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1

Sex change in the Mollusca.  

PubMed

Sex change in the Mollusca is almost exclusively protandric (male to female), and has only been reported among gastropods and bivalves. The adaptive value of protandry in these two classes most likely relates to the limited availability of females, and the consequent size-independent nature of male reproductive success (versus the size-dependent nature of reproductive success in females). In two well studied distantly related prosobranch gastropod superfamilies, Calyptracea and Patellacea, individuals of some species respond to local ecological changes by altering the age at which they change sex, although the critical ecological changes appear to be different. The physiological switch that activates sex change also appears to be different: it is found in the cemtral nervous system of the calyptracean Crepidula fornicata, and actually within the gonads of the patellacean Patella vulgata. Although the taxonomic breadth of studies on sex change is necessarily limited, and many questions remain to be answered, research on the Mollusca has produced a remarkable range of perspectives on sex change - from evolutionary to proximal; further research will benefit greatly from this breadth of knowledge. PMID:21227183

Wright, W G

1988-06-01

2

Comparative genomics of vesicomyid clam (Bivalvia: Mollusca) chemosynthetic symbionts  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The Vesicomyidae (Bivalvia: Mollusca) are a family of clams that form symbioses with chemosynthetic gamma-proteobacteria. They exist in environments such as hydrothermal vents and cold seeps and have a reduced gut and feeding groove, indicating a large dependence on their endosymbionts for nutrition. Recently, two vesicomyid symbiont genomes were sequenced, illuminating the possible nutritional contributions of the symbiont to

Irene LG Newton; Peter R Girguis; Colleen M Cavanaugh

2008-01-01

3

Feeding dynamics of Octopus mimus (Mollusca: Cephalopoda) in northern Chile waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The natural feeding of 485 Octopus mimus (164 to 3088 g) was studied in relation to the species' life cycle and environmental seasonal variations off the north of Chile from autumn 1991 to summer 1992. Analysis of digestive-tract contents revealed that O. mimus preyed upon 25 different prey items belonging to five zoological groups (Teleostei, Mollusca, Crustacea, Echinodermata and Polychaeta).

T. Cortez; B. G. Castro; A. Guerra

1995-01-01

4

Mineralisation in the teeth of the limpets Patelloida alticostata and Scutellastra laticostata (Mollusca:Patellogastropoda)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sequence and ultimate pattern of mineralisation in the major lateral radula teeth of two species of limpet, namely Patelloida alticostata and Scutellastra laticostata (Mollusca:Patellogastropoda), have been elucidated using energy dispersive, Raman and infrared spectroscopies. In both species, iron is the first element infiltrated into the teeth and, in the form of goethite, occupies the posterior cutting surface of the

Katherine J. LiddiardA; James G. HockridgeB; David J. MaceyA

5

Comparative genomics of vesicomyid clam (Bivalvia: Mollusca) chemosynthetic symbionts  

PubMed Central

Background The Vesicomyidae (Bivalvia: Mollusca) are a family of clams that form symbioses with chemosynthetic gamma-proteobacteria. They exist in environments such as hydrothermal vents and cold seeps and have a reduced gut and feeding groove, indicating a large dependence on their endosymbionts for nutrition. Recently, two vesicomyid symbiont genomes were sequenced, illuminating the possible nutritional contributions of the symbiont to the host and making genome-wide evolutionary analyses possible. Results To examine the genomic evolution of the vesicomyid symbionts, a comparative genomics framework, including the existing genomic data combined with heterologous microarray hybridization results, was used to analyze conserved gene content in four vesicomyid symbiont genomes. These four symbionts were chosen to include a broad phylogenetic sampling of the vesicomyid symbionts and represent distinct chemosynthetic environments: cold seeps and hydrothermal vents. Conclusion The results of this comparative genomics analysis emphasize the importance of the symbionts' chemoautotrophic metabolism within their hosts. The fact that these symbionts appear to be metabolically capable autotrophs underscores the extent to which the host depends on them for nutrition and reveals the key to invertebrate colonization of these challenging environments.

Newton, Irene LG; Girguis, Peter R; Cavanaugh, Colleen M

2008-01-01

6

Bioactive substances with anti-neoplastic efficacy from marine invertebrates: Bryozoa, Mollusca, Echinodermata and Urochordata  

PubMed Central

The marine environment provides a rich source of natural products with potential therapeutic application. This has resulted in an increased rate of pharmaceutical agents being discovered in marine animals, particularly invertebrates. Our objective is to summarize the most promising compounds which have the best potential and may lead to use in clinical practice, show their biological activities and highlight the compounds currently being tested in clinical trials. In this paper, we focused on Bryozoa, Mollusca, Echinodermata and Urochordata.

Sima, Peter; Vetvicka, Vaclav

2011-01-01

7

Nuevas Galaxias Seyfert 1 Australes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

En 1984 se inició una extensión del "survey" de Tololo que de- sarrollara en 1975 Smith, con la cámara Curtis-Schmidt y el prisma UV delgado. Utilizando placas IIIaJ horneadas, sin filtro, expues tas 90 minutos sin ensanchamiento se han obtenido a la fecha más de 150 placas que cubren la zona entre -20° y -45° a latitudes galácticas mayores de 20°; se presenta un detalle de las franjas que comprende el survey Calan-Tololo, indicando el grado de completitud de las mismas. Se ha encontrado un gran número de galaxias con líneas de emisión entre las cuales las más frecuentes, más de 300, son galaxias irregulares con formación estelar violenta ("starburst galaxies"). Se ha encontrado un número de cuasares cercano a 100; casi todos ellos tienen la linea Lyman alfa en la zona entre 3300 y 5300 A, que corresponde a un rango de corrimientosal rojo 1.7< z <3.3 el cuasar con mayor corri- miento al rojo encontrado a la fecha en el survey tiene z = 3.1. La información detallada sobre cuasares y galaxias tipo "starburst" será presentada en otro lugar. Entre los objetos más interesantes encontrados en el survey Calán- Tololo destacan unas 50 nuevas galaxias Seyfert 1. Estas galaxias han sido encontradas por su fuerte exceso UV y su brillante núcleo, más que por sus intensas lineas de emisión. Hemos observado espectroscópicamente, en el Observatorio Interamericano de Cerro Tololo, 37 de ellas para las cuales se presentan cartas de identificación, coordenadas y los datos espectroscópicos obtenidos.

Maza, J.; Ruiz, M. T.

1987-05-01

8

Tierra Nueva -- A passive solar cohousing project  

SciTech Connect

California architects take on the formidable challenges of designing a cohousing project, and discover that the end result is well worth the effort. The Tierra Nueva Cohousing Project consists of living units, a common house, community orchard, community gardens, community play space, space for a future shop and at the periphery of the site, parking, carports and garages. The units use thermal mass, solar heating, passive solar cooling, perimeter insulation on slabs. Design was agreed to by the community as a whole.

Haggard, K.; Cooper, P.

1999-10-01

9

Deux espèces sous un même masque. Le point de vue paléontologique piégé par les coquilles de deux espèces européennes de Trivia (Mollusca, Gastropoda)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two species behind the same mask. The palaeontological approach caught out by two European species of Trivia (Mollusca, Gastropoda).- The experiment reported in this paper was devised to assess to what extent loss of information as a result of fossilization might affect species discrimination in palaeontology. The test consisted in first conducting a \\

Elisabeth DOMMERGUES; Jean-Louis DOMMERGUES; Cyril Hugues DOMMERGUES

2006-01-01

10

Development of a Monoclonal Antibody for the Detection and Quantification of Predation on Slugs within the Arion hortensis agg. (Mollusca: Pulmonata)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Arion hortensis agg. (Mollusca: Pulmonata) are major slug pests of agriculture and horticulture throughout much of the temperate World. A monoclonal antibody was created that could specifically identify and quantify the remains of these slugs within the carabid predator Pterostichus melanarius Illiger, a polyphagous species found in arable crops in Europe and North America. The antibody was shown to

W. O. C. Symondson; M. L. Erickson; J. E. Liddell

1999-01-01

11

The Politics of Rural School Reform: Escuela Nueva in Colombia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traces evolution of rural-school education plan in Colombia (Escuela Nueva), focusing on importance of Colombia's changing political and social climate in policy development. Identifies three phases of reform development and implementation: grassroots, formalized, and decoupled. Uses Escuela Nueva to demonstrate importance of recognizing dynamic,…

McEwan, Patrick J.; Benveniste, Luis

2001-01-01

12

Achievement Evaluation of Colombia's Escuela Nueva: Is Multigrade the Answer?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Colombia's rural "escuelas nuevas" feature multigrade classrooms, flexible promotion, rural-oriented curriculum, parent and community involvement, mastery learning, peer instruction, and library resources. A study of over 3,000 students found that, compared to traditional schools, Escuela Nueva schools had lower dropout probabilities, higher…

Psacharopoulos, George; And Others

1993-01-01

13

Catalogue of the type specimens deposited in the Mollusca Collection of the Museu Nacional / UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.  

PubMed

A curatorial revision of the type specimens deposited in the Mollusca Collection of the Museu Nacional / UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (MNRJ) revealed the existence of 518 lots of type specimens (holotypes, neotypes, syntypes and paratypes) for 285 names of molluscan taxa from 88 families, including 247 gastropods, 30 bivalves, three cephalopods and five scaphopods. A total of 106 holotypes and one neotype are deposited in the MNRJ. Type material for ten nominal taxa described as being deposited in the MNRJ was not located; the probable reasons are discussed. Some previously published erroneous information about types in the MNRJ is rectified. A total of 37 type specimens are illustrated. PMID:24871828

Pimenta, Alexandre Dias; Monteiro, Júlio César; Barbosa, André Favaretto; Salgado, Norma Campos; Coelho, Arnaldo Campos Dos Santos

2014-01-01

14

Pomacea canaliculata (Mollusca, Gastropoda) in Patagonia: potential role of climatic change in its dispersion and settlement.  

PubMed

Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822) (Mollusca Gastropoda) shows a large native distribution range in South America, reaching as far south as 37º S (Buenos Aires, Argentina). This species was deliberately introduced into Southeast Asia around 1980 and subsequently underwent a rapid intentional or accidental dispersal into many countries in the region. It was also introduced into North and Central America and Hawaii. In this contribution we record the presence of P. canaliculata in Patagonia, assessing the possible influence of climatic change in the new establishment of this species there. Three samplings (between September 2004 and April 2005) were carried out at 38º 58' 20.2" S-68º 11' 27.3" W. In the sampling we found two adult specimens of P. canaliculata and numerous egg clutches. Pomacea canaliculata is naturally distributed in the Plata and Amazon Basins. The southern boundary of this species has been established as the isotherms of 14 ºC and 16 ºC in Buenos Aires province, and precipitations of 900 to 600 mm/year. This study also analysed variations in annual temperature and precipitation in Patagonia. Average temperatures show an increase over the years, although not constantly. Important modifications in precipitation regime in northern Patagonia, triggered by global climatic changes, could be beneficial for the settlement of populations of P. canaliculata in this new area, where precipitation increased enough to reach values similar to those in the southernmost area of distribution of this species. PMID:21437394

Darrigran, G; Damborenea, C; Tambussi, A

2011-02-01

15

A review of the non-bulimulid terrestrial Mollusca from the Region of Atacama, northern Chile.  

PubMed

Terrestrial mollusca are sparsely studied in Chile and, for the first time, a formal record of the diversity of land snails in northern Chile is reported. Coastal and desertic areas in the Region of Atacama, in the border of the Atacama desert and the Pacific Ocean, were surveyed with the aim to describe the presence and distribution of this poorly known fauna. Of the fourteen species recorded, the geographic distribution records for nine species are extended, and some taxa are recorded for the first time since their original descriptions. All, except one, of the fourteen terrestrial molluscan species occurring in the area are endemic to Chile; they are all terrestrial species, most of them have a restricted geographic distribution, and none of them is currently protected by law. The results reveal that the region of Atacama has one of the most diverse terrestrial snail biodiversity in Chile, ranking only after the Juan Fernandez Archipelago. Distribution records of all the studied species and a taxonomic key are also provided. PMID:24715800

Araya, Juan Francisco; Catalán, Ricardo

2014-01-01

16

Genetic divergence and geographic variation in the deep-water Conus orbignyi complex (Mollusca: Conoidea)  

PubMed Central

Puillandre, N. et al. (2010) Genetic divergence and geographic variation in a deep-water cone lineage: molecular and morphological analyses of the Conus orbignyi complex (Mollusca: Conoidea). The cone snails (family Conidae) are a hyperdiverse lineage of venomous gastropods. Two standard markers, COI and ITS2, were used to define six genetically-divergent groups within a subclade of Conidae that includes Conus orbignyi; each of these was then evaluated based on their shell morphology. We conclude that three forms, previously regarded as subspecies of Conus orbignyi are distinct species, now recognized as Conus orbignyi, Conus elokismenos and Conus coriolisi. In addition, three additional species (Conus pseudorbignyi, Conus joliveti and Conus comatosa) belong to this clade. Some of the proposed species (e.g., Conus elokismenos) are possibly in turn complexes comprising multiple species. Groups such as Conidae illustrate the challenges generally faced in species delimitation in biodiverse lineages. In the case of the Conus orbignyi complex, not only are there definable, genetically divergent lineages, but also considerable geographic variation within each group. Our study suggests that an intensive analysis of multiple specimens within a single locality helps to minimize the confounding effects of geographic variation and can be a useful starting point for circumscribing different species within such a confusing complex.

Puillandre, Nicolas; Meyer, Christopher P.; Bouchet, Philippe; Olivera, Baldomero M.

2011-01-01

17

Annotated type catalogue of the Orthalicoidea (Mollusca, Gastropoda) in the Museum f?r Naturkunde, Berlin  

PubMed Central

Abstract The type status is described of 96 taxa classified within the superfamily Orthalicoidea and present in the Mollusca collection of the Museum für Naturkunde der Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin. Lectotypes are designated for the following taxa: Orthalicus elegans Rolle, 1895; Bulimus maranhonensis Albers, 1854; Orthalicus nobilis Rolle, 1895; Orthalichus tricinctus Martens, 1893. Orthalicus sphinx tresmariae is introduced as new name for Zebra sphinx turrita Strebel, 1909, not Zebra quagga turrita Strebel, 1909. The following synonyms are established: Zebra crosseifischeri Strebel, 1909 = Orthalicus princeps fischeri Martens, 1893; Orthalicus isabellinus Martens, 1873 = Orthalicus bensoni (Reeve, 1849); Zebra zoniferus naesiotes Strebel, 1909 = Orthalicus undatus (Bruguière, 1789); Porphyrobaphe (Myiorthalicus) dennisoni pallida Strebel, 1909 = Hemibulimus dennisoni (Reeve, 1848); Zebra delphinus pumilio Strebel, 1909 = Orthalicus delphinus (Strebel, 1909); Orthalicus (Laeorthalicus) reginaeformis Strebel, 1909 = Corona perversa (Swainson, 1821); Bulimus (Eurytus) corticosus Sowerby III, 1895 = Plekocheilus (Eurytus) stuebeli Martens, 1885. The taxon Bulimus (Eudioptus) psidii Martens, 1877 is now placed within the family Sagdidae, tentatively in the genus Platysuccinea. Appendices are included with an index to all the types of Orthalicoidea extant (including those listed by Köhler 2007) and a partial list of letters present in the correspondence archives.

Breure, Abraham S.H.

2013-01-01

18

Especially for High School Teachers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Secondary School Feature Article * JCE Classroom Activity #18: Photochemistry and Pinhole Photography: An Interdisciplinary Experiment, by Angeliki A. Rigos and Kevin Salemme, p 736A High School Program at Anaheim ACS Meeting Congratulations to Barbara Sitzman of Chatsworth High School (Los Angeles) and her committee for organizing an outstanding day of activities! With support from the Southern California Section of the American Chemical Society and the encouragement of Tom Wildeman, CHED Program Committee Chair, the program attracted a large number of Southern California teachers and some from much greater distances. A synopsis of some of the day's activities is included in the Chemical Education Program Meeting Report, p 747. Other workshop topics included gel chromatography, forensic chemistry, art preservation and authentication, well water purification, and toxins in waste water. Also, a workshop on fitting polymers into the chemistry course was conducted by the Polymer Ambassadors. I thank Mickey Sarquis, founding editor of the JCE Secondary School Chemistry Section, for joining me in conducting an information workshop. The pictures appearing on this page were taken at the High School/College Interface Luncheon, which featured an address by Paul Boyer. In addition to the opportunity to visit with colleagues, enjoy a meal together, and win door prizes, those in attendance enjoyed a lively hands-on workshop led by Michael Tinnesand, Department Head of K-12 Science, ACS Education Division. Don't you wish you could have attended the High School Program? Plan Now: High School Program in New Orleans Mark your calendar for Sunday, August 22, 1999. The Fall ACS National Meeting will be held in New Orleans and the High School Program is scheduled on Sunday so that teachers will be able to avoid conflicts with the opening of the school year. Teachers in the Mid-South region are especially encouraged to plan on attending an outstanding program put together by Lillie Tucker Akin and her committee. Watch the Journal for program and registration information. Glenn Seaborg Memorial Periodic Table Quilt Raffle Harvey Gendreau of Framingham High School, MA, reports that Barbara McCarty, award-winning quilter and president of the Wayside Quilters Guild, has made a wall-sized periodic table quilt to honor the memory of Glenn Seaborg. The quilt will be raffled at ChemEd99 and funds from the raffle will be used to defray conference costs. The quilt is 2.5 meters wide by 1.5 meters high and the element squares are 13 cm on each side. Each of the 109 element squares contains the appliqué of the symbol and has stenciling for its atomic number and mass. The major periodic families are color coded and the border fabric has an eye-catching symbolic atom design. Nine colors for the elements include royal blue, deep purple, lilac, pink, burgundy and gold. The element square for seaborgium, atomic number 106, has been autographed by Glenn T. Seaborg. A certificate of authenticity will accompany the quilt. This is a unique opportunity to win a classroom (or home) art treasure. Each ticket is 2 or a book of 3 is 5. Tickets may be purchased on the ChemEd99 registration form and will be included in your conference packet. The quilt will be on display at the exposition hall and additional tickets can be purchased at the Unlimited Potential booth. Drawing will be on Wednesday, August 4th, in the expo area when door prizes are announced. You need not be present to win. Information about ChemEd99 may be obtained online at http://www.sacredheart.edu/chemed/. 1999 CMA Catalyst Awards Special congratulations to the High School and Pre-High School award recipients. National Winners are George R. Hague, Dallas, TX, and Wayne Goates, Goddard, KS. Regional winners are Rhonda Lynn Reist, Olathe, KS, and Anne Marie Holbrook, Cincinnati, OH. A complete list of the awardees, including the post-high-school recipients, is in the News & Announcements section of this issue,

Howell, J. Emory

1999-06-01

19

Volutidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda) of the Lakhra Formation (Earliest Eocene, Sindh, Pakistan): systematics, biostratigraphy and paleobiogeography.  

PubMed

The paleobiodiversity of the Volutidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda) of the Ranikot Group (Sindh, Pakistan) and particularly of the Lakhra Formation (SBZ 5 biozone, Earliest Eocene), is reconsidered on the basis of new material collected during recent field trips. Ten new species are described (Mitreola brohii sp. nov., Lyrischapa vredenburgi sp. nov., L. brevispira sp. nov., Athleta (Volutopupa) citharopsis sp. nov., A. (Volutocorbis) lasharii sp. nov., Volutilithes welcommei sp. nov., V. sindhiensis sp. nov., Pseudaulicina coxi sp. nov., Sindhiluta lakhraensis sp. nov. and Pakiluta solangii sp. nov.) and one species is in open nomenclature (Lyria sp.). Three new genera are described: Lyriopsis gen. nov. [Volutinae, ?Lyriini, type species: Lyriopsis cossmanni (Vredenburg, 1923)], Sindhiluta gen. nov. [Volutilithinae, type species: Sindhiluta lakhraensis n. sp.] and Pakiluta gen. nov. [?Volutodermatinae, type species: Pakiluta solangii n. sp.]. Two new combinations are proposed: Lyriopsis cossmanni (Vredenburg, 1923) comb. nov. and Athleta (Volutopupa) intercrenatus (Cossmann & Pissarro, 1909) comb. nov. Lectotypes are designated for Lyria cossmanni Vredenburg, 1923, L. feddeni Vredenburg, 1923, Volutospina noetlingi Cossmann & Pissarro, 1909, V. intercrenata Cossmann & Pissarro, 1909 and Athleta (Volutocorbis) victoriae Vredenburg, 1923. With 21 species, this volutid fauna is the most diverse recorded from the Tethys Ocean during Earliest Eocene time. The assemblage is characterized by a strong turnover marked by regional speciation and the appearance of many western Tethyan invaders. Although at the species level, the assemblage documents a strong provincialism, at the genus level, the high number of shared genera between Eastern Tethyan and Old World Tethyan realms begins a phase of long-term homogeneity of volutid assemblages from the Tethyan paleobiogeographic province. PMID:24990040

Merle, Didier; Pacaud, Jean-Michel; Métais, Grégoire; Bartolini, Annachiara; Lashari, Rafiq A; Brohi, Imdad A; Solangi, Sarfraz H; Marivaux, Laurent; Welcomme, Jean-Loup

2014-01-01

20

Efficient electric arc furnace control at Nueva Montana Quijano SA  

Microsoft Academic Search

In March 1991, ABB commissioned a process control system for Nueva Montana Quijano's (NMQ) electric arc furnace in Santander, Spain. The installation consists of a system for controlled scrap meltdown and an electrode regulator. This paper presents the improvements that have been achieved during the first year of production. The improvements have included: Electrode consumption decrease of approximately 14%. Power-on

L. Hultin; P. A. Vazques

1993-01-01

21

The influence of fish cage culture on ?13C and ?15N of filter-feeding Bivalvia (Mollusca).  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Oreochromis niloticus cage culture promoted variations in the ?13C and ?15N in Corbicula fluminea (Mollusca; Bivalvia) and in the sediment of an aquatic food web. Samples were taken before and after net cage installation in the Rosana Reservoir (Paranapanema River, PR-SP). Samples of specimens of the bivalve filterer C. fluminea and samples of sediment were collected using a modified Petersen grab. All samples were dried in an oven (60 °C) for 72 hours, macerated to obtain homogenous fine powders and sent for carbon (?13C) and nitrogen (?15N) isotopic value analysis in a mass spectrometer. There were significant differences in the ?13C and ?15N values of the invertebrate C. fluminea between the beginning and the end of the experiment. There were no differences between the ?13C and ?15N values of sediment. These results indicate that the installation of fish cage culture promoted impacts in the isotopic composition of the aquatic food web organisms, which could exert influence over the native species and the ecosystem. PMID:24789389

Benedito, E; Figueroa, L; Takeda, A M; Manetta, Gi

2013-11-01

22

Screening of antiangiogenic potential of twenty two marine invertebrate extracts of phylum Mollusca from South East Coast of India  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the antiangiogenic potential of twenty two marine invertebrate species of Phylum Mollusca from south east coast of India. Methods Live specimens of molluscan species were collected and their methanolic extracts were evaluated for preliminary antiangiogenic activity using the in ovo chick chorio-allantoic membrane assay. The extracts were further evaluated for in vivo antiangiogenic activity using chemical cautery induced corneal neovascularization assay in rats and oxygen induced retinopathy assay in rat pups. Results In the chick chorio-allantoic membrane assay, four methanolic extracts of marine molluscan species viz. Meretrix meretrix, Meretrix casta, Telescopium telescopium and Bursa crumena methanolic extracts exhibited noticeable antiangiogenic activity at the tested concentration of 200 µg whereby they significantly inhibited the VEGF induced proliferation of new blood vessels. Among these four extracts, the methanolic extract of Meretrix casta exhibited relatively higher degree of antiangiogenic activity with an inhibitiory percentage (64.63%) of the VEGF induced neovascularization followed by the methanolic extracts of Telescopium telescopium (62.02%), Bursa crumena (60.48%) and Meretrix meretrix (47.01%). These four methanolic extracts were further evaluated for in vivo antiangiogenic activity whereby the methanolic extract of Telescopium telescopium exhibited most noticeable inhibition (42.58%) of the corneal neovascularization in rats in comparison to the sham treated group, and also exhibited most noticeable inhibition (31.31%) of the oxygen induced retinal neovascularization in rat pups in comparison to the hyperoxia group that was observed for considerable retinal neovascularization. Conclusions The significant antiangiogenic activity evinced by the extract of Telescopium telescopium merits further investigation for ocular neovascular diseases.

Gupta, Pankaj; Arumugam, Muthuvel; Azad, Raj Vardhan; Saxena, Rohit; Ghose, Supriyo; Biswas, Nihar Ranjan; Velpandian, Thirumurthy

2014-01-01

23

Concentrations of trace elements in Meretrix spp. (Mollusca: Bivalva) along the coasts of Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dominant coastal bivalve in Vietnam, hard clams Meretrix spp., collected from the South Key Economic Zone (SKEZ), the Mekong River Delta, and the Central Coastal Zone (CCZ) were\\u000a analyzed for 21 trace elements. Comparison of the results from the three regions indicated that levels of most of the trace\\u000a elements, especially As, Mo, Sn, and Pb, were highest in

Nguyen Phuc Cam Tu; Nguyen Ngoc Ha; Tetsuro Agusa; Tokutaka Ikemoto; Bui Cach Tuyen; Shinsuke Tanabe; Ichiro Takeuchi

2010-01-01

24

Una nueva especie de Euglena (Euglenozoa: Euglenales) aislada de ambientes extremófilos en las Pailas de Barro del Volcán Rincón de la Vieja, Costa Rica  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new species of euglena isolated from a hot and acid mud pool located in Las Pailas de Barro, Volcán Rincón de la Vieja, Costa Rica is described. This species inhabits hot and acid environments. Euglena pailasen- sis sp. nov. main features are: the absence of flagella, the presence filaments like \\

Ana Sittenfeld; Maribelle Vargas; Ethel Sánchez; Marielos Mora; Aurelio Serrano

25

Identification of sequestered chloroplasts in photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic sacoglossan sea slugs (Mollusca, Gastropoda)  

PubMed Central

Background Sacoglossan sea slugs are well known for their unique ability among metazoans to incorporate functional chloroplasts (kleptoplasty) in digestive glandular cells, enabling the slugs to use these as energy source when starved for weeks and months. However, members assigned to the shelled Oxynoacea and Limapontioidea (often with dorsal processes) are in general not able to keep the incorporated chloroplasts functional. Since obviously no algal genes are present within three (out of six known) species with chloroplast retention of several months, other factors enabling functional kleptoplasty have to be considered. Certainly, the origin of the chloroplasts is important, however, food source of most of the about 300 described species is not known so far. Therefore, a deduction of specific algal food source as a factor to perform functional kleptoplasty was still missing. Results We investigated the food sources of 26 sacoglossan species, freshly collected from the field, by applying the chloroplast marker genes tufA and rbcL and compared our results with literature data of species known for their retention capability. For the majority of the investigated species, especially for the genus Thuridilla, we were able to identify food sources for the first time. Furthermore, published data based on feeding observations were confirmed and enlarged by the molecular methods. We also found that certain chloroplasts are most likely essential for establishing functional kleptoplasty. Conclusions Applying DNA-Barcoding appeared to be very efficient and allowed a detailed insight into sacoglossan food sources. We favor rbcL for future analyses, but tufA might be used additionally in ambiguous cases. We narrowed down the algal species that seem to be essential for long-term-functional photosynthesis: Halimeda, Caulerpa, Penicillus, Avrainvillea, Acetabularia and Vaucheria. None of these were found in Thuridilla, the only plakobranchoidean genus without long-term retention forms. The chloroplast type, however, does not solely determine functional kleptoplasty; members of no-retention genera, such as Cylindrobulla or Volvatella, feed on the same algae as e.g., the long-term-retention forms Plakobranchus ocellatus or Elysia crispata, respectively. Evolutionary benefits of functional kleptoplasty are still questionable, since a polyphagous life style would render slugs more independent of specific food sources and their abundance.

2014-01-01

26

La Importancia de la Comunidad Hispana en el Conjunto Cultural de Nueva Orleans: Una Futuro Profesional Examina su Cultura y Lenguaje  

Microsoft Academic Search

Esta investigación examina la importancia de la comunidad hispánica en Nueva Orleans con énfasis en su lengua y cultura. La investigación es probar cómo es importa tener hispánicos en Nueva Orleans y cómo es beneficio poder comunicar con ellos en español. La investigación incluye la influencia de hispánicos en Nueva Orleans en el pasado, el presente y el futuro, información

Amber Kelly

2012-01-01

27

Una Mirada al Futuro: Doctrina, Estrategia, Nuevas Amenazas y el Rol del Poder Aéreo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hemos delineado unas ideas que esperamos puedan servir para contribuir en la elaboración de la concepción Estratégica Aeroespacial y Nacional. La ocurrencia de conflictos de nuevas características que se suman a los tradicionales, hacen aún más compleja, la ya dinámica temática de la Defensa Aeroespacial Nacional. Nuestro trabajo no agota el tema ni la totalidad de las ideas relacionadas, pero

Horacio Matias Orefice

28

Descubrimiento de una nueva asociación OB en la Gran Nube de Magallanes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

En base a observaciones CCD de la binaria eclipsante Sk-67o105 llevadas a cabo en el CASLEO, se ha descubierto una nueva asociación OB a la cual dicha estrella pertenece. Este hallazgo pone en duda la existencia de las llamadas estrellas O de campo, sugiriendo que éstas podrían ser miembros de asociaciones aún no descubiertas.

Ostrov, P. G.; Morrell, N.; Niemela, V.

29

Insomnia May Raise Stroke Risk, Especially for Younger Adults  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Insomnia May Raise Stroke Risk, Especially for Younger Adults ... 2014) Thursday, April 3, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Insomnia Stroke THURSDAY, April 3, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- People ...

30

Genetic Basis of Behavior--Especially of Altruism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents pro and con comments with regards to 1975 APA presidential address under the heading of genetic basis of behavior--especially of altruism. Other comments are subsumed under the heading of biological versus social evolution, and the value of tradition. (Author/AM)

Blaney, Paul H.; And Others

1976-01-01

31

Engineering model testing for SGLI IRS especially TIR radiometric data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Second-generation Global Imager (SGLI) on the Global Change Observation Mission (GCOM) is a multi-band optical imaging radiometer in the wavelength range from near-UV to thermal infrared. SGLI will provide high accuracy measurements of Ocean, Atmosphere, Land and Cryosphere. SGLI project is in the last phase of Engineering Model (EM) test to verify the overall sensor system performances. This paper presents outline of SGLI and EM test results, especially about IRS.

Hosokawa, Tamiki; Tanaka, Kazuhiro; Okamura, Yoshihiko; Amano, Takahiro; Hiramatsu, Masaru

2012-11-01

32

Some observations on the skin of Oxychilus spp. (Fitzinger), with particular reference to O. helveticus (Blum) (Mollusca, Pulmonata, Zonitidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A sub-epithelial collagenous layer and pits in the skin have been described inOxychilus spp. The collagen is especially developed beneath the skin on the right side of the body inO. helveticus. It seems to arise from pore cells which previous authors have described in other molluscs. The pits inO. helveticus are lined by cells which together exhibit a gradation

D. C. Lloyd

1969-01-01

33

Megafauna recovered from a cold hydrocarbon seep in the deep Alaskan Beaufort Sea, including a new species of Axinus (Thracidae: Bivalvia: Mollusca)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several specimens of a new species of Axinus and a single well-worn gastropod columella provisionally assigned to the genus Neptunea (Buccinidae: Gastropoda: Mollusca) were recently recovered from at least two cores, the longest of which is 5.72 m long, from a large seafloor mound, informally named the Canning Seafloor Mound (CSM). The CSM is located at 2,530 m water depth on the Alaskan Beaufort Sea slope north of Camden Bay and is a fluid explosion feature containing methane hydrate and methane-saturated sediments overlying a folded and faulted deep basin. Only two modern species of Axinus are currently known. Axinus grandis (Verrill & Smith, 1885) is a northern Atlantic species and the recently described species, A. cascadiensis Oliver and Holmes (2007), is only known from Baby Bare Seamount, Cascadia Basin, northeastern Pacific Ocean. Common fragments, single valves, and a single articulated specimen represent this new Axinus species. These shells were distributed over nearly the entire length of the primary core. All specimens show wear and (or) dissolution. The age of these specimens is unknown and no living representatives were encountered. The genus Axinus has a fossil record back to the early Eocene in England and the Paleocene and Eocene in Egypt. Biogeographically the genus appears to have originated in the Tethys Sea and became established in the Atlantic Ocean during the Eocene, spreading across the Arctic Ocean in the late Tertiary. With the opening of the Bering Strait in the latest Miocene or early Pliocene the genus Axinus migrated southwest into the northeast Pacific. Interestingly, hydrocarbon seep deposits are also present on the adjacent North Slope of Alaska in the Marsh Anticline at Carter Creek, Camden Bay. These rocks, the Nuwok beds, contain abundant Thracidae bivalve of the genus Thracia, but not Axinus, however the rocks also represent cold seep deposits. These rocks have been variously dated from Oligocene to Pliocene and the exact age remains uncertain. Neptunea are a predatory snails well represented in the earliest Miocene to Holocene of the northern Pacific Ocean and in the late Pliocene to Holocene of the northern Atlantic. The presence of Neptunea at CSM, if identified properly, gives a maximum age for these deposits of latest Miocene or early Pliocene, after the opening of the Bering Strait, although they could be as young as Holocene.

Powell, C. L.; Valentich-Scott, P.; Lorenson, T. D.; Edwards, B. D.

2011-12-01

34

Effects of radiation on development, especially of the nervous system  

SciTech Connect

Humans and other organisms are exposed to ionizing radiations from a variety of natural and man-made sources. Radiation may cause mutations and chromosome abnormalities, cell-killing, alterations and transformations in cell growth, and carcinogenetic changes. This paper considers principally the cell-killing and nonlethal cell alterations in developing laboratory mammals and humans, especially the nervous system, that follow irradiation and often lead to malformation and disturbed function, but at certain stages to restitution of the injury. Most of what researchers know about the mechanisms of these radiation effects in man is derived from animal experiments, especially with rats. The few observations in humans have corresponded closely to them. Researchers illustrate the cellular effects and malformative results with an example of cell-killing in the developing cortex of a human fetus exposed to therapeutic radiation in utero; a current timetable of the malformative and other effects of radiation on rats during development from which expectations of human effects might be extrapolated; examples of hydrocephalus produced in rats; low-dose alterations of nerve cells in rats; and a microcephalic Japanese boy exposed in utero to the atomic bomb at Hiroshima in 1945.

Hicks, S.P.; D'Amato, C.J.

1980-12-01

35

Nuclear Planetology: Especially Concerning the Moon and Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To approach basic scientific questions on the origin and evolution of planetary bodies such as planets, their satellites and asteroids, one needs data on their chemical composition. The measurements of gamma-rays, X-rays and neutrons emitted from their surface materials provide information on abundances of major elements and naturally radioactive gamma-ray emitters. Neutron spectroscopy can provide sensitive maps of hydrogen- and carbon-containing compounds, even if buried, and can uniquely identify layers of carbon-dioxide frost. Nuclear spectroscopy, as a means of compositional analysis, has been applied via orbital and lander spacecraft to extraterrestrial planetary bodies: the Moon, Venus, Mars, Mercury and asteroids. The knowledge of their chemical abundances, especially concerning the Moon and Mars, has greatly increased in recent years. This paper describes the principle of nuclear spectroscopy, nuclear planetary instruments carried on planetary missions so far, and the nature of observational results and findings of the Moon and Mars, recently obtained by nuclear spectroscopy.

Kim, Kyeong Ja; Hasebe, Nobuyuki

2012-10-01

36

Physical training, with especial reference to the training of convalescents.  

PubMed

Lieutenant-Colonel Netterville Barron, MVO RAMC, identified that although there was a moral and practical reason for providing training for convalescents, there lacked the scientific knowledge and structure to deliver it correctly. He should perhaps be considered the pioneer of rehabilitation within the military, with this paper providing the embryonic foundation from which the present DMRP has evolved. There is now very good science to support physical training and the delivery of rehabilitation, which now begins at the earliest time possible in the intensive care unit. From there, a robust structure of rehabilitation supports the patient back to duty or to the point of discharge. What has not altered is the seemingly never-ending debate about the provision of continued support (or lack of) after soldiers are finally discharged. Despite this fact, it is highly likely that Lt. Col Barron would be very satisfied with how far "physical training, with especial reference to the training of convalescent" has progressed. PMID:24845887

Rennie, Paul

2014-06-01

37

MICROFAUNA DEL PLEISTOCENO INFERIOR DE BARRANCO LEÓN Y FUENTE NUEVA 3 (ORCE, GRA- NADA, ESPAÑA): ESTUDIO PRELIMINAR MICROFAUNA FROM THE EARLY PLEISTOCENE OF BARRANCO LEON AND FUENTE NUEVA 3 (ORCE, GRANADA, SPAIN): PRELIMINARY STUDY  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMEN - El objetivo de este trabajo es identificar la microfauna del Pleistoceno Inferior presente en diversas muestras procedentes de Barranco León y Fuente Nueva 3 (Orce, Granada), dos yacimientos clave para entender la evolución humana en Europa. El resultado de este estudio sistemático ha sido la identificación de diversos taxones continentales, entre los cua- les hay foraminíferos oligohalinos (Ammonia

Roger De Marfà

38

[Occupational neurotoxicology due to heavy metals-especially manganese poisoning].  

PubMed

The most hazardous manganese exposures occur in mining and smelting of ore. Recently, the poisoning has been frequently reported to be associated with welding. In occupational exposure, manganese is absorbed mainly by inhalation. Manganese preferentially accumulates in tissues rich in mitochondria. It also penetrates the blood brain barrior and accumulate in the basal ganglia, especially the globus pallidus, but also the striatum. Manganese poisoning is clinically characterized by the central nervous system involvement including psychiatric symptomes, extrapyramidal signs, and less frequently other neurological manifestations, Psychiatric symptomes are well described in the manganese miners and incrude sleep disturbance, disorientation, emotional lability, compulsive acts, hallucinations, illusions, and delusions. The main characteristic manifestations usually begin shortly after the appearance of these psychiatric symptomes. The latter neurological signs are progressive bradykinesia, dystonia, and disturbance of gait. Bradykinesia is one of the most important findings. There is a remarkable slowing of both active and passive movements of the extremities. Micrographia is frequently observed and a characteristic finding. The patients may show some symmetrical tremor, which usually not so marked. The dystonic posture of the limbs is often accompanied by painfull cramps. This attitudal hypertonia has a tenndency to decrease or disappear in the supine position and to increase in orthostation. Cog-wheel rigidity is also elisited on the passive movement of all extremities. Gait disturbance is also characteristic in this poisoning. In the severe cases, cook gait has been reported. The patient uses small steps, but has a tendency to elevate the heels and to rotate them outward. He progress without pressing on the flat of his feet, but only upon the metatarsophalangeal articulations, mainly of the fourth and fifth toes. Increased signal in T1-weighted image in the basal ganglia has been reported in patients with the poisoning. Thus, increasd signal intensities as a target site dose can be a more useful biomakers of the manganese than other biological indicies such as ambient manganese concentration or blood manganese concentration on individual basis. Manganese poisoning ultimately becomes chronic. However, if the disease is diagnosed while still at the early stages and the patient is removed from exposure, the course may be reversed. Once well established, it becomes progressive and irreversible, even when exposure is terminated. Levodopa therapy is not effective for the management of manganese poisoning. Levodopa unresponsiveness may be usefull to distinguish manganese-induced parkinsonism from Parkinson disease. PMID:17585589

Inoue, Naohide

2007-06-01

39

DEVELOPMENT OF A SUSTAINABLE AND APPROPRIATE DRINKING WATER SYSTEM FOR MONTANA DE LUZ AND NUEVA ESPERANZA, HONDURAS  

EPA Science Inventory

In this project, we plan to design an appropriate and sustainable water treatment and supply system for a small village (Nueva Esperanza) and nearby orphanage in rural Honduras. The orphanage, named “Montana de Luz,” is a home exclusively for children with HIV/A...

40

Una nueva especie de Pachynolophus (Mammalia, Perissodactyla) de Zambrana (Álava, Región Vasco-Cantábrica). Análisis filogenético de Pachynolophus y primera cita en el Eoceno superior de la Península Ibérica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent fieldwork in the Late Eocene of Zambrana (Álava, Basque-Cantabrian Region) has yielded a new species of Pachynolophus: P. zambranensis nov. sp. According to the phylogenetic analysis made in this study, the Zambrana species is part of the monophyletic Pachynolophus, which is defined at least by three synapomorphies: significant progressive increase of the size in the M1\\/1-M3\\/3 series, being M3\\/3

Ainara Badiola; Xabier Pereda-Suberbiola; Miguel Angel Cuesta

2005-01-01

41

Assessment of paleo-oxygenation conditions on the Agua Nueva Formation (Cenomanian-Turonian), Central Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic-carbon-rich, laminated sediments are characteristic and widespread in the global stratigraphic record of the mid-Cretaceous, mainly during the Oceanic Anoxic Events (OAE's). In central-eastern Mexico, deposits of the Agua Nueva Formation are constituted by dark-gray, carbonaceous and laminated limestone with pyritic layers related to the Cenomanian-Turonian OAE 2. Herein, through different proxies, variations of paleo-redox conditions are studied in detail on a stratigraphic section of the Agua Nueva Formation. A first approach to redox conditions comes from the analysis of the stratigraphic record. Laminated fabrics and the paucity of bioturbation are typical features of a poorly oxygenated sedimentary environment. The presence of well-preserved fish remains and inoceramid bivalve shells is also consistent with those conditions. On the other hand, discrete light-colored and bioturbated thin levels indicate limited increases in the dissolved oxygen content. Geochemical proxies include ?13C in carbonates, ?34S in pyrite and the concentration of various redox-sensitive trace-elements. ?13C (VPDB) ranges from 0.39‰ to 1.30‰, whereas ?34Spy (VCDT) is between -41.23‰ and -11.27‰. The stratigraphic variation patterns of both isotopic values (?13C and ?34S) are roughly opposite, reflecting changes in the burial of organic matter (OM) and, consequently, in the rate of bacterial sulphate reduction. Thus, positive 13C-rich carbonates represent lower free oxygen condition which enhanced burial flux of OM, tend to shift ?13C of carbonates toward positive values and triggered the incorporation of 32S into the sulfide by bacteria. This situation is also suggested by an enrichment of the sediments in V, Ni, Cr, Cu, Co, Zn, Mo and U. The abundance and size distribution of pyrite framboids proved to be in good agreement with the geochemical results. They also suggest dysoxic to anoxic conditions for the stratigraphic section studied. Both parameters have been found to be highly variable through the stratigraphic section. The size of framboids varies from 0.9 ?m to 29.1 ?m, whereas the means of the populations in all analyzed samples range between 4.9 ?m and 7.4 ?m. The modal abundance ranges from 2.4% to 42.6%.; Framboidal pyrite

Nuñez, F.; Canet, C.; Barragan-Manzo, R.; Alfonso, P.

2013-05-01

42

Intragenomic sequence variation at the ITS1 - ITS2 region and at the 18S and 28S nuclear ribosomal DNA genes of the New Zealand mud snail, Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Hydrobiidae: mollusca)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Molecular genetic analysis was conducted on two populations of the invasive non-native New Zealand mud snail (Potamopyrgus antipodarum), one from a freshwater ecosystem in Devil's Lake (Oregon, USA) and the other from an ecosystem of higher salinity in the Columbia River estuary (Hammond Harbor, Oregon, USA). To elucidate potential genetic differences between the two populations, three segments of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA), the ITS1-ITS2 regions and the 18S and 28S rDNA genes were cloned and sequenced. Variant sequences within each individual were found in all three rDNA segments. Folding models were utilized for secondary structure analysis and results indicated that there were many sequences which contained structure-altering polymorphisms, which suggests they could be nonfunctional pseudogenes. In addition, analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) was used for hierarchical analysis of genetic variance to estimate variation within and among populations and within individuals. AMOVA revealed significant variation in the ITS region between the populations and among clones within individuals, while in the 5.8S rDNA significant variation was revealed among individuals within the two populations. High levels of intragenomic variation were found in the ITS regions, which are known to be highly variable in many organisms. More interestingly, intragenomic variation was also found in the 18S and 28S rDNA, which has rarely been observed in animals and is so far unreported in Mollusca. We postulate that in these P. antipodarum populations the effects of concerted evolution are diminished due to the fact that not all of the rDNA genes in their polyploid genome should be essential for sustaining cellular function. This could lead to a lessening of selection pressures, allowing mutations to accumulate in some copies, changing them into variant sequences.

Hoy, Marshal S.; Rodriguez, Rusty J.

2013-01-01

43

Loads and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter spp. on fresh chicken meat in Nueva Ecija, Philippines.  

PubMed

This study was performed to determine the prevalence and to semiquantify Campylobacter spp. on chicken meat samples at 4 selected local wet markets in Nueva Ecija, Philippines, and to determine the antimicrobial resistance patterns of the Campylobacter isolates. Out of 120 chicken meat samples, 57 (47.5%) were Campylobacter spp. positive. The majority of isolated Campylobacter strains were identified as Campylobacter coli (54.4%) and 45.6% as Campylobacter jejuni. Most of these positive samples (52.6%) showed a very high quantitative Campylobacter contamination (most probable number > 2,400/g, lower confidence limit 580/g). For antimicrobial resistance testing, 44 C. coli/jejuni isolates were tested using the agar disk diffusion method. Out of these, 77.3% were resistant to ampicillin, followed by ciprofloxacin (70.4%), tetracycline (54.6%), erythromycin (20.2%), and gentamicin (11.4%). Of the isolates, 36.4% (n = 16) were resistant to 1 antimicrobial agent, 34.1% (n = 15) were resistance to 3 antimicrobial agents, 13.6% (n = 6) to 2 antimicrobial agents, 9.1% (n = 4) to 4 antimicrobial agents, and 6.8% (n = 3) to all 5 antimicrobial agents tested. Our data demonstrate a high contamination of fresh chicken meat with Campylobacter spp. at retail in the Philippines. The detected high Campylobacter prevalences and quantitative loads on chicken meat at retail in the Philippines highlight the need to implement efficient intervention measures along the food chain and to encourage sanitary handling of poultry meat. PMID:24795322

Sison, F B; Chaisowwong, W; Alter, T; Tiwananthagorn, S; Pichpol, D; Lampang, K N; Baumann, M P O; Gölz, G

2014-05-01

44

Designing Concrete Dams for Especially Harsh Climatic Conditions (Proektirovanii Betonnkh Plotin Dlia Uslovii Osovo Surovogo Klimata).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report discusses the principal aspects of designing concrete dams on rock foundations in regions with especially harsh climates, developed by examining projects carried out at Lengidroproyekt. (Author)

V. I. Teleshev S. A. Frid

1977-01-01

45

Difusión de nuevas tecnologías y estimación de la demanda de nuevos productos: un análisis comparativo entre Argentina y EE.UU  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMEN Este trabajo analiza, utilizando el modelo de Bass, la demanda de telefonía celular, acceso a Internet, y acceso a Internet por banda ancha en Argentina y en EE.UU. a fines de determinar los patrones de difusión de nuevas tecnologías. Los resultados indican que en EE.UU. la velocidad de difusión es mayor que en Argentina, y prevalece -a diferencia de

Viviana Weissmann

46

Metallothionein Isoforms in Mytilus edulis (Mollusca, Bivalvia): Complementary DNA Characterization and Quantification of Expression in Different Organs after Exposure to Cadmium, Zinc, and Copper.  

PubMed

Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction has been used to isolate one metallothionein isoform (MT-20) complementary DNA from RNA extracted from mussel gill. Another cDNA, isolated by screening a Mytilus edulis cDNA mantle library using the first cDNA as probe, codes for the MT-10 IV isoform. Northern blot analysis using these cDNAs revealed different expression of these isoforms. Induction with CdC1(2) caused high levels of both MT messenger RNAs, especially the MT-20, which was induced by cadmium salt but not by zinc and copper salts. An induction of MT-10 was detected with ZnCl(2). These results show that genes encoding distinct MT isoforms are differentially regulated by heavy metals. PMID:10811960

Lemoine; Bigot; Sellos; Cosson; Laulier

2000-03-01

47

Paraneoplastic downbeat nystagmus associated with cerebellar hypermetabolism especially in the nodulus.  

PubMed

A 52-year-old man with vertigo and imbalance for two weeks showed spontaneous downbeat (DBN), horizontal gaze-evoked, and positional apogeotropic nystagmus along with severe limb and truncal ataxia. Gadolinium-enhanced brain MRI was normal, but whole body and brain 2-deoxy-2-[F18]fluoro-d-glucose-positron emission tomography revealed hypermetabolism in the right lower lobe of the lung and the cerebellum, especially in the nodulus. The lesion in the lung was confirmed as mixed cell carcinoma. Paraneoplastic DBN may be associated with cerebellar hypermetabolism, especially in the nodulus. PMID:24928076

Choi, Seo Young; Park, Seong-Ho; Kim, Hyo-Jung; Kim, Ji-Soo

2014-08-15

48

Aspectos macroeconómicos de las utilidades por compraventa de divisas de la cuenta especial de cambios  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este trabajo persigue dos objetivos. En primer lugar, se discute el origen de las utilidades por compraventa de divisas (UCVD) de la Cuenta Especial de Cambios (CEC) y la naturaleza de su trabajo al gobierno. En segundo término, se analizan los efectos macroeconómicos de la utilización de los recursos de las UCVD para la financiación del déficit del gobierno, haciendo

Armando Montenegro

1983-01-01

49

Material cycles in Asia: especially the recycling loop between Japan and China  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we clarify the current status of Japanese exports and Chinese imports of secondary resources. A total of around 10 million metric tons (t) of secondary resources are exported annually from Japan to China, Hong Kong, and Korea. Hong Kong plays the role of a transshipment point, especially regarding the trade in plastic waste, and China imports much

Atsushi Terazono; Aya Yoshida; Jianxin Yang; Yuichi Moriguchi; Shin-ichi Sakai

2004-01-01

50

El Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI) anuncia su nueva política de reuniones libres de humo de tabaco para abordar peligros graves de salud pública  

Cancer.gov

El Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI), que forma parte de los Institutos Nacionales de la Salud, anunció hoy una nueva política que requiere que todas las reuniones y conferencias organizadas o financiadas principalmente por el NCI se lleven a cabo en un estado, condado, ciudad o pueblo que haya adoptado una política integral de ambientes libres de humo de tabaco, a menos que circunstancias especificas justifiquen la exención.

51

The present status of airship construction, especially of airship-framing construction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This work proposes to sketch, in broad outline, the status of airship construction in the various countries, at a time when commerce over great distances might be finally opened up to the airship through the performances of the "Graf Zeppelin." After a short historical review, a survey of the most important rigid and semirigid airships built since 1925, their differences and special problems, is made. In more detailed treatment, the framing construction of the more recent rigid airships and some especially interesting structural questions are investigated.

Ebner, Hans

1938-01-01

52

Exposure limits: the underestimation of absorbed cell phone radiation, especially in children.  

PubMed

The existing cell phone certification process uses a plastic model of the head called the Specific Anthropomorphic Mannequin (SAM), representing the top 10% of U.S. military recruits in 1989 and greatly underestimating the Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) for typical mobile phone users, especially children. A superior computer simulation certification process has been approved by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) but is not employed to certify cell phones. In the United States, the FCC determines maximum allowed exposures. Many countries, especially European Union members, use the "guidelines" of International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), a non governmental agency. Radiofrequency (RF) exposure to a head smaller than SAM will absorb a relatively higher SAR. Also, SAM uses a fluid having the average electrical properties of the head that cannot indicate differential absorption of specific brain tissue, nor absorption in children or smaller adults. The SAR for a 10-year old is up to 153% higher than the SAR for the SAM model. When electrical properties are considered, a child's head's absorption can be over two times greater, and absorption of the skull's bone marrow can be ten times greater than adults. Therefore, a new certification process is needed that incorporates different modes of use, head sizes, and tissue properties. Anatomically based models should be employed in revising safety standards for these ubiquitous modern devices and standards should be set by accountable, independent groups. PMID:21999884

Gandhi, Om P; Morgan, L Lloyd; de Salles, Alvaro Augusto; Han, Yueh-Ying; Herberman, Ronald B; Davis, Devra Lee

2012-03-01

53

Protoplasts: a useful research system for plant cell biology, especially dedifferentiation.  

PubMed

As protoplasts have the characteristics of no cell walls, rapid population growth, and synchronicity, they are useful tools for research in many fields, especially cellular biology (Table 1). This article is an overview that focuses on the application of protoplasts to investigate the mechanisms of dedifferentiation, including changes in hormone signals, epigenetic changes, and organelle distribution during the dedifferentiation process. The article also emphasizes the wide range of uses for protoplasts in studying protein positions and signaling during different stresses. The examples provided help to show that protoplast systems, for example the mesophyll protoplast system of Arabidopsis, represent promising tools for studying developmental biology. Meanwhile, specific analysis of protoplast, which comes from different tissue, has specific advantages and limitations (Table 2), and it can provide recommendations to use this system. PMID:23719716

Jiang, Fangwei; Zhu, Jian; Liu, Hai-Liang

2013-12-01

54

The Dominant Robot: Threatening Robots Cause Psychological Reactance, Especially When They Have Incongruent Goals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Persuasive technology can take the form of a social agent that persuades people to change behavior or attitudes. However, like any persuasive technology, persuasive social agents might trigger psychological reactance, which can lead to restoration behavior. The current study investigated whether interacting with a persuasive robot can cause psychological reactance. Additionally, we investigated whether goal congruency plays a role in psychological reactance. Participants programmed a washing machine while a robot gave threatening advice. Confirming expectations, participants experienced more psychological reactance when receiving high-threatening advice compared to low-threatening advice. Moreover, when the robot gave high-threatening advice and expressed an incongruent goal, participants reported the highest level of psychological reactance (on an anger measure). Finally, high-threatening advice led to more restoration, and this relationship was partially mediated by psychological reactance. Overall, results imply that under certain circumstances persuasive technology can trigger opposite effects, especially when people have incongruent goal intentions.

Roubroeks, M. A. J.; Ham, J. R. C.; Midden, C. J. H.

55

Emerging role of bioflavonoids in gastroenterology: Especially their effects on intestinal neoplasia  

PubMed Central

Flavonoids, secondary plant products which could be essential for normal physiology in humans and animals, may be the vitamins of the next century. Flavonoids belong to the polyphenols and possess antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic properties. Among the various flavonoid species, tea flavonoids such as apigenin (from camomile) and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG from green tea) can be used for the prevention of intestinal neoplasia, especially for adenoma and cancer prevention in the gastrointestinal tract. Numerous experimental studies with molecular and biological end points support the therapeutic efficacy of bioflavonoids. Clinical studies with cohorts and case-control trials suggest that flavonoids are effective in tertiary bioprevention but, as yet, there are no controlled randomized clinical trials. Flavonoids can inhibit inflammatory pathways and could be useful for chronic inflammatory bowel diseases. Flavonoid deficiency syndromes could be therapeutic targets in the future.

