Committee is seeking the assistance of local sections of the American Chemical Society within a 300-mile radius of

Emory Howell, J.

1999-11-01

106

Especially for High School Teachers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

JCE Classroom Activity: #27. How Does Your Garden Grow? Investigating the "Magic Salt Crystal Garden", edited by Nancy S. Gettys and Erica K. Jacobsen, p 624A. Some Articles of Interest photos by Jerrold J. Jacobsen and Nancy S. Gettys This month's issue covers a wide variety of topics, from historical notes to the latest software from JCE. Gas burners are such familiar items in the laboratory that little thought is given to their development. An interesting article by Kathryn Williams (pp 558-559) explains how these humble devices came into being, beginning with Robert Bunsen's invention in 1857, through their adaptation in the United States in the 1930s to burn natural gas. Bunsen, in collaboration with Gustav Kirchhoff, used his invention in constructing an emission spectrometer that could be used in chemical analysis. A drawing of the instrument appears in the Williams article. The spectrometer is described in more detail in an article titled "A Brief History of Atomic Emission Spectrochemical Analysis, 1666-1950". Author Richard Jarrell traces the history of this important and lasting method of analysis from Isaac Newton's discovery of the visible spectrum to the development of the powerful analytical instruments that were in use in the 1950s. For readers who have a deeper interest in atomic emission spectroscopy, Jarrell's article is the first of five that are based on a symposium conducted in 1999 (pp 573-607). Visualizing the structure of ionic crystals is the topic of articles by Keenan Dungey (pp 618-619), Bruce Mattson (pp 622-623), and J. Kamenícek and M. Melichárek (pp 623-624). The ionic crystal theme is also carried out in JCE Classroom Activity #27 (pp 624A-B) and a demonstration on the preparation of sodium iodide, written by Zelek Herman (pp 619-621). Together, the five articles provide an interesting combination of ideas for investigating and describing both the macroscopic and the submicroscopic views of ionic crystals. Is It the "Write" Time for You? The end of the school year is approaching quickly. In previous years, several readers have submitted manuscripts soon after the end of the school year, while ideas were fresh in their mind and there was relief from the demands of daily classes. If you have an idea for an article, I encourage you to think about writing as soon as the school term ends. I can probably guess what you are saying, "I don't have anything that readers would be interested in." This is a common reaction, to which we frequently respond by reminding high school teachers that this is "your journal" and the only way to ensure that topics of interest to you are considered or published is by your active participation. In this presidential election year I am reminded of the familiar sentiment, "I voted in the election, so I have earned the right to complain about the politicians." I do not wish to encourage complaining, but there is a relevant correlation. By submitting manuscripts to the Journal, you are ensuring that you will continue to get your money's worth because it will include topics of interest to you. When considering a submission, many prospective authors are overwhelmed at the thought of preparing a complete manuscript. Don't let that stop you. If you have an idea, an outline, or a rough draft, any of the feature editors or I would be happy to discuss it with you. This one-on-one interaction during the development process will help you express your ideas more effectively. Many teachers across the country who are faced with similar situations and problems each day would benefit from an article discussing innovative teaching strategies or a new way to look at principles we teach every year. As you begin to formulate your ideas, I would like to emphasize five features whose editors are fellow teachers:

  • JCE Classroom Activities. An invitation for contributions was issued in the April issue of this column (JCE, 2000, 77, 431).
  • Chemical Principles Revisited,

    Howell, J. Emory

    2000-05-01

107

Especially for High School Teachers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alternative Assessment The trend in several states to use high-stakes achievement test scores to evaluate districts, schools, and teachers appears to be at odds with the intent of the National Science Education Assessment Standards. Recently I read several postings on an Internet discussion list in which several high school teachers expressed differing opinions on how to deal with the situation.

J. Emory Howell

2000-01-01

108

Lactobacillus gasseri OLL2809 is effective especially on the menstrual pain and dysmenorrhea in endometriosis patients: randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of Lactobacillus gasseri OLL2809 on endometriosis by the randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled clinical study, especially against pain,\\u000a which is one of the causative factors to decrease the quality of life. Sixty-six patients clinically diagnosed with endometriosis\\u000a were enrolled in this study, 62 of which have successfully completed the trial. The tablets containing 100 mg

Hiroyuki Itoh; Masayuki Uchida; Toshihiro Sashihara; Zai-Si Ji; Ji Li; Qianjue Tang; Shuang Ni; Linyi Song; Shuichi Kaminogawa

2011-01-01

109

Feinstrukturelle Untersuchungen zur Oogenese der Käferschnecke Lepidochitona cinereus (Mollusca, Polyplacophora)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oocyte development ofLepidochitona cinereus L. has been examined by electron microscope with special regard to ultrastructural changes during vitellogenesis. Oogenesis can be subdivided into five stages based on cytological and histochemical features. Typical oogonia have not been found; only early oocytes of the meiotic prophase with an incomplete nucleolus are situated on the basallamina of the gonadal wall. The single

H.-P. Richter

1976-01-01

110

Development of the musculature in the limpet Patella (Mollusca, Patellogastropoda)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whole-mount technique using fluorescent-labelled phalloidin for actin staining and confocal laser scanning microscopy as\\u000a well as semi-thin serial sectioning, scanning and transmission electron microscopy were applied to investigate the ontogeny\\u000a of the various muscular systems during larval development in the limpets Patella vulgata L. and P. caerulea L. In contrast to earlier studies, which described a single or two larval

A. Wanninger; Bernhard Ruthensteiner; Susanne Lobenwein; Willibald Salvenmoser; Wim J. A. G. Dictus; Gerhard Haszprunar

1999-01-01

111

Amundsen Sea Mollusca from the BIOPEARL II expedition  

PubMed Central

Abstract Information regarding the molluscs in this dataset is based on the epibenthic sledge (EBS) samples collected during the cruise BIOPEARL II / JR179 RRS James Clark Ross in the austral summer 2008. A total of 35 epibenthic sledge deployments have been performed at five locations in the Amundsen Sea at Pine Island Bay (PIB) and the Amundsen Sea Embayment (ASE) at depths ranging from 476 to 3501m. This presents a unique and important collection for the Antarctic benthic biodiversity assessment as the Amundsen Sea remains one of the least known regions in Antarctica. Indeed the work presented in this dataset is based on the first benthic samples collected with an EBS in the Amundsen Sea. However we assume that the data represented are an underestimation of the real fauna present in the Amundsen Sea. In total 9261 specimens belonging to 6 classes 55 families and 97 morphospecies were collected. The species richness per station varied between 6 and 43. Gastropoda were most species rich 50 species followed by Bivalvia (37), Aplacophora (5), Scaphopoda (3) and one from each of Polyplacophora and Monoplacophora.

Moreau, Camille; Linse, Katrin; Griffiths, Huw; Barnes, David; Kaiser, Stefanie; Glover, Adrian; Sands, Chester; Strugnell, Jan; Enderlein, Peter; Geissler, Paul

2013-01-01

112

Sex and darts in slugs and snails (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Stylommatophora)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the final stages of an elaborate courtship, many slugs and snails shoot calcareous 'love' darts into each other. While darts improve the reproductive success of the shooter, by promoting sperm survival in the recipient, it is unclear why some species have darts and others do not. In fact, dart use has barely been studied, except in the garden snail

Angus Davison; Christopher M. Wade; Peter B. Mordan; Satoshi Chiba

2005-01-01

113

Digestive enzymes of the saltmarsh periwinkle Littorina irrorata (Mollusca: Gastropoda)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The saltmarsh periwinkleLittorina irrorata is well adapted for the digestion of a wide range of polysaccharides. Enzyme extracts attacked cellulose, pectin, xylan, bean gum and mannan (common in cell walls of higher plants), as well as starch and laminarin (representative of major polysaccharide classes in fungal, algal, and animal tissues). Activities were generally highes at a ph of 5 or

Felix Bärlocher; Thomas L. Arsuffi; Steven Y. Newell

1989-01-01

114

Amundsen Sea Mollusca from the BIOPEARL II expedition.  

PubMed

Information regarding the molluscs in this dataset is based on the epibenthic sledge (EBS) samples collected during the cruise BIOPEARL II / JR179 RRS James Clark Ross in the austral summer 2008. A total of 35 epibenthic sledge deployments have been performed at five locations in the Amundsen Sea at Pine Island Bay (PIB) and the Amundsen Sea Embayment (ASE) at depths ranging from 476 to 3501m. This presents a unique and important collection for the Antarctic benthic biodiversity assessment as the Amundsen Sea remains one of the least known regions in Antarctica. Indeed the work presented in this dataset is based on the first benthic samples collected with an EBS in the Amundsen Sea. However we assume that the data represented are an underestimation of the real fauna present in the Amundsen Sea. In total 9261 specimens belonging to 6 classes 55 families and 97 morphospecies were collected. The species richness per station varied between 6 and 43. Gastropoda were most species rich 50 species followed by Bivalvia (37), Aplacophora (5), Scaphopoda (3) and one from each of Polyplacophora and Monoplacophora. PMID:23794869

Moreau, Camille; Linse, Katrin; Griffiths, Huw; Barnes, David; Kaiser, Stefanie; Glover, Adrian; Sands, Chester; Strugnell, Jan; Enderlein, Peter; Geissler, Paul

2013-04-22

115

Swimming behaviour of the saucer scallop Amusium balloti (Mollusca: Pectinidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The swimming performance of the saucer scallop Amusium balloti (Bernardi) was recorded from tests conducted in a natural environment in Shark Bay, Western Australia, in June, July and November 1984 and June and September 1985. Unlike all other scallops described in the literature, the swimming performance (both speed and distance) of A. balloti increases with size. Maximum distance swum in

L. M. Joll

1989-01-01

116

Planorbidae, lymnaeidae and physidae of Peru (Mollusca: Basommatophora).  

PubMed

In the course of several trips to Peru I had the opportunity of collecting topotypic specimens of Biomphalaria andecola (Orbigny, 1835), B. helophila (Orbigny, 1835), B. pucaraensis (Preston, 1909), Drepanotrema limayanum (Lesson, 1830), D. kermatoides (Orbigny, 1835), and Lymnaea viatrix Orbigny, 1835, besides B. tenagophila (Orbigny, 1835), Helisoma trivolvis (Say, 1817), H. duryi (Wetherby, 1879), Physa acuta Draparnaud, 1801, and seemingly P. peruviana Gray, 1828. B. pucaraensis is considered a junior synonym of B. peregrina (Orbigny, 1835). PMID:14595453

Paraense, W Lobato

2003-10-29

117

Planorbidae, Lymnaeidae and Physidae of Ecuador (Mollusca: Basommatophora).  

PubMed

In the course of a trip to Ecuador I had the opportunity of collecting topotypic specimens of the following nominal species of pulmonate molluscs: Biomphalaria cousini Paraense, 1966; Planorbis equatorius Cousin, 1887; P. canonicus Cousin, 1887; Lymnaea cousini Jousseaume, 1887 and P. boetzkesi Miller, 1879. Additional findings were: Helisoma trivolvis (Say, 1817), Biomphalaria peregrina (Orbigny 1835), Drepanotrema anatinum (Orbigny, 1835), D. kermatoides (Orbigny, 1835), D. lucidum (Pfeiffer, 1839), D. surinamense (Clessin, 1884), Lymnaea columella Say, 1817 and Physa acuta Draparnaud, 1805. P. boetzkesi and P. canonicus are considered junior synonyms of Gyraulus hindsianus (Dunker, 1848) and Biomphalaria peregrina (Orbigny, 1835), respectively. PMID:15322623

Paraense, W Lobato

2004-08-13

118

Planorbidae, lymnaeidae and physidae of Argentina (mollusca: basommatophora).  

PubMed

In the course of several trips to Argentina I had the opportunity of collecting specimens of Acrorbis petricola Odhner,1937, Biomphalaria orbignyi Paraense, 1975, B. peregrina (Orbigny, 1835), B. tenagophila (Orbigny, 1835) Lymnaea viatrix Orbigny, 1835, Antillorbis nordestensis (Lucena, 1954), B. intermedia (Paraense & Deslandes, 1962), B. oligoza Paraense, 1974, B. straminea (Dunker, 1848), Drepanotrema anatinum (Orbigny, 1835), D. cimex (Moricand, 1837), D. depressissimum (Moricand, 1837), D. heloicum (Orbigny, 1835), D. kermatoides (Orbigny, 1835), D. lucidum (Pfeiffer, 1839), L. columella Say, 1817, Physa acuta Draparnaud, 1805, and P. marmorata Guilding, 1828. PMID:16184226

Paraense, W Lobato

2005-09-15

119

Neuronal Localization of Dopamine and 5-Hydroxytryptamine in Some Mollusca.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The localization of biogenic monoamines in ganglionic tissues from Anodonta piscinalis, Helix pomatia, and Buccinum undatum was studied by means of the histochemical fluorescence method of Falck and Hillarp. In cerebral, visceral, and pedal ganglia (besid...

E. Dahl B. Falck C. von Mecklenburg H. Myhrberg E. Rosengren

1965-01-01

120

Neuronal development in larval chiton Ischnochiton hakodadensis (Mollusca: Polyplacophora).  

PubMed

Chitons are the most primitive molluscs and, thus, a matter of considerable interest for understanding both basic principles of molluscan neurogenesis and phylogeny. The development of the nervous system in trochophores of the chiton Ischnochiton hakodadensis from hatching to metamorphosis is described in detail by using confocal laser scanning microscopy and antibodies raised against serotonin, FMRFamide, and acetylated alpha tubulin. The earliest nervous elements detected were peripheral neurons located in the frontal hemisphere of posthatching trochophores and projecting into the apical organ. Among them, two pairs of unique large lateral cells appear to pioneer the pathways of developing adult nervous system. Chitons possess an apical organ that contains the largest number of neurons among all molluscan larvae investigated so far. Besides, many pretrochal neurons are situated outside the apical organ. The prototroch is not innervated by larval neurons. The first neurons of the developing adult central nervous system (CNS) appear later in the cerebral ganglion and pedal cords. None of the neurons of the larval nervous system are retained in the adult CNS. They cease to express their transmitter content and disintegrate after settlement. Although the adult CNS of chitons resembles that of polychaetes, their general scenario of neuronal development resembles that of advanced molluscs and differs from annelids. Thus, our data demonstrate the conservative pattern of molluscan neurogenesis and suggest independent origin of molluscan and annelid trochophores. PMID:11835180

Voronezhskaya, Elena E; Tyurin, Sergei A; Nezlin, Leonid P

2002-02-25

121

[Chitons (Mollusca: Polyplacophora) from El Salvador, Central America].  

PubMed

Collections of 11 species of shallow water Polyplacophora from El Salvador were made in July 2002. Previously only five species had been documented in El Salvador: Chaetopleura lurida (Sowerby, 1832); Ischnochiton guatemalensis (Thiele, 1910); Ceratozona angusta (Thiele, 1909); Chiton stokesii (Broderip, 1832) and Acantochitona exquisita (Pilsbry, 1893). Of these, L. guatemalensis and A. exquisita were not collected in this census. Seven other species are reported here for El Salvador for the first time: Lepidochitona beanii (Carpenter, 1857); Ischnochiton dispar (Sowerby, 1832); Stenoplax limaciformis (Sowerby, 1832); Callistochiton expressus (Carpenter, 1865); Acanthochitona arragonites (Carpenter, 1867); A. ferreirai (Lyons, 1988) and A. hirudiniformis (Sowerby, 1832). The known geographic distribution of 1. dispar is extended to the north. An un-named species of Lepidochitona is briefly described. PMID:18457124

García-Ríos, Cedar I; Alvarez-Ruiz, Migdalia; Barraza, José E; Rivera, Ana M; Hasbún, Carlos R

2007-03-01

122

Upper Cambrian chitons (Mollusca, polyplacophora) from Missouri, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Numerous new specimens reveal a greater presence of chitons in Upper Cambrian rocks than previously suspected. Evidence is presented showing that the chiton esthete sensory system is present in all chiton species in this study at the very beginning of the known polyplacophoran fossil record. The stratigraphic occurrences and paleobiogeography of Late Cambrian chitons are documented. The 14 previously-named families of Cambrian and Ordovician chitons are reviewed and analyzed. Aulochitonidae n. fam. is defined, based on Aulochiton n. gen.; A. sannerae n. sp. is also defined. The long misunderstood family Preacanthochitonidae and its type genus Preacanthochiton Bergenhayn, 1960, are placed in synonymy with Mattheviidae and Chelodes Davidson & King, 1874, respectively; Eochelodes Marek, 1962, also is placed in synonymy with Chelodes, and Elongata Stinchcomb & Darrough, 1995, is placed in synonymy with Hemithecella Ulrich & Bridge, 1941. At the species level, H. elongata Stinchcomb & Darrough, 1995, and Elongata perplexa Stinchcomb & Darrough, 1995, are placed in synonymy with H. eminensis Stinchcomb & Darrough, 1995. The Ordovician species H. abrupta Stinchcomb & Darrough, 1995, is transferred to the genus Chelodes as C. abrupta (Stinchcomb & Darrough, 1995). The Ordovician species Preacanthochiton baueri Hoare & Pojeta, 2006, is transferred to the genus Helminthochiton as H. ? baueri (Hoare & Pojeta, 2006). The Ordovician species H. marginatus Hoare & Pojeta, 2006, is transferred to the genus Litochiton as L. marginatus (Hoare & Pojeta, 2006). Matthevia walcotti Runnegar, Pojeta, Taylor, & Collins, 1979, is treated as a synonym of Hemithecella expansa Ulrich & Bridge, 1941. In addition, other multivalved Cambrian mollusks are discussed; within this group, Dycheiidae n. fam. is defined, as well as Paradycheia dorisae n. gen. and n. sp. Cladistic analysis indicates a close relationship among the genera here assigned to the Mattheviidae, and between Echinochiton Pojeta, Eernisse, Hoare, & Henderson, 2003, and mattheviids. The results suggest treating these taxa as stem-lineage chitons, and do not support the hypothesis that they are aplacophorans.

Pojeta, Jr. , J.; Vendrasco, M. J.; Darrough, G.

2010-01-01

123

Cleavage pattern and mesentoblast formation in Acanthochiton crinitus (Polyplacophora, Mollusca).  

PubMed

In characteristic spiralian embryos the mesentoblast is the stem cell of the mesodermal bands. It is a derivative of the dorsal quadrant. At least in gastropod molluscs, the ancestral form for the specification of the dorsal quadrant out of four initially equal quadrants is by centralization of one of the four macromeres after the separation of the presumptive ecto- and entoblast cells. Then this macromere is induced by the animal micromeres to produce the mesentoblast. In this paper it is shown that in the embryo of the polyplacophoran Acanthochiton crinitus, specification of the dorsal quadrant and formation of the mesentoblast exactly follow the same pattern. After deletion of the first quartet of micromeres none of the macromeres is centralized, no mesentoblast is formed, and the embryo remains radially symmetrical. Apparently, the mechanism for the specification of the dorsal quadrant and the formation of the mesentoblast has been conserved during the evolution of the main molluscan taxa. It has been discussed whether this mechanism might be a plesiomorphous property, characteristic of less derived spiralian phyla. PMID:8631512

van den Biggelaar, J A

1996-03-15

124

A cladistic phylogeny of the family Patellidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda)  

PubMed Central

A phylogenetic hypothesis for the patellid limpets is reconstructed by cladistic analysis of morphological characters from 37 species, representing all but one of the living members of the family. Characters included in the analysis are derived from shell shape and microstructure, headfoot and pallial complex, radula and sperm. The species fall into four clades, providing the basis for a new phylogenetic classification into four monophyletic genera: Helcion (four species; southern Africa), Cymbula (eight species; southern Africa, eastern Atlantic, southern Indian Ocean), Scutellastra (17 species; southern and southwestern Africa, Australia, Indo-West Pacific, Eastern Pacific) and Patella (nine species; northeastern Atlantic and Mediterranean). The analysis suggests sister-group relationships between Helcion and Cymbula, and between Scutellastra and Patella. In combination with present-day patterns of geographical distribution, this phylogenetic hypothesis is used to discuss the historical biogeography of the Patellidae. Scutellastra may have originated in southern Africa and dispersed across the Pacific, or alternatively may be a primitively Tethyan group. Both Helcion and Cymbula appear to have originated in southern Africa, but three Cymbula species have dispersed respectively to northwest Africa, St Helena and the southern Indian Ocean. The patellids of the northeastern Atlantic form a single clade, Patella (including P. pellucida), which may have arrived by northward dispersal of an ancestor from southern Africa, or possibly by vicariance of a widespread ancestral Tethyan distribution. The known fossil record of patellids is too fragmentary to permit choice between these alternatives.

Ridgway, S. A.

1998-01-01

125

Fecundity of Cochlicella acuta (Müller) (Mollusca: Helicidae) in laboratory cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adults of the conical snail, Cochlicella acuta, laid eggs in laboratory cultures from autumn to spring, with a peak in autumn-early winter. There was no evidence to suggest that large adults produced more eggs than small adults over the whole breeding season, nor that crowding of adults reduced production\\/snail when food was abundant. In experiments where snails were kept in

G. H. BAKER; B. G. HAWKE

1991-01-01

126

Östrogenartige wirkungen von bisphenol a auf vorderkiemenschnecken ( Mollusca: Gastropoda: Prosobranchia )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung  Im Rahmen eines vom Umweltbundesamt geförderten Forschungsprojektes zur Entwicklung eines biologischen Tests mit der Süßwasserschnecke\\u000a Marisa cornuarietis für geschlechtshormonähnlich wirkende Substanzen wurden unter anderem die Effekte des als Xenoöstrogen verdächtigten Bisphenols\\u000a A (BPA) untersucht. Zusätzlich zu den Laborversuchsreihen mit der Apfelschnecke M. cornuarietis wurden Versuche mit der Zwergdeckelschnecke Potamopyrgus antipodarum als Süßwasserspezies sowie zwei marinen Arten, der Netzreusenschnecke Nassarius reticulatus

Ulrike Schulte-Oehlmann; Michaela Tillmann; Daire Casey; Martina Duft; Bernd Markert; Jörg Oehlmann

2001-01-01

127

Chemical defense and evolution in the Sacoglossa (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.   Recent advances in both the systematics and the natural products chemistry of the order Sacoglossa (=Ascoglossa) in the gastropod\\u000a subclass Opisthobranchia suggest a revised and improved historical account of the evolution of the group. Although the algal\\u000a genus Caulerpa makes a suitable model for the ancestral food of the order, other siphonaceous algae are consistent with both morphological\\u000a and

Guido Cimino; Michael T. Ghiselin

1998-01-01

128

Intramantle Inking: A Stress Behavior in Octopus bimaculoides (Mollusca: Cephalopoda)  

PubMed Central

Several Pacific 2-spot octopuses (Octopus bimaculoides) shipped from California and held in a recirculating seawater system at Illinois College exhibited an unusual postshipping stress behavior not previously documented in the literature. Ink, normally ejected into the surrounding seawater, was uncharacteristically retained in the mantle cavity. We describe the resulting behaviors, discuss successful resuscitation efforts, and briefly consider the possible role(s) that ink may have played in the death of one octopus.

Toll, Ronald B

2011-01-01

129

Negotiating contracts for vendor-financed purchases of EHR systems. Providers face extraordinary challenges securing financing for HIT projects, especially ones required to capitalize on ARRA incentives.  

PubMed

In this economic climate, healthcare providers may face extraordinary challenges securing financing for health IT projects, especially ones required to capitalize on the incentives in ARRA. Vendor financing may be the best option for many such providers. While such arrangements may often seem a win-win for both parties, providers should be aware of the many potential pitfalls inherent in vendorfinanced deals, including: 1.) additional pressure from vendors to accept their standard contractual terms and conditions because vendors have much more leverage if they are also the creditor in the transaction; 2.) failing to obtain necessary warranties and representations from vendors that their systems will comply with all relevant requirements under ARRA and will permit the provider to achieve meaningful use; and 3.) dealing with problems arising if the vendors' product fails to achieve certification, or the provider fails to achieve "meaningful use" in a timely manner. PMID:20077924

Fox, Steven J; Schick, Vadim

2010-01-01

130

Effect of volatile emissions, especially alpha-pinene, from persimmon trees infested by Japanese wax scales or treated with methyl jasmonate on recruitment of ladybeetle predators.  

PubMed

Persimmon, Diospyros kaki L., is an important fruit tree in northern China. Japanese wax scale, Ceroplastes japonicus Green (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae), is the most destructive pest in persimmon orchards and is difficult to control using chemical pesticides. This paper studied the variety of volatile emissions from persimmon trees attacked by wax scale or induced by applications of methyl jasmonate (MeJA), an exogenous signaling material. We also studied the role of volatiles in recruiting the ladybeetle, Chilocorus kuwanae Silvestri (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), a primary predator of wax scale. The results showed that the ladybeetles displayed strong taxis responses to the odor sources from trees treated with MeJA and wax scale-damaged trees. Within 24 h after the trees were treated with MeJA, the number of ladybeetles responding to the treated trees fluctuated based on the amount of volatiles released over a diel period. Chemical analysis of the volatiles showed that terpenoid compounds, especially alpha-pinene, increased from both the wax scale-damaged and MeJA-treated trees and that this was the reason for the ladybeetle attraction. Therefore, alpha-pinene was used as a single signal source to examine the taxis response of C. kuwanae. The results suggest that alpha-pinene plays a significant role in attracting the ladybeetles. It is therefore concluded that MeJA application might be used to stimulate the defense function of persimmon trees by inducing the release of terpenoids, especially alpha-pinene, and thereby recruiting more ladybeetles to control the scale insects. PMID:19825299

Zhang, Yanfeng; Xie, Yingping; Xue, Jiaoliang; Peng, Guoliang; Wang, Xu

2009-10-01

131

Recursos para educação de crianças com necessidades especiais e articulação entre educação especial e inclusiva Resources for education of children with special necessities and articulation between special and inclusive education Recursos para educación de niños con necesidades especiales y articulación entre educación especial y inclusiva  

Microsoft Academic Search

ReSumo: Este breve artigo de revisão sumaria alguns recursos disponíveis para escolarização e alfabetização de crianças com dificuldade escolar, bem como de crianças com distúrbios de comunicação e linguagem de etiologia neurossensorial (e.g., surdez congênita), neu- romotora (e.g., paralisia cerebral) e neurolingüística (e.g., dislexia do desenvolvimento). O artigo defende a articulação entre educação especial e educação inclusiva em contra-turno, num

Fernando C. Capovilla

132

An Electrosurgical Endoknife with a Water-Jet Function (Flushknife) Proves Its Merits in Colorectal Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection Especially for the Cases Which Should Be Removed En Bloc  

PubMed Central

Background. Previously, we reported that the Flushknife (electrosurgical endoknife with a water-jet function) could reduce the operation time of colorectal endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) however, suitable situation for the Flushknife was obscure. This subgroup analysis of a prospective randomized controlled trial was aimed to investigate the suitable situation for the Flushknife. Methods. A total of 48 superficial colorectal neoplasms that underwent ESD using either the Flexknife or the Flushknife in a referral center were enrolled. The differences of operation time between the Flexknife and the Flushknife groups in each subgroup (tumor size, location, and macroscopic type) were analyzed. Results. Median (95% CI) operation time calculated using survival curves was significantly shorter in the Flushknife group than in the Flexknife group (55.5?min [41, 78] versus 74.0 [57, 90]?min; P = 0.039, Hazard Ratio HR: 0.53; 95% CI (0.29–0.97)). In particular, the HR in patients with laterally spreading tumors-nongranular type (LST-NG) in the Flushknife group was significantly smaller than in the Flexknife group (HR: 0.165?0.17; 95% CI (0.04–0.66)). There was a trend of decreasing HRs according to larger lesion size. Conclusions. The Flushknife proved its merits in colorectal ESD especially for the lesions which should be removed en bloc (LST-NG and large lesion).

Takeuchi, Yoji; Ishihara, Ryu; Iishi, Hiroyasu; Hanaoka, Noboru; Higashino, Koji; Uedo, Noriya

2013-01-01

133

Hormonal interference with pheromone systems in parasitic acarines, especially ixodid ticks. Annual technical report No. 4, 1 May 1983-30 April 1984  

SciTech Connect

The most important result of recent project research was the demonstration of the juvenoid JH III by radioimmunoassay. This assay revealed an estimated 78 pg/tick in the hemolymph of partially fed Hyalomma dromedarii females, and an estimated 3 pg/tick in the hemolymph of partially fed D. variabilis. Other studies, especially digestion of tritium labelled JH III, provided additional evidence suggesting the presence of this hormone in adult ticks. The implications of these findings for our understanding of sex pheromone regulation in ticks is discussed. Other studies described in this report deal with the source of ecdysteroid in teh camel tick, Hyalomma dromedarii, the American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis, and the soft tick, Ornithodoros parkeri. Studies done at ODU, using radioimmunoassay high performance liquid chromatography, and autoradiography, provide new evidence implicating the tick synganglion - lateral nerve plexus as an important site of ecdysteroid activity in the ixodid ticks. Other studies with ecdysteriods suggest that metabolism of ecdysone or 20-hydroxyecdysone (or both) to inactive metabolites, possibly including polar conjugates. If confirmed, these findings indicate the presence of only a single active ecdysteriod hormone in ticks, 20-hydroxyecdysone.

Sonenshine, D.E.; Oliver, J.H. Jr.; Homsher, P.J.

1984-05-01

134

[Combined-macro-micro endoscopic technique as the most advantageous endonasal sinus surgery especially for severe sinusitis: theory and surgical technique].  

PubMed

Functional endonasal sinus surgery (FESS) is becoming the procedure of choice for the surgical treatment of chronic sinusitis. The operation has been made possible by the introduction of the endoscope to sinus surgery. The endoscope allows a more detailed observation of ethmoid lesions, and provides direct visual access to the paranasal region which is not visible through the anterior nares. A technique which involves the exclusive use of endoscopy, endoscopic sinus surgery, presents several problems however, especially in cases of polyposis or those with excessive bleeding. For ideal sinus surgery, tools must guarantee the greatest possible safety, ease, and accuracy. None of the currently available tools is independently able to fully satisfy all three of these requirements, not even the endoscope. The anatomical region being operated on determines which of these three requirements is most critical in each phase of the surgery. Ease is most important in the nasal cavity, which has no exceptionally dangerous regions to be operated on. The quickest and simplest operation is most expedient for minimizing blood loss in severe polyposis. To achieve this objective, macroscopic manipulation using a headlamp is most suitable. There is no need to use the endoscope or microscope to remove polyps in the nasal cavity. Because almost all of the risks in sinus surgery are encountered in the ethmoid region, operation in this area demands the safest method. For example if the ethmoid cavity is filled with massive polyps, it is sometimes difficult to endoscopically detect whether orbital fat has broken into the ethmoid. To discriminate between fat and a polypoid lesion or to distinguish dura from mucoperiost during surgery, the microscope is clearly the superior tool. In region where dead angles prevent accurate manipulation, use of the endoscope is essential. To optimize success in sinus surgery using the currently available tools, the author describes a combined macro-micro-endoscopic technique (COMMET) which effectively combines use of the headlamp, the microscope, and the endoscope according to the demands of each anatomical region. PMID:8283346

Kikawada, T

1993-11-01

135

Pattern formation in actin gels: A study in the mechanics of gels formed by the important cytoskeletal protein actin, especially as applied to cellular motility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have studied pattern formation in actin gels to better understand how they function in biological systems, especially in the motility mechanism used by some pathogenic bacteria such as Listeria. By coating themselves with certain enzymes, these bacteria appropriate actin (a protein) from the surrounding host cell's cytoplasm and cause a network or "gel" of actin filaments to grow on their outer surface. As the resulting "comet tail" shaped protrusion grows, it pushes the bacterium away. In experiments, polystyrene beads coated with the same enzymes will also generate comet tails and swim in a very similar manner. However, these bead experiments have also generated anomalous results such as the formation of many comet tails. In some experiments, when two comet tails formed they systematically grew into regular, oppositely handed helices. The formation of any comet tails on a bead poses a physical conundrum. The bacterial enzyme coating is asymmetrical so the comet tail forms in a particular place. But the beads are symmetrical, so comet tails formation constitutes symmetry breaking and spontaneous pattern formation. We have modeled this process as a competition between elastic energy (which favors many tails) and chemical energy (which favors few tails). Our analytical model explains the factors that experimentally determine the number of tails, and numerical simulations confirm these predictions. To understand the helical tails, we did extensive data analysis involving image processing, statistical analysis and mathematical modeling of images of the helical tails. We identified some important features of how the twin tails form. For instance, the tail growth rate is independent of drag force, and bead rotation must accompany helical tail formation. We also created a physical model for helical growth. Numerical simulations of our model show that at very low Reynolds number, a cylindrical object growing under the conditions of an actin comet tail can spontaneously grow into a helical shape.

Balter, Ariel

136

LA SALUD MENTAL DEL BEBÉ. NUEVAS EVIDENCIAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY This article describes infant mental health from two perspectives: why it is relevant and how to implement interventions, including preventive ones. Topics covered are based on evidence available in scientific literature. The first section addresses areas that justify the importance assigned to infants and their emotional well-being. One of them deals with new information about brain development. Recent available

J. Martín Maldonado-Durán; Juan Manuel Sauceda Garcia; Teresa Lartigue; Velissarios Karacostas

2002-01-01

137

Nuevas herramientas en dinámica de actitud.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the software market, a number of applications designed for symbolic computations and running on desk computers are continously appearing. Among them the authors use Mathematica to handle the very discouraging expressions appearing in the attitude dynamics problem. The graphic capability of Mathematica is used in the qualitative analysis of the attitude of an artificial satellite, in order to locate where the possible bifurcations take place.

Arribas, M.; Elipe, A.

138

Alimentos funcionales, una nueva alternativa de alimentación  

Microsoft Academic Search

The consumption of foods that in addition to providing basic nutrition may help cure and prevent some diseases is one of the most innovative aspects that the 21st century offers. Foods that reduce cholesterol intake, help weight loss, avoid osteoporosis, regulate blood pressure and even candy that prevents dental cavities can habitually be found in many supermarkets around the world.

SARMIENTO RUBIANO

139

Nuevas voces por la justicia social  

Microsoft Academic Search

New Voices for Social Justice illustrates the discovery by the dalits, the groups most oppressed by the Indian caste system, of writing, particularly poetry, as a weapon in their fight against discrimination. It quotes men and women writing in several of the languages and dialects of India on subjects from extreme poverty and filth to humiliations and exclusions. It refers

Rowena Hill

140

The Transitional Development of Entrepreneurship-Dialoque Between New Economic Activity, Work and Reedom\\/El Desarrollo de la Empresarialidad-Interacción entre nuevas actividades económicas, trabajo y libertad  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an increasing demand for studying entrepreneurial behaviour also from a national perspective. This is especially important for new independent nations as well as for those restructuring their economies. I suggest that entrepreneurship is a phenomenon gaining importance in transitions, rather than developing evolutionarily as Schumpeter declared (Schumpeter 1996a). Such transitions have taken place twice in the development of

PAULA KYRÖ

2006-01-01

141

Consecuencias de la ruptura de mutualismos planta-animal para la distribución de especies vegetales en las Islas Baleares Consequences of the disruption of plant-animal mutualisms for the distribution of plant species in the Balearic Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The alteration of a habitat such as that caused by the introduction of exotic animal species that displace the native ones, reducing their populations or leading them to extinction, can result in the disruption of species interactions which may have evolved during millions of years. The insular ecosystems are especially vulnerable to such disturbances, as they are usually less complex

ANNA TRAVESET

142

The Book Scene...Especially for Teens.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This annotated bibliography lists approximately 500 titles that reflect the diversity of interests and levels of sophistication among young adult readers between the ages of 12 and 18. Within each subject division is a varied array of fiction and nonfiction titles, some ideal for middle graders, others more appropriate for adult-level readers. The…

Peskorz, Adela, Comp.; And Others

143

Especially for Teens: You and Your Sexuality  

MedlinePLUS

... someone of the same sex? • What is gender identity? • When deciding whether to have sex, what are ... or school counselor for help. What is gender identity? Gender identity is your sense of yourself as ...

144

Physicians practicing other occupations, especially literature.  

PubMed

Literature has been the favored nonmedical pursuit of physicians probably because the practice of medicine is suffused with narratives, the patient's history being one. Arthur Conan Doyle regarded medicine as a "grim romance," Somerset Maugham as an opportunity to see "life in the raw," and William Carlos Williams treated "the patient as a work of art." These sentiments may be linked to humanistic medicine. At some medical schools, literature is taught in the context of and integrated with medicine in an attempt to enhance ethics and empathy which were explicitly expressed by some physician-writers. PMID:8469245

Green, J P

1993-03-01

145

NÚMEROS CROMOSÓMICOS DE ESPECIES DE PASSIFLORA (PASSIFLORACEAE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deginani, N. B. & Escobar, A. 2002. Chromosome number of species of Passiflora (Passifloraceae). Hickenia 3(36): 143-144. Chromosome number and observations on meiotic chromosome behaviour of four taxa of Passiflora are given. One of them, P. tenuifila is the first chromosome record of the species. Passiflora amethystina, P. tenuifila, and P. misera all had 9 bivalents in metaphase I. Passiflora

NORMA B. DEGINANI; ALEJANDRO ESCOBAR

2002-01-01

146

Early magnetron development especially in Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic control was a very early form of controlling electrons. The original Braun tube was magnetically controlled, and so was the first telephone relay of Robert von Lieben. Even the first successful attempt to obtain oscillations from a (mercury cathode) tube by Frederick Vreeland in 1908 was equipped with magnetic coils. Descriptions of magnetically controlled tubes were given by several

Joachim Goerth; HAW Hamburg

2010-01-01

147

Especially for Teens: Having a Baby  

MedlinePLUS

... taking medications during pregnancy? • Can using alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, or other illegal drugs cause harm during pregnancy? • ... remedies, vitamins, or minerals. Can using alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, or other illegal drugs cause harm during pregnancy? ...

148

The Book Scene...Especially for Teens.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This annotated bibliography lists approximately 500 titles that reflect the diversity of interests and levels of sophistication among young adult readers between the ages of 12 and 18. Within each subject division is a varied array of fiction and nonfiction titles, some ideal for middle graders, others more appropriate for adult-level readers.…

Peskorz, Adela, Comp.; And Others

149

[Lipoblastoma and lipoblastomatosis: especially in children].  

PubMed

Lipoblastoma and lipoblastomatosis are rare benign fatty tumours that mainly occur in children under the age of 3 years. Several body sites can be affected. The term 'lipoblastoma' is reserved for an encapsulated neoplasm; 'lipoblastomatosis' for tumours demonstrating infiltrative growth. Most of the clinical symptoms arise from a mass effect of the tumour on surrounding tissues. The tumours should be differentiated from lipoma, myxoid liposarcoma and hibernoma. A clear distinction can be made by cytogenetic analysis, since each of these tumours is known for its own typical genetic abnormalities. In lipoblastoma and lipoblastomatosis, these include a breakpoint in the 8q11-13 region or polysomy of chromosome 8, both leading to the activation of the oncogenic pleomorphic adenoma gene 1 (PLAG1) on 8q12. Treatment consists of surgical resection; there is no need for radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Clinical outcome depends on the completeness of the resection and damage that is done to the surrounding tissues during surgery. PMID:21854662

Besouw, Martine T P; Verlinde, Piet F L; Uyttebroeck, Anne M; Renard, Marleen M

2011-01-01

150

PROJETO ESPECIAL DE PROPULSORES DE EMBARCAÇÕES FLUVIAIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work presents technical considerations about the importance of an adequate conception of inland ship propellers and evaluates the impact of an adequate propeller design on the efficiency of inland transport system. The following aspects of inland ships propellers are analyzed: number of propellers, position of installation in the ship stern, number and forms of blades, structural resistance, blades propeller

Carlos Daher Padovezi

151

Books that Especially Appeal to Boy Readers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many of today’s teachers want to create lifelong readers, and, in particular, they often worry about finding books that will engage their boy readers.\\u000aThe following books were reviewed for Grades K-2:Grimes, Nikki. (2008). Barack Obama: Son of promise, child of hopeHector, Julian. (2008). The little matadorKay, Julia. (2008). Gulliver SnipMeserve, Jessica. (2008). Can anybody hear me?Smith, J. D. (2008).