Hoensch, Harald P; Oertel, Reinhard

2011-01-01

56

Plasmid-Encoded Metallo-?-Lactamase (IMP-6) Conferring Resistance to Carbapenems, Especially Meropenem  

PubMed Central

In 1996, Serratia marcescens KU3838 was isolated from the urine of a patient with a urinary tract infection at a hospital in northern Japan and was found to contain the plasmid pKU501. Previously, we determined that pKU501 carries blaIMP and the genes for TEM-1-type ?-lactamases as well as producing both types of ?-lactamases (H. Yano, A. Kuga, K. Irinoda, R. Okamoto, T. Kobayashi, and M. Inoue, J. Antibiot. 52:1135–1139, 1999). pKU502 is a recombinant plasmid that contains a 1.5-kb DNA fragment, including the metallo-?-lactamase gene, and is obtained by PCR amplification of pKU501. The sequence of the metallo-?-lactamase gene in pKU502 was determined and revealed that this metallo-?-lactamase gene differed from the gene encoding IMP-1 by one point mutation, leading to one amino acid substitution: 640-A in the base sequence of the IMP-1 gene was replaced by G, and Ser-196 was replaced by Gly in the mature enzyme. This enzyme was designated IMP-6. The strains that produced IMP-6 were resistant to carbapenems. The MICs of panipenem and especially meropenem were higher than the MIC of imipenem for these strains. The kcat/Km value of IMP-6 was about sevenfold higher against meropenem than against imipenem, although the MIC of meropenem for KU1917, which produced IMP-1, was lower than that of imipenem, and the MIC of panipenem was equal to that of imipenem. These results support the hypothesis that IMP-6 has extended substrate profiles against carbapenems. However, the activity of IMP-6 was very low against penicillin G and piperacillin. These results suggest that IMP-6 acquired high activity against carbapenems, especially meropenem, via the point mutation but in the process lost activity against penicillins. Although IMP-6 has reduced activity against penicillins due to this point mutation, pKU501 confers resistance to a variety of antimicrobial agents because it also produces TEM-1-type enzyme.

Yano, Hisakazu; Kuga, Akio; Okamoto, Ryoichi; Kitasato, Hidero; Kobayashi, Toshimitsu; Inoue, Matsuhisa

2001-01-01

57

Occurrence of Collagen in the Phylum Mollusca  

Microsoft Academic Search

CONSIDERABLE interest has recently been shown in the occurrence of a collagen type of protein among the various invertebrate groups. X-ray diffraction1,2 studies have explored a wide range of examples, and more recently chemical investigations have used various chromatographic techniques to determine the composition of certain preparations3-5. Most of this work has been performed on tissues from single species bearing

S. C. Melnick

1958-01-01

58

Etologia aplicada al manejo de especies amenazadas: el caso del turon de patas negras (Mustela nigripes)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

de esta especie de un modo más eficaz y rentable. Black-footed ferrets are considered one of the world's most endangered mammals. The last wild population was discovered in 1981 in Meteetsee, Wyoming, and, in 1985 it collapsed due to an epizootic of canine distemper in combination with sylvatic plague. Prior to the extinction of the last remnant population, 18 wild black-footed ferrets were captured to initiate captive propagation efforts. Captive breeding has been successful and, during the last 11 years, more than 2600 black-footed ferrets have been born in captive breeding centers. Since 1991, approximately 870 ferrets have been reintroduced in 5 areas located within the ferret's original geographic distribution, including sites in Wyoming, Montana, South Dakota, and Arizona. Scientific research has been, and continues to be, a critical tool to direct recovery efforts. Studies in applied ethology conducted on captive and reintroduced ferret populations have demonstrated that a naturalistic captive environment, particularly during early developmental periods, enhances the expression of behaviors necessary for survival in nature. Ferrets raised in a naturalistic environment develop better predatory skills, are able to recognize prairie dog burrows as a home and shelter from predators, and are more physically fit. Results from these studies have been adapted into management strategies to help implement a more cost-effective road to black-footed ferret recovery.

Vargas, A.; Biggins, D.; Miller, B.

1999-01-01

59

Double layered self-expanding metal stents for malignant esophageal obstruction, especially across the gastroesophageal junction  

PubMed Central

AIM: To evaluate the clinical outcomes of double-layered self-expanding metal stents (SEMS) for treatment of malignant esophageal obstruction according to whether SEMS crosses the gastroesophageal junction (GEJ). METHODS: Forty eight patients who underwent the SEMS insertion for malignant esophageal obstruction were enrolled. Patients were classified as GEJ group (SEMS across GEJ, 18 patients) and non-GEJ group (SEMS above GEJ, 30 patients) according to SEMS position. Double layered (outer uncovered and inner covered stent) esophageal stents were placed. RESULTS: The SEMS insertion and the clinical improvement were achieved in all patients in both groups. Stent malfunction occurred in seven patients in the GEJ group and nine patients in the non-GEJ group. Tumor overgrowth occurred in five and eight patients, respectively, food impaction occurred in one patient in each group, and stent migration occurred in one and no patient, respectively. There were no significant differences between the two groups. Reflux esophagitis occurred more frequently in the GEJ group (eight vs five patients, P = 0.036) and was controlled by proton pump inhibitor. Aspiration pneumonia occurred in zero and five patients, respectively, and tracheoesophageal fistula occurred in zero and two patients, respectively. CONCLUSION: Double-layered SEMS are a feasible and effective treatment when placed across the GEJ for malignant esophageal obstruction. Double-layered SEMS provide acceptable complications, especially migration, although reflux esophagitis is more common in the GEJ group.

Kim, Min Dae; Park, Su Bum; Kang, Dae Hwan; Lee, Jae Hyung; Choi, Cheol Woong; Kim, Hyung Wook; Chung, Chung Uk; Jeong, Young Il

2012-01-01

60

Conversion of pyridoxine into 6-hydroxypyridoxine by food components, especially ascorbic acid.  

PubMed

In experiments designed to examine interactions between pyridoxine (PN) and food components, PN was found to be converted into an unidentified compound in the presence of the homogenates of various plant foods under mild conditions. The formation of the compound tended to be higher when food samples had a higher ascorbic acid (AsA) content. The reaction was neither thermal decomposition nor photodecomposition. This compound was also formed by incubating PN with AsA in the dark. Conversion of PN into the compound proceeded with oxidation of AsA, and was negligible under anaerobic conditions. The pH optimum for the reaction was between 4 and 7, and the temperature optimum was between 30 and 50 degrees C. The compound was purified by ion-exchange chromatography, isolated as colorless needles, and identified as 6-hydroxypyridoxine from UV, PMR, IR and MS spectral data. 6-Hydroxypyridoxine had neither vitamin B6 nor antivitamin B6 activity for Saccharomyces carlsbergensis 4228 (ATCC 9080). From these results, we inferred that hydroxylation of PN in the presence of food components, especially AsA, caused loss of vitamin B6 in plant foods during food processing, storage and cooking. PMID:3761050

Tadera, K; Arima, M; Yoshino, S; Yagi, F; Kobayashi, A

1986-06-01

61

Process for purifying the off-gases from industrial furnaces, especially from waste incineration plants  

SciTech Connect

A process for purifying the off-gases from industrial furnaces and especially from waste incineration plants is described in which process the off-gases which contain acid, neutral and/or basic pollutants in the gaseous or solid form or in the form of a mist, are treated in an evaporative cooler and then in a dry purifier, in which they are freed from at least a substantial portion of the solid pollutants, and finally in a scrubber by means of a wash liquid. The temperature of the off-gases in the evaporative cooler is kept above the dew point, and the wash liquid in the scrubber is cycled through a slurry separator, from which suspension or solution of pollutants is withdrawn from the sludge separator and fed into the evaporative cooler and mixed in a mixing space in the latter with the hot off-gases. Those walls of the evaporative cooler which come into contact with the mixture of off-gases and recycled suspension or solution of pollutants and which consist of a material that can be corroded by the said mixture at room temperature are heated from the outside to a temperature above the dew point. As a rule the ph value of the liquid phase in the sludge separator and in each of the gas wash stages of the scrubber directly upstream of the said separator is kept below 4.

Fattinger, V.; Schneider, J.

1981-02-17

62

(Re)cognizing postmodernity: helps for historians--of science especially.  

PubMed

Postmodernity, a historical era demarcated from modernity by a broad reversal in cultural presuppositions, is distinguished from postmodernism, an intellectual posture adopted by self-identified postmodernists early in postmodernity. Two principal features of postmodernity are addressed: first, the downgrading of science and the upgrading of technology in cultural rank--on which postmodernity and postmodernism are in accord; second, the displacement of the methodical, disinterested scientist, modernity's beau ideal, not by a fragmented subject as postmodernism claims, but by the single-minded entrepreneur, resourcefully pursuing his self-interest in disregard of all rules. The reversal in rank and role as between science and technology, setting in circa 1980, is a marker of the transition from modernity to postmodernity. That reversal is to be cognized primarily as rejection of rule-following, of proceeding methodically--'methodism' being the cultural perspective that uniquely distinguished modernity--but also as rejection of disinterestedness, the quality of mind especially highly esteemed in modernity. Postmodernity is constituted by this transvaluation of values, whose well-spring is the egocentric, transgressive (hence 'risk taking'), postmodern personality and its anti-social presumptions regarding personhood. Within the history of science itself there has been since circa 1980 a corresponding turn of scholarly attention away from science to technology, and a growing distaste for social perspectives, reflected, i.a., in the rejection of causalist 'influence' explanations in favor of voluntarist 'resource' explanations. PMID:20695412

Forman, Paul

2010-06-01

63

Widespread tannin intake via stimulants and masticatories, especially guarana, kola nut, betel vine, and accessories.  

PubMed

Tannins are increasingly recognized as dietary carcinogens and as antinutrients interfering with the system's full use of protein. Nevertheless, certain tannin-rich beverages, masticatories, and folk remedies, long utilized in African, Asiatic, Pacific, and Latin American countries, are now appearing in North American sundry shops and grocery stores. These include guarana (Paullinia cupana HBK.) from Brazil, kola nut (Cola nitida Schott & Endl. and C. acuminata Schott & Endl.) from West Africa, and betel nut (Areca catechu L.) from Malaya. The betel nut, or arecanut, has long been associated with oral and esophageal cancer because of its tannin content and the tannin contributed by the highly astringent cutch from Acacia catechu L. and Uncaria gambir Roxb. and the aromatic, astringent 'pan' (leaves of Piper betel L.) chewed with it. In addition to the constant recreational/social ingestion of these plant materials, they are much consumed as aphrodisiacs and medications. Guarana and kola nut enjoy great popularity in their native lands because they are also rich in caffeine, which serves as a stimulant. Research and popular education on the deleterious effects of excessive tannin intake could do much to reduce the heavy burden of early mortality and health care, especially in developing countries. PMID:1417698

Morton, J F

1992-01-01

64

On the Chemical Synthesis and Physical Properties of Iron Pyrite, Especially the (100) Surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Given that iron pyrite (cubic FeS2, fool's gold) is a semiconductor with a ˜1 eV band gap, it has long been investigated for use in technological applications, especially photovoltaics. Unfortunately, numerous measurements indicate that it's properties, as currently synthesized at least, do not allow for effective devices. Photovoltages far below theoretical expectation are found as well as below band gap optical absorption. From a scientific standpoint, our understanding of the cause of these observations, the form of the density of states for instance, remains mired in uncertainty. In this work we have attempted to gain insight into this problem by creating ensembles of pyrite nanocrystals that can then be treated and measured with well-developed wet-chemical nanocrystal techniques. Specifically, we interpret the existing literature to advocate that the surface states of this material dominate its observed electrical properties. In an effort to better understand the most prevalent surface, the (100) face, we developed a synthesis that nucleates small (< 20 nm) pyrite nanoparticles and then changes chemical conditions to grow all other faces besides {100} to extinction, creating ˜37 nm nanocubes. The optical properties of these nanocubes are measured and the phenomenon of resonance light scattering (RLS) is observed. This phenomenon, along with the poor colloidal dispersibility of these nanocubes is then used to promote the idea that an unusual dynamic electronic phenomenon exists on these surfaces. This phenomenon is found to be passivated by introducing charged ligands to the surfaces of these particles. Additionally, after this surface treatment, two very sharp absorption features are observed at 0.73 and 0.88 eV. In connection with recent theoretical work, these transitions are taken as evidence that the (100) surface of pyrite is spin-polarized with each absorption peak being the signal of band edge absorption across a spin-selected direct band gap. A theoretical framework is proposed as a plausible explanation of the observed behavior. To wit, highly localized and energetically disordered Fe d-orbital states fill in the band gap of the (100) pyrite surface that is not perfectly terminated (or nearly so). Frustration between energetic disorder and Coulomb repulsion then results in the formation of metastable states that obscure the observation of these surface transitions and cause the dynamical behavior observed. It is further reasoned that one of these transitions, the one at 0.88 eV, has been observed before in cryogenic absorption and photoconductivity studies, and argued that a plausible reinterpretation of the data from these studies is possible. This reinterpretation can be rationalized within the context of the physical model posited here whereby cryogenic temperatures increase the importance of Coulombic interactions, which results in a decrease in the metastable DOS at the Fermi level and an electronic arrangement closer to that predicted theoretically, despite existing disorder. Finally, it is argued that the frustrated movement of electrons in metastable states can qualitatively explain the apparent conundrum in which surface sensitive probes are unable to measure the effect of isolated defects, despite the highly localized nature of the pyrite (100) surface. Given the range of phenomena this model explains, it may constitute a significant advance in our understanding of the electronic properties of pyrite. Additionally, given that electrochemical conversion of pyrite is a four electron process resulting in a high theoretical discharge capacity of 894 mAh g-1, we have synthesized micron-sized pyrite nanocubes for use in lithium-ion battery research. Previously the use of pyrite in such batteries has only been possible in non-rechargeable architectures. However, work described here shows that a solid state electrolyte can be used to contain the dissolution of these micron sized particles, allowing for battery cycling. This synthesis, especially the effect of pH on morphology, is described within th

Macpherson, Hector Alexander

65

Marked elevation of adrenal steroids, especially androgens, in saliva of prepubertal autistic children.  

PubMed

Autism is diagnosed on the basis of behavioral manifestations, but its biomarkers are not well defined. A strong gender bias typifying autism (it is 4-5 times more prevalent in males) suggests involvement of steroid hormones in autism pathobiology. In order to evaluate the potential roles of such hormones in autism, we compared the salivary levels of 22 steroids in prepubertal autistic male and female children from two age groups (3-4 and 7-9 years old) with those in healthy controls. The steroids were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and radioimmunoassay. Statistical analysis (ANOVA) revealed that autistic children had significantly higher salivary concentrations of many steroid hormones (both C21 and C19) than control children. These anomalies were more prominent in older autistic children and in boys. The levels of androgens (androstenediol, dehydroepiandrosterone, androsterone and their polar conjugates) were especially increased, indicative of precocious adrenarche and predictive of early puberty. The concentrations of the steroid precursor, pregnenolone, and of several pregnanolones were also higher in autistic than in healthy children, but cortisol levels were not different. Some steroids, whose levels are raised in autism (allopregnanolone, androsterone, pregnenolone, dehydroepiandrosterone and their sulfate conjugates) are neuroactive and modulate GABA, glutamate, and opioid neurotransmission, affecting brain development and functioning. These steroids may contribute to autism pathobiology and symptoms such as elevated anxiety, sleep disturbances, sensory deficits, and stereotypies among others. We suggest that salivary levels of selected steroids may serve as biomarkers of autism pathology useful for monitoring the progress of therapy. PMID:24043498

Majewska, Maria Dorota; Hill, Martin; Urbanowicz, Ewa; Rok-Bujko, Paulina; Bie?kowski, Przemys?aw; Namys?owska, Irena; Mierzejewski, Pawe?

2014-06-01

66

Apolipoprotein E, especially apolipoprotein E4, increases the oligomerization of amyloid ? peptide  

PubMed Central

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common progressive neurodegenerative disorder causing dementia. Massive deposition of amyloid ? peptide (A?) as senile plaques in the brain is the pathological hallmark of AD, but oligomeric, soluble forms of A? have been implicated as the synaptotoxic component. The apolipoprotein E epsilon 4 (apoE ?4) allele is known to be a genetic risk factor for developing AD. However it is still unknown how apoE impacts the process of A? oligomerization. Here, we found that the level of A? oligomers in APOE?4/?4 AD patient brains is 2.7 times higher than those in APOE?3/?3 AD patient brains, matched for total plaque burden, suggesting that apoE4 impacts the metabolism of A? oligomers. To test this hypothesis, we examined apoE’s effect on A? oligomer formation. Using both synthetic A? and a split-luciferase method for monitoring A? oligomers, we observed that apoE increased the level of A? oligomers in an isoform dependent manner (E2 < E3 < E4). This effect appears to be dependent on the ApoE carboxy-terminal domain. Moreover, these results were confirmed using endogenous apoE isolated from the TBS-soluble fraction of human brain, which increased the formation of A? oligomers. Taken together, these data show that lipidated apoE, especially apoE4, increases A? oligomers in the brain. Higher levels of A? oligomers in the brains of APOE?4/?4 carriers compared to APOE?3/?3 carriers may increase the loss of dendritic spines and accelerate memory impairments, leading to earlier cognitive decline in AD.

Hashimoto, Tadafumi; Serrano-Pozo, Alberto; Hori, Yukiko; Adams, Kenneth W; Takeda, Shuko; Banerji, Adrian Olaf; Mitani, Akinori; Joyner, Daniel; Thyssen, Diana H; Bacskai, Brian J; Frosch, Matthew P; Spires-Jones, Tara L; Finn, Mary Beth; Holtzman, David M; Hyman, Bradley T

2012-01-01

67

Nuevas Adquisiciones (Recent Acquisitions).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This bibliography of educational materials lists approximately 100 publications recently acquired by the Colombian National Center for Documentation and Educational Information. The entries are listed according to subject matter; topics range from general educational theory to more specific subject topics. (VM)

Informacion Bibliografica Educativa, 1972

1972-01-01

68

Effect of different agronomic practises on greenhouse gas emissions, especially N2O and nutrient cycling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to achieve a reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, management practises need to be adapted by implementing sustainable land use. At first, reliable field data are required to assess the effect of different farming practises on greenhouse gas budgets. The conducted field experiment covers and compares two main aspects of agricultural management, namely an organic farming system and an integrated farming system, implementing additionally the effects of diverse tillage systems and fertilisation practises. Furthermore, the analysis of the alterable biological, physical and chemical soil properties enables a link between the impact of different management systems on greenhouse gas emissions and the monitored cycle of matter, especially the nitrogen cycle. Measurements were carried out on long-term field trials at the Research Farm Scheyern located in a Tertiary hilly landscape approximately 40 km north of Munich (South Germany). The long-term field trials of the organic and integrated farming system were started in 1992. Since then, parcels in a field (each around 0,2-0,4 ha) with a particular interior plot set-up have been conducted. So the 20 years impacts of different tillage and fertilisation practises on soil properties including trace gases were examined. Fluxes of CH4, N2O and CO2 are monitored since 2007 for the integrated farming system trial and since 2012 for the organic farming system trial using an automated system which consists of chambers (per point: 4 chambers, each covering 0,4 m2 area) with a motor-driven lid, an automated gas sampling unit, an on-line gas chromatographic analysis system, and a control and data logging unit (Flessa et al. 2002). Each chamber is sampled 3-4 times in 24 hours. The main outcomes are the analysis of temporal and spatial dynamics of greenhouse gas fluxes as influenced by management practice events (fertilisation and tillage) and weather effects (drying-rewetting, freezing-thawing, intense rainfall and dry periods) in both established systems and the creation of an impact study comparing the minimum tillage system with the conventional tillage system. Physical, chemical and biological soil properties (i.a. texture, mineral nitrogen and soil organic carbon) were monitored to aggregate the parameters and processes influencing the greenhouse gas fluxes. Moreover, to understand processes leading the greenhouse gas emissions, additional experiments under laboratory conditions (e.g. soil potential for trace gas formation) are included. Furthermore, with the comparison of the similar long-term field experiments (organic vs. integrated) more relevant data are ascertained to assess and calculate the global warming potential of different management and tillage systems.

Koal, Philipp; Schilling, Rolf; Gerl, Georg; Pritsch, Karin; Munch, Jean Charles

2014-05-01

69

Graduate Enrollment Increases in Science and Engineering Fields, Especially in Engineering and Computer Sciences. InfoBrief: Science Resources Statistics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This brief describes graduate enrollment increases in the science and engineering fields, especially in engineering and computer sciences. Graduate student enrollment is summarized by enrollment status, citizenship, race/ethnicity, and fields. (KHR)

Burrelli, Joan S.

70

Geochemical Redox Indices and microfacies of the Cenomanian-Turonian Agua Nueva/Eagle Ford Fm, Mexico, Evidence for Anoxia Related to OAE2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Widespread occurrence of black, C-organic-rich sediments within the time of the Cenomanian/Turonian boundary attests to the occurrence of a major global event affecting the carbon cycle coined OAE 2. Intense carbon sequestration in sediments associated with the development of anoxic waters in the deep-ocean and epicontinental seas also led to enhanced export of trace elements as organo-metallic compounds, hence their subsequent enrichment in oxygen-deficient to anoxic sediments. In some areas, stratification of the water column coupled with controlling local factors affected microbial productivity leading to TOC-enriched sediments developed under suboxic/anoxic conditions, in others microbial communities led to high TOC values. We integrate geochemical redox indicators and microfacies characterization to assess oxygenic conditions in the Cenomanian-Turonian C-org-rich deposit of the Agua Nueva Formation and the coeval Eagle Ford Fm/ Boquillas Fm. We studied laminated samples of the Agua Nueva from Xilitla, San Luis Potosi State; San Eugenio (type locality of the Formation), Tamaulipas State; and the Eagle Ford at Quarry Los Temporales, northern Coahuila State). Microfacies at all localities reveal the prevalence of coccoid cyanobacteria, some filamentous morphotypes and degraded shell fragments, as the primary components, regardless of TOC values. Planktonic foraminifera constitute 15 to 20 % of the microfossils reaching highest abundance at Los Temporales, including macro-organisms (crustaceans). Absence of benthic foraminifera, and parallel alignment of all components attest to the absence of bioturbation, thus oxygen-deficient bottom waters. Eagle Ford samples are low in TOC, whereas the Agua Nueva samples are enriched in OM as brown amorphous macerals with bacterial coccospheres in lamination attributed to sustained microbial blooms. TE concentrations (V, Ni, U) and redox indices (V/(V+Ni), Ni/Co, V/Cr and U/Th) from the three localities confirm that these sediments accumulated under oxygen-deprived conditions, as also indicated by samples falling within the suboxic/anoxic region in a V/(V+Ni) vs. Ni/Co plot. Thus, oxygen-deprived conditions in all the areas were not necessary accompanied by high TOC, as is the case of Los Temporales where oxygen levels may have been controlled by water column stratification, analogous to modern-day Black Sea. In areas of high TOC, enhanced primary microbial productivity may have intensified DO demand in the water column causing extension of the oxygen minimum zone not affecting plankton life in the uppermost water column. As a result, like at other OAE2 sites elsewhere, bottoms water became suboxic/anoxic, and in some cases developed sulfidic conditions as indicated by relatively high V/(V+Ni), and pervasive pyrite.

Maurrasse, F. J.; Sanchez-hernandez, Y.; Blanco, A.

2013-05-01

71

Morphological and genetic comparative analyses of populations of Zoogoneticus quitzeoensis (Cyprinodontiformes:Goodeidae) from Central Mexico, with description of a new species Análisis comparativo morfológico y genético de diferentes poblaciones de Zoogoneticus quitzeoensis (Cyprinodontiformes:Goodeidae) del Centro de México, con la descripción de una especie nueva  

Microsoft Academic Search

A genetic and morphometric study of populations of Zoogoneticus quitzeoensis (Bean, 1898) from the Lerma and Ameca basins and Cuitzeo, Zacapu and Chapala Lakes in Central Mexico was conducted. For the genetic analysis, 7 populations were sampled and 2 monophyletic groups were identifi ed with a genetic difference of D HKY = 3.4% (3-3.8%), one being the populations from the

Domínguez-Domínguez Omar; Pérez-Rodríguez Rodolfo; Doadrio Ignacio

2008-01-01

72

Semi-automatic delimitation of volcanic edifice boundaries: Validation and application to the cinder cones of the Tancitaro-Nueva Italia region (Michoacán-Guanajuato Volcanic Field, Mexico)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The shape and size of monogenetic volcanoes are the result of complex evolutions involving the interaction of eruptive activity, structural setting and degradational processes. Morphological studies of cinder cones aim to evaluate volcanic hazard on the Earth and to decipher the origins of various structures on extraterrestrial planets. Efforts have been dedicated so far to the characterization of the cinder cone morphology in a systematic and comparable manner. However, manual delimitation is time-consuming and influenced by the user subjectivity but, on the other hand, automatic boundary delimitation of volcanic terrains can be affected by irregular topography. In this work, the semi-automatic delimitation of volcanic edifice boundaries proposed by Grosse et al. (2009) for stratovolcanoes was tested for the first time over monogenetic cinder cones. The method, based on the integration of the DEM-derived slope and curvature maps, is applied here to the Tancitaro-Nueva Italia region of the Michoacán-Guanajuato Volcanic Field (Mexico), where 309 Plio-Quaternary cinder cones are located. The semiautomatic extraction allowed identification of 137 of the 309 cinder cones of the Tancitaro-Nueva Italia region, recognized by means of the manual extraction. This value corresponds to the 44.3% of the total number of cinder cones. Analysis on vent alignments allowed us to identify NE-SW vent alignments and cone elongations, consistent with a NE-SW ?max and a NW-SE ?min. Constructing a vent intensity map, based on computing the number of vents within a radius r centred on each vent of the data set and choosing r = 5 km, four vent intensity maxima were derived: one is positioned in the NW with respect to the Volcano Tancitaro, one in the NE, one to the S and another vent cluster located at the SE boundary of the studied area. The spacing of centroid of each cluster (24 km) can be related to the thickness of the crust (9-10 km) overlying the magma reservoir.

Di Traglia, Federico; Morelli, Stefano; Casagli, Nicola; Garduño Monroy, Victor Hugo

2014-08-01

73

Regulating device for an electromagnetic control element especially in an internal combustion engine with auto-ignition  

SciTech Connect

A regulating device for an electromagnetic control element, especially for an internal combustion engine with auto-ignition, is proposed in which a non-linear regulator with preferably a PD characteristic is coupled with a pulse regulator, preferably a two-point regulator with PID characteristic. Of special advantage is the interposition of a limiting device, which allows an increase in the D portion of the non-linear regulator, while at the same time suppressing interference. This results in an excellent control behavoir, especially in the face of small control deviations and in a control element or control circuit afflicted with friction and/or (magnetic) hysteresis.

Locher, J.; Schaller, D.

1985-02-12

74

Methyl Eugenol: Its Occurrence, Distribution, and Role in Nature, Especially in Relation to Insect Behavior and Pollination  

PubMed Central

This review discusses the occurrence and distribution (within a plant) of methyl eugenol in different plant species (> 450) from 80 families spanning many plant orders, as well as various roles this chemical plays in nature, especially in the interactions between tephritid fruit flies and plants.

Tan, Keng Hong; Nishida, Ritsuo

2012-01-01

75

Manipulator for inspection and possible repair of the tubes of heat exchangers, especially of steam generators for nuclear reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Manipulator for inspecting and, if required, repairing the tubes of heat exchangers, especially for nuclear reactors, comprises a tube bundle set in a tube sheet leading into a steam generator chamber and a manipulator is brought in through a lead-in nozzle. An inspection arm can be inserted and removed through the lead-in nozzle and the nozzle can be closed off

Gugel

1980-01-01

76

The effects of extraction methods on the contents of fatty acids, especially EPA and DHA in marine lipids.  

PubMed

This study aims to evaluate the efficiency of trans-methylation methods in fish oil obtained using Soxhlet extraction method and Bligh and Dyer method and also to observe the effects of extraction methods on the contents of polyunsaturated fatty acids [PUFAs, especially eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)] in five marine species: sardine (Sardinella aurita), anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus), sea bream (Sparus aurata), brushtooth lizardfish (Saurida undosquamis) and chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus). The results showed that Bligh and Dyer extraction method was more efficient in extracting polar and non-polar lipids than Soxhlet method and also prevented losses of PUFAs by a reduction in the oxidation. The level of EPA showed fluctuations for the two extraction methods. However, Soxhlet method showed significant decrease (p < 0.05) in the level of DHA for all fish species. The use of n-heptane proves to be superior for the recovery of unsaturated fatty acids, especially EPA and DHA. PMID:22010951

Ozogul, Yesim; Sim?ek, Ay?e; Balikçi, Esra; Kenar, Mehmet

2012-05-01

77

Petrographic Evidence of Microbial Mats in the Upper Cretaceous Fish-Bearing, Organic-Rich Limestone, Agua Nueva Formation, Central Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We document petrographic evidence of microbial mats in the Upper Cretaceous Agua Nueva Formation in the area of Xilitla (San Luis Potosí, Central Mexico), located in the southern part of the Tampico-Misantla basin. The sequence consists predominantly of alternating decimeter-thick beds of fossiliferous dark laminated limestone (C-org > 1.0wt%), and light gray, bioturbated limestone (C-org < 1.0wt%), with occasional brown shale and green bentonite layers. Well-preserved fossil-fish assemblages occur in the laminated dark limestone beds, which include shark teeth (cf. Ptychodus), scales of teleosteans (Ichthyodectiformes), as well as skeletal remains of holosteans (Nursallia. sp), and teleosteans (cf. Rhynchodercetis, Tselfatia, and unidentified Enchodontids). Thin section and SEM analyses of the laminated, dark limestones, reveal a micritic matrix consisting of dark and light sub-parallel wavy laminae, continuous and discontinuous folded laminae with shreds of organic matter, filaments, oncoids, and interlocking structures. The structures are identical to those previously described for the Cenomanian-Turonian Indidura Fm at Parras de la Fuente (Coahuila state) demonstrated to be of microbial origin (Duque-Botero and Maurrasse, 2005; 2008). These structures are also analogous to microbial mats in present environments, and Devonian deposits (Kremer, 2006). In addition, the laminae at Xilitla include filamentous bacterial structures, as thin and segmented red elements. In some thin sections, filaments appear to be embedded within the crinkly laminae and shreds showing the same pattern of folding, suggestive of biomorphic elements that represent the main producers of the organic matter associated with the laminae. Thus, exceptional bacterial activity characterizes sedimentation during the accumulation of the Agua Nueva Formation. Oxygen-deficient conditions related to the microbial mats were an important element in the mass mortality and preservation of the fish assemblages. Absence of bioturbation, pervasive framboidal pyrite, and the high concentration of organic matter (TOC ranges from 1.2% to 8wt%) in the dark limestones are consistent with persistent recurring dysoxic/anoxic conditions, and the light-gray bioturbated limestones represent relatively well-oxygenated episodes. Planktonic foraminifera (Rotalipora cushmani) and Inoceramu labiatus indicate a time interval from the latest Cenomanian through the earliest Turonian, thus this long interval of severe oxygen deficiency is coeval with Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 (OAE-2). [Duque-Botero and Maurrasse. 2005. Jour. Iberian Geology (31), 85-98; 2008. Cret. Res., 29, 957-964; Kremer. 2006. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica (51, 1), 143-154

Blanco, A.; Maurrasse, F. J.; Hernández-Ávila, J.; Ángeles-Trigueros, S. A.; García-Cabrera, M. E.

2013-05-01

78

Shear stress increases endothelial hyaluronan synthase 2 and hyaluronan synthesis especially in regard to an atheroprotective flow profile.  

PubMed

Recent studies revealed that in vivo the inner blood vessel surface is lined with an endothelial surface layer at least 0.5 ?m thick, which serves as an aegis, protecting the vessel wall from arteriosclerosis. Hyaluronan seems to be a constitutive component in regard to the atheroprotective properties of this surface structure. It has been shown that arterial pulsatile laminar blood flow increases the thickness of this surface layer in vivo, while it is significantly reduced at atheroprone regions with disturbed flow. This study was undertaken to reveal whether endothelial hyaluronan synthesis via hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2) can be changed by different shear stress conditions in vitro, especially in regard to an undisturbed, arterial-like pulsatile flow profile. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells, exposed to constant or pulsatile shear stress in a cone-and-plate system, were analysed for HAS2 expression by real-time RT-PCR and immunoblotting, and for hyaluronan by ELISA. Hyaluronan synthase 2 mRNA and protein were found to be transiently increased in a shear stress-dependent manner via the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt pathway. Especially pulsatile, arterial-like shear stress conditions induced enzyme and hyaluronan effectively, while lower shear stress that continuously changed its direction did not induce any differences in comparison with control cultures not exposed to shear stress. These experiments provide a link between the production of a constitutive component of the endothelial surface layer by endothelial cells and blood flow. PMID:21551265

Maroski, Julian; Vorderwülbecke, Bernd J; Fiedorowicz, Katarzyna; Da Silva-Azevedo, Luis; Siegel, Günter; Marki, Alex; Pries, Axel Radlach; Zakrzewicz, Andreas

2011-09-01

79

Hyperhomocysteinemia is one of the risk factors associated with cerebrovascular stiffness in hypertensive patients, especially elderly males  

PubMed Central

Hyperhomocystemia has been reported to be associated with cardiovascular disease, especially stroke. The resistive index (RI) estimated by carotid ultrasound is an established variable for estimating the risk of cerebral infarction. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between homocysteine concentration and carotid RI, a marker of cerebral vascular resistance in essential hypertensive patients. We measured serum total homocysteine and carotid RI in 261 patients. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to determine the association of homocysteine with carotid RI and intima media thickness (IMT). Age, sex, BMI, systolic blood pressure (SBP), homocysteine, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), uric acid, CRP, HbA1c, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and use of antihypertensive agents were included as independent variables. Age, sex, use of antihypertensive agents, HDL-C and homocysteine levels were shown to be significant predictors of carotid RI, but not IMT. Multiple regression analysis in men older than 65 years showed homocysteine and SBP were associated significantly with carotid RI. In elderly male patients, homocysteine was the strongest predictor of carotid RI (B = 0.0068, CI = 0.0017–0.0120, P = 0.011) in the multivariate model. In conclusion, hyperhomocysteinemia is associated with carotid RI, a surrogate marker of cerebral vascular resistance, especially in elderly men.

Okura, Takafumi; Miyoshi, Ken-ichi; Irita, Jun; Enomoto, Daijiro; Nagao, Tomoaki; Kukida, Masayoshi; Tanino, Akiko; Kudo, Kayo; Pei, Zouwei; Higaki, Jitsuo

2014-01-01

80

Hyperhomocysteinemia is one of the risk factors associated with cerebrovascular stiffness in hypertensive patients, especially elderly males.  

PubMed

Hyperhomocystemia has been reported to be associated with cardiovascular disease, especially stroke. The resistive index (RI) estimated by carotid ultrasound is an established variable for estimating the risk of cerebral infarction. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between homocysteine concentration and carotid RI, a marker of cerebral vascular resistance in essential hypertensive patients. We measured serum total homocysteine and carotid RI in 261 patients. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to determine the association of homocysteine with carotid RI and intima media thickness (IMT). Age, sex, BMI, systolic blood pressure (SBP), homocysteine, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), uric acid, CRP, HbA1c, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and use of antihypertensive agents were included as independent variables. Age, sex, use of antihypertensive agents, HDL-C and homocysteine levels were shown to be significant predictors of carotid RI, but not IMT. Multiple regression analysis in men older than 65 years showed homocysteine and SBP were associated significantly with carotid RI. In elderly male patients, homocysteine was the strongest predictor of carotid RI (B = 0.0068, CI = 0.0017-0.0120, P = 0.011) in the multivariate model. In conclusion, hyperhomocysteinemia is associated with carotid RI, a surrogate marker of cerebral vascular resistance, especially in elderly men. PMID:25012721

Okura, Takafumi; Miyoshi, Ken-Ichi; Irita, Jun; Enomoto, Daijiro; Nagao, Tomoaki; Kukida, Masayoshi; Tanino, Akiko; Kudo, Kayo; Pei, Zouwei; Higaki, Jitsuo

2014-01-01

81

Supercapacitor electrodes with especially high rate capability and cyclability based on a novel Pt nanosphere and cysteine-generated graphene.  

PubMed

In the present work, supercapacitors based on graphene/Pt films show especially high rate capability (120 F g(-1) even at 50 A g(-1)) and cyclability (no attenuation over 10,000 cycles) and peculiar nanosphere morphology after electrochemical cycling. Furthermore, supercapacitors based on the graphene powder with a binder exhibit high specific capacitance (249 F g(-1) at 0.1 A g(-1)), long cycle life (no attenuation over 40,000 cycles) and high rate capability (150 F g(-1) even at 50 A g(-1)), which are much better than those of most graphene electrode materials. These indicate the great potential of the cysteine reduced graphene electrodes in energy storage. PMID:22772748

Zhang, Dacheng; Zhang, Xiong; Chen, Yao; Wang, Changhui; Ma, Yanwei; Dong, Huanli; Jiang, Lang; Meng, Qing; Hu, Wenping

2012-08-21

82

A feminist case against euthanasia. Women should be especially wary of arguments for "the freedom to die".  

PubMed

Feminists, among others, should not be too quick to hail assisted suicide and euthanasia as extensions of human freedom. Indeed, there are good reasons why women should be especially suspicious of such "reforms." First, it is not clear that a person has a moral right to end his or her existence. Feminists understand that suicide and murder are irretrievably linked, and that a person is not a monad. We often hear of suicide attempts in which the person's body--by vomiting up poison, for instance--overrules his or her mind. If there can be such miscommunication between a mind and a body, how are we to trust the communication between a person and the physician ready to assist his or her suicide? Ambivalent motivation and ambiguous meanings have always characterized human relations. In the past, however, an absolute taboo against suicide or euthanasia cemented a patient's right to expect the care of his or her physician, family, and community. If we were to discard that taboo, we would subtly alter these relationships and make each other more vulnerable. History suggests that women, minorities, the ill, the old, and the handicapped would be most at risk. Finally, the assisted-suicide debate has even larger social implications. Unconditional respect for the gift of life is eroding in the United States. The suicide rate is already climbing at all levels of society, especially among teenagers. Wouldn't the acceptance of suicide and euthanasia make it even more acceptable for people to check out of all kinds of uncomfortable situations--marriages or life? PMID:10163232

Callahan, S

1996-01-01

83

Glitter-Like Iridescence within the Bacteroidetes Especially Cellulophaga spp.: Optical Properties and Correlation with Gliding Motility  

PubMed Central

Iridescence results from structures that generate color. Iridescence of bacterial colonies has recently been described and illustrated. The glitter-like iridescence class, created especially for a few strains of Cellulophaga lytica, exhibits an intense iridescence under direct illumination. Such color appearance effects were previously associated with other bacteria from the Bacteroidetes phylum, but without clear elucidation and illustration. To this end, we compared various bacterial strains to which the iridescent trait was attributed. All Cellulophaga species and additional Bacteroidetes strains from marine and terrestrial environments were investigated. A selection of bacteria, mostly marine in origin, were found to be iridescent. Although a common pattern of reflected wavelengths was recorded for the species investigated, optical spectroscopy and physical measurements revealed a range of different glitter-like iridescence intensity and color profiles. Importantly, gliding motility was found to be a common feature of all iridescent colonies. Dynamic analyses of “glitter” formation at the edges of C. lytica colonies showed that iridescence was correlated with layer superposition. Both gliding motility, and unknown cell-to-cell communication processes, may be required for the establishment, in time and space, of the necessary periodic structures responsible for the iridescent appearance of Bacteroidetes.

Kientz, Betty; Ducret, Adrien; Luke, Stephen; Vukusic, Peter; Mignot, Tam; Rosenfeld, Eric

2012-01-01

84

Laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication ameliorates symptoms of reflux, especially for patients with very abnormal DeMeester scores.  

PubMed

Intuitively, more severe acid reflux causes more severe symptoms. This study was undertaken to correlate preoperative DeMeester scores with symptoms before and after laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication. Before fundoplication, all patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease underwent 24 to 48 hour pH testing. Before and after fundoplication, the frequency and severity of reflux symptoms were scored using a Likert scale. Four hundred and eighty-one patients underwent fundoplication and were followed for a mean of 32 months. The preoperative median DeMeester score was 41 (range 14.8 to 361.5). Before fundoplication, DeMeester scores correlated with severity of gastroesophageal reflux disease symptoms (Spearman regression analysis, P < 0.05 for all). Postoperatively, all symptom scores improved (Wilcoxon matched pairs test, P < 0.05 for all). After fundoplication, preoperative DeMeester scores did not correlate with the frequency or severity of symptoms. For patients with excessive acid reflux, reflux severity impacts the frequency and severity of symptoms before fundoplication. Laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication improves the frequency and severity of all reflux symptoms. The severity of preoperative reflux does not impact the frequency or severity of symptoms after fundoplication. Relief of excessive acid reflux, regardless of severity or degree (i.e., DeMeester scores), ameliorates symptoms of acid reflux thereby encouraging fundoplication, especially for patients with very abnormal DeMeester scores. PMID:18646482

Ross, Sharona B; Villadolid, Desiree; Paul, Harold; Al-Saadi, Sam; Gonzalez, Javier; Cowgill, Sarah M; Rosemurgy, Alexander

2008-07-01

85

Quantitative sensory testing in children with migraine: preliminary evidence for enhanced sensitivity to painful stimuli especially in girls.  

PubMed

Recent studies showed an enhanced general sensitivity to painful stimuli in adult migraineurs during as well as between attacks. Yet, the influence of a prolonged pain history and potential sex differences has not been studied. We used quantitative sensory testing to examine 25 children with migraine between attacks and 28 controls (age 9-15). The assessment included the measurement of heat and mechanical pain thresholds as well as measures of perceptual sensitization in response to repetitive (mechanical) or tonic (thermal) noxious stimulation at both trigeminal and thenar sites. In addition, the mother was either present or absent during the measurements. Heat pain thresholds were not significantly different between the two groups. However, the child migraineurs showed significantly lower mechanical pain thresholds. Children and especially girls with migraine displayed significantly more sensitization to a tonic heat stimulus at the trigeminal site when the mother was present. The migraineurs also showed a trend towards higher sensitization ratings for mechanical stimuli. Overall, heat pain thresholds were significantly higher in the presence of the mother. In the migraine group only, mechanical pain thresholds were significantly higher when the mother was present. To summarize, an enhanced sensitivity to painful stimuli can already be observed in children suffering from migraine for an average duration of 4.4 years. This may be the result of sensitization in nociceptive pain pathways caused by frequent pain experiences. Girls with migraine were more prone to such sensitization, which may increase their risk for continuing to suffer from migraine throughout adulthood. PMID:16495010

Zohsel, Katrin; Hohmeister, Johanna; Oelkers-Ax, Rieke; Flor, Herta; Hermann, Christiane

2006-07-01

86

Evaluación de estimadores no paramétricos de la riqueza de especies. Un ejemplo con aves en áreas verdes de la ciudad de Puebla, México  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuestro objetivo fue evaluar el desempeño de estimadores no paramétricos de la riqueza de especies con datos reales. Durante la temporada de cría de 2003 censamos las comunidades de aves en dos áreas verdes de la ciudad de Puebla (México), y obtuvimos las corres¬pondientes curvas de rarefacción, que fueron ajustadas a dos funciones de acumulación de especies no asintóticas y

J. A. González Oreja; A. A. De la Fuente-Díaz-Ordaz; L. Hernández-Santín; D. Buzo-Franco; C. Bonache-Regidor

2010-01-01

87

Identification of optimum sequencing depth especially for de novo genome assembly of small genomes using next generation sequencing data.  

PubMed

Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) is a disruptive technology that has found widespread acceptance in the life sciences research community. The high throughput and low cost of sequencing has encouraged researchers to undertake ambitious genomic projects, especially in de novo genome sequencing. Currently, NGS systems generate sequence data as short reads and de novo genome assembly using these short reads is computationally very intensive. Due to lower cost of sequencing and higher throughput, NGS systems now provide the ability to sequence genomes at high depth. However, currently no report is available highlighting the impact of high sequence depth on genome assembly using real data sets and multiple assembly algorithms. Recently, some studies have evaluated the impact of sequence coverage, error rate and average read length on genome assembly using multiple assembly algorithms, however, these evaluations were performed using simulated datasets. One limitation of using simulated datasets is that variables such as error rates, read length and coverage which are known to impact genome assembly are carefully controlled. Hence, this study was undertaken to identify the minimum depth of sequencing required for de novo assembly for different sized genomes using graph based assembly algorithms and real datasets. Illumina reads for E.coli (4.6 MB) S.kudriavzevii (11.18 MB) and C.elegans (100 MB) were assembled using SOAPdenovo, Velvet, ABySS, Meraculous and IDBA-UD. Our analysis shows that 50X is the optimum read depth for assembling these genomes using all assemblers except Meraculous which requires 100X read depth. Moreover, our analysis shows that de novo assembly from 50X read data requires only 6-40 GB RAM depending on the genome size and assembly algorithm used. We believe that this information can be extremely valuable for researchers in designing experiments and multiplexing which will enable optimum utilization of sequencing as well as analysis resources. PMID:23593174

Desai, Aarti; Marwah, Veer Singh; Yadav, Akshay; Jha, Vineet; Dhaygude, Kishor; Bangar, Ujwala; Kulkarni, Vivek; Jere, Abhay

2013-01-01

88

Hemoglobin adducts as a marker of exposure to chemical substances, especially PRTR class I designated chemical substances.  

PubMed

Many new biomarkers are being studied, in addition to classical biomarkers, such as chemical substances and their metabolites in blood and urine and modified enzymes. Among these new biomarkers, hemoglobin adducts are thought to be especially useful for the estimation of chemical exposures. We review here the use of biomarkers for monitoring exposures to nine substances, mainly focusing on PRTR class I designated chemical substances, styrene, phenyloxirane (styrene oxide), 4,4'-methylendiphenyl diisocyanate (MDI), 4,4'-methylendianiline (MDA), 1,3-butadiene, ethylene oxide, propylene oxide, acrylamide and acrylonitrile. Hemoglobin adduct levels were elevated after exposures to styrene, MDI, MDA, 1, 3-butadiene, ethylene oxide, acrylamide and acrylonitrile. Moreover, hemoglobin adducts of butadiene, ethylene oxide, acrylamide and acrylonitrile have several useful advantages. For example, the hemoglobin adduct of 1,3-butadiene is an even more useful biomarker of exposure than urinary metabolites, and in the case of ethylene oxide, even though the concentration of ethylene oxide-Hb in the blood of workers did not exceed the value of the German exposure equivalent, a significant difference in it was found between workers and a control group. Also hemoglobin adducts of acrylamide and acrylonitrile can reflect their exposures because there are no urinary metabolites of acrylamide and acrylonitrile that are useful for exposure assessment. In addition to these advantages, hemoglobin adducts are superior to DNA adducts with respect to the availability of large amounts, availability of methods for chemical identification, and well-defined life spans due to the absence of repair. Hemoglobin adducts can be effective biomarkers for assessing exposure to and the effects of chemicals. PMID:17053297

Ogawa, Masanori; Oyama, Tsunehiro; Isse, Toyohi; Yamaguchi, Tetsunosuke; Murakami, Tomoe; Endo, Yoko; Kawamoto, Toshihiro

2006-09-01

89

Isolation of a potent antibiotic producer bacterium, especially against MRSA, from northern region of the Persian Gulf.  

PubMed

Nowadays, emergence and prevalence of MRSA (Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus) strain have become a great global concern in 21st century, so, it is necessary to discover new antibiotics against this pathogen. The aim of this study was isolation and evaluation marine bacteria from the Persian Gulf in order to finding antibiotic compounds against some pathogenic bacteria. For this purpose, water and sediment samples were collected from the Persian Gulf during March to October 2009. The antibacterial activity of the isolated bacteria was assessed using disc diffusion method. The Growth Curve Interference (GCI) parameter against MRSA was determined for the high potential antibiotic producing strain. The most important factors affecting fermentation conditions in antibiotic production were also optimized. Definite identification of intended isolate was confirmed by 16S rRNA sequencing. Altogether, 51 bacterial colony was isolated and among them only 3 bacterium showed antibacterial activity. Pseudoalteromonas piscicida PG-01 isolated from a sediment sample was chosen as the best antibiotic producing strain. This strain was effective against all tested Gram-positive bacteria, had good anti-MRSA activity and also GCI value against MRSA was two times lower than MIC value. Among the optimized fermentation parameters, carbon and nitrogen sources play major role in efficacy of optimized antibiotic production. Ultrastructural study on the effect of intended antibiotic compounds on MRSA using TEM revealed that the target site for this compound is cell wall. Considering the antibacterial effect of PG-01 strain especially against MRSA, intended antibiotic compounds can gives hope for treatment of diseases caused by multi-drug resistant bacteria. PMID:22642595

Darabpour, Esmaeil; Roayaei Ardakani, Mohammad; Motamedi, Hossein; Taghi Ronagh, Mohammad

2012-05-01

90

Extracellular Vesicles Derived from Gut Microbiota, Especially Akkermansia muciniphila, Protect the Progression of Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis  

PubMed Central

Gut microbiota play an important part in the pathogenesis of mucosal inflammation, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, owing to the complexity of the gut microbiota, our understanding of the roles of commensal and pathogenic bacteria in the maintenance of immune homeostasis in the gut is evolving only slowly. Here, we evaluated the role of gut microbiota and their secreting extracellular vesicles (EV) in the development of mucosal inflammation in the gut. Experimental IBD model was established by oral application of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) to C57BL/6 mice. The composition of gut microbiota and bacteria-derived EV in stools was evaluated by metagenome sequencing using bacterial common primer of 16S rDNA. Metagenomics in the IBD mouse model showed that the change in stool EV composition was more drastic, compared to the change of bacterial composition. Oral DSS application decreased the composition of EV from Akkermansia muciniphila and Bacteroides acidifaciens in stools, whereas increased EV from TM7 phylum, especially from species DQ777900_s and AJ400239_s. In vitro pretreatment of A. muciniphila-derived EV ameliorated the production of a pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 from colon epithelial cells induced by Escherichia coli EV. Additionally, oral application of A. muciniphila EV also protected DSS-induced IBD phenotypes, such as body weight loss, colon length, and inflammatory cell infiltration of colon wall. Our data provides insight into the role of gut microbiota-derived EV in regulation of intestinal immunity and homeostasis, and A. muciniphila-derived EV have protective effects in the development of DSS-induced colitis.

Kang, Chil-sung; Ban, Mingi; Choi, Eun-Jeong; Moon, Hyung-Geun; Jeon, Jun-Sung; Kim, Dae-Kyum; Park, Soo-Kyung; Jeon, Seong Gyu; Roh, Tae-Young; Myung, Seung-Jae

2013-01-01

91

Sensitization to common allergens, especially pollens, among children with respiratory allergy in the Trakya region of Turkey.  

PubMed

Asthma and allergic rhinitis are common problems in children and the causative pollen allergens vary according to the geographical area. The aim of this study was to investigate patterns of sensitization to common inhalant allergens, especially pollens, in Turkish children living in the Trakya region and to determine differences between rural and urban areas. Allergen skin testing was prospectively performed on 539 children aged between 4 and 17 years with respiratory allergy. The reaction was considered to be positive if the mean wheal diameter was at least 3 mm greater than that of the negative controls. We detected positive skin reactions in 420 (77.9%) children. Two hundred and eighty-one (52.1%) mite, 277 (51.4%) pollen, 174 (32.3%) mold, 65 (12.1%) animal dander, 12 (2.2%) cockroach and 6 (1.1%) latex skin sensitivities were detected. Among the pollen allergies 173 were cereal pollen (32.1%), 170 grass pollen (31.5%) and 144 tree pollen allergies (26.7%). The most common positive skin test among the pollens was to cultivated wheat (Titicum vulgare) (n = 116, 21,5%), followed by rye grass (Lolium perenne) and orchard grass (Dactylis glomerata). Positive skin reactions to Alternaria, to Candida albicans, and to all pollens except Ulmus competris, Pinus sylvetris, Platanus vulgaris and Tilia platyphyllos, were higher in children with allergic rhinitis than in those with asthma. In children from rural areas, allergic skin reactivity was found to be more common against Candida albicans, sheep dander and all pollens except Corylus avellana, Fraxinus excelsior, Populus alba, Pinus sylvetris, Platanus vulgaris and Chenopodium album, than in urban children. Although Trakya is close to Greece and other Mediterranean countries, this study suggests that the pollens, which sensitize children, are not similar. PMID:15783130

Yazicioglu, Mehtap; Oner, Naci; Celtik, Coskun; Okutan, Ozlem; Pala, Ozer

2004-12-01

92

Within-hemifield posture changes affect tactile-visual exogenous spatial cueing without spatial precision, especially in the dark.  

PubMed

We investigated the effects of seen and unseen within-hemifield posture changes on crossmodal visual-tactile links in covert spatial attention. In all experiments, a spatially nonpredictive tactile cue was presented to the left or the right hand, with the two hands placed symmetrically across the midline. Shortly after a tactile cue, a visual target appeared at one of two eccentricities within either of the hemifields. For half of the trial blocks, the hands were aligned with the inner visual target locations, and for the remainder, the hands were aligned with the outer target locations. In Experiments 1 and 2, the inner and outer eccentricities were 17.5º and 52.5º, respectively. In Experiment 1, the arms were completely covered, and visual up-down judgments were better when on the same side as the preceding tactile cue. Cueing effects were not significantly affected by hand or target alignment. In Experiment 2, the arms were in view, and now some target responses were affected by cue alignment: Cueing for outer targets was only significant when the hands were aligned with them. In Experiment 3, we tested whether any unseen posture changes could alter the cueing effects, by widely separating the inner and outer target eccentricities (now 10º and 86º). In this case, hand alignment did affect some of the cueing effects: Cueing for outer targets was now only significant when the hands were in the outer position. Although these results confirm that proprioception can, in some cases, influence tactile-visual links in exogenous spatial attention, they also show that spatial precision is severely limited, especially when posture is unseen. PMID:24470256

Kennett, Steffan; Driver, Jon

2014-05-01

93

Analysis of phenotypic and microsatellite-based diversity of maize landraces in India, especially from the north east Himalayan region.  

PubMed

The maize landraces in the North East Himalayan (NEH) region in India, especially in the Sikkim state, are morphologically highly diverse. The present study provides details of phenotypic and molecular characterization of a set of 48 selected maize landrace accessions, including the 'Sikkim Primitives' which have a unique habit of prolificacy (5-9 ears on a single stalk). Multi-location phenotypic evaluation of these 48 accessions revealed significant genetic variability for grain yield and its components, leading to identification of several promising accessions. Cluster analysis and PCA using nine morpho-agronomic characters clearly separated 'Sikkim Primitives' from the rest of the accessions. PCA revealed two principal components describing 90% of the total variation, with hundred kernel weight, ear length, ear diameter, number of kernels per ear and flowering behaviour forming the most discriminatory traits. The accessions were genotyped using 42 microsatellite or simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers using a 'population bulk DNA fingerprinting strategy', with allele resolution using an automated DNA Sequencer. The study revealed a high mean number of alleles per SSR locus (13.0) and high Polymorphism Information Content (PIC) value of 0.60. The analysis also led to identification of 163 private/unique alleles, differentiating 44 out of 48 accessions. Six highly frequent SSR alleles were detected at different loci (phi014, phi062, phi090, umc1266, umc1367 and umc2250) with individual frequencies >/=0.75. Some of these SSR loci were reported to tag specific genes/QTL for some important traits, indicating that chromosomal regions harboring these SSR alleles were not selectively neutral. Cluster analysis using Rogers' genetic distance also revealed distinct genetic identity of the 'Sikkim Primitives' from the rest of the accessions in India, including Sikkim. Mantel's test revealed significant and positive correlation between the phenotypic and molecular genetic dissimilarity matrices. The study was the first to portray the patterns of phenotypic and molecular diversity in the maize landraces from the NEH region in India. PMID:20107870

Sharma, Lata; Prasanna, B M; Ramesh, B

2010-06-01

94

Identification of Optimum Sequencing Depth Especially for De Novo Genome Assembly of Small Genomes Using Next Generation Sequencing Data  

PubMed Central

Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) is a disruptive technology that has found widespread acceptance in the life sciences research community. The high throughput and low cost of sequencing has encouraged researchers to undertake ambitious genomic projects, especially in de novo genome sequencing. Currently, NGS systems generate sequence data as short reads and de novo genome assembly using these short reads is computationally very intensive. Due to lower cost of sequencing and higher throughput, NGS systems now provide the ability to sequence genomes at high depth. However, currently no report is available highlighting the impact of high sequence depth on genome assembly using real data sets and multiple assembly algorithms. Recently, some studies have evaluated the impact of sequence coverage, error rate and average read length on genome assembly using multiple assembly algorithms, however, these evaluations were performed using simulated datasets. One limitation of using simulated datasets is that variables such as error rates, read length and coverage which are known to impact genome assembly are carefully controlled. Hence, this study was undertaken to identify the minimum depth of sequencing required for de novo assembly for different sized genomes using graph based assembly algorithms and real datasets. Illumina reads for E.coli (4.6 MB) S.kudriavzevii (11.18 MB) and C.elegans (100 MB) were assembled using SOAPdenovo, Velvet, ABySS, Meraculous and IDBA-UD. Our analysis shows that 50X is the optimum read depth for assembling these genomes using all assemblers except Meraculous which requires 100X read depth. Moreover, our analysis shows that de novo assembly from 50X read data requires only 6–40 GB RAM depending on the genome size and assembly algorithm used. We believe that this information can be extremely valuable for researchers in designing experiments and multiplexing which will enable optimum utilization of sequencing as well as analysis resources.