Terrell A. Young; Barbara A. Ward

2009-01-01

152

Continuous absence of metaphase-defined cytogenetic abnormalities, especially of chromosome 13 and hypodiploidy, ensures long-term survival in multiple myeloma treated with Total Therapy I: interpretation in the context of global gene expression.  

PubMed

Metaphase cytogenetic abnormalities (CAs), especially of chromosome 13 (CA 13), confer a grave prognosis in multiple myeloma even with tandem autotransplantations as applied in Total Therapy I, which enrolled 231 patients between 1989 and 1994. With a median follow-up of almost 9 years, the prognostic implications of all individual CAs, detected prior to treatment and at relapse, were investigated. Among all CAs and standard prognostic factors examined prior to therapy, only hypodiploidy and CA 13 (hypo-13 CA), alone or in combination, were associated with shortest event-free survival and overall survival (OS). The shortest postrelapse OS was observed with hypo-13 CA, which was newly detected in 18 of all 28 patients presenting with this abnormality at relapse. Superior prognosis was associated with the absence of any CA at both diagnosis and relapse (10-year OS, 40%). The lack of independent prognostic implications of other CAs points to a uniquely aggressive behavior of hypo-13 CA (present in 16% of patients at diagnosis). With the use of microarray data in 146 patients enrolled in Total Therapy II, overexpression of cell cycle genes distinguished CA from no CA, especially in cases of del(13) detected by interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). FISH 13, resulting in a haploinsufficiency of RB1 and other genes mapping to chromosome 13, as well as activation of IGF1R, appears to have an amplifying effect on cell cycle gene expression, thus providing a molecular explanation for the dire outcome of patients with CA 13 compared with those with other CAs. PMID:12531801

Shaughnessy, John; Jacobson, Joth; Sawyer, Jeff; McCoy, Jason; Fassas, Athanasios; Zhan, Fenghuang; Bumm, Klaus; Epstein, Joshua; Anaissie, Elias; Jagannath, Sundar; Vesole, David; Siegel, David; Desikan, Raman; Munshi, Nikhil; Badros, Ashraf; Tian, Erming; Zangari, Maurizio; Tricot, Guido; Crowley, John; Barlogie, Bart

2003-01-16

153

Liquiritigenin pharmacokinetics in a rat model of diabetes mellitus induced by streptozotocin: greater formation of glucuronides in the liver, especially M2, due to increased hepatic uridine 5'-diphosphoglucuronic acid level.  

PubMed

Liquiritigenin (LQ) is a candidate for the treatment of inflammatory liver disease. Many studies have confirmed that hepatic disease and diabetes mellitus are closely associated. Thus, the pharmacokinetic changes of LQ and its 2 glucuronides, M1 and M2, in a rat model of diabetes mellitus induced by streptozotocin (DMIS rats) were evaluated. Liquiritigenin was administered intravenously (20 mg/kg) or orally (50 mg/kg) in DMIS and control rats. Changes in in vitro activity and in vivo uridine 5'-diphosphoglucuronic acid level in the liver and intestine of DMIS rats compared with controls were also studied. After intravenous administration of LQ in DMIS rats, no significant changes in the pharmacokinetic parameters of LQ were observed. However, the AUC(M2)/AUC(LQ) ratio was significantly greater (by 53.0%) than that of controls. After oral administration of LQ, the AUC of LQ and metabolite ratios of M1 and M2 were comparable to controls. The increase in the formation of glucuronides of LQ, especially M2, after intravenous administration of LQ was due to the increased in vivo hepatic uridine 5'-diphosphoglucuronic acid level in DMIS rats as a result of alteration in carbohydrate metabolism in diabetes. The comparable pharmacokinetics of LQ, M1, and M2 after oral administration of LQ were mainly due to the comparable intestinal metabolism of LQ between the control and DMIS rats. PMID:20170928

Kang, Hee E; Sohn, Se I; Baek, Seung R; Lee, Jee W; Lee, Myung G

2010-02-19

154

Phylogenetic relationships of Nembrothinae (Mollusca: Doridacea: Polyceridae) inferred from morphology and mitochondrial DNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the Polyceridae, Nembrothinae includes some of the most striking and conspicuous sea slugs known, although several features of their biology and phylogenetic relationships remain unknown. This paper reports a phylogenetic analysis based on partial sequences of two mitochondrial genes (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and 16S rRNA) and morphology for most species included in Nembrothinae. Our phylogenetic reconstructions using

Marta Pola; J. Lucas Cervera; Terrence M. Gosliner

2007-01-01

155

Annotated type catalogue of the Amphibulimidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Orthalicoidea) in the Natural History Museum, London  

PubMed Central

Abstract The type status is described of 39 taxa classified within the family Amphibulimidae (superfamily Orthalicoidea) and kept in the London museum. One taxon, Bulimus elaeodes Pfeiffer, 1853, is removed to the Strophocheilidae. Lectotypes are designated for Bulimus adoptus Reeve, 1849; Bulimus (Eurytus) eros Angas, 1878; Helix onca d'Orbigny, 1835; Amphibulima pardalina Guppy, 1868. The type status of the following taxon is changed to lectotype in accordance with Art. 74.6 ICZN: Strophocheilus (Dryptus) jubeus Fulton, 1908. As general introduction to this and following papers on Orthalicoid types in the Natural History Museum, a brief history of the London collection is given and several examples of handwriting from different authors are presented.

Breure, Abraham S.H.; Ablett, Jonathan D.

2011-01-01

156

Life history of the bathyal octopus Pteroctopus tetracirrhus (Mollusca, Cephalopoda) in the Mediterranean Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The life cycle of the deep-sea octopus Pteroctopus tetracirrhus was studied from monthly samples obtained throughout the year in different areas of the western Mediterranean (mainly around the Balearic Islands and along the coast of the Iberian Peninsula). A total of 373 individuals (205 females, 168 males) were analyzed; females ranged from 4.5 to 14.0 cm mantle length (ML) and males from 4.5 to 11.5 cm ML. There were few small-sized octopuses (<7 cm ML) in the samples, which might indicate that these individuals inhabit rocky grounds that are not accessible to trawlers or waters deeper than the maximum depth sampled (800 m). The species occurred more frequently around the Balearic Islands than along the Iberian Peninsula as they appeared in 20% and 7%, respectively, of the hauls in these areas. The octopus inhabits the lower continental shelf and upper slope in both areas, primarily between 200 and 500 m depth. Modal lengths were followed from autumn, when recruits were caught by trawlers, to summer, when reproduction took place. Females grew from 8 to 10 cm ML from winter to spring, but this modal size did not increase further in summer; males grew from 7 to 9 cm ML from winter to spring. The total disappearance of large individuals after summer suggests a life cycle lasting a single year. The evolution of the monthly mean sizes showed that the growth was best described by log-linear functions in both sexes. The length at first maturity was clearly higher in females (12 cm ML) than in males (8 cm ML). A total of 30 different prey items, belonging to four major taxonomic groups (crustaceans, osteichthyes, cephalopods and gastropods), were identified in the stomach contents. The diet of the octopus was based on crustaceans and teleosts, which accounted for 75% and 23% of the prey items, respectively. Cephalopods and gastropods were accessory prey as they only represented 1.6% and 0.7%, respectively, of the total. The octopus showed a marked preference for the benthic fish Symphurus nigrescens and the endobenthic crustacean Alpheus glaber. The bathymetric distribution of P. tetracirrhus coincides with those of these two main prey, which suggests that the distribution of the octopus might be strongly linked to its trophic resources.

Quetglas, Antoni; Ordines, Francesc; González, María; Franco, Ignacio

2009-08-01

157

Dynamics and ecology of an Indo-Pacific conch, Conomurex persicus (Mollusca: Gastropoda) in southeastern Turkey.  

PubMed

Conomurex persicus, one of the tropical conchs, has been introduced to one of the subtropical regions, the northeastern Mediterranean Sea, and invaded sandy bottoms between 1 and 10 m deep. Population dynamics were studied from specimens collected with a standard dredge (60 x 15 cm mouth opening, 0.5 x 0.5 cm eye opening of net). Samples of C persicus were collected monthly along the 5 and 10 m depth contours off Erdemli, Mersin, Turkey, in February and May 2000. Intra-annual density depended on salinity levels, while inter-annual density was correlated with bottom water temperature. Specimens underwent spring emergences and winter burial and sheltering (disappearance). Emergence took place in March when temperatures rose and the disappearance occurred in October-November when temperatures dropped. Adults live at 10 m, juveniles are recruited at a 5 m depth. Recruitment began in April and continued for the next 6 months. In contrast to shell width or shell lip thickness, shell length was not a convenient index for estimation of growth parameters. Annual production and mortality were calculated to be 7.86 g m(-2) and 3.80 g m(-2), respectively, in April-November. PMID:18457181

Mutlu, Erhan; Ergev, Mehmet Betil

2006-03-01

158

Ross Sea Mollusca from the Latitudinal Gradient Program: R/V Italica 2004 Rauschert dredge samples.  

PubMed

Information regarding the molluscs in this dataset is based on the Rauschert dredge samples collected during the Latitudinal Gradient Program (LGP) on board the R/V "Italica" in the Ross Sea (Antarctica) in the austral summer 2004. A total of 18 epibenthic dredge deployments/samplings have been performed at four different locations at depths ranging from 84 to 515m by using a Rauschert dredge with a mesh size of 500?m. In total 8,359 specimens have been collected belonging to a total of 161 species. Considering this dataset in terms of occurrences, it corresponds to 505 discrete distributional records (incidence data). Of these, in order of abundance, 5,965 specimens were Gastropoda (accounting for 113 species), 1,323 were Bivalvia (accounting for 36 species), 949 were Aplacophora (accounting for 7 species), 74 specimens were Scaphopoda (3 species), 38 were Monoplacophora (1 species) and, finally, 10 specimens were Polyplacophora (1 species). This data set represents the first large-scale survey of benthic micro-molluscs for the area and provides important information about the distribution of several species, which have been seldom or never recorded before in the Ross Sea. All vouchers are permanently stored at the Italian National Antarctic Museum (MNA), Section of Genoa, enabling future comparison and crosschecking. This material is also currently under study, from a molecular point of view, by the barcoding project "BAMBi" (PNRA 2010/A1.10). PMID:24146597

Ghiglione, Claudio; Alvaro, Maria Chiara; Griffiths, Huw J; Linse, Katrin; Schiaparelli, Stefano

2013-10-07

159

Melanoides tuberculata (Mollusca: Thiaridae) as an intermediate host of Centrocestus formosanus (Trematoda: Heterophyidae) in Brazil.  

PubMed

Pleurolophocercous cercariae emerged from naturally infected Melanoides tuberculata from Minas Gerais State, Brazil, were used to perform experimental infection of laboratory-reared Poecilia reticulata. Mature metacercariae were obtained from the gills of fishes and force-fed to Mus musculus. The adult parasites which recovered from small intestines of mice were identified as Centrocestus formosanus. This is the first report of M. tuberculata as intermediate host of this heterophyid in Brazil. PMID:21748229

Pinto, Hudson Alves; de Melo, Alan Lane

160

Melanoides tuberculata (Mollusca: Thiaridae) harboring renicolid cercariae (Trematoda: Renicolidae) in Brazil.  

PubMed

Melanoides tuberculata , naturally infected by gymnocephalous cercariae, were found in aquatic collections from Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. After morphological characterization, larvae were used for experimental infection of Poecilia reticulata. Metacercariae were obtained from the liver of these fish, which were also found to be naturally infected in the same locality. The morphology and biology of the developmental stages of trematodes we obtained were characteristic of Renicola sp. This is the first record of renicolid cercariae and metacercariae in Brazil. PMID:22288437

Pinto, H A; Melo, A L

2012-01-30

161

Regulated bradycardia in the pulmonate limpet Siphonaria (Gastropoda: Mollusca) during pollutant exposure: implication for biomarker studies.  

PubMed

Although the cardiac activity of invertebrates is now widely used as a biomarker of marine pollution, few studies consider the intrinsic factors causing the variability of heart rate (HR), including the physiological states associated with metabolic depression and behavioural isolation. We examined the cardiac responses to copper exposure of a pulmonate limpet (Siphonaria capensis Quoy and Gaimard), known to adaptively depress heart rate (and metabolic rate) under naturally stressful conditions (hyposalinity). Analysis of variance was used to assess the effects of copper concentration (0-1000 microg/L), exposure time (0-2 h), and individual difference (eight limpets per concentration) on heart rate parameters. Minute by minute heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV), and bradycardia (< or =10 beats/min) were determined from continuous recording traces. Most of the HR variance was attributable to the interaction of concentration and individuals (35.8%). Considerably lower mean HRs for the higher range of copper concentrations (250 to 1000 microg/L), compared to the lower range (0 to 50 microg/L), were attributable to the virtually exclusive induction of bradycardia in the higher concentration treatments. With increasing concentration, bradycardia was induced sooner and became less interspersed with near normal heart rates (i.e., less episodic). This regulated bradycardial response is apparently associated with isolation (avoidance) behaviour rather than with copper uptake. These findings have implications for biomarker exercises which use heart rate, in cases where invertebrates depress metabolism. PMID:15556386

Marshall, David J; Peter, Ryan; Chown, Steven L

2004-11-01

162

Molecular phylogeny of pearl oysters and their relatives (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Pterioidea)  

PubMed Central

Background The superfamily Pterioidea is a morphologically and ecologically diverse lineage of epifaunal marine bivalves distributed throughout the tropical and subtropical continental shelf regions. This group includes commercially important pearl culture species and model organisms used for medical studies of biomineralization. Recent morphological treatment of selected pterioideans and molecular phylogenetic analyses of higher-level relationships in Bivalvia have challenged the traditional view that pterioidean families are monophyletic. This issue is examined here in light of molecular data sets composed of DNA sequences for nuclear and mitochondrial loci, and a published character data set of anatomical and shell morphological characters. Results The present study is the first comprehensive species-level analysis of the Pterioidea to produce a well-resolved, robust phylogenetic hypothesis for nearly all extant taxa. The data were analyzed for potential biases due to taxon and character sampling, and idiosyncracies of different molecular evolutionary processes. The congruence and contribution of different partitions were quantified, and the sensitivity of clade stability to alignment parameters was explored. Conclusions Four primary conclusions were reached: (1) the results strongly supported the monophyly of the Pterioidea; (2) none of the previously defined families (except for the monotypic Pulvinitidae) were monophyletic; (3) the arrangement of the genera was novel and unanticipated, however strongly supported and robust to changes in alignment parameters; and (4) optimizing key morphological characters onto topologies derived from the analysis of molecular data revealed many instances of homoplasy and uncovered synapomorphies for major nodes. Additionally, a complete species-level sampling of the genus Pinctada provided further insights into the on-going controversy regarding the taxonomic identity of major pearl culture species.

2010-01-01

163

Terpene-based selective herbivory by Helix aspersa (Mollusca) on Thymus vulgaris (Labiatae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In natural populations of Thymus vulgaris in the south of France, six genetically different chemical “chemotypes” occur, each differentiated by a single dominant monoterpene that gives individual plants a characteristic smell and taste. Individual populations may contain all six chemotypes, but are often dominated by one to three chemotypes. We tested the hypothesis that this chemical polymorphism was associated with

Yan. B. Linhart; John D. Thompson

1995-01-01

164

Body condition and gametogenic cycle of Galatea paradoxa (Mollusca: Bivalvia) in the Volta River estuary, Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reproductive cycle of Galatea paradoxa which is the basis for an artisanal fishery in the Volta River estuary, Ghana, was studied using condition indices and histological methods from March 2008 to July 2009. The cycle is annual with a single spawning event between June and October. Gametogenesis starts in November progressing steadily to a peak in June-July when spawning

D. Adjei-Boateng; J. G. Wilson

165

Rapid colonization of Belgian breakwaters by the direct developer, Littorina saxatilis (Olivi) (Prosobranchia, Mollusca)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Belgian coast has no natural rocky sites but a number of man-made constructions are colonized by rocky shore organisms. The rough periwinkle, Littorina saxatilis (Olivi), lacks a planktonic larval stage but is found on most breakwaters along the Belgian coast, a few built as recently as 1986. This indicates a good potential of dispersal along this sandy shallow coast,

Kerstin Johannessonl; Thierry Warmoes

1990-01-01

166

Induction of larval settlement and metamorphosis of Haliotis discus hannai Ino (Gastropoda, Mollusca)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conspecific foot mucus, excessive [K+] and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) showed different metamorphosis-inductive effect on the veliger of Haliotis discus hannai. The inductive effect of excessive [K+] and GABA was developmental stage-dependent and dose-dependent, while that of conspecific foot mucus was only developmental stage-dependent. At 20°C the veliger larvae became competent within 4 days after fertilization. H. discus hannai larvae showed gregarious settlement pattern on the conspecific foot mucus under the conditions of either presence or absence of KCl or GABA. The present studies showed that the effect of conspecific foot mucus on abalone larvae metamorphosis could be dose-independent.

Yang, Yu; Wu, Bao-Ling

1995-03-01

167

Induction of larval settlement and metamorphosis of Haliotis discus hannai Ino (Gastropoda, Mollusca)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conspecific foot mucus, excessive [K+] and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) showed different metamorphosis-inductive effect on the veliger ofHaliotis discus hannai. The inductive effect of excessive [K+] and GABA was developmental stage-dependent and dose-dependent, while that of conspecific foot mucus was only developmental\\u000a stage-dependent. At 20°C the veliger larvae became competent within 4 days after fertilization.H. discus hannai larvae showed gregarious settlement

Yu Yang; Bao-Ling Wu

1995-01-01

168

Development of 10 microsatellite loci in the pulmonate snail Biomphalaria kuhniana (Mollusca, Gastropoda)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We characterized 10 variable microsatellite loci in the freshwater snail Biomphalaria kuhniana, as well as conditions for multiplexing and co-loading sets of loci. Two to five alleles were detected per locus over the two studied populations in Venezuela. High inbreeding coefficients suggest high selfing rates. Cross-species amplification provided some variability at eight and three loci in the other species belonging

VIRGINIE DUPUY; ANTOINE NICOT; PHILIPPE JARNE; PATRICE DAVID

2009-01-01

169

Lacuna vincta (Mollusca, Neotaenioglossa) herbivory on juvenile and adult Nereocystis luetkeana (Heterokontophyta, Laminariales)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herbivory can be an important factor structuring coastal algal communities. Herbivores may preferentially graze particular\\u000a algal species or tissue types. Mesograzers, despite their small size, can critically weaken kelp thalli and impact entire\\u000a kelp beds. We propose that when kelp beds are composed of several kelp cohorts, mesograzers will selectively choose to inhabit\\u000a younger plants and grazing activities will have

Heloise Chenelot; Brenda Konar

2007-01-01

170

Sinanodonta Woodiana (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Unionidae): Isolation and Characterization of the First Microsatellite Markers  

PubMed Central

Sinanodonta woodiana (Lea, 1834) is a large Unionid species with a real invasion success. It colonized Europe, Central America, the Indonesian Islands and recently North America. The species life cycle involves a larval parasitic stage on freshwater fish species which contributes to the spread of the mussel. In this paper we describe, for the first time, eight polymorphic microsatellite loci for the species Sinanodonta woodiana. The genetic screening of individuals confirmed that all loci were highly polymorphic. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 7 to 14 and the observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.650 to 0.950. These loci should prove useful to study the species population genetics which could help to infer important aspects of the invasion process.

Popa, Oana Paula; Popa, Luis Ovidiu; Krapal, Ana-Maria; Murariu, Dumitru; Iorgu, Elena Iulia; Costache, Marieta

2011-01-01

171

Evolutionary relationships of deep-sea vent and cold seep clams (Mollusca: Vesicomyidae) of the \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vesicomyid clams are among the dominant invertebrates of chemosynthesis-based communities found at deep-sea cold seeps and hydrothermal vents, yet there is considerable taxonomic confusion within the family Vesicomyidae. The present study examined phylogenetic relationships among vesicomyid clams belonging to a cryptic-species complex that includes Vesicomya (previously Calyptogena) pacifica (Dall, 1891) and Vesicomya lepta (Dall, 1896). Mitochondrial (mt) COI sequences from

S. K. Goffredi; L. Hurtado; S. Hallam; R. Vrijenhoek

2003-01-01

172

Pseudoglessula Libera, a new Subulinid land snail from Guinea, West Africa (Mollusca, Gastropoda Pulmonata)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study of some land snails collected in Guinea, West Africa, by Ms. Diane deVry has led to the description of a new species, Pseudoglessula libera. It is currently known only from several localities near Conakry, but probably has a wide distribution. Detailed comparisons with previously described taxa unfortunately were not possible. Many early descriptions are very brief and most available

A. Solem; Bruggen van A. C

1976-01-01

173

Molluscicidal activity of some marine substances against the snail Biomphalaria glabrata (Mollusca, Planorbidae).  

PubMed

Freshwater snails of the genus Biomphalaria play a major role as intermediate hosts of Schistosoma mansoni, the etiologic agent of schistosomiasis. While Biomphalaria spp. control by molluscicides is one of the main strategies to reduce the snail population in infected areas, there are few effective molluscicides commercially available. Natural products may be considered as potentially useful and safe molluscicides. We have evaluated the molluscicidal activity of 12 extracts from ten marine organisms on adult and embryonic stages of Biomphalaria glabrata. Only extracts of the red algae Liagora farinosa and of the sponge Amphimedon viridis presented molluscicidal activity. Lethal concentration (LC)(50) values obtained were 120 ?g/mL for L. farinosa CH(2)Cl(2) extract (apolar fraction) and 20 ?g/mL for A. viridis extract and halitoxin. The polar alga fraction and halitoxin had no effect on B. glabrata embryos. The algae apolar fraction was active on B. glabrata in all embryonic development stages, with LC(50) values for blastulae at 42 ?g/mL, gastrulae at 124 ?g/mL, trochophore at 180 ?g/mL, and veliger at 222 ?g/mL. This is the first report of extracts from marine organisms which presented molluscicidal activity. PMID:22205347

Miyasato, P A; Kawano, T; Freitas, J C; Berlinck, R G S; Nakano, E; Tallarico, L F

2011-12-29

174

Genetic sex determination, gender identification and pseudohermaphroditism in the knobbed whelk, Busycon carica (Mollusca: Melongenidae).  

PubMed Central

We report perhaps the first genic-level molecular documentation of a mammalian-like 'X-linked' mode of sex determination in molluscs. From family inheritance data and observed associations between sex-phenotyped adults and genotypes in Busycon carica, we deduce that a polymorphic microsatellite locus (bc2.2) is diploid and usually heterozygous in females, hemizygous in males, and that its alleles are transmitted from mothers to sons and daughters but from fathers to daughters only. We also employ bc2.2 to estimate near-conception sex ratio in whelk embryos, where gender is indeterminable by visual inspection. Statistical corrections are suggested at both family and population levels to accommodate the presence of homozygous bc2.2 females that could otherwise be genetically mistaken for hemizygous males. Knobbed whelks were thought to be sequential hermaphrodites, but our evidence for genetic dioecy supports an earlier hypothesis that whelks are pseudohermaphroditic (falsely appear to switch functional sex when environmental conditions induce changes in sexual phenotype). These findings highlight the distinction between gender in a genetic versus phenotypic sense.

Avise, John C; Power, Alan J; Walker, DeEtte

2004-01-01

175

Spermatozoa and spermatogenesis in the northern quahaug Mercenaria mercenaria (Mollusca, Bivalvia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We studied the ultrastructure of spermatogenesis and spermatozoa in the northern quahaug, the clam Mercenaria mercenaria. Spermatogenetic cells gradually elongate. Mitochondria gradually fuse and increase in size and electron density. During spermatid differentiation, proacrosomal vesicles migrate towards the presumptive anterior pole of the nucleus and eventually form the acrosome. The spermatozoon of M. mercenaria is of a primitive type. It is composed of head, mid-piece, and tail. The acrosome shows a subacrosomal space with a short conical contour. The slightly curved nucleus of the spermatozoon contains fine-grained dense chromatin. The middle piece consists of a centriolar complex which is surrounded by four mitochondria. The flagellum has a standard “9 + 2” microtubular structure. The ultrastructure of spermatozoa and spermatogenesis of M. mercenaria shares a number of features with other species of the family Veneridae. M. mercenaria may be a suitable model species for further investigations into the mechanisms of spermatogenesis in the Bivalvia.

Ying, Xue-Ping; Yang, Wan-Xi; Dahms, Hans-U.; Lin, Zhihua; Chai, Xueliang

2008-12-01

176

Structure and position of bacterial endosymbionts in the gill filaments of lucinidae from bermuda (Mollusca, Bivalvia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gills of four lucinid bivalves from fine sediments in shallow reaches of Bermuda, Anodontia philippiana, Lucina multilineata, L. radians, and L. costata, were observed by electron microscope. They harbour intracellular bacterial endosymbionts similar to those in gills of clams from hydrothermal vents and other ‘sulphide biotopes’. The bacteria-containing bacteriocytes are found in distinct positions in the gill filaments, alternating

Olav Giere

1985-01-01

177

Bacterial communities associated with the wood-feeding gastropod Pectinodonta sp. (Patellogastropoda, Mollusca).  

PubMed

Even though their occurrence was reported a long time ago, sunken wood ecosystems at the deep-sea floor have only recently received specific attention. Accumulations of wood fragments in the deep sea create niches for a diverse fauna, but the significance of the wood itself as a food source remains to be evaluated. Pectinodonta sp. is a patellogastropod that exclusively occurs on woody substrates, where individuals excavate deep depressions, and is thus a potential candidate for a wood-eating lifestyle. Several approaches were used on Pectinodonta sampled close to Tongoa island (Vanuatu) to investigate its dietary habits. Host carbon is most likely derived from the wood material based on stable isotopes analyses, and high cellulase activity was measured in the digestive mass. Electron microscopy and FISH revealed the occurrence of two distinct and dense bacterial communities, in the digestive gland and on the gill. Gland-associated 16S rRNA gene bacterial phylotypes, confirmed by in situ hybridization, included members of three divisions (Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes), and were moderately related (90-96% sequence identity) to polymer-degrading and denitrifying bacteria. Gill-associated phylotypes included representatives of the Delta- and Epsilonproteobacteria. The possible involvement of these two bacterial communities in wood utilization by Pectinodonta sp. is discussed. PMID:20831591

Zbinden, Magali; Pailleret, Marie; Ravaux, Juliette; Gaudron, Sylvie M; Hoyoux, Caroline; Lambourdière, Josie; Warén, Anders; Lorion, Julien; Halary, Sébastien; Duperron, Sébastien

2010-09-10

178

Mystery tubes coiled around deep-water tropical gorgonians: fecampiid cocoons (Platyhelminthes: Fecampiida) resembling Solenogastres (Mollusca)  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the examination of a large suite of tropical deep-water molluscs, a number of Solenogastres were found, some of them typically curled around gorgonian stems. A subsequent closer examination of the Solenogastres revealed another type of object also curled around the gor- gonians, which strongly resembled Solenogastres but lacked their external features. These objects proved to be cocoons with egg

Claudia Handl; Philippe Bouchet

2007-01-01

179

Mystery tubes coiled around deep-water tropical gorgonians: fecampiid cocoons (Platyhelminthes: Fecampiida) resembling Solenogastres (Mollusca).  

PubMed

During the examination of a large suite of tropical deep-water molluscs, a number of Solenogastres were found, some of them typically curled around gorgonian stems. A subsequent closer examination of the Solenogastres revealed another type of object also curled around the gorgonians, which strongly resembled Solenogastres but lacked their external features. These objects proved to be cocoons with egg capsules, each containing two eggs or young larvae, typical of the parasitic platyhelminth group Fecampiida. PMID:17143569

Handl, Claudia; Bouchet, Philippe

2006-12-02

180

A new species of hydrobiid snails (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Hydrobiidae) from central Greece  

PubMed Central

Abstract Anew minute valvatiform species belonging to the genus Daphniola Radoman, 1973, Daphniola eptalophos sp. n., from mountain Parnassos, Greece is described. The new species has a transparent valvatiform-planispiral shell, wide and open umbilicus, grey-black pigmented soft body and head and a black penis with a small colorless outgrowth on the left side near its base. A comparative table of shell dimensions and a key to the species known for this endemic genus for Greece are provided.

Radea, Canella

2011-01-01

181

Natural infection of Helix aspersa (Mollusca: Pulmonata) by Dicrocoeliidae (Digenea) larval stages in Izmir, Turkey.  

PubMed

In this study, the prevalence of larval stages of Dicrocoeliidae in the garden snail Helix aspersa Müller, 1774 commonly found in the vicinity of Izmir, Turkey was investigated and some of its histological and morphological features were determined. The molluscs were collected during the spring of 2005. As the result of the investigation, a land snail species, H. aspersa, was found to be an intermediate host in the life cycle of Dicrocoeliidae and it had a prevalence of 0.97 % in the study area. In the present study, H. aspersa has been reported for the first time as an intermediate host of Dicrocoeliid species. The prevalence of infection was highest in March. PMID:17594660

Gürelli, Gözde; Göçmen, Bayram

2007-01-01

182

Natural Infection of Helix aspersa (Mollusca: Pulmonata) by Dicrocoeliidae (Digenea) Larval Stages in Izmir, Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY: In this study, the prevalence of larval stages of Dicrocoeliidae in the garden snail Helix aspersa Müller, 1774 commonly found in the vicinity of Izmir, Turkey was investigated and some of its histological and morphological features were determined. The molluscs were collected during the spring of 2005. As the result of the investigation, a land snail species, H. aspersa,

Bayram GÖÇMEN

183

Nickel defends the South African hyperaccumulator Senecio coronatus (Asteraceae) against Helix aspersa (Mollusca: Pulmonidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. The elevated Ni concentration of Ni hyper- accumulator plants has been proposed to be an effec- tive chemical defence against herbivores. To test this hypothesis, we fed leaves from hyperaccumulator and non-hyperaccumulator populations of South African Senecio coronatus to a generalist herbivore species, the brown garden snail (Helix aspersa). Snails fed hyperac- cumulator leaves experienced significantly greater mor- tality

Robert S. Boyd; Micheal A. Davis; Michael A. Wall; Kevin Balkwill

2002-01-01

184

(Keywords: agricultural pests, aquatic weeds, biodiversity, biological control, endangered species, Gastropoda, Mollusca, schistosomiasis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of snails as biocontrol agents against other snails and against aquatic weeds is reviewed, evaluating their success and their impacts on non-target organisms. The predatory snail Euglandina rosea (and other species), although widely used against Achatina fulica (the giant African land snail) on Pacific and Indian Ocean islands, has not been shown to control A. fulica but has

ROBERT H. COWIE

185

What explains the invading success of the aquatic mud snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Hydrobiidae, Mollusca)?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spread of non-native species is one of the most harmful and least reversible disturbances in ecosystems. Species have\\u000a to overcome several filters to become a pest (transport, establishment, spread and impact). Few studies have checked the traits\\u000a that confer ability to overcome these steps in the same species. The aim of the present study is to review the available

A. Alonso; P. Castro-Díez

2008-01-01

186

An ultrastructural analysis of early fertilization events in the giant scallop, Placopecten magellanicus (Mollusca, Pelecypoda)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the ultrastuctural events occurring during early fertilization in the giant scallop, Placopecten magellanicus. The unfertilized oocytes had not completed their meiotic maturation and were blocked at the metaphase I stage. At fertilization, there was a local loss of microvilli, and a fertilization cone of 6 ?m in length by 4 ?m in diameter was produced. As the spermatozoon

JEAN DÉSILETS; CLAUDE GICQUAUD; FRANÇOIS DUBÉ

1995-01-01

187

Lipoproteins of the egg perivitelline fluid of Pomacea canaliculata snails (Mollusca: Gastropoda).  

PubMed

The lipid and protein composition of the perivitelline fluid of the eggs of Pomacea canaliculata was investigated. Two lipoproteins (PV 1 and PV 2) and one lipoprotein fraction (PV 3) were detected for the first time in gastropods. They represent 57.0, 7.5, and 35.5% of the egg total proteins, respectively. PV 1 is a glyco-carotene-protein complex with characteristics of a very high-density lipoprotein (VHDL). It has 0.33% lipids, mainly free sterols and phospholipids. The particle has a MW of 300 Kd and is composed of three subunits of 35, 32, and 28 Kd, respectively. PV 2 particle is a VHDL of 400 Kd and 3.75% lipids. The major lipid classes are free sterols and phospholipids and also have significant quantities of energy-providing triacylglycerides and free fatty acids. It is composed of two apoproteins of 67 and 31 Kd. PV 3 density corresponds to a high-density lipoprotein (HDL). It was fractionated into two subfractions "h" and "p". Fraction "h" contains 5.16% lipids, mainly free sterols, phospholipids, and free fatty acids, and two particles of 100 and 64 Kd. Dissociating electrophoresis showed two subunits of 34 and 29 Kd. Fraction "p" is composed of a single particle of 26 Kd that contains 9.5% lipids, which represents 30% of the total egg lipids. It has high levels of a carotenoid pigment. Besides it contains free fatty acids, hydrocarbons, sterified sterols, and triacylglycerides. These three fractions are probably the major supply of lipids and amino acids for the developing embryo. PMID:8972583

Garin, C F; Heras, H; Pollero, R J

1996-12-01

188

Chromosomal studies on two Egyptian freshwater snails, Cleopatra and Bithynia (Mollusca-Prosobranchiata)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study deals with the karyotype of Cleopatra bulimoides and a Bithynia spp., both belonging to class Gastropoda and subclass Prosobranchia but to two different families, namely Thiaridae and Bithyniidae.The observed diploid chromosome number for Cleopatra was 2n=28, and for Bithynia 2n= 32. The mitotic chromosomes of Cleopatra consisted of four metacentric pairs, eight submetacentric pairs and two telocentric pairs

Amany A. Tohamy; Shaimaa M. Mohamed

189

Body condition and gametogenic cycle of Galatea paradoxa (Mollusca: Bivalvia) in the Volta River estuary, Ghana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The reproductive cycle of Galatea paradoxa which is the basis for an artisanal fishery in the Volta River estuary, Ghana, was studied using condition indices and histological methods from March 2008 to July 2009. The cycle is annual with a single spawning event between June and October. Gametogenesis starts in November progressing steadily to a peak in June-July when spawning begins until October when the animal is spent. The condition indices (shell-free wet weight/total wet weight, ash-free dry weight/shell weight and gonad wet weight/shell weight) showed a clear relationship with the gametogenic stage rising from a minimum at stage (I) start of gametogenesis, to their highest values at stages (IIIA) ripe and (IIIB) start of spawning before declining significantly to stage (IV) spent.It is suggested that condition index may prove a valuable technique in fishery management to recognise the reproductive stages of G. paradoxa as it is less expensive and time consuming than histological techniques in addition to being easier to teach to non-specialists. The data presented in this study provide information on the timing of spawning events for G. paradoxa, which is necessary for developing sustainable management strategies and selection of broodstock for aquaculture.

Adjei-Boateng, D.; Wilson, J. G.

2013-11-01

190

European Lymnaeidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda), intermediate hosts of trematodiases, based on nuclear ribosomal DNA ITS-2 sequences.  

PubMed

Freshwater snails of the family Lymnaeidae are of a great parasitological importance because of the very numerous helminth species they transmit, mainly trematodiases of large medical and veterinary impact. The present knowledge on the genetics of lymnaeids and on their parasite-host inter-relationships is far from being sufficient. The family is immersed in a systematic-taxonomic confusion. The necessity for a tool which enables species distinction and population characterization is evident. This paper aims to review the European Lymnaeidae basing on the second internal transcribed spacer ITS-2 of the nuclear ribosomal DNA. The ITS-2 sequences of 66 populations of 13 European and 1 North American lymnaeid species, including the five generic (or subgeneric) taxa Lymnaea sensu stricto, Stagnicola, Omphiscola, Radix and Galba, have been obtained. The ITS-2 proves to be a useful marker for resolving supraspecific, specific and population relationships in Lymnaeidae. Three different groupings according to their ITS-2 length could be distinguished: Radix and Galba may be considered the oldest taxa (370-406 bp lengths), and Lymnaea s. str., European Stagnicola and Omphiscola (468-491 bp lengths) the most recent, American Stagnicola and Hinkleyia being intermediate (434-450 bp lengths). This hypothesis agrees with the phylogeny of lymnaeids based on palaeontological data, chromosome numbers and radular dentition. ITS-2 sequences present a conserved central region flanked by two variable lateral regions corresponding to the 5' and 3' ends. The number of repeats of two microsatellites found in this conserved central region allows to differentiate Radix from all other lymnaeids. Phylogenetic trees showed four clades: (A) Lymnaea s. str., European Stagnicola and Omphiscola; (B) Radix species; (C) Galba truncatula; and (D) North American stagnicolines. ITS-2 results suggest that retaining Stagnicola as a subgenus of Lymnaea may be the most appropriate and that genus status for Omphiscola is justified. Radix shows a complexity suggesting different evolutionary lines, whereas G. truncatula appears to be very homogeneous. North American and European stagnicolines do not belong to the same supraspecific taxon; the genus Hinkleyia may be used for the American stagnicolines. Genetic distances and sequence differences allowed us to distinguish the upper limit to be expected within a single species and to how different sister species may be. S. palustris, S. fuscus and S. corvus proved to be valid species, but S. turricula may not be considered a species independent from S. palustris. Marked nucleotide divergences and genetic distances detected between different S. fuscus populations may be interpreted as a process of geographic differentiation developping in the present. Among Radix, six valid species could be distinguished: R. auricularia, R. ampla, R. peregra (=R. ovata;=R. balthica), R. labiata, R. lagotis and Radix sp. The information which the ITS-2 marker furnishes is of applied interest concerning the molluscan host specificity of the different trematode species. The phylogenetic trees inferred from the ITS-2 sequences are able to differentiate between lymnaeids transmitting and those non-transmitting fasciolids, as well as between those transmitting F. hepatica and those transmitting F. gigantica. The Fasciola specificity is linked to the two oldest genera which moreover cluster together in the phylogenetic trees, suggesting an origin of the Fasciola ancestors related to the origin of this branch. European Trichobilharzia species causing human dermatitis are transmitted only by lymnaeids of the Radix and Lymnaea s. str.-Stagnicola groups. Results suggest the convenience of reinvestigating compatibility differences after accurate lymnaeid species classification by ITS-2 sequencing. Similarly, ITS-2 sequencing would allow a step forward in the appropriate rearrangement of the actual systematic confusion among echinostomatids. PMID:12798024

Bargues, M D; Vigo, M; Horak, P; Dvorak, J; Patzner, R A; Pointier, J P; Jackiewicz, M; Meier-Brook, C; Mas-Coma, S

2001-12-01

191

[Predation of Lymnaea (Galba) truncatula Müller by Zonitoides nitidus Müller (Mollusca Gastropoda Pulmonata) (author's transl)].  

PubMed

Zonitoides nitidus is omnivorous with carnivorous tendancies: the presence of food coming from snails is required for growth of this predator. This snail is not selective for the choice of its preys. Zonitoides cannot be taken for an absolute predator for all growing periods of Lymnaea truncatula: eggs and large snails are not eaten. This species can be cannibal. PMID:1211765

Rondelaud, D

192

European Lymnaeidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda), intermediate hosts of trematodiases, based on nuclear ribosomal DNA ITS2 sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Freshwater snails of the family Lymnaeidae are of a great parasitological importance because of the very numerous helminth species they transmit, mainly trematodiases of large medical and veterinary impact. The present knowledge on the genetics of lymnaeids and on their parasite–host inter-relationships is far from being sufficient. The family is immersed in a systematic–taxonomic confusion. The necessity for a tool

M. D Bargues; M Vigo; P Horak; J Dvorak; R. A Patzner; J. P Pointier; M Jackiewicz; C Meier-Brook; S Mas-Coma

2001-01-01

193

Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in mollusca species and assessment of potential risks to human health.  