Desai, Aarti; Marwah, Veer Singh; Yadav, Akshay; Jha, Vineet; Dhaygude, Kishor; Bangar, Ujwala; Kulkarni, Vivek; Jere, Abhay

2013-01-01

95

Urinary Interleukin-8 Is a Biomarker of Stress in Emergency Physicians, Especially with Advancing Age -- The JOBSTRESS* Randomized Trial  

PubMed Central

Background Emergency physicians are exposed to greater stress during a 24-hour shift (24 hS) than a 14-hour night shift (14 hS), with an impact lasting several days. Interleukin-8 (IL-8) is postulated to be a chronic stress biomarker. However, no studies have tracked IL-8 over several shifts or used it for monitoring short-term residual stress. The IL-8 response to the shifts may also increase with age. Conveniently, IL-8 can be measured non-intrusively from urine. Methods We conducted a shifts-randomized trial comparing 17 emergency physicians’ urinary IL-8 levels during a 24 hS, a 14 hS, and a control day (clerical work on return from leave). Mean levels of IL-8 were compared using a Wilcoxon matched-pairs test. Independent associations of key factors including shifts, stress, and age with IL-8 levels were further assessed in a multivariable generalized estimating equations model. Results Mean urinary IL-8 levels almost doubled during and after a 24 hS compared with a 14 hS or a control day. Furthermore, IL-8 levels failed to return to control values at the end of the third day after the shift despite a rest day following the 24 hS. In the multivariable model, engaging in a 24 hS, self-reported stress, and age were independently associated with higher IL-8 levels. A 24 hS significantly increased IL-8 levels by 1.9 ng (p?=?.007). Similarly, for every unit increase in self-reported stress, there was a 0.11 ng increase in IL-8 levels (p?=?.003); and for every one year advance in age of physicians, IL-8 levels also increased by 0.11 ng (p?=?.018). Conclusion The 24 hS generated a prolonged response of the immune system. Urinary IL-8 was a strong biomarker of stress under intensive and prolonged demands, both acutely and over time. Because elevated IL-8 levels are associated with cardiovascular disease and negative psychological consequences, we suggest that emergency physicians limit their exposure to 24 hS, especially with advancing age.

Dutheil, Frederic; Trousselard, Marion; Perrier, Christophe; Lac, Gerard; Chamoux, Alain; Duclos, Martine; Naughton, Geraldine; Mnatzaganian, George; Schmidt, Jeannot

2013-01-01

96

StalAge - A new algorithm especially designed for the construction of speleothem age-depth models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A standard approach to construct age-depth models for speleothems on the basis of 230Th/U-ages is not available yet. Some studies apply linear interpolation between dated depths; others use least squares polynomial fits. Other authors, in turn, use various kinds of splines or even more sophisticated methods based on the general growth mechanisms of speleothems. A general approach to estimate the uncertainty of stalagmite age models has neither been developed yet. Since the exact determination of the timing and duration of climatic events recorded in speleothem calcite depends on the method used to calculate the age model, a general technique for the calculation of both the age model and its uncertainty is urgently needed. Here we present a new algorithm, especially designed for constructing age-depth models based on speleothem 230Th/U-ages. The algorithm relies on two basic assumptions: (i) the age model must increase monotonically with increasing distance from top of the stalagmite, and (ii) if possible within the associated error bars, the simplest age-depth relationship (i.e., a straight line) is fitted to the age data. Whereas the first assumption simply arises from the absolute constraint of increasing age with increasing distance from top, the second assumption avoids over-interpretation of the age data. The performance of the algorithm was tested using synthetic speleothem age data. For this purpose, a numerical model simulating (i) speleothem growth, (ii) incorporation and temporal evolution of U-series isotopes and (iii) mass spectrometric analysis was developed. This allows simulation of extreme scenarios, such as stalagmite sections including obvious outliers, age inversions and pronounced detrital contamination, and also to test the performance and robustness of the algorithm under these conditions. The developed algorithm has distinct advantages in comparison with the existing methods. Firstly, it is very robust. Outliers and age inversions are automatically detected and taken into account for the calculation of the age model and its uncertainty. The uncertainty in such sections is appropriately enlarged and, thus, probably more realistic than that calculated by other methods. Secondly, the inclusion of the monotonicity criterion provides additional information apart from the 230Th/U-ages and the corresponding errors. This results in smaller errors than those calculated by other methods in sections without age inversions. The algorithm is written in the free statistical software R and will be made available as a free download to the speleothem community.

Scholz, Denis; Hoffmann, Dirk

2010-05-01

97

ON EXTRACELLULAR AND INTRACELLULAR VENOM ACTIVATORS OF THE BLOOD, WITH ESPECIAL REFERENCE TO LECITHIN AND FATTY ACIDS AND THEIR COMPOUNDS  

PubMed Central

In normal serums of the majority of mammalian and avian blood there exists certain substances capable of activating venom hæmolysin. They are extractable from serum by means of ether, and are capable of conferring upon the originally non-activating serum a power to activate venom, when mixed with the latter. The ethereal extract consists of fatty acids, neutral fats and possibly also some ether soluble organic soaps. The fatty acids and soaps, especially of the oleinic series, acquire certain characteristics of complements in general, when they are mixed with serum. They are inactive without the venom in the mixture; they are inactivable with calcium chloride; they exhibit a tendency to go off in activity with age; they are inactive or only weakly active at 0° C., and they are extractable by ether. In testing the serum from which the ether soluble substances are removed, it is found that no venom activating property is left. Warm alcoholic extraction of such serum yields, however, a large quantity of lecithin. In the case of non-activating serums no venom activating fats appear in the ethereal extract. Lecithin exists in such serum in no less quantity than in the activating kind. The addition of oleinic acid or its soluble soaps to a non-activating serum, in a ratio which corresponds to the percentage of fatty acids or soaps contained in some of the easily activating serums, will make the serum highly active in regard to venom. In normal serum of dog there exists, besides the group of activators already mentioned, another kind of venom activators which has been identified as a lecithin compound acting in the manner of free lecithin. A very sharp differentiation of the hæmolysis produced by this activator and by the other groups of activators is obtained by means of calcium chloride, which is powerless against lecithin or lecithin compounds, but effective in removing the action of the latter. This lecithin containing proteid can be precipitated by half saturation with ammonium sulphate, but is perfectly soluble in water, and is not coagulated in neutral alkaline salt solutions upon boiling. Alcohol precipitates a proteid-like coagulum and extracts lecithin from it; ether does not extract lecithin from this compound. Non-activating serums do not contain any such lecithin compound. Lecithin contained in other serum proteids, mainly as lecithalbumin, and perhaps as contained in globulin, is not able to activate venom. This is true of all the serums with which I worked; it matters not whether these fractions (obtained with ammonium sulphate) belong to the most activating serum (dog) or to the non-activating serum (ox). The non-coagulable portion of all heated serum contains a venom activator of the nature of lecithin. This activator is contained in a non-coagulable proteid described by Howell which is identical with Chabrie's albumon. As there is no ether-extractable lecithin in this portion of the serum, the activating property of heated serum must be due to this proteid compound of lecithin. That this lecithin proteid does not pre-exist in normal serum but is produced by the action of high temperature is true of all serums except that of the dog. In venom activation we know now that lecithin becomes reactive with venom when it is transformed from other proteid compounds into the non-coagulable form, the albumon. Howell's view of the non-existence of the non-coagulable proteid in normal serum seems to receive a biological support from venom hæmolysis. Ovovitellin derived from hen's egg is one of the best venom activators of the lecithin proteid type. The cause of venom susceptibility of various kinds of blood corpuscles does not depend upon the existence of lecithin in the corpuscles, but solely upon the amount of fatty acids, and perhaps, also, soaps and fats, contained in the corpuscles. The protection which calcium chloride gives against venom haemolysis is proof of the absence of lecithin activation. From the stroma of susceptible corpuscles fatty acids or some fats can be extracted with ether. After

Noguchi, Hideyo

1907-01-01

98

Intramantle Inking: A Stress Behavior in Octopus bimaculoides (Mollusca: Cephalopoda)  

PubMed Central

Several Pacific 2-spot octopuses (Octopus bimaculoides) shipped from California and held in a recirculating seawater system at Illinois College exhibited an unusual postshipping stress behavior not previously documented in the literature. Ink, normally ejected into the surrounding seawater, was uncharacteristically retained in the mantle cavity. We describe the resulting behaviors, discuss successful resuscitation efforts, and briefly consider the possible role(s) that ink may have played in the death of one octopus.

Toll, Ronald B

2011-01-01

99

Reproduction and condition of female Octopus mimus (Mollusca: Cephalopoda)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between reproduction and condition was studied in a 15 mo sample of 919 maturing, mature and post-spawning female Octopus mimus (388 to 3714 g) caught in Iquique (North Chile). O. mimus is a semelparous species, with reproduction taking place all year round. Investment in reproductive tissues was, on average, 9.9% of mature female body weight, independent of season.

T. Cortez; B. G. Castro; A. Guerra

1995-01-01

100

New data on southern African Achatinidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda Pulmonata)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing knowledge of the genital anatomy of the species of the African land snail family Achatinidae has greatly improved our understanding of the delimitation of the species and the intricate interrelationships of the various taxa (Mead, 1950). The genitalia of many achatinids are still unknown due to the absence of properly preserved animals. New data, mainly on the reproductive organs

Bruggen van A. C

1972-01-01

101

Using DNA barcoding to differentiate invasive Dreissena species (Mollusca, Bivalvia)  

PubMed Central

Abstract The zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) and the quagga mussel (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis) are considered as the most competitive invaders in freshwaters of Europe and North America. Although shell characteristics exist to differentiate both species, phenotypic plasticity in the genus Dreissena does not always allow a clear identification. Therefore, the need to find an accurate identification method is essential. DNA barcoding has been proven to be an adequate procedure to discriminate species. The cytochrome c oxidase subunit I mitochondrial gene (COI) is considered as the standard barcode for animals. We tested the use of this gene as an efficient DNA barcode and found that it allow rapid and accurate identification of adult Dreissena individuals.

Marescaux, Jonathan; Van Doninck, Karine

2013-01-01

102

Neuronal Localization of Dopamine and 5-Hydroxytryptamine in Some Mollusca.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The localization of biogenic monoamines in ganglionic tissues from Anodonta piscinalis, Helix pomatia, and Buccinum undatum was studied by means of the histochemical fluorescence method of Falck and Hillarp. In cerebral, visceral, and pedal ganglia (besid...

E. Dahl B. Falck C. von Mecklenburg H. Myhrberg E. Rosengren

1965-01-01

103

Morphometric Analysis of Male Reproductive Features of Octopodids (Mollusca: Cephalopoda)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taxonomic accounts of octopodids frequently describe the spermatophore, the penis that releases the sper- matophore from the internal organs, and the ligula and calamus that transfer it to a female. To explore relationships among these male features and body size, this study applies principal components analysis to data from 43 species of the family Octopodidae, or benthic octopuses. Covariation in

JANET R. VOIGHT

2002-01-01

104

Morphometric analysis of male reproductive features of octopodids (Mollusca: Cephalopoda).  

PubMed

Taxonomic accounts of octopodids frequently describe the spermatophore, the penis that releases the spermatophore from the internal organs, and the ligula and calamus that transfer it to a female. To explore relationships among these male features and body size, this study applies principal components analysis to data from 43 species of the family Octopodidae, or benthic octopuses. Covariation in penis and mantle length opposed by covariation in ligula and calamus lengths forms primary shape variation. Secondary shape variation is due to opposing variation between ligula and calamus lengths. Primary shape variation is greatest among shallow-water species. The calami and ligulae of diurnal and crepuscular shallow-water species are short compared to those of nocturnal shallow-water species. Because these structures contain heterogeneous collagen arrays and lack camouflaging chromatophore organs, they are white. Diurnal and crepuscular octopus species may minimize their lengths due to selection imposed by visual predators. Secondary shape variation is greater in deep-sea and high-latitude octopuses. Members of Voss's Eledoninae (except Eledone) and Graneledoninae and two species of Benthoctopus have exceptionally long calami and comparatively short ligulae; these lengths vary among members of the Bathypolypodinae. Variation in spermatophore length is independent of the structures considered. PMID:11971810

Voight, Janet R

2002-04-01

105

Amundsen Sea Mollusca from the BIOPEARL II expedition  

PubMed Central

Abstract Information regarding the molluscs in this dataset is based on the epibenthic sledge (EBS) samples collected during the cruise BIOPEARL II / JR179 RRS James Clark Ross in the austral summer 2008. A total of 35 epibenthic sledge deployments have been performed at five locations in the Amundsen Sea at Pine Island Bay (PIB) and the Amundsen Sea Embayment (ASE) at depths ranging from 476 to 3501m. This presents a unique and important collection for the Antarctic benthic biodiversity assessment as the Amundsen Sea remains one of the least known regions in Antarctica. Indeed the work presented in this dataset is based on the first benthic samples collected with an EBS in the Amundsen Sea. However we assume that the data represented are an underestimation of the real fauna present in the Amundsen Sea. In total 9261 specimens belonging to 6 classes 55 families and 97 morphospecies were collected. The species richness per station varied between 6 and 43. Gastropoda were most species rich 50 species followed by Bivalvia (37), Aplacophora (5), Scaphopoda (3) and one from each of Polyplacophora and Monoplacophora.

Moreau, Camille; Linse, Katrin; Griffiths, Huw; Barnes, David; Kaiser, Stefanie; Glover, Adrian; Sands, Chester; Strugnell, Jan; Enderlein, Peter; Geissler, Paul

2013-01-01

106

First molecular phylogeny of the subfamily Polycerinae (Mollusca, Nudibranchia, Polyceridae)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The subfamily Polycerinae includes four genera with around 46 species described to date. This subfamily is characterized by a limaciform body, which may have simple tentacular processes on the margin of the oral veil. Phylogenetic relationships between the genera of the subfamily Polycerinae (Polyceridae) have not yet been studied, and therefore, the only available information is based on morphological descriptions. The present study reports the first phylogenetic analysis of Polycerinae based on the mitochondrial genes cytochrome oxidase subunit I and the large ribosomal subunit (16S rRNA) using maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods. Our results showed that Polycerinae is monophyletic, but the relationships within the subfamily as well as within Polycera remain unresolved. A key finding of this study is that there are clearly two sympatric species of Polycera present in South Africa: Polycera capensis Quoy and Gaimard, 1824 also found in Australia and an undescribed Polycera sp. On the other hand, the studied specimens of the genus Gymnodoris were clustered within Polycerinae, reopening the problem of the systematic position of this genus. Additional genes and species of Polycerinae and Gymnodoris would provide more information and probably fully resolve this situation.

Palomar, Gemma; Pola, Marta; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva

2014-03-01

107

Upper Cambrian chitons (Mollusca, polyplacophora) from Missouri, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Numerous new specimens reveal a greater presence of chitons in Upper Cambrian rocks than previously suspected. Evidence is presented showing that the chiton esthete sensory system is present in all chiton species in this study at the very beginning of the known polyplacophoran fossil record. The stratigraphic occurrences and paleobiogeography of Late Cambrian chitons are documented. The 14 previously-named families of Cambrian and Ordovician chitons are reviewed and analyzed. Aulochitonidae n. fam. is defined, based on Aulochiton n. gen.; A. sannerae n. sp. is also defined. The long misunderstood family Preacanthochitonidae and its type genus Preacanthochiton Bergenhayn, 1960, are placed in synonymy with Mattheviidae and Chelodes Davidson & King, 1874, respectively; Eochelodes Marek, 1962, also is placed in synonymy with Chelodes, and Elongata Stinchcomb & Darrough, 1995, is placed in synonymy with Hemithecella Ulrich & Bridge, 1941. At the species level, H. elongata Stinchcomb & Darrough, 1995, and Elongata perplexa Stinchcomb & Darrough, 1995, are placed in synonymy with H. eminensis Stinchcomb & Darrough, 1995. The Ordovician species H. abrupta Stinchcomb & Darrough, 1995, is transferred to the genus Chelodes as C. abrupta (Stinchcomb & Darrough, 1995). The Ordovician species Preacanthochiton baueri Hoare & Pojeta, 2006, is transferred to the genus Helminthochiton as H. ? baueri (Hoare & Pojeta, 2006). The Ordovician species H. marginatus Hoare & Pojeta, 2006, is transferred to the genus Litochiton as L. marginatus (Hoare & Pojeta, 2006). Matthevia walcotti Runnegar, Pojeta, Taylor, & Collins, 1979, is treated as a synonym of Hemithecella expansa Ulrich & Bridge, 1941. In addition, other multivalved Cambrian mollusks are discussed; within this group, Dycheiidae n. fam. is defined, as well as Paradycheia dorisae n. gen. and n. sp. Cladistic analysis indicates a close relationship among the genera here assigned to the Mattheviidae, and between Echinochiton Pojeta, Eernisse, Hoare, & Henderson, 2003, and mattheviids. The results suggest treating these taxa as stem-lineage chitons, and do not support the hypothesis that they are aplacophorans.

Pojeta, Jr. , J.; Vendrasco, M. J.; Darrough, G.

2010-01-01

108

Especially for High School Teachers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alternative Assessment The trend in several states to use high-stakes achievement test scores to evaluate districts, schools, and teachers appears to be at odds with the intent of the National Science Education Assessment Standards. Recently I read several postings on an Internet discussion list in which several high school teachers expressed differing opinions on how to deal with the situation.

J. Emory Howell

2000-01-01

109

Especially for High School Teachers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Secondary School Feature Articles * Super Science Connections, by Patricia B. McKean, p 916 * A pHorseshoe, by Roger Plumsky, p 935 National Conferences in Your Part of the Country For the past several months, considerable space in this column has been devoted to forthcoming national conferences and conventions and to highlights of conferences past. For some of us, location

J. Emory Howell

1999-01-01

110

Especially for High School Teachers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemistry and the Environment This issue contains more than 20 articles relating to the environment. Several articles of potential interest are indicated in the Table of Contents with the SSC mark (). Others are not so indicated because they depict use of expensive instrumentation or costly procedures, but if you have an interest in environmental chemistry you may wish to examine all the environmentally related articles. While many of the articles, both marked and unmarked, are targeted to college-level environmental chemistry curricula or to introductory courses for non-major, the methods described in several could be readily adapted to high school chemistry courses. One article likely to be of interest to teachers is found in News from Online, pp 1608-1609. The author explains how to use the U.S. Environment Protection Agency's EnviroMapper Web site to view and query environmental information. She mentioned finding a hazardous waste handler located near her home, so I decided to check the area near my home. I quickly located a natural gas salt dome storage facility marked on the map and, with a few more mouse clicks, I found information that included status of compliance with regulations, amounts of each compound released to the air in tons per year, and how to contact the corporation owning the site. Email and Web site addresses were included for the convenience of anyone wishing to contact the corporation. Students could learn a great deal about where they live that is relevant to chemistry by using the EPA site. Additional Web sites dealing with environmental issues and chemistry are cited in the sidebar at the bottom of p 1609. Among the articles that could be adapted to an advanced high school chemistry class or possibly even to an introductory class is one titled Bridge of Mandolin County (pp 1671-1672). It describes a case-study strategy similar to the scenarios used in ChemStudy. Students analyze information from various sources, including laboratory experiments if desired, discuss their findings, and make a recommendation regarding which of two road deicers should be used on the bridge. The article Pesticides in Drinking Water: Project-Based Learning within the Introductory Chemistry Curriculum (pp 1673-1667) describes class involvement in field data collection and analysis. Since more sophisticated instrumentation than is possessed by many schools is required, 6th grade science and high school chemistry classes work with a college class to obtain and analyze data. Everyone involved in this approach wins. The 6th graders, high school students, and college students all gain experience in sampling, preparing samples for analysis, determining pollutant levels, and drawing conclusions, each at an appropriate level of understanding. Plus, the high school students are exposed to instrumentation that otherwise would not be accessible, such as gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Although the project described was started by the college faculty members who wrote the article, such an approach to many interesting environmental chemistry problems could be initiated by a high school teacher by seeking out a nearby college or university with whom to partner. An article that probably would not have received the SSC mark had I not noticed that two of the coauthors are high school students, is titled Remediation of Water Contaminated with an Azo Dye (pp 1680-1683). In addition to being interesting, the article is a good reminder that research opportunities for high school students exist. Still another article that received the SSC mark because of a high school connection is Chemical Analysis of Soils (pp 1693-1694). The authors mention that with modification their techniques could be used in high school chemistry. They cite a reference to an article published several years ago, titled Soil Analysis for High School Chemistry Students (J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 897-899). It was published in a feature titled the 50-Minute Experiment. Block scheduling has brought

Howell, J. Emory

1999-12-01

111

Especially for High School Teachers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Secondary School Feature Articles * Heat Capacity, Body Temperature, and Hypothermia, by Doris Kimbrough, p 48. * The Electromotive Series and Other Non-Absolute Scales, by Gavin Peckham, p 49. * Demonstrations on Paramagnetism with an Electronic Balance, by Adolf Cortel, p 61. * Toward More Performance Evaluation in Chemistry, by Sharon Rasp, p 64. A Wealth of Useful Information

Howell, J. Emory

1998-01-01

112

Especially for High School Teachers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Secondary School Feature Articles >* A Simple, Transparent Fume Hood, by John Fredericks, p 1299 >* Solving the Mystery of Fading Fingerprints with London Dispersion Forces, by Doris R. Kimbrough and Ronald DeLorenzo, p 1300 >* London Dispersion Forces and "The Wave", by C. Jayne Wilcox, p 1301

Howell, J. Emory

1998-10-01

113

Especially for High School Teachers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Writing Across the Curriculum The notion that student learning is enhanced through writing is widely accepted at all educational levels if the product is fairly assessed and the learner is provided with feedback. Finding the time to critically evaluate student papers is difficult at best and competes with time needed to prepare laboratory investigations. A few weeks ago a teacher who has extensive extracurricular responsibilities that include extensive interaction with parents and community members shared with me his frustration in not being able to grade written reports. This teacher is the head football coach at his school, but many readers experience the same difficulties due to a variety of duties. There are no easy or completely satisfying answers to this problem, but this issue contains an account of a successful approach (Writing in Chemistry: An Effective Learning Tool, pp 1399-1403). Although they are based on experience in college courses, several ideas described in the article could be applied in high school chemistry courses. In another article, the author of Precise Writing for a Precise Science (pp 1407-1408) identifies 20 examples of familiar, but incorrect, grammatical constructions and explains how to phrase each one correctly. Chemical Education Research: Improving Chemistry Learning The results from research on how students learn have greatly increased our understanding of cognition in recent years. However, the results are often published in the science education research literature and are not readily accessible to the classroom teacher. Additionally, the research reports are couched in specialized terminology. This issue contains a Viewpoints article (pp 1353-1361) that bridges the gap between research results and classroom application. It was written by two veteran chemical educators, Dudley Herron and Susan Nurrenbern. The shift from behaviorism to constructivism as the dominant theory of learning is described briefly to provide a context for constructivist approaches. In the section titled "What Research Has Revealed", the authors provide a succinct summary of specific research findings under three tantalizing subheadings: "What You Think You Know May Not Be the Way It Is", "Learning Is Not a Spectator Sport!", and "Appropriate Outcomes Must Be Identified and Measured". The authors' insight into future research challenges is detailed in a sidebar. ChemEd'99: A Great Success The 1999 ChemEd Conference was a great success, judging by the many very favorable comments of high school teachers who attended. Thanks and congratulations go to Babu George and to the many volunteers who made this event possible through a great deal of hard work, ingenuity, and creativity. Many of the volunteers who gave so generously of their time, before and during the conference, are high school teachers. The program reflected the broad range of needs and interests of high school teachers. Credit for the success also should go to the many presenters. The workshops, demonstrations, papers, and posters that I attended were of high quality and useful to teachers. Conversation with other attendees convinced me that the same degree of quality and utility was characteristic of the entire conference program. Demonstrations are always an outstanding feature of ChemEd conferences and the Signature Demonstrations continued this tradition, as did the large number of demonstration sessions scheduled throughout the general program. The Reg Friesen Memorial Lecture, delivered by Steve Spangler, featured spectacular and stimulating demonstrations in the context of building connections between chemical concepts and real-world applications. Some other themes that permeated the general program were Internet applications, methods of assessment, safety and waste disposal, calculator and computer based laboratory methods, and ideas for making classroom instruction interesting and effective. Thank you to each reader who visited the JCE Exhibit or participated in our workshop on using JCE Activities. We e

Howell, J. Emory

1999-10-01

114

Especially for High School Teachers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It Was Nice to See You It was great to meet and talk to so many high school chemistry teachers who attended the High School Program at the ACS National Meeting in San Francisco or attended the NSTA National Convention in Orlando. Thank you to every teacher who visited the JCE Booth at either meeting and to the approximately 100 individuals who attended the JCE workshop early Monday morning at the ACS. At the NSTA meeting, the Mole Day Breakfast was a special occasion that was made very enjoyable by National Mole Day Foundation leaders Art Logan and Maury Oehler and the enthusiasm and camaraderie of the audience. For more about NMDF activities check out the website http://gamstcweb.gisd.k12.mi.us/~nmdf. Bringing Quality Visualization into the Classroom Turn to page 799 of this issue to learn about the release of Chemistry Comes Alive! Volume 4. The Chemistry Comes Alive! series of CD-ROMs are packed with Quicktime movies and still photos depicting chemical reactions, many of which are too hazardous or expensive to carry out in the classroom or laboratory. Many of the demonstrations are accompanied by background information, and they are also correlated with popular chemistry textbooks. An innovation appearing in Volume 4 is an interactive section on reactions in aqueous solution. Among the appealing features of the CCA! series is the ability to incorporate QuickTime movies of these demonstrations into your own presentations. The Reprise of Chemical Principles Revisited I am very pleased that Cary Kilner has agreed to edit the Chemical Principles Revisited feature. Please read his Mission Statement below. If you have an idea for a manuscript that fits this feature, now is the time to take action either by discussing it with Cary or by submitting a manuscript for review. This feature has the potential to be very useful to teachers, but it can reach its potential only through your suggestions and submissions. Let us hear from you soon. Scenes from High School Day at the ACS meeting in San Francisco. (Top photo, left to right) Carolyn Abbott, chair of the program, with Michael Tinnesand and Mare Taagepera. (Bottom photo) Michael Tinnesand speaking at the Luncheon. Photo by Morton Z. Hoffman. Mission Statement for Chemical Principles Revisited W. Cary Kilner, Feature Editor Exeter High School, 7 Salmon Street, Newmarket, NH 03857; 603/659-6825; CaryPQ@aol.com Through this feature, teachers are invited to share how they introduce and present a specific chemical principle, how students investigate the principle or its applications in the laboratory, and how student understanding of this principle is assessed. In most cases the principle would be one that is difficult for students to learn or apply, or one in which chemical research has led to a new understanding that has not yet appeared in textbooks. Discussion of content underlying the principle should provide insight that goes beyond the treatment of high school or general chemistry texts, providing depth that will enable the teacher to become confident in his or her understanding. The account may be a brief vignette that will inspire the reader to try something new and that can be easily implemented. Alternatively, it may be a longer discussion of phenomena that have been neglected or misinterpreted and to which a fresh, reflective, and informed view is provided. An example of a brief article is "The Disappearing Act: Teaching Students to Expect the Unexpected" (J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 155). An example of a longer article is "Studying the Activity Series of Metals" (J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 51), although a current submission should also include discussion of assessment and actual outcomes whenever possible. Teachers who have an idea for an article that fits this mission may contact the feature editor if they have questions.

Howell, J. Emory

2000-06-01

115

Especially for High School Teachers  

Microsoft Academic Search

It Was Nice to See You It was great to meet and talk to so many high school chemistry teachers who attended the High School Program at the ACS National Meeting in San Francisco or attended the NSTA National Convention in Orlando. Thank you to every teacher who visited the JCE Booth at either meeting and to the approximately 100

J. Emory Howell

2000-01-01

116

Especially for High School Teachers  

Microsoft Academic Search

More Feature Articles This Month This issue contains a larger-than-usual number of Secondary School Chemistry feature articles (see side-bar). Mary Harris, who teaches in St. Louis, Missouri, and her student, Lauren Picard, contributed an account of student research on the cuprammonium rayon process (p 1512). In addition to being informative and interesting, the article provides a model for student-teacher interaction

J. Emory Howell

1999-01-01

117

Especially for High School Teachers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Looking for great National Chemistry Week 2001 resources on Chemistry and Art? Watch for the October and November issues of JCE. For more details about what to expect see pages 1158 and 1194 of this issue. Note 1. Solid State Model Kit. Available from the Institute for Chemical Education, Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1101 University Ave., Madison, WI 53706-1396; phone 608/262-3033; fax 608/265-8094. Literature Cited 1. Cady, S. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 794. 2. Laing, M. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 795. 3. Mattson, B. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 622.

Howell, J. Emory

2001-09-01

118

Especially for High School Teachers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Secondary School Feature Articles * An Elementary Outreach Program-Have Demo Will Travel, by James Swim, p 628 * Pressure and Stoichiometry, by Charles E. Roser and Catherine L. McCluskey, p 638 Making Connections vs Relevance: Chemistry and Biology For many years there has been a movement to make chemistry more relevant to learners, particularly in introductory chemistry courses. Sidebars describing

J. Emory Howell

1999-01-01

119

Especially for High School Teachers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

JCE Classroom Activity: #27. How Does Your Garden Grow? Investigating the "Magic Salt Crystal Garden", edited by Nancy S. Gettys and Erica K. Jacobsen, p 624A. Some Articles of Interest photos by Jerrold J. Jacobsen and Nancy S. Gettys This month's issue covers a wide variety of topics, from historical notes to the latest software from JCE. Gas burners are such familiar items in the laboratory that little thought is given to their development. An interesting article by Kathryn Williams (pp 558-559) explains how these humble devices came into being, beginning with Robert Bunsen's invention in 1857, through their adaptation in the United States in the 1930s to burn natural gas. Bunsen, in collaboration with Gustav Kirchhoff, used his invention in constructing an emission spectrometer that could be used in chemical analysis. A drawing of the instrument appears in the Williams article. The spectrometer is described in more detail in an article titled "A Brief History of Atomic Emission Spectrochemical Analysis, 1666-1950". Author Richard Jarrell traces the history of this important and lasting method of analysis from Isaac Newton's discovery of the visible spectrum to the development of the powerful analytical instruments that were in use in the 1950s. For readers who have a deeper interest in atomic emission spectroscopy, Jarrell's article is the first of five that are based on a symposium conducted in 1999 (pp 573-607). Visualizing the structure of ionic crystals is the topic of articles by Keenan Dungey (pp 618-619), Bruce Mattson (pp 622-623), and J. Kamenícek and M. Melichárek (pp 623-624). The ionic crystal theme is also carried out in JCE Classroom Activity #27 (pp 624A-B) and a demonstration on the preparation of sodium iodide, written by Zelek Herman (pp 619-621). Together, the five articles provide an interesting combination of ideas for investigating and describing both the macroscopic and the submicroscopic views of ionic crystals. Is It the "Write" Time for You? The end of the school year is approaching quickly. In previous years, several readers have submitted manuscripts soon after the end of the school year, while ideas were fresh in their mind and there was relief from the demands of daily classes. If you have an idea for an article, I encourage you to think about writing as soon as the school term ends. I can probably guess what you are saying, "I don't have anything that readers would be interested in." This is a common reaction, to which we frequently respond by reminding high school teachers that this is "your journal" and the only way to ensure that topics of interest to you are considered or published is by your active participation. In this presidential election year I am reminded of the familiar sentiment, "I voted in the election, so I have earned the right to complain about the politicians." I do not wish to encourage complaining, but there is a relevant correlation. By submitting manuscripts to the Journal, you are ensuring that you will continue to get your money's worth because it will include topics of interest to you. When considering a submission, many prospective authors are overwhelmed at the thought of preparing a complete manuscript. Don't let that stop you. If you have an idea, an outline, or a rough draft, any of the feature editors or I would be happy to discuss it with you. This one-on-one interaction during the development process will help you express your ideas more effectively. Many teachers across the country who are faced with similar situations and problems each day would benefit from an article discussing innovative teaching strategies or a new way to look at principles we teach every year. As you begin to formulate your ideas, I would like to emphasize five features whose editors are fellow teachers:

  • JCE Classroom Activities. An invitation for contributions was issued in the April issue of this column (JCE, 2000, 77, 431).
  • Chemical Principles Revisited,

    Howell, J. Emory

    2000-05-01

120

Especially for High School Teachers  

Microsoft Academic Search

May Articles of Interest This issue contains a rich selection of interesting and useful articles that can be applied to high school settings. Chemical Education Today Chemistry Everyday for Everyone In the Classroom In the Laboratory Research

J. Emory Howell

1997-01-01

121

Especially for High School Teachers  

Microsoft Academic Search

April Articles of Interest Chemical Education Today In The Classroom In the Laboratory Information Textbooks Media Resources Chemistry Everyday for Everyone Chemical Research Participation by High School Students

J. Emory Howell

1997-01-01

122

Especially for High School Teachers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Secondary School Feature Articles JCE Classroom Activity: #24. The Write Stuff: Using Paper Chromatography to Separate an Ink Mixture, p 176A Teaching Chemistry in the Midwinter Every year, forecasters around the world provide us with long-range predictions of what the seasons will afford us in the coming year. And each year, the weather provides a few surprises that the forecasters did not predict - such as a record amount of snow or record heat indexes, depending on where you live. Although the weatherman didn't predict it, we still must pull out our snow shovels or sun block and take the necessary steps to adapt to the situation. As teachers, we make predictions of teaching and learning goals that we aspire to achieve during a given year, and like the weather, the year brings surprises that aren't in line with our predictions. With that in mind, I would like to offer JCE as the scholastic snow shovel or sun shield you need to jump-start your class and reach the goals you have set. So find a warm (or cool) place, get comfortable, and spend some time with the February issue of JCE. Articles of General Interest in This Issue For readers living where snow falls, Williams's article on page 148 offers some historical background on the use of calcium chloride as a deicer. A diver that depends for its buoyancy upon gas given off by a chemical reaction is described by Derr, Lewis, and Derr in the article beginning on page 171. In her article appearing on pages 249-250, Wang describes a laboratory exercise that makes the mastery of solution preparation skills fun. The students' skill is tested by using the solutions they make to carry out the Briggs-Rauscher oscillating reaction. For high school class applications I recommend use of 3% hydrogen peroxide, described as an option in the article. A well-organized approach to separating an ink mixture, with some possibly new twists, is laid out in the student- and teacher-friendly format of JCE Classroom Activity: #24, pages 176A-176B. Addressing Some Specialized Interests As in any issue of the Journal, there are several articles that are not designated with the secondary school mark (?) but are likely to be of interest to some high school teachers. For example, if you are interested in staying abreast of educational applications of computational chemistry, the articles on pages 199-221 will be among those you will wish to examine even though the focus is on meeting the learning needs of college students. For those with an interest in electronics, there are several articles on pages 252-262, on building on modifying useful devices. Among the topics: building a digital monitor for analyzing spectrophotometer signals, building a digital interface for a graphing calculator, and using an inexpensive commercial analog-to-digital converter. JCE Reviewers The standard of quality in JCE articles is due in great measure to the careful scrutiny and helpful suggestions of reviewers. I am proud to note that the names of several high school teachers are in the list of individuals who have reviewed manuscripts for JCE recently. This month's list, which appears on page 152, is a continuation from page 24 of the January issue. Keep watching if your name has not yet appeared. If you are not currently serving as a reviewer, I encourage you to sign up today. As a reviewer, you would review potential articles that have been submitted to the Journal. You may choose from a variety of subject areas to review and choose as few or as many manuscripts as you can handle. To find out how to become a reviewer, read the information on page 162 or visit our Web site at jchemed.chem.wisc.edu/Journal/Reviewers. NACS 3/2000 Reminder NACS 3/2000 is the heading Carolyn Abbott uses in email correspondence about the High School Day program, which be held Monday, March 27, 2000, at the American Chemical Society National Meeting in San Francisco. Carolyn is High School Program Chair and she and her committee have assembled a full day of interesting and useful sessions for teachers. Among the sessions will be three worksh

Howell, J. Emory

2000-02-01

123

Especially for High School Teachers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Care to Share? An Informal Syllabus Exchange A recent email message from Thomas Shiland, who teaches at Saratoga Springs Senior High School, noted that the process of revising the high school chemistry syllabus is underway in New York State. He expressed a strong interest in helping construct a chemistry syllabus that represents the best thinking about appropriate content. He wondered if it would be possible to develop a way in which different secondary chemistry syllabi could easily be exchanged. It is likely that readers from other states and countries are involved in a similar process and might also be interested in exchanging syllabi. Many states do not use the term syllabus to describe their guiding curricular document for chemistry but rather refer to it as a framework or as guidelines. In most cases, the document includes a list of key ideas or topics, performance indicators, and the major understandings associated with each key idea. Such documents would be appropriate for exchange among those of you involved in the revision process. If you are interested in arranging an exchange please contact me by email at j.e.howell@usm.edu or by mail at J. E. Howell, Box 5043, USM, Hattiesburg, MS39406-5043, USA. High School Day Information The High School Chemistry Program at the American Chemical Society National Meeting in New Orleans, Louisiana will be held Sunday, August 22, 1999, at the Doubletree Hotel, 300 Canal Street. If you wish to register only for the High School Day activities, which includes a pass to the ACS Exposition, a special registration form is available from Lillie Tucker-Akin, 2800 Reynard Dr., Tupelo, MS38801; sci4me@aol.com; fax: 662/566-7906. Advance registration is 25 and the cost of the High School Luncheon is 12. Register in advance by August 1, 1999, or from 7:45 to 8:30 a.m. at the High School Day table in the conference room area of the Doubletree. The workshop schedule is shown below. Secondary School Feature Articles * Exploring the Ocean-Stating the Case for Chemistry, by Paul J. Scheuer, p 1075 * Distillation Apparatuses Using Household Items, by Danielle R. D. Campanizzi, Brenda Mason, Christine K. F. Hermann, p 1079 New Orleans Concurrent Workshops, High School Program 8:30 a.m.-9:20 a.m. A. A Teaching Resource for You: The Journal of Chemical Education, J. E. Howell, J. W. Moore, and A. M. Sarquis B. Electrical Conductivity, J. M. Manion and P. F. Krause, and The Properties of Gases, J.-M. Whitfield and K. A. Woodling C. Chemistry with Calculators for Beginners, P. Sconzo (3 hours) D. Spectrum of Activities for Chemistry Teachers, Carolina Biological Supply, S. Mitchell, F. Cherry, and L. Akin (3 hours) 9:30 a.m.-10:20 a.m. A. Applying Chemical Education Research to the Classroom, L. Akin and J. Valasek B. Another Look at the Deflection of Falling Liquids, H. H. Harris and J. Newstrum, and Encouraging Students to Investigate Acids and Bases Using Plant Indicators, P. K. Kerrigan C. Chemistry with Calculators (continued) D. Spectrum of Activities (continued) E. Science Education for Public Understanding (SEPUP) and Chemistry, Health, Environment, and Me, M. Koker and L. Akin (2 hours) 10:30 a.m.-11:30 a.m. A. Increasing Aptitude and Interest of High School Students through Summer Camp, C. E. Fulton, and Energy Teaching Introduction to High School Chemistry, L.-M. Trejo B. Chemistry in Science Museum Exhibits: Opportunities and Challenges and Cooking with Chemistry, D. Katz C. Chemistry with Calculators (continued) D. Spectrum of Activities (continued) E. SEPUP (continued) 12:00 noon-1:15 p.m., High School Luncheon Educating High School Teachers for the 21st Century, Glenn Crosby 1:30 p.m.-2:20 p.m. A. Customized Mastery Learning in First-Year Chemistry and Computer Software for Chemistry Teachers Who Require Mastery Learning of Their Students, J. Bedenbaugh and A. Bedenbaugh B. Can One Teach Chemistry with Everyday Substances? A. Sae, and SourceBook Activities Using Everyday Substances, C. Ayers, J

Howell, J. Emory

1999-08-01

124

Especially for High School Teachers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Secondary School Feature Articles >* A Simple, Transparent Fume Hood, by John Fredericks, p 1299 >* Solving the Mystery of Fading Fingerprints with London Dispersion Forces, by Doris R. Kimbrough and Ronald DeLorenzo, p 1300 >* London Dispersion Forces and \\

J. Emory Howell

1998-01-01

125

Especially for High School Teachers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The High School Program will be held at the Chicago Sheraton Hotel, 301 East North Water Street. A full day of sessions covering a wide range of topics of interest to high school chemistry teachers is planned. The program organizers are Ann Levinson (Niles West High School) and Charles Cannon (Columbia College Chicago). The ACS Chicago local section, host of the national meeting, has been approved as a provider of professional development units for Illinois teachers by the Illinois Board of Education (ISBE). Participating teachers may earn up to seven CPDUs.

Details

Howell, J. Emory

2001-08-01

126

[On oral medications, especially varenicline].  

PubMed

Varenicline is an orally administered alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonist. It has been widely used in smoking cessation therapy. It reduces craving and withdrawal symptoms during abstinence and lowers the reinforcing effects of nicotine. A third action of the drug is to blunt responses to smoking cues. Varenicline has higher abstinence rates than nicotine transdermal patches or bupropion. As serious neuro-psychiatric symptoms had been reported post market, including drowsiness, suicidal thoughts and suicide, clinicians are recommended to review the patient's psychiatric history and should monitor them for changes in mood and behavior when prescribing this medication. Studies on flexible dosing regimens, flexible quit dates, and an increased pre-quit medication period have indicated possible improvement to varenicline's effectiveness. PMID:23631241

Kurioka, Narito

2013-03-01

127

Oligomeric proteins ultrastructurally localize to cell processes, especially to axon terminals with higher density, but not to lipid rafts in Tg2576 mouse brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the ultrastructural localization of oligomeric proteins, A?42, and flotillin-1 in Tg2576 mouse brains by triple immunoelectron microscopy. Oligomer-specific immunoreactions localized to cell processes, especially to axon terminals with higher density in Tg than in nonTg mouse brains. The oligomer was less frequently colocalized to flotillin-1-immunoreactive rafts than A?42, suggesting that rafts are one of the sites of polymeric

Hideko Kokubo; Rakez Kayed; Charles G. Glabe; Takaomi C. Saido; Nobuhisa Iwata; J. Bernd Helms; Haruyasu Yamaguchi

2005-01-01

128

Oligomeric proteins ultrastructurally localize to cell processes, especially to axon terminals with higher density, but not to lipid rafts in Tg2576 mouse brain.  

PubMed

We examined the ultrastructural localization of oligomeric proteins, Abeta42, and flotillin-1 in Tg2576 mouse brains by triple immunoelectron microscopy. Oligomer-specific immunoreactions localized to cell processes, especially to axon terminals with higher density in Tg than in nonTg mouse brains. The oligomer was less frequently colocalized to flotillin-1-immunoreactive rafts than Abeta42, suggesting that rafts are one of the sites of polymeric Abeta deposition, but not of oligomeric proteins including Abeta. PMID:15910781

Kokubo, Hideko; Kayed, Rakez; Glabe, Charles G; Saido, Takaomi C; Iwata, Nobuhisa; Helms, J Bernd; Yamaguchi, Haruyasu

2005-05-31

129

TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE, ENVIRONMENT AND POOR WOMEN, ESPECIALLY TRIBAL WOMEN, IN INDIA \\/ CHANGEMENTS TECHNOLOGIQUES, ENVIRONNEMENT ET FEMMES DU NIVEAU SOCIO-ECONOMIQUE LE PLUS BAS EN INDE  

Microsoft Academic Search

In India, as in several other less developed countries, the poor and especially women within poor households are particularly dependent on common-property resources (CPRs) for their livelihood. The relative importance of common-property resources as a contributor to the overall income of the households of tribals and scheduled castes, the groups with the lowest socio-economic status in Indian society, is high

Kartik C. Roy; Clement A. Tisdell

1993-01-01

130

ANALISIS DE FORMAS EN ESPECIES CHILENAS DEL GENERO TRICHOMYCTERUS (OSTEICHTHYES: SILURIFORMES) UTILIZANDO MORFOMETRIA GEOMETRICA SHAPE ANALYSIS IN CHILEAN SPECIES OF TRICHOMYCTERUS (OSTEICHTHYES: SILURIFORMES) USING GEOMETRIC MORPHOMETRY  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMEN El género Trichomycterus incluye aproximadamente 120 especies, que se distribuyen comúnmente en las cabeceras de los ríos neotropicales. En Chile este género se encuentra ampliamente distribuido: en el altiplano (14°-22°S) Trichomycterus chungaraensis; T. laucaensis y T. rivulatus, mientras T. areolatus se distribuye entre Huasco (28° 27'S) y Chiloé (41° 27'S), presentando la mayor amplitud en extensión, y en simpatría

R. Pardo; S. Scott; I. Vila

131

Single-walled carbon nanohorn (SWNH) aggregates inhibited proliferation of human liver cell lines and promoted apoptosis, especially for hepatoma cell lines  

PubMed Central

Single-walled carbon nanohorns (SWNHs) may be useful as carriers for anticancer drugs due to their particular structure. However, the interactions between the material itself and cancerous or normal cells have seldom been studied. To address this problem, the effects of raw SWNH material on the biological functions of human liver cell lines were studied. Our results showed that unmodified SWNHs inhibited mitotic entry, growth, and proliferation of human liver cell lines and promoted their apoptosis, especially in hepatoma cell lines. Individual spherical SWNH particles were found inside the nuclei of human hepatoma HepG2 cells and the lysosomes of normal human liver L02 cells, implying that SWNH particles could penetrate into human liver cells_and the different interacted mechanisms on human normal cell lines compared to hepatoma cell lines. Further research on the mechanisms and application in treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma with SWNHs is needed.

Zhang, Jinqian; Sun, Qiang; Bo, Jian; Huang, Rui; Zhang, Mengran; Xia, Zhenglin; Ju, Lili; Xiang, Guoan

2014-01-01

132

Method for the improvement of the oxidation resistance of hydrocarbon oil, especially transformer oils by the selective removal of pro-oxidant nitrogen and sulfur compounds therefrom  

SciTech Connect

Liquid hydrocarbon streams, preferably petroleum streams, most preferably lube and specialty oil streams and in particular transformer oils are rendered resistant to oxidation by treatment with a silver salt impregnated adsorbent, preferably silver nitrate impregnated alumina by the process of contacting the hydrocarbon oil stream with the silver salt impregnated adsorbent and recovering a hydrocarbon stream of reduced pro-oxidant heteroatom compound (nitrogen compound and sulfur compound) content. The silver salt impregnated adsorbent is regenerated by sequential washing with portions of aromatic solvent and polar solvent. The aromatic solvent strips aromatic sulfides from the adsorbent. This fraction may be recombined with the hydrocarbon stream, especially in the case of transformer oils, so as to enhance the oxidation stability/resistance of the oil. The polar solvent, such as 3% methanol in toluene, strips the aliphatic sulfides from the adsorbent. The regenerated column is then ready for reuse.

Felsky, G.

1984-02-07

133

Computed Tomography Imaging Spectrometer (CTIS) with 2D Reflective Grating for Ultraviolet to Long-Wave Infrared Detection Especially Useful for Surveying Transient Events  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The optical system of this invention is an unique type of imaging spectrometer, i.e. an instrument that can determine the spectra of all points in a two-dimensional scene. The general type of imaging spectrometer under which this invention falls has been termed a computed-tomography imaging spectrometer (CTIS). CTIS's have the ability to perform spectral imaging of scenes containing rapidly moving objects or evolving features, hereafter referred to as transient scenes. This invention, a reflective CTIS with an unique two-dimensional reflective grating, can operate in any wavelength band from the ultraviolet through long-wave infrared. Although this spectrometer is especially useful for events it is also for investigation of some slow moving phenomena as in the life sciences.

Wilson, Daniel W. (Inventor); Maker, Paul D. (Inventor); Muller, Richard E. (Inventor); Mouroulis, Pantazis Z. (Inventor)

2003-01-01

134

The (CCTTT)n microsatellite polymorphism in the NOS2 gene may influence lung cancer risk and long-term survival, especially in non-smokers.  

PubMed

We analyzed the associations of the NOS2 (CCTTT)n promoter polymorphism to lung cancer risk and tumor histology in smokers and non-smokers. We also investigated lung cancer long-term survival in relation to the polymorphism, smoking data, histology, age at diagnosis, and gender. One hundred eighty-five lung-cancer patients and 164 matched controls, where non-smokers were enriched among the lung cancer cases, were genotyped by fragment analysis and sequencing. Genotypes were combined with information on histology, patient smoking status, and cancer-specific death, using a 20-year follow-up. We divided the (CCTTT)n alleles into short (n???10), intermediate (n?=?11-12), and long (n???13). Patients homozygous for short repeats had significantly increased risk of lung cancer (p?=?0.030) compared to carriers of two long alleles (LL). Lack of long allele was associated with a significantly increased lung cancer risk overall (p?=?0.011), especially among non-smokers (p?=?0.001). A significantly higher lung cancer survival was seen in non-smokers compared to smokers (p?=?0.046) and in low-dose smokers compared to high-dose smokers at the time of diagnosis (p?=?0.028). Moreover, non-smoking patients with squamous cell carcinoma (p?=?0.015) or adenocarcinoma (p?=?0.024) showed a significantly lower survival compared to other lung carcinomas. Nitric oxide can induce proliferation as well as apoptosis depending on cellular context. Our results suggest that the (CCTTT)n NOS2 microsatellite may influence the risk of developing lung cancer, especially in non-smokers, possibly by affecting intracellular nitric oxide levels. Our results also give additional information about the yet poorly understood etiological and prognostic differences between lung cancer in non-smokers and smokers. PMID:24408018

Ryk, Charlotta; Hou, Sai-Mei; Pershagen, Göran; Wiklund, N Peter; Nyberg, Fredrik; de Verdier, Petra J

2014-05-01

135

An Electrosurgical Endoknife with a Water-Jet Function (Flushknife) Proves Its Merits in Colorectal Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection Especially for the Cases Which Should Be Removed En Bloc  

PubMed Central

Background. Previously, we reported that the Flushknife (electrosurgical endoknife with a water-jet function) could reduce the operation time of colorectal endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) however, suitable situation for the Flushknife was obscure. This subgroup analysis of a prospective randomized controlled trial was aimed to investigate the suitable situation for the Flushknife. Methods. A total of 48 superficial colorectal neoplasms that underwent ESD using either the Flexknife or the Flushknife in a referral center were enrolled. The differences of operation time between the Flexknife and the Flushknife groups in each subgroup (tumor size, location, and macroscopic type) were analyzed. Results. Median (95% CI) operation time calculated using survival curves was significantly shorter in the Flushknife group than in the Flexknife group (55.5?min [41, 78] versus 74.0 [57, 90]?min; P = 0.039, Hazard Ratio HR: 0.53; 95% CI (0.29–0.97)). In particular, the HR in patients with laterally spreading tumors-nongranular type (LST-NG) in the Flushknife group was significantly smaller than in the Flexknife group (HR: 0.165?0.17; 95% CI (0.04–0.66)). There was a trend of decreasing HRs according to larger lesion size. Conclusions. The Flushknife proved its merits in colorectal ESD especially for the lesions which should be removed en bloc (LST-NG and large lesion).

Takeuchi, Yoji; Ishihara, Ryu; Iishi, Hiroyasu; Hanaoka, Noboru; Higashino, Koji; Uedo, Noriya

2013-01-01

136

Açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.): a tropical fruit with high levels of essential minerals-especially manganese-and its contribution as a source of natural mineral supplementation.  

PubMed

Açaí is a fruit from the Brazilian Amazon region, with an exotic flavor, possessing high antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Based on these properties, the fruit is classified as one of the new "super fruits." The mean daily consumption of açai pulp may reach 300 ml in several Brazilian regions. Further, this fruit is also gaining popularity in Europe and North America. In this context, the aim of this study was to assess the levels of some essential minerals in freeze-dried açaí pulp obtained in different Brazilian locations. It was found that açaí pulp is rich in essential minerals (Ca, Fe, Mg, Zn), but the levels of copper (Cu) and especially manganese (Mn) are surprisingly markedly higher than the traditional sources of these elements in the human diet. A daily consumption of 300 ml açaí pulp leads to a Mn daily intake exceeding at least sixfold (14.6 mg on average) the reference daily intake for an adult. Consequently, Mn intake may surpass the permitted daily maximum intake of 11 mg, which leads to a special concern, particularly for children, vegetarians, and individuals with anemia, since iron (Fe) absorption is impaired by Mn. Our findings demonstrate that this fruit is a potential source of several nutrients and a good dietary supplement to resolve malnutrition problems. However, due to the expressive levels of Mn, further studies are necessary to evaluate potential adverse effects associated with açaí consumption. PMID:24555649

da Silva Santos, Vivian; de Almeida Teixeira, Gustavo Henrique; Barbosa, Fernando

2014-01-01

137

Hormonal interference with pheromone systems in parasitic acarines, especially ixodid ticks. Annual technical report No. 4, 1 May 1983-30 April 1984  

SciTech Connect

The most important result of recent project research was the demonstration of the juvenoid JH III by radioimmunoassay. This assay revealed an estimated 78 pg/tick in the hemolymph of partially fed Hyalomma dromedarii females, and an estimated 3 pg/tick in the hemolymph of partially fed D. variabilis. Other studies, especially digestion of tritium labelled JH III, provided additional evidence suggesting the presence of this hormone in adult ticks. The implications of these findings for our understanding of sex pheromone regulation in ticks is discussed. Other studies described in this report deal with the source of ecdysteroid in teh camel tick, Hyalomma dromedarii, the American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis, and the soft tick, Ornithodoros parkeri. Studies done at ODU, using radioimmunoassay high performance liquid chromatography, and autoradiography, provide new evidence implicating the tick synganglion - lateral nerve plexus as an important site of ecdysteroid activity in the ixodid ticks. Other studies with ecdysteriods suggest that metabolism of ecdysone or 20-hydroxyecdysone (or both) to inactive metabolites, possibly including polar conjugates. If confirmed, these findings indicate the presence of only a single active ecdysteriod hormone in ticks, 20-hydroxyecdysone.

Sonenshine, D.E.; Oliver, J.H. Jr.; Homsher, P.J.

1984-05-01

138

How our practice of histopathology, especially tumour pathology has changed in the last two decades: reflections from a major referral center in Pakistan.  