PubMed

Along the Alexandria coast of the Egyptian Mediterranean Sea, five edible species of bivalve molluscs and one gastropoda species (Mactra coralline, Ruditapes decussates, Paphia undulate, Venerupis rhomboids, Crista pectinata and Coralliophila meyendorffi) were analyzed for content of metals (Cadmium, Chromium, Lead, Cobalt and Nickel) in the muscle and in the sediments where they live. The potential health risks of metals to humans via consumption of seafood were assessed by estimated daily intake and target hazard quotient. Significant positive correlations (p < 0.05) were obtained between tissue concentrations for all pairs of metals, with the exception of Cadmium. Significant positive correlations were also obtained for the concentrations of Cd and Ni in tissues of all studied species relative to their concentrations in surface sediments. However, correlations between tissue and sediment concentrations for Chromium, Lead and Cobalt were negative. Ruditapes decussates and C. meyendorffi had the highest values for the summed target hazard quotient and may pose a potential risk to local inhabitants through their consumption in the diet. The potential risk would arise from exposure to high tissue concentrations of Cd and Pb, which exceeded published guidelines for safety of seafood products in some cases. Chromium contributed a considerable fraction of the total target hazard quotient for all metals combined, but did not exceed the published guidelines. Cobalt and Ni did not contribute greatly overall to the target hazard quotient, except in the case of Ni in V. rhomboids. PMID:23377776

Abdallah, Maha Ahmed Mohamed

2013-02-02

194

Expression of thick filament proteins during ontogenesis of the mussel Mytilus trossulus (Mollusca: Bivalvia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The appearance of thick filament proteins organized into supramolecular complexes was studied by SDS-PAGE and Western-blot analysis at different developmental stages of the mussel Mytilus trossulus. Paramyosin appeared at the egg stage, while twitchin and myorod appeared at the blastula stage (12 h after fertilization). In addition, RT-PCR analysis showed that the twitchin genes were expressed starting from the blastula stage.

N. Odintsova; V. Dyachuk; K. Kiselev; N. Shelud'ko

2006-01-01

195

Expression of thick filament proteins during ontogenesis of the mussel Mytilus trossulus (Mollusca: Bivalvia).  

PubMed

The appearance of thick filament proteins organized into supramolecular complexes was studied by SDS-PAGE and Western-blot analysis at different developmental stages of the mussel Mytilus trossulus. Paramyosin appeared at the egg stage, while twitchin and myorod appeared at the blastula stage (12 h after fertilization). In addition, RT-PCR analysis showed that the twitchin genes were expressed starting from the blastula stage. Thus, the proteins forming thick filaments of the contractile apparatus of mussel muscles are expressed long before the formation of the first well-organized muscle system of the veliger larvae (55 h). Further, the ratios actin/myosin heavy chain (MHC) and paramyosin/MHC at the veliger stage (96 h) distinctly differed from those in the adult mussel. PMID:16626989

Odintsova, N; Dyachuk, V; Kiselev, K; Shelud'ko, N

2006-04-19

196

A biomechanical model of rock drilling in the piddock Barnea candida (Bivalvia; Mollusca).  

PubMed

The bivalve Barnea candida (Pholadacea) makes its burrow in clay, soft rock and peat. Barnea has developed a number of adaptations to accommodate this lifestyle. Four muscles enable burrowing. These are situated around a dorsal pivot in such a way that the piddock is able to rotate the shells around two approximate orthogonal axes. The anterior adductor muscle anterior (AAM-A) and the posterior adductor muscle rotate the shells around a dorso-ventral axis; the anterior adductor muscle posterior (AAM-P) and the ventral adductor muscle rotate the shells around an antero-posterior axis. The AAM-A and the AAM-P have evolved from a single anterior adductor muscle and are attached to a piece of the shell that is folded inside out, the umbonal reflection. At the dorsal side of the piddock, the shell margins are reduced. This prevents collision of these margins during movement. Electrical stimulation experiments revealed that the opening of the antero-ventral side of the piddock is faster than its closure. These results were incorporated into a computer model that could simulate shell movements. The computer model allowed predictions about the shapes of burrows and scrape marks. As in Nature, simulated burrows had a long droplet shape with straight scrape marks. PMID:22696480

Nederlof, Ralf; Muller, Mees

2012-06-13

197

Feeding behavior and growth of Hermissenda crassicornis (mollusca: Nudibranchia) in the laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feeding behavior and growth of the nudibranch mollusc Hermissenda crassicomis, a gener?alist carnivore, has been studied; this species is widely used as a biomedical and neurobiological model. Relative to the stalks, polyps of the hydroid prey, Tubularia crocea, were preferentially consumed by adults of H. crassicomis at a fast rate. Starved slugs did not distinguish between reproductive and unreproductive

C. Avila; E. Tyndale; A. M. Kuzirian

1998-01-01

198

Biodiversity among luminescent symbionts from squid of the genera Uroteuthis, Loliolus and Euprymna (Mollusca: Cephalopoda)  

PubMed Central

Luminescent bacteria in the family Vibrionaceae (Bacteria: ?-Proteobacteria) are commonly found in complex, bilobed light organs of sepiolid and loliginid squids. Although morphology of these organs in both families of squid is similar, the species of bacteria that inhabit each host has yet to be verified. We utilized sequences of 16S ribosomal RNA, luciferase ?-subunit (luxA) and the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gapA) genes to determine phylogenetic relationships between 63 strains of Vibrio bacteria, which included representatives from different environments as well as unidentified luminescent isolates from loliginid and sepiolid squid from Thailand. A combined phylogenetic analysis was used including biochemical data such as carbon use, growth and luminescence. Results demonstrated that certain symbiotic Thai isolates found in the same geographic area were included in a clade containing bacterial species phenotypically suitable to colonize light organs. Moreover, multiple strains isolated from a single squid host were identified as more than one bacteria species in our phylogeny. This research presents evidence of species of luminescent bacteria that have not been previously described as symbiotic strains colonizing light organs of Indo-West Pacific loliginid and sepiolid squids, and supports the hypothesis of a non-species-specific association between certain sepiolid and loliginid squids and marine luminescent bacteria.

Guerrero-Ferreira, R. C.; Nishiguchi, M. K.

2012-01-01

199

Phylogeny and Historical Biogeography of the Loliginid Squids (Mollusca: Cephalopoda) Based on Mitochondrial DNA Sequence Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cephalopod taxon Loliginidae (Cephalopoda: Myopsida) is a species-rich group of tropical and temperate shallow-water squids, many of which are commercial fisheries objects and neurophysiological research organisms. The worldwide distribution of these squids could make Loliginidae a useful case study in shallow-water marine biogeography, but the phylogeny of the group is unknown. To clarify loliginid phylogeny, regions of two mitochondrial

Frank E. Anderson

2000-01-01

200

Phylogeny and historical biogeography of the loliginid squids (Mollusca: cephalopoda) based on mitochondrial DNA sequence data.  

PubMed

The cephalopod taxon Loliginidae (Cephalopoda: Myopsida) is a species-rich group of tropical and temperate shallow-water squids, many of which are commercial fisheries objects and neurophysiological research organisms. The worldwide distribution of these squids could make Loliginidae a useful case study in shallow-water marine biogeography, but the phylogeny of the group is unknown. To clarify loliginid phylogeny, regions of two mitochondrial genes (the 16S rRNA and the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I genes) were sequenced for members of 19 loliginid species and several outgroups. Maximum-parsimony and maximum-likelihood analyses were performed on a combined data set, as well as on each data set individually. Analyses of the combined data support loliginid monophyly and reveal four clades-one consisting primarily of species in American waters from two genera, one composed of 3 east Atlantic species, one consisting of the bioluminescent loliginids (Uroteuthis sensu Vecchione et al., 1998) plus Loliolus japonica, and one represented by a Loligo (Alloteuthis) subulata-Lolliguncula mercatoris pair. The likelihood of the unconstrained maximum-likelihood tree is not significantly better than the likelihoods of the best trees constrained to Sepioteuthis monophyly or Uroteuthis monophyly, but there is significant support for Lolliguncula polyphyly. Tests of alternative hypotheses of loliginid cladogenesis suggest that cladogenesis within Loliginidae is correlated with the widening of the Atlantic and the closure of the Tethys Sea, although dispersal from the Indo-West Pacific is a reasonable explanation for the origin of the clade of American loliginines. PMID:10837151

Anderson, F E

2000-05-01

201

Distribution of Lymnaeidae (Mollusca: Pulmonata), intermediate snail hosts of Fasciola hepatica in Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

An extensive malacological survey was carried out between 2005-2009 in order to clarify the exact number of lymnaeid species which may be intermediate hosts of Fasciola hepatica in Venezuela. Four species were discovered during this survey, including two local species: Lymnaea cubensis and Lymnaea cousini and two exotic species: Lymnaea truncatula and Lymnaea columella. The most common local species was

JP Pointier; O Noya; B Alarcón de Noya; A Théron

2009-01-01

202

Isolation and identification of enkephalins in pedal ganglia of Mytilus edulis (Mollusca).  

PubMed Central

An acid extract of pedal ganglia of the mollusc Mytilus edulis was fractionated by high-pressure liquid chromatography with a reverse-phase column. Peak fractions with retention times of those of [Met]- and [Leu]enkephalin were subjected to binding assays in both invertebrate and vertebrate tissues. The results showed that these fractions have the same binding activities as authentic enkephalins. Peptides from these fractions were purified by high-pressure liquid chromatography under isocratic conditions. Sequential amino acid analyses showed that these peptides have the same primary structures as [Met]- and [Leu]enkephalin. These results with M. edulis suggest that invertebrates possess an enkephalinergic system similar to that of higher organisms.

Leung, M K; Stefano, G B

1984-01-01

203

Use of axonal projection patterns for the homologisation of cerebral nerves in Opisthobranchia, Mollusca and Gastropoda  

PubMed Central

Introduction Gastropoda are guided by several sensory organs in the head region, referred to as cephalic sensory organs (CSOs). These CSOs are innervated by distinct nerves. This study proposes a unified terminology for the cerebral nerves and the categories of CSOs and then investigates the neuroanatomy and cellular innervation patterns of these cerebral nerves, in order to homologise them. The homologisation of the cerebral nerves in conjunction with other data, e.g. ontogenetic development or functional morphology, may then provide insights into the homology of the CSOs themselves. Results Nickel-lysine axonal tracing (“backfilling”) was used to stain the somata projecting into specific nerves in representatives of opisthobranch Gastropoda. Tracing patterns revealed the occurrence, size and relative position of somata and their axons and enabled these somata to be mapped to specific cell clusters. Assignment of cells to clusters followed a conservative approach based primarily on relative location of the cells. Each of the four investigated cerebral nerves could be uniquely identified due to a characteristic set of soma clusters projecting into the respective nerves via their axonal pathways. Conclusions As the described tracing patterns are highly conserved morphological characters, they can be used to homologise nerves within the investigated group of gastropods. The combination of adequate number of replicates and a comparative approach allows us to provide preliminary hypotheses on homologies for the cerebral nerves. Based on the hypotheses regarding cerebral nerve homology together with further data on ultrastructure and immunohistochemistry of CSOs published elsewhere, we can propose preliminary hypotheses regarding homology for the CSOs of the Opisthobranchia themselves.

2013-01-01

204

Quantification of midkine gene expression in Patella caerulea (Mollusca, Gastropoda) exposed to cadmium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The release of cadmium into many coastal areas represents a threat to ecosystems and human health; cadmium is carcinogenic in mammals and in both marine invertebrates and vertebrates. The use of molluscs to assess the ecologic risk associated with contaminants is strongly recommended on account of their ecological role and on their highly conserved control and regulatory pathways that are often homologous to vertebrate systems. We previously identified a midkine family protein in the limpet Patella caerulea; the midkine is a recently discovered cytokines family with unequivocal informative value on repairing injury and neoplastic processes in mammals. Here we report on midkine (mdk) and ?-tubulin (?-tub) gene expression patterns in P. caerulea exposed to cadmium. Limpets, collected on two occasions from a breakwater at a marina (Tyrrhenian Sea) were exposed to sublethal cadmium concentrations (0.5 and 1 mg l-1 Cd) over a 10-day exposure period. RNA was extracted from the viscera of unexposed and exposed specimens. Real time TaqMan RT-PCR was performed to measure the relative mdk and ?-tub gene expression levels. A remarkable mdk over-expression was observed in all exposed animals with respect to unexposed ones; mdk over-expression was significantly higher in both treatments when compared with un-treatment (mean expression levels: 23- and 38-fold, for 0.5 and 1 mg l-1 Cd treatment, respectively; ANOVA, for both P < 0.01). The study also indicates that the mdk up-regulation was significantly Cd-concentration dependent (P < 0.05). A significant up-regulation of the constitutive ?-tub gene was also observed in 1 mg l-1 Cd-treated animals (mean expression level: 4-fold; ANOVA, P < 0.05). In conclusion, these data provide the first evidence paving the way for the use of the midkine as a promising new biomarker of effect in the environment risk assessment policy.

Stillitano, Francesca; Mugelli, Alessandro; Cerbai, Elisabetta; Vanucci, Silvana

2007-10-01

205

Fundamentals of Paleontology. Volume V. Mollusca - Cephalopoda i Nautiloidea, Endoceratoidea, Actinoceratoidea, Bactritoidea, Ammonoidea (Agnoiatitida, Goniatitida, Clymeniida).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Cephalopoda are described in two volumes in the series 'Fundamentals of Paleontology.' The present volume covers a large part of the subclass Ectocochlia, namely, the groups which were formerly classed together under the name of Nautiloidea (Nautiloidea, ...

Y. A. Orlov V. E. Ruzhentsev

1974-01-01

206

From sea to land and beyond - New insights into the evolution of euthyneuran Gastropoda (Mollusca)  

PubMed Central

Background The Euthyneura are considered to be the most successful and diverse group of Gastropoda. Phylogenetically, they are riven with controversy. Previous morphology-based phylogenetic studies have been greatly hampered by rampant parallelism in morphological characters or by incomplete taxon sampling. Based on sequences of nuclear 18S rRNA and 28S rRNA as well as mitochondrial 16S rRNA and COI DNA from 56 taxa, we reconstructed the phylogeny of Euthyneura utilising Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian inference methods. The evolution of colonization of freshwater and terrestrial habitats by pulmonate Euthyneura, considered crucial in the evolution of this group of Gastropoda, is reconstructed with Bayesian approaches. Results We found several well supported clades within Euthyneura, however, we could not confirm the traditional classification, since Pulmonata are paraphyletic and Opistobranchia are either polyphyletic or paraphyletic with several clades clearly distinguishable. Sacoglossa appear separately from the rest of the Opisthobranchia as sister taxon to basal Pulmonata. Within Pulmonata, Basommatophora are paraphyletic and Hygrophila and Eupulmonata form monophyletic clades. Pyramidelloidea are placed within Euthyneura rendering the Euthyneura paraphyletic. Conclusion Based on the current phylogeny, it can be proposed for the first time that invasion of freshwater by Pulmonata is a unique evolutionary event and has taken place directly from the marine environment via an aquatic pathway. The origin of colonisation of terrestrial habitats is seeded in marginal zones and has probably occurred via estuaries or semi-terrestrial habitats such as mangroves.

2008-01-01

207

New records for the shallow-water chiton fauna (Mollusca, Polyplacophora) of the Azores (NE Atlantic).  

PubMed

Published records, original data from recent field work on all of the islands of the Azores (NE Atlantic), and a revision of the entire mollusc collection deposited in the Department of Biology of the University of the Azores (DBUA) were used to compile a checklist of the shallow-water Polyplacophora of the Azores. Lepidochitona cf. canariensis and Tonicella rubra are reported for the first time for this archipelago, increasing the recorded Azorean fauna to seven species. PMID:23825446

Avila, Sérgio P; Sigwart, Julia

2013-06-24

208

Fine structure and immunocytochemistry of a new chemosensory system in the Chiton larva (Mollusca: Polyplacophora).  

PubMed

Combined electron microscopy and immunocytochemistry of the larvae of several polyplacophoran species (Chiton olivaceus, Lepidochitona aff. corrugata, Mopalia muscosa) revealed a sensory system new to science, a so-called "ampullary system." The cells of the "ampullary system" are arranged in four symmetrically situated pairs lying dorsolaterally and ventrolaterally in the pretrochal part of the trochophore-like larva and they send axons into the cerebral commissure. They are lost at metamorphosis. The fine structure of these cells strongly resembles that of so-called "ampullary cells" known from various sensory organs of other molluscs, such as the apical complex of gastropod and bivalve larvae, osphradia of vetigastropods, and olfactory organs of cephalopods, and nuchal organs of certain polychaetes. The ampullary cells and their nerves are densely stained by anti-FMRF-amide fluorescence dyes, whereas antiserotonin staining is only weak. While cytological homology of the ampullary cells with those of other organs is probable, the ampullary system as a whole is regarded as a synapomorphy of the Polyplacophora or Chitonida. PMID:11748704

Haszprunar, Gerhard; Friedrich, Stefan; Wanninger, Andreas; Ruthensteiner, Bernhard

2002-02-01

209

Comparative Analysis of Chromosome Counts Infers Three Paleopolyploidies in the Mollusca  

PubMed Central

The study of paleopolyploidies requires the comparison of multiple whole genome sequences. If the branches of a phylogeny on which a whole-genome duplication (WGD) occurred could be identified before genome sequencing, taxa could be selected that provided a better assessment of that genome duplication. Here, we describe a likelihood model in which the number of chromosomes in a genome evolves according to a Markov process with one rate of chromosome duplication and loss that is proportional to the number of chromosomes in the genome and another stochastic rate at which every chromosome in the genome could duplicate in a single event. We compare the maximum likelihoods of a model in which the genome duplication rate varies to one in which it is fixed at zero using the Akaike information criterion, to determine if a model with WGDs is a good fit for the data. Once it has been determined that the data does fit the WGD model, we infer the phylogenetic position of paleopolyploidies by calculating the posterior probability that a WGD occurred on each branch of the taxon tree. Here, we apply this model to a molluscan tree represented by 124 taxa and infer three putative WGD events. In the Gastropoda, we identify a single branch within the Hypsogastropoda and one of two branches at the base of the Stylommatophora. We also identify one or two branches near the base of the Cephalopoda.

Hallinan, Nathaniel M.; Lindberg, David R.

2011-01-01

210

Proteomic analysis from the mineralized radular teeth of the giant Pacific chiton, Cryptochiton stelleri (Mollusca).  

PubMed

The biomineralized radular teeth of chitons are known to consist of iron-based magnetic crystals, associated with the maximum hardness and stiffness of any biomineral. Based on our transmission electron microscopy analysis of partially mineralized teeth, we suggest that the organic matrix within the teeth controls the iron oxide nucleation. Thus, we used Nano-LC-MS to perform a proteomic analysis of the organic matrix in radular teeth of the chiton Cryptochiton stelleri in order to identify the proteins involved in the biomineralization process. Since the genome sequence of C. stelleri is not available, cross-species similarity searching and de novo peptide sequencing were used to screen the proteins. Our results indicate that several proteins were dominant in the mineralized part of the radular teeth, amongst which, myoglobin and a highly acidic peptide were identified as possibly involved in the biomineralization process. PMID:22833255

Nemoto, Michiko; Wang, Qianqian; Li, Dongsheng; Pan, Songqin; Matsunaga, Tadashi; Kisailus, David

2012-08-22

211

Fine structure of the mineralized teeth of the chiton Acanthopleura echinata (Mollusca: Polyplacophora).  

PubMed

The major lateral teeth of the chiton Acanthopleura echinata are composite structures composed of three distinct mineral zones: a posterior layer of magnetite; a thin band of lepidocrocite just anterior to this; and apatite throughout the core and anterior regions of the cusp. Biomineralization in these teeth is a matrix-mediated process, in which the minerals are deposited around fibers, with the different biominerals described as occupying architecturally discrete compartments. In this study, a range of scanning electron microscopes was utilized to undertake a detailed in situ investigation of the fine structure of the major lateral teeth. The arrangement of the organic and biomineral components of the tooth is similar throughout the three zones, having no discrete borders between them, and with crystallites of each mineral phase extending into the adjacent mineral zone. Along the posterior surface of the tooth, the organic fibers are arranged in a series of fine parallel lines, but just within the periphery their appearance takes on a "fish scale"-like pattern, reflective of the cross section of a series of units that are overlaid, and offset from each other, in adjacent rows. The units are approximately 2 microm wide and 0.6 microm thick and comprise biomineral plates separated by organic fibers. Two types of subunits make up each "fish scale": one is elongate and curved and forms a trough, in which the other, rod-like unit, is nestled. Adjacent rod and trough units are aligned into large sheets that define the fracture plane of the tooth. The alignment of the plates of rod-trough units is complex and exhibits extreme spatial variation within the tooth cusp. Close to the posterior surface the plates are essentially horizontal and lie in a lateromedial plane, while anteriorly they are almost vertical and lie in the posteroanterior plane. An understanding of the fine structure of the mineralized teeth of chitons, and of the relationship between the organic and mineral components, provides a new insight into biomineralization mechanisms and controls. PMID:15959908

Wealthall, Rosamund J; Brooker, Lesley R; Macey, David J; Griffin, Brendan J

2005-08-01

212

[Polyplacophoran communities (Mollusca: Polyplacophora) at Bahia de La Paz, Baja California Sur, México].  

PubMed

Eight species of polyplacophorans have been reported from La Bahia de la Paz, Baja California Sur, Mexico. We add Lepidochitona beanii, Chaetopleura lurida, Stenoplax limaciformis, S. mariposa, Lepidozona clathrata, L. serrata and Acanthochitona arragonites, increasing the known number of species to 15. Ordination analysis of five chiton communities at the site suggests a correlation of wave exposure to species composition and diversity: communities with intermediate wave exposure have more species (richness) and higher diversity (Shannon's index). PMID:18457125

García Ríos, Cedar I; Alvarez Ruiz, Migdalia

2007-03-01

213

18S ribosomal DNA sequences provide insight into the phylogeny of patellogastropod limpets (Mollusca: Gastropoda).  

PubMed

To investigate the phylogeny of Patellogastropoda, the complete 18S rDNA sequences of nine patellogastropod limpets Cymbula canescens (Gmelin, 1791), Helcion dunkeri (Krauss, 1848), Patella rustica Linnaeus, 1758, Cellana toreuma (Reeve, 1855), Cellana nigrolineata (Reeve, 1854), Nacella magellanica Gmelin, 1791, Nipponacmea concinna (Lischke, 1870), Niveotectura pallida (Gould, 1859), and Lottia dorsuosa Gould, 1859 were determined. These sequences were then analyzed along with the published 18S rDNA sequences of 35 gastropods, one bivalve, and one chiton species. Phylogenetic trees were constructed by maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference. The results of our 18S rDNA sequence analysis strongly support the monophyly of Patellogastropoda and the existence of three subgroups. Of these, two subgroups, the Patelloidea and Acmaeoidea, are closely related, with branching patterns that can be summarized as [(Cymbula + Helcion) + Patella] and [(Nipponacmea + Lottia) + Niveotectura]. The remaining subgroup, Nacelloidea, emerges as basal and paraphyletic, while its genus Cellana is monophyletic. Our analysis also indicates that the Patellogastropoda have a sister relationship with the order Cocculiniformia within the Gastropoda. PMID:17464213

Yoon, Sook Hee; Kim, Won

2007-02-28

214

Biomphalaria straminea (Mollusca: Planorbidae) as an Intermediate Host of Ribeiroia sp. (Trematoda: Psilostomidae) in Brazil.  

PubMed

Abstract : Species of Ribeiroia are trematode parasites of birds and mammals that have acquired notoriety since Ribeiroia ondatrae was identified as a cause of mortality and malformations in North American amphibians. Although species of Ribeiroia have been reported in vertebrate hosts in South America, the snails involved in its transmission remain unknown in Brazil. During malacological studies conducted at Pampulha Reservoir, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, between January 2009 and February 2012, in total 14,264 specimens of Biomphalaria straminea were collected, of which 192 (1.35%) were infected with gymnocephalous cercariae. The larvae were used for experimental infection of laboratory-reared guppies ( Poecilia reticulata ); metacercariae obtained in these fishes were orally administered to domestic ducks (Cairina moschata); and adult parasites were obtained from the proventriculus 10 days after infection. Based on morphological and molecular analyses, the parasite was identified as Ribeiroia sp., a species morphologically similar to R. ondatrae , but distinctly different at the molecular level. This is the first report of larvae of Ribeiroia in Brazil and B. straminea as a new intermediate host for this genus. PMID:23421393

Pinto, H A; Jadin, R C; Orlofske, S A; Johnson, P T J; Melo, A L

2013-02-19

215

Random walk, zonation and the food searching strategy of Terebralia palustris (Mollusca, Potamididae) in Kenya  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terebralia palustris is a common mud-whelk present at a particularly high density in all Indo-West Pacific mangroves. Young snails feed on nothing but mud while larger specimens are able to feed on fallen leaves too. In Kenya (Mida Creek) under the canopy, competition for mangrove leaves can be very high due to the high density of Sesarmidae crabs. On open exposed muddy platforms, no Sesarmidae occur but the leaf density is very low because the leaves are only randomly present as they are deposited and removed twice a day by the tide. However, the snail density is always very high, raising the question as to whether the snails use a special searching strategy to optimize their resource finding rather than a purely random movement. By analyzing the snails' movements on a uniform area at different levels and comparing them with simulated random paths, we could show that the snails' movements are not purely random. The distribution of different size classes of T. palustris in Mida Creek was known to be quite odd: the same simulation approach suggests that the zonation asymmetry could reasonably be due to the stochastic recruitment of juveniles in space and time and maintained by a substantial long-lasting spatial inertia.

Vannini, Marco; Cannicci, Stefano; Mrabu, Elisha; Rorandelli, Rocco; Fratini, Sara

2008-12-01

216

Bacterial endosymbioses in Solemya (Mollusca: Bivalvia)--model systems for studies of symbiont-host adaptation.  

PubMed

Endosymbioses between chemosynthetic bacteria and marine invertebrates are remarkable biological adaptations to life in sulfide-rich environments. In these mutualistic associations, sulfur-oxidizing chemoautotrophic bacteria living directly within host cells both aid in the detoxification of toxic sulfide and fix carbon to support the metabolic needs of the host. Though best described for deep-sea vents and cold seeps, these symbioses are ubiquitous in shallow-water reducing environments. Indeed, considerable insight into sulfur-oxidizing endosymbioses in general comes from detailed studies of shallow-water protobranch clams in the genus Solemya. This review highlights the impressive body of work characterizing bacterial symbiosis in Solemya species, all of which are presumed to harbor endosymbionts. In particular, studies of the coastal Atlantic species Solemya velum and its larger Pacific congener Solemya reidi are the foundation for our understanding of the metabolism and physiology of marine bivalve symbioses, which are now known to occur in five families. Solemya velum, in particular, is an excellent model organism for symbiosis research. This clam can be collected easily from coastal eelgrass beds and maintained in laboratory aquaria for extended periods. In addition, the genome of the S. velum symbiont is currently being sequenced. The integration of genomic data with additional experimental analyses will help reveal the molecular basis of the symbiont-host interaction in Solemya, thereby complementing the wide array of research programs aimed at better understanding the diverse relationships between bacterial and eukaryotic cells. PMID:17028934

Stewart, Frank J; Cavanaugh, Colleen M

2006-10-07

217

Ross Sea Mollusca from the Latitudinal Gradient Program: R/V Italica 2004 Rauschert dredge samples  

PubMed Central

Abstract Information regarding the molluscs in this dataset is based on the Rauschert dredge samples collected during the Latitudinal Gradient Program (LGP) on board the R/V “Italica” in the Ross Sea (Antarctica) in the austral summer 2004. A total of 18 epibenthic dredge deployments/samplings have been performed at four different locations at depths ranging from 84 to 515m by using a Rauschert dredge with a mesh size of 500?m. In total 8,359 specimens have been collected belonging to a total of 161 species. Considering this dataset in terms of occurrences, it corresponds to 505 discrete distributional records (incidence data). Of these, in order of abundance, 5,965 specimens were Gastropoda (accounting for 113 species), 1,323 were Bivalvia (accounting for 36 species), 949 were Aplacophora (accounting for 7 species), 74 specimens were Scaphopoda (3 species), 38 were Monoplacophora (1 species) and, finally, 10 specimens were Polyplacophora (1 species). This data set represents the first large-scale survey of benthic micro-molluscs for the area and provides important information about the distribution of several species, which have been seldom or never recorded before in the Ross Sea. All vouchers are permanently stored at the Italian National Antarctic Museum (MNA), Section of Genoa, enabling future comparison and crosschecking. This material is also currently under study, from a molecular point of view, by the barcoding project “BAMBi” (PNRA 2010/A1.10).

Ghiglione, Claudio; Alvaro, Maria Chiara; Griffiths, Huw J.; Linse, Katrin; Schiaparelli, Stefano

2013-01-01

218

Isolation and characterization of a novel perivitellin from the eggs of Pomacea scalaris (Mollusca, Ampullariidae).  

PubMed

Perivitellins are important components of the perivitelline fluid (PVF) that surrounds gastropod embryos. The glyco-lipo-carotenoprotein ovorubin (OR) from eggs of the snail Pomacea canaliculata has been the most studied to date. Here we report the characterization of scalarin (SC), a glyco-lipo-carotenoprotein from the PVF of P. scalaris. SC was purified by ultracentrifugation and exclusion chromatography. It is the major egg protein, representing 64% of the total soluble protein. The particle has a hydration density of 1.26 g/ml, an apparent molecular mass of 380 kDa and it is an elongated compact protein as estimated by small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). It is composed of three subunits of ca. 35, 28, and 24 kDa noncovalently bonded. SC is highly glycosylated (carbohydrate content 20.1%, by wt.), with a low lipid content (0.7%), being esterified sterols, pigments and polar lipids the most abundant lipid classes. HPTLC and spectrophotometric analysis of the carotenoid fraction revealed the presence of free astaxanthin (ASX; 62.0%), and an unidentified carotenoid (38.0%). The carotenoid-apoprotein interaction was studied by spectrophotometry. Carotenoids do not seem to affect the structural characteristics of the oligomer. However, the carotenoid-protein association protected ASX against oxidation. The cross-reactivity between SC and perivitellins of P. canaliculata was tested using polyclonal antibodies (PAb) against SC, OR, and perivitellin PV2. The PAbs failed to cross-react with any egg proteins of either the same or other species. SC, among other functional similarities with OR, would be an antioxidant carrier, protecting at the same time carotenoids from oxidation in the perivitellin fluid of the egg. PMID:18213678

Ituarte, S; Dreon, M S; Ceolín, M; Heras, H

2008-09-01

219

Mollusca from Preangerian deposits of Mandul Island, northeastern Kalimantan Timur (East Borneo)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper gives the result of work on a collection of molluscs which was made in 1916 by W. H. van Hoist Pellekaan on behalf of the Bataafsche Petroleum Maatschappij, now Shell Internationale Petroleum Maatschappij. A preliminary examination of the fossils was made by K. Martin, also in 1916, his conclusion, based on 22 species, being that their age

C. Beets

1984-01-01

220

Chemical defense and evolutionary trends in biosynthetic capacity among dorid nudibranchs (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.   An evolutionary scenario incorporating recent advances in phylogenetic research begins with an opisthobranch-pulmonate common\\u000a ancestor that was herbivorous and had some diet-derived chemical defense. The Nudibranchia and their closest relatives, the\\u000a Notaspidea, form a lineage the ancestors of which had switched to feeding upon sponges and deriving protection from metabolites\\u000a contained in them. Subsequently there have been repeated shifts

Guido Cimino; Michael T. Ghiselin

1999-01-01

221

Size-differential feeding in Pinna nobilis L. (Mollusca: Bivalvia): Exploitation of detritus, phytoplankton and zooplankton  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The endangered fan shell Pinna nobilis is a large bivalve mollusc (<120 cm shell length) endemic to the Mediterranean that lives one-third buried in soft substrata, generally in shallow coastal waters. We hypothesised that P. nobilis of different sizes would ingest different food sources, because small fan shells will inhale material from closer to the substratum than do large fan shells. We studied stomach contents and faeces of 18 fan shells, 6 small (mean 23.0 cm length), 6 medium-sized (mean 41.5 cm length) and 6 large (mean 62.7 cm length) living in a small area of a low-energy coastal detritic bottom characterised by mud, sand and macroalgae at Mali Ston Bay, Croatia. We found that all P. nobilis ingested copious quantities of undetermined detritus (probably at least 95% of ingested material), phytoplankton, micro and mesozooplankton and pollen grains. Large P. nobilis stomach contents showed a preponderance of water column calanoid copepods, while small fan shells had higher numbers of bivalve larvae. All fan shells took in high numbers of harpacticoid copepods that are benthonic, feeding on microbial communities of detritus and benthic vegetation. There was also a significant selection of phytoplankton species, some apparently occurring between inhalation and ingestion. The stomach contents of small P. nobilis had a higher organic matter content than either medium-sized or large fan shells; this indicated that small fan shells ingested detritus of higher organic content than did larger P. nobilis. As the faeces of all P. nobilis had similar organic matter content, this also indicates higher assimilation efficiencies in small fan shells. The demonstration of differential dietary selectivity by different sized animals has implications for future trophic studies of this endangered species. This study also provides the first demonstration of predation on zooplankton by P. nobilis.

Davenport, John; Ezgeta-Bali?, Daria; Peharda, Melita; Skeji?, Sanda; Nin?evi?-Gladan, Živana; Matijevi?, Slavica

2011-04-01

222

Nucularcidae: A new family of palaeotaxodont Ordovician pelecypods (Mollusca) from North America and Australia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The new Ordovician palaeotaxodont family Nucularcidae and the new genus Nucularca are described. Included in Nucularca are four previously described species that have taxodont dentition: N. cingulata (Ulrich) (the type species), N. pectunculoides (Hall), N. lorrainensis (Foerste), and N. gorensis (Foerste). All four species are of Late Ordovician (Cincinnatian; Katian) age and occur in eastern Canada and the northeastern USA. Ctenodonta borealis Foerste is regarded as a subjective synonym of Nucularca lorrainensis. No new species names are proposed. The Nucularcidae includes the genera Nucularca and Sthenodonta Pojeta and Gilbert-Tomlinson (1977). Sthenodonta occurs in central Australia in rocks of Middle Ordovician (Darriwilian) age. The 12 family group names previously proposed for Ordovician palaeotaxodonts having taxodont dentition are reviewed and evaluated in the Appendix. ?? 2007 NRC Canada.

Pojeta, Jr. , J.; Stott, C. A.

2007-01-01

223

In vitro characterization of aggregation and adhesion properties of viable and heat-killed forms of two probiotic Lactobacillus strains and interaction with foodborne zoonotic bacteria, especially Campylobacter jejuni.  

PubMed

Bacterial aggregation and/or adhesion are key factors for colonization of the digestive ecosystem and the ability of probiotic strains to exclude pathogens. In the present study, two probiotic strains, Lactobacillus rhamnosus CNCM-I-3698 and Lactobacillus farciminis CNCM-I-3699, were evaluated as viable or heat-killed forms and compared with probiotic reference Lactobacillus strains (Lb. rhamnosus GG and Lb. farciminis CIP 103136). The autoaggregation potential of both forms was higher than that of reference strains and twice that of pathogenic strains. The coaggregation potential of these two beneficial micro-organisms was evaluated against several pathogenic agents that threaten the global safety of the feed/food chain: Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp. and Listeria monocytogenes. The strongest coaggregative interactions were demonstrated with Campylobacter spp. by a coaggregation test, confirmed by electron microscopic examination for the two forms. Viable forms were investigated for the nature of the bacterial cell-surface molecules involved, by sugar reversal tests and chemical and enzymic pretreatments. The results suggest that the coaggregation between both probiotic strains and C. jejuni CIP 70.2(T) is mediated by a carbohydrate-lectin interaction. The autoaggregation potential of the two probiotics decreased upon exposure to proteinase, SDS or LiCl, showing that proteinaceous components on the surface of the two lactobacilli play an important role in this interaction. Adhesion abilities of both Lactobacillus strains were also demonstrated at significant levels on Caco-2 cells, mucin and extracellular matrix material. Both viable and heat-killed forms of the two probiotic lactobacilli inhibited the attachment of C. jejuni CIP 70.2(T) to mucin. In conclusion, in vitro assays showed that Lb. rhamnosus CNCM-I-3698 and Lb. farciminis CNCM-I-3699, as viable or heat-killed forms, are adherent to different intestinal matrix models and are highly aggregative in vitro with pathogens, especially Campylobacter spp., the most commonly reported zoonotic agent in the European Union. This study supports the need for further in vivo investigations to demonstrate the potential food safety benefits of Lb. rhamnosus CNCM-I-3698 and Lb. farciminis CNCM-I-3699, live or heat-killed, in the global feed/food chain. PMID:23329323

Tareb, Raouf; Bernardeau, Marion; Gueguen, Marielle; Vernoux, Jean-Paul

2013-01-17

224

Nuevas Adquisiciones [y] Resumenes (Recent Acquisitions and Abstracts).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This bibliography lists over 130 publications, books, and articles recently acquired by the Colombian National Center for Documentation and Pedagogical Information concerning a variety of educational topics. The acquisitions are listed alphabetically under subject headings; publications from many countries are included. Several of the entries are…

Informacion Bibliografica Educativa, 1971

1971-01-01

225

Canine visceral leishmaniasis on Margarita Island (Nueva Esparta, Venezuela).  

PubMed

The frequency of American visceral leishmaniasis affecting humans on Margarita Island, Venezuela, has increased in recent years, and infected dogs appear to constitute the principal source of infection. ELISA tests with Leishmania donovani promastigotes and rK39 antigen from L. chagasi in serum from 541 dogs were positive in 33.1% and 21.6% of the samples, respectively. A second blood sample taken from 50 animals after 8-10 months revealed an increase from 24% to 40% of ELISA positivity to both antigens, suggesting high susceptibility and transmission in the canine population. Among 42 serologically positive dogs, 33% of which showed clinical signs of disease, 79% were positive in polymerase chain reactions using primers specific for the L. donovani complex. Control measures including epidemiological hypersurveillance, the humane sacrifice of infected dogs, and rapid diagnosis and treatment of human cases have been initiated. PMID:11132371

Zerpa, O; Ulrich, M; Negrón, E; Rodríguez, N; Centeno, M; Rodríguez, V; Barrios, R M; Belizario, D; Reed, S; Convit, J

226

Efecto de la nueva regulación antitabaco en Italia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objetive. A population-based survey was conducted to know the attitudes towards new Italian smoke-free regula- tions and its impact on tobacco consumption. Material and Methods. We considered 3 114 subjects aged 15 or over, representative of the general adult Italian population. Re- sults. Once smoke-free policies were introduced, support for them tended to increase. Smoke-free policies account- ed for 8%

Teresa Rodríguez; Silvano Gallus; Liliane Chatenoud; Piergiorgio Zuccaro; Paolo Colombo; Giovanni Apolone; Roberta Pacifici; Silvio Garattini; Carlo La Vecchia

2006-01-01

227

Hoja Informativa Sobre la Nueva Norma de la FDA en ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... la Salud Pública y Preparación y Respuesta ante el Bioterrorismo del 2002 (la Ley de Bioterrorismo) orienta las medidas y acciones del Secretario ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/guidanceregulation/foodfacilityregistration

228

Creación de una Nueva Cuenta Guía de Inicio Rápido  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... Aunque la FDA ha intentado hacer esta traducción tan exacta como razonablemente sea posible, reconocemos que esta traducción puede incluir ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/guidanceregulation/foodfacilityregistration

229

Nuevas infecciones emergentes: importancia en la salud de los niños  

Microsoft Academic Search

ResumenUna interacción compleja entre factores ambientales y humanos, incluyendo factores ecológicos, genéticos, políticos y socioeconómicos, es responsable de la emergencia y la resurgencia de enfermedades infecciosas. Estos factores poseen a menudo un efecto claro sobre los niños y, en consecuencia, las infecciones emergentes pueden ejercer impactos únicos sobre las poblaciones más jóvenes en términos de salud física y mental, así

Jean M. van Seventer; Amanda DeLoureiro; Davidson H. Hamer

2009-01-01

230

Salud e inmigración: nuevas realidades y nuevos retos  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new social and demographic framework in Spain that has appeared since the arrival of new migrant populations, rai- ses the need to improve the knowledge of their health status and to identify preventive measures and priorities in heath ser- vices. A bibliographic review of the available information on migration and health in Spain is performed, together with an analysis

Josep M. Jansà; Patricia García de Olalla

2004-01-01

231

STUDY ON THE ETIOLOGY OF CONGENITAL ABNORMALITIES, ESPECIALLY MATERNAL ENVIRONMENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possible influence of environmental and hereditary factors (atomic ; bnmb exposure. radiation from other sources, socioeconomic status, consanguineous ; marriage, etc.) was studied in 32 children with congenital anomalies born in ; Hiroshima prefecture from January 1959 to December 1960, out of a total of 4566 ; births (0.7%). Among this total were 126 stillbirihs and neonatal deaths, in

A. Tabuchi; A. Fujiwara; M. Ishibashi; K. Kinutani

1961-01-01

232

Collapsible structural assembly especially suitable as a solar concentrator  

Microsoft Academic Search

A collapsible structural assembly including first and second flexible sheets disposed in confronting relationship to one another is disclosed herein. The assembly also includes an arrangement of ribs located between and connected with the sheets so as to support the sheets as a single unit for movement between a first collapsed position such that the sheets lie flat and adjacent

Mcentee

1982-01-01

233

Maximum Entropy for Hypothesis Formulation, Especially for Multidimensional Contingency Tables  

Microsoft Academic Search

The principle of maximum entropy, together with some generalizations, is interpreted as a heuristic principle for the generation of null hypotheses. The main application is to $m$-dimensional population contingency tables, with the marginal totals given down to dimension $m - r$ (\\

I. J. Good

1963-01-01

234

LOS ÓRDENES DE LA VIOLENCIA: ESPECIE, SEXO Y GÉNERO 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

En la actualidad estamos asistiendo a un ejercicio de ingeniería social consistente en presentar, como un hecho, como conocimiento de sentido común, la contrapos ición violentos\\/demócratas. Se considera incuestionable que violencia y democracia forman una antinomia, dos formas de abordar las cuestiones políticas opuestas y mutu amente excluyentes. Un trabajo paralelo es el que se está haciendo en relación a

MARÍA JESÚS IZQUIERDO

1998-01-01

235

Relationships Between Wild Entourages and Mycoses, Especially South American Blastomycosis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A search of pathogenic fungi and actinomycetes has been carried out in 118 samples of soil, plants and plant debris by direct culture and indirect culture from inoculated animals. Most of the samples were collected in zones with woods with autochtonous tr...