PubMed

Continued advances in the field of histo-pathology (and cyto-pathology) over the past two decades have resulted in dramatic changes in the manner in which these disciplines are now practiced. This is especially true in the setting of a large university hospital where the role of pathologists as clinicians (diagnosticians), undergraduate and postgraduate educators, and researchers has evolved considerably. The world around us has changed significantly during this period bringing about a considerable change in our lifestyles and the way we live. This is the world of the internet and the world-wide web, the world of Google and Wikipedia, of Youtube and Facebook where anyone can obtain any information one desires at the push of a button. The practice of histo (and cyto) pathology has also evolved in line with these changes. For those practicing this discipline in a poor, developing country these changes have been breathtaking. This is an attempt to document these changes as experienced by histo (and cyto) pathologists practicing in the biggest center for Histopathology in Pakistan, a developing country in South Asia with a large (180 million) and ever growing population. The Section of Histopathology, Department of Pathology and Microbiology at the Aga Khan University Hospital (AKUH) in Karachi, Pakistan's largest city has since its inception in the mid-1980s transformed the way histopathology is practiced in Pakistan by incorporating modern methods and rescuing histopathology in Pakistan from the primitive and outdated groove in which it was stuck for decades. It set histopathology in Pakistan firmly on the path of modernity and change which are essential for better patient management and care through accurate and complete diagnosis and more recently prognostic and predictive information as well. PMID:24935563

Ahmad, Zubair; Idrees, Romana; Fatima, Saira; Arshad, Huma; Din, Nasir-ud; Memon, Aisha; Minhas, Khurram; Ahmed, Arsalan; Fatima, Syeda Samia; Arif, Muhammad; Ahmed, Rashida; Haroon, Saroona; Pervez, Shahid; Hassan, Sheema; Kayani, Naila

2014-01-01

139

ID2 predicts poor prognosis in breast cancer, especially in triple-negative breast cancer, and inhibits E-cadherin expression  

PubMed Central

Background Inhibitors of DNA-binding (ID) proteins are known as important modulators in the regulation of cell proliferation and differentiation. This study sought to investigate the prognostic value of ID proteins in breast cancer. Methods The prognostic role of ID proteins in human breast cancer was investigated in 250 breast cancers, via tissue microarrays. The messenger (m)RNA and protein levels of E-cadherin were examined by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blotting, in cells overexpressing IDs. Dual-luciferase report assay was used to investigate the potential mechanism, and a migration assay was performed to investigate the influence of IDs on cell migratory activity. Results The survival analysis with Kaplan–Meier and Cox regression showed that ID2 expression level, which correlated with estrogen receptor status and E-cadherin abundance, served as an independent prognostic factor for disease-free survival (DFS) (P=0.013). The prognostic value of ID2 for DFS was most significant in triple-negative breast cancer patients (P=0.009). We also found that ID2 was negatively correlated with E-cadherin expression by correlation analysis (P=0.020, Pearson’s R=?0.155). Subsequently, we explored the biological rationale and uncovered that the enforced expression of ID proteins could suppress E-cadherin expression significantly, thus increasing the migration ability of mammary epithelial cells. Then using a combination of ID2 and E-cadherin expression, the patients were classified into four subgroups with different DFS (P=0.023). Conclusion The overexpression of ID2 can be used as a prognostic marker in breast cancer patients, especially in triple-negative breast cancer patients. ID proteins were still, unexpectedly, revealed to inhibit E-cadherin abundance.

Li, Kai; Yao, Ling; Chen, Li; Cao, Zhi-Gang; Yu, San-Jian; Kuang, Xia-Ying; Hu, Xin; Shao, Zhi-Ming

2014-01-01

140

The role of ants, especially the fire ant, Solenopsis geminata (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), in the biological control of tropical upland rice pests.  

PubMed

Predatory ants are omnipresent year-round in upland (dryland) rice fields in the Philippines. At least 14 species were identified of which the very aggressive Solenopsis geminata (Fabricius) and also Tapinoma sp. nr indicum Forel usually predominated. Some highly aggressive species, notably Pheidolegetonspp. and Bothriomyrmex dalyi Forel were localized. Solenopsis geminata flourished within many fields, not only during the crop season but also throughout dry season fallows where they remained aggressively predatory. Rice plants infested with brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) were usually found within a few hours and S. geminata workers were quickly recruited to N. lugens aggregates. Predation was usually incomplete and workers began to solicit the few remaining late instar or adult N. lugens survivors. These oviposited but no second generation nymphs appeared. There was a surge of recruited ants at the time of N. lugens egg hatch when surviving adults were also killed. Initially, S. geminataalone killed N. lugens aggregates less quickly than with the whole predator complex but ultimately its sole effect was as great as that of the complex. Scattered N. lugens adults, corresponding to numbers that initially colonize rice plants, were eliminated as quickly by S. geminata alone as by the predator complex. Tapinoma indicum occurring separately or with S. geminataon the same plant contributed to predation of N. lugens especially on young nymphs. Solenopsis geminataattacked other insects on rice notably leaffolders of which 97% mortality was recorded when they were exposed throughout egg and larval stages. The role of S. geminataas a predator of upland rice pests is discussed in the context of known biological control of pests of non-rice dryland crops in the tropics and sub-tropics by S. geminata and other Solenopsis spp. PMID:12241568

Way, M J; Javier, G; Heong, K L

2002-10-01

141

LA SALUD MENTAL DEL BEBÉ. NUEVAS EVIDENCIAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY This article describes infant mental health from two perspectives: why it is relevant and how to implement interventions, including preventive ones. Topics covered are based on evidence available in scientific literature. The first section addresses areas that justify the importance assigned to infants and their emotional well-being. One of them deals with new information about brain development. Recent available

J. Martín Maldonado-Durán; Juan Manuel Sauceda Garcia; Teresa Lartigue; Velissarios Karacostas

2002-01-01

142

Nuevas identidades y ocaso del deseo  

Microsoft Academic Search

New identities and decline of desire In this paper, the tension comes from the movement from the public institutions and the sexual provocation until the libido of the human species in the post-historical societies, that would have been projected towards the reinvindicative associations, the repression requests, the request of better legislation and punishment as erogenous zones. That is to say,

Pedro Alzuru

143

Biocomplejidad: La Nueva Frontera de la Biociencia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The interview examines how the science of biocomplexity aims to: provide an understanding of complex systems, such as environmental and biological systems, integrate data about these systems from many disciplines, for example, physics, chemistry, and biology , and monitor the interplay among systems of our planet across multiple levels of space and time.

Rita Rossi Colwell (Canon US Life Sciences;)

2004-05-01

144

Nuevas voces por la justicia social  

Microsoft Academic Search

New Voices for Social Justice illustrates the discovery by the dalits, the groups most oppressed by the Indian caste system, of writing, particularly poetry, as a weapon in their fight against discrimination. It quotes men and women writing in several of the languages and dialects of India on subjects from extreme poverty and filth to humiliations and exclusions. It refers

Rowena Hill

145

Alimentos funcionales, una nueva alternativa de alimentación  

Microsoft Academic Search

The consumption of foods that in addition to providing basic nutrition may help cure and prevent some diseases is one of the most innovative aspects that the 21st century offers. Foods that reduce cholesterol intake, help weight loss, avoid osteoporosis, regulate blood pressure and even candy that prevents dental cavities can habitually be found in many supermarkets around the world.

SARMIENTO RUBIANO

146

Hermaphroditism among dioecious Tagelus plebeius (Lightfoot, 1786) (Mollusca, Psammobiidae) and Iphigenia brasiliana (Lamarck, 1818) (Mollusca, Donacidae) on the Cachoeira River estuary, Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil.  

PubMed

The samples of Tagelus plebeius and Iphigenia brasiliana were manually collected on the Cachoeira River estuary region (Ilhéus, BA, Brazil) between August 2005 and August 2006, with a periodicity of 15 days, with 20 animals collected/sampled, performing 500 samples from each species. The animals were measured, eviscerated and kept in solution of Davidson and after 24-30 hours, they were transferred to ethanol 70%. The material was processed for routine histology, with paraffin embedding, obtaining 7 microm thick slices, stained with Harris hematoxilin and Eosin (HE). By light microscopy analysis, 2 cases of hermaphroditism (0.4%) in T. plebeius samples and one case (0.2%) in I. brasiliana were registered with predominance of female over male follicles. PMID:20231968

Ceuta, L O; Boehs, G; Santos, J J B

2010-02-01

147

Cooperation and Punishment, Especially in Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Explaining altruistic cooperation is one of the greatest challenges faced by sociologists, economists, and evolutionary biol- ogists. The problem is determining why an individual would carry out a costly behavior that benefits another. Possible solutions to this problem include kinship, repeated interactions, and policing. An- other solution that has recently received much attention is the threat of punishment. However, punishing

Andy Gardner

2004-01-01

148

Especially for Teens: Having a Baby  

MedlinePLUS

... taking medications during pregnancy? • Can using alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, or other illegal drugs cause harm during pregnancy? • ... remedies, vitamins, or minerals. Can using alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, or other illegal drugs cause harm during pregnancy? ...

149

PROJETO ESPECIAL DE PROPULSORES DE EMBARCAÇÕES FLUVIAIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work presents technical considerations about the importance of an adequate conception of inland ship propellers and evaluates the impact of an adequate propeller design on the efficiency of inland transport system. The following aspects of inland ships propellers are analyzed: number of propellers, position of installation in the ship stern, number and forms of blades, structural resistance, blades propeller

Carlos Daher Padovezi

150

Cancer on Guam, especially among Micronesians.  

PubMed

The Guam Cancer Registry (GCR) collects data on cases of cancer in Guam residents whether their initial diagnosis is made on Guam or as a result of a referral to an off-island medical facility. It also collects data on cancer of non-residents diagnosed on Guam. Although including non-Guam resident cancer cases in statistical tables will have the effect of raising local cancer rates, this probably only partially compensates for the number of Guam-resident cancer cases that are diagnosed off-island and not reported to the registry. Cases are also collected by a periodic review of death certificates filed with the Guam Office of Vital Statistics. To test this hypothesis GCR records were reviewed to determine the number of reported cancer cases for each ethnic group that claimed to be Guam residents. Since a high proportion of cancers seen among Micronesians on Guam represent cases referred from their home islands, it may also be that these cases only represent those cancers most likely to be referred to Guam rather than being representative of the cancers most commonly occurring within these ethnic groups in their home islands. PMID:14736105

Haddock, Robert L; Naval, Cynthia L

2002-09-01

151

[Lipoblastoma and lipoblastomatosis: especially in children].  

PubMed

Lipoblastoma and lipoblastomatosis are rare benign fatty tumours that mainly occur in children under the age of 3 years. Several body sites can be affected. The term 'lipoblastoma' is reserved for an encapsulated neoplasm; 'lipoblastomatosis' for tumours demonstrating infiltrative growth. Most of the clinical symptoms arise from a mass effect of the tumour on surrounding tissues. The tumours should be differentiated from lipoma, myxoid liposarcoma and hibernoma. A clear distinction can be made by cytogenetic analysis, since each of these tumours is known for its own typical genetic abnormalities. In lipoblastoma and lipoblastomatosis, these include a breakpoint in the 8q11-13 region or polysomy of chromosome 8, both leading to the activation of the oncogenic pleomorphic adenoma gene 1 (PLAG1) on 8q12. Treatment consists of surgical resection; there is no need for radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Clinical outcome depends on the completeness of the resection and damage that is done to the surrounding tissues during surgery. PMID:21854662

Besouw, Martine T P; Verlinde, Piet F L; Uyttebroeck, Anne M; Renard, Marleen M

2011-01-01

152

Isozyme Polymorphism of Esterases in the Genus Lanistes (Mollusca: Prosobranchiata) and Genetic Analysis of Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Esterases from the digestive gland of the snails Lanistes carinatusand Lanistes boltenicollected from four Egyptian governorates were extracted and analyzed using starch gel electrophoresis and five substrates. Twelve esterase bands were detected in both Lanistes species. The esterase bands were distributed in three main zones, which could be classified as acetylesterases, carboxylesterases, and cholinesterases. Depending on the substrate specificity, inhibition

M. B. Abdelmordy; S. H. Sleem; T. A. Tantawi

1997-01-01

153

The Fine Morphology of the Osphradial Sense Organs of the Mollusca. IV. Caudofoveata and Solenogastres  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fine morphology of the osphradial (= dorsoterminal) sense organs of seven Caudofoveata and two Solenogastres is described. In the Caudofoveata the organ forms a longitudinal groove bordered by swellings. It is well developed in the Chaetodermatidae, less developed in the Limifossoridae and vestigial in the Prochaetodermatidae. Within the Solenogastres there occurs great variation in number (total lack up to

G. Haszprunar

1987-01-01

154

The Fine Morphology of the Osphradial Sense Organs of the Mollusca. I. Gastropoda, Prosobranchia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The comparative ultrastructure of osphradia is investigated in 51 species of prosobranch gastropods, representative of nearly all superfamilies as well as of various habits and environments. The essential results show that the sensory epithelium of the osphradium as a whole may reflect environmental conditions, whereas the ultrastructure of osphradial cell types reflects actual taxonomic relations. Accordingly, the following taxa can

G. Haszprunar

1985-01-01

155

Isolation and characterization of a novel perivitellin from the eggs of Pomacea scalaris (Mollusca, Ampullariidae).  

PubMed

Perivitellins are important components of the perivitelline fluid (PVF) that surrounds gastropod embryos. The glyco-lipo-carotenoprotein ovorubin (OR) from eggs of the snail Pomacea canaliculata has been the most studied to date. Here we report the characterization of scalarin (SC), a glyco-lipo-carotenoprotein from the PVF of P. scalaris. SC was purified by ultracentrifugation and exclusion chromatography. It is the major egg protein, representing 64% of the total soluble protein. The particle has a hydration density of 1.26 g/ml, an apparent molecular mass of 380 kDa and it is an elongated compact protein as estimated by small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). It is composed of three subunits of ca. 35, 28, and 24 kDa noncovalently bonded. SC is highly glycosylated (carbohydrate content 20.1%, by wt.), with a low lipid content (0.7%), being esterified sterols, pigments and polar lipids the most abundant lipid classes. HPTLC and spectrophotometric analysis of the carotenoid fraction revealed the presence of free astaxanthin (ASX; 62.0%), and an unidentified carotenoid (38.0%). The carotenoid-apoprotein interaction was studied by spectrophotometry. Carotenoids do not seem to affect the structural characteristics of the oligomer. However, the carotenoid-protein association protected ASX against oxidation. The cross-reactivity between SC and perivitellins of P. canaliculata was tested using polyclonal antibodies (PAb) against SC, OR, and perivitellin PV2. The PAbs failed to cross-react with any egg proteins of either the same or other species. SC, among other functional similarities with OR, would be an antioxidant carrier, protecting at the same time carotenoids from oxidation in the perivitellin fluid of the egg. PMID:18213678

Ituarte, S; Dreon, M S; Ceolín, M; Heras, H

2008-09-01

156

The cephalic sensory organ in veliger larvae of pulmonates (Gastropoda: Mollusca).  

PubMed

The apical area of larvae of four primitive pulmonate species was investigated by means of serial ultrathin and light microscope sections. Cephalic sensory organs (CSOs) were found in the larvae of Onchidium cf. branchiferum (Onchidiidae) and Laemodonta octanfracta (Ellobiidae), while no trace of the organ was present in the larvae of Ovatella myosotis (Ellobiidae) or Williamia radiata (Siphonariidae). TEM investigation revealed very similar CSOs in O. cf. branchiferum and L. octanfracta, with characteristic putative sensory cell types: ampullary cells with an internal ampulla containing densely packed cilia, para-ampullary cells with external cilia parallel to the surface, and ciliary tuft cells, bearing short ciliary tufts. The epithelium covering the organ has a thick microvillar border with microvilli laterally bearing a pair of electron-dense accumulations and a glycocalyx with interspersed flat plaque-like elements. While homologues of all major elements of the CSO can be found in other gastropod taxa, for example caenogastropods and opisthobranchs, the homology of the ampullary cell with similar cells in nongastropods appears unlikely. The CSO of L. octanfracta is associated with an additional structure, an epithelial external protrusion, lying ventral to the CSO. The absence of the organ in W. radiata weakens hypotheses on the organ's function of examining settlement conditions and velar control. PMID:11746470

Ruthensteiner, Bernhard; Schaefer, Kurt

2002-01-01

157

Biology of slugs (Agriolimacidae and Arionidae: Mollusca) in New Zealand hill country pastures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Life cycles of the slugs Deroceras reticulatum and Arion intermedius were studied over a 2.5-year period in a sheep-grazed pasture in the Kaimai Range, New Zealand. D. reticulatum approximated a bivoltine phenology, with intervals between consecutive generations ranging from 4 to 7 months and maximum life span from 8 to 12 months. Egg laying occurred in autumn and spring-early summer.

Gary M. Barker

1991-01-01

158

Proteomic analysis from the mineralized radular teeth of the giant Pacific chiton, Cryptochiton stelleri (Mollusca).  

PubMed

The biomineralized radular teeth of chitons are known to consist of iron-based magnetic crystals, associated with the maximum hardness and stiffness of any biomineral. Based on our transmission electron microscopy analysis of partially mineralized teeth, we suggest that the organic matrix within the teeth controls the iron oxide nucleation. Thus, we used Nano-LC-MS to perform a proteomic analysis of the organic matrix in radular teeth of the chiton Cryptochiton stelleri in order to identify the proteins involved in the biomineralization process. Since the genome sequence of C. stelleri is not available, cross-species similarity searching and de novo peptide sequencing were used to screen the proteins. Our results indicate that several proteins were dominant in the mineralized part of the radular teeth, amongst which, myoglobin and a highly acidic peptide were identified as possibly involved in the biomineralization process. PMID:22833255

Nemoto, Michiko; Wang, Qianqian; Li, Dongsheng; Pan, Songqin; Matsunaga, Tadashi; Kisailus, David

2012-09-01

159

Biochemical profile of Biomphalaria glabrata (Mollusca: Gastropoda) after infection by Echinostoma paraensei (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae).  

PubMed

The effect of infection by Echinostoma paraensei on the activity of the enzymes alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and the concentration of total proteins, uric acid and urea in the hemolymph of Biomphalaria glabrata were investigated after exposure to five or 50 miracidia. The biochemical concentrations were measured weekly until the end of the fourth week after exposure. There was a significant decrease in the concentrations of total proteins in the snails exposed both to five and 50 miracidia, as well as an increase in the nitrogenous products of excretion, ALT and AST activities. The higher ALT activity in the hemolymph of the snails after infection with 50 miracidia suggests highest energetic requirement in these snails in relation to snails exposed to five miracidia. The results also suggest an increase in the use of total proteins, since there was increased formation of nitrogenous catabolites, in conformity with an increase in the aminotransferase activities, frequently associated with tissue damages. This can be explained by damage due to penetration by the miracidia and subsequent development of intramolluscan sporocysts and rediae. PMID:21537991

Tunholi, Victor M; Lustrino, Danilo; Tunholi-Alves, Vinícius M; Mello-Silva, Clélia C C; Maldonado, Arnaldo; Pinheiro, Jairo; Rodrigues, Maria de Lurdes de A

2011-09-01

160

Marine Mollusca from Expedition Fiord, Western Axel Heiberg Island, Northwest Territories, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine molluscs, including bivalves, gastropods and scaphopods, were recovered by dredging at depths of 3 - 82 m in Expedition Fiord, Axel Heiberg Island, Canada. Cluster analysis, based on presence\\/absence data at 27 stations, defined two mollusc associations within the fiord. A Portlandia-Thyasira association, characterized by the abundance of Portlandia arctica and Thyasira gouldi, inhabits silty clay substrates at depths

ALEC E. AITKEN; ROBERT GILBERT

1996-01-01

161

Patterns of Diversity of the Rissoidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda) in the Atlantic and the Mediterranean Region  

PubMed Central

The geographical distribution of the Rissoidae in the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea was compiled and is up-to-date until July 2011. All species were classified according to their mode of larval development (planktotrophic and nonplanktotrophic), and bathymetrical zonation (shallow species—those living between the intertidal and 50?m depth, and deep species—those usually living below 50?m depth). 542 species of Rissoidae are presently reported to the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, belonging to 33 genera. The Mediterranean Sea is the most diverse site, followed by Canary Islands, Caribbean, Portugal, and Cape Verde. The Mediterranean and Cape Verde Islands are the sites with higher numbers of endemic species, with predominance of Alvania spp. in the first site, and of Alvania and Schwartziella at Cape Verde. In spite of the large number of rissoids at Madeira archipelago, a large number of species are shared with Canaries, Selvagens, and the Azores, thus only about 8% are endemic to the Madeira archipelago. Most of the 542-rissoid species that live in the Atlantic and in the Mediterranean are shallow species (323), 110 are considered as deep species, and 23 species are reported in both shallow and deep waters. There is a predominance of nonplanktotrophs in islands, seamounts, and at high and medium latitudes. This pattern is particularly evident in the genera Crisilla, Manzonia, Onoba, Porosalvania, Schwartziella, and Setia. Planktotrophic species are more abundant in the eastern Atlantic and in the Mediterranean Sea. The results of the analysis of the probable directions of faunal flows support the patterns found by both the Parsimony Analysis of Endemicity and the geographical distribution. Four main source areas for rissoids emerge: Mediterranean, Caribbean, Canaries/Madeira archipelagos, and the Cape Verde archipelago. We must stress the high percentage of endemics that occurs in the isolated islands of Saint Helena, Tristan da Cunha, Cape Verde archipelago and also the Azores, thus reinforcing the legislative protective actions that the local governments have implemented in these islands during the recent years.

Avila, Sergio P.; Goud, Jeroen; de Frias Martins, Antonio M.

2012-01-01

162

Annotated type catalogue of the Bulimulidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Orthalicoidea) in the Natural History Museum, London  

PubMed Central

Abstract The type status is described of 404 taxa classified within the family Bulimulidae (superfamily Orthalicoidea) and kept in the London museum. Lectotypes are designated for Bulimus aurifluus Pfeiffer, 1857; Otostomus bartletti H. Adams, 1867; Helix cactorum d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimus caliginosus Reeve, 1849; Bulimus chemnitzioides Forbes, 1850; Bulimus cinereus Reeve, 1849; Helix cora d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimus fallax Pfeiffer, 1853; Bulimus felix Pfeiffer, 1862; Bulimus fontainii d’Orbigny, 1838; Bulimus fourmiersi d’Orbigny, 1837; Bulimus (Mesembrinus) gealei H. Adams, 1867; Bulimus gruneri Pfeiffer, 1846; Bulimus humboldtii Reeve, 1849; Helix hygrohylaea d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimus jussieui Pfeiffer, 1846; Bulimulus (Drymaeus) binominis lascellianus E.A. Smith, 1895; Helix lichnorum d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimulus (Drymaeus) lucidus da Costa, 1898; Bulimus luridus Pfeiffer, 1863; Bulimus meleagris Pfeiffer, 1853; Bulimus monachus Pfeiffer, 1857; Bulimus montagnei d’Orbigny, 1837; Helix montivaga d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimus muliebris Reeve, 1849; Bulimus nigrofasciatus Pfeiffer in Philippi 1846; Bulimus nitelinus Reeve, 1849; Helix oreades d’Orbigny, 1835; Helix polymorpha d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimus praetextus Reeve, 1849; Bulinus proteus Broderip, 1832; Bulimus rusticellus Morelet, 1860; Helix sporadica d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimus sulphureus Pfeiffer, 1857; Helix thamnoica var. marmorata d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulinus translucens Broderip in Broderip and Sowerby I 1832; Helix trichoda d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulinus ustulatus Sowerby I, 1833; Bulimus voithianus Pfeiffer, 1847; Bulimus yungasensis d’Orbigny, 1837. The type status of the following taxa is changed to lectotype in accordance with Art. 74.6 ICZN: Bulimulus (Drymaeus) caucaensis da Costa, 1898; Drymaeus exoticus da Costa, 1901; Bulimulus (Drymaeus) hidalgoi da Costa, 1898; Bulimulus (Drymaeus) interruptus Preston, 1909; Bulimulus (Drymaeus) inusitatus Fulton, 1900; Bulimulus latecolumellaris Preston, 1909; Bulimus (Otostomus) napo Angas, 1878; Drymaeus notabilis da Costa, 1906; Drymaeus notatus da Costa, 1906; Bulimulus (Drymaeus) nubilus Preston, 1903; Drymaeus obliquistriatus da Costa, 1901; Bulimus (Drymaeus) ochrocheilus E.A. Smith, 1877; Bulimus (Drymaeus) orthostoma E.A. Smith, 1877; Drymaeus expansus perenensis da Costa, 1901; Bulimulus pergracilis Rolle, 1904; Bulimulus (Drymaeus) plicatoliratus da Costa, 1898; Drymaeus prestoni da Costa, 1906; Drymaeus punctatus da Costa, 1907; Bulimus (Leptomerus) sanctaeluciae E.A. Smith, 1889; Bulimulus (Drymaeus) selli Preston, 1909; Drymaeus subventricosus da Costa, 1901; Bulimulus (Drymaeus) tigrinus da Costa, 1898; Drymaeus volsus Fulton, 1907; Drymaeus wintlei Finch, 1929; Bulimus zhorquinensis Angas, 1879; Bulimulus (Drymaeus) ziczac da Costa, 1898. The following junior subjective synonyms are established: Bulimus antioquensis Pfeiffer, 1855 = Bulimus baranguillanus Pfeiffer, 1853; Drymaeus bellus da Costa, 1906 = Drymaeus blandi Pilsbry, 1897; Bulimus hachensis Reeve 1850 = Bulimus gruneri Pfeiffer, 1846 = Bulimus columbianus Lea, 1838; Bulimus (Otostomus) lamas Higgins 1868 = Bulimus trujillensis Philippi, 1867; Bulimulus (Drymaeus) binominis lascellianus E.A. Smith, 1895 = Bulimulus (Drymaeus) binominis E.A. Smith, 1895; Drymaeus multispira da Costa, 1904 = Helix torallyi d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimulus (Drymaeus) plicatoliratus Da Costa, 1898 = Bulimus convexus Pfeiffer, 1855; Bulimus sugillatus Pfeiffer, 1857 = Bulimus rivasii d’Orbigny, 1837; Bulimus meridionalis Reeve 1848 [June] = Bulimus voithianus Pfeiffer, 1847. New combinations are: Bostryx montagnei (d’Orbigny, 1837); Bostryx obliquiportus (da Costa, 1901); Bulimulus heloicus (d’Orbigny, 1835); Drymaeus (Drymaeus) lusorius (Pfeiffer, 1855); Drymaeus (Drymaeus) trigonostomus (Jonas, 1844); Drymaeus (Drymaeus) wintlei Finch, 1929; Drymaeus (Mesembrinus) conicus da Costa, 1907; Kuschelenia (Kuschelenia) culminea culminea (d’Orbigny, 1835); Kusche

Breure, Abraham S.H.; Ablett, Jonathan D.

2014-01-01

163

[Genetic differentiation of the endemic Baikalian mollusk Baicalia carinata (Mollusca: Caenogastropoda)].  

PubMed

In gastropod mollusk Baicalia carinata Dybowski, 1875, sampled in different sites of the Lake Baikal, comparison of 81 sequences of internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) located between the genes for 18S rRNA and 5.8S rRNA, and of 100 sequences of the fragment of mitochondrial cytochrome-c-oxidase subunit 1 gene (CO1) was performed. Molecular phylogenetic analysis showed that the endemic mollusk species studied formed at least two distinct populations, Southwestern and Eastern. Statistical significance of the species subdivision into two populations was evaluated using the Mann-Whitney rank test. PMID:18592693

Peretolchina, T E; Bukin, Iu S; Sitnikova, T Ia; Shcherbakov, D Iu

2007-12-01

164

A contribution to the knowledge of non-marine Mollusca of South West Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The moment to collate scattered notes on South West African non-marine molluscs arrived last year when Mr. B. H. Lamoral of the Natal Museum, Pietermaritzburg (South Africa), entrusted the present author with the study of material obtained during a Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (C.S.I.R., Pretoria)-sponsored collecting trip. During Mr. Lamoral's explorations in 1969 in South West Africa non-marine

Bruggen van A. C

1970-01-01

165

Old and sticky--adhesive mechanisms in the living fossil Nautilus pompilius (Mollusca, Cephalopoda)  

PubMed Central

Nautiloidea is the oldest group within the cephalopoda, and modern Nautilus differs much in its outer morphology from all other recent species; its external shell and pinhole camera eye are the most prominent distinguishing characters. A further unique feature of Nautilus within the cephalopods is the lack of suckers or hooks on the tentacles. Instead, the animals use adhesive structures present on the digital tentacles. Earlier studies focused on the general tentacle morphology and put little attention on the adhesive gland system. Our results show that the epithelial parts on the oral adhesive ridge contain three secretory cell types (columnar, goblet, and cell type 1) that differ in shape and granule size. In the non-adhesive aboral epithelium, two glandular cell types (cell types 2 and 3) are present; these were not mentioned in any earlier study and differ from the cells in the adhesive area. The secretory material of all glandular cell types consists mainly of neutral mucopolysaccharide units, whereas one cell type in the non-adhesive epithelium also reacts positive for acidic mucopolysaccharides. The present data indicate that the glue in Nautilus consists mainly of neutral mucopolysaccharides. The glue seems to be a viscous carbohydrate gel, as known from another cephalopod species. De-attachment is apparently effectuated mechanically, i.e., by muscle contraction of the adhesive ridges and tentacle retraction.

von Byern, Janek; Wani, Ryoji; Schwaha, Thomas; Grunwald, Ingo; Cyran, Norbert

2012-01-01

166

Ross Sea Mollusca from the Latitudinal Gradient Program: R/V Italica 2004 Rauschert dredge samples  

PubMed Central

Abstract Information regarding the molluscs in this dataset is based on the Rauschert dredge samples collected during the Latitudinal Gradient Program (LGP) on board the R/V “Italica” in the Ross Sea (Antarctica) in the austral summer 2004. A total of 18 epibenthic dredge deployments/samplings have been performed at four different locations at depths ranging from 84 to 515m by using a Rauschert dredge with a mesh size of 500?m. In total 8,359 specimens have been collected belonging to a total of 161 species. Considering this dataset in terms of occurrences, it corresponds to 505 discrete distributional records (incidence data). Of these, in order of abundance, 5,965 specimens were Gastropoda (accounting for 113 species), 1,323 were Bivalvia (accounting for 36 species), 949 were Aplacophora (accounting for 7 species), 74 specimens were Scaphopoda (3 species), 38 were Monoplacophora (1 species) and, finally, 10 specimens were Polyplacophora (1 species). This data set represents the first large-scale survey of benthic micro-molluscs for the area and provides important information about the distribution of several species, which have been seldom or never recorded before in the Ross Sea. All vouchers are permanently stored at the Italian National Antarctic Museum (MNA), Section of Genoa, enabling future comparison and crosschecking. This material is also currently under study, from a molecular point of view, by the barcoding project “BAMBi” (PNRA 2010/A1.10).

Ghiglione, Claudio; Alvaro, Maria Chiara; Griffiths, Huw J.; Linse, Katrin; Schiaparelli, Stefano

2013-01-01

167

Imposex in muricid gastropod Thais biserialis (Mollusca: Neogastropoda: Muricidae) from Tuticorin harbour, southeast coast of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Imposex has been reported in the muricid gastropod Thais biserialis from inside the Tuticorin port. The sex ratio de- parted from 1:1 and the males were dominant. The frequency of imposex in females was 35%. The Vas deferens sequence (VDS) index indicated the occurrence of initial imposex stages of 1a and 2a i.e. the development of penis and penis with

M. Santhana Ramasamy; A. Murugan

168

The shallow-water New Caledonia Drilliidae of genus Clavus Montfort, 1810 (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Conoidea).  

PubMed

Species of the genus Clavus of the conoidean family Drilliidae that occur in the littoral and shallow waters of New Caledonia are here revised. This study is based primarily on recent expedition material from the Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (New Caledonia) and Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (France). A total of 22 species is recorded, of which eight are described as new.        New species: Clavus boucheti, Clavus delphineae, Clavus virginieae, Clavus picoides, Clavus squamiferus, Clavus devexistriatus, Clavus hylikos, Clavus maestratii;        New synonyms: Tylotiella Habe, 1958 = Clavus; Clavus leforestieri Hervier, 1896 = Pleurotoma obliquicostata Reeve, 1845; Pleurotoma mariei Crosse, 1869 = Pleurotoma lamberti Montrouzier, 1860; Clavus mighelsi Kay, 1979, new name for Pleurotoma acuminata Mighels, 1845, non J. Sowerby, 1816, was misidentified by Kay 1979; the lectotype of P. acuminata Mighels, 1845, is mangeliine. Clavus mighelsi sensu Kay 1979, is a synonym of Pleurotoma humilis E. A. Smith, 1879. It is suggested that Pleurotoma pulchella Reeve, 1845, sometimes treated as an Indo-Pacific species, may be a senior synonym of Fenimorea halidorema Schwengel, 1940, from the tropical western Atlantic. Nomen dubium: Pleurotoma mediocris Deshayes, 1863.  PMID:24943803

Kilburn, Richard N; Fedosov, Alexander; Kantor, Yuri

2014-01-01

169

Respirometry and swimming dynamics of the giant australian cuttlefish, sepia apama (mollusca, cephalopoda)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Swimming dynamics of the giant Australian cuttlefish, Sepia apama, were investigated using swimtunnel respirometry. Relationships between jet pressure, fin frequency, swimming speed and oxygen consumption were defined. Laboratory calibration of swimming parameters is necessary to allow estimates of swimming costs in the field.Jet pressure was the best predictor of oxygen consumption with an averaged equation of MO2?=?722 (jet pressure)?+?107?r ?=?0.51.

J. P. Aitken; R. K. ODor

2004-01-01

170

Sperm motility and longevity in the giant cuttlefish, Sepia apama (Mollusca: Cephalopoda)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sperm kinetics and fertilisation literature in marine invertebrates is heavily biased toward free-spawning species. Nonetheless,\\u000a many species (e.g. cephalopods) transfer and\\/or fertilise gametes in confined external spaces or internally, creating very\\u000a different selective pressures on sperm storage, sperm longevity and hence sperm competition. Here we report the results of\\u000a an investigation into the effects of sperm age, water temperature

Marie-José Naud; Jonathan N. Havenhand

2006-01-01

171

New Clades of Euthyneuran Gastropods (Mollusca) from 28S rRNA Sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent morphological and molecular results on phylogeny of euthyneuran gastropods, which include opisthobranchs and pulmonates, have greatly diminished previous supposed resolution of their phylogenetic relationships. In addition to recent morphological results, sequences of the D1 and D2 domains of the 28S rRNA are here analyzed by parsimony for 31 euthyneuran species. The molecular and previous morphological data sets were not

Annie Tillier; Guillaume Lecointre; Simon Tillier

2001-01-01

172

Temperature-induced changes in crystal lattice of bioaragonite of Tapes decussatus Linnaeus (Mollusca: Bivalvia )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characteristics of bioaragonite of shells of recent T. decussatus during heating were studied by the means of TG-DTA-EGA (FTIR), XRD, XRF and FTIR. The mass loss recorded up to 2.5% appeared\\u000a with the higher rates at 110–150, 200–250, 295–300, and 390–415°C at heating of 10°C min?1 up to 500°C. IR analysis of the evolved gases revealed the emission of

J. Nemliher; K. Tõnsuaadu; T. Kallaste

2009-01-01

173

[Occurrence of Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 (Mollusca, Gastropoda) in Brazil: intermediate snail host of angiostrongyliasis].  

PubMed

Achatina fulica, the intermediate snail host of angiostrongyliasis and also an agricultural pest, is being bred in Brazil for human consumption as "escargot". The snail has escaped from its artificial breeding sites and its dispersal in Itariri country, State of S. Paulo, is reported here for the first time. A. fulica is a transmitter of the rat lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis, nematode which causes meningoencephalic angiostrongyliasis; the risks of human contamination are commented on. PMID:9515269

Teles, H M; Vaz, J F; Fontes, L R; Domingos, M de F

1997-06-01

174

A biomechanical model of rock drilling in the piddock Barnea candida (Bivalvia; Mollusca).  

PubMed

The bivalve Barnea candida (Pholadacea) makes its burrow in clay, soft rock and peat. Barnea has developed a number of adaptations to accommodate this lifestyle. Four muscles enable burrowing. These are situated around a dorsal pivot in such a way that the piddock is able to rotate the shells around two approximate orthogonal axes. The anterior adductor muscle anterior (AAM-A) and the posterior adductor muscle rotate the shells around a dorso-ventral axis; the anterior adductor muscle posterior (AAM-P) and the ventral adductor muscle rotate the shells around an antero-posterior axis. The AAM-A and the AAM-P have evolved from a single anterior adductor muscle and are attached to a piece of the shell that is folded inside out, the umbonal reflection. At the dorsal side of the piddock, the shell margins are reduced. This prevents collision of these margins during movement. Electrical stimulation experiments revealed that the opening of the antero-ventral side of the piddock is faster than its closure. These results were incorporated into a computer model that could simulate shell movements. The computer model allowed predictions about the shapes of burrows and scrape marks. As in Nature, simulated burrows had a long droplet shape with straight scrape marks. PMID:22696480

Nederlof, Ralf; Muller, Mees

2012-11-01

175

Comparison of the spermatozoan morphology of Isognomon bicolor and Isognomon alatus (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Isognomonidae).  

PubMed

In this study we used transmission and scanning electron microscopy to examine the spermatozoan structure of Isognomon bicolor and Isognomon alatus. The spermatozoa of both species were of the primitive or ect-aquasperm type. The acrosomal morphologies were essentially similar but the top of the acrosomal vesicle in I. bicolor sperm had a slightly flattened edge whereas the apex of the acrosomal vesicle of I. alatus sperm had a rounded outline. This difference suggested that acrosomal morphology could be an important character for taxonomic differentiation. In the present work, the results demonstrated that the gamete ultrastructure of the two distinct species I. alatus, from Panama, and I. bicolor, from the southeastern region of Brazil, were similar to the other studied species of the superfamily Pterioidea. PMID:18790511

Introíni, G O; Magalhães, C A; Fortunato, H; Recco-Pimentel, S M

2009-02-01

176

Investigation of cell proliferation and differentiation in the mantle of Pinctada fucata (Bivalve, Mollusca)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mantle of the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata was adopted for the proliferation profile study in our work and a proliferation hot spot was found in the outer epithelia\\u000a of mantle central zone using the BrdU immunohistochemistry method. This result contradicts the previous research that the\\u000a mantle has numerous growth centers all over the mantle epithelium, with the same proliferation

Zi Fang; Qiaoli Feng; Yizhou Chi; Liping Xie; Rongqing Zhang

2008-01-01

177

A biomechanical model of rock drilling in the piddock Barnea candida (Bivalvia; Mollusca)  

PubMed Central

The bivalve Barnea candida (Pholadacea) makes its burrow in clay, soft rock and peat. Barnea has developed a number of adaptations to accommodate this lifestyle. Four muscles enable burrowing. These are situated around a dorsal pivot in such a way that the piddock is able to rotate the shells around two approximate orthogonal axes. The anterior adductor muscle anterior (AAM-A) and the posterior adductor muscle rotate the shells around a dorso-ventral axis; the anterior adductor muscle posterior (AAM-P) and the ventral adductor muscle rotate the shells around an antero-posterior axis. The AAM-A and the AAM-P have evolved from a single anterior adductor muscle and are attached to a piece of the shell that is folded inside out, the umbonal reflection. At the dorsal side of the piddock, the shell margins are reduced. This prevents collision of these margins during movement. Electrical stimulation experiments revealed that the opening of the antero-ventral side of the piddock is faster than its closure. These results were incorporated into a computer model that could simulate shell movements. The computer model allowed predictions about the shapes of burrows and scrape marks. As in Nature, simulated burrows had a long droplet shape with straight scrape marks.

Nederlof, Ralf; Muller, Mees

2012-01-01

178

Morphological characterization of the hemocytes of the clam, Ruditapes decussatus (Mollusca: Bivalvia).  

PubMed

Hemocytes play an important role in internal defence in molluscs. The morphology of hemolymph cells was studied for the first time in Ruditapes decussatus. Two main types of hemocytes (hyalinocytes and granulocytes) exist in R. decussatus. Three types of granulocytes were identified by light microscopy, in accordance with the presence of basophilic or acidophilic granules or a mixture of both in the cytoplasm. The existence of hyalinocytes and granulocytes was confirmed by electron microscopy. Some monoclonal antibodies (MABs) raised against hemocytes of Crassostrea gigas showed cross-reactivity with the total population of hemocytes of R. decussatus; however, none of the MABs raised against hemocytes of Mytilus edulis showed cross-reactivity. The MABs assayed did not allow us to distinguish hemocyte subpopulations. PMID:9028928

López, C; Carballal, M J; Azevedo, C; Villalba, A

1997-01-01

179

Development and multiplex PCR amplification of microsatellite markers in the commercial clam Venerupis rhomboides (Mollusca: Bivalvia).  

PubMed

Venerupis rhomboides is a commercial clam whose production could be enhanced through effective management of natural and hatchery stocks. This study provides the first panel of microsatellite markers for the exploitation of this species according to genetic criteria. A total of 22 polymorphic microsatellite loci were isolated and characterized from two genomic libraries enriched for different motifs. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 14 in a sample of 20 clams from Spain, and the observed and expected heterozygosity from 0 to 0.95 and 0.05-0.901, respectively. Sixteen loci were in agreement with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium after sequential Bonferroni correction and linkage disequilibrium between loci pairs was not detected. To reduce the cost of the genotyping process, tri- and pentaplex PCRs, amplifying a total of 13 microsatellites loci were optimized. The microsatellites developed here represent the first nuclear markers described in V. rhomboides and will be useful tools for genetic studies involving assessment of genetic variation and population structure of natural and cultivated populations, assignment testing, construction of genetic linkage maps and dissection of production traits. PMID:23086276

Chacón, Ginna; Arias-Pérez, Alberto; Méndez, Josefina; Insua, Ana; Freire, Ruth

2013-02-01

180

Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in mollusca species and assessment of potential risks to human health.  

PubMed

Along the Alexandria coast of the Egyptian Mediterranean Sea, five edible species of bivalve molluscs and one gastropoda species (Mactra coralline, Ruditapes decussates, Paphia undulate, Venerupis rhomboids, Crista pectinata and Coralliophila meyendorffi) were analyzed for content of metals (Cadmium, Chromium, Lead, Cobalt and Nickel) in the muscle and in the sediments where they live. The potential health risks of metals to humans via consumption of seafood were assessed by estimated daily intake and target hazard quotient. Significant positive correlations (p < 0.05) were obtained between tissue concentrations for all pairs of metals, with the exception of Cadmium. Significant positive correlations were also obtained for the concentrations of Cd and Ni in tissues of all studied species relative to their concentrations in surface sediments. However, correlations between tissue and sediment concentrations for Chromium, Lead and Cobalt were negative. Ruditapes decussates and C. meyendorffi had the highest values for the summed target hazard quotient and may pose a potential risk to local inhabitants through their consumption in the diet. The potential risk would arise from exposure to high tissue concentrations of Cd and Pb, which exceeded published guidelines for safety of seafood products in some cases. Chromium contributed a considerable fraction of the total target hazard quotient for all metals combined, but did not exceed the published guidelines. Cobalt and Ni did not contribute greatly overall to the target hazard quotient, except in the case of Ni in V. rhomboids. PMID:23377776

Abdallah, Maha Ahmed Mohamed

2013-05-01

181

Enzyme characterisation of the circulating haemocytes of the carpet shell clam, Ruditapes decussatus (Mollusca:bivalvia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The occurrence of a number of lysosomal enzymes (Proteases, glycosidases, phosphatases, and esterases) inRuditapes decussatushaemocytes was demonstrated by cytochemical and colorimetric techniques. The levels of 18 enzymes tested monthly varied through the study period (18 months), although they did not conform to a seasonal pattern of variation. No important effect of clam age on enzyme activity levels of haemocytes was

C. LÓPEZ; M. J. CARBALLAL; C. AZEVEDO; A. VILLALBA

1997-01-01

182

Morphological Characterization of the Hemocytes of the Clam, Ruditapes decussatus(Mollusca: Bivalvia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hemocytes play an important role in internal defence in molluscs. The morphology of hemolymph cells was studied for the first time inRuditapes decussatus.Two main types of hemocytes (hyalinocytes and granulocytes) exist inR. decussatus.Three types of granulocytes were identified by light microscopy, in accordance with the presence of basophilic or acidophilic granules or a mixture of both in the cytoplasm. The

Carmen López; M. J. Carballal; Carlos Azevedo; Antonio Villalba

1997-01-01

183

Distribution of Lymnaeidae (Mollusca: Pulmonata), intermediate snail hosts of Fasciola hepatica in Venezuela.  

PubMed

An extensive malacological survey was carried out between 2005-2009 in order to clarify the exact number of lymnaeid species which may be intermediate hosts of Fasciola hepatica in Venezuela. Four species were discovered during this survey, including two local species: Lymnaea cubensis and Lymnaea cousini and two exotic species: Lymnaea truncatula and Lymnaea columella. The most common local species was L. cubensis which was found at 16 out of the 298 sampling sites. This species has a large distribution area throughout the Northern part of Venezuela and was encountered from sea level to an altitude of 1,802 m in state of Trujillo. The second local species L. cousini was collected at only two sites of the Andean Region at altitudes of 3,550 m and 4,040 m, respectively. The European L. truncatula was found at 24 sites all located in the states of Mérida and Táchira at an altitude varying between 1,540-4,000 m. The respective distribution areas of L. cubensis and L. truncatula do not appear to overlap, but more detailed malacological surveys are needed. The fourth lymnaeid species, L. columella was collected in a canal from Mérida at an altitude of 1,929 m and in an irrigation canal from the state of Guárico, at an altitude of 63 m. The role of these four lymnaeid species in the transmission of fascioliasis in Venezuela is discussed. PMID:19820844

Pointier, J P; Noya, O; Alarcón de Noya, B; Théron, A

2009-08-01

184

Ultrastructure of the pericardium in chitons (Mollusca: Polyplacophora), in relation to filtration and contraction mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pericardium in Lepidopleurus asellus (Spengler), Tonicella marmorea (Fabricius), T. rubra L., Ischnochiton albus L., and Calleochiton laevis (Montagu), species taxonomically far apart, is described. It consists of a flat, simple epithelium facing the pericardial cavity, a basement membrane, a muscle layer with two types of muscle fibres, nerve processes, glio-interstitial cells, and fibrocytes, embedded in a loose collagen matrix.

Steinar Økland

1981-01-01

185

Muscle and neuronal differentiation in primary cell culture of larval Mytilus trossulus (Mollusca: Bivalvia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molluscan in vitro technology allows the study of the differentiation of isolated cells undergoing experimental manipulations.\\u000a We have used the immunofluorescence technique and laser scanning microscopy to investigate the organization of muscle proteins\\u000a (actin, myosin, paramyosin, and twitchin) and the localization of neurotransmitters (serotonin and FMRFamide) in cultured\\u000a mussel larval cells. Differentiation into muscle and neuron-like cells occurs during the

Nelly A. Odintsova; Vyacheslav A. Dyachuk; Leonid P. Nezlin

2010-01-01

186

Natural infection of Helix aspersa (Mollusca: Pulmonata) by Dicrocoeliidae (Digenea) larval stages in Izmir, Turkey.  

PubMed

In this study, the prevalence of larval stages of Dicrocoeliidae in the garden snail Helix aspersa Müller, 1774 commonly found in the vicinity of Izmir, Turkey was investigated and some of its histological and morphological features were determined. The molluscs were collected during the spring of 2005. As the result of the investigation, a land snail species, H. aspersa, was found to be an intermediate host in the life cycle of Dicrocoeliidae and it had a prevalence of 0.97 % in the study area. In the present study, H. aspersa has been reported for the first time as an intermediate host of Dicrocoeliid species. The prevalence of infection was highest in March. PMID:17594660

Gürelli, Gözde; Göçmen, Bayram

2007-01-01

187

Biomphalaria straminea (Mollusca: Planorbidae) as an intermediate host of Ribeiroia sp. (Trematoda: Psilostomidae) in Brazil.  

PubMed

Species of Ribeiroia are trematode parasites of birds and mammals that have acquired notoriety since Ribeiroia ondatrae was identified as a cause of mortality and malformations in North American amphibians. Although species of Ribeiroia have been reported in vertebrate hosts in South America, the snails involved in its transmission remain unknown in Brazil. During malacological studies conducted at Pampulha Reservoir, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, between January 2009 and February 2012, in total 14,264 specimens of Biomphalaria straminea were collected, of which 192 (1.35%) were infected with gymnocephalous cercariae. The larvae were used for experimental infection of laboratory-reared guppies ( Poecilia reticulata ); metacercariae obtained in these fishes were orally administered to domestic ducks (Cairina moschata); and adult parasites were obtained from the proventriculus 10 days after infection. Based on morphological and molecular analyses, the parasite was identified as Ribeiroia sp., a species morphologically similar to R. ondatrae , but distinctly different at the molecular level. This is the first report of larvae of Ribeiroia in Brazil and B. straminea as a new intermediate host for this genus. PMID:23421393

Pinto, H A; Jadin, R C; Orlofske, S A; Johnson, P T J; Melo, A L

2013-10-01

188

New insights into diversity and evolution of deep-sea Mytilidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bathymodiolinae mussels have been used as a biological model to better understand the evolutionary origin of faunas associated with deep-sea hydrothermal vents and cold seeps. Most studies to date, however, have sampled with a strong bias towards vent and seep species, mainly because of a lack of knowledge of closely related species from organic falls. Here we reassess the species

Julien Lorion; Barbara Buge; Corinne Cruaud; Sarah Samadi

2010-01-01

189

Bacterial endosymbioses in Solemya (Mollusca: Bivalvia)--model systems for studies of symbiont-host adaptation.  

PubMed

Endosymbioses between chemosynthetic bacteria and marine invertebrates are remarkable biological adaptations to life in sulfide-rich environments. In these mutualistic associations, sulfur-oxidizing chemoautotrophic bacteria living directly within host cells both aid in the detoxification of toxic sulfide and fix carbon to support the metabolic needs of the host. Though best described for deep-sea vents and cold seeps, these symbioses are ubiquitous in shallow-water reducing environments. Indeed, considerable insight into sulfur-oxidizing endosymbioses in general comes from detailed studies of shallow-water protobranch clams in the genus Solemya. This review highlights the impressive body of work characterizing bacterial symbiosis in Solemya species, all of which are presumed to harbor endosymbionts. In particular, studies of the coastal Atlantic species Solemya velum and its larger Pacific congener Solemya reidi are the foundation for our understanding of the metabolism and physiology of marine bivalve symbioses, which are now known to occur in five families. Solemya velum, in particular, is an excellent model organism for symbiosis research. This clam can be collected easily from coastal eelgrass beds and maintained in laboratory aquaria for extended periods. In addition, the genome of the S. velum symbiont is currently being sequenced. The integration of genomic data with additional experimental analyses will help reveal the molecular basis of the symbiont-host interaction in Solemya, thereby complementing the wide array of research programs aimed at better understanding the diverse relationships between bacterial and eukaryotic cells. PMID:17028934

Stewart, Frank J; Cavanaugh, Colleen M

2006-11-01

190

Body condition and gametogenic cycle of Galatea paradoxa (Mollusca: Bivalvia) in the Volta River estuary, Ghana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The reproductive cycle of Galatea paradoxa which is the basis for an artisanal fishery in the Volta River estuary, Ghana, was studied using condition indices and histological methods from March 2008 to July 2009. The cycle is annual with a single spawning event between June and October. Gametogenesis starts in November progressing steadily to a peak in June-July when spawning begins until October when the animal is spent. The condition indices (shell-free wet weight/total wet weight, ash-free dry weight/shell weight and gonad wet weight/shell weight) showed a clear relationship with the gametogenic stage rising from a minimum at stage (I) start of gametogenesis, to their highest values at stages (IIIA) ripe and (IIIB) start of spawning before declining significantly to stage (IV) spent.It is suggested that condition index may prove a valuable technique in fishery management to recognise the reproductive stages of G. paradoxa as it is less expensive and time consuming than histological techniques in addition to being easier to teach to non-specialists. The data presented in this study provide information on the timing of spawning events for G. paradoxa, which is necessary for developing sustainable management strategies and selection of broodstock for aquaculture.

Adjei-Boateng, D.; Wilson, J. G.

2013-11-01

191

Dorymenia troncosoi sp. nov. (Mollusca Solenogastres: Proneomeniidae), a new species from the South Shetland Islands (Antarctica)  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the Spanish oceanographic expedition BENTART '95, carried out in Antarctic waters off Livingston Island (South Shetland\\u000a Islands), five small specimens of a new species of Solenogastres-Cavibelonia, Dorymenia troncosoi sp. nov., were collected at a depth of 65–240?m on a silt bottom. The species is characterized by the presence of a pallial\\u000a cavity with four pouches (a dorsal, two lateral

O. García-Alvarez; V. Urgorri; L. von Salvini-Plawen

1998-01-01

192

Species diversity and assemblages of macrobenthic Mollusca from the South Shetland Islands and Bransfield Strait (Antarctica)  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the research program BENTART 95, carried out from 16 January to 4 February 1995 on board RV Hesperides, a semi-quantitative Agassiz trawl and quantitative Van-Veen grabs were used at 31 subtidal stations between 40 and 850?m\\u000a depth around Livingston Island, at Deception Island and in the Bransfield Strait. These data were used to search for and analyse\\u000a the malacological

Patrick M. Arnaud; Jesús S. Troncoso; Ana Ramos

2001-01-01

193

Epibiotic relationships on Zygochlamys patagonica (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Pectinidae) increase biodiversity in a submarine canyon in Argentina  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The continental slope of the southern SW Atlantic Ocean has many distinguishable deep submarine canyons, varying in depth and extension. The benthic fauna within one of them, detected in April 2005 by means of a multibeam SIMRAD EM1002 sonar, and located at 43°35?S to 59°33?W, 325 m depth, was studied to discuss faunal affinities with the neighbouring Patagonian scallop fishing grounds located at upper slope depths. In order to add faunal information to the previous general study, we studied the epibiotic species settled on Patagonian scallops (the dominant species in the area) collected in the reference sampling site using a 2.5-m mouth-opening dredge, 10 mm mesh size. We sampled 103 scallops with shell heights between 22 and 69 mm; epibionts were recorded on both valves. We found 53 epibiotic taxa, which were most conspicuous on the upper valve. Bryozoa was the most diverse group (34 species) while Polychaeta was the most abundant group, recorded on 94% of the scallops. Stylasteridae (2 species) and Clavulariidae (Cnidaria) conform newly recorded epibionts on Z. patagonica and the sponge Tedania (Tedaniopsis) infundibuliformis also represents a new record for the SW Atlantic Ocean.

Schejter, Laura; López Gappa, Juan; Bremec, Claudia Silvia

2014-06-01

194

The anatomy and functional morphology of Diplodon rhombeus fontainianus (Orbigny, 1835) (Mollusca Bivalvia, Hyriidae).  

PubMed

Diplodon rhombeus fontainianus (Orbigny, 1835), belongs to the family Hyriidae Swainson 1840, the distribution of which is restricted to South America and Australasia. This species, endemic to Brazil, occurs in the central-southern geographical region, Upper Paraná Basin and Atlantic Microbasins Espirito Santo to Paraná states. The mollusk lives buried in muddy substrata, has similar sized adductor muscles, and is dioecious, lacking sexual dimorphism. The apertures are simple (type AII of Yonge, 1948, 1957) as in Diplodon rotundus gratus, Castalia undosa martensi, Castalia undosa undosa and mantle fusion is present only in the base of the exalant aperture. The inhalant aperture exhibits tentacles originating from the inner fold while the exhalant aperture has no tentacles. The ctenidia are type D (of Atkins, 1937). A well-developed marsupium is present in the inner demibranch. The association between the ctenidia and the labial palps belongs to category I (of Stasek, 1963). The stomach constitutes a type IV structure (of Purchon, 1958). The posterior sorting area (psa) presents two pouches in Diplodon rhombeus fontainianus. Among the Hyriidae, the presence of these pouches has also been described in several species of Hyriidae from South America. The organization of the gut in the visceral mass follows the same pattern seen in the Hyriidae already studied: Castalia undosa martensi, Castalia undosa undosa, Diplodon rotundus gratus,Diplodon charruanus and Diplodon pilsbryi. PMID:19967188

Avelar, W E P; Cunha, A D

2009-11-01

195

Lacuna vincta (Mollusca, Neotaenioglossa) herbivory on juvenile and adult Nereocystis luetkeana (Heterokontophyta, Laminariales)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herbivory can be an important factor structuring coastal algal communities. Herbivores may preferentially graze particular\\u000a algal species or tissue types. Mesograzers, despite their small size, can critically weaken kelp thalli and impact entire\\u000a kelp beds. We propose that when kelp beds are composed of several kelp cohorts, mesograzers will selectively choose to inhabit\\u000a younger plants and grazing activities will have

Heloise Chenelot; Brenda Konar

2007-01-01

196

Phylogenetic relationships among the family Ommastrephidae (Mollusca: Cephalopoda) inferred from two mitochondrial DNA gene sequences.  

PubMed

Squids of the family Ommastrephidae are distributed worldwide, and the family includes many species of commercial importance. To investigate phylogenetic relationships among squid species of the family Ommastrephidae, partial nucleotide sequences of two mitochondrial gene loci (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I [1277bp] and 16S rRNA [443bp]) of 15 ommastrephid species and two outgroup species from the families Loliginidae and Enoploteuthidae were determined and used to construct parsimony and distance based phylogenetic trees. The molecular data provided several new phylogenetic inferences. The monophyletic status of three subfamilies (Illicinae, Todarodinae and Ommastrephinae) was well supported, although phylogenetic relationships between the subfamilies were not resolved. Inclusion of a problematic species, Ornithoteuthis volatilis, to Todarodinae was indicated. Within Todarodinae, the Japanese common squid Todarodes pacificus was observed to have much closer relationship to the species of the genus Nototodarus than to its congener (Todarodes filippovae). These results indicate that re-evaluation of several morphological key characters for ommastrephid taxonomy may be necessary. PMID:22897957

Wakabayashi, T; Suzuki, N; Sakai, M; Ichii, T; Chow, S

2012-09-01

197

Untersuchungen über die temperaturabhängigkeit des sauerstoffverbrauchs von Crepidula fornicata (Mollusca: Prosobranchia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oxygen consumption of the sessile gastropod Crepidula fornicata was measured during autumn 1962 as a function of soft body wet weight (0.04 to 5.2 g) and temperature (2° to 30° C). From the data obtained, the parameters of the allometric formula were derived for describing the relationship between respiration and body size. The parameters were then used for calculating

F. Krüger

1970-01-01

198

[Localization of biogenic amines in the central nervous system of Crepidula fornicata (Phil.), Mollusca, Gastropoda, Prosobrancha].  

PubMed

Two categories of neurones at least can be demonstrated in Crepidula fornicata, some containing catecholamines (DA) others indolamines (5 HT). These cells, which are well localized, are often close to azanophilous neurosecretory cells but nevertheless distinct from the latter. PMID:96991

Catania, R

1978-05-01

199

Lethal and Sub-lethal Effects of UVB on Juvenile Biomphalaria glabrata (Mollusca: Pulmonata)  

PubMed Central

Although Schistosoma mansoni occurs mainly in the tropics, where intense levels of solar radiation are present, the impact of ultraviolet (UV) light on schistosome transmission is not known. The purpose of this study was to investigate potential effects of UVB (290–320 nm) on juvenile Biomphalaria glabrata, the snail intermediate host of S. mansoni. Albino and wild type snails were exposed to doses of UVB from UV-fluorescent lamps, and the following were measured: survival, photoreactivation (light-mediated DNA repair), effects on feeding behavior, and morphological tissue abnormalities. Irradiation with UVB is lethal to B. glabrata in a dose-dependent manner. Exposure to white light subsequent to UVB irradiation enhances survival, probably by photoreactivation. The shell offers some, but not complete, protection. Experiments in which UVB transmittance through the shell was blocked with black nail polish suggest that injury to both exposed (headfoot) and shell-enclosed (mantle and visceral mass) tissues contributes to mortality in lethally-irradiated snails. Wild-type (pigmented) snails are less susceptible to lethal effects of UVB than albino snails, and they may be more capable of photoreactivation. UVB exposure inhibits snail feeding behavior, and causes tentacle forks and growths on the headfoot. Thus, UVB may influence the life cycle of S. mansoni by both lethal and sub-lethal damage to the snail intermediate host. However, the ability of snails to photoreactivate may mitigate these effects.

Ruelas, Debbie S.; Karentz, Deneb; Sullivan, John T.

2007-01-01

200

Nucularcidae: A new family of palaeotaxodont Ordovician pelecypods (Mollusca) from North America and Australia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The new Ordovician palaeotaxodont family Nucularcidae and the new genus Nucularca are described. Included in Nucularca are four previously described species that have taxodont dentition: N. cingulata (Ulrich) (the type species), N. pectunculoides (Hall), N. lorrainensis (Foerste), and N. gorensis (Foerste). All four species are of Late Ordovician (Cincinnatian; Katian) age and occur in eastern Canada and the northeastern USA. Ctenodonta borealis Foerste is regarded as a subjective synonym of Nucularca lorrainensis. No new species names are proposed. The Nucularcidae includes the genera Nucularca and Sthenodonta Pojeta and Gilbert-Tomlinson (1977). Sthenodonta occurs in central Australia in rocks of Middle Ordovician (Darriwilian) age. The 12 family group names previously proposed for Ordovician palaeotaxodonts having taxodont dentition are reviewed and evaluated in the Appendix. ?? 2007 NRC Canada.

Pojeta, Jr. , J.; Stott, C. A.

2007-01-01

201

Distribution patterns of Temnocephalids commensal with Crustacea and Mollusca from Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis and a comparison of abundance, prevalence and distribution patterns for three temnocephalid species are presented.\\u000a Three temnocephalid populations from Río de la Plata river, República Argentina, were studied: Temnocephala digitata Monticelli,\\u000a 1902 associated with Palaemonetes argentinus Nobilli, 1901 (Crustacea Caridea), T. axenos Monticelli, 1899 associated with\\u000a Aegla uruguayana Schmitt, 1942, and A. platensis Schmitt, 1942 (Crustacea Anomura) and

María Cristina Damborenea

1998-01-01

202

Mechanisms underlying dual effects of serotonin during development of Helisoma trivolvis (Mollusca)  

PubMed Central

Background Serotonin (5-HT) is well known as widely distributed modulator of developmental processes in both vertebrates and invertebrates. It is also the earliest neurotransmitter to appear during neuronal development. In aquatic invertebrates, which have larvae in their life cycle, 5-HT is involved in regulation of stages transition including larval metamorphosis and settlement. However, molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying developmental transition in aquatic invertebrate species are yet poorly understood. Earlier we demonstrated that in larvae of freshwater molluscs and marine polychaetes, endogenous 5-HT released from the neurons of the apical sensory organ (ASO) in response to external stimuli retarded larval development at premetamorphic stages, and accelerated it at metamorphic stages. Here we used a freshwater snail Helisoma trivolvis to study molecular mechanisms underlying these dual developmental effects of 5-HT. Results Larval development of H. trivolvis includes transition from premetamorphic to metamorphic stages and shares the main features of metamorphosis with free-swimming aquatic larvae. Three types of 5-HT receptors (5-HT1-, 5-HT4- and 5-HT7-like) are functionally active at premetamorphic (trochophore, veliger) and metamorphic (veliconcha) stages, and expression patterns of these receptors and respective G proteins undergo coordinated changes during development. Stimulation of these receptors modulated cAMP-dependent regulation of cell divisions. Expression of 5-HT4- and 5-HT7-like receptors and their downstream Gs protein was down-regulated during the transition of pre- to metamorphic stage, while expression of 5-HT1 -like receptor and its downstream Gi protein was upregulated. In accordance with relative amount of these receptors, stimulation of 5-HTRs at premetamorphic stages induces developmental retardation, while their stimulation at metamorphic stages induces developmental acceleration. Conclusions We present a novel molecular mechanism that underlies stage-specific changes in developmental tempo of H. trivolvis larvae in response to endogenous 5-HT produced by the neurons of the ASO. We suggest that consecutive changes in expression patterns of different receptors and their downstream partners in the course of larval development represent the molecular base of larval transition from premetamorphic (non-competent) to metamorphic (competent) state.

2014-01-01

203

Morphological and molecular evidence for cryptic species of springsnails [genus Pseudamnicola ( Corrosella) (Mollusca, Caenogastropoda, Hydrobiidae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract Several Pseudamnicola (Corrosella) populations of the central and eastern Iberian Peninsula have been ascribed to Pseudamnicola (Corrosella) astieri (Dupuy, 1851), though recent evidence demonstrates the species could be endemic to the departments of Var and Alpes-Maritimes in France. Through the identification of cryptic species using a combined morphological and phylogenetic approach, this paper provides a detailed morphological description of Pseudamnicola (Corrosella) astieri, clarifying its taxonomic boundaries and confirming it as a French endemic. In parallel, by comparing Pseudamnicola (Corrosella) populations from the provinces of Castellón and Valencia in Eastern Spain, it was observed that rather than Pseudamnicola (Corrosella) astieri they represented a new species here described as Pseudamnicola (Corrosella) hauffei sp. n. Among other characters, the two species show marked differences in shell shape, male and female genital systems, radular formula and concentration of the nervous system. Pseudamnicola (Corrosella) hauffei sp. n. was also compared morphologically to another two Pseudamnicola (Corrosella) species living in nearby areas [Pseudamnicola (Corrosella) hinzi Boeters, 1986 and Pseudamnicola (Corrosella) navasiana (Fagot, 1907)], molecularly to Pseudamnicola (Corrosella) falkneri (Boeters, 1970), the type species of the subgenus, and to the rest of the Pseudamnicola (Corrosella) species described so far. Morphological differentiation between the species is supported by a genetic divergence of 7.4% inferred from a partial sequence (658 bp) of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI). On the basis of an average 8% (5.39 to 11.15%) divergence estimated for the COI gene in other Pseudamnicola (Corrosella) species reported in GenBank, the existence of two specific entities is here proposed, which will have impact on conservation policies both in France and in Spain.

Delicado, Diana; Ramos, Marian A.

2012-01-01

204

Terpene-based selective herbivory by Helix aspersa (Mollusca) on Thymus vulgaris (Labiatae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In natural populations of Thymus vulgaris in the south of France, six genetically different chemical “chemotypes” occur, each differentiated by a single dominant monoterpene that gives individual plants a characteristic smell and taste. Individual populations may contain all six chemotypes, but are often dominated by one to three chemotypes. We tested the hypothesis that this chemical polymorphism was associated with

Yan. B. Linhart; John D. Thompson

1995-01-01

205

Annotated type catalogue of the Amphibulimidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Orthalicoidea) in the Natural History Museum, London  

PubMed Central

Abstract The type status is described of 39 taxa classified within the family Amphibulimidae (superfamily Orthalicoidea) and kept in the London museum. One taxon, Bulimus elaeodes Pfeiffer, 1853, is removed to the Strophocheilidae. Lectotypes are designated for Bulimus adoptus Reeve, 1849; Bulimus (Eurytus) eros Angas, 1878; Helix onca d'Orbigny, 1835; Amphibulima pardalina Guppy, 1868. The type status of the following taxon is changed to lectotype in accordance with Art. 74.6 ICZN: Strophocheilus (Dryptus) jubeus Fulton, 1908. As general introduction to this and following papers on Orthalicoid types in the Natural History Museum, a brief history of the London collection is given and several examples of handwriting from different authors are presented.

Breure, Abraham S.H.; Ablett, Jonathan D.

2011-01-01

206

Glycogen and Cholesterol Content of the Venezuelan Sscallop Pecten Papyraceau (Mollusca, Bivalva), at the Consumer Level.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The cholesterol content of scallops reported in the literature varies to such a great extent that it is difficult to make an assessment of this parameter in the nutritional tables. In the investigation glycogen and cholesterol analyses of the Venezuelan s...

J. L. Vidaurreta J. A. Barreiro

1982-01-01

207

Gastrocopta (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pupillidae) in the Pilbara region of Western Australia  

PubMed Central

Abstract Six species of Gastrocopta have been identified from the Pilbara region, Western Australia, by means of comparative analyses of shell and mtDNA variation. Three of these species, Gastrocopta hedleyi, Gastrocopta larapinta and Gastrocopta servilis, have been recorded in the Pilbara for the first time. Gastrocopta sp. CW1 is probably new to science and might be endemic to the region. By contrast, Gastrocopta hedleyi, Gastrocopta larapinta and Gastrocopta mussoni are shown to be widespread.

Whisson, Corey S.; Kohler, Frank

2013-01-01

208

Relationship between bioenergetics responses and organic pollutants in the giant mussel, Choromytilus chorus (Mollusca: Mytilidae).  

PubMed

Samples of Choromytilus chorus (giant mussel) were collected at three sampling stations exposed to different degrees of pollution along the south-central portion of the Chilean coast in spring 1998 and summer 1999. Measurements were carried out on clearance rate, absorption efficiency, and oxygen consumption of the mussels under controlled laboratory conditions, and related to analytical data on organic pollutants in their tissues. Scope for growth (SFG) was employed as a physiological index to evaluate stress produced by pollutants existing at each sampling site. Individuals from San Vicente bay (highly polluted) showed negative SFG values in spring (-4.6 J/h per g) and summer (-3.5 J/h per g). These results indicated severe stress related to the accumulation of toxic compounds in their tissues. Specimens from Corral bay (medium level of pollution) gave a SFG of 15.5 J/h per g in spring and 6.5 J/h per g in summer, while those from Yaldad bay (low pollution) presented an inverse situation was observed with SFG values of 6.2 J/h per g in spring which was lower than the summer value of 25.7 J/h per g. There was a significant negative correlation between the SFG of the different populations of C. chorus and the concentrations of organochlorines (OChs) and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in their tissues. PMID:12711415

Toro, Beatriz; Navarro, Jorge M; Palma-Fleming, Hernán

2003-05-01

209

Biology and Control of White Snails (Mollusca: Helicidae), Introduced Pests in Australia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Introduced white snails (Helicidae) such as Theba pisana, Cernuella virgata, Cochlicella acuta and C. barbara have long been regarded as significant agricultural pests in Australia. They feed upon foul crops and pastures. The native distributions of white...

G. H. Baker

1986-01-01

210

Genetics and shell morphometrics of assimineids (Mollusca, Caenogastropoda, Truncatelloidea) in the St Lucia Estuary, South Africa  

PubMed Central

Abstract The Assimineidae are a family of amphibious microgastropods that can be mostly found in estuaries and mangroves in South Africa. These snails often occur in great numbers and are ecologically important to the St Lucia Estuary, which forms a crucial part of the iSimangaliso Wetland Park, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Genetic and shell morphometric analyses were conducted on individuals collected from nine localities distributed from the northern lake regions to the southern lake and the mouth of the St Lucia estuarine lake. Mitochondrial (COI) and nuclear (28S) DNA was used to construct Bayesian Inference, Neighbour-joining, Maximum Parsimony and Maximum Likelihood trees. Principal Component Analysis and Cluster Analysis were performed on standard shell parameter data. Results indicate that two different taxa are present in St Lucia. The taxon comprising individuals from the South Lake and St Lucia Estuary Mouth is identified as Assiminea cf. capensis Bartsch, in accordance with the latest taxonomic consensus. The taxon comprising assimineid individuals from False Bay, North Lake and South Lake, is here tentatively named “Assiminea” aff. capensis (Sowerby). These two taxa exhibit patterns of spatial overlap that appear to vary depending on environmental parameters, particularly salinity. The need to resolve the complex taxonomy of assimineids is highlighted.

Miranda, Nelson A. F.; van Rooyen, Ryan; MacDonald, Angus; Ponder, Winston; Perissinotto, Renzo

2014-01-01

211

The Continuing Debate on Deep Molluscan Phylogeny: Evidence for Serialia (Mollusca, Monoplacophora + Polyplacophora)  

PubMed Central

Molluscs are a diverse animal phylum with a formidable fossil record. Although there is little doubt about the monophyly of the eight extant classes, relationships between these groups are controversial. We analysed a comprehensive multilocus molecular data set for molluscs, the first to include multiple species from all classes, including five monoplacophorans in both extant families. Our analyses of five markers resolve two major clades: the first includes gastropods and bivalves sister to Serialia (monoplacophorans and chitons), and the second comprises scaphopods sister to aplacophorans and cephalopods. Traditional groupings such as Testaria, Aculifera, and Conchifera are rejected by our data with significant Approximately Unbiased (AU) test values. A new molecular clock indicates that molluscs had a terminal Precambrian origin with rapid divergence of all eight extant classes in the Cambrian. The recovery of Serialia as a derived, Late Cambrian clade is potentially in line with the stratigraphic chronology of morphologically heterogeneous early mollusc fossils. Serialia is in conflict with traditional molluscan classifications and recent phylogenomic data. Yet our hypothesis, as others from molecular data, implies frequent molluscan shell and body transformations by heterochronic shifts in development and multiple convergent adaptations, leading to the variable shells and body plans in extant lineages.

Stoger, I.; Sigwart, J. D.; Kano, Y.; Knebelsberger, T.; Marshall, B. A.; Schwabe, E.; Schrodl, M.

2013-01-01

212

New records for the shallow-water chiton fauna (Mollusca, Polyplacophora) of the Azores (NE Atlantic)  

PubMed Central

Abstract Published records, original data from recent field work on all of the islands of the Azores (NE Atlantic), and a revision of the entire mollusc collection deposited in the Department of Biology of the University of the Azores (DBUA) were used to compile a checklist of the shallow-water Polyplacophora of the Azores. Lepidochitona cf. canariensis and Tonicella rubra are reported for the first time for this archipelago, increasing the recorded Azorean fauna to seven species.

Avila, Sergio P.; Sigwart, Julia

2013-01-01

213

Sinanodonta Woodiana (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Unionidae): Isolation and Characterization of the First Microsatellite Markers  

PubMed Central

Sinanodonta woodiana (Lea, 1834) is a large Unionid species with a real invasion success. It colonized Europe, Central America, the Indonesian Islands and recently North America. The species life cycle involves a larval parasitic stage on freshwater fish species which contributes to the spread of the mussel. In this paper we describe, for the first time, eight polymorphic microsatellite loci for the species Sinanodonta woodiana. The genetic screening of individuals confirmed that all loci were highly polymorphic. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 7 to 14 and the observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.650 to 0.950. These loci should prove useful to study the species population genetics which could help to infer important aspects of the invasion process.

Popa, Oana Paula; Popa, Luis Ovidiu; Krapal, Ana-Maria; Murariu, Dumitru; Iorgu, Elena Iulia; Costache, Marieta

2011-01-01

214

Size-differential feeding in Pinna nobilis L. (Mollusca: Bivalvia): Exploitation of detritus, phytoplankton and zooplankton  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The endangered fan shell Pinna nobilis is a large bivalve mollusc (<120 cm shell length) endemic to the Mediterranean that lives one-third buried in soft substrata, generally in shallow coastal waters. We hypothesised that P. nobilis of different sizes would ingest different food sources, because small fan shells will inhale material from closer to the substratum than do large fan shells. We studied stomach contents and faeces of 18 fan shells, 6 small (mean 23.0 cm length), 6 medium-sized (mean 41.5 cm length) and 6 large (mean 62.7 cm length) living in a small area of a low-energy coastal detritic bottom characterised by mud, sand and macroalgae at Mali Ston Bay, Croatia. We found that all P. nobilis ingested copious quantities of undetermined detritus (probably at least 95% of ingested material), phytoplankton, micro and mesozooplankton and pollen grains. Large P. nobilis stomach contents showed a preponderance of water column calanoid copepods, while small fan shells had higher numbers of bivalve larvae. All fan shells took in high numbers of harpacticoid copepods that are benthonic, feeding on microbial communities of detritus and benthic vegetation. There was also a significant selection of phytoplankton species, some apparently occurring between inhalation and ingestion. The stomach contents of small P. nobilis had a higher organic matter content than either medium-sized or large fan shells; this indicated that small fan shells ingested detritus of higher organic content than did larger P. nobilis. As the faeces of all P. nobilis had similar organic matter content, this also indicates higher assimilation efficiencies in small fan shells. The demonstration of differential dietary selectivity by different sized animals has implications for future trophic studies of this endangered species. This study also provides the first demonstration of predation on zooplankton by P. nobilis.

Davenport, John; Ezgeta-Bali?, Daria; Peharda, Melita; Skeji?, Sanda; Nin?evi?-Gladan, Živana; Matijevi?, Slavica

2011-04-01

215

Spermatozoa and spermatogenesis in the northern quahaug Mercenaria mercenaria (Mollusca, Bivalvia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We studied the ultrastructure of spermatogenesis and spermatozoa in the northern quahaug, the clam Mercenaria mercenaria. Spermatogenetic cells gradually elongate. Mitochondria gradually fuse and increase in size and electron density. During spermatid differentiation, proacrosomal vesicles migrate towards the presumptive anterior pole of the nucleus and eventually form the acrosome. The spermatozoon of M. mercenaria is of a primitive type. It is composed of head, mid-piece, and tail. The acrosome shows a subacrosomal space with a short conical contour. The slightly curved nucleus of the spermatozoon contains fine-grained dense chromatin. The middle piece consists of a centriolar complex which is surrounded by four mitochondria. The flagellum has a standard “9 + 2” microtubular structure. The ultrastructure of spermatozoa and spermatogenesis of M. mercenaria shares a number of features with other species of the family Veneridae. M. mercenaria may be a suitable model species for further investigations into the mechanisms of spermatogenesis in the Bivalvia.

Ying, Xue-Ping; Yang, Wan-Xi; Dahms, Hans-U.; Lin, Zhihua; Chai, Xueliang

2008-12-01

216

In vitro characterization of aggregation and adhesion properties of viable and heat-killed forms of two probiotic Lactobacillus strains and interaction with foodborne zoonotic bacteria, especially Campylobacter jejuni.  

PubMed

Bacterial aggregation and/or adhesion are key factors for colonization of the digestive ecosystem and the ability of probiotic strains to exclude pathogens. In the present study, two probiotic strains, Lactobacillus rhamnosus CNCM-I-3698 and Lactobacillus farciminis CNCM-I-3699, were evaluated as viable or heat-killed forms and compared with probiotic reference Lactobacillus strains (Lb. rhamnosus GG and Lb. farciminis CIP 103136). The autoaggregation potential of both forms was higher than that of reference strains and twice that of pathogenic strains. The coaggregation potential of these two beneficial micro-organisms was evaluated against several pathogenic agents that threaten the global safety of the feed/food chain: Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp. and Listeria monocytogenes. The strongest coaggregative interactions were demonstrated with Campylobacter spp. by a coaggregation test, confirmed by electron microscopic examination for the two forms. Viable forms were investigated for the nature of the bacterial cell-surface molecules involved, by sugar reversal tests and chemical and enzymic pretreatments. The results suggest that the coaggregation between both probiotic strains and C. jejuni CIP 70.2(T) is mediated by a carbohydrate-lectin interaction. The autoaggregation potential of the two probiotics decreased upon exposure to proteinase, SDS or LiCl, showing that proteinaceous components on the surface of the two lactobacilli play an important role in this interaction. Adhesion abilities of both Lactobacillus strains were also demonstrated at significant levels on Caco-2 cells, mucin and extracellular matrix material. Both viable and heat-killed forms of the two probiotic lactobacilli inhibited the attachment of C. jejuni CIP 70.2(T) to mucin. In conclusion, in vitro assays showed that Lb. rhamnosus CNCM-I-3698 and Lb. farciminis CNCM-I-3699, as viable or heat-killed forms, are adherent to different intestinal matrix models and are highly aggregative in vitro with pathogens, especially Campylobacter spp., the most commonly reported zoonotic agent in the European Union. This study supports the need for further in vivo investigations to demonstrate the potential food safety benefits of Lb. rhamnosus CNCM-I-3698 and Lb. farciminis CNCM-I-3699, live or heat-killed, in the global feed/food chain. PMID:23329323

Tareb, Raouf; Bernardeau, Marion; Gueguen, Marielle; Vernoux, Jean-Paul

2013-04-01

217

Una nueva visión de la degradación del almidón  

Microsoft Academic Search

All plant cells synthesize and degrade starch in determined stage of their development. There are, however, important differences related to its use. In leaves, starch is produced and accumulated at day while it is degraded at night to provide carbon maintaining cellular processes. This means that the pathway regulation is integrated to the whole plant metabolism. Starch degradation is a

Lilia Bernal; Eleazar Martínez-Barajas

218

Hacia la Nueva Reforma (Toward the New Reform).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A new wave of reform is needed for Latin American universities suffering from structural rigidity, duplicity, inefficiency, and lack of community. The structural crisis in the university reflects the general social crisis in which society is pressured by opposing forces leading it toward either historical modernization or evolutionary…

Ribeiro, Darcy

219

Nuevas Adquisiciones [y] Resumenes (Recent Acquisitions and Abstracts).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This bibliography lists over 130 publications, books, and articles recently acquired by the Colombian National Center for Documentation and Pedagogical Information concerning a variety of educational topics. The acquisitions are listed alphabetically under subject headings; publications from many countries are included. Several of the entries are…

Informacion Bibliografica Educativa, 1971

1971-01-01

220

NYMPHAEA ELEGANS (NYMPHAEACEAE) NUEVA CITA PARA LA FLORA ARGENTINA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tur, N. M. 2003. Nymphaea elegans (Nymphaeaceae), a new record for the flora of Argentina. Hickenia 3(42): 167-169. Nymphaea elegans is recorded for the first time for Argentina, from Misiones province. The species is described and illustrated. Up to the present N. elegans was recorded for United States (Texas), Mexico and Guatemala.

NUNCIA MARÍA TUR

221

ALLIARIA PETIOLATA (BRASSICACEAE), NUEVA CITA PARA LA FLORA ARGENTINA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Puntieri, J. G. & Brion, C. A. M. 2003. Alliaria petiolata (Brassicaceae), a new report for the Argentinian flora. Hickenia 3(44): 175-176. The presence of Alliaria petiolata is documented for the first time for the Agentinian flora. This species is native in Eurasia and Africa and invasive in North America and New Zealand. The species is described herein and one

JAVIER G. PUNTIERI; CECILIA A. M. BRION

222

Una nueva estimación astrosismológica de la masa del axión  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

G117-B15A and R548 are the two pulsating white dwarf stars more studied within the class of ZZ Ceti variables (atmospheres rich in H). In this work, we present new asteroseismological models for G117-B15A and R548, and employ the rates of period changes with time for the dominant modes of these stars in order to place new constraints on the axion mass. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

Córsico, A. H.; Althaus, L. G.; Romero, A. D.

223

Contribution a l'extraction liquide-liquide et a la separation de certains elements du groupe VIII, notamment du ruthenium, par des synergetiques polyimines aromatiques echangeur cationiques micellaires. (Liquid-liquid extraction and separation of VIII group elements, especially ruthenium, by synergic combinations or aromatic polyimines and micellar cationic exchangers).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis aims to characterize and to quantify the chemical equilibria involved in d-elements liquid-liquid extraction systems, especially elements belonging to the VIII group (Fe, Ni, Co, Ru, Rh, Pd, Pt). These systems are composed of synergic combinat...

X. Vitart

1991-01-01

224

Los índices de mortalidad por cáncer de pulmón siguen bajando y contribuyen a reducción de índices generales de muertes por cáncer; Informe Anual a la Nación tiene una sección especial de los efectos de otras enfermedades en la supervivencia de pacientes  

Cancer.gov

El Informe Anual a la Nación sobre el Estado del Cáncer (1975 a 2010), mostró un descenso más acelerado que en años anteriores de los índices de mortalidad por cáncer de pulmón. También contiene una sección especial que destaca los efectos significativos que tienen otras enfermedades en la supervivencia de pacientes con cáncer.

225

Distribution of pteropods (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Thecosomata) in surface waters (0-100 m) of the Western Caribbean Sea (winter, 2007) Distribución de pterópodos (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Thecosomata) en aguas superficiales (0-100 m) del Mar Caribe Occidental (invierno, 2007)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main goal of this survey was to study the vertical and horizontal distribution of the thecosome pteropods in the upper 100 m of the western Caribbean Sea. Zooplankton was collected at 60 stations in January 2007 at stratified depth intervals of 25 m from the surface to 100 m. The community was analyzed for diversity, evenness, species richness, and

Ana Parra-Flores; Rebeca Gasca

226

Incorporación, depuración y efecto del cadmio en el mejillón verde Perna viridis (L. 1758) (Mollusca: Bivalvia) Uptake, depuration and effect of cadmium on the green mussel Perna viridis (L. 1758) (Mollusca: Bivalvia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the effect of a sublethal concentration of cadmium (0.04 µg Cd L-1) on the physiological condition of the juvenile green mussel Perna viridis (22.3 ± 2.33 mm shell height), collected in Guayacán, Sucre State, Venezuela. The mussels were exposed to the sublethal concentration for 7 days, and were then depurated during 52 days simultaneously in the laboratory and

Noelis Narváez; César Lodeiros; Osmar Nusetti; Mairin Lemus; Alfonso N. Maeda-Martínez; Mar Bermejo

227

Consciousness: a neural capacity for objectivity, especially pronounced in humans.  

PubMed

Consciousness tends to be viewed either as subjective experience of sensations and feelings, or as perception and internal representation of objects. This paper argues that neither view sufficiently acknowledges that consciousness may refer to the brain's most adaptive property: its capacity to produce states of objectivity. It is proposed that this capacity relies on multiple sensorimotor networks for internally representing objects and their properties in terms of expectancies, as well as on motivational and motor mechanisms involved in exploration, play, and care for vulnerable living and non-living objects. States of objectivity are associated with a very special phenomenal aspect; the experience that subjective aspects are absent and one is "just looking" at the world as it really is and can be. However, these states are normally closely preceded and followed by (and tend to be combined or fused with) sensations and feelings which are caused by activation of sensory and motivational mechanisms. A capacity for objectivity may have evolved in different species and can be conceived as a common basis for other elusive psychological properties such as intelligence, conscience, and esthetic experience; all three linked to crucial behaviors in human evolution such as tool making, cooperation, and art. The brain's pervasive tendency to objectify may be responsible for wrongly equating consciousness with feelings and wrongly opposing it to well-learned or habitual ("unconscious") patterns of perception and behavior. PMID:24672506

Dijker, Anton J M

2014-01-01

228

Pathological Anatomy of Listeriosis, Especially in the Animal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

There is no doubt anymore about the world-wide dissemination of listeriosis among diverse animal species, about its occurrence in man and thus about its significance as zoonosis. In respect to natural infections, listeriosis has been observed in rodents s...

G. Pallaske

1968-01-01

229

LOS ÓRDENES DE LA VIOLENCIA: ESPECIE, SEXO Y GÉNERO 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

En la actualidad estamos asistiendo a un ejercicio de ingeniería social consistente en presentar, como un hecho, como conocimiento de sentido común, la contrapos ición violentos\\/demócratas. Se considera incuestionable que violencia y democracia forman una antinomia, dos formas de abordar las cuestiones políticas opuestas y mutu amente excluyentes. Un trabajo paralelo es el que se está haciendo en relación a

MARÍA JESÚS IZQUIERDO

1998-01-01

230

PIXE analysis of preconcentrated body fluids, especially urine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A cation exchange resin, Chelex 100, has been used to separate and preconcentrate trace metal ions in urine. A good recovery of several metal ions in doped urine is achieved. The validity of the procedure has been checked by analyzing a certified control urine for metals, Lanonorm. The method is also applicable for amniotic fluid samples.

Pakarinen, Pirjo; Ekholm, Ann-Kristin; Pallon, Jan

1990-04-01

231

Graph analysis of dream reports is especially informative about psychosis.  

PubMed

Early psychiatry investigated dreams to understand psychopathologies. Contemporary psychiatry, which neglects dreams, has been criticized for lack of objectivity. In search of quantitative insight into the structure of psychotic speech, we investigated speech graph attributes (SGA) in patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder type I, and non-psychotic controls as they reported waking and dream contents. Schizophrenic subjects spoke with reduced connectivity, in tight correlation with negative and cognitive symptoms measured by standard psychometric scales. Bipolar and control subjects were undistinguishable by waking reports, but in dream reports bipolar subjects showed significantly less connectivity. Dream-related SGA outperformed psychometric scores or waking-related data for group sorting. Altogether, the results indicate that online and offline processing, the two most fundamental modes of brain operation, produce nearly opposite effects on recollections: While dreaming exposes differences in the mnemonic records across individuals, waking dampens distinctions. The results also demonstrate the feasibility of the differential diagnosis of psychosis based on the analysis of dream graphs, pointing to a fast, low-cost and language-invariant tool for psychiatric diagnosis and the objective search for biomarkers. The Freudian notion that "dreams are the royal road to the unconscious" is clinically useful, after all. PMID:24424108

Mota, Natália B; Furtado, Raimundo; Maia, Pedro P C; Copelli, Mauro; Ribeiro, Sidarta

2014-01-01

232

Conservation of wetlands especially as waterfowl habitat in northeast China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wetland is a special ecological system in the earth, which can provide a good habitat for many wild animals. It is a reproduction\\u000a and overwintering area for many rare waterfowls, too. The northeast region, including Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning provinces,\\u000a and the east of Inner Mongolia, is a district with the maximum areas and types of wetlands in China. It is

Hongyu Liu

1998-01-01

233

Why Is It Important to Eat Grains, Especially Whole Grains?  

MedlinePLUS

... sources of many nutrients, including dietary fiber , several B vitamins (thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, and folate), and minerals ( iron , ... a feeling of fullness with fewer calories. The B vitamins thiamin, riboflavin, and niacin play a key role ...

234

Torsional performance of turbine generator shafts especially under resonant excitation  

SciTech Connect

Interaction between the electrical transmission system and the turbine generator may induce torsional stresses to the shaft system whose magnitude and risk of damage have to be carefully analyzed in advance to ensure undisturbed operation and to preclude any damage from the unit. Within this task, the present paper investigates the torsional stressing which arise as a result of torsional resonance induced by pulsating components in the electrical torque of the generator and presents a method for assessing the susceptibility of natural torsional modes to excitation.

Lambrecht, D.; Kulig, T.

1982-10-01

235

Torsional Performance of Turbine Generator Shafts Especially Under Resonant Excitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interaction between the electrical transmission system and the turbine generator may induce torsional stresses to the shaft system whose magnitude and risk of damage have to be carefully analyzed in advance to ensure undisturbed operation and to preclude any damage from the unit. Within this task, the present paper investigates the torsional stressing which arise as a result of torsional

D. Lambrecht; T. Kulig

1982-01-01

236

Consciousness: a neural capacity for objectivity, especially pronounced in humans  

PubMed Central

Consciousness tends to be viewed either as subjective experience of sensations and feelings, or as perception and internal representation of objects. This paper argues that neither view sufficiently acknowledges that consciousness may refer to the brain’s most adaptive property: its capacity to produce states of objectivity. It is proposed that this capacity relies on multiple sensorimotor networks for internally representing objects and their properties in terms of expectancies, as well as on motivational and motor mechanisms involved in exploration, play, and care for vulnerable living and non-living objects. States of objectivity are associated with a very special phenomenal aspect; the experience that subjective aspects are absent and one is “just looking” at the world as it really is and can be. However, these states are normally closely preceded and followed by (and tend to be combined or fused with) sensations and feelings which are caused by activation of sensory and motivational mechanisms. A capacity for objectivity may have evolved in different species and can be conceived as a common basis for other elusive psychological properties such as intelligence, conscience, and esthetic experience; all three linked to crucial behaviors in human evolution such as tool making, cooperation, and art. The brain’s pervasive tendency to objectify may be responsible for wrongly equating consciousness with feelings and wrongly opposing it to well-learned or habitual (“unconscious”) patterns of perception and behavior.

Dijker, Anton J. M.

2014-01-01

237

Especially for Women. Programs and Services Offered by School Boards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes programs and services school boards offer to women employees or women in the community. A special focus is innovative, nontraditional courses and services. The first section discusses offerings for school board staff. An overview of affirmative action/employment equity programs addresses their objectives and describes…

Canadian Education Association, Toronto (Ontario).

238

Statistical Thermodynamics of lambda Transitions, Especially of Liquid Helium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermodynamic properties of systems in the immediate neighborhood of a locus of lambda transitions have been investigated. It is assumed that the transitions arise from spin orientation (or some other order-disorder phenomenon), and that the partition function can be broken down into a product of a lattice part and a spin part, the latter dependent only on I=JkT, where

O. K. Rice

1967-01-01

239

Recession Raises Poverty in West Virginia, Especially Among Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on an analysis of previous recessions, one in four West Virginians is expected to fall into poverty during the current recession. The number of state children living in poverty is estimated to increase by more than a third to 130,585, or 34.4 percent. Each one-percent increase in the unemployment rate is projected to raise the number of West Virginia

Paul E. Miller

2009-01-01

240

Control of exocellular proteases in dermatophytes and especially Trichophyton rubrum.  

PubMed

The production of proteases was investigated during growth of dermatophytic fungi with special emphasis on Trichophyton rubrum. Exogenous glucose suppressed elastase production in all dermatophytes examined. The production of protease active guinea pig hair in keratin-salts broth by Microsporum gypseum. Trichophyton mentagrophytes and T. rubrum was also suppressed by glucose. Various carbohydrates added to keratin-salts broth curtailed protease production by T. rubrum as did individual amino acids but ammonium phosphate did not. Enzyme activities against guinea pig hair were compared in twenty-one diverse clinical isolates of T. rubrum cultured in keratin-salts broth. Activity also occurred towards casein, bovine serum albumin, keratin, collagen and elastin after keratin-growth. Studies concerning the properties of enzyme activities in culture filtrates of T. rubrum after keratin-growth suggested that multiple proteases occurred here. Hydrolysis of guinea pig hair and elastin were optimal at pH7 while keratinase was most active at alkaline pH. Divalent cations stimulated protease(s). Ferric ion and mercuric ion stimulated keratinase but were inhibitory to guinea pig hair hydrolysis and elastase. Chelating agents inhibited elastase and the hydrolysis of guinea pig hair more severely than keratinase and all of those effects were reversed by excess calcium. A serine-protease inhibitor, phenylmethylsulfonylfluoride (PMSF), curtailed keratinase but was less inhibitory to elastase and guinea pig hair hydrolysis. Soybean trypsin inhibitor arrested each protease. PMID:94467

Meevootisom, V; Niederpruem, D J

1979-06-01

241

Approaches to Costing Adult Literacy Programmes, Especially in Africa  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: This study was originally prepared for the African Inter-Ministerial Conference on Literacy (September 2007) with the objective of analysing the costs of successful adult literacy programmes run both by government ministries, as well as international and national non-governmental organisations. Objectives: This study aims to increase…

Carr-Hill, Roy; Roberts, Fiona; Currie, Elizabeth

2010-01-01

242

A Look at Four Encyclopedias of 1974--Especially Britannica.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a panel presentation, Americana, Colliers, Britannica, and World Book encyclopedias were compared. One member described her daughter's experiences in working on Britannica II. The organization of Britannica into a Propaedia, Micropaedia, and a Macropaedia was compared with the alphabetical arrangement of the others. The complex new form was…

Youngstown and Mahoning County Public Library, Youngstown, OH.

243

Endometriosis and the risk of malignancy, especially ovarian cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine the risk of malignancies in a large cohort of patients with endometriosis through long-term follow-up. Results: This extensive Swedish national registry study comprising 64,492 women (766,556 person-years) diagnosed with endometriosis between 1969 and 2000, and followed for a mean of 12.7 years, showed a significantly increased risk of ovarian cancer, other endocrine

Agneta Bergqvist; AnnaSofia Melin; Pär Sparén

2004-01-01

244

Factors influencing the supercooling of tropical Arthropoda, especially locusts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mean supercooling points are given for a number of tropical arthropods (table 1). These are surprisingly low in view of the fact that, in many cases, the animals never experience frost in nature, and it is argued that the ability to supercool may be a taxonomic rather than an adaptive feature. Beetles (Ocnera hispida) and desert locusts (Schistocerca gregaria) that

J. L. Cloudsley-Thompson

1973-01-01

245

Natural infection of deroceras laeve (Mollusca: gastropoda) with metastronbylid larvae in a transmission focus of abdominal angiostrongyliasis.  

PubMed

Angiostrongylus costaricensis is a nematode parasitic of rodents. Man may become infected by ingestion of the third stage larvae produced within the intermediate hosts, usually slugs from the family Veronicellidae. An epidemiological study carried out in a locality in southern Brazil (western Santa Catarina State) where these slugs are a crop pest and an important vector for A. costaricensis has documented for the first time the natural infection of Deroceras laeve with metastrongylid larvae. This small limacid slug is frequently found amid the folds of vegetable leaves and may be inadvertently ingested. Therefore D. laeve may have an important role in transmission of A. costaricensis to man. PMID:11896413

Maurer, Rafael Lucyk; Graeff-Teixeira, Carlos; Thome, José Willibaldo; Chiaradia, Luís Antônio; Sugaya, Hiroko; Yoshimura, Kentaro

2002-01-01

246

SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF LYMNAEIDAE (MOLLUSCA, BASOMMATOPHORA), INTERMEDIATE HOST OF Fasciola hepatica LINNAEUS, 1758 (TREMATODA, DIGENEA) IN BRAZIL  

PubMed Central

Snails of the family Lymnaeidae act as intermediate hosts in the biological cycle of Fasciola hepatica, which is a biological agent of fasciolosis, a parasitic disease of medical importance for humans and animals. The present work aimed to update and map the spatial distribution of the intermediate host snails of F. hepatica in Brazil. Data on the distribution of lymnaeids species were compiled from the Collection of Medical Malacology (Fiocruz-CMM, CPqRR), Collection of Malacology (MZUSP), “SpeciesLink” (CRIA) network and through systematic surveys in the literature. Our maps of the distribution of lymnaeids show that Pseudosuccinea columella is the most common species and it is widespread in the South and Southeast with few records in the Midwest, North and Northeast regions. The distribution of the Galba viatrix, G. cubensis and G. truncatula showed a few records in the South and Southeast regions, they were not reported for the Midwest, North and Northeast. In addition, in the South region there are a few records for G. viatrix and one occurrence of Lymnaea rupestris. Our findings resulted in the first map of the spatial distribution of Lymnaeidae species in Brazil which might be useful to better understand the fasciolosis distribution and delineate priority areas for control interventions.

Medeiros, Camilla; Scholte, Ronaldo Guilherme Carvalho; D'avila, Sthefane; Caldeira, Roberta Lima; Carvalho, Omar dos Santos

2014-01-01

247

The effect of temperature and salinity on the survival of Mytilopsis leucophaeata larvae (Mollusca, Bivalvia): The search for environmental limits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The brackish water mussel, Mytilopsis leucophaeata, is a rapidly expanding invasive bivalve in Europe with great biofouling capacities. Being a typical brackish water species with very broad habitat preferences and environmental limits, adults are extremely tolerant to fluctuations in temperature and salinity. The life cycle of mussels however, consists of two phases: (1) from fertilization until larval settlement they are

A. Verween; M. Vincx; S. Degraer

2007-01-01

248

A new species of Pulvinites (Mollusca: Bivalvia) from the upper Paleocene Paspotansa Member of the Aquia Formation in Virginia ( USA).  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Pulvinites lawrencei n.sp. is described from the upper Paleocene (Landenian Stage) Paspotansa Member of the Aquia Formation in Stafford County, Virginia. This is the first report of a member of the pteriacean family Pulvinitidae in the Tertiary on either side of the Atlantic, the only other post-Mesozoic records of Pulvinites being in the Paleocene of California and the present-day Pacific off southeast Australia. The stratigraphic setting and co-occurring molluscan assemblage of the new species indicate shallow-shelf, open-marine conditions with near normal salinities. -Authors

Ward, L. W.; Waller, T. R.

1988-01-01

249

A cybertaxonomic revision of the micro-landsnail genus Plectostoma Adam (Mollusca, Caenogastropoda, Diplommatinidae), from Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra and Indochina  

PubMed Central

Abstract Plectostoma is a micro land snail restricted to limestone outcrops in Southeast Asia. Plectostoma was previously classified as a subgenus of Opisthostoma because of the deviation from regular coiling in many species in both taxa. This paper is the first of a two-part revision of the genus Plectostoma, and includes all non-Borneo species. In the present paper, we examined 214 collection samples of 31 species, and obtained 62 references, 290 pictures, and 155 3D-models of 29 Plectostoma species and 51 COI sequences of 19 species. To work with such a variety of taxonomic data, and then to represent it in an integrated, scaleable and accessible manner, we adopted up-to-date cybertaxonomic tools. All the taxonomic information, such as references, classification, species descriptions, specimen images, genetic data, and distribution data, were tagged and linked with cyber tools and web servers (e.g. Lifedesks, Google Earth, and Barcoding of Life Database). We elevated Plectostoma from subgenus to genus level based on morphological, ecological and genetic evidence. We revised the existing 21 Plectostoma species and described 10 new species, namely, P. dindingensis sp. n., P. mengaburensis sp. n., P. whitteni sp. n., P. kayiani sp. n., P. davisoni sp. n., P. relauensis sp. n., P. kubuensis sp. n., P. tohchinyawi sp. n., P. tenggekensis sp. n., and P. ikanensis sp. n. All the synthesised, semantic-tagged, and linked taxonomic information is made freely and publicly available online.

Liew, Thor-Seng; Vermeulen, Jaap Jan; Marzuki, Mohammad Effendi bin; Schilthuizen, Menno

2014-01-01

250

Anatomy and ecology of the shell-less endoparasitic gastropod Asterophila japonica Randall and Heath, 1912 (Mollusca: Eulimidae).  

PubMed

The shell-less, endoparasitic gastropod, Asterophila japonica , was collected from two species of sea star, Leptychaster anomalus Fisher, 1906 and Ctenodiscus crispatus (Retzius, 1805) in Toyama Bay, Japan. All observed individuals were located on the aboral side of the host's disk (except one specimen parasitizing the arm) between the epidermis and the coelomic epithelium. More than one large individual frequently co-occur on a single host. The body plan of A. japonica is surprisingly modified from that of general gastropods; organs unrelated to digestion and reproduction are greatly reduced, simplified or completely lost. Dimorphism of body size is striking between males and females: males are much smaller than females and are attached to the surface of the pseudopallium of females. Females deposit and brood an egg mass(es) in the pseudopallial cavity until the eggs develop to veliger larvae. At the late developmental stage, brooded larvae reduce the velum and develop the foot for crawling, suggesting lecithotrophic development with or without a short planktonic stage. It is uncertain as to how the larvae can find and parasitize the next generation of the host. The systematic placement of Asterophila in the family Eulimidae is supported by three characters, viz. parasitism on echinoderms, smooth hydrophobic protoconch, and the enclosure of the visceral mass with the pseudopallium. PMID:17824778

Sasaki, Takenori; Muro, Kentaro; Komatsu, Miéko

2007-07-01

251

Factors affecting fertilization success in two species of patellid limpet (Mollusca: Gastropoda) and development of fertilization kinetics models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory experiments were undertaken to examine fertilization success in the intertidal prosobranch limpets Patella ulyssiponensis and Patella vulgata. Alkalization of eggs (10 min in pH 9.0 sea water) prior to fertilization trials improved fertilization rates greatly. Fertilization\\u000a success was found to be a function of sperm concentration, gamete age and contact time. Sperm concentration needed for optimum\\u000a fertilization success in vivo

Alan N. Hodgson; Will J. F. Le Quesne; Stephen J. Hawkins; John D. D. Bishop

2007-01-01

252

Phenotypic plasticity in reproductive traits: importance in the life history of Helix aspersa (Mollusca: Helicidae) in a recently colonized habitat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reproductive traits of the land snail Helix aspersa Muller were investigated under artificial conditions from two samples, one collected from a population exposed to unpredictable human pressures in its natural environment, i.e. a recently created polders area with intensive agriculture, and the other from a snail farm in which animals were reared under constant conditions defined as 'optimal' for growth

LUC MADEC; CHRISTOPHE DESBUQUOIS; MARIE-AGNES COUTELLEC-VRETO

2000-01-01

253

Differential transcriptomic responses of Biomphalaria glabrata (Gastropoda, Mollusca) to bacteria and metazoan parasites, Schistosoma mansoni and Echinostoma paraensei (Digenea, Platyhelminthes).  

PubMed

A 70-mer-oligonucleotide-based microarray (1152 features) that emphasizes stress and immune responses factors was constructed to study transcriptomic responses of the snail Biomphalaria glabrata to different immune challenges. In addition to sequences with relevant putative ID and Gene Ontology (GO) annotation, the array features non-immune factors and unknown B. glabrata ESTs for functional gene discovery. The transcription profiles of B. glabrata (3 biological replicates, each a pool of 5 snails) were recorded at 12h post-wounding, exposure to Gram negative or Gram positive bacteria (Escherichia coli and Micrococcus luteus, respectively), or infection with compatible trematode parasites (Schistosoma mansoni or Echinostoma paraensei, 20 miracidia/snail), relative to controls, using universal reference RNA. The data were subjected to Significance Analysis for Microarrays (SAM), with a false positive rate (FPR)

Adema, Coen M; Hanington, Patrick C; Lun, Cheng-Man; Rosenberg, George H; Aragon, Anthony D; Stout, Barbara A; Lennard Richard, Mara L; Gross, Paul S; Loker, Eric S

2010-01-01

254

Principal features of the mating system of a large spawning aggregation of the giant Australian cuttlefish Sepia apama (Mollusca: Cephalopoda)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Every winter thousands of cuttlefish (Sepia apama Gray) aggregate to spawn along a restricted area of rocky reef in northern Spencer Gulf, South Australia. It is the only known spawning aggregation of cuttlefish in the world and represents an exceptional cuttlefish mating system. Spawning population structure and reproductive behavior were studied quantitatively by underwater visual transects and by focal-animal behavioral

K. Hall; R. T. Hanlon

2002-01-01

255

First record of a nematode Metastrongyloidea (Aelurostrongylus abstrusus larvae) in Achatina (Lissachatina) fulica (Mollusca, Achatinidae) in Brazil.  

PubMed

Achatina (Lissachatina) fulica was introduced in Brazil in the 1980s for commercial purposes ("escargot" farming) and nowadays, mainly by human activity, it is widespread in at least 23 out of 26 Brazilian states and Brasília, including the Amazonian region and natural reserves, where besides a general nuisance for people it is a pest and also a public health concern, since it is one of the natural intermediate host of Angiostrongylus cantonensis, ethiological agent of the meningoencephalitis in Asia. As Brazil is experiencing the explosive phase of the invasion, the Laboratório de Malacologia do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz/Fiocruz has been receiving samples of these molluscs for identification and search for Angiostrongylus cantonensis and Angiostrongylus costaricensis larvae. While examining samples of A. fulica different nematode larvae were obtained, including Aelurostrongylus, whose different species are parasites of felids, dogs, primates, and badger. Morphological and morphometric analyses presented herein indicated the species Aelurostrongylus abstrusus, as well as the occurrence of other nematode larvae (Strongyluris-like) found in the interior of the pallial cavity of A. fulica. This is the first report in Brazil of the development of A. abstrusus infective larvae in A. fulica evidencing the veterinary importance of this mollusc in the transmission of A. abstrusus to domestic cats. Since the spread of A. fulica is pointed out in the literature as one of the main causative spread of the meningoencephalitis caused by A. cantonensis the authors emphasize the need of sanitary vigilance of snails and rats from vulnerable areas for A. cantonensis introduction as the port side areas. PMID:18078952

Thiengo, Silvana C; Fernandez, Monica A; Torres, Eduardo J L; Coelho, Pablo M; Lanfredi, Reinalda M

2008-05-01

256

Application of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for studying of reproduction in the Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum (Mollusca: Bivalvia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A polyclonal antibody specific to Ruditapes philippinarum egg protein (ME-ab) was developed to quantify clam eggs using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Western blots revealed that ME-ab reacted with egg proteins of molecular masses 475, 84, and 40 kDa under non-reducing conditions and 330, 96, 64, 50, and 31 kDa under reducing conditions. With ELISA, ME-ab detected between 0.23 and

Kyung-Il Park; Kwang-Sik Choi

2004-01-01

257

The reproductive cycle of white clam Spisula solida (L.) (Mollusca: Bivalvia): Implications for aquaculture and wild stock management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dynamics of the white clam's (Spisula solida) reproductive cycle along with its nutrient storage and exploitation strategy in the Algarve coast (Portugal) was studied throughout the year 2003. The timing of gametogenic development and spawning of S. solida were analysed through histological preparation using qualitative and quantitative criteria. Condition index and biochemical composition were determined in order to provide

Sandra Joaquim; Domitília Matias; Belisandra Lopes; William S. Arnold; Miguel B. Gaspar

2008-01-01

258

Evolutionary Dynamics of rDNA Clusters in Chromosomes of Five Clam Species Belonging to the Family Veneridae (Mollusca, Bivalvia).  

PubMed

The chromosomal changes accompanying bivalve evolution are an area about which few reports have been published. To improve our understanding on chromosome evolution in Veneridae, ribosomal RNA gene clusters were mapped by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) to chromosomes of five species of venerid clams (Venerupis corrugata, Ruditapes philippinarum, Ruditapes decussatus, Dosinia exoleta, and Venus verrucosa). The results were anchored to the most comprehensive molecular phylogenetic tree currently available for Veneridae. While a single major rDNA cluster was found in each of the five species, the number of 5S rDNA clusters showed high interspecies variation. Major rDNA was either subterminal to the short arms or intercalary to the long arms of metacentric or submetacentric chromosomes, whereas minor rDNA signals showed higher variability. Major and minor rDNAs map to different chromosome pairs in all species, but in R. decussatus one of the minor rDNA gene clusters and the major rDNA cluster were located in the same position on a single chromosome pair. This interspersion of both sequences was confirmed by fiber FISH. Telomeric signals appeared at both ends of every chromosome in all species. FISH mapping data are discussed in relation to the molecular phylogenetic trees currently available for Veneridae. PMID:24967400

Pérez-García, Concepción; Hurtado, Ninoska S; Morán, Paloma; Pasantes, Juan J

2014-01-01

259

Effect of heavy metals (Cu, Cd and Pb) on aspartate and alanine aminotransferase in Ruditapes philippinarum (Mollusca: Bivalvia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accumulation of cadmium, copper and lead and their effects on aspartate and alanine aminotransferases in digestive gland, gills, foot and soft body in the clam Ruditapes philippinarum were examined. The animals were exposed to different concentrations: Cd (200–600 ?g·l?1), Pb (350–700 ?g·l?1) and Cu (10–20 ?g·l?1) for 7 days. The highest concentrations were found in digestive gland for cadmium

J Blasco; J Puppo

1999-01-01

260

Biomonitoring study of an estuarine coastal ecosystem, the Sacca di Goro lagoon, using Ruditapes philippinarum (Mollusca: Bivalvia).  

PubMed

Coastal lagoons are constantly subjected to releases of chemical pollutants, and so organisms may be exposed to such toxicants. This study investigated through a multivariate approach the physiological status of bivalve Ruditapes philippinarum, farmed in Sacca di Goro lagoon. Biomarkers at different levels of biological organization (catalase, superoxide dismutase, genotoxicity, reburrowing behavior) were evaluated at three sites exposed to different environmental conditions. A seasonal trend was observed, and micronucleus frequency was significantly lowest at the relatively pristine reference site. Enzymatic activity toward oxyradicals be quite efficient since variations in responsiveness were not consistent. However, behavioral impairment was observed in reburrowing rates. Sediment concentrations showed low PAH levels and high natural levels of trace metals Cr and Ni. DistLM statistical analysis revealed a non-significant relationship between selected biomarkers and xenobiotics. Therefore other potentially toxic compounds in admixture at low doses may be involved in driving differing spatial distribution of physiological impairment. PMID:23474981

Sacchi, Angela; Mouneyrac, Catherine; Bolognesi, Claudia; Sciutto, Andrea; Roggieri, Paola; Fusi, Marco; Beone, Gian Maria; Capri, Ettore

2013-06-01

261

Analysis of EST and lectin expressions in hemocytes of Manila clams ( Ruditapes philippinarum) (Bivalvia: Mollusca) infected with Perkinsus olseni  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hemocytes of invertebrates play key roles in both cellular and humoral immune reactions by phagocytosis or delivering immune factors such as lectin and anti-microbial peptides. Bacterial infection causes changes in components such as lectins, anti-bacterial peptides, and lysosomal enzymes of plasma or hemolymph in molluscs. Previously, we found that infection with the protozoan parasite, Perkinsus, increases lectin synthesis in

Yoon-Suk Kang; Young-Mee Kim; Kyung-Il Park; Somi Kim Cho; Kwang-Sik Choi; Moonjae Cho

2006-01-01

262

Selection of food sources by Ruditapes philippinarum and Mactra veneriformis (Bivalva: Mollusca) determined from stable isotope analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon and nitrogen isotopic ratios in the body of the bivalves Ruditapes philippinarum and Mactra veneriformis were measured to estimate the role of the bivalves in the ecosystem in an estuary. The isotopic signatures were compared with those obtained from particulate organic matter (POM) in the middle reach of the river, in the estuary, and off the estuary. Both the

Akihide KASAI; Hisako HORIE; Wataru SAKAMOTO

2004-01-01

263

A high molecular weight proteoglycan is differentially expressed during development of the mollusc Concholepas concholepas (Mollusca; Gastropoda; Muricidae).  