J. E. Mackinnon I. A. Conti-Diaz E. Gezuele E. Civila

1967-01-01

236

Neuroinflammation in schizophrenia especially focused on the role of microglia.  

PubMed

An accumulating body of evidence point to the significance of neuroinflammation and immunogenetics also in schizophrenia. Recent genome-wide studies in schizophrenia suggest immune involvement in schizophrenia. Microglia are the resident macrophage of the brain and major players in innate immunity in the CNS. They respond rapidly to even minor pathological changes in the brain and may contribute directly to the neuronal degeneration by producing various pro-inflammatory cytokines and free radicals. In many aspects, the neuropathology of schizophrenia is closely associated with microglial activation. We and other researchers have shown the inhibitory effects of some typical or atypical antipsychotics on the release of inflammatory cytokines and free radicals from activated microglia, both of which are not only directly toxic to neurons but also cause a decrease in neurogenesis as well as white matter abnormalities in the brains of the patients with schizophrenia. The treatment through the inhibition of microglial activation may shed new light on the therapeutic strategy of schizophrenia. PMID:22192886

Monji, Akira; Kato, Takahiro A; Mizoguchi, Yoshito; Horikawa, Hideki; Seki, Yoshihiro; Kasai, Mina; Yamauchi, Yusuke; Yamada, Shigeto; Kanba, Shigenobu

2011-12-13

237

Sun as Future Energy Source Especially for Egypt.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The various aspects of energy supply and demand are discussed briefly. Some devices for using solar energy are described. The hazards of nuclear energy and the feasibility of using the deserts of the world for solar power generation are mentioned. (ERA ci...

H. Kleinwachter

1977-01-01

238

Especies Anillo: Demonstraciones Inusuales de Especiación  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ring species provide a unique glimpse into how some species came to be. A ring of populations encircles an area of unsuitable habitat. At one location in the ring, two distinct forms coexist without interbreeding. Around the rest of the ring, the traits of one species change gradually through intermediate populations into the second speciesâ traits.

Darren Irwin (Lund University, Sweden;)

2009-09-09

239

UNMOUNTED HORSES ON THE PARTHENON FRIEZE, ESPECIALLY WEST XII  

Microsoft Academic Search

Auf dem Parthenonfries gibt es elf reiterlose Pferde, zwei auf dem Nordfries (Taf. 10, 4) und neun auf dem Westfries (Taf. 8; 9; 10, 1-3). Mit einer Ausnahme, dem Pferd auf Platte XII des Westfrieses, werden sie demnächst bestiegen, um an der Prozession teilzunehmen, die schon unterwegs ist. Das geht aus den Bohrlöchern hervor, in denen einst das Zaumzeug oder

MARY B. MOORE

2003-01-01

240

Exploring the evolution of environmental sex determination, especially in reptiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental sex determination has been documented in a variety of organisms for many decades and the adaptive significance of this unusual sex- determining mechanism has been clarified empirically in most cases. In contrast, temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) in amniote verte- brates, first noted 40 years ago in a lizard, has defied a general satisfactory evolutionary explanation despite considerable research effort.

F. J. JANZEN; P. C. PHILLIPS

2006-01-01

241

Does acetogenesis really require especially low reduction potential?  

PubMed

Acetogenesis is one of the oldest metabolic processes on Earth, and still has a major global significance. In this process, acetate is produced via the reduction and condensation of two carbon dioxide molecules. It has long been assumed that acetogenesis requires ferredoxin with an exceptionally low reduction potential of ?-500mV in order to drive CO(2) reduction to CO and the reductive carboxylation of acetyl-CoA to pyruvate. However, no other metabolic pathway requires electron donors with such low reduction potential. Is acetogenesis a special case, necessitating unique cellular conditions? In this paper, I suggest that it is not. Rather, by keeping CO as a bound metabolite, the CO-dehydrogenase-acetyl-CoA-synthase complex can couple the unfavorable CO(2) reduction to CO with the favorable acetyl-CoA synthesis, thus enabling the former process to proceed using ferredoxin of moderate reduction potential of -400mV. I further show that pyruvate synthesis can also take place using the same ferredoxins. In fact, the synthesis of pyruvate from CO(2), methylated-protein-carrier and -400mV ferredoxins is an energy-neutral process. These findings suggest that acetogenesis can take place at normal cellular redox state. Mechanistic coupling of reactions as suggested here can flatten energetic landscapes and diminish thermodynamic barriers and can be another role for enzymatic complexes common in nature and a useful tool for metabolic engineering. PMID:23103387

Bar-Even, Arren

2012-10-24

242

Especially for High School Teachers: The Chat Stool  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A new classroom technique called "stool time", which can be used while teaching chemistry to students is described. It is advised that in a break from lecture, the teacher should shift to a wooden stool to share an anecdote, a bit of information about a famous figure of science, which will help the students to see the teacher more as a person.|

Jacobson, Erica K.

2004-01-01

243

PIXE analysis of preconcentrated body fluids, especially urine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A cation exchange resin, Chelex 100, has been used to separate and preconcentrate trace metal ions in urine. A good recovery of several metal ions in doped urine is achieved. The validity of the procedure has been checked by analyzing a certified control urine for metals, Lanonorm. The method is also applicable for amniotic fluid samples.

Pakarinen, Pirjo; Ekholm, Ann-Kristin; Pallon, Jan

1990-04-01

244

Problem Based Learning, Especially in the Context of Large Classes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This webpage from McMaster University in Canada describes one approach using small groups for using problem-based learning in teaching large classes. The focus of the authors is on teaching medical students but they also describe use of this approach in teaching civil engineering students, geography, etc. Links are provided to pdf files containing useful resources for instructors on being a good coach, assessment, and literature references to pbl.

2011-04-21

245

Natural products isolated from species of Halgerda bergh, 1880 (Mollusca: Nudibranchia) and their ecological and evolutionary implications.  

PubMed

Chemical investigations of five species of molluscan nudibranchs, Halgerda, collected from Australia and Japan were carried out. We identified a novel tryptophan derivative halgerdamine (1) along with the known compounds trigonellin (3), esmodil (4), zooanemonin (5), and C2-alpha-D-mannosylpyranosyl-L-tryptophan (2) from Halgerda aurantiomaculata. C2-alpha-D-mannosylpyranosyl-L-tryptophan (2) was previously thought to be a by-product of tryptophan metabolism exclusive to humans. The only other chordates reported to contain this compound are a number of ascidian species from New Caledonia and Australia including Atriolum robustum and Leptoclinides dubius. The occurrence of 2 in a mollusc has not been previously reported. Structure elucidation of 1 was achieved by using high-field 2D NMR spectroscopy. No secondary metabolites were detected in extracts from five of the six other species studied, whereas Halgerda gunnessi contained mixtures of acylated tetrasaccharides. The compounds isolated from Halgerda are different from those found in the close sister taxon, Asteronotus. Specifically, species of Halgerda contain no terpenes, spirodysin, or bromophenols, as does Asteronotus. Furthermore, in contrast to other members of the Nudibranchia such as Chromodoris and Phyllidia, in which compound yields are quite high, several cryptic species of Halgerda seem to lack secondary metabolites, whereas the two highly conspicuous species yield mildly cytotoxic MeOH extracts. Our findings support recent hypotheses regarding progressive evolution of opisthobranchs. In particular, opisthobranchs have evolved to exploit a wider range of food and metabolites than did their ancestors, a demonstration of physiological innovation. Some species of Halgerda may not be chemically protected either via de novo synthesis or by sequestering particularly toxic compounds. PMID:17457663

Fahey, Shireen J; Carroll, Anthony R

2007-04-25

246

Evidence of a parasite protist in Eurhomalea lenticularis (Sowerby, 1835) (Mollusca: Bivalvia): A case of intraoocytarian parasitism  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present paper a microsporidian parasitic protist is described and characterized; it was observed in oocytes of Eurhomalea lenticularis Sowerby. The clams were obtained in Algarrobo, Chile (33°20?S, 71°40?W). The observations were made on 5?µm sections of female clam gonads, processed by routine histological techniques with ARTETA trichromic stain. According to the parasite's characteristics, it is established that the

Cristian A. Olivares

2005-01-01

247

The genetic dynamics of the rapid and recent colonization of Denmark by Arion lusitanicus (Mollusca, Pulmonata, Arionidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the genetic dynamics of the recent establishment of the ‘Iberian slug’, Arion lusitanicus J. Mabille 1868, in Denmark and compare its population structure to two other members of the ‘large Arion complex’, Arion ater ater, native to Denmark, and Arion ater rufus, introduced into Denmark in the early 1900s. Assaying allozyme polymorphism at seven enzyme loci, we found

S. Engelke; J. Kömpf; K. Jordaens; J. Tomiuk; E. D. Parker

2011-01-01

248

Antimicrobial activities of the tissue extracts of Babylonia spirata Linnaeus, 1758 (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from Thazhanguda, southeast coast of India  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the antimicrobial activity of the tissue extracts of Babylonia spirata (B. spirata) against nine bacterial and three fungal pathogens. Methods Crude extract of gastropod was tested for inhibition of bacterial and fungal growth. Antibacterial assay was carried out by disc diffusion method and in vitro antifungal activity was determined against Czapex Dox agar. The antimicrobial activity was measured accordingly based on the inhibition zone around the disc impregnated with gastropod extract. Molecular size of muscle protein was determined using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). And fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectro photometry analysis was also studied. Results The maximum inhibition zone (12 mm) was observed against Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the crude ethanol extract of B. spirata and the minimum inhibition zone (2 mm) was noticed against Staphylococcus aureus in the crude methanol extract of B. spirata. Water extract of B. spirata showed the highest activity against Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. Ethanol, acetone, methanol, chloroform and water extracts showed antimicrobial activity against almost all the bacteria and fungus. Compared with water extracts, ethanol and methanol extracts showed higher activity against all pathogens. The molecular weight of protein of the gastropod sample ranged from 2-110 kDa on SDS-PAGE. FTIR analysis revealed the presence of bioactive compounds signals at different ranges. Conclusions The research shows that the great medicinal value of the gastropod muscle of B. spirata may be due to high quality of antimicrobial compounds.

Periyasamy, N; Srinivasan, M; Balakrishnan, S

2012-01-01

249

New lucinid bivalves from shallow and deeper water of the Indian and West Pacific Oceans (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Lucinidae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract Four new species and a new genus of lucinid bivalves are described from shallow and deeper waters in the Indian and West Pacific Oceans. The new genus Scabrilucina (subfamily Lucininae) includes the little-known Scabrilucina victorialis (Melvill, 1899) from the Arabian Sea and Scabrilucina vitrea (Deshayes, 1844) from the Andaman Sea as well as a new species Scabrilucina melvilli from the Torres Strait off northeastern Australia. Ferrocina brunei new species (Lucininae) was recovered from 60 m near oil drilling activities off Borneo; its anatomy confirmed the presence of symbiotic bacteria. Two unusual deeper water species of Leucosphaerinae are described, both species included in on-going molecular analyses; Gonimyrtea ferruginea from 400–650 m in the southwest Pacific and Myrtina reflexa from 200–825 m off Zanzibar and Madagascar.

Taylor, John D.; Glover, Emily A.

2013-01-01

250

Opisthobranchs from the western Indian Ocean, with descriptions of two new species and ten new records (Mollusca, Gastropoda)  

PubMed Central

Abstract Seventy species of opisthobranchs are described in this work based on collections from the Persian Gulf, Socotra, Kenya, Zanzibar, Madagascar, La Réunion, Mauritius, the Seychelles, the Maldives, and Sri Lanka. Ten species are newly recorded from the western Indian Ocean and four species are recorded in the scientific literature for the first time since their original descriptions. Two species are described as new: Cyerce bourbonica sp. n. from La Réunion and Doriopsilla nigrocerasp. n. from the Persian Gulf coast of Saudi Arabia. Chromodoris cavae is removed from its synonymy with Chromodoris tennentana and redescribed from specimens from La Réunion, while several new synonyms are proposed for some commonly occurring species. Risbecia bullockii is recorded for the second time from the Indian Ocean and assigned to its correct genus.

Yonow, Nathalie

2012-01-01

251

Isolation and Characterization of the First Microsatellite Markers for the Endangered Relict Mussel Hypanis colorata (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Cardiidae).  

PubMed

Hypanis colorata (Eichwald, 1829) (Cardiidae: Lymnocardiinae) is a bivalve relict species with a Ponto-Caspian distribution and is under strict protection in Romania, according to national regulations. While the species is depressed in the western Black Sea lagoons from Romania and Ukraine, it is also a successful invader in the middle Dniepr and Volga regions. Establishing a conservation strategy for this species or studying its invasion process requires knowledge about the genetic structure of the species populations. We have isolated and characterized nine polymorphic microsatellite markers in H. colorata. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 4 to 28 and the observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.613 to 1.000. The microsatellites developed in the present study are highly polymorphic and they should be useful for the assessment of genetic variation within this species. PMID:21339997

Popa, Oana Paula; Iorgu, Elena Iulia; Krapal, Ana Maria; Kelemen, Beatrice Simona; Murariu, Dumitru; Popa, Luis Ovidiu

2011-01-17

252

Putative midkine family protein up-regulation in Patella caerulea (Mollusca, Gastropoda) exposed to sublethal concentrations of cadmium.  

PubMed

A cDNA sequence of a putative midkine (MK) family protein was identified and characterised in the mollusc Patella caerulea. The midkine family consists of two members, midkine and pleiotrophin (PTN), and it is one of the recently discovered cytokines. Our results show that this putative midkine protein is up-regulated in specimens of P. caerulea exposed to sublethal cadmium concentrations (i.e. 0.5 and 1 mg l(-1) Cd) over a 10-day exposure period. Semiquantitative RT-PCR and quantitative Real time RT-PCR estimations indicate elevated expression of midkine mRNA in exposed specimens compared to controls. Moreover, RT-PCR Real time values were higher in the viscera (here defined as the part of the soft tissue including digestive gland plus gills) than in the foot (i.e. foot plus head plus heart) of the limpets. At present, information on the functional signalling significance of the midkine family proteins suggests that the up-regulation of P. caerulea putative midkine family protein is a distress signal likely with informative value on health status of the organism and with potential prognostic capability. PMID:16253353

Vanucci, Silvana; Minerdi, Daniela; Kadomatsu, Kenji; Mengoni, Alessio; Bazzicalupo, Marco

2005-10-25

253

Molecular cytogenetic study of three common Mediterranean limpets, Patella caerulea, P. rustica and P. ulyssiponensis (Archaeogastropoda, Mollusca).  

PubMed

The present paper shows the results of chromosome banding and rDNA-FISH study performed on several specimens of different populations of Patella caerulea, Patella rustica and Patella ulyssiponensis. The taxonomic attribution of specimens was ascertained by the molecular phylogenetic analysis of the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene. P. caerulea and P. rustica had 2n = 18 chromosomes with first seven of biarmed pairs and the remaining two uniarmed pairs. P. ulyssiponensis had 2n = 16 with all biarmed chromosomes. Ag-NOR loci were on the short arms of the first metacentric pair in the three studied limpets, whereas they showed a different pattern of heterochromatin distribution and composition. A chromosome mosaicism was observed in several P. caerulea specimens, which exhibited an unpaired metacentric element and loss of a telocentric pair. The obtained results suggest that in the genus Patella specific diversification was accompanied by variations in heterochromatin distribution and composition and reduction of chromosome number by Robertsonian centric fusion. PMID:19777161

Petraccioli, Agnese; Guarino, Fabio Maria; Maio, Nicola; Odierna, Gaetano

2009-09-24

254

Prosorhynchoides borealis Bartoli, Gibson & Bray, 2006 (Digenea: Bucephalidae) cercariae from Abra prismatica (Mollusca: Bivalvia) in Icelandic waters.  

PubMed

This paper reports the adult stage of Prosorhynchoides borealis (Digenea) from Lophius piscatorius in Icelandic waters and infections with the larval stages (sporocysts and cercariae) found for the first time in the bivalve Abra prismatica (Semelidae). The previously known first intermediate host was Abra alba (Semelidae). Ribosomal DNA sequencing studies on all three life stages of the parasite (cercariae, metacercariae, adults) were performed to confirm their identites. Morphometric measurements confirmed that the adult worms belong to the newly described species P. borealis. Prosorhynchoides borealis sporocysts filled with cercariae were found in 16% of A. prismatica bivalves sampled at depths between 34 and 93 m off South Iceland. Prevalence ranged from 0 to 44% between different localities. The parasite was found only in the larger bivalves. Extensive sporocyst infection in the haemocoel of the foot caused mechanical muscle damage with subsequent degeneration and necrosis. Other tissues, including the digestive gland, nephridia, gills and intestine, were less heavily infected. Only focal necrosis was observed in the digestive gland, nephridia and gills, and local atrophy in the intestine. Cercariae were also observed in the lumen of both the stomach and intestine. This is the first report of A. prismatica as an alternative first intermediate host for P. borealis. Ribosomal DNA sequence data reveals 100% homology in the data between cercariae, metacercariae and adult digeneans, supporting the morphological data suggesting that all stages belong to the same species. PMID:22217433

Eydal, M; Freeman, M A; Kristmundsson, Á; Bambir, S H; Jónsson, P M; Helgason, S

2012-01-05

255

Identification of protein components of egg masses indicates parental investment in immunoprotection of offspring by Biomphalaria glabrata (Gastropoda, Mollusca)  

PubMed Central

The macromolecules contributed by the freshwater gastropod Biomphalaria glabrata, intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni, to developing offspring inside egg masses are poorly known. SDS-PAGE fractionated egg mass fluids (EMF) of M line and BB02 B. glabrata were analyzed by MALDI-TOF (MS and tandem MS). A MASCOT database was assembled with EST data from B. glabrata and other molluscs to aid in sequence characterization. Of approximately 20 major EMF polypeptides, 16 were identified as defense-related, including protease inhibitors, a hemocyanin-like factor and tyrosinase (each with possible phenoloxidase activity), extracellular Cu-Zn SOD, two categories of C-type lectins, Gram negative bacteria-binding protein (GNBP), aplysianin/achacin-like protein, as well as versions of lipopolysaccharide binding protein/bacterial permeability increasing proteins (LBP/BPI) that differed from those previously described from hemocytes. Along with two sequences that were encoded by “unknown” ESTs, EMF also yielded a compound containing a vWF domain that is likely involved in defense and a polypeptide with homology to the Aplysia pheromone temptin. Further study of B. glabrata pheromones is warranted as these could be useful in efforts to control these schistosome-transmitting snails. Several of the EMF polypeptides were contained in the albumen gland, the organ that produces most EMF. Thus parental investment of B. glabrata in immunoprotection of its offspring is indicated to be considerable.

Hathaway, Jennifer J M; Adema, Coen M.; Stout, Barbara A.; Mobarak, Charlotte D; Loker, Eric S

2009-01-01

256

Annotated type catalogue of the Bothriembryontidae and Odontostomidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Orthalicoidea) in the Natural History Museum, London  

PubMed Central

Abstract The type status is described for specimens of 84 taxa classified within the families Bothriembryontidae and Odontostomidae (superfamily Orthalicoidea) and kept in the Natural History Museum, London. Lectotypes are designated for Bulimus (Liparus) brazieri Angas, 1871; Bulimus broderipii Sowerby I, 1832; Bulimus fuligineus Pfeiffer, 1853; Helix guarani d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimus (Tomigerus) ramagei E.A. Smith, 1890; Helix rhodinostoma d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimus (Bulimulus) ridleyi E.A. Smith, 1890. The type status of the following taxa is changed to lectotype in accordance with Art. 74.6 ICZN: Placostylus (Euplacostylus) cylindricus Fulton, 1907; Bulimus pyrostomus Pfeiffer, 1860; Bulimus turneri Pfeiffer, 1860. The following taxon is synonymised: Bulimus oblitus Reeve, 1848 = Bahiensis neglectus (Pfeiffer, 1847).

Breure, Abraham S.H.; Ablett, Jonathan D.

2012-01-01

257

Integrative study of a new cold-seep mussel (Mollusca: Bivalvia) associated with chemosynthetic symbionts in the Marmara Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, small Idas-like mussels have been discovered living on carbonate crusts associated with cold-seeps in the Marmara Sea. These mussels, here referred to as Idas-like nov. sp., differ morphologically and genetically from another species identified as Idas aff. modiolaeformis, living in the same type of ecosystem in the Nile Deep-Sea Fan (eastern Mediterranean Sea). A phylogenetic analysis confirms the distinction between the two species, which belong to highly divergent lineages. Carbon stable isotope values, as well as the detection of thiotroph-related bacteria in the gill tissue, support the presence of a symbiotic, thiotroph-derived nutrition. In contrast, Idas aff. modiolaeformis displays six different types of symbionts. Finally our size-frequency data suggest that the recruitment is continuous in the examined area. The present study extends the documented distribution of symbiont-bearing mussels to the Marmara Sea, and contributes to the characterisation of biological communities in this recently explored area.

Ritt, Bénédicte; Duperron, Sébastien; Lorion, Julien; Sara Lazar, Cassandre; Sarrazin, Jozée

2012-09-01

258

Freshwater snails (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from the Commonwealth of Dominica with a discussion of their roles in the transmission of parasites  

Microsoft Academic Search

We collected six species of freshwater snails from Dominica, including Biomphalaria kuhniana (Clessin, 1883), Gundlachia radiata (Guilding, 1828), Helisoma (=Planorbella) trivolvis (Say, 1817), Melanoides tuberculata (Müller, 1774), Neritina punctulata Lamarck, 1816, and Physa marmorata Guilding, 1828. Our collections indicate that un-reported species such as G. radiata and H. trivolvis are established on Dominica, West Indies. We tested a limited number

Will K. Reeves; Robert T. Dillon; Gregory A. Dasch

2008-01-01

259

Subchronic Toxic Effects of Fluoride Ion on the Survival and Behaviour of the Aquatic Snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Hydrobiidae, Mollusca)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Short-term bioassays usually assess lethal effects of pollutants in animals, whereas subchronic bioassays are more suited\\u000a for assessing effects on animal behaviour. Among them, videotaped bioassays are an improvement in the behavioural monitoring\\u000a because they are easily and cheaply implemented. The present study focuses on the assessment of subchronic (14-day) effects\\u000a of fluoride ion on the survival, proportion of dead

Álvaro Alonso; Julio A. Camargo

2011-01-01

260

Histological and histochemical studies on the albumen gland and capsular gland of Thais bufo (Lamarck) (Mollusca: Gastropoda)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Histology and histochemistry of the albumen and capsular glands are described. Histochemical tests revealed the high proteinaceous\\u000a nature of these glands. The secretion of the albumen gland is rich in carbohydrates besides protein whereas that of the capsular\\u000a gland is a mucoprotein.

R C Rajalakshmi Bhanu; K Shyamasundari; K Hanumantha Rao

1982-01-01

261

Genetic diversity of isolated populations of Nautilus pompilius (Mollusca, Cephalopoda) in the Great Barrier Reef and Coral Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nautilus species are the only remaining cephalopods with an external shell. Targeted heavily by the shell trade across their distribution\\u000a area, these species have a poorly known population structure and genetics. Molecular techniques have been used to assess levels\\u000a of inter- and intra-population genetic diversity in isolated populations of Nautilus in the northern sections of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR),

Billy Sinclair; Leica Briskey; William Aspden; Graham Pegg

2007-01-01

262

Microsatellite loci for dreissenid mussels (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Dreissenidae) and relatives: markers for assessing exotic and native populations.  

PubMed

We developed and tested 14 new polymorphic microsatellite loci for dreissenid mussels, including the two species that have invaded many freshwater habitats in Eurasia and North America, where they cause serious industrial fouling damage and ecological alterations. These new loci will aid our understanding of their genetic patterns in invasive populations as well as throughout their native Ponto-Caspian distributions. Eight new loci for the zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha polymorpha and six for the quagga mussel D. rostriformis bugensis were compared with new results from six previously published loci to generate a robust molecular toolkit for dreissenid mussels and their relatives. Taxa tested include D. p. polymorpha, D. r. bugensis, D. r. grimmi, D. presbensis, the 'living fossil'Congeria kusceri, and the dark false mussel Mytilopsis leucophaeata (the latter also is invasive). Overall, most of the 24 zebra mussel (N = 583) and 13 quagga mussel (N = 269) population samples conformed to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium expectations for the new loci following sequential Bonferroni correction. The 11 loci (eight new, three previously published) evaluated for D. p. polymorpha averaged 35.1 alleles and 0.72 mean observed heterozygosity per locus, and 25.3 and 0.75 for the nine loci (six new, three previously published) developed for D. r. bugensis. All but three of these loci successfully amplified the other species of Dreissena, and all but one also amplified Congeria and Mytilopsis. All species and populations tested were significantly divergent using the microsatellite data, with neighbour-joining trees reflecting their evolutionary relationships; our results reveal broad utility for resolving their biogeographic, evolutionary, population and ecological patterns. PMID:21457480

Feldheim, Kevin A; Brown, Joshua E; Murphy, Douglas J; Stepien, Carol A

2011-04-01

263

Effects of food type, feeding frequency, and temperature on juvenile survival and growth of Marisa cornuarietis (Mollusca: Gastropoda).  

PubMed

The present experiments are part of a larger study designed to investigate the influence of husbandry parameters on the life history of the ramshorn snail, Marisa cornuarietis, in order to identify suitable husbandry conditions for maintaining multi-generation populations in the laboratory for use in ecotoxicological testing. In this paper we focus on the effects of a combination of food types and feeding frequencies (i.e., the frequency with which the snails were offered food) on juvenile growth and survival at different temperatures. Offspring produced in the laboratory by wild specimens of M. cornuarietis, from Puerto Rico, were used to test the effects of three types of food (lettuce, alginate with fish food, alginate with snail mix) fed at three frequencies (given ad libitum on 4/4, 2/4, or 1/4 d) on juvenile survival and growth. The 4-d feeding regimens were repeated four times, giving a total of 16 d for the experiments. The experiments were conducted at two temperatures (22 degrees and 25 degrees C) under a 12 h light:12 h dark photoperiod. Juvenile growth rates increased with increasing feeding frequency for all food types. The most rapid growth rates occurred in the high-frequency lettuce treatments and the slowest growth rates in the low-frequency lettuce and alginate with snail mix treatments. Juvenile snails grew faster at 25 degrees than at 22 degrees C, and mortality was about twice as high at the lower temperature. Growth rates were used to provide a rough estimate of time to maturity, which was determined to take about twice as long at 22 degrees than at 25 degrees C. The results showed that lettuce is the best food if supplied in abundance, but effects on growth are very dependent on feeding frequency and temperature. We conclude that 25 degrees C is a more appropriate temperature for maintaining populations than 22 degrees C, that lettuce provides a suitable food source, and that food should be supplied continuously for husbandry and toxicity testing of populations of M. cornuarietis. PMID:19009044

Selck, Henriette; Aufderheide, John; Pounds, Nadine; Staples, Charles; Caspers, Norbert; Forbes, Valery

2006-06-01

264

Effects of endocrine disruptors on prosobranch snails (Mollusca: Gastropoda) in the laboratory. Part II: Triphenyltin as a xeno-androgen.  

PubMed

In laboratory experiments the effects of suspected endocrine disrupting chemicals on freshwater and marine prosobranch species were analysed. In this second of three publications the responses of the freshwater ramshorn snail Marisa cornuarietis and of two marine prosobranchs (the dogwhelk Nucella lapillus and the netted whelk Hinia reticulata) to the xeno-androgenic model compound triphenyltin (TPT) are presented. Marisa and Nucella were exposed via water (nominal concentrations 5-500 ng TPT-Sn/L) and Hinia via sediments (nominal concentrations 50-500 micrograms TPT-Sn/kg dry wt.) for up to 4 months. Female ramshorn snails but not the two marine species developed imposex in a time and concentration dependent manner (EC10 4 months: 12.3 ng TPT-Sn/L) with a comparable intensity as described for tributyltin. TPT reduced furthermore the fecundity of Marisa at lower concentrations (EC10 4 months: 5.59 ng TPT-Sn/L) with a complete inhibition of spawning at nominal concentrations > or = 250 ng TPT-Sn/L (mean measured +/- SD: > or = 163 +/- 97.0 ng TPT-Sn/L). The extension of the pallial sex organs (penis with accessory structures and prostate gland) of male ramshorn snails and dogwhelks were reduced by up to 25% compared to the control but not in netted whelks. Histopathological analyses for M. cornuarietis and H. reticulata provide evidence for a marked impairment of spermatogenesis (both species) and oogenesis (only netted whelks). The test compound induced a highly significant and concentration independent increase in the incidence of hyperplasia on gills, osphradia and other organs in the mantle cavity of N. lapillus indicating a carcinogenic potential of TPT. The results show that prosobranchs are sensitive to endocrine disruption at environmentally relevant concentrations of TPT. Also, M. cornuarietis is a promising candidate for a future organismic invertebrate system to identify endocrine-mimetic test compounds. PMID:11214444

Schulte-Oehlmann, U; Tillmann, M; Markert, B; Oehlmann, J; Watermann, B; Scherf, S

2000-12-01

265

[The influence of the trematode invasion on the average daily rations and electoral nourishment of Planorbarius corneus (Mollusca: Pulmonata: Bulinidae)].  

PubMed

The influence of the Trematode invasion on the average daily rations and electoral nourishment of the two size groups in the great ramshorn snail Planorbarius corneus, "young" (12-24 mm in diameter) and "old" (24-36.5 mm in diameter), have been investigated. PMID:16396395

Stadnichenko, A P; Girin, V K

266

Establishment of the green mussel, Perna viridis (Linnaeus 1758) (Mollusca: Mytilidae) on the West Coast of Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1999, the green mussel, Perna viridis, was first observed in Tampa Bay, Florida. This was the first reported occurrence of this Indo-Pacific marine bivalve in North America. The mussels found in Tampa Bay were confirmed to be P. viridis based on both morphological and genetic characteristics. Since the initial discovery, surveys in Tampa Bay and on the west coast of Florida have documented the growth, recruitment, and range expansion of P. viridis. From November 1999 to July 2000, the mean shell length of a Tampa Bay population increased from 49.0 mm to 94.1 mm, an increase of 97%. Populations of P. viridis are successfully reproducing in Tampa Bay. Recruitment was observed on sampling plates in May and continued through July 2000. The full extent of mussel colonization is not clear, but mussels were found outside Tampa Bay in St. Petersburg, Florida, south to Venice. Based on these studies it is evident that P. viridis has successfully invaded Tampa Bay and the west coast of Florida. The long-term impact of P. viridis on native communities off the west coast of Florida cannot be predicted at this time.

Benson, A. J.; Marelli, D. C.; Frischer, M. E.; Danforth, J. M.; Williams, J. D.

2001-01-01

267

Phenotypic plasticity in reproductive traits: importance in the life history of Helix aspersa (Mollusca: Helicidae) in a recently colonized habitat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reproductive traits of the land snail Helix aspersa Muller were investigated under artificial conditions from two samples, one collected from a population exposed to unpredictable human pressures in its natural environment, i.e. a recently created polders area with intensive agriculture, and the other from a snail farm in which animals were reared under constant conditions defined as 'optimal' for growth

LUC MADEC; CHRISTOPHE DESBUQUOIS; MARIE-AGNES COUTELLEC-VRETO

2000-01-01

268

Phenotypic plasticity in reproductive traits: importance in the life history of Helix aspersa (Mollusca: Helicidae) in a recently colonized habitat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reproductive traits of the land snail Helix aspersa Müller were investigated under artificial conditions from two samples, one collected from a population exposed to unpredictable human pressures in its natural environment, i.e. a recently created polders area with intensive agriculture, and the other from a snail farm in which animals were reared under constant conditions defined as «optimal» for growth

LUC MADEC; CHRISTOPHE DESBUQUOIS; MARIE-AGNES COUTELLEC-VRETO

2000-01-01

269

Large scale population structure and gene flow in the planktonic developing periwinkle, Littorina striata, in Macaronesia (Mollusca: Gastropoda)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Allozymes were used to investigate the genetic structure of 42 populations of the planktonic developing, Macaronesian periwinkle Littorina striata, throughout its entire geographic range (Azores, Madeira, Canary Islands and Cape Verde Islands). This periwinkle is presumed to have a high dispersal and gene flow potential, because it has a planktonic development. It is therefore expected to show little population genetic

Hans De Wolf; Ron Verhagen; Thierry Backeljau

2000-01-01

270

Large-scale patterns of shell variation in Littorina striata , a planktonic developing periwinkle from Macaronesia (Mollusca: Prosobranchia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Littorina striata King and Broderip, 1832 is a strictly Macaronesian, intertidal periwinkle with planktonic development. The species displays\\u000a a high degree of shell variation involving size and sculpture (nodulose vs smooth shells). The present work provides a preliminary\\u000a account of some aspects of this shell variation on wave-exposed shores over the entire geographical range of the species.\\u000a Based on morphological

H. De Wolf; T. Backeljau; S. Van Dongen; R. Verhagen

1998-01-01

271

Effects of food type, feeding frequency, and temperature on juvenile survival and growth of Marisa cornuarietis (Mollusca: Gastropoda)  

PubMed Central

The present experiments are part of a larger study designed to investigate the influence of husbandry parameters on the life history of the ramshorn snail, Marisa cornuarietis, in order to identify suitable husbandry conditions for maintaining multi-generation populations in the laboratory for use in ecotoxicological testing. In this paper we focus on the effects of a combination of food types and feeding frequencies (i.e., the frequency with which the snails were offered food) on juvenile growth and survival at different temperatures. Offspring produced in the laboratory by wild specimens of M. cornuarietis, from Puerto Rico, were used to test the effects of three types of food (lettuce, alginate with fish food, alginate with snail mix) fed at three frequencies (given ad libitum on 4/4, 2/4, or 1/4 d) on juvenile survival and growth. The 4-d feeding regimens were repeated four times, giving a total of 16 d for the experiments. The experiments were conducted at two temperatures (22° and 25°C) under a 12 h light:12 h dark photoperiod. Juvenile growth rates increased with increasing feeding frequency for all food types. The most rapid growth rates occurred in the high-frequency lettuce treatments and the slowest growth rates in the low-frequency lettuce and alginate with snail mix treatments. Juvenile snails grew faster at 25° than at 22°C, and mortality was about twice as high at the lower temperature. Growth rates were used to provide a rough estimate of time to maturity, which was determined to take about twice as long at 22° than at 25°C. The results showed that lettuce is the best food if supplied in abundance, but effects on growth are very dependent on feeding frequency and temperature. We conclude that 25°C is a more appropriate temperature for maintaining populations than 22°C, that lettuce provides a suitable food source, and that food should be supplied continuously for husbandry and toxicity testing of populations of M. cornuarietis.

Selck, Henriette; Aufderheide, John; Pounds, Nadine; Staples, Charles; Caspers, Norbert; Forbes, Valery

2006-01-01

272

Analysis of a deep transcriptome from the mantle tissue of Patella vulgata Linnaeus (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Patellidae) reveals candidate biomineralising genes.  

PubMed

The gastropod Patella vulgata is abundant on rocky shores in Northern Europe and a significant grazer of intertidal algae. Here we report the application of Illumina sequencing to develop a transcriptome from the adult mantle tissue of P. vulgata. We obtained 47,237,104 paired-end reads of 51 bp, trialled de novo assembly methods and settled on the additive multiple K method followed by redundancy removal as resulting in the most comprehensive assembly. This yielded 29,489 contigs of at least 500 bp in length. We then used three methods to search for candidate genes relevant to biomineralisation: searches via BLAST and Hidden Markov Models for homologues of biomineralising genes from other molluscs, searches for predicted proteins containing tandem repeats and searches for secreted proteins that lacked a transmembrane domain. From the results of these searches we selected 15 contigs for verification by RT-PCR, of which 14 were successfully amplified and cloned. These included homologues of Pif-177/BSMP, Perlustrin, SPARC, AP24, Follistatin-like and Carbonic anhydrase, as well as three containing extensive G-X-Y repeats as found in nacrein. We selected two for further verification by in situ hybridisation, demonstrating expression in the larval shell field. We conclude that de novo assembly of Illumina data offers a cheap and rapid route to a predicted transcriptome that can be used as a resource for further biological study. PMID:22865210

Werner, Gijsbert D A; Gemmell, Patrick; Grosser, Stefanie; Hamer, Rebecca; Shimeld, Sebastian M

2012-08-03

273

First evidence of gender-related differences in immune parameters of the clam Ruditapes philippinarum (Mollusca, Bivalvia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the first time, gender-related differences in some important functional parameters of haemocytes from the clam Ruditapes philippinarum have been studied. Clams were collected during the pre-spawning phase, when sex can be distinguished by microscopic observation\\u000a of gonadal smears, in order to ascertain whether the two sexes reach the stressful spawning period with different degrees\\u000a of immunosurveillance. Total haemocyte count

Valerio Matozzo; Maria Gabriella Marin

2010-01-01

274

First record of Cymatium keenae Beu, 1970 (Mollusca: Ranellidae) from Antofagasta Bay, northern Chile, in connection with El Niño events  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cymatium ( Monoplex) keenae Beu, 1970, the neopolitan triton, is a Ranellidae predator distributed in tropical and subtropical waters. In this study we report this species for the first time in Antofagasta Bay, northern Chile. Adult specimens have been found since June 2003 at depths ranging from 5 to 15 m in La Rinconada Marine Reserve (23°28'18?S, 70°30'46?W) in Antofagasta Bay, near a scallop farming facility. The present findings clearly extend the geographic range of C. keenae, which previously had been reported from La Paz, Gulf of California (Mexico) to Galápagos Islands (Ecuador) in the SE Pacific. Previous evidence strongly suggests that the intrusion of this tropical immigrant can be related to warm El Niño episodes. We analyze the key role of the oceanographic characteristics of Antofagasta Bay as potential temporal refuge for this species.

Ashton, Tom; Riascos, Jose M.; Pacheco, Aldo

2008-03-01

275

Molecular phylogenetics of the Pectinidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia) and effect of increased taxon sampling and outgroup selection on tree topology.  