PubMed

Incorporation of radioactive sulfate to hatched veliger larvae of the gastropod muricid Concholepas concholepas indicated that over 87% of the sulfated macromolecules were found in the detergent insoluble fraction, rich in extracellular matrix (ECM) components. The sulfated material was solubilized with guanidine salt followed by urea dialysis and fractionated by DEAE-Sephacel chromatography. Three sulfated compounds eluting at 0.7, 1.1, and 3.0 M NaCl, called peaks I, II, and III, respectively, were obtained. The sulfated compound present in peak I was degraded by pronase or sodium alkaline treatment to a small sulfated resistant material, suggesting the presence of a proteoglycan (PG). Filtration analysis on Sephacryl S-500 and SDS-PAGE of the intact PG indicates that it has a high molecular weight (360,000 to over 1 x 10(6)). Monoclonal antibodies (mAb) against this PG were produced. The specificity of one mAb, the 6H2, was demonstrated by size chromatography and ELISA analysis. The epitope recognized by this mAb seems to be present in the core protein of the PG. Both the extent of sulfation and the presence of different sulfated species of PGs were evaluated during the development of this mollusc. A twelvefold increase in the incorporation of sulfate to PGs per milligram of protein was found in veliger larvae compared to blastula-glastula stages. This change correlated well with the differential expression of the sulfated PG present in peak I. Biochemical and immunological analysis indicate that high levels of this PG are found in veliger and trocophore larvae in comparison with blastula-gastrula and early juveniles.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1460434

Brandan, E; González, M; Inestrosa, N C; Tremblay, C; Urrea, R

1992-12-15

264

Description of a new species of Thais (Mollusca: Neogastropoda: Muricidae) from Taiwan, based on morphological and allozyme analyses.  

PubMed

Thais keluo sp. nov. is described from intertidal shores of southwest Taiwan. The new species is differentiated from five other closely related species, namely T. bitubercularis (Lamarck), T. jubilaea Tan and Sigurdsson, T. clavigera (Küster), T. luteostoma (Holten) and T. rufotincta Tan and Sigurdsson, all of which occur in the South China Sea, on the basis of shell, radula and penis morphology. Thais keluo is also distinguished from the latter three species based on allozyme electrophoresis. The shell of T. keluo is characterized by four raised, spiral bands on the last whorl, one or two small, oblique columellar plica(e) on the inner lip, a finely crenate, thin, narrow, reddish-brown outer lip edge and four white, papillate denticles inside the outer lip of the aperture. In males, the penis is curved with a long, simple flagellum. The UPGMA cluster analysis based on 9 enzyme loci revealed that T. luteostoma is more closely related to T. clavigera than to T. keluo n.sp. The Nei's genetic distance (D) obtained between the new species and T. clavigera/T. luteostoma was 0.31, while T. clavigera and T. luteostoma were separated by a distance of 0.16. Thais rufotincta was separated from the other species by a distance of 0.78. In contrast, phylogenetic analysis of morphological data by maximum parsimony suggested that T. luteostoma was more closely related to T. keluo than to T. clavigera. However, both analyses indicated the close relationship amongst T. clavigera, T. luteostoma and the new species in relation to T. rufotincta. PMID:11911084

Tan, K S; Liu, L L

2001-12-01

265

Microsatellite loci for dreissenid mussels (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Dreissenidae) and relatives: markers for assessing exotic and native populations.  

PubMed

We developed and tested 14 new polymorphic microsatellite loci for dreissenid mussels, including the two species that have invaded many freshwater habitats in Eurasia and North America, where they cause serious industrial fouling damage and ecological alterations. These new loci will aid our understanding of their genetic patterns in invasive populations as well as throughout their native Ponto-Caspian distributions. Eight new loci for the zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha polymorpha and six for the quagga mussel D. rostriformis bugensis were compared with new results from six previously published loci to generate a robust molecular toolkit for dreissenid mussels and their relatives. Taxa tested include D. p. polymorpha, D. r. bugensis, D. r. grimmi, D. presbensis, the 'living fossil'Congeria kusceri, and the dark false mussel Mytilopsis leucophaeata (the latter also is invasive). Overall, most of the 24 zebra mussel (N = 583) and 13 quagga mussel (N = 269) population samples conformed to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium expectations for the new loci following sequential Bonferroni correction. The 11 loci (eight new, three previously published) evaluated for D. p. polymorpha averaged 35.1 alleles and 0.72 mean observed heterozygosity per locus, and 25.3 and 0.75 for the nine loci (six new, three previously published) developed for D. r. bugensis. All but three of these loci successfully amplified the other species of Dreissena, and all but one also amplified Congeria and Mytilopsis. All species and populations tested were significantly divergent using the microsatellite data, with neighbour-joining trees reflecting their evolutionary relationships; our results reveal broad utility for resolving their biogeographic, evolutionary, population and ecological patterns. PMID:21457480

Feldheim, Kevin A; Brown, Joshua E; Murphy, Douglas J; Stepien, Carol A

2011-07-01

266

Frequency of interspecific matings and of hybrid offspring in sympatric populations of Viviparus ater and V. contectus (Mollusca: Prosobranchia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In species pairs able to produce fertile hybrids, the amount of introgression can be limited by the frequency of interspecific copulations. We investigated the frequency of interspecific copulations between Viviparus ater and V. contectus and the proportion of hybrid offspring of V. ater females in natural populations in northern Italy. Although there was significant assortative mating, the frequency of interspecific

GEORG RIBI; SABINE OERTLI

2000-01-01

267

Macoma balthica in the White and Barents Seas: properties of a widespread marine hybrid swarm (Mollusca: Bivalvia).  

PubMed

A main molecular subdivision in the circumpolar Macoma balthica complex has been described between Atlantic and Pacific taxa. In NE Europe, the clams of the White and Barents Seas, however, show deviant genetic structures. Using allozyme and mitochondrial DNA data, we explore the hypothesis that these deviations result from hybridization between an Atlantic (M. b. rubra) and an invading Pacific (M. b. balthica) lineage. A practically pure Atlantic Macoma extends from France north to the Varanger Peninsula (NE Norway), whereas populations farther east have genetic compositions intermediate between true Atlantic and true Pacific. Admixture estimates range from 32 to 90% Pacific contribution, with a notable deviation in a nearly pure Atlantic outpost in the Mezen Bay (NE White Sea). The pattern of variation is not one of a simple collinear mixing however. Different characters exhibit different degrees of introgression, and the relative introgression varies regionally. Yet, there are practically no interlocus genotypic disequilibria between the diverged loci, which brings out the White Sea-Barents Sea M. balthica as the best-documented marine animal hybrid swarms so far, arisen through amalgamation of genomes previously isolated since pre-Pleistocene times. On top of the main admixture pattern, strong geographical structuring is also seen in characters unrelated to the principal systematic distinction. The persistence of the regional patterns indicates restricted gene flow at the present time, despite the high dispersal potential of the species. The causes of this structuring could be in a complex history of colonization events and features of local hydrography enhancing isolation and divergence of populations. PMID:17725573

Strelkov, Petr; Nikula, Raisa; Väinölä, Risto

2007-10-01

268

First molecular phylogeny of the circumtropical bivalve family Pinnidae (Mollusca, Bivalvia): Evidence for high levels of cryptic species diversity.  

PubMed

The family Pinnidae Leach, 1819, includes approximately 50 species of large subtidal and coastal marine bivalves. These commercially important species occur in tropical and temperate waters around the world and are most frequently found in seagrass meadows. The taxonomy of the family has been revised a number of times since the early 20th Century, the most recent revision recognizing 55 species distributed in three genera: Pinna, Atrina and Streptopinna, the latter being monotypic. However, to date no phylogenetic analysis of the family has been conducted using morphological or molecular data. The present study analyzed 306 pinnid specimens from around the world, comprising the three described genera and ca. 25 morphospecies. We sequenced the mitochondrial genes 16S rRNA and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I, and the nuclear ribosomal genes 18S rRNA and 28S rRNA. Phylogenetic analysis of the data revealed monophyly of the genus Atrina but also that the genus Streptopinna is nested within Pinna. Based on the strong support for this relationship we propose a new status for Streptopinna Martens, 1880 and treat it as a subgenus (status nov.) of Pinna Linnaeus, 1758. The phylogeny and the species delimitation analyses suggest the presence of cryptic species in many morphospecies displaying a wide Indo-Pacific distribution, including Pinna muricata, Atrina assimilis, A. exusta and P. (Streptopinna) saccata but also in the Atlantic species A. rigida. Altogether our results highlight the challenges associated with morphological identifications in Pinnidae due to the presence of both phenotypic plasticity and morphological stasis and reveal that many pinnid species are not as widely distributed as previously thought. PMID:24569016

Lemer, Sarah; Buge, Barbara; Bemis, Amanda; Giribet, Gonzalo

2014-06-01

269

Ecotoxicological studies with newly hatched larvae of Concholepas concholepas (Mollusca, Gastropoda): bioassay with secondary-treated kraft pulp mill effluents.  

PubMed

The Chilean abalone or "loco" (Concholepas concholepas, Bruguière 1789) represent the most economically important marine recourse exploited from inner inshore Management and Exploitation Areas for Benthic Resources along the Chilean coast. In this study, newly-hatched larvae of C. concholepas were investigated as a potential model species for marine ecotoxicological studies. The study developed a behavioral standard protocol for assessing the impact that kraft pulp mill effluents after secondary treatment have on C. concholepas larvae. Under controlled laboratory conditions, newly-hatched larvae were exposed to a series of different concentrations of kraft pulp mill effluents with secondary treatment (Pinus spp. and Eucalyptus spp.), potassium dichromate as standard reference toxicant and effluent-free control conditions. Regardless of the type of effluent the results indicated that diluted kraft pulp effluent with secondary treatment had reduced effect on larval survival. Low larval survivals were only recorded when they were exposed to high concentrations of the reference toxicant. This suggests that C. concholepas larval bioassay is a simple method for monitoring the effects of kraft pulp mill effluents with secondary treatment discharged into the sea. The results indicated that dilution of ca. 1% of the effluent with an elemental chlorine free (ECF) secondary treatment is appropriate for achieving low larval mortalities, such as those obtained under control conditions with filtered seawater, and to minimize their impact on early ontogenetic stages of marine invertebrates such as newly-hatched larvae of C. concholepas. The methodological aspects of toxicological testing and behavioral responses described here with newly-hatched larvae of C. concholepas can be used to evaluate in the future the potential effects of other stressful conditions as other pollutants or changes in seawater pH associated with ocean acidification. PMID:24099753

Manríquez, Patricio H; Llanos-Rivera, Alejandra; Galaz, Sylvana; Camaño, Andrés

2013-12-01

270

Morphological and histochemical characterization of gill filaments of the Brazilian endemic bivalve Diplodon expansus (Küster, 1856) (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Hyriidae).  

PubMed

This study presents the morphological description and histochemical characterization of gill filaments of the Brazilian endemic bivalve Diplodon expansus, aiming to broaden the morphological knowledge of this species and establish the structure of the gills that will serve as control in histopathological studies applied to biomonitoring. The gill filaments are divided into three zones: frontal, intermediate, and abfrontal. In the center of the filament, haemocytes circulate through the haemolymph vessel, which is internally lined by endothelium. The frontal surface of the filament is covered with cilia, the lateral surface exhibits aquifer ducts, and the abfrontal surface presents ciliated and nonciliated cells. The epithelium of the filaments is composed of ciliated cells, nonciliated absorptive cells, and mucocytes. The support of the filaments is made by two specialized structures called skeletal rod and skeletal loop. Based on the obtained information, the gill filaments of the studied species present some peculiar characteristics that are not yet reported in detail in the literature such as the simultaneous presence of skeletal rod and skeletal loop. On the other hand, the general constitution of the filament is similar to that described for both marine and limnic bivalves and seems to be suitable for ecotoxicological studies. PMID:23190579

Nogarol, Larissa Rosa; Brossi-Garcia, Ana Luiza; David, José Augusto de Oliveira; Fontanetti, Carmem Silvia

2012-12-01

271

Antimicrobial activities of the tissue extracts of Babylonia spirata Linnaeus, 1758 (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from Thazhanguda, southeast coast of India  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the antimicrobial activity of the tissue extracts of Babylonia spirata (B. spirata) against nine bacterial and three fungal pathogens. Methods Crude extract of gastropod was tested for inhibition of bacterial and fungal growth. Antibacterial assay was carried out by disc diffusion method and in vitro antifungal activity was determined against Czapex Dox agar. The antimicrobial activity was measured accordingly based on the inhibition zone around the disc impregnated with gastropod extract. Molecular size of muscle protein was determined using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). And fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectro photometry analysis was also studied. Results The maximum inhibition zone (12 mm) was observed against Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the crude ethanol extract of B. spirata and the minimum inhibition zone (2 mm) was noticed against Staphylococcus aureus in the crude methanol extract of B. spirata. Water extract of B. spirata showed the highest activity against Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. Ethanol, acetone, methanol, chloroform and water extracts showed antimicrobial activity against almost all the bacteria and fungus. Compared with water extracts, ethanol and methanol extracts showed higher activity against all pathogens. The molecular weight of protein of the gastropod sample ranged from 2-110 kDa on SDS-PAGE. FTIR analysis revealed the presence of bioactive compounds signals at different ranges. Conclusions The research shows that the great medicinal value of the gastropod muscle of B. spirata may be due to high quality of antimicrobial compounds.

Periyasamy, N; Srinivasan, M; Balakrishnan, S

2012-01-01

272

Marine Mollusca of isotope stages of the last 2 million years in New Zealand. Part 3. Gastropoda (Vetigastropoda - Littorinimorpha)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three new species: Grandicrepidula hemispherica (Nukumaruan, S Hawke's Bay), Pelicariagranttaylori (Mangapanian-early Nukumaruan, Wanganui – Hawke's bay), Pelicaria arahura (Waipipian-early Mangapanian, Westland and Hawke's Bay). Drawings of marine species in Smith's (1874) three plates of New Zealand molluscan types are republished. Further Australian molluscs in Wanganui Basin: Sabia australis (Lamarck), Clanculus plebejus (Philippi), both early Nukumaruan. Further northern New Zealand mollusc

AG Beu

2010-01-01

273

On growth and form of irregular coiled-shell of a terrestrial snail: Plectostoma concinnum (Fulton, 1901) (Mollusca: Caenogastropoda: Diplommatinidae).  

PubMed

The molluscan shell can be viewed as a petrified representation of the organism's ontogeny and thus can be used as a record of changes in form during growth. However, little empirical data is available on the actual growth and form of shells, as these are hard to quantify and examine simultaneously. To address these issues, we studied the growth and form of a land snail that has an irregularly coiled and heavily ornamented shell-Plectostoma concinnum. The growth data were collected in a natural growth experiment and the actual form changes of the aperture during shell ontogeny were quantified. We used an ontogeny axis that allows data of growth and form to be analysed simultaneously. Then, we examined the association between the growth and the form during three different whorl growing phases, namely, the regular coiled spire phase, the transitional constriction phase, and the distortedly-coiled tuba phase. In addition, we also explored the association between growth rate and the switching between whorl growing mode and rib growing mode. As a result, we show how the changes in the aperture ontogeny profiles in terms of aperture shape, size and growth trajectory, and the changes in growth rates, are associated with the different shell forms at different parts of the shell ontogeny. These associations suggest plausible constraints that underlie the three different shell ontogeny phases and the two different growth modes. We found that the mechanism behind the irregularly coiled-shell is the rotational changes of the animal's body and mantle edge with respect to the previously secreted shell. Overall, we propose that future study should focus on the role of the mantle and the columellar muscular system in the determination of shell form. PMID:24883245

Liew, Thor-Seng; Kok, Annebelle C M; Schilthuizen, Menno; Urdy, Severine

2014-01-01

274

A cybertaxonomic revision of the micro-landsnail genus Plectostoma Adam (Mollusca, Caenogastropoda, Diplommatinidae), from Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra and Indochina.  

PubMed

Plectostoma is a micro land snail restricted to limestone outcrops in Southeast Asia. Plectostoma was previously classified as a subgenus of Opisthostoma because of the deviation from regular coiling in many species in both taxa. This paper is the first of a two-part revision of the genus Plectostoma, and includes all non-Borneo species. In the present paper, we examined 214 collection samples of 31 species, and obtained 62 references, 290 pictures, and 155 3D-models of 29 Plectostoma species and 51 COI sequences of 19 species. To work with such a variety of taxonomic data, and then to represent it in an integrated, scaleable and accessible manner, we adopted up-to-date cybertaxonomic tools. All the taxonomic information, such as references, classification, species descriptions, specimen images, genetic data, and distribution data, were tagged and linked with cyber tools and web servers (e.g. Lifedesks, Google Earth, and Barcoding of Life Database). We elevated Plectostoma from subgenus to genus level based on morphological, ecological and genetic evidence. We revised the existing 21 Plectostoma species and described 10 new species, namely, P. dindingensis sp. n., P. mengaburensis sp. n., P. whitteni sp. n., P. kayiani sp. n., P. davisoni sp. n., P. relauensis sp. n., P. kubuensis sp. n., P. tohchinyawi sp. n., P. tenggekensis sp. n., and P. ikanensis sp. n. All the synthesised, semantic-tagged, and linked taxonomic information is made freely and publicly available online. PMID:24715783

Liew, Thor-Seng; Vermeulen, Jaap Jan; Marzuki, Mohammad Effendi Bin; Schilthuizen, Menno

2014-01-01

275

Evolutionary Dynamics of rDNA Clusters in Chromosomes of Five Clam Species Belonging to the Family Veneridae (Mollusca, Bivalvia)  

PubMed Central

The chromosomal changes accompanying bivalve evolution are an area about which few reports have been published. To improve our understanding on chromosome evolution in Veneridae, ribosomal RNA gene clusters were mapped by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) to chromosomes of five species of venerid clams (Venerupis corrugata, Ruditapes philippinarum, Ruditapes decussatus, Dosinia exoleta, and Venus verrucosa). The results were anchored to the most comprehensive molecular phylogenetic tree currently available for Veneridae. While a single major rDNA cluster was found in each of the five species, the number of 5S rDNA clusters showed high interspecies variation. Major rDNA was either subterminal to the short arms or intercalary to the long arms of metacentric or submetacentric chromosomes, whereas minor rDNA signals showed higher variability. Major and minor rDNAs map to different chromosome pairs in all species, but in R. decussatus one of the minor rDNA gene clusters and the major rDNA cluster were located in the same position on a single chromosome pair. This interspersion of both sequences was confirmed by fiber FISH. Telomeric signals appeared at both ends of every chromosome in all species. FISH mapping data are discussed in relation to the molecular phylogenetic trees currently available for Veneridae.

Perez-Garcia, Concepcion; Hurtado, Ninoska S.; Moran, Paloma; Pasantes, Juan J.

2014-01-01

276

Molecular weight relationships of the esterases in Cepaea nemoralis and Cepaea hortensis (Mollusca: Helicidae) and their genetic implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The multiple zones of esterase activity revealed after acrylamide disc electrophoresis of hepatopancreatic extracts from the snails Cepaea nemoralis and Cepaea hortensis have been characterized according to their molecular weights by comparing their relative mobilities with those of standard proteins in acrylamide gels of varying concentrations. It was observed that zones known to be allelic from previous work had identical

G. S. Oxford

1973-01-01

277

Review of Baeolidia, the largest genus of Aeolidiidae (Mollusca: Nudibranchia), with the description of five new species.  

PubMed

This paper discusses the systematics of the aeolid genus Baeolidia Bergh, 1888. To date, this monophyletic genus is the most diverse within Aeolidiidae with sixteen valid species. Excluding Baeolidia cryoporos Bouchet, 1977, the genus is restricted to the Indo-Pacific and Eastern Pacific. Species of Baeolidia show a huge intrageneric variability in several morphological characters. Only oral glands, if present, may distinguish Baeolidia from other aeolidiids genera. Aeolidiella occidentalis Bergh, 1875, Aeolidiella faustina Bergh, 1900 and Spurilla orientalis Bergh, 1905 are transferred to Baeolidia but they are considered nomina dubia. Five new species, Baeolidia rieae sp. nov., Baeolidia variabilis sp. nov., Baeolidia lunaris sp. nov., Baeolidia gracilis sp. nov. and Baeolidia scottjohnsoni sp. nov. are described. PMID:24871026

Carmona, Leila; Pola, Marta; Gosliner, Terrence M; Cervera, Juan Lucas

2014-01-01

278

Annotated type catalogue of Bothriembryon (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Orthalicoidea) in Australian museums, with a compilation of types in other museums  

PubMed Central

Abstract Type material of 41 Australian Bothriembryon taxa present in Australian museums is critically listed, indicating systematic issues that need to be resolved in further studies. Information on additional type material of 22 taxa in non-Australian museums is compiled. The seven fossil taxa known so far are included in this catalogue. Based on the current systematic position, 38 species are treated in this paper. Bothriembryon jacksoni Iredale, 1939, Bothriembryon notatus Iredale, 1939, Bothriembryon praecelsus Iredale, 1939 and Bothriembryon serpentinus Iredale, 1939 are elevated to species level. Bothriembryon gratwicki (Cox, 1899) is listed as status to be determined.

Breure, Abraham S.H.; Whisson, Corey S.

2012-01-01

279

[Demonstration of acidophilic neurosecretory cells in Crepidula fornicata Phil. (Mollusca, Gasteropoda, Prosobranchia) using the fluorescent dye, Geranine G].  

PubMed

The Fluorochrome Geranine G binds to acidophilic neurosecretory cells and produces red orange fluorescence. Chromolipids and pigments show green fluorescence. This method is easy and sensitive. Fluorescence fading during irradiation is low. PMID:4233

Durchon, M M

1976-01-01

280

[Abundance and morphometry of tuberculosa Anadara and A. similis (Mollusca: Bivalvia) in the Manglar de Purruja, Dulce Gulf, Costa Rica].  

PubMed

The density, population, length, yield and sex proportion of the mollusks Anadara tuberculosa and A. similis were studied in Bahía de Golfito, Golfo Dulce, Pacific coast of Costa Rica from February 1998 to February 1999. A. tuberculosa was more abundant (0.9 units m(-2)), than A. similis (0.2 units m(-2)); the highest abundance was found at the canal mouths. The average lengths were 43.3 mm for A. tuberculosa and 42.8 mm for A. similis (both under the Costa Rican legal minimal length for exploitation: 47 mm). Maximum lengths were measured in the middle and upstream Canal Mayor, respectively: 43.0 mm and 43.4 mm. The correlation between length and fresh weight was 0.81 (Pearson). The average total weights were 26.2 g for A. tuberculosa and 19.1 g for A. similis. The condition index (a meat yield measurement) was higher in A. similis (21.2%) than in A. tuberculosa (17.2%). The maximum yield for both species lies in the 31-35 mm range. The male ratio was 43.7%. A species recovery plan is urgent because these results suggest both a decrease in density and illegal exploitation. PMID:15264545

Silva Benavides, A M; Bonilla Carrión, R

2001-12-01

281

Heavy metals in Patella caerulea (Mollusca, Gastropoda) in polluted and non-polluted areas from the Iskenderun Gulf (Mediterranean Turkey).  

PubMed

The concentrations of Cd, Cu, Zn, Fe, Pb, Ni, and Co were measured in gastropod mollusks Patella caerulea in the Mediterranean area. The organisms were collected at two coastal sites in Iskenderun Gulf during winter, spring, summer, and autumn 2008. Samples of the digestive gland, gill, and muscle were analyzed for heavy metals. The aim of study is to determine heavy metal levels in tissues of P. caerulea in different locations. Tissues of P. caerulea from the polluted site showed metal concentrations appreciably higher than unpolluted organisms. The highest metal levels were registered in the digestive gland of P. caerulea. Generally, digestive gland and gills showed higher metal concentrations than muscle. The average concentrations of heavy metals analyzed exhibited the following decreasing order: Fe>Zn>Cu>Ni>Cd>Pb>Co for both stations 1 and 2. Seasonal changes in metal concentrations were observed in the tissues of P. caerulea from a polluted and an unpolluted population. PMID:19543988

Yüzerero?lu, T A; Gök, G; Co?un, H Y; Firat, O; Aslanyavrusu, Sabahattin; Maruldali, Onur; Kargin, F

2010-08-01

282

Molecular cytogenetic study of three common Mediterranean limpets, Patella caerulea, P. rustica and P. ulyssiponensis (Archaeogastropoda, Mollusca).  

PubMed

The present paper shows the results of chromosome banding and rDNA-FISH study performed on several specimens of different populations of Patella caerulea, Patella rustica and Patella ulyssiponensis. The taxonomic attribution of specimens was ascertained by the molecular phylogenetic analysis of the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene. P. caerulea and P. rustica had 2n = 18 chromosomes with first seven of biarmed pairs and the remaining two uniarmed pairs. P. ulyssiponensis had 2n = 16 with all biarmed chromosomes. Ag-NOR loci were on the short arms of the first metacentric pair in the three studied limpets, whereas they showed a different pattern of heterochromatin distribution and composition. A chromosome mosaicism was observed in several P. caerulea specimens, which exhibited an unpaired metacentric element and loss of a telocentric pair. The obtained results suggest that in the genus Patella specific diversification was accompanied by variations in heterochromatin distribution and composition and reduction of chromosome number by Robertsonian centric fusion. PMID:19777161

Petraccioli, Agnese; Guarino, Fabio Maria; Maio, Nicola; Odierna, Gaetano

2010-02-01

283

On growth and form of irregular coiled-shell of a terrestrial snail: Plectostoma concinnum (Fulton, 1901) (Mollusca: Caenogastropoda: Diplommatinidae)  

PubMed Central

The molluscan shell can be viewed as a petrified representation of the organism’s ontogeny and thus can be used as a record of changes in form during growth. However, little empirical data is available on the actual growth and form of shells, as these are hard to quantify and examine simultaneously. To address these issues, we studied the growth and form of a land snail that has an irregularly coiled and heavily ornamented shell–Plectostoma concinnum. The growth data were collected in a natural growth experiment and the actual form changes of the aperture during shell ontogeny were quantified. We used an ontogeny axis that allows data of growth and form to be analysed simultaneously. Then, we examined the association between the growth and the form during three different whorl growing phases, namely, the regular coiled spire phase, the transitional constriction phase, and the distortedly-coiled tuba phase. In addition, we also explored the association between growth rate and the switching between whorl growing mode and rib growing mode. As a result, we show how the changes in the aperture ontogeny profiles in terms of aperture shape, size and growth trajectory, and the changes in growth rates, are associated with the different shell forms at different parts of the shell ontogeny. These associations suggest plausible constraints that underlie the three different shell ontogeny phases and the two different growth modes. We found that the mechanism behind the irregularly coiled-shell is the rotational changes of the animal’s body and mantle edge with respect to the previously secreted shell. Overall, we propose that future study should focus on the role of the mantle and the columellar muscular system in the determination of shell form.

Kok, Annebelle C.M.; Schilthuizen, Menno; Urdy, Severine

2014-01-01

284

Contrasting characteristics in increasing and decreasing phases of the Nerita japonica (Mollusca: Gastropoda) population on a boulder shore  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study demonstrated the seasonal and annual fluctuations in population characteristics of Nerita japonica on a boulder shore at Amakusa, Japan, and examined key characteristics in the increasing and decreasing phases for population\\u000a monitoring. Monthly quantitative quadrat sampling and subsequent mark-recapture experiments were carried out during two periods:\\u000a from April 1989 to July 1990 (1st period), and from August

Yoshitake Takada

2008-01-01

285

Annotated type catalogue of the Bothriembryontidae and Odontostomidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Orthalicoidea) in the Natural History Museum, London  

PubMed Central

Abstract The type status is described for specimens of 84 taxa classified within the families Bothriembryontidae and Odontostomidae (superfamily Orthalicoidea) and kept in the Natural History Museum, London. Lectotypes are designated for Bulimus (Liparus) brazieri Angas, 1871; Bulimus broderipii Sowerby I, 1832; Bulimus fuligineus Pfeiffer, 1853; Helix guarani d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimus (Tomigerus) ramagei E.A. Smith, 1890; Helix rhodinostoma d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimus (Bulimulus) ridleyi E.A. Smith, 1890. The type status of the following taxa is changed to lectotype in accordance with Art. 74.6 ICZN: Placostylus (Euplacostylus) cylindricus Fulton, 1907; Bulimus pyrostomus Pfeiffer, 1860; Bulimus turneri Pfeiffer, 1860. The following taxon is synonymised: Bulimus oblitus Reeve, 1848 = Bahiensis neglectus (Pfeiffer, 1847).

Breure, Abraham S.H.; Ablett, Jonathan D.

2012-01-01

286

Characterization of nineteen microsatellite markers and development of multiplex PCRs for the wedge clam Donax trunculus (Mollusca: Bivalvia).  

PubMed

The wedge clam Donax trunculus is an Atlantic-Mediterranean warm-temperate species found from Senegal to the northern coast of France, including the Mediterranean and Black Sea. It is commercially exploited in several European countries and constitutes an important fishing resource due to its high economical value. To contribute to its conservation and management, nineteen microsatellite markers were isolated from two enriched genomic libraries. These loci were characterized in 30 clams from a single population from northwest Spain. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 17 and observed and expected heterozygosity varied from zero to 0.714 and from 0.078 to 0.950, respectively. Linkage disequilibrium was not detected and nine loci were in agreement with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Fifteen polymorphic markers were arranged into three multiplex PCR sets to reduce both time and cost of microsatellite genotyping. This is the first time that polymorphic microsatellite markers have been reported for D. trunculus. These new markers provide a valuable resource for future population genetics studies and management and culture of this species. PMID:24852303

Nantón, Ana; Arias-Pérez, Alberto; Méndez, Josefina; Freire, Ruth

2014-08-01

287

Effects of Endocrine Disruptors on Prosobranch Snails (Mollusca: Gastropoda) in the Laboratory. Part II: Triphenyltin as a Xeno-Androgen  

Microsoft Academic Search

In laboratory experiments the effects of suspected endocrine disrupting chemicals on freshwater and marine prosobranch species were analysed. In this second of three publications the responses of the freshwater ramshorn snail Marisa cornuarietis and of two marine prosobranchs (the dogwhelk Nucella lapillus and the netted whelk Hinia reticulata) to the xeno-androgenic model compound triphenyltin (TPT) are presented. Marisa and Nucella

Ulrike Schulte-Oehlmann; Michaela Tillmann; Bernd Markert; Jörg Oehlmann; Burkard Watermann; Sandra Scherf

2000-01-01

288

Effects of Endocrine Disruptors on Prosobranch Snails (Mollusca: Gastropoda) in the Laboratory. Part III: Cyproterone Acetate and Vinclozolin as Antiandrogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of suspected endocrine disrupting chemicals on freshwater and marine prosobranch species were analysed in laboratory experiments. In this last of three publications, the responses of the fresh water snail Marisa cornuarietis and of two marine prosobranchs (Nucella lapillus, Nassarius (Hinia) reticulatus) to the antiandrogenic model compounds cyproterone acetate (CPA) and vinclozolin (VZ) are presented. The snails were exposed

Michaela Tillmann; Ulrike Schulte-Oehlmann; Martina Duft; Bernd Markert

2001-01-01

289

[Evolutionary history of Metazoa, ancestral status of the bilateria clonal reproduction, and semicolonial origin of the mollusca].  

PubMed

Evolutionary history of any metazoan group is a history of the entire ontogenetic cycles instead of separate stages and genes only. Ontogeny in the most objective way links two key components of the biological systematics: historically-independent characters attribution and phylogeny itself. A general theory encompassing "static" traditional taxonomy and dynamic evolutionary process, based on the ontogenetic transformation of the organisms' shape is suggested here to term as ontogenetic systematics. As an important practical implication of the ontogenetic systematics, a new model of the bilaterian metazoans evolution is suggested. The new model considers asexual clonal reproduction as a central feature of the ancestral ontogenetic cycles of basal Bilateria. The new scenario resolves several notable contradictions, e.g. morphological, ontogenetic and molecular similarities of Pogonophora, Vestimentifera, Phoronida simultaneously to protostomian Spiralia (Lophotrochozoa) and Deuterostomia. The suggested model implies individuation (possibly multiple) of ancestral semicolonial sedentary group as a major factor of the basal Bilateria diversification. In the late Ediacaran and early Cambrian thus existed ancestral bilaterian group that shared characters of both Spiralia and Deuterostomia and possessed polyp-shape body and cephalic secretory shield (like in modern Pterobranchia and Vestimentifera), that later on reduced in various lines. This ancestral taxon in rank of supraphylum is suggested to term as Carmaphora (shield-bearers). Presence of the enigmatic sedentary fossil of the genus Cloudina with vestimentiferan-like tubes and evident clonal reproduction already in the late Ediacaran, and most recent found of an unquestionable pterobranch already in the early Cambrian support the new model of Bilateria evolution. PMID:24163984

Martynov, A V

2013-01-01

290

Ocean barriers and glaciation: evidence for explosive radiation of mitochondrial lineages in the Antarctic sea slug Doris kerguelenensis (Mollusca, Nudibranchia).  

PubMed

Strong currents and deep passages of water can be barriers for larval dispersal of continental marine animals, but potential effects on direct developers are under-investigated. We examined the genetic structure of Doris kerguelenensis, a directly developing sea slug that occurs across the Drake Passage, the body of water separating Antarctica from South America. We found deep mitochondrial divergences within populations on both sides of the Drake Passage, and South American animals formed multiple sister-group relationships with Antarctic animals. A generalised molecular clock suggested these trans-Drake pairs diverged during the Pliocene–Pleistocene, after the formation of the Drake Passage. Statistical parsimony methods recovered 29 separate haplotype networks (many sympatric) that likely correlate with allopatric events caused by repeated glacial cycles. Data from 16S were congruent but more conserved than COI, and the estimated ancestral 16S haplotype was widespread. The marked difference in the substitution rates between these two mitochondrial genes results in different estimates of connectivity. Demographic analyses on networks revealed some evidence for selection and expanding populations. Contrasting with the Northern Hemisphere, glaciation in Antarctica appears to have increased rather than reduced genetic diversity. This suggests orbitally forced range dynamics based on Northern Hemisphere phylogeography do not hold for Antarctica. The diverse lineages found in D. kerguelenensis point towards a recent, explosive radiation, likely reflecting multiple refuges during glaciation events, combined with limited subsequent dispersal. Whether recognised as cryptic species or not, genetic diversity in Antarctic marine invertebrates appears higher than expected from morphological analyses, and supports the Antarctic biodiversity pump phenomenon. PMID:19207248

Wilson, Nerida G; Schrödl, M; Halanych, Kenneth M

2009-03-01

291

Alteration of acetylcholinesterase activity in Semele solida (MOLLUSCA: SEMELIDAE) as a biochemical response to coastal anthropogenic impact.  

PubMed

Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was analyzed as a molecular marker indicative of exposure to organophosphorus pesticide residues in individuals of the endemic clam species Semele solida in selected coastal locations of Chile's VIII Region. AChE activity was assayed in clams from (i) Penco Beach near the mouth of the Andalién River (Concepción Bay), (ii) Lenga Beach, near the mouth of the Lenga Estuary (San Vicente Bay), and (iii) Coliumo Beach, near the mouth of the Coliumo Estuary (Coliumo Bay). We also analyzed variations in protein content of clam hemolymph, and variability in the activity of AChE in relation to the sizes of the individual clams sampled. Collection of the clams was done using routine methods, during the spring of 2005, the period during which the use of pesticides is typically intensified in the surrounding forestry and agriculture. The results showed no significant correlation of AChE activity with either the size of the clam, or with the concentration of proteins in the hemolymph. The lowest AChE activity was observed in clams from mouth of the Andalién River (187.5 +/- 34.9 Umin(-1)) which was significantly less than that measured in specimens collected near the mouth of the Coliumo Estuary and the mouth of the Lenga Estuary. A very close relation was observed between the degree of anthropogenic inputs, ocean dynamics, and alterations in AChE activity in S. solida. This clam appears to be a useful indicator species, and AChE activity a sensitive marker for the presence of xenobiotics. PMID:18161577

Srain, Benjamin M; Rudolph, Anny J

2008-01-01

292

Preliminary phytochemical screening and molluscicidal activity of the aqueous extract of Bidens pilosa Linné (Asteraceae) in Subulina octona (Mollusca, Subulinidade).  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to establish reference concentrations (LC?? e LC??) of aqueous extracts of Bidens pilosa on the land snail Subulina octona, in order to assess the changes caused by 24 and 48 h exposure to the sublethal concentration regarding species' fecundity, hatchability and in offspring produced after exposure to confirm the presence of tannins, saponins and flavonoids in this plant species. Eggs newly hatched and 30 day-old snails were exposed to sublethal concentration, calculated for adults. The phytochemical analysis confirmed the presence of flavonoids, condensed tannins and saponins in the aqueous extract of B. pilosa. The LC?? and LC?? obtained were 51.4 mg/mL and 74.1 mg/mL respectively. The exposure to sublethal concentration reduced significantly the hatchability and the survival of the offspring hatched from exposed eggs and also caused a reduction on survival and growth in snails exposed for both time period. The exposure time also caused a reduction at the evaluated parameters. PMID:24141417

Souza, Bruna A; Silva, Lidiane C da; Chicarino, Evelyn D; Bessa, Elisabeth C A

2013-01-01

293

Polyplacophora (Mollusca) from the San Diego Formation: A remarkable assemblage of fossil chitons from the Pliocene of southern Califoria  

USGS Publications Warehouse

taphonomic factors bias valve ratios long after valves are disarticulated. New foraminiferan and molluscan data indicate a middle or late Pliocene age of deposition for these beds, between 3.3 to 2.5 million years ago (Ma), and possibly about 3.0 Ma.

Vendrasco, Michael J.; Eernisse, Douglas J.; Powell, Charles L., III; Fernandez, Christine Z.

2012-01-01

294

Effect of eutrophication on species composition and growth of freshwater mussels (Mollusca, Unionidae) in Lake Hallwil (Aargau, Switzerland)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Species composition, relative abundance and life history of unionid mussels are compared between 1982–86 and 1915–19 in Lake Hallwil and the outflowing brook. The recent samples of unionid mussels were collected by divers, whereas the older ones were from a shell collection. The motivation for the comparison was that the trophic degree of the lake has changed since the beginning

Hubert E. Arter

1989-01-01

295

Foods of Spectacled Eiders Somateria fischeri in the Bering Sea, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The winter diet of Spectacled Eiders living in marine habitats is known only from two individuals described by Cottam (1939). Here we examine marine diets from 36 stomachs collected near St. Lawrence Island, Bering Sea, Alaska, during May-June in 1987 and 1992. All Spectacled Eiders ate Mollusca, including Gastropoda (snails; frequency of occurrence 20.0%; sole taxon 0.0%) and Bivalvia (bivalves; 80.0%; 48.0%), and Crustacea (barnacles, amphipods and crabs; 30.6%; 0.0%). One bird ate a cod. The predominant species group eaten was Macoma Clams (72.0%; 36.0%). Prey species of Spectacled Eiders occur predominantly in waters 25-60 m deep in the Bering Sea. To obtain these prey, especially the bivalves, on the winter area Spectacled Eiders must forage in waters exceeding 40 m. We speculate that Spectacled Eiders regularly forage at depths of 45-70 m throughout winter.

Petersen, M. R.; Piatt, J. F.; Trust, K. A.

1998-01-01

296

Morphological and morphometric variability of the squid Lolliguncula brevis (Mollusca: Cephalopoda) in Brazilian waters: evidence for two species in the Western Atlantic?  

PubMed

Morphological and morphometric variability of the small-sized coastal squid Lolliguncula brevis was assessed along the largest part of its latitudinal range in the southern hemisphere, off the Brazilian coast (8º S - 27º S). A general homogeneity in form was found throughout the entire latitudinal range. In terms of body proportions, no latitudinal gradients were evident, but a few local "morphotypes" could be distinguished. The distinctive egg mass morphology, and size and form features, including a hectocotylus 20-40% longer than the opposing ventral arm and the presence of suckers on the buccal membrane, indicated that Lolliguncula from northern and southern hemispheres might comprise two different taxa. PMID:23207705

Zaleski, Tânia; Perez, José A Angel; Gandara-Martins, Ana Luiza

2012-12-01

297

At the limits of a successful body plan - 3D microanatomy, histology and evolution of Helminthope (Mollusca: Heterobranchia: Rhodopemorpha), the most worm-like gastropod  

PubMed Central

Background Gastropods are among the most diverse animal clades, and have successfully colonized special habitats such as the marine sand interstitial. Specialized meiofaunal snails and slugs are tiny and worm-shaped. They combine regressive features – argued to be due to progenetic tendencies – with convergent adaptations. Microscopic size and concerted convergences make morphological examination non-trivial and hamper phylogenetic reconstructions. The enigmatic turbellarian-like Rhodopemorpha are a small group that has puzzled systematists for over a century. A preliminary molecular framework places the group far closer to the root of Heterobranchia – one of the major gastropod groups – than previously suggested. The poorly known meiofaunal Helminthope psammobionta Salvini-Plawen, 1991 from Bermuda is the most worm-shaped free-living gastropod and shows apparently aberrant aspects of anatomy. Its study may give important clues to understand the evolution of rhodopemorphs among basal heterobranchs versus their previously thought origin among ‘higher’ euthyneuran taxa. Results We describe the 3D-microanatomy of H. psammobionta using three-dimensional digital reconstruction based on serial semithin histological sections. The new dataset expands upon the original description and corrects several aspects. Helminthope shows a set of typical adaptations and regressive characters present in other mesopsammic slugs (called ‘meiofaunal syndrome’ herein). The taxonomically important presence of five separate visceral loop ganglia is confirmed, but considerable further detail of the complex nervous system are corrected and revealed. The digestive and reproductive systems are simple and modified to the thread-like morphology of the animal; the anus is far posterior. There is no heart; the kidney resembles a protonephridium. Data on all organ systems are compiled and compared to Rhodope. Conclusions Helminthope is related to Rhodope sharing unique apomorphies. We argue that the peculiar kidney, configuration of the visceral loop and simplicity or lack of other organs in Rhodopemorpha are results of progenesis. The posterior shift of the anus in Helminthope is interpreted as a peramorphy, i.e. hypertrophy of body length early in ontogeny. Our review of morphological and molecular evidence is consistent with an origin of Rhodopemorpha slugs among shelled ‘lower Heterobranchia’. Previously thought shared ‘diagnostic’ features such as five visceral ganglia are either plesiomorphic or convergent, while euthyneury and a double-rooted cerebral nerve likely evolved independently in Rhodopemorpha and Euthyneura.

2013-01-01

298

Factors affecting the distribution and abundance of the commensal Temnocephala iheringi (Platyhelminthes: Temnocephalidae) among the southernmost populations of the apple snail Pomacea canaliculata (Mollusca: Ampullariidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Temnocephala iheringi is the most common temnocephalan inhabiting the mantle cavity of the apple snail Pomacea canaliculata, a freshwater neotropical gastropod that has become a serious rice pest in Southeastern Asia. T. iheringi has been recorded from Mato Grosso (Brazil) to water bodies associated with the Río de la Plata river (Argentina). During an extensive survey in the southern limit

Pablo R. Martín; Alejandra L. Estebenet; Silvana Burela

2005-01-01

299

State of the population of the European pearl mussel Margaritifera margaritifera (L.) (Mollusca, Margaritiferidae) at the northeastern boundary of its range (Solza River, White Sea Basin)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Only two river basins in which the European pearl mussel has survived to date are known in Arkhangelsk oblast. These are the\\u000a Solza and Kozha basins. The northeastern boundary of the European range of this species passes along the watershed between\\u000a the basins of the Solza and the Shirshema (the Onega Peninsula) and then along the Onega-Northern Dvina watershed. The

Yu. V. Bespalaya; I. N. Bolotov; A. A. Makhrov

2007-01-01

300

Emergence, Development, and Maturity of the Gonad of Two Species of Chitons "Sea Cockroach" (Mollusca: Polyplacophora) through the Early Life Stages  

PubMed Central

This study describes and recognises, using histological and microscopical examinations on a morphometrical basis, several gonad traits through the early life stages of Chiton articulatus and C. albolineatus. Gonadal ontogenesis, gonad development stages, sexual differentiation, onset of the first sexual maturity, and growth sequences or “early life stages” were determined. In addition, allometry between lengths and body weight pooled for both sexes per each chiton were calculated using equation Y?=?aXb. A total of 125 chitons (4?TL?40 mm, in total length “TL”) were used. All allometric relations showed a strong positive correlation (r), close to 1, with b-values above three, indicating an isometric growth. Gonadal ontogenesis and gonad development stages were categorised into three periods (“Pw” without gonad, “Pe” gonad emergence, and “Pf” gonadal sac formed) and four stages (“S0” gametocytogenesis, “S1” gametogenesis, “S2” mature, and “S3” spawning), respectively. Compound digital images were attained for each process. Periods and stages are overlapped among them and between species, with the following overall confidence intervals in TL: Pw 6.13–14.32 mm, Pe 10.32–16.93 mm, Pf 12.99–25.01 mm, S0 16.08–24.34 mm (females) and 19.51–26.60 mm (males), S1 27.15–35.63 mm (females) and 23.45–32.27 mm (males), S2 24.48–40.24 mm (females) and 25.45–32.87 mm (males). Sexual differentiation (in S0) of both chitons occurs first as a female then as a male; although, males reach the onset of the first sexual maturity earlier than females, thus for C. articulatus males at 17 mm and females at 32 mm, and for C. albolineatus males at 23.5 mm and females at 28 mm, all in TL. Four early life stages (i.e., subjuvenile, juvenile, subadult, and adult) are described and proposed to distinguish growth sequences. Our results may be useful to diverse disciplines, from developmental biology to fisheries management.

Avila-Poveda, Omar Hernando; Abadia-Chanona, Quetzalli Yasu

2013-01-01

301

Physiological changes in Lymnaea columella (Say, 1817) (Mollusca, Gastropoda) in response to Echinostoma paraensei Lie and Basch, 1967 (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae) infection.  

PubMed

The physiological interaction between the digenean Echinostoma paraensei larvae and the intermediate snail host Lymnaea columella was studied. The carbohydrate content was significantly altered in the digestive gland tissue of snails, decreasing after 20 days postinfection. At the end of the prepatent period, the carbohydrate content was reduced by 60% when compared to uninfected snails. The total protein was reduced by 80.01% and 76.42% in the hemolymph and digestive gland, respectively. The end products resulting from nitrogen degradation were also analyzed. The urea was significantly increased in both the hemolymph and digestive gland. In the former, the highest concentration was detected at day 10 postinfection and then decreased until the end of the prepatent period. In digestive glands from infected snails, urea was significantly higher than in uninfected ones after 20 days. The uric acid content was reduced by 94.72% in the hemolymph and 43.75% in digestive glands after 10 days postinfection. The ammonia was undetectable under the experimental conditions employed. PMID:19777261

Pinheiro, J; Maldonado Júnior, A; Lanfredi, R M

2009-12-01

302

Effect of crude lipopolysaccharide from Escherichia coli O127:B8 on the amebocyte-producing organ of Biomphalaria glabrata (Mollusca).  

PubMed

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a pathogen associated molecular pattern (PAMP) to which the internal defense system (IDS) of both vertebrates and invertebrates responds. We measured the mitotic response of the hematopoietic tissue of the schistosome-transmitting snail, Biomphalaria glabrata, to crude LPS from Escherichia coli 0127:B8. In a dose-response study, snails were injected with a range of concentrations of crude LPS, and mitotic figures were enumerated in histological sections of amebocyte-producing organ (APO) fixed at 24h post-injection (PI) following a 6h treatment with 0.1% colchicine. In APOs from Salvador strain snails, which are genetically resistant to infection with Schistosoma mansoni, LPS concentrations of 0.01 mg/ml and above triggered a large increase in mitotic activity, whereas in APOs from schistosome-susceptible NIH albino snails, concentrations of 0.1mg/ml elicited a much smaller, but statistically significant increase. A time course study, without colchicine treatment, revealed that in Salvador APOs the mitotic response to 0.1mg/ml occurred by 18 h PI, peaked at 24h, and returned to control levels by 72 h; NIH albino APOs showed no detectible response. When Salvador APOs were exposed to crude LPS in vitro, no increase in mitotic activity occurred, a result suggesting the possible requirement for a peripheral tissue or hemolymph factor. The increased cell proliferation induced by crude LPS represents a novel systemic response of an invertebrate IDS to one or more PAMPs from a Gram-negative bacterium. PMID:21530581

Sullivan, John T; Bulman, Christina A; Salamat, Zahra

2011-11-01

303

Involvement of protein kinase C signalling and mitogen-activated protein kinase in the amebocyte-producing organ of Biomphalaria glabrata (Mollusca).  

PubMed

Mechanisms that regulate hemocyte production in molluscs, at either the organismal or cellular levels, are not well understood. In the present study, 24-h saline cultures of the amebocyte-producing organ (APO) of the schistosome-transmitting snail Biomphalaria glabrata were used to test for the potential involvement of protein kinase C (PKC) signalling in hematopoiesis. Exposure to phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), an activator of PKC, resulted in an increase in the number of dividing hematopoietic cells in APOs from schistosome-resistant Salvador snails. PMA-induced cell division was blocked by treatment with U0126, an inhibitor of the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase, MEK1/2. These results suggest that PKC-induced activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase, ERK1/2, is involved in cell division in the APO. PMID:19183562

Salamat, Zahra; Sullivan, John T

2009-06-01

304

Scanning electron microscopy and molecular characterization of a new Haplosporidium species (Haplosporidia), a parasite of the marine gastropod Siphonaria pectinata (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Siphonariidae) in the Gulf of Mexico.  

PubMed

Based on scanning electron microscopy and the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA), Haplosporidium tuxtlensis n. sp. (Haplosporidia), a parasite found in the visceral tissues of the false limpet Siphonaria pectinata (Linnaeus, 1758), is described. The spores are ellipsoidal (3.61 ± 0.15 µm × 2.69 ± 0.19 µm), with a circular lid (2.94 ± 0.5 µm) representing the operculum. The spore wall bears filaments occurring singly, or in clusters, of 2 to 8, fusing distally. Phylogenetic relationships of H. tuxtlensis n. sp. were assessed with other described species using the SSU rRNA sequence. Haplosporidium tuxtlensis n. sp. is sister taxon to Haplosporidium pickfordi Barrow, 1961. The morphological characteristics (spore wall structure, shape, size, and filament structure) and the unique host identity corroborate it as a new species. Additionally, this is the first record of Haplosporidia infecting striped false limpets in the Gulf of Mexico. PMID:21787213

Vea, Isabelle M; Siddall, Mark E

2011-12-01

305

Annotated type catalogue of the Orthalicoidea (Mollusca, Gastropoda) in the Royal Belgian Institute of Sciences, Brussels, with descriptions of two new species  

PubMed Central

Abstract The type status is described of 57 taxa from the superfamily Orthalicoidea in the collection of the Brussels museum. Two new species are described: Stenostylus perturbatus sp. n., and Suniellus adriani sp. n. New lectotypes are designated for Bulimulus (Naesiotus) amastroides Ancey, 1887; Bulimulus blanfordianus Ancey, 1903; Bulimulus montivagus chacoensis Ancey, 1897; Bulimus coloratus Nyst, 1845; Plecochilus dalmasi Dautzenberg, 1900; Placostylus porphyrostomus elata Dautzenberg, 1923; Bulimulus ephippium Ancey, 1904; Bulimus fulminans Nyst, 1843; Bulimus funckii Nyst, 1843; Orphnus thompsoni lutea Cousin, 1887; Bulimus melanocheilus Nyst, 1845; Orphnus thompsoni nigricans Cousin, 1887; Orphnus thompsoni olivacea Cousin, 1887; Bulimulus pollonerae Ancey, 1897; Orphnus thompsoni zebra Cousin, 1887. New combinations are: Bostryx borellii (Ancey, 1897); Bostryx carandaitiensis (Preston, 1907); Protoglyptus mazei (Crosse, 1874); Kuschelenia (Vermiculatus) sanborni (Haas, 1947). New synonymies are established for the following nominal taxa: Orphnus thompsoni var. lutea Cousin, 1887 = Kara thompsonii (Pfeiffer, 1845); Orphnus thompsoni var. nigricans Cousin, 1887 = Kara thompsonii (Pfeiffer, 1845); Thaumastus nystianus var. nigricans Cousin, 1887 = Drymaeus (Drymaeus) nystianus (Pfeiffer, 1853); Orphnus thompsoni var. olivacea Cousin, 1887 = Kara thompsonii (Pfeiffer, 1845); Orphnus thompsoni var. zebra Cousin, 1887 = Kara thompsonii (Pfeiffer, 1845).

Breure, Abraham S.H.

2011-01-01

306

Mollusca stable isotope record of a core from Lake Frassino, northern Italy: hydrological and climatic changes during the last 14 ka  

Microsoft Academic Search

A core retrieved from Lake Frassino (northern Italy) provided evidence of palaeohydrological change in this area during the last 14 ka. Lithological, malacological and, in particular, stable isotope composition of freshwater shells allowed the delineation of the main phases of lake evolution between the Lateglacial and Holocene. Lateglacial conditions were drier than the Holocene, although a wetter period was inferred

Carlo Baroni; Giovanni Zanchetta; Anthony E. Fallick; Antonio Longinelli

2006-01-01

307

The Complete Mitochondrial Genome of the Land Snail Cornu aspersum (Helicidae: Mollusca): Intra-Specific Divergence of Protein-Coding Genes and Phylogenetic Considerations within Euthyneura  

PubMed Central

The complete sequences of three mitochondrial genomes from the land snail Cornu aspersum were determined. The mitogenome has a length of 14050 bp, and it encodes 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and two ribosomal RNA genes. It also includes nine small intergene spacers, and a large AT-rich intergenic spacer. The intra-specific divergence analysis revealed that COX1 has the lower genetic differentiation, while the most divergent genes were NADH1, NADH3 and NADH4. With the exception of Euhadra herklotsi, the structural comparisons showed the same gene order within the family Helicidae, and nearly identical gene organization to that found in order Pulmonata. Phylogenetic reconstruction recovered Basommatophora as polyphyletic group, whereas Eupulmonata and Pulmonata as paraphyletic groups. Bayesian and Maximum Likelihood analyses showed that C. aspersum is a close relative of Cepaea nemoralis, and with the other Helicidae species form a sister group of Albinaria caerulea, supporting the monophyly of the Stylommatophora clade.

Gaitan-Espitia, Juan Diego; Nespolo, Roberto F.; Opazo, Juan C.

2013-01-01

308

Predominance of a single phylogenetic species in colonization events among a sextet of decollate land snail, Rumina decollata (Mollusca: Pulmonata: Subulinidae), species.  

PubMed

The hermaphroditic, facultatively selfing, land snail Rumina decollata is a common, widespread species that is indigenous to the Mediterranean region and that has been introduced to many other regions of the world. However, recent DNA sequence analyses have indicated that R. decollata is a complex of several phylogenetic species, two of which correspond to previously distinguished allozyme strains with different body colors (light vs. dark) and life history characteristics. Against this background, this paper attempts to identify which of these phylogenetic species have been introduced elsewhere in the world. Based on a comparative DNA sequence analysis of putatively introduced populations from South America, North America, Japan, and the North Atlantic Islands versus native Mediterranean populations, it is shown that all putatively introduced populations belong to a single phylogenetic species that was previously recognized as the dark morph. Hence, the colonizing and invasive character of R. decollata seems to be due to this phylogenetic species. Nevertheless, in its native area the dark morph is supposed to be outcompeted when sympatric with the light morph of R. decollata. This issue is briefly discussed and the Iberian Peninsula is tentatively proposed as an important source for introduced R. decollata populations outside Europe. PMID:24804823

Prévot, Vanya; Jordaens, Kurt; Backeljau, Thierry

2014-03-01

309

On the identities of the molluscan names described in A Short Zoology of Tahiti in the Society Islands by Anthony Curtiss in 1938 (Mollusca: Cephalopoda, Gastropoda).  

PubMed

Anthony Curtiss described two species of cephalopod and nine species of gastropod molluscs from Tahiti. Herein, we discuss and determine the identities of these eleven names. Ten of these names are considered to be junior subjective synonyms of well-known taxa, and one an unavailable name. PMID:24870642

Low, Martyn E Y; Tan, Siong Kiat

2014-01-01

310

On the occurrence of Mytilaster marioni (Locard, 1889) (Mollusca; Bivalvia; Mytilidae) in Bafa Lake (Turkey), with a redescription of the species  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the framework of the study performed in 1997 on the ecological conditions of Bafa Lake and its benthic fauna and flora, a dense population of Mytilaster marioni (Locard, 1889) was observed to have recently colonised the lake. In this study, the ecological changes of the lake induced by a modification of the freshwater inflow, as well as the ecological

Bilal Öztürk; Jean-Maurice Poutiers; Hasan Musa Sari; Murat Özbek

2002-01-01

311

Application of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for studying of reproduction in the Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum (Mollusca: Bivalvia)I. Quantifying eggs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A polyclonal antibody specific to Ruditapes philippinarum egg protein (ME-ab) was developed to quantify clam eggs using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Western blots revealed that ME-ab reacted with egg proteins of molecular masses 475, 84, and 40 kDa under non- reducing conditions and 330, 96, 64, 50, and 31 kDa under reducing conditions. With ELISA, ME-ab detected between 0.23

Kyung-Il Park; Kwang-Sik Choi

2004-01-01

312

Chaetogaster limnaei (Annelida: Oligochaeta) as a parasite of the zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha , and the quagga mussel Dreissena bugensis (Mollusca: Bivalvia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dreissenid mussels, Dreissena polymorpha and D. bugensis, were found to be infected by the naidid oligochaete Chaetogaster limnaei at four sites in the St. Lawrence River. This is the first report of this species infecting dreissenids anywhere in the world.\\u000a Most worms inhabited the mantle cavity, where they caused erosion of the mantle and gill epithelia as determined by histopathological

David Bruce Conn; Anthony Ricciardi; Mohan N. Babapulle; Kristine A. Klein; David A. Rosen

1996-01-01

313

Chaetogaster limnaei (annelida: oligochaeta) as a parasite of the zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha, and the quagga mussel Dreissena bugensis (mollusca: bivalvia).  

PubMed

Dreissenid mussels, Dreissena polymorpha and D. bugensis, were found to be infected by the naidid oligochaete Chaetogaster limnaei at four sites in the St. Lawrence River. This is the first report of this species infecting dreissenids anywhere in the world. Most worms inhabited the mantle cavity, where they caused erosion of the mantle and gill epithelia as determined by histopathological examination. Others penetrated various tissues; one had invaded the ovary and was feeding on oocytes and ovarian tissues. Of 606 mussels examined, 166 (27.4%) harbored at least 1 C. limnaei. The prevalence varied between 1% and 80%, depending on the collection site and date. The worms were slightly but significantly more prevalent in D. bugensis than in D. polymorpha. The intensity ranged from 1 to 18 worms per infected host. Variations in prevalence and intensity were not related to the size or sex of the host, but the data did suggest some seasonality. PMID:8825436

Conn, D B; Ricciardi, A; Babapulle, M N; Klein, K A; Rosen, D A

1996-01-01

314

The late Cenozoic Thiaridae (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Cerithioidea) of the Albertine Rift Valley (Uganda-Congo) and their bearing on the origin and evolution of the Tanganyikan thalassoid malacofauna  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent cerithioid malacofauna of meromictic Lake Tanganyika is unique in its degree of thalassoid convergence with marine molluscs. This is generally considered the result of a long-lasting intensive escalation and cladogenesis caused by a coevolutionary prey–predator interaction in a freshwater ecosystem with sea-like characteristics, i.e. exceptional longevity (ca. 7–12 Ma) and vast dimensions (present surface area: 32?900 km2, present

Dirk Van Damme; Martin Pickford

2003-01-01

315

Association of Atlantic Hydrothermal Mytilids of the Genus Bathymodiolus spp. (Mollusca: Mytilidae) with the Polychaeta Branchipolynoe aff. seepensis (Polychaeta: Polynoidae): Commensalism or Parasitism?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large body of data accumulated during the past 27 years of extensive studies of hydrothermal vent and cold seep communities demonstrated a widespread distribution of symbiotic Polychaeta in these communities all over the Ocean [1]. Although the list of known symbiotic polychaetes includes about 20 species, it is expected to be extended in the future. The hosts of the

T. A. Britaev; E. M. Krylova; T. S. Aksyuk; R. Cosel

2003-01-01

316

Morphological and Genetic Diversity of the Wood-Boring Xylophaga (Mollusca, Bivalvia): New Species and Records from Deep-Sea Iberian Canyons  

PubMed Central

Deep-sea bivalves of the Xylophagaidae, a poorly known group, are obligate wood-borers. Deployment of wood in three submarine canyons off the Iberian coast, the Blanes and La Fonera Canyons (Mediterranean Sea) and the Avilés Canyon (Cantabric Sea, Bay of Biscay), lead to the discovery of four xylophagaid species in our samples. Xylophaga dorsalis (the dominant species), X. atlantica, X. cf. anselli and the new species X. brava, were identified on the basis of morphological data, and supported by a phylogenetic reconstruction based on the nuclear genes 18S rDNA and 28S rDNA and including several genus of Xylophagaidae. Genetic divergence between species of Xylophaga varied between genes, ranging from 0.5 to 4.0% for the 18SrDNA and from 4.1 to 16.6% for the 28SrDNA. Xylophaga brava sp. nov. appeared to be restricted to the Mediterranean and morphologically resembled the closely related X. cf. anselli from the Cantabrian Sea. However, they clearly diverged in two well-supported clades. Low levels of intraspecific variability and higher interspecific divergence between species also supported the existence of these two different species. Morphologically they differ in the number of cirri at the siphon openings, in the shape of the posterior shell and in the size of prodissoconch II. The new species is characterized by having weak, poorly mineralized mesoplax and siphons united throughout, covered by a periostracal, non-calcified tube; distinct proximal and distal siphons, the former translucent and soft, the latter muscular, with concentric rings. Xylophaga atlantica, previously known only from the western Atlantic, is reported for the first time in the Mediterranean Sea. Whether its presence in the Mediterranean indicates its natural distribution or reflects its recent introduction is unknown. Although xylophagaids have been previously reported to recruit heavily to wood deposited on the seabed, these four species colonized wood suspended 30 m above the seafloor.

Romano, Chiara; Voight, Janet Ruth; Perez-Portela, Rocio; Martin, Daniel

2014-01-01

317

Population structure, biomass and production of the West African lucinid Keletistes rhizoecus (Bivalvia, Mollusca) in Sivibilagbara swamp at Bodo Creek, Niger Delta, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The West African lucinid bivalve Keletistes rhizoecus (Oliver, Basteria 50:47–64, 1986) is only known from the Niger Delta in Nigeria. Due to inaccessibility of its habitat population biology, growth parameters,\\u000a biomass, and annual secondary production are unknown. The danger of oil pollution threatens the localities where this species\\u000a occurs. Hence, ecological characteristics of the species were investigated quantitatively from May

N. Zabbey; A. I. Hart; W. J. Wolff

2010-01-01

318

The formation of the pronuclei and their associated perinuclear cytoplasm; the determination of the phases of the first cleavage cycles in Crepidula fornicata (Mollusca, Gastropoda)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The behaviour of the male and the female pronuclei in Crepidula fornicata is studied, beginning at the formation of the second polar body. Shortly after the extrusion of the second polar body the female pronucleus is formed, and then the male pronucleus enters the yolk-free cytoplasm near the animal pole. Both pronuclei are enveloped by a typical nuclear membrane, and

V. Labordus; R. N. Hooftman; U. P. van der Wal

1986-01-01

319

The complete mitochondrial genome of the land snail Cornu aspersum (Helicidae: Mollusca): intra-specific divergence of protein-coding genes and phylogenetic considerations within Euthyneura.  

PubMed

The complete sequences of three mitochondrial genomes from the land snail Cornu aspersum were determined. The mitogenome has a length of 14050 bp, and it encodes 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and two ribosomal RNA genes. It also includes nine small intergene spacers, and a large AT-rich intergenic spacer. The intra-specific divergence analysis revealed that COX1 has the lower genetic differentiation, while the most divergent genes were NADH1, NADH3 and NADH4. With the exception of Euhadra herklotsi, the structural comparisons showed the same gene order within the family Helicidae, and nearly identical gene organization to that found in order Pulmonata. Phylogenetic reconstruction recovered Basommatophora as polyphyletic group, whereas Eupulmonata and Pulmonata as paraphyletic groups. Bayesian and Maximum Likelihood analyses showed that C. aspersum is a close relative of Cepaea nemoralis, and with the other Helicidae species form a sister group of Albinaria caerulea, supporting the monophyly of the Stylommatophora clade. PMID:23826260

Gaitán-Espitia, Juan Diego; Nespolo, Roberto F; Opazo, Juan C

2013-01-01

320

Prevalence of a protozoan parasite Cristigera sp. (Ciliophora:Ciliatea) from edible oysters (Mollusca:Bivalvia) of Sundarbans, West Bengal, India.  

PubMed

The coastal region of West Bengal is bestowed with a wide range of natural forest and aquatic resources. The estuarine complex is a culmination of the interaction of land, sea and freshwater. It offers diverse specialised habitats such as mangroves, non vegetated mudflats, inter tidal zones and reclaimed areas. Such areas are home to a number of terrestrial, freshwater and marine communities. Edible oyster resources in these regions are Crassostrea gryphoides and Saccostrea cucullata, which are the keystone species found in the intertidal zone and can tolerate huge variation of salinity. These are used as food by local people and marketed to earn cash. The population of this species has been declined due to parasitic infection and pollution. There are many protozoan parasites which infect these oysters causing diseases. During survey period, a protozoan parasite of the genus Cristigera have been observed only from the edible oyster Crassostrea gryphoides collected from Kaikhali and Frasergunj among three selected sites namely Kaikhali, Frasergunj and Digha of West Bengal mainly during monsoon and post-monsoon season. Considering such rare and specific prevalence of Cristigera sp, it may be considered as potential bio-indicator. PMID:25035589

Biswas, Tanima; Bandyopadhyay, Probir Kumar

2014-09-01

321

Phylogeny of selected Sepiidae (Mollusca, Cephalopoda) based on 12S, 16S, and COI sequences, with comments on the taxonomic reliability of several morphological characters.  

PubMed

Phylogenetic relationships among 11 species of sepiids from Japanese waters and Sepia officinalis from Mediterranean were studied using partial sequences of the mitochondrial 12S rRNA, 16S rRNA, and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I genes. These three genes had been analyzed in an Atlantic species S. elagans and was obtained from database. In the two-gene set analysis (16S+COI), sequence data of another 4 species were added from database. We also studied morphological characters of radulae, tentacular clubs, and cuttlebones. The molecular phylogeny was not congruent with relationships detected by the number of rows in radulae and the arrangement of suckers on the tentacular club. As to the cuttlebone shape, the molecular phylogeny suggests the separation of two groups, Doratosepion species with a lanceolate cuttlebone and the others with a broad cuttlebone. Our molecular phylogenetic study revealed these sepiids are separated into four clades. The first clade includes Sepia officinalis, S. hierrendda, S. bertheloti, S. pharaonis and Sepiella japonica. The second clade consists of S. latimanus and Metasepia tullbergi from sub-tropical waters. The third clade includes Sepia esculenta, S. madokai, S. aculeata and S. lycidas, which have a cuttlebone with a prominent spine. The fourth clade consists of Doratosepion species complex, S. kobiensis, S. lorigera, S. pardex, S. peterseni, and S. sp., which are characterized by a narrow cuttlebone with a distinct outer cone at the posterior end. The lack of membranous structures in the cuttlebone is a synapomorphy for this clade. S. elegans did not clearly belong to any of these clades and might represent the fifth clade. PMID:16702767

Yoshida, Masa-aki; Tsuneki, Kazuhiko; Furuya, Hidetaka

2006-04-01

322

Molecular phylogeny of coleoid cephalopods (Mollusca: Cephalopoda) using a multigene approach; the effect of data partitioning on resolving phylogenies in a Bayesian framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

The resolution of higher level phylogeny of the coleoid cephalopods (octopuses, squids, and cuttlefishes) has been hindered by homoplasy among morphological characters in conjunction with a very poor fossil record. Initial molecular studies, based primarily on small fragments of single mitochondrial genes, have produced little resolution of the deep relationships amongst coleoid cephalopod families. The present study investigated this issue

Jan Strugnell; Mark Norman; Jennifer Jackson; Alexei J. Drummond; Alan Cooper

2005-01-01

323

Molecular phylogeny of coleoid cephalopods (Mollusca: Cephalopoda) using a multigene approach; the effect of data partitioning on resolving phylogenies in a Bayesian framework.  

PubMed

The resolution of higher level phylogeny of the coleoid cephalopods (octopuses, squids, and cuttlefishes) has been hindered by homoplasy among morphological characters in conjunction with a very poor fossil record. Initial molecular studies, based primarily on small fragments of single mitochondrial genes, have produced little resolution of the deep relationships amongst coleoid cephalopod families. The present study investigated this issue using 3415 base pairs (bp) from three nuclear genes (octopine dehydrogenase, pax-6, and rhodopsin) and three mitochondrial genes (12S rDNA, 16S rDNA, and cytochrome oxidase I) from a total of 35 species (including representatives of each of the higher level taxa). Bayesian analyses were conducted on mitochondrial and nuclear genes separately and also all six genes together. Separate analyses were conducted with the data partitioned by gene, codon/rDNA, gene+codon/rDNA or not partitioned at all. In the majority of analyses partitioning the data by gene+codon was the appropriate model with partitioning by codon the second most selected model. In some instances the topology varied according to the model used. Relatively high posterior probabilities and high levels of congruence were present between the topologies resulting from the analysis of all Octopodiform (octopuses and vampire "squid") taxa for all six genes, and independently for the datasets of mitochondrial and nuclear genes. In contrast, the highest levels of resolution within the Decapodiformes (squids and cuttlefishes) resulted from analysis of nuclear genes alone. Different higher level Decapodiform topologies were obtained through the analysis of only the 1st+2nd codon positions of nuclear genes and of all three codon positions. It is notable that there is strong evidence of saturation among the 3rd codon positions within the Decapodiformes and this may contribute spurious signal. The results suggest that the Decapodiformes may have radiated earlier and/or had faster rates of evolution than the Octopodiformes. The following taxonomic conclusions are drawn from our analyses: (1) the order Octopoda and suborders Cirrata, Incirrata, and Oegopsida are monophyletic groups; (2) the family Spirulidae (Ram's horn squids) are the sister taxon to the family Sepiidae (cuttlefishes); (3) the family Octopodidae, as currently defined, is paraphyletic; (4) the superfamily Argonautoidea are basal within the suborder Incirrata; and (5) the benthic octopus genera Benthoctopus and Enteroctopus are sister taxa. PMID:15935706

Strugnell, Jan; Norman, Mark; Jackson, Jennifer; Drummond, Alexei J; Cooper, Alan

2005-11-01

324

Description of two new species of Rissoella Gray, 1847 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Heterobranchia) from Venezuela, with a key to the Caribbean species known for the genus  

PubMed Central

Abstract Two new species of the genus Rissoella Gray, 1847 are described from Venezuela, one from the National Park Morrocoy, Rissoella morrocoyensis sp. n. and the other from the Wildlife Refuge Isla de Aves, Rissoella venezolanicola sp. n. Rissoella morrocoyensis sp. n. has a deep umbilicus (partly closed), preumbilical cord, black head, hypobranchial gland marked by a pale yellow boomerang-shaped ribbon and it lives on the leaves of the seagrass Thalassia testudinum Banks & König, 1805. Rissoella venezolanicola sp. n. has an angled preumbilical cord which extends to the columella delimiting a trapezoid, a hypobranchial gland marked by a yellow quaver-shaped ribbon and protoconch with fuchsia highlights. It lives on the brown alga Dictyota spp. The records of Rissoella in the Caribbean are revised and illustrations, a comparative table and a key to the Caribbean species known for the genus are provided.

Caballer, Manuel; Ortea, Jesus; Narciso, Samuel

2011-01-01

325

Effect of salinity and temperature on feeding physiology and scope for growth of an invasive species ( Brachidontes pharaonis - MOLLUSCA: BIVALVIA) within the Mediterranean sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Indo-Pacific mytilid Brachidontes pharaonis (Bivalvia, Fischer 1870) offers an excellent model for the study of “Lessepsian migration” and the successive colonization at new Mediterranean locations. This species in out competing indigenous bivalves is particularly well adapted to Mediterranean conditions and this is likely due to biological characteristics and physio-ecological plasticity. In the present paper, we report on clearance rate

G. Sarà; C. Romano; J. Widdows

2008-01-01

326

[Effect of excretion-secretion products of some fouling species on the biochemical parameters of blue mussel Mytilus edulis L. (Mollusca: Bivalvia) in the White Sea].  

PubMed

The effect of excretion-secretion products (ESP) of five abundant fouling invertebrate species (bivalve mollusks Hiatella arctica and Mytilus edulis, solitary ascidia Styela rustica, sponge Halichondria panicea, and sea starAsterias rubens, inhabiting the White Sea) on the biochemical status of blue mussel M. edulis was assessed by the dynamics of lysosomal enzymes activity (nucleases, glycoside hydrolases, and cathepsins). ESP of conspecific species had no effect on the metabolism of the mollusks of this species. ESP of A. rubens, S. rustica, and H. panicea activated the same enzymes. First, acid RNase and glycoside hydrolases activity increased, but in different ways. The metabolites of H. arctica affected the activity of proteometabolism enzymes. PMID:22292287

Skidchenko, V S; Vysotskaia, R U; Krupnova, M Iu; Khalaman, V V

2011-01-01

327

A potential species-specific molecular marker suggests interspecific hybridization between sibling species Littorina arcana and L. saxatilis (Mollusca, Caenogastropoda) in natural populations.  

PubMed

Three sister species of rough periwinkles, viz. Littorina saxatilis (Olivi 1792), L. arcana (Hannaford Ellis 1978) and L. compressa (Jeffreys 1865) from the Barents Sea (Russia), the White Sea (Russia) and the Norwegian Sea (Norway) were studied. The identification of two sibling species L. saxatilis and L. arcana is often difficult as both species have extremely similar shell morphology and reproductive systems. Only mature females can be unambiguously distinguished, with a jelly gland present in female L. arcana, but which is replaced by a brood pouch containing developing embryos in L. saxatilis. No clear-cut diagnostic features have been found to discriminate between males or juveniles of the two species. The very first diagnostic DNA marker (DNA fragment A2.8, 271 bp length) for L. arcana and L. saxatilis separation was developed. The marker was derived from apparently species-specific L. arcana DNA fragments obtained via Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. This fragment was cloned and sequenced, whereupon specific primers were designed and the amplification was surveyed in a large number of morphologically well-identified females of both species. Subsequently, the specific DNA marker was used for the identification of male L. arcana and partners in copulating pairs. In this way, we obtained evidence of possible interspecific hybridization between the sibling species L. arcana and L. saxatilis living in sympatry in natural populations: the presence of A2.8 fragment in 12% of morphologically well identified L. saxatilis females and its absence in 14% of morphologically well identified L. arcana females. The A2.8 fragment never amplified in L. saxatilis from sites without L. arcana. The A2.8 fragment did not amplify in L. compressa, not even in microsympatric populations, and we did not observe interspecific copulations between L. arcana and L. compressa. PMID:19690967

Mikhailova, Natalia A; Gracheva, Yulia A; Backeljau, Thierry; Granovitch, Andrey I

2009-12-01

328

[Freshwater Pearl mussels of the genus Margaritifera (Mollusca: Bivalvia) described as M. elongata (Lamarck, 1819) and M. borealis (Westerlund, 1871) should be classified with M. margaritifera (Linnaeus, 1758)].  

PubMed

The shells of Pearl mussels from the basins of the Solza, Keret', and Umba rivers flowing into the White Sea have been measured to determine the ratio of shell convexity to its maximum height. This ratio is the main character that, according to Bogatov et al. (2003), allows one to distinguish between three species of the genus Margaritifera: M. margaritifera, M. elongata, and M. borealis. It has been found that the above ratio gradually increases as the shell grows. Therefore, this character is unsuitable for species diagnosis, the more so that no hiatus in it between the three forms of pearl mussels has been revealed in any of the samples studied. On this basis, it may be concluded that Northern Europe, including Russia, is inhabited by only one species of pearl mussels, M. margaritifera. PMID:18491570

Sergeeva, I S; Bolotov, I N; Bespalaia, Iu V; Makhrov, A A; Bukhanova, A L; Artamonova, V S

2008-01-01

329

"Familias: Preparando La Nueva Generación": A Randomized Control Trial Testing the Effects on Positive Parenting Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: This article reports the effects of a culturally grounded parenting intervention to strengthen positive parenting practices. Method: The intervention was designed and tested with primarily Mexican origin parents in a large urban setting of the southwestern United States using an ecodevelopmental approach. Parents (N = 393) were…

Marsiglia, Flavio F.; Williams, Lela Rankin; Ayers, Stephanie L.; Booth, Jaime M.

2014-01-01

330

Tecnologias mas nuevas para la seguridad escolar (Newer Technologies for School Security). ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This digest in Spanish describes several technologies that can be used to control access to, and improve surveillance of, school grounds. Access can be controlled by using "smart" cards to control keyed entries. Many schools have problems with multiple copies of keys, and these card systems are integrated with computer software that allows for…

Schneider, Tod

331

A Model for Improving Rural Schools: Escuela Nueva in Colombia and Guatemala.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A Colombian model of rural elementary education has increased student achievement. Basic characteristics are active learning, structured yet flexible and multifaceted nature, extensive training and support for teachers, and opportunities for meaningful involvement of students, teachers, and community members. A Guatemalan reform based on the model…

Kline, Rachel

2000-01-01

332

Nueva Publicacion Habla de las Necesidades de los Sobrevivientes de cancer Latinos y sus Familias  

Cancer.gov

Esta publicación gratuita combina la información más actual de los profesionales de la salud con anécdotas personales de sobrevivientes de cáncer latinos, sobre cómo enfrentarse a la vida después del tratamiento del cáncer

333

AMENAZAS Y NUEVAS ESTRATEGIAS DEL COMERCIO DE CENTRO URBANO. EL CASO  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent decades, Spanish cities have developed in a fashion hitherto unknown. One of the most important agents is trade, because trade has the propensity to determine the structure of the territory as well as contributing to the renovation, reduction or expansion of its urban areas. The city of Alicante presents us with a good example of how a tertiary

DE ALICANTE

334

Hacia la hipertelevisión. Los primeros síntomas de una nueva configuración del dispositivo televisivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article proposes a first map of the transformations that are shaping television since the diffusion of the new interactive media. If we think that the new textualities coexist with the traditional ones inside the same media ecology, it could be pertinent to analyze the contaminations between them. The television of the XXIst century is speaking to audiences formed in

Carlos Scolari

335

Nuevas Tendencias en la Ensenanza de las Ciencias (New Trends in Science Education).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The concern for improving science education in Latin America is reflected in this document compiled by UNESCO offices in Chile, Uruguay, and Paris with financial support from UNICEF, and directed to Latin American science teachers. The first part deals with planning the reforms needed in science education and the practical considerations involved.…

Oficina Regional de Educacion de la Unesco para America Latina y el Caribe, Santiago (Chile).

336

Nuevas Horizontes en la Ensenanza Superior (New Horizons in Higher Education).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The series of pamphlets was published in 1966 by the U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare to bring experience and research findings to bear on the debate on how to improve education practices and results. Translated six years later, the pamphl...

1972-01-01

337

Su Nueva Vida en los Estados Unidos. (Your New Life in the United States).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An illustrated guide to aspects of life in the United States is presented in Spanish for recent Hispanic arrivals. The guidelines address such topics as resettlement agencies, community relations and national customs, the U.S. government, local and long distance transport, mail and telephone communication systems, employment practices, the…

Escobar, Vivian; And Others

338

Nuevas Actividades Exportadoras en Brasil: Ventaja Comparativa, Políticas o Auto-Descubrimiento?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este documento examina los hallazgos de Brasil en la exportación de aviones, teléfonos celulares y carne de cerdo. Todos los casos confirman la importancia que tienen el aumento de la eficacia y los costos irrecuperables en la expansión de las exportaciones y llevan a las siguientes conclusiones: la política económica y la ventaja comparativa desempeñaron un papel importante en la

Armando Castelar Pinneiro; Regis Bonelli

2008-01-01

339

La actuación pública para el fomento de nuevas empresas Hacia un enfoque de política económica  

Microsoft Academic Search

A lo largo de este trabajo abordaremos la tarea de analizar el perfil de las distintas actuaciones y la potencial existencia de una política econó- mica específica de creación de empresas, tras lo que trataremos de esta- blecer, en su caso, una posible estructura de la misma. Para alcanzar sen- dos propósitos intentaremos: revisar las líneas generales de los diferentes

José Antonio; Belso Martínez

340

"Escuela Nueva" in Spain: Origins and Implications in Teacher Professional Development for the 21st Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During the Spanish Second Republican government (April 1931-July 1939), there was an institutional initiative in the country called "Misiones Pedagogicas", deeply based in the early Deweyan conception of Progressive Education. The aim of this project was bringing access to culture, entertainment and some sort of progress to rural areas…

Jorrin Abellan, Ivan M.; Villagra Sobrino, Sara L.; Garcia Sastre, Sara

2013-01-01

341

NUEVAS CITAS DE BLASTOCLADIALES (CHYTRIDIOMYCOTA) EN AMBIENTES CONTAMINADOS DE ENSENADA (BUENOS AIRES, ARGENTINA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Steciow, M. M., L. A. Elíades, & A. M. Arambarri. 2001. New records of Blastocladiales (Chytridiomycota) from polluted environments of Ensenada (Buenos Aires, Argentina). Darwiniana 39(3-4): 231-237. Three new records for Argentina of saprotrophic Chytridiomycota found in polluted environments of Ensenada: Blastocladia incrassata, B. sparrowii and B. tenuis (Blastocladiales, Chytridiomycetes) are described.

MÓNICA M. STECIOW; LORENA A. ELÍADES; ANGÉLICA M. ARAMBARRI

342

Nueva opción de tratamiento para mujeres jóvenes con cáncer de seno sensible a las hormonas  

Cancer.gov

Un fármaco usado para el tratamiento del cáncer de seno (mama), conocido como exemestano, es más eficaz que tamoxifeno, un fármaco preventivo de uso común para el cáncer de seno, en la prevención de la recidiva del cáncer de seno en mujeres jóvenes que también reciben tratamiento posoperativo para suprimir el funcionamiento ovárico. Los resultados de este estudio se presentaron en mujeres que tenían un tipo de cáncer de seno en estadio inicial sensible al tratamiento hormonal.

343

Algunos problemas de la tintura de la lana y sus nuevas técnicas  

Microsoft Academic Search

La introducción de la Marca Lana en la industria lanera ha planteado algunos problemas a los tintoreros. Estos problemas son siempre los mismos. Algunos tintoreros los han resuelto con éxito, y otros están en camino de hallar la solución. No obstante, dado que estos problemas son prácticamente comunes a todos, expondré algunas posibilidades que permiten generalmente mejorar los procedimientos de

A Iancovici

1970-01-01

344

Magnificación de espermatozoides: una nueva visión del factor masculino en reproducción asistida  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, several studies have analyzed spermatozoa using high magnification microscopy. All these studies have found a clear link between the presence of vacuoles in the head of spermatozoa and pregnancy and abortion rates, as well as an increase in the percentage of DNA fragmentation. Indeed, sperm morphology and the presence or absence of nuclear vacuoles seems to reflect

Olga Cairó Doncos; Laura Prats Ruiz; Sergio Rovira Fontanals; María Rodríguez Agüera; Arturo Brassesco Macazzaga; Felipe del Río Bueno; Ana Monqaut; Gemma López Granollers; Mario Brassesco Macazzaga

2010-01-01

345

Modelado de las Distribuciones Espectrales de Energía de tres nuevas estrellas jóvenes de tipo FU Orionis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work we present the modeling of the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of three protostellar objects of the FU Orionis type, for which an outburst was observed in the last two years. We applied the code developed by Whitney et al. (ApJ 591, 1049, 2003) to model the SEDs. We derived physical and geometric parameters for each object, which agree with those previously obtained for other FU Orionis type stars. Furthermore, the three objects were studied in their stages of high and low activity. Our results suggest that the disk plays a key role in the outburst event, which is reflected in an increase of at least one order of magnitude of the mass accretion rate from the disk to the central object, with respect to the low activity period. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

Gramajo, L. V.; Rodón, J.; Gómez, M.; Whitney, B.

346

Nueva aproximación a eventos de formación repentina de cúmulos estelares en la Nube Mayor de Magallanes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the results on the age estimates of 36 Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) clusters obtained for the first time from CCD Washington CT1 T2 photometry. By using the (T1 ,C - T1 ) and (T1 , T1 - T2 ) diagrams, we esti- mated ages for the cluster sample using the T1 index. We confirm that the studied cluster sample belongs to the 2 Gyr bursting formation epoch of the LMC. Furthermore, when rebuilding the cluster age distribution -taking into account the estimated age errors- we found that the number of clusters with ages between 1-3 Gyr now doubles that of the known bursting cluster population, which suggests that the tidal interaction between both Magel- lanic Clouds and, perhaps, also the Milky Way, was stronger than expected. A detailed version of this work can be seen in Piatti (2011, MNRAS, 418, L40). FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

Piatti, A. E.

347

The 'other faunivory' revisited: Insectivory in human and non-human primates and the evolution of human diet.  

PubMed

The role of invertebrates in the evolution of human diet has been under-studied by comparison with vertebrates and plants. This persists despite substantial knowledge of the importance of the 'other faunivory', especially insect-eating, in the daily lives of non-human primates and traditional human societies, especially hunters and gatherers. Most primates concentrate on two phyla, Mollusca and Arthropoda, but of the latter's classes, insects (especially five orders: Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, Isoptera, Lepidoptera, Orthoptera) are paramount. An insect product, bees' honey, is particularly important, and its collection shows a reversal of the usual sexual division of labor. Human entomophagy involves advanced technology (fire, containers) and sometimes domestication. Insectivory provides comparable calorific and nutritional benefits to carnivory, but with different costs. Much insectivory in hominoids entails elementary technology used in extractive foraging, such as termite fishing by chimpanzees. Elucidating insectivory in the fossil and paleontological record is challenging, but at least nine avenues are available: remains, lithics, residues, DNA, coprolites, dental microwear, stable isotopes, osteology, and depictions. All are in play, but some have been more successful so far than others. PMID:24560030

McGrew, William C

2014-06-01

348

The effect of copper salts on ovulation, especially on hypothalamic ovulatory hormone releasing factor.  

PubMed

In this study the influence of copper salts on the hypothalamic ovulatory hormone releasing factor was studied in vivo. 321 healthy adult female rabbits were used. 85 mcg of estradiol-17-beta-benzoate dissolved in 1 ml of sesame oil was injected intramuscularly for 2 days. Absence of ovulation and an active corpus luteum were confirmed by laparotomy. (For the measurement of LH rats were injected with 1000 IU of PMS and 64 hours later with 50 IU of HCG subcutaneously. Bioassay was conducted 7 days after the HCG injection. For the gonadotropin, the Teikoku Zoki preparation which contains 1000 IU in one ampule as HCG preparation and Serotropin which contains 1000 IU in one ampule as PMS preparation were used. NIH-LH-S-four was used as the standard LH.) The crude hypothalamic extract was prepared from the hypothalamus of freshly sacrificed rabbits by the Nikitovitch-Winer method and homogenized with .5% acetic acid at 0 degrees C. .05 ml of 1% cupric sulfate was added to one sample and similarly homogenized. As controls .2%, 1%, and 5% cupric sulfate solutions were mixed with cerebral cortex tissue and centrifuged, boiled, and stored frozen in the same manner. For the study, rabbits pretreated with 100 mcg of estrogen for 2 days were sacrificed at intervals from 30 minutes to 12 hours after the iv. The hypothalamus was removed and the presence or absence of ovulation was noted. Crude hypothalamic extract was injected into the pituitary and the increase of the rate of ovulation noted as the concentration of the extract rose. Injection into the pituitary of the crude hypothalamic extract prepared in the presence of copper caused a pronounced increase in the rate of ovulation. The increase was proportional to the increase in the concentration of copper and greater than after the extract without the copper. Ovulation after injection of the hypothalam ic extract was greatest when prepared within 1 hour after iv injection of cupric sulfate but no ovulation occurred when the extract was prepared 12 hours later. Findings suggest that induction of ovulation through the action of copper is on the ovulatory hormone release factor probably present around the median eminence of the hypothalamus. PMID:4648397

Suzuki, M; Tnemoto, Y; Takahashi, K

1972-09-01

349

Empleo de blanco de calcoflúor para el estudio de las especies de Malassezia por microscopía directa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of calcofluor white for identification of Malassezia species. Fungi of Malassezia genus are known as normal flora in human beings. However, different pathologies due to Malassezia, have been described. Traditionally, early diagnosis was delayed because of the difficulties in culture isolation of these organisms. The aim of this work, is to evaluate the technique of observation microscopy with

L. RAMOS; S. MELLADO; S. RAMADÁN; L. BULACIO; C. LÓPEZ

350

La ecología de Egeria densa Planchon (Liliopsida: Alismatales): ¿Una especie ingeniera de humedales?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Egeria densa Planchon is considered an invasive species in continental aquatic systems in Chile. Its original geographical distribution was limited to the subtropical regions of Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay. Its fast growth and dense canopy-forming habit are associated with the clear water state of shallow water continental ecosystems. As a dominant species in many of the systems in which it

MATTHEW YARROW; VÍCTOR H. MARÍN; MAX FINLAYSON; ANTONIO TIRONI; LUISA E. DELGADO; FERNANDA FISCHER

351

Richness of lichen species, especially of threatened ones, is promoted by management methods furthering stand continuity.  

PubMed

Lichens are a key component of forest biodiversity. However, a comprehensive study analyzing lichen species richness in relation to several management types, extending over different regions and forest stages and including information on site conditions is missing for temperate European forests. In three German regions (Schwäbische Alb, Hainich-Dün, Schorfheide-Chorin), the so-called Biodiversity Exploratories, we studied lichen species richness in 631 forest plots of 400 m(2) comprising different management types (unmanaged, selection cutting, deciduous and coniferous age-class forests resulting from clear cutting or shelterwood logging), various stand ages, and site conditions, typical for large parts of temperate Europe. We analyzed how lichen species richness responds to management and habitat variables (standing biomass, cover of deadwood, cover of rocks). We found strong regional differences with highest lichen species richness in the Schwäbische Alb, probably driven by regional differences in former air pollution, and in precipitation and habitat variables. Overall, unmanaged forests harbored 22% more threatened lichen species than managed age-class forests. In general, total, corticolous, and threatened lichen species richness did not differ among management types of deciduous forests. However, in the Schwäbische-Alb region, deciduous forests had 61% more lichen species than coniferous forests and they had 279% more threatened and 76% more corticolous lichen species. Old deciduous age classes were richer in corticolous lichen species than young ones, while old coniferous age-classes were poorer than young ones. Overall, our findings highlight the importance of stand continuity for conservation. To increase total and threatened lichen species richness we suggest (1) conserving unmanaged forests, (2) promoting silvicultural methods assuring stand continuity, (3) conserving old trees in managed forests, (4) promoting stands of native deciduous tree species instead of coniferous plantations, and (5) increasing the amount of deadwood in forests. PMID:23383196

Boch, Steffen; Prati, Daniel; Hessenmöller, Dominik; Schulze, Ernst-Detlef; Fischer, Markus

2013-01-01

352

Liquid crystal devices especially for use in liquid crystal point diffraction interferometer systems  

DOEpatents

Liquid crystal point diffraction interferometer (LCPDI) systems that can provide real-time, phase-shifting interferograms that are useful in the characterization of static optical properties (wavefront aberrations, lensing, or wedge) in optical elements or dynamic, time-resolved events (temperature fluctuations and gradients, motion) in physical systems use improved LCPDI cells that employ a "structured" substrate or substrates in which the structural features are produced by thin film deposition or photo resist processing to provide a diffractive element that is an integral part of the cell substrate(s). The LC material used in the device may be doped with a "contrast-compensated" mixture of positive and negative dichroic dyes.

Marshall, Kenneth L. (Rochester, NY) [Rochester, NY

2009-02-17

353

INFORMACIÓN SOBRE LA DISTRIBUCIÓN DE ALGUNAS ESPECIES DE AVES DE ECUADOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

New records or confirmation of recently reported distributional range extensions or altitudinal movements are given or 14 species of birds from Ecuador: Cairina moschata, Netta erythrophthalma, Leucopternis semiplumbeus, Forpus coelestis, Crotophaga sulcirostris, Eriocnemis mosquera, Furnarius cinnamomeus, Pseudocolaptes boissonneautii, Phlegopsis nigromaculata, Querula purpurata, Cyclarhis gujanensis, Progne subis, Haplospiza rustica y Carduelis olivacea. The new records and their releva nce to the

Diego F. Cisneros-Heredia

354

PCR Assay in Silico Evaluation for Especially Dangerous Pathogen Detection and Diagnosis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) assays have been developed and applied extensively for pathogen detection and infectious disease diagnosis. We have previously observed that a high percentage of assays developed for specific pathogenic microbial species or...

H. Cui J. Gans N. Doggett

2011-01-01

355

Coupled Metabolic and Photolytic Pathway for Degradation of Pyridinedicarboxylic Acids, Especially Dipicolinic Acid  

PubMed Central

Three isomers of pyridinedicarboxylic acid (PDCA) (2,3-, 2,5-, and 2,6-PDCA) were partially oxidized by marine bacteria when grown aerobically on the corresponding phthalate analogs. The metabolites, unlike the parent PDCAs, absorbed light in the solar actinic range (wavelengths greater than 300 nm) and were readily degraded in sunlight. The principal product from 2,6-PDCA (dipicolinic acid) metabolism was extracted from a culture fluid, purified by column chromatography, and analyzed by UV-visible, infrared, and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The compound was identified as 2,3-dihydroxypicolinic acid (2,3-DHPA). 2,3-DHPA was photolyzed in aqueous solution (pH 8.0) with a half-life of 100 min. Eight photoproducts, three of which were photolabile, were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography. Ammonia was also photoproduced from 2,3-DHPA. Analysis of the photoproducts by UV-visible spectroscopy and by high-performance liquid chromatography of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazones indicated that the products were conjugated carbonyls and carboxylic acids. Six of the photoproducts were readily consumed by bacterial strain CC9M. In illuminated aquatic environments, coupled bio- and photodegradative mechanisms probably contribute to the degradation of PDCAs.

Amador, Jose A.; Taylor, Barrie F.

1990-01-01

356

Materials science research in rockets, especially in the fields of fluid physics and of metallic dispersions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ground and rocket experiments in fluid physics are reviewed. The shape of liquid interfaces, the liquid motion due to wetting and thermal interface convection, and diffusion growth and coagulation are considered. The impact of these effects on the separation of immiscible metallic alloys is discussed.

D. Langbein

1985-01-01

357

Missouri Professional School Counselors: Ratios Matter, Especially in High-Poverty Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Results link lower student-to-school-counselor ratios to better graduation rates and lower disciplinary incidents across Missouri high schools. An interaction favorable for promoting student success in school was found between increasing percentages of students receiving free or reduced-price lunch and smaller student-to-school-counselor ratios.…

Lapan, Richard T.; Gysbers, Norman C.; Stanley, Bragg; Pierce, Margaret E.

2012-01-01

358

Wastewater Treatment in Textile, Tanneries and Electroplating Industries especially by Activated Sludge Method A technical report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our biosphere is under constant threat from continuing environmental pollution. Impact on its atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere by anthropogenic activities can not be ignored. Man made activities on water by domestic, industrial, agriculture, shipping, radio-active, aquaculture wastes; on air by industrial pollutants, mobile combustion, burning of fuels, agricultural activities, ionization radiation, cosmic radiation, suspended particulate matter; and on land by

Muhammad Irfan; Mahmood Saleem; R. U. Khan

359

[Coriolus versicolor--innovation in prevention of oncogynecological diseases, especially HPV].  

PubMed

Coriolus-MRL is a nutrient adjuvant, which contains biomass of the fungus Coriolus versicolor and is studied to reverse early stages of cervical cancer and to reduce risk factors of reoccurring HPV virus. PMID:19449722

Bogdanova, J

2008-01-01

360

Carcinogenicity and Metabolism of Azo Dyes, Especially Those Derived from Benzidine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Studies on the sites of carcinogenic action of benzidine (92875) in man and experimental animals, benzidine metabolism, azo compounds metabolism, and the epidemiological experience of industries using azo dyestuffs are reviewed. Industrial hygiene surveys...

M. Boeniger

1980-01-01

361

A Review of Non-Cancer Effects, Especially Circulatory and Ocular Diseases1  

PubMed Central

There is a well-established association between high doses (> 5 Gy) of ionizing radiation exposure and damage to the heart and coronary arteries, although only recently have studies with high quality individual dosimetry been conducted that would enable quantification of this risk adjusting for concomitant chemotherapy. The association between lower dose exposures and late occurring circulatory disease has only recently begun to emerge in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors and in various occupationally-exposed cohorts, and is still controversial. Excess relative risks per unit dose in moderate and low dose epidemiological studies are somewhat variable, possibly a result of confounding and effect modification by well known (but unobserved) risk factors. Radiation doses of 1 Gy or more are associated with increased risk of posterior subcapsular cataract. Accumulating evidence from the Japanese atomic bomb survivors, Chernobyl liquidators, US astronauts and various other exposed groups suggest that cortical cataracts may also be associated with ionizing radiation, although there is little evidence that nuclear cataracts are radiogenic. The dose response appears to be linear, although modest thresholds (of no more than about 0.6 Gy) cannot be ruled out. A variety of other non-malignant effects have been observed after moderate/low dose exposure in various groups, in particular respiratory and digestive disease and central nervous system (and in particular neuro-cognitive) damage. However, because these are generally only observed in isolated groups, or because the evidence is excessively heterogeneous, these associations must be treated with caution.

Little, Mark P.

2014-01-01

362

Circularity measuring system: A shape gauge designed especially for use on large objects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Circularity Measuring System (CMS) was developed to make an in-situ determination of shape similarity for selected fit large cylinders (RSRM segments). It does this to a repeatable accuracy of 0.10 mm (0.004 inch). This is less that the goal of 0.07 mm (0.003 inch), but was determined adequate because of the addition of an assembly aid that increased the entry chamfer of the clevis side of the joint. The usefulness of the CMS is demonstrated by the application to measurements other than its specified design purpose, such as submarine hull circularity, SRM mid-case circularity, as well as circularity of interfacing SRM tooling, specifically the rounding devices and horizontal disassembly devices. Commercialization of the tool is being pursued, since it is an enhancement of metrology technology for circularity determination. The most accurate in-situ technology it replaces is determined from a template. The CMS is an improvement in accuracy and operation.

Rohrkaste, G. R.

1990-01-01

363

Graduate Enrollment Increases in Science and Engineering Fields, Especially in Engineering and Computer Sciences  

NSF Publications Database

... Division of Science Resources Statistics Human Resources Statistics Program 4201 Wilson Boulevard ... Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics Graduate Enrollment Increases in Science and ...

364

[Waist-hip and waist-thigh index in obesity especially in relation to weight reduction].  

PubMed

Waist-hip index (WHI) and waist-thigh index (WTI) were determined in 18 obese males and 24 females, respectively, before and after weight reduction, in comparison to this in 12 males and 10 females in normal weight. Under weight reduction the two indices in males were significantly reduced in correlation to the relative weight. In females analogous changes could not be proved. Furthermore, the WHI was significantly lower in persons with normal weight than in obese ones (males and females), the WTI only in females. - In obese males, however, not in males with normal weight the WHI processes a prediction value for the atherogenic risk, which is at least adequate to the value of up to now wellknown parameters (relative weight, body mass index etc.). PMID:2609698

Beykirch, H; Reuter, W; Hunecke, I

1989-11-01

365

Cross-reactive polysaccharides from Trypanosoma cruzi and fungi (especially Dactylium dendroides).  

PubMed

Cross-reactivity between fungal and Trypanosoma cruzi polysaccharides, owing to common residues of beta-D-galactofuranose, beta-D-galactopyranose, and alpha-D-mannopyranose, was demonstrated by using rabbit immune sera against T. cruzi epimastigotes and sera from patients with Chagas' disease. Several chagasic (Ch) sera precipitated partly purified galactomannans from Aspergillus fumigatus and from T. cruzi epimastigotes and also the galactoglucomannan from Dactylium dendroides. Reaction of one Ch serum with T. cruzi galactomannan (GM) was completely inhibited by synthetic beta-D-Galf-(1----3)-Me alpha-D-Manp, and that of another Ch serum with a purified D. dendroides galactoglucomannan (GGM) was partly inhibited by (1----6)-linked (81%) or by (1----3)-linked (33%) beta-D-Galf-Me alpha-D-Manp. The beta-D-Galf-(1----3)-alpha-D-Manp epitope was present in both T. cruzi and D. dendroides polysaccharides. Rabbit anti-T. cruzi antisera precipitated A. fumigatus GM, T. cruzi antigenic extracts containing the lipopeptidophosphoglycan (LPPG), T. cruzi alkali-extracted GM, a synthetic GM, and D. dendroides GGM. Weak reactivities were obtained for a Torulopsis lactis-condensi GM containing beta-D-Galp terminal residues and for baker's yeast mannan with alpha-D-Manp-(1----3)-alpha-D-Manp-(1----2)-alpha-D-Manp+ ++-(1----2) side chains. An anti-LPPG rabbit serum precipitated D. dendroides GGM--a reaction inhibited (82%) by beta-D-Galf-(1----3)-Me alpha-D-Manp and. less efficiently, by a (1----5)-linked beta-D-Galf-tetrasaccharide. Sera from mice immunized with D. dendroides whole cells reacted with CL-strain trypomastigotes as shown by indirect immunofluorescence, by a Staphylococcus adherence test, but were not lytic. Mice immunized with D. dendroides were not protected against a challenge with virulent T. cruzi trypomastigotes. PMID:2426444

Schnaidman, B B; Yoshida, N; Gorin, P A; Travassos, L R

1986-05-01

366

[Clinical studies on the biliary excretion of mezlocillin, especially in cases with liver dysfunction].  

PubMed

To investigate efficacy of mezlocillin (MZPC) in the treatment of biliary tract infection, the time course concentrations of MZPC in the bile of patients with, in particular, liver dysfunction were measured. MZPC concentrations in the bile decreased with the increase in the severity of liver dysfunction. However, the bile concentration was maintained more than 50 micrograms/ml even in cases of severe cholangitis with obstructive jaundice. These results indicate that MZPC is an useful antibiotic for the treatment of biliary tract infection. PMID:3702053

Maeba, T; Hashimoto, T; Takeda, T; Shiraishi, Y; Oike, H; Wakabayashi, H; Omori, G; Indo, S; Kunikata, E; Hayashi, M

1986-01-01

367

Validating health impact assessment: Prediction is difficult (especially about the future)  

SciTech Connect

Health impact assessment (HIA) has been recommended as a means of estimating how policies, programmes and projects may impact on public health and on health inequalities. This paper considers the difference between predicting health impacts and measuring those impacts. It draws upon a case study of the building of a new hypermarket in a deprived area of Glasgow, which offered an opportunity to reflect on the issue of the predictive validity of HIA, and to consider the difference between potential and actual impacts. We found that the actual impacts of the new hypermarket on diet differed from that which would have been predicted based on previous studies. Furthermore, they challenge current received wisdom about the impact of food retail outlets in poorer areas. These results are relevant to the validity of HIA as a process and emphasise the importance of further research on the predictive validity of HIA, which should help improve its value to decision-makers.

Petticrew, Mark [MRC Social and Public Health Sciences Unit, 4 Lilybank Gardens, Glasgow, G12 8RZ (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: mark@msoc.mrc.gla.ac.uk; Cummins, Steven [Department of Geography, Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End Road, London, E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Sparks, Leigh [Institute for Retail Studies, University of Stirling, Stirling, FK9 4LA (United Kingdom); Findlay, Anne [Institute for Retail Studies, University of Stirling, Stirling, FK9 4LA (United Kingdom)

2007-01-15

368

Effects of radiation, especially ultraviolet B, on conidial germination and mycelial growth of grape powdery mildew  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conidia ofUncinula necator inoculated on vine leaf disks were exposed to different irradiation conditions during various combinations of irradiation periods. In controlled experiments at constant leaf temperature spore germination and mycelial growth were negatively affected by the UV B doses, irrespective of the exposition duration. In semi-controlled condition experiments, conidia were exposed to shaded, sunny and sunny without UV B

L. Willocquet; D. Colombet; M. Rougier; J. Fargues; M. Clerjeau

1996-01-01

369

Processing of plastic waste and scrap tires into chemical raw materials, especially by pyrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

An account of the occurrence of pyrolyzable material and the state of development of pyrolysis processes in the USA and Japan is followed by a description of laboratory and pilot-scale experiments designed to exploit the raw material content of pyrolyzable substances rather than the heating value. Plastic waste and scrap tires can be pyrolyzed to give up to 40 percent

Walter Kaminsky

1976-01-01

370

Synthetic Marijuana Lands Thousands of Young People in the ER, Especially Young Males  

MedlinePLUS

... Life Treatment Trends & Statistics PDF (1 MB) Featured Publication Drugs, Brains, and Behavior - The Science of Addiction ... affects both brain and behavior. Read more NIDA's Publication Series NIDA Notes DrugFacts Research Reports Mind Over ...

371

Especially for Teachers: Selected Documents on the Teaching of Environmental Education 1966-1982.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to supplement the day-to-day planning, teaching, and evaluation activities of environmental education teachers at all educational levels, this compilation contains over 1000 resumes of practitioner-oriented documents announced in "Resources in Education" (RIE) between 1966 and 1982. The resumes are organized by educational level…

Disinger, John, Comp.; Howe, Robert W., Comp.

372

Can statins reduce risk of lung cancer, especially among elderly people? A meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Objective As the most common cause of cancer mortality throughout the world, lung cancer has drawn people’s attention on how to reduce the risk with chemopreventive ways. Many epidemiological studies have shown inconsistent effects of statins on lung cancer, but some observational studies have showed that statins had protective effect on lung cancer among elderly people. So we preformed this meta-analysis to find whether statins were chemopreventive. Methods We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and Web of Science databases from inception to September, 2013. A total of 23 studies were selected, including 15 observational studies and 8 randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Both fixed and random-effects models were used to calculate pooled estimates in primary and sensitivity analyses. We used Q and I2 statistics to assess statistical heterogeneity, and evaluated publication bias by Begg’s test and Egger’s test. Results No association between statins and lung cancer risk was identified either in the meta-analysis among RCTs [relative risk (RR): 0.95, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 0.85-1.06] or observational studies (RR: 0.89, 95% CI: 0.77-1.04). We also selected 6 observational studies that all researched on elderly people. The result of meta-analysis showed that there was still no protective effect between statins and lung cancer among elderly people (RR: 1.03, 95% CI: 0.96-1.11). Conclusions Our results did not support a protective effect of statins on the overall lung cancer risk and the lung cancer risk among elderly people. More well-designed RCTs are needed to enhance our understanding of the chemopreventive effect of statins on lung cancer.

Deng, Zhantao; Zhang, Shu; Yi, Long

2013-01-01

373

CO2 emission mitigation by geothermal development - especially with geothermal heat pumps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geothermal technologies for power generation or direct use operate with little or no greenhouse gas emissions. Since no burning processes are involved they are low in CO2 emissions. Geothermal energy development has thus great CO2 emission reduction potential when substituting fossil sources of energy. Geothermal heat pumps (GHP) represent the fastest growing branch of geothermal technology; they use the ubiquitous

L. Rybach

2009-01-01

374

CO2 emission mitigation by geothermal development - especially with geothermal heat pumps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geothermal technologies for power generation or direct use operate with little or no greenhouse gas emissions. Since no burning processes are involved they are low in CO2 emissions. Geothermal energy development has thus great CO2 emission reduction potential when substituting fossil sources of energy. Geothermal heat pumps (GHP) represent the fastest growing branch of geothermal technology; they use the ubiquitous shallow geothermal resource. GHPs are electricity consumers, nevertheless they can contribute to the fight against climatic warming. Such systems are now increasingly used for space heating, cooling, and to provide domestic hot water. With heat pump systems the use of fossil primary energy sources can be avoided, thus GHPs contribute to energy security: many countries must rely in their space heating systems on imported fossil fuels. The degree of dependence on these can be reduced. Since heat pumps are usually driven by electric components the origin of the electricity and the corresponding CO2 emission must be considered. A compilation shows that there are great differences in this respect from country to country. The same (=electricity need with CO2 emission consequences) applies to GHPs too. This means that by new geothermal heat pumps only additional CO2 emission can be avoided ("saving"), not a reduction of actual emissions. When GHPs are installed in refurbishment (to replace fossil-fueled systems) actual emission reduction can be achieved. Emission reduction is also evident when electric heater/cooler installations, driven by fossil-based electricity, are replaced by GHP systems. Numerical examples are presented about saving and reduction.

Rybach, L.

2009-04-01

375

Incineration of and energy recovery from relatively incombustible waste, especially rubber and plastic  

Microsoft Academic Search

A plant for the incineration of waste, primarily from retreading shops, with the simultaneous use of the energy content of said waste for steam regeneration to operation and heating. The rubber waste is dosed in an amount dependent on the heat need of the shop with a screw to a grinder where it is ground down into small particles which,

T. L. Eriksson; E. Anderson; O. Nystrom

1984-01-01

376

Incineration of and energy recovery from relatively incombustible waste, especially rubber and plastic  

SciTech Connect

A plant for the incineration of waste, primarily from retreading shops, with the simultaneous use of the energy content of said waste for steam regeneration to operation and heating. The rubber waste is dosed in an amount dependent on the heat need of the shop with a screw to a grinder where it is ground down into small particles which, mixed with air, are blown into a furnace mounted onto the bottom of a steam boiler. By means of the blowing into the furnace as well as the blowing of flue gas at high temperature in the boiler taking place tangentially, a long period of stay for the burning particles is obtained, thus obtaining a total incineration. The outgoing flue gas is purified prior to release in the usual manner. The furnace is provided with an oil burner, which, in the event of a low energy need in the plant, has sole responsibility for steam regeneration over the oil system and control equipment. The plant is also suitable for less incombustible fuels and waste in powder or liquid form, for example, plastic waste, coal dust or biomass, the latter even mixed with water or oil, as well as solvents, tars, etc.