PubMed

Evolutionary relationships of the Pectinidae were examined using two mitochondrial genes (12S rRNA, 16S rRNA) and one nuclear gene (Histone H3) for 46 species. Outgroup taxa from Propeamussidae, Spondylidae and Limidae were also sequenced to examine the impact of outgroup choice on pectinid topologies. Our phylogenetic analyses resolved the Pectinidae as monophyletic, but many of the subfamilies and tribes within the family do not form monophyletic clades. The paraphyletic Aequipectinini group is the most basal member of the Pectinidae, with the Chlamydinae and Palliolinae representing the most recently derived pectinid groups. These results are in contrast with the current morphological hypothesis of Pectinidae evolution, which suggests the Chlamydinae and Pallioline are basal groups within the Pectinidae. Ingroup topology was found to be sensitive to outgroup choice and increasing taxon sampling within the Pectinidae resulted in more robust phylogenies. PMID:18579415

Puslednik, Louise; Serb, Jeanne M

2008-05-14

276

Molecular Data from the 16S rRNA Gene for the Phylogeny of Pectinidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The phylogenetic relationships among the species belonging to the family Pectinidae are still an issue of debate. The mitochondrial\\u000a DNA sequences from the large ribosomal RNA gene may be of great value for systematic and phylogenetic studies within families.\\u000a Partial sequences of the 16S rRNA gene were obtained for the scallop species Adamussium colbecki, Aequipecten opercularis, Chlamys glabra, C.

Adriana Canapa; Marco Barucca; Annalisa Marinelli; Ettore Olmo

2000-01-01

277

DNA barcoding and phylogenetic analysis of Pectinidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia) based on mitochondrial COI and 16S rRNA genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA sequence data enable not only the inference of phylogenetic relationships but also provide an efficient method for species-level\\u000a identifications under the terms DNA barcoding or DNA taxonomy. In this study, we have sequenced partial sequences of mitochondrial\\u000a COI and 16S rRNA genes from 63 specimens of 8 species of Pectinidae to assess whether DNA barcodes can efficiently distinguish\\u000a these

Yanwei Feng; Qi Li; Lingfeng Kong; Xiaodong Zheng

2011-01-01

278

Plasticity of symbiont acquisition throughout the life cycle of the shallow-water tropical lucinid Codakia orbiculata (Mollusca: Bivalvia).  

PubMed

In marine invertebrates that acquire their symbionts from the environment, these are generally only taken up during early developmental stages. In the symbiosis between lucinid clams and their intracellular sulfur-oxidizing bacteria, it has been shown that the juveniles acquire their symbionts from an environmental stock of free-living symbiont forms, but it is not known if adult clams are still competent to take up symbiotic bacteria from the environment. In this study, we investigated symbiont acquisition in adult specimens of the lucinid clam Codakia orbiculata, using transmission electron microscopy, fluorescence in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry and PCR. We show here that adults that had no detectable symbionts after starvation in aquaria for 6 months, rapidly reacquired symbionts within days after being returned to their natural environments in the field. Control specimens that were starved and then exposed to seawater aquaria with sulfide did not reacquire symbionts. This indicates that the reacquisition of symbionts in the starved clams returned to the field was not caused by high division rates of a small pool of remaining symbionts that we were not able to detect with the methods used here. Immunohistochemistry with an antibody against actin, a protein involved in the phagocytosis of intracellular bacteria, showed that actin was expressed at the apical ends of the gill cells that took up symbionts, providing further evidence that the symbionts were acquired from the environment. Interestingly, actin expression was also observed in symbiont-containing cells of untreated lucinids freshly collected from the environment, indicating that symbiont acquisition from the environment occurs continuously in these clams throughout their lifetime. PMID:22672589

Gros, Olivier; Elisabeth, Nathalie H; Gustave, Sylvie D D; Caro, Audrey; Dubilier, Nicole

2012-04-17

279

Fine structural and immunocytochemical studies on the eyeless aesthetes of Leptochiton algesirensis, with comparison to Leptochiton cancellatus (Mollusca, Polyplacophora).  

PubMed

The aesthetes of Leptochiton algesirensis (Capellini, 1859) and Leptochiton cancellatus (Sowerby, 1840) consist of six to eight microaesthetes surrounding one macroaesthete. The monocellular microaesthetes include many microtubules, neurosecretory vesicles, and unperforated, subsidiary caps. Basally they are in contact with tiny nerve processes via probably electrical synapses. Each macroaesthete consists of a perforated apical cap and various cell types: flattened peripheral cells, various types of mucous cells, and three or four monociliary sensory cells. Although lacking photoreceptors, the aesthetes of Leptochiton algesirensis combine storage-secretory and sensory functions. The latter function is confirmed by positive immunoreactions against (neuro-)tubulin and synaptophysine. The high degree of structural and functional similarity between polyplacophoran aesthetes and the analogous caeca of brachiopods is demonstrated. PMID:9066152

Reindl, S; Salvenmoser, W; Haszprunar, G

1997-01-01

280

Karyology of the Antarctic chiton Nuttallochiton mirandus (Thiele, 1906) (Mollusca: Polyplacophora) with some considerations on chromosome evolution in chitons.  

PubMed

We describe the karyotype, location of nucleolus-organizing regions (NORs) and heterochromatin distribution and composition in the Antarctic chiton Nuttallochiton mirandus. Specimens had a karyotype of 2n = 32 chromosomes, of which two were microchromosomes. Among macrochromosomes, the elements of the first and fourth pair were bi-armed, the others were telocentric. At least six NOR sites were detected with NOR-FISH, but only four were Ag-NOR-banding-positive. The two microchromosomes were essentially euchromatic, while all macrochromosomes exhibited clear pericentromeric C bands that were found to be AT-rich (being quinacrine- and DAPI-positive) and resistant to digestion with AluI and HaeIII. N. mirandus has the largest number of chromosomes (2n = 32) and telocentric elements (26) of all the chiton species studied to date. The karyological results of our study agree with previous molecular data indicating N. mirandus as a sister taxon of Acanthochitona crinita. The karyotypes of the two species could be related as a result of Robertsonian rearrangements. According to the more parsimonious hypothesis, the former would be the primitive karyotype, although other evolutionary events cannot be ruled out. PMID:18668332

Odierna, Gaetano; Aprea, Gennaro; Barucca, Marco; Biscotti, Maria Assunta; Canapa, Adriana; Capriglione, Teresa; Olmo, Ettore

2008-08-02

281

Subterranean Biodiversity of Arkansas, Part 2: Status Update of the Foushee Cavesnail, Amnicolacora Hubricht, 1979 (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Hydrobiidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

cavesnail, Amnicolacora. For the next 25 years, )thing more was known of its status or distribution. To Idressthisand other data deficiencies, a regional inventory subterranean habitats was initiated by a multi-agency msortium (the Ozark Subterranean Biodiversity Project), e results of which are being presented in this manuscript ries. A bioinventoryon 18 August 2002 of FousheeCave r the author, David Kampwerth

G. O. Graening

2003-01-01

282

Ocean barriers and glaciation: evidence for explosive radiation of mitochondrial lineages in the Antarctic sea slug Doris kerguelenensis (Mollusca, Nudibranchia).  

PubMed

Strong currents and deep passages of water can be barriers for larval dispersal of continental marine animals, but potential effects on direct developers are under-investigated. We examined the genetic structure of Doris kerguelenensis, a directly developing sea slug that occurs across the Drake Passage, the body of water separating Antarctica from South America. We found deep mitochondrial divergences within populations on both sides of the Drake Passage, and South American animals formed multiple sister-group relationships with Antarctic animals. A generalised molecular clock suggested these trans-Drake pairs diverged during the Pliocene–Pleistocene, after the formation of the Drake Passage. Statistical parsimony methods recovered 29 separate haplotype networks (many sympatric) that likely correlate with allopatric events caused by repeated glacial cycles. Data from 16S were congruent but more conserved than COI, and the estimated ancestral 16S haplotype was widespread. The marked difference in the substitution rates between these two mitochondrial genes results in different estimates of connectivity. Demographic analyses on networks revealed some evidence for selection and expanding populations. Contrasting with the Northern Hemisphere, glaciation in Antarctica appears to have increased rather than reduced genetic diversity. This suggests orbitally forced range dynamics based on Northern Hemisphere phylogeography do not hold for Antarctica. The diverse lineages found in D. kerguelenensis point towards a recent, explosive radiation, likely reflecting multiple refuges during glaciation events, combined with limited subsequent dispersal. Whether recognised as cryptic species or not, genetic diversity in Antarctic marine invertebrates appears higher than expected from morphological analyses, and supports the Antarctic biodiversity pump phenomenon. PMID:19207248

Wilson, Nerida G; Schrödl, M; Halanych, Kenneth M

2009-03-01

283

Macoma balthica in the White and Barents Seas: properties of a widespread marine hybrid swarm (Mollusca: Bivalvia).  

PubMed

A main molecular subdivision in the circumpolar Macoma balthica complex has been described between Atlantic and Pacific taxa. In NE Europe, the clams of the White and Barents Seas, however, show deviant genetic structures. Using allozyme and mitochondrial DNA data, we explore the hypothesis that these deviations result from hybridization between an Atlantic (M. b. rubra) and an invading Pacific (M. b. balthica) lineage. A practically pure Atlantic Macoma extends from France north to the Varanger Peninsula (NE Norway), whereas populations farther east have genetic compositions intermediate between true Atlantic and true Pacific. Admixture estimates range from 32 to 90% Pacific contribution, with a notable deviation in a nearly pure Atlantic outpost in the Mezen Bay (NE White Sea). The pattern of variation is not one of a simple collinear mixing however. Different characters exhibit different degrees of introgression, and the relative introgression varies regionally. Yet, there are practically no interlocus genotypic disequilibria between the diverged loci, which brings out the White Sea-Barents Sea M. balthica as the best-documented marine animal hybrid swarms so far, arisen through amalgamation of genomes previously isolated since pre-Pleistocene times. On top of the main admixture pattern, strong geographical structuring is also seen in characters unrelated to the principal systematic distinction. The persistence of the regional patterns indicates restricted gene flow at the present time, despite the high dispersal potential of the species. The causes of this structuring could be in a complex history of colonization events and features of local hydrography enhancing isolation and divergence of populations. PMID:17725573

Strelkov, Petr; Nikula, Raisa; Väinölä, Risto

2007-08-23

284

Molecular phylogenetic analysis of tropical freshwater mussels (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Unionoida) resolves the position of Coelatura and supports a monophyletic Unionidae.  

PubMed

In previous molecular phylogenetic analyses of the freshwater mussel family Unionidae (Bivalvia: Unionoida), the Afrotropical genus Coelatura had been recovered in various positions, generally indicating a paraphyletic Unionidae. However that result was typically poorly supported and in conflict with morphology-based analyses. We set out to test the phylogenetic position of Coelatura by sampling tropical lineages omitted from previous studies. Forty-one partial 28S nuclear rDNA and partial COI mtDNA sequences (1130 total aligned nucleotides) were analyzed separately and in combination under both maximum parsimony and likelihood, as well as Bayesian inference. There was significant phylogenetic incongruence between the character sets (partition homogeneity test, p<0.01), but a novel heuristic for comparing bootstrap values among character sets analyzed separately and in combination illustrated that the observed conflict was due to homoplasy rather than separate gene histories. Phylogenetic analyses robustly supported a monophyletic Unionidae, with Coelatura recovered as part of a well-supported Africa-India clade (=Parreysiinae). The implications of this result are discussed in the context of Afrotropical freshwater mussel evolution and the classification of the family Unionidae. PMID:21827862

Whelan, Nathan V; Geneva, Anthony J; Graf, Daniel L

2011-07-30

285

Form and Evolution in the Anomiacea (Mollusca: Bivalvia)--Pododesmus, Anomia, Patro, Enigmonia (Anomiidae): Placunanomia, Placuna (Placunidae Fam. Nov.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive survey of the superfamily Anomiacea is based on an initial study of Pododesmus which proves to be the most primitive living genus. Retention of the genus Monia cannot be justified, its species should be associated with those of Pododesmus. The evolution of this highly specialized superfamily is traced by way of stages represented by 'anisomyarian' heteromyarians such as

C. M. Yonge

1977-01-01

286

Absence of formation of benzo[a]pyrene/DNA adducts in the cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis, Mollusca: Cephalopoda)  

SciTech Connect

Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) injected intramuscularly into the base of the arms of cuttlefish was released continuously from the injection site and removed from the organism. Only a portion of the compound accumulated in the body. Twenty-four hr after its injection, 75% of B[a]P applied in olive oil was removed from the cuttlefish, and 1.2% was found in the body outside the head, in site of injection. If the carcinogen was dissolved in dimethylformamide, the removal of B[a]P was slower, so that only 18% of the injected B[a]P was removed from the organism and 0.36% accumulated in the body outside the head 24 hr after injection. The high level of B[a]P in gills and hemolymph 4 hr after injection and the kinetics of the decrease of its concentration with time indicate that these two organs could be involved in the excretion of B[a]P from the body. The B[a]P/DNA adducts characteristic for vertebrates could not be demonstrated in gills, skin, brain, hepatopancreas, and lymphocytes of the cuttlefish 24 hr after injection. The dose of the carcinogene injected into the cuttlefish was 2-4 times higher than the dose resulting in the formation of a high level of B[a]P/DNA adducts in vertebrates. A different metabolism of B[a]P in the tissue of cephalopods, compared to vertebrates, could be less favorable to the process leading to malignant transformation and could explain the absence from the literature of reports of tumors in cephalopods. 15 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Lee, P.G.; Lu, L.J.W.; Salazar, J.J.; Holoubek, V. (Univ. of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX (United States))

1994-01-01

287

Physiological effects of temperature and a herbicide mixture on the soft-shell clam Mya arenaria (Mollusca, Bivalvia).  

PubMed

The aim of the current study was to investigate effects of temperature and a mixture of herbicides on the physiological status of the bivalve Mya arenaria. Bivalves acclimated to two temperatures (7 and 18°C) were exposed for 28?d to 0.01?mg/L of a pesticide formulation containing dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 2-(2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxy) propionic acid (mecoprop), and 3,6-dichloro-2-methoxybenzoic acid (dicamba). At days 7, 14, and 28, mortality, immune parameters (hemocyte number, phagocytic activity, and efficiency), biomarkers of oxidative stress (catalase [CAT] and superoxide dismutase [SOD] activities and malondialdehyde [MDA] content), the metabolic enzyme cytochrome C oxidase (CCO), a biomarker of pesticide exposure (acetylcholinesterase [AChE]), and the activity of an enzyme related to gametogenesis (aspartate transcarbamylase [ATCase]) were monitored in clam tissues. Gonadosomatic index (GSI), condition factor (CF), and sex were also assessed. In clams acclimated to 7°C, exposure to pesticide enhanced CCO activity and CF and decreased MDA content, hemocyte number, CAT, and SOD activities. In clams kept at 18°C, pesticide effects appeared minor compared with samples kept at 7°C. In bivalves acclimated to 18°C, CCO, SOD, and ATCase activity and MDA content were enhanced, and hemocyte number, CAT, and AchE activities and phagocytosis were suppressed. In samples exposed to pesticides, increased temperature enhanced MDA content and CCO and SOD activity and suppressed hemocyte number and CAT and AchE activity. A gradual sexual maturation was observed in both sexes through experimental time, but females had a higher sensitivity to temperature and pesticides compared to males. Increased temperature altered the ability of the sentinel species Mya arenaria to respond to pesticide exposures. Further work is needed to understand the impacts of increasing temperature on the whole St. Lawrence estuary ecosystem. PMID:20853449

Greco, Luna; Pellerin, Jocelyne; Capri, Ettore; Garnerot, Florent; Louis, Séverine; Fournier, Michel; Sacchi, Angela; Fusi, Marco; Lapointe, Dominique; Couture, Patrice

2011-01-01

288

THE BEHAVIOR OF LOLIGO OPALESCENS (MOLLUSCA: CEPHALOPODA) AS OBSERVED BY A REMOTELY OPERATED VEHICLE (ROV). (R825381)  

EPA Science Inventory

The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

289

Nuevas adiciones de algas marinas para el Parque Nacional Mochima, Sucre, Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

The marine algal flora from the eastern coast of Mochima National Park, Sucre, Venezuela was studied with a total of 51 taxa identified, including eight new additions of red algae which are Erythrotrichia carnea (Dillwyn) J. Agardh, Sahlingia subintegra (Rosenvinge) Kornmann, Liagora ceranoides Lamouroux, Asparagopsis taxiformis (Delile) Trevisan, Dasya corymbifera J. Agardh, Chondria dasyphylla (Woodward) C. Agardh, Herposiphonia secunda f.

Soraida Silva; Leonor Brito; Andrés Lemus

290

Nuevas Tendencias en la Ensenanza de las Ciencias (New Trends in Science Education).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The concern for improving science education in Latin America is reflected in this document compiled by UNESCO offices in Chile, Uruguay, and Paris with financial support from UNICEF, and directed to Latin American science teachers. The first part deals with planning the reforms needed in science education and the practical considerations…

Oficina Regional de Educacion de la Unesco para America Latina y el Caribe, Santiago (Chile).

291

Modelado de las Distribuciones Espectrales de Energía de tres nuevas estrellas jóvenes de tipo FU Orionis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work we present the modeling of the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of three protostellar objects of the FU Orionis type, for which an outburst was observed in the last two years. We applied the code developed by Whitney et al. (ApJ 591, 1049, 2003) to model the SEDs. We derived physical and geometric parameters for each object, which agree with those previously obtained for other FU Orionis type stars. Furthermore, the three objects were studied in their stages of high and low activity. Our results suggest that the disk plays a key role in the outburst event, which is reflected in an increase of at least one order of magnitude of the mass accretion rate from the disk to the central object, with respect to the low activity period. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

Gramajo, L. V.; Rodón, J.; Gómez, M.; Whitney, B.

292

Vacunación idiotípica en linfomas B de bajo grado: una nueva terapia antitumoral  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen  El idiotipo de la inmunoglobulina (Ig) de superficie de los linfomas B puede ser reconocido como antigénico por el sistema\\u000a inmune. Presentamos el resultado del primer ensayo de inmunización idiotípica en pacientes con linfoma folicular de bajo grado\\u000a que se ha llevado a cabo en Europa.\\u000a \\u000a Hemos vacunado a 7 pacientes, la mayoría tratados previamente con quimioterapia y trasplante autólogo.

José Rafael Cabrera; Yvelise Barrios; Rosa Yáñez; Manuel N. Fernández; Fernando Díaz de Espada

2001-01-01

293

Enfermedad celíaca. Nuevas perspectivas terapéuticas basadas en un mejor conocimiento de su patogenia molecular  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen La enfermedad celíaca (EC) es una patología gastroin- testinal crónica de tipo autoinmune desencadenada por un antígeno exógeno conocido (el gluten). Está fuertemente asociada al sistema HLA, aunque otros factores genéticos, ambientales e inmunológicos, aún no completamente identificados, determinarían el mo- mento y forma de presentación. La respuesta inmune en la mucosa intestinal frente a ciertos péptidos deriva- dos

Fernando G Chirdo; José A Garrote; Eduardo Arranz

2005-01-01

294

COOPERATIVAS DE LA NUEVA GENERACIÓN EN MANITOBA, CANADÁ: ¿CUÁL ES LA DEMORA?  

Microsoft Academic Search

New Generation Co-Operatives (NGCs) have become an increasingly popular method for agricultural producers in the United States to capture a share of the downstream rents created by the processing of their agricultural commodities. NGC development has been rapid in the states of Minnesota and North Dakota, but in the neighbouring Canadian province of Manitoba, there are almost no NGCs. After

Jared G. Carlberg; Tasha J Turko

295

Cooperativas de la Nueva Generacion en Manitoba, Canada: ¿Cuál es la demora?  

Microsoft Academic Search

New Generation Co-Operatives (NGCs) have become an increasingly popular method for agricultural producers in the United States to capture a share of the downstream rents created by the processing of their agricultural commodities. NGC development has been rapid in the states of Minnesota and North Dakota, but in the neighbouring Canadian province of Manitoba, there are almost no NGCs. After

Jared G. Calberg; Tasha J. Turko

2008-01-01

296

Rethinking religious decision?making in peasant millenarianism: The case of Nueva Jerusalén  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most studies of religious movement expansion in Latin America have stressed the concept of conversion as the major focus of research. Very often, the proposed subject of study—why peasants join a new religion—has been the effects and satisfactions resulting from joining a movement, rather than the original motives for seeking to join. Employing ethnographic examples from peasant recruitment and life

Miguel C. Leatham

1997-01-01

297

La participación como elemento constitutivo de las empresas de la Nueva Economía Social  

Microsoft Academic Search

Participation – democratic functioning – is one of the main elements which make up social economy companies. Within this, certain experiences which aim to solve recently appeared social problems (social integration, fair trade companies, etc.), have been denominated New Social Economy. From the company Stakeholder Theory, this article studies the degree and the ways of participation in the business initiatives

Edmundo Pérez Fernández

2002-01-01

298

Matematicas para la Escuela Elemental-Nuevas Orientaciones (Elementary School Mathematics-New Directions).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Elementary Mathematics need to be reevaluated and to be changed because: Mathematical knowledge has advanced, a more effective transition from one grade to the next is needed; standard elementary mathematics is inadequate, lacking the more interesting asp...

E. Deans

1965-01-01

299

EL MOTETE DE GORMAZ-BURGOS. UNA NUEVA APORTACIÓN AL ARS NOVA EN ESPAÑA  

Microsoft Academic Search

En el archivo diocesano de Burgos se encuentra un fragmento de mediados del siglo XIV, escrito, a lo que parece, en San Esteban de Gormaz que contiene el tenor de un Agnus Dei y un motete a 3 voces, que lleva al final la rúbrica \\

José López-Calo

1986-01-01

300

Nuevas Tendencias en la Ensenanza de las Ciencias (New Trends in Science Education).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The concern for improving science education in Latin America is reflected in this document compiled by UNESCO offices in Chile, Uruguay, and Paris with financial support from UNICEF, and directed to Latin American science teachers. The first part deals with planning the reforms needed in science education and the practical considerations involved.…

Oficina Regional de Educacion de la Unesco para America Latina y el Caribe, Santiago (Chile).

301

Nueva Publicacion Habla de las Necesidades de los Sobrevivientes de cancer Latinos y sus Familias  

Cancer.gov

Esta publicación gratuita combina la información más actual de los profesionales de la salud con anécdotas personales de sobrevivientes de cáncer latinos, sobre cómo enfrentarse a la vida después del tratamiento del cáncer

302

[Lipid and fatty acid profile of Perna viridis, green mussel (Mollusca: Bivalvia) in different areas of the Eastern Venezuela and the West Coast of Trinidad].  

PubMed

The species Perna viridis is a highly consumed species, which fast growth makes it an interesting aquaculture alternative for Venezuelan and Trinidad coasts. With the aim to contribute with its nutritional value information, this study analyzed lipid and fatty acid contents from samples taken in five locations from Eastern Venezuela and three from Trinidad West Coast. Total lipids were extracted and quantified, from a pooled sample of 100 organisms per location, by standard gravimetric methods, and their identification and quantification was done by TLC/FID (Iatroscan system). Furthermore, the esterified fatty acids of total lipid, phospholipids and triacylglycerols were identified and quantified by gas chromatography. Eastern Venezuela samples from Los Cedros, La Brea and Chaguaramas showed the highest total lipid values of 7.92, 7.74 and 7.53, respectively, and the minimum values were obtained for La Restinga (6.08%). Among lipid composition, Chacopata samples showed the lowest phospholipid concentration (48.86%) and the maximum values for cholesterol (38.87%) and triacylglycerols (12.26%); besides, La Esmeralda and Rio Caribe samples exhibited maximum phospholipids (88.71 and 84.93 respectively) and minimum cholesterol (6.50 and 4.42%) concentrations. Saturated fatty acids represented between 15.04% and 65.55% within total lipid extracts, with maximum and minimum values for La Esmeralda and Chacopata, respectively. Polyunsaturated results resulted between 7.80 and 37.18%, with higher values in La Brea and lower values in La Esmeralda. For phospholipids, saturated fatty acids concentrations varied between 38.81 and 48.68% for Chaguaramas and Chacopata samples, respectively. In the case of polyunsaturated fatty acids, these varied between non detected and 34.51%, with high concentrations in Los Cedros (27.97%) and Chaguaramas (34.51%) samples. For the triacylglycerols, the saturated fatty acids composition oscillated between 14.27 and 53.80% with low concentrations for Chacopata and high concentration for La Restinga; the polyunsaturated fatty acids were between 4.66 and 35.55% with lower values for Chacopata and higher values for Chaguaramas samples. P. viridis is recommended for human being consumption, according to the high content of unsaturated fatty acids found for this species. PMID:21516644

Koftayan, Tamar; Milano, Jahiro; D'Armas, Haydelba; Salazar, Gabriel

2011-03-01

303

Emergence, Development, and Maturity of the Gonad of Two Species of Chitons "Sea Cockroach" (Mollusca: Polyplacophora) through the Early Life Stages  

PubMed Central

This study describes and recognises, using histological and microscopical examinations on a morphometrical basis, several gonad traits through the early life stages of Chiton articulatus and C. albolineatus. Gonadal ontogenesis, gonad development stages, sexual differentiation, onset of the first sexual maturity, and growth sequences or “early life stages” were determined. In addition, allometry between lengths and body weight pooled for both sexes per each chiton were calculated using equation Y?=?aXb. A total of 125 chitons (4?TL?40 mm, in total length “TL”) were used. All allometric relations showed a strong positive correlation (r), close to 1, with b-values above three, indicating an isometric growth. Gonadal ontogenesis and gonad development stages were categorised into three periods (“Pw” without gonad, “Pe” gonad emergence, and “Pf” gonadal sac formed) and four stages (“S0” gametocytogenesis, “S1” gametogenesis, “S2” mature, and “S3” spawning), respectively. Compound digital images were attained for each process. Periods and stages are overlapped among them and between species, with the following overall confidence intervals in TL: Pw 6.13–14.32 mm, Pe 10.32–16.93 mm, Pf 12.99–25.01 mm, S0 16.08–24.34 mm (females) and 19.51–26.60 mm (males), S1 27.15–35.63 mm (females) and 23.45–32.27 mm (males), S2 24.48–40.24 mm (females) and 25.45–32.87 mm (males). Sexual differentiation (in S0) of both chitons occurs first as a female then as a male; although, males reach the onset of the first sexual maturity earlier than females, thus for C. articulatus males at 17 mm and females at 32 mm, and for C. albolineatus males at 23.5 mm and females at 28 mm, all in TL. Four early life stages (i.e., subjuvenile, juvenile, subadult, and adult) are described and proposed to distinguish growth sequences. Our results may be useful to diverse disciplines, from developmental biology to fisheries management.

Avila-Poveda, Omar Hernando; Abadia-Chanona, Quetzalli Yasu

2013-01-01

304

Large Vesicomyidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia) from cold seeps in the Gulf of Guinea off the coasts of Gabon, Congo and northern Angola  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two new genera and three new species of large Vesicomyidae are described from cold-seep sites on pockmarks and other sulfide-rich environments in the Gulf of Guinea (tropical east Atlantic) off Gabon, Congo (Brazzaville) and northern Angola, from 500 to 4000m depth: “Calyptogena” (s.l.) regab n. sp., Wareniconcha (n.g.) guineensis (Thiele and Jaeckel 1931), Elenaconcha guiness n.g. n. sp., and Isorropodon

Rudo von Cosel; Karine Olu

2009-01-01

305

Fertilization causes a single Ca2+ increase that fully depends on Ca2+ influx in oocytes of limpets (Phylum Mollusca, Class Gastropoda).  

PubMed

Mature limpet oocytes arrested at the first metaphase (MI) of meiosis are activated by the stimulation of fertilizing sperm. The aim of the present study was to clarify the spatiotemporal property and mechanism of intracellular Ca2+ increase in limpet oocytes, which is a prerequisite signal for initiation of development at fertilization. In all of the five limpet species tested, the initial Ca2+ rising phase just after fertilization took the form of a centripetal Ca2+ wave spreading from the whole cortex to the center (cortical flash), yielding a homogeneous Ca2+ elevation throughout the oocyte. The Ca2+ level remained high during the subsequent plateau phase lasting for several minutes and then returned nearly to the original value. No additional Ca2+ increase followed the plateau phase at least by the time of first cleavage. Both rising and plateau phases of Ca2+ increase at fertilization were inhibited by removal of external Ca2+, suggesting that continuous Ca2+ entry occurs throughout the Ca2+ increase. Injection of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) was effective in generating a Ca2+ increase in mature limpet oocytes arrested at MI; however, their ability to show an IP3-induced Ca2+ increase was extremely low, as compared with other animals. Responsiveness to IP3 injection in immature oocytes arrested at the first prophase (PI) was similar to that in the mature oocytes, suggesting that the IP3-induced Ca2+ release system does not develop during the process of meiotic maturation in limpet oocytes. Caffeine, cyclic adenosine diphosphate ribose (cADPR), and nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP), the agents known to stimulate internal Ca2+ release mechanisms distinct from an IP3-dependent pathway, had no effect on intracellular Ca2+ changes in mature limpet oocytes. Labeling of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) with DiI revealed that cortical ER clusters are only present in the localized region around meiotic chromosomes in mature oocytes. These data strongly suggest that Ca2+ release and its propagating mechanisms are undeveloped in limpet oocytes and that Ca2+ influx is the only Ca2+-mobilizing system available and functioning at fertilization. PMID:17292344

Deguchi, Ryusaku

2007-01-13

306

Scanning electron microscopy and molecular characterization of a new Haplosporidium species (Haplosporidia), a parasite of the marine gastropod Siphonaria pectinata (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Siphonariidae) in the Gulf of Mexico.  

PubMed

Based on scanning electron microscopy and the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA), Haplosporidium tuxtlensis n. sp. (Haplosporidia), a parasite found in the visceral tissues of the false limpet Siphonaria pectinata (Linnaeus, 1758), is described. The spores are ellipsoidal (3.61 ± 0.15 µm × 2.69 ± 0.19 µm), with a circular lid (2.94 ± 0.5 µm) representing the operculum. The spore wall bears filaments occurring singly, or in clusters, of 2 to 8, fusing distally. Phylogenetic relationships of H. tuxtlensis n. sp. were assessed with other described species using the SSU rRNA sequence. Haplosporidium tuxtlensis n. sp. is sister taxon to Haplosporidium pickfordi Barrow, 1961. The morphological characteristics (spore wall structure, shape, size, and filament structure) and the unique host identity corroborate it as a new species. Additionally, this is the first record of Haplosporidia infecting striped false limpets in the Gulf of Mexico. PMID:21787213

Vea, Isabelle M; Siddall, Mark E

2011-07-25

307

Taxonomic Atlas of the Benthic Fauna of the Santa Maria Basin and Western Santa Barbara Channel. Volume 9. The Mollusca. Part 2. Gastropoda.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The work consists of an introduction, laboratory and field methodology, a glossary, and identification keys for both gastropod groups. Forty six families and 81 genera are diagnosed. One of the genera is identified as new and described for the first time....

A. L. Lissner J. A. Blake P. H. Scott

1996-01-01

308

A new species of Aeneator Finlay, 1926 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Buccinidae) from northern Chile, with comments on the genus and a key to the Chilean species  

PubMed Central

Abstract A new species of the genus Aeneator Finlay, 1926 is described from off the coast of Caldera (27°S), northern Chile. Aeneator martae sp. n. has a small, broad, stout, angulated shell with more prominent axial ribs and a more obviously keeled periphery than all previously named Chilean species. Comparisons are provided with all other South American named species of Aeneator.

Araya, Juan Francisco

2013-01-01

309

The fine structure of the polymorphic spermatozoa of Fusitriton oregonensis (Mollusca: Gastropoda), with notes on the cytochemistry of the internal secretions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The prosobranch Fusitriton oregonensis exhibits an unusual form of sperm polymorphism. The viable, eupyrene sperm are attached in groups of about fifty to worm-shaped, apyrene, carrier sperm. There is a second apyrene sperm, which is lancet-shaped and has a different internal organization than the carrier, but does not transport eupyrene sperm.The eupyrene sperm are filiform (185 m long), with a

John Buckland-Nicks; Daphne Williams; Fu-Shiang Chia; Arthur Fontaine

1982-01-01

310

Lysossomal Membrane Stability of the brown mussel Perna perna (Linnaeus) (Mollusca, Bivalvia) exposed to the anionic surfactant Linear Alkylbenzene Sulphonate (LAS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of the Linear Alkylbenzene Sulphonate (LAS) were evaluated on the mussel Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758), using a cellular level biomarker. The Neutral Red Retention Time (NRRT) assay was used to estimate effects at cellular levels. Significant effects were observed for the NRRT assay, even in low concentrations. The effects at cellular level were progressive, suggesting that the organisms

MARINA F. STEFANONI; DENIS M. S. ABESSA

2008-01-01

311

[Effect of excretion-secretion products of some fouling species on the biochemical parameters of blue mussel Mytilus edulis L. (Mollusca: Bivalvia) in the White Sea].  

PubMed

The effect of excretion-secretion products (ESP) of five abundant fouling invertebrate species (bivalve mollusks Hiatella arctica and Mytilus edulis, solitary ascidia Styela rustica, sponge Halichondria panicea, and sea starAsterias rubens, inhabiting the White Sea) on the biochemical status of blue mussel M. edulis was assessed by the dynamics of lysosomal enzymes activity (nucleases, glycoside hydrolases, and cathepsins). ESP of conspecific species had no effect on the metabolism of the mollusks of this species. ESP of A. rubens, S. rustica, and H. panicea activated the same enzymes. First, acid RNase and glycoside hydrolases activity increased, but in different ways. The metabolites of H. arctica affected the activity of proteometabolism enzymes. PMID:22292287

Skidchenko, V S; Vysotskaia, R U; Krupnova, M Iu; Khalaman, V V

312

Revision of Chilean bathyal chitons (Mollusca: Polyplacophora) associated with cold-seeps, including description of a new species of Leptochiton (Leptochitonidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chiton fauna of Chile comprises 41 species, most of which inhabit shallow waters. The present paper gives a summary of\\u000a all 14 chiton species reported from Chilean deep (bathyal to abyssal) waters, including some records that might be considered\\u000a as doubtful. Leptochiton laurae n. sp. is formally established; it was formerly misidentified as L. americanus Kaas & Van Belle,

Enrico Schwabe; Javier Sellanes

2010-01-01

313

The introduced snail Melanoides Tuberculatus (Muller, 1774) (Mollusca: Thiaridae) in aquatic ecosystems of the Brazilian semiarid Northeast (Piranhas-Assu River basin, State of Rio Grande do Norte).  

PubMed

Records of the gastropod Melanoides tuberculatus (Müller, 1774), family Thiaridae, in the Piranhas-Assu River basin in Rio Grande do Norte reveal the dispersal of this native Southeast Asian and East African species into aquatic environments of the Brazilian semiarid region, including artificial environments (reservoirs) and lotic systems. The eutrophic conditions of the local waterbodies appear to favor the present situation, where this invasive species reaches extremely high densities, sometimes over 10,000 ind x m(-2) as in Armando Ribeiro Gonçalves Reservoir. These observations indicate the immediate need for new studies on the spatial distribution of the species and its potential impact on the biodiversity and water quality of the waterbodies of the semiarid region of the state. Implantation of regular and systematic monitoring of the aquatic resources of the region is urgently required. PMID:20231954

Santos, C M; Eskinazi-Sant'Anna, E M

2010-02-01

314

Heavy metal levels in the sediments of four Dar es Salaam mangroves: accumulation in, and effect on the morphology of the periwinkle, Littoraria scabra (Mollusca: Gastropoda)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heavy metals were determined in the soft tissue and shells of the littorinid, Littoraria scabra, and in the sediments of four mangrove areas along the Dar es Salaam coastline where L. scabra was collected. Several metals accumulate, preferentially in the animals' soft body parts, but do not seem to affect the shell morphology of this species. Sediment-metal levels, measured in

Hans De Wolf; S. A Ulomi; T Backeljau; H. B Pratap; R Blust

2001-01-01

315

Insights into the relationships of Palearctic and Nearctic lymnaeids (Mollusca: Gastropoda) by rDNA ITS-2 sequencing and phylogeny of stagnicoline intermediate host species of Fasciola hepatica.  

PubMed

Fascioliasis by Fasciola hepatica is the vector-borne disease presenting the widest latitudinal, longitudinal and altitudinal distribution known. F. hepatica shows a great adaptation power to new environmental conditions which is the consequence of its own capacities together with the adaptation and colonization abilities of its specific vector hosts, freshwater snails of the family Lymnaeidae. Several lymnaeid species only considered as secondary contributors to the liver fluke transmission have, however, played a very important role in the geographic expansion of this disease. Many of them belong to the so-called "stagnicoline" type group. Stagnicolines have, therefore, a very important applied interest in the Holarctic region, to which they are geographically restricted. The present knowledge on the genetics of stagnicolines and on their parasite-host interrelationships is, however, far from being sufficient. The present paper analyses the relationships between Palaearctic and Nearctic stagnicoline species on the base of the new light furnished by the results obtained in nuclear rDNA ITS-2 sequencing and corresponding phylogenetic studies of the lymnaeid taxa Lymnaea (Stagnicola) occulta, L. (S.) palustris palustris (topotype specimens) and L. (S.) p. turricula from Europe. Natural infections with F. hepatica have been reported in all of them. Surprisingly, ITS-2 length and GC content of L. occulta were similar and perfectly fitted within the respective ranges known in North American stagnicolines. Nucleotide differences and genetic distances were higher between L. occulta and the other European stagnicolines than between L. occulta and the North American ones. The ITS-2 sequence of L. p. turricula from Poland differed from the other genotypes known from turricula in Europe. The phylogenetic trees using the maximum-parsimony, distance and maximum-likelihood methods confirmed (i) the inclusion of L. occulta in the branch of North American stagnicolines, (ii) the link between the North American stagnicolines-L. occulta group with Galba truncatula, and (iii) the location of the L. p. turricula genotype from Poland closer to L. p. palustris than to other European L. p. turricula genotypes. The Palaearctic species occulta is included in the genus Catascopia, together with the Nearctic species catascopium, emarginata and elodes. The results suggest a potential of transmission capacity for C. occulta higher than that of other European stagnicolines or Omphiscola glabra. The relatively low genetic distances between C. occulta and G. truncatula and the clustering of both species in the same clade suggest that C. occulta may be potentially considered as the second lymnaeid intermediate host species of F. hepatica in importance in eastern and northern Europe, and probably also western and central Asia, after G. truncatula. L. p. turricula may be considered as a potential secondary vector of F. hepatica, at a level similar to that of L. p. palustris. PMID:14535164

Bargues, M D; Horák, P; Patzner, R A; Pointier, J P; Jackiewicz, M; Meier-Brook, C; Mas-Coma, S

2003-09-01

316

Emergence, development, and maturity of the gonad of two species of chitons "sea cockroach" (Mollusca: Polyplacophora) through the early life stages.  