Eriksson, T.L.; Anderson, E.; Nystrom, O.

1984-09-04

377

Construccion del banco de terminos del lenguaje especial de la enfermería  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents the methodology which was used in the building of a terminology bank of specific nursing language. The process of extraction was described as well as the standardization of terms identified in ICU- adult patients' clinical records, matching the extracted terms with the ones included in ICNP®-Version 1.0 and, classifying those not included in the 7 axes of

Meire Chucre TannureI; Tânia Couto Machado; Telma Ribeiro

378

Phase identification of microfeatures using EPMA methods, especially high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy  

PubMed

Methods of electron-probe microanalysis (EPMA), with some input from scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM/TEM), are applied for the identification of micro-scale constituents in a solid matrix. The subject of the study is a magnesium alloy composite, which contains silicon carbide-based fibres made by a liquid metal infiltration process. Backscattered electron imaging of the composite in the SEM showed that during composite manufacture, fibres were chemically attacked by the metal, many of the fibres exhibiting three distinct grey levels, indicative of different reaction zones, and others appearing uniformly black. EPMA measurements showed that each region contained approximately 12wt.% oxygen and that penetration of the fibre by magnesium was accompanied by a reduction in the concentration of silicon and carbon. From studying the position and shape of specific X-ray lines it was shown that magnesium penetration involved a chemical reaction with silicon oxycarbide, established in earlier EPMA studies as one of the fibre constituents. Also, in the outermost region, aluminium in the alloy reacted with free carbon in the fibre to form aluminium carbide and with magnesium to produce a Mg-Al intermetallic. The composition of black fibres was quite different from the grey ones, with negligible silicon and only a small amount of aluminium. Oxygen levels in black fibres were consistent with complete oxidation, indicating these fibres were subjected, locally, to severe oxidising conditions during composite manufacture. In the metal matrix itself, particles of a mixed magnesium/aluminium oxide, silicon carbide and magnesium silicide were observed, the latter two phases forming as silicon and carbon were ejected from fibres. PMID:10936455

Love; Scott

2001-02-01

379

Especies de vertebrados invasores en Chile y su control y monitoreo por agencias gubernamentales  

Microsoft Academic Search

We provide an overview of the current status of vertebrate invasive species throughout Chile, updating information on terrestrial exotics and reporting for the first time the situation of exotic freshwater fishes. In addition, we document the legislation and programs that the Chilean government has implemented to limit the entry of exotics to the country or minimize their impact on native

J. AGUSTÍN IRIARTE; GABRIEL A. LOBOS; FABIÁN M. JAKSIC

380

Plant d-2-Hydroxyglutarate Dehydrogenase Participates in the Catabolism of Lysine Especially during Senescence*  

PubMed Central

d-2-Hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase (d-2HGDH) catalyzes the specific and efficient oxidation of d-2-hydroxyglutarate (d-2HG) to 2-oxoglutarate using FAD as a cofactor. In this work, we demonstrate that d-2HGDH localizes to plant mitochondria and that its expression increases gradually during developmental and dark-induced senescence in Arabidopsis thaliana, indicating an enhanced demand of respiration of alternative substrates through this enzymatic system under these conditions. Using loss-of-function mutants in d-2HGDH (d2hgdh1) and stable isotope dilution LC-MS/MS, we found that the d-isomer of 2HG accumulated in leaves of d2hgdh1 during both forms of carbon starvation. In addition to this, d2hgdh1 presented enhanced levels of most TCA cycle intermediates and free amino acids. In contrast to the deleterious effects caused by a deficiency in d-2HGDH in humans, d2hgdh1 and overexpressing lines of d-2HGDH showed normal developmental and senescence phenotypes, indicating a mild role of d-2HGDH in the tested conditions. Moreover, metabolic fingerprinting of leaves of plants grown in media supplemented with putative precursors indicated that d-2HG most probably originates during the catabolism of lysine. Finally, the l-isomer of 2HG was also detected in leaf extracts, indicating that both chiral forms of 2HG participate in plant metabolism.

Engqvist, Martin K. M.; Kuhn, Anke; Wienstroer, Judith; Weber, Katrin; Jansen, Erwin E. W.; Jakobs, Cornelis; Weber, Andreas P. M.; Maurino, Veronica G.

2011-01-01

381

A review of non-cancer effects, especially circulatory and ocular diseases.  

PubMed

There is a well-established association between high doses (>5 Gy) of ionizing radiation exposure and damage to the heart and coronary arteries, although only recently have studies with high-quality individual dosimetry been conducted that would enable quantification of this risk adjusting for concomitant chemotherapy. The association between lower dose exposures and late occurring circulatory disease has only recently begun to emerge in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors and in various occupationally exposed cohorts and is still controversial. Excess relative risks per unit dose in moderate- and low-dose epidemiological studies are somewhat variable, possibly a result of confounding and effect modification by well-known (but unobserved) risk factors. Radiation doses of 1 Gy or more are associated with increased risk of posterior subcapsular cataract. Accumulating evidence from the Japanese atomic bomb survivors, Chernobyl liquidators, US astronauts, and various other exposed groups suggests that cortical cataracts may also be associated with ionizing radiation, although there is little evidence that nuclear cataracts are radiogenic. The dose-response appears to be linear, although modest thresholds (of no more than about 0.6 Gy) cannot be ruled out. A variety of other non-malignant effects have been observed after moderate/low-dose exposure in various groups, in particular respiratory and digestive disease and central nervous system (and in particular neuro-cognitive) damage. However, because these are generally only observed in isolated groups, or because the evidence is excessively heterogeneous, these associations must be treated with caution. PMID:23903347

Little, Mark P

2013-11-01

382

Liquid crystal devices especially for use in liquid crystal point diffraction interferometer systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Liquid crystal point diffraction interferometer (LCPDI) systems that can provide real-time, phase-shifting interferograms that are useful in the characterization of static optical properties (wavefront aberrations, lensing, or wedge) in optical elements or dynamic, time-resolved events (temperature fluctuations and gradients, motion) in physical systems use improved LCPDI cells that employ a "structured" substrate or substrates in which the structural features are produced by thin film deposition or photo resist processing to provide a diffractive element that is an integral part of the cell substrate(s). The LC material used in the device may be doped with a "contrast-compensated" mixture of positive and negative dichroic dyes.

Marshall, Kenneth L. (Inventor)

2009-01-01

383

The Compositional Classification of Chondrules and the Petrologic Type of an Especially Primitive H Chondrite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While LL chondrites of petrologic type <3.4 are relatively common, it has been only recently that a few H chondrites of type <3.4 have been reported. One of them is the heavily weathered Roosevelt County 075 [1]. Weathering and the lack of equilibration make classification uncertain, but it is probably an H chondrite. Weathering also makes it very difficult to assign a petrologic type. For example, removal of the weathering products by acid washing increased the TL sensitivity of RC075 by a factor of ~7, equivalent to a change in petrologic type estimate from 3.0 to 3.3, a major difference. The compositional classification scheme for chondrules [2,3] summarizes considerably more information than previous schemes [4-6], not least being that it tracks metamorphic effects as well as more thoroughly monitoring primary chondrule differences. It is also very easy to apply and almost 100% of the chondrules can be classified. As an example of its utility, we here show that application of the scheme to the chondrules in RC075 provides the best means of determining the petrologic type of this highly weathered, but very important, unequilibrated chondrite. The compositional classification scheme for chondrules divides them into eight classes (A1, A2, A3, A4, A5, B1, B2, B3) on the basis of the composition of the two major phases (phenocrysts and mesostasis) [2,3]. Among the changes that occur during metamorphism, olivines lose CaO and acquire uniform FeO, while the mesostases acquire oligoclase compositions having originally included compositions that were SiO2 rich (the B series), CaO rich (the A series), and Na2O rich (A5). These changes give rise to CL properties that can be used as an alternative to microprobe analysis and which, like microprobe data, are insensitive to weathering. Thus we were able to assign all of the almost 100 chondrules present in a 7 x 5-mm section of RC075 to compositional classes. The results are shown in Fig. 1, along with similar data from [3]. The relative abundance and classes of chondrules present provides an excellent method of assigning petrographic type. The relative abundance of group B chondrules in RC075 is less than Semarkona (3.0), and comparable with the higher types, while the abundance of A5 chondrules is comparable to that in Krymka (3.1) and intermediate between that in Semarkona and Chainpur (3.4). Most significantly, the fraction of A1 chondrules is very large and comparable (within error) to that of Semarkona, while the large number of group A3 chondrules is comparable only to Krymka. Apparently, RC075 is intermediate to Semarkona and Chainpur and comparable to Krymka in its petrologic type. McCoy et al. [1] report means ranging from 0.07 to 7.2 mol% Fa and 0.11 to 0.36 wt% CaO for olivine in six type-IA chondrules and 12.3-20.2 mol% Fa for five type-II chondrules in RC075 [1]. Four of the type IA chondrules resembled those of Semarkona in olivine composition (<2 mol% Fa). Unlike the compositional classification scheme, which leads fairly simply to unambiguous petrologic type assignment, it seems difficult to assign RC075 to a petrologic type on the basis of olivine compositions and texture alone. Other advantages of the new scheme are (1) that it applies to individual chondrules and makes no assumptions about average response of chondrules to metamorphism; (2) it is insensitive to brecciation, which is common in UOC [7]; and (3) it is quantitative, and does not require subjective evaluations of texture, although textural descriptions may be used with the compositional class (just as they are for chondrites). The compositional classification scheme is certainly subject to improvement(e.g. class A5, both in type 3 and higher types). However, as it currently stands the scheme clearly provides the best way of not only describing individual chondrules, but of assessing primary chondrule properties and the extent of changes experienced during metamorphism. Thus it provides the best method for assigning the weathered and highly unequilibrated RC075 meteorite to a petrologic ty

Sears, D. W. G.; Huang, S.; Benoit, P. H.

1993-07-01

384

Influence of flight on protein catabolism, especially myofilament breakdown, in homing pigeons.  

PubMed

In order to study protein degradation during flight in homing, a high-performance liquid chromatography technique was developed for the quantitative analysis of N tau-methylhistidine. Secondly, it was necessary to confirm that the excretion of N tau-methylhistidine correlates with myofilament breakdown in homing pigeons. In these experiments, ten birds were subcutaneously injected with N tau-[14C]methylhistidine and the excreta were quantitatively collected for 1 week. Of the 94.5% radioactivity recovered, 87.1% was associated with N tau-[14C]methylhistidine and 6.1% with N-acetyl-N tau-[14C]methylhistidine. This rapid excretion of unmetabolized N tau-[14C]methylhistidine validates the assumption that the amount of N tau-methylhistidine excreted is a measure of myofilament catabolism in homing pigeons. The influence of endurance flight on protein breakdown was determined after flights from release sites 368-646 km away. Immediately after return, plasma urea and uric acid levels were increased, whereas plasma concentration of N tau-methylhistidine remained unchanged compared to unflown control birds. Flown pigeons excreted significantly more urea and N tau-methylhistidine within 24 h and significantly more urea and uric acid within 96 h after flight than unflown controls. Our findings support the hypothesis that in homing pigeons protein catabolism is increased during endurance flight. Elevated N tau-methylhistidine excretion probably results from repair processes in damaged muscle fibers, including breakdown of myofilaments. PMID:10707325

Bordel, R; Haase, E

2000-02-01

385

ERW line pipe-1; Installed pipe, especially pre-1970, plagued by problems  

SciTech Connect

Understanding the manufacture and unique problems of electric-resistance welded (ERW) line pipe can aid operators in safely maintaining and using existing ERW pipe and in sharpening key requirements when they specify new ERW materials. Abandoning or replacing large quantities of ERW line pipe is impractical and undesirable. This paper reviews what constitutes ERW pipe, the weaknesses and deficiencies that can occur in ERW materials, and their possible effects on pipeline safety, and offers some suggestions for continuing to operate such pipelines with a minimum of risk to the public.

Kiefner, J.F. (Kiefner and Associates Inc., Worthington, OH (US))

1992-08-10

386

Hormonal Interference with Pheromone Systems in Parasitic Acarines, Especially Ixodid Ticks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Evidence of the existence of (an) ecdysteroid(s) in the ticks Dermacentor variabilis (Sav) and Hyalomma dromedarii Koch is presented. Radioimmunoassay demonstrated ecdysteroids in unfed adults and different physiological states of the immatures. X-ray mic...

D. E. Sonenshine P. J. Homsher J. H. Oliver

1982-01-01

387

Steam generator for nuclear power plants, especially for pressurized water reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Steam generator for nuclear power plants includes a cylindrical housing, a tube bundle for conducting primary medium enclosed by the housing, and at least one tube support plate holding the tube bundle. The cylindrical housing includes a base member secured to the tube support plate and defining therewith inlet and outlet chambers for the primary medium, the cylindrical housing having

H. Grimm; M. Sawitzki; Z. Sterk

1980-01-01

388

Studies on the Antiviral Activity of Guanylhydrazones Especially Against Arbo- and Myxoviruses.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Antiviral and antitumor activities of 4,6-dichloro-2-aminophenol hydrochloride (no. 178) were studied. Non-lethal doses of no. 178 in vivo was 500 mg, 350 mg, 25 mg, and 1.5 mg per Kg. of mouse by intragastric, intraperitoneal, intranasal, and intracerebr...

B. Nagaki

1967-01-01

389

Toward Better Research on--and Thinking about--Evaluation Influence, Especially in Multisite Evaluations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluation is typically carried out with the intention of making a difference in the understandings and actions of stakeholders and decision makers. The author provides a general review of the concepts of evaluation "use," evaluation "influence," and "influence pathways," with connections to multisite evaluations. The study of evaluation influence…

Mark, Melvin M.

2011-01-01

390

[Intraspecific chromosomal variability in human pathogenic fungi, especially in Histoplasma capsulatum].  

PubMed

The ploidy, karyotype, and chromosome length polymorphism (CLP) of human pathogenic fungi were revised with emphasis on Histoplasma capsulatum, the causative agent of the systemic mycosis, histoplasmosis. Currently, different systems of gel electrophoresis are being used to determine fungal electrokaryotypes (EK). By renaturation kinetic and genomic reconstruction in H. capsulatum strains (G-186AS and Downs), estimated genome sizes of 23 and 32 Mb were determined for both strains, respectively. The haploid state was proposed for both strains, although aneuploidy was suggested for the Downs strain. Contour-clamped homogeneous electric field (CHEF), field inversion gel electrophoresis (FIGE), and Southern blot using different probes showed the presence of six to seven chromosomes in the Downs strain (low virulence), whereas four chromosomes were identified in the G-186B strain (high virulence). The use of these methods in the three major H. capsulatum reference strains (G-217B and Downs from the United States of America, G-186B from Panama) revealed distinct chromosome sizes, from 0.5 to 5.7 Mb, with CLP associated with chromosomes size and mobility. Recently, by CHEF, using 19 H. capsulatum isolates from Latin-America and the G-186B strain, five to seven chromosomes with 1.1 to 11.2 Mb molecular sizes were revealed, which again suggested CLP in H. capsulatum. However, to elucidate the EKs polymorphism in H. capsulatum and its relationship with the isolates phenotype more studies are needed to understand the mechanisms controlling ploidy variability. PMID:15709795

Romero-Martínez, Rafael; Canteros, Cristina; Taylor, Maria Lucia

2004-12-01

391

A set of hyperspherical harmonics especially suited for three-body collisions in a plane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We obtain a set of four-dimensional hyperspherical harmonics in closed form. These harmonics are not only quantized with respect to the rotation group ( O 2), but are an irreducible basis for the permutation group S 3. An additional symmetry is found which allows us to write hyperspherical harmonics classified with respect to a 12 element group S 3× i× O 2. We give a set of three mutually commuting operators whose eigenvalues uniquely characterize each spherical harmonic with respect to degree, symmetry, and angular momentum in the plane.

Kilpatrick, J. E.; Larsen, S. Y.

1987-06-01

392

Resistencia a la flexión de vigas laminadas con tres especies de madera tropical mexicana  

Microsoft Academic Search

La madera aserrada tiene un comportamiento estructural adecuado; sin embargo, hay factores que influyen negativamente en su uso; tales como, los defectos anatómicos, la escasez de piezas grandes y la extracción de volúmenes insuficientes. Para subsanar estas limitaciones, se puede considerar como alternativa la fabricación de vigas laminadas, las cuales se forman con láminas de madera pegadas con algún tipo

Artículo de Investigación; Omar Araujo Molina; Miguel Cerón Cardeña; Mario Chan Martín; Manuel Azueta García

2005-01-01

393

LOS MACROINVERTEBRADOS ACUÁTICOS DE LAS SALINAS DE AÑANA (ÁLAVA, ESPAÑA): BIODIVERSIDAD, VULNERABILIDAD Y ESPECIES INDICADORAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to complete and update the available information on the diversity of aquatic macroin- vertebrates in the Añana salt-pans. We also wanted to identify both the most threatened species and those with the highest value as indicators. Finally, we have tried to determine the conservation status and the main sources of environmental impact affecting the

David Sánchez-Fernández; Pedro Abellán; Fernando Camarero; Íñigo Esteban; Cayetano Gutiérrez-Cánovas; Ignacio Ribera; Josefa Velasco; Andrés Millán

2007-01-01

394

Multiple Sebaceous Neoplasms of the Skin: An Association with Multiple Visceral Carcinomas, Especially of the Colon.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Five patients with multiple sebaceous neoplasms of the skin in association with multiple visceral cancers are reported. The visceral cancers involved particularly the gastrointestinal tract, and multiple adenocarcinomas of the colon were common. This repo...

D. B. Rulon E. B. Helwig

1973-01-01

395

Effects of personal costs of methadone maintenance, especially time price, on treatment attendance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study provides conclusive evidence on existence of economic barriers, namely money price and time price, to regular treatment attendance for methadone maintenance clients. The study is designed to develop improved time price measures and investigate their effect on treatment attendance. Regular attendance is essential for methadone maintenance because, form client's perspective, it may affect treatment outcomes and, from methadone

Natalia N Borisova

2000-01-01

396

Economical considerations of renewable electric energy production—especially development of wave energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investments in renewable energy plants normally only take standard economic key figures into account, such as installed rated power, the market price of energy and the interest rate. The authors propose that the degree of utilisation, i.e. the ratio of yearly produced energy in the installation to the installed power, must be included due to its significant impact on the

Mats Leijon; Hans Bernhoff; Marcus Berg; Olov Ågren

2003-01-01

397

The Camp Health Manual. An Excellent Reference Written Especially for Organized Camps. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is a guide to the diagnosis and care of sick children in organized camping situations. This book presents health care information for the management of medical and surgical problems by the camp counselor, camp director, camp nurse, and camp physician. The chapters are: (1) Camp Standards; (2) The Infirmary; (3) Infirmary Supplies; (4)…

Goldring, David; Middelkamp, J. Neal

398

Plasmid-Encoded Metallo Lactamase (IMP6) Conferring Resistance to Carbapenems, Especially Meropenem  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1996, Serratia marcescens KU3838 was isolated from the urine of a patient with a urinary tract infection at a hospital in northern Japan and was found to contain the plasmid pKU501. Previously, we determined that pKU501 carries blaIMP and the genes for TEM-1-type b-lactamases as well as producing both types of b-lactamases (H. Yano, A. Kuga, K. Irinoda, R.

HISAKAZU YANO; AKIO KUGA; RYOICHI OKAMOTO; HIDERO KITASATO; TOSHIMITSU KOBAYASHI; MATSUHISA INOUE

2001-01-01

399

Evidence for absence in northern Europe of especially virulent clonal types of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans.  

PubMed Central

Genetic analysis of an Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans population consisting of 88 clinically well characterized Finnish isolates performed by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis confirmed that the five serotypes divide into two phylogenetic lineages, one comprising serotypes b and c and one comprising serotypes a, d, and e. There was no association between any subpopulation and the periodontal health status of the subject from whom the isolates originated, suggesting that the role of A. actinomycetemcomitans in periodontitis is largely opportunistic in the population examined. Southern blot analyses of genomic DNA digested with each of the restriction endonucleases MspI, RsaI, and TaqI revealed extremely limited genetic polymorphism of the structural leukotoxin gene, ltxA, and its associated promoter. All isolates hybridized to a 530-bp DNA fragment derived from the promoter region of the leukotoxin gene operon of a minimally leukotoxic A. actinomycetemcomitans strain. Deletion of the 530-bp sequence has been associated with significantly increased toxin production detected among isolates from patients with juvenile periodontitis in North America but was detected neither among the 88 isolates in the present collection analyzed nor among more than 60 strains in another population of northern European A. actinomycetemcomitans isolates analyzed previously.

Haubek, D; Poulsen, K; Asikainen, S; Kilian, M

1995-01-01

400

Effects of partially ionised medical oxygen, especially with O2•-, in vibration white finger patients.  

PubMed

A major symptom of hand-arm vibration syndrome is a secondary Raynaud's phenomenon-vibration white finger (VWF)-which results from a vasospasm of the digital arteries caused by work with vibration devices leading to occupational disease. Pharmacotherapy of VWF is often ineffective or has adverse effects. The aim of this work was to verify the influence of inhalation of partially ionized oxygen (O2•-) on peripheral blood vessels in the hands of patients with VWF. Ninety one (91)patients with VWF underwent four-finger adsorption plethysmography, and the pulse wave amplitude was recorded expressed in numeric parameters-called the native record. Next, a cold water test was conducted following with second plethysmography. The patients were divided in to the three groups. First and second inhaled 20-min of ionized oxygen O2•- or oxygen O2 respectively. Thirth group was control without treatment. All three groups a follow-up third plethysmography-the post-therapy record. Changes in the pulse wave amplitudes were evaluated. Inpatients group inhaling O2•- a modest increase of pulse wave amplitude was observed compared to the native record; patients inhaling medical oxygen O2 and the control showed a undesirable decline of pulse wave amplitude in VWF fingers. Strong vasodilatation were more frequent in the group inhaling O2•- compare to O2 (p < 0.05). Peripheral vasodilatation achieved by inhalation of O2•- could be used for VWF treatment without undesirable side effect in hospital as well as at home environment. PMID:24871260

Pere?inský, Slavomír; Murínová, Lenka; Engler, Ivan; Doni?, Viliam; Murín, Pavol; Varga, Marek; Legáth, Lubomír

2014-06-01

401

Heat pipe dynamics. Final report, April 30, 1981. [Uses of heat pipe, especially in solar collector  

Microsoft Academic Search

A heat-pipe flat plate solar collector is constructed like a typical flat plate collector with the exception that individual heat pipes are attached to the collector surface to transfer collected heat via a phase change from collector surface into an attached jacket containing a phase change material. The efficiency of such a collector was measured roughly. Also briefly described are:

R. M. Sr

1981-01-01

402

Effects of Partially Ionised Medical Oxygen, Especially with O2o?, in Vibration White Finger Patients  

PubMed Central

A major symptom of hand-arm vibration syndrome is a secondary Raynaud’s phenomenon—vibration white finger (VWF)—which results from a vasospasm of the digital arteries caused by work with vibration devices leading to occupational disease. Pharmacotherapy of VWF is often ineffective or has adverse effects. The aim of this work was to verify the influence of inhalation of partially ionized oxygen (O2•?) on peripheral blood vessels in the hands of patients with VWF. Ninety one (91)patients with VWF underwent four-finger adsorption plethysmography, and the pulse wave amplitude was recorded expressed in numeric parameters—called the native record. Next, a cold water test was conducted following with second plethysmography. The patients were divided in to the three groups. First and second inhaled 20-min of ionized oxygen O2•? or oxygen O2 respectively. Thirth group was control without treatment. All three groups a follow-up third plethysmography—the post-therapy record. Changes in the pulse wave amplitudes were evaluated. Inpatients group inhaling O2•? a modest increase of pulse wave amplitude was observed compared to the native record; patients inhaling medical oxygen O2 and the control showed a undesirable decline of pulse wave amplitude in VWF fingers. Strong vasodilatation were more frequent in the group inhaling O2•? compare to O2 (p < 0.05). Peripheral vasodilatation achieved by inhalation of O2•? could be used for VWF treatment without undesirable side effect in hospital as well as at home environment.

Perecinsky, Slavomir; Murinova, Lenka; Engler, Ivan; Donic, Viliam; Murin, Pavol; Varga, Marek; Legath, Lubomir

2014-01-01

403

Infant distress to novelty is associated with maternal anxiety disorder and especially with maternal avoidance behavior.  

PubMed

Research suggested that maternal anxiety disorders might be related to infants' behavioral inhibition. This study investigated whether maternal postpartum anxiety disorder is associated with infant temperament, more precisely, infant distress to novelty, an early predictor of behavioral inhibition. Differences in the latter were analyzed in a German sample by comparing n = 38 healthy mother-infant dyads to n=44 dyads comprised of mothers diagnosed with a DSM-IV anxiety disorders. Infant age ranged from 2.83 to 7.97 months. Infant temperament was measured by means of the Infant Behavior Questionnaire. Mothers were screened for postpartum anxiety disorder using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Disorders. Severity of anxiety was measured by self-reported questionnaires (Anxiety Cognition Questionnaire, Body Sensations Questionnaire and Mobility Inventory). Infant salivary cortisol reaction when being confronted with a socio-emotional stressor (Face-to-Face-Still-Face paradigm) was assessed to validate infant distress. A Mann-Whitney-U analysis suggested that infants of mothers with an anxiety disorder show more distress to novelty than infants of healthy mothers. Furthermore, data reveal a positive Spearman's ?-correlation between infant distress to novelty and maternal avoidance behavior (Mobility Inventory). A strong correlation between infant cortisol reactivity and reported distress to novelty validated the maternal evaluation of infant temperament in our sample. Results suggest a possible approach to promote infant development by encouraging mothers with anxiety symptoms to encounter feared stimuli. PMID:23746492

Reck, Corinna; Müller, Mitho; Tietz, Alexandra; Möhler, Eva

2013-05-01

404

Estudio Fitoquimico de la Especie Psicotomimetica: Ipomea Carnea (Phytochemical Study of the Psychomimetic Specie: Ipomea Carnea).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The plant Ipomeoa carnea of the Convolvulaceae family known in Ecuador for its psychotropic and toxic effects has been submitted to a phytochemical study. Preliminary extractions were done by simple maceration. These extracts tested in experimental animal...

C. Lascano E. De Naranjo P. Naranjo

1967-01-01

405

Heterogeneous growth of meteorites and planets, especially the earth and moon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is pointed out that enough information remains in meteorites to show that the solar nebula was chemically inhomogeneous, and that it did not develop under physical and chemical equilibrium. It is found that the earth is not in chemical equilibrium, and that it still retains vestiges of its heterogeneous growth in spite of prolonged convection and volcanism. The present investigation has the aim to unify simple ideas into a comprehensive, complex scheme for heterogeneous growth of the planets and parent bodies of meteorites. A scheme is considered for the conversion of dust and gas in the solar nebula into the present population of bodies. Attention is given to possible processes for the growth and development of planetesimals from dust via clouds, the major episodes in the development of the solar system, the relation of meteorites to a solar nebula with monotonic variation of temperature and oxidation state, the significance of meteorite properties, the composition of the inner planets, and the development of the earth.

Smith, J. V.

1982-01-01

406

Increased spatial resolution for light images of tissues--especially for teeth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new high resolution transillumination technique has been developed to detect small lesions in teeth and in tissues. It uses collimated, narrow light beams synchronized with a highly sensitive receiver to scan the sample. Extracted teeth and tissues have been examined with this technique. The teeth included a variety of conditions, some with caries, some previously restored, and others with metal pins inserted into them. The results show that a small carious lesion as small as 1 mm2 can be detected from either side of the tooth. Cysts and cancerous lesions in tissues were also detected. The new light imaging technique can find carious lesions better than dental x rays, however, the solution of mental pins inside a tooth is less than that of x rays. The technique is totally harmless to teeth and tissues and can be used as often as necessary even during any clinical procedure. The investigation shows that the resolution for carious lesions could be increased further to about 0.1 mm by incorporating presently available new semiconductor devices and that such a device could be designed for clinical oral use.

Wist, Abund O.; Herr, Steven L.; Meiksin, Z. H.; Fatouros, Panos P.

1993-09-01

407

Who diets? Most people and especially when they worry about food.  

PubMed

Dieting is generally not effective in establishing weight loss and research has focused on documenting these negative consequences of dieting. Much less is known about why people diet. The present study employed a large and representative community sample to determine the demographic and psychological correlates of dieting and to examine the hypothesis that food concerns are associated with considering oneself a dieter. Participants from a community sample (n?=?1113) completed an internet survey on dieting (restraint scale of the DEBQ) and its demographic and psychological correlates, with a specific focus on food concerns. In addition, they completed a 7-day snack diary to determine their food intake. According to sex-specific norm scores, 63.2% of the men and 62.7% of the women qualified as a dieter, defined as having elevated scores on the DEBQ restraint scale. Women and older people more often reported to diet, as did people with higher weights. In line with our hypothesis, food concerns (weight concerns and concerns about the diet-health link) were most strongly associated with dieting. Considering oneself as a dieter was weakly related to actual snack consumption whereas food concerns were unrelated to the consumption of snacks. Considering oneself as a dieter in terms of endorsing items on a restraint scale is an expression of food concerns that is virtually unaccompanied by changes in food intake. These findings suggest a reinterpretation of the dieting concept in terms of a strategy for coping with food concerns which need consideration in future research. PMID:24845781

de Ridder, Denise; Adriaanse, Marieke; Evers, Catharine; Verhoeven, Aukje

2014-09-01

408

Especially Social: Exploring the Use of an iOS Application in Special Needs Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A five-month exploratory study was conducted with iOS mobile devices in two Toronto area schools with students in grades 7 through 12. Both classrooms were identified as Special Education classes by the Ontario Ministry of Education, and each student was identified as having exceptionalities requiring additional support and differentiation within…

Campigotto, Rachelle; McEwen, Rhonda; Epp, Carrie Demmans

2013-01-01

409

Genetic-based prediction of disease traits: prediction is very difficult, especially about the future†  

PubMed Central

Translation of results from genetic findings to inform medical practice is a highly anticipated goal of human genetics. The aim of this paper is to review and discuss the role of genetics in medically-relevant prediction. Germline genetics presages disease onset and therefore can contribute prognostic signals that augment laboratory tests and clinical features. As such, the impact of genetic-based predictive models on clinical decisions and therapy choice could be profound. However, given that (i) medical traits result from a complex interplay between genetic and environmental factors, (ii) the underlying genetic architectures for susceptibility to common diseases are not well-understood, and (iii) replicable susceptibility alleles, in combination, account for only a moderate amount of disease heritability, there are substantial challenges to constructing and implementing genetic risk prediction models with high utility. In spite of these challenges, concerted progress has continued in this area with an ongoing accumulation of studies that identify disease predisposing genotypes. Several statistical approaches with the aim of predicting disease have been published. Here we summarize the current state of disease susceptibility mapping and pharmacogenetics efforts for risk prediction, describe methods used to construct and evaluate genetic-based predictive models, and discuss applications.

Schrodi, Steven J.; Mukherjee, Shubhabrata; Shan, Ying; Tromp, Gerard; Sninsky, John J.; Callear, Amy P.; Carter, Tonia C.; Ye, Zhan; Haines, Jonathan L.; Brilliant, Murray H.; Crane, Paul K.; Smelser, Diane T.; Elston, Robert C.; Weeks, Daniel E.

2014-01-01

410

INFORME: Un Proyecto Especial para Estudiantes Muy Especiales (Report: A Special Project for Very Special Students).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses a special education program for children with lower intelligence quotients and emotional problems, to study introductory level Spanish with a teacher whose native language is Spanish. In addition to language content, the classes included instruction in social science. The program assisted these children in improving their knowledge of…

Herrera, Rosa

1996-01-01

411

Fracture Testing with Surface Crack Specimens. [especially the residual tensile strength test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recommendations are given for the design, preparation, and static fracture testing of surface crack specimens. The recommendations are preceded by background information including discussions of stress intensity factors, crack opening displacements, and fracture toughness values associated with surface crack specimens. Cyclic load and sustained load tests are discussed briefly.

Orange, T. W.

1974-01-01

412

The perception of slight changes of equilibrium, with especial reference to problems of aviation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies: (1) the relative delicacy of perception of slight changes of equilibrium in various directions and (2) the merits of dep as compared to stick airplane control in reacting to slight changes of equilibrium. The method involved simulated airplane conditions. Visual factors were eliminated throughout the entire experiment. The Ss with one exception were graduate students and two of the

Harold E. Burtt

1918-01-01

413

Perceived barriers to paracetamol (acetaminophen) prescribing, especially following rofecoxib withdrawal from the market.  

PubMed

Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor (COX-2) inhibitors were publicly subsidized in Australia for osteoarthritis. However, guidelines still recommended paracetamol as first choice therapy. When rofecoxib was withdrawn in 2004, paracetamol should have been offered as replacement. However, dispensing data indicate no increase in paracetamol use. The objective of this study was to gain understanding about barriers to paracetamol use and to identify what choices consumers were offered after rofecoxib withdrawal. We conducted two focus groups (consumers and pharmacists) and 15 semi-structured interviews (seven with patients taking rofecoxib at the time it was withdrawn in Australia, four with pharmacists, and four with general practitioners). Familiarity with and use of paracetamol, perceived strengths and weaknesses of paracetamol for chronic pain, and choices given about therapy changes were investigated. All interviews and focus groups were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and thematically analyzed. Consumers reported that transfer of information on their medicines was limited or absent. They perceived that their knowledge about COX-2 inhibitor safety and/or appropriate use of paracetamol was lacking. Pharmacists agreed that several factors were relevant concerning paracetamol and COX-2 inhibitor use, including lack of counseling and information for consumers. Not personalizing prescribing to elderly patients was identified as a weakness. Consumers who had received rofecoxib were divided about their perceptions of the efficacy of paracetamol. It appears that when rofecoxib was withdrawn, they were not offered an opportunity to try paracetamol. Consumers in this study appeared to have poor knowledge about the opportunity to effectively use paracetamol. Consumers did not remember being given the choice to use paracetamol as regular treatment for chronic pain. Pharmacists and doctors did not appear to be discussing options for pain control well with consumers and had mismatched perceptions with consumers about paracetamol. An educational intervention to encourage more rational use of paracetamol is now being planned to provide consumers with more knowledge about paracetamol effective use. PMID:19132456

Barozzi, Nadia; Tett, Susan E

2009-05-01

414

Carosello and the taxonomy of Cucumis melo L. especially of its vegetable races  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Carosello, a local vegetable from South Italy, is used in the same way asCucumis sativus but, in fact, it is a vegetable race ofCucumis melo. In the light of this local vegetable race which is presumed to be a relic of a former, more wide-spread cultivation, the infraspecific taxonomy ofCucumis melo together with some aspects of the history of

Karl Hammer; Peter Hanelt; Pietro Perrino

1986-01-01

415

Biological Evolution on the Earth Influenced by Astronomical Objects: Especially Gamma-ray Sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Taking in to account 20,000 explosions of intragalactic supernovae per million years, the sources estimated at 1056 - 1057 MeV producing the high intensity of gamma- and xray-radiation even after its reduction through the Earth atmosphere, may have a significant mutagenic action. During the time period of the last 4 billion years not less than one hundred explosions up to the mean distance 126 pc from the Earth. All such explosions were able to evoke a genetic revolution among most taxonomic groups of terrestrial organisms. For mountain organisms, the more frequent supernova explosions in distance up to 400-900 pc are of importance, maritime organisms could be influenced mainly by secondary radiation products, rather than directly by the gamma and X-rays from the supernovae. The mechanisms of macroevolution depending on supernovae is elucidated. Smaller genetical revolutions in the macroevolutional process (formation of genera) took place on the average once every 10 millions or more years, fundamental genetic revolutions once in 100 millions or more years. Also other newly discovered astronomical gamma-ray sources have to be taken in account.

Ponert, J.; Príhoda, P.

2009-12-01

416

Economic Influences (Especially HMOs) on Cesareans. Executive Summary and Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose was to test the hypothesis that physician economic self-interest affects the cesarean decision, in three ways: the probability that a given birth will be by cesarean will be lower for deliveries in a health maintenance organization (HMO) setti...

A. D. Tussing

1992-01-01

417

[Peripheral air way disturbances, especially emphysematous changes due to chromate compounds (author's transl)].  

PubMed

There are few reports on peripheral air way due to chromate hazard, although many reports about upper and large respiratory tract disturbance were present. In this report, the bronchiolar and alveolar injuries due to chromate compounds were examined based on clinical, pathological investigation and animal experiments. The results were as follows. (1) Clinical investigations of former chromate workers (93 subjects): (a) Based upon findings of lung function tests and chest radiographs, no cases were diagnosed as definite emphysema, and there were only 4 suspected cases of emphysema. (b) 93 subjects were divided to 8 groups by smoking history and labor period, and were examined for their lung function. The values of %FVC, FEV1.0%, V50, V25, MMEFR, CV/VC% and delta N2% of these groups revealed within normal limits. (2) Pathological examination of autopsied and resected lung of 9 chromate lung cancer patients showed emphysematous changes of 8 cases, of which severe grade of emphysematous changes seen in only one, and mild or moderate emphysematous changes in seven. (3) All of the animals treated with monochromate or sodium dichromate, both of which were hexavalent chromate, showed emphysema in the long term experiments, but none treated with chromite ore (trivalent chromate) or saline. (4) The animals showed congestion soon after injection of monochromate in the short term experiments. Emphysematous changes clearly observed in 2 days. Based on our animal experiments, it is concluded that hexavalent chromate acts as a cause to produce emphysema. But clinically it seems reasonable to conclude that effects of chromate compounds to induce emphysema are very mild in men. PMID:7338337

Kimura, K

1981-11-01

418

Physical evidence for plasmids in autotrophic, especially hydrogen-oxidizing bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agarose gel electrophoresis of crude lysates from 23 species of autotrophic bacteria revealed plasmids of various sizes in 12 species. The plasmid pattern varied considerably. While the majority of the plasmid-bearing species harbored one or two plasmids, one species, Alcaligenes latus, exhibited more than six ccc-DNA bands. With one exception the molecular masses of the plasmids were 50×106 or higher.

Christine Gerstenberg; Bärbel Friedrich; Hans G. Schlegel

1982-01-01

419

THE HISTOGENESIS OF CHRONIC URANIUM NEPHRITIS WITH ESPECIAL REFERENCE TO EPITHELIAL REGENERATION  

PubMed Central

1. Proliferation of connective tissue in chronic uranium nephritis is early and progressive and due to a direct stimulation on the part of the uranium. 2. The hydronephrotic theory fails to explain the phenomena observed in the progress of the chronic nephritis. 3. Carmine is deposited, as shown by Suzuki, in the proximal convoluted tubule only, and in different amounts in different levels of this segment of the tubule, so that subdivisions may be made. 4. Regeneration begins about the fourth day, but varies in proportion to the dose of renal irritant given. 5. The first cells to appear are large vesicular elements, and there is a gradual development of syncytium-like masses and giant-cells. These last are due to the rapidity of cell division. 6. Small, deeply staining nuclei, which are morphologically identical with the newly regenerated cells described by Thorel and others, are present from the first day of the acute nephritis and are persisting renal cells which have been slightly affected by the toxic agent.

Oliver, Jean

1915-01-01

420

Journal of the Fisheries Society of Taiwan, Volume 32, No. 4, December 2005.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Temperature, pH, Mg+2 and Aerial Exposure Time Affect the Oxygen Consumption of Hard Clam (Meretrix lusoria); Species Composition and Seasonal Abundance of Pteropods (Mollusca: Gastropoda) in Nearshore Shallow Waters of Northwestern Taiwan; Subs...

S. T. Jiang

2005-01-01

421

Una nueva aproximación a la optimización terapéutica del diclofenaco A novel approach towards therapeutic optimization of diclofenac  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT ABSTRACT ABSTRACT ABSTRACT In an effort for obtaining compounds with lower gastric toxicity than diclofenac, five different N,N- In an effort for obtaining compounds with lower gastric toxicity than diclofenac, five different N,N- In an effort for obtaining compounds with lower gastric toxicity than diclofenac, five different N,N- In an effort for obtaining compounds with lower gastric toxicity than

CHAGTI KK

422

New Voices in the Struggle/Nuevas Voces en la Lucha: Toward Increasing Latina/o Faculty in Theological Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Little progress has been made to increase Latina/o faculty representation in theological education. In this study, 33 interviews with Latina/o theological faculty identify supports and challenges to their scholarly development. Latino critical theory guides the analysis. Narratives reveal faculty experiences with oppression, challenging dominant…

Turner, Caroline Sotello Viernes; Hernandez, Edwin I.; Pena, Milagros; Gonzalez, Juan Carlos

2008-01-01

423

Microsatellite characterization of Andean races of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).  

PubMed

The Andean gene pool of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) has high levels of morphological diversity in terms of seed color and size, growth habit and agro-ecological adaptation, but previously was characterized by low levels of molecular marker diversity. Three races have been described within the Andean gene pool: Chile, Nueva Granada and Peru. The objective of this study was to characterize a collection of 123 genotypes representing Andean bean diversity with 33 microsatellite markers that have been useful for characterizing race structure in common beans. The genotypes were from both the primary center of origin as well as secondary centers of diversity to which Andean beans spread and represented all three races of the gene pool. In addition we evaluated a collection of landraces from Colombia to determine if the Nueva Granada and Peru races could be distinguished in genotypes from the northern range of the primary center. Multiple correspondence analyses of the Andean race representatives identified two predominant groups corresponding to the Nueva Granada and Peru races. Some of the Chile race representatives formed a separate group but several that had been defined previously as from this race grouped with the other races. Gene flow was more notable between Nueva Granada and Peru races than between these races and the Chile race. Among the Colombian genotypes, the Nueva Granada and Peru races were identified and introgression between these two races was especially notable. The genetic diversity within the Colombian genotypes was high, reaffirming the importance of this region as an important source of germplasm. Results of this study suggest that the morphological classification of all climbing beans as Peru race genotypes and all bush beans as Nueva Granada race genotypes is erroneous and that growth habit traits have been mixed in both races, requiring a re-adjustment in the concept of morphological races in Andean beans. PMID:17924092

Blair, M W; Díaz, J M; Hidalgo, R; Díaz, L M; Duque, M C

2007-12-01

424

The effects of conservation tillage practices on benthic invertebrate communities in headwater streams in southwestern Ontario, Canada.  

PubMed

Samples of benthic invertebrates from four pairs of streams in southwestern Ontario collected monthly from May through August 1991, and once during the subsequent autumn and winter, demonstrated that conservation tillage practices have a remedial effect on the water quality of adjacent streams as indicated by biotic, rather than physical or chemical, parameters. One stream of each pair drained a basin under conventional tillage (CONV, mainly mouldboard ploughing), the other primarily under conservation tillage (CONS). The paired drainage basins were otherwise similar to one another in type of crops grown, as well as size, topography, soils and hydrology. CONS streams yielded a greater variety of Insecta but fewer taxa of Mollusca, Annelida and Crustacea than did samples from CONV streams. Both kick-net and Surber samples from CONS streams yielded significantly more taxa, more kinds of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera, and lower Hilsenhoff Biotic Index scores than did samples from CONV streams. Kick samples from CONS streams were significantly more similar to expected reference communities in overall taxonomic composition. Surber samples from CONS streams contained significantly larger numbers of invertebrates. The relatively greater abundances of infaunal species, especially Tubificidae and Chironomini, in CONV streams suggest greater accumulation of fine sediment particles. Conditions during low flow appear to have the greatest influence on the composition of benthic invertebrate communities. The results of the study indicate that conservation tillage practices have a beneficial effect on the quality of surface waters. PMID:15093420

Barton, D R; Farmer, M E

1997-01-01

425

A decade of predatory control of zooplankton species composition of Lake Michigan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

From 1983 to 1992, 71 species representing 38 genera from the Calanoida, Cladocera, Cyclopoida, Mysidacea, Rotifera, Mollusca and Harpacticoida comprised the offshore zooplankton community of Lake Michigan. Our data demonstrate that the composition and abundance of the calanoid community after 1983 is not unlike that of 1960s and that species diversity of the calanoid community is more diverse than the cladoceran community in the 1990s as compared to the early 1980s. Even though the relative biomass of the cladocerans has remained similar over the 1983-1993 period, the species diversity and evenness of the Cladocera community in the early 1990s is unlike anything that has been previously reported for Lake Michigan. Cladocera dominance is centered in one species, Daphnia galeata mendotae, and only three species of Cladocera were observed in the pelagic region of the lake in 1991 and 1992. Nutrient levels, phytoplankton biomass, and the abundance of planktivorous alewife and bloater chub and Bythotrephes are examined as possible causes of these changes in zooplankton species composition. The increase in Rotifera biomass, but not Crustacea, was correlated with an increase in relative biomass of unicellular algae. Food web models suggest Bythotrephes will cause Lake Michigan's plankton to return to a community similar to that of the 1970s; that is Diaptomus dominated. Such a change has occurred. However, correlational analysis suggest that alewife and bloater chubs (especially juveniles) are affecting size and biomass of larger species of zooplankton as well as Bythotrephes.

Makarewicz, Joseph C.; Bertram, Paul; Lewis, Theodore; Brown, Edward H., Jr.

1995-01-01

426

Taphonomy and paleoecology of nonmarine mollusca: indicators of alluvial plain lacustrine sedimentation, upper part of the Tongue River Member, Fort Union Formation ( Paleocene), Northern Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana ( USA).  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The composition, species abundances, and spatial and temporal distributions of mollusc assemblages were controlled by the environments in which they lived and the depositional processes that affected the molluscs after death and before final burial. Post-mortem transport, reworking and concentration of shells, and mixing of faunal elements from discrete habitats produced a taphonomic 'overprint' on assemblage characteristics that directly reflects the processes of alluvial plain and floodbasin lacustrine sedimentation. The 'overprint' can be interpreted from outcrop analysis of molluscan biofabric, which consists of: 1) orientation, fragmentation, size-sorting, abrasion, density, and dispersion of shells, 2) the nature and extent of shell-infilling, and 3) ratio of articulated to disarticulated bivalves. Taphonomic characteristics were used with sedimentological properties to differentiate in-place, reworked, transported, and ecologically mixed mollusc assemblages. This study also defines the paleoecology of habitat preferences of mollusc species as a basis for recognition of the environments in which these assemblages were deposited: 1) large floodbasin lakes, 2) small floodbasin lakes, and 3) crevasse deltas and splays. Integration of sedimentology and paleoecology provides an interdisciplinary approach to the interpretation of alluvial environments through time in the Tongue River Member. -Authors

Hanley, J. H.; Flores, R. M.

1987-01-01

427

The introduction of Melanoides tuberculata (Mollusca: Thiaridae) to the island of Saint Lucia (West Indies) and its role in the decline of Biomphalaria glabrata, the snail intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni.  

PubMed

A malacological survey was carried out in May 1992 in the whole hydrographic system of Saint Lucia 11 years after the end of a biological control programme to eliminate Biomphalaria glabrata, the snail intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni. A competitor snail, Melanoides tuberculata, was introduced to Saint Lucia in 1978 and field experiments in several habitats were conducted by Prentice between 1978 and 1986. At the present time M. tuberculata is the most common freshwater snail in Saint Lucia. The results of the survey, undertaken in sites where B. glabrata occurred in large populations in the past showed (i) the absence of the snail hosts from seven sites now extensively colonized by the competitor (ii) the presence of B. glabrata in low or very low densities in 17 sites together with the competitor and (iii) the presence of the intermediate hosts in large populations in only two sites where M. tuberculata was absent. These results confirm the positive results observed by Prentice. The presence of another planorbid snail, B. straminea, is reported for the first time in Saint Lucia. PMID:8103624

Pointier, J P

1993-06-01

428

Genetic Diversity of the Biofilm Covering Montacuta ferruginosa (Mollusca, Bivalvia) as Evaluated by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis Analysis and Cloning of PCR-Amplified Gene Fragments Coding for 16S rRNA†  

PubMed Central

The shell of the bivalve Montacuta ferruginosa, a symbiont living in the burrow of an echinoid, is covered with a rust-colored biofilm. This biofilm includes different morphotypes of bacteria that are encrusted with a mineral rich in ferric ion and phosphate. The aim of this research was to determine the genetic diversity and phylogenetic affiliation of the biofilm bacteria. Also, the possible roles of the microorganisms in the processes of mineral deposition within the biofilm, as well as their impact on the biology of the bivalve, were assessed by phenotypic inference. The genetic diversity was determined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of short (193-bp) 16S ribosomal DNA PCR products obtained with primers specific for the domain Bacteria. This analysis revealed a diverse consortium; 11 to 25 sequence types were detected depending on the method of DNA extraction used. Individual biofilms analyzed by using the same DNA extraction protocol did not produce identical DGGE profiles. However, different biofilms shared common bands, suggesting that similar bacteria can be found in different biofilms. The phylogenetic affiliations of the sequence types were determined by cloning and sequencing the 16S rRNA genes. Close relatives of the genera Pseudoalteromonas, Colwellia, and Oceanospirillum (members of the ?-Proteobacteria lineage), as well as Flexibacter maritimus (a member of the Cytophaga-Flavobacter-Bacteroides lineage), were found in the biofilms. We inferred from the results that some of the biofilm bacteria could play a role in the mineral formation processes.

Gillan, David C.; Speksnijder, Arjen G. C. L.; Zwart, Gabriel; De Ridder, Chantal

1998-01-01

429

Application of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the study of reproduction in the Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum (Mollusca: Bivalvia): II. Impacts of Perkinsus olseni on clam reproduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the effects of infection by the protozoan Perkinsus olseni on the reproduction of female Manila clams, Ruditapes philippinarum, from a population in Gomso Bay, Korea. The reproductive effort of the clams was assessed by ELISA using a clam egg-specific antibody and was expressed as a weight-based gonadosomatic index (GSI). The number of Perkinsus infecting each clam was estimated

Kyung-Il Park; Antonio Figueras; Kwang-Sik Choi

2006-01-01

430

Process for separating, especially in multiple stages, acid components such as CO/sub 2/, HCN and specifically H/sub 2/S, from gases, especially from coke oven gases, by means of ammonia recirculation scrubbing  

SciTech Connect

A process of separating in multiple stages acid components in coke oven gas such as CO/sub 2/, HCN and particularly H/sub 2/S by ammonia scrubbing wherein the ammonia used in scrubbing is deacidified to remove the acid components and is recirculated to the scrubbing process at least in part as substantially pure liquid ammonia.

Bauer, H.K.; Otte, E.A.W.

1984-10-16

431

[Historical consideration of tea trees and tea flowers, especially regarding the use of tea flowers as food].  

PubMed

Not only tea leaves, but also many kinds of plants have been used as tea, even those plants not belonging to Camellia sinensis, and they should be called "tea out of tea" in the Lucidophyllous forest zone. Generally, the tea leaf is drank after being decocted (almost boiled). The growth distribution of tea ranges in a belt-like zone of 30-40 degrees north latitude. Therefore, tea might have grown wild as "YAMACHA (mountain tea)" from ancient times in Japan as well as China. The first recored of tea drinking in Japan is the ceremony of "GYOUCHA" at the Imperial Court of the Emperor SHOUMU in 729. On the other hand, the oldest book about tea in China (CHAKYOU) was written in 770. Therefore, it seems that tea drinking started at nearly the same time in both countries. Tea was dispensed as medical supplies by Chinese medicinal prescription (SENKYUCHACHOUSAN) in Japan, but in China, tea was used as powdered medicine for drinking (SEICHA). However, the leaf of a certain plant used as "tea out of tea," was applied as a galenical preparation for traditional Chinese medicinal constitution. However, it is not possible to judge whether or not there was adaptability in Chinese medicine theory. In Japan, when tea was first consumed as a food, other than a few exceptions tea leaves were used as a coarse tea (BANCHA) until the latter half of the Meiji period. Mixing in air by stirring a tea solution, and at the same time, letting tea match with hot water. It was wisdom to improve the taste. As a result, in order to make bubble well, both of the condition and technique were devised. One of the approaches was to add the dried plant of Leguminosae (saponin) or tea flower (saponin), when "BANCHA" was decorted. And also tools such as a bamboo tea whisk (CHASEN) as well as bowl (GOROHACHI-CHAWAN), were conceived. "FURICHA" was served as a medicine by KUUYASHOUNIN in Japan in 951. Afterwards, the prayer ceremonies at shrines and temples used CHARAZU," showing the custom to serve tea in 1400. The custom of tea serving continues today, and the tea flower continues to be used according to the demand. After that, it seems that "FURICHA" (tea with bubbles) continued to be used for 640 years, until 1590 (AZUCHI-MOMOYAMA period) because MANCHARAZU was regarded as important in religion. Then, it is believed that the customs of "BOTEBOTECHA" and/or"BATABATACHA" succeeded traditionally. The culture of both tea drinking and cooking, each development course, existed respectively from the relations of tea and food. The state that was accompanied with neither tea nor cooking, such as "KISHUU-CHAGAYU (tea gruel)" and BOTEBOTECHA, continued for a while, but it was combined together as "ICHIJUU-ICHISSA (one soup one tea)" of "KAISEKIRYOURI (tea-ceremony dish)." It is noteworthy that the tea flower is used as preserved food seasoned with "MISO (fermented soybean paste)" and "TSUKUDANI (boiled food in sweetened soy sauce)." Even though old documents about the use of tea flowers as food in China were not found, according to literature in the past ten years, seven descriptions were found that the tea flower was used for food provided alone or with black tea, oolong tea or green tea. As for tea leaves and tea flowers being used as medicine, drink or food in Japan, as well as in neighboring countries which belong to the Lucidophyllous forest zone. The process that they were regarded as important with the time was investigated and reported here. PMID:19227653

Harima, Shoichi; Yoshikawa, Masayuki; Tokuoka, Kiyoshi

2008-01-01

432

OBTENCIÓN DE OLEORRESINAS A PARTIR DE 3 ESPECIES DE CAPSICUM sp. CULTIVADAS EN COLOMBIA (Capsicum annuum, Capsicum frutescens, Capsicum chinense)  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. RESUMEN El ají es un cultivo de importancia en Colombia con una gran perspectiva en el crecimiento de sus áreas para el mercado de agro exportación. La oleorresina es el extracto líquido del fruto maduro seco de pimientos Capsicum que contiene una mezcla compleja de aceites esenciales, ceras, materiales coloreados y capsaicinoides. Se obtiene en forma de aceite, con

L. Rodríguez; J. Arango; F. Urrego

433

APORTACIONES DE LA CONTABILIDAD DE GESTIÓN A LA CALIDAD DE DISEÑO: ESPECIAL REFERENCIA AL CONTEXTO DE LAS CADENAS DE SUMINISTROS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current accounting literature lacks an integral framework which shows the relevance of management accounting in design and conformance quality within the business context. Focusing mainly on design quality management, we intend to analyse: 1) The relevance of management accounting practices in the design phase and 2) The role of management accounting in supply chain management through a review of existing

Pedro Araújo Pinzón

434

Blood metabolites and hormones--especially glucose and insulin--in veal calves: effects of age and nutrition.  

PubMed

Veal calves often develop insulin resistance, hyperglycaemia and glucosuria. We have studied effects of age and nutrition on blood metabolites and hormones, with major emphasis on glucose and insulin, in four groups of veal calves from 66-69 kg until slaughter at 175-196 kg. Calves were fed milk replacers which differed with respect to lactose, total sugar, protein and fat content. Mean intakes in groups 1, 2, 3 and 4 of lactose (1.24, 1.08, 0.95 and 0.66 kg/d), total sugar (1.27, 1.10, 1.01 and 96 kg/d), crude protein (0.40, 0.48, 0.65 and 0.49 kg/d) and crude fat (0.32, 0.31, 0.37 and 0.46 kg/d) were different. Average daily gains were 1.46-1.49 kg and feed/gain ratios were 1.49-1.61 kg/kg. Glucose and insulin concentrations were not associated with protein and fat intakes, but followed lactose and total sugar intakes, a