PubMed

This study describes and recognises, using histological and microscopical examinations on a morphometrical basis, several gonad traits through the early life stages of Chiton articulatus and C. albolineatus. Gonadal ontogenesis, gonad development stages, sexual differentiation, onset of the first sexual maturity, and growth sequences or "early life stages" were determined. In addition, allometry between lengths and body weight pooled for both sexes per each chiton were calculated using equation Y?=?aX(b) . A total of 125 chitons (4?TL?40 mm, in total length "TL") were used. All allometric relations showed a strong positive correlation (r), close to 1, with b-values above three, indicating an isometric growth. Gonadal ontogenesis and gonad development stages were categorised into three periods ("Pw" without gonad, "Pe" gonad emergence, and "Pf" gonadal sac formed) and four stages ("S0" gametocytogenesis, "S1" gametogenesis, "S2" mature, and "S3" spawning), respectively. Compound digital images were attained for each process. Periods and stages are overlapped among them and between species, with the following overall confidence intervals in TL: Pw 6.13-14.32 mm, Pe 10.32-16.93 mm, Pf 12.99-25.01 mm, S0 16.08-24.34 mm (females) and 19.51-26.60 mm (males), S1 27.15-35.63 mm (females) and 23.45-32.27 mm (males), S2 24.48-40.24 mm (females) and 25.45-32.87 mm (males). Sexual differentiation (in S0) of both chitons occurs first as a female then as a male; although, males reach the onset of the first sexual maturity earlier than females, thus for C. articulatus males at 17 mm and females at 32 mm, and for C. albolineatus males at 23.5 mm and females at 28 mm, all in TL. Four early life stages (i.e., subjuvenile, juvenile, subadult, and adult) are described and proposed to distinguish growth sequences. Our results may be useful to diverse disciplines, from developmental biology to fisheries management. PMID:23936353

Avila-Poveda, Omar Hernando; Abadia-Chanona, Quetzalli Yasú

2013-08-02

317

Isotopic and chemical intra-shell variations in low-Mg calcite of rudist bivalves (Mollusca-Hippuritacea): disequilibrium fractionations and late Cretaceous seasonality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Isotopic (?13C, ?18O) and elemental (Mg, Sr, Mn, Fe) compositions were analysed in sclerochronological profiles of several shells of late Cretaceous rudist bivalves from Greece, Turkey, Somalia and the Arabian Peninsula. The preservation of original compositions of low-Mg calcite of outer shell layers is indicated by constant and high Sr, generally low Fe and Mn, and the preservation of fibrous-prismatic ultrastructures. Cyclic variations in ?18O and Mg are interpreted to reflect seasonal temperature/salinity cycles and, thus, annual growth increments. In shells of Torreites, amplitudes of correlated ?13C and ?18O cycles cannot be related to reasonable palaeotemperatures or salinity. This isotopic pattern reflects vital fractionations of an extent which is unknown from modern bivalves. In contrast, almost identical ranges and amplitudes of ?18O cycles are observed in 13 shells of five species from Santonian-Campanian localities in central Greece and northern Turkey, suggesting that seasonal variations in environmental conditions were recorded without significant vital fractionations. The effect of seasonal salinity changes on ?18O of the shells is evaluated, and mean palaeotemperatures are constrained within the range of 30-32.5 °C. The annual range of temperature was estimated to be 7 °C, assuming a constant salinity. This agrees with other isotopic proxies of Late Cretaceous palaeotemperatures, and with global circulation models which predict higher low-latitude sea-surface temperatures than the present ones.

Steuber, T.

318

Zooproblematica and mollusca from the Lower Cambrian Meishucun section (Yunnan, China) and taxonomy and systematics of the Cambrian small shelly fossils of China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The monograph presents the results of the study of the Cambrian small shelly fossil fauna of the Meishucun Locality (east\\u000a of Yunnan Province, China), the reference section for the Cambrian stratigraphy and paleontology of China and the stratotype\\u000a of the Meishucunian Regional Stage. This publication contains a monographic description of 66 species and 52 genera of zooproblematica\\u000a and mollusks and

P. Yu. Parkhaev; Yu. E. Demidenko

2010-01-01

319

The presence of Melinna palmata (Annelida: Polychaeta) and Ensis directus (Mollusca: Bivalvia) related to sedimentary changes in the Bay of Seine (English Channel, France)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since late 1990s the annelid polychaete Melinna palmata and the mollusc bivalve Ensis directus have been collected in the eastern part of the Bay of Seine (English Channel), indicating changes in the benthic communities. Melinna palmata was never collected prior to 2002, whereas it was reported in the muddy fine sands of the western part of the Channel, along the

Jean-Claude DAUVIN; Thierry RUELLET; Eric THIEBAUT; Franck GENTIL; Nicolas DESROY

320

Desertification of Mediterranean rocky reefs caused by date-mussel, Lithophaga lithophaga (Mollusca: Bivalvia), fishery: effects on adult and juvenile abundance of a temperate fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Macroalgal beds in temperate rocky habitats provide shelter and food for many adult reef fishes and their juvenile stages. In the Mediterranean Sea, the fishery of the endolithic date-mussel Lithophaga lithophaga (which involves dismantling of rocky substrates inhabited by these bivalves) may cause formation of barrens in shallow rocky reefs. Preliminary data collected in SW Apulia (SE Italy) show that

P. Guidetti; F. Boero

2004-01-01

321

A potential species-specific molecular marker suggests interspecific hybridization between sibling species Littorina arcana and L. saxatilis (Mollusca, Caenogastropoda) in natural populations.  

PubMed

Three sister species of rough periwinkles, viz. Littorina saxatilis (Olivi 1792), L. arcana (Hannaford Ellis 1978) and L. compressa (Jeffreys 1865) from the Barents Sea (Russia), the White Sea (Russia) and the Norwegian Sea (Norway) were studied. The identification of two sibling species L. saxatilis and L. arcana is often difficult as both species have extremely similar shell morphology and reproductive systems. Only mature females can be unambiguously distinguished, with a jelly gland present in female L. arcana, but which is replaced by a brood pouch containing developing embryos in L. saxatilis. No clear-cut diagnostic features have been found to discriminate between males or juveniles of the two species. The very first diagnostic DNA marker (DNA fragment A2.8, 271 bp length) for L. arcana and L. saxatilis separation was developed. The marker was derived from apparently species-specific L. arcana DNA fragments obtained via Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. This fragment was cloned and sequenced, whereupon specific primers were designed and the amplification was surveyed in a large number of morphologically well-identified females of both species. Subsequently, the specific DNA marker was used for the identification of male L. arcana and partners in copulating pairs. In this way, we obtained evidence of possible interspecific hybridization between the sibling species L. arcana and L. saxatilis living in sympatry in natural populations: the presence of A2.8 fragment in 12% of morphologically well identified L. saxatilis females and its absence in 14% of morphologically well identified L. arcana females. The A2.8 fragment never amplified in L. saxatilis from sites without L. arcana. The A2.8 fragment did not amplify in L. compressa, not even in microsympatric populations, and we did not observe interspecific copulations between L. arcana and L. compressa. PMID:19690967

Mikhailova, Natalia A; Gracheva, Yulia A; Backeljau, Thierry; Granovitch, Andrey I

2009-08-19

322

[Freshwater Pearl mussels of the genus Margaritifera (Mollusca: Bivalvia) described as M. elongata (Lamarck, 1819) and M. borealis (Westerlund, 1871) should be classified with M. margaritifera (Linnaeus, 1758)].  

PubMed

The shells of Pearl mussels from the basins of the Solza, Keret', and Umba rivers flowing into the White Sea have been measured to determine the ratio of shell convexity to its maximum height. This ratio is the main character that, according to Bogatov et al. (2003), allows one to distinguish between three species of the genus Margaritifera: M. margaritifera, M. elongata, and M. borealis. It has been found that the above ratio gradually increases as the shell grows. Therefore, this character is unsuitable for species diagnosis, the more so that no hiatus in it between the three forms of pearl mussels has been revealed in any of the samples studied. On this basis, it may be concluded that Northern Europe, including Russia, is inhabited by only one species of pearl mussels, M. margaritifera. PMID:18491570

Sergeeva, I S; Bolotov, I N; Bespalaia, Iu V; Makhrov, A A; Bukhanova, A L; Artamonova, V S

323

Cell proliferation and apoptosis in gill filaments of the lucinid Codakia orbiculata (Montagu, 1808) (Mollusca: Bivalvia) during bacterial decolonization and recolonization.  

PubMed

The shallow-water bivalve Codakia orbiculata which harbors gill-endosymbiotic sulfur-oxidizing ?-proteobacteria can lose and acquire its endosymbionts throughout its life. Long-term starvation and recolonization experiments led to changes in the organization of cells in the lateral zone of gill filaments. This plasticity is linked to the presence or absence of gill-endosymbionts. Herein, we propose that this reorganization can be explained by three hypotheses: (a) a variation in the number of bacteriocytes and granule cells due to proliferation or apoptosis processes, (b) a variation of the volume of these two cell types without modification in the number, and (c) a combination of both number and cell volume variation. To test these hypotheses, we analyzed cell reorganization in terms of proliferation and apoptosis in adults submitted to starvation and returned to the field using catalyzed reporter deposition fluorescence in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry, and structural analyses. We observed that cell and tissue reorganization in gills filaments is due to a variation in cell relative abundance that maybe associated with a variation in cell apparent volume and depends on the environment. In fact, bacteriocytes mostly multiply in freshly collected and newly recolonized individuals, and excess bacteriocytes are eliminated in later recolonization stages. We highlight that host tissue regeneration in gill filaments of this symbiotic bivalve can occur by both replication of existing cells and division of undifferentiated cells localized in tissular bridges, which might be a tissue-specific multipotent stem cell zone. PMID:22438018

Elisabeth, Nathalie H; Gustave, Sylvie D D; Gros, Olivier

2012-03-22

324

Annotated type catalogue of the Orthalicoidea (Mollusca, Gastropoda) in the Royal Belgian Institute of Sciences, Brussels, with descriptions of two new species  

PubMed Central

Abstract The type status is described of 57 taxa from the superfamily Orthalicoidea in the collection of the Brussels museum. Two new species are described: Stenostylus perturbatus sp. n., and Suniellus adriani sp. n. New lectotypes are designated for Bulimulus (Naesiotus) amastroides Ancey, 1887; Bulimulus blanfordianus Ancey, 1903; Bulimulus montivagus chacoensis Ancey, 1897; Bulimus coloratus Nyst, 1845; Plecochilus dalmasi Dautzenberg, 1900; Placostylus porphyrostomus elata Dautzenberg, 1923; Bulimulus ephippium Ancey, 1904; Bulimus fulminans Nyst, 1843; Bulimus funckii Nyst, 1843; Orphnus thompsoni lutea Cousin, 1887; Bulimus melanocheilus Nyst, 1845; Orphnus thompsoni nigricans Cousin, 1887; Orphnus thompsoni olivacea Cousin, 1887; Bulimulus pollonerae Ancey, 1897; Orphnus thompsoni zebra Cousin, 1887. New combinations are: Bostryx borellii (Ancey, 1897); Bostryx carandaitiensis (Preston, 1907); Protoglyptus mazei (Crosse, 1874); Kuschelenia (Vermiculatus) sanborni (Haas, 1947). New synonymies are established for the following nominal taxa: Orphnus thompsoni var. lutea Cousin, 1887 = Kara thompsonii (Pfeiffer, 1845); Orphnus thompsoni var. nigricans Cousin, 1887 = Kara thompsonii (Pfeiffer, 1845); Thaumastus nystianus var. nigricans Cousin, 1887 = Drymaeus (Drymaeus) nystianus (Pfeiffer, 1853); Orphnus thompsoni var. olivacea Cousin, 1887 = Kara thompsonii (Pfeiffer, 1845); Orphnus thompsoni var. zebra Cousin, 1887 = Kara thompsonii (Pfeiffer, 1845).

Breure, Abraham S.H.

2011-01-01

325

IgE reactivity against a cross-reactive allergen in crustacea and mollusca: Evidence for tropomyosin as the common allergen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Although cross-reactivity between mollusks and other crustaceans in shrimp-sensitive subjects has been reported, the mechanism of this allergenic cross-reactivity has not been studied in detail. Objective: To investigate this cross-reactivity in vitro, we have taken advantage of a complementary DNA that expresses tropomyosin, the immunodominant shrimp allergen. Methods: Serum IgE from nine patients with known anaphylaxis to shrimp and

Patrick S. C. Leung; Wing Kuen Chow; Sean Duffey; Hoi Shan Kwan; M. Eric Gershwin; Ka Hou Chu

1996-01-01

326

6Phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (PGD) allele phylogeny is incongruent with a recent origin of polyploidization in some North American Sphaeriidae (Mollusca, Bivalvia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although polyploidization is rare among bivalve mollusks, recent cytogenetic studies have revealed a remarkable degree of genome amplification (up to 13n) in the freshwater bivalve family Sphaeriidae. We generated single-copy nuclear gene trees in order to test hypotheses addressing the evolutionary origins of sphaeriid genome duplication. Polyploid North American members of three cosmopolitan sphaeriid genera (Sphaerium, Musculium, and Pisidium) were

Taehwan Lee

2002-01-01

327

Application of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for studying of reproduction in the Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum (Mollusca: Bivalvia)I. Quantifying eggs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A polyclonal antibody specific to Ruditapes philippinarum egg protein (ME-ab) was developed to quantify clam eggs using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Western blots revealed that ME-ab reacted with egg proteins of molecular masses 475, 84, and 40 kDa under non- reducing conditions and 330, 96, 64, 50, and 31 kDa under reducing conditions. With ELISA, ME-ab detected between 0.23

Kyung-Il Park; Kwang-Sik Choi

2004-01-01

328

Biomphalaria straminea and Biomphalaria glabrata (Mollusca: Planorbidae) as new intermediate hosts of the fish eyefluke Austrodiplostomum compactum (Trematoda: Diplostomidae) in Brazil.  

PubMed

Austrodiplostomum compactum has been involved in cases of ocular diplostomiasis in several species of fish in Brazil, but the molluscan intermediate hosts of the parasite remain unknown. In the present study, malacological surveys were carried out at Pampulha Reservoir, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, between January 2009 and July 2012. A total of 16,119 specimens of Biomphalaria spp. were collected and examined, of which 68/14,948 specimens (0.45%) of Biomphalaria straminea and 6/541 (1.11%) of Biomphalaria glabrata were found harboring a strigeid cercariae. Groups of 5 specimens of Cyprinius carpio were experimentally infected with these cercariae (100 larvae/fish), and metacercariae were recovered from the eyes of the fish, 65 days after infection, with a mean intensity of infection of 10.4 (8-13) metacercariae/fish. Morphological study on cercariae and metacercariae identified them as A. compactum . This is the first record of cercariae of A. compactum in Brazil, and B. straminea and B. glabrata as new intermediate hosts for the parasite. PMID:23360402

Pinto, H A; Melo, A L

2013-01-29

329

Large Vesicomyidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia) from cold seeps in the Gulf of Guinea off the coasts of Gabon, Congo and northern Angola  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two new genera and three new species of large Vesicomyidae are described from cold-seep sites on pockmarks and other sulfide-rich environments in the Gulf of Guinea (tropical east Atlantic) off Gabon, Congo (Brazzaville) and northern Angola, from 500 to 4000 m depth: " Calyptogena" (s.l.) regab n. sp., Wareniconcha (n.g.) guineensis (Thiele and Jaeckel 1931), Elenaconcha guiness n.g. n. sp., and Isorropodon atalantae n. sp. For two other species already taken by the R/V Valdivia in 1898, Calyptogena valdiviae (Thiele and Jaeckel 1931) and Isorropodon striatum (Thiele and Jaeckel 1931) new localities were discovered, and the species are rediscussed. E. guiness n.g. n.sp. is also recorded from off Banc d'Arguin, Mauritania, collected by commercial fishing vessels. The vesicomyid species here treated were encountered in different depth ranges along the Gabon-Congo-Angola margin, between 500 and 4000 m depth, and it was found that, in comparison with the dredge samples taken by the Valdivia expedition off southern Cameroon and off Rio de Oro (both at 2500 m), the same species occur in other depth ranges, in some cases with a vertical difference of more than 1000 m. .That means that the species are not confined to a given depth thought being typical for them and that the characteristics of the biotope are likely to play a major role in the distribution of the vesicomyids associated to cold seeps or other reduced environments along the West African margin.

von Cosel, Rudo; Olu, Karine

2009-12-01

330

Detection of genotoxicity of water from an urbanized stream, in Corbicula fluminea (Mollusca) (in vivo) and CHO-K1 cells (in vitro) using comet assay.  

PubMed

The comet assay was utilized to investigate the quality of water from seven locations along the Cambé Stream, in vivo (Corbicula fluminea hemolymph), in vitro (CHO-K1 cells), in situ, and in laboratory studies. The Cambé Stream basin (Londrina, PR, Brazil) is almost completely urbanized and receives different forms of industrial and domestic runoff. The data indicated the occurrence of DNA damage in cells examined in vivo and in vitro, shown by the significant increase in frequencies of cells with DNA damage after exposure to water from all seven locations used in the study. Our results strongly suggest the presence of genotoxic agent(s) in water at all of the sampled locations, demonstrated by elevated numbers of cells with DNA damaged in field and laboratory tests. In all of the places sampled, domestic sewage influence appeared to be one important cause for the introduction of xenobiotics, environmental genotoxins, and pollutants into the water. Thus, the comet assay applied in these cell systems was able to detect adverse environmental conditions, proving to be a very adequate short-term test and should be included in batteries of tests utilized in the monitoring of aquatic environments. PMID:20037782

Rigonato, Janaina; Mantovani, Mário Sérgio; Jordão, Berenice Quinzani

2010-07-01

331

Physicochemical characterization of the ribosomal RNA species of the Mollusca. Molecular weight, integrity and secondary-structure features of the RNA of the large and small ribosomal subunits.  

PubMed Central

1. The rRNA species of the Cephalopoda Octopus vulgaris and Loligo vulgaris were found to have unexpectedly high sedimentation coefficients and molecular weights. In 0.1 M-NaCl the L-rRNA (RNA from large ribosomal subunit) has the same s20 value as the L-rRNA of the mammals (30.7S), whereas the S-rRNA (RNA from small ribosomal subunit) sediments at a faster rate (20.1S) than the S-rRNA of both the mammals and the fungi (Neurospora crassa) (17.5S). The molecular weights of the L-rRNA were determined by gel electrophoresis in formamide and found to be 1.66 X 10(6) (Octupus) and 1.89 X 10(6) (Loligo); the mol.wt. of the S-rRNA of both species is 0.96 X 10(6), i.e. much larger than that of the mammals (0.65 X 10(6)) and almost coincident with that of the '23S' RNA of the prokaryotes. 2. By contrast, the less evolved Gastropoda and Lamellibranchiata (Murex trunculus and Macrocallista chione) have S-rRNA and L-rRNA species with mol.wts. of 0.65 X 10(6) and approx. 1.40 X 10(6).3. All the mature L-rRNA molecules of the cephalopoda are composed of two unequal fragments held together by regions of hydrogen-bonding having a similar, low, thermal stability in the two species; the molecular weights of the two fragments composing the L-rRNA are estimated to be 0.96 X 10(6) and 0.88 X 10(6) (Loligo) and 0.96 X 10(6) and 0.65 X 10(6) (Octupus). THe S-rRNA of both species is a continuous chain with exactly the same molecular weight (0.96 X 10(6)) as the heavier of the two fragments of the L-rRNA. 4. The secondary-structure features of the L-rRNA and S-rRNA species of the Caphalopoda were investigated by thermal 'melting' analysis in 4.0 M-guanidinium chloride; 60-70% of the residues are estimated to form short, independently 'melting' bihelical segments not more than 10 base-pairs in length. 5. Bases are unevenly distributed between non-helical and bihelical portions of the rRNA molecules, G and C residues being preferentially concentrated in bihelical comains. 6. The secondary-structure regions of the L-rRNA species of Octopus and Loligo are heterogenous, including two discrete fractions of independently 'melting' species that give rise to biphasic 'melting' profiles: a fraction consisting of shorter (G + C)-poorer segments (60-68% G + C, not more than 5 base-pairs in length) and a fraction consisting of longer (G + C)-richer segments (80-88% G + C, 5-10 base-pairs in length). No evidence for heterogeneity has been detected in the S-rRNa.

Cammarano, P; Londei, P; Mazzei, F; Felsani, A

1980-01-01

332

Factors affecting the distribution and abundance of the commensal Temnocephala iheringi (Platyhelminthes: Temnocephalidae) among the southernmost populations of the apple snail Pomacea canaliculata (Mollusca: Ampullariidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Temnocephala iheringi is the most common temnocephalan inhabiting the mantle cavity of the apple snail Pomacea canaliculata, a freshwater neotropical gastropod that has become a serious rice pest in Southeastern Asia. T. iheringi has been recorded from Mato Grosso (Brazil) to water bodies associated with the Río de la Plata river (Argentina). During an extensive survey in the southern limit

Pablo R. Martín; Alejandra L. Estebenet; Silvana Burela

2005-01-01

333

Introduction: Projects providing aid or assistance to developing countries cover all disciplines, and can present major challenges to project managers: cultural and language gaps, lack of suitable skills and the difficulty of skills transfer, low-tech equipment, and communications infrastructures not very similar to what project managers may be used to. This collection of articles looks at AID and international development projects around the world, especially in Africa and Asia - and gives tricks and traps, lessons learned, and valuable insights into how to tackle these often demanding assignments  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis of the perceptions of coordinators of international development projects has not been examined before, especially in Africa. This paper characterizes the dimensions of success (and their hierarchy) for such projects, as perceived by project coordinators in sub-Saharan Africa using data collected by questionnaire. The research is unique - it determines the hierarchy of the dimensions of the principal

Diallo A. Thuillier

334

Why Measuring Growth Is Especially Important in Evaluation of English Language Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper provides a discussion of some of the dilemmas that face teachers of English as a Second Language (ESL). The author suggests that end-of-course assessments of ESL students should include a measure of growth, gain, or value-added, as well as measures of students' mastery of the English standards or English course criteria. Research has…

Miller-Whitehead, Marie

2005-01-01

335

Estudio Fitoquimico de la Especie Psicotomimetica: Ipomea Carnea (Phytochemical Study of the Psychomimetic Specie: Ipomea Carnea).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The plant Ipomeoa carnea of the Convolvulaceae family known in Ecuador for its psychotropic and toxic effects has been submitted to a phytochemical study. Preliminary extractions were done by simple maceration. These extracts tested in experimental animal...

C. Lascano E. De Naranjo P. Naranjo

1967-01-01

336

Chemical weathering in australasia with emphasis on the humid tropics especially in Papua New Guinea  

Microsoft Academic Search

In different localities and circumstances the rate of chemical weathering can correlate with rainfall (leaching), physical erosion (high or low rate of denudation), lithology (the stress on volcanic glass) or temperature (organic matter). The kinetics of the reactions may be linear (basalt), first order (andesite tephra) or parabolic (rhyolite) with corresponding leaching rates in Papua of mg Si O2 cm

RUXTON Bryan

337

Carcinogenicity and Metabolism of Azo Dyes, Especially Those Derived from Benzidine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Studies on the sites of carcinogenic action of benzidine (92875) in man and experimental animals, benzidine metabolism, azo compounds metabolism, and the epidemiological experience of industries using azo dyestuffs are reviewed. Industrial hygiene surveys...

M. Boeniger

1980-01-01

338

The Camp Health Manual. An Excellent Reference Written Especially for Organized Camps. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is a guide to the diagnosis and care of sick children in organized camping situations. This book presents health care information for the management of medical and surgical problems by the camp counselor, camp director, camp nurse, and camp physician. The chapters are: (1) Camp Standards; (2) The Infirmary; (3) Infirmary Supplies; (4)…

Goldring, David; Middelkamp, J. Neal

339

Daily menus can result in suboptimal nutrient intakes, especially calcium, of adolescents living in dormitories.  

PubMed

The aims of this study were to evaluate daily menus in Croatian dormitories and to assess the overall intake of dairy products among resident adolescents. For this purpose, 168 daily menus were chosen for nutritional evaluation by random sampling. In addition, 227 adolescents (133 girls and 94 boys) participated in a questionnaire focused on food intake in addition to the meals supplied in dormitories with the aim to assess the amount and the type of dairy products consumed. The results showed that only 35% of the daily menus were nutritionally balanced. Most of the menus provided an excess of energy, protein, carbohydrate, saturated fat, phosphorus, riboflavin, and vitamin A. The levels of calcium and magnesium in the menus were suboptimal. The menus offered to adolescents provided approximately 2 servings of dairy products per day. Milk was the most often supplied dairy product (1.1 servings per day), whereas yogurt had the lowest frequency of serving (0.2 servings per day). The most preferred dairy-based snack for both sexes was milk. Dairy-based snacks provided about 1 serving per day for both sexes and contributed to about 30% of the recommended dietary allowances for calcium. Adolescents who regularly consumed dairy-based snacks meet the recommendations (3.2 servings of dairy products per day and about 98% recommended dietary allowances for calcium). We conclude that the institutional menu planning should be improved because the intake of dairy snacks will continue to be a problem for achieving a healthy diet in adolescences. PMID:19083403

Kresi?, Greta; Simundi?, Borislav; Mandi?, Milena L; Kendel, Gordana; Zezelj, Sandra Pavici?

2008-03-01

340

A convex EUS is useful to diagnose vascular invasion of cancer, especially hepatic hilus cancer.  

PubMed

Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) has become an indispensable diagnostic procedure pairing endoscopy with transluminal high frequency ultrasonography. EUS provides images with a high resolution such that the depth of tumor invasion can be accurately determined. It also sees lesions outside of gastrointestinal tract, particularly those in pancreas, biliary system and periluminal lymph nodes. The most important limitation of EUS was lack of specificity, that is, the differentiation between benign and malignant lesions. In 1992, EUS-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) was introduced with the sampling of a lesion in the pancreatic head using a convex EUS. Since then the indications of EUS-FNA have been expanded to include a variety of therapeutic uses. In addition, a convex EUS probe can also be used for detailed evaluation of the pancreatobiliary system, in lieu of a radial EUS. The vascular structures surrounding liver, biliary system and pancreas can be showed by a convex EUS system very clearly and easily compared with the more familiar radial EUS images. So we think a convex EUS is very useful for not only EUS-FNA but also screening and close examination for cancer with vascular invasion. PMID:21535196

Hara, Kazuo; Bhatia, Vikram; Hijioka, Susumu; Mizuno, Nobumasa; Yamao, Kenji

2011-05-01

341

Histochemical Studies on the Distribution of Enzymes, Especially Oxidases and Phosphatases in the Living Body.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A gigantic peroxidase granule was detected in the polymorphonuclear neutrophil leukocytes of the giant salamander, Megalobatrachus japonicus. The granule resembles the gigantism of the peroxidase granule that was recognized in human blood disease (Chediak...

T. Mitsui

1965-01-01

342

Determining the Osmotic Fragility of Erythrocytes; a Method Especially Applicable to Pediatrics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The continuous recording of hypotonic hemolysis (osmogram) and the multiple tube osmotic fragility test demonstrated excellent correlation in identification of normal and abnormal erythrocytic fragility. Although both procedures are based on the same prin...

B. J. Fogel C. E. Shields L. B. Altstatt T. E. Allen

1967-01-01

343

Development and implementation of stamping technology for especially large pipe elbows for nuclear power stations  

SciTech Connect

Results are given of the development and implementation of a stamping process for large pipe elbows for high-pressure service. Basic experimental data that indicate the technical possibilities of the process and description of the results of implementing the stamping process for pipe elbows of D /SUB e/ of 750 and 850 mm are also presented.

Romashko, N.I.; Bryukhanov, Yu.V.; Lebedev, V.A.; Moshnin, E.N.; Timokhin, V.S.

1984-01-01

344

Phase identification of microfeatures using EPMA methods, especially high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods of electron-probe microanalysis (EPMA), with some input from scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM\\/TEM), are applied for the identification of micro-scale constituents in a solid matrix. The subject of the study is a magnesium alloy composite, which contains silicon carbide-based fibres made by a liquid metal infiltration process. Backscattered electron imaging of the composite in the SEM showed that

G Love; V. D Scott

2001-01-01

345

The harmful effects of common social habits, especially smoking and using oral contraceptive steroids, on pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maternal smoking adversely affects the incidence of spontaneous abortions, placental haemorrhages, low?birth?weight infants, congenital abnormalities and the future physical and mental health of children. Paternal smoking increases the risk of facial abnormalities and cot deaths. Oral contraceptive steroid use increases the risk of abortion, chromosomal abnormalities and congenital defects. Both habits can cause vascular disease, immune abnormalities, food and chemical

E. C. G. Grant

1981-01-01

346

A review of non-cancer effects, especially circulatory and ocular diseases.  

PubMed

There is a well-established association between high doses (>5 Gy) of ionizing radiation exposure and damage to the heart and coronary arteries, although only recently have studies with high-quality individual dosimetry been conducted that would enable quantification of this risk adjusting for concomitant chemotherapy. The association between lower dose exposures and late occurring circulatory disease has only recently begun to emerge in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors and in various occupationally exposed cohorts and is still controversial. Excess relative risks per unit dose in moderate- and low-dose epidemiological studies are somewhat variable, possibly a result of confounding and effect modification by well-known (but unobserved) risk factors. Radiation doses of 1 Gy or more are associated with increased risk of posterior subcapsular cataract. Accumulating evidence from the Japanese atomic bomb survivors, Chernobyl liquidators, US astronauts, and various other exposed groups suggests that cortical cataracts may also be associated with ionizing radiation, although there is little evidence that nuclear cataracts are radiogenic. The dose-response appears to be linear, although modest thresholds (of no more than about 0.6 Gy) cannot be ruled out. A variety of other non-malignant effects have been observed after moderate/low-dose exposure in various groups, in particular respiratory and digestive disease and central nervous system (and in particular neuro-cognitive) damage. However, because these are generally only observed in isolated groups, or because the evidence is excessively heterogeneous, these associations must be treated with caution. PMID:23903347

Little, Mark P

2013-08-01

347

Hormonal Interference with Pheromone Systems in Parasitic Acarines, Especially Ixodid Ticks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

New evidence which confirms the existence of ecdysterone (beta-ecdysone) in the ticks Dermacentor variabilis (Say) and Hyalomma dromedarii Koch is presented. Evidence implicating the occurrence of alpha-ecdysone, in much smaller amounts than that observed...

D. E. Sonenshine P. J. Homsher J. H. Oliver

1983-01-01

348

La Flora vascular amenazada de Galicia. Catalogación y protección de las especies  

Microsoft Academic Search

A list of threatened vascular flora of Galicia and their status conservation is present. It was making consider the species list ed in the Spanish technical publications and legal dispositions. The result shows a list of species made out of 68 taxa, all from different thre- atened categories, one extinct (EX), 15 in critical risk (CR), 21 endangered (EN) and

María Inmaculada Romero Buján

349

El Impacto Ambiental de las Especies Marinas Exóticas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The issue-focused interview exposes marine exotic, or invasive, species as a global problem. These uninvited plants and animals: compete with native species for space, food, and other resources, put a strain on the economy, such as commercial fisheries, can contribute to public health problems, and impact recreational enjoyment by fouling the environment.

James Carlton (Williams College, Williamstown;)

2004-05-01

350

[Childhood masturbation--a genetic viewpoint, especially in anorexia and bulimia nervosa].  

PubMed

The author examines the functions of child masturbation in the development of narcissim and distinguishes a demarcation function, a compensation function and a function serving to establish autonomy. In Binswanger's view, certain reactions to child masturbation on the part of parents may affect the interactive relationship between the child and the parent representing the primary object in such a way as to thwart or undermine these functions. The result is the appearance of masturbation substitutes in the form of certain symptoms. Binswanger distinguishes "horrified", "liberal", and "eroticized" reactions by parents, relating the first to compulsion neurosis, the second to obesity, and the third to anorexia/bulimia. The author illustrates his hypotheses with copious references to cases from his own practice. PMID:8766992

Binswanger, R

1996-07-01

351

[Possibilities, limitations and results in accident prevention in non-occupational accidents, especially in road traffic].  

PubMed

Traffic accident occurrence in Switzerland has undergone a positive development, in spite of the fact that the number of motor vehicles in use and the overall driving performance have increased. The main features of accident occurrence are illustrated, alcohol and driving too fast being the most frequent accident causes. The construction of a motorway network, the use of safety-belts and the introduction of general speed limits play the most important part in the positive development of accident occurrence. PMID:2346700

Jung, H

1990-01-01

352

Incorporating a Course Website into Teaching: A Promising Practice, Especially for Teacher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Preparing teachers to incorporate technology into teaching is a requirement in teacher education. Using a course Web site as an instructional method expands students' understanding of technology applications. One aspect of a course Web site particularly suited to facilitating and improving learning is a discussion area (bulletin board) where…

Lindsey-North, Jill L.

353

Heat pipe dynamics. Final report, April 30, 1981. [Uses of heat pipe, especially in solar collector  

SciTech Connect

A heat-pipe flat plate solar collector is constructed like a typical flat plate collector with the exception that individual heat pipes are attached to the collector surface to transfer collected heat via a phase change from collector surface into an attached jacket containing a phase change material. The efficiency of such a collector was measured roughly. Also briefly described are: a heat-pipe heat exchanger, heat-pipe heat exchanger freeze proofing, heat-pipe attic ventilation, transfer of light bulb heat via a heat pipe to heat water, heat recovery via heat pipe, cooling of oil in engines and transmissions via heat pipe, a tracking reflector, automatic sun tracker, single-stroke vacuum pump for heat-pipe manufacture, and heat pipe heat transfer from rock bed. (LEW)

Norman, R.M. Sr.

1981-01-01

354

The historical development of alternative schools across Tennessee, especially in Maury County  

Microsoft Academic Search

The focus of this study was the historical development of alternative schools in Tennessee and Maury County, as they relate to educating violent and chronically disruptive students. The findings of this research has provided data to school boards, administrators, teachers, and researchers on the development of appropriate policies, programs, and facilities needed to improve alternative schools. ^ In 1984, Tennessee

Armecia Alene Cornelius

1999-01-01

355

Especies de plantas de valor científico específico Scientific-specific value plant species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economic botany considers may valuable species under different parameters. One of these less considerate-parameters is the scientific value of many species, useful to wide-biologic research and their variety of disciplines. Arabidopsis thaliana is the most representative example of this matter, although this plant can't be used as food, drug or as industrial source, has been widely used for a kind

356

“Infectobesity: viral infections (especially with human adenovirus-36: Ad36) may be a cause of obesity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years viral infections have been recognized as possible cause of obesity, alongside the traditionally recognized causes (genetic inheritance, and behaviour\\/environmental causes such as diet exercise, cultural practices and stress). Although four viruses have been reported to induce obesity (infectoobesity) in animal models (chickens, mice, sheep, goat, dogs, rats and hamsters), until recently the viral etiology of human obesity

Vincent van Ginneken; Laura Sitnyakowsky; Jonathan E. Jeffery

2009-01-01

357

Therapeutic Strategies for SLE Involving Cytokines: Mechanism-Oriented Therapies Especially IFN-? Targeting Gene Therapy  

PubMed Central

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE: lupus) is a chronic complicated autoimmune disease and pathogenesis is still unclear. However, key cytokines have been recognized. Interferon (IFN)-? and also IFN?/? are of particular importance. Depending on the concept that lupus is a helper T(Th)1 disease and that dendritic cells (DCs) determine the direction of lupus, balance shift of Th1/Th2 and immunogenic/tolerogenic DCs is reviewed for therapy. (IFN)-?- and IFN-?/?-targeted (gene) therapies are introduced. These consist of Th1/Th2 balance shift and elimination of IFN-? and IFN-?-related cytokines such as (interleukin)IL-12 and IL-18. Other approaches include suppression of immunocompetent cells, normalization of abnormal T-cell function, costimulation blockade, B lymphocyte stimulator (Blys) blockade, and suppression of nephritic kidney inflammation. Moreover, balance shift of IFN-?/? and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? together with regulatory T(Treg) cells are briefely introduced. Clinical application will be discussed.

Hayashi, Toshiharu

2010-01-01

358

Special Education: Parent and Student Rights = Educacion Especial: Los Derechos de los Padres y Estudiantes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Intended for parents of children with possible disabilities in Texas, these two combined booklets (one in English and one in Spanish) outline the step-by-step process qualifying the child for special education services and explain the parent's rights and responsibilities under federal and state law. Introductory material includes a letter to…

Texas Education Agency, Austin. Div. of Special Education Programs.

359

Coupled Metabolic and Photolytic Pathway for Degradation of Pyridinedicarboxylic Acids, Especially Dipicolinic Acid  

PubMed Central

Three isomers of pyridinedicarboxylic acid (PDCA) (2,3-, 2,5-, and 2,6-PDCA) were partially oxidized by marine bacteria when grown aerobically on the corresponding phthalate analogs. The metabolites, unlike the parent PDCAs, absorbed light in the solar actinic range (wavelengths greater than 300 nm) and were readily degraded in sunlight. The principal product from 2,6-PDCA (dipicolinic acid) metabolism was extracted from a culture fluid, purified by column chromatography, and analyzed by UV-visible, infrared, and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The compound was identified as 2,3-dihydroxypicolinic acid (2,3-DHPA). 2,3-DHPA was photolyzed in aqueous solution (pH 8.0) with a half-life of 100 min. Eight photoproducts, three of which were photolabile, were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography. Ammonia was also photoproduced from 2,3-DHPA. Analysis of the photoproducts by UV-visible spectroscopy and by high-performance liquid chromatography of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazones indicated that the products were conjugated carbonyls and carboxylic acids. Six of the photoproducts were readily consumed by bacterial strain CC9M. In illuminated aquatic environments, coupled bio- and photodegradative mechanisms probably contribute to the degradation of PDCAs.

Amador, Jose A.; Taylor, Barrie F.

1990-01-01

360

[Myoglobinuria due to enzyme abnormalities in glycolytic pathway--especially lactate dehydrogenase M subunit deficiency].  

PubMed

Glycolysis is an important energy productive system. Enzyme abnormalities the in glycolytic pathway, which cause myoglobinuria, are deficiencies of phosphofructokinase, phosphoglycerate kinase, phosphoglycerate mutase, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Common symptoms of these enzyme abnormalities are muscle cramp, muscle pain, and rhabdomyolysis after strenuous exercise. Acute renal failure owing to myoglobinuria is the most noteworthy symptom. In daily life, symptoms are rarely observed and prognosis is usually good. Correct and fast diagnosis of such latent symptomatic disorders is important to prevent a turn for the worse of these symptoms. LDH M subunit deficiency was first discovered by urinary discoloration and a discrepancy of laboratory data. Since then, only four cases have been reported in the Japanese population. The response to ischemic forearm work is characteristic (an increase of venous lactate concentration after ischemic work is not observed and a marked increase of venous pyruvate is found). The increase of pyruvate concentration is specific in LDH-M subunit deficiency, and is not observed in other abnormalities of the glycolytic pathway. Glycolysis was markedly retarded in the patient's muscle in the glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GA3PD) step, possibly due to the impaired reoxidation of NADH produced by GA3PD activity. Then, the excess NADH is reoxidized by alpha-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase and triose phosphates are drained to alpha-glycerophosphate and glycerol. Therefore ATP production is significantly impaired and muscle tissue is damaged. A genetical study revealed a deletion of 20 base-pairs in exon 6 in LDH-M subunit deficiency. This mutation results in a frame-shift translation and premature termination. PMID:1828277

Maekawa, M; Kanno, T; Sudo, K

1991-02-01

361

Missouri Professional School Counselors: Ratios Matter, Especially in High-Poverty Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Results link lower student-to-school-counselor ratios to better graduation rates and lower disciplinary incidents across Missouri high schools. An interaction favorable for promoting student success in school was found between increasing percentages of students receiving free or reduced-price lunch and smaller student-to-school-counselor ratios.…

Lapan, Richard T.; Gysbers, Norman C.; Stanley, Bragg; Pierce, Margaret E.

2012-01-01

362

EXPANSIÓN POBLACIONAL DE UNA ESPECIE INTRODUCIDA EN LA ARGENTINA: LA ARDILLA DE VIENTRE ROJO CALLOSCIURUS ERYTHRAEUS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Population expansion of an exotic mammal in Argentina: the Red-Bellied Squirrel Callosciurus erythraeus. Biological invasions are one of the major threats to biodiversity and ecosystem functioning, and they provoke economic losses to productive systems. A wild population of the Red-Bellied Squirrel Callosciurus erythraeus, native to South-east Asia, has established in the province a Buenos Aires (Argentina) since 1973. The objective

M. Laura Guichón; Marcelo Bello; Laura Fasola

2005-01-01

363

Micros, Minis and Mainframes. . .A Newcomers Guide to the World of Computers--Especially Micros.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the costs, programing languages, limitations, and capabilities of micro, mini, and mainframe computers, as well as specific computer projects and storage techniques, including disks, floppies, and videodiscs. Also discussed are links, networks, and computer features for libraries. A glossary and 22 references are provided. (RBF)|

Blair, John C., Jr.

1982-01-01

364

The Online Policy Manual . . . A Document That Few Have, But Many Can Benefit From (Especially Librarians).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Identifies policy matters to be addressed in establishing policy for computer based reference services: background and objectives; service organization and modes of operation; staff selection; training and personnel issues; service procedures; and specific search policies. Six sources are listed. (RBF)|

Pensyl, Mary E.

1982-01-01

365

Geothermal Resource Analysis and Structure of Basin and Range Systems, Especially Dixie Valley Geothermal Field, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

Publish new thermal and drill data from the Dizie Valley Geothermal Field that affect evaluation of Basin and Range Geothermal Resources in a very major and positive way. Completed new geophysical surveys of Dizie Valley including gravity and aeromagnetics and integrated the geophysical, seismic, geological and drilling data at Dizie Valley into local and regional geologic models. Developed natural state mass and energy transport fluid flow models of generic Basin and Range systems based on Dizie Valley data that help to understand the nature of large scale constraints on the location and characteristics of the geothermal systems. Documented a relation between natural heat loss for geothermal and electrical power production potential and determined heat flow for 27 different geothermal systems. Prepared data set for generation of a new geothermal map of North American including industry data totaling over 25,000 points in the US alone.

David Blackwell; Kenneth Wisian; Maria Richards; Mark Leidig; Richard Smith; Jason McKenna

2003-08-14

366

Biogeographic Features of Clusia , with Emphasis on South American and Especially Brazilian Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cox and Moore (1993), in their classic “Biogeography” text book, broadly define this discipline as “the study of living things\\u000a in a spatial and temporal context”. They argue that biogeography studies will often provide answers to questions such as:\\u000a “a) Why are there so many living things? b) Why are they distributed the way they are? c) Have they always

Dorothy Sue Dunn Araujo; Fabio Rubio Scarano

367

ESTRATEGIAS COINSTRUCCIONALES EN LA ENSEÑANZA DE LA HIGIENE BUCAL EN LA EDUCACIÓN ESPECIAL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Special education requires of teaching strategies that helps in the process of learning with respect to dental health education. These kind of Children have major limitations to acquire a good learning performance. Therefore learning is slower and the communication channel for this purpose is highly compromised. However concerning dental care it is necessary to promote creativity in children to keep

Aura Acosta; Profesora Agregado

368

Processing of plastic waste and scrap tires into chemical raw materials, especially by pyrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

An account of the occurrence of pyrolyzable material and the state of development of pyrolysis processes in the USA and Japan is followed by a description of laboratory and pilot-scale experiments designed to exploit the raw material content of pyrolyzable substances rather than the heating value. Plastic waste and scrap tires can be pyrolyzed to give up to 40 percent

Walter Kaminsky

1976-01-01

369

Heat pipe dynamics. Final report, April 30, 1981. [Uses of heat pipe, especially in solar collector  

Microsoft Academic Search

A heat-pipe flat plate solar collector is constructed like a typical flat plate collector with the exception that individual heat pipes are attached to the collector surface to transfer collected heat via a phase change from collector surface into an attached jacket containing a phase change material. The efficiency of such a collector was measured roughly. Also briefly described are:

R. M. Sr

1981-01-01

370

Heterogeneous growth of meteorites and planets, especially the earth and moon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is pointed out that enough information remains in meteorites to show that the solar nebula was chemically inhomogeneous, and that it did not develop under physical and chemical equilibrium. It is found that the earth is not in chemical equilibrium, and that it still retains vestiges of its heterogeneous growth in spite of prolonged convection and volcanism. The present investigation has the aim to unify simple ideas into a comprehensive, complex scheme for heterogeneous growth of the planets and parent bodies of meteorites. A scheme is considered for the conversion of dust and gas in the solar nebula into the present population of bodies. Attention is given to possible processes for the growth and development of planetesimals from dust via clouds, the major episodes in the development of the solar system, the relation of meteorites to a solar nebula with monotonic variation of temperature and oxidation state, the significance of meteorite properties, the composition of the inner planets, and the development of the earth.

Smith, J. V.

1982-01-01

371

LAS ESPECIES DEL GENERO PSILOCYBE (FUNGI, BASIDIOMYCOTINA, AGARICALES) CONOCIDAS DE VERACRUZ (MEXICO)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A check-list of 30 taxa of Psilocybe reported for the State of Veracruz (Mexico) since 1959 to 1995 is commented. These fungi represent 51% of the total number of species of this genus known from Mexico. Psilocybe alpina, P. isabelae and P. zoncuantlensis are described as new, belonging to sections Psilocybe, Cordisporae and Pratensae, respectively. Psilocybe bulbosa is recorded for

GASTON GUZMAN; FLORENCIA RAMIREZ-GUILLEN; FIDEL TAPIA; PILAR NAVARRO

1999-01-01

372

Brief oral stimulation, but especially oral fat exposure, elevates serum triglycerides in humans.  

PubMed

Oral exposure to dietary fat results in an early initial spike, followed by a prolonged elevation, of serum triglycerides in humans. The physiological and pathophysiological implications remain unknown. This study sought to determine the incidence of the effect, the required fat exposure duration, and its reliability. Thirty-four healthy adults participated in four to six response-driven trials held at least a week apart. They reported to the laboratory after an overnight fast, a catheter was placed in an antecubital vein, and a blood sample was obtained. Participants then ingested 50 g of safflower oil in capsules with 500 ml of water within 15 min to mimic a high fat meal but without oral fat exposure. Blood was collected 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 120, 240, 360, and 480 min after capsule ingestion with different forms (full fat, nonfat, none) and durations of oral fat exposures (10 s, 5 min, 20 min, and/or 2 h). A triglyceride response (increase of triglyceride >10 mg/dl within 30 min) was observed in 88.2%, 70.5%, and 50% of participants with full-fat, nonfat, and no oral exposure, respectively. Test-retest reliability was 75% with full-fat exposure but only 45.4% with nonfat exposure. Full-fat and nonfat exposures led to comparable significant elevations of triglyceride over no oral stimulation with 10-s exposures, but full fat led to a greater rise than nonfat with 20 min of exposure. These data indicate that nutritionally relevant oral fat exposures reliably elevate serum triglyceride concentrations in most people. PMID:19074638

Mattes, Richard D

2008-12-12

373

Plant d-2-Hydroxyglutarate Dehydrogenase Participates in the Catabolism of Lysine Especially during Senescence*  

PubMed Central

d-2-Hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase (d-2HGDH) catalyzes the specific and efficient oxidation of d-2-hydroxyglutarate (d-2HG) to 2-oxoglutarate using FAD as a cofactor. In this work, we demonstrate that d-2HGDH localizes to plant mitochondria and that its expression increases gradually during developmental and dark-induced senescence in Arabidopsis thaliana, indicating an enhanced demand of respiration of alternative substrates through this enzymatic system under these conditions. Using loss-of-function mutants in d-2HGDH (d2hgdh1) and stable isotope dilution LC-MS/MS, we found that the d-isomer of 2HG accumulated in leaves of d2hgdh1 during both forms of carbon starvation. In addition to this, d2hgdh1 presented enhanced levels of most TCA cycle intermediates and free amino acids. In contrast to the deleterious effects caused by a deficiency in d-2HGDH in humans, d2hgdh1 and overexpressing lines of d-2HGDH showed normal developmental and senescence phenotypes, indicating a mild role of d-2HGDH in the tested conditions. Moreover, metabolic fingerprinting of leaves of plants grown in media supplemented with putative precursors indicated that d-2HG most probably originates during the catabolism of lysine. Finally, the l-isomer of 2HG was also detected in leaf extracts, indicating that both chiral forms of 2HG participate in plant metabolism.

Engqvist, Martin K. M.; Kuhn, Anke; Wienstroer, Judith; Weber, Katrin; Jansen, Erwin E. W.; Jakobs, Cornelis; Weber, Andreas P. M.; Maurino, Veronica G.

2011-01-01

374

USO DE UNA ZEOLITA CUBANA EN CULTIVOS DE DOS ESPECIES DE MICROALGAS MARINAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A natural zeolite Cuban was used enriched for the cultivation of the marine microalgae Tetraselmis suecica and Chaetoceros ceratosporum, species used in the feeding of shrimp larvae in cultivation. Different zeolite concentrations were proven (5, 10 and 25 mg\\/L) adding it to the culture media Guillard \\

Sylvia Leal; Elvira Alfonso; Rafael Curbelo

375

Situacion de Girardinichthys viviparus (especie amenazada) en los Lagos de Chapultepec, Zumpango y Requena  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study is regarding to Girardillichthys viviparus of Chapultepec Lakes, Zumpango Lagoon and Requena Reservoir. The fishes were captured with rectangular dip net. Were registered temperature, oxygen, conductivity, pH, hardness and alkalinity. G viviparus was absent in Zumpango and Requena, sistems what received residual and wastewaters. In the three Chapultepec Lakes \\\\vas registered G. viviparus, the largest abundance was

Norma Navarrete Salgado; Gilberto Contreras Rivero; Guillermo Elias Fernandez; Margarita Laura; Rojas Bustamante

376

The Camp Health Manual. An Excellent Reference Written Especially for Organized Camps. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book is a guide to the diagnosis and care of sick children in organized camping situations. This book presents health care information for the management of medical and surgical problems by the camp counselor, camp director, camp nurse, and camp physician. The chapters are: (1) Camp Standards; (2) The Infirmary; (3) Infirmary Supplies; (4)…

Goldring, David; Middelkamp, J. Neal

377

Biological Evolution on the Earth Influenced by Astronomical Objects: Especially Gamma-ray Sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taking in to account 20,000 explosions of intragalactic supernovae per million years, the sources estimated at 1056 - 1057 MeV producing the high intensity of gamma- and xray-radiation even after its reduction through the Earth atmosphere, may have a significant mutagenic action. During the time period of the last 4 billion years not less than one hundred explosions up to

J. Ponert; P. Príhoda

2009-01-01

378

Biological Evolution on the Earth Influenced by Astronomical Objects: Especially Gamma-ray Sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Taking in to account 20,000 explosions of intragalactic supernovae per million years, the sources estimated at 1056 - 1057 MeV producing the high intensity of gamma- and xray-radiation even after its reduction through the Earth atmosphere, may have a significant mutagenic action. During the time period of the last 4 billion years not less than one hundred explosions up to the mean distance 126 pc from the Earth. All such explosions were able to evoke a genetic revolution among most taxonomic groups of terrestrial organisms. For mountain organisms, the more frequent supernova explosions in distance up to 400-900 pc are of importance, maritime organisms could be influenced mainly by secondary radiation products, rather than directly by the gamma and X-rays from the supernovae. The mechanisms of macroevolution depending on supernovae is elucidated. Smaller genetical revolutions in the macroevolutional process (formation of genera) took place on the average once every 10 millions or more years, fundamental genetic revolutions once in 100 millions or more years. Also other newly discovered astronomical gamma-ray sources have to be taken in account.

Ponert, J.; Príhoda, P.

2009-12-01

379

Theaflavins from black tea, especially theaflavin-3-gallate, reduce the incorporation of cholesterol into mixed micelles.  

PubMed

Tea is one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world and may be associated with reduced heart disease rates. Theaflavins, which are formed in the production of black tea, have been suggested being responsible for the blood-cholesterol-lowering (BCL) effects of tea. We hypothesized that the effect of theaflavins on BCL could be through interference in the formation of dietary mixed micelles, which could result in reduced intestinal cholesterol absorption. Micelles were produced by mixing oleic acid, bile acids, lyso-phosphatidylcholine, and cholesterol. Theaflavin-treated micelles/particles were analyzed using electron microscopy (cryo-TEM), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis, and light-scattering particle size measurements. A dose-dependent inhibitory effect of theaflavins on the incorporation of (14)C-labeled cholesterol into micelles and a theaflavin-dependent increase in particle size was found. These particles consisted of insoluble large multilamellar vesicles with onion-like structures. Ultracentrifugation and HPLC analysis revealed that the pellets contained mainly theaflavin-3-gallate, while the remaining theaflavins were found to be present in the supernatant. Using purified theaflavin subtypes confirmed that mainly theaflavin-3-gallate is responsible for multilamellar vesicle formation. These results show that theaflavins can play a role in decreased intestinal cholesterol absorption via inhibition of micelle formation. PMID:19049290

Vermeer, Mario A; Mulder, Theo P J; Molhuizen, Henri O F

2008-12-24

380

"Infectobesity: viral infections (especially with human adenovirus-36: Ad-36) may be a cause of obesity.  

PubMed

In recent years viral infections have been recognized as possible cause of obesity, alongside the traditionally recognized causes (genetic inheritance, and behaviour/environmental causes such as diet exercise, cultural practices and stress). Although four viruses have been reported to induce obesity (infectoobesity) in animal models (chickens, mice, sheep, goat, dogs, rats and hamsters), until recently the viral etiology of human obesity has not received sufficient attention, possibly because the four viruses are not able to infect humans. In a series of papers over the last ten years, however, the group of Prof. Dhurandhar (Pennington Biomedical Research Center, LA, USA) demonstrated that a human adenovirus, adenovirus-36 (Ad-36), is capable of inducing adiposity in experimentally infected chickens, mice and non-human primates (marmosets). Ad-36 is known to increase the replication, differentiation, lipid accumulation and insulin sensitivity in fat cells and reduces those cells' leptin secretion and expression. It also affects human primary preadipocytes. In rats increased adiposity was observed due to Ad-36 infection. Recent studies have shown that, in the USA, antibodies to Ad-36 were more prevalent in obese subjects (30%) than in non-obese subjects (11%). We postulate that Ad-36 may be a contributing factor to the worldwide rising problem of obesity. We suggest the extension of comparative virological studies between North America and Europe, and studies between discordant twins (both dizygous and monozygous). PMID:19138827

van Ginneken, Vincent; Sitnyakowsky, Laura; Jeffery, Jonathan E

2009-01-12

381

Nuts, especially walnuts, have both antioxidant quantity and efficacy and exhibit significant potential health benefits.  

PubMed

Free and total (after basic hydrolysis) polyphenols in nine types of raw and roasted nuts and two types of peanut butter (54 commercial samples) were analyzed after methanol extraction by a single step Folin-Ciocalteu reagent using catechin as standard. Walnuts had the highest free and total polyphenols in both the combined raw and roasted samples. Total polyphenols in the nuts were significantly higher than free polyphenols. Roasting had little effect on either free or total polyphenols in nuts. Raw and roasted walnuts had the highest total polyphenols. The efficacy of raw and roasted nut antioxidants was assessed by measuring the ability of the free polyphenol nut extracts to inhibit the oxidation of lower density lipoproteins (LDL + VLDL). A nut polyphenol, catechin, was measured after binding of three nut extracts to lower density lipoproteins. Walnut polyphenols had the best efficacy among the nuts and also the highest lipoprotein-bound antioxidant activity. Based on USDA availability data, the per capita total polyphenols was 162 mg from nuts per day in 2008. This corresponds to 19% of the total polyphenols from fruits and vegetables, nuts, grains, oils and spices in the US diet. Nuts provided 158 mg of polyphenols per day to the European Union diet. Nuts are high in polyphenol antioxidants which by binding to lipoproteins would inhibit oxidative processes that lead to atherosclerosis in vivo. In human supplementation studies nuts have been shown to improve the lipid profile, increase endothelial function and reduce inflammation, all without causing weight gain. These qualities make nuts a nutritious healthy snack and food additive. PMID:22187094

Vinson, Joe A; Cai, Yuxing

2011-12-21

382

[Intraspecific chromosomal variability in human pathogenic fungi, especially in Histoplasma capsulatum].  

PubMed

The ploidy, karyotype, and chromosome length polymorphism (CLP) of human pathogenic fungi were revised with emphasis on Histoplasma capsulatum, the causative agent of the systemic mycosis, histoplasmosis. Currently, different systems of gel electrophoresis are being used to determine fungal electrokaryotypes (EK). By renaturation kinetic and genomic reconstruction in H. capsulatum strains (G-186AS and Downs), estimated genome sizes of 23 and 32 Mb were determined for both strains, respectively. The haploid state was proposed for both strains, although aneuploidy was suggested for the Downs strain. Contour-clamped homogeneous electric field (CHEF), field inversion gel electrophoresis (FIGE), and Southern blot using different probes showed the presence of six to seven chromosomes in the Downs strain (low virulence), whereas four chromosomes were identified in the G-186B strain (high virulence). The use of these methods in the three major H. capsulatum reference strains (G-217B and Downs from the United States of America, G-186B from Panama) revealed distinct chromosome sizes, from 0.5 to 5.7 Mb, with CLP associated with chromosomes size and mobility. Recently, by CHEF, using 19 H. capsulatum isolates from Latin-America and the G-186B strain, five to seven chromosomes with 1.1 to 11.2 Mb molecular sizes were revealed, which again suggested CLP in H. capsulatum. However, to elucidate the EKs polymorphism in H. capsulatum and its relationship with the isolates phenotype more studies are needed to understand the mechanisms controlling ploidy variability. PMID:15709795

Romero-Martínez, Rafael; Canteros, Cristina; Taylor, Maria Lucia

2004-12-01

383

The viscosity of water at high pressures – especially at subzero degrees centigrade  

Microsoft Academic Search

New experimental data for the viscosity of water at high pressures up to 700?MPa in the temperature range of ?13?°C to 20?°C\\u000a are presented. The measurements were carried out with two different types of viscometer, both gravity driven. The set-up of\\u000a the viscometers and the pressure-dependent corrections are briefly described. The viscosity data are compared with available\\u000a literature data. Reasons

Petra Först; Franz Werner; Antonio Delgado

2000-01-01

384

Especially Social: Exploring the Use of an iOS Application in Special Needs Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A five-month exploratory study was conducted with iOS mobile devices in two Toronto area schools with students in grades 7 through 12. Both classrooms were identified as Special Education classes by the Ontario Ministry of Education, and each student was identified as having exceptionalities requiring additional support and differentiation within…

Campigotto, Rachelle; McEwen, Rhonda; Epp, Carrie Demmans

2013-01-01

385

Effects of Pollution, Especially from Feedlots, on Fishes in the Upper Neosho River Basin.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During the last decade the upper Neosho River and its major tributary the Cottonwood River in Kansas have been subject to periodic fish-kills. Eleven of the 15 fish-kills were associated with drainage from cattle feedlots. Two species which reflected chan...

F. B. Cross L. M. Cavin

1971-01-01

386

Clinical experience with titanium implants, especially with the limited contact dynamic compression plate system  

Microsoft Academic Search

AO\\/ASIF with its collaborating laboratories has developed cold worked pure titanium material for implants with an outstanding biocompatibility. The first prospectively controlled clinical series dates back to 1966 and was reported to be most successful. Pure titanium also became the material of choice for implants to be used in patients suffering from metal allergy. Today, a long-term and well-documented experience

P. Matter; H. B. Burch

1990-01-01

387

ORGANIC MATTER IN THE EXPIRED BREATH WITH ESPECIAL REFERENCE TO ITS INHIBITING POWER ON OXIDIZING FERMENTS.  

PubMed

Weichardt claims to have demonstrated the presence of an organic body in the expired air. He allowed the exhaled breath to pass through hydrochloric acid solution, evaporated the resulting solution to dryness on a water bath, and obtained a weighable residue which charred on ignition. If he neutralized the acid solution and concentrated it under reduced pressure, he obtained a solution which inhibited the bluing of the guaiacum indicator by blood. By exposing calcium chloride in a room in which the air had been vitiated, he claimed also to have obtained a substance from the air which prevented the bluing of the guaiacum indicator by blood. The experiments here recorded show that a variable amount of matter is retained by weak hydrochloric solution when exhaled breath is passed through it, and that this matter is volatile on ignition. Contrary to the findings of Weichardt, there is no charring or blackening. Nesslerization shows the residue to consist mainly, if not wholly, of ammonium chloride. This ammonia is believed to have come from the decomposition of food particles about the teeth. In one case the person (S.) had smoked just before the experiment, so that a small amount of the ammonia from the tobacco smoke may have been held temporarily by the saliva and food particles in the mouth and been given off gradually during the experiment. Weichardt's experiments on the inhibition of the guaiacum test for blood by means of the substances retained when exhaled breath is passed through hydrochloric acid or over calcium chloride crystals are not corroborated. It is further shown that the guaiacum indicator is unreliable for these tests in view of the fact that a small amount of free acid or free alkali will inhibit the guaiacum test for blood. This fact is offered as a probable explanation of Weichardt's results. Calcium chloride alone gives a deep blue color with the guaiacin indicator. Weichardt used this salt to collect from the expired breath certain unknown substances which he claims inhibit the oxidation of guaiacum by blood. His results are therefore inconclusive. The phenolphthalin test for blood has been studied in this connection and further light has been thrown on this reaction. The sodium salt of phenolphthalin is colorless in alkaline solution, and is readily oxidized by minute quantities of blood to phenolphthalein which gives a characteristic deep purplish red color in alkaline solution. It has been found that the presence of calcium chloride and ammonium chloride in small amounts retards and, in large amounts, prevents this reaction. It is believed that any salt composed of a weak base combined with a strong acid will have the same effect. This is discussed in the text. It has also been shown that the presence of calcium chloride or ammonium chloride decreases the depth of color of phenolphthalein in sodium hydroxide solution. Carbon dioxide also prevents the oxidation of phenolphthalin by blood. Of course this does not mean that carbon dioxide prevents the action of the oxidizing ferments generally. In this particular case the substance to be oxidized, namely phenolphthalin, was not allowed by reason of the presence of the carbon dioxide to combine with the alkali and thereby assume a state in which it could be easily oxidized. The results of one experiment seem to indicate a relation between the amount of dissolved oxygen in the solutions and the percentage of oxidation. Sodium chloride either alone or with the aid of hydrogen peroxide is able to bring about the oxidation of phenolphthalin in alkali to a very slight extent (3.5 to 5 per cent. in twenty-four hours). Therefore phenolphthalin as a test for oxidizing ferments should not be used in the presence of an appreciable amount of inorganic salts or carbon dioxide. Complete dialysis is recommended in these cases. It is also to be noted that the great delicacy of the test allows considerable dilution. Liquids were obtained from the expired breath by passing this through weak hydrochloric acid or by condensing the moisture in it by conducting it through

Amoss, H L

1913-02-01

388

Generator rotor, especially turbo-generator rotor with superconducting field winding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Generator rotor, including an inner and an outer concentric rotor part having a non-drive side and enclosing a high vacuum space, a first and a second bearing disposed on the non-drive side, a hollow shaft end of the outer rotor part being supported in the first bearing, a journal of the inner rotor part being extended through the hollow shaft

Weghaupt

1983-01-01

389

[Possibilities of gene-technological production of drugs, especially also the interferons].  

PubMed

For a long time proteins have been used in Medicine as medication. Human Growth Hormone (isolated from Pituitaries of Cadavers) or insuline (isolated from porcine or bovine pancreas) are examples. Genetic engineering has essentially simplified the production of such well known proteins and on the other hand enabled search for and characterization of new human proteins. New active principles may thus be discovered, their physiological importance studied and if possible used for therapeutic purposes. Examples are thrombolytic proteins or interferon. Today more than 20 new proteins are already registered and more than 150 proteins are intensively tested in clinics. PMID:7839046

Hochuli, E

1995-01-10

390

TARTRATE NEPHRITIS, WITH ESPECIAL REFERENCE TO SOME OF THE CONDITIONS UNDER WHICH IT MAY BE PRODUCED  

PubMed Central

Salts of tartaric acid administered subcutaneously to fasting phlorhizinized animals exert a markedly detrimental influence upon the secretory efficiency of the kidney, which is indicated by a greatly lessened output of certain typical urinary constituents. A histological study of the nephritic kidney demonstrates that the salts act specifically upon the epithelium of the convoluted tubules, and to a less extent upon the tubules of the loops of Henle, the glomerules, and interstitial tissue remaining unharmed. In the disintegrative process taking place, vacuolation first occurs, is rapidly followed by necrosis, and finally the dead cells or their debris may entirely fill the lumina of the tubules and form granular and hyaline casts. There is no strict relation between the dose of tartrate and the extent of damage inflicted. While large doses invariably induce a well marked response small doses may at times produce effects equally significant. Tartrates introduced into fasting animals call forth symptoms practically identical with those observed in fasting phlorhinized animals. It is therefore apparent that in the establishment of the pathological condition under discussion phlorhizin is without significant influence. Neither the liver nor the adrenal exhibits any detrimental effect from the injection of tartrates. The introduction of tartrates by way of the mouth to fasting rabbits is not nearly so effective in the production of nephritic symptoms as the administration of much smaller doses subcutaneously. In general, under the former circumstances the initial stages only of epithelial disintegration of the convoluted tubules obtain, which, however, are scarcely sufficient to account for the rapidity with which death usually ensues. Although in well fed animals distinct pathological changes in the kidney are induced by the introduction of tartrates per os, these abnormalities are less in degree, but similar in kind, than those provoked under like conditions in the fasting animal. When tartrates are given subcutaneously to well fed rabbits the effects evoked are somewhat less pronounced than when the salts are injected into fasting animals. From these facts it is evident that the state of nutrition plays a part in the development of tartrate nephritis. It is indicated that the introduction of a sufficiency of alkali to animals in a state of fasting permits a greater elimination of urinary constituents during tartrate nephritis than obtains under similar circumstances when the alkali is omitted. Histologically there is evidence that the administration of alkali exerts a slight modifying action.

Underhill, Frank P.; Wells, H. Gideon; Goldschmidt, Samuel

1913-01-01

391

Fenología de algunas especies que son alimento para la pava aliblanca Penélope albipennis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phenological traits (vegetative growth, flowering and fruiting) of 17 plant species that feed the White-winged Guan (Penelope albipennis Taczanowski) was assessed in the Ecological Reserve of Chaparrí, Chongoyape (Lambayeque). The evaluations were monthly between July 2004 and June 2005 in three areas known as: plain dry forest, dry forest to wet and dry forest ravine slope. The temperature was

Joaquín R. Martos; Mariella Scarpati; Consuelo Rojas; Guillermo E. Delgado

392

Studies on the Antiviral Activity of Guanylhydrazones Especially Against Arbo- and Myxoviruses.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Antiviral and antitumor activities of 4,6-dichloro-2-aminophenol hydrochloride (no. 178) were studied. Non-lethal doses of no. 178 in vivo was 500 mg, 350 mg, 25 mg, and 1.5 mg per Kg. of mouse by intragastric, intraperitoneal, intranasal, and intracerebr...

B. Nagaki

1967-01-01

393

Richness of lichen species, especially of threatened ones, is promoted by management methods furthering stand continuity.  

PubMed

Lichens are a key component of forest biodiversity. However, a comprehensive study analyzing lichen species richness in relation to several management types, extending over different regions and forest stages and including information on site conditions is missing for temperate European forests. In three German regions (Schwäbische Alb, Hainich-Dün, Schorfheide-Chorin), the so-called Biodiversity Exploratories, we studied lichen species richness in 631 forest plots of 400 m(2) comprising different management types (unmanaged, selection cutting, deciduous and coniferous age-class forests resulting from clear cutting or shelterwood logging), various stand ages, and site conditions, typical for large parts of temperate Europe. We analyzed how lichen species richness responds to management and habitat variables (standing biomass, cover of deadwood, cover of rocks). We found strong regional differences with highest lichen species richness in the Schwäbische Alb, probably driven by regional differences in former air pollution, and in precipitation and habitat variables. Overall, unmanaged forests harbored 22% more threatened lichen species than managed age-class forests. In general, total, corticolous, and threatened lichen species richness did not differ among management types of deciduous forests. However, in the Schwäbische-Alb region, deciduous forests had 61% more lichen species than coniferous forests and they had 279% more threatened and 76% more corticolous lichen species. Old deciduous age classes were richer in corticolous lichen species than young ones, while old coniferous age-classes were poorer than young ones. Overall, our findings highlight the importance of stand continuity for conservation. To increase total and threatened lichen species richness we suggest (1) conserving unmanaged forests, (2) promoting silvicultural methods assuring stand continuity, (3) conserving old trees in managed forests, (4) promoting stands of native deciduous tree species instead of coniferous plantations, and (5) increasing the amount of deadwood in forests. PMID:23383196

Boch, Steffen; Prati, Daniel; Hessenmöller, Dominik; Schulze, Ernst-Detlef; Fischer, Markus

2013-01-29

394

Secondary containment systems especially well suited for hydrocarbon storage and delivery systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A secondary containment system is described comprising a sheet of membrane material which is large enough to line at least a portion of a collection and containment pit along with trenches radiating. The trenches are graded to drain into the pit where a substantial amount of membrane bulk enables it to bunch in at least an area of the pit

Moreland

1987-01-01

395

Secondary containment systems especially well suited for hydrocarbon storage and delivery systems  

SciTech Connect

A secondary containment system is described comprising a sheet of membrane material which is large enough to line at least a portion of a collection and containment pit along with trenches radiating. The trenches are graded to drain into the pit where a substantial amount of membrane bulk enables it to bunch in at least an area of the pit and to provide sufficient slack to conform to irregularities on the walls and floor of the lined portion of the pit and trenches. Localized stresses do not occur at places where the membrane bridges projections form by the irregularities, corners, or the like, anchoring means independent of the membrane and surrounding at least part of the perimeter of the pit. Means for attaching the anchoring means to the membrane to secure it provides a shoring for walls of the pit by restraining movement of the membrane if there should be a cave-in of the pit for a period of time which is at least long enough for workers to escape if there should be a cave-in. Means for closing and joining at least some sections of the membranes to preserve the integrity of a seal formed in order to form a secondary containment enclosure.

Moreland, J.

1987-07-28

396

Cell wall development of Micrasterias americana, especially in isotonic and hypertonic solutions.  

PubMed

The cell wall development of Micrasterias americana was investigated by light and electron microscopy. From digestion experiments with pectinase and cellulase, and from fluorescence spectra in Calcofluor and Coriphosphin solution, it was concluded that pectin substances were the main component of the young developing cell wall and that cellulose was synthesized after the daughter hemicell was well developed. In 0-16 M mannitol, wall materials accumulated and were incompletely incorporated into the wall at the region where wall growth would be expected. The plasma membrane was in close contact with the cell wall at the sinus, and this contact was assumed to prevent penetration of wall material at this region, resulting in the accumulation of wall material at regions other than the sinus. The cellulosic wall layer was formed after the production of pectic substances in the 0-16 M mannitol. In 0-3 M mannitol neither a definite wall layer of cellulose nor a pectic wall was produced, presumably due to extensive dilution of the wall materials in the plasmolysed space between the cell wall and the plasma membrane. Under normal circumstances, the shape of the daughter cell is assumed to be determined by the shape of the developed primary wall, which is induced by precocious differentiation of the wall at the sinus. PMID:965432

Ueda, K; Yoshioka, S

1976-08-01

397

ANÁLISIS PANBIOGEOGRÁFICO DE LAS ESPECIES DE HETEROLINUS Y HOMALOLINUS (COLEOPTERA: STAPHYLINIDAE: XANTHOLININI)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A panbiogeographic analysis was carried out to analyze the geographical distribution of Heterolinus Sharp and Homalolinus Sharp species, in order to contribute to the study of the biogeographical relationships of Mesoamerica. The three Heterolinus species are distributed mainly in northwestern South America, but H. basiniger Márquez is also recorded from Costa Rica. Homalolinus species are ranged mainly in Mexico and

Juan MÁRQUEZ; Juan J. MORRONE

2003-01-01

398

A 2.9 megabit field memory especially suitable for PALplus applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today's television has reached a high state of picture quality, and further major improvements are limited by the restrictions of the transmission standard. However, as IC technology advances, means have become available to eliminate or reduce many of the effects which still impair a perfect picture rendition. Among these effects are large-area flicker, line-flicker, cross talk between luminance and chrominance,

E. d'Ambrosio; M. Fragano; G. Imondi; M. Lanciano

1994-01-01

399

Contamination of Water by Air Pollutants, Especially Ammonia from Animal Manures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ammonia traps using .01N H2SO4 were placed near poultry and beef cattle operations. Up to 66 kg/ha ammonia was trapped near the animal operations. At distances greater than 500 to 800 meters away there was no effect from the animals but there was still ab...

J. Giddens

1975-01-01

400

Abstracting Psychological Literature, Especially Non-English, in the 1990s  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cessation of non-English materials in Psychological Abstracts in 1988 resulted in a crisis, yet to be resolved, in the international exchange of information. As a long-term solution we favour founding International Psychological Abstracts, with the responsibility for preparation of the abstracts to be shared by the international psychological community. It is hoped that the compact-disc versions of the databases

Josef Broek; Jii Hoskovec

1992-01-01

401

Wastewater Treatment in Textile, Tanneries and Electroplating Industries especially by Activated Sludge Method A technical report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our biosphere is under constant threat from continuing environmental pollution. Impact on its atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere by anthropogenic activities can not be ignored. Man made activities on water by domestic, industrial, agriculture, shipping, radio-active, aquaculture wastes; on air by industrial pollutants, mobile combustion, burning of fuels, agricultural activities, ionization radiation, cosmic radiation, suspended particulate matter; and on land by

Muhammad Irfan; Mahmood Saleem; R. U. Khan

402

Biomass in energy supply, especially in the state of Brandenburg, Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a result of growing visible damage to the environment connected with the use of fossil fuels, biomass is increasingly becoming a topic in energy economical and political discussions. Also, the limitation of fossil fuels and the associated dependency on international energy markets make a change of view to the direction of an energy supply based on biomass increasingly necessary.

Janet Nagel

2000-01-01

403

Physical evidence for plasmids in autotrophic, especially hydrogen-oxidizing bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agarose gel electrophoresis of crude lysates from 23 species of autotrophic bacteria revealed plasmids of various sizes in 12 species. The plasmid pattern varied considerably. While the majority of the plasmid-bearing species harbored one or two plasmids, one species, Alcaligenes latus, exhibited more than six ccc-DNA bands. With one exception the molecular masses of the plasmids were 50×106 or higher.

Christine Gerstenberg; Bärbel Friedrich; Hans G. Schlegel

1982-01-01

404

SOBRE EL TRATAMIENTO DE GALIUM L. (RUBIACEAE) EN FLORA IBERICA  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMEN. Sobre el tratamiento de Galium L. (Rubiaceae) en Flora Iberica. El estudio taxonómico del género Galium para Flora Iberica ha revelado la existencia en el territorio de 51 especies y 14 subespecies. Éstas han sido agrupadas en 10 secciones, previamente descritas, reconociéndose para algunas de ellas nuevas series: Galium sect. Galium ser. Trichogaliopsis (Lange) Ortega-Olivencia & Devesa, Galium sect.

Ana ORTEGA-OLIVENCIA; Juan Antonio DEVESA

405

Les noves tecnologies: un pas endavant en la documentació jurídica = Las nuevas tecnologías: un paso adelante en la documentación jurídica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Es pretén mostrar la incidència que està tenint l'assentament de les anomenades noves tecnologies de la informació i comunicació en el món del dret, presentant els recursos disponibles a través d'Internet (pàgines web gestionades per l'Administració i iniciatives privades), juntament amb els més tradicionals i usats fins ara (paper, bases de dades en CD-ROM, etc.). Conèixer els recursos disponibles i

Rebeca García Palomeque; Rafael Pérez Campos

2003-01-01

406

Relectura del discurso novomundista de Alejo Carpentier y Abel Posse en el contexto de la nueva novela historica  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this dissertation was to analyze the narrative works of Alejo Carpentier and Abel Posse within the context of the new Latin American historical novel that revises the Old World-New World Encounter. Focusing on El arpa y la sombra and Los perros del paraíso , the dissertation studied the particular manner in which Latin American novelists, and particularly

Francisco Eduardo Porrata

2002-01-01

407

Relectura del discurso novomundista de Alejo Carpentier y Abel Posse en el contexto de la nueva novela histórica  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this dissertation was to analyze the narrative works of Alejo Carpentier and Abel Posse within the context of the new Latin American historical novel that revises the Old World-New World Encounter. Focusing on El arpa y la sombra and Los perros del paraíso, the dissertation studied the particular manner in which Latin American novelists, and particularly Alejo

Francisco Eduardo Porrata

2002-01-01

408

Liofilizado de fibrina combinado con injerto óseo autólogo en artrodesis posterolateral. Estudio en conejos de Nueva Zelanda  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Background: Currently there are different strategies to in- crease the fusion rate in spine surgery in the presence of au- tologous bone graft. The use of fibrin glue has multiple appli- cations in surgery, but there is controversy about the use of fibrin glue as a bone enhancer. Methods: The purpose of the study was to determinate the effectiveness

Barón Zárate-Kalfópulos; Eréndira Estrada-Villaseñor; Hugo Lecona-Buitrón

2007-01-01

409

Los programas informáticos P2P y las nuevas perspectivas de la industria musical en Norteamérica y Europa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Internet puede calificarse como un verdadero catalizador social que avanza tendencias y comportamientos y que presenta constantes desafíos a los marcos jurídico-políticos y socioculturales de los países del mundo. En relación con la transmisión de datos por la red, uno de los problemas que ha ocasionado más controversia es el de los programas de intercambio de archivos en la red

Guillem Baladia Puche; Eduardo Riol Carvajal

2007-01-01

410

Nueva metodología para la definición de la carga de entrenamiento deportivo en la conducción de los jóvenes talentos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Nowadays, in the process of sports training planning, it is common to see that it is organized in first instance based on the distribution of the contents that group the generality of macro structure and its depth level is achieved in the same measure in which these contents are directed towards medium and small structures including the unit of

José Rodolfo Falero González

411

New Voices in the Struggle/Nuevas Voces en la Lucha: Toward Increasing Latina/o Faculty in Theological Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Little progress has been made to increase Latina/o faculty representation in theological education. In this study, 33 interviews with Latina/o theological faculty identify supports and challenges to their scholarly development. Latino critical theory guides the analysis. Narratives reveal faculty experiences with oppression, challenging dominant…

Turner, Caroline Sotello Viernes; Hernandez, Edwin I.; Pena, Milagros; Gonzalez, Juan Carlos

2008-01-01

412

Analysis of the Gulf of Mexico's Veracruz-Havana Route of La Flota de la Nueva España  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During colonial times, an active maritime trade existed between Spain and the New World, with convoys sailing annually to and from Mexico and returning via Havana, Cuba, after wintering in America. A database constructed from secondary and open sources revealed that Spanish vessels were sailing over open waters along a northern path near Louisiana and a southern path across the central Gulf of Mexico. These routes were traversed in about one month and scheduling for the convoy was based on an understanding of the Americas’ meteorological and oceanographic climate. However, other factors may also have been involved in the directional layout of the routes. Today these ancient routes crisscross planning areas for oil and gas lease sales in the US Exclusive Economic Zone and the information presented in this article may aid in identifying areas where historic shipwrecks may lie. Maps and documents found during this study helped piece together the evolution of our understanding of the Gulf of Mexico surface circulation and how this knowledge influenced sailing during colonial times.

Lugo-Fernández, A.; Ball, D. A.; Gravois, M.; Horrell, C.; Irion, J. B.

2007-06-01

413

Microsatellite characterization of Andean races of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).  

PubMed

The Andean gene pool of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) has high levels of morphological diversity in terms of seed color and size, growth habit and agro-ecological adaptation, but previously was characterized by low levels of molecular marker diversity. Three races have been described within the Andean gene pool: Chile, Nueva Granada and Peru. The objective of this study was to characterize a collection of 123 genotypes representing Andean bean diversity with 33 microsatellite markers that have been useful for characterizing race structure in common beans. The genotypes were from both the primary center of origin as well as secondary centers of diversity to which Andean beans spread and represented all three races of the gene pool. In addition we evaluated a collection of landraces from Colombia to determine if the Nueva Granada and Peru races could be distinguished in genotypes from the northern range of the primary center. Multiple correspondence analyses of the Andean race representatives identified two predominant groups corresponding to the Nueva Granada and Peru races. Some of the Chile race representatives formed a separate group but several that had been defined previously as from this race grouped with the other races. Gene flow was more notable between Nueva Granada and Peru races than between these races and the Chile race. Among the Colombian genotypes, the Nueva Granada and Peru races were identified and introgression between these two races was especially notable. The genetic diversity within the Colombian genotypes was high, reaffirming the importance of this region as an important source of germplasm. Results of this study suggest that the morphological classification of all climbing beans as Peru race genotypes and all bush beans as Nueva Granada race genotypes is erroneous and that growth habit traits have been mixed in both races, requiring a re-adjustment in the concept of morphological races in Andean beans. PMID:17924092

Blair, M W; Díaz, J M; Hidalgo, R; Díaz, L M; Duque, M C

2007-10-09

414

CSF levels of prostaglandins, especially the level of prostaglandin D 2, are correlated with increasing propensity towards sleep in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentration of PGD2, PGE2, and of PGF2? was measured in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collected from the cisterna magna of conscious rats (n=29), which, chronically implanted with a catheter for the CSF sampling, underwent deprivation of daytime sleep. Significant elevation of the CSF level of PGD2 was observed following 2.5-h sleep deprivation (SD), and the elevation became more marked

Arjun Ram; Haushila P Pandey; Hitoshi Matsumura; Keiko Kasahara-Orita; Tomoko Nakajima; Ryuichi Takahata; Shinsuke Satoh; Akira Terao; Osamu Hayaishi

1997-01-01

415

Estudio Fitoquimico de la Especie Datura Sanguinea (Huantuc) (Phyto-Chemical Study of the Species Datura Sanguinea (Huantuc).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Datura sanguineo, known as 'huantuc' was studied by means of phytochemical analysis. According to popular tradition, its flowers produce asphasia and obnubillation. The leaves were used for the first series of extractions. The aqueous extracts and also th...

R. Ochoa E. de Naranjo P. Naranjo

1967-01-01

416

MRI plaque imaging reveals high-risk carotid plaques especially in diabetic patients irrespective of the degree of stenosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Plaque imaging based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) represents a new modality for risk assessment in atherosclerosis. It allows classification of carotid plaques in high-risk and low-risk lesion types (I-VIII). Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM 2) represents a known risk factor for atherosclerosis, but its specific influence on plaque vulnerability is not fully understood. This study investigates whether MRI-plaque

L Esposito; T Saam; P Heider; Angelina Bockelbrink; Jaroslav Pelisek; D Sepp; R Feurer; C Winkler; T Liebig; K Holzer; O Pauly; S Sadikovic; B Hemmer; H Poppert

2010-01-01

417

Catalytic unit for gas phase catalysis, more especially for use with wood- and other solid fuel-burning stoves  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes in combination: a solid fuel burning stove having a firebox and a flue aperture; a heat exchanger jacket connected to the flue aperture and having a tubular inner wall and a tubular outer wall spaced outwardly therefrom and defining an air space therewith; a catalytic combustor unit disposed in the heat exchanger jacket comprising means for maintaining approximately true pyrolysis in the firebox, including a first catalytic unit and a second catalytic unit spaced longitudinally downstream from the first unit and defining therewith a chamber bounded by an intermediate portion of the inner wall of the heat exchanger jacket, each catalytic unit comprising longitudinally extending walls defining a multitude of small tubular flow passages extending generally longitudinally of the heat exchanger jacket and supporting a catalyst for promoting cracking of hydrocarbons and combustion of carbon monoxide and carbon particles, an air inlet conduit communicating between the surroundings and the air space in the heat exchanger jacket, for introducing secondary combustion air into the air space; and air inlet ports through the portion of the inner wall of the heat exchanger jacket, the ports directing the secondary combustion air non-radially into the chamber.

Fernbach, E.A.; Guerriere, R.A.

1986-04-22

418

“I'm Not Sure I Can Handle the Kids, Especially, the, uh, You Know Special Ed Kids”  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we report the results of a study aimed at evaluating the impact of an inclusionary field-based experience on the attitudes of preservice undergraduate elementary education majors towards children with exceptionalities. We were interested in finding out whether such experiences lead to more positive attitudes towards exceptional children in the regular classroom. The attitudes of three intact groups

Pamela G. Yellin; David Yellin; P. L. Claypool; Kouider Mokhtari; Robert Carr; Tony Latiker; Liliana Risley; Susan Szabo

2003-01-01

419

Singularities, swallowtails and Dirac points. An analysis for families of Hamiltonians and applications to wire networks, especially the Gyroid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Motivated by the Double Gyroid nanowire network we develop methods to detect Dirac points and classify level crossings, aka. singularities in the spectrum of a family of Hamiltonians.The approach we use is singularity theory. Using this language, we obtain a characterization of Dirac points and also show that the branching behavior of the level crossings is given by an unfolding of An type singularities. Which type of singularity occurs can be read off a characteristic region inside the miniversal unfolding of an Ak singularity.We then apply these methods in the setting of families of graph Hamiltonians, such as those for wire networks. In the particular case of the Double Gyroid we analytically classify its singularities and show that it has Dirac points. This indicates that nanowire systems of this type should have very special physical properties.

Kaufmann, Ralph M.; Khlebnikov, Sergei; Wehefritz-Kaufmann, Birgit

2012-11-01

420

Influence of Origin of Isolates, Especially Endocarditis Isolates, and Various Genes on Biofilm Formation by Enterococcus faecalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endocarditis isolates of Enterococcus faecalis produced biofilm significantly more often than nonendocarditis isolates, and 39% of 79 versus 6% of 84 isolates produced strong biofilm (P < 0.0001). esp was not required, but its presence was associated with higher amounts of biofilm (P < 0.001). Mutants disrupted in dltA, efaA, ace, lsa, and six two-component regulatory systems were largely unaltered,

Jamal A. Mohamed; Wenxiang Huang; Sreedhar R. Nallapareddy; Fang Teng; Barbara E. Murray

2004-01-01

421

Using corpora for awareness-raising purposes in translation, especially into a foreign language (Spanish–English)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Translating into a foreign language is no simple task, but, in Spain at least, it is not uncommon for professional translators to be asked to do so. Translation trainees in Spain therefore ought to acquire competence in translating into the foreign language(s) with which they work, a goal that most of the country's university translation programmes seek to fulfil. This

Patricia Rodríguez-Inés

2012-01-01

422

Iodine in Oil and Gas Fields: Especially on the Geochemical Consideration of the Prospecting for Iodine Deposits.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Iodine contents in brines of gas and oil fields throughout the world are surveyed from the standpoint of water quality and Cl content, and brines from oil, gas, and coal fields in Japan are studied in terms of Cl content. The distribution of iodine and ha...

K. Motojima

1976-01-01

423

Iodine in oil and gas fields: Especially on the geochemical consideration of the prospecting for iodine deposits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iodine contents in brines of gas and oil fields throughout the world are surveyed from the standpoint of water quality and Cl content, and brines from oil, gas, and coal fields in Japan are studied in terms of Cl content. The distribution of iodine and halogens and their relationship in underground waters and the relationship between iodine and organic substances

K. Motojima

1976-01-01

424

Groundwater Flow Model Including Deeper Part On The Basis Of Field Data - Especially Determination Of Boundary Conditions And Hydraulic Parameters-  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The final purpose of our study is to clarify the quantitative groundwater flow including deeper part, 500-1000m depth, in the basin in caldera on the mountain. The computer simulation is one the best methods to achieve this purpose. In such a study, however, it is difficult to determine the boundary conditions and hydraulic properties of geology in deeper part, generally. For this reason, we selected Gora basin as a study area, because many hydraulic data have been stored for more than 30 years in this basin. In addition, because the volcanic thermal water is mainly formed by mixing of groundwater and thermal component, the study for deeper groundwater flow can contribute the agenda for the protection of thermal groundwater which is regards as a limited resource. Gora basin, in Hakone area is one of the most famous spa (a resort having thermal groundwater or hot springs) in Japan. The area of the basin is approximately 10 square kilometers and has more than 200 deep wells. In our study, at first, the dataset of hydraulic head was created by using the stored data to construct the conceptual model for groundwater flow. The potential distribution exhibited that the groundwater flowed downward dominant. And the geomorphology can be regarded as hydraulic boundary even in deer part, that is to say, we can regard the ridge as no flow boundary in simulation model. Next, for quantitative understanding of groundwater flow, we need to obtain not only boundary conditions but also hydraulic property of geology, for example, hydraulic conductivity, K, as one of the important parameters. Generally, such a parameter has not been measured in past survey. So, we used the belief method for calculating the hydraulic conductivity by using the data of thermal logging test, which was similar to a slug test. As results of the analysis, the close relationship between K and well depth were obtained. This result implies that the K value depends on the overburden pressure of geology. That is to say, we should take the well depth into consideration, when we give the K value to geologic layer in the simulation model.

Machida, I.; Itadera, K.

2005-12-01

425

MRI plaque imaging reveals high-risk carotid plaques especially in diabetic patients irrespective of the degree of stenosis  

PubMed Central

Background Plaque imaging based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) represents a new modality for risk assessment in atherosclerosis. It allows classification of carotid plaques in high-risk and low-risk lesion types (I-VIII). Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM 2) represents a known risk factor for atherosclerosis, but its specific influence on plaque vulnerability is not fully understood. This study investigates whether MRI-plaque imaging can reveal differences in carotid plaque features of diabetic patients compared to nondiabetics. Methods 191 patients with moderate to high-grade carotid artery stenosis were enrolled after written informed consent was obtained. Each patient underwent MRI-plaque imaging using a 1.5-T scanner with phased-array carotid coils. The carotid plaques were classified as lesion types I-VIII according to the MRI-modified AHA criteria. For 36 patients histology data was available. Results Eleven patients were excluded because of insufficient MR-image quality. DM 2 was diagnosed in 51 patients (28.3%). Concordance between histology and MRI-classification was 91.7% (33/36) and showed a Cohen's kappa value of 0.81 with a 95% CI of 0.98-1.15. MRI-defined high-risk lesion types were overrepresented in diabetic patients (n = 29; 56.8%). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed association between DM 2 and MRI-defined high-risk lesion types (OR 2.59; 95% CI [1.15-5.81]), independent of the degree of stenosis. Conclusion DM 2 seems to represent a predictor for the development of vulnerable carotid plaques irrespective of the degree of stenosis and other risk factors. MRI-plaque imaging represents a new tool for risk stratification of diabetic patients. See Commentary: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/8/78/abstract

2010-01-01

426

Private Pensions: Low Defined Contribution Plan Savings May Pose Challenges to Retirement Security, Especially for Many Low-Income Workers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Over the last 25 years, pension coverage has shifted primarily from 'traditional' defined benefit (DB) plans, in which workers accrue benefits based on years of service and earnings, toward defined contribution (DC) plans, in which participants accumulate...

2007-01-01

427

Making up Is Hard to Do, Especially for Mothers with High Levels of Depressive Symptoms and Their Infant Sons  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: The goal of this study was to evaluate the interactions of mothers with normative or high levels of depressive symptomatology on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D) and their 3-month-old infants. Although successful mutual regulation of affect is critical to children's socio-emotional development, little is…

Katherine Weinberg, M.; Olson, Karen L.; Beeghly, Marjorie; Tronick, Edward Z.

2006-01-01

428

Serum and Antibodies of Glaucoma Patients Lead to Changes in the Proteome, Especially Cell Regulatory Proteins, in Retinal Cells  

PubMed Central

Purpose Previous studies show significantly specifically changed autoantibody reactions against retinal antigens in the serum of glaucoma and ocular hypertension (OHT) patients in comparison to healthy people. As pathogenesis of glaucoma still is unknown the aim of this study was to analyze if the serum and antibodies of glaucoma patients interact with neuroretinal cells. Methods R28 cells were incubated with serum of patients suffering from primary open angle glaucoma (POAG), normal tension glaucoma (NTG) or OHT, POAG serum after antibody removal and serum from healthy people for 48 h under a normal or an elevated pressure of 15000 Pa (112 mmHg). RGC5 cells were additionally incubated with POAG antibodies under a normal pressure. Protein profiles of the R28 cells were measured with Seldi-Tof-MS, protein identification was performed with Maldi-TofTof-MS. Protein analysis of the RGC5 cells was performed with ESI-Orbitrap MS. Statistical analysis including multivariate statistics, variance component analysis as well as calculating Mahalanobis distances was performed. Results Highly significant changes of the complex protein profiles after incubation with glaucoma and OHT serum in comparison to healthy serum were detected, showing specific changes in the cells (e.g. Protein at 9192 Da (p<0.001)). The variance component analysis showed an effect of the serum of 59% on the cells. The pressure had an effect of 11% on the cells. Antibody removal led to significantly changed cell reactions (p<0.03). Furthermore, the incubation with POAG serum and its antibodies led to pro-apoptotic changes of proteins in the cells. Conclusions These studies show that the serum and the antibodies of glaucoma patients significantly change protein expressions involved in cell regulatory processes in neuroretinal cells. These could lead to a higher vulnerability of retinal cells towards stress factors such as an elevated IOP and eventually could lead to an increased apoptosis of the cells as in glaucoma.

Bell, Katharina; Funke, Sebastian; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Grus, Franz H.

2012-01-01

429

Thermal instability and magnetic field generated by a large heat flow in a plasma, especially under laser-fusion conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Representing a large heat flow in a plasma as a flow of hot relatively collisionless electrons balanced by an opposing current of cold collisional electrons, it can be shown that an electrothermal instability can be induced in the cold resistive plasma when the heat flow exceeds about 3% of the free-streaming limit. This is nonconvective if the cold plasma is

M. Haines

1981-01-01

430

A look back at forty years of lead-acid-battery development; A survey especially regarding stationary applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty years ago, lead-acid batteries were already the dominating electrochemical storage system. As standby batteries, they mostly were used as large central batteries of flooded cells. Although they already represented a matured system, development went on, mainly in the areas of safety aspects and reduction of maintenance expenses. An important turning point was the introduction of the valve-regulated design, abbreviated

D. Berndt

2005-01-01

431

Comparison of Established Systems for Measuring the Dustiness of Powders with the UNC Dustiness Tester Developed Especially for Pharmaceutical Substances.  

PubMed

Four methods for evaluating the dustiness of powders have been compared. The relatively new UNC Dustiness Tester first described by Boundy et al. (2006) in the Annals of Occupational Hygiene, which was developed specifically for the measurement of hazardous and/or highly potent substances, a single-drop device, a rotating-drum method, and a continuous drop-down apparatus. The four methods show four different ratings of dustiness for nine reference materials. This article describes the differences, explores reasons for the deviations, identifies a need for distinct dustiness test methods, and highlights the significance for occupational health and safety. PMID:23749502

Bach, Sylvia; Eickmann, Udo; Schmidt, Eberhard

2013-06-08

432

Eating Your Lectures and Having Them Too: Is Online Lecture Availability Especially Helpful in "Skills-Based" Courses?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At the University of Toronto at Scarborough, we provide enhanced flexibility to our students using a blended learning approach (i.e., the webOption) whereby classes are videotaped as they are offered in a traditional manner, then posted online for subsequent student access. Students can attend lectures live, watch them online at their convenience,…

Joordens, Steve; Le, Ada; Grinnell, Raymond; Chrysostomou, Sophie

2009-01-01

433

Formation of flavonoids, especially anthocyanin and chlorogenic acid in ‘Jonagold’ apple skin: influences of growth regulators and fruit maturity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influences of ethephon, (S)-trans-2-amino-4-(2-aminoethoxy)-3-butenoic acid hydrochloride (ABG-3168), gibberellins (GA4+7 and GA3), alar, cycocel (CCC), prohexadione-Ca, seniphos, shikimic acid, plantacur-E and galactose on the accumulation of flavonoids and chlorogenic acid in ‘Jonagold’ apple skin were investigated, with emphasis on anthocyanin, in order to separate maturity-related from other development-related influences. Fruit maturation\\/ripening as determined by both Streif and Starch indices was

Mohamed A Awad; Anton de Jager

2002-01-01

434

The importance of being earnest about shank and thigh kinematics especially when using ankle-foot orthoses.  

PubMed

This paper reviews and summarizes the evidence for important observations of normal and pathological gait and presents an approach to rehabilitation and orthotic management, which is based on the significance of shank and thigh kinematics for standing and gait. It discusses normal gait biomechanics, challenging some traditional beliefs, the interrelationship between segment kinematics, joint kinematics and kinetics and their relationship to orthotic design, alignment and tuning. It proposes a description of four rather than three rockers in gait; a simple categorization of pathological gait based on shank kinematics abnormality; an algorithm for the designing, aligning and tuning of AFO-Footwear Combinations; and an algorithm for determining the sagittal angle of the ankle in an AFO. It reports the results of research on Shank to Vertical Angle alignment of tuned AFO-Footwear Combinations and on the use of 'point loading' rocker soles. PMID:20738230

Owen, Elaine

2010-09-01

435

Evidence for the circulation of antimicrobial-resistant strains and genes in nature and especially between humans and animals.  

PubMed

The concern over antibiotic-resistant bacteria producing human infections that are difficult to treat has led to a proliferation of studies in recent years investigating resistance in livestock, food products, the environment and people, as well as in the mechanisms of transfer of the genetic elements of resistance between bacteria, and the routes, or risk pathways, by which the spread of resistance might occur. The possibility of transfer of resistant genetic elements between bacteria in mixed populations adds many additional and complex potential routes of spread. There is now considerable evidence that transfer of antimicrobial resistance from food-producing animals to humans directly via the food chain is a likely route of spread. The application of animal wastes to farmland and subsequent leaching into watercourses has also been shown to lead to many potential, but less well-documented, pathways for spread. Often, however, where contamination of water sources, processed foods, and other environmental sites is concerned, specific routes of circulation are unclear and may well involve human sources of contamination. Examination of water sources in particular may be difficult due to dilution and their natural flow. Also, as meat is comparatively easy to examine, and is frequently suspected of being a source of spread, there is some bias in favour of studying this vehicle. Such complexities mean that, with the evidence currently available, it is not possible to prioritise the importance of potential risk pathways and circulation routes. PMID:22849279

Wooldridge, M

2012-04-01

436

Clinical Relevance of Survivin as a Biomarker in Neoplasms, Especially in Adult T-Cell Leukemias and Acute Leukemias  

Microsoft Academic Search

Survivin has been identified as one of the top 4 transcripts among 3.5 million human transcriptomes uniformly upregulated\\u000a in cancer tissues but not in normal tissues. Therefore, we quantitatively determined the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression profile\\u000a for survivin by a real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technique in 113 patients with leukemias,\\u000a such as adult T-cell leukemia (ATL), acute lymphoid

Kazuyuki Sugahara; Akiko Uemura; Hitomi Harasawa; Hiroshi Nagai; Yoichi Hirakata; Masao Tomonaga; Kenn Murata; Hiroshi Sohda; Toru Nakagoe; Sin-ichi Shibasaki; Yasuaki Yamada; Shimeru Kamihira

2004-01-01

437

Studies on the production of useful chemicals, especially fatty acids in the marine diatom Nitzschia conspicua Grunow  

Microsoft Academic Search

A local marine diatom, Nitzschia conspicua Grunow, was cultured in enriched synthetic seawater using flasks (agitated by magnetic stirring) and a 1.2 l fermenter. Lipids, fatty acids, proteins, carbohydrates and ash of the flask cultures were determined at various stages of growth (day 3, 5, 7, 10, 13, 15 and 17). The fermenter culture was harvested during the stationary phase

Wan-Loy Chu; Siew-Moi Phang; Swee-Hock Goh

1994-01-01

438

Predicting minimum temperature (especially frost) by the evening wet-bulb at Blue Hill, Mass. in spring  

Microsoft Academic Search

The observations of ten Aprils (1941 50) at Blue Hill have been analyzed, and it has been found that frost (night minimum temperature ≦32° F) ( T) can be predicted on the basis of the 19h wet-bulb temperature ( ti) by the formula: T=ti-k, in which k is found to be 1.8 F deg. in clear weather and 2.1 F

Photios P. Karapiperis

1953-01-01

439

Predicting minimum temperature (especially frost) by the evening wet-bulb at Blue Hill, Mass. in spring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The observations of ten Aprils (1941–50) at Blue Hill have been analyzed, and it has been found that frost (night minimum temperature ?32° F) (T) can be predicted on the basis of the 19h wet-bulb temperature (ti) by the formula:T=ti?k, in whichk is found to be 1.8 F deg. in clear weather and 2.1 F deg. in cloudy. The

PHOTIOS P. KARAPIPEIIIS

1953-01-01

440

APLICACIÓN DE MODELOS DE DISTRIBUCIÓN DE ESPECIES A LA CONSERVACIÓN DE LA BIODIVERSIDAD EN EL SURESTE DE LA PENÍNSULA IBÉRICA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Applying only-presence based species distribution models, we develop a modelling framework using multiple algorithms, evaluating and selecting the most accurate models using ROC curves and several random samples. We generate models of suitable habitat for the threatened plant species Linaria nigricans and potential distribution models for greenhouses. Combining the resulting models we built up a relative extinction risk model, useful

BLAS BENITO DE PANDO; JULIO PEÑAS DE GILES

2007-01-01

441

Malignant lymphoma and exposure to chemicals, especially organic solvents, chlorophenols and phenoxy acids: a case-control study.  

PubMed Central

A number of men with malignant lymphoma of the histiocytic type and previous exposure to phenoxy acids or chlorophenols were observed and reported in 1979. A matched case-control study has therefore been performed with cases of malignant lymphoma (Hodgkin's disease and non-Hodgkin lymphoma). This study included 169 cases and 338 controls. The results indicate that exposure to phenoxy acids, chlorophenols, and organic solvents may be a causative factor in malignant lymphoma. Combined exposure of these chemicals seemed to increase the risk. Exposure to various other agents was not obviously different in cases and in controls.

Hardell, L.; Eriksson, M.; Lenner, P.; Lundgren, E.

1981-01-01

442

Some comments and suggestions concerning population pharmacokinetic modeling, especially of digoxin, and its relation to clinical therapy.  

PubMed

Population pharmacokinetic and dynamic modeling is often employed to analyze data of steady-state trough serum digoxin concentrations in the course of what is frequently regarded as routine therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM). Such a monitoring protocol is extremely uninformative. It permits only the estimation of a single parameter of a 1-compartment model, such as clearance. The use of D-optimal design strategies permits much more information to be obtained, employing models having a really meaningful structure. Strategies and protocols for routine TDM policies greatly need to be improved, incorporating these principles of optimal design. Software for population pharmacokinetic modeling has been dominated by NONMEM. However, because NONMEM is a parametric method, it must assume a shape for the model parameter distributions. If the assumption is not correct, the model will be in error, and the most likely results given the raw data will not be obtained. In addition, the likelihood as computed by NONMEM is only approximate, not exact. This impairs statistical consistency and reduces statistical efficiency and the resulting precision of model parameter estimates. Other parametric methods are superior, as they provide exact likelihoods. However, they still suffer from the constraints of assuming the shape of the model parameter distributions. Nonparametric methods are more flexible. One need not make any assumptions about the shape of the parameter distributions. Nonparametric methods also provide exact likelihoods and are statistically consistent, efficient, and precise. They also permit maximally precise dosage regimens to be developed for patients using multiple model dosage design, something parametric modeling methods cannot do. Laboratory assay errors are better described by the reciprocal of the assay variance of each measurement rather than by coefficient of variation. This is easy to do and permits more precise models to be made. This also permits estimation of assay error separately from the other sources of uncertainty in the clinical environment. This is most useful scientifically. Digoxin has at least 2-compartment behavior. Its pharmacologic and clinical effects correlate not with serum digoxin concentrations but with those in the peripheral nonserum compartment. Some illustrative clinical examples are discussed. It seems that digitalis therapy, guided by TDM and our 2 compartment models based on that of Reuning et al, can convert at least some patients with atrial fibrillation and flutter to regular sinus rhythm. Investigators have often used steady-state trough concentrations only to make a 1-compartment model and have sought only to predict future steady-state trough concentrations. Much more than this can be done, and clinical care can be much improved. Further work along these lines is greatly to be desired. PMID:22735674

Jelliffe, Roger W

2012-08-01

443

The potential for traditional food and drink products in Eastern Europe: Fruit processing — especially brandy (“tuica”) distilling —in Romania  

Microsoft Academic Search

The traditional peasant way of life has involved the maximum use of local resources for subsistence with a surplus for commercial activity where local supplies and market conditions allow. In the Subcarpathian region of Romania fruit constitute a major resource and plums have been valued for their usefulness in supplying jam, dried fruit and brandy. The latter product (“tuica”) is

N. Muica; D. Turnock

1996-01-01

444

OBTENCIÓN DE OLEORRESINAS A PARTIR DE 3 ESPECIES DE CAPSICUM sp. CULTIVADAS EN COLOMBIA (Capsicum annuum, Capsicum frutescens, Capsicum chinense)  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. RESUMEN El ají es un cultivo de importancia en Colombia con una gran perspectiva en el crecimiento de sus áreas para el mercado de agro exportación. La oleorresina es el extracto líquido del fruto maduro seco de pimientos Capsicum que contiene una mezcla compleja de aceites esenciales, ceras, materiales coloreados y capsaicinoides. Se obtiene en forma de aceite, con

L. Rodríguez; J. Arango; F. Urrego

445

Persistence and biological activity in soil of the insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis , especially from transgenic plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insecticidal proteins produced by various subspecies (kurstaki, tenebrionis, and israelensis) of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) bound rapidly and tightly on clays, both pure mined clay minerals and soil clays, on humic acids extracted from soil, and\\u000a on complexes of clay and humic acids. Binding reduced susceptibility of the proteins to microbial degradation. However, bound\\u000a proteins retained biological activity. Purified Cry1Ab protein

G. Stotzky

2005-01-01

446

Analyzes of International Social Security System and Discussions on Perfecting Chinese Social Security System Especially for State-Own Incorporations  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the pivotal factors that lead to the lacking of breaking though in reformation of Chinese state-own corporations are the following: the social security system has not been stroke up in the light of international routine and accordingly not been bringing into play of its own. The defects of current Chinese social security system can be collectively represented by

Song Yu-ling; Miao Zhuang

2007-01-01

447

Progress report on NSF\\/RANN funded research related to environmental and economic aspects of coal production. [Especially externalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

NSF-funded coal research at the University of Tennessee evolved out of a larger project dealing with the economics of the private and social costs of Appalachian coal production which was identified as the ''skeleton'' binding the other portions of the work together. The project to date has involved the development of the economic skeleton in two primary areas: a benefit\\/cost

R. A. Bohm; S. L. Carroll; R. A. Minear; J. R. Moore; J. H. Rule; R. E. Shrieves; W. T. Snyder; B. A. Tschantz; G. A. Vaughn

1974-01-01

448

Spread-F/sporadic E coupling at Chung-Li, especially for postsunset periods of sunspot maximum years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using ionogram-recorded data, the coupling between spread-F occurrence and enhanced Es blanketing frequencies (fbEs) (indicative of foEs changes), has been investigated for an equatorial-ionospheric-anomaly crest station, Chung-Li, for the postsunset periods of sunspot-maximum years. Apart from the evidence for coupling from inspections of the f-plots alone, for the years analyzed (1981, 1982, 1988, and 1989), statistical results of more significance were found from superposed-epoch analyses. Isolated spread-F events of duration of 2 hours or less which started at or before 2200 LT were used as controls on time series. These series were made up of comparisons between 15-min f-plot fbEs values and interpolated monthly median fbEs values. Evidence for coupling was found for the analyses which involved 97 controls. The evidence in the f-plots for three events involving Es patches, which investigators have examined in some detail using the VHF radar at Chung-Li, suggests that these events are also coupled to isolated spread-F occurrence.

Bowman, G. G.; Mortimer, I. K.

2003-04-01

449

Reactor safety design for nuclear power plants demonstrated especially for a power plant with a BWR type reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the design of nuclear power plants, all sorts of imaginable ; malfunctions must be taken into consideration. Safety systems are provided which ; introduce suitable and well-timed counter actions. For boiling water reactors ; the main perturbance types are discussed and it is shown which corresponding ; process variable introduces suitable safety actions. (GE);

Preusche

1973-01-01

450

Blow-off device for limiting excess pressure in nuclear power plants, especially in boiling-water nuclear power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a blow-off device for limiting excess pressure in nuclear power plants, at least one condensation tube disposed so that a lower outlet end thereof is immersed in a volume of water in a condensation chamber having a gas cushion located in a space above the volume of water, and the upper inlet end of the condensation tube extending out

Kuehnel

1979-01-01

451

Distribution of cellular carbohydrate moieties in human dysontogenetic brain tumors, especially in craniopharyngioma and epidermoid\\/dermoid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cellular carbohydrate moieties of 65 human dysontogenetic brain tumors (craniopharyngioma, epidermoid\\/dermoid, Rathke cleft cyst, germinoma and non-germinomatous germ-cell tumors) and 60 common brain tumors (glioma, meningioma, neurinoma and pituitary adenoma) were investigated histochemically using lections from Ulex europaeus (UEA-1), Dolichos biflorus (DBA), peanut (PNA) and soybean (SBA), and with anti-blood group A and LewisY (LeyY) antibodies. In craniopharyngiomas and epidermoid\\/dermoids,

Shuji Niikawa; Hiromu Yamada; Noboru Sakai; Takashi Ando; Wei Zhang; Akira Hara; Kuniyasu Shimokawa

1992-01-01

452

DISTRIBUCIÓN DE ESPECIES DE MATORRAL EN SUELOS ÁCIDOS Y BÁSICOS DE LA SIERRA DE GRAZALEMA, SUR DE ESPAÑA  

Microsoft Academic Search

GALLEGO FERNÁNDEZ, J.B. (2003). Shrubland species distribution in acid and basic soils at Grazalema Mountains, South Spain. Anales Jard. Bot. Madrid 60(1): 51-61 (in Spanish). The presence of Mediterranean shrubland woody species on acid or basic soils was studied at Grazalema Mountains. Transects were made at 137 sampling sites in the study area and 74 species were recognized. Phlomis purpurea,

2003-01-01

453

Development of a new powerful computer code CrysVUN++ especially designed for fast simulation of bulk crystal growth processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The program package CrysVUN++ is introduced. It is designed for the needs of crystal growers to have a fast and efficient computer code for the simulation of the growth processes and equipment. Heat transfer by nonlinear anisotropic conduction and radiation as well as the analysis of thermoelastic stress and solving the problem of heater control is supported by an easy

M. Kurz; A. Pusztai; G. Müller

1999-01-01

454

ON THE PHYSIOLOGY OF HEART-BLOCK IN MAMMALS, WITH ESPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE CAUSATION OF STOKES-ADAMS DISEASE  

PubMed Central

The facts collected in the third part of this paper justify the following conclusions: (1) All of the cardinal symptoms of Stokes-Adams disease may be duplicated by heart-block resulting from a lesion in or near the auriculo-ventricular bundle of His, and by this alone. (2) No typical case of Stokes-Adams disease has been described in which heart-block might not have been the cause of the trouble. (3) It can be shown that all cases of Stokes-Adams disease which have been studied by sufficiently accurate methods were cases of heart-block. (4) It would appear that heart-block without and with syncopal attacks are two stages of the same disease process.

Erlanger, Joseph

1906-01-01

455

[Historical consideration of tea trees and tea flowers, especially regarding the use of tea flowers as food].  

PubMed

Not only tea leaves, but also many kinds of plants have been used as tea, even those plants not belonging to Camellia sinensis, and they should be called "tea out of tea" in the Lucidophyllous forest zone. Generally, the tea leaf is drank after being decocted (almost boiled). The growth distribution of tea ranges in a belt-like zone of 30-40 degrees north latitude. Therefore, tea might have grown wild as "YAMACHA (mountain tea)" from ancient times in Japan as well as China. The first recored of tea drinking in Japan is the ceremony of "GYOUCHA" at the Imperial Court of the Emperor SHOUMU in 729. On the other hand, the oldest book about tea in China (CHAKYOU) was written in 770. Therefore, it seems that tea drinking started at nearly the same time in both countries. Tea was dispensed as medical supplies by Chinese medicinal prescription (SENKYUCHACHOUSAN) in Japan, but in China, tea was used as powdered medicine for drinking (SEICHA). However, the leaf of a certain plant used as "tea out of tea," was applied as a galenical preparation for traditional Chinese medicinal constitution. However, it is not possible to judge whether or not there was adaptability in Chinese medicine theory. In Japan, when tea was first consumed as a food, other than a few exceptions tea leaves were used as a coarse tea (BANCHA) until the latter half of the Meiji period. Mixing in air by stirring a tea solution, and at the same time, letting tea match with hot water. It was wisdom to improve the taste. As a result, in order to make bubble well, both of the condition and technique were devised. One of the approaches was to add the dried plant of Leguminosae (saponin) or tea flower (saponin), when "BANCHA" was decorted. And also tools such as a bamboo tea whisk (CHASEN) as well as bowl (GOROHACHI-CHAWAN), were conceived. "FURICHA" was served as a medicine by KUUYASHOUNIN in Japan in 951. Afterwards, the prayer ceremonies at shrines and temples used CHARAZU," showing the custom to serve tea in 1400. The custom of tea serving continues today, and the tea flower continues to be used according to the demand. After that, it seems that "FURICHA" (tea with bubbles) continued to be used for 640 years, until 1590 (AZUCHI-MOMOYAMA period) because MANCHARAZU was regarded as important in religion. Then, it is believed that the customs of "BOTEBOTECHA" and/or"BATABATACHA" succeeded traditionally. The culture of both tea drinking and cooking, each development course, existed respectively from the relations of tea and food. The state that was accompanied with neither tea nor cooking, such as "KISHUU-CHAGAYU (tea gruel)" and BOTEBOTECHA, continued for a while, but it was combined together as "ICHIJUU-ICHISSA (one soup one tea)" of "KAISEKIRYOURI (tea-ceremony dish)." It is noteworthy that the tea flower is used as preserved food seasoned with "MISO (fermented soybean paste)" and "TSUKUDANI (boiled food in sweetened soy sauce)." Even though old documents about the use of tea flowers as food in China were not found, according to literature in the past ten years, seven descriptions were found that the tea flower was used for food provided alone or with black tea, oolong tea or green tea. As for tea leaves and tea flowers being used as medicine, drink or food in Japan, as well as in neighboring countries which belong to the Lucidophyllous forest zone. The process that they were regarded as important with the time was investigated and reported here. PMID:19227653

Harima, Shoichi; Yoshikawa, Masayuki; Tokuoka, Kiyoshi

2008-01-01

456

ESPECIES DE MOSQUITA BLANCA EN AGROECOSISTEMAS DESERTICOS DE BAJA CALIFORNIA SUR, MEXICO, Y FENOLOGIA DE SUS HOSPEDEROS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The polyphagia is one of the more relevant characteristics that support the success of certain pests. Such is the case for several species of whitefly notable for the variety of crops and wild plants they eat. It follows that the phenology of the plants is of great importance for implementing an integrated pest management plan. Presently, plants in tracts of

Rosalía Servín; S. C. México

457

TRATAMIENTOS PREGERMINATIVOS EN CUATRO ESPECIES ARBÓREAS DE USO FORRAJERO DE LA SELVA BAJA CADUCIFOLIA DE LA SIERRA DE MANANTLÁN  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tropical dry forest (TDF), is ones of the types of vegetation were keep high amount of flora and fauna species. TDF is the tropical forest most endangered major ecosystem. Because the biodiversity and uses are high, this forest is interesting for the conservation and to be considering in different development options. Any option of conservation, restoration, rehabilitation or development,

Guadalupe Hernández-Vargas; Lázaro R. Sánchez-Velásquez; Fernando Aragón

2001-01-01

458

Effects of ingested 4000ppm aluminum on the essential metals, especially zinc, in intact and ethanol treated mice.  

PubMed

The effects of ingested Al on the essential metals were investigated using mice. Animals were divided into 4 groups: 1) Control, 2) Al, 3) EtOH and 4) Al+EtOH groups. Powdered commercial food, containing 1.26% P, 1.36% Ca, 70ppm Zn, 15ppm Cu, 200ppm Fe and 3.1ppm Al, was used to prepare the diets. For Al-treated groups, Al(AlCl3) was added to powdered food at a concentration of 4000ppm. The co-existing effect of EtOH which is known to affect the essential metals, was also investigated as a possible modulater of Al toxicity at a concentration of 5% for 22 days, followed by 10% for 36 days in the drinking water. After 58 days feeding with food containing Al and / or EtOH containing water, the Al effects on serum and femur P and Ca were found to be slight except for a significant decrease of serum P concentration in the Al+EtOH group. In this group, femur weight was less and femur Al concentration was more compared with the Al group. The effects on Fe and Cu were little. We observed a significant decrease of serum Zn concentration with 4000ppm Al diet in both the Al-treated groups. The fact that serum ALPase activity, a Zn enzyme, increased in disregard of a significant decrease of serum Zn concentration suggested the enzyme release from injures tissues. It is noticeable that a significant decrease of serum Zn concentration was observed when dietary Zn was sufficient. It is reported that the dietary intake of Zn is under the recommended allowance for many people. Since Al compounds are widely used as drugs, food additives and a conditioned latent Zn deficiency is rather common in human diseases, the effects of Al on the Zn metabolism are to be investigated further. PMID:3428182

Sugawara, C; Sugawara, N; Ikeda, N; Okawa, H; Okazaki, T; Otaki, J; Taguchi, K; Yokokawa, K; Miyake, H

1987-01-01

459

Usefulness of the Henson Central Field Screener for the detection of visual field defects, especially in glaucoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Henson Central Field Screener is a recently marketed, relatively inexpensive campimeter with semi-automated registration of responses. The strategy used is suprathreshold, eccentricity-compensated, multiple stimulus static perimetry. The clinical usefulness of this apparatus was tested in a number of glaucoma patients, glaucoma suspects and normals, as well as in subjects with other ocular disorders, for whom stable visual fields as

Christine T. Langerhorst; Douwe Bakker; Marjoleine A. C. Raakman

1989-01-01

460

Non-fusable stimuli and the role of binocular inhibition in normal and pathologic vision, especially strabismus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stimuli on corresponding points of both retinae that cannot be fused may cause binocular rivalry: the stimuli suppress each other alternately. This effect was used to study the influence of image sharpness upon binocular inhibition. Blurring an image means decreasing its contrast and attenuating its high spatial frequencies. Both factors diminish the time that a stimulus is perceived during rivalry.

M. Fahle

1983-01-01

461

Blow-off device for limiting excess pressure in nuclear power plants, especially in boiling water nuclear power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a blow-off device for limiting excess pressure in nuclear power plants, at least one condensation tube disposed so that a lower outflow and thereof is immersed in a volume of water, and an upper inflow end of the condensation tube extends out of the volume of water and is connectible to a source of steam that is to be

U. Simon; K. D. Werner; D. Hoffmann; B. Pontani

1979-01-01

462

The introduction of Melanoides tuberculata (Mollusca: Thiaridae) to the island of Saint Lucia (West Indies) and its role in the decline of Biomphalaria glabrata, the snail intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni.  

PubMed

A malacological survey was carried out in May 1992 in the whole hydrographic system of Saint Lucia 11 years after the end of a biological control programme to eliminate Biomphalaria glabrata, the snail intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni. A competitor snail, Melanoides tuberculata, was introduced to Saint Lucia in 1978 and field experiments in several habitats were conducted by Prentice between 1978 and 1986. At the present time M. tuberculata is the most common freshwater snail in Saint Lucia. The results of the survey, undertaken in sites where B. glabrata occurred in large populations in the past showed (i) the absence of the snail hosts from seven sites now extensively colonized by the competitor (ii) the presence of B. glabrata in low or very low densities in 17 sites together with the competitor and (iii) the presence of the intermediate hosts in large populations in only two sites where M. tuberculata was absent. These results confirm the positive results observed by Prentice. The presence of another planorbid snail, B. straminea, is reported for the first time in Saint Lucia. PMID:8103624

Pointier, J P

1993-06-01

463

Evaluation of the impact of acid mine drainage on the chemistry and the macrobenthos in the Carolina stream (San Luis, Argentina).  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of acid mine drainage on the chemistry and the macrobenthos of the Carolina stream (San Luis - Argentina). Samples were obtained in the years 1997-1998 at two sites: site C(1), located 200 m upstream of the drainage, and site C(2), located 800 m downstream. The system buffer capacity was evaluated in the non - contaminated site by means of the buffer index calculation. The physico - chemical changes observed as a consequence of the contribution of acid mine drainage (AMD) were: a decreasing of pH and an increase in the ionic concentration, especially sulfate and Fe coming from the oxidation produced by chemiolithotrophic bacteria. The values obtained indicated a low buffer capacity and a high intrinsic vulnerability of the system to resist the impact originated by the AMD, producing a remarkable decreasing of pH of the receiving stream. These changes caused modifications in the original benthic community that was replaced by organisms more tolerant to the acid stress. A reduction in the abundance and in the taxonomic richness of the benthic macroinvertebrates was observed when compared with the reference station. An increase in the proportion of Chironomidae and of Acari and a decrease in the proportion of the remaining taxa were observed. The most sensitive groups were Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera and Mollusca. The community was mostly affected by the following variables: pH, conductivity, sulfate and di